THE English Midwife ENLARGED, Containing Directions to Midwives; Wherein is laid down whatever is most requi­site for the safe Practising her Art. ALSO Instructions for Women in their Con­ceiving, Bearing and Nursing of Children. With two new Treatises, one of the Cure of Diseases and Symptoms happening to Wo­men before and after Child-birth. And another of the Diseases, &c. of little Children, and the conditions necessary to be considered in the choice of their Nurses and Milk. The whole fitted for the meanest Capacities. Illustrated with near 40 Copper-Cuts.

London, Printed for Thomas Sawbridge, at the Sign of the Three Flower-de-luces in Little Brittain, 1682.


To all English Midwives.

YOU are here presented with an Amendment and Supplement, of what was very necessary and yet want­ing in this Book formerly: so that now you will find it to be wholly compleat­ed for your purpose, in every respect; it being altogether grounded upon many years Experience, and Observation in the Practice of deliveries; most others being written by those that never pra­ctiz'd the Art; and some father'd upon Persons that were no more concerned in them, then the Pope of Rome; such as Sir Theodore de Mayern, Dr. Chamberlen, and others; by the Publishers of the Com­pleat Midwives Practice; so that I may justly say of this Book; as the Learned Sir Richard Baker says of his Chronicle, that if all other were not to be found [Page] this alone were sufficient, with your dili­gence; For I'll assure you, I have not conceal'd one secret, belonging to your Art from you; neither would I have you with-hold your knowledge from others; neither have I imposed upon you any thing that hath not endur'd the Test of confirm'd experience; and in like man­ner I would not have you, upon any ac­count whatsoever, to try any new expe­riment, either upon Rich or Poor; ei­ther inwardly or outwardly; thus much for the Book. Now as for what concerns your selves; I would have you by all means to have a respect to two things above all, your Consciences and Credits; and principally to the first; and to that end, for all the Treasure in the World, to give no Medicine to cause a Woman to miscarry of her Child; but prudently send such kind of People to the Learned Physitian to deal with: and that you may prosper in your Practise, discharge your duty as well to the Poor as Rich. Have a great care whom you lay in your Houses, for fear of encourag­ing [Page] naughty Women; Lastly I would advise you not to be dismay'd if every thing in your practise fall not out just at the very instance of your expectation, you performing your part; but expect the event with patience; for fear disor­ders the Senses, and Persons that keep their wits together without suffering them to be scattered thereby, are capa­ble of Counselling in the most weighty Affairs. And now I shall no longer de­tain you in the Porch, but desire you will forthwith be pleased to walk into the Palace; where I question not but you will find wherewith to satisfie your Curiosity in what concerns the premis­ses; and so wishing you all the Prosperi­ty imaginable; I bid you Adieu.

THE Contents of the Sections.

  • SEct. 1. Of the True generation of the Parts, and Increase of the Infant in the Womb, according to the days and times, till the time of the Birth. p. 1
  • Sect. 2. Of the signs of Conception, and whether the Child thrive in the Womb. p. 11
  • Sect. 3. Of the Nutriment of the Child in the Womb, and by what nourishment it is preser­ved, and when it groweth up to be an Infant. p. 16
  • Sect. 2. How the Infant doth in the Womb the fifth, the sixth, the seventh, and eighth month; and of the due time and form of the Birth; and causes of pain in Child-birth. p. 20
  • Sect. 5. Rules for Child-bearing Women, and how to prevent Abortion. p. 28
  • Sect. 6. A Dialogue between the Midwife, and the Doctor, concerning Midwives, and the de­livery of Women in Child-birth. p. 33
  • Sect. 7. Of the several natural situations of the Infant in the Mothers Womb, according to the different times of Child-bearing. p. 39
  • [Page]Sect. 8. Of difficult Births, whether they proceed from Causes external or internal. p. 42
  • Sect. 9. Of the Fashions, and Figures of the Birth, and how Children are born and may be born. p. 50
  • Sect. 10. Figure the first; Of unnatural Births. p. 52
  • Sect. 11. Figure the Second. p. 58
  • Sect. 12. Figure the Third. p. 62
  • Sect. 13. Figure the Fourth. p. 64
  • Sect. 14. Figure the Fifth. p. 66
  • Sect. 15. Figure the Sixth. p. 68
  • Sect. 16. Figure the Seventh. p. 74
  • Sect. 17. Figure the Eighth. p. 78
  • Sect. 18. Figure the Ninth. p. 81
  • Sect. 19. Figure the Tenth. p. 83
  • Sect. 20. Figure the Eleventh. p. 85
  • Sect. 21. Figure the Twelfth. p. 87
  • Sect. 22. Of a Birth wherein the Infant pre­sents the Belly. p. 89
  • Sect. 23. How to help a Woman in her Labor, when the Child's Head thrusts the Neck of the the Womb forth before it. p. 92
  • Sect. 24. How to deliver a Woman when the Child presents the side of the Head, to the birth, or its Face. p. 95
  • Sect. 25. How to deliver a Woman when the Childs Head is born, and the Womb closeth about its Neck. p. 99
  • [Page]Sect. 26. When the Navil-string comes first. p. 102
  • Sect. 27. Wherein the Burthen either first of­fers it self or comes first quite forth. p. 107
  • Sect. 28. Figure the Thirteenth. p. 112
  • Sect. 29. Figure the Fourteenth. p. 115
  • Sect. 30. Figure the Fifteenth. p. 117
  • Sect. 31. Figure the Sixteenth. p. 123
  • Sect. 32. Of delivering of a Woman of a dead Child. p. 129
  • Sect. 33. Of the extracting of a mola and false Conception. p. 136
  • Sect. 34. Of the Secundine, or After-burden, and the best and safest way to draw it forth. p. 151

PART. II. Of Diseases happening to Big-Belly'd Women before Child-Birth.

  • SEct. 1. Of Barrenness and the several kinds thereof. p. 177
  • Sect. 2. Of Superfaetation. p. 195
  • Sect. 3. Of Vomitings of Women with Child. p. 201
  • Sect. 4. Of the pains of the Back, Loins, Reins and Hips. p. 206
  • [Page]Sect. 5. Of the pains of the Breasts. p. 209
  • Sect. 6. Of involuntary voiding, and stopping of Ʋrine. p. 211
  • Sect. 7. Of a Cough and difficult breathing. p. 214
  • Sect. 8. Of the swelling and pains of the Thighs and Legs. p. 218
  • Sect. 9. Of the Hemorrhoids. p. 221
  • Sect. 10. Of the several Flaxes happening to Women with Child. p. 224
  • Sect. 11. Of Fluddings. p. 229
  • Sect. 12. Of the Weight of the Womb, &c. p. 233
  • Sect. 13. Of the Dropsie of the Womb, &c. p. 235
  • Sect. 14. Of Abortion and its causes. p. 238

PART. III. Of Diseases and Symptoms happening to Women after Child-birth.

  • SEct. 1. Of Remedies for the Breasts and lower parts of the Belly of Women newly de­livered, and how to drive back the Milk. p. 241
  • Sect. 2. Of Fludding after Child-Birth. p. 244
  • Sect. 3. Of the bearing down and falling out of [Page] the Womb and Fundament of a Woman newly layd. p. 247
  • Sect. 4. Of the bruises and rents of the outward parts of the Womb, caused by Labors. p. 252
  • Sect. 5. Of the After-pains. p. 254
  • Sect. 6. Of the Lochia, whence they come, if good or bad, their stopping, and what ensues. p. 255
  • Sect. 7. Of the Inflammation &c. of the Womb. p. 258
  • Sect. 8. Of the Inflammation and Apostemation of the Breasts. p. 259
  • Sect. 9. Of the curdling of the Milk in the Breasts. p. 262
  • Sect. 10. Of Choping &c. and loss of the Nip­ples. p. 265

PART. IV. Of the Diseases and Symptoms happening to lit­tle Children: and of the choice of a Nurse.

  • SEct. 1. What manner of Woman a Nurse ought to be; and whether the Mother be the best Nurse? p. 269
  • Sect. 2. Of the Diseases and Symptoms which happen to Children, and first of their Diseases in general. p. 291
  • [Page]Sect. 3. Of Feavers, Meazels, and Small-Pox, in little Children. p. 293
  • Sect. 4. Of the milky scab, Achores, Scald-Head and Lice. p. 295
  • Sect. 5. Of the watry swelling of the Head. p. 298
  • Sect. 6. Of Fright in the Sleeps, and Watchings. p. 299
  • Sect. 7. Of the Falling-sickness and Convulsion. p. 301
  • Sect. 8. Of pain in the Ears, Moisture, Ʋl­cers and Worms. p. 302
  • Sect. 9. Of the Thrush, bladders of the Gums, and Inflammation of the Tonsils. p. 303
  • Sect. 10. Of the breeding of Teeth. p. 304
  • Sect. 11. Of a Catarrh, Cough and difficult breathing. p. 305
  • Sect. 12. Of the Hiccup and Vomiting. p. 307
  • Sect. 13. Of the pains and puffing of the Belly. p. 309
  • Sect. 14. Of the Flux of the Belly. p. 311
  • Sect. 15. Of Costiveness. p. 312
  • Sect. 16. Of Worms. p. 313
  • Sect. 17. Of the Rupture. p. 314
  • Sect. 18. Of Bunching out, and inflammation of the Navil. p. 315
  • Sect. 19. Of the falling out of the Fundament. p. 316
  • [Page]Sect. 20. Of difficulty and stopping of Ʋrine. p. 317
  • Sect. 21. Of not holding Ʋrine. p. 318
  • Sect. 22. Of Leanness and Bewitching. p. 319

SECT. I. Of the True generation of it Parts, and Increase of the Infant in the Womb, according to the daies and times, till the time of the Birth.

WHen the Womb (whose pro­perty it is naturally to receive seed for generation, as a Loadstone attracts iron, or Jeat straws or feathers) hath received the seed, and by its virtue hath shut it up for generation; Pre­sently, from the first day until the sixth or seventh, there grow and arise very many and very small fibres or hairs, beginning with a hot motion; by which vital heat the Liver, with its chiefest organs are ge­nerated, as this following Figure may the more illustrate.

The small Fibres.

For the vital spirits, giving down seed to­wards conception, forms and distinguishes the chiest members by the tenth day, being let in by certain veins of the secundine, to which the matrix is fixed, and by which the blood is imported, and of which the navil is generated. And at the very same time three smal spots (not unlike to curds of milk) arise, [Page 3] where the liver, the heart, and the brain have their places; and then presently a vein di­rected by the navil, attracts the thicker blood confused with the seed, and maks it fit for nourishment: from whence also ariseth a vein with two forks, which is generated ac­cording to the form of this figure

[depiction of the womb and developing embryo at about 10 days after conception]

In the one of which branches there is a collection of blood, of which first the liver is generated. From whence it easily appears, [Page 4] the liver is a congealed and concrete blood: and also it may be manifest, how many and various veins it hath prepared and fitted, for the attractive and expulsive virtue. But in the other branch are generated those webs o [...] veins, with the dilatation of other veins, as o [...] the stomach, spleen, and intestines, in the lo­wer part of the belly. And from hence im­mediately all veins are collected together, as so many branches into one trunk, in the upper web of the liver towards the hollow vein [...] and this trunk by and by sends down branche [...] to make the midriff, and directs not a few branches to the lower parts, even to the ve­ry thighs: and then the heart, with its ar­teries extended into seed from the navil, i [...] generated by a vital virtue, and is directe [...] towards the spine of the back, as is demonstrated in this figure, 3.

[depiction of the womb and developing embryo at more than 10 days after conception]

But those do attract the hottest and more subtile blood, of which the heart is genera­ted, incased in a membrane, naturally fleshy and thick, necessary upon the account of so [...]ot a member. But the hollow vein extend­ [...]ng it self, and penetrating the inward con­ [...]avity of the right side in the heart, &c. de­ [...]ives thence blood for the nourishment of the [...]eart. From the same branch also of this [Page 6] his vein, and in the same part another vein ariseth, called, by some, the immoveable, or quiet vein; because, according to the account of the pulsation of other veins it beats not at all, but lies quiet; ordained for this end, that it should let go the purest blood to the Lungs, being vested with a double tunicle like an Arterie, from whence it is called the Arterial vein. But in the left concavity of the heart there are two Arteries, that is to say, the Venal Arterie, and the Great Arte­rie, which carries a great pulse with it, and diffuseth the vital Spirits by the blood of the heart into all the Arteries of the Body. For, as the hollow vein is the original of all veins, by which the Body doth attract its whole nourishment of blood; so, from the Aorta (or great Arterie) all pulsatile veins are derived, diffusing the vital Spirits through the whole Body. For the heart is the foun­tain and original of vital heat, without which no creature or member can thrive.

Under the abovesaid Arterie in the left concavity of the heart, another vein ariseth called the Venal Arterie: And, although that be really a pulsatile vein, and doth direct the vital Spirits, yet, according to the man­ner of all pulsatile veins that have blood, it hath but one coat, and therefore made for that end, that it should derive the cold air [Page 7] from the Lungs to refresh the heart, as also to attemper its over-much heat.

And veins issuing out from both the cavi­ties of the heart, are inserted into the Lungs, of which they are formed; for the vein that proceeds from the right cavity of the heart produceth the most subtile blood, which, by small fibres, dispersed here and there, is changed into the fleshy substance of the lungs. But from the great vein of the Liver, (viz. the Vena Cava, or hollow vein) the whole brest is generated, and so successively the Arms and Thighs.

[depiction of the womb and developing embryo at more than 10 days after conception, showing the development of the brain]

Within the time aforesaid also is genera­ted the highest and chiefest part of this noble structure, the Brain; in the third Region of this mass; for the whole mass of seed is filled with the animal Spirits, that contracts a great part of the genital moysture, and concludes it in a certain cavity wherein the brain may be formed: but, as to the out-fide, it is in­veloped with a certain covering, which being dried with heat, is brought into a boney sub­stance, and becomes a scull, as appears by this precedent figure.

But the brain is so formed, that it may con­ceive, retain, and change the natures of all the vital Spirits, from whence also proceed the beginnings of all Reason, and of the Senses: For, as veins have their original from the Liver, and as arteries have their rise from the heart; so also nerves being of a softer and milder natural existence, arise from the brain, and are not hollow as the veins are, but solid; for they are the first and chiefest instruments of all the senses, by which the motions of all the senses, by reason of the vi­tal spirit, are justly made.

After the nerves, from the brain also, is formed the pith of the back-bone, not of an unlike nature from the brain, so that it scarce can be called marrow because it hath no likeness to marrow, either by sight, or in [Page 9] substance; for the marrow is a kind of su­perfluous aliment, arising from the blood of the members, appointed to moisten and make the bones of the body grow; but the brain and pith of the back have their original from the seed, not deputed for the nourishment and growth of the other members, but that by themselves they might make private parts of the body, for the use and motion of the Senses, that from thence all the other nerves may take their rise. For, from the pith of the back many nerves arise, from which the body hath sense and motion, as may appear by the difference betwixt the vital and ani­mal faculties, as hath been before hinted.

Moreover, here it is to be observed, that from the seed it self gristles, bones, coats of the veins of the Liver, and of the arteries of the heart, the brain with the Nerves, and again the tunicles, and as well other panni­cles or membranes as those that wrap up the infant, are generated; but from the proper blood of the infant is the flesh it self ingen­dred, and all those parts that are of a fleshy substance; as the Heart, the Liver, and Lungs: And then at length all these grow together by the menstruous blood, attracted by the small veins of the Navil, which are observed to be directed with their orifices into the Womb. All which are distinctly [Page 10] [Page] made by the eighteenth day of the first month, from the very conception, at which time it may be called seed, but afterwards it becometh to be, and is called a child; which the Ancients have comprehended in these two verses,

Six daies in milk, thrice three the seed's in blood;
Twice six makes flesh, thrice six makes mem­bers good.
The lesser figure denotes the Nerves derived frō the Back and dispersed through the whole.

The explanation of the larger figure see in the following page.

  • FF Sheweth a young one of 18 daies (though some hold it but 14 dayes in which all the members may be discerned apart,)
  • GG The four Umbilical Vessels meeting in one.
  • HH How the Umbilical Vessels become thick by degrees, that that doubt amongst some may be resolved, whether they spring from the Womb, or no.
  • III Sheweth how the Umbilical veins and arteries are spread throughout the Chorion by infinite branches.
  • KKK Sheweth the membrane called Am­nios, in which sweat and urine are gathered together, in which the Infant swimmeth, and sits as safe as in a Bath.

SECT. II. Of the signs of Conception, and whe­ther the Child thrive in the Womb.

DR. Good Mrs. Eutrapelia, vouchsafe me your observations about Conceptions, and let me understand what are the signs of Conception in general; and what signs di­stinguish the Sexes?

Mid. Although, Sir, 'tis hard to know whether a woman hath conceived yea or no, yet it may be conjectured by many experien­ced Arguments; as, for instance,

First, it is thought a credible sign of Con­ception, if a woman either the tenth day af­ter coition, or sooner, perceive not, by rea­son of any humors, any of her terms, be they whites, or reds. And, though the stopping of those be accounted for a sign, yet that fails often, because it may be as well before conception as after. But, waving this, let us find out other marks and prognosticks of a true conception, gathered from the state and condition of the woman her self, being seriously examined from head to foot.

Secondly; pains and giddiness in the head, and a mist over the sight, if they meet toge­ther, these portend conception.

Thirdly, the apples of the Eyes are lessen­ed, the Eyes swell, and become swarthy; the veins of the Eyes grow red, and are full with blood; the Eyes sink, the Eye-lids are re­miss; divers colors are seen in the Eyes, and are observed in a looking-glass; the veins betwixt the Eyes and the Nose are swoln with blood, and are seen clearer; the veins under the Tongue are somewhat green­ish.

Fourthly, the chest is warm, and the back cold.

Fifthly, the Veins and Arteries are swoln, and the pulse easier; the veins in the breast are first black, then either yellow or blew.

Sixthly, The breasts grow big, and hard with pain; the nipple grows red; if she drinketh that which is cold, she feels cold in her breast.

Seventhly, there is a great loathing of meat and drink, and destruction of the natu­ral appetite, with longings after various meats, with an absurd appetite, a continual vomiting, and weakness of stomach, sower belching, loathing of wine, an inordinate pul­sation of the heart, sudden joy, and after that, as sudden grief; pains about the navil, hea­viness [Page 13] about the loins, swelling towards the bottom of the belly; inward prick­ing in the body; chilness of the outward parts, after coition; retention of the seed seven daies after copulation; about the be­ginning of conception a shooting pain about the back and belly. The courses are stop'd; for those veins from which they flow carry the blood (through certain holes that are at the end of them) for the nourishment of the infant by the navil; and part of it is conveyed upwards into the breasts, and there is prepa­red for milk.

Eightly, the thighs swell with pain, but the body is weaker, and the face pale.

Ninthly; the belly is costive, by reason of the compressure of the intestines. The urine is white, with a cold swimming at the top, wherein are to be seen many atomes, like those observable in the beams of the sun: but, when in the first Month many of these sink to to the bottom, the vessel in which it is, be­ing shaken, it seems to be drawn out like to wooll. In the later months the urine is red­rish, or yellow, it becomes blackish, with a red cloud at the top. I will here-with re­late to you two experiments, by which it may be known whether or no a woman hath con­ceived. And the first is this; Stop up a womans urine three daies in an urinal, at the [Page 14] end of which strain it (or, rather drop it through fine linnen,) and if she hath con­ceived, you shall see little creatures like to lice; if these be red, 'tis a token of a male; but if white, they say portend a female. If a womans urine be put in a brass Bason, and stand there one night; if you put into it a bright needle, if she hath conceived, that needle will be bespeckled with red spots; but if otherwise, it will be rusty all over.

The Signs whereby most pretend to know, whether Male or Female be conceived, being altogether Falacious and Ridiculous, I have wholly omitted.

Dr. Since you have given such signs of Conception, let me know by what signs you apprehend the Infant to be well, and thrive in the Womb, or not.

Mid. I shall, Sir. And first, if it be well, the breasts will be hard; but if otherwise, they will be flaccid, and a waterish humor will flow out of them (like to milk) of its own accord.

Secondly, if the courses flow too often out of the Womb in the time of child-bearing, it is an argument of an unhealthy Child, And, moreover, the fattest Women com­monly bring forth the weakest Infants.

Thirdly, if a woman bring Twins, the one a Male, the other a Female, there is great [Page 15] danger of the Female, because they are nou­rished by a different aliment in the Womb: but if they be both Females, there is the less danger.

Fourthly, if the Child be gotten in the time of the monthly terms, they are mixed with untoward humors; from whence it is experienced that many leprous Infants are be­gotten.

Fifthly, if there be superfaetation, the last conception seldom liveth. Now, superfaeta­tion is, when a Woman having once con­ceived, conceiveth again after a certain time, which sometimes happeneth.

Sixthly, if a Dropsie overtake the big­bellied Woman, and that her Nose, Ears, and Lips look red; it is a sign of a dead Child.

Seventhly, if the infant come forth after the ninth month, 'tis oftentimes very weak.

Eightly, if a virgin conceive before her first flowers, it proves lusty and perfect child.

Dr. So much for Conception. Tell me now somewhat of the nourishing of the Child in the Womb, &c.

SECT. III. Of the Nutriment of the Child in the Womb, and by what nourishment it is preserved, and when it groweth up to be an Infant.

WHilest the young one is in the womb, it is nourished by blood attracted by the navil; by which it is, that women af­ter they have conceived have their terms stop'd; for then the infant begins to crave, and attracts much blood. For the blood, pre­sently after-conception, is discerned by a three-fold difference. The first and purest part of it the young one attracts for nourish­ment. The second, less pure and thin, the wombforceth upwards by certain veins to the breasts, where it becomes milk, by which the infant is nourished so soon as it is born. The third, and more impure part of the blood, remains in the womb, and floweth out with the secundine, both in the birth, and after the birth: Hence it is that Hippocates saith; there is much affinity betwixt the flowers and the milk, since the one happeneth to be made out of the other. And Galen also, by reason [Page 17] of this thing, elegantly adviseth, that the in­fant hath more from the mother than from the father; for this reason, because the seeds are first increased by the menstruous blood, and then by these the Infant is presently nou­rished in the Womb; and again, being new­ly born, it is nourished with milk: And, as roots have more nourishment from the earth than the plant from whence they came: so also Infants receive more from the Mother than from the Father. And hence he saith that it comes to pass, that so much more is attributed to the Mother, by how much more She contributeth more towards generation.

But the Infant being now formed, and per­fected in the Womb, in the first month the young one sends forth Urine by the passages of the Navil; but that Conduit being shut in [Page 18]

[representation an infant-like embryo in the womb at about 45 days after conception]

the last month, it vents it by the Privities; (of which more when we come to treat of the Secundine (or after burden, with its coats.) Whilest the Infant is in the Womb, it avoids nothing at the Fundament, because hitherto it hath sucked in nothing by the mouth. After the 45th day, as Hippocrates tells us, it receiveth life, and together with that a Soul (according to the opinion of ma­ny) [Page 19] divinely infused, for that then it begins to be sensible, and from that time it may no more be called a young one, but an Infant, ac­cording to the precedent Figure. And, though at this time it may have sense, yet it wants motion, being as yet very tender; but of the time of the motion, Hippocrates gives this account, viz. If you account the days dou­ble from the time of Conception, you will find them quicken; and the time of quicken­ing being tripled, makes up the day of the birth. As for example,

If the Infant be formed in 45 days, it will stir in 90 days, which is the middle time that it lies hid in the Womb; for in the ninth month it will come forth, and make haste to the birth; although Females are oftentimes born in the tenth Month. And so much for the formation, increase, and perfection of the Infant, according to the account of days and times.

SECT. IV. How the Infant doth in the Womb the fifth, the sixth, the seventh, and eighth month; and of the due time and form of the Birth; and causes of pain in Child-birth.

AFter the third and fourth month the In­fant useth a more plentiful nourish­ment, by which it groweth more and more until the time of Birth shall come: There­fore it is to be understood, that when it is born in the sixth month, it cannot, in nature, live; because, though it be formed distinct­ly, yet it is not arrived to its just perfection. But if it be born in the seventh month, it may easily live, because then it is sufficiently per­fect. And, whereas 'tis a common opinion those born in the eighth month can rarely live; but such as are born in the seventh are often times living, because on the seventh month the Infant is ever moving towards the Birth, at which time, if it be strong enough, it comes to the Birth, but if not, it remain­eth in the Womb till it groweth stronger, [Page 21] (viz.) the other two Months. After the mo­tion at seven Months end if it be not born, it removes it self into some other place of the Womb, and is so weakned by that motion, that should it come to the birth in the follow­ing eighth Month, it cannot live by reason of that motion.

This seems very probable to many, but if they that practise deliveries make a rational reflection thereon, they shall find that 'tis the Matrix alone assisted with the compression of the Muscles of the lower belly and Midriff, which cause the expulsion of the Child; be­ing stirred up by its weight, and not able to be farther extended to contain it: and not the Infant for want of nourishment is not able to stay any longer there, and so useth its pretended endeavours to come forth; and to that purpose kicking strongly it, breaks the Membranes with its Feet which contain the waters, insomuch as when the Child is natu­rally Born the skins are alwaies torn before the Head; which pressing and thrusting each through the waters before it, causeth them to burst out with force. Hippocrates admits the 10 month, and beginning of the 11. And here, I do acknowledge for truth that the or­dinary term of going with Child is 9 months; but I cannot consent that Children born in the 7 month do oftener live than those born [Page 22] in the 8, but on the contrary, I believe the nearer they approach to the term of 9 months the stronger they are, and therefore rather live then those born in the 7th, which is wholly contrary to the other opinion which they have from Hippocrates; and in Egypt and Spain and other places Children born in the 8th month live. But they should have considered there may be some difference a­bout Hippocrates's Months, viz. whether they were Solar or Lunar, a Solar consisting of 30 or 31 days throughout the year, and a Lunar of 27 days and some odd Hours and odd Mi­nutes.

And then again the Women might be mi­staken in their reckoning. And do we not know not only in the same Country and Field but also on the same Vine, grapes sometimes six weeks ripe before their ordinary Season; and others not till a month after? which happens according to the Territories, diffe­rent influence of the Sun, and as the Vine is ordered. So do we see Women brought to bed six weeks and 2 months before, and some­times as long after their ordinary term; if it be not that the Womb not being capable of an extension beyond a certain degree, can­not bear its burden, but a little while after the account is out; although there have been Women as Hippocrates acknowledgeth who [Page 23] have gone 10 or 11 whole Months with Child, which is so much the rarer, by how much it exceeds its limits.

These things happen also to Women ac­cording to the different dispositions, either of their whole body, or Womb alone, as well as according to their rule of living, and more or less exercise they use, and may also happen on the Childs part, as if at 7 months it be so big that the Womb can no longer contain it, nor stretch it self more without bursting, it is then provoked by the pain which this violent extention causeth to dis­charge it self of it; and so in the 8th month if there be the same reason, and some weeks sooner or later according to many other cir­cumstances; as also by an outward occasion, as a violent shaking of the whole body, blow, fall, leap, &c. hasting the pains; and that which makes these Children live a longer or shorter time, is according as they are at that time more strong and perfect, and the Wo­man nearer her time which is at the end of the 9th month.

There have been many Women that have believed they were brought to bed at the 7th and 8th Month; and others that they went 10 or 11 whole Months; which may some­times be when notwithstanding they are ef­fectively delivered at the due time: that [Page 24] which deceives them usually is their believing themselves with Child from the retention of their Courses, having had them the 2 first Months, yea and sometimes longer, and o­thers misreckon when their Courses are stopt 2 Months before they conceive: And a Wo­man, though well regulated, cannot exactly know by the suppression singly the certain time of her being with Child; as for exam­ple, if she lye with her Husband upon the coming down of her Courses, and she con­ceive upon it, then she may make her account from their suppression, which may be very near the truth; but if she conceive immedi­ately after she hath had them, which happens oftnest, and that during the Month she Copu­lates with her Husband, at the end of which time her Courses not coming down, she may very well reckon her self with Child, yet for all this she cannot know by this sign which Night she conceived on, and so for 3 weeks or a Month, more or less, she may be mista­ken in the time.

Here note there hath often been great con­tests amongst Physitians, whether a Child born the 11th or 12th Month, after its pre­tended Fathers death, can be legitimately born, and so admitted to inherit, or be disin­herited, as a supposed Child; but this having been debated by the Romans as well as us, and [Page 25] being parties for and against, I shall leave it undecided, and shall not add any thing more concerning this point to what I have said be­fore.

And now the Midwife is to take care, that she be timely prepared for the reception of any birth, with all her necessary conveniences and instruments, as with a fit stool, a sharp knife, astringent powder, a spunge, swathes, &c. warm oyl of Lillies, with which she may aptly anoint both the Womb of the Woman and her own hands, but of that more here­after.

And now in the next place let us make en­quiry for the fittest and best Midwife, for this great work, and now I remember my self there was a good Woman call'd Mrs. Eu­trapelia with me last night, for my advice and counsel in a very difficult concern, whom I found by that little discourse I had with her to be a very rational and understanding and expert woman in her art, and one that was not self conceited of her self, like many of her Sisters, that think they know all, and be­lieve 'tis below them to ask any advice of the learned Physitian or Chyrurgion, when in­deed they are oftenest the most ignorant; for 'tis the Physitian and Chyrurgion that they must be obliged to for the chief part of their Art, and in France 'tis the Chyrurgions [Page 26] employ to help Women in Child-birth, an [...] she promised to be with me very early th [...] morning to give me account how it fare [...] with her Patient, and of the success of m [...] directions, and heark I believe 'tis she knocking at the door at this instant.

Here note by the by, that 'tis romantic▪ to say, that the Males are generated in th [...] right side of the Matrix, but Females in th [...] left, out of the left Testicle; for the righ [...] side, by reason of the Liver, is hotter, bu [...] the left cooker; for when there are Twins▪ sometime they are of the same Sex, but principally the abundant heat of Seed is the caus [...] of the generation of Males.

This figure sheweth the Womb Anatomized and how the Infant lyeth in it.

The parts are descri­bed in the following page.

  • CC Denotes the Kidneys of each side.
  • DD The emulgent Veins on the righ [...] side.
  • EE The emulgent Arteries on the righ [...] side.
  • F The trunck of the hollow vein.
  • HH The emulgent Arteries on the left side.
  • LL The Spermatick Veins on the right side.
  • K The Spermatick Arterie on the right side.
  • M The Spermatick Veins on the left side.

  • aa The Ureters cut off.
  • oo The Feminine Testicles.
  • PP The broad ligament like Batts wings.
  • qq The trunck of the great Arterie.
  • BB Vessels like Vine-branches.
  • Y The shaft of the Womb.
  • R The bottom of the Womb where the Infant lieth.

SECT. V. Rules for Child-bearing Women, and how to prevent Abortion.

MId. According to your promise, I be­seech you, Doctor, lay me down some Rules to be observed by Child-bearing Wo­men.

Dr. Good Midwife, I shall, and that very necessary ones too, that she may know how to go on safely through (by Gods blessing) to the last hour, or by neglecting them, may make her delivery the harder: and I shall re­duce them under ten heads.

First, let her be chearful; for this doth ex­hilarate the Infant, and stirs up all the facul­ties, and confirms it in its parts and Mem­bers.

Secondly, let her avoid all violent moti­on, and ahstain from all hard labours, not rising up too hastily, not leaping, running, dancing, riding; not lacing her self too streight, or carrying too heavy a burden; but surely moderate sleep and rest, is very fit for her. And all this especially toward the lat­ter end of her reckoning; for though it be [Page 29] allowed them by most Authors to facilitate the Birth, yet if we well consider the point we shall without doubt find it to be the cause of miscarryings, and hard labors, and death of many Women and Children. For you must know that the Birth of a Child ought to be left to the work of Nature well regulated, and not to provoke it, by shaking and jolting, as in a Coach, or by a trotting Horse, and to dislodge it before its full time, which happen­ing though it be but 7 or 8 days sooner proves sometimes as prejudicial to the Infant, as we see it sometimes to Grapes which we find 4 or 5 days before they are full ripe, to be yet almost half verjuice; But to explain this more clearly, consider the Infant is na­turally seated in the Womb, with Head up­permost and the Feet downwards, with its Face towards the Mothers belly, just till it hath attained the 8th Month; at which time and sometimes sooner, and sometimes later, its head being very great and heavy, it turns over its Head downward and its heels up­ward; which is the sole and true posture in which it ought to come into the World. Now just when the Child is about to turn according to custome into its intended po­sture, instead of giving her self rest, she fall a jumping, walking, running up and down staires, and exercising her self more then or­dinary, [Page 30] which very often causes it to turn cross, and not right, as it ought to be; and sometimes the Womb is depressed to low, and engaged in such sort towards the last Month, in cavity of the flanks by those jolt­ings, that there is no liberty left the Infant to turn it self naturally; wherefore it is con­strained to come in its first posture, to wit by the Feet, or some other worser: more­over it would be very convenient that the Woman should abstain from having to do with a Man carnally, during the 2 last months of her reckoning, forasmuch as the body is thereby much moved, and the belly pressed in the action, which likewise causeth the Child to take a wrong posture. Now I believe that those that will seriously reflect and confider of these things, will be ready to quit this their old error, which hath certainly caused the death of many Women and Children, and much pain to divers others.

