ΤΡΟΠΟΛΟΓΙΑ, OR, A KEY TO Open SCRIPTURE METAPHORS. The First BOOK, Containing Sacred Philology, or the Tropes in Scripture, Reduc'd under their proper Heads, with a brief Explication of each; partly Translated, and partly Compil'd from the Works of the Learned. By T. D. The Second and Third BOOKS, Containing a Practical Improvement (Parallel-wise) of several of the most Frequent and Useful Metaphors, Allegories, and ex­press Similitudes of the Old and New Testament. By B. K.

Heb. 13.5.

[...] Pecuniae non appetens mos: Contenti praesentibus.

Budaeus ex Citat. Cl. Rivet.

Existimo Tropos Oratorios multo sublimiores, efficaci­oresque in Sacra lectione inveniri, quam in priscorum Graecorum & Latinorum Monumentis, posseque oratoriam phrasin fieri ea lectione multo locupletiorem.

LONDON, Printed by John Richardson, and John Darby, for Enoch Prosser, at the Rose and Crown in Swithins Alley, at the East-End of the Royal Exchange in Cornhill, MDCLXXXI.



THE Divine Wisdom Treasur'd in the Holy Scripture, although unadorn'd with the plausible paint of Humane Eloquence, nor with that Rapidity and Lightness, which (Junius and Tremellius well say) the word [...] signifies, Jer. 23.32. Yet it wants not a Grave, Genuine, [...] levis, ve­lux, mo­bilis fu­it, subsilii saltavit, Judg. 9.4. Leigh in voc. and Majestical dignity of Elocution suitable to those Sacred Mysteries it twofolds. The best witness of which is the Tast and Experience of that sweetness, which many have found in it. The mode of speech in Scripture is plain, and savours of to humane blandishment, or arti­ficial Beauty: Yet it is most August and Efficacious to pierce the minds of Men, as 1 Cor. 2.1, 4. Where the Apostle disclaims any Rhetorical flourishes, or perswasive Oratory, but professes that his speech and Preaching, was not with the enticing (or [...], perswasive) words of Mans Wisdom, but ( [...],) in the Demonstration and Power of the Spirit, that is, in words truly Spiritual, which could powerfully and ef­fectually move their Hearts. Where this Eminent Servant of God, disowns his Humane Eloquence, but not that Divine Elocution in which he excells, and checks those plausible affectations, and artifice of words, which the Ora­tors of his time made use of, who fed their Auditors, with the vain glory of words, in the Contemplation and delight of which they went away, without any other improvement than what bare Rhetorick could afford.

I may (not unfitly) allude to a passage in Plutarch, where it is said,Franz. hist. Ani­mal. cap. 26. p. 554 that Lacon hearing a Nightingale Sing, and by the briskness of its warbling and delicate Notes, and by the clearness, and quavering cadency of its Voice, judged it a good prey; but when he saw it, and found it to be of so small a size (for 'tis not much bigger than a Sparrow) he disdainfully left it, and said, vox es, praeterea nihil, thou art a voice and nothing else. So, whose­ever deceives people with those fancy-taking modulations of empty Rhetorick, in the Ministry or Sacred work of Preaching, will in the end become despi­sed, and will not only be forsaken of their Judicious Auditors, but will also by the great Pay-master be called unprofitable Servants.

Beyond all Writings in the World, the Style of Scripture is singular, and has peculiar proprieties, not elsewhere found, there simplicity is joyned with Majesty, commanding the veneration of all serious men; more than the Elaborate flourishes and long winded periods of Tully.

Lib. 3. Confess. cap. 5. Augustine says, that the Scripture seem'd rude and unpolished to him in comparison of Cicero's adorn'd stile, because he did not then understand its (interiora or) inward beauty, but when he was Converted to Christianity declares, lib. 4. de Doctrin. Christ. c. 6. That when he understood them, no Writing appear'd more Wise and Eloquent. Greg. Budaeus lib. 5. de asse et partibus ejus p. 754. Nazianzen, a [Page] man of a prodigious Wit, great Learning and Eloquence, and an excellent Poet, when he came over to the Study of this sacred Philosophy, vilifies all other ornaments of Literature amongst the Greek Philosophers, as infinitely below those Divine Oracles.

Pat. 2. Clav. Script. Col. 15. Illyricus says, that although we find not in the Sacred Scriptures, that idle or delicate itch of Words, that external sweetness or allurement, that nu­merosity of sounds, or those pleasing trifles, which the vain-glorious Orators of Greece and Rome beautified their so much celebrated harangues with, yet we find there a Grave and Masculine Eloquence, exceeding all others.

By the very precepts of Rhetorick, what may be ones mans Eloquence may be anothers Folly, because the stile must be found according to the various circumstances of Persons and Things. The Lawyer pleads Eloquently, and strives to move the Affections of others. The Judge pronounces the sen­tence Gravely. A King commands or forbids Plainly. But if the King perswades, or the Judge contends, they throw off the person of a King or Judge, and assume the person of a Subject and Pleader. What then is the Law of the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords? Do we think our God will use Inductions, as Plato; Syllogisms, as Aristotle; Elenchs, as the Carmeades; Epiphonema's as Cicero; Subtilties as Seneca; or words far fetcht, joyned together with an artificial Sintax with respect to weight, number, and sound? If a Royal Edict were published in that kind of speech consisting of School follies, every wise man would laugh at it. The more plain the Word and Law of the great God is, 'tis so much the more becoming the Divine Author and Lawgiver, and more profitable for mankind, because so 'tis more easily understood, being like dayly food, accommodated to every Pa­lat. But what if in that humility of stile in Scripture, there be more height and loftiness, and more profoundness in its Simplicity, more beauty in its nakedness, and more vigor and acuteness in its (seeming) rudeness, then in those other things we so praise and admire? &c. This Holy Book is of most powerful efficacy to instruct the humble, and confound the proud. In History, the main thing praise worthy is Truth, which is here set forth indu­bitably.

True Beauty abhors (and indeed needs not) the bedawbings of a pencil for the more naked it is, 'tis so much the more attractive; and as Jewellers say, The richer the Gem is, the less it needs the assistance of Gold or Art to set it off, &c. If a proper and comely man walks upon Stilts to ap­pear Taller, it adds nothing to his beauty, but diminishes the decorum of his natural proportion.

Yet nevertheless there is in Scripture a peculiar and admirable Elegance, so that I may boldly say that Cicero's smooth and elaborate blandishments, are but exercises of Puerility, in comparison of the grave, lively and venerable Majesty of the Prophet Esaias stile, as the very Exordium of his Book shews, Esa. 1.2. &c. which is full of Ingenity and Eloquence, Humility and Grandiloquence; Reason and Affection. And it may be safely asserted, that considering the Method and Stile, that was thought most convenient by the Sovereign Dictator of this blessed Writing, the Argument of which it treats, and the manner of expression there, no other Writing can Parallel it. Be­cause that which is Holy, is withal Venerable and Grave, and such things need no paint or artificial illustrations, and because the multitude of Readers is promiscuous, it was needful that it should be understood by all, because every man is concern'd to believe and observe it. And hence the Scriptures were written in the common Language, viz. The Old Testament in Hebrew, the mother Tongue of the Jews, and the New Testament in Greek, there most [Page] Ʋniversal Language of that time, whence we may infer the Impiety of such as prohibit Translations of it.

Beza that great Philologist says, that Pauls Writings, when he treats of the Mysteries of the Divinity, far exceeds the Grandiloquence of Plato, the flourishes of Demosthenes, and the exact method of Aristotle and Galen.

That threefold character of declaiming, Alsted. which Rhetoricians make such a bustle about, viz. of a high and lofty stile, that which consists in a mean, and that of a low and humble, is to be found in the Scripture, so as that it may even ravish the attention of the hearer into admiration. And that which Criticks, admire in Homer, Thucydides, and Pindarus singly, are univer­sally found here, which must not be understood of that elegance that tickles the fancy, and relishes with the fleshy Ear, but the inward and most noble part, viz. an illuminated Soul.

To this purpose the Learned Rivet, Franciscus Picus, and Bibliander express themselves with much Reason and Eloquence, preferring the Bible as to its stile, before the most studious ornaments and splendor of oratory found amongst the prophane Rhetoricians. The last of which brings this Example out of Esa. 25.6. to prove the native grace and beauty of the He­brew, the elegancy of which no man can be ignorant of, that understands the He­brew, [...] Veasa Jehovah [...] zebaoth lecol hammiim behar hazaeh misthe schemaniim, misthe schemariim schemaniim memychaiim, schemariim mesykkakiim, In English, And in this Mountain shall the Lord of Hosts make unto all People a Feast of Fat things, a Feast of Wine on the Lees, of Fat things full of Marrow, of Wines on the Lees well refined, &c.

The Words of Picus Earl of Mirandula are notable, in his Epistle to Her­molaus Barbarus, Non movent, non per­suadent sacrae li­terae; sed cogunt, agitant, vim infe­runt, legis rudia verba, &c The Sacred Scriptures, saith he, do not move, nor perswade; but compel, stir up, and force. Thou readest words that seem rustick and unpolisht (viz. in the opinion of the wise men of this World) but they are lively, quick, inflaming, sharp, and penetrating even the very spirit, transforming the whole by an admirable power. And his excellent Nephew, another Mirandula lib. 2. Exam. vanit. Doctrin. Gent. says, that although Scripture stile seems to us more Rude than Eloquent, yet it has an extraordinary power to command the Reverence and Affe­ctions of the peruser. Of these two Mirandula's (the Ʋnkle and the Nephew who were the Ornaments not only of Italy, but of the Age they lived in) the aforesaid Bibliander says, that after they had perused all approved Authors, and had almost surfeited with humane literature, they betook themselves to the Study of (and acquiesed in) the Scriptures, with which they were so ra­visht, that they could not be satisfied.

Jerome says of the Book of Esaias, that the floridness of his stile can be represented by no Translation.

That expression of the Learned (and otherwise praise worthy) Erasmus is to be wondred at, who says, qui fit? In Annot. Act. 10. p. 317. ut Apostolorum sermo non solum impolitus sit & inconditus, verum etiam imperfectus, &c. How comes it to pass? that the speech of the Apostles is not only unpolished, and confus'd, but also imperfect and solaecising— adding a little after, the Authority of the Apostles is not to be Judged by their mode of speech, but their meaning. Neither may a Godly man be offended more with their undrest stile, than with their plain and homely cloathing; conclud­ing, that the Apostles learnt not the Greek Tongue from the Orations of Demosthenes but popular speech— whereas all true Christians know, that [Page] they learnt it of the great God who is all wise and Eloquent (in whom no ex­cellent quality is wanting) who infinitely surpasses Demosthenes, and who directed their minds, their Language and Stile to express the sacred Myste­ries of true Wisdom, as is very evident from Matth. 10.20. Luke 21.15. 2 Pet. 1.21. Lib de vero Cul­tu. c. 21. Hence Lactantius says, that such as were accustomed to sweet and artificial Orations or Verses, despised the plain and common mode of Scripture speaking as rude, because they delight in that, which tickles the sence and fancy, which while it captivates the mind, mis­guides and insnares. But cannot God (who form'd the mind, tongue, and voice) speak Elegantly? Yes certainly, for by his gracious Providence he has ordered those Divine things to be published without the disguise of any artificial bedawbing, (which conceals the true meaning of the speaker) that all may understand what he delivers. By which words, as he con­fesses the Scripture to be no way imbellished with humane Art, so he asserts, that the phrase is pure; and divinely Eloquent, and adapted to express its sacred Contents.

The difference of the sacred stile (with respect to the Hebraisms in the New Testament) from those prophane Rhetoricians, (whose main end was to beguile attention, and inveagle mens minds by the artifice of words) should be an argument to confirm the minds of such men (as believe the Apostle) in the Faith,1 Cor. 2.4, 5. because of the antiquity, certainty, and perfection of that sacred Tongue, first taught by the soveraign Creator; rather than urg'd as a Rea­son to Judge it impure, imperfect or abounding with solaecisms.

Graceless Eloquence attired in the most Illustrious dress of Tropes and Schemes, adorn'd with the borrowed phrases of Tully or Demosthenes, and whatever the common places of Phrase-students can afford, is certainly an engine of mischief, breathing out threatning and slaughter against the Disciples of the Lord, as Paul (the Scholar of Gamaliel) did before his Conversion, Acts 9.1. &c. For those accomplishments, if unsanctified, are (like a Sharp sword in a mad hand) fit only for the baffling (as far as it can) of plain and Naked Truth.

'Tis true, that there are many Hebraisms in the New Testament, that is, a mixture of the Idiom of that sacred Language with the Greek, which the Heathen Grecians (being ignorant of the phrase) accounted barbarous. But Christians, who know that much of the Old Testament is quoted in the New, should rather esteem it an Ornament; because the propriety of the first Langu­age (than which no speech is more significant and emphatical) is diffused into the other; and because (as Heinsius a man as Glas. says, Learned to a Mi­racle, in Prolegom. Aristarch. sacri. well expresses himself) if any man will be so impudently bold, as to say that the Scriptures are any way defective, he declares himself thereby not Learned, but a Blasphemer, and brutally mad, as well as ignorant of the quality of man, who is no Judge of what God sayes or does, but ought rather to be a supplicant and attend his dis­pensations with Reverence and Adoration. And as Hillary words it, when the discourse is of the affairs of the great God, we must yeild him the Prerogative of knowing best what he says or does, and instead of carping, pay him veneration. The Mysteries which God proposes to be be­leived in his holy word, as they are in themselves most true and best, although all humane Reason, which Judges by its own wisdom or carnal conclusions, should otherwise determine: So their Eloquence (an inseparable companion of Divine Wisdom is to be esteemed the best and most elegant by the faithful, unless we suppose that God who immediately dictated them to his Amanuensis, spoke nonsense, and is inferior to his Creatures in that qualification, which is down [Page] right Blasphemy, and any asserting that deserves not only derision, but the se­verest castigation.

The peculiar Idiotisms, and most pure character of speaking, which the Holy Spirit used in the publication of the saving word of Truth, are by the excellent Glassius (a man for his singular pains, and exquisite Learning to be celebra­ted by all posterity) as he himself modestly says, in part (for what mortal can express its whole energy?) delivered in his Gram. sacra. (a work well worth Translating). And the Lights of speech, that is, the Tropes and Figures there, are in this sacred Rhetorick treated of, being indeed the substance of what he writ in Latin upon, that Subject (we hope) faithfully Translated, The Tropes in this Volume, and the Figures in the second. Only the Reader may Note, that we have not absolutely tyed our selves to his words but have to the best of our abilities exprest his sence, abridging where need was, and supplying out of other Learned Authors to which be referr'd, or who had writ­ten of the same thing in our Language, which we consulted, and inserted what was judged necessary for the compleating of this work. Which,

Does not only open that part of Scripture which is Tropical and Figura­tive, but may teach) the Reader (if ignorant of it) Rhetorick in general, an Art of such General use, that no writing can well want it: I mean, not a jingling affectation of Words or Sentences, but the use of Tropes and Figures, which nervate sence, and move the affections of the Hearer or Peruser.

Although the design of this work, was principally intended to open Scrip­ture Metaphors, yet many express Similitudes, and other Terms borrowed from an humane custom of speech or appellations, obvious in, and proper to common & Earthly things, are improved Parallel wise in the Second Part, for common Edification; at which the Learned and Candid Reader will not Carp: For we bring not all as Metaphors, but as Terms that may be used as advantage­ously, and as much to profit, though in the strict notion of that Trope, not agreeing with its definition (which we give in its place) of which we caution our Reader under their respective heads.

In the First Book the Texts alledged are cited from the very original Hebrew and Greek, because there are many Tropes (peculiar to those sacred Languages) which our excellent English Translation rather expounds than renders verbatim.

We have taken Care to make necessary Tables for both Parts, and we purpose, with Divine help, to continue our Labours in another Volume, which you may, in page the last of the First, and p. 76 of the Third Book of this Volume, have a brief account of: Our design being to compleat this said Philolo­gy for the benefit of such as want the acquirements of humane Literature, and are Students in sacred Learning.

'Tis certain that no sort of men, have more need of Learning than the Mi­nisters of the Gospel, because their Employment is of the highest concern, viz. rightly to divide the Word of Truth, and therefore that Sacred Office is not to be intruded into, but by Persons duly qualified and called. And most certain it is that humane Literature without Grace, is a dangerous Enemy to the true Christian Religion, and barely considered in it self gives no Right to the exercise of that sacred function, any more than the meanest of Mecha­nick Arts: For as Doctor Carlton formerly Bishop of Chichester well says, A Lay man that hath the spirit of God is better able to Judge of the Church and its Members, than a Man in Ecclesiastical function that hath not the spirit of God. And Justin Martyr, excellently, Infelix est sapi­ [...]ntia extra verbum Dei sapere, so that, it is not the formality of Academi­cal Degrees, nor any Philosophical dexterity, which is to be exercised in the [Page] things that may be known by the light of natural Reason, nor variety of Languages that qualifies a Preacher; for if things will travel beyond their Road, and must needs be defining things beyond their sphere (or reach) they become extravagant and sawcy. He that Ministers the word, ought princi­pally to experience the Grace of God in his own heart, and the power of it in that grand and Evangelical work of Regeneration; as also to understand those blessed Mysteries of the sacred Scriptures, that he may unfold them to others, and have a Lawful call, which altogether constitutes him in his Of­fice, though he never saw Ʋniversity, this being the reason given by the Roy­al Psalmist. I have recieved, saith he, (which is an equivalent term) and therefore have I spoken; his Faith being his Authority for his Preaching, that is, the primary or Chief. Yet we would not be understood to disparage humane learning as a thing of no use, for it is of excellent benefit in its place, when rightly employed, and the knowledge of the Original Languages, in which the Scriptures are penned, is of very great necessity, that we might con­verse with that sacred Book in its own Emphatical and native Idiom. So that this kind of Literature is good, as a Hand-maid, Hagar-like, but if it must needs be Mistress and Ʋsurp Authority in the Family; if like scoffing Ishmael (Gen. 21.9. Gal. 4.30.) it will mock at the Spirit, and the sim­plicity of the Gospel, let it be cast out. &c.

To accomodate therefore, such whose Christian minds incline them to In­struct others, and need those aids which the want of Languages, or this kind of Literature has deny'd them; (not to instruct the Learned) was this work Compil'd, and to that end is recommended to the Christian Reader, by

  • Benj. Keach.
  • Tho. Delaune.

An Alphabetical TABLE of the most memorable Things and Words, Expounded in the FIRST Book.

  • ACtion Page 27
  • Affections 26
  • An Age, Ages 23.196
  • Allegories 202
  • All 193
  • Altar 151.186
  • Anger 7.51
  • Ancestors 4
  • Answering 56
  • Annoint 61.189
  • Angels 99
  • Aquatiles 159
  • Argument 20
  • Armour 70.179
  • Arrows 71
  • Ariel 151
  • Arm 45.162
  • Ashes 131
  • An Ass 154
  • Author 4
  • Ax 193
  • BAal 172
  • Barak to bless and Curse 31
  • Bald 59
  • Banner 75
  • Back 163
  • Bars 177
  • Baptism 189
  • To go backward 175
  • A Bear 152
  • To bear 59
  • Beam 138
  • Belly 100.148
  • To behead 147
  • To beget 173
  • To bind up 58
  • To bite 146
  • Biting 165
  • Bitterness 169
  • Body 42.160
  • Bowels 47.90
  • Bosom 48.164
  • Bow 71.179
  • Book 72
  • Bones 90.148
  • A bone 148
  • Boar 152
  • Bonds 183
  • Buying 56
  • To build 58
  • Builder 67
  • Butter 149
  • Bull 154
  • Blood
  • To blot out 59
  • Blast or blowings 86
  • Blindness 167
  • Blackness 168
  • Brass 12
  • Breathing 53
  • To break 58.59
  • Bridegroom 68
  • Bread 73.96.145.
  • Branch 79.136
  • Brutes 91
  • Brook 121
  • To break out 125
  • Brimstone 134
  • Bridle 154
  • To bubble 126
  • CArmel 16.128
  • Calling 56
  • Camphire 81
  • Candle 113
  • Canaan 185
  • Carkass 196
  • City 17.97.177
  • Circumcision 188
  • Cloathing 74
  • Clouds 117
  • Commanding 56
  • Counsellor 67
  • Coals 114
  • Corn 143
  • Corner 177
  • Cover 182
  • Christ 18.19
  • Chair 27
  • Crying 54
  • Chariots 72.179
  • Creation 100
  • Cherub 101
  • Chaff 144
  • Chattering of Birds 158
  • Childhood 170
  • Chamber 178
  • Crown 180
  • Cup 17.72.180
  • To cut off 61
  • DAvid 184
  • Days, day 23.108.195
  • Desart 16.130
  • Devil 25
  • Deserve 26
  • Deriding 53
  • To devour 59.147
  • Dew 119
  • Den 129
  • Death and to dye 166
  • Debt 181
  • Diamond 134
  • Divination 8
  • To direct 59
  • Dimension 81
  • To distill 126
  • Dirt 130
  • To do 11
  • Dog 155.199
  • Dove 158
  • Door 177
  • Dregs 141
  • To drink 173
  • To drop 126
  • Dust 130
  • Dung 130
  • EArs 44.90.162
  • Earnest 71
  • Earth 87.127.130
  • To Eat 147.173
  • East 194
  • Elohim 99
  • Elias 185
  • Empire 128
  • To enjoy 173
  • End 24
  • [Page]Eunuch 197
  • Evening 110
  • Exalted 199
  • Eyes
  • FAce 43.161
  • To Fan 61
  • Father 67.171
  • Feet 48.164
  • Feast 24
  • Fear 27
  • To feed 156
  • Feast of Tabernacles 189
  • Flight 15
  • To fly 79.148
  • Flame 113
  • To flow 125
  • Flower 125.136.
  • Flesh 194
  • Firre-tree 12
  • Finger 47
  • Finding 65
  • First-born 68
  • To fight 174
  • Firre 86.111.162
  • Fishers 159
  • First-fruits 188
  • Forgetfulness 53
  • Footstool 68
  • Forehead 161
  • Foreknowledge 70
  • Fountain 87.123
  • Fortress 88
  • Fox 153
  • Foundation 176
  • Fruit 136
  • Furnace 72
  • GArden 138
  • Gate 177
  • Garment 182
  • To Gird 58.174
  • Glory 13.19
  • Gleaning 141
  • God 19
  • Gold 132
  • Goats 156
  • Grave 17.178
  • Grinding 144
  • Grashoppers 149
  • HAnd
  • Hast 15
  • Harvest 24.143
  • Hatred 51
  • Hail 118
  • Halting 164
  • Hardness 169
  • Hand writing 180
  • Hammer 181
  • Heart
  • Head 42.160.194
  • To hew 59
  • Hedge 60
  • Heaven 103.139
  • Hearing 63.168
  • Heifer 154
  • To heal 165
  • Hissing 53
  • To hide 58
  • Hind 77.154
  • Hiding place 88
  • Hill 129
  • House 16.177
  • To hold 58
  • Hour 24.195
  • Hope 26
  • Hook 60
  • Horn 77.145
  • Horse, Horsemen 154.179
  • Hornets 158
  • Strong holds 177
  • To hunt 150
  • Husband 171
  • To hunger 173
  • IDols 100
  • Jerusalem 185
  • Ignorance 52
  • To Joy 14.50
  • Inheritance 72.181
  • Infants 170
  • Islands 16
  • To Judge 11
  • Judgment 7
  • KEy 177
  • Kissing and to kiss 28.54
  • Kingdom 128
  • To know 8
  • Knowledge 51
  • Knee, Knees 29.164
  • TO Laugh 28
  • Laughing 53
  • Labour 57
  • Lamb 77
  • Lamps 86.113
  • Lanthorn 113
  • Lameness 164
  • Latitude ibid.
  • Leviathan 91.159
  • Lebanon 128
  • Leaf 136
  • Leaven 145
  • Leopard 153
  • Levites 187
  • Lip
  • Line 6
  • Light 11
  • Lightning 118
  • Life 13.165
  • To love 11
  • Love 26
  • Lord 172
  • Looking-glass 182
  • Lyon 77.151.152
  • MAgistrates 99
  • Marrow 149
  • Man 170
  • Mercies 7
  • Metaphor 38. &c.
  • To meet 64
  • Meteors 116
  • Measure 181
  • Ministers 164
  • Milk 149
  • Mouth
  • Morning 109.195
  • Mountain 127
  • Mother 171
  • Munition 88
  • Mud 130
  • Myrrhe 80
  • NAmes of Countries 17
  • Name of God 18.30.31
  • Navel 163
  • Nail 177
  • New man 15
  • Nest 17.158
  • Net 151
  • Night 111
  • [Page]Nose 44
  • Noon 110
  • Numbring 56
  • OLives 139
  • Old age 202.170
  • Ophir 17
  • To Open 58
  • Orphan 171
  • To Overflow 125
  • Oyl 21.73.198
  • PAlate 6
  • Passeover 24.189
  • Passing through 65
  • Part 193
  • Peace 68
  • Poyson 166
  • Power 13
  • To pour out 59
  • To please 14
  • To plant 137
  • To pluck up ibid.
  • Plowing 142
  • Plague 166
  • Place 194.68
  • Promise 19
  • Prison 178
  • Prize 180
  • Propitiation 186
  • Priest 187
  • Prince 18
  • QUarries 133
  • Quiver 179
  • RAin 119
  • Razor 182
  • To remember 10
  • Remembrance 52
  • Repentance 50
  • Revenge 51
  • Rebuking 56
  • Rest 57
  • Returning 65
  • Reed 138
  • Reapers 144
  • Reins 148
  • Riding 64.154
  • Rising up 65
  • Riches 72.181
  • River 122
  • Rod 75.181
  • To roar 78
  • Root 80.135
  • Rose 81
  • Rock 87.129
  • To rob 198
  • SAbbath 195.189
  • Sadness 50
  • Solomon 184
  • Satan 102
  • Salt 134
  • Schoolmaster 172
  • Sea 16.121
  • Scorpions 157
  • Seal 61.73
  • Seeing 61.167
  • Seeking 65
  • Seraphim 111
  • Seed 135.201
  • Serpent 156
  • Selling 56
  • Sense 26
  • To search 60.65
  • Servant 172
  • Sin
  • Silence 56
  • To sift, sifting 59.144
  • Silver 132
  • To sit 174
  • Sion 185
  • Soul
  • Softness 169
  • Son 171
  • Ships 17.178.
  • To shame 60
  • Shepherd 67
  • Shield 71.179
  • Sharon 81
  • Sheath 182
  • Shadow 89.107
  • Sheep 150
  • Shoulder 162
  • To be shod 165
  • To sleep 28.64.169
  • Smelling 63.168
  • Smoke 114
  • Snare 151
  • Snow 119
  • Spirit 2
  • Sprinkling 189
  • Speaking 54
  • Spouse 171
  • Spoils 182
  • Steps 49
  • Star
  • Stone 87.180
  • Stream 121
  • Step or stayr 176
  • Staff 179
  • Stipend 182
  • Summer 24
  • Sun 83
  • Sulphur 134
  • Supper 190
  • Sword
  • To sweep 61
  • To swallow 147
  • Swine 155
  • Sweetness 168
  • TAbernacle 178
  • Table 16.182
  • To take 174
  • Tail 148
  • Tasting 64
  • Tears 60.162
  • Temple 88.185
  • Tempest 117
  • Throat 6
  • Thoughtfulness 53
  • Throne 68
  • Thunder 118.198
  • Thorns 138
  • Threshing 144
  • To thirst 173
  • Time 22.70.194.
  • Tongue 5.90
  • Touching 64
  • Tower 88.177.198
  • Tooth 147
  • To try 58
  • Treasure 74
  • A Tree 137
  • VAlley 129
  • Vessel 182
  • Victory 13
  • Visitation 65
  • Vine 80.140
  • Virgin 97
  • Vine-yard 140
  • Vintage 141
  • To make void 59
  • [Page]Voice of Blood Page 92
  • Vomit 197
  • To ungird 59
  • Unicorn 152
  • TO Wash 58.126
  • Way 59.88
  • Walking 64
  • Man of War 67
  • War 197.174.
  • Water 87.120
  • Wall 175
  • A Well 124
  • Weight 182
  • Wine 22.96.141
  • Winter 30
  • Witnessing 56.68
  • To wipe 58
  • Windows 72
  • Wings 79.147
  • Whiteness 168
  • Whip 181
  • Widdow 171
  • VVinnowing 144
  • VVheat 143
  • VVork 8
  • VVorld 16
  • VVorkman 67
  • VVorm 78.157
  • VVormwood 138
  • Wood ibid.
  • Wolf 152
  • Woman 170
  • To write 60
  • YEars 23
  • Yoke 155
  • Youth 170
  • ZEal 51
  • Zerubbabel 184

A Synopsis of the CONTENTS of the First BOOK.

  • Chapter I. Of a Metonymi [...] OF the Cause page 2
  • Chap. II. Of a Metonymi [...] Of the Effect 12
  • Chap. III. Of a Metonymi [...] Of the Subject 15
  • Chap. IV. Of a Metonymi [...] Of the Adjunct 20
  • Chap. V. Of an Irony and Antiphrasis 31
  • Chap. VI. Of a Metaphor in General. 38
  • Chap. VII.
    • Of an Anthropopathy. 41
    • The Parts and Members of a Man attributed to God. 42
    • Humane Affections ascribed to God. 49
    • Humane Actions ascribed to God 51
    • Humane Adjuncts ascribed to God. 66
  • Chap. VIII.
    • Metaphors Translated from other Creatures to God 77
    • Actions of Living Creatures ascribed to God. 78
    • Parts and Members of a Living Creature ascribed to God 79
  • Chap. IX. Of a Prosopopaeia 92
  • Chap. X. Metaphors taken from
    • God, &c. 99
    • Angels 101
    • Heaven 102
    • Light 106
    • Time 108
    • Fire 111
    • Air 116
    • Water 120
    • Earth 127
  • Chap. XI. Metaphors taken from
    • Minerals, Plants and Living Crea­ture 131
    • Inanimate Bodies 132
    • Things growing out of the Earth 135
    • The Olive Tree and its fruit 139
    • The Vine 140
    • Corn, &c. 142
    • The Parts and Members of Living Creatures 145
    • The Kinds of Living Creatures 151
  • Chap. XII. Metaphors taken from
    • From Man and what belongs to him 159
    • A Humane Body and its Parts 160
    • Such things as concern the Life of Man 165
    • Humane Sense 167
    • The various difference of mankind 170
    • The various actions Men 173
    • Containing Subjects 175
    • The various Adjuncts of Men 179
  • [Page] Chap. XIII. Metaphors taken from
    • Sacred Persons and Things 184
    • Men sacred to God ibid:
    • Places sacred to God 185
    • Sacred Rites 178
  • Chap. XIV. Of a Synecdoche 191
  • Chap. XV. A Synecdoche of the Species 192
  • Chap. XVI. — Whole 193
  • Chap. XVII. — Part 194
  • Chap. XVIII. Of a Catachresis 196
  • Chap. XIX. Of an Hyperbole 197
  • Chap. XX. Of an Allegory 200
  • Chap. XXI. Of a Proverb 204
  • Chap. XXII. Of an Aenigma 206

A TABLE Of the Principal Texts of Scripture opened in this First BOOK.

37 [...]935
 9, 1061.66
 37, 3833
[Page] Joshua.
1 Samuel.
2814, 15, 16, 20.24
2 Samuel.
1 Kings.
2 Kings.
262, 3.ibid
243, 4.18
1398, 9, &c.199
 3, 14, 15.57
122, &c.202
 13, 1480, 81
291, 2152
4213, 1454
5411, &c.133
5610, 11.10
 10, 13.1775, 76
 11, 1814
97, 10140
118, 9.49, 52
[Page] Joel.
213, 1450
44, 5.34
 24, 25, 2635
 46, 473
 29, 314
 44, &c.61
151, 580
1 Corinthians.
121, 2525
313, 14, 15.113
 322, 3
2 Corinthians.
 22, 2342
4232, 3
29, 1742
1 Thessalonians.
2 Thessalonians.
1 Timothy.
2 Timothy.
1 [...]62, 3
[Page]1 Peter.
1 John.
14, 870
 102, 3


SƲch Escapes of the Press, as injure not the sence, as Mis-Pointings and litteral Errors▪ are left to the Readers Candor to Correct or Pardon; some few of such as misrepresent it, he is desired to mend thus. In the Epistle page 2. line 11. for found, read framed. l. 19. r. Carneades p. 3. l. 32. r. whole man. p. 5. l. 1. for any asserting. r. an assertion. p. 6. l. 10. for Received r. Believed. First Book. p. 35. l. 48. r. Michal. p. 54. l. 48, 49. for grief. Orphans r. grief breaks out. p. 92. l. 5. dele for things. l. 8. r. yours. l. 20. r. Tract. 2. l. 47. r. rather then. p. 94. l. 46. for seems. r. serves. l. 49. for alive. r. a line. p. 99. l. 36. for look. r. took. p. 100. l. 9. dele in. p. 135. l. 15. r. [...], p. 182 l. 30. dele says. Book 2. p. 107. l. 9. for E. D. r. T. D. The rest are obvious to com­mon capacity.

Poems; on the Bridegroom. p. 107. On the Rose of Sharon. 202. On the Vine p. 226. of the Second Book, by T. D. On the Light p. 16. by B. K. On the Plough. p. 66. Of the Third Book by Mr. Flavel.

Philologia Sacra, OR The TROPES and FIGURES in SCRIPTURE Reduced under their proper Heads and Classes, with a Brief Explication of each, &c.

SCripture Rhetorick, or Sacred Elocution, may be reduced to two principal Heads or Chapters.

  • 1. The first of [Tropes.]
  • 2. The Second of [Figures.]

First, [Tropes;] Which concern the Sense of Words, viz. When they are drawn from their proper and genuine signification, to that which is different or Contrary; which the Etymology of the word shews; for [...] is deri­ved from [...] signifying, verto, muto, to turn or change.

Second, [Figures;] Which the Greeks calls [...], signifying the Habit or Ornament of Speech, do not alter or vary the Sense of Words, but imbellish, beautifie, or adorn them.

Of the first we will Treat under two heads,

  • 1. The Kinds Of [Tropes.]
  • 2. The Affections Of [Tropes.]

The Kinds of Tropes are four, viz. Metonymie, Ironie, Metaphor, and Synech­doche, which order depends upon Logical Topicks, from whence Tropes are de­duced, As,

  • 1. Metonymie, from Causes, and Effects.
    • (1.) From Subjects, and Adjuncts.
  • 2. Ironie, from Contraries.
  • 3. Metaphor from Comparates.
  • 4. Synechdoche from the distribution of the whole into its Parts.
    • (2.) Of the
      Genus estquod de pluribus differentibus essentialiter praedicatur in quid, non conversim, ut animal genus est hominis.
      Genus into its
      Species est pars ge­neri subjecta, ut homo est species animalis, [...] i. e. Species est quae collocatur sub genere ab [...], video.

[Page 2] Genus, is a more general Title, which comprehends some things more special under it, as substance which comprehends. (1.) Living Creatures. (2.) Met­tals. (3.) Elements, &c.

Species, is a more special Title attributed to diverse particulars under it as a Man, to John, Peter, James, or any other individual.

The [Affections] of Tropes, are Three.

  • 1. Catachresis.
  • 2. Hyperbole.
  • 3. Allegory.

Of which there are certain Species, As;

  • 1. Paraemia, or a Proverb, and
  • 2. Aenigma.

Of These with Gods help we shall Treat in Order.

CHAP. I. Of a Metonymie of the Cause.

[...], transno­minatio, a chan [...]e of Names or trans­mutatio, sive nomi­nis, pro no­mine posito ex [...], trans & [...], Aeolice pro [...] No­men, &c.A Metonymie is a Trope when a Cause is put for the Effect, or the Effect for the Cause, the Subject for the Adjunct, or the Adjunct for the Subject.

There are four kinds of Metonymies, Answering to the four kinds of Causes, Viz.

  • 1. Efficient.
  • 2. Material.
  • 3. Formal.
  • 4. Final.

A Metonymie of the Cause is used in Scripture, when,

  • 1. The Person acting is put for the thing done:
  • 2. When the Instrument by which a thing is done, is put for the thing effected.
  • 3. When a Thing or Action is put for the effect produced by that Action, of which in Order.

1. The Person Acting for the thing Acted or Effected.

1. THE HOLY SPIRIT is put for its Effects and Operations, as 2 Cor. 3:6. Who hath made us able Ministers of the New Testament not of the Letter, but of the Spirit, for the Letter killeth but the Spirit giveth Life. Where by the term [Letter] we are to understand the Law written in Tables of Stone, which required perfect obedience, and which no man can perform because of Corruption, therefore that Law can pronounce nothing but a sentence of Death: But by [Spirit] is meant the saving Doctrine of the Gospel, which derives its original from the Spirit (considered as a most merciful comforter) who sets it home upon the Soul, fitting and preparing it thereby for Eternal Life; sutable [Page 3] to John 6.63. The Words that I speak are Spirit and Life; that is,Joh. 6.63. they are from the Spirit of God, and being received by Faith confer Salvation, through the grace of God, Rom. 8.2.Part. 1. Col. 1162. By the Law of the Spirit of Life (as Illyricus says) is meant the Doctrine of the Gospel, (because it is a peculiar instrument or means of its operation) which by a Divine efficacy, changes the heart, and writes his Law there, which now is not only inscribed in Tables or Parchments, but penetrates the inward parts, quickning the soul to spiritual Motions and Actions. See Gal. 3.2.5. Isa. 11.4. 2 Thes. 2.8. Isa. 42.1. and 61.1, 2. John 3.34. &c.

2. THE HOLY SPIRIT is put for Regeneration, Psal. 51.10. Renew a right Spirit within me. Ezek. 36.26. A new Spirit will I put within you, hence the Apostle says, be ye renewed in the Spirit, &c. Eph. 4.23. Which is expound­ed, Rom. 12.2. Be not conformed to this World, but be ye transformed by the Re­newing of your mind, &c. Hence arises an opposition of Flesh and Spirit, John 3.6. That which is born of the Flesh is Flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit, is Spirit, where Primo loco vox Spiritus denotat ipsum spi­ritum san­ctum, gra­tiose per verbum et baptis­mum ope­rantem; posteriori loco spiri­tus sancti [...] salutare intelligi­tur. by [Flesh] is meant man defiled by sin, and by [Spirit] the grace of Renovation, or (which is the same thing) the Regenerate man. The Apostle 1 Thes. 5.19. Exhorts not to quench the Spirit, that is, the Gifts of the Spirit, as Illumination, and Renovation, suitable to 2 Tim 1.6. ( [...], suscitare instar ignis, Donum Dei,) stir up, as Fire, or Coals, are stirred up, for so the word [...] signifies, the gift of God, which is in thee, for true Faith and Godliness, may be resembled to a little Flame kindled by the Spirit in the hearts of Believers, which the Devil and Carnal Corruptions endeavour to smother, but is to be cherished and stirred up as fire is by more fewel; this feed­ing and quickning fewel is the Word of God; In this sence the Soul is distinguished from the Spirit in man: For (Spirit) denotes a Divine Power and Energy in a Regenerate and Sanctifyed soul, by which it is carryed to and united to God, as Luke 1.46, 47. My Soul doth magnifie the Lord, and my Spirit rejoyced in God my Saviour, expounded, 1 Thes. 5.23. The very God of Peace sanctifie you wholy; and I pray God your whole Spirit, and Soul, and Body, be preserved blameless unto the Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ: For other places where the Spirit is put for the New Man, and spiritual strength, see Psal. 51.17. Esa. 26.9. Ezek. 18.31. Matth. 5.3. and 26.41. Acts 17.16. and 19.21. and 20.22. Rom. 1.9. 1 Cor. 5.3, 4, 5. and 6.20. Gal. 3.3. &c.

