A The City offen or Buda B Pest C. The Block house, or St. Gerrards Hill D. The Castle E. The OverTown F. The Lower Subburbs. G. The Upper Subburbs H. The Water Town, or Jews Town I. Turkish Burying Place K. Hot Baths L. Ruines of the old Town M. The Danon N. The Bridge between Offen and Pest.

[...] and Description of the Famous City OFFEN, otherwise called BVDA. Together with a particular account of this late famous Siege. As also an Historical Relation of the several Sieges, and other accidents that has hapned to it, ever since it came into the Turkish possession.

Translated from the Original in High-Dutch by Joseph Moxon.

AMong all the Cities in Hungary is Offen the pleasantest, best Scituated and Metropolis; having been the only Seat and residence of the Kings of Hungary. Some derive its name from the many Ovens or Pits wherein formerly Lime hath been burnt. Solomon Schweiger derives its name from King Ovo, who reigned in the time of the Emperour Henry the III.

By the Latines it was called Buda, from Buda King Attillas Brother, who re-edified or inlarged it. Yet others say, Buda is corruptly so called from Bada, Baths; and takes its name from the renowned Warm Baths in it. Of some it was formerly called Etzel Burgh (viz. Ass-hill) or Attilias Burgh; Etzel signifying in the German Language Ass.

This City being 32 German miles distant from Vienna, admits of six divisions.

1. The Castle marked D. 2. The Over Town at E. 3. The long Subburbs towards the South, by which the Block-House in St. Gerrards Fields Stands marked F. 4. The Water Town, or Jews Town, ly­ing on the Danow, and its Walls butting and joyning to it, marked H. 5. The Subburbs adjoyning to the Jews Town; and in them a small four angled Pallace. 6. Pest marked B. on the other side of the Danow; and hath a Bridge standing on 36 Ships between it and Offen. The Danow is here about an English Mile broad.

The Walls and Bulwarks of this City are very strong; and the Buildings of the whole City have formerly been very exquisite and Curious, as is yet to be seen in the Castle.

From this City did the Turks the last year furnish their Leaguer before Vienna, with all necessaries: It having excellent Grain brought thither from Old Offen: It hath many Hot Baths in it; and in them plenty of good Fish, which presently die if they are put into cold Water.

Here are among the Turks and Jews, Christians allowed, as well Romanists as Protestants, each having particularly a good School. The Church of our Lady belongs to the Germans, and is for them a Burying place.

The Rascians (a false deceitful People) dwell here in great numbers, who exercise all the Turkish Ce­remonies of these parts (by perversion) under the notion of Christianity.

Here are many ruines of fair Buildings, formerly erected by the Hungarian Kings; particularly by Matthias Corvinus in whose Pallace the Visier keeps his residence: As also of many curious Turkish Mos­ques, Caravan Serais, and eight stately Baths, of which the Bath of Vili-bie is the fairest: Being much amended by Soliman. Here are now Turkish Convents and Cloisters.

The most inhabitants are Soldiers, and Grants Turks, who live (though meanly) in the fairest Houses.

Here King Mat. Corvinus did about 200 years ago furnish a curious Library, which afterwards the Turks demolisht; but yet a good part of it was collected into the Imperial Library of Vienna, the rest destroyed by Fire.

Near this Metropolis; stands Old Offen, in a very unhealthy Soyl which of the Ancients was ac­counted Sicambria, where the Siambrian Soldiers in the time of the Romans kept their Quarters, whose Monuments of Antiquity are yet found here.

For the better understanding the affairs of Offen, you must know that Sultan Soliman, Anno 1526. came with a great Army personally before this City, and Sept. 8. Mastered it; pardon'd the Germans, but destroyed and captivated the Hungarians, their Wives and Children. The Jews Town held out yet, so that the Sultan lost 2500 Men before it; who at last gained it, and revenged their obstinacy, so, as that of 3500 of them no more than 20 remained alive.

In the following year King Ferdinand regained the City Offen. But in Anno 1529 Soliman with a mighty Power came again before it; and having gained the Castle, entered it with 1000 Turks (says our Author) against one Christian; Yet was he in three Storms repulsed. So that (says our Author) the thought the Castle was full of Devils. And now the besieged being tyred out, and not reasonably hoping for any relief, Capitulated, and agreed to march out in their full Arms: But when they did the Turks fell upon them, contrary to their Parol, and slaughtered them; so that not above 16 of them escaped alive. Only their former Commander Thomas Radasti and his Souldiers had their liberties: Soliman trusting to their Capitulations.