Thirdly, let her beware of sharp and cold winds, of excessive heat, anger, troubles of the mind, affrights and terrors, over-much venery, and of intemperancy of eating and drinking.

Fourthly let her diet be frugal, and mode­rate, abstaining from gross meats, hard of di­gestion; let her eat Eggs, Chickens, Land­fowl, birds of the Mountains, &c. variety [Page 31] of broths, grewels, panadoes, Mutton, Veal, Lamb, Kid, Rabbets; she may use in her meats Nutmeg and Cinnamon; she may drink wine moderately.

Fifthly, in the first four Months let her open no vein, use no cupping or scarrificati­ons, fontanells, nor use any pills, or other Physick, without the advice of a prudent Physitian; for in these Months the liga­ments of the Child are very tender, soft, and feeble; and therefore the easier destroyed, and the nourishment kept from it.

Sixthly, if it shall happen that the Woman be too costive (by which many miscarry) let her boyl Spinage, and Lettuce, in Veal broth well buttered, with salt, or wine; which, if they will not move the belly, let her use suppositories, with honey and salt, or of Castile-soap: and if these common things will not do, let her advise with an expert Physitian.

Seventhly, if it happen that she conceive with grievous symptoms, and after concep­tion is troubled with faintings, let her take this Cordial following. Take of Sorrel-wa­ter, and red-Rose-water, of each one ounce; of Cinamon-water one ounce; of Manus Christi pearled, half an ounce, or as much Diamargariton: this may be taken as need requires.

Eighthly, if she fear that she may come (be­fore her time) as in the seventh Month, or some other unseasonable time, and feels throws, as of Child-bearing, let her sit over a fume of Frankincense; for that contributes no small strength both to the Womb, and to the Infant also.

Ninthly, if she nauseate her meat, she may use a plaister of Mastich to her Stomach, and take this following Cordial every morning, fasting, to strengthen her Stomach.

Take Syrup of Pomegranates one ounce and half; of Mosch and Ambergreece, of each two grains; of Lignum Aloes finely powdered, one scruple; of Cinamon half a scruple; the water of Sorrel three ounces; let these be mingled, and drank off blood-warm.

Lastly, if, whilst she go with Child, she per­ceive her terms, let her eat milk, made boyl with red-hot steel, and in that let Plantain and Comfrey be boyled. But, in all these cases, let her advise with learned Physitians, which will direct her with medicines from time to time.

I shall hereafter treat of some distempers incident to Child-bed; and leave you some choice Remedies in the following Sections; and then wind up all.

SECT. VI. A Dialogue between the Midwife, and the Doctor, concerning Midwifes and the delivery of Women in Child­birth.

MId. A good morning to you good Mr. Dr. Sir I am come according to my promise, to give you an account of the event of the directions you was pleased to give me last Night concerning Mrs. Styles, the which indeed Sir have succeeded marveilous prospe­rously, and she now thinks her self in Para­dise to what she was before, and hath sent you Sir a small gratuity according to her a­bility, in acknowledgment of the great bene­fit she hath received by your Counsel. And for my own part Sir I so well approve of your last Nights discourse, that I must hum­bly entreat you, that you would be pleased to afford me your Instructions in the safe per­formance of my Art.

Dr. Very willingly good Mrs. and truly your name bespeaks you a fit Woman for your Employ, as being a well bred Woman; [Page 34] therefore I shall in the first place take occa­sion to tell you what kind of person a Mid­wife ought to be, and that in the subsequent description.

The best Midwife is she that is ingenious, knowing letters, and having a good memory, is studious, neat and cleanly over the whole body, healthful, strong, and laborious, and well instructed in Womens conditions: not soon angry, nor turbulent, or hasty, unsober, unchaste; but pleasant, quiet, prudent; not covetous, but like the Hebrew Midwives, such as fear God, that God may deal with them, and that people may multiply and increase af­ter their hands, and that the Lord may build them Houses.

By this description I tell you only how the best Midwife must be qualified; now let me hear somewhat of your skill, that I may the better judge thereof. First, then let me know how Women are delivered?

Mid. Women are variously delivered, some on their bed, that is to say, o'rethwart the hardest bed, with their Faces upward, with their Feet closed, doubled, and covered. But if she be not so tired out that of necessi­ty she must be delivered on the bed, remove her to the stool: now the stool must be strong, and cut with a hole, in the shape of the moon, as high as a Barbers chair, that the [Page]

A Naturall Birth.

[Page] [Page 35] Midwife sitting upon a lower stool, may the better bring the Infant from the upper parts; the Womans face being still from her. Then let her attend with her finger dipped in warm oyl of sweet Almonds, or Lillies, moved a­bout the orifice of the Womb, that the se­cundine (called the afterburden) may the ea­sier fall out. Then let those that are about her (which need not be above three at a time, that is to say, on each side one; and one at her back) persuade her not to cry out, but to keep in her breath what she may, that the spirits may descend, and be exposed downwards, to depress the Midriff, especially when her throwes are upon her. If the se­cundine be not broken after a long while, it may be broken, carefully, with the nail of the finger, and thrusting the finger in by degrees. But oftentimes the orifice openeth naturally, by reason of the humors that flow out by it. But always this caution must be observed by the Midwife, that the Infant fall not sudden­ly out, lest that endanger too sudden a shaking both of the head and shoulders. But the hu­mors flowing, and the orifice so open, the Midwife may take hold of it, and moving it to and fro, bring it to the birth (according to the natural posture described before in the fourth Section) which must be done at such a time when the orifice of the Womb open­eth [Page 36] it self, and not otherwise; lest with ha­stiness the flux of blood (which always at­tends the birth) be too immoderate, and so the Womb it self come forth. When the In­fant begins to come forth, let the Midwife take and receive it in a cloth in her hands, and let it come down together with the Se­cundine. After the Child hath rested a while, the Navil must be cut four inches in length, with a sharp pen-knife, being suffi­ciently tied with a strong double silk in two places, and cut betwixt the knots, to prevent as well a flux of blood in the Infant as in the Mother. After it is cut off, dry up the coa­gulated blood, with some astringent powder, as Thuraloes at the Apothecaries.

As to the washing of the Child, and swa­thing, I need not give you any account, I sup­pose you take it for granted, that most wo­men understand that. I only here shew you the shape of the stool I use, which, I hope, you will not disapprove of, though few Midwives have them, or use them.

Dr. I like, Mrs. the use of your stool, as being most useful, and especially by reason of the skirt of cloth that usually ought to be a­bout it, to keep away the air, which gives me occasion to give you one necessary Admoni­tion by the way. That all Midwives take heed that they expose not their Women, that [Page]

  • B. the Back of the Stoole
  • oooo. the feete
  • aa. rests for the hands
  • rr. the ring in shape like the Moone
  • cccc. the Cloth round the ring to keepe out the Aire etc:

[Page] [Page 37] [Page 38] are in labour, to the cold Air, but rather that they cover the Privities with the secundine also whilest it is yet hot, or else with warm clothes presently after the birth. For, be­lieve me, (neither is it only my opinion, but also the opinion of the most Learned Do­ctors) that there is nothing worse to child-bearing Women than the cold air, because that entring into the Womb, the Womb it self is distended, waxeth cold, and swelleth, and its orifices are shut; through which pas­ses the menstruous matter; and then arise grievous symptoms, and often times death it self. But as to the suppression of them, and their cure, we shall speak more hereafter.

This precedent Figure is the form of a Child lying in the Womb (according as cut in Tho. Bartholinus, in Page 197.) naked, and out of all its coats both proper and common. The description of it appears by the explana­tion of these letters in it, viz.

  • AA Shews the parts of the Chorion dis­sected, and removed from their proper place.
  • B a Portion of the Membrane Amnios.
  • CC The Membrane of the Womb dissect­ed.
  • DD The placenta Ʋteri, or hepar uteri­num, being a fleshy substance full of many Vessels, by which the Infant receives its nou­rishment.
  • E The varication of the Vessels which makes up the Navil string.
  • FF The Navil string by which the Ʋmbi­lick vessels are carried from the placenta to the Navil.
  • GG The Infant, as it lies perfect in the Womb near the time of Travel.
  • H How the umbilical vessels are inserted into the Navil of the Infant.

SECT. VII. Of the several natural situations of the Infant in the Mothers Womb, ac­cording to the different times of Child-bearing.

WHen the Woman is young with Child, the little creature call'd the Embryo is always of a round Figure, a little longish, having the back-bone moderately turn'd inwards, the thighs folded and a little raised, to which the legs are so joined, that the heels touch the buttocks; the arms are bending and the hands placed upon the knees, towards which the head is inclining forwards, so that the chin toucheth the breast; In this posture it resembles one sitting to void his excrements, and stooping down his head to see what comes from him. Its back bone is at that time placed towards the Mothers, the head uppermost, the face forward, and the feet downward; and proportionably to its growth, it extends its members by little and little; which were exactly folded in the first Month; This posture it usually keeps till the [Page 40] 7th or 8th month, at which time the head be­ing grown big is carryed downwards by its weight, towards the inward orifice of the Womb, tumbling as it were over its head, so that then the Feet are uppermost, and the Face towards the Mothers great gut; when the posture happens otherwise, 'tis unnatu­ral; (and both Male and Female lie thus;) because the Child's face coming upwards will be extreamly bruised, and its Nose who­ly flatted, because of the bones hardness in the passage.

Note further, when the Child hath chang­ed its first Situation being not yet accustomed to this last, it stirs and torments it self so much sometimes, that the woman, by reason of the pain she feels, is apt to believe she is in labor, and if this circumstance be well con­sider'd, you will find it to be that first pre­tended indeavour, which Authors imagine the Child makes to be born the 7th month; and not being able to accomplish it, it stays till the 9th &c. But this is a great mistake, for if the Child turns it self so with the head downwards, or rather is turned, it is but by a natural disposition of the weight of the up­per parts of the body; and if it stir much at that time and soon after, it is not from a de­sire to be born, but from the inconvenience it receives from this new posture, to which [Page 41] it was not before accustomed: and it begins to turn thus sometimes from the 7th month, rarely before, but by accident; often about the 8th and sometimes the 9th only, and at other times also it doth not turn at all, as we may easily perceive in those that come in their first Situation, that is with their Feet fore­most.

When there are many Children they ought to come in the same Figure if it be a natural Birth, as when there is but one; but usually by their different motions they incommode one another, that for the most part one pre­sents wrong in time of labour; yea and be­fore, which is the cause that one comes often with the head, the other with the feet, or some worse posture, and sometimes both come wrong. However the Infant may be settled in the Mothers belly, or in whatever fashion it represents it self at the birth, if it be not according to the posture before said, it is always against nature.

SECT. VIII. Of difficult births, whether they pro­ceed from Causes external or inter­nal.

DIfficult births from external causes may be either, first, from excessive heat, dis­solving the strength of the women; or se­condly, excessive cold, condensing the womb; or thirdly, from sweet things, often applied to the nostrils of the woman, that by smelling to sweet things she may recover her strength and faintings; for sweet smells do attract the womb upwards, and so render the birth more difficult.

Difficult birth from internal causes may be either, first, from the woman; secondly, from the womb; thirdly, from the infant; fourthly from the membranes of the womb. 1. From the woman, as when she is too an­gry, too fearful, or too modest; or if she be in age above 40 years, from whence the mus­cles of the womb may be concluded to be dry, and so the less extenfible; or when she is so thick and fat, that the passages be narrow: [Page 43] Or, 2. From the womb it self, as, when it is so small, and nature so weak and feeble that it cannot expell the birth: Or, if there be any inflammation; or unnatural affect in the pri­vities, be it the stone, or piles, or extraordi­nary costiveness; all which may so compress the womb with their weight, that it cannot expel the birth. 3. Is from the infant it self, as if it be of an unusual bigness, of a great head, or a monstrous birth, hydropical, full of wind, dead in the womb, or lying there in a posture beyond nature; as when it comes overthwart, with the feet forward, and not the head, or if the thigh before the head. 4. From the membranes of the womb, as when they are so forcibly broken by the child in the womb that the moysture floweth thence, leaving the infant behind, that when the child should come forth, that moysture fail­eth, and so the membranes being dryer, mak­eth the birth the more difficult; or when it is firm and solid that it is broken with much difficulty, and so makes the labour the har­der.

And here we cannot but take notice how those Authors, who have not the perfect knowledge of the parts of a Womans body, attained to by Anatomy, do admire and cannot as they say, conceive how it is possible that an Infant so big can pass, in time of labour, [Page 44] through an opening of the Womb so small; some of them being of opinion that the Wo­mans share-bone is seperated at that time, to enlarge the passage; without which it would be impossible for the Infant to have room e­nough to be born; and therefore Women that are a little antiquated suffer in their first labors more than others, because their share­bone cannot so easily be seperated, which often kills their Children in their passage: others again are of opinion that it is the flank-bone, which is disjointed from the hoop-bone for the same purpose; and say both the one and the other of them, viz. That these bones thus separated at the hour of labor, are thereto so disposed by degrees, a little before, by the fly my humors which flow forth from about the Womb, and then mollifie the grisles and cords which at other times join them firmly together. But both these opinions are as different from truth as reason; for Anato­my convinceth us clearly that the Womb by no means toucheth these places; whereby to moisten and soften them by its humors; as likewise that these bones are so joined by the gristle that it is very difficult to seperate them with a knife, especially the flank-bone from the hoop-bone, and almost impossible in some elderly Women without great violence; although Ambrose Parry, a most famous Chi­rurgion [Page 45] in his time at Paris, (quoting many witnesses to the thing) gives us an History of a Woman in whom (having been hang'd 14 days after she was delivered in Child-birth,) he found (as he saith) the share bone separated in the middle the bredth of half a finger, and the flanck-bones them­selves disjointed from the hoop-bone. But we will not in this matter accuse him of an imposture as having too much respect, and a better opinion of so worthy a person, and believing him to be too sincere as to commit such a crime; but do indeed believe the good man might be mistaken in this separation; for we cannot probably conceive that being so at the time of her labor it would remain so a fortnight after, the breadth of half a finger; for then they would have been forc'd to carry this Woman to execution; (for they are ex­ecuted at Paris within the City or Suburbs,) because she would not have been able to have supported her self, or climbe the ladder of the Gibbet; and keep her self on her Legs according to the custome of other Malefa­ctors; because the body is only supported by the stability of these bones; wherefore we must believe, as most probable, that such a disjunction and separation was caused either from the falling of this Womans body from the high Gibbet to the ground after executi­on; [Page 46] or from some blow on that place from some hard thing. And if we thoroughly exa­mine the different Figure and Structure of these bones between a Mans and a Womans Sceleton, we shall find a larger empty space and distance between these bones much more considerable in women then in men; and that to this purpose the least women have the bones of the hip more distant the one from the other, than the biggest man; and they have also the crupper-bone more outwards, and the sharebone flatter, which makes the passage from this capacity larger, and more able to give issue to the child at the time of labour: moreover they have besides this the flank bones much more turned outward, that the womb being filled may have more room to stretch it self out on the sides, and more at ease supported by such a disposition; as you will see explain'd in the figure.

A shews the Man's bones. B the Womans; for to know the difference that the Womans is more capacious then the Mans, for C and C, D and D, E and E are at a larger distance one from another, in a Woman than in a Man. And be­sides that Women have the rump bone marked F. more turned outwards than Men, which gives way to the head to pass through the large passage be­tween the 2 Hip-bones, marked E and E, without great difficulty; and without any necessity for the separation of the share-bone.

The bladder and great gut being emptyed of the excrements they contein hinder, in no wise but that the womb, made membranous or skinny for that purpose, can stretch forth it self as it doth to let the infaut pass in la­bour, by this great empty space sufficient for it whithout any necessity that these bone-should be disjointed or separated; for if it should so fall out indeed women could not sustain themselves on their legs; as many of them do immediately after that they are brought to bed; because they are instead of a support to them, as is already exprest, and of a middle joincture to all the other, as well of the upper as the lower parts of the body. Which the learned and judicious and experi­enced Chirurgion Mr. Francis Moriceau very well noted, when he lay'd so many Women in the Hostel de dieu in Paris; for when Wo­men that are there to be brought to bed be­gin to be in labor, they go into a little room call'd the stove, where all are delivered upon a little low bed made expresly, where they place them before the fire, afterwards as soon as they are delivered they conduct them to their bed, which sometimes is a good way off from this little chamber, whither they walk very well, which they could never do were their share-bone, or their flanck-bone separa­ted the one from the other. Besides we of­ten [Page 48] see young Women that have concealed their labour, put themselves (the better to hide their faults,) immediately to their ordi­nary business as if they had ailed nothing: neither could this ingenious Chyrurgion, in all women that ever he delivered, ever perceive this pretended disjunction, though he put his hand on the share bone when the child was in passage; but he sayes that indeed he hath found the hip-bone which is joyned with a loose Joint, to the lower extremity of the hoop-bone to bend outwards during labour: in which part the women feel sometimes much pain because the coming forth of the child of­fers it a great violence, and because its head at that time doth much press the great gut against it.

Moreover having often seen and dissected women, being dead a few days after their de­livery, it hath been found a very difficult mat­ter to seperate these bones with a strong sharp Pen-knife; where could not be found any the least appearance of any forgoing separation: and if those advanced in years have more pain with their first children than the younger women, it doth not proceed from the difficul­ty of the seperation of these bones (which never is, from the reason aforesaid) but be­cause the membranes of their womb are dry, and hard; and particularly its internal orifice, [Page 49] cannot therefore so easily be stretched open as young womens, which in them is much moister.

SECT. IX. Of the Fashions, and Figures of the birth, and how Children are born or may be born.

THE postures of the infant in the womb are generally four: First, they offer to come with their heads forward (which is the natural birth.) Secondly, with the feet for­wards. Thirdly, overthwart. Fourthly, doubled; to all which the Midwives care and skill is required, but especially in the three later. But many other postures have been ob­served, in practice; for that child that comes with his head forward, sometimes hath his head right, as to the orifice of the matrix, but the rest of the body crooked, and sometimes overthwart: and sometimes the infant pitch­eth his head, either in the former part from the orifice, or backward, or comes crooked; and sometimes also it is whithout any tye, as to the bottom of the matrix, and sometimes with it; sometimes also it puts forth one hand, or both, so as that they are twisted above the head: sometimes it cometh forward, with its [Page 51] feet asunder, and those fixed in the parts of the womb; sometimes the feet being doubled, it endeavours to come forth with the knees forward; sometimes it is so doubled, that it shews forth its little buttocks like one that is sitting; or contrarily may be so doubled, that you may find the soles of the feet joyned to the head in the orifice of the matrix; but those that lye o'rethwart, somtimes lye on one side, and sometimes with the face upwards, and somtimes downwards: But if there be twins, then that which presenteth it self fair­rest, must be laid hold on, and the other put back. As to all which, the next following Sections will not only furnish you with fi­gures, but with directions. Hitherto having described the Midwife and her office, togeth­er with the site of the infant in the womb, as natural; together with difficult births in ge­neral, and their causes. It is reasonable, (good Mrs. Eutrapelia) that we discourse of unnatu­ral births, because those bring the greatest danger with them, both to the mother and infant.

SECT. X. Figure the first. Of unnatural Births.

DR. Courteous Mrs. Eutrapelia, If you perceive a child come with its feet for­wards, and the hands drawn downwards to the thighs, according to the next ensuing form, How will you deliver the woman?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the feet, with the arms pointing downwards]

Mid. In this, I will take care to be fur­nished with Oyles, and convenient liniments, and only to help the coming forth of the in­fant, by anointing and cherishing it, lest it go back again, but that it may come forth the same way as it began. But first of all I shall take care, that both arms of the infant so stretched downwards, be so secured by me, [Page 54] that the infant may not have power to draw them back again, but that I may compel it to come forth, after the very same manner: But if the infant breaking forth after this manner, and by reason of its bigness as well as his arms drawn down, be so streightned by the nar­rowness of the matrix, that of it self it cannot wholly come to the birth; then the womb of the woman is to be anointed with oyl of Lil­lies, or sweet Almonds, or hogs grease, & some sneezing Powder, blowed up he nose, to help the sending forth of the birth; and the womb gently to be compressed with both hands, that it tend not upwards, but downwards, as it ought, until it come forth entirely.

Here most Authors advise to change the Figure and place the head so that it may pre­sent it self first to the birth; which is very difficult and almost altogether impossible to be performed; if we desire to avoid the dan­gers that by such violent endeavours both the Mother and the Child must inevitably be put into; and I wish they would have shown us any way how it might be safely acted; that we might have followed their examples wherefore 'tis better to draw it forth by the feet, then to venture a worse accident by turning it.

Now to perform this the Midwife must have her Nails well pared and no rings on her [Page 55] fingers, but her hands well anointed with Oyl or fresh Butter; then the woman being seat­ed to the best advantage let her gently put her hand into the entry of the Womb, which if it be not wide enough let her open it a lit­tle and little by degrees, with her fingers by spreading them one from the other after they are entred together, so continuing to do till it be sufficiently enlarged, then finding the Child's feet let her draw it forth in this po­sture following; but if there shall but one foot present it self, then she shall consider whether it be the right or the left, and in what fashion it comes; for thefe reflections will be a means to inform her, on what side the other may be, which as soon as she knows let her seek for it, and then gently draw it forth together with the first; and then also let her be very careful and well assured that this 2d be not the foot of another Child; for if it should chance to prove so, she may soon­er split both Mother and Children then draw them forth: the which she may easily pre­vent it by sliding her hand up the first leg and thigh to the twist, she find both thighs joined together, and depending from one and the same body; and which is likewise without doubt the best means to find the other foot, when it comes but with one.

Being then secured of both the Childs feet, she may draw them forth, and holding them together, she may bring them by little and little in this manner, by taking hold of the Legs and Thighs aftewards, as soon as she can come at them and drawing them so till the hips be come forth: in the mean time let her observe to wrap the parts in a single nap­kin, to the intent that her hands being alrea­dy greasy slip or slide nor from the Infants body, which is very slippery, because of the slimy humors which are all over it; and hin­der her from taking fast hold of it; which being done she may on both sides, with her hand, bring away the arms, being careful that the Belly and Face be downwards; lest being upwards the Head be stopt by the chin over the share-bone; so that if it be not so she must turn it to that posture; which is easily done if by taking hold of the body, when the breast and arms are forth, she shall draw it with turning it in proportion, on that side it most inclines to, till it be as it should be, that is with the Face downwards, and having brought it to the shoulders, let her lose no time, (desiring the Women at the same in­stant to bear down) that so in drawing, the head at that very moment may take its places and not be stopt in its passage.

There are indeed some Children that have their Head so big, that when the whole body is born, yet that stops in the passage, not­withstanding all the care that can be used to prevent it; in this case the Midwife must not only endeavour to draw forth the Child by the shoulders, least she sometimes separates the body from the Head, but she must disin­gage it by little and little, from the bones in the passage, with the fingers of each hand, sliding on each side oppofite the one to the other, sometimes above and sometimes under until the work be ended; endeavouring to dispatch it as soon as possible, least the Child be cloaked or stifled; as it will certainly be if it remain long in that posture; w [...]ich be­ing artificially and well effected; she may soon after fetch away the after-birth.

SECT. XI. Figure the Second.

DR. But, tell me, I pray, Mrs. Eutrapelia; What if an infant come with the feet forward, and the hands lifted above the head, and not drawn downwards to the thighs, (as in the follwing figure) what course will you take with most safety.

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the feet, with the arms pointing upwards]

Mid. Sir, I am not at all to receive it so lying, except the Infant be very small and lit­tle, and the Womb so extensive, and open, that it may be hoped a safe delivery, both to the Woman and to the Child; neither must I receive it before the Womb and the Infant be diligently anointed. But it were much better to thrust back the Infant into the Womb, and to turn it to the right form, [Page 60] which may be done after this manner. Let the woman lye on her back upon a bed, with her buttocks raised higher, and her head low­er; which done, I must swathe her belly upward gently, that I may drive back the In­fant again into the Womb, by which means it may give an occasion of coming in another form; but above all, I must take care to turn the face of the Infant toward the back of the Mother, and then I must lift up the buttocks and things of the Infant toward the Navil of the Mother, that it may hasten toward a law­ful birth: and there cannot be a safer experi­ment in this case, (as I conceive) which is also most useful in such births as come unna­turally.

Dr. Those Authors indeed Mrs. that have written of labors and never practised them as many Physitians and Chirurgions have done, do order all by the same precept often repeat­ed, that is to reduce all unnatural and wrong births to a natural and right posture; which is to turn it that it may come with the Head first; but as I have said before, if they them­selves had ever had the least experience, they would have known that it is very often im­possible, at least, if they shall attempt to do it by the excess of violence, that must necessa­rily be offer'd to effect it; it will go near to hazard the destruction both of Mother and [Page 61] Child, in the operation. A fiat in this case [...]s soon said, but not so easily executed as pro­nounced; and for my part I am of a clear contrary opinion to theirs, and such as are [...]kilful in the art, will certainly acquiesce with me in this, that is, that whensoever the [...]nfant comes wrong in what posture soever [...]rom the shoulders to the feet, it is the best [...]nd safest way and soonest perform'd to draw [...]t forth by the Feet; diligently searching for [...]hem as is before directed if they do not pre­ [...]ent themselves, rather then to make an at­ [...]empt to put it into a natural posture, and [...]lace the head foremost; for the great endea­ [...]ors often necessary to be used in turning the [...]nfant in the Womb, (which is a little more [...]ifficult business then to turn a pancake in a [...]rying-Pan;) do so weaken both Mother and Child, that there remains not afterwards [...]trength enough to commit the operation to [...]ork of Nature; and usually the Woman [...]ath no more throws nor pains fit for labor, [...]fter she hath been so wrought upon; for [...]hich cause it must needs be very tedious and [...]ifficult; as also the Infant, which is already [...]ery weak, will certainly perish in the pas­ [...]age, without being able to be born.

SECT. XII. Figure the Third.

DR. Now I pray you Mrs. tell me, If the Infant happen to come forth but with one foot, and the arms let down to the sides, but the other foot turned backwards; How will you help?

Mid. In this case worthy Sir what hath been said before, concerning the first Figure, being punctually observed, there will no dif­ficulty at all remain in the operation; only alwaies remembring, when there is occasion, to refresh the Woman in labor with such Me­dicinal means as may be proper for her in he condition.

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of one foot, with the other foot pointing backwards, and the arms pointing downwards]

SECT. XIII. Figure the Fourth.

DR. If an Infant comes with the Shoulder first, or lye a-cross on its back, or with its buttocks, with the hands and feet up; how will you help it?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the shoulder, back, or buttocks]

Mid. The most difficult of these three sorts of figures and situations, in which Infants sometimes come, is that of the shoulders, be­cause it is farthest from the Infant's feet; and the Midwife must find them, to draw it forth; the next is the back, and the breech for the same reason causeth it least trouble; not only because the feet are neerer, but also because by this figure, the Infant's head and neck is not so lock'd as in the other postures.

Now to remedy this birth of the shoulders some advise that it should be put back, to make way for the Infants head, that thereby it may be reduced to a natural birth, but it is much better, for the reasons before alledged, to endavour to bring it by the Feet; the which dextrously to effect, the Midwife must thrust the shoulder back a little with her hand, that so she may have more liberty to introduce it into the Womb, and sliding it then along the Childs body either by the belly or side, as she shall find it easiest, she shall fetch the feet; and turning it bring them to the passage, and so she shall deliver that Woman as is before directed.

If it be the back that presents to the birth, it is likewise impossible it should be born in in that posture, what pains soever the Mother endures; and besides the child having the bo­dy folded inwards, and almost double, its [Page 66] brest and belly are so press'd together, that i [...] usually wants very little to be choak'd or stifled; to avoid the which dangerous inconvenience, the Midwife must quickly slide up he [...] hand along the back towards the inferio [...] parts, until she meets with the feet, to th [...] intent she bring it forth the same way as if i [...] came footling.

But when the Child comes with the Breech forward, if it be small, and the Mother big, having the passages very large, it may some­times, with a little help, be born so; for al­though it comes double, yet its Thighs be­ing folded towards its belly, which is soft and gives way, it passeth without much trou­ble.

Now as soon as the Midwife finds the Child to come with the Buttocks formost she must not suffer it to engage lower in the pas­sage; for it will not come after that manner, unless it be very small; and the passage very large as we have said; This being then in good time perceived, the Midwife must, if she can thrust back the breech, and sliding up her hand along the thigh to the legs and feet of the Child, she must bring them gently, one after another, forh of the Womb, by folding, stretching, wagging, and drawing them gent­ly towards the side; being careful not to wind them too much, or cause a distocation, [Page 67] and then let her draw forth the rest of the body, as if it came with the feet formost.

I said, Sir that the Midwife, perceiving the Child to come with its breech formost, ought to put it back, if she can, for some­times it will be so far advanced, in the passage, that she may sooner destroy both Mother and Child then reduce it to the posture aforesaid, it being once so strongly engaged; when this happens she cannot by any means hinder it from coming in this posture, in which its bel­ly is so pressed, that it often voids its ordure by its Fundament: however she may much help this birth, by sliding up one or 2 fingers of each hand on each side of the buttocks, for to introduce them into the groins; and having crooked them inward, she must draw the breech just out to the thighs, and then by drawing it, and wagging it from side to side, she will disingage them from the passage; as also the feet and legs one after the other; be­ing very careful of putting any part out of joint; and then she may draw forth the rest, as before is taught when it come with its feet foremost.

SECT. XIV. Figure the Fifth.

DR. Tell me, Mrs, Eutrapelia, what if the Infant happen to hasten to the birth with his armes and legs distorted and crook­ed, according to this figure; How then will you help?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the legs bent at the knees, with the arms pointing downwards bent at the elbows]

Mid. As things so stand, Sir, I must not endeavour the birth of the child, but must bring her from the stool to the bed, where I must press back the womb as before-said, or must desire her to roul her self about, till the Infant is turned to a more commodious po­sture: And if this course prevail not, I must endeavour to joyn both feet together, and, if [Page 70] possible, must bring down the hands so to the sides, that I may direct it to the birth. But the safest and best way in my weak judgement Sr. must needs be that which you have taught me in the foregoing births.

SECT. XV. Figure the Sixth.

DR. Tell me, Midwife what if the Infant fall down with both the knees bent, and the hands hanging down to the thighs; How will you go to work?

Mid. Here, Sr. when an Infant (not being turned, towards the latter months, as it ought, to come with its head foromost) pre­sents its self with the knees to the birth, hav­ing its legs folded towards its buttocks, one may easily be deceivad touching one of them, because of their hardness and roundness, and take it for its head; especially when being seated a little high, it can be reached but with the end of a singer only, but if it be touched and handled a little better, the In­fant being fallen a little lower it will be easily distinquished.

Assoon therefore Sr. as such birth is per­ceieved, I must not suffer it to advance fur­ther in such a posture, but having placed the woman, must gently put back the childs knees to the intent that I may have the more liberty [Page 72] to unfold the legs one after another, th [...] which dextrously to effect, I must put one o [...] two of my fingers under the child's hams d [...] recting them by little and little all along b [...] hind the leg until I meet with the foot an [...] drawing alwayes a little obliquely, for t [...] come the easier to the end of it, that so having disengaged one, I may do the same to th [...] other, proceeding after the same manner a [...] with the first, after which having brough [...] them together, I must finish the work, a [...] when a child comes with its feet foremost▪ and hands downwards to the things.

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the knees, with the arms pointing downwards]

SECT. XVI. Figure the Seventh.

DR. But, Mrs. Eutrapelia, what if the In­fant come out hastily with one hand, and the other hand down towards the side, and the feet stretched out streight into the womb, according to this figure; How will you re­ceive it.

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of one hand, with the other hand pointing sidewards]

Mid. May it please you, Sir, I am not at all to receive it so, nor to suffer it to proceed farther toward the birth; but must bring her to the bed, where her head must lye lower than her buttocks; then I must swathe her belly gently, that the Infant may fall back a­gain into the womb: but if it fall not back of its own accord, I must put in my hand, and press back the shoulders, and must reduce the the arm that hanged out to the side, that it may be disposed of to a natural from in the Womb, and so may come forth easily.