More especially the SPIRIT is put for those peculiar or extraordinary Gifts of the Spirit, which for various uses, whether publick or private, spiritual or ex­ternal, are bestowed on Man, as Numb. 11.17. I will take off (or separate part off, for so the Hebrew is) the Spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them, (viz. the 70 Elders, who, as verse 25 thereupon Prophesied and did not cease,) upon which Vatablus says, ‘The Lord so abstracted from the Spirit of Moses, that he took away nothing, as one Candle (which Rab. Salomo calls a most Ele­gant similitude) lights several, yet loses nothing of its Original light.’ To this may the request of Elisha be referred, 2 Kings 2.9. I pray thee let a double portion of thy Spirit be upon me, where there is an evident Allusion to the right of Primo­geniture or first-born, Deut. 21.17. where the first-born was to have a double por­tion, &c. As if Elisha had said, I am your first Disciple, received into your School, therefore ask of God a greater measure of Spirit for me, then any one of your Disciples. Daniel had a more excellent Spirit (Dan. 5.12. with 6.3. for so the hebrew Text runs) and more knowledge and understanding, &c. then the Presi­dents and Princes, that is, more excellent and higher gifts of the Spirit, see Luke 1.17, 80. and 2.40. Acts 19.2. John 7.39. Acts 1.5.

To this may be referred, what is spoken of Revelations, Visions, or Extasies, whether real or pretended, as Ezek. 37.1. The hand of the Lord carryed me out in the Spirit of the Lord; that is, by a Vision, or Rapture of Spirit, So 2 Thes. 2.2. That ye be not shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by Spirit, nor by Word, nor by Letter, as from us, &c. That is, by Revelations which are pretended to come from the Spirit, so Rev. 1.10. I was in the Spirit, that is in an Extasie or immediate Revelation of the Spirit, as 2 Cor. 12.2. Rev. 4.2. &c. and 17.3. and 21.10. is de­scribed.

[Page 4]The SPIRIT is also put for Doctrines revealed from Heaven, whether [...] truly, or [...] by vain boasting so pretended, as 1 Cor. 14.32. The Spirits of the Prophets are subject to the Prophets, that is, the Doctrine, or Scripture Interpretation proposed by some Prophets, are subject to the Judgement of the rest; for it would savour of Haughtiness, Ambition, and Disdain for any indivi­dual to Ʋsurp an Infallibility, and reject the Judgment of the Brethren, as verse 29. Let the Prophets speak two or three, and let the other Judge. If any thing be Reveal­ed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his Peace. 1 John 4.1. We are thus exhorted, —Believe not every Spirit, but try the Spirits, &c. The Marks of which are given; verses the second and third, &c. Here it is evident that the Spirit is put for Doctrine, whether really revealed or pretended to be so. And by seducing Spirits, 1 Tim. 4.1. is meant false Teachers, that pretend their Doctrine to be from Gods Spirit, but is indeed of the Devil.

[Parents or Ancestors] are put for their Children, or Posterity, As Gen. 9.27. Japhet and Shem; Jacob and Israel for the Israelites, Exod. 5.2. Numb. 23.21. and 24.5, 17. Deut. 33.28. &c. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, of whom according to the flesh Christ came, are put for Christ, Gen. 12.3. In thee which the Chalde Translates [for thee.] And the Targ. Hierosol. [In thy Righteousness or Holiness] shall all the Families of the Earth be blessed. And Gen. 18.18. All the Nations of the Earth shall be blessed in him, which is meant of his In te & in s [...]mine tuo, Co­pulativa (et) idem est ac, id est, &c. Seed, as Gen. 22.18. Which Seed is Christ, who took on him the Seed of Araham, Heb. 2.16. Through whom the blessing of Abraham is come on the Gentiles, Gal. 3.14.

[The Writer or Author,] is put for his Writing, Book, or Work, Luk. 16.29, 31▪ They have Moses and the Prophets, let them hear them, that is, they have what Moses and the Prophets by inspiration from God have written, and delivered to Po­sterity for the Canon and Rule of Faith. So Luke 24.27. Acts 15.21. and 21.21. 2 Cor. 3.15. But even unto this day when Moses is read, that is, the Mosaical Wri­tings, &c.

The [SOƲL,] the noblest part of man, is put for [Life] which is its effect, Gen. 9.5. What we translate [blood of your Lives] is in the Hebrew [blood of your Souls] and Gen. 37.2. Reuben said let us not kill him, the hebrew says, let us not smite him in the Soul. So Lev. 17.11. Life of the Flesh, in hebrew is, soul of the Flesh, See Ps. 56.13, 14, 15. Jer. 40.14.

(1.) This Term is sometimes put for the whole Person of man, consisting of Soul and Body, Gen. 46.27. Acts 27.37. [...] all the Souls in the Ship. (2.) For the Body only, Ps. 105.18. Iron entred into his Soul, we tran­slate it, he was laid in Iron, that is, the Iron fetters made dints in his Flints. (3.) 'Tis put for Life (as before) Psal. 94.21. and 7.1, 2, 5. (4.) 'Tis put for a Carkass, Lev. 19.28. Ye shall not make any cutting in your flesh for the Dead, the hebrew is, for the Soul, and so it is taken, Lev. 21.1. And Hag. 2.4. (5.) It is put for the Rational Soul, Ps. 19.7. Deut. 11.18, &c.

2. The SOƲL is put for the Will, Affections and Desires, which are operati­ons of the soul, as Gen. 23.8. If it be your mind, in the Hebrew 'tis, (with your Soul) as Psal. 27.12. and 41.3. and 105.22. The Septuagint translates it (if ye have in your Soul) the Chaldee, (If it be the pleasure of your soul.) So Exod. 23.9. Ye know the heart of a stranger, Heb. the soul of a stranger, that is, his mind or af­fection. See Deut. 23.24. 1 Kings 19.3. 2 Kings 7.7. Psal. 17.10, and 27. 12. and 41.3, Prov. 23.2. Jer. 34.16. John 20.24. [...]; how long dost thou hold our soul in suspense? That is, as our Translation hath it, how long dost thou make us to Doubt?

It may be referred hither, when the SPIRIT, which is often put for mans soul, is used to express the Motions or Affections of the Soul, whether Good or Evil, as Gen 45.27. The Spirit of Jacob their father revived, Numb. 14.24. My Servant Caleb had another Spirit, Judg. 8.3. Their anger was abated, 'ti [...] in the Hebrew [Page 5] their Spirit was abated, 2 Chron. 21.16. The Lord stirred up the Spirit of the Philistines, &c. 2 Chron. 36.22. The Lord stirred up the Spirit of Cyrus, &c. see Psal. 76.13. and 77.4. Pro. 1.23. and 18.14. and 29.11. Eccl. 7.9. Isa. 29.10. and 37.7. Jer. 51.11. Ezek. 13.3. Dan. 5.20. Hag. 1.14. Hab. 1.11. Rom. 11.8. 1 Cor. 2.12. &c. God hath given the Spirit of slumber, Eyes that they should not see, and Ears that they should not hear. Now you have received, not the Spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God, &c.

2. The Organical Cause or Instrument is put for the thing Effected by it.

THE Mouth is put for Speech, or Testimony, as Deut. 17.6. At the Mouth of two or three Witnesses, Mouth shall he that is worthy of Death be put to Death, but at the Mouth of one VVitness, he shall not be put to death. that is, by the Witness or Testimony of two or three, &c. so Deut. 19.15. One witness shall not arise against a man for any Iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sin­neth: At the Mouth of two Witnesses, or at the Mouth of three Witnesses shall the matter be established —which is expounded Matth. 18.16. and John 8.17.

2. The MOUTH is put for a Command or Prescription, Gen. 45.21. And Joseph gave them Waggons according to the Mouth of Pharaoh, &c. That is, (as we translate it) according to the Commandment of Pharaoh. Exod. 17.1. And the Children of Israel Journied according to the Mouth, (that is, the Commandment) of the Lord. So Numb. 3.16, 39. and 20.24. and 17.14. Deut. 1.26.43. and 34.5. So Moses the Servant of the Lord, died there in the Land of Moab, according to the Mouth of the Lord, that is, according to the Word of the Lord. Upon which Sanctius says in his Comment on Isa. 49. Therefore they do not rightly judge, who from the Hebrew reading say, that Moses dyed in the kiss of the Lord; for that Tradition is not from the Hebrew Text, but from the Targum which is attribu­ted to Jonath. Ʋziel, who renders [...] at the Mouth of the Lord, Ad Osculum verbi Domini, that is, according to the kiss of the Mouth of the Lord. But what's spoken of the Mouth of the Lord, is better to be referred to the Trope Anthro­popathia, of which we shall hear hereafter.

[The Tongue] is put for Speech, Prov. 25.15. A soft Tongue breaketh the bones, Tongue that is, a mild, civil, and courteous speech, so Jer. 18.18. Percu­tiamus e­um propter is [...]am Linguam, h [...]c est, sermonem illum▪ importu­num & no­bis odio­sum. Let us smite him for that Tongue ( [...]) that is, for his importunate, unseasonable and odious Speech. But more especially for the Idiom or particular Language of Nations. Act. 2.4, 11. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other Tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.—Cretians and Arabians do we hear them speak in our Tongues the great things (or wonderful works) of God. It is also put for the Gift of strange Languages. In my name shall they cast out Devils, they shall speak with new Tongues, Mark. 16.17. and 1 Cor. 14.19. Yet in the Church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, then Ten Thousand words in an unknown Tongue. That is, in a Language which the People understand not, &c.

[The Lip] is put for Speech, Gen. 11.1. And the whole Earth was of one Lip, and of one word, that is, of one Language, and of one Speech, or Idiom of speak­ing, the Chaldee sayes of one Tongue, and one Speech. That the Hebrew Lan­guage is meant here, (which in Isa. 19.18. is called the Lip of Canaan [we tran­slate it Language by the same Trope) And which by the Targ. Hierosolym. and R. Saloom upon the place is called the Holy Tongue) is shewed elsewhere. Neither was Hebrew the peculiar name of that Language in those times, because there was no need of a term of distinction, there being no other Speech in the World, till [Page 6] after the Confusion of Tongues, and scattering of the People at Babel.

Pro. 17.7. A Lip of excellency does not become a fool, much less a Lip of lying, A Prince, Non deco­rum est stulto la­bium dig­nitatis, quanto minus li­berali la­bium sal­sitatis. that is, a worthy and excellent Speech do's not become, or is not to be expected from a Fool, much less should a Noble or brave mind tell Lies.

Esa. 33.19. A People of a deeper Lip (so the Hebrew) then thou canst perceive, that is, such as speak so obscurely, that you cannot understand them; as Pagninus renders it. See Pro. 12.19. the Lip of Truth shall be established for ever, but a lying Tongue is but for a moment. Job. 12.20. He removeth away the Lip of the faithful, &c. so 'tis in the Hebrew.

[The Palate] is put for Speech. Pro. 5.3. For the Lips of a strange Woman drop as an honey Comb, and her Palate (so the Hebrew) is smoother then Oyl; that is, her Words or Speech.

[The Throat] is put also for loud Speaking, Isa. 58.1. Cry with the Throat (so the Hebrew) spare not, &c. by which the Organ of Crying or Speaking is to be understood, for the Explication follows, viz. lift up thy voice like a Trumpet, and what the Scope or Argument of that loud Speech, or Shrill Cry, was to be, is added in these words, And shew my People their Transgression, and the house of Ja­cob their sins.

[The Hand] is put for Actions done by it, where there is also a Synechdoche, For by the Actions of the Hands, some other things, as also Principles or begin­nings of Actions are understood, as Counsel, Machination or contrivance; thought, endeavours, care, &c. as 1 Sam. 22.17. Slay the Priests of the Lord, for their Hand is also with David, that is, they help him with their Counsel. So 2 Sam. 3.12. and 14.19. 1 Kings 10.29. Psal. 7.4. Isa. 1.15.

[The Hand] is put for Writing, 1 Cor. 16.21. The Salutation of me Paul, with mine own hand, that is, mine own Writing, and Col. 4.18. The Salutation by the Hand, (that is the Writing) of me Paul. This is ordinary, (viz. for a mans Writing to be called his hand) among the Greeks as Pollux and Suidas sayes, and among the Latines, see Cicero lib. 7. Epist. ad Attic. as also in our common Language.

[The Hand] is put for a Gift reached by the Hand. Psal. 68.32. Ethiopia shall make her Hands run to God (so the Hebrew) that is, Ethiopia shall speedily transmit her Gifts, as Psal. 72.10. Isa. 60.6. to which Relates that of Lib. 35. cap. 14. Graeci An­qui doron palmum vocabant, & Dona Munera, quia Ma­nu daren­tur. Pliny—the An­cient Greeks called Doron the palm or fist, and therefore they called the Hand, Gifts, that word so signifying because they were given thereby. — See Psal. 22. 35, 36. And more under the Head or Title Metaphors.

[A Sword] is put for War or Slaughter, which are in a great Measure perform­ed thereby. Exod. 5.3. Let us go we pray thee three days Journey into the Desert, and sacrifice unto the Lord our God lest he fall upon us with Pestilence, or with the Sword. Levit. 26.6. Neither shall the Sword go through your Land, so Isa. 1.20. Jer. 14.12, 13, 15, 16. and 43.11. Psal. 144.10. Rom. 8.35. and several other places. It is said, Matth. 10.34. I came not to send Peace, but a Sword —, that is, not such peace, as that men will rest contended and quiet in Paganism, or Ir­religion, but contend earnestly for the true Religion in their Confessions and Preach­ing of the Gospel, even through Sufferings, Persecution, and Blood, &c.

[A line] or [...] measuring Rope, is put for a Countrey or tract of Land, because by it was measured, as Amos 7.17. Micah. 2.5. Zach. 2.1. For it was a custom to Measure Land by an extended Chord, and distribute Inheritances, as in Palestine, which is done in modern times by a Rod or Perch, therefore the word [...] A cord, Rope or Line, is put for the bounds, space or quantity of the portion of Land given. Deut. 3.4. All the line of Argob, So it is in the Hebrew. the Kingdom of Og in Bashan. The Chaldee sayes all the house or place of the Province, &c. see Joshua 17.14. Psal. 105.10, 11. Zeph. 2.5. &c.

[Page 7]Sometimes it is also a Metaphor, Deut 32.9. For the Lords portion is his People, Jacob is the Cord of his Inheritance, that is, a People peculiar to himself, and se­gregated and divided from the World, see Psal. 16.6. the lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places, yea, I have a Goodly heritage—. Our Saviour, who is here speaking by the Prophet, uses this Metaphor to express the Figure or Delineation of the Church, &c. Hence it is said, 2 Cor. 10.15, 16. Not boasting of things without our Measure, that is, of other mens labours, but having hope when your Faith is increased, that we shall be enlarged by you according to our rule abundantly to preach the Gospel in the Regions beyond you, and not to boast in another mans line (or Rule) of things made ready to our hand, where [...] Regula, a Rule, signifies that space Measured by it, as if God had divided the World among the Apostles, that they should preach in their particular and respective precincts or allotted places.

[Money] is put for Property or Estate purchased by Money, Exod. 21.21. for he is his Money, that is he purchased or bought him with his Money, and is to him as good as Money.

3. A Thing or Action is put for the Effect produced by that Thing or Action.

THis kind of Metonymie is to be found distinctly in Nouns and Verbs, of which we are to note, that some are referred hither, [...] or by way of Analo­gy, in which as I may speak, there is a [...], connotation, or consignifica­tion, that is, when the Thing or Action is not to be understood strictly for the effect, but together with its Effect and consequent.

In Nouns; Certain termes which signifie [Affection] are put for their Effects, as 1 John 3.1. Behold what manner of Love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the Sons of God. The Emphasis is great here,Love. as if Jehovah had said that he hath graciously given us his own very Love, whilst he adopts us into the priviledge of Sonship. By bestowing this blessing he bestows himself, and makes himself one with us, for he is Love, 1 John. 4.8.

[Mercy] is put for the Benefit and Commiseration that proceeds from it, Gen. 20.13. and 32.13.Mercy. I am less then the (or I am not worthy of the) least of thy mercies, 2 Chron. 35.16. By the same Trope the Greeks call [...], [...], emosyna, e [...]t genus omne bene­ [...]icii quod in miseros confertur, Beza. The word sig­nifyeth Mercy and Pity, therefore all our Alms must pro­ceed from a Merciful and Piti­ful heart. Alms what they give in Charity to the poor Matth, 6.1. Luk. 11.41. Act. 10.2, 4. Mo­tum internum significat, quo inclinentur homines ad miserendum pauperis. Chamier; That is, It signifies an internal motion by which men are inclined to pitty the poor.

[Anger] is put for punishment or vengeance which proceeds from Anger, Psal. 79.6. Pour out thy wrath (or Anger) upon the Heathen, &c. Micah. 7.9. I will bear the Anger or Indignation of the Lord, &c. Rom. 2.5. But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thy self Wrath against the day of Wrath, &c. see Rom. 3.5. and 4.15. and 13.4.5. Eph. 5.6.

[Anger] is put for a Command given in Anger, 1 Sam. 28.18. Because thou o­bey'dst not the voice of the Lord, nor executed'st his fierce Wrath (or Anger) upon Amalek, &c.

[Judgment] is put for Punishment and Castigation or Correction, Exod. 6.6. I will Redeem you (Israelites) with great Judgments, that is, great punishments up­on Pharaoh, Pro. 19.29. Judgments (that is punishments) are prepared for Scor­ners, &c.—when I send my sore Judgments upon Jerusalem, that is, punishments, &c. see Ezek. 14.21. Rom. 2.3. 1 Cor. 11.29. 1 Pet. 4.17. It is put for Condemnati­on, [Page 8] Jer. 26.11. John 3.18, 19. 2 Pet. 2.3. In 1 Cor. 11.29. It is said, he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh Damnation, but in the Greek it is [...] which signifies Judgment.

[Sin] with the Synonymous terms is put for the punishment of Sin. Gen. 19. 15. The Angels hastned Lot, saying arise, take thy Wife and thy two Daughters which are here, lest thou be consumed in the Iniquity of the City, that is, in the pu­nishment of the City. Psal. 7.16. his sin (or mischief) shall return upon his own head, that is, the merited or condigne punishment. See Jer. 14.16. Zach. 14.19.

With a Verb, that signifies to bear or carry, it intimates the Guilt and Con­viction that preceds punishment, which must certainly follow, as Exod. 28.43. Lev. 5.1. and 20.20. and 22.9. Numb. 14.33. Ezek. 23.35, 49. and 18.20. and other places.

[Work] is put for its reward, Lev. 19.13. the work of him that is hired (so the Hebrew) shall not abide with thee all night, until the morning. Jer. 22.13. Rev. 14.13. that they may rest from their Labours, and their works follow them. Some­times it is put for the merit of the Work, Rom. 11.6. And if by Grace, then it is no more of Works? otherwise Grace is no more Grace. But if it be of Works, then it is no more Grace; otherwise work is no more work, here Grace and Work; that is to say, merit are opposed to each other.

[Divination] or Augury [...] is put for the Price and Reward of it, Numb. 22.7. And, The [...] Divinations were in their hands, that is, (as in our Translation) the Rewards of Divination, which were to be given to Balaam.

Labour is put for the profit or fruit it produces, Deut. 28.33. All thy Labours shall a Nation which thou knowest not, eat up. Psal, 78, 46. He gave their labour unto the Locust, Psal 105.44. They inherited the labour of the People, Psal. 128.2. for thou shalt eat the labour of thine hands, Pro. 5, 10. Eccl. 2.19. Isa. 45.14. Jer. 3.24. Ezek. 23.29. [Hunting] is put for Venison, got by Hunting, Gen. 25. 28. And Isaac loved Esau because he did eat of his Hunting, that is, his Venison, see Gen. 27.3.

So much of Nouns, there are some Metonymies in Verbs as Verbs of Knowing, and such as betoken Affection or Operation, of which kind are

Verbs that signifie to know, which besides the bare [...], or knowing, denote the motions, affections and effects, that are joyned with knowledge, as Psal. 90. 11. Who knoweth the power of thine Anger? that is, who considers, or regards the power of thine Anger? so, as to awake from the sleep of sin, and seriously to repent? Israel doth not know, &c. Isa. 1.3. That is, considers not, nor takes no­tice of the Blessings the Lord gave it, Jer. 8.7. Luk 19.41. John 8 43. Why do ye not know my Speech, that is, approve it, and with a faithful Assent receive it? The Answer of Christ (giving the reason of this,) follows, viz. even because ye cannot hear my words, that is, so understand them, as to Embrace and close with them, for through the Devils blinding of you, and your wilful choice, ye are of your Father the Devil, and the lust of your Father ye will do.

[To know] is put for approbation, as Rom. 7.15. For that which I do, I know not, that is, (as our Translation hath it) allow not, Rev. 2.24. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this Doctrine, and which have not known the Depths of Satan (that is, have not approved of his Snares and deep Temptations.) To be [Conscious] signifies more then barely to know, which differ as much as Knowledge and Conscience, as Psal. 35.11. False Witnesses did rise up, and they asked me things that I knew not, that is, of which I am no wayes conscious to my self, as Psal. 51.3. because I know mine Iniquities, and my sin is e­ver before me. Where the Prophet includes the terror of Conscience, and serious [Page 9] Contrition, 2 Cor. 5.21. It is said, He (that is, God the Father) hath made him, (that is Christ) to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that is who was not guilty of any sin, for he was most perfectly holy, and without sin — So that he was made sin in this sence, viz. The Father imputed our sins to him according to Esa. 53.6. And the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all, or hath made the iniquities of us all to meet on him, &c.

[To Know,] Is put for Estimation, or Judgment of any thing with respect to its value or worth, as 2 Cor. 5.16. Henceforth know we no man after the Flesh, that is, we do not value or esteem any man for external things, as Riches, Po­verty, Honour, Disgrace, legal Priviledges, &c.— After which follows, Yea though we have known Christ after the Flesh, yet now henceforth we know him, (viz. that way) no more; he speaks of the Estimation of Christ carnally or in a fleshly way, viz. in that state of humility, wherein he was plac'd, during his sojourn­ing here— For in that respect we shall know him no more, but in his state of Exaltation, Grace, and Glory, we shall know, that is, value, esteem, and prize him; not for any legal Derivation, or Pedigree, with respect to his humane Na­ture, but, because he is the great Saviour and Intercessor exalted to Glory at the right hand of the Father, from whom we expect our great and glorious Deliverance, &c. To this belongs that phrase, Prov. 24.23. It is not good to know the face in Judgment; in which is a Proso­polepsia. [...], viz. a respecting of Persons, or an Esti­mation or Judgment by external appearance without respect to equity; as ver. 24. He that saith unto the wicked thou art Righteous, him shall the People Curse, &c. that is, from a [...], or a partial respect of persons, whereas we are advised, Prov. 25.21. If thine Enemy be Hungry, give him bread to Eat: And if he be thirsty, give him water to drink— For thou shalt heap Coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord shall Reward thee; This is a right Gospel Spirit, because it is so far from a Revengeful retaliation, that it commands Good for Evil.

That which is said by Moses in his publication of the Commands of God, Deut. 1.17. viz. Ye shall not know faces in Judgment (so the hebrew) Deut. 16.19. Thou shalt not wrest Judgment, thou shalt not know persons, and Job 34.19. That ac­cepteth not (or knows not) the persons of Princes, nor regardeth the rich more then the poor, is a speech of Jehovah, and agrees with Acts 10.34. Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons, &c.

2. Verbs of Cognition, or knowledge also concern the Will and Affections of the Heart. And so to know is to Love, cherish, and take care for, &c. As Exod. 1.8. And there arose a new King, which knew not Joseph, that is, he regarded him not, nor the good Acts which he had done in the Kingdom, the Chaldee says, One that did not confirm the decree of Joseph, So Gen. 39.6. Jud. 2.10. Prov. 12.10. & 29.7. 1 Thess. 5. 12. In other places [...] to know is of the same signification as Deut. 33.9. Ruth 2.10, 19. Psal. 142.4, 5.

By a special and singular manner of the Holy Spirits speaking. The phrase [to know] is attributed to God, which denotes his special Providence, Love and Pater­nal Care, as Exod. 2.25. And God looked upon the Children of Israel, and God knew them, that is (as we translate it) he had respect unto them, 1 Chron. 17.18. Psal. 1.5, 6. and 37.17, 18. Jer. 1.5. and 24.5. Amos 3.2. (see Deut. 4.20.) John 10.27. 1 Cor. 8.3. 2. Tim. 2.19. &c.

This term [to know] denotes also a trust and hearty confidence, ( [...],) or a certain perswasion, faith or assurance, given by the Holy Spirit to men endued with a saving faith, as Job 19.25. I know that my Redeemer liveth, that is, I have an absolute faith and confidence that it is so, and acquiesce in it, &c.

To know the Name of the Lord, is by true faith to adhere to him, Psal. 9.10. For they that know thy Name will put their trust in thee. To know the Lord, is to believe and hope in him, Jer. 9.24. and 31.24. Hosea 2.20. John 17.3. &c. This is the knowledge by which many shall be justified, Esa. 53.11. The knowledge of Sal­vation, Luk. 1.77. [...]. The knowledge of the Truth which is after Godliness, Tit. 1.1.

[Page 10]3. The very work or act, When [to know] is put for [to be able] or the interior faculty of operation, which is the principle of Actions, Esa. 56.10, 11. His Watchmen are greedy Dogs which can never have enough, (the hebrew says, which knew not fulness) Shepherds that cannot understand, or as the hebrew has it, that knew not to understand; the meaning is, that for their Covetousness, they cannot be satisfied, and for their blindness, and want of skill, cannot apprehend Divine things Aright.

It is said Matth. 7.11. If ye then being Evil [...]. know how to give Good things unto your Children, &c. That is, ye can (or are able) notwithstanding your natural Wickedness, do good to your own. This Trope is very frequent also in the Latin Tongue, &c.

It is put for an Experimental sence of a Fact done, Mark 5.29. [...], &c. et scivit corpore, and she knew in her body, (in our Translation 'tis, she felt in her body) that she was healed of that plague. Hence by the same Trope or manner of speaking, 'tis said of Christ verse 30. And Jesus [...], cognoscens in se­metipso) knowing in himself that vertue had gone out of him, that is feeling and experiencing it.

1 Cor. 4.19. I will know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the Power, that is, I will experience how strong they are in the Faith, what zeal they have, and how powerfully the Holy Spirit has influenced them.

More especially, by the term knowing, Conjugal Society is noted, as Gen. 4.1. and 19.5, 8. Numb. 31.17. Matth. 1.25. Luke 1.34. This was common with the Greeks and Latins, as Plut. in Alex. Neque aliam [...] cognoscebat mulierem, that is, he knew no other Woman. Horat. Ignara mariti, ignorant of a Hus­band.

[To Remember] Is put for the Will and Desire, Heb. 11, 15. If they had Re­membred that Country from whence they came, they Might have had opportunity to have Returned, that is, if they had a mind or Desire to have Returned thither &c. which exposition is cleared in the following verse, viz. But now they desire a better Country, that is, an heavenly. See Isa. 44.21. Joh. 2.7. So Cant. 1.4. We will Remember thy love more then VVine, that is, by true Faith and sincere Love, we will cleave to thee for the great Affection thou hast vouchsafed us, which we esteem above all thats delightsome and precious (for such things are synecdochically noted by Wine) in this World; For the upright love thee, that is, the Regenerate sons of God, who truly know, and love Christ, and in Life follow him,) 2 Tim. 2..8, 19. Luke 22.19. 1 Cor. 11.24, 25. In a word, to Remember Christ is in a due and faithful sence and apprehension to be united to him, and to live to him alone, whereas on the contrary,

Oblivisci Jebovae cordis con­tumaciam Infideli­tatem & impieta­tem im­portat.[To forget God] Imports Ʋnbelief, wickedness and Stubbornness of Heart, as Hosea 4.6. My People are destroyed for lack of knowledge: Because thou hast rejected know­ledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no Priest to me; seeing thou hast forgot­ten the Law of thy God, I will also forget thy Children. See 2 Pet. 1.9. Jam. 1.25. Ezek. 22.12, &c.

Sometimes to Remember signifies a consequent speech, or an external real effect, as Esth. 2.1. Ahasuerus Remembered Vashti, when by the second verse it is evident that he was discoursing of her with his Ministers. Ezek. 23.19. Yet she multiplyed her VVhoredoms in calling to mind the days of her youth, &c. that is, both calls to mind, and in that very act exercising her former spiritual Whoredom. In what sence Remembrance and Oblivion are attributed to God, will be seen hereafter.

[Verbs of Affections] as [to love] or [to hate] are put for the actions them­selves, which either really or according to the custom or opinions of men are the Results of such Affections— The verbs odi and diligo, to hate and love, do some­times denote contrary Affections.

[Page 11]1. To love signifies seeking and desiring as Luke 11.43. ye love, (that is ye seek or desire) the uppermost seats, &c. John 3.39. and 12.43. 2 Tim. 4.8.

'Tis put for (to be wont) as Matth. 6.5. Hypocrites love (that is, they are wont) to pray standing.

See Psal. 11.5. Prov. 21.17. 2 Tim. 4.10. Demas hath forsaken me, ( [...]) having loved this present World, which Erasmus well renders hath embraced this pre­sent world; that is, Demas would not be a Companion of sufferers, but his desire, and seeking was to have good and happy days in this World.

2. [To Love] signifies to prefer, regard, or take care of one thing more then ano­ther. To which [to hate] is opposed, which signifies disregard, less care, and neglect of one thing more then another, as Gen. 29.31. with verse 30. John 12.25. He that loveth his (In the Greek it is [...], &c. that is, he that lov­eth his soul, &c. and ha­teth his soul, &c. Life) shall lose it; and he that hateth his (In the Greek it is [...], &c. that is, he that lov­eth his soul, &c. and ha­teth his soul, &c. Life) in this world shall keep it unto Eternal Life. This is expressed, Matth. 16.25. Thus, For who­soever will save his Life, (in the Greek 'tis, his Soul) shall lose it, and whosoever will lose his Life (or Soul) for my sake, shall find it. By the phrase (to Love his Soul,) is meant a will and resolution to preserve Life, even by the denyal or abnegation of the Name of Christ. And (to hate his Soul) signifies, that in comparison of the Name, Profession, and Truth of Christ, the preservation of this Life is a thing not at all valued, but that we are ready rather then deny him to suffer even unto Death.

It is said Luke 14.26. If any man come unto me, and hate not his Father, and Mother, and Wife, and Children, and Brethren, and Sisters, yea and his own Soul ( [...]) also, he cannot be my Disciple. This Text does not injoyn us to hate our Relations (for we are Commanded to Love even our Enemies, Matth. 5.44. Luke 6.27.) But the meaning is, that he that can or will prefer the comfort of Society of his Natural Relations before Christ and his Gospel is not worthy to be his Disciple. See Psal. 109.16, 17. Prov. 8.36. and 17.19. and 13.24.

3. It notes a declaration of an external Gesture, which is wont to be the result of Love, as Mark 10.21. Then Jesus beholding him loved him [...], which signifies not that Christ approved his answer, or had therefore any singular or pecu­liar respect for him, but, (as it were) sweetly smil'd upon him, looking upon his talk to be childish and ridiculous, even as we smile upon Children, when they prat­tle of such things as are in themselves simple.

[Verbs of Operation] as [to do] are put for acquisition or gain, which is the effect of Action and Labour, as Gen. 12.5. The Souls they had made in Charan, that is, acquired or gotten there. Gen. 30.30. And now when shall I Quan­do faci­am ego pro do­mo mea. make for my house also? that is, when shall I provide or take care to get so much as will be suf­ficient for my Family. Hence 'tis said, Matth. 25.16. Then he that had received the five Talents went and traded with the same, [...]. and made them other five Talents, that is, [...], he gained them, as verses 17, 20, 22. it is expounded.

[To Judge,] besides its proper signification, denotes also the Consequent actions, as Castigation and Punishment, Gen. 15.14. 2 Chron. 20.12. Psal. 9.19.20. Acts 7.7. Heb. 13.4. Condemnation John 3.18. Rom. 14.3. Freeing, Delive­ring or Absolving, Psal. 35.24. Rom. 6, 7. &c.

The Matter of which a thing is made, is put for the thing made.

THE [FIRR-TREE] of which Lances were made is put for lances, Nah. 2.3. The Firr-trees shall be terribly shaken. 'Tis put for Musical Instruments, 2 Sam. 6.5. And David and all the House of Israel played before the Lord on all Firr-wood, (so the hebrew) that is, as in our Translation, on all instruments made of firr-wood, as the following words shew, viz. on Harps, and on Psalteries, and on Timbrels, and on Cornets, and on Cymbals.

[Brass] is put for Fetters or Shackles made of Brass, Lam. 3.7. [...]aes me­ [...]m fecit aggra­vari. He hath made my Brass heavy, that is my chain, or fetters, whereby my legs are shackled. See Judg. 16.21. 2 Sam. 3.34. Ezek. 24.11. and 16.36.

You may see more Examples, Psal. 68.30. 2 Sam. 7.2. Jermiah. 4.20. Habak. 3.7.

[Gold and Silver] are put for things made of them, 1 Chron. 29.2. Psal. 115.4. Their Idols are Silver and Gold, Ubicun (que) Auro & Argento (quae no­mina, ut & reli­quorum metallo­rum, apud Hebraeos, plurali carent) numera­lia nomi­na juncta leguntur, pro siclis ejusdem Metalli usurpan­tur. Juni­us in Gen. 24.22. that is, made of Silver and Gold.

2. For Money or Currant Coyn, Gen. 23.9, 16. Gen. 24.22. 2 Kings 5.5. 1 Chro. 21.22, 24. Gen. 20.16. Deut. 22.19, 29. Caedar is put for Caedar-work, or Ta­bles made of that Wood, Zeph. 2.14. Iron is put for an Axe, 2 Kings 6.5. For Fetters, Psal. 105.18. Corn is put for Bread, Lam. 2.12. with Chapt. 4. verse 4. Wood and Stone are put for Vessels made of them, Exod. 7.19. Stone is put for an Idol made of Stone, Jer. 2.27. & 3.9. And for a pound weight, Deut. 25.13. 2 Sam. 14.26. Prov. 11.1. See more examples, Esa. 34.11. Zach. 4.10. and 5.8. Gen. 28.18, 22. with verse 11. Wood is put for a House made of Wood, Jer: 21.14. I will kindle a Fire in the Forrest thereof, that is, in the House of Jehovah, In the House of the King, and in the Houses of the Nobles, which were built of precious materials brought from the Forrest of Lebanon, Jer. 22.7. 2 Kings 25.9. 2 Chron. 36.19. Jer. 52.13. &c.

CHAP. II. Of a Metonymie of the Effect.

A Metonymie of the Effect is, when the Effect is put for the Efficient Cause, which is done three ways, as,

  • 1. When the Action or the Effect is put for the Author or Person effecting.
  • 2. When a thing Effected by an instrument, is put for the Instrument or Organical Cause.
  • 3. When the Effect is put for the thing or action Effecting.

1. The Action or Effect is put for the Author or person Effecting.

AS Gen. 15.1. I am (says Jehovah to Abraham) thy exceeding great Reward, that is, I am a most liberal giver of Reward, Deut. 30.20. He is thy Life and [Page 13] length of Days, that is, he is the Cause of it, Gen. 49.18. I have waited for thy Salvation, that is, the promised Messiah, the Author of Salvation, as Luke 2.30. Where Simeon says, Mine eyes have seen thy Salvation, that is Christ. [...]. All flesh shall see [...] the Salvation of God, that is, a Saviour, See Esa. 49.6. &c. Psal. 3.3, 4. and 106.20. and 27.1. Thou art my Light, Salvation, Strength, &c. that is, the Author and Cause of them; so Psal. 18.2. and 22.20. and 33.20. and 46.2. Jer. 16.19. and 23.6. John 11.25. and 14.6. 1 Cor. 1.30. Eph. 2.14. 1 John 5.20. And Heb. 5.9. Rom. 15.5, 13. 2 Cor. 1.3. Luke 1.50.

Luke 11.14. And he (viz. Jesus) was casting out a Devil, and it was Dumb; that is, he made the man (in whom he was,) dumb, or suffered him not to speak, and so was the cause of dumbness. See Matth. 9.32, 33. and Mark 9.17, 25. Luke 13.11.

It is said, Gen. 26.35. That Esaus wives were a grief of mind (or as the hebrew says, bitterness of Spirit) unto Isaac and Rebecca, that is the Cause of sadness and trouble of Spirit. See Gen. 25.23. Nehem. 12.31. Rom. 13.3. Rulers are not a terror (that is a cause of terror) to good men. 2 Cor. 1.14. we are your rejoycing, as ye are ours— (the Greek is [...], which signifies glorying or boasting) that is, [...], timor. the cause of your rejoycing or glorying, inasmuch as we instructed you in the Gospel which is the way of Salvation, and you likewise are our glory, inasmuch as we have won you to Christ, 1 Thess. 2.19, 20. Rom. 5.2.

2. When a thing Effected by an Instrument, is put for the In­strument or Organical Cause.

GLory is put for the Tongue, Psal. 16.9. My Heart is glad and my glory rejoyceth, that is, my Tongue, because it is the Organ by which God is (and ought to be) gloryfied, sutable to Acts 2.26. Therefore did my heart Rejoyce and my Tongue was glad. See Psal. 30.12, 13. and 5.7, 9.

[Power] is put for the Organ exerting power, as Rom. 1.16. The Gospel is ( [...]) the power of God unto Salvation to every one that Beleiveth, that is, the Gospel is the means or organ by which God exerts or puts forth the power of his Salvation to Beleivers, Eph. 1.19.

[Victory] is put for the Instrument of overcoming, as 1 John 5.4. This is the victo­ry that overcometh the world, even your Faith— that is, the Instrument of victory, Eph. 6.16.