Anno 1541. came the Imperial General Willem van Roggendorff with 40000 men and 40 Cannon be­fore the City, but Izabel, Widow of King Ferdinand, to whom the Sultan deputed the Hungarian Crown after the defeat of King John of Zips, called in the Turks to their assistance. So that the Christians were forced to quit the Siege, with the loss of many Hungarians: And the Germans who were possest of Gerrards Berg were overcome by the Janisaries. Anno 1542. The Emperour Charles the V. and his Brother King Ferdinand sent a great Army under the Command of Joachim Elector of Brandenburg before this City, who made many Stormings, with the loss of many Men: But the besieged defended themselves with great resolution; and diseases hapning in the Camp, the besiegers were forced to draw off, and quit the Siege.

Anno 1599. The Heer Van Schwartzenburg attempted to take the City by Surprize; and with 10000 men came before it: But the attempt miscarried.

Anno 1602, Octob. 8. came the Christians again, with a strong Army before this City, and with fire Engines burnt the long Bridge of Boats; by which many Turks were destroy'd, and the Fore and Water Towns gained by Storm. They gain'd Pest also, and the Block-house on Gerrards-hill: So that this City was closely blockt up on all sides. But the Besieged making strong and often Sallies, and re­ceiving Provisions by Water; the Christians were at last forc'd to raise the Siege: Yet first, by a great Breach their Batteries had made, they made a very vigorous Storm, Octob. 22. on the Over-Town, be­ginning at 3 a clock afternoon, and continued it till midnight.

Anno 1635. The greatest part of this City was by Fire laid in Ashes, many Cannons burnt on the Bulwarks, several thousands of Souls lost, and a great deal of rich Merchandize consum'd and spoil'd in in these Flames.

Anno 1660. Another Fire hapned, which did as much mischief as the former. This hapned by Lightning, and laid 2000 Houses in Ashes.

Since Anno 1529. Offen has remained 155 years in the Turkish Power. But this present year 1684. the Duke of Lorrain, General for the Roman Emperour, having first gain'd Vice-Grad, Vacchia and Pest, on July 4. (being the day in the former year the Turks laid Siege to Vienna) came before the Me­tropolis of Hungary, as being of so great concern, that on the gaining of it the whole Conquest of Hungary depended. He having 40000 men, begirt it close on all sides with well fortified Works, and raised several Batteries against it; making many efforts for the regaining it. But many of his Souldi­ers being lost by the desperate Sallies of the Turks; To his assistance came not only his Highness the Elector Prince of Bavaria with 12000 men, but several Troops of the Suabian Circle, about 4000 more.

On the other hand, The Turks had so well fortify'd the City, having 16000 resolute Janisaries in it, besides Citizens, and others, and all Provisions necessary for its defence, indured the Siege very man­fully, and made many Couragious and desperate Sallies out of the City, upon the Christians, of whom they have made great slaughter, though with the loss of many of themselves; even till they were reduced from 16000 (as aforesaid) to 4000 Janisaries. And besides the Serasquier Bassa with (at first) but 16000 men, came hovering about the Siege, to devert the Christian Army from their more vigorous attempts upon the City: And though the Bavarian Troops were lodged between the River Danow and the City, yet did the Serasquier by Water frequently put Succors of Men and Provisions into it, which so strengthned and incouraged the defendents, that now the Winter coming on, and their Principal Mine discovered by a Renegado, who got into the City, and other Mines fill'd by Springs and overflowings of the River, and the Serasquiers numbers increased to 40000 men, The Christians in a Council of War Oct. 29. resolved to put the Emperours Orders for raising the Seige, in execution: And accordingly, having first sent all their sick and wounded men away with the Baggage, the Canon was drawn off from the Batteries, and planted for the defence of the Troops in their retreat to the Isle of St. Andrews, where the whole Army consisting of about 30000 Men passed the Danube, Nov. 1. on a Bridge of Boats: The Cavalry facing the Enemy while the Foot marched off, without the loss of one man in their Re­treat.

London; Printed for Joseph Moxon, at the Atlas in Ludgate-street. 1684.

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