Dr. Very well Mrs. Eutrapelia, this is your way; but now give me leave I pray you to give you my method in this case; when an Infant therefore presents only one or both hands to the birth, or an arme sometimes out to the Elbow, and many times to the shoulder, it is of the worst and most dangerous postures a child can come in, as well for its self as its mother; by reason of the violence the mid­wife is forced to use both to the one and the other, in searching for the feet, which are very far off, by which I would always, in these cases, have it turn'd and drawn forth; the which to do will often make the midwife sweat in the midst of winter, because of the difficulty in this labor more then all the rest, though some other of them are indeed more dangerous for the Infant, as when it presents [Page 76] the belly, and the Navil string comes forth, but it is not so painful for the Midwife, be­cause the feet of the Infant, being near the passage, are not so hard to be found, as when it comes with a hand forward, for then they are high, and at the very bottom sometimes of the womb; where the midwife must seek them to turn it and draw it forth as I shall now direct.

When therefore it presents with one hand only, or a whole arm first it must by no means be pulled forth by that part, for it will be sooner separated and rent from the body then so brought forth; by reason a child is pluck'd obliquely and a cross-way; where­fore having placed the woman as is requisite, the midwife must put back the Infants hand or arm, into the womb again: some Mid­wives dip in cold water, or wash it with a wet cloth, saying that the Infant will presently draw it in, if it be living; but it is usually so prest and ingag'd in the passage, that this bad posture, that it hath not liberty enough to draw back its hands so easily, being once come forth; wherefore the midwife must guide them back with her own, which she must afterwards slide into the womb, under the child's brest and belly so far till she finds the feet, which she must gently pull towards her, to turn it and draw it forth by them as [Page 77] before I directed; always remembring to act with as little violence as may be, which is much more easy, sure and safe then to busy ones self in putting it to a natural situation.

As soon therefore as she hath turn'd the child to the feet, if she hath hold but of one, she must search for the other, that so she may bring it to the first, when holding them both she must govern herself afterwards in bring­ing the child into the World, as we directed you before when the child comes with its feet foremost.

But if the Arm be far advanced almost to the shoulder, and so big and sweld as it will be if it be along while forth, that it cannot at all, or with out great difficulty be put back, then she herself, or a Chirurgion being im­mediately sent for, if the child be certainly dead, must twist the arm twice or thrice a­bout, till it be wholly seperated from the body, which it will easily be by reason of its tender­ness, and that just in the joint of the shoulder with the shoulder blade; but be sure the child be dead; elce what an horrible spectacle will it be to bring, as some have done, a poor child yet living into the World after the arm hath been cut off?

SECT. XVII. Figure the Eighth.

DR. But, Mrs, Suppose the Infant come forth with both hands stretched forth above the head, and the feet streight stretch­ed into the Womb, which is here figured and is much more dangerous than the for­mer?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of both hands together]

Mid. 'Tis true, Sir, this posture is much more dangerous than the former; but I shall take all the care I can to bring back again this birth into the womb wholly. And first of all, I shall anoint my hands, and the womb of the woman, with oyles for this purpose, (for this requires no small labour) then, if pos­sible, with my other hand shall drive it back so by the shoulders, that it may wholly fall back into the womb: And again, lest the Infant should return to the same form of birth, I must put in my hands, and bring down the arms of the Infant to the sides, and by that means bring it to the form of a natu­ral birth. If this course take not, I must bring the woman to bed, where, after she hath lain quiet a while, I must proceed after the same manner as I have before delivered: and if this also be to no purpose, and that it neither be changed to another form, she must be brought to the stool; and the womb, by the help of the women that are assistants, must be depressed on both sides, and downwards: And (my hands being annointed as be­foresaid, together with the Womb, and both the arms as they come) I must do what I can to joyn them together, and so re­ceive it as it comes forth. And in this birth, there is the less danger, if that I or any other Midwife do our duties with all possi­ble [Page 80] diligence, and in case the Infant be not too weak.

Dr. Very well Mrs. your way, but I take mine which I mentioned in the former Secti­on to be the safer of the two, but you may use which you think best.

SECT. XVIII. Figure the Ninth.

DR. But I pray you, Mrs. Eutrap. How will you deliver a woman of a child that falls down with its buttocks forwards, and the hands spread over the head, according to this figure.

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the buttocks]

Mid. Here, Sir, I must annoint my hands as above-said, and putting it up, must lift up the fundament of the child, and turn the head to the Birth. But, in this case I must not make too much haste, lest it fall into a worser form; neither is it possible that a child should be so born, without great loss to the Mother and Infant; therefore, if it cannot be turned with the hand, she must be brought to the bed, where, if she be very weak, she may be refreshed with convenient meats and cordi­als, and then often proceeded with as is said before, until the Infant shall come to a more commodious form of birth.

Dr. Your observations and apprehensions of danger in this operation are very good; so that when the next opportunity presents you will find my former directions to be best and safest.

SECT. XIX. Figure the Tenth.

DR. But sometimes (Mrs.) it happens that it offers it self with its shoulders forwards, and the head turned backwards, but the feet and hands lifted up, as in the en­suing figure; How will you help here?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the shoulders]

Mid. In this case, Sir; I must in the first place move backward the shoulders of the In­fant, that it may first appear with the head forward; and this may easily be done, be­cause the shoulders being but a little up, the head of it self will fall down to the orifice of the womb, as being nearest to it. But if there must be any other way attempted, she must be brought back to the bed, and then so stir­red and rouled, and used according to those directions formerly hinted.

SECT. XX. Figure the Eleventh.

DR. Mrs, I fear I trouble you with many Questions; be pleased to satisfie me in this, and four or five more, and I shall for­bear. What then if the Infant incline to the birth with the hands and feet together, as if it stood upon all four, with the back upward into the womb; (as in this figure) What, I say, will you do?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of both hands and feet together]

Mid. Here, Sir, I must take care, lest some danger happen from this difficult and unshape­ly figure; therefore I must do thus. I must so move the feet of the Infant, that I may hand­le the head, and do what I can to direct that first to the birth: I must also move up the arms, lest of their own accord they fall down to the sides of the womb. And if this way succeed not, she must be brought back to the bed, and the same means used for the turning of the Infant as hath been formerly descri­bed.

SECT. XXI. Figure the Twelfth.

DR. Sometimes, Mrs. it falls out, that (contrary to the former shape) the In­fant falls down upon its breast, with the hands and feet cast backward into the Womb, as in this figure; what will you do in such a condition?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the chest]

Mid. Truly, this case is the most dange­rous of all hitherto proposed. First, there­fore, I must carefully annoint both my hands, and also the womb of the woman; which done, I must feel for the arms of the Infant, and lay hold of them so, till I can lay hold of the head also, and with all care hold it so fast, that I may direct the head first to the birth; next I must dispose of them to the sieds; for this done, the birth will come forth the soon­er, and with less danger; but if this succeed not, it will be safest to bring the woman to the bed, and to proceed as formerly shewed; that, if perhaps, by this kind of delay, the In­fant may accommodate it self to a more fit posture for the birth.

SECT. XXII. Of a birth wherein the Infant presents the belly.

DR. In the next place Mrs. Midwife, let me hear from you how you will help a woman in labour of a child when it presents its belly first?

Mid. That you shall Sr. very willingly to the utmost of my skill.

And here Sr. I must note that the back-bone may easily be bent and turned forwards alit­tle, but by no means backwards without ex­cessive violence. Wherefore the worst and most dangerous figure that a child can offer to the birth, is the belly, or the breast, for then its body is constreined to bend back­wards, and what ever throws or endeavours a woman makes to bring it forth it will never be accomplish'd; for she will sooner perish with her child then ever advance it in this posture into the passage, wherefore 'tis in great danger if not timely succourd; and in case it should escape, which would be very strange, it would be weak in the back along time after its birth: but that which aug­ments [Page 90] the danger much more is that for the most part the Navil-string comes forth when the Child comes with the belly; Therefore as soon as 'tis discover'd to be so, the Midwife must use the sole remedy of drawing it forth by the feet, as speedily as may be, in this fol­lowing manner.

Having placed the woman I must gently slide up my flat hand, being well anoint­ed for the easier entrance, towards the midle of the childs breast, which I must thrust back to turn it, this situation being already half turn'd, the feet being as neer to the passage as the head, when it represents the midle of the belly; then I must slip up my hand un­der the belly till I find the feet, which I must bring to the passage, to draw it forth in the same manner, as if it came with the feet fore­most; being very careful to keep the Face downwards which must alwaies be observed before the head can be drawn forth, for the reasons before given which must never be forgotten.

And here likewise is to be noted that the Midwife must alwaies prooceed after one and the same manner in the deliveries when a Child comes with the breast, or belly.

But on the other hand I would have it re­mark'd, that when at any time an Infant comes with its side, it is impossible to be de­livered [Page 91] as the two former; but yet it is not so much tormented, nor is its situation so cruel; for it may remain in it a longer time without dying, than in the two former, wherein it is much more as it were upon the rack than in this, in which posture the body may be bended forwards, and not backwards, as in the other; but the Navil string doth not come forth so easily, as when it comes with the belly first. And in this as in the other 2 births, the Midwife will find it the safest way to draw it forth by the feet; by pushing back a little the Infants body with her hand, the better to introduce it, which she may slide along its thighs till she find the legs and feet by which she must turn it, and afterwards draw it forth, as I said even now: nor ought she to amuse her self, in any of these 3 births, to place its head right, that it may come naturally, because 'tis in great dan­ger of dying in these unnatural positions, if not drawn forth with speed, which can never be effected unless it be by finding the feet, as I have directed.

SECT. XXIII. How to help a Woman in her Labor, when the Childs head thrusts the neck of the Womb forth before it.

DR. Now Mrs. Eutrapelia, I have ano­ther question to ask you, and that is this; suppose you were call'd to deliver a Woman in labor where you find the Childs head to thrust forth the neck of the Womb before it, how would you go to work in such a case, and what art would you use to deliver the Child with safety?

Mid. Why surely Sir, if we only have re­spect to the Figure the Child comes in in this labor, we may call it a natural one; but if we shall, on the other hand, consider either the disposition of the Womb, which is in danger of coming quite forth of the passage, or the manner of drawing forth of the Infant, we shall find it to be not so altogether: for its head thrusting it forceably before it may ea­sily cause a falling out of the Womb, if the Woman be not skilfully succoured in time, here may be seen the neck of the Womb [Page 93] bear forth before in great wrinkles according as the Child advanceth.

Now Women troubled with their bearing down of their Womb before they conceive, and those whose Womb is very moist, are much subject to this accident, because of the looseness of the strings.

The same method must not be observed here, as in the natural birth; for in this case the Woman must neither walk nor stand up­right; but she must keep her bed with her body equally at least situated, and not raised a little as is requisite in a natural labor. She must by no means use strong or sharp clysters, lest they procure too great throws, neither must her Womb be moistned, because 'tis al­ready too much loosened; but she must be aided at the moment each pain takes her, when the Child begins to advance its head, and consequently the neck of the Womb, and let the Midwife keep her hands on each side of its head, to thrust back by resisting the Womans pains, the Womb only giving way in the mean time for the Child to advance, doing the like at every throw; continuing therein till the Woman of her self hath for­ced the Child quite into the World, for we must by no means draw it by the head, as in a natural labor, for fear of causing the Womb to fall out at the same time, to which it is then very apt.

Now if notwithstanding the Infant having the head born, and yet stops there, so long as to endanger its suffocation, then the Midwife must call a second person to her assistance, to draw it gently forth by the head, whilst she keeps back the Womb with both her hands, to prevent its following the Infants body so drawn forth. After the Woman is thus de­livered, and her. Afterbirth fetch'd away gently; and not shaking or drawing it away too rudely, then let the Womb be placed up in its natural situation if it bears down.

SECT. XXIV. How to deliver a Woman when the Child presents the side of the Head, to the birth, or its Face.

DR. Good Mrs. Eutrapelia, I do very well approve of this your answer to my last quere; now in the next place I would know of you how you would bring a Woman to bed when the Child shall present it self with the side of its Head first, or its Face.

Mid. When the child Sir presents it self in this posture, as with the side of the head though it seems a natural labor, because the head comes first, yet 'tis very dangerous both to child and mother, for the child shall sooner break its neck than ever be born in this fashi­on, and by how much the mothers pains con­tinue to bear it which is impossible unless the head be first right plac'd, the more the pas­sages are stopt up.

Therefore as soon as 'tis known the woman must be lay'd with all speed, lest the child ad­vancing farther in this vicious posture, it prove more difficult to thrust it back; which [Page 96] must be done when we would place the head right in the passage as it truely and naturally should be.

Now to effect this I must place the woman that her hips be a little higher than her head and shoulders, causing her to lean a little upon the opposite side to the childs ill posture; then I must slide up my hand being well anointed with oil, by the side of the child's head, for to bring it right gently with my fingers be­tween the head and the womb: but if the head be so engaged that it cannot be easily done that way, I must then put my hand up to its shoulders, that so by thrusting them back in the womb, sometimes on the one side, and sometimes on the other; as I see occasion, so shall I give it a natural and convenient po­sition.

And here it were to be wished that the midwife could put back the Infant by the shoulders with both her hands in this man­ner; but the head doth take up so much room that she hath much ado to introduce one only with which she must do her operation, with the half of the fingers ends of the other hand put up as far as necessary, afterwards let her excite and procure the childs birth, as direc­ted before.

Then sometimes the child comes with its face first, having its head turn'd back; in [Page 97] which posture it is very difficult it should be born; and if it long remain so, the face will be so black and blew, and swell'd that at first sight it will appear monstrous, which comes as well by the compression of it in that place as by the Midwives fingers handling it too rudely, when she endeavor'd to place it in a better posture.

There was a certain Woman whose Child came with its Face so black and mishapen as soon as it was born, as is usual in such cases, that it looked like a black Moor; as soon as the Mother saw it, she said she alwaies fear'd her Child would be so monstrous, because when she was young with Child of it she fixt her looks very much upon a black moor; wherefore she wished or at least wise car'd not though it dyed, rather than she said she should behold a Child so monstrously disfigu­red, as it then appear'd; but she soon chang'd her mind when she was made sensible, that this blackness was occasion'd only by reason that it came into the World with its face forwards, and that assuredly in three or four days it would wear away; as accordingly it happen'd; having often anointed it with oyl of sweet Almonds, as she was order'd; and when the Child came to be about a 12 month old, you could have scarcely seen a fairer. Now to deliver this birth the Midwife must [Page 98] observe the same manner, as in that whe [...] the Child comes with the side of the head▪ being careful to work gently to avoid bruising the Face.

But here note that if it should chance tha [...] the Childs hand or hands should come with either of these births, which for the mos [...] part happens, rather than any other part, i [...] will hinder the birth by reason it takes up part of the passage, and for the most par [...] cause the head to lean on one side.

To remedy this as soon as 'tis preceived that one hand presents together with the head, it must be prevented from coming down more, or ingaging farther in the passage▪ wherefore the Midwife having plac'd the Woman on the bed, with her head a little lower than her hips, must in the next place, put and guide back the Childs head with her own, as much as may be; or both hands i [...] they came both down for to give way to the Childs head, which done she must proceed a [...] before.

SECT. XXV. How to deliver a Woman when the Childs Head is born, and the Womb closeth about its Neck.

DR. Very well Mrs. Eutrapelia, you have now given us a farther account of your very good judgment in your Art, in your dextrous & ingenious way of bringing a Wo­man to bed in the last posture. But now I would desire you to let me know how you will deliver a Woman of her Child, when its head is born, but yet the Womb closeth a­bout its Neck.

Mid. Truely Sir to deliver this Woman is not so easie abusiness as may be imagin'd, by reason that a small delay herein may cause the strangling of the Child.

And here you must observe that the Child comes naturally with the Head first, because by its bigness and hardness the passage might be the better made and opened, for the other parts of the body; the which usually pass af­terwards without pain; but yet notwith­standing sometimes the Head is so small and [Page 100] the shoulders so large, that without a very great difficulty they cannot pass, which makes the Child remain often in the passage after the head is born. And this accident may likewise happen sometimes for not having been careful to lose no time in drawing forth the Child by the head, to the end the shoul­ders might, at the same instant, follow in the same place the head possest.

Now when I meet with this Figure, I must by all possible means seek speedily to deliver the poor Child out of this prison, or rather snare, or collar in which it is caught, for fear as I said before, it come by delay to be strangl'd: to prevent which I must endea­vour to cause the shoulders immediately to follow by gently drawing its Head, sometimes by the sides of it, and some­times with one hand under the chin, and the other behind its head, and so doing by turns, on the one side and the other, to facilitate the operation the better, being very careful and circumspect that the Navil-string be not en­tangled about its Neck; as also not to draw it forth with too much violence, for fear least it may happen, as I once saw, the Head to be pulled from the Shoulders. But if the Shoulders come not with gentle pulling, then I must slide up my fingers on both sides under the Arm-pits, with which turning them in­wards, [Page 101] I may by little and little, draw forth the Soulders; but if when they are in the passage and totally disengaged, if I cannot get the rest forth by still keeping my fingers un­der the Arm-pits, I may be very confident there is some other hindrance, and that it is certainly monstrous in some part of its body; or that, as it for the most part happens in this case, it is hydropical in the belly; for which cause it is impossible it should be born, before the belly be pierced to evacuate the waters; and then it will easily be accomplish'd; but this being the expert Physitian or Chirur­gion's parts to perform, I shall leave it wholly to them.

SECT. XXVI. When the Navil-string comes first.

DR. Now Mrs. Eutrapelia, I would know of you how you behave your self when you have a labor presented to you wherein the Childs Navil-string comes first?

Mid. Here Sir you must note, That an In­fant doth not always present with the belly when the navil-string comes first; for though it presents naturally as to the Figure of its body, that is with its Head first, yet some­times the Navil-string falls down and comes before it; for which cause the Child is in much danger of death, especially if the labor be not very quick, because the blood that ought to pass and repass, through those Ves­sels which compose it, for to nourish and keep the Child alive, whilst it continues in the Womb, being coagulated hinders the circu­lation which ought to be there made, which happens as well by the contusion, as the cold those Vessels receive, being much pressed in the passage when it comes together with the Head, or any other part; as also because the blood doth there coagulate as is said, by rea­son [Page 103] of the cold which it takes by the coming forth of the Navil-string.

But though this accident may cause the In­fants sudden death, 'tis not so much for lack of nourishment; without which it may pass a whole day or more, there being blood e­nough in its body for that purpose: but be­cause the blood can be no longer enliven'd and renewed by circulation, as it hath conti­nual need; which being obstructed always causeth the creatures sudden death, sooner or later according as it is more or less ob­structed.

I know it may be objected that though the circulation be so hindred and intercepted by the coming forth of the string it need not therefore cause such a sudden death to the Child, because the blood may notwithstand­ing circulate in all the other parts of the bo­dy: To which I answer that in respect to the Infant 'tis either absolutely necessary that the blood, for want of respiration, should be elaborated or prepared, in the thick part of the burthen call'd the placenta, and there­fore must be a free communication, or for want of it that the Infant must immediately breathe at the mouth, as well to be refreshed, as to drive out the fuliginous or sooty Va­pors by expiration, which not being possible whilst in the Womb, it must unavoidably be [Page 104] choaked, and dye in a very short time, if it wants both together.

Wherefore in this case the Woman must, without any delay, be deliver'd, the which if nature doth not speedily perform, the Child must be drawn forth by its feet.

Women that have great waters and along string to the burthen, are very subject to this mischief; for the waters coming forth in great abundance at the breaking of the skins, or membranes, do often at that instant, draw the string which swims in the midst, forth along with them; and much the easier if the Infants head be not advanced very forward into the passage, for to hinder the coming forth of it in this manner.

Assoon as 'tis perceived you must imme­diately endeavor to put it back, to prevent the cooling of it, behind the Childs head, least it be bruised, as we have already noted, whereby the blood may coagulate there keep­ing it in that place where it was thrust back, until the head being fully come forth into the passage may hinder the coming down of it again; which may be effected by holding it up with the fingers of one hand, on that side it comes down, untill the head be advanced as aforesaid; or in case the hand be taken away to put a piece of fine soft rag between the side of the head and the Womb, to stop up [Page 105] the way it came down by, always leaving an end of the rag without the body to draw it forth by at pleasure.

But sometimes notwithstanding all these cautions and the putting of it back, it will for all that come forth every pain; and then with­out any more delays at all the Midwife must bring the Child forth by the Feet, which she must make a diligent search and enquiry af­ter, although the Infant comes with the head foremost; for there is but this only means left remaining to save the Childs life, which it would certainly lose by the least delay in such a case.

Wherefore having placed the Woman conveniently, let her gently put back the Head which offers, provided it be not engag­ed too low amongst the bones of the passage, and that it may be done without too great violence to the Woman; for in that case it will be better to let the Child run the hazard of dying, than to destroy the Mother; for Tertullian, as my learned Mr. Riolanus very well observes, upon a like Subject, saith That it is a necessary cruelty, to kill the Child in such a case, rather then to save it from the danger it is in of dying, and so certainly cause the Mo­thers death; and then let her slide up her hand, being well anointed, under the breast and belly to search for the Feet, by which she [Page 106] must draw it forth according as hath been formerly discoursed; the which being per­form'd let her immediately take care, of the Infant, which is ever in this case very fee­ble.

SECT. XXVII. Wherein the Burthen either first offers it self or comes first quite forth.

DR. Very well, and excellently have you given us demonstrations of your skill and knowledge hitherto, good Mrs. Eutrape­lia, now pray will you inform me how you act your part in a Labor wherein the burthen either first offers, or else comes first quite forth.

Mid. That I shall Sir to the best of my Talent and therefore first of all Sir I must note that the coming forth of the Navil-string before the Infant, whereof we dis­coursed in our foregoing Section, is often­times the cause of its death, for the reason there alleadged; but the coming forth of the burthen first, is yet much more dangerous; for that besides that the Children are then commonly Stil-born, if they be not assisted in the very instant, the Mother likewise is in great peril of her life also, because of her great floodings, which usually happen, when it is loosened from the Womb before its due [Page 108] time; by reason that it leaves all the orifices of the Vessels, to which it did cleave, open, whence incessantly flows blood until the Child be born; by reason that the Womb, as long as any thing continues there, doth every moment strongly endeavour to expell it, by which means it continually voids and expresseth the blood of the Vessels, which are alwaies open (as we have already explained) when the burthen is so separated; as long as the Womb remains extended and cannot be closed, until it hath voided all that it did contain, and comes, by the contraction of its Membranous substance, to stop them by pres­sing them together; wherefore if the Mid­wife ought to be vigilent and diligent to suc­cour an Infant when the Navil-string comes first, how much more ought she to be so when burthen comes forth first, and wherein the least delay is ever the cause of the Infants sudden death, if the Woman be not speedily delivered? because the Infant cannot then remain long in the Womb without being choaked or stifled, being it stands in need at that time of breathing at the mouth, (as we explain'd the foregoing discourse,) the blood being no longer enlivened by the preparation made in the burthen, the use and function of which then ceasing, from that very instant that it is separated from the Vessels of the [Page 109] Womb, to which it was joined; for which reason there immediately follows a great fludding which is so dangerous for the Mo­ther, that without speedy help, she quickly looseth her life by this unlucky accident.

Now when the Burthen is not wholly come forth but lies in the passage, some ad­vise to put it back before the Child be fetch'd; but I am not of their opinion; for when it comes into the passage before the In­fant; it is at that time totally divided from the Womb, at the bottom whereof it ought to be commonly situated and fastened, until the Child be born: but because as soon as it is wholly loosened, as it always is when it comes first, it becomes a body altogether un­natural; therefore it is never to be thrust back, but contrarywise be fetch'd away, and at that very moment after bring the Child away by the Feet, although it came naturally with the Head first: for what reason can there be to put it back, since it is of no use to the Infant, from the moment it is separa­ted from the Womb, as cannot be denied? And such a proceeding is so far from being useful, that this burthen would much hinder the Midwife from being able to turn the Child, as she ought, in bringing it forth by the Feet.

Wherefore when it presents it self in the passage, which may soon be perceived if the Midwife find every where a soft substance, without the least resistance of any solid part to the touch; and finding likewise the string fastned to the middle of it, and the Woman fludding extreamly as is ordinary at such times; then in lieu of thrusting it back, the burthen must be brought away, that so there may be the more liberty and room to draw forth the Child, according as hath been be­fore directed.

The Burthen then being quite loosened from the womb, and coming first in the pas­sage must not be thrust back again into it, much less must it be put back when it is quite come forth of the body. The midwife must only take care not to cut the string till the child be born, not out of hopes of any benefit from it to the Infant during the delivery, but that so much time may not be lost before the Infant be fetch away, which is then ever in great danger, as also the flooding may be the sooner stopt, which happens. for the most part as soon as the woman is delivered, for which reasons it will be dispatched with all possible speed.

Sometimes notwithstanding this dangerous accident the child may be born alive, if timely succoured, but it is then so weak that it is [Page 111] hard to discover at first, whether it be alive or dead.

When it so happens some midwies do or­dinarily, before they seperate the burthen, put it into a Skillet of hot wine, and imagine, with no small superstition, that in case it it comes to it self, the vapours of the warm wine was the cause of it, being conveyed by means of the string into the Infants belly, and so giving vigor; but it is more credible that be­ing almost stifled for want of breathing as it needed it, it begins now, by means of it, to recover from that fainting: but nevertheless there may be no hurt in continuing the old custom, since it can do no perjudice, and may satisfie fine occupied Spirits, provided neces­saries be not neglected, in being blindly car­ried away with this conceit.

SECT. XXVIII. Figure the Thirteenth.

DR. There being the same reason in twins as in a single birth, except that the sin­gle birth is natural, and the twins not so, certainly the same method must be observed (Mrs.) Tell me then, if there be two or more, and and all come fair with their heads toward the birth; What is to be done?

[depiction of twin babies in the womb in the natural position for birth: presentation of the head]

Mid. Here, Sir, I must observe that which lyeth readiest and fittest in the Womb, and first receive that, and not to let the other go till the first is born, lest it turn into another shape by sliding back again into the Womb; but the one being born, I must presently lay hold on the other. Now, this birth will be easier, and without danger, because the first birth hath made the way for the second so plain, that it may come forth without any [Page 114] difficulty at all. But in this birth I must take care that I bring forth the after-burden timely enough, lest that the Womb, being freed from her Infants, presently fall down, and so keep in the after-burden with great danger.

SECT. XXIX. Figure the Fourteenth.

DR. But, Mrs. What if there be Twins, and they both come unnaturally with their Feet forward, as in this Figure; what course will you take?

[depiction of twin babies in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of the feet]

Mid. This birth, Sir, is dangerous enough and yet it is to be mended by the prudence of a discreet Midwife. Wherefore, I must anoint the womb of the woman, that the pas­sages may be the easier for the Infant; which being done, I must take care to lay hold of the arms of one of them, and bringing them down to the sides, secure them so, that I may lightly promote the head to the birth; and the first being born, I must presently proceed with the other after the same manner: but if I can lay hold of neither of their arms, so that there is no good hopes of a happy birth, I must have recourse to the former method; if at least the Infants may come into the World by that pains and conversion which is wrought upon the bed.

SECT. XXX. Figure the Fifteenth.

DR. I come now to my last unnatural birth of Twins. If then there be Twins, (these forms being compound as of a natural and unnatural birth) the one come­ing down with the Feet, what is to be done in this case?

[depiction of twin babies in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: presentation of one head and one foot together]

Mid. Where Infants offer themselves af­ter this manner; I must first bring forth that which presents it self with a natural form, and must move up the other which is with the Feet forward, and if possible, cause it so to return into the Womb, that that form al­so may be disposed of to a natural birth; but if it cannot be turned to be in a better po­sture, I must lay hold presently on the hands, and encourage it to the birth. But it were safer that this should be brought to a natural [Page 119] form; to which end I must diligently endea­vour it, by anointing, directing, moving it, tumbling and rouling the Woman, lest per­haps the Womb be hurt by the form of such an unnatural birth, and the privities swell with wind, from whence the birth cannot come forth without danger, or be hindred too long: All which danger may with pro­vident care be avoided, or at the least very much corrected and amended.

Dr. So far concerning your way and me­thod of Labors wherein several Children in different postures present themselves toge­ther; but now good Mrs. Eutrapelia, I would have you to hear a little what I have to offer you concerning these deliveries; and first of all be pleased to consider seriously with me, that if all those unnatural Figures and Situa­tions which we have hitherto described, that a single Child may come in do cause those many difficulties, and dangers mentioned, certainly the Labor wherein several come to­gether in those bad Situations must be much more painful, not only to the Mother and Children, but also to the Midwife, for they are then so pressing that for the most part they trouble and hinder one another; more­over the Womb is so filled with them that the Midwife can scarce introduce her hand without much violence, which she must do if [Page 120] they are to be turned or thrust back to the end that she may give them a better position then that wherein they present.

Where note then, that when a Woman hath 2 Children they do not ordinarily both present to the birth together, but one is of­tentimes more forward then the other, which is the cause why but one is felt, and that 'tis sometimes not discovered that the Woman will have Twins, till going to fetch the after­birth, the first being born, the 2 d is then per­ceived.

When there are Twins Mrs. Eutrapelia one must not think that Nature is orderly in causing one to be born before the other, the first or last, according as it may be most con­venient, that is to say when the one is strong and the other weak, that the strongest comes first; as also when one is dead and the other living, that the living one drives forth the dead one: for I can assure you there is no cer­tain or infallible rule in these cases; of which I can give you an example; there were once 2 women deliver'd within a week of one ano­ther, and both of Twins, the one of each be­ing dead and the other living, the living Child of the first Woman was born before the dead one, and the dead one the 2d was expelled before the living one. And the same thing we see happens very often in respect of [Page 121] strong and weak Children; for that which is nearest the birth whether alive or dead, strong or weak, is always the first born, or must be brought into the World the first, if it cannot come of it self; otherwise the difficulty of the Labor would yet be augmented as well in length of time to the Mother, as the violence done to the first Child, in putting it back, for to fetch the 2d first.

Now the Midwife must always remember to have a care in all natural births, to examine diligently whether there be no more Children in the Womb after the first is delivered, which she may easily know by the continuance of the pains after the Child is born, and the bigness of the Mothers belly; besides this she may be very sure of it, if she shall put her hand up the entry of the Womb, and shall there find another water a gathering, and a Child in it presenting to the passage; and if this shall be so, the Midwife is not to fetch away the after-birth till the Woman be de­livered of all her Children, if she chance to have never so many, because Twins never have but one burthen, to which there are fastened as many strings and distinct Mem­branes as there are Children, and if one should go to draw it forth as soon as the Birth is born, the rest would be in danger of their lives, because that part is very necessary to [Page 122] them whilest they are in the Womb, and be­sides more then that it endangers a flooding. Wherefore the first string must be cut, being first tyed with three or four double, and the other end must be fastened, with a string to the Womans thigh; not so much for fear that the string should enter again into the Womb, as to prevent the inconvenience it may cause to the Woman by hanging be­tween her thighs; afterwards this Child be­ing removed, the Midwife must take care to deliver her of the rest, observing all the same circumstances as were belonging to the first, the which being done it will be then conve­nient and necessary to fetch away the After­birth; as we shall discourse the manner how by and by.

SECT. XXXI. Figure the Sixteenth.

DR. Courteous Mrs. Eutrapelia, I have hitherto troubled you with many Questi­ons, that I might not only be sure of your abilities, but also give testimony of your suf­ficiency, if need require. I have now only one Question more, and then I have done, as to these postures and fashions: And this, though the last, surely is a miraculous pos­ture. What if the Infant be so involved in the womb (the head and the neck being of such a length) that it is so bent back, that the face lyeth betwixt the buttocks, the right hand to the left region of the reins, but the left hand to the knee of the same side; the right legg being across the left, in form of the letter X, and both leggs bent up to­ward the breast?

[depiction of the baby in the womb in an unnatural position for birth: deformed, doubled over and twisted]

Mid. Worthy Dr. This case is the hard­est of any that hitherto you have propounded to me; and though it may never fall out to be so in one amongnst 5000, yet (because, in your description of the best Midwife, you tell me that a Midwife must have a good memo­ry) I remember a learned Doctor, not long since acquainted me with such a posture, which he told he had from the hands of an ex­pert Chirurgeon and Physitian, whose wife [Page 125] also was an expert Midwife; and the course the Midwifed took in such a case, he told me was this, which must serve also for my an­swer, because I think there cannot be a bet­ter. After the woman had been eight daies in labour, and given over by all Midwives as desperate, being in a violent Fever., with no throws, but very weak, and (by reason of hot medicines given to expel the birth, and strong wines given to support the spirits) those humors, that usually accompany the In­fant had so flown out, that the genitals were so dry and closed, that they would scarce ad­mit the probation of two fingers. This me­thod was used: First, instead of wine, she gave her good store of Almond-milk; and be­cause her belly was very costive, she gave her Clysters; and to keep up her spirits she gave her Cordials, (of which in their order.) She laid plaisters to her hands wrists, and anoin­ted the whole region of the belly, hips, loins, the rump-bone, and privities with Oyles to ap­pease her pain and with softning Unguents; and then she made a triangular bagg stuff'd with emollient and relaxing herbs, boyled in water, according to this description, (and of which more hereafter.)