Life is put for the means of its preservation, Deut. 24.26. No man shall take the nether or the upper Milstone to pledge, for he taketh a mans Life (or [...] Soul) to pledge, [...] Nephesh. that is the Instruments that are necessary for the preservation of Life Prov. 7.27. Life is put for food or maintenance, Luke 15.12. He divided unto them, ( [...] his Life,) that is his Estate, or as we translate it, (his living) Hesiod lib. 2. calls money the soul of a man.


3. When the Effect is put for the Thing or Action Effect­ing.

THis Species of a Metonymie is distinctly found in Nouns and Verbs, as when the Effect is put for the cause materially, as 2 Kings 4.10. There is death in the pot— that is, deadly poyson, which will cause Death. So Death is put for great perils and dangers, troubles or Calamities which cause Death. Exod. 10.17. Rom. 7.24. 2 Cor. 1.10. and 11.23. And for the Plague, Rev. 6.8. See Prov. 11.23. Jer. 3.24. Shame is put for an Idol, Jer. 11.13. Hos. 9.10. The reason of the Name you may see Jer. 48.13. And Moab shall be ashamed of Kemosh, as the house of Israel was ashamed of Bethel their confidence. See Ezek. 44.18. Hosea 12.1. Ephraim dayly increaseth lies and desolation, that is, he commits such evils, that nothing can be expected but Desolation and Calamity.

See more Examples, Lam. 2.14. 1 Cor. 12.6, 8. 1 Cor. 14.3. He that Pro­phecyeth, speaketh unto men So the Greek [...], &c. Edification, and Exhortation, and Comfort, that is an Edifying, Exhorting, and Comforting speech.

Sometimes the Effect is put formally for the Cause. as Deut. 30.15. I have set before thee this day, Life and Good, Death and Evil, that is, I have clearly shew­ed, and lay'd before thee what is the cause and original of each, or for what cause and reason, either of these was to come upon thee, viz. To Love and obey God brings Life and Good; but Rebellion, Sin, and Disobedience brings Death and Evil, as the following verses make evident. This is called, Jer. 21.8. The way of Life and Death. See more Deut. 32.47. Prov. 19.3. and 20.1. Esa. 28.12. This is rest, that is, the Cause of rest, or the way and manner of arriving to it. Hosea 4.18. Their drink is sowre (or gone) that is, their cause of recess from God, or that which made them backslide, as verse 11. Whoredom and Wine, and New Wine take away the Heart. Which words, (viz. take away the Heart) are Em­phatical, for they denote that they were (as it were) wallowing in these Evils, when they gave themselves to Whoredom and Drunkenness. They saw and knew what was better,Video Meliora, probo (que) Deteriora sequor. Ovid. and approved them, but they followed the worse, and so the Devil keeps them that are drowned in these Wickednesses (as it were) Captives, 2 Tim. 2.26. for the hebrew word here, is used when they speak of such as such as are taken and detained by force, Gen. 14.11, 12. Josh. 11.19, 23, &c. Micah 1.5. What is the Transgression of Jacob? Is not Samaria? And what are the High Places of Judah? Are they not Jerusalem? That is, as Kimchi (in lib. Radicum) expounds it, what was the Cause of the defection of Jacob? Was it not the Cities of Sama­ria, &c. See Hab. 2.5. John 3.19. And this is the Judgment or Condemnation, that is, the cause of it, John 12.50. And I know that his Commandement is Life Everlasting; that is, the Cause or Organ by which Everlasting Life is obtained, for he speaks of saving knowledge by the Gospel, Rom. 7.7. Is the Law sin, that is, the Cause of sin in or by it self? So Rom. 8.6. For to be carnally minded is Death: But to be Spiritually minded is Life and Peace, that is, the cause of Death, and the Cause of Life and Peace, as verse 10. See Phil. 1.13. Heb. 6.1. and 19. 14. and Rom. 6.23.

[In Verbs,] To JOY and REJOYCE, are put for to be freed, or delivered from Evil, and to be or do well, which is the Cause of Joy, Psal. 70.4. Let all those that seek thee Rejoyce, and be glad in thee— that is, let them be freed from all evil, that they may have cause of Joy. The Cause and Effect are joyned, Psal. 5.11, 12, 13. To be Ashamed and Confounded signifies a falling into calamities, and be expo­sed to violence which is the Cause of Confusion, Psal. 25.1, 2. and 3.19, 20. and 31.1, 2. and 119.115, 116, &c.

[To please] signifies good behaviour and honest respect, which is the cause of com­placency, as Rom. 15.2. Let every one of us please his Neighbour for good to edification. See Erasmus upon the place, 1 Cor. 10.33.

[Page 15][Hast or Flight] is put for Shame and Confusion, Esa. 28.16. He that beleiveth shall not make hast, that is, he shall not be confounded, as Rom. 9.33. and 10.11. 1 Pet. 2.6. The Effect and Consequence of Confusion is flight, or a hasty getting away from the sight of men— This also signifies calamities and punishments as li­mited before. See Psal. 74.15. Esa. 28.28. Eccl. 11.1. Job 28.5. Psal. 104. 13, 14. Esa. 47.2. and 33.12. Josh. 11.8. and 13.6.

CHAP. III. Of a Metonymie of the Subject.

THIS kind of Metonymie shall be handled under five Heads.

  • 1. More generally when the Recipient, or receiving Subject is put for the Adjunct.
  • 2. More especially, when the thing Containing is put for the thing Con­tained, or Place for the thing Placed.
  • 3. When the Possessor is put for the thing Possessed.
  • 4. When the Occupant Object or Subject is put for that which it is concern'd about.
  • 5. When the thing Signed is put for the Sign.

1. The Recipient or Receiving Subject is put for the Adjunct.

THE HEART is put for Wisdom, (where the Scripture tells us the seat of Wisdom is) as Prov. 2.10. and 11.29. and 15.14. and 16.21. Prov. 6.32. Who so committeth Adultery with a Woman, lacketh a Heart, (so the hebrew is) that is- lacketh Wisdom and Understanding. See Prou. 7.7. and 9.4, 16. and 10.13, 21. In which places by the phrase (wanting a Heart) is to be understood of an unwise person or a fool, by which words the Scripture expresses unbeleiving and Wicked men, as Prov. 8.5. O yee simple understand subtilty, and ye fools understand an Heart (so the hebrew) that is, wisdom. Prov. 15.32. He that heareth reproof possesseth (or acquireth) an Heart, that is, (as the Chaldee renders it) Wisdom. See Prov. 28.26. He that trusteth in his own heart is a fool, that is, he that depends on or confides in his own understanding and prudence, or he that is wise in his own Eyes, as Esa. 5.21. So Hos. 7.11. and 4.11.

The [Heart and Reins] are put for inward thoughts and affections, Psal. 73.20, 21. and 51.7, 8. Prov. 23.16. God searches the Heart and Reins, Psal. 7.9, 10. and 26.1, 2. Jer. 11.20. and 17.10. and 20.12, This is to be [...] as Act. 1.24. The knower of Hearts, Matth. 20.21.

'Tis put for the desires of the soul expressed in Prayer, as Psal. 62.8. Pour out your heart before him, that is, the desires of your heart, Lam. 2.19.

The New or inward man is put for the condition or state of the Converted or regenerate soul. And Old or outward man is opposed to it. See Rom. 6.6. Eph. 4. 22.2 Cor. 7.1. Heb. 23.1. 2 Cor. 5.17. Rom. 12.2. and 8.2, 5. 2 Cor. 4.16.

2. The Thing Containing is put for the Thing Contained, and Place for thing Placed.

MOunt Carmel is put for the Trees there Jer. 46.18. As Carmel by Sea, that is, as the Trees of Mount Carmel are drawn by Sea, so shall he lead them Captives: So says Rab. Kimhi, blessed be thy basket, Deut. 28.5. That is the meat or provision in it. A Desart is put for the wild Beasts there, Psal. 29.8. with Deut. 8.15. A House is put for the Family, Children, and Domesticks, Gen. 7.1. Come thou and all thy House into the Ark. 2 Sam. 7.11. The Lord telleth thee that he will make them an House, that is, give thee an off-spring or posterity to possesse the Royal Dignity, 1 Chron. 10.6. Psal. 49.12. Luke 19.9. &c. It is also put for a People or Tribe sprung from any Family, as Exod. 2.1. Ezek. 3.1. and 27. 14. &c.

[Islands] are put for their Inhabitants, and so for the Gentiles which possest all the Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Esa. 41.1, 5. Keep silence before me O Islands— The Isles saw it and feared, &c. See Esa. 42.4. The Isles shall wait for his Law, Esa. 51.5. The Isles shall wait upon me.

The [Sea] is put for Maritine Inhabitants, or Sea-men that dwelt near the shore. Ezek. 26.17. How art thou destroyed that wast inhabited of the Seas (so the hebrew) So Esa. 60.5. The abundance of the Sea shall be converted unto thee, that is, the Gen­tiles which dwell near the Sea, as the following words shew. See Hag. 2.7, 8. Deut. 33.19. They shall suck the abundance of the Seas, that is Goods and Merchan­dize brought by Sea.

A [Table] is put for Meat. Psal. 23.4, 5. Psal. 78.19. A Mountain for Moun­tainous places, Josh. 13.6. Judges 7.24. &c. Mountains and Hills are put for Idols, which were Worshipt there, Jer. 3.23. Mountains and Vallies for their In­habitants, Micah. 1.4. The Mountains shall be Molten under him, and the Vallies shall be Cleft— that is, the Hearts of those that inhabit them shall wax soft. See Psal. 68.2, 3. and Psal. 97.4, 5. They put to flight the Vallies toward the East, and toward the West, that is, such as dwelt in the Vallies, 1 Chron. 12.15.

The [World] is put for Mankind, John 3.16. and 12.19. 2 Cor. 5.19. 1 John 2.2. and 5.19. 'Tis put for the wicked who are the greatest part of mankind, John 1.10. and 7.7. and 14.17. and 15.19. and 16.20, 23 and 17.9, 14. 1 Cor. 11.32. 1 John 3.1. and 4.5. and 5.4, 5. Hence the Devil is called the Prince of this world, John 12.31. and 14.30. and 16.11. [...] Princes of the world, Eph. 6.12. The God of this world, 2. Cor. 4.4. Which is expounded, Eph. 2.2. In time past ye walked according to this world, according to the Prince of the Power of the Air, the Spirit that Now worketh in the Children of Disobedience.

The [World] is put sometimes for those are converted and beleive, as Illyricus says alledging John 6.33. The Bread of God is he which cometh down from Heaven, and giveth Life unto the world, that is, to beleivers, and John 14.31. But that the world may know that I love the Father, &c. Yet Glassius thinks that the whole race of mankind is rather to be understood in both places, as verse 51. the Bread which I will give is my Flesh, which I will give for the life of the World, for this giving of Life, is not an actual conferring of it by Faith, but rather an acquisition or purchase of life for them, in which sence Christ is called the light that enlightens every man that cometh into the world. In the other text, John 14.31. Christ signifies by those words, that he was therefore to die, that he might deliver mankind from the power of Sa­tan. (2.) That this Redemption of mankind should, by the Word of the Gospel be revealed to the whole World. For he says not, let me die that I may shew that I love the Father, but that the World may know that I love the Father. Which know­ledge was had, when the Gospel was promulgated through the whole World by the Apostles.

[Page 17] Camerarius in his Notes on John 17.21. That the World may beleive that thou hast sent me, says, that by [...] the world we are to understand, [...] Such as shall be saved— But Glassius says, that it signifies all men univer­sally, as John 3.17. For God sent his Son that the world through him might be saved— For though all men are not actually saved, in regard of their proper contumacy and impenitency, yet a spiritual Unity for believers is prayed for, and that the World might believe, that is, that all men should be converted to the true know­ledge of the Messiah, although very many remain in Unbelief and Wickedness, who shall have no share in this Redemption.

[Ships] are put for the Men in them, Esa. 23.1. Howl ye Ships of Tarshish, that is, ye Mariners and Merchants, &c. So verses 10.14.

[A Nest] is put for the Young ones, Deut. 32.11. As an Eagle stirreth up her Nest, that is, the Young Eagles, as is clearly shew'd in the following words.

[Ophir] (A Country in India abounding with Gold) is put for Gold brought from thence, Job 22.24. Then shalt thou lay up Gold as Dust, and Ophir as the Stones of the Brooks, that is, Gold brought from Ophir; Abundance of Gold is denoted by the whole phrase, and Metaphorically, great felicity.

A [Cup] is put for the Wine or Liquor in it, Jer. 49.12. Ezek. 23.32. 1 Cor. 10.21. Yee cannot drink the Cup of the Lord and the Cup of Devils. Luke 22.17. It is said in the last Paschal Supper, And he took the Cup and gave thanks, and said take this, and divide it amongst your selves, that is, the Wine not the Cup; for verse 18 he says, I will not drink of the fruit of the Vine, untill the Kingdom of God shall Come, So Luke 22.20. We have the same Metonymie, about the Eu­charistical Cup of the Lords Supper, and 1 Cor. 11.25, 26, 27. Of this Cup Christ says, that 'tis the New Testament in his Blood, but the containing vessel can­not be understood, but the thing contained, viz. The Wine, which is Sacramen­tally the Blood of Christ, Matth. 26.28. Mark 14.24. See more 1 Cor. 10.16, 21. 1 Cor. 11.26, 27. Matth. 26, 27. Mark 14.23. 1 Cor. 11.28.

[The Names of Countries] is frequently put for their Inhabitants, as Egypt for Egyp­tians, Gen. 17.15. Ps. 105.38. Ethiopia, for Ethiopians, Ps. 68.31, 32 Sheba for Sabeans, Job 1.15. and 6.19. See Esa. 43.3, 4. Judea and the adjacent Countries about Jordan, are put for their Inhabitants, Matt. 3.5. Macedonia and Achaia for Christians living there, Rom. 11.26. The Land of Egypt is put for spoils brought from thence, Jer. 43.12.

[The Grave] is put for the Dead that are buried in it, as Esa. 38.18. The Grave cannot praise thee, Death cannot celebrate thee, that is, they that are Dead and Buried, the reason follows, They that go down into the Pit cannot hope for thy Truth, ver. 19. The Living, the Living, he shall praise thee. See Psal. 6.6. Psal. 115.117. [The Earth] is put for the Inhabitants of the Earth, Gen. 6.11. The Earth was also corrupt before God, and the Earth was filled with violence, which is expounded in the next verse, for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the Earth. So Gen. 11.1. and 18.25. and 19.31. and 14.30. 1 Sam. 14.29. 2 Sam. 15.23. Prov. 28.2. Esa. 24.20. Matth. 5.13. [The Ends of the Earth] are put for the Inhabitants of the extreamest parts thereof, Psal. 22.27, 28. Psal. 67.8. A [Theatre] (the place where Plays and Shews are seen) is put for the sight it self, 1 Cor. 4.9. Where the Apostle Paul Metaphorically says of himself, For we are made a Theatre (so the Greek) unto the World, and to Angels, and to Men— As if he had said, we are derided, hated and abused by the World, and that not in a corner, but as if the whole Earth were gathered together in one Theatre to sa­tiate and please themselves with beholding our miseries.

A [City] is put for Citizens, Jer. 4.29. The whole City shall flee— Shall go in­to Thickets, and clime upon the Rocks. So Esa. 14.31. Jer. 26.2. &c. Jerusalem, Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum are put for their Inhabitants, Matth. 3.5. Mark 1.5. Matth. 23.37. and 11.21, 23. Act. 18.25. Jud. 5.7.11. &c.

[Page 18]To this by Analogy may be referred these that follow.

[Heaven] is put for God, who is said to dwell in the Heavens, and there ma­nifests his Glory and Majesty to Angels and glorified Spirits, Psal. 73.9. They set their Mouth against the Heavens and their Tongue walketh through the Earth, that is, they licentiously vent their blasphemies against God, and contumelious words against Mankind. See more Examples in Dan. 4.23. with verse 22. and 29. 1 King 8.32. Matth. 21.25. The Baptism of John whence is it? from Heaven or of Men? that is, from God, or men, So Luke 20.4. Luke 15.18. Father I have sinned against Heaven, that is, against God.

[The Heart] is put for the Soul, which is radically in the Heart as its proper seat, Psal. 24.3, 4. and 84.3. 1 Pet. 3.4. Heb. 13.9. &c. The [Belly] is put for the Heart, which (viz. heart) is likewise put for the Soul and its acts and cogitations, Job 15.35. Prov. 18.8. and 20.27. and 26.22. and 22.18. Hab. 3.16. John 7.38.

3. The Possessor is put for the thing possessed.

GEN. 15.3. Behold the Son of mine house So the Hebrew. inherits me, that is, my Goods and Estate, Deut. 9, 1. To possesse Nations greater and mightier then thy self, that is, the Countries of the Gentiles, for the People themselves were not to be possessed but cut off by the Command of God, as verse 2, 3. See 2 Sam. 8.2. Psal. 79.7. For they have devoured Jacob, that is, his Riches and Goods.

The [Prince] is put for his Jurisdiction, Matth. 2.7. And thou Bethlehem in the Land of Juda, art not the least among the Princes of Juda, that is the Principalities or Prefectures of Juda, who were distinguished by thousands, as 1 Sam. 10.19.

The [Name] of God is put for Oblations offered to him, as Josh. 13.33. The Lord God of Israel was their Inheritance, (viz. the Levites,) which is expounded, verse 14. Only unto the Tribe of Levi he gave no Inheritance, the Sacrifices of the Lord God of Israel made by fire are their Inheritance, &c. and Josh. 18.7. The Priesthood of the Lord is their (the Levites) Inheritance — Deut. 10.9. The Lord is his Inheritance. &c. See Ezek. 44.28.

[Christ] is put for the Church (or believers who are his peculiar People, Tit. 2.14. 1 Pet. 2.9.) Matth. 25.35. For I was an hungred and ye gave me meat, &c. says Christ and verse 40.Act [...] 20. [...]. Phil. [...].12. Ps. 16.6. [...]. 5.30, 32. It is thus expounded, In as much as ye have done it unto one of the least of th [...]se my Brethren, ye have done it unto me. Acts 9.4, 5. Saul, Saul, why pers [...]cutest thou me? I am Jesus whom thou persecutest, whereas verse 1, 2. It is said that Saul persecuted the Disciples of Christ. So 1 Cor. 12.12. So also is Christ, that is, his Church, hath many Members, and ma­ny Believers do constitute one Body of Christ, or one Church, for it follows, v. 13. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one Body, Christ therefore is put for his My­stical Body, or which is the same thing, that which properly belongs to a body is attributed to Christ, because of his Mystical Union with Believers. For the same Reason the Afflictions of Christ are called the Afflictions of the Saints, Col. 1.24. Upon which place Lyranus says thus, The Passions or sufferings of Christ are two­fold, one he endured in his own proper Body, as Hunger, Thirst, yea even Death, and in this sence there was nothing to be filled up — The other he suffers in his Members who are Believers, when they are persecuted, afflicted, and oppressed for his sake. And this is the meaning of the Apostle here when he says, who Now rejoyce in my sufferings for you, and fill up that which is behind of the Afflictions of Christ in my Flesh for his Bodies sake which is the Church.

4. The Object is put for That which it is Conversant about.

CHrist Jesus is put for his Doctrine, 2 Cor. 11.4. For if he that cometh Preach­eth another Jesus whom we have not preached, that is, another better Doctrine of Christ, which he calls another Gospel, &c. Eph. 4.20. But ye have not so learn­ed Christ; If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the Truth is in Jesus &c. This is to be understood of the Doctrine of Christ.

[God] is put for Worship appointed for his Honour, as Exod. 32.1. And they (that is the Israelites) said unto him (viz. Aaron) up, make us [...] Gods, that is, as Brentius, Gerhard, and others expound it, Institue nobis publica sacra, &c. Brent. [...]. in loc. Ger­rhard. To [...]. 3. lo [...]or. de lege dei S. 92. Institute some publique form of Worship for us, or some visible sign of Gods pre­sence (as afterwards was the Tabernacle, the Ark and Mercy Seat, Exod. 40.34, 35. Numb. 7.84.) possibly some such thing as they had seen in Egypt; for now they were turned in their Hearts to Egypt, Acts 7.39, 40.

[Glory and Strength] are put for the Praise and Celebration of Glory and Strength, as Psal. 69.1. Give unto the Lord Glory and Strentgh, that is, give him the Praise of his Glory and Strength. See Psal. 8.2. Out of the Mouths of Babes and Suck­lings, hast thou ordained Strength, that is, the Praise and Celebration of his Strength and Omnipotency, as it is expounded, Matth. 21.16. So Psalm 96. 6, 7. verses.

[Sin] is put for Sacrifice or Sin-offering, Exod. 29.14. The Flesh of the Bul­lock, &c. Thou shalt not burn without the Camp, it is a sin: (so the Hebrew) that is, (as our Translation renders it) a Sin-offering, Hosea 4.8. They Eat up the sin of my People, that is, the Sacrifice, or sin-offering, for sin has a threefo [...]d acceptation. (1.) It signifies the Transgression of Gods Law, 1 John 3.4.vid. Burr. on Hosea. (2.) Punishment for sin, he shall bear his sin, Lev. 20.20. and 29. and 24.15. Numb. 9.13. and 18. 22. Ezek 23, 49. (3.) Sacrifice offered for sin, Lev. 10.17. Why do you not eat the sin of the holy place, (for so the words are to be read, that is, the sin-offering. In this sence that text is to be understood, 2 Cor. 5.21. Christ was made sin for us, that is a sin-offering, according to Isa. 53.10. If thou shalt make his Soul Sin delict­um, rea­tus. [...] Our Translation renders it, when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin; explain­ed, Eph. 5.2. Christ hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour: For he is the true propitiatory sacrifice for our sins whom the old Typical oblations adumbrated or shadowed forth.

That phrase of the Apostle Paul's, 2 Cor. 5.21. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, is borrowed from Esaias, upon which D. Franzius thus expresses himself. How Christ was made sin may be plainly and perfectly declared from the Beasts allotted for Sacrifices, when by imputation of the sins of the People to them they became unclean, yea sin, and so were slain and sacrificed, &c. By which words the reason of this Tropical speech, whereby Sin is taken for Sacrifice is noted; Illyricus says, These Sacrifices were so called, because the sins of the People, (with respect to punish­ment) were after a certain manner by Imputation transferred upon them, not that the [...] signifies to expiate Cl. Script. part. 1 Col. 858.

[Promise] is put for Faith, which embraces or receives the gracious promise of God, Rom. 9.8. Children of the promise, that is, of Faith, which receives the gracious and free promise of Christ. They are called Sons by a Metaphor, with respect to Abraham who is by the Holy Spirit called the Father of Believers, Rom. 4.16. As if he had said, they that tread in the steps of Abraham, and are a like unto him in Faith. See Rom. 4.12. Gal. 3.7, 29. and 4.28. &c.

[Blood] is put for bloody-men, or those that are malicious and ready to spill blood or perpetrate any villany, Esa. 33.5. That stoppeth his Ears from hearing of blood, that is, hearkens not to them who conspire or confederate to commit Murther, slaugh­ter or other wickedness [...]for that is synecdochically noted by the word Blood.) See Prov. 1.10, 11, 12, &c.

[Page 20][The Subject or Argument] of Writing is put for the writing it self, 1 King 8.21. The Ark wherein is the Covenant of the Lord, that is, the tables wherein the Cove­nant was written. Exod. 34.28. So Rom. 9.4. [...], the Testaments or Cove­nants, that is, the two tables of the Covenants, as they are expresly called, Heb. 9.4. So the Old Testament is taken for the Books wherein it was written and contained, 2 Cor. 3.14. which is common in our vulgar speech to take the Old and New Testa­ment for the Books wherein they are written.

5. The thing Signified is put for the Sign.

THE thing signified is sometimes put for the sign materially, that is, for the thing it self, which is the Sign 1 Chron. 16.11. Seek the Lord and his strength, that is, the Ark of the Covenant, which was a sign and symbol of his presence and strength. So Psal. 78.61. Psal. 105.4. Whence it is expresly called the Ark of the strength of God, Psal. 132.8. Ezek. 7.27. The Prince shall be Cloathed with desolation, that is, with a garment denoting mourning and desolation; 1 Cor. 11.10. A Woman ought to have [...] power on her Head, that is, a garment signifying that she was under the power of her Husband.

Sometimes the thing signified is formally put for the Sign, that is, for the term or appellation of the sign, as Exod. 8.23. And I will put Redemption between my people and thy people, that is, the sign or token of Redemption. Deut. 16.3. Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened Bread therewith even the bread of Affliction, that is, a sign, mo­nument or Memorial of the Affliction, which you endured in Egypt. By this Trope Bread is called the Body of Christ, and Wine is called his Blood, Matth. 26.26, 28. Mark 14.22, 24. 1 Cor. 11.24, 25. that is, a Sacramental sign and symbol of his Body and Blood, instituted in remembrance of him.

CHAP. IV. Of a Metonymie of the Adjunct.

A Metonymie of the Adjunct is seven fold.

  • 1. When the Accident is put for its Subject in kind.
  • 2. When the Thing contained is put for the Thing containing, or a thing in a Place, is put for the place.
  • 3. When Time is put for things done or existing in time.
  • 4. When the Opinion of men is put for the Thing it self.
  • 5. When the Occupatum, or Subject concern'd is put for its object.
  • 6. When the Sign is put for the thing signified.
  • 7. When a Name is put for a person or thing.

Of these in Order.

1. When the Accident is put for its Subject in kind.

THE Abstract is put for the Concrete, Gen. 42.38. Shall ye bring down my hoaryness (or gray headedness so the hebrew) with sorrow to the Grave, that is, me that am now an old man, gray and decrepit with Age. 1 Sam. 15.29. The Eternity (or strength) of Israel shall not lye, that is, the Eternal and strong God of Israel. 2 Sam. 9.12. And all the Habitation of the house of Ziba were Servants unto Mephibosheth, that is, his whole Family, or all that dwelt in his house (as we translate it.) Job 5.16. Iniquity stoppeth her Mouth, that is, wicked men are com­pelled to be silent before God, Job 32.7. Days should speak, and multitude of years should teach wisdom, that is, ancient men that are arrived to a great Age or many days. See Psal. 12.1. Psal. 68.18. Thou hast led Captivity Captive, that is, such as were in Captivity, as Esa. 49.24. and Jer. 29.14. or actively, making those Captives, that kept us in Captivity, as the World, Sin, Death, and the Devil. So Eph. 4.8. Col. 2.12, 13, 14, 15. &c. Psal. 110.2, 3. From the Dew of the Morning thou hast the Dew of thy Nativity, that is, thy Children; who, as dew seems to be generated of the morning moist ayr and then appears scattered in innu­merable drops, so shall thy Children be begotten by the Preaching of the Gospel in innumerable numbers. More examples you may see, Prov. 23.21. Esa. 57.13. Psal. 144.3.4. Psal. 90.8, 9. Jer. 2.5. Ezek. 44.6. And you shall say to the Re­bellion (so the hebrew) that is, to the Rebellious people. Luk. 1.78. The day spring from on high hath visited us— An epithete of the incarnate Messiah taken from those places where he is compared to the Sun and Light, Esa. 9.2. and 60.1, 2. Mal. 4.2. &c. John 11.40. If thou wouldst believe thou shouldest see the Glory of God, that is, his glorious works. Rom. 11.7. Eph. 1.21. Phil. 1.16. Supposing to add affliction to my bonds, that is, to me in Bondage and Captivity, 1 Pet. 2.17. Love the Brotherhood, that is, the Brethren, or the Congregation or Assemblies of the Faithful, 1 Pet. 5.9. So Circumcision is put for the Circumcised Jews, Rom. 3.30. and 15.16. which is a Metonymie of the Sign, and for the Spiritually Circumcised, Col. 3.3. which is a Metaphor.

Other Adjuncts are put for their Subje [...]ts, Ezek. 26.8. He shall stir up the Buck­ler against thee, that is, Souldiers that wear Bucklers or Targets in War, See Esa. 19.9. Zech. 9.15.

[Light] is put for the Sun [...], by way of eminency, because it is the Fountain and original of Light, Job 31.26. Hab. 3.4. It is put for Fire, Mark 14.54. And he sate with the Servants and he warmed himself [...], by the Light, that is, the Fire which gives Light as well as heat. See John 18.18.

[Oyl or Ointment] is put for one singularly annointed, Esa. 10.27. The yoke shall be destroyed, because of the annointing, in the hebrew 'tis from the face of Oyl, or because of Oyl, that is, for the annointing of the Lord and his Grace. Junius and Trenellius expound it thus. The yoke shall be destroyed because of the annointing, that is, by and through Christ thou shalt be set free, in whom the Spirit of Jehovah rests who annointed him, cap. 61▪ 1. Illyricus says, That this is properly fulfilled at the coming of the Messiah, and the Redemption purchased by him, who has broken the yoke, cancel'd the hand writing, and took away the Tyranny of the Law, of Sin, Death and Satan. See Chap. 9.4, 6.

[Sin] is put for Sinners, Isa. 1.18. Though your sins be as Scarlet they shall be as white as Snow, though they be red like Crimson they shall be as wool, that is, the sinners by having their iniquities pardoned, shall be cleansed and purified from the guilt and condemnation of sin, for Sin properly and in it self cannot be made clean, Psal. 51.9. Matth. 8.3. his Leprosie was cleansed, that is, the Leprous man was healed, Ps. 25.11. Exod. 14.4. Gen. 34.29. Deut. 8.17. Job. 15.29. Prov. 31.29. Esa. 10.14. and 30.6. Rev. 18.3. Prov. 15.6. Jer. 20.5. &c. Job 6.22. Prov. 5.10. &c.

2. The thing Contained is put for the thing Containing, and a thing in a Place for the Place.

GEN. 28.22. And this stone which I have set for a Pillar shall be Gods House, that is, this Place where I have erected a statue of Stone, Josh. 15.19. Give me springs of water, that is, some portion of Land where there may be springs of water, for 'tis added that he gave her the upper springs and the nether springs, that is, a Field in which there were Springs in the higher and lower part. See Ezek. 26.5, 14. Hosea 9.6. Amos 8.5.

Math. 2.11. They opened their Treasures and offered him Gifts, that is, they opened their Cabinets (for so says Kirstemius upon the place, the Arabick word signifies) or Purses where their Treasure or precious things were kept. See Psal. 135.7. Matth. 12.35. Matth. 22.13. Cast him into outer Darkness, that is, Hell, the place of Darkness. See more examples, Matth. 25.10. They that were ready went with him, [...], into the marriage, that is, into the place where the Mar­riage was to be celebrated. It is said in the same Chapter, v▪ 21, 23. Enter thou into the Joy of thy Lord, that is, into the place of joy, the Coelestial Kingdom, Mark 3.1 [...]. And unclean Spirits when they saw him, fell down before him, (viz. Jesus) that is, men possessed with unclean Spirits, Luke 21. For all these have of their abundance cast, [...], into the gifts of God, that is into the ( [...], or Gazaphylaci­um) the place where those offerings were put. which were bestowed upon God. It is therefore called Corban, i. e. a Gift, Matth. 27.6. See more Acts 16.13, 16. where Prayer is put for the place of prayer, as also Luke 6.12. Heb. 12.1. Let us run with patience the ( [...], certamen, Strife or) race that is set before us, that is, our course in this place of strife, or racing. Rev. 8.3. And another Angel came and stood at the Altar, having [...], Golden Incense, that is a Golden Censor, as we tran­slate it. See verse 5.

To this kind of Metonymie may be referred when the Wind is put for that quarter of the World from whence it blows, 1. Chron. 9.24. Jer. 49.32. and 52.23. Ezek. 5.12. Matth. 24.13. And where any River is put for the bordering Coun­try by which it runs, Esa. 23.3. Jer. 12.5. Zach. [...].3. See also Jer. 2.18. where it is with all a Metaphor.

3. Time is put for things done or existing in Time.

THIS is to be understood of the word Time it self, as also of Names which ex­presse Parts of Time, whether it be naturally or by institution, divided.

[Time] 1 Chron. 12.32. And the Children of Issachar which were men that had un­derstanding of the times to know what Israel ought to do— that is, they were skilful and well instructed in prudence, whereby they knew what to do, and when to do it, and therefore went before the Israelites. 1 Chron. 29.30. With all his Reign, and his (viz. Davids) might, and the times that went over him, and over Israel, and over all the Kingdoms of the Countries, that is, the various Negotitiaons and Chances, whether prosperous or adverse, which in any of those times happened to them. Es [...]h. 1.13. Then the King said to the wise men which knew the Times, that is, who knew past transactions which happened in the respective times, or who knew how pru­dently to manage, and act all things in season. Job 11.17. And thy time shall arise above the Noon day (so the hebrew) that is, thy Meridian prosperity shall be clearer then the light, or most illustrious. Psal. 31.15. My times are in thine hands, that is my Life, Health, and the whole state and course of my Life, for wha [...]soever changes come, thou governest them by thy providence. See Ps. 139.1, [...], 3. &c. 2 Tim. 3.1. &c.

[Page 23]An [Age] which is a part of Time, as Heb. 1.2. By whom also he hath made [...] ▪ the Ages, that is, the world, which endures for Ages, and therefore all things existing in time, So Heb. 11.3. This signification comes from the hebrew word, [...] which signifies both Ages and World, Rom. 12.2. Be not conformed to this Age, that is, the impiety of this World, or the wicked men living in this Age. For so [...], is taken, Matth. 13.22. Mark 4.19. Luke 16.8. 2 Cor. 4.4. Gal. 1.4. Eph. 2.2. and 6.12. 2 Tim. 4.10. &c.

[Years] Prov. 5.9. Lest thou give thine honour unto others, and thy years unto the Cruel, lest thou give thy Life unto a Jealous Husband who will kill thee, whereas otherwise thou mayst be safe and secure. See chap. 6.32, 33. &c.

[Dayes] Deut. 4.32. Ask now of the Days that are past, which were before thee, &c. that is, the histories and Transactions of former times, search the Annals. 1 Sam. 24.19. Wherefore the Lord reward thee good for this day, which thou hast done unto me (so the original) that is for the benefit and good I received from thee this day, Mark 13.19. [...]. Those days shall be (such an) affliction, as was not from the beginning, that is, what shall come to pass in those days or in that time. This denotes such prodigious Calamities, as if that time were even Misery it self. 1 Cor. 4.3. But with me it is a very small thing, that I should be judged of you, or of mans day, [...], that is, (as we translate it) mans Judgment, because there are certain Days allotted for Judgments.

Eph. 5.16. Redeeming the time because the days are evil, that is, very many evils, scandals, and sins, are perpetrated in these times; The Books of Chronicles are called the words of days, that is, a repetition, narrative, [...] V [...]rba dierum. or rehearsal of the gests and trans­actions of those times.

[The Days] of any one in Scripture phrase is called that time wherein any signal thing for good or evil, happens to him. For Good, as Hosea 1.11. Luke 19.42, 44. For Evil, as Iob 18.20. Psal. 137.6, 7. Eccle. 5.19. Jer. 17.16. with Jon. 1.3. and 3.10. and 4.1, 5, 9, 10, 11. Jer. 14.7, 20, 21, &c. Ezek. 21.19. and 22.4. Obad. 12. Micah. 7.4. Psal. 37.12, 13. With respect to the Effect, Calamities and Misfortunes are called the days of the Lord, because he justly punishes men for their malignity and wickedness, Job 24.1. Esa. 13.6. Joel 1.15. and 2.1, 2. Amos 5.20. Zeph. 2.2. and 1.14, 15, 16, 18. By way of eminency [...], the last Judgment, when God shall reward every man according to his works, is called the day of the Lord, Joel 2.32. Act. 2.20. 1 Cor. 1.7. 1 Thess. 5.2. &c.

The day of the Son of man, Luke 17.24, 26. is expounded verse 30. to be the day wherein the Son of man shall be revealed. That appellation (by an Antanaclasis) is taken otherwise, verse 22. The days will come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see it. Brentius upon the place says— The sence is, because things are now in tranquility, the Son of man is despised and re­jected: But so great calamities shall come upon Judea, that men shall desire but for one day to see me, and enjoy my help, but shall not compass their desires.’ Illyricus says, ye shall desire to see, that is, enjoy for a small season those good things, and that good state you are in whilst I am present with you, but, &c. See verse 23. and Matth. 24.21, 23. &c.

Christ calls (his day) the season of his coming into the Flesh, in the fulness of time, John. 8.56. Your Father Abraham rejoyced to see my Day, and he saw it, and was glad, that is, he saw it by a peculiar appearance, and believed; upon which D. Franzius says, None may doubt but a prospect of the face and person of Christ was shewn and exhibited to Abraham in his Divine vision, viz.De inter­pret. Script. Orac. 47. As he was born of a Vir­gin, come of Abraham's seed, beginning with miraculous ministrations, exalted from his passion to the right hand of the Father, and to come in the last day, and Crown him in another Life.

[The Day] of the exhibition of Christ in the flesh is called Mal. 4.5. The great and terrible day of the Lord, or as others render it, honourable and fearful, as Ja­cob adorn'd the place where the heavenly Manifestation was made with the same [Page 24] Epithete Gen. 28.17. How dreadful is this place? This is no other but the House of God, and the gate of Heaven.

This day (viz. the manifestation of the Messiah) is dreadful or terrible to Devils, because by his power their Kingdom is destroyed, John 12.31. 1 John 3.8. As also to the Impious and Rebellious Enemies of Christ, See Malachy 3.2. and Matth. 2, 3.

An [Hour] Mark 14.35. He (that is Christ) prayed; that if it were possible the Hour might pass from him, that is, that most bitter passion, the thoughts of which, at that time troubled and oppressed him, John 12.27. Father save me from this hour, that is, from the Anxiety and Agony, which I shall suffer in the time of my passion. Christ spoke of the time of his Passion and Death, at the thoughts of which (as a true and real man,) he seemed to be in a great trembling and consternation.

The [End] or last time is put for reward, which is wont to be given when one has done his work, as Prov. 23.18. Prov. 24.14, 20. Jer. 29.11. So 1 Pet. 1.9. Receiving the [...], the end of your Faith, even the Salvation of your Souls, which the Syriack renders Reward, or Retribution. But this Reward given by God is not a debt, but of free Grace and Mercy, because a merited reward or wages must bear proportion to the service done; but no service of ours can bear propor­tion to Everlasting Life and Happiness, so that it necessarily follows that the reward is purely of Grace.

[Feast] is put for the Sacrifice, which is offered upon the Feast day, as Exod. 23.18. Thou shalt not offer the blood of my Sacrifice with leavened Bread, neither shall the Adeps festi mei. fat of my Feast remain untill the Morning, that is, the fat of the Lamb to be sacri­ficed, or of the sacrifice of my Feast, as Junius and Tremellius render it. As also the Chaldee. So Esa. 29.1. Let them kill Feasts, that is, (as we translate it) sacri­fices. See Mal. 2.3: — Psal. 118.27. Bind the Feast (so the hebrew) with Cords, even unto the horns of the Altar, that is, the sacrifice of the Feast or Festival day, &c.

The [Passeover] is put for the Lamb which was slain and eaten on that Festival in memorial of the Deliverance from Egypt, Exod. 12.21. And kill the Passeover, that is, the Paschal Lamb. 2 Chron. 30, 17. Mark 14.12.14. Matth. 26.17, 18, 19. Luke 22.8, 11, 13, 15.

[Summer] is put for Summer Fruit, Esa. 16.9. Jer. 40.10. Amos 8.1. 2 Sam. 16.2. For in these places the hebrew is only Summer.

[Harvest] is put for Fruit gathered in the time of Harvest, Exod. 23.10. Deut. 24.19. Esa 16.9. Joel 3.18. 'Tis also put for the Reaper. Esa. 17.5. Which we translate Harvest-man.

4. The Opinion of Men is put for the Thing it self.

IN Holy Scriptures sometimes things are named and described according to ap­pearance or mens Opinion ( [...]) and not, ( [...]) as they are, in their own Nature. This happens. (1.) In single words, as Nouns, and Verbs. (2.) In a Conjunct phrase.

In [Nouns] 1 Sam. 28.14, 15, 16, 20. That Diabolical spectrum or Appariti­on rais'd by the Witch of Endor in the likeness of Samuel, is called Samuel, because he falsly gave out that he was Samuel, and the deluded spectators thought him so. Hananiah is called a Prophet, Jer. 28.1, 5, 10. Not that he was truly so, but so reputed. 'Tis said, Ezek. 21.3. I will cut off from thee the Righteous and the [Page 25] wicked, where by Righteous is meant persons that were only so in appearance, ha­ving an external form of Righteousness which begat the good opinion of men, but with respect to Gods notice that knows the inward frame of the Heart, to be un­sound there is to be unrighteous, Matth. 8.12. The Jews are called the Children of the Kingdom, because they seemed to be such, and Christ says, Matth. 9.13. I am not come to call the Righteous, (viz. such as are so in their own eyes) but sinners to Repentance. Luke. 18.9. Rom. 10.2, 3. &c.

Luke 2.48. Joseph is said to be the Father of Jesus (and verse 41. he is said to be his Parent) because he was thought to be so by men which is expresly said Luke 3.23. See John [...].42.— 1 Cor. 1.21. It pleased God by the foolishness of Preaching to save them that beleive—verse 25. Because the foolishness of God is wiser then men, &c. Where Preaching of the Gospel, &c. is called foolishness, not that it was real­ly so but because the worldly wise reputed it so, as verse 18. viz. To teach Salva­tion by the Cross, to seek Life in Death and Glory in Disgrace, which the Carnal Worldling thought folly, as verse 23.

The [Devil] is said to be the God of this World, 2 Cor. 4.4 because he boasts that the Kingdoms of this World are at his disposal, Matth. 4.8, 9. Luke 4.6, 7. And because Idolaters esteemed him a God, viz. in their Idols, as Chemnitius says,Loco de creatione p. 119. He is called the God of this World, as a Dog is called the God of Egypt, because he was Worshipped for a God. So the Belly is called God because men took more care to provide for it, then to serve God, Phil. 3.19. &c.

Gal. 1.6. False teaching is called another Gospel, because some men thought it so, whereas it is really (as verse 7▪) a perverting the Gospel. Epimenides is called the Prophet of the Cretans, Tit. 1.12. because they accounted him so, and after his Death sacrificed to him, as Laertius Witnesses. External profession is called Faith, Jam 2.14, 17, 20, 24, 26. because men are apt to rest in it as sufficient for Sal­vation, See Jude 12, 13. &c.

[In Verbs,] Matth. 14.9. The King (viz. Herod) was sorry, that is, he counter­feited sorrow for verse 5. It is said he feared the Multitude, when he would put John Baptist to Death, of whom the People had a very great esteem; so that this sorrow was nothing else but artificial and feigned.

It is said Mark 6.48. That Christ would have passed by them, (viz. his Disciples at Sea) that is, he seemed to pass by, or such was the posture and motion of his body as if he would pass by, John 3.30. He must increase, but I must decrease; This increasing and decreasing is spoke with respect to the opinion of men, who had extraordinary esteem of John hitherto, and vilified Christ, otherwise speaking ac­cording to the Nature of the thing, John Baptist was not diminished by the increa­sings of Christ, but afterwards derived his own increasings from his fulness.

Acts 27.27. The Shipmen deemed that some Countrey drew near to them (so 'tis in the Greek [...], appropin quare sibi aliquam Regionem) because the shore seems to move and draw near to them which are at Sea, but 'tis to be understood that they drew near land. So Virgil 3 Aeneid. Provehimur porta, terraeque urbesque rece­dunt, that is, we sail from the Port, and the Lands and Cities go back.

[In joyned Words,] or an intire phrase, Psal. 72.9. His enemies shall lick the dust, that is, they shall be so inclining and prostrate towards the Earth, that they shall seem to lick the dust of the Earth, which is a Description of fear and subjection. So Esa. 49.23. and Micah 7.17. &c. — Esa. 13.5. They shall come from a far Coun­trey from the End (or extream part) of heaven. — This phrase is taken from the opinion of the vulgar, who (led by the guess of the Eye) think that heaven is not spherical (or round) but hemispherical, ending at the extreames of the Earth, upon which the end or extreams of heaven seems to lean, or be stay'd upon, so that the End of heaven is put for the end of the Earth, or remotest places, you have the same phrase Deut. 4.32. and 30.4. Neh. 1.9. Math. 24.31. This exposition may be confirmed by the places where Mountains are called the Foun­dations of Heaven, as 2 Samuel 22.8. Because at great distance the Heavens seem [Page 26] As it were to rest upon them — they are called the Pillars of Heaven, Vatablus in [...]h. 1.9. [...]ini­tor sive Horizon no [...]ri he­m [...]s [...]herii videtur contingere [...] Regi­onem, quam [...]r­minat. Job 26.11. Because Heaven seems to be propt by them as by Pillars.

5. The Occupate put for the Object.

SENCE] is put for its object, or the thing which is perceived by sense as [Hearing] is put for Doctrine or Speech, Esa. 28.9. Whom shall he teach knowledge? And whom shall he make to understand hearing (so the hebrew) that is, Doctrine, or the word, Esa. 53.1. Who hath beleived our hearing? that is, our Doctrine or Speech, or as we translate it, Report? So is [...] Hearing taken, John 12.38. Rom. 10.16. Gal. 3.2.5. [Hearing] is put for rumor or fame, Psal. 112.7. Esa. 28.19. Ezek. 7.26. Obad. 1. Hab. 3.2. Matth. 4.24. and 14.1. and 24.6. Mark 1.28. and 13.7. &c. By the same Trope [The Eye] is put for Co­lours seen by the Eye, and are the object of sight, as in the Original text of the fol­lowing places, Numb. 11.7. Lev. 13.55. Prov. 23.31. Ezek. 1.4. and 8.2. and 10.9. So two Eyes are put for a double way, which give occasion to look upon both, Gen. 38.14, 21. Some say this is a proper name, some say 'tis two Foun­tains.

[Affections] and what bear Analogy with them, are put for their object, as [Faith] for the Doctrine which is received and beleived by Faith, Acts 6.7. Gal. 1.23. Eph. 4.5. 1. Tim. 4.1. Tit. 1.13. Jude 3. Rev. 2, 13. See Gal. 3.23, 25.

[Hope] is put for God in whom we hope, and from whom we expect every good thing, Psal. 71.5. For thou art my hope O Lord, that is, in whom I hope, the support of my hope, and the God of my strength. See Jer. 14.8. Psal. 65.5.6. Jer. 17.7, 13. &c.

'Tis put for the Messiah or Christ specially, Act. 28.20. For the Hope of Israel I am bound with this chain, that is, for the Messiah, who is hoped for and desired by Israel, or (which is the same thing) for the good hoped for from the Messiah, Act. 26.6, 7, 8. So Col. 1.27. and 1 Tim. 1.1. Christ is called our hope.

It is put for men, from whom we expect Good or confide in, as Esa. 20.5. They shall be ashamed of Ethiopia their hope, as verse 6. Likewise Hope is put for the thing hoped for, as Prov. 13.12. Hope deferred maketh the heart sick but when the desire cometh it is a Tree of Life, that is, the thing hoped for and desired, Rom. 8.24. Hope that is seen is not hope, that is, the thing hoped for, &c. Gal. 5.5. For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of Righteousness by Faith, that is, Eternal Life, promised to the just by Faith. So Tit. 2.13.

[Love] is put for the person or thing beloved, Jer. 2.33. Why trimest thou thy way to seek Love? that is, that which thou lovest, Jer. 12.7. I have given the love of my Soul into the hand of her Enemies, that is, the people dearly beloved by me as the Chaldee renders it, Hos. 9.10. And their abominations were as their Love, that is, the Idols which they love.

[Desire] is put for the person or thing desired and loved, Ezek 24.16. Son of man, behold, I take away the desire of thine eyes from thee with a stroke, that is, thy desired and beloved wife, as verse [...]8. So verse 21. Behold I will profane my San­ctuary, the excellency of your strength, the desire of your Eyes, that is, that which you love and delight in, as verse 25. For that which the mind longs after is ascribed to the Eyes, as the lust of the Eyes is put, 1 John 2.16. This may give some light to that passage, Hag. 2.7. Where Christ is called the desire of all Nations — the sence that the Nations will extreamly desire him, love him, embrace him and hope in him, that is, when they are converted to the Kingdom of Christ by the voice of the Gospel (to whom the Name Gentiles is ascribed, Rom. 11.13. and other places) The Term Desire is sometimes put for the Affection of Love, for to be [Page 27] desired, signifies to be loved and esteemed, (by a Metonymie of the effect for the Cause, for as much as love begets desire after the thing beloved, of which you have Examples. In Gen. 27.15. Psal. 19.10, 11. (with 119.126, 127.) Prov. 21.20. Cant. 5.6. Esa. 1.29. and 32.12. and 44.9. Jer. 3.19. Lam. 1.7, 10. and 2.4. Dan. 9.23. and 10.11, 19. Hosea 9.6. Amos 5.11. Zach. 7.14. &c.

[Fear] is put for God, who is feared, Gen. 31.42. The Fear of Isaac, that is, the God whom Isaac Feared and Worshiped. So verse 53. Junius and Tremellius think this phrase alludes to that Fear, by which God (as it were with a bridle) re­strained Isaac from revoking or recalling that blessing he gave to Jacob, Chap. 27.35. &c.

Esa. 8, 13. Let him be your fear, and let him be your Dread, that is, let God be Feared and Dreaded by you.

Fear is put for the Evil feared, Psal. 53.5. They feared a fear, where no fear was, that is, they feared where there was no evil nor danger which is the object and cause of Fear, Prov. 1.26. I will mock when your fear cometh, that is, that which you fear and tremble at, as verse 27. When your Fear cometh as desolation, and your destruction cometh as a Whirlwind, when distress and anguish cometh upon you. See Prov. 3.25. &c. 2 Cor. 5.11. Knowing [...], the fear of the Lord, that is, the terrible judgment of the Lord.

[An Action] is put for its Object, Exod. 15.2. The Lord is my strength and praise, that is, the God whom I praise, and who is the scope or argument of my Song— the like we have, Psal. 118.14. expounded ver. 15, 16 Jer. 17.14. The Pro­phet calls the Lord his praise, that is, the Object of his praise and thanksgiving for his great goodness. See Deut 28.8. and 12.7. &c. 1 Sam. 1.27. And the Lord gave me my Petition, that is, the thing I asked. So Job 6.8. 2 Thess. 1.11. Heb. 11.13. Act. 1.4. Wait for the promise of the Father, that is, the Holy Spirit pro­mised by the Father.

6. The Sign is put for the thing signified.

IN Nouns,] Gen. 49.10. The Scepter shall not depart from Judah, that is, the Royal Authority. So Esa. 14.5. Zach. 10.11. &c. A Throne is also put for Regal Authority, Psal. 89.4. And a Crown or Diadem, Psal. 89.39. Ezek. 21.26. &c. Ʋnction is put for the Priesthood, Numb. 18.8. Altars for Divine Wor­ship, 1 King 19.10. Psal. 23.4. Thy rod and thy staff comfort me, that is, thy Care and Love towards me; for a rod and staff were a sign of Pastoral Care and Office of the Shepherd to his Flock; this is withal an Anthropopathy, whereby God is represented as a Shepherd, and things relating to a Shepherd attributed to him, Psal. 140.8. Thou hast covered my head in the day of Arms (so the hebrew) that is, in the day of Battel and Adversities which Hostility brings, the signs and Instru­ments whereof are Arms, Psal. 44.6. For I will not trust in my Bow, neither shall my Sword save me, that is, my Military skill, Fortitude, Prudence or Stratagems, of which the Signs and Instruments of exercise were a Bow, and a Sword — to which the Divine strength and goodness is opposed, verse 7. But thou (O Lord) hast saved us from our Enemies.

So elsewhere a Sword is put for War and Hostile violence, Exod. 18.10. Esa. 1.10. and 2.4. 2 Sam. 12.10. Lam. 5.9. Ezek. 21.3, 4, 9. &c. In which there is also a Metonymie of the Organical or instrumental Cause, as before.Gram. Sacr. p. 283. See other Ex­amples Psal. 144.11. and Matth. 10.34. &c.

Matth. 23.2. The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses Chair. The Chair of Moses Metonymically denotes, the power of Teaching, Judging, and Ruling the People, of which it was a symbol; which things are expressed by the Name of Moses, who was instructed by God to Teach and Govern, and who [...]xercised both [Page 28] by the Authority of God, and left the Rules in Writing for the posterity of the Jews to observe. The term (to sit) also aptly notes both; for the publick teach­ers, for the most part sate, Matth. 26.55. Luke 4.20. John 8.2. Acts 22.3. The Judges, also sate in a Chair or Tribunal, Exod. 18.13. Judg. 5.10. Matth. 27.19. From whence (to sit) is put for Ruling and Judging, Psal. 29.9, 10. and 110.1. (See 1 Cor. 15.25.) 2 Thess. 2.4. And whereas the Preists, Scribes, and Phari­sees sate in the seat or chair of Moses, and did conform to the way of teaching, and Government of the People according to the rule of the Divine Law given by Mo­ses, Christ, ver. 3. Commands Obedience to them; but gives a caution to take heed of their Leaven, that is, their false Doctrines, and feigned Traditions, as Matth. 16.6, 12. For that did not belong to the seat of Moses, but to the seat of the scorn­ful, or chair of Pestilence, as Jerome renders it, Psal. 1.1. the throne of Iniquity, Psal. 94.20. &c. Rom. 3, 30. and 15.8. Col. 3.11. The Jews are called the Circumcision because that was the sign whereby they were distinguished from other Nations; And the Gentiles are called the uncircumcision, because it distinguished them from the Jews, Gal. 2.7, 8. Eph. 2.11. Rom. 2.26, 27. and 3.30. [...]al. 3.11. &c.

Abscon­dere.[In Verbs] Sometimes to hide signifies to protect and put in a safe place, some­times to leave or depart from another, for hiding is a sign of both. Of the for­mer we have examples. Job 5.21. Psal. 27.4, 5. and 31.20, 21. and 64.2, 3. &c. Where there is also an Anthropopathy, when the speech is of God. Of the later we have examples, Gen. 31.49. When we are hid one from another, (so the hebrew) that is, when we depart or are absent from one another, Deut. 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy Brothers Ox, or his Sheep go astray, and hide thy self from them, that is, thou shalt not go away and let them alone but bring them back. So Esa. 58.7.

[To Sleep] is put for to be secure, because sound and pleasant sleep is an evident sign of security, Psal. 3.5. and 4 8. [Puffing] is put for Contempt, for a slight puff of the Mouth denotes when a matter is despised as an inconsiderable thing, Psal. 10.5. and 12.5.

[To kiss] signifies Love, Obedience, Obsequiousness and Submissive Respect, of which in antient times a kiss was a sign, as Gen. 41.40. 1 King 19.18. Psal. 2.12. To this some refer that phrase, Matth. 5.47. Heb. 11.13. [...] os [...]ulo salutare;Leigh. Crit. Sa­cra. for [...], signifies to salute with kissing and embracing, and so is put for a receiving or embracing in Love, or Faith and Hope.

[To Laugh] is put for to be joyful, which is the sign of Laughter, Job 8.21. Psal. 126.1, 2. Gen. 21.6. Luke 6.21, 25. And to be secure Job 5.22. [To Stand] is put for to Minister, Ezek. 8.11. Zach. 3.1. For it is the sign of a Ser­vant to stand. See Deut. 10.8. [To Annoint] signifies to make a King or cheif Lord, Judg. 9.8. For Ʋnction was in times past the Rite and Symbol of the Solemn Inaugurations of Kings as in many places of the Old Testament appears.

[In Conjunct Phrases,] To shut and open, none resisting signifies a full and free po­wer of Administration, Esa. 22.22. To speak with a stiff-neck, signifies proudly to resist and Blaspheme God, Psal. 75.5. For an erected neck is the indication of a proud mind. To give cleanness of Teeth, signifies Famine, Amos 4.6. Because in Eating, something of the meat sticks in the Teeth; For where that uncleanness of Teeth is not found, it signifies that there was no meat eaten, or a defect of Aliment. To lift up the Eyes, signifies Worship and Adoration, Psal. 121.1. and 123.1. Ezek. 18.6. For whom we Reverence and Worship, we attentively behold. To lift up the Head, signifies an erection of mind, animosity, and joy as Judg. 8.28. Psal. 83. 1, 2. Luke 21.28. &c.

The face waxing pale denotes fear, for shame causes one to blush, and then for fear the blood retires from the outward parts to the heart, as Esa, 29.22. Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale. See Job 9.24. To have a whores forehead notes impudence, for the indications of that appear in the face as well as modesty and bashfulness, Jer. 3.3.

[Page 29] To bow the Knee, signifies Subjection and Obedience, or Divine Worship, Esa. 45.23. Phil. 2.10. Eph. 3.14. Of which genuflexion is a sign. To give the hand sometimes notes voluntary subjection as 1 Chron. 29.24. 2 Chron. 30.8. Where the hebrew signifies to give the hand, as in the margent of our Bibles. Sometimes it notes begging and imploring, as Lam. 5.6. Sometimes Confederacy, as Jer. 50.15. She (that is Babylon) hath given her hand — that is, she hath confederated with Cresus King of the Medes and Persians, as Herodotus, lib. 1. says. See Ezek. 17.18. Levit. 6.2. with Gal. 2.9. Job 17.2. To put the hand upon the head, signi­fies Greif, Calamity, and Sadness, Jer. 2.37. That being a sign of it, as 2 Sam. 13.19. To put a hand upon the mouth, signifies silence, or that one cannot Answer, Job 40.33. Micah 7.16. &c. See other examples, 2 Kings 3.11. Exod. 28 41. and 29.9. and 32.29. Num. 3.3. Jud. 17.12.

To lift up the hand, is put for swearing, Exod. 6.8. (so the hebrew) Psal. 106.25, 26. and elsewhere, because such as swore lifted up their hands towards Heaven, as Virgil says 12 Ene [...]d.

—Deinde Latinus,
Suspiciens Caelum, tenditque ad sydera Dextram:
Haec eadem Aenea, Terram, Mare, Sydera, Juro.

Sometimes it signifies to pray, as Psal. 28.1, 2. Psal. 68.31, 32. Psal. 141.2▪ 1 Tim. 2.8. And to bless, Psal. 134. For by that Ceremony they used to bless of Old. Also to indicate or give notice, Esa. 49.22.

To this may be referred where Eating and Drinking is put for Health and Life, as Exod. 24.11. See Gen. 16.13. Psal. 2.3. Let us break their bands asunder, and cast their Cords from us, that is, let us remove this troublesome servitude, which by Bonds and Cords as by certain signs is noted. See Psal. 46.9. He breaketh the bow and cutteth the spear in sunder, he burneth the Chariot in the fire, verse 10. Be still and know that I am God, that is, he puts an end to Wars, and tameth the Ene­my, of which (viz. Hostility) these things were dismal signs. See Psal. 58.10. and 69.11. See Job 16.15. Psal. 35.12. Joel 1.3. Amos 8, 10. &c.

Esa. 2.4. And they shall beat their Swords into pl [...]w shares, and their Spears into Scyths, or pruning hooks; that is, there will be a Constant Peace, of which there is not a more certain sign then when Arms are turned into rustical or Country instru­ments which are useful in the time of Peace. And because the Prophet speaks of a spiritual peace in the time of the Messiah, here is also a metaphorical Allegory.

Esa. 49.23. They shall bow down to thee with their face toward the Earth, and lick up the dust of thy Feet, that is, they will give thee Honour and Reverence, for the sake of Christ thy head, who dwells in thee: For this speech is of the New Testa­ment Church. See Psal. 72.8, 9. &c. Jer. 31.19. After I was instructed I smote upon my thigh, that is, after my sin was shewn unto me I was affected with grief of mind. For smiting the thigh was an indication of grief as Homer Iliad. Π says of Achilles, that [...], when he had smote his Thighs he had spoke to Pa­troclus, Odyss. 5. He crys out O miserable, and struck his Thighs, &c. Lam. 2.10.

Lam. 2.10. The Elders of the Daughter of Sion sit upon the ground and keep silence, they have cast up dust upon their Heads, they have girt themselves with Sackcloath, the Virgins of Jerusalem hang down their Heads to the ground— By these signs a most ex­tream grief is described. Jon. 4.11. That cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand, that is, that are not come to the years or Age of discretion. The signs and effects of reason and Judgment are said to be wanting, yea, even Judg­ment it self and the use of Reason, and convenient Age for the Exercise of it.

[In intire Speech.] Hither may be referred that Custome of speaking in Sacred Scripture, whereby in Commands or Promises such things are put, which men were wont to do, and are only the signs of those things which are intended and understood by that speech, as when the Prophet Elisha Commands Gehazi his Servant, 2 Kings 4.29. And Christ his Disciples, Luke 10.4. To salute no man by the way, by which is intimated that they were with all expedition and dispatch to do their errands and to avoid all interruptions by the way. For it is a sign of great hast among men if they are so intent upon the end of their Journey or business, that they take no notice of any body they meet so as to salute him or discourse with him. Otherwise mild, [Page 30] courteous, and civil salutations are reckoned amongst Christian Duties, &c.

Jer. 9.17. Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, consider ye, and call for the Mourning Women, that they may come, and send for cunning Women, that they may come, and ver. 18. And let them make hast, and take up a wailing for us, &c. The Lord does not approve of the dissembled wailing-women in mourning at Funerals, but speaks according to the vulgar custome, denoting by this, and informing the People of the bitterness of the present Calamities. See Amos 5.16. &c. — Jer. 10.17. Gather up thy wares out of the Land, O Inhabitant of the Fortress, that is, bundle and bind up your precious things together, as verse 9. The sense is, that they were not to remain there but to be led into Captivity, as chap. 18. where the reason of this Judgment is to be read at large. For they that are in a Garrison, and doubt its strength do convey their precious things to places of more security. This also may be an Irony, as if the Lord had said, ye cannot effectually bring to pass any thing to free you and yours. We have the like place, Jer. 46.19. &c. — By destroying the Weapons, Ezek 39.9, 10. The certainty of the promised victory, and the peace that would ensue is denoted, as Esa. 2.4.

Matth 24.20. But pray ye that your flight be not in the Winter nor on the Sabbath day. The Disciples are commanded, with respect to the dreadfulness and peril of the siege of Jerusalem, to do those things which belonged to the Jews, who though that it was not lawful for them on the Sabbath to go above Goo [...] ­win in his Moses and Aa­ron, says, that 2000 Geometri­cal Cubits is a Sab­bath days Journey lib. 3. p. 112. 1000 greater (or 2000 lesser) paces; And therefore they ought to pray, that they may not be necessitated to fly on the Sabbath because the accustomed Sabbath days Journey would not be enough to convey them beyond the danger, of the Roman Souldiers. And by this the greiv­ousness of the Calamity is indicated.

Luke 22.36. Then said he (that is Christ) unto them, But now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: And he that hath no Sword let him sell his garment, and buy one. By this speech is signified, that to that quiet and comfort­able way of living, which the Apostles had hitherto enjoyed in the School of Christ, should immediately succeed a most greivous persecution, even to be be­gun that very night, and that the Enemy with Swords and Clubs were at hand, so that such as confide in an Arm of Flesh, and would consult (as men) about the secu­rity of themselves and theirs, could have no better way, then to dispose of all, even to their very Coats, and provide themselves with Military defences to resist the Enemies violence. By this sign therefore, the thing signified is to be understood; For Christ does not require, that his Apostles should buy Swords and defend them­selves, but by the necessity of a Sword, he symbolically insinuates or intimates the greivousness of that danger, which threatens them from the Enemy. So says Theo­phylact, and Enthymius upon the place. The Apostles understood these words of Christ properly and therefore say, verse 38. Lord here are two Swords, to whom he said, it is enough. By which answer he modestly and tacitly reprehends the absur­dity of his Disciples, as if he had said, I perceive you do not apprehend the mean­ing of my Parabolical speech, therefore it is enough to have admonished you thus much, your experience and the fulfilling of my prediction will supply the place of an exposition, when in a little time a Military Host shall invade, to repel which a hundred Swords shall not be enough. See Brentius and Erasmus upon the place.

7. A Name is put For the Person or Thing.

THE Name of God is put for God himself, Deut. 28.58. That thou mayst fear this glorious and fearful Name (viz. the Lord thy God. Psal. 20.1. The Name of the God of Jacob defend thee, that is, the God of Jacob. So Psal. 115.1. Esa. 30.27. Micah 5.4. and frequently elsewhere, &c. John 3.18. Because he hath not beleived in the Name of the only begotten Son of God, that is Son of God himself. So John 17.6. Acts 3.16. and 10.43. 1 John 2.12. &c.

[Page 31][Name] Is put for Man, Acts 1.15. The number of the Names together, were about one hundred and twenty, that is, so many men. So Rev. 3.4. and 11.13. Eras­mus says, the reason of this speech is, that when men are numbred, their Names are called over.

Name is put for Son, or posterity, because they are called by the Name or Sir­name of their Ancestors, Deut. 25.7. 1 Sam. 24.22. 2 Sam. 14.7. &c.

Name, is put for the thing it self, Acts 4.12. For there is none other Name un­der Heaven given unto men whereby we must be saved, that is, there is no other way or means of Salvation but by Christ. Eph. 1.21. Every Name that is Named, that is, every thing in Nature. It Notes also Dignity or Eminence, Phil. 2.9. Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a Name which is above every Name, &c.


AN IRONY is a Trope whereby Contraries or Opposites are put for one another, or when by the thing named a contrary thing must be understood. The Word properly signifies dissimulation or cavilling, vox [...], pro­prie dissimulationem & elusionem, seu cavillationem, significat. This Trope may more rightly be called Antiphrasis, which uses words contrary to their proper meaning or original and genuine sense; [...], Sermo per contrarium intelligen­dus, ex [...] contra, & [...] dico. It may be distinguisht into,

  • 1. Words singly or by themselves, considered, which is called Antiphrasis.
  • 2. Words so placed or disposed in a sentence, as denote derision, or a kind of a mock, which vulgarly is called an Irony, of which Sarcasmus is a certain kind, which is sharper then an Irony, as when one insults over them that are oppressed with Calamities.

Antiphrasis, of Words singly or by themselves considered.

SOmetimes one and the same Word has contrary significations, as [...] Barak which properly signifies to bless, as Gen. 12.3. and 24.35. 2 Sam. 8.10. Psal. 34, 1. and many other places, is used in a contrary sence by an Antiphrasis, as 1 Kings 21.10. Set two men before him, Sons of Belial, to bear witness against him, saying thou didst bless God and the King, which Pagninus, the Chald. Paraph. and our Version do render, thou didst Curse or Blaspheme God and the King. So v. 13. where the Execution of this Wicked Jezebels command is described. Job 1.5. Per­adventure my Sons have sinned and blessed God in their Hearts, (which Pagninus ren­ders, have cursed.) And the Chald. that they have provoked or stirred him to Anger. Upon which place Vatablus says, that the ancients did so abhor blasphemy, that they durst not even Name it, Chap. 1.11. and 2.5. If he will not bless thee to thy face, Pagninus says Curse thee, &c. (the Chald. provoke thee, &c.) After the same man­ner they expound the words of Jobs Wife, Job 2.9. Dost thou still retain thine inte­grity, bless (Pagninus says curse) God and Die, See Caryl upon the place. of these words some make a good construction, affirming that she gave her husband good Counsel, to this sense; [Page 32] what dost thou still stand upon terms with God, wilt thou not humble thy self and desist from the conceits and imaginations of thine own integrity, since these greivous and sudden afflictions are sent for your your sins from an angry God, therefore rather bless him, that is, pray to him, and in humility seek his face (for so to bless sig­nifies to pray, or make supplication) and beg him to release thee of this miserable Life, since 'tis better for thee to dye once, then to die dayly.

Beza and others say, that it is not likely that the Governess of such a Holy Fami­ly as Job's, and the Wife and Companion of so good a man, should be so impu­dently wicked as to give that abominable advice to her Husband, as either to Curse God, or destroy himself. Her error (say they) was she judged him Wicked, because thus smitten, and that he trusted upon his own integrity, &c.

But others with greater probability judge this Counsel to be very wicked, for he reproves her for it plainly — Thou speakest as one of the foolish Women speaketh, and certainly Job would never have said so, if her speech had only imported an humble preparation for his approaching Death— It was rather a speaking the Devils mind, to bid him Curse God and Dye, viz. [Curse God] that the Magistrate taking no­tice of it thou mayst be cut off by the Sword of Justice, for Blasphemers were sen­tenced to Death without mercy by the Law of Moses, and it is not improbable that the light of Nature might carry those Nations to as high and severe a Revenge against that highest Sin — [And Die] that is, dye by thine hand, or destroy thy self, &c. So that the Word must of necessity be understood to Curse by an Antiphrasis; as the same Word is used by the Devil, Job 1.11. He will Curse thee to thy Face. The Word that signifies (to be effected or accomplished) Prov. 13.19. denotes [to be interrupted or broken] Dan. 2.1. and I Daniel was refreshed, Dan. 8.27. But Pagninus and our Translation render it, I fainted, for it follows, I was sick. It also signifies to shine, Job 29.3. and 31.26. Esa. 13.10. Al­so to praise or celebrate, Psal. 117.1. Esa. 64.11. &c. And by an Antiphra­sis to be inglorious or fools, Psal. 75.4. Job 12.17. Esa. 44.25. &c.

[...]The Word that signifies Benignity, Mercy, and Gratitude, Deut. 5.10. Jud. 8.35. 2 Sam. 9.1. Psal. 141.4, 5. By an Antiphrasis signifies the quite con­trary, Lev. 20.17. Prov. 14.34.

The word which signifies to possess an Inheritance, Gen. 15.3. Deut. 2.24.31. 1 Kings 21.15. Esa. 14.21. signifies to be destroyed or thrown out of Possession, Deut. 2.21.22. Judg. 14.15. Josh. 8.7. and 23.5.

[...]The Word that signifies inconstancy, Levity, and Folly, Psal. 85.8. Prov. 9.13. Eccl. 7.26. By this figure signifies Constancy, Confidence, and Hope, as Job 31.24. Psal. 78.7. Prov. 3.26.

[...] Nephesh, which signifies the Soul, Gen. 1.30. &c. (and Synecdochically the Person it self, Gen. 2.7. and 17.14. Psal. 11.1. And more generally an animate Body or a living Creature, Gen. 1.24. &c.) by an Antiphrasis signifies a Carkass, or a Lifeless Body, Lev. 19.28. So 21.1. and 22.4. Numb. 6.11. and 5.2. Hag. 2.14. To this signification some Referre, Psal. 16.10. Thou shalt not leave my Soul in the Grave, that is, my Body.

[...]The Word which signifies to be sanctified or made Holy, Exod. 29.37.43. &c. signifies also be defiled, Deut. 2 [...] ▪9. Esa. 65.5. [...] Rephaim, Gyants, signifies sound and strong Persons, Gen. 14.5. Deut. 2.11. and by Antiphrasis men dead, or that no medicine can cure (from [...] Sanavit, he hath cured) Psal. 88.10. Esa. 26.14, 19. Prov. 21.16. &c. To this may be referred the word [...] ▪ which signifies a vertue as benediction, praise, a free gift, &c. Rom. 15.29. 2 Cor. 9.5, 6. Eph. 1.3. Heb. 6.7. Jam. 3.10. Rev. 5.12, 13 and 7.12. &c. And also a Vice, as an Hypocritical Conformity or dissembling praise in order to deceive, as Rom. 16.18. Several other examples occurr, as of Words which have one sig­nification in the root or primitive, and another in the Derivative, some which signi­fie one thing in one Conjugation, and a different in another, which for brevity sake [Page 33] are left to the observation of the Learned, as Esa. 40. with Numb. 3.22. Job 22.25. Psal. 95.3, 4. Gen. 38.21. Deut. 23.17. Job. 36.14. 1 Kings 14.24, and 15.11. 2 Kings 23.4, 5, 6, 7. &c. Josh. 17.15, 18. Psal. 119.40. With Amos 6.8. &c.

An Irony of Words in a Sentence.

IN a speech of God and Christ] a thing is said or Commanded, which must be un­derstood in a contrary sence, that the literal meaning may be found, as Gen. 3.22. And the Lord God said, Behold the man is become as one of us; that is, he is no ways like us, but rather to be abominated for his sin, it alludes also to the De­vils words, ver. 5. Ye shall be as Gods knowing good and Evil. Gesner upon the place says, Deus ejusmodi Ironia & indignatione mendacium Diaboli & Ambitionem Adami execratur, &c. that is, God uses this Irony by way of execration of the Devils Lye and Adams Ambition, and aptly inculcates the foulness of his sin, that he may learn to beware ever after. Ambros. de Elia & Jejun. cap. 4. Irridens Deus non appro­bans haec dicit, that God spoke these words by way of Derision not Approbation — Thou thoughtst thou shouldst be like us, but because thou wouldst be what thou wert not, thou art fallen from what thou hast been, so thy Ambition to aspire be­yond thy self has thrown thee beneath thy self.

Deut. 32.37, 38. Where are their Gods, their Rock in whom they trusted, which did eat of the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the Wine of their Drink offerings, let them rise up and help you now and be your protection, as also Judg. 10.14. Go and cry unto the Gods ye have chosen, let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation. Jeho­vah in these Words does sharply chide the Rebellious Israelites, and illustrates the impiety and blindness of their Idolatries, who had hitherto Worshipped such things as Gods, which now in their extremity were not able to deliver them from Evil or Desolation.

Job 38.5. Who hath laid the measures of the Earth, if thou knowest &c. God speaks these words to Job. as if he had said, you cannot reach to so extraordinary a pitch of knowledge, as to know how God laid the Foundations of the Earth, and made all things of nothing, verse 20. that thou shouldst take it (viz. the way where Light and Darkness dwell, as verse 19.) at the bound thereof, and that thou shouldst know the way to the Paths thereof— This is an Ironical concession, resulting from the words of the 3 verse, I will ask thee, and thou shalt make me know, &c.

Esa. 17.3. The Fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the Kingdom from Da­mascus, and the Remnant of Syria: They shall be as the Glory of the Children of Is­rael. Jerome in his Comment▪ says that Glory is by an Irony here put for Ignominy and Disgrace.

Esa. 29.1. Add ye year to year, let them kill Sacrifices, upon which Luther says,Tom. 3. fol. 356. in Ex­plic. h. l. that the Prophet mocks them, as if he had said, go to, proceed in your Sacrifices stoutly, it shall happen, that you together with your Sacrifices shall perish, See more examples, Esa. 57.12. Jer. 7.21. —11.15. —12.7. —22.20. 2 King 24.7. Jer. 22.23. —'Tis said Ezek. 20.39. O House of Israel, thus saith the Lord God, serve ye every one his Idols, and hereafter also, if ye will not hearken unto me— Here is an Ironical abdication or casting, wherein tacitely they are invited to the quite contrary, viz. True Piety and the Worship of God Ezek. 28.3. Behold thou art wiser then Daniel: there is no secret that they can hide from thee— this is an Ironical Hyperbole, by which the Prince of Tyrus is checkt. For Daniel at that time was accounted the wisest of men, because of the most excellent gifts that God gave him, so that it grew to a Proverb, &c. So that it is only spoken with respect to the opinion or esteem that King had of himself, which by this Irony is re­proved. [Page 34] In Amos 4.4, 5. is an Ironical and Sarcastick exhortation, as appears by the conclusion verse 12. where they are advised to prepare to meet their God [...] alludes to the Law of God, Deut. 14.28. of Tythes: And Lev. 7.13. The [...]ring of Leavened Bread, which the Israelites in their impure Worship of Idols [...] imitate, &c. See Nah. 3.14. Draw the Waters, for the siege, Fortifie thy strong holds: Go into Clay, and tread the Morta [...], make strong the Brick kiln— An Ironical exhortation to the Enemy, intimating that whatever they attempted to secure them­selves would be in vain, Zach. 11.13. A Goodly price that I was prized at of them, &c. This was an Ironical speech of Christ concerning the price for which Judas sold him.

Matth. 26.45. Christ Commands his Disciples to sleep on, and take their rest, when he means the Contrary, it being then rather a time of Watchfulness, because he was then to be betrayed, and it was therefore a more seasonable time to learn more heavenly instruction before his leaving them, Matth. 26.50. And Jesus said unto him, Friend wherefore art thou come? This is an Irony, for he was his Treache­rous Enemy.

Mark. 7.9. Full well ye reject (or make void) the Commandment of God, that is, very wickedly. See more Luke 11.41. John 3.10. John 7.28. with 8.14.

[In the speech of Saints,] there are Ironies, as Davids speech to Abner, Art thou not a man? (we translate it valiant man) and who is like to thee in Israel? wherefore then hast thou not kept thy Lord the King? &c. His meaning is that he behaved him­self cowardly and basely in not preserving the King as he ought— 1 King 18.27. Elijah mocked Baals Prophets, bidding them Cry aloud, because their God may possibly be talking, pursuing, journying or sle [...]ping, and so should be awaked; this is a most clear and evident Irony, as if he had said, that he is neither a God, nor Living, nor capable of operation. The like Irony we read 1 King. 22.15. Where Micajah bids Ahab go and prosper, &c. Although he knew, that he should not prosper. So 2 Kings 8.10. Go say unto him, thou mayst certainly recover, howbeit the Lord hath shewed me, that he shall surely dye, this is an Irony to delude an im­pious King, that was Enemy to the People of God.