The description of the Bagg.

It was of such a bigness, as that it might cover the lower part of the bel [...] and the pri­vities, and with tapes fitted to the corners was applyed hot, and continued on some hours; after which, though her hand were well anointed, she could scarce thrust in the top of her finger into the orifice of the womb, the womb was so closed, and the Infant so de­pressed toward the share-bone, by reason of [Page 127] the precedent throws and pangs. But at length, when with much labour and industry the genitals were somewhat dilated, that she could get in her fingers farther, she found the loyns and the right hand of the child first of­fer it self to the birth: that therefore she might correct this monstrous and so inverted posture of the Infant so doubled and twisted, and either perswade the head or the feet to come forward, she used the best of her skill, but to little purpose, the genitals were so nar­row and streight. But yet not giving off her endeavours, she did deliver her within eight hours after she came to her assistance; but the child was dead.

Dr. Mrs. You give a very good account of an expert Midwives practice, which you may follow with safety, expecting the suc­cess from Heaven; but it is no wonder the child should be still-born, (as you phrase it;) for being so turned and doubled, the child must of necessity be strangled in the womb.

Having t [...]s run through births, as well natural as unnatural, I shall give you the rea­son (and that in my own opinion) why these births are of so various and different postures in the womb, observing not alwaies the same posture: and 'tis because the Infant swiming in water, and moving it self, sometimes this way sometimes that way or moy'd by its mo­ther [Page 128] as you have heard before, is bent and tumbled several waies; insomuch, that some­times it is strangely entangled with its own navil-cord, which I am confident you have seen in your own experience oftentimes, and shall now in the next place desire you to let me know which way you use to go to work, when a dead Child is to be delivered from its Mother and she alive.

SECT. XXXII. Of delivering of a Woman of a dead Child.

MId. Sir I shall most willingly consent to your demand, as far as I shall be able, in this always so long and dangerous a Labor; which is because for the most part it comes wrong; or though it comes right with the Head, yet the Womans pains are so weak and slow in these cases that she cannot bring it forth, and sometimes she hath none at all, forasmuch as nature, half overthrown by the death of the Child, which cannot help it self, labors so little, that many times it cannot fi­nish the business it hath begun, but must yeild, without the help of art, of which at such a time it hath great need: However before ever I may settle to your work, I'll endeavor to stir up the Womans pains with strong and sharp clysters, to bring on her throws, and to bear down and bring forth the Child; and if these means prevail not she must then be delivered by the help of art.

Now if there be any case wherein a Mid­wife ought to make the greatest reflection and [Page 130] use most precaution in her Art it is this, that is to know whether the Infant in the Womb be living or dead; for there have been ma­ny deplorable examples of Childrens being drawn forth alive, after they have been thought to have been dead, with both Arms or some other limb lopt off, and others mise­rably kill'd by the use of crotchets which might have been born alive if they had not been mistaken: wherefore before the Mid­wife resolves on the manner of laying the Woman, to avoid the like misfortune, and the disgrace of being author of such a pitiful spectacle let her do her utmost endeavour not to be so deceiv'd and to be wholly satisfied whether the Child be alive or dead; always remembring in this case that timidity is more pardonable then temerity, that is, it is bet­ter to be deceived in treating a dead Infant, as if in case it were a live, then a living one as if it were dead.

Now besides what hath been said before concerning knowing whether the Child be alive or not; you must not always put your whole confidence, in the first place, in the Womans telling you that the Child is cer­tainly alive because it stirs, and though to be the better assur'd the Midwife may lay her hand on the Mothers belly, for there have been Women sometimes delivered whose [Page 131] Children had been dead about 4 days, as might be easily judged by their corruption, who notwithstanding have affirmed, though untruly, that they felt them stir but a little before they were delivered; and others a­gain whose Children were alive, and yet their Mothers never perceived them to stir in three or 4 days before, as they confessed:

Now if the Midwife cannot be assured by the Childs motion that it is alive, she may assoon as the waters are broke, gently put up her hand into the Womb, to feel for the breaking of the Navil-string, the which she will find to be stronger, the nearer she feels it to the Infants belly; or if she meets with in hand she may feel the pulse; but their pulses, you must know are not so strong as their Navil-strings, therefore the best to be known by it; if then also by putting her fin­ger into the Childs mouth she perceive it to stir its Tongue, as if it would suck; and on the contrary, if no such signs, and the Mother feel a great weight, and great pains in her belly, and it be not supported but tumbles always on the side she lays her self; if she faints and have Convulsion Fits, if the Navil-string or secondine hath been a good while in the World, and if the Midwife by putting her hand into the Womb, finds the Child cold, and feeling she finds that very soft, [Page 132] chiefly towards the crown where likewise th [...] bones are open, and riding one upon the other at the clefts, or Sutares, because th [...] brain shrinks, which corrupts more in 2 day [...] in the Womb, than it doth in 4 after it i [...] born, which is caused by the heat and moistness of the place, the 2 principals of corruption; and if there comes a dark and stinking putrid matter from the Womb; all thes [...] signs together, or most of them demonstrat [...] to the ingenious Midwife that the Child i [...] assuredly dead; the which when she is certain of, she must do her endeavor to fetch i [...] away as soon as possibly she can, and having placed the Woman conveniently, if th [...] Child offers its head first, she must gently pu [...] it back, until she hath liberty to introdu [...] her hand wholly into the Womb, and sliding it all along under the belly to find the Feet▪ let her draw it forth by them, being ver [...] careful to keep the head from being lock' [...] in the passage, and that it be not separate [...] from the body, which may easily happe [...] when the Child being very rotten and putri­fi'd, she doth not observe the circumstance [...] that we spake of before, that is, in drawing forth the Child, to keep its breast and face always downwards; And if notwithstanding all these precautions, the head, because of the great putrefaction, should be separated and [Page 133] left behind in the Womb; it must be left to be drawn forth by the expert Physitian or Chyrurgion. The same also is to be said when the Head is so far advanced coming first, and engaged among the bones of the passage, that it cannot be put back, then being very sure by all the signs together or most of the chief of them, that the Child is dead cer­tainly, 'tis better to let the Surgeon draw it so forth, it being a round slippery part, with crotchets, then torment the Woman to put it back. Now if the dead Child (whereof above all there must be good assurance,) comes with its arms up to it shoulders so ex­treamly swelled that the Woman must suffer too much violence to have it put back, 'tis best then, as was said before, to take it off at the shoulder joint, by twisting it 3 or 4 times about; then afterwards the Midwife will have more room to put up her hand into the Womb, the arm being so separated and no longer possessing the Womb, and so fetch away the Child by the Feet.

For indeed although it be certain that the Child be quite dead in the Womb, and other circumstances that will demonstrate that there is need of a Physitian or Surgeons Art, yet he must not therefore presently use his crotchets; because they are never to be used but when hands are not sufficient, and that [Page 134] there is no other remedy to prevent the Wo­mans danger, or to bring away the Child any other way: for very often, though all hath been done that art directs, some persons pre­sent that understand not these things will be­lieve that the Child was kill'd with the crot­ches although it had been dead 3 days before, and without other reasonings and better un­derstanding of the matter for his recompence, in saving the life of the Mother, requite him, with an accusation of which he is altogether innocent, and in case the Mother should af­terwards dye, by misfortune, lay her death also to his charge, and instead of praise and thanks treat him like a Butcher, or Hang­man; to which divers Midwifes are com­monly very ready to contribute, and are the first that make the poor Women, that have need of the Men, afraid of them. Insomuch that they are afraid of being blamed by them for having themselves been the cause, (as some of them often are) of the death of In­fants, and many ill accidents which often be­fall the poor Women, for not causing them to be helped in due time, and from the very instant that they perceive the difficulty of the labor to pass their understandings. I speak this by way of caution on both sides.

Now therefore for the Physitian or Chi­rurgion to avoid these calumnies, let him ne­ver [Page 135] use his crotchets, but very rarely when there is no other way; as also to endeavor his utmost, as much as the case will permit, to bring the Child whole into the World al­though it be dead, and not by bits and peice-meals, to give the ignorant not any pretence of blame; I say as much as the case will per­mit, that is, with respect to the Woman un­der his hands; for to save her he had better sometimes to bring forth the Child with In­struments, then to kill her, by tormenting her with excessive violence to bring it forth whole: for in a word, he must and ought to do, in his conscience, what his Art commands, with­out taking heed to what may be spoken after­wards: and every Physitian or Chirurgion that hath a well regulated conscience, will always have a greater regard to his duty, then his reputation, in such a case; in per­forming of which let him expect his reward from God.

SECT. XXXII. Of the extracting of a mola and false conception.

DR. We have hitherto Mrs. Eutrapelia discoursed of births natural and un­natural; there is somewhat more, not like these, but often with them, and without them, which Physitians call a Mola, but you call it a false Conception: I pray, Mrs. therefore, what is that Mola, or false Con­ception?

Mid. A Mola, Sir is a hard, inform tumor­full of pores, (like so many ugly eyes) scarce to be cut by a knife, of a stony substance to touch, and round, appearing sometimes at the entrance of the Womb, sometimes over the whole Womb, and is thought (by very Learned Doctors) to be begotten by the wo­man her self without the help of a man, (though some affirm it cannot be with­out the seed of the man.) and there­fore inanimate, because not generated by [Page 137] two; without the help of a man (I say) by the force of her own seed, mixing it self with much menstruous blood, reteined in the Womb, which by immoderate heat is chang­eth into the shape of flesh, and that altoge­ther unnatural, as is the stone in the bladder, and in the fingers of gouty persons, &c.

Dr. Well, Mrs, since 'tis so (tell me, I pray, wherein it differs from a true Conception?

Mid. It may, Sir, be like a true Concepti­on in three respects, yet differ in six. As first, 'Tis true that a false conception stop­peth the monthly terms as doth the true.

Secondly, The belly also doth swell, and the breasts grow big.

Thirdly, There is an alteration both in the color and appetite; but yet they differ in these six following ways; as,

First, A false conception hath no ordinary nor periodical motion, neither doth it stir from side to side, except it be pressed.

Secondly, In a false conception the belly is harder, and the feet are much more swelled.

Thirdly, The woman is more heavy and unweeldy, and not so nimble as with a true conception.

Fourthly, The breasts swell not so much as in a true conception.

Fifthly, The whole body grows soft, and consumes away in a false conception.

Sixthly, a false conception may be moved in three months, but the Child stirreth not till after three months, or usually in the fourth month: And again, the birth of an Infant never exceeds the eleventh month, whereas a false conception may continue for fourteen years, or as long as they live.

Moreover, there may be a Tympany caused by air included in the Womb. Or else there may be a Dropsie, by reason of the many hu­mors contained in the Womb, both which may give a false supposition of being with Child; but these also are easily distinguish'd from a false conception. A Tympany may be moved from place to place, but not the other: A Tympany will sound, if lightly strucken, but not the other: and a Dropsie, caused by those many humors as aforesaid, will shew some marks, being depressed with the fingers, whereas a Mola is hard, and yield­eth not to the pulsation or depression of the fingers. And lastly, in both these most com­monly the Thighs swell, but in a false con­ception or Mola the Thighs wither, and are lesser.

Dr. Thus far have you extreamly inge­niously, Mrs. Eutrapelia exprest your self con­cerning a Mola; and now you have done, I pray you give me leave to lay you down my sentiments concerning both a Mola, and a [Page 139] false conception and the safest and best way to draw them forth of the Womb with safe­ty.

First of all then Mrs. you must know that there are several sorts of great bellies be­longing to Women, as hath been said before; there are your natural big bellies which con­tain a living Child, and those may be called true ones, and others unnatural, or against nature, in which, in lieu of a Child, is engen­dred nothing but strange matters, as wind mixed with waters, which may be called drop­sies of the Womb, and false conceptions, and Moles or Membranes full of blood and cor­rupted seed; for which reason they are called false great bellies.

Now you must know that among the signs of a true great belly, one is the stirring of the Child in the Womb; but here you are to observe that it is very fit we should be al­ways careful not to be deceived, by what we feel to stir in the Womb; inasmuch as the Infant of it self, is endued with 2 sorts of motions in its Mothers Womb, that is to say, a total motion, and a partial motion; the total motion is when it removes the whole body, and that is when it moves only but one part at a time, as the Head, Arms, or Legs, all the rest of its body lying unmoved; now the Womb blown up in fits of the Mo­ther, [Page 140] yea and some moles have, by accident, a kind of total motion, but never a partial one; for that motion of a mole is rather a falling down then otherwise, to wit, a motion by which heavy things do use to fall downwards: for a Woman who hath a mole of any consi­derable bigness, whatsoever side she turns her self to, her belly will fall the very self same way immediately, even like unto an heavy bowl.

Then again you may remember that ano­ther sign of a great belly, was the stopping of the courses, and withal a little qualmishness, which is not always true, and women who daily use copulation are very often subject to be deceived hereby thinking that then they are with child, whenas indeed false concepti­on shall cause you almost the same accidents as true ones, the which cannot easily be distin­guished but by its consequences.

For this false great belly is often caused by wind, which blows up and stretcheth out the womb, like a bladder, the which women often discharge with as much noise as if it came from the fundament; and sometimes tis no­thing but water which is gath'red there in such abundance, as some women have been known to void a pail-ful without any child, though they veryly believed they had been with child; Now your moles always proceed [Page 141] from some false conceptions which continu­ing in the womb grow there by the blood that flows to them and by the accumulation of which they are by little and little encreas­ed: and if the womb chance to expell it be­fore 2 months, it may be called a false con­ception; and some of them are only but as it were the seed involv'd in a membrane, the others are alittle more solid and fleshy; resem­bling, in some sort, the Gizard of a foul, and are greater or less according to the time they remain in the womb, and also according to the quantity of blood with which they are always soaked: and women expell these false conceptions sooner or later according as they cleave to the womb, the which makes them almost always to flood in great quantity at those times, but for your moles they often continue in the womb after the ordinary time of labor; some women having had them a whole year, yea many years, as happened to a certain Peuterors wife, of whom the great Chirurgion Ambrose Parry makes makes men­tion in his book of generation, who had a mole 17 years, and at last dyed of it; for if they keep it so long they go in danger of their lives; for their long or short continu­ance is according as they are more or less ad­hering to the inward parts of the womb, and are there entertained and nourished by the blood that flows thither.

And here I pray you note that it is of great importance to distinquish well betwixt a true and a false great belly; for the faults com­mitted by a mistake are always very conside­rable: forasmuch as in a true great belly the child ought to continue in the womb till na­ture endeavors to expell it by a natural la­bor, but contrarily the false great belly dict­ates to us to procure the expulsion of what it conteins as soon as may be, wherefore we ought to be very careful. And if there be a­ny occasions wherein the Physitians and Chi­rurgions and Midwives ought to be more pru­dent and to make more reflections upon their prognostics for an affair of so great an impor­tance as this is, it is in this which concerns their judgments as to conceptions and wo­mens being with child; to the intent that they may avoid the great accidents and mis­fortunes, which they may cause which are too precipitate in it without a certain knowledge. Now the faults which are and may be com­mitted at such a time through too much fear, are in some sort excusable and to be pardo­ned, but not those caused by rashness which are incomparably greater.

And now to return to my discourse of moles, I take a mole to be nothing elce but a fleshy substance, without bones, or joynts, or distinction of members; without form or [Page 143] figure, regulated and determined; engen­dred against nature in the womb, after copu­lation, out of the corrupted seed both of the man and the woman; notwithstanding there are some sometimes which have some linea­mens of a rought form.

And here I take it to be very certain that a woman never engenders a mole with­out the use of copulation, both seeds being required to it, as well as for a true generati­on, though it may be otherways imagined, as you said, by very learned Drs. for truely though there may be some women, who though never having carnally had to do with any man, yet do naturally cast forth some strange bodies, after a flooding, which in a appearance seems to be flesh; yet notwith­standing if you shall take more diligent and special notice thereof, you will find it to prove to be but some clods of blood coagulated, either without consistance or fleshy texture, or any ways membranous, as are your moles and false conceptions; and that stony hard­ness was caused through its long stay in the womb being there baked as in an hot oven.

Now as to the manner of the engendring of moles I take it to be ordinarily this, that it is when either the mans or the womans seed or both together are weak or corrupted, the womb not laboring for a true conception, but [Page 144] by the help of the spirits with which the seed ought to be replenished; but so much the easier as that small quantity found in it is ex­tinguished, and as it were choaked, and drown­ed by an abundance of the gross and corrupt­ed menstruous blood, which sometimes flows thither, soon after conception, and gives not leisure to nature to perfect, what she hath, with great pains, begun; and so troubling its work, bringing thither confusion and dis­order, there is made of the seeds and blood; a mere Chaos, called a Mole, not usually engen­dred but in the Womb of a Woman, and ne­ver or very rarely found in that of other ani­mals, by reason that they have no menstruous blood as a woman that divine creature hath.

A mole, moreover you are to note, hath no burthen, nor navil-string fastned to it, as a childs always hath, for as much as the mole it self sticks close to the womb, by which means it receives nourishment from its vessels, it is also likewise usually clothed with a kind of skin, in which is formed a piece of flesh con­fusedly interlaced with many Vessels; it is of a bigness and consistence more or less accord­ing to the abundance of blood it receives, and according to its disposition, and also accord­ing to the temperature of the Womb, and the time it remains there. For the most part there is but one, yet sometimes there are more, [Page 145] whereof some cleave very strongly to the Womb, others very slightly: if women mis­carry of them before the 2d Month, as I said before, they are call'd false Conceptions; and when they keep them longer, and that this strange body begins to grow bigger, then they are called Moles: and here you must know that your false Conceptions are more Membranous, and sometimes full of corrupt­ed Seed, but your Moles are altogether fleshy; they cleave to the Womb almost always, and are sustained by the blood, with which it is always furnished, just as plants are by the moisture of the Earth. Sometimes there is a Child together with a Mole, from which it is sometimes divided and sometimes cleaving to its body, which puts it in great danger of being Monstrous or mishaken, because of the Compression which this strange body causeth to the little Infant, as yet being but very tender.

Thus having at large given you my Opi­nion concerning Moles and false Concepti­ons, their causes signs and differences; there remains now nothing more concerning this matter, to be demonstrated, but the manner how they ought to be drawn forth of the Womb.

And now seeing that these things contain­ed in the Womb, are wholly unnatural, their expulsion must be procured as soon as possi­ble may be, the which is very difficult to be performed, when these strange Bodies cleave so fast to the Womb, and especially the Mole; therefore to avoid the abundance of acci­dents and inconveniences, as near as may be, that these unnatural things will produce, they must be endeavoured to be expell'd as soon as may be; and for the Mola you must, before you come to the Manual Operation, try if by any means you can to cause the Woman to expel it of her self; to the which purpose you are to administer to her strong and sharp cly­sters, to stir up throws, for to open the Womb to give way to it; moistning also and loosening the Womb, with softening Oyntments, Oyls and Grease, not omitting bleeding in the foot, if there be occasion: Now the Mole will certainly be excluded by these means, provided it be but of an indif­ferent bigness, or that it cleave but very lit­tle or not at all to the Womb; but if it shal [...] stick strongly to the bottom of the Womb▪ or that it be very big, the Womam wil [...] hardly be rid of it without the help of a Physitian, Chyrurgions or Midwifes hand; i [...] which case after that you have placed th [...] Woman conveniently, as if you were to fetc [...] [Page 147] a dead Child, then slide up your hand into the Womb, and therewith draw forth the Mole; but if it be so big that it cannot be brought forth whole, then 'tis wholly the man's work; who for this purpose use your crotchet or knife, but this is very rare, be­cause it is of a tender soft substance, much more plyable then a Child's; but if you find it be only joyned to the Womb, and close fasten'd, you must separate it gently with your fingers ends, your Nails being paired, by putting them by little and little, between the Mole and the Womb, beginning on that side where it doth not stick so fast to the Womb, and so pursuing it until it be quite loosened; being mighty careful, if you find it grow to too fast, of rending or bursting the proper substance of the Womb, and pro­ceeding as hereafter I shall speak of for the extraction of a Burthen staying behind in the Womb when the string is broken off.

For these same Moles never have any string fastened to them, nor any burthen from whence they should receive their nourish­ment, but they do of themselves immediate­ly draw their nourishment from the Vessels of the Womb, to which they are almost all­ways joined and sticking in some place: and as for the substance of their flesh, 'tis also [Page 148] much more hard then that of the burthen; and sometimes Schyrrhous, which is the cause why it is difficult to be separated from the Womb.

As to a false Conception, although it be much less then a Mole yet it often puts a wo­man in hazard of her Life, by reason of great fluddings, which very often happens, when the Womb would discharge it self of it, and endeavours to expel it, the which seldom cease till it be come away, because it doth con­tinually endeavour to exclude it, whereby the blood is excited to flow away, and in a man­ner squeesed out of the open Vessels.

Now the safest and best way and remedy for a Woman in this case is to fetch away the false Conception, as soon as may be, because the Womb can very hardly avoid it of its own nature without artificial help; for it being very small, the Womans impulse in bearing downwards cannot be so effectual when the Womb is but little distended by so small a body, as when it contains a consi­derable bulk in it, for then it is the more strongly compressed with the throws. Many times 'tis very difficult to fetch away these false Conceptions because the Womb doth not open and dilate it self, ordinarily, be­yond [Page 149] the proportion of what it contains, and that being but very little so is its opening; which is the reason why the Midwife is some­times so far from introducing her whole hand, that she can scarce get in a few Fin­gers, with which she will be obliged to finish the Operation, as well as she may or can, by proceeding in the following manner, when she hath introduced them.

Having then very well anointed her hand, she must slide up the neck of the Womb into the inward Orifice, the which she will find sometimes to be but very little dilated, and then very gently put in one of her Fingers, the which she must presently turn and bend on every side, until that she hath made way for a second, and afterwards for a 3d or more if it may be done without violence; but many times she hath enough to get in but 2, be­tween which she must take hold of the false Conception (as Crabs do with their claws, when they fasten upon any thing) and then she must gently draw it forth, as also the clodded blood which she there shall find; and then afterwards undoubtledly the fludding will cease, if no part of the Conception be left behind: but if the inward Orifice cannot be more dilated then to admit of one Fin­ger, and that the fludding is so violent as to [Page 150] endanger the Womans life; then is matter and manner to be wholly committed to care and artful industry of the skilful Physitian or Chirurgeon.

Mid. Now Sir, having discoursed so learnedly of these things, let us in the next place if you please, discourse of the After­bith.

SECT. XXXIV. Of the Secundine, or Afterburden, and the best and safest way to draw it forth.

DR. Come then, Mrs. if you please, tell me what the Secundine is.

Mid. The Secundine is that in which the Infant lyeth in the Womb, and may be call­ed a second house, or covering, made by the Womb for a receptacle of the Infant; and it hath with it three membranes; but how Phy­sitians name them, I know not.

Dr. I will inform you then, if you please, with their names and uses; and describe them to you in these two figures following, which are explained by letters also, as may appear.

The Explanation of the first Figures
  • BBB Signifies that part of the Secundine called the Chorion, which is the prop of all the Vessels of the young one.
  • CCC Denotes the branches of the Umbi­lical Veins and Arteries dispersed through the Chorion.
  • EEE The Membrane called Amnios, and is the thinnest of all the Membranes, and is white, soft, and shining, with few (and those very small) Veins and Arteries dispersed a­mong the folds; and this is the very next coat to the Infant, and is the receptacle for sweat and Urine; that Membrane called Al­lantois not to be found in men, though an Ʋrachus may be found.
  • DD Denotes all the Vessels meeting about the Navil, by which the Infant is nourished.



  • P. Q Denotes the Membrane called Am­nios, and is the first that involveth the In­fant.
  • RRRR The Liver, or cake of the womb, or after-burden, by which the Infant receives nourishment, and this is fastned to the Womb.
  • SS The inward and outward Veins.
  • m. m. m. The Umbilical vein, with its branches dispersed into the after-burden, by which the Child is nourished, and upon which it lyeth, as upon a pillow, though in the Am­nios it swimeth as in a bath.
  • VV How all the Vessels meet about the Navil.
  • b.b.b Denotes the Infant newly born, an­nexed to the secundine, the Navil-string not cut.

Dr. You see, Mrs. these Figures, with their uses and explanation; I shall now dis­course more particularly of the membranes themselves. The after-burden, commonly called the secundine, is so named, either be­cause it is as it were a second place, mansion, [Page 154] and receptacle of the Infant from the Womb; or else, because this Membrane is called the after-birth, or second birth, as coming forth after the Infant, which, if it stay behind, brings great mischief, as shall be spoken to at the latter end of this Treatise and Secti­on.

The first membrane is called Amnios, and this membrane covers the Infant from the head to foot; insomuch, that part of it sticks to the head of the Infant when it is born, which they call a helmet, though not always, being left behind with the secundine in diffi­cult labours: this is so called from its soft­ness and thinness; others resemble it to white Paper, or a shirt, and is the thinnest of all, in which is found great plenty of hu­mors, caused of urine and sweat, in which the Infant swimeth as in a bath, and lyeth so easie and secure, lest it should fall foul against those neighbouring parts that are harder; and besides that, when the membrane is bro­ken in the birth, this water breaking out, may make the passages by the neck of the Womb more plain and slippery for the In­fant; and this membrane also is every where included within the second, which is called Chorion, because it wraps the Infant like a ring; and this immediately compasseth the former, to which it is joyned as it were in a [Page 155] round figure, like to a cake, whose inward and hollow part it covers and involves, and doth extend it self to its dimensions, and can scarce be separated from it, but doth firmly knit and bear up the vessels of the afterbur­den, which immediately sticks to the womb by a certain fleshy mass that is formed, being round, and of somewhat a ruddy colour, not compassing the whole infant, by reason of in­numerous springs of veins and atteries by which the blood is interwoven, as if it were poured in, and by which the infant is nou­rished. This towards the infant is smooth, but that part which is towards that fleshy round mass, is rougher.

This round fleshy substance is called the liver of the womb, or the cake of the womb; which, having such a substance as the liver hath, no wonder if it should make and pre­pare blood for the nourishment of the infant. On that side towards the womb it is rough, and unequal, like clefts in a bak'd cake; and being cut in this part, it sheweth an infinite company of hairs, which, if you trace, they will bring you to the orifice of the veins themselves. And, although there be twins, or more, yet there is but one cake; for into one cake so many navil strings are inserted (in divers places) as there are young ones; though it may differ as to the bigness, accord­ing [Page 156] to the body and condition of the infant, yet the ground is still the same in the diame­ter. This serves as a support of the umbili­cal vessels, like a pillar; it is also called the secundine. The third is called Allantoides; 'tis a coat betwixt the Chorion and Amnios; 'tis very thin, weak, and narrow; it covers but half the young one: this is properly like a swathe or girdle; and some say it is the recep­tacle of urine; but it being not to be found in mankind (there may be an Ʋrachus found instead of it) I say no more of it.

Dr. These are the opinions of Physitians, good Mrs. Eutrapelia that have written of these things; now if you please I will tell you candidly and freely what my opinion is con­cerning these things.

As soon as the 2 seeds have been confused­ly mixt and retained by conception, the Womb immediately after, by means of its heat, separates this Chaos, to make out there­of the delineation and formation of all the parts, and begins to work upon these Seeds, which though to the sight they may appear of a like nature and uniforme, notwith­standing in effect they contain many dissimi­lar parts in them, which it separates and di­stinguisheth one from another, inclosing the noblest, and on the outside the most glutinous, of which first are formed the Membranes, to [Page 157] hinder the Spirits, wherewith the frothy Seeds abound, from being at that time dissipated, and afterwards to serve to contain the Infant and the waters therein, in the midst whereof it swims that they may not stream away.

Now as the Membranes of the Infant are the first part formed, so are they with the waters, the first that present themselves to the passage in time of labour, before the In­fants head.

Concerning these Membranes and the de­scriptions most Authors have made of them, I find them to be so dark therein that me­thinks 'tis an hard matter to conceive them, as they are, by the explication they make of them: for in the first place they do not agree in the number of them, some accounting 3, as well for a Child as a Beast, to wit the Cho­rion the Amnios and the Alantoides; Others accounting but 2, because there is no Alan­toides in an humane fetus.

But if this matter shall be strictly examin­ed, as hath been often done, there will never be found any more then 2, the which being so closely joyned the one to the other, they may be said to be but a double one, the which in­deed may be divided and separated into 2, and this I will explain, to you and others, on such a manner, as may be best understood by such as are ignorant of this matter; For [Page 158] there are many who think with Galen that these Membranes are separate and distant, the one from the other, and that the one sur­rounds only the Infant, and the other receives the waters, the which are partly engendred from sweat, and partly from the Urine, as they imagine; and believe farther that these waters themselves are separated the one from the other, by these Membranes: the which is quite contrary, for they are joyned so close the one to the other, that they compose as it were but the same body and invelloper, the which serves as we have said, to contain the Infant with the waters, which are all of a na­ture, and shut up in the Membranes, as I shall make appear in speaking of their original; but it matters not as to the truth after what manner this be explained, provided it may be understood as it is.

The outward part then of this Membrane or double covering, or involver, call it what you please, or if it be esteemed 2, the first Membrane presented without, is called Cho­rion from the Greek word Chorein, which sig­nifies to contain, because it immediately en­virons the other, which is called Amnios, that is a little lamb, because 'tis to small and thin. Galen, in his 11th book of the use of the parts, calls the Burthen Chorion. But to ren­der this more intelligible we shall take this [Page 159] first Membrane for the Chorion, the which may again be separated into 2; though ef­fectively it be but one. This Chorion is a little rough and unequal throughout the whole outside of it, in which many small captillary Vessels may be observed running quite round, as also many little strings by which it cleaves to every side of the Womb: but it is a little more smooth within, where it joyns every where, and unites with the Amnios, in such a manner, as it appears, as we said, but as one and the same Membrane. This Chorion covers the placenta and cleaves close to the fore part of it, which respects the Infant, by means of the interlacing of an in­finity of Vessels, and 'tis also principally fast­ned to the Womb by the whole circumfe­rence of the placenta, in which part this Mem­brane is a little thicker.

Then the Amnios, which is the 2d Mem­brane is 3 times thinner then the Chorion, and is within very smooth, but not just so much where 'tis joyned to the Chorion, This Mem­brane is so thin that 'tis quite transparent, and hath no Vessels in it, the which makes it so thin, as cannot be imagined without seing. This Amnios doth no ways touch the placenta, though it covers it, but it only lines all the inner part of the Chorion, which is between, and from which it may be wholly separated if it be done with care.

The better to conceive this as it is, and af­ter what manner these Membranes are in the Womb, consider the composition of a foot-ball; imagining the leather which covers it to be the Womb of a pregnant Woman, and the bladder blown up with wind, within the foot-ball, to be this double Membrane of the Chorion and Amnois, in which are contained together the Child and the waters; and even as the outside of this bladder toucheth every where, because 'tis blown up, the leather of the foot-ball; so in like manner the Mem­branes of the fetus are joyned on all sides to the Womb; except where the burthen cleaves to it, in which place it passeth above it.

As to the 3d or rather pretended Mem­brane which Authors call Alantoides, and say 'tis like, a sausage or girdle which surrounds and clothes the Infant from the sword-like gristle to just below the flanks only; 'tis very certain there never was any such thing in any of those Animals whose dams have but one young at a time, no more then Women, as Sheep, Cows, Mares, Asses, nor any other for ought could ever be learned from many curious enquiries.

Sometimes Infants, at their birth, bring forth these Membranes upon their head, and then 'tis said they will be fortunate: which [Page 161] is a mere kind of superstition, because it hap­pens from the strength of their substance, so that they cannot break by the impulse of the waters, or the Womens throws in Labor, or because the passages being very large, and the Infant very little, it passeth easily without any violence: and in this respect they may be said to be fortunate, in being born so easi­ly, and the mother also for being so speedily delivered: For in difficult Labors Children are never born with such caps, because be­ing tormented and pressed in the passage, these Membranes are broken and remain still there.