Job 12.2. No doubt but ye are the People, and wisdome shall die with you, this is a sarcastick Irony, as if he had said, ye take upon you to be the wisemen, in com­parison of whom, I am as a wild Asses Colt, Job. 11.12. And think when you die, Wisdom must depart with you. Job 26.2, 3. How hast thou helped him that is without power? How savest thou the Arm that hath no strength? How hast thou counselled him that hath no wisdom? And how hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is? This is an Ironical confutation. As if he had said, your sayings are most comfortable and excellent! As they seem to you, when you have to do with an in­firm, abject, and ignorant person — The meaning is, that they are of no effect to judge,Junius. preserve, counsel, or teach me, Psal. 60.9. Philistia Triumph thou over me— This is an Ironical Apostrophe, whereby David checks the insolence of the old Phi­listines who for a long time vexed the Israelites.

Eccles. 11.9. Rejoyce O young man in thy youth, and let thy heart clear thee in the days of thy youth, and walk in the ways of thy heart, and in the sight of thine Eyes, &c. Which is an Ironical concession, to the young man, that gives himself a loose liber­ty to follow his sinful pleasure in his young years, and in a haughty pride and con­fidence slights God and good things, neglecting his soul for sensuality and (an ima­ginary) Earthly felicity; but his check and correction follows— But know thou, that for all these things God will bring thee to Judgment.

Esa. 2.10. Enter into some Rock, and hide thee in the Dust, for fear of the Lord, and for the glory of his Majesty. This is spoken by way of sarcasm, as if he had said; fly from God, and his incensed face, or terrible hand if thou canst, but 'tis no purpose, as the following verses shew. So Esa. 8.9, 10. see Esa. 21.5. compar'd with Dan. 5. — Jer. 8.14. and 4.9.15. and 46.9, 11. where there are sarcasms against the King of Egypt and his Host, that were puft up for the Conquest of Josias— The like Jer. 51.8.11. about Babylons fall — See Lam. 4.21. Mal. 1.9. 1 Cor. 4.8.

[Page 35]2 Cor. 10.12. For we dare not make our selves of the Number or compare our selves with some that commend themselves, &c. The Apostle speaks Ironically, checking the false Apostles, who had such magnificent thoughts, (and gloryed so much) of themselves, as if he were nothing to them— The like Irony he uses to the con­ceited Corinthians, 1 Cor. 11.19. For ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye your selves are wise, Upon which Aretius says — this speech is a sharp Irony, as if he had said, it becomes such principal persons as you are to esteem those fools who speak truth, 2 Cor. 12 13. What is it whererein ye were inferiour to other Churches, except it be that I my self was not burdensome to you? Forgive me this wrong. He calls that Ironi­cally a wrong, which indeed was none at all; but rather an instance of Innocency.

[Moreover,] to an Irony are referred,

(1) Some things spoken feignedly, and [...], or uttered by way of tryal, as Gen. 19.2. Where the Angels say to Lot who invited them, Nay but we will abide in the street all night, whereas they were to tarry with Lot, and preserve him and his family from the Conflagration of Sodom, as by the thing it self and the event, as also from the Angels words, ver. 12, 13. is manifest. —Gen. 22.2. And he said, (that is, God, to Abraham), take n [...]w thy Son, thine only Son Isaac, wh [...]m thou lovest, and get thee in [...]o Land of Moriah, and offer him there for a Burnt-offer­ing upon one of the Mountains, which [...] will shew thee. That this was only by way of tryal appears by the first verse, and the event; this passage was intended [...]or a good end, as well with respect to God, who requires obedience and a perfect resignati­on of man, altho [...]gh his precepts may seem absurd to our Reason, as also with re­spect to Abraham and his son Isaac, who became examples of Faith, Submission, and Con [...]tancy to Gods Will, without scruple, questions or murmuring: Besides there is respect had to the Messiah, whose Passion, Death, and Resurrection is pre­figured in this Mystical Type.

Matth. 15.24, 25, 26. I am not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel — It is not lawful to give the Childrens bread to Dogs — That this speech was also by way of tryal of the Womans Faith, appears by the event, and the Elogy which Christ give her (ver. 28. O Woman great is thy Faith.) The mind differs from the speech — he seems externally to segregate or distingush her from the Sheep, and at the same instant occulty cherishes and Comforts her as his. He compares her to a Dog, but places her at the same time at the Childrens Table. This passage intimates the good and Salvation of the Woman and all Beleivers, for we are here­by eminently informed by way of sweet consolation of the certainty of Divine help, though it be for a while delayed in Crosses and Calamities, as appears by that try­ing silence of Christ, ver. 23. viz. But he answered her not a word, upon which Ch [...]ysostom says, the Lord knew that here was a hidden Jewel,Hom 44. in Gen. which he would not conceal from us, but delay [...]d his answer, that the Womans sedulity or diligence may become an example, and Doctrine to posterity, &c.

2. Some things are dissembling and Hypocritically spoken (and sometimes with a bitter Sarcasm) which are true in themselves, but not conformable to the mind of the speaker, as Gen. 37.19 Josephs Brethren said one to another, behold this ma­ster of Dreams cometh, &c. Such indeed Joseph was, for verse 5. he gave informa­tion of things to come, and had the gift of interpreting others Dreams, as chapters 40. and 41. But his Brethren did not so repute him, but call him so in a way of Mockery and Derision.

2 Sam. 6.20. Michael said to David her husband. How glorious was the King of Israel to day, &c. David was truly glorious in that sacred gesture and Art, as he himself says, ver. 21, 22. but to her it seemed to be lightness and scurrility, void of Royal gravity, for 'tis said, ver. 16. That she despised him in her heart, Psal. 22.8. He trusted in the Lord that he would deliver him, let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him. These things were most true in themselves, but in the opinion of those mockers false, who by this bitter Sarcasm denied Christ hang­ing on the Cross, as Matth. 27.43. See Esa. 5.19.

Matth. 22.16. The Disciples of the Pharisees being sent to Christ say, Master we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in Truth, neither carest thou [Page 36] for any man: For thou regardest not the person of Men— These words were true of our Saviour Christ, but not conformable to the mind of the Pharisees, who spoke by way of snare and Irony, as Luke 20.20. appears. See Matth. 27.29, 40, 42, 43. Mark 15.29. &c.

3. Some things manifestly false, and spoken with an intention to deceive, by such as knew it to be otherwise, are set forth by way of [...]. history and Narration, as Gen. 3.4. And the Serpent (that is the Devil in the Serpent) said unto the Woman, ye shall not surely die, for (ver. 5.) God doth know, that in the Day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil.— This the Father of lies knew to be quite otherwise, but would by that falshood circumvent and deceive Eve. By the opening of their Eyes, which he by a fallacy Promises is in­timated the accuteness of the mind and understanding, in comparison of which the former concreated Wisdom may seem to be blindness— Thus the deceiver plays his game to the destruction of Adam and his Posterity, had not immense Grace stept in to prevent it.

Matth. 2.8. Herod says to the Wisemen— Go and search diligently for the young Child, and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and Wor­ship [...]im also— His intention was to destroy the Child Jesus, which, by the inhu­mane and execrable Massacre of the Children afterwards, is evident, but by this Irony and Hypocrisie, he would delude the Wise men.

Lastly, There are some things where there seems to be an Irony, but when the thing is more exactly considered, there is none, is Jer. 4.16. The Watchers (or keepers) come from a far Country, &c. Some think that by a Watchman, or Keep­ers (by an Antiphrasis or Irony,) we are to understand destroyers. But in Truth the Babylonians are to be understood, who for their own safety and profit were watchers, lying in wait about the Fields, lest any thing should escape away, or get from them, as hunters who watch every place of egress out of a Wood, lest the Beasts they hunt, should escape into the open Fields, as verse 17.

Ezek. 3.24. Then the Spirit entred into me, and set me upon my feet, and spake unto me, and said unto me, go shut thy self within thine house. Junius and Tremel [...]ius alledge, that these and the following words are to be understood by an Irony; as if he had said, is it a Prophets office to hide himself, when I bid him go forth — There are others which say, that it was spoke by way of Sarcasm and indignation— paraphrasing thus; if thou art resolved to disobey my Command, go into thine own House, and experience what it is to contend with me —such Sarcasms are found, Judg. 10.14. Esa. 50.11. But the truth is, that, because God had sufficiently instructed the Prophet by his Spirit, and gave him courage to publish his Will, and because we do not read that this Prophet used any Tergiversation or shuffling to avoid the work appointed him (as we read of Moses, Exod. 3.11. and 4.10, 13. Of Jeremy Chap. 1.6. and 20.9. Of Jonas, Chap. 1.3.) the best way is to interpret these words properly as they sound, viz. that it is a serious Command of God, that he should shut himself in his House, and dispatch his Prophetical Acti­ons mentioned chap. 4. (see also chap. 8.1.) to which belongs, what is added of the binding of men (as it were with Cords) by Angels at the Command of God, as verse 25. For God uses these ministring Spirits in his Government of men; and that which is spoken chap. 4. belongs to these, is evident by the 8th. verse of that chapter, &c.

Matth. 4.3. The Tempter says to Jesus, if thou be [...]st the Son of God, command that these Stones may be made Bread. In which Words Theophylact says, there is an Irony, as if he had said, neither art thou the Son of God, neither canst thou do this. But more truly it is to be interpreted a Diabolical fraud, for Tryal of a thing by him not certainly known, as D. Chemnitius. In his Evangelical Harmony says, cap. 19. viz.

The Devil had a double purpose.

(1.) To know whether Jesus was really the Son of God by this Reason, that if by his bare Word or Command he could turn Stone into Bread, then of cer­tain he is the Son of God; therefore he says not Pray, but Command, but if in the [Page 37] extremity of his hunger and necessity, he cannot do this, then he cannot be the Son of God, and therefore Satan would take occasion to despise and mock him, thus, in vain do you trust to that heavenly voice (Matth. 3.17.) and believe, or hope that others shall beleive thee to be the Son of God.

(2.) By that Temptation the Devil endeavours to intice Christ into some sin, or distrust of the Divine Oracle, or into a vain ostentation, or empty Glory, if by the Devils suggestion he should work a Miracle, &c.

John 18.38. Pilate said unto him, what is Truth? In which words some say there is an Irony. But in exact speaking (of this Trope) there appears to be no repugnancy betwixt the words, and the mind of the speaker, but rather a supine or careless contempt and disdain of truth in the Heart of Pilate, who argues by way of diminution ( [...]) or slight the matter, as if he had said, if there be a dispute betwixt the Jews and thee, about the Truth of Religion, I do not Judge it of that weight, as to lose my time to hear your altercations (or frivolous contentions) &c.

John 14.14. And he (Pilate) saith, unto the Jews, Behold your King, which is taken as Ironically spoken, by many — as if he had mocked the Jews, then accu­sing so abject, low, and contemptible a man, that would aspire at the Government, and threaten the Monarchy of the Caesars. But it is more proper to say, that Pilate had respect to the publick acclamation of the People four days before (when they saluted Jesus as their King,) Luk. 19.38. John 12.12, 13. In this sence they are the Words of the Excellent D. Gerhard Harmo. Evangel. in [...]i [...]or. paū. c. 11. Jam olim, expectatis Regem vobis pro­missum, &c. For some time past you have expected your promised King, but so soon as he appears do you wish him dead? Consult your own honour, and let it not be said that you furiously persecuted him, to whom you have given Royal Honour. Caesar does not fear this King; do you rather pity him, and give over your thoughts of Crucifying him. If he be really your King, why, with so great fury do you, design him for such heavy punishment, whom you ought rather to defend? But if he hath falsly boasted himself to be a King, dismiss him with stripes, which (for his temerity) will be enough to the sufferer. So therefore by a secret instinct of God, Pilate confesses Jesus to be a King, even be­fore his crucifixion, as he afterwards attributed a Royal Name and Honour to him in the inscription upon the Cross, that we may understand that he therefore died, because he is our King, and that the Goverment is upon his Shoulders, Esa. 9.6. &c.

Acts 23.5. Then said Paul I wist not Brethren, that he was the High Priest, up­on which words we will transcribe the paraphrase of the learned Rivet. In Isa­gog. ad Scriptur. Sacr. c. 21 Sect. 8. I know there are many who assert that the Apostle spoke this by an Irony, because when he liv­ed among the Pharisees, and being himself a Pharisee, although the person should be unknown to him, yet by the manner of that Courts sitting, he could not but Judge who among them was Cheif or High Preist, having said ver. 3. That he sate to Judge him after the Law. But to me it seems more probable, that Paul, hearing a voice from some of those that sate to Judge (for the Priests and all the Counsel came, as Acts 22.30.) and not knowing from whom it came, spoke so. He judged it not to come therefore from the High Preist, because so hasty and rash a signification of offence did not become his Office and Authority, nor was such a speech of (at least dissembled) Sanctity like to proceed from him. It is therefore plain that this Councel was not convened in the accustomed place, where the Judicatory order and debates was defined or assigned to be according to every ones dignity and merit, but near the Tower, whither they were called from the Tribunal where Paul was, which is indicated in the 30 ver. of the preceding chapter. —And he Commanded the Cheif Preist and all their Councel to appear (in the Greek it is [...], to come) Paul therefore hearing a voice from that Company, denounces Gods punishment to the speaker; for all they that came with the High Priest sate to Judge. See also Fr. Junius paral. 1.98. &c.

1 Cor. 6.4. If then ye have Judgement (or Judicatories) of things pertaining to this Life, set them to Judge who are least esteemed in the Church — Some say that these Words are an Irony, because Paul says verse 5. I speak to your shame (or blushing) But it is more probable that the Apostle spoke seriously— Erasmus upon the place says, The Apostle speaks thus, because he would not have Christians to contend before the [Page 38] wicked, but that they should rather choose the meanest Christian as an arbitrator of their Cause, then wrangle before those Tribunals. Aretius upon the place, says, The Apo­stle delivers his mind about what they should do, for they alledge thus, you prohibit us to try our controversies before the Heathen Tribunals, but where shall we have a competent and capable Judge? The Church not only wants a Magistracy, but also Persons fit to de­termine and compose such differences as ours. The Apostle answers, that the latter is un­true because the meanest Christian in these matters have a right of equality with the great­est. The dignity of the Church is great, for Paul judges the meanest worthy of the Office of being Judges, rather then appeal to a Heathen Judge, What shall we not therefore hope from Superiors? But that phrase ver. 5. [...], (I speak it to your shame) is thus well expounded by Aretius. This is a new Argument taken from publick shame, for to wrangle or go to Law, before a Pagan Judge, was no less then to bring a scandal upon the Church: Therefore there is a caution given against that, and because brought occasion of shame upon the Church, therefore the Apostle says deser­vedly, I speak it to your shame, &c.

CHAP. VI. Of a Metaphor in General.

OF a Metaphor in general, let the following things be noted.

1. As to its Definition, it is said to be a [Trope,] when a word is trans [...]a­ted from its proper and Genuine signification to another less proper— Or when like is sig­nified by like. Fabius lib. 8. c. 6. calls it a short similitude — There are other Defi­nitions, but all to this sence. Some in handling the Definition of this Trope tell us, that a Metaphor may be taken, either from a simple similitude, or from Ana­logye or proportion. And that these two are different, because there may be a si­militude betwixt two, as between a living and a painted man whence the name of the Man is ascribed to the picture. But in proportion two answers two, as Aristo­tle in his second Book of the Soul compares a [...]oot to the Mouth, because it performs the same office to a Plant, as the Mouth does to a living Creature — Here is in­deed a double similitude, for a Plant is compared to a living Creature, and the Root to his Mouth, because Plants receive their nourishment from the Root, as a living Creature does by the Mouth. Of the first sort is that Metaphor, when drops of Dew are called Pearls, when Flowers are called Stars, or a gross corpulent man is called a hog. Of the later are, when the master of a Ship has been by Poets com­pared to a Waggoner, and e contra, because he takes the same care of his Waggon, as as the Master does of his Ship. In Scripture Metaphors we shall observe the same distinction, but promiscuously.

2. As to its difference from a similitude and Parable, the difference is either con­tracted, or more large; for in a similitude there is a manifest comparison of one thing with another, and so 'tis a logical Argument; but in a Metaphor there is one thing put for another that's like it, which nevertheless in its explication is to be handled by an apparent similitude. And we are to note here▪ that frequently in Scripture (especially in the Proverbs of Solomon) a Word or Phrase may be expounded by the deficient particle, And in such it is rather a contracted Similitude, then a Metaphor; and therefore many things of that nature are not hereafter reckoned amongst Meta­phors.

3. As to its Dignity, as this Trope is the most frequent, so it the most florid and pleasant, giving a most wonderful energy or power, and evidence to the style of [Page 39] Holy Scripture, so that it may be truly called, the Academy or School, where God Communicates the knowledge of Nature and the Creation to his Scholars, [...] [...]tc affording mat­ter enough for their most serious and diligent study, making plain those Divine and glorious matters therein revealed in terms which call for deep scrutiny and search in­to their Nature and Proprieties. For as Rivet tells us, Isag. ad Script. Sacr. cap. 5. p. 49. The Scripture chiefly treating about things relating to Grace and Glory, yet affords occasion for the perfection and study of all Phylosophical knowledge, and borrows so much of natural things, as may serve for a looking-glass to represent Divine things to our Eyes, &c.

4. As to the manner of handling, whereas the properties of things from whence they are deduced, are many and various, there must be great care and accuracy used to find out the Reason of the similitude, and the Scope or intention of the Comparison, lest there may be an Abberration from the proper coherence of the Text, or the Analogy of Faith, to do this it is needful that a person be well acquainted with the re­spective Natures, and the Phylosophical Notions and Theories of all things from whence this Trope is taken, as also with the peculiar Customes, and distinct qualities of other Nations, particularly the ancient Jewish state in their Ecclesia [...]tical and Civil Government and Oeconomy; besides the knowledge of the Original Languages, (in which the Scriptures were penned, as Hebrew and Greek) which very frequently carry a native Grace and emphatical fulness, hardly expressible (with the same beau­ty and significancy) in a Translation.

More particularly there ought to be care taken, that one Metaphor be not strained to express things in themselves quite opposite, nor make the parallels run till they grow lame; for one Metaphor may be brought to signifie many things, with respect to some different qualities and diverse Attributes. Thus Christ is called a Lyon, Rev. 5.5. because noble Heroick and unconquerable: The Devil is called a Lyon, because roaring, rapacious and devouring, 1 Pet. 5.8. Wicked men and Tyrants are called so, Job 4.10, 11. 2 Tim. 4.17. Because they are fierce, outragious, and cruel to weaker men, as the Lyon is to weaker Creatures.

By the like Reason an Ʋnicorn is compared to the Goldly, with respect to its strength and courage, Psal. 92.10. And to the wicked because of its desperate bold­ness and spitefulness, Psal. 22.21.

[Leaven] expresses the wonderful force and penetrating vertue of the Word and Kingdom of God, Matth. 13.33. With respect to its piercing and diffusive quali­ty; but it is applyed to corrupt and evil Doctrine, Matth. 16.6. 1 Cor. 5.6, 7. Because of its malignant and sowring quality, which is also very spreading, and insi­nuates it self into all the parts.

[Sleep] Metaphorically denotes the quiet and peaceable Death of the Godly, 1 Thess. 4.13, 14. And the carnal security, carelessness, and infidelity of sinners. Rom. 13.11. Eph. 5.14.

The [Sun] amongst other things denotes happiness, because of its light and splen­dor, Judg. 5.31. and in felicity or misfortune because of its scorching and exces­sive heat, Psal. 121.6. Matth. 13.6, 21. &c.

[A shadow] signifies protection against evils, as Esa. 49.2. and many other places— because it defends from intemperate heat. It also denotes great perils and calamities (as Psal. 23.4. Luke 1.79.) because of its darkness and foggyness, which are symbols of sorrow and evil.

[A River] Metaphorically denotes plenty of good and desirable things, Psal. 36. 8. —46.4. Esa. 66, 12. Because of the abundance of its Waters and the useful­ness thereof well known— It also denotes terrors, perils, and overwhelmings, Psal. 18.4. and 124.4. because of the danger of its rapid and sudden inundations.

The [Harvest] is used in a good sence, Psal. 126.4, 5, 6. Matth. 9.37. And elsewhere, because of the great profit and necessity of the gathered fruit. 'Tis also used in a bad sence, Jer. 51.33. Joel 3.13. because it is cut down and de­stroyed.

[Treasure and Treasurer] is also to be understood in a good sence, Matth. 6.20. &c and in a bad sence, Rom. 2.5. both are joyned, Matth. 12.35.

Sometimes Metaphors taken from diverse things, are joyned together, where [Page 40] there is a necessity of a distinct enumeration; an evident example of this we have, Lam. 3. to the 16. ver. Where Metaphors are taken sometimes from Men of diffe­rent circumstances and capacities; sometimes from Beasts to set forth the punish­ments inflicted by God. So in Eph. 2.20. The Metaphors taken from Civil Society, and from building are joyned together, to set forth the Mystical Conjunction of the Godly in Christ, &c.

5. As to the variety of the Metaphors Bartholinus rightly says, That they may be taken from all things in the World, whether substances or accidents, natural or artificial things. And Cicero says, Nihil est in rerum natura, unde simile duci non possit, lib. 3. de oratione. that there is nothing in nature from whence a similitude may not be brought, adding, that the variety of Metaphors is almost infinite.

Others say, that 'tis as possible to empty the Sea with sieve, as to reduce or con­fine Metaphors to certain Classes or bounds. — The like may (in a manner) be said of the Metaphors in Holy Scripture. But in as much as it is very profitable for such as are studious in that Sacred Writing, it shall be endeavoured so to dispose of most, if not all, the Metaphors (as much as may be done among such a multitude of them) found there, especially the most frequent and illustrious, as that they may be redu­ced to a certain Order, under their respective Heads, which will inable us to give a found judgment of the most Elegant and Rhetorical part of the Bible. And if any be missing, the Harvest being large, it may stir up others to gather up and improve the gleanings.

6. As to the right distribution or distinction of Metaphors into their right Classes or Heads, some take the Method of Plutarch and Quintilian (who to avoid confusion in such an infinite variety, which can scarce be concluded or terminated by art, right­ly say, that the most illustrious sort of Metaphors are to be expounded and distin­guished under certain heads) and they make them four, viz.

  • 1. From animate things (viz. such as have life) to animate, as when God is put for a Magistrate, or a Shepherd for a Prince or Ruler.
  • 2. From animate things to inanimate (viz. things which have no life) as when the Earth is said to Groan, and the Olive to Lye.
  • 3. Or from inanimate things to animate, as when Christ is called a Door, a Vine, &c.
  • 4. Or from inanimate things to inanimate, as when the Mystery of Salvation, is called a foundation, 1 Tim. 6.19. 2 Tim. 2.19. &c.

Others not respecting things as they are in Nature, observe a Grammatical series, or order, because Metaphors, are found in Nouns, Verbs and Adverbs.

In Nouns Substantives, as where it is said Deut. 22.14. The fat of the Kidneys of Wheat, for choice grains of Wheat, where is a double Metaphor.

First, In (Fat) for the choiceness or preciousness, and

Secondly, In (Reins) which is put for Grains, because they are like them in Form; and both are joyned because the Reins in a living Creature are covered with Fat.

Thus Christ is called the Light of the World, Joh. 8.12. The Good Shepherd, Joh. 10.11. The Apostles are called the Salt of the Earth, Matth. 5.13. &c.

In Nouns Adjective, as when one is said to be of Ʋncircumcised Lips, Ears, Heart, as Exod. 6.12. Jer. 6.10. and 9.26. For to be of an impure and sinfull heart — when the unbelieving and worldly minded man is said to be Dead, Mat. 8.22. — When the Word or Heavenly Doctrine is said to be sound; 1 Tim. 1.10. and 6.3. 2 Tim. 1.13. and 4.3. &c.

In Verbs, As when 'tis said of the Wicked they shall wither, Psal. 37.2. That is, they shall perish, The Soul is said to thirst, when it earnestly and vehemently desires any thing, Psal. 42.2. So when putting on is taken for assuming, as Eph. 4.24.

In Adverbs, As when to take a thing hardly is put for Grief and Sorrow, as Gen. 21▪ 11. To speak hardly is put for roughly or severely, as Gen. 42.7. To be grievously wounded is put for very much; 1 King. 22.34. Thus in the vulgar La­tine Edition, but the Hebrew is without Adverbs there.

[Page 41]But a more proper Example is in Matth. 26.75. He wept [...], bitterly, that is, very much; a Metaphor taken from Tast; So [...] Splendidly, is put for emi­nently or sumptuously; Luke 16.19.

But waving these, our method shall be to consider this Trope

  • (1.) More Specially.
  • (2.) More Generally.

  • 1. More Specially, which shall be about things that are translated to God, which properly belong to Man. Chap. 7. The
  • 2. About what things belonging to other Creatures are ascribed to God, Ch. 8. The
  • 3. When things properly ascribable to persons, are attributed to things that are not persons, Chap. 9.
  • 4. More Generally, which shall be to lay down the distinct Heads and Classes of Metaphors, with succinct Explications of each.
  • 5. We shall produce such Metaphors taken from God and the Creatures, as are ob­vious in Universal Nature. ch. 10, 11.12.
  • 6. Such as are taken from Sacred persons and things, as Divine Worship, &c. Chap. 13.

CHAP. VII. Of Metaphors Translated from Man to God, which kind is called [...].

ANthropopatheia is a Metaphor by which things properly belonging to Creatures, Quaecun­que à cre­aturis transfe­runtur ad Deum, re­purganda prius sunt ab omni­bus imper­fectioni­bus, et tum demum id, quod perfectum e [...], Deo attribuen­dum. Quis ae­quo animo audiat, er non potius abhorreat ab illius­modi [...], quam inculcat? D. Calixti paraphr. pag. 255. Harmon Evangel. especially Man, are by a certain similitude attributed to God and Divine things. It is likwise called [...], condescension, because God in his Holy Word descends, as it were, so low as our capacities, expressing his heavenly Mysteries after the manner of men, which the Hebrews elegantly call The way of the Sons of men.

In this Metaphor it is very necessary to take great heed that no mean, base, or in­decent thing be attributed to the most High and Holy Majesty, but that the Reason of the similitude be always improved with this Caution or Canon of Divinity▪ viz.

Whatsoever is translated from Creatures to God, must first be separated from all imper­fections, and then that which is perfect may safely be ascribed to God; To understand these similitudes, as the Lord descends graciously to us, so let us with a Devout mind (by Faith and Prayer) ascend unto him, comparing spiritual things with spiritual, 1 Cor. 2.13. That we may have honourable apprehensions of him and his Divine Mysteries, which cannot be done without the aid of the Holy Spirit, who only knows the things of God, and the depths of his Wisdom, revealing them to men by the Word, 1 Cor. 2.10, 11.

To this may our Saviours speech be referred John 6.53. When by a similitude of humane things he speaks of the participation of heavenly things, some of the Disci­ples being of gross and carnal understandings said, This is an hard Speech, who can hear it? abhorring such Flesh eating, and Blood drinking, to whom Christ says, ver. 63. It is the spirit that quickneth, the flesh profiteth nothing: The words that I speak unto you, they are Spirit and they are Life. That is, my words are not to be receiv­ed in the mode and measure of vulgar or Earthly things, but waving such thoughts by the aid and guidance of the Spirit, as things spiritually spoken they are to be spiritually understood, and by Faith to be beleived, for so they are Life and give Life, &c.


[Page 42]In proceeding we shall not only shew those Metaphors that respect God, consider­ed singly in his Essence and Divine Majesty, but also as manifest in the flesh.

Some Metaphors are taken from Man, and some from other Creatures.

From Man—as

  • 1. His Parts and Members.
  • 2. His Affections.
  • 3. His Actions.
  • 4. His Adjuncts. Of which in order.

The Parts and Members of a Man attributed to God.

Soul.A Soul is attributed to God, by which his Life, Essence, and Will, and there­fore God himself, is understood: For as man lives and operates by the Soul, so God in himself is Essential Life, and a most pure act — My Soul shall not abhor you, Lev. 26.11. The wicked his Soul hateth, Psal. 11.5. See Esa. 1. [...]4. and 42. 1. Jer. 5.9.29. Matth. 12.8. Heb. 10.38. Hence the Lord is said to swear by his Soul, Jer. 51.14. Amos 6.8. that is, by himself, as our Translation ren­ders, it and agreeable to Esa. 45.23. Jer. 22.5. Heb. 6.13. Where it is ex­pounded.

Body.[A Body] by reason of his incorporeal Essence is no where attributed to God, but 'tis ascribed to our Saviour Christ in a twofold respect.

1. As opposed to the Shadows, Figures and Types in the Old Testament, the Truth, Complement or Fulfilling of the things prefigured by these Shadows, being held forth in him, Col. 2.17. Which are a shadow of things to come, but the Body is of Christ, that is, the Truth and Complement is in Christ. And Col. 2.9. It is said that in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead [...] Bodily, that is, most really, perfectly, and solidly, not in a Typical or shadowy manner, as God mani­fested himself in the Old Testament.

2. The Church is called the Body of Christ, Eph. 1.22, 23. And (God) gave him to be the Head over all things to the Church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all. It is called his Body, because he Rules it, giving Sense, Life and Spiritual motion to it, as a mans head does to his body. It is called his fulness, because (though Christ is absolutely perfect in himself, and has no need of us) his Love is so great to his Church, that he will not be without it, any more then a head would be willing to want his members. Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am, &c. John 17.24. Eph. 4.12, 15, 16. So much for Christs Mystical Body. As for the humane Body of our Lord, it being really and not metaphorically such, it concerns not this place.

Head. God is called the [Head] of Christ. 1 Cor. 11.3.

  • (1.) With respect to his humane Nature, for in that sence Christs says the Fa­ther is greater then he, John 14.28.
  • (2.) With respect to his Office as Mediator and Redeemer, for all the actions of Christ were done by the Will, Order, and Commission of the Deity.

    The Apostle by the figure Climax, or a certain Gradation in the same text calls Christ the head of the Man, because he chose that Sex, when he took humane Nature upon him, so becoming the first [...]born among many Brethren, Rom 8.29. He also calls man the Head of the Woman, because of the preheminence of Sex, and being or­dered her Lord and Superior. In these places the Word is Metaphorical, in respect of eminency, because the head in the natural body is seated highest, excelling the whole body in dignity of sense and reason.

  • (3.) In respect of Rule and Government, the natural body being ruled by it, &c.

More generally Christ is called the Head of the Church Eph. 1.22. and 4.15. Col. 1.18. &c. In which sence man has no prerogative over the Woman, as to the participation of the benefits of Christ, and Mystical Union with him, Gal. 3.28. Neither Male nor Female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. Hence it is said Eph. 1.10. [Page 43] That he might gather together in one head all things in Christ, both which are in Heaven and which are on Earth, which Chrysostom well interprets, viz. [...]. It is done by the my­stery of Redemption, that Celestial and Terrestrial things, that is, Angels and Men, should have one head, that is, Christ, whereas before by reason of mans sin, heavenly things were separated from Earthly.

[A Face] Is attributed to God,Face. by which the manifestation of himself to Angels and Men, and the various workings of his Providence is to be understood; for so God is known to us, as one man is known by his face, to another: the Face of God, signifies manifestation.

1. In the blessed state of Eternity, Psal. 16.11. With thy Face is fulness of Joys, (so the Hebrew) and Psal. 17.15. I will behold thy Face in Righteousness: I shall be satisfied when I awake in thy likeness. Matth. 18.10. Their Angels do always be­hold the Face of my Father which is in heaven. In this sence no man can see Gods Face and Live, Exod. 33.20, 23. For now we see through a glass darkly, but then Face to Face, 1 Cor. 13.12. &c.

2. In the state of Mortality, when God in any measure reveals himself. As,

(1.) By the Face of God his presence and propitious aspect is noted, as Exod. 13.21. The Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of Fire, Exod. 33.14. My Face (so the Hebrew) shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest, and verse 15. Moses said, If thy Face go not (with us) cause us not to go up hence, &c. that is, if you be not present as heretofore in the pillar of a Cloud and Fire.

Hence that appellation given to Christ is deduced, Esa. 63.9. The Angel of his Face or presence, because by the pillar of a Cloud and Fire in a visible manner he led the Israelites of old, and made the Face of God (as it were) conspicuous to them: others say it is because he is the image of the invisible God, by whom we know the Father as one man is known by his Face to another, Col. 1.15. John 14.9, 10. which cannot be said of any other.

The Face of God signifies also that glorious appearance of God to the people on Mount Sinai, Deut. 5.4. And that more illustrious manner of his Revealing him­self to Moses above any other, Deut. 34.10. See Numb. 12.6, 7, 8. &c. Sometimes the Face of God is put for the place where God reveals himself, and where the Ministry of the word flourishes, or as Jehovah himself words it, Exod. 20.24. Where he Records his Name, &c. Thus Cain is said to go forth from the Face of God, Gen. 4.14.16. that is, from the place where his Parents worship­ped him, and Jonah rose up to flee from the Face of the Lord— that is, left the Church and People of God, to go to Tarshish among Infidels; not, but that he knew, that none can so fly from the Face of God, as to be unseen by him, but he thought that there was no place for Divine Revelations besides the Holy Land, and therefore hoped that in those strange places God would no longer trouble him,Vid. Brentium in loc. nor impose so hard a Province upon him as to Preach against Ninive, &c. See Exod. 23.15. and 25.30. Psal. 100.1, 2, 3. and 104.4. 2 Sam. 21. 1. Psal. 139.7. Lev. 17.10. Psal. 9.4. &c. Sometimes wrath and divine punishment is noted by the Face of God, as Psal. 68.1. Let them that hate him flee before his Face— Jer. 21.10. I have set my Face against this City for evil, &c. Lam. 4.16. The Face of the Lord hath divided them, &c. 2 Thess. 1.9. 1 Pet. 3.12.

Sometimes the Grace, Favour, and Mercy of God is exprest by it, as Dan. 9.17. Psal. 13.2. Ezek. 39.24. Psal. 31.20. Psal. 17.2. 2 Chron. 29.12. Num. 6.25, 26. Psal. 4.7, and 31.17. and 67.1, 2, 3. Psal. 80.4, 8, 20. 'Tis said of men to seek the Face of God, that is his Grace and favour by Prayer, Psal. 27:8. 2 Chron. 7.14, 17. Esa. 18.3. &c.

God is said to have [Eyes, Eyes▪] by which we are to understand his most exact know­ledge, Psal. 11.4. His Eyes behold-his eye-lids try the Children of men— (In the word Eye-brows there is also a Synedoche) Job 34.21.See Caryl on the place. 10. vol. p. 656. For his Eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all his goings, that is, he clearly discerns and understands the ways of man, which intimates, 1. A present act (they are.) 2. A continued act, his Eyes are never off the ways of man. 3. An intentive and serious act, this denotes not only a bare sight, but also that which is operative, as being done, with most exact [Page 44] scrutiny and disquisition— God looks through and discerns men to the utmost, he be­holds not only the external acts of men, but also the soul and Spirit of them.

Esa. 1.16. Put away the evil of your doings from before mine Eyes, that is, be ye pure inwardly as well as outwardly, for I see through you, &c.

It is said Hos. 13.14. Repentance shall be hid from mine Eyes— that is, they do not Repent at all, therefore will I not respite the sentence, but execute it certainly— for that which is hid from the Eyes or knowledge of the Omniscient God, is not, nor can have existence, Psal. 110.4. Rom. 11.29. Esa. 65.16.

Heb. 4.13. All things are naked and opened unto the Eyes of him with whom we have to do — the word [...] rendred in our Translation (opened) is very Emphatical, [...], in collum c [...]u cervi­cem resu­pino. [...] to­tam spi­nam Dorsi significat. Hemming. in Com. for it signifies a dissection, quartering, or cleaving asunder through the back-bone, as they do in Anatomy, wherein they are very curious to find out every little Vein or Muscle, though never so close, so as nothing can be hid — The Apo­stle therefore translates this word to his purpose, to signifie that all the secrets of Hearts are so exposed to the notice and view of God, as if all were dissected and opened like a meer Anatomy.

2. By the [Eyes] of God may be understood his providential Grace and divine benevolence to men, Deut. 11.12. A Land which the Lord thy God careth for (or seeketh) the Eyes of the Lord thy God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year, even unto the end of the year — that is, he graciously cherishes, takes care for and defends it, 1 Kings 9.3. I have hallowed this house which thou hast built, to put my Name there for ever, and mine Eyes and mine Heart shall be there perpetually— that is, my presence and blessing shall be there with you. 2 Chron. 16.9 For the Eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the whole Earth, to shew himself strong in the be­half of them, whose Heart is perfect towards him— and Ezra 5.5. The Eye of their God was upon the Elders of the Jews, &c. that is, they are under his care and gracious protection, while they build the House of the Lord, Psal. 32.8. I will guide thee with mine Eye, that is, I will inform thee by my spirit, and will lead thee in a right way. See Psal. 34.15. 1 Pet 3.12. Ezek. 20.17. and 5.11. and 7.4. Deut. 32.10. Psal. 17.8. Zach. 2.8. and 3.9. with 4.10.

3. Sometimes the [Eye] of God signifies divine wrath and punishment, as Amos 9 4. I will set mine Eyes upon them for evil, and not for Good. And Esa. 3.8. Their Tongue and their Doings are against the Lord, to provoke the Eyes of his glory.

Ears.[Ears] are attributed to God, which denotes not only his knowledge of all things done on Earth, but also that he understands, approves of, and gives graci­ous Returns to the Prayers and Applications of his people, Psal. 10.17. and 31.3. and 55.1, 2. and 71.2. and 130.2. By the Ears of God we are to under­stand that,

2. He knows the sins of men, which are said to Cry, and enter into the Ears of the Lord, Jam. 5.4. Esa. 5.9.

There is a very Emphatical phrase of the promise of the Messiah, Psal. 40.6. Mine Ears hast thou digged; that is, thou hast markt me as a faithful servant to thy self— by this the most perfect servitude and obedience is noted from the Son (as in­carnate or made flesh) to the Father.Messias in duali de auribus suis loqui­tur, ad eminenti­am spiri­tualis suae servitutis & obedi­entiae no­tandam. Nose Et ecce ipsi mit­tunt faeto­rem ad nasum su­um. The metaphor is taken from a Custom amongst the Jews, that the servants Ear should be bored through with an awl, and serve for ever, unless he would be made free the seventh year, Exod. 21.6. Deut. 15.17. See Esa. 50.4, 5. Heb. 10.5.

[A Nose] is attributed to God, Deut. 33.10. They (that is, the Levites) shall put incense before thee, (in the Hebrew) to thy Nose— some interpret it, to thy Face, that is, before thee, Chaldee [...]. The LXX [...].

Ezek 8.17. And lo, they put the branch to their Nose; this is rendred, and lo they send a stink to their Nose, which the textual Masora says should be [...] My Nose, (viz. Gods Nose, which opinion is taken up by Galatinus, Vatablus, and Schindler— but the word translated (stick) signifies also, a Branch, so that the meaning of the text (as Jerome says) must be. It was a custom for 25 men in the likeness of Idols to hold a branch to their Noses, doubtless of palms, which the Greeks call [...], that it may by these be signified that they worship the Idols. See Ez. 15.2.

[Page 45][A Mouth] the instrument of speech is attributed to God, by which his Will,Mouth. Quidam falso haec verba ad spiritua­lem vi­tam de torquent, ac si dic­tum esset, animas non ali visibili pane, sed Dei verbo, e [...]t id qui­dem in se verum, sed alio re­spexit Moses, &c. Va­tablus in loc. Servator filium Dei se esse, ne­que ait, neque ne­gat, sed ex loco con­venientis­simo, Deut 8.3. &c. In Har­mon. Evang. 110. Et eloquio labiorum suorum in­terficiet [...] Anti-Christum seu Anti-Deum im­pium. Lips. Per proso­pographi­am. Huma­no more tribuit illi quasi bellatori vehementi in hos [...]es comoto, fa­ciem ar­den [...]em, id est, oculos flamman­tes, labia fremen­tia, et summam indigna­tionem increpan­do, prae se serentia, linguam ad vorandum exserta [...], et ignis in [...]ar flammeam, &c. Muscul. in loc. Word, Sentence, Command, &c. is understood. As Josh. 9.14. 1 Sam. 15.24. 2 King. 24.3. Esa. 30.2. &c. There is a notable place, Deut. 8.3. Man doth not live by Bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the Mouth of the Lord doth man live— that is, as God hath appointed, and administred the means of living, whether ordinary or extraordinary, (as that in the Desart was when they were fed with Manna) upon which place Vatablus says thus, ‘Some understand these words of spiritual life, as if it had been said, that souls are not fed by visible Bread, but by the Word of God; which indeed is true in it self, but Moses had ano­ther meaning; for whereas no person had Bread, he alludes to the Manna, which was sent as an extraordinary supply to the People, that it might be received as an evident truth in all Ages, that mans life depends not upon Bread or any external provision, but upon the good pleasure and providence of God, which preserves natures order, and the Creatures being. So that the Word of God is not put for Doctrine, but the Decree published by God in order to that end. For the Lord throws not off his Creatures, for as he gives them life, so he sustains it.’ Heb. 1.3. This speech of Moses is repeated by Christ, and opposed to Satans Temptati­on, Matth. 4.4. upon which D. Calixtus has these words. ‘Our Saviour neither affirms nor denies himself to be the Son of God, but urges a most proper argu­ment out of Deut. 8.3. Where Moses puts the Israelites in mind how they were fed for forty years not by usual Bread, but by Heavenly Manna, as if he had said — I have no reason to despair, as if I must die for want of Bread, neither is there any necessity that Bread should be produced by miracle, because such are not to be wrought at the pleasure or curiosity of every body, but then only when the Glory of God requires it, and when needful in order to mens Salvation; for man lives not by bread alone, but by every word which proceeds out of the Mouth of God, that is, by any other way, which God in his immense power, and unconstrained will has constituted and appointed, that thereby the Life of man may be sup­ported.’

It is said of Christ, Esa. 11.4. That he shall smite the Earth with the Rod of his Mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked, agreeable to 2 Thess. 2.8 Whom (viz. the wicked one) the Lord shall consume, with the Spirit of his Mouth — by which is understood the Word of Christ, which shall judge and condemn the wicked, John 12.48. The Chaldee translates it thus— By the speech of his lips will he slay the Anti-Christ or wicked Anti-God, as Guido Fabricius in his Sy [...]iack and Chaldee Lexicon renders it.

[Lips] are ascribed to God, Job 11.5. when speech or external manifestati­ons of his mind are attributed to him— O that God would speak and open his Lips against thee. Sometimes Lips and a Tongue are attributed to God, when he is angry, as Esa. 30.27. His Lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring Fire — and his breath as an overflowing stream, &c. Upon which Musculus thus paraphraseth. These things are ascribed to God after the manner of men, and are terms borrowed from a Warriour vehemently provok't against his Enemy, his face burns, that is, his eyes are inflam'd, his Lips, and other gesture betokening a violent indignation, &c. Psal. 18.8. In the description of Gods Anger, there are many similitudes borrowed from Tem­pests, Lightning, and other dreadful things to terrifie man. VVhen God is said to speak to any mouth to mouth, it denotes familiarity and intimacy, which prerogative the Lord granted to Moses, Num. 12.8.

It is said Jer. 18.17. I will shew them the Cervix the hinder part of the Neck. back and not the Face, in the day of their calamity; whereby is signified a denial of his Grace and Favour, which is to be understood by Face— the word translated back signifies the hinder part of the Neck, and indicates Gods Anger, as if he had said— I will not vouchsafe to hear them when they call, nor look upon them when they implore my help.

[An Arm] is attributed to God, by which his strength and power is signified; because the strength of a man is known by the strength of his Arm, whether it be [Page 46] Labor, Fight, &c. Exod. 15.16. Job 40.4. Psal. 77.16. Psal. 79.11. Psal. 89.11, 14. Esa. 30.30. and 51.9. and 59.16. and 62.8. and 63.5. Luke 1.51. &c. A stretched out arm is ascribed to God, in his delivery of his People from Egypt, Psal. 136.11, 12. and Jer. 32.17. Thou hast made the Heaven and the Earth by thy great power and stretched out Arm,Metapho­ra à bella­toribus pugnanti­bus vel alijs ve­hementius labori in­cumbenti­bus de­sumpta. Instar for­tis & ar­dentis bellatoris pugnabis tuis con­cionibus contra eam, &c. &c. This Metaphor is taken from men fighting or when ingag'd in hard labour, who with all their strength and force employ their Arms, which sometimes they make bare to remove the impediments of Garments. Hence God says to the Prophet Ezekiel chap. 4.7. —Therefore shalt thou set thy face before the siege of Jerusalem, and thine Arm shall be uncovered, and thou shalt prophesie against it, that is, thou shalt Preach against it with all thy might, as eagerly as a Warriour goes to Battle.

Sometimes by the Arm of God the Doctrine of the Gospel is noted, as Esa. 52.10. The Lord hath made bare his holy Arm, in the Eyes of all the Nations, and all the ends of the Earth shall see the Salvation of our God. See ver. 7.8. &c. So Esa. 53.1. It is said, Who hath beleived our Report, and to whom is the Arm of the Lord revealed? Which is repeated, John 12.38. Some in these places (and Esa. 51.9. and 59.16.) By the Arm of the Lord, do understand (and not improperly) the Messiah, who is the Power and Wisdom of God, 1 Cor. 1.24.

A Hand[A Hand] is attributed to God, by which is understood his Power, exerting it self in strong and marvellous operations. As Num. 11.23. Job 10.8. And 12.9, 10. Psal. 8.7. And 95.5. Esa. 11.11. And 59.1. Or his strong and gracious protection, Psal. 31.6. Psal. 144.7. John 10.28, 29. Act. 4.30. Or Infliction of punishment, as Ezod. 9.3. Job 19.21. Psal. 21.9. Psal. 17.14. Psal. 38.3. Acts 13.11. From hence it is put Me­tonymically for the punishment it self inflicted by God, as Job 23.2. My stroke (in the Hebrew 'tis Hand) is heavier then my groaning. And Job 27.1 [...]. I will teach you by the Hand of God, that is, the stroke or punishment of God. So Ezek 39.21. The phrase— I will stretch forth mine Hand, signifies, I will pu­nish. Exod. 7.5. Esa. 5.25. and 9.12, 17, 21. and 10.4. and 14.27. and 31.3. Jer. 6.12. Ezek- 16.27. and 25.7. Zeph. 1.4. and 2.13. So putting forth the Hand, Job. 1.11. and 2.5. Psal. 138.7. So the shak­ing of the Hand of the Lord, Esa. 19.16. signifies to be more grievously punish­ed, as Psal. 32.4. So to lighten the Hand signifies to mitigate punishment, 1 Sam. 6.5. See Ezek. 20.22. Esa. 1.25.

Acts 4.28. The Hand of God is put for his Counsel and purpose. Esa. 49.22. To lift up the Hand to the Gentiles, signifies a merciful calling them to Repentance, Prov. 1.24. Esa. 65.2. Because we lift up our Hands to such as we would em­brace, or whose presence we desire. To smite the Hands together (as Ezek 21.17. and 22.13.) signifies a greatCujus signum a­pud homi­nes manuum com­plosio esse solet. [...] manus su­per solium Jah. Metapho­ra ab ho­mine duc­ta, qui quod ma­nu ipsa apprehen­dit tenet­que sibi datum, omnium certissime possidet, &c. detestation and averseness. To lift up the hand, (as Exod. 6.8. For so the Hebrew is) signifies to swear, as also, Deut. 32.40. Ezek. 20.5.6. and 36.7. &c. R. Salomo and Aben-Ezra expound Exod. 17.16. Of Gods Oath, viz. Because the Hand of the Lord hath sworn (so the Heb.) that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation, that is, the Lord hath sworn by his Throne. The Chald. expounds it thus, it is asserted by an Oath, that is, by the terrible One, whose Majesty dwells in the Throne of Glo­ry, that there shall be a War waged by the Lord, against the House of Amalek to cut them off for ever, &c. Moses uses this phrase in allusion to what is spoke be­fore verse 11. And it came to passe that when Moses held up his Hand, that Israel prevailed, and when he let down his Hand, Amalek prevailed, &c.

It is said, John 3.35. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his Hand, denoting a communication of the fulness of the Godhead to his humane na­ture. See Matth. 11.27. and Col. 2.9.

Right hand. A [Right hand] is ascribed to God, by which his Divine Power is understood, or indeed the omnipotent God himself, as Exod. 15.6. Thy Right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power, thy Right hand, O Lord, hath dashed in peices the Enemy, Psal. 77.10. I will remember the years of the Right hand of the most high, Psal. 118.15, 16. The Right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly— The Right hand of the [Page 47] Lord is exalted, the Right hand of the Lord doeth valiantly, Psal. 139.10: Even there shall thy Hand lead me, and thy Right hand shall hold me, that is, thy power which is unlimited and diffus'd every where, Esa. 48.13.

More especially the Right hand of God notes his power, which he exerts in Mer­cy and Bounty to Believers, Psal. 20.7. and 18.36. and 44.4. and 63.9. and 8 [...].16, 18. Sometimes his wrath and vengeance to his Enemies, as Exod. 15.6, 12, &c.

The Phrase of Christs sitting at the Right hand of God, being exalted in his hu­mane Nature, as Psal. 110.1. Matth. 26.64. Mark. 16.19. Act. 2.33, 34. and 7.55.56. Rom. 8.34. Col. 3.1. &c. is not to be understood pro­perly, as if there were a local situation in a certain place of Heaven, [...] in el­l [...]genda et explican­da est. but by an Anthro­popathy or Scripture way of speaking, and is to be understood of a Dominion and Power most powerfully and immediately operating and governing, as it is explain­ed, 1 Cor. 15.25. Eph. 1.20, 21, 22. and 4.10. Heb. 1.3, 4. and chap. 8.1.

A [Finger] is ascribed to God,A Finger by which likewise his power and operating ver­tue is noted, as men work by the help of their Fingers, Exod. 8.19. and 31.18. Psal. 8.3. When I consider thy Heavens, the work of thy Fingers, &c. Some appre­hend that there is a metaphorical emphasis in this place, because the Heavens were created with extraordinary facility by God, and built very artificially, as the finest and most precious sorts of workmanship are wrought by excellent Artists, not by strength of body, nor with their Arms and Hands, but by the dexterity of their Fingers.

By the Finger of God, the Holy Spirit is understood, if you compare Luke 11.20. with Matth. 12.28. because it respects the vertue and power of its operati­on, as Act. 10.38. &c.

If a mans Fingers be contracted, it is called the Hollow of his hand, if extended, a Span, which by an Anthropopathy are ascribed to God, Esa. 40.12.D [...]gitis humanis constitui­tur pugi [...] ­lus, si con­tra [...]antur, et spitha­ma, si ex­tendantur. Who hath measured the Waters in the Hollow of his Hand? And meted out the Heavens with a Span, &c. that is to say, the Lord hath done it; denoting how easie it is to create all things, and most powerfully to support and govern what he has Created: For as men by Engines and Devices, do lift up and advance huge weights, &c. so it is much more easie for God to rule and dispose the whole Universe at his pleasure. Prov. 30.4. &c. Esa. 48.13. &c.

A [Heart] is attributed to God, by which either his lively Essence is denoted,A Heart. as the heart in man is judged to be the principle or beginning of Life. Gen. 6.6. It greiv'd him at the Heart, that is, in himself— or else his Will and Decree, as Gen. 8.21. the Lord said in his Heart, that is, he decreed and appointed. Chald. He said in his Word, Jer. 19.5. It came not up into my Heart (so the Hebrew) that is,Hoc est. [...] [...]avore [...], [...]. Bowels. I did neither Will nor Command it: For the Scripture makes the Heart the seat of the soul, whose property it is, to think, will, and discern.

More especially it signifies the good pleasure and approbation of God, 1 Sam. 13.14. The Lord sought him a man after his own Heart, that is, his favour, or good will. So Act. 1 [...].22. &c. Jer. 32.4 [...]. I will plant them in this Land assuredly, with my whole Heart, and with my whole Soul, that is, with greatest benevolence, regard and good Will.

[Bowels] are attributed to Cod, by which his Mercy and most ardent love is ex­pressed, Esa. 63.15. Where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy Bo­wels, and of thy Mercies towards me? Jer. 31.20. My Bowels are troubled for him (that is, for Ephraim) Luke 1.78. Through the So the Greek runs [...], per v [...]cera miseric [...]r­diae Dei n [...]tri. [...] significat uterum. The word sig­nifies the Mothers Womb Flac. Illyr Clav. Script. Bowels of the Mercy of our God, whereby the day-spring from on high hath visited us. Hence comes the Verb— [...]misericordia commoveri, to be moved with Compassion, which is fre­quently said of Christ, as Matth. 9.36. and 14.14. and 15.32. Mark. 1.41. and 6.34. &c. See Gen 43.29. 1 King. 3.26 Psal. 51.3. See Esa. 63.7. &c, where the Hebrew word that signifies Bowels and Compassionate love is ascribed to God. Illyricus upon the place— says, that this Metaphor is deduced from the love of Mothers to their Children, which they bear in their Wombs, (the same [Page 48] Hebrew word signifying Bowels and Womb) because the seat of affection is in the Bowels, and so Metonymically the thing containing is put for the thing contained, or the Cause or Instrument for the Effect— agreeable to Esa. 46.3. Which are born by me, Dilecti mihi prae omnibus populis, & chari prae omnibus regnis. from the belly, which are carryed from the Womb; which the Chaldee expresses, You who are beloved by me beyond all people, and dear beyond all Kingdoms. Others by the term (womb) would properly understand the time of Conception and Nativity, so denoting Gods Constant care and preservation even from the very birth.

A Bosom. A [Bosome] is in three places attributed to God, Psal. 74.11. VVhy withdraw­est thou thy hand, even thy right hand? Pluck it out of thy Bosom, that is, suffer thy right hand to be no longer idle, but employ it, (as if it were drawn from thy Bo­some,) in finishing thy glorious work, against thine and our Enemies. See Prov. 19.24. and 26.15.R. Kimchi per sinum Dei San­ctuarium intelligit, quod quae­dam quasi latebra Dei est, ut sinus ho­minis. —Christi [...] erga pec­catores Denota­t [...]r. Rabbi Kimchi, by the Bosome of God, understands a San­ctuary, which is (as it were) a certain hiding place for God, as a mans Bo­som.

Esa. 40.11. He shall feed his flock like a Shepherd, he shall gather the Lambs with his Arm, and Carry them in his Bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young. This is spoken of the Messias, who is here compared to a Shepherd, and his tender care of the Sheep and Lambs, Metaphorically sets forth his extraordinary Philanthropy, or Love, Mildness, and Compassion to miserable sinners, who are broken under the sense of Gods Wrath, and weak in Faith. Shepherds are wont to bear their little and weak Lambs gently in their bosom, as they carry the great Sheep upon their backs or shoulders, &c. So does Christ in a spiritual sence, &c.

John 1.18. The only begotten Son, which is in the Bosom of the Father— This phrase metaphorically sets forth the most intimate Communion that is betwixt God the Son, and God the Father, which consists,

1. With respect to eternal generation, for Parents are said to bear their Children in their Bosomes, Num. 11.12. Have I begotten them, that thou shouldest say unto me, Carry them in thy Bosom, (as a Nursing Father beareth the sucking Child) &c. For the like reason, Prov. 8.30. the Son of God is figured in the similitude of a child playing before his Father.

2. With respect to nearest and strictest Relation, or rather indeed Ʋnity of Na­ture and Essence, as John 14.10. it is said, that he is in the Father, and the Father in him.

3. With respect to the dearest and superlative degree of love for, that which is dear unto men is carryed usually in their Bosom. As it is said of the Disciple whom Jesus loved, John 13.23. That he was leaning on his Bosom, &c.

4. With respect to the most secret Communication: For the Son only knew, and perfectly sees the Father, and therefore he alone reveals him and his heavenly My­steries to mankind. To which last particular, John cheifly had respect, as appears by the Context.

Feet.[Feet] are attributed to God, by which his Immensity and Omnipresence upon the Earth is noted or signified, as Esa. 66.1.

(2.) His Operation or Activity in crushing, supplanting, or destroying his Enemies, as Psal. 74.3. Lift up thy Feet unto the perpetual Desolations. See Psal. 110.1. &c. The Church is called the place of his Feet, Esa. 60.13. Because he exhibits his grace and glory there, as if he had wal [...]t in it, agreeable to Deut. 33.3. All thy Saints sate down at thy Feet. Every one shall receive of thy words. This metaphor is taken from the Custom of Scholars, who sat at the Masters feet, Act. 22.3. As Paul was at the feet of Gamaliel. And (Luke 10.39.) Mary who sat at Jesus feet and heard his words. The Clouds are called the dust of his Feet, that is, as if he had walkt upon the Clouds, as men do upon the Dust of the Earth, and with extraordinary swiftness, as the Clouds fly in the Air. See Esa. 19.1. and 60.8. and Psal. 104.3.

[Page 49][Steps] are attributed to Christ before his incarnation, Psal. 89.51.Steps. Where­with they have reproached the Foot-steps of thine annointed, that is, the Documents of the Messiah dwelling in us, who by his word raises us up,Documen­ta habi­tantis in nobis Messiae, ut quod ver­bo suo, eri­git et so­latur, &c. [...]ertul. lib. de Trinit. folio 601. efficaciae divinae per mem­bra mon­strantur, &c. and Comforts us in his promises of coming in the Flesh, and to Judgement, &c. Others say that it is meant of some, who by way of derision, reproached the Messias for the delay of his coming, as proceeding with too slow a pace, that is, that he would never come. The Chaldee— They reproach and disgrace the slow steps of the Feet of thy Christ, &c.

Thus much of the parts of a man, and the members of his Body, which I shall conclude in the remarkable words of Tertullian (if that Book of the Trinity be his) Divine efficacies (says he) are shewen by Members, not the habit or Corporeal linea­ments of God, — By his Eyes we are to understand that he sees all things, and by his Ears that he hears all things, and by his Fingers some significations of his Will and Mind, by his Nostrils, his savoury reception of Prayers, as sweet Odors, by his Hand, his octive and creating power; by his Arm, his irresistible strength; by his Feet, his ubiquity, &c. For members or their particular offices are not necessa­ry to him, whose tacit pleasure, commands a ready obedience from all things. What needs he Eyes that's light it self? What needs he Feet, that's every where? Why would he go in, when there is not a place out of which he can go? What occa­sion has he for Hands, when his silent will is the Builder, Contriver, or Architect of all things? What needs he Ears, who knows even the most secret Thoughts? Or a Tongue, when his very Thoughts are Commands? These Members are ne­cessary for men, not for God, because mans purposes are ineffectual, without the assistance of Organs to act by, but Gods bare Will is Action producing Effects at his meer Pleasure— To Conclude he is all Eye, because every part of him sees all; all Ear, because every part of him hears all; &c.

Humane Affections ascribed to God.

HEre we must note the difference of humane Affections, for some are attributed to God, as being truly in him, yet not in that imperfect manner or per mo­dum acci­dentis. way of ac­cident, as they are in Man, but far more purely and eminently, and thatper mo­dum es­sentiae seu substantiae Tom. 4. lib. 2. ad Simplici­anum quest. 2. Miseri­cordia, quasi mi­seria cor­dis. essenti­ally and substantially too. And so all words which express humane Affections, are first to be separated from all in perfections, and then understood of God. The words of Augustine are notable— The Anger of a man (says he) causes a disturbance and a torment in his mind; but the VVrath of God executes its vengeance with a perfect equity and tranquillity, void of all disturbance; the mercy of man has some mixture of heart misery, and from thence in the Latin Tongue hath its derivation— The Apostle exhorts not only to rejoyce with the rejoycing, but also to weep with them that weep. But what man of a sound mind can say that God can be touched with any anxiety or torture of mind, the Scripture every where affirming him to be full of mercy. The zeal of men is often tainted with a mixture of spite, envy, or some other disorderly passion; but 'tis not so with God, for though his zeal is ex­prest by the same word, yet 'tis not in the same manner with the Sons of Men.

The words of Chemnitius deserve notice, Scholars (saith he) by a depraved ap­plication of that Rule, that In deum non cadit accidens. accidents have no place in God,In loc. Theolog. p. 29. have taken away all Affections from him; and that most sweet consolation (Hos. 11.8, 9. My Heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together. I will not execute the fierceness of mine Anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim, for I am God and not Man) they affirm should be taken according to effection not affection. It is true in­deed, that accidents having no place in God his commiseration, is not such an affection as ours, but in regard his Mercy is not distinguished from his Essence, it is certain, that it must be much more ardently in God, then we are able to think, &c.

[Page 50]When [Joy] or rejoycing are attributed to God, it either denotes his delight and pleasure in his Creatures,Joy. Psal. 104.31. The Lord shall rejoyce in his Works. Or else his gracious favour and propensity to his Church, as men take Joy in things very dear to them, Esa. 62.5. As the Bridegroom rejoyceth over the Bride, so shall thy God rejoyce over thee. So Deut. 28.63. and 30.9. Jer. 32.41. &c. There is a Joy in God, which exerts it self in gracious effects, but that is infinitely greater then it is in men, or can be thought by them.

2. There are certain humane Affections, which according to their descriptions in a proper way of speaking are not in God, but are used by way of similitude to signi­fie something Divine (as we said about humane Members) end for that and are ascri­bed to God, of which kind in order.

Sadness.[Sadness and Grief] of mind is attributed to God, by which his displeasure, and the withdrawings of his grace and favour are signified, Esa. 63.10. But they rebelled and vexed his Holy Spirit: Therefore he was turned to be their Enemy, and he fought against them, that is, they have perpetrated such wickedness against their proper Consciences, that the Holy Spirit has forsaken them, and justly withdrawn his grace. The like is said Ps. 78.40. How often did they provoke him in the Wilder­ness, [...], &c. ne contriste­tis spiri­tum san­ctum, &c. Et dixit verbo suo, se confra­cturum potentiam eorum se­cundum volunta­tem suam. and grieve him in the Desart? So Eph. 4.30. Greive not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of Redemption, that is, speak not so corruptly and prophanely as to provoke the Holy Spirit to withdraw his gracious gifts and ope­rations from you, and instead thereof to inflict wrath and punishment upon you. So Gen. 6.6. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the Earth, and it griev'd him at his Heart, that is, their malignity so displeased him, that he manifested his Divine Decree to punish them. The Chaldee renders it, And he said in his word, that he would break their power according to his Will.

So Judges 10.16. And his Soul was or short­ned, so 'tis in the Hebrew. Repen­tance. grieved for the misery of Israel, that is as the Chaldee renders it, he greived or his Soul was affected with anguish, by which greif the Commiseration and Compassion of God, for the Afflictions and Calamities of Israel is noted. The like phrase of the indignation and averseness of God is used Zach. 11.8. The word [broken] when ascribed to God is also of the same [...]ence, as Ezek. 6.9. I am broken with their whorish heart which hath departed from me, that is, I am affected with grief, and as it were compelled to Decree their Punish­ment, as verse the 10th.

[Repentance] is ascribed to God, by which likewise his Divine displeasure against-mens iniquities, and the infliction of punishment is noted. Gen. 6.6. 1 Sam. 15.35. Jer. 18.10.

Sometimes (if the speech be with reference to men, that by serious Repentance are converted to God) it denotes Divine Commiseration, and a taking away of punish­ment, Exod. 32.12, 14. 2 Sam. 24.16. Psal. 106.45. Jer. 18.8. and 26.3. Hos. 11.8. Joel. 2.13, 14. Upon which place Tarnovius thus expresses himself. The Condition of men being changed, the immutable God is not changed, but the thing it self? For he willeth always, that it should go ill with the obstinate, and that they should perish eternally, but that the Holy and Regenerate should be truly happy in this and the other World. When God, to converted Souls, remits that punish­ment; which he denounced to wicked and nesarious sinners, he is said to Repent of the Evil by an Anthropopathy, because he seems to do that which repenting men do, otherwise cannot properly repent because he is not a man, 1 Sam. 15.29.

Augustine says, that the Repentance of God is not after any error, but the change of Things and Constitutions in his Power is noted,lib. 17. de Civit. Dei as when it is said, that he Re­pents, the change of things is signified, the Divine praescience remaining immuta­ble, and when he is said not to Repent, it is to be understood, that things are un­changed.

In syntag. Theol. p. 194. Polanus says, that the Repentance of God is not a perturbation or greif arising from any sence of error in his Counsel or Divine decree, which is immutable, 1 Sam. 15.29. But the change of his Works, the Divine Will remaining unchan­ged, &c. Its causes are the sins or Repentance of men, &c.

[Page 51][Anger, Revenge, Hatred] when attributed to God,Anger, Revenge, Hatred. are by some refer'd to this head. Where we are to note, that these words are not ascribed to God by way of Anthropopathy, for God most truly, properly, and for infinite Reasons, is justly angry with sinners, takes vengeance on them, or afflicts them, Jer. 9.9. Nahum. 1.2. &c. He truly hates sinners and hypocrites, Psal. 5.6. Esa. 1.14. &c. (although these things are ascribed to him without any perturbation,Licet abs­que ulla perturba­tione, [...] aut im­perfectione haec sint Deo tri­buenda. confusion or imperfection) yet there is an Anthropopathy in certain words and phrases by which these affections are wont to be expressed. Thus breath, or to breath do sometimes note the Anger of God, by a Metaphor taken from men, who in the ve­hement commotion of Anger, do draw their breath more strongly then ordinary, Exod. 15.8. Job 4.9. Esa. 33.31. Ezek. 21.30. &c.

Where it is said, Deut. 28.63. In this text there is a figure call'd An­tanacla­sis, which is when the same word is repeated in a vari­ous or contrary significa­tion; here is a Rejoycing to do good, and a Rejoycing to de­stroy. Zeal or Jealousie The Lord will Rejoyce over you to destroy you, &c. It denotes his alacrity to inflict punishment, answering to his rejoycing over them to do them good. When a thing is said to be burdensome or wearisome to the Lord, Esa. 1.14. It notes his aversation and hatred. He is said to receive consola­tion, when he avenged himself of his Enemies, as Revenge is wont to be sweet to abused and Angry persons, Esa. 1.24. and 57.6. Ezek. 5.13.

[Zeal or Jealousie] is ascribed to God, to denote his most ardent Love to Be­leivers, and his care of their safety joyned with an indignation against their Ene­mies, Esa. 9.7. Zach. 1.14, 15. Joel 2.18. It also sometimes notes Gods vehement Anger against stubborn, rebellious, sinners, who violating that Faith, by which God espoused them to himself, commit spiritual Adultery, Exod. 20.5. Num. 25.11. Zach. 8.2. So in Hiphil, men are said to provoke God to Jea­lousie by their Idolatry and sins. Deut. 32.16.21. 1 King. 14.22. Ezek. 8.3. &c.

Humane Actions ascribed to God.

THese we shall distribute according to those more eminent Faculties.

  • (1.) That which is intelligent and rational.
  • (2.) That which is Sentient or Animal.

Actions which respect the Intellect and Reason, and from which (as from the first principles) things flow, are either Internal or External, the internal which by An­thropopathy are attributed to God, are

[Knowledge] (which must not be generically understood) for that most proper­ly, and most perfectly belongs to the Omniscient God,Know­ledge. but such a knowledge as is Experimental, and arrived unto, by some special acts or new acquisitions, as Gen. 18.21. I will go down now and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come unto me, and if not, I will KNOW. [...], aliisque mediis certi de ea fiunt. The Omniscient Je­hovah speaks of himself after the manner of men, who when they would know a thing, repair to the place where it was done that by Autopsy or personal sight, and other mediums they may be assured that it is so.

Gen. 22.12. For now do I know that thou fearest God, &c. God knew it before, and had a most exact prospect into Abrahams Heart, but such an illustrious example of Faith and Obedience, was never externally shewn; which done Jehovahs says by the Angel, now I know, &c. that is, by a manifest and external proof, thy hear­ty Faith and Obedience is now apparent. See Gen. 11.25. Deut. 8.2. and 13.3. Psal. 14.2. To this may be referred what Paul says, Phil. 4.6. In every thing by Prayer and Supplication let your Requests be made known unto God. [...]. By Prayers being made known to God, he intimates that they are grateful to him, and assuredly heard. See Act. 10.4. Psal. 1.6. and

[Page 52] Igno­rance.[Ignorance] (which is the opposite to knowledge) is attributed to God, by which is denoted his displeasure, hatred, anger and aversation, Esa. 40.27. Why sayst thou O Jacob, and speakest O Israel, now my way is hid from the Lord? &c. that is, we are hated and neglected by God, neither does he regard our affairs. Hence Christ says to the Reprobates in the day of their Judgment, Matth. 7.23 I never knew you depart from me, ye that work iniquity. See Matth 25.12. Luke 13.25, 27. &c.

To this head may be referred those questions which God asks as if he had been ig­norant, whereas in proper speaking there is nothing hid from him, neither has he any need of being informed, as Gen. 3.9. And the Lord called unto Adam, and said unto him, where art thou? This was no interrogation of ignorance, but a sum­mons to an unwilling appearance, reducing into Adams mind how much he was changed from that blessed state of Immortality, after his fall.

De pa­rad. c. 14. Ambrose upon the place says, where is that (well known guilty) confidence of thine? Thy fear argues a Crime, and thy skulking, prevarication. Therefore where art thou? I do not ask in what place, but in what state? Whither has thy sin hurry'd thee, that thou hidest thy self from God, whom before thou hast sought. This is more a chiding, then a question; from what good, from what blessedness, from what grace, and into what misery, art thou fallen? Gen. 4.9. And the Lord said unto Cain, where is Abel thy Brother? Augustine says, he asks not as an ignorant, that would fain,lib. 12. contra Faustum Manich. cap. 10. know, but as a Judge to punish the guilty— See Gen 32.27. Num. 22.9. 1 King. 19.9, 13. 2 Kings 20.14, 15. Esa. 39.3, 4. So the questions of Christ, Matth. 22.20, 45. Luke 8.45. &c.

To this may also be referred when God seems to deliberate as if he had not known (or doubts) what to do.

Junius in his Commentary, on Ezek. 20.8. says thus. God that he may more am­ply shew the wonders of his Mercy seems in Scripture to use a consultation with himself after the manner of men, and then, as if swayed by Mercy to his Creature, though a sinner, after his disputes in his own mind, and a (seemingly) doubtful con­flict, inclines at last to a sentence of Mercy— of which there is an eminent instance in Hos. 11.8, 9. How shall I give thee up Ephraim? How shall I deliver thee Israel. My Heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together, I will not execute the fierceness of my Anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim, for I am God and not man, &c. So when God is said to search the Heart and Reins, which must not be under­stood as if they were before unknown to him, but a most exact and infinite know­ledge is denoted by this phrase. So Paul says of the Holy Spirit, that it searcheth all things, yea the deep things of God, 1 Cor. 2.10. Search and inquiry goes be­fore knowledge in men, and without it they can scarce arrive at any certain excel­lency in science, [...], cer­tissima scientia. Remem­brance. therefore this phrase is only used to signifie the infinite perfection of knowledge in the Holy Spirit by an Anthropopathy.

[Remembrance] is attributed to God, sometimes in good part, signifying that he will give help and releif unto men after hard calamities in which he seemed to forget them, as Gen. 8.1. And God Remembred Noah, and every beast or living thing: Upon which Luther in his Comment, says, although it be true, that God always re­members his, even when he seems to forsake them, yet Moses here signifies, that he was mindful of them, even with respect to sence, that is so far as to make a signal and manifest discovery thereof, which before by his Word and Spirit he had pro­mised. See Gen. 30.22. Exod. 2.24. 1 Sam. 1.11, 19. and several other places.

Divine Remembrance towards men denotes the Benevolence, Affection, Grace and good Will of Jehovah towards them, Psal. 115.12. Psal. 136.23. Nehem. 5.19, and 13.22, 31. Luke 23.42. Acts 10.4. After the same manner the remembrance of his Covenant is attributed to God, by the sight of which he becomes a gracious benefactor to men, Gen. 9.15, 16.6.5. And the Remembrance of his Mercy, Psal▪ 25.6. Of his word, Psal. 119.49.

Hierome in his Comment on Lament. 5.1. saith, Remembrance is ascribed to him, who could never forget any. It is not to refresh his Memory that the Divinity is so prayed to, for all things past and to come are present with him — 'Tis unbe­coming, to attribute Oblivion to so great a Majesty, but he is prayed to Remem­ber, [Page 53] that he would quickly afford help to the needy, and that his grace may be made manifest which before was hidden.

[To Remember,] when it is applyed to God, with respect to bad men, signifies the execution of punishment and vengeance upon them, Psal. 25.7. and 79.8. and 137.7. Esa. 45.25. Rev. 18.5. He is said to Remember the blood of the innocent, when he Revenges its violent effusion, or unjust slaughter, Psal. 9.13.

[Forgetfulness] or Oblivion is attributed to God,Forget­fulness. which signifies that he disre­gards, and leaves men exposed to Evils, without any comfort or help, as if he had quite forgotten them, 1 Sam. 1.11. Psal. 9.18. and 13.1. and 42.9.10. Esa. 49.15. Jer. 23.39. Hos. 4.6. &c. Luke 12.6. Are not five Spar­rows sold for two farthings, and not one is forgotten before God, that is, God has a care of every individual Creature, and sustains them. Sometimes God is said to forget when he delays and defers the punishment of the wicked, for their ill deeds, Psal. 74.22, 23. Amos 8.7. Job 12.7. And know that God hath forgotten thee (so [...] signifies) for thine iniquity, that is, he delays your punishment, and does not rigidly exact, according to their greatness, agreeing in sence with our Translation, which runs thus— And know therefore that God exacteth of thee less then thine iniquity deserveth.

[Thoughtfulness or Thinking,] is ascribed to God, by which his Will, Sentence or Decree, is understood, Gen. 50.20. You thought evil against me,Thoughtfulness. but the Lord thought it into good, (so the Original has it,) that is, he turned it into good, or (as our Translation hath it) meant it unto good. Here is an Antanaclasis of one Verb pro­perly applyed to malignant men, but to God by an Anthropopathy, alluding to the former. See Psal. 40.5, 6. and 92.5, 6. and 139.16, 17. Esa. 55.8, 9. Jer. 4.28. and 29.11. and 51.12. &c.

Hitherto of the inward acts of man — The external or outward acts (which are obvious to the notice of sence, for orders sake) may be distinguisht into the actions.External Actions.

  • (1.) Of the Mouth.
  • (2.) Of the Hands.
  • (3.) Of the Feet.

[Hissing] is attributed to God, by which, a Divine Call, or summons of God,Hissing. for men to gather together, and appear in a certain place, is noted, as Esa. 5.26. and 7.18. For 'tis customary with men oftentimes to call certain Beasts to them that way. This Hissing of God is used in a good sence, Zach. 10.8. I will hiss for them and gather them, for I have redeemed them, and they shall increase as they have increased, which is understood of the gathering of the Church by the voice of the Gospel.

[Breathing] is ascribed to God, Gen. 2.7.Breath­ing. And he Breathed into his Face the breath of Life— that is, he endued the Body he had formed with a living soul, in the Image of God— Sometimes it denotes Gods Anger, the Metaphor being taken from Angry men, who then puff and blow strongly, as Evek. 21.31. I will pour out mine indignation upon thee, I will blow or breath against thee, &c. See Act. 9.1.

[Laughing and Deriding] are attributed to God, Psal. 2.4.Laughing and De­riding. He that sitteth in the Heavens shall Laugh, the Lord shall have them in Derision. Psal. 37▪ 12. The wicked plotteth against the Just, and gnasheth upon him with his Teeth. Verse 13. The Lord shall laugh at him, for he seeth that his day is coming— This is spoken by an Anthropopathy, the Metaphor being taken from a wise and prudent man, who (when he sees some heady and inconsiderate undertaker, rush on towards his fancied ex­ploits, without deliberation, or a solid foundation laid, and bragging of extraordi­nary matters,) has him in contempt, and (as it were laughing in his sleeve) expects an unhappy event, that is to say, when this Mountain shall bring forth a Mouse, as it is vulgarly spoken. So men deride an Enemy that threatens, when he has no strength or power to execute his menaces. But this phrase notes the most wise Pro­vidence of God which slights the folly of his Enemies, whom he tolerates for a time, [Page 54] and to whose malice he hath appointed bounds, and at the appointed season, con­founds, tramples on, and destroys them. As it is said of wicked and stubborn men, Prov. 1.26. I will also laugh at your calamity, I will mock when your fear cometh— By which is to be understood, the neglect and rejection of the Wicked in their Adversity. As if he had said— Even as you neglect and despise my whole­some admonitions, so will I despise and neglect your applications, and reject you when your Calamities comes, &c.

Kissing.[Kissing] is ascribed to God, when the speech is of the Son of God incarnate, as Cant. 1.2. Where the optative words of the Mystical spouse (viz. the Church) are had, let him kiss me with the kisses of his Mouth— upon which place the Chaldee says, that it is allusive to Gods speaking face to face to the Israelites, as a man does to his Friend, and kisses him for love— But more truly it is to be understood or ex­pounded of the promulgation or publishing of the Gospel by the Son of God made man, John 1, 17, 18. 1 Tim. 1.10. Heb. 1.1. &c.

Solomon says, Prov. 24.26. That every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a right answer, which by [...]. way of eminency is applicable to him, of whom it is said, Esa: 40.4. The Lord hath given him the Tongue of the learned, that he should know how to speak a word in season to him that is weary— and (Psal. 45.2.) Into whose lips grace is poured, Jehova kissed (that is shewed intimate tokens of his love to) his people in the Old Testament times, by many appearances, and by Moses, Prophets, and Angels, employed to make discoveries of him, but this came short of this Kiss, which the Church (under the term of Spouse) here desires. Let him Kiss me with the Kisses of his Mouth, that is, let him comfort me with a manifestation more eminent then the former, viz. of Christs coming into the Flesh, and compleating the work of re­demption.