Within the Infants Membranes, thus dis­posed as I have said, are the Waters con­tained, in the midst whereof it swims, and is seated; the original of which seems very incertain, if we regard the different opinions of Authors upon this subject, some will have them to be the Urine emptied out of the Bladder by the Ʋrachus, because they cannot find the true and easie way for it, and be­cause their color and savor much resembles the Urine contained in the Bladder. But 'tis very certain that it cannot be so as they aver; because the Ʋrachus is not perforated in the fetus, and it comes not forth of the Navil; for the place where 'tis fastened, is always very like a small Lute-string, through [Page 162] which it is most certain nothing can pass though never so subtile.

There are others also that will have these waters to be the Urine; but they are of an opinion that it passeth through the Yard whose passage is always open, and not by the Ʋrachus which is never hollow.

Now for my part as it appears to me, with more reason, and as indeed it is, these waters are only generated out of vaporous humidi­ties, which sweat out and exhale continually out of the Infants body, and meeting these Membranes through which they cannot pass, because they are too thick and close, are turn­ed into water, which is thus by little and lit­tle collected, as well during the first months of Conception, the Child not yet quick, as all the remaining part of the time, after it is quick; for vapors pass forth and exhale out of all porous bodies that are hot and moist, as is that of an Embrio; and the reason is ve­ry weak by which they maintain these wa­ters to proceed from the Urine, because they are salt as the urine is; For sweat, tears, and other humors which distill and sweat out of the body are as well salt as the Urine; of which the Infant whilst it is in the Womb, cannot have much, no more then dung in the Guts; because it receives no nourishment at the mouth at that time, & that all its superflu­ous [Page 163] humors may easily pass away by transpi­ration, through the substance of all the parts of its body, which is very tender; wherefore I cannot conceive any necessity to oblige them more to empty the Urine, which is in a small quantity in the Bladder, then the excrements which are in the Guts, which is not then done in any manner, but only after the Child is born. Bartholinus and others would have the Infant however to empty its Urine through its Yard, and that these waters pro­ceed from thence; but there is a greater probability it should be vented by transpira­tion; for before it is yet fully shaped and quick, there is notwithstanding found a pro­portionable quantity of these waters to the bigness of its body: which makes it appear that it is then neither the Urine rendred by the Ʋrachus nor Yard, as all the World ima­gine; and that which proves it more plainly is the example of some Children born with their Yards imperforated, who notwith­standing have these waters, whilst in the Womb,

And here it must be observed that when there is more then one Child, they are never in the same Membrane, unless their bodies are joined together, which is rare and mon­strous, but each have their Membranes and waters, apart.

Now these waters thus collected within these Membranes have divers very considera­ble uses; First, They serve the Infant to move more easily, as it were by swiming from one side to the other, and that it may not hurt the Womb by its frequent motions in striking dry against it, which would cause great pain, and often excite to Abortion; and they serve also very much to facilitate its passage in the birth making the way very slippery, and by that means the orifice of the Womb being moistened is better widened and yielding when they break, just when the Child is ready to follow, or a little before: for else remaining dry it is born with greater difficulty and the Mother also more torment­ed by it.

And now Mrs. Eutrap. having thus suffici­ently as I hope, explained the Membranes of the fetus, and the waters contained in them. I think it may not be amiss to say something, in order of inquiring after the parts by which it is nourished whilst in the Womb: and and here Mrs. Eutrap. since, as was said in the beginning that it is only nourished by its Mothers blood; and that I am of opinion that big-bellied Women have none that is fair or good; provident nature hath formed the placenta to serve it for a Magazine, that it may always have sufficient, and be there [Page 165] again elaborated and perfected, to render it more convenient for its nourishment; for without doubt so gross a blood as the Mo­thers cannot possibly be converted into its substance, if it were not first purified in the placenta, which is afterwards sent to it by means of the umbelical veins and brought back, as we shall shew hereafter, by the Arte­ries, which are the conduits of which the Navil-string is composed. We say then that the placenta is nothing but a spungy and fleshy mass somewhat like the substance of the spleen, woven and interlaced with an infi­nite number of Veins and Arteries, which compose the greatest part of the body, made to receive the Mothers blood appointed for the Infants nourishment.

This mass is so called, because it resembles a cake, also it may be call'd the delivery, be­cause being come forth after the Child is born the Woman is quite delivered of her burthen, it is also call'd the after-burthen, because it is as a 2d Labor, of which the Woman is not discharged till after the Child be born: some give it the name of liver of the Womb, be­cause they say it serves as a liver, to prepare the blood appointed for the Infants nourish­ment, and Laurentius calls it the sweet bread of the Womb, and appoints it the same use, as that of the lower belly, to wit for a rest [Page 166] and support to the Vessels of the Navil which disperseth an infinite number of branches throughout all its substance.

Now this placenta is made of the menstru­ous blood of the Mother, which flows into the Womb, by the accumulation of which it is formed; its shape is flat and round, about the bigness of a Trencher, and 2 fingers breadth thick about the middle, where the umbilical Vessels are fastened, but is thinner towards the edges. It is covered with the Chorion and Amnios on the side next the Infant, and on the other side 'tis joined and fastned to the bottom on the inside of the Womb; It is strongest fastned to the Womb (with its cir­cumference) by the Chorion, which cleaves so close to it by the interlacings of an infinity of Vessels, which appear very large in its sur­face, that it cannot be separated from it with­out tearing its substance.

Though there be 2 or 3 Children in the Womb begot in the same act, they have usu­ally but one common after-burthen, which hath as many Navil-strings as Children, which are notwithstanding separated from one another by their several Membranes, in each being the Children and waters: but if they be superfetations there will be as many burthens as Children; and as superfetations happen but rarely, so there are few Women [Page 167] that have their burthens separated when they are delivered of several Children.

We scarce find any Creature but a Wo­man that hath an Afterburthen, like this de­scribed, and dischargeth it as useless as soon as the Child is born; for most other Animals cast forth nothing after their young, except the waters only and some slimes with the skins which surround them, and in lieu of this fleshy mass, those which, as a Woman, have but one at a time, have only some cotyle­dones, or many spungy kernels joyn'd inward­ly to the proper substance of their Womb, which terminates all the branches of the um­belical Vessels of their Young; which Ker­nels as I have often observed in cutting up Sheep, when they were not with young, are not bigger then hemp-seed; but when they were with young, they swell'd as big as one thumb, one bigger, and one lesser; and then they resembled the Figure of a round mush­rome, on the outside, not yet spread after it's cut from its stalk; and to each of these ker­nels, are fastned the branches of the umbili­cal Vessels: however those that have more then one at a time, as Bitches, Rabbits, &c. have no kernels; instead of which each young hath in its celule a kind of particular placenta, which the dam eats as soon as she voids it, after she hath knawn off the umbili­cal [Page 168] Vessels that hold it. But these thing be­ing fitter for Physitians and Chyrurgions to be contemplated on, I shall proceed no farther to discourse thereon; and shall only desire you to note, that those Vessels appointed for the nouriture of the fetus are bigger then they are in Men, because of their hollowness, and as soon as the Child is born, dry up, and that part of them which is without the belly falls off, and is separated close to the Navil 5 or 6 days after; for which reason they lose their first use, and begin after to degenerate into suspending ligaments, to wit, the vein into that of the liver, and the 2 Arteries serve to extend and sustain the bladder, by the side, where they are joined to it; the bot­tom of which is yet suspended by the Ʋrachus, which comes not through the Navil, as hath been said, but remains so pendent all the rest of its life: and now Mrs. I come to know how you use to fetch away the after-burthen, with the string and when 'tis broken.

Mid. That I shall freely do Sir, withal my heart; and therefore Sir you must note that the afterbirth being a useless thing to the Woman when the Child is born, she must im­mediately after be freed of that also; where­fore as soon as the Child is born, before I do so much as tye or cut the Navil-string, lest the Womb close, I must without time loose­ing [Page 169] ease the Woman of this fleshy mass; To perform which having taken the string, I must wind it once or twice about one or 2 of her fingers of her left hand joyn'd together, the better to hold it, with which she may then draw it moderately, and with her right hand she may only take a single hold of it a­bout the left, near the Privities, drawing like­wise with that very gently, resting the while the fore finger of the same hand stretched forth along the string towards the entry of the sheath of the Womb, as may be seen in the annexed Figure, always observing, for the more facility, to draw it from the side where the burthen cleaves least, for in so do­ing the rest will separate the better; as we see a card which is glewed to any thing is bet­ter separated from the place where it begins to part then where it is close joyned. But above all things care must be had that it be not drawn forth with two much violence, lest breaking the string near the burthen, I be oblig'd to put up my whole hand into the Womb, to deliver the Woman; or that the Womb, to which it is very strongly fastned sometimes be not drawn forth with it; or a very great flooding be caus'd: wherefore for these reasons it shall be gently shaken and drawn forth by little and little, and to faci­litate the better its expulsion, the Woman [Page 170] may the whilst blow strongly into her hands shut, as one does into the mouth of a bottle, to know if it be broke; or put her finger into her Throat, as if she would cause vomiting, or strive as if she were going to stool; bear­ing always down and holding her breath as she did to bring forth her Child; and if after all this I meet with difficulty, you may, if need be, after you know on which side it is seated, desire an experienced Nurse keeper to press the belly lightly with her flat hand, directing it gently downwards by way of chaffing, not too boistrously.

But if all this be in vain then I must direct my hand into the Womb; to separate it, as you shall hear anon.

Then I must consider if there be all, and take care that the least part remain not, not so much as the skirts, or any clods of blood; and this is the way to deliver a woman of her after-birth; but sometimes the Midwife by endeavouring it breaks the string by pulling too strongly, or because 'tis very weak; or else so putrified when the Child is dead that the least pull breaks it off close to the bur­then, the which by that means is left behind in the Womb, or because it cleaves to strong­ly, or the Woman is weak, and cannot ex­pell it, being much tired by a long Labor, or because it was speedily drawn forth after La­bor, [Page 171] the Womb closeth so as it leaves it no passage, and cannot without much difficulty be dilated to fetch it away, because it remains dry after the natural slime and humidities are past: and seeing that if it remain behind 'tis capable of destroying the Woman, we must see to get it away as before, and if the Navil-string happen to break near the burthen, I must immediately introduce my hand into the Womb before it close, being anointed with oyl or fresh butter, to separate it from the Womb gently and draw it forth with the clods of blood that remain. When the Na­vil string is not broken, it will easily conduct the hand, but when 'tis we have no longer this guide; wherefore I must be then very careful that I be not deceived in taking one part for another; as I once saw a Midwife pull the Womb near the inward orifice in lieu of the burthen.

Assoon then as I have introduced my hand into the Womb towards its bottom, I shall find the burthen which I shall know by a great number of little inequalities, which are al­ways made there, by the roots of the umbili­cal Vessels, on the side where they terminate, which makes it to be easily distinguished from the Womb; if it yet cleave to it, notwith­standing 'tis then a little wrinkled and une­ven; because its Membranes which were ve­ry [Page 172] much inlarged contract themselves imme­diately after the Child and its waters which kept them extended are excluded, and they that are expert can easily judge of it.

Now if I find the burthen wholly loosen'd from the Womb, it will be easy to draw it forth, when I have got it into my hands, but if it cleaves, finding the side to which it sticks least, I must begin there to separate it gently, by putting some of my Fingers be­twixt it and the Womb; continuing by lit­tle and little to do so, till it be quite loose, and then draw it forth very carefully; ob­serving the whilst, if it cannot be otherwise, rather to leave some part thereof behind, than to scrape or scratch the least part of the Womb, for fear of a flooding, inflammation, or Gangrene, which cause death; being also careful not to draw it forth, till it be wholly or the most part of it separated, for fear of drawing forth the Womb with it, and to pre­serve it as whole as these cautions will per­mit, because of shewing it to the company, that they may know I have performed my of­fice well.

But if the Midwife shall not find the Womb open enough to direct her hand im­mediately into it, let her presently anoint the Womans Privities with hogs grease then by little and little put up her hand, and let [Page 173] the Woman contribute as before; but if for all this she cannot void the After-birth, to a­void a greater mischief I must leave it to na­ture, assisting her with remedies which sup­purate: wherefore injections into the womb are proper, made of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Pellitory of the Wall, and Linseed, in which is to be mixed a good quantity of Oil of Lil­lies or fresh butter; and to hasten the work give her a strong Clyster, that so by the Mo­tions to go to stool, it may cause it to be voided, as it hath arrived to many that have rendred it in the Bed-pan; and sometimes when they have least expected it.

At the same time, to prevent a Feaver or many other accidents which usually happen, she may be let blood in the Arm or Foot, ac­cording as it shall be convenient; and strengthen'd, that the cadaverous vapors coming from the putrifaction of the burthen ascend not to the heart and noble parts, which must be done by good cordials often used, not such as are made of Treacle and Methri­date, &c. for which no reason can be given, but their specific, or rather imaginary Facul­ties, and are fitter to cause vomiting, then comfort the heart: But with true Cordials which are such as yield good nourishment, and at the same time comfort the stomach, without offending it, as those drugs do [Page 174] which are only good for those that sell them.

Wherefore I must order her good broths and gellies; and to drink Orengade or Li­monade, or to put some Syrup of Lemons in her refreshing Liquors; or if she be free from a Feaver a little wine and water mixed; which is the best and most natural of all Cor­dials. Besides other remedies must be pro­vided, according to the accidents that hap­pen by reason of the staying behind of the burthen; always remembring to bring it a­way as soon as possible, for as long as it stays in the Womb the woman feels great pains continually, almost like them before her Child was born; and until the whole be void­ed, the pains will still be repeated although in vain, unless the matter be well disposed before; but the lesser the piece is of the re­tained burthen, the more difficult 'tis many times to be expelled; because the impulse, the woman can make by helping her throws, are not so great, when the matter contained in the Womb is small, as when 'tis of a con­siderable bigness; for then 'tis more strong­ly thrust and compress'd; which is the rea­son why a woman miscarries with greater difficulty then when brought to bed at her full time.

And here you must know there are divers Midwifes, who having broken the Navil-string as before said, leave their work im­perfect; and commit the rest to nature's work; but very often the poor woman dyes, because of the great mischiefs which usually happen before the suppuration of the burthen so retained: The which to avoid when they meet with the like case, I would advise them to fetch it away, as I have directed: or if they find themselves uncapable to do it, be­cause the hand must be put up into the Womb, which is more properly the work of a Physitian or Chyrurgion, expert in those cases; then let them immediately send for one, that so he may be able, before the Womb closeth to introduce his hand, for the longer 'tis deferr'd the more difficult will the work be.

Dr. Hitherto very well Mrs. Eutrap. have you exprest your knowledge and experience in your Art even from the first generation and formation of the Child in the Womb to the bringing of it safely forth into the world; But yet good Mrs. Eutrapelia, there are di­vers Women that will many times be asking you your advice concerning other distempers that usually attend them, both before Child­birth, as Barreness &c. and also after they are delivered of their Child, both inward and [Page 176] outward, because their modesty prompts them, rather to come to you than to the Physitian or Chyrurgion; therefore I would have you to let me know how far your skill and knowledge extends as to these matters; because that if you should at any time be mistaken in your measures in the cure of any of those diseases, I shall freely and candidly assist you with the best of my directions to set all right and streight, as they say, and in good order.

Mid. Honoured Sir, I am so extreamly oblig'd to you, for this kind offer that I know not which way to express my acknowledg­ment, and I shall most readily answer your request, and therefore shall first begin with a discourse of Barrenness.


SECT. I. Of Barrenness and the several kinds thereof.

MId. BArrenness is, 1. Natural, 2. Ʋnna­tural, 3. Accidental.

Natural is when the instrument of Gene­ration being perfect in both Sexes, no un­lawful or unskilful means used to cause it, yet the Woman remains naturally Barren, nei­ther Age or Diseases, or natural defect hin­dring, yet she Conceives not.

The reason of this may be 1. When both Sexes are of a Complexion; 2. Want of Love, a 3d may be the letting Virgins blood i'th Arm, before their Courses come down; or other ill administration of internal and external remedies. 4. A loss of carnal Copu­lation; when Sexes come to the School of Venus, either not at all, or so coldly, that as [Page 178] good never a whit, as nere the better; and this is from a cold Distemper, and is cured by such things as heat and nourish.

2. Unnatural, that is diabolical, to pre­vent which Authors have left several ways, as to carry the Herb St. Johns wort about them, which is call'd a driver away of Devils, or a Plaister thereof applied to the Reins, with many others.

3. Accidental, which comes by some casu­al infirmity upon the body of either Sex at a time, the which being taken away the ef­fect ceaseth: 'tis sometimes from the Man, but most commonly from the Woman; for Mans instruments of Generation being per­fect, and he in health, I know no accidental cause in him; And the chief cause in Wo­men lyes in her Womb; as the stopping of the flowers, or overflowing; the Flux of the Womb, its falling down, inflamation, windi­ness, heat and dryness; in all which I shall be brief, because if there be difficulty, you are to have recourse to the learned Physi­tian.

1. Then the Terms stop, 1. Naturally, 2. Ʋnnaturally; they stop naturally in some about the 50th year, in some before, rarely [Page 179] till 55. the unnatural cause is, 1. much ex­ercise, 2. in fat Women the Veins are nar­row and blood turns to fat, 3. by long sick­ness, 4. when they have the piles in lieu of their Terms, 5. a hot or cold distemper of the Womb, 6. care, fear, grief, &c. I shall speak here only of the 5th for causes of the last being taken away the effect ceases; and the rest the ingenious Midwife will remedy. Now seeing these stoppings come usually from default of the Womb, the best way to help it is by strengthening the Womb, first then you shall prepare your way; if there be occasion let blood i'th the foot, if she be not full of humors, if she be, then in the Arm first, which I have most commonly known to do a­lone: then if need be give her a draught of White-wine wherein an handful of Centaury or stinking Arach hath been boiled; and if there be a pain in the head add an handful of Verven; or some Parcely roots, Fennel, or Lowage, &c. not forgetting in fulness of hu­mors to purge with half a dram of Extractum Rudii, and as much Pil. Mastichinae mixt, made into 12 Pills, whereof take 3 at Night going to bed, or after her first sleep.

2. The Terms overflow, 1. when they con­tinue longer then their usual time, which is 2 or 3 days, in Women that use no exercise [Page 180] 4 or 5 days, 2. when they come oftner then once a month, the cause is 1. a Rupture of some Vessel, 2. immoderate purgation, 3. some corroding humor, 4. hard Labor in Child­bed, or unkind handing the Womb: if the Vessels be broken, blood gusheth out in heaps, and if from some knawing humor, they are few but very painful; the rest are easily known. Let them abstain from exercise; then 1. anoint the reins with Oil of Roses, Myrtles or Quinces; then boil the roots of Tormentil, Cinquefoil, Yarrow, Knot-grass, Comfrey, dead Nettles, Solomon's Seal, Pur­slan, Shepherds-purse, red Roses, acorn Cups, bark of Oak Trees, some of these, in her or­dinary drink; or the juices of what can be had taken alone, and this above all, take Comfrey leaves or roots and Clowns alheal, of each an handful; bruise and boil them well in Ale, and drink of it now and then, this will do though the Vessels were open.

3. Flux of the Womb, is a continual drop­ing from that part of the body; if it be red like putrified blood it comes from that hu­mor; if white and pale, 'tis from Phlegm. if yellow, 'tis from Choler; if pure blood; as if a vein were opened either a knawing of the Womb, or tearing in delivery is feared. The cure differs as the cause, if pure blood [Page 181] flow, let blood i'th arm, then use the Medi­cine last mentioned, of Comfrey roots and Woundworth; if flegm be the cause, use Cinnamon in all meats and drinks, and Me­thridate and Treacle for Antidotes, a little every Morning; take a scruple of Pills of Amber going to Bed for divers Nights; if from Choler, purge with syrup of Violets, and Cassia Fistularis of each an ounce; after take powder of Ivory and Missleto of the oak, of each one scruple, mixt with half an ounce of conserve of Roses; every Morning for a Week; if from putrified blood having first let blood i'th Foot, then strengthen the Womb, as before: always forbearing vio­lent motions and passions, and sharp and salt meats; and provokers of Urine: for dead Nettles there are three sorts, white, red, and yellow, the flowers of that colour, the white help the white, the red, the red, the yellow the yellow flux.

4. The Womb fallen out is cured; if it be swell'd by bathing it with a decoction of Mallows, Linseed and Fennigreek boil'd in water, 2 or 3 times; and when 'tis got up let her keep her Legs close, or else tye them with a swath; apply stinking things to the Womb, as Assa Foetida, oil of Amber, her own Hair burnt; and let her smell of Civet, [Page 182] &c. the rest is before and after.

5. The Womb is inflamed by many causes, a blow, stopping of the Terms, Abortion, Ulceration, Immoderate Lechery, overmuch walking; cold. For cure, strengthen the Womb first; then first clarifie Whey and boil Plantain leaves or roots in it; and drink it, then inject the juice of Plantain into the Womb with a Syringe; if in Winter, when you cannot get the juice make a strong de­coction of the leaves and roots in water; if the body be costive use a Clyster: and here note that in all Inflammations blood-letting is the chiefest remedy, first i'th Arm, then if need i'th Foot; if it be near the Neck of the Womb, make a pessary of wool and anoint it with unguent. album, or populeon, or mixt.

6. The Womb is sometimes troubled with wind, which is cured as the fits of the Mo­ther: and moistness of the Womb is cured as a flux of flegm.

7. Heat and dryness of the Womb is in­cident to Women of a Cholerick complexion, is cured by cool and moistning herbs, of which stinking Arach is chief, neither are Plantan and Mallows much behind; milk is good for such to drink, first purging with an [Page 183] ounce of Cassia Fistula new drawn going to bed, and follow your business the next day.

Dr. Thus far good, Mrs. Eutrap. but now hear me a little concerning this matter.

All rational men know, that the generati­on of mankind, as also of other irrational Animals, is the most perfect, excellent and exquisite work of God's Vicegerent Nature; the which is most excellently, and elegantly demonstrated, and set forth by Aristotle, that great Secretary of Nature, in his second Book which he hath written of the Generati­on of living Creatures; for whereas it is im­possible, by the decree of Nature, that any humane Creature should live always, or have an immortal Being in this World; much less should we imagine that should be granted to Bruits and other Souls of an inferior rank; therefore, for the continuance and propaga­tion of each sort, it hath otherwise ordain­ed, that during the continuance of this World, there should be likewise maintained a successive generation of both Sexes, by the Action of procreation; and from hence, af­ter him, Galen the greatest Luminary of Phy­sick next Hippocrates, says, that it comes to pass that Creatures are furnished with Instru­ments of Generation, proper for the quality [Page 184] of their Sex; and are consequently indued with natural Instincts prompting them to the use thereof: Therefore we shall at this time discourse of this wonderful operation of Na­ture; and endeavour, as far forth as our Ta­lent will afford us, to seek out the causes that may hinder, and from thence prescribe means to remove them, and so consequently assist and further her in so miraculous a concern: and this partly upon our Dame nature's ac­count, whose Servants only we are; and in the next place for the sakes of those Ladies, Gentlewomen and others, who are often dis­consolate and dejected, upon their being ac­counted barren.

Now then you must note that as concep­tion hath some alliance with every part of the Body, as being undoubtedly concern'd therein, so the same Conception may be quite abolished, diminished, or deprived as it happens in all other actions and motions of the body; so that if Conception be quite a­bolish'd in a Woman, in such sort that she can never be able to conceive; this affection is then called Barrenness; or such a Woman may be called a barren Woman, which you please. But if she Conceive sometimes, though seldome, here the Conceptive faculties may be said to be diminished; or weakened by [Page 185] some cause or other; and to this kind of di­minished Conception may be referr'd untime­ly births, called Abortion; And lastly a de­praved Conception is when in the Womb is contained some unnatural Conception, such as Monsters and Mola's, &c. The causes and remedies of all which it hath and shall be our duty to lay open to the Females Sex, accord­ing to the best of our skil and knowledge: first to the end we may further the propaga­tion of humane kind, and secondly, that we make if possibly remove the reproaches laid upon Barrenness, which hath been in all ages, and continues to this day and will do to end of the World; and than which there can hardly happen a greater defamation to the Female Sex. Insomuch as some like Rachel have cry'd out to their Husbands for Chil­dren; or else their Lives will lye on't, ra­ther than endure the reproach of Barrenness, and some Women have preferr'd their maids to their Husbands, so that their Child might be reputed theirs, to take away the blemish of Barrenness; But you shall find but few Women of their minds now a days: so then we shall in the first place speak of the causes of this so odious and distateful a Disease, and then of their removing; for you know 'tis an old saying and true, take away the cause and the effect will consequently cease.


Now the chief method of finding out all causes which do or may bring damage, to the faculties of the body, is no other then the knowledge of the means whereby these facul­ties perform their Actions, in the time of health and soundness of body. And whereas to the producing of any natural Conception there is a necessity of distinction of both Sexes and a conjunction and carnal Copulati­on of the Man and Woman, without which no Generation can be effected. As for that story of a certain Maids conceiving with Child by standing in a Bath, where some Mans seed had been cast, the Womb draw­ing it to it, as the Load-stone doth Iron, or Jet straw, it was either a miracle in Nature, or she so gave out to save her bacon; and so no ways belongs to our purpose, and having before declared the manner in other Sect. Therefore we shall here lay down the mani­fest causes of Barrenness from either Sex, so that neither may be unjustly blamed where they happen; for since the Women have, in this case a great interest, and damage too if the fault be in the Man; because they may often help their Husbands defect, and in so doing pleasure themselves, we shall not there­fore omit to treat of the causes thereof which may happen to men; and moreover [Page 187] there being a necessity that both Sexes be furnished with fit and proper Instruments for the work of Generation, as the man with a Yard, &c. and a Woman with a Womb, &c. Then even reason will tell you, that if there chance to be any defect or dissaffection in nature in any of the Members, of either Sex, belonging to this work of Generation, the fruitfulness or Conception must necessarily be hindred, impaired, or quite and clear abo­lished.

To begin then first with what belongs to the Mans side; one cause of Barrenness laid down by many Authors is the over-much length of the Yard; by reason whereof the Seed is too much cooled in the passage before it can be injected home into the Womb. But though this be a somewhat probable and plau­sable reason; yet I am of opinion that it is but weak and will not hold water with those of greater reason; (for all Souls are not en­dued with a like proportion of reason;) for the Seed passing through the pipe of the Yard is kept hot enough, the generative Spi­rits at that time oft flocking to the Yard to assist it in so great a work; and the like be­ing performed on the Woman's part, I can­not see how it can be any ways possible it should take cold in its journey; but on the [Page 188] contrary side it may be rationally imagin'd that the long Yard is most fit and commodi­ous for Conception, by sending Seed to the inmost and furthermost parts of the Womb, and so most likely to be there retained, its due time.

And now others on the contrary side will have the short Yard the cause of rendring Men unfruitful; and these I think have more reason on their side, because it cannot so well inject the Seed into the Womb, as you heard before; But indeed neither can this be a firm reason, for unfruitfulness in Man; since 'tis confirmed by experience that such an one hath begot Children likewise. But a greater reason of unfruitfulness in the man may be some vitiousness or defect in his Yard; as if it be crooked, or if any of its Ligaments be writhed, or broken or bruised; whereby the passages through which the seed should flow be corrupt, stop'd or vitiated; or some Disease or imperfection be either in the proper or Neighbor parts thereof.

Another cause of Barrenness by defect of the Yard, is a too much weakness and ten­derness thereof, it being not strongly enough erected to inject the Seed into the Womb.

Then another cause in Men may be some vice in the Stones, as if they be oppressed with any Inflammation, or swelling, or wound, or ulcer.

Also the Man may be Barren from his want of Seed, or if it be nought; as in the Running of the Reins or Venereal Disease, Glutony or Drunkenness, &c. and then too frequent Carnal Copulation, is a cause of Barrenness, because it attracteth the Seedy moisture from the Stones before 'tis sufficiently pre­pared; and concocted, as all other members of the body, by institution of nature, use to draw their accustomed juice to themselves, so now if any one by daily Copulation draws out all the moisture of his Seed, then do the Stones draw the moist humors from the up­per Veins to themselves, and so having but a little blood in them they are forced, of ne­cessity to cast it out raw; and thus the stones being deprived of the moisture of their veins, draw the same from the upper veins, and the upper veins from all the parts of the body, for their proper nutriment, to the great damage of the body, robbing the same of the vital Spirits.

It is therefore no wonder if those that use immoderate Copulation are very weak in [Page 190] their bodies, seeing the whole body is there­by depriv'd of its best and purest blood and vital Spirits; insomuch as those that have been too much addicted to that pleasure, have killed themselves in the Act; can it then be a wonder that such Seed is not fit for Generation?

And having now shewn the causes of Bar­renness in Men, we shall now discourse of those in Women; Now the causes of Bar­renness in Women proceed either from the Age, or evil temper of the Womb, and its vicious conformation, and parts depending on it, or the indisposition of the whole ha­bit of the body; The evil form of the womb renders Women barren, according to the great Hippocrates, the Prince of all Physitians, as if the mouth or neck of the Womb be turned backwards towards the great Gut, or a side out of its place, contrary from the Privities; if it appear too big, or if it be fallen down before the Privities; to which may be added when 'tis so narrow that it cannot admit the Yard to enter, and when 'tis wholly, or in part closed by some inward or outward skin, which is very rare, if at all; or by a swelling collosity, or cicatrice, &c.

But then it is not sufficient that the Mans Yard enter the Neck, which is the Anti-Chamber to the Womb, for if in the act of Copulation, he knock at the door which is the inward orifice, and it be not opened, all is to no purpose; and this may likewise be hindred from opening, by some callosity pro­ceeding from abundance of ill humors, which usually flow from the Matrix, or from some swelling which may happen to it, or also by some part which may so press it, that it can­not open to receive the Seed as the cawl doth in fat Women; according to Hippocrates, who says they cannot conceive till they grow lean.

But the most frequent reason why this ori­fice opens not in this Act, to receive the seed, is the insensibility of some Women, who take no pleasure in the Venereal Act; but when they have an appetite, the Womb being covetuous of the Seed opens it self to re­ceive it.

The same Hippocrates seems to have noted all the signs and causes of Barrenness from the evil temper of the Womb, when he saith in his 62th Aphorism, book 5. that all such Women whose Womb is cold and close, can­not conceive, nor they who have it too moist, [Page 192] because the Seed is extinguished in it; and likewise such who have it too dry and hot, because for want of aliment the seed cor­rupts; but such as are of a moderate temper are fruitful. Of all which in my opinion the most common is the cortinual moisture of the Womb fed by an abundance of the whites with which many are much inconvenienced, the humors of the whole dody being ac­customed to stear their course this way, which can very hardly be turned away when invete­rate, and the Womb being imbued with these vicious moistures, becomes inwardly so unctious and slippery, that the seed though glutinous, cannot cleave to it; nor be retain­ed within it, and that's the cause it slips away immediately, or shortly after 'tis received.

Barrenness may also proceed from the whole habit, as when a Woman is too old, or too young; for the Seed of the young is not prolific, neither have they menstruous blood, both which are requisite to fruitful­ness, and that of the aged is in small quanti­ty and too cold, who likewise want menstru­ous blood; then, an universal distemper, though of convenient years, renders them Barren, as when they are Hectick, Dropsical, Sickly, &c. and especially so much the more as the whole parts are fallen from their tem­per [Page 193] and natural constitution. There are how­ever many Women, which seem Barren for a long time, by reason of some of the afore­mentioned reasons, yea till 35 or 40 years old, and sometimes longer who yet at last conceive being cured of the distempers which hindered them, and having changed their temperament by their Age.

Now some of these Barrennesses may be cured by removing their causes, and procur­ing the dispositions needful to fertility; yea of those proceeding from an universal intem­perament by reducing their body, by a con­venient regiment, to a good order, according to their respective dispositions. Wherefore if one have the Neck of the Womb narrow, and not from some of the causes abovesaid, she ought to be joyned to a Man whose Yard is proportionable; and if that will not do, which happens very seldom, she must relax it, and open it with softning oils, and ointments; If it be compressed by any humor it must be resolved and suppurated, according to its nature and situation, having always a care to prevent the corruption of these parts which are very subject to it, being hot and moist; because the Womb serves, as a sink by which all the bad humors of the body are purged; so that you must take great care [Page 194] that these swellings turn not to a Cancer.

When the Neck is not clear by reason of any scar, after a rent, caused by some violence, or hard labor, or after an Ulcer which caused the two sides to be agglutinated, whether in­wardly or outwardly it must be seperated, which being the Chirurgeon's work, I here omit it.

If the inward orifice of the Womb be dis­plac'd, it may be in some sort remedied by making the Woman observe a convenient posture in the act of Generation; and if the whites or other impurities of the Womb, cause Barrenness, they must be helped by eva­cuations, purgations, and a regular dyet, con­cerning which the learned Physitian is to be consulted.