Homil in Cant. Hierom. interpr. Tom. 4. fol. 80.The paraphrase of Origen upon this Text is— How long will my Spouse send me Kisses by Moses, and the Prophets? Now I long to have them, personally of him­self— let him assume my natural shape, and Kiss me in the Flesh according to the Prophesies, Esa. 7.14. Behold a Virgin shall Conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call his name Emmanuel, so that this is a Prayer for the Incarnation of Christ, the Blessed Spouse, and Bridegroom of our Souls. Heb. 1.1. To this Divine Kiss by a mutual relation of Faith answers, Cant. 8.1. O that thou wert as my Brother, that sucked the brest of my Mother; when I should find thee without I would Kiss thee? By which the sincere Love of the Church, and the unblemished obedience of Faith is un­derstood.

Psal. 2.12. Kiss the Son lest he be Angry, by which the Kings of the Earth, and the potents in the World are instructed to yield homage and obedience to the King of Glroy, Christ the Son of God, being exhibited in the World— For in former times subjection was signified by a Kiss, as Gen. 41.40. 1 Sam. 10.1. 1 King. 19.18. Hosea 13.2.

Crying.[A Military Clamor,] or the crying of a Travailing Woman is attributed to God, Esa. 42.13, 14. By which is noted that his Lenity, Patience, and Long Forbea­rance, are changed into a severe vengeance, Junius and Tremellius do remark from Vegelius, that the Roman Souldiers were wont in the beginning of Battle to fall on with a horrible Clamor to daunt the Enemy.

Also a Travailing Woman, though in great pain, yet patiently endures it to the utmost extremities of her throws, and then being overcome by the violence of her greif. Orphans breaks out into Cryes and Vociferation, which most elegantly ex­presses the Patience and Forbearance of God,Pulcher­rime di­vinae [...], et sub­sequentis vindictae gravissi: mae con­ditio ex­primitur. Speaking and the extremity of his Wrath when provokt. See Psal. 78.65, 66. Rom. 2.4, 5.

[Speaking] and Speech, is attributed to God. Where we must note that those places of Scripture wherein God is said to speak or utter certain Words, that he might manifest his Divine pleasure to men that way, do not belong to this place. God sometimes thus spake immediately as to our first Parents, Gen. 2.16. and 3.9. To Noah. Gen. 6.13. To Abraham, Gen. 12.1. chap. 16. and 17. and 18. To Moses Exod. 3.4, 5. and the following verses, and to Patriarchs, Prophets, &c. in the Old Testament.

[Page 55]2. Sometimes, God spake mediately, by divinely inspired men, in whom a mind enlightned by the Spirit of God was formed into words,quorum [...] ubivis prostat. an account of such is found every where in Scripture, as also of Angels who are his Ministring spirits, now God does not speak thus by way of Anthropopathy or Metaphor, but truly and properly, although in a far different and excellent manner then men do, or can think.

But that speaking, of God, which belongs to this figure is.

(1.) When the effectual or efficacious decree of the Divine Will about the Crea­ture,Cum effi­ciax di­vin [...] vo­luntatis de Crea­turis de­cretum, ejusve Ex­ecutio per modum lo­quel [...] hu­mane ex­primitur, &c. In more Nebo­chin. part 1. sap. 6.5. and the executions thereof is revealed or expressed after the manner of hu­mane speech, as Gen. 1.3. And God said let there be light, and there was light, (suitable to 2 Cor. 4.6. where 'tis written and God who said, or Commanded the light to shine out of Darkness) verse 6. And God said, let there be a firmament in the midst of the Waters, and verse 9. And God said let the Waters under the Heaven be gathered together, &c and verse 11. And God said let the Earth bring forth Grass, &c. verse 14. And God said let there be lights in the firmament of the Heavens, and verse 20. And God said let the Waters bring forth abundantly the moving Creature, and verse 24. And God said let the Earth bring forth the living Creature, &c. Rab. Mos. Maimon. says, that this phrase in the Creation, (and God said) is to be under stood of the Will and not of Speech; because speech by which a thing is Command­ed, must of necessity be directed to some being or object capable to execute his Commands but no objects of such a capacity had then being; therefore of necessity it must be understood only of Gods Will.

Masculus in his Comment, says, that Moses speaks of God after the manner of men, not that God spoke so. For by his word the vertue and efficacy of his Will is expressed, &c. for what we would have done; that it might be understood, be­lieved, or done, we express our selves by the prolation of a word, and when Gods Will is expressed, it is called a word— God is a Spirit, and uses no corporeal or Organical Speech, no transient voice, nor Hebrew, Greek, or other Idiom, unless in some temporary dispensation he was pleased to utter himself Organically, which has no place here, &c. So the appellation of Names given to the Creatures, verses [...] ▪ 10. which is ascribed to God, notes only his decree and divine Constitution [...] men should so call them.

So the blessing of God to Fishes, Fowl, benedictio divina quae ad pisces, et a [...]es pro­lata esse a Deo di­citnr, v. 22. realis est multi­plicatio­nis specie­rum illa­rum con­stitutio. &c. ver. 22. denotes his real appoint­ment of the multiplication of their respective kinds, upon which Musculus very well says, if you consider that God speaks to a quatiles or watry Creatures, you will judge it a wounderful kind of speech. But he speaks not to their Ears, but to their Na­tures, to which by the vertue of his word he hath given a power and efficacy to pro­pagate their own kinds.

From this description of the Creation, the Divine force and efficacy of Gods Will in the Creation and Conservation of the Creatures (which is so conspicuous) is called the Word of God, Psal. 33.5, 6. Psal. 107.20. Psal. 147.15, 18. Heb. 1.3. and 11.3. 2 Pet. 3.5, 7. &c. So in other decrees of the Di­vine Will, God is said to speak. Gen. 8.21. And the Lord said in his heart, I will not again Curse the ground, that is, he so constituted and decreed it, that by Noah it should be so manifested unto the World.

Psal. 2.5. Then shall he speak to them in his Wrath, that is, he will crush his E­nemies with horrible Judgements and Punishments.

Sometimes the Decrees and Appointments of the Trinity by way of Dialogue or Colloquy, among the Divine persons, as Gen. 1.26. And God said let us make man in our likeness or Image, &c. and chap. 2.18. And the Lord said, it is not good that the man should be alone, I will make him an help meet for him, and Gen. 3.22. And the Lord God said, behold the man is become as one of us, &c. Gen. 11.6. And the Lord said behold the People is one, and have one language— go to, let us go down, and there confound their Language, By this deliberate way of expression, the De­crees of the Holy Trinity, and their effectual power of operation are noted, Psal. 2.7. I will declare the Decree, the Lord said unto me, thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee— ask of me and I will give thee the Heathen for thine Inheritance, Psal. 110.1. The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand, &c. These phrases signifie the most Holy and most efficacious discerning and efficiency of Gods VVill.

[Page 56]To this speaking of the Father answers the hearing attributed to Christ, John 8.26, 40. and 15, 15. And to the Holy Spirit, John 16.13.

For this cause (among others) the Son of God is called the VVord, [...] for by him a manifestation of the internal speech of the Holy Trinity (that is their Divine Decrees) for mans Salvation is made unto us, John 1.1, 13, 14, &c.

Rebuk­ing.So much of speech in general. More particularly Rebuking or Chiding is attribu­ted to God, by which its real effect, or destruction is noted, of which you may see examples, Psal. 18.15, 2 Sam. 22.16. VVhere Tempests, Earthquakes, &c. are said to be at Gods Rebukes, and Psal. 104.7. that at his rebuke the waters fled— that is, were separated from the Earth, Gen. 1.9.

To Rebuke, in proper speaking, two things are requisite.

(1.) That that which is reprehensible, may be chekt.

(2.) That it may be corrected or amended, these may be aptly applyed to Gods Creating VVord, for when he said, Let the waters under the Heaven be ga­thered together into one place, and let the dry Land appear— In the first the indigested confusion of things is reprehended, and in the second they are corrected, and right­ly disposed off into their proper places. Musculus on this place annexes this mar­ginal note— that it is an invincible Argument of Christs Divinity, that at his rebuke the Winds and Seas were obedient, Mark 4.39. Luke 8.24. See Psal. 9.5. and 76.6. and 68.30. Esa. 17.13. Zach. 3.2.

Rebuke signifies destruction, Deut. 28.20. [Calling] when ascribed to God signifies its real product or effect as 2 Kings 8.1.Calling. The Lord hath called for a Famine, and it shall also come upon the Land for seven years, Psal. 105.16.

Com­manding. Rom. 4.17. Gods [Commanding] inanimate or irrational Creatures, denotes a direction for some certain work to be done or omitted, as Esa. 5..6. I will also Command the Clouds, that they Rain no more upon it. See Esa. 45.12.

Answer­ing.[Answering] is attributed to God, when he is said to Answer mens Prayers, 2 Sam. 7.9. Psal. 3.4, 5. Esa. 58.8. &c. Illyricus says, that in hearing God answers in a threefold manner.

  • (1.) By the very hearing, for every man that prayes earnestly requests that.
  • (2.) By some Testimony of his Spirit, that we are heard.
  • (3.) By granting the petition, which is the most real and apparent answer.

Silence.Contrary to this, is Gods [Silence,] when his people pray, by which his delay in comforting and helping them is noted, as Psal. 28.1. Ʋnto thee O Lord do I Cry— be not deaf toward me, &c. So Psal. 83.1. And God is said to answer when he takes pleasures in man, Eccl. 5.20. and 9.7.

VVitnes­sing.The Lord is said to be a [Witness,] when he declares the Truth of a thing in fact, or justly punishes Lyers, 1 Sam. 12.5. Jer. 42.5. Malach. 3.5. &c. The Lord hath been a VVitness between thee and the wife of thy Youth, Mal. 2.14. that is, to joyn them in an individual Society of Life.

A judicial Inquisition, which inflicts revenge and punishment upon the guilty is no­ted in these texts, Gen. 9.5. Josh. 22.23. Psal. 9.12. Psal. 10.14, 15. The Metaphor is taken from the Custom of Judges, who by the Examination and weigh­ing of Testimonies first inquire into the case, and then proceed to sentence.

Num­bring.By [Numbring] the most exact care and providence of God is noted, as men keep accounts of affairs that concern them much, Psal. 56.8. Thou tellest my wandrings, put thou my tears into thy bottle, are they not in thy book? Matth. 10.30. But the very hairs of your head are numbred. Also his most exact knowledge of things that are innumerable to us, Psal. 147.4. He telleth the Number of the Stars, he calleth the [...] all by their Names. Esa. 40.26. —He bringeth out their host by Number, he cal­leth them all by their Names, by the greatness of his Might, &c.

By the term [Selling] a delivery into the power of the Enemy, by an offended God is noted,Buying and Sel­ling. as things that are sold by men, are transfeerred into the right, power, and property of another, as Deut. 32.30. How should one chase a thousand, and two [Page 57] put ten thousand to flight except their Rock had sold them, Jud. 2.14. And the An­ger of the Lord was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers, that spoiled them, and he Sold them into the hands of their Enemies round about, &c. and chap. 4.9. The Lord shall Sell Sisera into the hand of a Woman, &c. See Psal. 44.12. Esa. 50.1. Ezek. 30.12. &c.

By the term [Buying] is signifyed Redemption by and through Christ, as 1 Cor. 6.20. For ye are bought with a price, therefore glorifie God, &c. and 1 Cor. 7.23. Ye are bought with a price be ye not the Servants of men— So Gal. 3.13. and 4, 5. 2 Pet. 2.1. Rev. 14.3, 4. The price which purchases this Mystical Buying is the Blood, Death, Passion, and Merit of our Blessed Saviour.

The second kind of Actions, which are proper to the hands,The se­cond sort of Acti­ons. are either general or special. In general there is ascribed to God by an Anthropopathy.

[Labour] in the work of the Creation— So Job calls himself the Labour of his hands, Job 10.3. that is, fashioned and formed him in his Mothers Womb,Labour. of which he emphatically speaks in verse 8. Thine hands have made me, and fashioned me together round about. [...] The Hebrew word properly signifies the forming of a thing with great Labour, Art, and Diligence: In other places it denotes anxiety, Grief and Trouble; setting forth the exceeding great Wisdom of God in the Creation, or forming of man, which is expounded in the 10th. and 11th. verses, with more speci­al and emphatical words, hast thou not pou [...]ed me out as Milk, and curdled me like Cheese— Thou hast cloathed me with Skin and Flesh, and hast fenced me with Bones and Sinews, &c. Psal. 139.13, 14, 15. This Divine work is spoken of, Thou hast covered me in my Mothers Womb— I will praise thee for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; marvellous are thy works, and that my Soul knoweth right well— My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the Earth, &c. [...]. The Hebrew Translated (curiously wrought) is very empha­tical, for it properly signifies to paint with a Needle, or the texture or weaving, va­rious Figures and Pictures, in Arras or Tapestry Hangings, or Garments interwoven or wrought with many curious colours.Ob mira­bilem, ex tam va­ris mem­bris, venis arteriis, ossibus, carne, c [...]te quasi con­texturam. The formation of man is therefore com­pared to such a work, because of its marvellous Order, Symmetry, and Contexture of various Members, Veins, Arteries, Bones, Flesh, Skin, &c.

In the work of Redemption, the Passion and Death of Christ is called Labour, as Esa. 43.24. Thou hast made Labour in thine iniquities (so the Hebrew) He shall see the Labour (or travel) of his soul. Esa. 53.11. This comes to pass in a two-fold respect, which attend Labour, As

(1.) Anxiety and Toyl, Then

(2.) The Ʋtility and Profit that follows, for the word comprehends both, ac­cording to that saying, Gen. 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shall thou eat Bread, where the Toyl and Profit are joyned. The Toyl and Anxiety of Christ in the work of our Redemption is largely described by the Evangelists; and how great the profit and benefit of it (with respect to the unspeakable blessing it brought to poor mankind,) is evident to every soul that has tasted of his grace.

To [Labour] is opposed [Rest] and Recreation,Rest. which by this figure is attribut­ed to God, Gen. 2.2. And God rested on the seventh day from all his works, which he had made— and verse 3. And God blessed the seventh day and sanctifyed it; be­cause that in it he had rested, &c. This Rest in God, presupposes no wearyness (as it does in men) but the compleating end, and perfection, of his admirable work, of this great and incomprehensible Fabrick, and so only a cessation from his Crea­ting work is to be understood. For among men, the more Arduous, Laborious, and Profitable the work is, the more pleasing and delectable the Artificers rest is, when he compleats it.

Some say that the word [...] Rest is properly attributed to God, which strict­ly signifie Rest, as [...] does, but a bare and simple cessation, as Josh. 5.12. Job 32.9. Rev. 4.8. &c. And commonly it is said, that he that ceases from his work, does Rest, although not weary, but in full strength and vigor.

[Page 58]Be it so, but for [...] the word [...] is put for the very Rest here spoken of, Exod, 20.11. For in six days the Lord made Heaven and Earth, and all that in them is, and Rested the seventh day, &c. And if the word signifies a meer cessation without any previous wearyness, 1 Sam. 25.9 It is to heedfully noted that it is said, Exod. 31.17. For in six days the Lord made Heaven and Earth, and on the seventh day he [...] Rested, was refreshed (or took breath;) which word is also used, Exod. 23.12. Of the weary Servant after his Labour, viz. On the seventh day shalt thou Rest, and 2 Sam. 16.14. It is expressely opposed to weariness. Sion and the Church is called the place of his Rest, Psal. 132.14. and Esa. 11.10. Which denotes his gracious Presence, Operation, and Complacency.

Of the special Actions of men, a great many are attributed to God, by which his various works of Grace, Righteousness and Wrath are to be understood. As

To wash.1. He is said to wash away filth and sin, when he graciously remits it, Psal. 51.2. Wash me throughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin, Esa. 4.4. When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughter of Sion, &c.

To Hide.2. He is said to hide the Godly and Believers when he protects and defends them, Psal. 31, 20. Thou shalt hide them in the secret of thy presence, Psal. 64.2. Hide me from the secret Counsel of the Wicked, from the insurrection of the workers of iniquity, Psal. 91.1.

To wipe.3. He is said to [Wipe] when he destroys, 2 Kings 21.13. a Metaphor taken from Dishes, which are VViped or made clean by rubbing with the hands. He is said to Wipe away Tears from off their Faces, when he Comforts and Rejoyces his People. Esa. 25.8. Rev. 7.17.

4. He is said [To Gird with Strength] when he Comforts and Supports, as Psal. 18.32. and 30.11, 12.To Gird.

To build.5. He is said [to Build] when he produces a being by way of Creation, Gen. 2.22. And the rib which the Lord God had taken from man, Builded he a Woman. See Exod. 1.21. 2 Sam. 7.11.

6. He is said [to Bind up Wounds] when he spiritually heals men, and secures them from mischief,To bind up wounds. Job 5.18. Psal. 147.2, 3. Esa. 61.1. Hosea. 6.1. Come let us return unto the Lord for he hath torn and he will heal us, he hath smitten, and he will Bind us up.

To Open7. He is said [to Open the gates of Heaven,] when he bestows Divine and Miracu­lous blessings, Psal. 78.22, 23, 24. Though he had Commanded the Clouds from above, and Opened the doors of Heaven, and had rained down Ma [...]a upon them to eat, and had given them of the Corn of Heaven, &c. And also when he sends down Rain, Deut. 28.12. He is said to Open the door of speech, when he affords a fit occa­sion, and saving means to his Ministers of Preaching the Gospel, 1 Cor. 16.9. 2 Cor. 2.12. Col. 4.3. To Open the door of Faith, when he calls and ad­mits men to the Faith and Communion of the Church, Acts 14.27. To Open the Heart and Mind, when he gives the saving understanding of his word, Luke 24.45. Acts 16.14. Psal. 119.129, 130.

To Hold.8. He is said [to Hold the right-hand of Cyrus] when he gave him a prosperous success in his warlike expedition against Babilon, Esa. 45.1.

To con­clude men in unbeleif.9. He is said [to Conclude men in Sin and unbelief,] when as a most just Judge he declares them obnoxious to sin, and therefore liable to Eternal Damnation, Rom. 11.32. Gal. 3.22.

To Try.10. He is said [to Try and Prove, as Silver is Tryed] (after the manner of Gold­smiths, or others concerned in Mettals,) when he Purifies and Tryes the Godly with Crosses and Afflictions, Psal. 17.3. and 66.10. Zach. 13.9. So when he Purifies and Reforms Doctrines,To break Mal. 3.2, 3. Or Destroys such as are obsti­nately wicked, Ezek. 22.18. &c.

11. He is said [to break with a rod of Iron,] when he Chastises and Destroys, Psal. 2.9. and 3.7. Esa. 38.13. and Lament. 3.4. &c.

[Page 59]13. He is said [to Sift in a sieve,] when he tryes his People by Calamities and yet preserves them,To Sift. Am. 9.9. and when he scatters or disperses his Enemies like chaff, Esa. 30.28. To Sift the Nations with the sieve of Vanity— that is, they shall be cast on the Earth, as through a sieve, that so dispersed they should no longer ap­pear— He compares the multitude of the Gentiles, by whom Jerusalem was to be distressed to dust or chaff which is easily blown away, so that little will remain of a great heap.

14. He is said [to make Bald the Head, To make Bald.] when he despoiles men of their Or­naments, Esa. 3.17, 24. for the cheif adorning of Women was in their Hair, as 1 Pet. 3.3.

15. He is said [to Blot out of the Book of Life,] when men are not accounted in the number of the saved, Exod. 32.32, 33. Psal. 69.28.29.To Blot out of the Book of Life. He is said to Blot out sins, when he remits or forgives them. Psal. 37.2, 3. For the Scripture speaks as if there were an account kept of them in a certain Written Book, which because the Messias has made satisfaction, are Blotted or crossed out. See Col. 2.13, 14.

16. He is said [to Devour or Swallow,] when he totally destroys,To De­vour or Swallow. as Exod. 15.7. Esa. 25.8. 1 Cor. 15.54. He is to said to make Room or enlarge, when he vouch­safes Deliverance from difficulties and troubles, Gen. 26.22. Psal. 4.1, 2. Psal. 119.31, 32.

He is said [to Direct or make plain the way, To Di­rect.] when he gives a happy issue and con­clusion to the endeavours of men, as Psal. 5.8, 9. Esay 45.2, 13.

[To Lose or Ʋngird the Loyns] when he makes men feeble and unarmed,To Un­gird. and so uncapable of defence or offence, Esa. 45.1.

[To Pour out his Anger,] when he Punishes,To Pour out his Anger, Psal. 79.5, 6. Ezek. 9.8. and 20.13, 21, 33.

[To Pour out his Spirit,] when he largely distributes his gifts,Spirit. Joel 3.1, 2. Zach. 12.10. Act. 2.17, 18, 33. Rom. 5.5. Tit. 3.5, 6.

[To make Void Counsel,] when he disappoints and blasts the purposes of men,To make Void. Jer. 19.7.

[To Pour out a Blessing,] when he plentifully distributes his benefits,To Pour out a Blessing. Mal. 3.10.

He is said [to Hew by the Prophets,] when he terrifies men by fearful Admonitions, and legal Threatnings,To Hew. as Hosea 6.5. and when he spiritually kills them as in the following verses.

He is said [to Stretch out the line of Confusion,] and the Stones of emptiness,To Stretch out. when he leaves Kingdoms and Nations to the Desolations of the Enemy, Esa. 34.11. This Metaphor is taken from Architects, who use lines, perpendiculars and little Ropes, &c.

He is said [to Bear or carry] when he Preserves, Sustains,To Bear. Supports and Governs his People, as Deut. 1.31. Exod. 19.4. Esa. 46.3, 4. Heb. 1.3.

He is said [to Break the Head,] when his Wrath falls heavy and destroys men,To break the Head. Psal. 110.5, 6. Hab. 3.13.

He is said to Sling out the Souls of Davids Enemies, as out of a Sling, 1 Sam. 25.29. that is, he will violently take it away (as a stone out of a Sling flies with greater force a greater way, without further regard of him that throws it.) The Metaphors is taken from the weapons of David, which was a Sling, &c. On the contrary the Soul of David is said to be Bound up in the bundle of Life, denoting Gods Fatherly care of him in securing him from Death, which his Enemies designed, and preserving him so safe, that nothing could be forced away from him.

He is said [to make Way to his Anger, To make Way.] when with just Judgments he recompences the unjust stubborness and contumacy of the Wicked, Psal. 79.50. He made Way for his Anger, he spared not their Souls from Death, but gave their Life over to the Pestilence.

He is said to Weigh the Mountains in Scales, and the Hills in a Ballance, Esa. 40.12. Which notes with what facility and ease the Lord can sustain, and manage the whole [Page 60] Universe, even as men do a small pair of Scales. The Lord is said to Weigh Spirits, Prov. 16.2. by which his most exact knowledge of our Minds and inward frames, is noted, this metaphor is taken from men, who do with a great deal of exactness Weigh things that they may know their value. See Prov. 5.21. and 21.2. and 24.12.

God is said [to put his Hook in the Nose,] and his Bridle in the Lips of his Enemies, when he stops their fury,To Put his Hook in the Nose. thwarts their purposes, and keeps them under, 2 Kings 19.28. Esa. 37.29.

He is said to put the Tears of the Godly in a bottle, when he suffers them not to be shed in vain, but preserving their Memory turns them to Everlasting Joy, Psal. 56.8.

Quâ im­putatio illi facta, et plena sa [...]sfactio intelligi­tur 1 Pet 2.24. Christ is peculiarly said to Bear our sins, Esa. 53.4, 12. by which their imputation to him, and a full satisfaction is understood, 1 Pet. 2.24. Who his own self Bare our sins in his own Body on the Tree, that we being dead to sin, should live unto Righteousness, by whose stripes ye were healed.

God is said to cast our sins behind his back, when he forgives them, and remits the Punishment, Esa. 38.17. To which there is a contrary phrase, Psal. 90.8. Thou hast set our iniquities before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy Countenance.

He is said [to Shave with a Razor] the Head, and the hair of the Feet, and the Beard, when he makes a spoil and devastation of the Land, and scatters small and great from thence Esa. 7.20.Flaccus Illyricus. Judicat se operâ Regis As­syriae Isra­litas pu­niturum, ita ut ho­mines, et animalia, ac aedifi­cia & plantae vasten­tur. Ideo autem ad­dit, con­ductitiâ, ut sciant illam no­vaculam suam mer­cedem fla­gitatu­ram, &c. God here intimates that by the King of Assyria he would punish the Israelites, so as that Men, Beasts, Buildings, Plants, &c. should be destroyed, He says with a Razor that is hired, that they may know it would exact its own reward, that is, that the Assyrians, through greediness of Prey and Spoil would make havock of, and sweep away all things, The Lord is said to break forth upon his Enemies, when he disperses, crushes, and slays them, 2 Sam. 5.20. and 6.8.

He is said to Shoot with an Arrow, when he heaps swift and speedy vengeance up­on the wicked, Psal. 64.7. But God shall Shoot at them with an Arrow, suddenly shall they be wounded.

God is said to Write, which denotes his Knowledge and Providence, with respect to Grace and Benignity, as when he is said to VVrite the Godly in the Book of Life, or his Book. Esa. 4.3. Dan. 12.1. or when he VVrites his Law in their Hearts, Jer. 31.33. Heb. 8.10. By which a Renovation by the Holy Spirit is noted, that Beleivers should know, and willingly obey the Will of God, 2 Cor. 3.3. Hence he is said to Grave them upon the palm of his Hands, Esa. 49.16. Which shews his most faithful care and eminent Grace towards them. See Rev. 3.12.

Sometimes his VVriting signifies his Wrath and Punishment of sinners, as when Job says, thou VVritest bitter things, against me, Job 13.26. that is, thou dost afflict me with bitter and heavy strokes, a metaphor taken from Courts of Judicature, where legal sentences are Recorded. Esa. 65.6. Behold it is VVritten before me, I will not keep silence but I will recompence, even recompence into their bosom, by which Divine knowledge is noted, a metaphor taken from men, who Write down in a Book or Paper what they would remember.

It is said, Jer. 17.13. They that depart from thee shall be written in the Earth, be­cause they have forsaken the Lord the Fountain of living waters, that is, such Apostates shall be excluded from Heaven, and destinated to Eternal Destruction.

God is said to Search Jerusalem with Candles, that is, all their secret sins shall be brought to light, and punished, Zeph. 1.12.

He is said to Engrave the graving of one stone, &c. Zach. 3.9. Which betokens the Wounds, Languor and Passion of Christ, who is figured by that Stone.

He is said to put an Hedge round about one, when he preserves him from the ma­lignity of malicious Spirits, Job 1.10. And to remove the Hedge, signifies, that he will leave them naked, exposed, and defenceless, Esa. 5.5. Psal. 8.12, 13. and 89.40, 41. When he is said to Enclose mans way with hewen Stones, it denotes a being en­vironed with Afflictions and Calamities, as Lam. 3.9. To Hedge up the way with Thorns, as Hosea 2.6. signifies that God will by Afflictions and other means hin­der and divert men from an intended sin and iniquity.

[Page 61]God is said to [Seal] up the hand of every man, Job 37.7.To Seal. When he prohibits or hinders their actions— It is said that God the Father Sealed Christ, John 6.27. that is, sent him forth, with Divine Authority for the good of men. See Cant. 4.12. and 8.6. Hag. 2.24, Where by Seal is betokened that he confirms and preserves Believers in Truth and Piety, 2 Cor. 1.22. Eph, 1.13. and 4.30. As men fix their Seal to that which they would Ratifie and Confirm.

The Father is said to Draw men to Christ, John 6.44, 45, 65. When he illu­minates the mind with his word, and bestows the true knowledge of Salvation— So Cant. 1.4. Jer. 31.2. Hosea. 11.4. John 12.32. 2 Thess. 3.5. This is no vio­lent Compulsion, but a benevolent flexion, bending, or disposition of a mind averse to goodness, and that by means, as the word Revealed, and Preached, &c.

It is said Jer. 15.7. I will Fan them with a Fan, &c. that is, in my Anger I will disperse and destroy them. The word is properly taken, Esa. 30.24. It is said of Christ, Matth. 3.12. Luke 3.17. That his Fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his Floor, and gather his VVheat into his Garner, but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire, that is, by the word of his Power and by Afflictions and Tri­bulations, he will segregate or separate the Godly from the Wicked, as by a Fan or winnowing, the pure grain is divided from the Chaff.

God is said to Sweep with the Besom of Destruction, Esa. 14.23. which intimates an utter Desolation. and spoil of Inhabitants to the Land.

It is said Psal. 76.12. He shall cut off the Spirit of Princes, the word Translated cut off is emphatical, and signifies the lopping off the branches of a Vine, leaving it naked and desolate, and so it notes a deprivation of Strength, Courage or Life it self.

God is said to Annoint, when he Comforts, lifts up, or makes glad his People, Psal. 23.4, 5. 2 Cor. 1.21. But most large, extensive, and copious in the Ʋn­ction of Christ our Blessed Saviour, wherewith he is by the Father annointed for the Salvation of poor sinners, Psal. 45.7, 8. Esa. 61.1. Luke 4, 18. Heb. 1.9. John 3.34. Act. 10.38. &c.

A third kind of Actions, Actions of the Feet. which properly belong to the [Feet] are ascribed to God, as Gen. 3.15. A breaking the Serpents Head— where by the Serpent, is meant the Devil, who seduced Eve in that form; and by the Serpents head, his Pow­er, and diabolical fierceness. So the breaking of his Head, is to be performed by the Messias [...], God-man, and signifies the destruction of the power and Kingdom of the Devil, and mans Redemption, from its Tyranny and Vassallage. Our Saviour is figured here as a magnificent Hero, who with his Feet tramples upon, the Serpent or Dragon, and breaks his Head. But it is said that the Serpent shall bruise his heel, by which phrase the Passion and Death of Christ is meant. To this passage the Apo­stle Paul alludes, Rom. 16.20. And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your Feet shortly, &c.

Such a treading under Foot as is used in a Wine-Press is ascribed to God, Lam. 1.5. By which the extream Oppression and Affliction of men is noted. To this may be refered that emphatical phrase, Esa. 63.3. I have trodden the wine-press alone, &c. which is spoken of Christ, who by his Merit and satisfaction freed us from our Enemies whom he crushed under his Feet.

Hitherto of Actions which concern the rational Soul,The Actions of the Animal Faculty. and such as concern the ani­mal faculty follow, which are threefold, as it respects the present purpose.

1. The Actions of the External senses, which are five.

2. The Actions of the Locomotive faculty, or which respect motion, and local situation.

3. Actions procreating or generating, which Physitians calls vegative, but we reduce it to the Animal, for vegetatives are comprehended under it.

[Seeing] or Sight is attributed to God,Seeing. by which (as was said before when we treated of Eyes) his most exact knowledge is intimated, Exod. 32.9. I have seen this People and behold it is a stiff-necked People, that is, I very well know how wick­ed [Page 62] they are,Homo vi­det quae sunt prae oculis, Dominus autem vi­det ad Cor. 1 Sam. 16.7. A man looketh on whats before his Eye, but the Lord sees to the Heart, that is, he hath an exact prospect into the very thoughts of the Heart, and the whole inward frame of the mind, and accordingly Judges. Psal. 11.4. The Lords Eyes behold, his Eye-lids try the Children of mens, 'tis a singular passage which we find, John 5.19. Where Christ says of himself, Verily, verily, I say unto you, the Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do; for what things soever he doth, these also doth the Son likewise. Here the Sight of Christ is equal with the Omniscient Fathers, and consequently his Omnipotence is equal, and his [...]energy, or power in operation. Upon this and the following verse Erasmus, thus paraphrases, Illud etiam at­que etiam affirmo vobis, fili­us qui to­tus apatre pendet, non potest quicquam ex se face­re, cum ex se non sit &c. Eras. Paraphr. in loc. ‘I affirm it again, and again, that the Son, who wholly depends on the Father, can of himself do nothing, forasmuch as he is not of himself, but what he sees the Father do the same does he; their Will and Pow­er is the very same, with the Father there is Authority, and whatsoever the Son is or can do is derived from him. Whatsoever therefore the Father hath done, the same in the like manner is wrought by the Son, because of the equality of the Communicated power. Amongst men the Sons oftentimes degenerate from the Fathers, neither have they always the same Will and Faculty, but the matter is otherwise here, the Father loves the Son alone, and begot him most like himself, and transfer'd an equal power of operation into him, shewing him all things that are to be done by himself; he is sent forth as the great exemplar by him, in all other matters the operation of each is common, &c.’

2. By the Sight of God, his Providence over his Creatures is to be understood, sometimes denoting his approbation, favour, Grace and good Will, as Gen. 1.4. And God saw that the Light was good, &c. So verses 10, 12, 18, 21, 25. After which is annexed a general sentence, verse 31. And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold it was very good. Which signifies his Divine approbation of his created works, and his sanction of the duration of Natures order to the end of the World. See Psal. 104.30, 31. &c. Hence comes that form of Speech, when God is said to See, denoting his Providence of certain persons or things, under his immediate Care and Government, as Gen. 16.13. Thou God Seest me, that is, thou providest for me. And Gen. 22.8. God will See (that is, provide) himself a Lamb for a Burnt-offering. It is not to be understood that Abraham knew before hand, that he should find a Ram to offer for a Sacrifice to God instead of Isaac, but that he would quiet his Son by that kind of answer, he being solicitous and inquisitive for the Lamb that should be offer'd for a Burnt-offering, therefore he intimates that Isaac should leave it to the Care of Divine Providence; and as Abraham spoke, the event happ'ned, for he lifted up his Eyes, verse 13. and beheld the Sacrifice to be offered, and so he gave the place a Name. viz. Jehovah-jireh, that is, God shall see, verse 14. &c. So 1 Sam. 16.1. I have Seen me a King among his Sons, that is, as our Translation has it, I have provided and chosen me a King.

More specially the [...] respicere or Seeing, or respect of God as it concerns men, denotes his Approbation, Mercy, Care and Help. Of which Illyricus in Clave. Est in his dupli­cata figu­ra, nempe tum An­thropopa­thia, quod Deo aspe­ctustribu­itur, tum etiam Metalep­sis aut Metony­mia, quod externus oculorum motus con­sequens est &c. There is in this a twofold figure, viz. An Anthropopathy, in as much as Sight is ascri­bed to God, then a Metalepsis or Metonymie, because the external motion of the Eyes, the Effect being put for the Cause, signifies the inward affection of the Mind: For it takes in the external help which is the consequent of the internal affection, and the external motion of the Eyes, so that here is a third Trope— Gen. 4.4. And the Lord had re­spect unto Abel and to his Offering, and verse 5. but unto Cain, and his Offering he had not respect, that is, he accepted and approved of the one but not of the other. See Num. 16.15. 1 Sam. 1.11. Psal. 9.13, 14. and 10.13, 14. Psal. 84.9, 10. Psal. 102.17, 18. and 74.19.20. Psal. 113.6. Esa. 66.2. Lam. 4.16. and 5.1. Jon. 3.10. Luk. 1.25, 48. &c. Deut. 26, 15. Psal. 80.14, 15. Psal. 102.20. Lam. 3.50. &c.

Hitherto the phrase of Gods Seeing or Respecting, denotes his Favour and Love, which is sometimes directed to the object, as when he is said to have respect to the Man or his Offering, sometimes to an internal Cause, as when he is said to have respect to his Covenant, that is, the declaration of his Mercy and Grace that way expressed to man, Psal. 74.19, 20. Likewise when he is said to look upon the Face of his [Page 63] Annointed (that is, Christ) who is our Mediator and Saviour, for whose sake Da­vid) Prays for a blessing, calling him the Servant of the Lord, 2 Chron. 17.19. And the Word of the Lord, 2 Sam. 7.21. See 1 Chron. 17.17.

2. It denotes Evil, as Wrath, Vengeance, and Punishment, as Exod. 14.24. And it came to pass that in the morning Watch, the Lord looked unto the Host of the Egyptians, through the pillar of Fire, and of the Cloud, and troubled them, &c. 1 Chron. 12.17. Psal. 104.31, 32. Jer. 3.8. Lam. 3.36. Ezek. 16.50. &c.

[Hearing] is attributed to God, Hearing. in which likewise his Grace and Benevolence in satisfying the desires of his People, and in a ready hearing their Prayers and Sighs is denoted, as Gen. 16.11. —The Lord hath heard thy Affliction, Exod. 2.24. And God heard their groaning, 2 King. 20.5. I have heard thy Prayer, &c. So Psal. 4.3, 4. and 5.1, 2, 3, 4. and 130.1, 2. Esa. 65.24. 1 John 5.14. &c. Thus God is said to Hear the Heavens, Hos. 2.21. When he gives the blessings (as Paul mentions Act. 14.17.) of Rain from Heaven, and fruitful Seasons are grant­ed, which Heaven as it were silently desires and begs God for.

The Scripture uses the term of Gods attention, Hearkning as it were to the Pray­ers and Desires of the Godly, by way of illustration of the greatness of his Compassi­on, Psal. 10.16, 17. and 66.18, 19. and 130.1, 2. &c. On the contrary [...]od is said to shut Prayers, Lam. 3.8. And to cover himself with a Cloud that Prayers could not pass through, verse 44. When he rejects the petitions of any. See Esa. 1.15. and 59.2. &c.

[Smelling] is attributed to God,Smelling. but which in like manner his Complacency and Grace is noted, as a man is refreshed and pleased with a sweet smell, as Gen. 8.21. And the Lord smelled a savour of rest (so the Hebrew) The Chald. says, and the Lord received their sacrifice very pleasingly — Upon which place Luther, In Aureo Commen­tario, hoc­loco sicut medici Nonun­quam ex­animes suavitate odorum revocant, &c. Per An­thropopa­thiam Moses Deo tribuit odorandi faculta­tem & de sacrificio Noe non scribit, &c. says thus— As Physitians sometimes recover fainting or swounding Persons, by the fragrancy of of Odors, and on the contrary as a horrible stench does vehemently offend Nature, and sometimes makes men faint; so God may be said to be offended with the ill sa­vour of impiety, and to be delighted, and as it were refreshed, when he sees (No­ah) provide himself to Sacrifice, as a specimen of his gratitude, and by a publick example manifest himself not to be wicked, but a true and cordial Worshipper and Reverencer of God, which was the proper end of Sacrifices.