Mid. Thus far Sir, having heard your ac­count of the signs and causes of Fertility and Sterility; I having heard learned men dis­course of Superfetation; I would humbly in­treat you Sir that you would please to let me hear your opinion about that matter.

Dr. That you shall willingly good Mrs. Eutrapelia, and therefore I shall begin first to tell you what it is.

SECT. II. Of Superfaetation.

Dr. SƲperfaetation according to the discrip­tion of Hippocrates, is a repeated con­ception, that is when a Woman being alrea­dy with Child, conceives again the 2 d time, now there is a great dispute about this; for we see daily Bitches, Sows and Rabits, have divers young but with one Copulation, which may make us judge the same of a Woman; some will have this to be by Superfetation, but there are signs by which we may know the difference, whether both Children were be­got at once, or one after the other. That which makes many believe there can be no such thing as superfetation, is because as soon as a Woman hath conceived, her Womb closeth firmly so that the Man's seed, abso­lutely necessary to conception, finding no place nor entry, cannot be received, nor con­tained in it, so as to cause this 2d concepti­on. To this may be added, That a bearing Woman dischargeth her seed, which is as necessary as a Mans, by a Vessel which ter­minates on the side of the outward part of [Page 196] the inward Orifice; which seed by this means is shed into the Neck of the Womb, and not into the bottom; as it ought, for this purpose. However it may be said in an­swer, to these objections, which are very strong; that though the Womb be clos'd, &c. yet this general rule may have some ex­ception; so that it may be sometimes open­ed to let pass some slimy excrements which by their stay offend it; or chiefly when a Woman is animated with an earnest desire of Copulation, in the heat of which action she sometimes dischargeth by the passage that terminates in the bottom of the Womb, which being opened by the impetuous endea­vor of the seed, more then ordinarily over­heated, and this Orifice being at the same time a little opened, if the Man's seed be darted into it at the same moment, 'tis thought a Woman may then conceive again. This may be confirmed by a story of a Ser­vant related by Pliny, who having the same day copulated with two several Persons, brought forth two Children, the one resem­bling her Master, the other his Proctor: and also by a story of another Woman, who had two Children, one like her Husband and the other like her Galant; but this different resemblance doth not always prove super­fetation, because sometimes different ima­ginations [Page 197] may cause the like effect.

The 2d Conception is effectively as sure, as we find the decision thereof uncertain; nor must we imagine that always when a Wo­man brings forth two Children, or more at once, there is a superfetation; because they are always almost begot in the same Act, by the abundance of both Seeds received into the Womb; neither must we believe that it may be at all times of a Womans being with Child; for it cannot be either the first or se­cond day of Conception; because if the last Seed be received into the Womb, it would make confusion with the first, which is not yet enwrapt with this little skin, that might otherwise separate it, nor is formed perfect­ly till the sixth or seventh day; as Hippocrates saw in a Woman, who about that time ex­pelled this geniture: Besides the Matrix open­ing it self again could not hinder the first Seed from slipping out; being not as yet in­vellopt with this little skin, which could pre­serve it. This may make one not to believe Pliny's story; that it happened for his rea­sons, to wit, that she used Copulation with two several Persons the same day; for the last would certainly have caused this confusi­on of Seeds, and also have destroyed the work begun: But I rather believe that this super­fetation [Page 198] may happen from the 6th day of Con­ception, till the 30th or 40th at most; be­cause then the Seeds are covered with Skins, and that which is contained in the Womb, is not of a considerable bigness: but after this time it is impossible, or yet at least very diffi­cult, because the Womb being extended more and more by the growth of the Child can hardly receive new Seed & as hardly retain it; but casts it forth by reason of its fulness; and 'tis a true Maxim, intus existens prohibet alie­num.

Now when a Woman brings forth one or more Children at a Birth, begotten at once which usually are called Twins, (and differs from superfetation) 'tis known by their be­ing almost of an equal thickness and bigness, and having but one only and common after­birth; not separated the one from the other, but by their Skins, which wrap each a part with their waters, and not both in the same waters and skin; as some have believed; but if there be several Children and a superfeta­tion, they will also be separated by their Skins, but not have a common burthen, but each a part; neither will they be of an equal bigness, for that which is the superfetation is always lesser and weaker, then that which was first engendred; who because of its force [Page 199] and vigor draws to it self the greatest and best part of the nourishment; just as we find in fair and great fruit, that have often near them very little ones; which happens be­cause those that are first knotted and fastned to the Tree, take away all their nourishment from their Neighbours, which did but blos­som when the first had acquir'd ground and bigness: and sometimes Twins are not of an equal bigness, which happens as the one or other hath more strength to draw to it in greater abundance the best part of the com­mon nourishment.

Now I am not willing to say that there is never any superfetation; but I say that it hap­pens very rarely; for of an hundred Women that have Twins, ninety have but one bur­then common to both, which is a very cer­tain sign they had no superfetation, and much more certain then the observations taken from the greatness, or strength of the Child, which is but conjectural.

And thus have I given you Mrs. my full sentiments concerning this so much disputed and intricate matter: Now I pray you pro­ceed to the other distempers accompany­ing Women before Child-Birth.

Mid. That I shall Sir, and the next shall be concerning their vomitings.

SECT. III. Of Vomitings of Women with Child.

Mid. VOmitting with suppression of the Terms, are for the most part the first accident, and the means by which they perceive they have conceived. 'Tis not al­ways caused from ill humors in the stomach, because of the stopping of the courses; for these corrupted humors cause rather a depra­ved appetite then this vomiting, which hap­pens immediately after Conception, and comes by succession; but these first vomit­ings proceed from the Sympathy between the stomach and the Womb, because of the like­ness of their substance, and by means of the Nerves inserted in the upper Orifice of the Stomach, which have communication, by continuity, with those that pass to the Womb, being portions of the 6th pair of those of the brain. Now the Womb, being a ve­ry sensible part beginning to grow bigger, feels some pain, which being communicated by this continuity of Nerves to the upper Orifice of the Stomach, causes these loathings and vomitings. And to prove that it is thus, [Page 102] and not by the pretended ill humors, it ap­pears in that many Women begin to vomit from the first day of their being with Child, who were in perfect health before they con­ceived, which the suppression of the Courses could not cause.

Now loathing, or nauseousness, is a desire to vomit, and a motion by which the stomach is drawn towards its upper orifice, without casting up any thing; and vomiting is a more violent motion, by which is cast forth of the mouth whatsoever is contained in it.

At first vomiting is but a single symptome, not to be feared, but continuing long it weak­ens the Stomach very much; and hindring digestion corrupts the food in lieu of con­cocting it; whence succeed ill humors which require purging. These vomitings common­ly continue till the 3d or 4th month of being with Child; which is the time the Child ap­pears manifestly to be quick; then they begin to cease, and Women recover the appetite they had lost; because the Infant in growing hath need of more nourishment: and so con­sumes those humors which flew to the Sto­mach; and besides the Womb is then ac­customed to its extension; these continue in some till they are delivered, which often en­dangers [Page 103] miscarriages; and the rather, the nearer they are to their full time; and others are tormented more towards the end of their reckoning, then at first; because then the Stomach cannot be widened enough easily to contain the food, being pressed by the big­ness of the Womb: such a vomiting to Wo­men whose Children lye high seldom ceases before they are deliver'd.

Be not troubled at vomitings, in the begin­ning, if they be gentle, without straining, for they are beneficial, but if they continue lon­ger then the 3d or 4th month, they are to be remedied; because for want of nourishment the Mother and Child will both grow weak; and the continued subversion of the Stomach causing great motion of the belly, will force the Child before its time.

Now to hinder this vomiting from afflict­ing the Woman long, for 'tis very hard to stop it quite, let her use good dyet, but little at a time, that she may keep it without pain, and not be forced to vomit it; and to strengthen it let her eat it with juice of Oran­ges or Lemons, Verjuice or rose vinegar, or eat after Meals a little Marmelade of Quinces; and she must forbear fat meat and sauces, for they soften the Skins of the Stomach, [Page 204] which are weak and loose by vomitings, and also sweet sauces.

But if for all this that it continues, al­though the Woman be above half gone; 'tis a clear sign there are cleave corrupt humors to the inward sides of the Stomach, which must be purged by stool; to effect which, give half a dram of Rhubard, a dram or two at most of Sena, infuss'd in posset-Ale, to which streined add an ounce of Syrup of Suc­cory: which dissolves the humors, and in voiding them comforts the parts: or you may give her Cassia and Tamarinds; always add­ing a little Rhubarb, or syrup of Succory compound: If once be not enough, repeat it, some few days respite between; If it con­tinues for all this, you must rest here, lest some worse thing happen, for she is then in great danger of miscarrying; and if the Hic­coup takes them from too much emptiness, by vomiting and purging, 'tis very bad, as Hippocrates Prince and oracle of Physick teacheth us.

As for great Cupping-glasses which some advice to be applied to the Stomach to keep it in its place; I believe it's a chip in Potage; because the Stomach is loose, and no way cleaving to this upper part of [Page 205] the Belly. But since these vomitings cool and weaken it, I should advise them to wear a piece of Scarlet or Flannel, or Lamb-skin, which would help digestion.

SECT. IV. Of the pains of the Back, Loins, Reins and Hips.

ALL these Accidents are but the effects of the widening of the Womb, and the compression it makes on the Neighboring parts by its weight. These are greater the first time she is with Child, for afterwards the Womb only receives the same dimensi­ons it had before; and the cords which hold it in its natural place, as well round as large, suffer a greater stress, being much drawn and streightned by the bigness and weight of the Womb; to wit the large ones those of the Back and Loins, which answer to the Reins, because these two strings are strong­ly fast'ned towards these parts; and the round ones cause those of the Groins, Share and Thighs where they end. These are sometimes so much stretch'd by this weight and higness of the Womb that they are torn, chiefly if the Woman chance to have a false step, which causes very great pains, and o­ther worse accidents; as it happened to a certain Woman, being six months gone of [Page 207] her first Child, who felt the like after she had stumbled, and perceived at the same time something crack towards her Reins and Loins, which was one of the large cords, made a noise by the suddain jolt she receiv'd; at the same instant she felt extream pains in her Reins and Loins, and all one side of her belly, which caused her immediately to vo­mit, very often with much violence, and the next day was taken with a great continued Feaver, which lasted seven or eight days, without being able to sleep or rest one hour, all that time she vomited all she took, with a strong and frequent Hiccoup, and great pains, which seem'd as if they would hasten her La­bor, which I was very apprehensive of, as al­so of her death: but by the help of God, causing her immediately to be put to Bed, where she rested 12 whole days, she was thrice let blood in her Arm on several days, and took a grain of Laudanum at twice in the yelk of an Egg, a little to ease her violent pains, by giving her rest; taking also from time to time good strengthening Cordials; so that all these Symptoms, which at first seemed desperate, ceased by little and little, and she went out her full time, and then was happily delivered of a Son, which lived 15 months, notwithstanding all those mischie­vours accidents befel her, which were enough [Page 208] to have kil'd half a dozen others; but God sometimes is pleased to work Miracles by na­ture, assisted with remedies fit for the pur­pose, as well as by his Grace. And also the Womb causeth the pains of the Hips by its weight, in bearing too much upon them. And assure your selves there is nothing will ease all these pains better then to rest in Bed, and bleed i'th Arm, if there be any great exten­sion, or breaking of any cord of the Womb, as was in this case; and when the Womb bears too much upon the Hips, if she cannot keep her Bed, she must support her Belly with a broad swaith.

SECT. V. Of the pains of the Breasts.

AS soon as a Woman conceives, her monthly blood wanting ordinary eva­tuation, and she daily breeding blood, there is a necessity, she consuming but little whilst first with Child, that the Vessels being too full, should discharge part, as it doth, upon the parts dispos'd to receive it, such as the kernelly parts, especially the Breasts, which suck up a great quantity of it, which swelling them causes this pain which she feels, and happens also to those whose Terms are only stop'd.

To ease her we ought, in the beginning, to leave it to Nature, the chief Physitian, and she must only have a care she receive no blows thereon, nor be streight laced; but after the third or fourth month the blood being still sent to the Breasts in great store, 'tis much better to evacuate it by bleeding in the Arm, then to turn it back upon some other part by repercussive or binding Medicines, because it cannot flow to any part where it can do less [Page 210] hurt than these; and to shun the accident o [...] which Hippocrates speaks in his 40th Apho­rism, of the 5th book; If Blood be carried in too great abundance to the Breasts, it shews th [...] Woman is in danger of being Frantick; be­cause of the transport which may be mad [...] thence of the brain; whcih is voided by moderate bleeding i'th Arm, and a regular cooling dyet, moderately nourishing.

SECT. VI. Of involuntary voiding, and stop­ing of Urine.

THE seat of the Bladder which is just up­on the Womb, is sufficient to instruct us, why Women with Child, are sometimes troubled with difficulty of Urine; and why often they cannot hold their water; which is caused 2 ways, 1. because the Womb by its bigness and weight presses the bladder, so that 'tis hindred from its ordinary extension, and so incapable of containing a reasonable quantity of Urine; which is the cause the big­ger she grows, and the nearer her time, the oftner she's compelled to make water, 2. if the weighty burthen of the Womb doth ve­ry much press the bottom of the bladder, it forceth the Woman to make water every mo­ment, but if the neck of it be pressed it is fil'd full with Urine, being not able to expel it, because the Sphincter Muscle, in this compres­sion, cannot be opened to let it out, which causes great pain. Sometimes by its sharp­ness, stirs up the bladder often by pricking it, to discharge it self; and sometimes by its [Page 212] heat it makes an inflammation in the neck of the bladder, which causes its stopping: and if it be from a stone in the bladder 'tis more in supportable and dangerous to a Woman with Child then one that is not; because the Womb, by its swelling causeth the stone per­petually to press against the bladder, and the pains are violenter, if it be greater, or of an unequal or sharp shape.

'Tis of great moment to hinder these vio­lent endeavors to make water, and to remedy them, if possible, in all indispositions, because by long continuance of forcing downwards to make water, the Womb is loosened and bears down, and is sometimes forced to dis­charge its self of its burthen before its time: which we must endeavour to hinder, having respect to its different causes; as when it comes from the weight of the Womb, pres­sing the bladder, as for the most part; now she may remedy it, if with both her hands when she would make water, she lift up the bottom of her belly; or wear a large swath or keep her bed.

If it be sharpness of Urine that makes an inflammation i'th neck oth' bladder, appease it by a cooling dyet, forbearing strong drinks, using emulsions made of the 4 cold seeds, or [Page 213] whey with syrup of Violets; use not purging because its heat augments the inflammation; these are proper to cleanse the Urinary passa­ges, without either prejuding Mother or Child, taken Morning and Evening. If all this prevail not let her blood a little i'th Arm; and bath the outward entry of the neck of the bladder with a decoction of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Pellitory and Violets, with a little Linfeed; and inject some of the same into the bladder, to which you may add Hony of Violets, or luke warm Milk: abstaining from all diuretics, for fear they provoke Abortion. And when all fails she must send for a Physitian or Chyrurgeon to make use of his Catheter; And also if it arise from the stone in the neck of the bladder, they may thrust it back with it; but if small draw it forth; for a great one cannot be drawn forth before she be delivered; being better to leave her so then endanger her life or the Childs.

SECT. VII. Of a Cough and difficult breathing.

THey whose Infants lye low, are more troubled with difficulty of Urine, then they whose lye higher, who are free from that and the like distemper, but are more subject to a Cough and difficult breathing.

If a Cough be violent, to vomiting, 'tis one of the chiefest things which cause Abortion; because 'tis an essay whereby the Lungs en­deavour to cast forth of the Breast that which offends them by a compression of all its Mus­cles, which pressing all the inclosed air in­wards, wherewith the Lungs are much stretch­ed, thrusts also downwards by the same means, the midriff, and consequently all the parts of the lower belly, but particularly the Womb, which continuing long and violent, often causeth Abortion.

Sometimes it proceeds from sharp rheums, which distil from the brain upon the Artery and Lungs; and sometimes from such blood, which flows towards the Breast; upon stop­ping [Page 215] the Terms; also from too cold air breathing which stirs up the parts to motion; but being begun by these causes 'tis often aug­mented by the compression the Womb makes upon the Midriff, which cannot have its li­berty in those that bear their Children high; because by its great extension it bears up al­most all the parts of the lower belly, towards the Breast, and chiefly the Stomach and Li­ver, forcing them against the Midriff.

You must remedy this by keeping good dyet somewhat cooling, if from sharp humors, avoiding all Salt and Spice meats, Oranges, Lemons, Vinegar, &c. but she may use juice of Liquorice, Sugar-candy, syrup of Violets, or Mulberries, which she may mix with a Ptysan made with Jujubs, Sebestens, French Barley, and a little Liquorice; and it may not be amiss to divert and draw down these humors by a gentle Clyster. If these prevail not, and there appears signs of fulness of blood, bleed her in the Arm, at what time soever of going with Child; and though it be not usually practis'd when they are young with Child, yet here it must; for a continual Cough is much more dangerous then a mo­derate bleeding. If it come of cold keep in a close Room with a napkin doubled about her Neck, or a Lamb-Skin; and going to [Page 216] bed take 3 or 4 spoonfuls of this syrup of burnt wine following, which is very Pecto­ral and causeth good digestion.

Take half a pint of French wine, 2 drams of Cinnamon bruised, half a dozen cloves, 4 ounces of white Sugar or Sugar-candy; put them together in a Porrenger, and boil them upon a Chaffing dish of Coals, burn it, and then boil it to the consistence of a Syrup.

You must not from whatever cause it pro­ceeds, that she must go loose in her cloaths; and because sleep is proper to stay fluxions, it may be procured by the Physitian: using no strong stupefactives of opium, which are dan­gerous, if there be not very great necessity; as in the patient mentioned in the Section of the pain of Back, Loins, Reins and Hips.

Some Women carry their first Child chief­ly so high, because the cords which support the Womb are not stretch'd, that they think them to be in their Breasts, which causes a difficult breathing, as soon as they have eaten a little, walked or gone up the stairs; so that they fear they shall be choaked; which comes from the Wombs being enlarged and pressing the Stomach and the Liver, which forces the Midriff upward, leaving it no room [Page 217] to be moved: sometimes their Lungs are so full of blood, driven thither from all parts that it hardly leaves passage for the air; if so they will breath more easily as soon as a little blood is taken from the Arm; but if it comes from a compression made by the womb against the Midriff, the best remedy is to wear her clothes loose, and eat little and of­ten; eating no windy meats as pease, and avoiding all grief and fear, because they drive the blood to the Heart and Lungs in too great quantity, so that she having her Breast already stuffed, and hardly breathing, will be in danger of being choak'd; for the abun­dance of blood filling the Ventricles of the Heart above measure and at once, hinders its motion, without which she cannot live.

SECT. VIII. Of the swelling and pains of the Thighs and Legs.

MAny think, which is in part true, that the Woman having more blood then the Infant needs to nourish it, nature by vir­tue of the expulsive faculty of the upper parts which are always strongest, drives the super­fluity upon the lower, as the Legs, &c. as most feeble and apt to receive it; and so are caused their swelling and pain and sometimes red spots, from the swelling of the Veins, along the inside, which extreamly hinders her going: but the doctrine of the circula­tion of the blood, invented by our Country­man the immortal Dr. Harvey, the English Hippocrates, will teach us better how this comes, then that we need have have recourse to this expulsive faculty; but because 'tis fitter for Physitians and Chyrurgeons that are learned in Anatomy then Midwifes, be­ing they may help them without such curious knowledge; I shall omit it, and if you would [Page 219] be satisfied, see what the learned and expert French Chirurgeon Moricean, hath written on this Subject, 'tis put into English by Dr. Chamberlain.

Now to remedy these let her only use a palliative cure, in swathing the parts with a rowler 3 or 4 fingers broad; beginning at the bottom, and she should most keep her bed, if she can; and if there be signs of abundance of blood in other parts she may bleed without danger.

Some Womens Legs swell only from weakness, and are so Flegmatick that when you press them with your finger the print remains; because they want Natural heat sufficient to concoct all the nourishment sent to them, and expel its superfluities, which remaining makes them so Hydropi­cal. To resolve these swellings, make a Lee made with the ashes of Vines, or other wood ashes, and Melilote, Camomil, and Lavender boild in it; if that do not foment them with this. Take Rosemary, Bays, Time, Merjoram, Sage and Lavender, of each a handful, Province Roses half a hand­ful, Pomgranat flowers and Alum, each an ounce, boil them in 3 pints of strong [Page 220] red wine, to the wasting of a 3d part and use it. But these swellings commonly cease when she brought to Bed, because she purg­eth the superfluity of her whole habit, by her Lochia.

SECT. IX. Of the Hemorrhoids.

THese are swellings and painful Inflam­mations caused by a flux of humors up­on the extremities of the Hemorrhoid veins and Arteries, caused by a bundance of blood cast upon these parts because the body is not purged as before; and sometimes by endea­vors they have to go to stool when costive; If they be small and without pain, either in­ward or outward, 'tis easie to prevent their farther growth, by remedies which hinder and turn the flux from those parts, but the great ones are cured by first easing the pain; so that if she have other signs of fulness in the rest of her body she may safely be once let blood i'th Arm, and if great necessity twice, if she be costive let her take a Cly­ster, of Violets, Mallows, Marsh-mallows, and hony of Violets, with some fresh Butter or Oil of Almonds; adding no sharp thing, especially in inward Piles; after let her keep a moderate and cooling dyet, and rest in her Bed, if she may, till the flux be past; in that [Page 222] while anointing them with strokings from the Cow, and foment them with the decoc­tion of her Clyster, adding some Linseed: your Oil of sweet Almonds, Oil of Poppies, and Oil of water Lillies well beaten together with the yelk of an Egg, in a leaden morter, are very good to ease pain; and if that In­flammation be great anoint a little with Ʋn­guentum refrigerens Galeni, or anguentum album, & populeon equally mixed.

After all this if the swelling abates not, apply Leeches, or if soft, or any kind of in­undation use a Lancet; but Leeches are properer for hard Piles, because they pain not so much. Women are not here eased by Piles as Men are, because 'tis contrary to nature, for this evacuation ought always to be made by the Womb; if not with Child; but if she be, it may in some mea­sure, if full of blood, supply the natural; if they bleed moderately, and without pain she may be eased, but if they flow too much there's danger of both Mother and Child being weakned; to avoid which make bind­ing fomentations with the decoction of Pomgranate flowers, and Vines, and Pro­vince Roses, made in Smiths water and a little Allum; or this pultis made of Bole-Armenac, [Page 223] Dragons-blood, and sealed earth, with the white of an Egg: and to turn the blood by bleeding i'th Arm, and Cup­ping-Glasses to the Reins, &c. as you may consult the Physitian.

SECT. X. Of the several Fluxes happening to Women with Child.

SHE is Subject to three sorts of Fluxes, the Flux of the Belly, of the Terms and Fludings.

Of the Belly are three kinds, the first Lien­teria, when the Stomach and Guts not digest­ing the nourishments received let it pass a­way raw. 2. Diarrhea, when they simply dis­charge the humours and excrements which they contain. The 3d and worst is a Dysente­ria, when with the humors and excrements she voids blood, with violent pains, caus'd by an ulceration of the Guts.

Any of these if they continue long put her in great danger of Aborting; if the first, the Stomach letting the food pass before it be turned into juice, whereof blood is made to nourish Mother and Child, they must both be weakened; if the 2d it will cause the same accident; because of voiding the Spirits with the humors; but most danger's i'th last, [Page 225] because she hath then great pains and Gripes i'th Guts from their Ulcer; which excites them continually, by constant prickings, to discharge themselves of the sharp humors which causes a violent motion of the Womb, being pla [...]ed upon the right gut, and to the Child, and, by the compression the Muscles of the belly make on all sides, as also those that are made by them of the Midriff, which force themselves downwards in the endeavors she makes with pain so often to go to stool, the Child is constrained to come before its time, and the oft'ner by how much the prickings are greater: for according to Hippocrates; Aphorism 27 book 7. If a tenasm happen to one with Child, it makes her Miscarry. Now this tenasm is a great passion of the right Gut, which forceth it to make those violent en­deavours to discharge it self without being a­ble to avoid any thing but Cholerick humors mixt with blood, by which 'tis perpetually pricked.

This Flux happens to her commonly from a weak digestion of the Stomach, because of her bad dyet, which her strange appetite causes her often to long for, by the constant use whereof at last being weakened it suffers the food to pass without digestion, or if it stay longer 'tis turn'd into a corrupt juice, [Page 226] which descending into the Guts iritates them by its sharpness to discharge themselves as soon as they can.

To proceed safely in the cure of these Fluxes, their nature must be consider'd, that the cause that maintains them may be re­mov'd. If it be a Lienteria following Vo­mitings, as is usual, which have so weakn'd the Stomach, and loosn'd its Skins, that have­ing no longer strength to vomit up the food, it suffers it to pass downward without dige­stion; then she must refrain all irregular appetites, and eat food of good digestion and little at a time, she may drink a little deep Claret wine, in which Iron hath been quench­ed, if she have not a strong Feaver, for in a small one wine is to be prefer'd, because her Feaver is but symptomatick, from the weak­ness of her Stomach, and will vanish as soon as it is fortified; which may be promoted if she take before and after meals, some of that burnt wine spoke of before for the Cough, or a little good Hippocras, or right Canary, or eat a little Marmalade of quinces before meals; and wear a Lamb-skin upon the pit of her Stomach; be sure to give no purge, for this is only caused by weakness.

If it be a Diarrhea simply voiding such ex­crements as are in the Guts, and some super­fluous humors, which nature hath sent to be expelled, and it be gentle and continue not long, she will feel no damage by it, and so 'tis good to leave it to nature without inter­rupting it in the beginning; but if it conti­nue above 4 or 5 days 'tis a sign there are ill humors cleaven to the inside of the Guts, and ought to be expell'd by some light purge after which it will certainly cease.

But if for all fit purges, it changes into a Dysentery, she is then in danger of miscar­rying; which must be prevented if possible; therefore having purged the ill humor, and hindering, that no more be engendred, by Chicken or Veal broths, &c. with cooling herbs, pap with the yelk of an Egg well boild, let her quench Iron or Steel in her drink which must be small beer or water, with a little strong, or wine, if she be not Feaverish, for then half a spoonful of syrup of Quinces, or Pomgranates is better; and she may eat a little Marmalade of Quince, or other strengtheners, if she was purg'd be­fore; and because there is always great gripes, they must be appeas'd, by Clysters made of the broth of a Calves or Sheeps head well boild, with 2 ounces of oil of Violets; [Page 228] or good Milk and the yelk of an Egg; after the use of these as long as is judged neces­sary, which she must keep as long as she can; you must proceed to clensers made with Mal­lows and Marsh-mallows with hony of Roses, and then binding ones, in which must be nei­ther oil nor hony, beginning first with gent­lest made of Rose-water, with Lettice and Plantain water, then to stronger, of the roots and leaves of Plantain, tapsus barbatus, horse-tail, province Roses, rind of Pomgranates in Smiths water, adding of sealed earth and Dragons blood of each 2 drams; you may also foment the Fundament.

Of the monthly blood before, and if it be from to much blood 'twil do her a kindness.

SECT. XI. Of Fluddings.

THe Courses come at accustomed times, without pain, distilling by little and little from the Wombs Neck, during preg­nancy and then wholly ceaseth; but these come with pain, from the Wombs bottom, and almost on a sudden in great abundance, and continue without intermission, except some clods, formed there, seem sometimes to lessen the accident, by stopping for a small time the place whence they flow; but it soon returns with greater violence, and after fol­lows death to the Mother and Child, if not prevented by delivering the Woman.

If the Fludding happen when young with Child it's usually because of some false Con­ception, or Mole, of which the Womb en­deavours to discharge it self, by which it opens some of the Vessels in its bottom, whence the blood ceases not to flow, till it hath cast out the strange bodies it contain'd, & the subtiller the blood is the more it flows; but when this happens to one truely Con­ceiv'd, [Page 230] at whatever time, it proceeds likewise from the opening of the Vessels of the Womb's fund, caused by some blow, slip, &c. and chiefly because the secundine, separating in part if not wholly from the inside of the Wombs bottom, to which it ought to stick, to receive the Mothers blood, for the Childs nouriture, leaves open all the Orifices of the Vessels where it joyned, and so follows a great flux of blood, which never ceases till she be brought a Bed; yet I do not intend it should be done as soon as perceiv'd, for some small fluddings have been stop'd by lying quietly in Bed, bleeding i'th Arm and the use of Remedies mention'd in the menstru­ous Flux; and it may be but an ordinary monthly Flux; and then 'tis good leaving the Labor to nature, provided she hath strength, and accompanied with no other ill accident; but when she falls into Convulsions and Faintings, 'tis absolutely necessary she be deliver'd, whether she be at her count or no, pains or throws or no, for there is no o­ther way to save both their Lives.

You must not always expect pains and throws to force and forward Labor, in these dangerous accidents, for though they come at the beginning, they usually cease as soon as it comes to Faintings and Convulsions; [Page 231] neither must it be put off till the Womb be opened enough, for this Flux moistens, and the weakness loosens it, so that it may then be as easily widen'd as if there had been a­bundance of strong throws. Wherefore let the Midwife introduce her Fingers anointed with Oil or Butter, 2 or 3 at a time, and all by degrees, and at last her whole Hand, and if she find the waters not broke, break them, and then whatever part of the Child pre­sents, though the head (provided it be not i'th Birth) let her search for the Feet, and draw it forth by them; observing the circum­stances in delivery of a Child with the Feet first, because there's better hold; so that if the Feet lye not ready seek for them, which is easier done at that time then another; be­cause the Fluddings make the Womb slip­pery: then fetch the after-burthen, which in these cases cleaves but little, being care­ful not to leave so much as a clod i'th Womb, lest it continue the Fludding.

In this case many Women and Children have perished for want of this operation, and many escaped death by being timely succor'd. Guilemeau a Famous French Chirurgion men­tions 6 or 7 Histories to confirm this; and Moriceau by his experience avers it, and in [Page 232] the case of his own Sister too long here to relate.

You are always here to give good strengthning broths, gellies and a little good Wine, and smell to rose Vinegar; and to prevent the blood Fludding in great quanti­ty, open a vein i'th Arm, or bind her Arm with fillets above her Elbow, and lay cloaths upon her Reins wet in water and Vinegar: but if this proceeds from the parting of the after-burden, she must be delivered as soon as may be, though she were but 3 or 4 months gone, because all must be brough [...] away whether false Conception, Mole, or Child.

SECT. XII. Of the Weight of the Womb, &c.

THis is often caused by the stretching of the large Cords of the Womb, and this will cause an hinderance of Copulation, and a numness in her Hips, sleepiness in her Thighs, and difficulty of Urine and going to stool; chiefly towards her latter reckonings, because it presseth down the Bladder and great Gut, being seated between both. But she may be easier cur'd of this bearing down after she's layd, than before; for then the Cords will be easier strengthen'd, and she may then use pessaries which she cannot so well with Child.

The help for this from any cause is to keep her Bed, or swaith her; and if she have difficulty in urining, help her self by lifting up her belly with both hands; but if humors cause this, let her keep a drying dyet; as Rost-meat, &c. and refrain Copulation; streight lacing; and above all when in La­bor, take care that neither by throws, nor birth of the Child, nor violent drawing the [Page 234] burthen, that she get not a falling out of the Womb, instead of a bearing down or weight, which is soon done, if the method taught in the birth of a Child, when its Head thrusts the Neck of the Womb forth before it, be not well observed.

SECT. XIII. Of the Dropsie of the Womb, &c.

THese waters are either bred in the Womb, or brought thither from some other parts, as in the Dropsie of the belly it passes by tra [...]sudation through the porous substance of the Skins of the Womb; and these have deceived the Midwifes as well as patients, who having along time hoped and been made to hope for a Child, at length find nothing but waters; whereof some have voided a pailful, of which are many relations by Physitians and Chirurgeons; These are bred i'th Womb when 'tis too cold or weak­ned by a violent Labor before, or from sup­pression of filthy humors. When these are sent to the Womb from other parts they are never wrapt in a particular skin, but retain'd only by its exact closure, and flow away as soon as it begins to open; but when bred in the Womb, which is for the most part after Copulation, if the seed be too cold, waterish, or corrupt, they are then sometimes contain­ed within the Skin, which hinder the pati­ents from a speedy discharge of them. She [Page 236] going with it almost as long as with a Child; and this is it perswades them they are with Child.

But 'tis easie to avoid being deceiv'd, if you take notice of the Signs of a true Con­ception; for in a Dropsie her brests are fall­en, have no Milk, nor finds her self quicken at the usual time, but a bubling of moved waters; a greater weight in her Belly, and more equal, the Womb, Hips, Thighs and Legs swell, and worse Colour in her Face; and as it may come alone, so it may accom­pany a true Conception, the waters being contained in the Womb without the Childs Skin. Some have voided 3 or 4 quarts above 2 months before they were brought to Bed, and then they are contained in the Womb without the Skins, or else the Child would be forc'd to be born presently after they are voided.

The best Remedy is to wait patiently the time of delivery, observing a dry dy­et; but if 'tis only contained in the Womb, use diuretics, and endeavour to procure her Courses, and to destroy by purges the cau­se of the Generation of such superfluities: of which the Womb is so full sometimes that it dischargeth some on the outward [Page 237] parts and chiefly the nearest; as the Lips of the Privities, which are so swell'd that they are quite blown up, and in some are so big, that they can't close their Thighs, and hinders walking; now because this may be inconvenient to her during La­bor, it will be requisite to remedy it be­fore, which must be done by a Lancet, all along the Lips, then applying compresses dipt in astringent wine; Leeches though less painful are not so proper, because their small Orifices close again as soon as re­mov'd, but the other may be made as big or little as one will, and kept open by ointment as long as is fit.

SECT. XIV. Of Abortion and its causes.

WHen a Woman Sir i'th beginning casts forth what she had retain'd by Conception, 'tis an Effiuxion of the Seed; if a false Conception, 'tis an Expulsion, but when the infant's form'd and begins to live, if it come before time ordain'd by Nature 'tis an Abortion; and we say in general that every sharp Disease easily causes it; in parti­cular all the accidents before mentioned: as also a great noise, as Cannon, of Thunder claps, watching, fasting, stinks, &c. if she Miscarries without any of these accidents. Hippocrates says, any Woman indifferently corpulent miscarrying the 2d or 3d month without manifest cause, 'tis because the in­ward closers of the Womb's Vessels are full of viscous filth, whereby they cant retain the weight of the fetus, which is loosned from it; to this are Phlegmatic Women Subject, and who have the whites much which make the Womb slippery, and loose.

Likewise the passions of the mind, cause great hurt, chiefly Choler, but above all sud­den fear; There are other causes which may be said to proceed from the Infant, as when its monstrous, or hath an unnatural Situa­tion.

If we find one or more of the said acci­dents, and she hath a great heaviness in her belly, falling like a ball on that side she turns, and there comes stinking humors from her, 'tis a sign she will miscarry of a dead Child; Now she is in more danger of her Life when she miscarries then at full time; and in dan­ger of miscarrying always, if she miscarry at first; because of the violent motion caused by frequent Copulation; but they may pre­serve their fruit when their love is a little moderated. We have taught before to pre­vent each accident. Who are subject to Abor­tion, must rest or keep in Bed, refrein Co­pulation, [...] soon as she thinks she's with Child, avoiding diuretics and openers; and be loose drest, wear low-heel'd Shoos with broad Soals. Her rest must be 5 or 6 or 9 or 15 days, during which time may be applied to her belly compresses steep'd in Aromatic and Astringent Wine. Some Midwifes giving Crimson silk minc'd small in the yelk of an Egg, or Scarlet grains, [Page 240] and Treddles of several Eggs put into a yelk, is superstitious, as if entring the Sto­mach it were able to fortifie the Womb, and Child and keep it there.

PART. III. Of Diseases and Symptoms happening to Women after Child-birth.

SECT. I. Of Remedies for the Brests and lower parts of the Belly of Women newly delivered, and how to draw back the Milk.

Mid. AS soon Sir as the Woman is deli­ver'd, and burthen come away, I see that a fludding follow not its loosening, if not, apply presently a soft closure 5 or 6 double to the Womb, that done carry her to Bed, removing all foul Linnen, a little rai­sing her Head and Body, putting down her Legs and Thighs with a small pillow if she [Page 242] will, under her hands, lying on her back. Then the best thing under the Sun to give her is a good broth, and so leave her to sleep; waking apply this pultis over the bottom of her Belly and Privities, take 2 ounces of Oil of Sweet Almonds, 2 or 3 new laid Eggs, stir them together in a pipkin over hot Embers, when 'tis thick apply it indifferently warm, taking away the closures and clods of blood; renew this if need be after 5 or 6 hours, then make a decoction of Barley, Linseed and Chervil, or Marsh-Mallows and Violet leaves, adding an ounce of honey of Roses to a pint; and foment the bearing place Lukewarm 3 or 4 times a day, for the first 5 or 6 days: some use only milk; and others Barley wa­ter. After 10 or 12 days fortifie the parts with a decoction of Province Roses, Plantan leaves and roots, and Smith's water. The 2d day use loose swaths with a large square bol­ster, over the Belly, till the 8th day, taking it off; i'th mean time, often to anoint her Belly, if it be sore, with Oil of sweet Al­monds, and St. John's wort mixt; then be­gin to swaith her streighter.

If she will not be a Nurse, apply remedies to the Breasts to drive back the Milk; if she will Nurse them, keep her warm with soft clothes; and if you fear too much blood car­rying [Page 243] to them, anoint them with Oil of Ro­ses and a little Vinegar beat together, and lay on fine Linnen dipt in't; let her not suck the Child the same day she's deliver'd, but stay 6 or 7 days.

In driving back the Milk some remedies hinder flowing of humors to the Breasts, o­thers scatter, and, in part, dissolve the Milk therein. Of the first sort are the last oint­ment, or unguentum populeon and unguentum al­bum, equally mixt, spread upon Linnen, and applied. Of the 2d is a Pultis made of Lin­seed, Fenugreek, Beans, and Vetches pow­der'd, boiled with the decoction of Chervil, or Sage, with Honey and Saffron: some ap­ply Honey only; others rub the Breasts with Honey, and lay on a red Cabbage leaf, a lit­tle dryed, the stalks taken away; having great care she take not cold; and above all, pro­cure ample voiding of the clensings, by keep­ing the belly open, by Clysters provoking them; then the Milk will soon vanish.

SECT. II. Of Fludding after Child-birth.

OF that preceding Labor before: this blood now flows more abundantly, by how much 'tis hotter, or mov'd by a long and hard Labor, and the Wo­man's full of blood; and besides what's said, note, sometimes this blood continu­ing to flow, and remaining i'th bottom oth' Womb becomes clotted, which cau­seth a new Flud, and continues by Fits, and i'th intervals there comes away some wheyishness of the imprison'd blood, which dissolves, and makes some ignorant People think the Flux is stop'd, tho it continue flowing within, wherein it stops only by the clotted blood, when which comes away it begins a fresh. This is a more dangerous accident then any can happen to one newly lay'd, which dispat­ches her so soon, if in great quantity▪ that there's often scarce time to remedy it, so that you are immediately to apply remedies, both to stop, and turn back from [Page 245] the places whence it flows; to which end if it be a false Conception, piece of the burthen, or clotted blood, use all di­ligence to fetch them away, or cause them to be speedily expell'd; but if it flows and nothing remain, bleed her i'th Arm, not so much to empty the fulness, as to turn the course; lay her body equally flat, not raised, and keep quiet without turning from side to side: nor must the upper part of her Belly be swath'd or bolstered; keep her Chamber a little cool, and not too warm in Bed: All forbid Clysters lest they say, humors be cal'd down; but the contrary hath been expe­rimentally found, that great fluddings have been stopt by pretty strong clensing ones.

But if for all this the Flud continues, then to the last Remedy, which is to lay her upon fresh Straw, with a single cloth upon it and no Quilt, applying cloths wet in Vinegar and water along her Loins, and if in the Winter a little warm; give every half hour a little strong broth, with a few spoonfuls of Gelly, and between whiles the yelk of a new laid Egg; give her not too much food at a [Page 246] time; drinking red Wine with a little water wherein Iron hath been quenched; If all this prevail not she will be in dan­ger of her life.

SECT. III. Of the bearing down and falling out of the Womb and Fundament of a Wo­man newly layd.

ANd here I shall make 2 sorts of Bearing down, and 2 sorts of falling forth; which differ but in degree, for the first is when the Womb only bears down and comes not forth, the 2d when it comes out of the Body.

The first sort of bearing down, is when the full body of the Womb falls into the Neck, in such manner as putting up a Finger you may feel the Orifice very near; the 2d when the Womb being yet lower, one can clearly perceive this Orifice quite with­out.

The falling out is twofold too; in one the Womb comes quite forth, but is not turn'd inside out, nor can its inside be seen, only its orifice; which appears at the end of a great fleshy Mass, which makes the body of [Page 248] the Womb; and this is cal'd a falling forth of the Womb; the other is cal'd a perversion or turning inside out, most dangerous; for you may perceive all even and without any Orifice; and thus it seems to be only a great piece of bloody flesh, almost like a Mans Cod, which hangs between her Thighs; and that which is wonderful, in this case, is, the Womb, the infants house, goes forth at the Gate, which is the inner Orifice.

A loosening or breaking of the Cords cau­ses the bearing down, which comes from hard Labor: who have many whites are sub­ject to it, and heavy Children, Coughing, Sneezings, a fall, going in a Coach or Horse­back, great lifts, burdens, lifting the Arms too high, and putting them over their head; looseness, great pains and needings, all which shake and thrust the Womb downwards, when with Child, and the cords being loose­ned or broken cannot keep it up, so that a bearing down doth easily follow the Birth of a Child; but the most ordinary cause is vio­lent travel when a Child cometh wrong, and cannot be born so, or hath too big an head, or the inner Orifice not enough opened, for the Womb is violently forced down, and yet the Child can't advance into the passage, be­cause the cords are so rent or loosen'd; or [Page 249] when the Secondine sticking close to the bot­tom is pul'd away on a sudden, or too vio­lently, and much sooner if putting up the hand, as when the String's broke, one pulls the body of the Womb instead of the After­birth; but your directions will prevent this.

She feels a great weight at the bottom of her Belly, extream pain i'th Reins and Loins; and a bloodish moisture passes through this Mass of Flesh hanging between her Legs. A loosening may happen to all Women, a fall­ing out but seldom, a perfect perversion never but upon or immediately after a delivery; because the inner Orifice is then almost as wide as its bottom; but not at other times; when closed there is no possibility of its turn­ing inside out; how to remedy it, I have told you.

If she be young and disease new, easily ex­pect a cure, for a loosening or falling out, but if she old, and of a long standing, 'tis so much the more incurable.

Here do two things. 1. reduce the Womb to its place. 2. strengthen it and keep it there; for the first, if it be quite out or turned, first make her render Urine, and give [Page 250] a Clyster, if necessary to empty the Guts; then lay her on her back, her Hips raised a little higher than her Head, foment all with a little wine and water luke-warm, and with a soft rag put it up, wagging it little and lit­tle from side to side; and if this be too pain­ful anoint it with Oil of sweet Almonds, wiping off the Oil as much as may be after.

As to the keeping it in its place, and strengthening it after; let her keep in Bed on her back, her Hips a little raised, Legs something crossed, Thighs joined; but the best is to put a pessary up the neck of the Womb; the Figures of which you may see; some of the Figure of an Egg, of the length and bigness of the Womb's neck; but these are Subject to fall out, and so are not so con­venient as those made of a piece of Cork; they are to be of a thick circular figure, like a small wreath, and peirc'd i'th middle with a pretty big hole; they must be cover'd with white wax, and pretty large, pull them out with a Finger to clear them; they may be made some round, others somewhat square, or trianguler, the corners must be blunted or rounded.

While the Lochia flow use nothing else to strengthen, and above all swath not her belly, [Page 251] but only for a stay; for many Midwifes by a strong compression force it more down: use a Bed-pan, and ly along, if possible, when she goes to stool; keeping her hand all the while on the bottom of her Belly; but have­ing cleansed well, then use astringent injecti­ons, and respect must be had to the whole habit of body to dry up the humors by a course of Physick, and she must keep her Bed for 5 or 6 weeks.

Sometimes by the great throws she endures in Labor the fundament falls out; now if the Child be very forward i'th passage, 'twill be enough to hinder it if possible before it happens, perswading her not to help her throws so much; but if it be down, she must stay till the Child be born; for it will be dif­ficult before without bruising the Gut, then reduce it as the Womb; giving no Clysters, for straining will cause it.

SECT. IV. Of the bruises and rents of the outward parts of the Womb, caused by La­bors.

THese happen from the bigness of the Child's head, which makes her cry in her first-Labor, that the Midwife scratches those parts when 'tis the head makes a sepa­ration of the parts, and bruises and somtimes rents them; of which they are not insensible after Labors. These must not be neglected least they turn to malignant Ulcers; then as soon as she's lay'd, if there be only simple bruises, apply the Pultis before directed, to those parts to ease pain, very warm for 5 or 6 hours, then lay some few rags dipt in Oil of St. John's wort, on each side, and renew­ing them twice or thrice a day, foment with Barley water and Honey of Roses, and when she makes water defend them with fine rags.

If the bruises be great, and inflam'd, and an Impostume follows, it must be open'd and [Page 253] cur'd by the Chyrurgeon; as also when by an unlucky accident the Privity and Fundament is rent in one; which when cur'd she will be oblig'd, if she happen to be with Child, to prevent the like, to anoint the parts with soft'ning Oils and Ointments, and forbear helping her throws too strongly at once; but usually when these parts have been once rent, 'tis very difficult to prevent the like, because the scar streightens the parts. Last­ly if by neglecting such a rent, the Lips be cicatriz'd and the cure be desired; 'tis the Chyrurgeons business.

SECT. V. Of the After-pains.

IF these come from wind i'th Bowels, it runs from side to side, and sometimes to­wards the Womb; to prevent this some give of Oil of sweet Almonds, and syrup of Mai­den-hair, each 2 ounces, immediately after Child-birth; and to those that loath Oil I prefer warm broth, or caudle, and give a Clyster, and repeat it as need is; if it cease not thus 'tis maintained by some other cause.

If from some strange body i'th Womb, see to cast it out. If her clensings be suddenly stop'd, give Clysters to draw down; use hot foments to the bearing place; bleed i'th Foot, and if full, i'th Arm first: Rest alone, will fortifie and unite the stretching or breaking o'th Womb's cords; but never forget in all pains to mind the Lochia.

SECT. VI. Of the Lochia, whence they come, if good or bad, their stopping, and what ensues.

THere flows waterish humors from the Womb as soon as the Child is born, besides those before, when the Skins break which are often bloody, because mostly blood's mixt with them, but immediately af­ter the burden is loosen'd there flows pure blood, but after the 1st day there comes wa­terish humors, when the Vessels close; then they become thickish by heat, more or less as they come in greater or lesser quantity, and the length of time they stay there, and then they resemble troubled milk, which makes People believe 'tis Breast milk.

Now I believe the cause of their change of colour, consistance, and diminution of [...]heir quantity, to be no other then that in [...]he suppuration of a great wound; as soon [...]s 'tis made it bleeds fresh, and much but [...]fter it yeilds only bloodish humors, then a [Page 256] white matter; so you must imagine there is a kind of wound made by loosening the bur­den from the Womb, and what comes from it is the Lochia: so that they are not what hath stay'd in and about the Womb, during all the time of Child-bearing; for that's the Secundine; neither is their any certain rule for their quantity and continuance, being ac­cording to the Season, Country, Age, Tem­per more or less, hot, or moist, the habit more or less full, and Vessels remaining long or short time open: but 'tis finish'd com­monly in 15 or 20 days; but after a mis­chance the less the fetus is, and the less time she is gone with Child, the less are the Lo­chia.

If they be fresh but the 3 or 4 first days they are good, else 'tis a pure bloody flux, which will be very dangerous; if of no ill scent, without sharpness, so we know the Womb's without inflammation or corruption, and if they flow in so great quantity as to cause Faintings or Convulsions she's in danger of death, or very much weaken'd, grows lean, and pale, Legs and Thighs swell, and be­comes Dropsical.

The diseases ensue upon their stopping are almost innumerable, so that to bring [Page 247] them down let her avoid all troubles of Spi­rit, lye quiet, with her Head and Breast a lit­tle rais'd; if Feaverish use only broths with a little gelly, above all shun cold drink; give Clysters, and foment her lower parts rub her Thighs and Legs downwards, and bath them too, and apply large Cupping-Glasses, to the uppermost part of the inside of her Thighs; bleed i'th Arm first; if very full of humors, for i'th Foot would draw too much to the Womb.

SECT. VII. Of the Inflammation &c. of the Womb.

THis is very dangerous, and the death of most; caused from the Lochia stopt, or bruise; by two hard swathes, falling out o'th Womb, &c. an Impostume or Cancer fol­lows a bruise, if not death; wherefore tem­per the heat and humors (first extracting or causing the expulsion of strange things re­maining i'th Womb; using not the least violence) with Veal or Pullet broth, with Lettice, Purselan, Succory, Sorrel; abstain from Wine, keep quiet in Bed, with anodine Clysters, and bleed i'th Arm, not i'th Foot; reiterate it, because 'tis very pressing, till the greatest part of fulness be a little evacua­ted, an inflammation diminished, then i'th Foot if need; injecting in the Womb Barley water with Oil of Violets, or milk. An A­postume, Schyrrhus or Cancer is the Physiti­ans or Chyrurgions work.

SECT. VIII. Of the Inflammation and Aposte­mation of the Breasts.

THe Breasts being made of a spungy sub­stance, easily receive in too great abun­dance, the humors flowing to them from all parts by blood; being over-heat by throws and pains in travel, and so are soon inflam'd; being then painfully stretch'd; to which helps the suppression of the Lochia, and a fulness of the whole Body; or it may happen from having been too streight lac'd, some blow, or bruise by lying upon them, or for not give­ing the Child milk.

Now convenient remedies are speedily to be applied lest dangerous symptoms fol­low; wherefore the certainst means to hin­der the Flux of so great quantity of blood to the Breasts, is to procure a large evacuation of the Lochia; the habit of the body is to be emptied by bleeding i'th the Arm; after i'th Foot; chasing into the breasts Oil of Roses and Vinegar beat together, laying upon them unguentum refrigerens Galeni, or unguentum al­bum, [Page 260] and a 3d part of populeon mixt, or a pultis of the setlings in a Cutler's Grinstone-trough, Oil of Roses and a little Vinegar mixt together. If the pain continue great, take the crums of white bread and milk with Oil of Roses and the yelks of raw Eggs, upon all these may compresses be laid dipt in Vi­negar and water, or plantain water.

When you have emptied the greatest part of the humors, and the height of the Inflam­mation is past, then draw the milk; or else, unless it be turn'd to matter, pure Honey laid to them resolves milk; or a Cabbage leaf anointed therewith being first a little wither'd and the hard stalks and veins taken away; lace not too streight, nor apply course clothes. A whole red Cabbage boil'd in Ri­ver water to a pap, and well bruised in a wooden or Marble Mortar, and pulp'd through a Sieve, adding Oil of Comomil, is a very good pultis.

Let her dyet be cool, not very nourishing, keep her body open, lying on her Back in Bed, all the while; stir her Arms as little as may be, and after the 14th or 15th day of her delivery, being sufficiently cleansed, and in­flammation abated, and no longer Feaverish, purge her once or twice; and if for all these [Page 261] the swelling goes not down, but she feels great beating and pain, a hardness more in one place then another, of a livid color and soft i'th middle 'tis certain 'twill apostemate: then apply ripening Medicines, as a pultis of Mallows, Marsh-Mallows with their roots, Lilly roots and Linseed bruis'd, boil'd to pap, and pulp'd through a sieve, then add a good quantity of Hogs Grease or Basilicon, laying a little cloth thick spread with Basilicon upon the place where 'tis likely soonest to break, and the pultis all over it, renewing it 12 hours after, continuing till it be full ripe; then if it open not of it self, it must be open'd by a Lancet or Incision knife, which being the Chirurgeon's work, he is to do it.

SECT. IX. Of the curdling of the Milk in the Breasts.

BEcause her Body was much mov'd dure­ing Labor; in the beginning of Child­bed her Milk is not well purified, and is mixt with many other humors, which, if 01 they are then sent to the Breasts in too great quantity, cause an Inflammation, but when the Child hath suck'd 15 or 20, or more days, then only the Milk, without other mixture contain'd there; which sometimes curdles, and the Brests become hard and rugged, without any redness, and the separation of all the kernels fill'd with curdled Milk may easily be perceived; she finds a great pain, and cannot milk them; with a shivering, chiefly about the middle of her Back, like Ice; which is usually follow'd by a Feaver of 24 hours long, and sometimes less; if it do not turn in­to an Inflammation of the Breasts, which it will undoubtedly do, if it be not em­ [...]ied, scater'd and dissolv'd.

This clodding comes mostly because the Breasts are not fully drawn; either for that she hath too much Milk; or the Child is too weak to such all, or because she doth not desire to be a Nurse: for the Milk staying in the Breasts looseth its sweetness, and by sowring curdles. This may also happen from taking cold, or not covering her Breasts.

The readiest and surest remedy, from what cause soever, is speedily to draw the Breasts, till they be empty'd, and if the Child cannot, because she is hard milched, let a Woman, till it comes freely, and then the Child will; and that she may not after breed more Milk then the Child can draw, let her dyet breed but little nourishment, and keep her body always open. But when she neither can nor will be Nurse, then her Breasts must not be drawn; for drawing more humors, the Disease will return, if not again emptied. Wherefore 'tis necessary to prevent come­ing of any more Milk, and to scatter that which is there; by empting the fulness of the body by bleeding i'th Arm and Foot; and strong Clysters, and purging if need­full; and to resolve the curdled Milk, ap­ply [Page 264] a pultis of pure Honey; or of pow­der of Linseed, Fenugreek, Beans and Vet­ches, boild in a decoction of Sage, Smal­lage, Fennel, Milk, adding Oil of Camomil; anointing with the Oil first.

SECT. X. Of Choping &c. and loss of the Nipples.

WOmen are subject the first time to have their Niples chop'd, which is unsufferable, and the more if hard milch'd, as the first time, when the Milk hath not yet made way through the small holes of the Niples, which are not yet thorowly open'd, and then the Child takes more pains to suck; and sometimes these chops do so encrease by the Childs sucking, that the Niple's taken quite off the Breast, and there rests an Ulcer very hard to be cur'd. This may happen from the Childs being so dry and hungry that it hath not patience to suck softly, but finding the Milk not speedily to follow as they de­sire, bite and pinch the Niple so hard that it becomes raw, and at last take it quite away. This happens also when Infants have hot mouths, or thrushes, or the pox soonest.

These must not be neglected, as well be­cause of the great pain, as to avoid their growing worse and worse. Therefore as [Page 266] soon as they begin forbear giving suck, keep­ing back her milk for a small time; and if but one Niple be sore, she may suckle with the other; Applying Allum or Lime-water, or only bath them with Plantain water, put­ing soft rags dipt in any of them or a ceruse plaister, or Diapompholigos, or a little starch powdred; but chiefly take care that nothing be apply'd to distate the Child; wherefore many use only Honey of Roses. Softening remedies are fit to preserve from chops, but when they are already made, dryers are best, and to prevent her from hurts in these parts, and that the rags may not stick to them, put upon them a little Wax, or wooden caps, or leaden ones, they being more drying, like these in the Figure; having several small holes on their tops, as well to give issue to the matter, as that the Milk may pass away.

If the Nipples are wholly suck'd off, then dry the Milk up; and if the Child have the pox, put it to another who must use preser­vatives against it: but if they be only small, simple Ulcers i'th Mouth without any Ma­lignity, wash them only with Barley water with a little juice of Citrons or Lemons; and let the Nurse use a cooling dyet, and bleed and purge if necessary.

The Child can take no hold when the Nipples are quite gone, and the small holes are closed up; but if she shall desire to give suck, let Woman by degrees make her new Nipples (after the Ulcer's perfectly heal'd) and unstop the root of the old ones: or using an Instrument of Glass, as in the Figure, she may suck them her self 5 or 6 times a day; and to preserve them, and shape them, thus drawn out, from sinking into the Breasts a­gain, let her put a small cap upon them as before, and so by degrees she may give suck again.

Dr. Thus far good Mrs. Eutrapelia, have you expressed your self very knowingly in your Art, as to what we have hitherto treat­ed of concerning Women; there now re­mains something that I would be satisfied of how far your skill consists in, and that is con­cerning the Diseases of little Children; be­cause you coming often to visit the Mother, if any thing be a miss about her Infant, it is a common custome to desire the advice of the Midwife in such cases, rather then run presently to the Physitian or Chirurgion. But first let me hear your opinion about the choice of a Nurse.

Mid. Sir as I have been very happy to have satisfied you to the best of my know­ledge in what concerns Women, before, in, and after their Lying in Child-bed; so like­wise shall I answer your request as to what concerns little Children and the Distempers and Symptoms happening to them, and first of the nature and qualities of the Nurse; and if the Mother be the fittest Nurse?

PART. IV. Of the Diseases and Symptoms happen­ing to little Children: and of the choice of a Nurse.

SECT. I. What manner of Woman a Nurse ought to be; and whether the Mother be the best Nurse.

Mid. FIrst of all Sir there is, and hath been always divers opinions concerning Nurses, whether the Mother be fittest for that office, or a stranger? as for what my thoughts are concerning the matter, with submission to your better judgment in this and all other cases, I shall fully disclose them to you.

Now Sir some are for the Mothers suck­ing her own Child, and will bring you Scrip­ture for it too; for say they did not Sarah Nurse Isaac? therefore every Woman ought to Nurse her own Child; but this is but a weak Argument; for, from Scripture, to retort their Argument on them, David was a King and a Prophet, therefore every man must be a King, and every King a Prophet: others again give you profound reasons; as they imagine; as that the Mothers milk is most convenient for the Child, because it partakes of her nature; But I would ask these Peo­ple, whether every Cholerick Woman hath Cholerick Children; or every Phlegmatick Woman Phlegmatick Children? and so of the rest: Another reason is, because the Woman they say cannot love her Child, un­less she give it suck her own self. But if she do not for all that, in my opinion she is very inhumane and unnatural.

Others again are of a quite contrary opi­nion, and thwart all this; for first say these, the Child draws its conditions from its Nurse, to prove which they quote several examples; as Alcibiades being an Athenian, was so strong and valiant because he suck'd a Spartan Woman: but Cornelius Tacitus says the Germans were such strong bon'd men, be­cause [Page 271] they suck'd their own Mothers; then why had not Alciliades been so if he had suck'd his? But all Authors generally de­scribing of what complexion and condition a Nurse ought to be, if every Woman then must Nurse her own Child, any complexion must then of necessity serve the turn.

Since the choice of a Nurse is of so great a concernment; (as upon which, the future being of the infant consists) surely this, then requires many serious considerations, For, though she may have milk enough; yet per­haps not good enough; or the woman ei­ther sluttish, or unhandy, or careless in the swathing and the dressing of the Child; by which many children (like new vessels, which will keep the savour of that liquor they are first seasoned withal) are sluttish or slovenly so long as they live; or else (being abused at Nurse, are Crooked and Ricketty; full of botches, nasty and nauseous to their own Parents. And many, through their intemperancy, by drinking, to encrease their milk, and perhaps make it bad enough, sleep so securely and profoundly, that they over­lay their Nurseries in the night, and the Children are dead by their sides in the morn­ing. Therefore let nurses sleep so often, that they may hear the least cry of the in­fant. [Page 272] Let the Nurse then, be of middle stature, and good complexion; active, not fat, (and of a sanguine complexion, if possible) and not in poverty; not under twenty years of Age, not above forty, but rather of twenty five, or thirty. Let not her nipples be great, least it make the child of a wide mouth, because it cannot suck without the contraction of the lips together and lest by forcing the Tongue into too nar­row a compass, it hinders the swallowing of the milk.

Next, if the nipple be too small, the child is apt to let it slip out of the mouth, and cannot handsomely hold it, so that the in­fant being frustrated of suck, and yet still exercising suckling, hurts the cheek, and at­tracts some kind of humors thither, which oftentimes become unnatural Tumors; and oftentimes the cheeks of the infant seem as if they were moved out of their places. Thirdly, by the consent of all, the Nurse must have a large breast (though some think that not so material, because there is more milk collected together in great breasts than ought; and being there, is corrupted, to the prejudice of the Nurse. Wherefore, lest the milk should continue there too long, it is best to have a young lusty child to suck it a­way; or else to use it some other way; as [Page 273] by the use of young whelps; whom I have seen dye with sucking Womens milk; sure­ly the reason must be, because the milk was of another nature; or else, because curdled and corrupted or milked out some other way; especially, when the Nurse perceives her self prejudiced by it. But it is ever best, that she abound, rather than want Milk; and then in this case it is best they be big, though all Nurses need not have big breasts; for there may be as much Milk, if not more, in a lesser breast, than in a great one.

The next enquiry will be into the man­ners and behaviour of a Nurse.

The best Nurse then is, she that is mild, chaste, sober, courteous, chearful, lively, neat, cleanly, and handy; because bad con­ditions, as well as good, are suck'd in with the milk, and so radicated, that it is a hard matter to pull out the bad conditions, and leave the good behind, but that there will be a remainder of the bad conditions, perhaps so long as they live: wherefore, let not the Nurse be of an angry, malepert, and saucy disposition, shameless, scolding, or quarrel­some; not gluttonous, but so careful of her Nursery, that she neither eat or drink that which may be hurtful to the Infant: That [Page 274] she do nothing to anger her self, to grieve, or sad her self; for such passions will pre­sently distribute themselves, to the prejudice of the Infant; than which there is nothing of more efficacy to destroy the goodness of the Milk.

Neither is it sufficient that they abstain from the use of their husbands; but when they have wanton thoughts, and lascivious minds, wholly upon Luxury and Venery, they cast off all care of the Nurseries, and dream­ing at night of that which their minds run on in the day, and by other filthy pollutions they infect the milk. So also, by the use of their Husbands the Courses are stirred up, by which both the plenty and goodness of milk is derived another way; and so the Child robbed of its nutriment; or else the Nurse conceiveth with Child, and so the In­fant becometh diseased and Ricketty, by sucking curdy and unwholsome milk, and is worse for it during life.

Therefore let all those things be avoided, that either do, or are supposed to provoke lust; as, junkets made with spices; also Oni­ons, Leeks, Garlick, and all salt meats are to be avoided: Persly and Smallage, some say, have a peculiar malice to the increase of [Page 275] milk: besides that, it doth increase lust, and is an enemy to the growth of Infants.

Again, that Nurse were best, that hath lately been brought to bed of a Boy if to Nurse a Boy, the milk of such a Nurse being better tempered. For the milk of a Male Child will make a Female Nursery more spritely, and a man like Virago; and the milk of a girl will make a boy the more effe­minate.

As to the milk, let it be a mean, betwixt thick and thin; which you may perceive, by dropping it upon the Thumb-Nails; for if it be too thin, it will run off the sooner; but if thicker, it will stay the longer: let it be sweet, and pleasant, both to the smell and taste; not offending the palate with rancid­ness, sourness, sharpness, or saltness; or the nostrils with any strange quality. Let it be candid to the sight, in it self equal in each particles, not infested with brown, yellow, green, blue, or any other evil colour; or, as sometimes, with various colours and sub­stance; as, with lines, and streaks upon it: but let that milk be most praise-worthy, that makes as much curd as whey; which may be tryed by this Experiment, viz.

Put some of this milk into a glass, and pu [...] in some Myrrh, or Rennet; which being stirred together, will curd, and then may the contents be separated: the tryal is, that i [...] there be most whey, then is the milk thinne [...] in its substance; but if most of curd, 'tis thicker: yet all these may be corrected and amended; for that which is too thick may be mended by an extenuating diet, and the flegmatick matter may be avoided by a vo­mit of Oxymel, and Exercise before meat▪ the better to consume and attenuate the thickness of it.

The thinness of Milk is amended by con­trary food, such as doth incrassate it: as Fromenty of Wheat, and Rice; Hogs­feet, Calves-feet, Trotters, and sweet Wine unless somewhat else be in the way to hinder it. Sometimes it happens that the Milk is more tart than it ought to be: wherefore then, all diligence must be had to feed upon such meats as are of the best juice, till that acrimony at least be attempered.

Sometimes there is little or no milk in the breasts; as after some sickness, or notable distemper, now turned into a bad habit, or any other of what kind soever, that posses­seth those parts, or is the cause: but that [Page 277] shall not be our business to consider of now.

Now, if these be not the causes, let the Nurse use supping meats, as Broths, Possets, &c. and eat plentifully, and use rubbings to her Breasts and Duggs, exercising her hands and her Arms by domestick Employments; or instead thereof, let her dance the Child, by which the aliment may be recalled into those parts.

Sometimes cupping-glasses to the Breasts, with a fomentation of emollient herbs boiled in water, and applied warm, either with sponges, or wollen-clothes; after which, chafe them with oyl of Lillies. The seeds of Fennel, and the roots of Parsnips boiled in Barley-water, and buttered. The broth of Hens, or Capons, with Cinnamon and Mace.

Or Poch'd-eggs, with the seeds of Annis, and Dill; and all things else that are hot in the first and second degree, are good. Earth Worms, (not dung-hill ones,) six or seven of them dried, and powdered, and drank in Bar­ley-water sugared, for a fortnight toge­ther.

All these may be of good use in the defect of Milk. As to the inconveniency (if there be any) in too much Milk. If the Milk a­bound too much, which sometimes is (though seldome) blamable; Then use the decoction of Myrtleberries, and red Roses, and with clothes dipped in it, lay them on the Breasts. Or else clothes imbibed in Vinegar, wherein Cummin-seeds bruised have been infused with Myrrh and Camphire.

By reason of the thickness of the Milk, all those excrements that the Child should send forth, are intercepted; as by Stool, by U­rine, &c. The passages for transpiration are stuffed up, so that the progress of the ali­ment being stop'd, of necessity the Milk must be vomited up; after which will follow much flegmatick matter, a sure argument of crudities.

Sometimes there will arise botches about the Body; much matter, and snot, and quit­tor will come out of the Nose, and corner [...] of the Eyes, and Eyelids; and the appetit [...] will be lost.

Contrarily, from the thinner and sharpe [...] sort of Milk, the Belly is looser than i [...] ought, being troubled with pinches an [...] gripes in the belly of the infant.

Also, very angry pustules and whelks will arise about the body, like the small Pox; and the body groweth weak by little and little, the Infant not caring for food; for the strength of the appetite will be more remiss, by reason of the sharpness of that which the Infant desires; so that it is not much sensible of that aliment which it hath; and that ali­ment of which it is sensible is naught, and vi­cious.

Now, as from the over-bundance of Milk, the Infant oftentimes, when it sucks, is over­whelmed, being so puffed up, and the belly distended, as if it would break; until by much pissing, or breaking wind, it is slacker. So where there is too much scarcity of milk, there the Infant being altogether destitute of its nourishment, will pine away; and all the parts of the body being starved, in those years when it most wants nourishment, by reason of vehemency of the innate heat, and that habit of body (that the least blast will puff down) which requires much, and constant aliment.

By all which, Women ought to be the more provident, lest all these mischiefs hap­pen, (especially, not to make choice of such a Nurse, whose poverty must needs starve [Page 280] her self, and her Nursery; and if they should so happen, to amend them, as hath been said before) e're they grow incurable, and re­quire the help of another Artist that may cure it.

Or, if the fault in the milk cannot be cured and amended in the Nurse, (which she hath contracted,) Then you have no more to do, but presently to look for another Nurse, that hath none of these inconveniencies; that so the Infant may have suck enough, which is all it requires; for want of which, you may hear sad crying, and weeping. And this may be discovered by their dreams, as by the of­ten motion of the lips in the cradle, as if they were sucking when they are a sleep.

Neither is it strange, that the Infant should be sensible of, and Participate of what­soever food (as meat, drink, and Physick,) that the Nurse taketh: which maketh Phy­sitians purge the Nurse, to cure the Child: if a woman take any purging Physick, she purgeth her Child also. So, Galen reports that of Goats, feeding in Asia, where Scam­mony grow, did communicate a purging fa­culty to their milk. And so the milk of As­ses, generally accounted best in Consumpti­ons, is counted better, if the Asse be fed with [Page] such herbs, as Maiden-hair, &c. And again, when young Goats suck Sheeps-milk, the rough hair shall lose its coursness, and be­come like a fleece of wooll: and so contrari­ly, when Lambs are brought up by Goats, their wooll groweth the more hairy.

If then the qualities of the milk pass into those that suck them, (as without doubt they do) it is easie to gather, that other impuri­ties follow thither also, neither is it impro­bable. Surely then, we ought to take no less care of the Nurse than of the Child; as in her diet, exercise, physick, &c. since, whatsoever conduceth to the benefit of the Nurse, tends to the good and welfare of the Infant.

I have been the larger upon this Sir of Nurses, and Milk, because tender Infants can neither make choice of their Nurses them­selves; nor discover, or plead for their wants: Their own Mothers, surely, (if they are able) both by duty, and nature, being the most fit to Nurse their own Children; which the greatest Ladies may do, with the greatest conveniences; by reason of their plenty of all things; besides, their attendance of servants, who can bring their Nurseries to them at all hours, be it by night or day, [Page 282] and take it from them again, not to disturb their rest: which also, they may tend at their own pleasures.

The longest time that a Child need be suckled, is till it have teeth to chew with. I shall leave only one caution for Nurses, and and so wind up: and 'tis this: Let Nurses ever milk out some Milk e're they suckle the Child; and after it is suckled, that they rock it not too much presently after, lest violent rocking disturb the meat in the stomach; or the other parts draw away the Milk in the stomach, as yet unconcocted.

Dr. Thus far have you done very well good Mrs. Eutrapelia, as in all other things so as to what concerns the Choice and office of Nurses; and now if you please you shall hear a few of my observations about the same mat­ter, which it may be, may not be unwelcome to you.

Then you must know that I have taken notice of 2 sorts of Nurses, which I have ob­serv'd in the World; The one sort is such as are of an ill humor or blood; the which set­tle in their Milk, being the place at that time where they discharge themselves.

Now you must note that these sort of Women are in a better condition when they are Nurses then when they are not; for when they are not Nurses, they are subject to pains in their Arms sometimes, and some­times in their Shoulders, and sometimes in their Legs or Thighs; or elce they are sub­ject to waterish Eyes, or swelling in their Eyes or Nose.

Now the Infants which suck these Nurses, if they be fat, 'tis not good but soft fat, and they are dull and sottish; and coming to breed Teeth they are very sickly and com­monly dye, by reason of the reum pushing out of too many Teeth at once; and if they escape this they are more troubled with bad juices in their Infancy, then their Parents in their old age; and if the reum be salt the Milk is of a blackish and blewish colour; but if it be of Choler, 'tis yet the more dangerous and venemous to the Children.

There is another sort of Nurses, and they are such as who after they have layen in, a­bout some 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 months, are ta­ken with their purgations; a thing which never happens to good Nurses; and when this does happen they are more dangerous then the former, and the Child must present­ly [Page 284] be taken away, for they are more apt to conceive then to Nurse; and if they do con­tinue Nurses they do but ruine the Children; for there dyes a third part of the Children, for want of taking care in this particular, which yet seem fat and in good case; for this is the cause of great colic, and windiness in Infants which kils them in a moment; for the least Feaver that takes them carries them away.

And now to come home to the purpose, let me tell you the first and principal of all the qualities in a good Nurse, is that she be the Childs own Mother, as well because of the mutual sympathy of their tempers, as that having much more love for it, she will be much more careful then an hired Nurse, who commonly loves her Nurse Child but with a feined love; so that the Mother, though she be not the best Nurse, should always be pre­fer'd before another.

But because there are divers that either will not, or cannot suckle their own Children, there is then an Obligation to provide ano­ther Nurse; which should be chosen for the Child's good, as near as may be. For even as we see trees, of the same kind, and grow­ing in the same, yet being afterwards trans­planted [Page 285] to another Soil, do produce fruits of a different taste, by reason of the nourish­ment they draw from thence; even so it fares with the health of Children; and their manners sometimes depend on the nourish­ment they receive at the beginning; for as the health of the body answers to the humors that all the parts are nourished with, which humors always retain the nature of the food whereof they are engendred; and as for the manners they commonly follow the tempe­rament, which likewise proceeds from the nature of the humors, and the humors from the food; from whence may be drawn this consequence, that as the Nurse is, so will the Child be both in body and mind by means of the nourishment it draws from her.

This may plainly appear in Animals that suck a strange dam; for they always purchase something of the nature of the Creature they suck; being accordingly either of a mild or fierce nature, of a strong or weak body; as may be seen in young Lions which will be­come tame by sucking a domestic Animal, as a Cow, Ass, or Goat, and on the other side a Dog will become more furious if it sucks a Wolf.

Now the necessary conditions requisite in a good Nurse, are usually taken from her Age, the time and manner of her Labor, the Constitution of all the parts of her Body, and particularly of her Breasts, the nature of her Milk, and lastly from her manners.

As concerning her Age, the most conve­nient is from 25 to 35 years of Age; Then as to the time and manner of her Labor, it must be at least a month or 6 weeks after that, and not above 5 or 6 months; she must not have miscarried, and she must have layn in of a 2d or third Child, that she may know the better how to perform her Office.

As to the healthful constitution of her bo­dy, 'tis the principal thing, on which almost all the rest depend, for she ought to come of Parents that never had the stone in the Reins or Bladder, or Gout, Kings-Evil, Falling-sickness, or any other hereditary distemper; that she have no Scab, or Itch, and that she be strong, neither too tall, nor too low; not too fat, nor too lean, and above all she must not be with Child; let her be of a Sanguine Complexion, which is known by her Vermi­lion color, not altogether so red, but in­clining to white; of a firm, fast flesh; not subject to the Whites, for that's a sign of a [Page 287] bad habit; not red hair'd, nor mark'd with red spots; but black hair'd, or of a Chesnut brown; neat in her Cloaths, of a sprightly Eye, and a smiling countenance, sound and white Teeth, for if they be rotten her breath may smell; having a good voice to please and rejoice the Child, and a clear and free pronuntiation that the Child learn, not an ill accent from her, as usually red hair'd have, and sometimes those that are very black hair'd with white Skins; for their Milk is hot, sharp and stinking, and also of an ill Tast.

Her Breasts ought to be pretty big to re­ceive and concoct a sufficient quantity of milk; being sound and free from scars, pro­ceeding from former Impostumes; being in­different firm and fleshy, that their natural heat may be the stronger; she must be broad breasted that her Milk may have the more room to be prepared and digested in, and because 'tis a sign of a great deal of vital heat.

As to her Nipples they must be well shap'd as you observ'd, not too big, nor too hard, nor gristly, nor sunk in too deep; but they must be a little raised, and of a moderate big­ness and firmness, with many little holes, that [Page 288] she may be soft milch'd, to the end the Child may not take too much pains to draw the milk by sucking them and pressing them with its Mouth.

All these good qualities being found in a Nurse, respecting all the parts of her. Body, there needs be no fear but her Milk will be good; The which may be known first by its quantity, the which ought to be sufficient for the Child's nourishment, and not too much, lest it not being all drawn forth, it curd [...]e and inflame the Breast, by its too long stay there; however it is better to have too much then too little, for she may give the overplus to another Child: it must not be too waterish, nor to thick; but of a middle consistence; the which may be easily judg­ed, if she milking some into her hand, and turning it a little on one side, it immediate­ly turns off; but if it remains fixt, 'tis a mark 'tis too thick and clammy; and this if she have but little of, it will stick upon the Childs tongue, pallate, and throat, and so cause as it were a white Cancer, which is more and more heated by reason of their forceable sucking in vain, and they are here­by hindred from sucking: These Nurses will after this Milk a drop or two out of their Breasts, and cry look ye the Child cares not for sucking.

There is no greater abuse in any thing then in Nurses, for let them make what pre­tence they will, 'tis nothing but necessity makes them be such: and therefore Mothers ought to have a great care, and to make it their business to surprize the Nurse at her own House, that if there be any miscarriage they may find it out.

As to the colour of her Milk the whitest is the best, and the less white it is, so much the worse; it must be of a sweet and pleasant smell, which is a sign of a good temper; as may be seen in red hair'd Women, whose Milk hath a sour bad scent; and to be com­pleat in every quality it must be of a good taste, that is sweet and sugar'd; without any sharpness or saltness, or other strong tast.

Lastly to come to the principal and best conditions of a Nurse, which consists in her good manners, I say that she ought to be careful to cleanse the Child as soon as there is occasion; she ought to be prudent, not Cholerick nor quarrelsome, as well because it may make bad impressions on the Child, as because it heats her Milk; let her not be Me­lancholy, but merry and chearful, smiling of­ten to divert it.

She must be sober, not given to Wine or other strong Liquors, and yet less to the ex­cess of Venus; but she may moderately use the first, and not wholly abstain from the 2d, if her nature require it; so it be with her Husband: which liberty is freely given then by the great Physitian Jubertus in the 7th chap. of the 5th book of his Popular Errors▪ being founded upon the Experience of al [...] poor Women, who bring up their Children very well, notwithstanding they lye every Night with their Husbands; and from his own, alleging that his Wife had Nursed his Children all very well, although he lay with her every Night, and carressed her, as he said, like a good and faithful Husband; but she must forbear, at least an hour or two af­ter, to give the Child suck.

In fine if a Nurse hath all, or most of thes [...] Conditions, as well respecting her Person a [...] manners, and that she maintains this condi­tion by a dyet sit for the Childs temper, an [...] not contrary to her own, there is then grea [...] reason to believe she is very sit to make a ve­ry good Nurse of, and to bring up the So [...] of a Prince in perfect health.

And now good Mrs. Midwife, proceed to shew your skill concerning the diseases of lit­tle Children.

SECT. II. Of the Diseases and Symptoms which happen to Children, and first of their Diseases in general.

Mid. SIr withal my heart, I shall gladly un­fold to you the very depth of my skill and knowledge in this affair, and would humbly entreat you that you would be pleas­ed to correct me, if I shall, at any time, offer to utter any thing that may not be according to the rules of art, and the practice of learn­ed Physitians; for truly Sir, we Midwifes must needs acknowledge our selves to have received most of our skill and knowledge from the writings, conferences and directions of learned Physitians; Now then Sir, I have read that Hippocrates divides Childrens disea­ses according to their ages. When he, like an Oracle, lays down, that in new-born Chil­dren there are Ʋlcers in the Mouth; Vomit­ings, Coughs, Watchings, Fears, Inflammation of the Navil, moistness of the Ears: at breeding of their Teeth their Gums itch and they fall into Feavers and Convulsions, and a loosness of the [Page 292] belly when they breed their Eye Teeth. When they grow older their Tonsils are inflam'd; the joints of the Neck are sprained inwardly, their breath's short; they have the stone and round Worms, Warts, standing Yards, Strangury, Kings-Evil, and other swellings; then besides these here mentioned, by the divine Hippocrates, they have other Diseases at other times; as that they are generally infected with the Small-Pox, and Meazels, none or few escaping; Tongue tyed, Chafing, &c. concerning which I shall now in particular give you my method of cure; beginning first with Feavers, Small-Pox, and Meazels, as the most general.

SECT. III. Of Feavers, Meazels, and Small-Pox, in little Children.

CHildren are subject to all sorts of Fea­vers, but chiefly that of corrupt Milk, which is commonly from Choler; 1st. therefore give cooling and moistening things to the Nurse, as Lettice, Endive, Succory, &c. and Emulsions of Barley-wa­ter with the four cold seeds, Barley cream, then purge her gently with Manna, Cas­sia Fistularis, Lenitive Electuary; &c. then give altering remedies to the Infant, as Syrup of Violets, Lemons, Citrons, &c. dissolv'd in Endive or Cichory, or Borage, or Bugloss water; 4 ounces of water to one of Syrup; to which you may add a little white Rose water to make it the more pallatable. If the Feaver proceed from breeding Teeth, abate the pain, of which hereafter, and give alterers as above­said.

In the Small-Pox and Meazels you have nothing to do but to observe Natures mo­tions [Page 294] in the driving them forth, and to assist her if, you see her any ways weak or obstructed, by giving the Child a little Claret with Syrup of Clove Gilly-flowers, and a little Treacle water; but be sure have a care that you encrease not the Feaver; Cochenele, and Bezoar and Saf­fron are excellent likewise.

SECT. IV. Of the milky scab, Achores, Scald-Head and Lice.

THe milky Scab is at first sucking, the Achores after; the Achores are not white, but the other are; and possess the whole body, the Achores only Head and Face; but are cur'd a like. They are commonly thought to be healthful when they run; be­cause they prevent Convulsions, &c. and they often cure of themselves in time; but if the matter be very sharp they peirce the Skull. Dry these up not rashly, so they disfi­gure not the Face, or endanger the Eyes; but first try to drive them forth with such things as you were told in the Small Pox: let the Nurse forbear sharp salt things, prepare her Body with Borrage, Succory, Endive, Bug­loss, Fumetory, Polypody and Dock roots, and then purge her with Sena, Polypody, Epithymum, &c. If you fear it will turn to a scald Head, foment it with a decoction of Mallows, Barley, Celandine, Wormwood, Marsh-mallows boild in Boys urine and Bar­ley water, and then anoint with Oil of Ro­ses, [Page 296] and Lytharge of Gold: and if the Scull come to be bare, dress it with Honey of Ro­ses and Brandy; and after with Powder of round birth-wort, and Balsome of Peru, Turpentine and Tobacco water.

If you have occasion to use stronger Medi­cines for a scald Head, take sulphur 2 drams Mustard seed half a dram, Stavesacre, bryony roots, each 1 dram; Vinegar 1 ounce, Tur­pentine half an ounce, with as much Bears Grease as will make it into an Oyntment: or beat water-Cresses with Hogs Grease. When the Scab is fallen off pull the hair out by the roots, with instruments or Medicines; com­monly they use a pitch'd cap, and pull it violently to bring away the Hair: or take Starch or Wheat-flower 2 ounces, Rosin half an ounce, boil them in water to the consi­stence of a pultis, lay it upon the several Scalds, let it stick some days, then pluck it off violently.

For Lice, to prevent them, let them not eat food of ill juice as Figs, &c. let her Head be often comb'd and wash'd, and purge the Nurse or Child; then give things to draw the humor out as you have been taught, and then consume the superfluous moisture; as with this, take Elacampana 2 ounces, Briony [Page 297] roots half an ounce, Beets, herb Mercury, Soap-wort, each an handful, Nitre half an ounce, Lupines 2 drams; boil them for a Loti­on, then anoint them with this following, take powder of Stavesacre 3 drams, Lupines half an ounce, Agaric 2 drams, quick Sul­phur; a dram and half, Oxe gaul half an ounce, with oil of Wormwood as much as will suffice to make it into an Ointment.

SECT. V. Of the watry swelling of the Head.

WE speake here of the water without the Scul; for which take 30 snails with their shels, Marjoram, Mugwort each an handful, with oil of Chamomil make a pultis; and snuff up this water often: take Nutmegs, Cloves, Cubebs, each a scruple Calamus Aromaticus, Frankincense bark each half a dram, Majoram water 3 ounces; If in 20 days this doth not the cure, then you must consult with the able Surgeon for the opening it.

SECT. VI. Of Frights in the Sleep, and Watching.

YOu must see to cure this presently, for 'tis the fore-runner of the Falling-sick­ness: give good Milk, and not too much to overcharge the Stomach; let not the Child sleep presently after food, but carry it about, and Jog it to the bottom of the Stomach, give it 2 or 3 spoonfuls of oil of Sweet Al­monds or Honey of Roses. If it come from a Feaver, Teeth or Worms, they are treated of a part.

As for the Childs watching you must take notice, that a new born one sleeps more then it wakes; because its brain is very moist and it slept in the Womb. If you cannot make it sleep by singing or rocking, &c. 'tis a Di­sease, and if not cur'd will produce Catarrhs, Convulsions, Feavers, &c.

If it proceed from bad Milk, that must be amended; if from a Feaver or pain, re­move them, and give sleeping Medicines [Page 300] to the Nurse, if that will not do, you may venture a little Lettice or Purcelan water.

SECT. VII. Of the Falling-sickness and Convulsion.

THe first is either by consent from parts below, when the Milk corrupts in the Stomach; or from its ill quality from the Nurses bad dyet; or from Worms or Va­pors; or from the brain first, when humors are bred there that cause it; or from Tooth­ach, or sudden fright.

To prevent it give the Child as soon as 'tis born, oil of Sweet Almonds, Sugar-Can­dy, and Anniseeds powdered. The Floren­tines apply a Caustick to the hinder part of the Head; the best part of the cure is the Nur­ses dyet. If from corrupt Milk provoke vo­mit by holding down the Tongue, and pour some Oil of sweet Almonds down the Throat. The same means may be used in Convulsions, only anointing the spine of the back with Oil of Chamomil, St. John's wort, Worms, Goose-grease, Foxes Oil, &c.

SECT. VIII. Of pain in the Ears, Moisture, Ul­cers and Worms.

THe first is allayed by using warm Milk to them, or Oil of Violets, or the de­coction of Poppies: for the moisture take Honey of Roses, and Aqua Mellis, and drop them into the Ears; for Worms they are kil'd by washing the Ears with white Wine, wherein Wormwood hath been boiled, or drop in Hemp Oil with a little Wine.

SECT. IX. Of the Thrush, bladders of the Gums, and Inflammation of the Tonsils.

FOr the first, wash the Mouth with Plan­tain water, and Syrup of Mulberries, with a little Sal Prunella; the Bladders are cured by taking the powder of Lentils husked and laid upon them. If the Tonsils of In­fants chance to be inflam'd, give them Honey of Roses, Myrtles, Pomegranates, and Dia­moron inwardly, and oil of sweet Almonds, Camomil and St. John's wort outwardly.

SECT. X. Of the breeding of Teeth.

HEre the pain is great, and many time kills the Child; it happens about the 7th Month; they breed first the fore Teeth, then the Eye-Teeth, and last of all the grin­ders, 'tis known by the Child's often put­ting its Fingers to its Mouth, by holding the Nipple faster then before; and the Gum is white where the Tooth begins to come. If the Teeth are long a breeding it causes Fea­vers and Convulsions, of which many dye. Their hard breeding is from thickness and hardness of the Gums, therefore soften and loosen them by rubing them with your Fin­gers dipt in Honey and Butter; or with the mucilage of Quinces made with Mallow wa­ter; If the Gums be inflam'd add the juice of Houseleek and cream; and let the Nurse keep a temperate dyet.

SECT. XI. Of a Catarrh, Cough and dif­ficult breathing.

THese proceed from much Milk that bur­thens the Stomach, and many vapors from thence filling the Brain, and if the brain be full of excrements they are dissolved, ei­ther by inward heat or outward cold; and so distill upon the Nose, Jaws, or Lungs, which causes a Cough, or short breathing; moreover much food makes crudities in the first passages; and Phlegmatick humors are bred by the Liver of crudity and thick hu­mors whence unconcocted blood is sent by the Arterial Veins into the Lungs, and pres­sing the pipes of the Lungs causeth difficult Breathing.

First, let the Nurse keep a good dyet, and fill not the Childs Stomach too full with Milk or other dyet; and let the Nurse forbear all hot, sharp, salt, sour things, and such as fill the Head with Vapors; and give her a pecto­ral decoction such as this; take Figs and Ju­jubes, each 10, Sebestens 30, Raisins stoned [Page 306] 10 drams, Liquorice 2 drams, Maiden hair and Violets each an ounce and half, boil them in 3 pints of water, till the 3d part be boiled away, let her take 6 or 8 ounces of this every morning, keep the belly open with Syrup of Roses, Cassia or a Clyster, or hold down the Tongue to provoke vomiting, give syrup of Jujubes, Maiden hair, if the matter be thick, give syrup of Hysop or Hore hound; or an emulsion of oil of sweet Almonds and Pine­nuts, made with Scabions water; or make a Lohoc of diarios, Diatragacanth. frigid, penids and syrup of jujubes. If it be hot give Emul­sions of the 4 great cold Seeds, made with Barley-water and Almonds.

SECT. XII. Of the Hiccup and Vomiting.

THey come from corruption of the food in the Stomach, or over fulness of milk or cold Air; these hurt the expulsive facul­ty, which stirs it self up to expel what offends it. If from fulness of Milk the belly swells, and there follows Vomiting; if from corrup­tion of Milk it may be the Nurse hath bad Milk, the Child cryes and is in pain, and the excrements smell of stinking Milk. If from corruption, put a feather dipt in oil to cause Vomiting, then strengthen the Stomach with syrup of Mints, Quinces, or Betony, &c.

Vomiting is from too much or bad Milk, or from a moist Stomach, for as dryness re­tains, so moistness loosens. If from much Milk they are better after vomiting; if from corruption of milk, what's vomited is yellow, green, &c. and stinks; worms are known by their signs, they that vomit from their birth are the lustiest, for the Stomach not being used to meat, and taking too much Milk breeds crudities, or corrupts the Milk, and [Page 308] 'tis better to vomit these up; but if it last long, it causes a washing; If from too much Milk give it less; if corrupted amend it; as before, and cleanse the Child with Honey of Roses and then strengthen the Stomach, as before; and if the humor be sharp and hot, give syrup of Pomegranates, Currans, Coral. Apply Emplastrum crusta panis, or the stomach cerat to the Stomach.

SECT. XIII. Of the pains and puffing of the Belly.

PAins are often with a Flux, from corrupt Milk, which breeds wind and sharp hu­mors; which gnaws the inward parts, so do Worms. The Child cryes continually, re­fuses the Breast, tosses too and fro: if from wind, it breaks wind, and is gone; if from humors 'tis constant, from tough Flegm, the Belly's bound and dung slimy; from sharp humors there's sign of them, if the pain last long Convulsions, or Falling-sickness follow; If from crude humors and wind, give first a Clyster, of Chicken, Mutton or Veal broth, 3 or 4 ounces, adding Honey of Roses one ounce, with the yelk of an Egg, or give it some Oil of sweet Almonds, with Sugar­candy, and a few Anniseeds powdered, a scu­ple or so, which purges new born Babes from green choler, and stinking Flegm: if given with Sugar pap, it allays the pains of the Bel­ly. Anoint the Belly with Oil of Dil; and foment it with a decoction of Camomil flow­ers, Dil tops, and Bays, twice a day; If pain be from corrupt sharp Milk, give Honey of [Page 310] Roses, or syrup of Succory with Rubarb; or a Clyster of the decoction of bran with Ho­ney or syrup of Roses, and anoint as before.

The puffing comes from too much suck­ing and not concocting, which is cured by a thinner dyet that crudities may be concocted; and purging with Honey of Roses.

SECT. XIV. Of the Flux of the Belly.

IF from breeding of Teeth see the signs, if from outward cold there are signs of no other causes; if from crude humors there's wind, belching and flegmatick excrements, but if they be yellow, green, &c. 'tis from a hot and sharp humor. If it last long stop it; if black excrements be voided with a Feaver 'tis bad.

The Child needs not cure so much as the Nurse; mend the Milk, or change the Nurse, and let her not eat green fruit, and things of hard concoction. If it suck not take away the causes with Honey of Roses; then if the cause be hot give syrup of Quinces, dry'd Ro­ses, Myrtles, with a little fine Bole-Armo­nack, Sanguis Draconis or terra sigillata; If the cause be cold, and excrements white, give syrup of Mastick and Mints.

SECT. XV. Of Costiveness.

IT is from a cold and dry distemper, in some from the Birth; or from slimy Flegm, that wraps the dung which sticks in the Guts; this is from bad Milk when the Nurse eats gross food, slimy and binding, or drinks lit­tle; or from an hot distemper of the Liver or Kidneys that dryes the excrements, or if Choler stirs not up the expulsive faculty, then the dung is white and the body yellow. Children are more healthful with a loose Belly; 'tis cured by observing contraries, as all other Diseases are; from slimy Flegm, give Honey of Roses; correct the distemper of the Liver, &c. with syrup of Violets, and cooling Emulsions, as before. In want of Cho­ler the decoction of Grass roots, Fennel. Sparagus, Maiden-hair. In all which you may give sometimes Clysters and Suppositories.

SECT. XVI. Of Worms.

THey are known by a stinking Breath, troublesome sleep, gnashing of Teeth, bawling, dry Cough, Vomiting, Hiccups, great thirst, swell'd Belly, or bound, or too loose; when the Belly is empty and they want food there's a cold sweat over the Face, and an high color with sudden paleness, some­times a Feaver and Convulsion which ceaseth presently.

First, 'Tis best to prevent them by eating meats of good juice, with Oranges and Le­mons, &c. and avoiding sweet clammy meats Flesh and Fruits; If there be Worms kill them with powder of Corraline, Wormseed, Harts horn, or infuse 8 or 10 grains of Mer­curius dulcis all Night in Grass, Borage, or Bugloss water, pouring them from the Mer­cury, and give the Child the water. The wa­ters with the juices are very good. Some ap­ply a Plaister of Aloes to the Navil. There is no better thing under the Sun, then to in­fuse a dram or 2 of Sena in water, and put [Page 314] some of the juices to it when 'tis strain'd. Use varieties that the Worms may not be to familiar with one.

SECT. XVII. Of the Rupture.

IF this be from a Gut keep the Belly open, keep the Child from crying, avoiding mo­tion, lay it upon its back, thrust it up gently, then apply an Emplaster of ad Herniam, or Casaris. If from water anoint with oil of El­der, Bays, Rue, &c. or apply a pultis of powder of Beans, Linseed, Fenugreek, Ca­momil flowers, with these Oils.

SECT. XVIII. Of Bunching out, and Inflamma­tion of the Navil.

IF the Midwife left too much of it that it bunches out, it is more troublesome then dangerous, if the rim of the Belly be loose, it starts not much out, and is not bigger by crying; and wind stretches it out; then use a pultis of Cummin, Bay-berries, Lupines powdered with red Wine, then use an Astrin­gent Plaister as in Ruptures and roul it. If the rim be broken, first put in the Gut, then bind it close after you have apply'd an astrin­gent Plaister, and given Medicines as against Ruptures.

The Inflammation is from pain when 'tis not well tyed, which draws blood to it: There's redness, hardness, heat and beating; if it turn to an Impostume and breaks, the Guts come forth and the Child usually dyes, if not presently hope by a skilful Chyrurge­on: First abate the Inflammation with Ʋn­guentum album, and Populeon, &c. and repel the blood with a dram of Frankincense, Acacia, and Fleabean seed of each half a dram, made into a pultis with some white of an Egg.

SECT. XIX. Of the falling out of the Fundament.

WHen the Muscle that shuts it is loose then it comes forth; if it come from moisture 'tis hard to be cur'd, especial­ly if there be a looseness, for then Medicines cannot lye on. If with streining if it be swel'd, foment it with a decoction of Mallow, and Marsh-mallows; or anoint with oil of Lil­lies; then keep it in with astringents, as take red Roses, Pomegranate pills, and flow­ers, Cypress Nuts each half an ounce, Su­mach, Frankincense, Mastick, each 2 drams, boil'd in red Wine, foment it with spunge; then sprinkle on this powder, red Roses and Pomegranates flowers, each half a dram, Frankincense, Mastick, each a dram laid up­on a clout and kept to the Fundament.

SECT. XX. Of difficulty and stopping of Urine.

'TIs caused from thick humors, and the Stone that stops the Bladder: its void­ed by drops, and is thick; then let a Surgeon try with a Catheter if there be a Stone, and if it be not presently cured it turns to one; and all natural evacuation in Children being stopt is dangerous. Evacuate the humors with Honey of Roses, Cassia, white Wine and water; or take the blood of an Hare, dry'd to powder 1 ounce, Saxifrage roots powdered 6 drams; give from a scruple to half a dram in white Wine, or Saxifrage wa­ter.

SECT. XXI. Of not holding Urine.

THis comes from a cold and moist di­stemper, which weakens the Muscle that should close the orifice of the Bladder, and when much water pricks it, it suffers it to come forth; sometimes a stone hurts it that it cannot do its duty. First, then alter the distemper, dry and consume the Flegm, let the Nurse have a Dyet with Sage, Hysop, Marjoram, &c. [...]et not the Child drink much.

SECT. XXII. Of Leanness and Betwitching.

IF from little or bad Milk, remedy it; or from Worms, or Worms in the Skin, which is known by putting the Child into a Bath and rubbing it with Honey and Bread, and then you will see they will put forth their heads like Ash coloured and black hairs, in the Back, Arms or Legs, and all Muscu­lous parts and stick in the Skin; and they breed of slimy Matter shut up in the Capil­lar veins; which turns to Worms from tran­spiration hindred. If you find no other outward or inward cause you may suspect a venomous vapour, or Witch-craft.

If for want of Milk change your Nurse; or if she have any disease, or be contrary to the constitution of the Child. If from worms in the Skin, when you see their heads appear by rubbing and as before kill them with a Rasor or Crust of Bread. If from an oc­cult quality or Witchcraft 'tis hard to be cured because we know not the nature of the malignity. There are many superstitious things carried about against Witchcraft, some [Page 320] having Amber and Coral about the Childs neck. If it be from a dry distemper of the whole body; there is no better remedy then bathing often in a decoction of Mallows, Marsh-Mallows, Brankustine, Sheeps-head, &c. anointing after with Oil of sweet Al­monds: and if it be hot and dry add Lettice, Endive, Violets, Poppy-heads, and Onions and after with Oil of Roses and Violets.








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