Musculus in his Comment upon the place says very excellently, that Moses by an Anthropopathy ascribes the faculty of Smelling to God, and writes not of the Sacri­fice of Noah, for it is not said that the Lord smelled the Odor of the Burnt-Offering, but a sweet savour; for God smells not by the Organ of Nostrils as man does, for it was not the smell of the Sacrifice of Beasts that yeilded that fragrancy, such being in themselves rather nauseous then sweet — Hence we learn that our Works of what kind soever they be, have a certain Smell which ascends to the Nostrils of God, and is either approved by him as sweet and pleasing, or disapproved as noysome and unsavoury. This Odor is, not what our external works represent to sence, but what results from the spirituality of our Hearts; for good Acts proceeding from a good and pious intention smell sweetly, but bad ones the contrary. In the Sacrifice of Noah, there was a Corporal and external Savour, which was obvious to the no­tice of men, but the piety of his Heart was pleasing to God, whilst in the sincerity and faithfulness of a pious mind, he acknowledged and celebrated the goodness of his Lord, &c. To this may be referred several other places where this phrase (of a sweet smelling savour is sound, as Exod. 29.18, 25, 41. Levit. 1.9. and 2.12. and 3.16. and 8.21. Num. 28.2. Ezek. 20.28., 41. &c Doubtless in these places respect is had to the Messias ▪ whom the Sacrifices of the Old Testament typified, as Eph. 5.2. Christ Jesus also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an Offering and a Sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savour. So Esa. 11.3. Where it is said, that he shall make him of a sent or a smell (so the Hebrew) in the fear of the Lord, which is expounded of the propitiatory Sacrifice of Christ, and his Obedience to the Father even unto Death, which the Prophet calls the fear of the Lord, according to 2 Cor. 2.15. For we are made of God a sweet savour of Christ, that is, our Ministry to God through Christ, is as it were accepted as a sweet Sacrifice. See Rom. 15.16. Psal. 45.8, 9. Cam. 1.3. &c.

[Page 64][Tasting and Touching] are ascribed to God, of which there are not many exam­ples,Tast and Touch. Psal. 104.34. My meditation shall be sweet to him (so the Hebrew) that is, grateful and acceptable. Hosea 9 4. They shall not offer Wine (offerings) to the Lord, for they shall not be sweet unto him, that is, not pleasing nor accepted. See Mal. 3.4. Jer. 30.21. Psal. 40.8, 9. John 4.32, 34.

It is said Psal. 104.32. He Toucheth the Hills and they smoke (as if it were said) by his Touch only he can destroy the loftiest and most firm things — So some say that the phrase, Psal. 144.5. alludes to the smoking of Mount Sinai at the promul­gation of the Law, Exod. 19. and 20. Also some phrases may be reduced hither that are mentioned, where a hand is attributed to God, as before.

So much of the external Actions of Sense, whose Affections are Sleep and Watch­fulness;The Ces­sation of sense as Sleep. Lib. de somno & Vigil c. 1. for as in Sleep the actions of sense are still and quiet, so in Watchfulness they are provoked to their respective Operations, as Aristotle says.

Both these are by an Anthropopathy attributed to God, Psal. 44.23, 24. Awake why Sleepest thou, O Lord, cast us not off for Ever, Psal 78.65. Then the Lord awak­ed as one out of Sleep, Jer. 31.26. Ʋpon this I awaked and beheld and my Sleep was sweet unto me, by the former a delay of Divine help is noted, by the later his strength and power against his Enemies, and his Favour and Grace towards his Church after that delay. Awaking without the mention of Sleep is expressed. Psal. 35.22, 23. Esa. 51.9. &c. It is said Psal. 121.3, 4 He that keepeth thee, will not slumber — Behold he that keepeth Israel, shall neither slumber nor sleep, by which phrase the abso­lute and undoubted certainty of Divine help is declared. So Watching is attributed to God, [...] vigilavit and denotes his assiduity or dispatch, in inflicting Punishments or granting benefits, Jer. 31.28. and 44.27.

Locomo­tive Acti­ons.Actions of the second kind, as local motion, are ascribed to God by an Anthropopa­thy as Coming unto Believers, whereby the exhibition of his Grace and Blessings is to be understood, Exod. 20.24. John 14.23. There is also a Coming to Judge and Punish, Esa. 3.13, 14. To which belongs that in Hos 11.9. I will not come (or en­ter) into the City, that is, in an hostile manner, or to destroy it, as Sodom.

[Walking] is attributed to God, whereby his gracious presence, and help is sig­nifyed, Levit. 29.12. And I will Walk in the midst of you, that is, ye shall have my present help, and protection — So Deut. 23.14. 2 Cor. 6.16. Levit. 26.24. It is said, then will I also walk contrary to you and punish you, that is, without distinction of persons, I will let the Reins of mine Anger loose upon you.

God is said to Come down from Heaven, when he takes apparent and especial cog­nizance of the actions of men, and that sometimes out of grace and favour, as Exod. 3.8. or to punish in Wrath and Anger, as Gen. 11.5, 7. and 18.21. Psal. 18.9, 10. Esa. 64.1. &c.

The Son of God is said to Come down from Heaven, when he assumed humane Na­ture, and manifested himself to men in order to their Salvation, John 3.13. and 6.38, 42, 50. The Holy Spirit is said to Come down, when in the visible appearance of a Dove it manifested it self resting upon Christ, Matth. 3.16. Mark 1.10. Luk. 3.22. John 1.32, 33. In another signification God promised that he would go down with Jacob into Egypt, that is, that his Grace and protection should accompany him in that way, Gen. 26.4.

[Riding] is ascribed unto God, by which his glorious operation is noted, which he exerts in the Heavens, in tempests and otherwise, Deut. 33.26. There is none like unto the God of Jesurun, who Rideth upon the Heaven, Psal. 68.33. To him that Rideth upon the Heaven of Heavens. Likewise his speed and celerity, in the execu­tion of his Judgements, Psal. 18.10. He rode upon a Cherub, and did flie, yea he did fly upon the wings of the Wind. So Esa. 19.1. &c.

To Meet or Meeting with a person is ascribed to God, and signifies either his manifestation is noted, as Num. 23.4, 16. Or his Grace and Beneficence, as Esa. 64.5. God is said to Return to his place, which signifies a sending of Punish­ment, [Page 65] Hos. 5.15. For when men are afflicted, and help is delayed, God seems to be absent from them.

Jud. 16.13. Lam. 3.43, 44. A [Returning] on High, Return­ing: signifies his going into his Judicial Throne, or Divine Judgement it self, Psal. 7.7. A Returning to the Godly, signifies the taking away of Sin and the exhibition of Grace, Psal. 6.4, 5. Zach. 1.3.

By his [Rising] up his Divine purpose with respect to his great Works is noted,Rising up Num. 10.35. Psal. 12.5, 6. and 44.26, 27. and 68.1, 2. and 102.14. Esa. 33.10.

The Holy Ghost coming upon one, signifies that it works in a singular manner in and by him, Luke 1, 35. Act. 1.8. which Luke 24.49. is to be endued with pow­er from on High.

A [Passing] through, or passing over, is attributed to God,Transiti­on. Exod. 12.12, 13. Amos 5.17. By which Divine punishment is noted sometimes a forbearance from pu­nishing, as Amos 7.8. and 8.2. With 1.3. Micah 7.18. Prov. 19.11. [...] Pe­sach or Pascha, the Passover takes its Name from hence, Exod. 12, 13, 23— So 'tis used in the Deliverance of the People from the Babylonish Captivity, Esa. 31.5. Dan. 5.30.

[Visitation] is ascribed to God, by which either his exploration, that is,Visitati­on. a dili­gent search, notice or knowledge of things, Psal. 17.3. Or a real exhibition of his Grace and Benefits is noted, Gen. 21.1. Psal. 65.9, 10. Psal. 106.4. Jerem. 29.10. Luke 19.44. &c. Sometimes it denotes Wrath and Punishment, Exod. 34.7. Psal. 59.6. Esa. 27.1. Jerem. 6.6. and 15.3.

Sometimes a diligent [Search] is attributed to God, Ezek. 20.6.Search­ing. In Com­ment. hoc loco. To bring them forth out of the Land of Egypt, to the Land which I Searched out for them, (so 'tis in the Hebrew) flowing with Milk and Honey; the Land of Judaea is commend­ed (says Junius) by the Providence and choice of the Eternal God, because (as if it were by search) he had provided it for a most commodious seat, where after they had cast out their Enemies they were to rest, &c. the like is said of the Ark of the Covenant, Num. 10.33.

[Seeking,] which is done by going up and down, is also ascribed to God,Seeking. signifying his desire and serious will, Ezek. 22.30. John 4.23. &c.

[Finding] out Iniquity is attributed likewise to God,Finding. when he chastises and Pu­nishes in Wrath, Gen. 44.16. He is said to Find his Enemies, when he lays con­digne Punishment upon them. He is said to Find David his Servant, when out of singular Love and Providence he elected and made choice of him, Psal. 89.20. Acts 13.22. In which sence he is also said to Seek him, 1 Sam. 13.14.

The third kind of Action is generative, not that Eternal Generation,Procrea­tive or genera­tive Acti­ons. by which God the Father from Everlasting begat the Son, Co-eternal and Consubstantial with himself, for that is not metaphorical, but most proper, Psal. 2.7. Prov. 8.24, 25. Heb. 1.5. But that Spiritual and Mystical Generation, by which he is said to beget his believing People, when he remits their sin, renews his own Image upon them, and Adopts them into the priviledge of Sonship, through Christ the Saviour— Of which see Esa. 66.9. John 1.13. and 3, 5, 6. Tit. 3.5. 1 Pet. 1.3, 23. 1 John 3.9. Jam. 1.18. &c.

God is said to be a Father with respect to certain inanimate Creatures, Job 38.28. Hath the Rain a Father, or who hath begotten the drops of the Dew? — that is, be­sides me? For there is no other can send it upon the Earth— by which God inti­mates, that he only can give this benefit, and that men cannot imitate it. And verse 29. Out of whose Womb came the Ice? (that is, where is the Artist besides me, that can make it?) And the hoary frost of Heaven, who hath gendred it? viz. be­side me.

[Page 66]To this may be referred that phrase, Zeph. 2.2. Where God says, before the Decree bring forth. Parate vos in oc­cursum Domini, cum non­dum pa­rit, seu in lucem edit & exe­quitur, Decretum seu statu­tum quod poenis ve­lut preg­nans Deus fecit, eas­que jam parturit, &c. Tarno­vius in loc. Upon which place the Learned Tarnovius thus paraphrases. Prepare your selves to meet the Lord, who has not yet brought forth, produced or excuted his Decree, or Statute, which he (as if he were pregnant with punishment) goes now big with — For as the Birth does not immediately follow Conception, but has a certain allotted and prescribed time by Natures Law, for its ripening or maturity— So God although he hath certainly decreed to punish, and has establisht and conceived the sentence in his own mind; yet he defers execution for a certain space, that he may give opportunity for Repentance, which if sinners will by no means do, then their iniquity grows Ripe, and Gods punishment mature, and fit for Execution. And as the Birth must of necessity follow conception, when the time li­mited by Nature is expired — So the Judgments of God are inevitable, when the de­terminate time comes.

Humane Adjuncts ascribed to God.

[...], privati­va; et [...], positiva.THese are either privative, or positive— Of the first sort are these, viz. When something of impotency or inability is (after the manner of men) attributed to God— or when God says of himself, that he cannot do a thing, being as it were prohibited by his Truth, Goodness, and Holiness, as Gen. 19.22. Hast thee, escape thither, for I cannot do any thing till thou be come thither— These are the words of the Son of God, who when he departed from Abraham, turned towards Sodom, to destroy the Cities, and says thus to Lot, viz. Whereas it is the immuta­ble and certain determination of God, out of a gracious and favourable respect to you, to deliver you from this destruction, therefore before you be placed in safely the Execution of the sentence by which Sodom must be burnt, shall be delayed— Up­on which place D. Hunnius says, the execution of Gods absolute Decree or Power no Creature can retard,Potenti­am Dei absolutam nulla cre­atura re­tardare potest. Hic vero lo­quitur de sua poten­tia, prout illa, &c. but here he speaks of his Power as it is tempered, qualified and allayd, by the favour of his fatherly mercy towards men, and as accommodated for the profit of Believers, that nothing which he does shall hurt them.

To this may be referred that speech of God, which of all is most sweet and gra­cious, and full of comfort (inasmuch as it was spoken in the very swelling, as it were, of Anger.) When he speaks to Moses of the grievous sin and Apostacy of the Peo­ple, Exod. 32.10. Now therefore let me alone, that my Wrath may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them, &c. Jehovah speaks as if he had been bound and constrained by the Faith and Prayer of Moses, so as that he could not destroy the People, unless he had asked him leave, as Psal. 106.23. Therefore he said that he would destroy them, had not Moses his chosen, stood before him in the breach to turn away his Wrath lest he should destroy them. Of so great a vertue and efficacy are the Pray­ers of the just before the Lord, James 5.16. See Gen. 32.28. Hosea 12.4. Josh. 10.12, 13, 14. &c. Esa. 1.13. The calling of Assemblies I cannot away with (or more properly I cannot bear) it is iniquity. This is expounded with re­spect to the sanctity of God, and his abomination of iniquity, as verse 14. Your New Moons, and your appointed Feasts my soul hateth, which is intima [...]ed by these phrases of humane abhorrence.

Something also of loosned or disjointed Members, after the manner of men is at­tributed to God, [...] as Jer. 6, 8. Be thou instructed, O Jesuralem, lest my soul be loos­ned or disjointed from thee, (so the Hebrew) that is, lest after the manner of a mem­ber that is broken, or out of Joynt, it departs from, or be separate from thee, and thou as a strange member be cut off, or divided from me.

Junius. Ezek. 23.18. She discovered her Whoredoms, and discovered her nakedness; then my mind was, [...] disjointed from her. By this phrase the Communion of God with Believers is most excellently expressed; for, if for their wilful and contuma­cious [Page 67] Rebellions God departs from them, the head is, as it were, separated or pluckt off the putrified members, as the Lord by a like metaphor, speaks to the wicked Synagogue, Jer. 15.6. For thou hast forsaken me saith, the Lord, thou art gone back­ward: Therefore will I stretch out my hand against thee, and destroy thee; I am weary with Repenting. Much and great was the forbearance and patience of God, before this desertion, which is indeed the filling the Measure of Iniquity spoken of, Gen. 15.16. Matth. 23.32. To these privatives in man may be referred Diseases, by which is signified the punishment of sin, which Christ bore in our stead, Esa. 53.4.10. Suitable to Hos. 13.14. I will ransome them from the power of the Grave: I will redeem them from Death: O Death, I will be thy Plagues! O Grave I will be thy Destru­ction! Rep [...]ntance shall be hid from mine Eyes. Thus he speaks with respect to his Sacerdotal or Priestly Office, as Heb. 2.14. Forasmuch as the Children are made partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself took part of the same, that through Death he might destroy him, that had the Power of Death, that is, the Devil.

(2.) With respect to his Prophetical Office, 2 Tim. 1.10. Because by the Go­spel he hath abolished Death, and brought Life and Immortality to Light: For he strongly defends his Church, so as that the Gates of Hell shall not prevail against it, and 1 Cor. 15.26. The last Enemy that shall be destroyed is Death. Here is a most evident symbol of the Resurrection, as Junius and Tremellius upon the place rightly conclude. Paul upon these words of Hosea, 1 Cor. 15.55. Thus speaks; O death where is thy Sting? O Grave, where is thy Victory? &c.

Of the second sort of mens Actions, which are ascribed to God,Positive Adjuncts there may a distinction be made, viz. Such as are internal, and such as are external. The internal are with respect to the diverse States, Circumstances, or Conditions of men; and so God is said to be a [Husbandman,] that is, (Synechdochically) a Vine dresser, [...]. Husband man. John 15.1. The reason of the Comparison follows in the next verses, and is largely ex­pounded, Esa. 5. and Matth. 20. &c. Christ, who is the hypostatical Wisdom of God, and his Eternal Son, calls himself a Workman, when he speaks of the Creation,VVork­man. Cant. 7.1. For by him were all things made, and without him was nothing made that was made, John 1.3. Col. 1.16. &c.

So God is said to be the [Builder] and Maker of a City, which hath Foundations,Builder. [...] ar­ [...]sex & conditor. Man of VVar▪ Heb. 11.10. that is, the Cause, Fountain and Author of Eternal Life and Heaven­ly Joy.

So he is called a [Man of War,] Exod. 15.3. From that Almighty work of his of overwhelming and drowning Pharaoh with his Egyptian Host. Besides in Wars waged among men, he is the chief General, and Captain, giving Victory to whom he pleases, and scattering, routing, or destroying whom he pleases. See Psal. 46. and 76. &c.

Christ is called a Counsellor, Counsel­lor. Esa. 9.6. with respect to his most wise decree in restoring Salvation, at whose disposal it was, 1 Tim. 1.9. Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy Calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and Grace which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began. Like­wise with respect to his most Holy Office, in manifesting the Divine will to our ca­pacities in order to Salvation, and his obedience to the Father, &c. The Lord is called a Phisitian, Exod. 15.26. Because he frees men from all perils of Souls and Bodies (which are frequently compared to Diseases) Psal 147.2.3. &c. This is peculiarly ascribed to Christ the Redeemer, for the blessing of spiritual health, which we receive from him, Matth. 9.12. Mark. 2.17. See Esa. 61.1.

He is called a [Shepherd] Psal. 23.1.Shep­herd. Which appellation is also peculiarly at­tributed to Christ, with respect to his Office as a Saviour, Cant. 1.7. and 2.16. and 6.2. Ezek. 34.23. and 37.24. Micah 5.3, and 7.14. Zach. 13.7. John 10.11. Heb. 13.20. 1 Pet. 2.25. and 5.4. and elsewhere.

He is called a [Father] Deut. 32.6. Psal. 68.6 Esa. 64.8. Matth. 6.1, 6, 8, 9. Rom. 8.15. Which term is most full of Comfort and Joy,Father. decla­ring the Love and Affection of the Omnipotent God towards men— So he is called [Page 68] Father of spirits, Heb. 12.9. &c. Christ called the Everlasting Father, or as in the Hebrew, the Father of Eternity, Esa. 9.6. Because he most sincerely loves Be­lievers, and Glorifies them in blessed Eternity— The seventy have most elegantly translated this place [...], pater futuri seculi, the Father of the Age to come.

First-born.He is called the [First-born,] Psal. 89.27. Col. 1.15, 18. Rev. 1.5. Je­hovah, and Christ, are frequently called, Prince, Captain, King, Esa. 9.6. and 55.4. and 32.1. and 33.22. To denote their Majesty and celestial Dominion; of which more elsewhere.

Bride­groom.He is called a [Bridgroom] Matth. 9.15. and 25.1. Mark. 2.19. Luke 5.34. John 3.29. This Title is ascribed to Christ, for many Causes, principally for his unspeakable Love to his Church which is by Faith espoused to him, Hosea 2.19. Eph. 5.26, 27, 28, &c.

Witness.He is called a [Witness,] which term is applyed to the Messiah, Esa. 43.10. and 55.4. Rev. 1.5. and 3.14. Because of a certainty he discovers heavenly Truth to us, John 18.37. As also because he hath most exactly fulfilled whatsoever the Pro­phets of the Old Testament have foretold concerning him, John 1.17. &c.

Peace and being in a Place. External Adjuncts of a man are either inseparable or separable— The inseparable are, being in a place and time. Each of these is attributed to God, (who in his own nature is Eternal, and not circumscribed to place) by an Anthropopathy — First,

More Generally, [Place] is ascribed to God Psal. 24.3. Who shall stand in his Holy Place, viz. The Holy Kingdom where the Scriptures say his Habitation is. He is said to Go out of his place, when he manifests his conspicuous and apparent presence, as Esa. 26.21. Micah. 1.3. He is said to Retire or Return to his place, when he withdraws the benefit of his Grace, and as it were hides himself in order to punish offenders, Hosea. 5.15.

More specially, a seat or [Throne] is attributed to God, Exod. 17.16. (of which before) Psal. 9.7, 8. and 11.3, 4. and 47.8, 9. Esa. 66.1. Matth. 5.34.Throne. By which his most superexcellent Majesty, sublimity and Authori­ty is intimated. The Prophet Jer. 14.21. Prays God, that he would not abhor, or disgrace the throne of his Glory— By which Judea is understood, wherein the vi­sible or peculiar Kingdom of God was contained, and where God vouchsafed the most eminent appearances of his Power and Glory. Or else the Temple of Jerusalem, as in chap. 17.12.In more Nebochim It is taken, upon which Rabbi Moses Maimon. Every place which God hath appointed for the manifestation of his Power and Glory is called his Throne. For great and powerful men as Kings and Princes sit in their Thrones, when they make a solemn appearance, so are we to understand this word ( [...] Kiss, solemn) Throne, of the Magnificence, Power and Dignity of him, to whom it is attri­buted.

When a [Throne] and sitting upon it, is attributed to Christ, we are to understand that heavenly Kingdom and Government to which he was exalted in his humane na­ture, as Psal. 45.6, 7. Esa. 16.5. Matth. 19.28. Heb. 1.8. and 4.16. and 8.1. &c.

The Earth is said to be the Lords [Footstool,] Esa. 66.1. Matth. 5.35. By which is noted his immensity,Foot­stool. for he is present in the lowermost part of the World. Or the Ark of the Covenant, in which by special revelation, he was to manifest his presence, according to 1 Chron. 28.2. Psal. 99.4, 5. and 132.6, 7. Lam. 2.1. Some by this appellation would understand the Sanctuary of God. See Psal. 99.4, 5, 8, 9. Upon which Illyricus says— the sence is— know, that no where else, nor with any of the Gentiles is the true Worship of God, and his propitious presence to be found. Therefore seek him here according to his Word and Promises. When it is said of Christ— Psal. 110.1. The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right­hand, until I have made thine Enemies thy Footstool, and 1 Cor. 15.25. For he must Reign till he hath put his Enemies all under his feet, and Heb. 1.13. It intimates that [Page 69] he will most perfectly conquer and subdue his Enemies, as it is said, Psal. 8.6. Eph. 1.22. Heb. 2.8. &c. That all things are put under his Feet.

Neither is [Place] only ascribed to God, but a local Posture or Situation also, as Psal. 10.1. Why standest thou afar, off by which the delay of Divine help is noted; A metaphor taken from men, who when they stand at great distance cannot lend a helping hand. To stand at the right hand, notes his powerful help and favour, as Psal. 16.8. Because he is at my right hand I shall not be moved. So Act. 2.25. God is said to Sit, Psal. 29.10. and other places, in the same sence that a Throne is ascribed to him; by which his Government, Divine Judgement, and exercises in peculiar actions are signified.

He is said to Sit upon a Cherub] Psal. 80.1. and 99.1. because of the peculiar ma­nifestation of his presence in that place.

He is said to Sit upon the Circle of the Earth, Esa. 40.22. because of his Majesty in Glory, which infinitely excells all the Glories of the World, and therefore the In­habitants of the Earth are called Grashoppers, &c.

Of the sitting of Christ at the right hand of God, we have spoken before— God is said to Dwell on High, in Sion, in the Church, and in Contrite hearts, &c. Psal. 68.16, 17. and 132.12, 13, 14. Psal. 135.20, 21, Esa. 57.19, Ezek. 37.27. John 14.23. 2 Cor. 6.16. by which the gracious Manifestation, Action, Defence, Illumina­tion, Consolation, and Salvation, of his Divine presence to his people is to be un­derstood. [...], quod pro­prie est, ut superha­bitet su­perme vir­tus Dei, vel, ut su­per me ta­bernacu­lum suum collocet.

It is an emphatical word which Paul uses, 2 Cor. 12.9. That the power of Christ may rest upon me, the words properly are, that the vertue or power of my God may dwell upon me, or that he would place his Tabernacle upon me, and as an Ʋmbrage or Shadow may surround, cloth and protect me. When the Cloud of Glory had fil­led the Temple, Solomon said, 1 King. 8.12. The Lord said that he would dwell in the thick darkness, that is, by this sign, he manifests himself to be present, as he said to Moses, Lev. 16.2. I will appear in the Cloud upon the Mercy-Seat. See Exod. 19.9. and chap. 16.10. Num. 9.15. Esa. 6.4. Matth. 17.5. &c.

The phrase of Gods sitting in the Heavens, or dwelling there, as Psal. 2.4. Psal. 103.18, 19. 1 King. 8.39, 43. and Illyricus thus expounds. Non po­test nec debet Coe­lum, cum pro habi­tatione Dei acci­pitur, in­telligi de loco ali­quo certo reali aut Materia­li; sed p [...]tius est metapho­rica sig­nificatio, &c. Illyr. In Exeg. Tom. 1. p. 801. Deus est ubique ràtione essentiae, &c. lib. de Trinit. cap. 50. In Syn­tagm. Theol. p. 195. Heaven neither ought nor can, when it is called the Habitation of God, be understood of a certain real or material place, but it has rather a metaphorical signification, and denotes that spiritual Kingdom, Glory, and Felicity in which God with his Holy Angels and other blessed Spirits Lives and Reigns, as Psal. 115.15, 16. The Heaven, even the Heavens are the Lords, but the Earth hath he given to the Children of men, that is, he requires and Commands spiritual good and Divine Worship to be given to him, and leaves them to enjoy the good things of the World, for he in a proper sence, re­quires not Money, Calves, or Kids, &c.

And the Learned Gerhard says— God is every where, with respect to his Essence, but he is said to dwell in Heaven with respect to the more ample appearance of his Majesty and Glory; so the whole soul is in every part of the Body, but most radically in the head, most effectively in the head, because, its most excellent effects are from thence produced— So Alcuinus— God is therefore said to dwell in the Heavens, be­cause the Angels and the Souls of blessed Saints have a clearer and more illustrious prospect and knowledge of him, then the Saints on Earth can have, by reason of their dwelling in so gross a habitation. Likewise Polanus— The Scripture often­time says, that God dwells in the Heavens, not that he is there included, but to in­timate, that he is above all in Majesty, Power, and Operation, so as that he cannot be hindered by any on Earth; as also that our minds may be elevated above the World, so as that we may have no low, or carnal, or worldly thoughts of God, &c.

To this may be also referred, when it is said, That the Holy Ghost doth rest upon any, as Num. 11.25, 26. 2 King 2.15. By which, the distribution and energy or power of his gifts is intimated. This Spirit is said to rest upon the Messiah, Esa. 11.2. and 61.1. which is to be understood of the Communication of his gifts in their ab­solute fulness to Christ according to his humanity, Psal. 45.7, 8. John 3.34. The [Page 70] visible symbol was the resting of the Holy Spirit upon Christ in the likeness of a Dove, Matth. 3.16. &c.

Time.[Time] is ascribed to God [...] (in a way of humane) speaking, but is to be understood [...] (in a way of divine Dialect) of his absolute Eternity-Some­times the description of Gods Eternity is taken from the Names and Differences of Seasons, as [Years] are ascribed unto God, which nevertheless are said to be throughout all generations, Psal. 102.24. And shall have no end, verse 2 [...]. That he is the same and that his years shall not fail, Heb. 1.12. And that the Number of his Years cannot be searched out, as Job 36.26.

[Dayes] are also attributed to him, whence he is called the Ancient of Days, Dan 7.9. which are called the Days of Eternity, Micah. 5.1. 2 Pet. 3.18. Eternity is described by eternal time or times, Rom. 16.25. 2 Tim. 1.9. Tit. 1.2. and [...], secula, Ages, by which term properly times, and things done in time are noted. Eph. 3.9. Col 1.26. &c.

Sometimes two or three differences of time, that Eternity which wants Begin­ning, Interruption, and End, may be expressed, Heb. 13.8. Jesus Christ the same (that is, always like himself, invariable, and immutable) yesterday, to day, and for ever, that is, from Eternity to Eternity, Rev. 1.4. Grace be unto you and Peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come, (or will be) that is, who is the Eternal God; so in the 8th. verse, there is another symbol of Eternity I am [...] and [...], Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek Alphabet, which denote the beginning and end of any thing, which are the bounds and notes of time, brought to express him who is the beginning without beginning, and the end without end, that is, who is indeed absolutely Eternal; so Christ speaks chap. 21. and 22.13. as is ap­parent from the context.

To this may be referred, where the Scripture uses words concerning God, which respect the time to come, whereas in Eternity there is not properly any time past, or to come, as Psal. 139.2. Thou understandest my thought a far off, that is, long before it came in my mind, as verse 4. For there is not a word in my Tongue but lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether. It is said Rom. 8.29. For whom he did [...], foreknow, Gods Fore­know­ledge. he also did predestinate, &c. Rom. 11.2. God hath not cast away his people, which he foreknew, &c 1. Pet. 2. Elected according to the Foreknowledge of God the Father, &c.

D. Mylius, upon Rom. 8. says thus, God is said to Foreknow such as he fore­saw would believe in his son, not that there is any future time properly ascribable to God, in whom no accident, condition, or circumstance of time and place can be admitted, but these things are spoken of God by an Anthropopathy, that is after the manner of men.

This [Prescience] of God, inasmuch as it is certain and never failes, therefore such as he Foreknew he also predestinated, for this Foreknowledge is never with­out predestination. Ambrose confirms this interpretation, in these words. Those whom God Foreknew would embrace the Faith,fol. 213. he elected them to the promised re­wards, that they that seem to believe, and either are not really such as they pretend to be, or forsake the Faith may be excluded, for such as God hath elected to himself do remain his, 1 Pet. 1.20. 'Tis said of Christ the Lamb of God, and the Redeemer of the World that he was [...], Foreknown before the Foundation of the World,Some se­parable Adjuncts ascribed to God. that is, he was ordained by the Eternal Decree of God to be offered as a sacrifice for the sins of men.

Hitherto of inseparable Adjuncts, the separable are various, we shall recite some.

Armour.[Armour and Weapons] are attributed to God, for he is sometimes said to be clad in Arms to denote the exertion, or execution of his Wrath and Vengeance, Psal. 35.2, 3. Take hold of Shield and Buckler, and stand up for mine help — Draw out also the Spear, and stop the way against them that persecute me, &c. Esa. 59.17, 18. For he put on Righteousness as a Breast-plate and an Helmet of Salvation upon his head, and he put on the Garments of Vengeance for Clothing, and was clad with zeal as a [Page 71] Cloak, &c. Jer. 50.25. It is said, The Lord hath op'ned his Armory, and hath brought forth the weapons of his indignation; for this is the work of the Lord God of Hosts in the Land of the Chaldeans; when by the Enemy he brings punishment, and a ge­neral destruction upon a people,Panole­thria. thus the King of Babylon is called Gods battle axe and weapons of War, for with him will he break in pieces the Nations, and with him will he destroy Kingdoms, Jer. 51.20. Because by him, and his Host the Lord did afflict and make desolate several Countries.

More especially a [Bow, Arrows, and strings,] are attributed to God,Bow and Arrows Psal. 21.12. Lam. 2.4. and 3.12. He hath bent his bow like an Enemy— he hath set me as a mark for the Arrow—By which the effects of his Divine wrath against the wicked are noted By the Arrows of God are meant swift and unlookt for Calami­ties sent for sin, Deut. 32.22, 23, 24. I will heap mischiefs upon them, I will spend mine Arrows upon them, Job 6.4. Psal. 38.2, 3. and 64, 7, 8. Zach. 9.14. Lam. 3.13. And more particularly the Arrows of God are said to be Hail-Stones, Thunder, Lightnings, Coals of Fire, &c. Psal. 18.13, 14. and 144.6. Hab. 3.11. Sometimes the inspired efficacy of the Gospel in saving the Godly, and Judging and Condemning the wicked, Psal. 45.5. Esa. 49.2. John 12.47, 48. 2 Cor. 2.15, 16.

A [Sword] is ascribed to God,Sword. by which likewise is intimated his Wrath and Vengeance of which that is an index and symbol. Deut, 32.41. Judg. 7.20. Ps. 17.18. Esa. 27.1. and 34.5, 6. Ezek. 21.8, 9, 10. Zach. 13.7. Mun­sterus upon Esa. 34. says that the Sword of the Lord is his Divine Decree, which none can change, Psal. 35.2, 3. By these Weapons Divine Vengeance is metapho­rically described. See Rev. 19.15, 21. The term (Sword) is applyed also to God with respect to its penetrating force, of which more hereafter in its proper place.

A [glittering Spear] or lightning Spear, is attributed to God, Hab. 3.11. Stones, Hail, Thunder, Lightning, &c. sent from Heaven are thereby noted, as Josh. 10.11.

When a [Shield or Target] is ascribed to God, it is to be understood of his pro­pitious Favour and Mercy to men through Christ, becoming their defence, protecti­on and security— warding (as a Sheild does blows) all assaults and violences of the Enemy, and converting all into Good for his people. Gen. 15.1. Deut. 33.29. Psal. 3.3, 4. Psal. 18.2.3. Psal. 28.6, 7. Psal. 84.11, 12. Psal. 5.12. For thou, O Lord, wilt bless the Righteous: With favour wilt thou compass them as with a Shield. The Word of God is called a Shield, Psal. 91.4. Prov. 30.5. Eph. 6.16.The Word a Shield. Because when it is received by Faith, its vertue is exerted in the defence of Belie­vers.

The Holy Spirit is called an [Earnest] given by God to Believers,The Spi­rit an Earnest. 2 Cor. 1.22. and chap 5.5. Eph. 1.14. The Hebrews call [...] (of whom the Greeks bor­rowed [...], the Latines Arrhabo,) any thing that is given to confirm a promise or bind a bargain, therefore some translate it a pledge. According to Suidas Ar­rhabo or an Earnest, is a piece of money given by the Buyer to the Seller to ascertain the payment of the residue— Jerom says, it is a certain Testimony, Evidence, or Obligation to secure the bargain made. It differs from a pledge, which is left as a security for the return of borrow'd money, and upon payment is returned to the Owner. The Holy Spirit is thus called because it assures believers, that they shall obtain Eternal Life— Some refer this metaphor to Nuptials or Marriage, as the Bridegroom pledges his Faith to the Bride, and gives her an Espousal token, as a pledge to assure her that he will Marry her; so when God Espouses himself to be­lievers, Hos. 2.19. I will betroth thee unto me for ever, yea I will betroth thee unto me in Righteousness, and in Judgment, and in Loving kindness and in Mercies, &c. But the Nuptials of the Lamb did not yet appear, Rev. 19.7. Therefore God gives them a most noble Earnest, viz. The Holy Spirit, to comfort their Hearts, and confirm their Faith that they shall in due season be admitted to the Marriage of the Lamb.

[Page 72]It is said, Psal. 75.8. For in the hand of the Lord there is a Cup, and the Wine is red, Cup. it is full of mixture, and he poureth out the same; but the dregs thereof all the wicked of the Earth shall wring them out, and drink, them— by which, the various kinds of Divine Afflictions are intimated.

Chariots.The like Metaphor we meet with Esa. 51.17, 22. &c. [Chariots] are attributed to God, by which either his Divine Magnificence is manifested to men, as Habac. 3.8. Thou didst ride upon thine Horses, and thy Chariots of Salvation, or else it de­notes those Myriads of ministring Angels mentioned, Psal. 68.17. The Chariots of God are twenty thousand, even many thousands of Angels.

Orbitae tuae stil­lant pin­guedinem.The [Wheels] by which a Chariot, or Cart moves are by an Elegant Metaphor at­tributed to God, Psal. 65.11. Thy Cart-wheels drop fatness— (so the Hebrew) that is, thy Clouds distill down Rain and Snow, which refresh and fertilize the ground, so that with the blessing of God it produces various, profitable, and neces­sary fruits— The Clouds are called the Chariots and Horses of God, and Rain is said to make the Earth fat and fruitful, Psal. 18.10, 11, 12. and Psal. 164.2, 3. Esa. 19.1.

Riches.[Riches] are attributed to God, by which the abundance of his Divine Majesty and Glory, as also his Mercy and Grace are noted, Prov. 8.18. Rom. 2.4. —9.23. —10.12— 11.33.— 2 Cor. 8.9. Eph. 1.7, 8, 18. —2.4, 7. —3.8, 16. Col. 1.27. Phil. 4.19. Such as receive these in true Faith, are called Rich in God, Luk. 12.21. and Jam. 2.5.

[Windows] are ascribed to Heaven the Habitation of God out of which he has (as it were) a prospect and sends good or evil upon men,Win­dows. Gen. 7.11. and 8.2.2. 2 Kings 7.2. Esa. 24.18. Mal. 3.10. Deut. 26.15. Psal. 14.2. and 102.19, 20. Lam. 3.8, 50.

Furnace.A [Furnace] is attributed to God, Esa. 31.9. by which the Divine Vengeance whereby God (as it were in a fiery oven) consumes the Enemies of his Church is in­timated, Esa. 30.30, 33. Psal. 21.8, 9, 10.

Inheri­tance.[Lot, Portion or Inheritance] is attributed to God, when it is said that the People and Land of Israel is his Heritage, Deut. 32.9. Jer. 2.7. and 12.7, 8. and 6.18. &c. By which his great Love, and singular Care and Providence is intima­ted. See Exod. 19.6. Deut. 11.12. And when it is said of Christ, that he is constituted Heir of all things, Heb. 1.2. And that he hath by Inheritance obtained a more excellent name then Angels, ver. 4. it is with respect to his right of primogeni­ture and Divine title of Command over all things.

Book.A [Book] is ascribed to God, by which his most exact knowledge and Providence is noted— the metaphor is taken from wisemen who are wont diligently to note down in their Books such Persons, Things, and memorable Actions, which they would remember.

The [Book] of Gods Providence, generally considered, concerns every Crea­ture, as Psal. 139.16. To this belongs the Book of Life, out of which to be blot­ted is death which we find mentioned, Exod. 32.32, 33. compared with ver. 10. Numb. 11.5. And sometimes more specially it concerns the Church and Believers, Psal. 56.8, 9. Mal. 3.16. The Book of life, so often mentioned in Scripture, as Esa. 4.3. Dan. 12.1. Psal. 69.28.29. Phil. 4.3. Luke 10.20. Rev. 3.5. and 13.8. and 17.8. and 20.12, 15. and 21. ult. is nothing else but the singular knowledge God has of such as shall be saved, of which. See 2 Tim. 2.19. The Lord knoweth them that are his, &c. Or as it were, a Catalogue which God keeps of those who by Faith in Christ are elected to Everlasting Life. In the vi­sion of Daniel, chap. 7.10. and John, Rev. 20.12. We find Books of Judge­ment mentioned, by which that Divine and most exact knowledge of mens Deeds and Words are symbolically denoted. And whereas the Scripture uses a plural ex­pression. Jerome and others do understand that there are two Books of Judgment, one for Believers, the other for Ʋnbelievers, for the World is wont to be distin­guished [Page 73] into these two sorts, John 3.18, [...]6. &c. To this relates that saying, Esa. 65.6. Jude 4. viz. Behold it is written before me, I will not keep silence, &c.

[Oyl] or Annointing is attributed to God, Psal. 45.7.Oyl. Thy God hath Annoint­ed thee with the Oyl of gladness, above thy Fellows. Heb. 1.9. Cant. 1.3. Where the Holy Spirit with his gifts is understood which appears by comparing the place with Esa. 61.1. Act. 10.38. John 3.34. Where the Unction of Christ as a King and Priest is treated off, hence comes the derivation of the name of our Saviour, who is called [...], Ʋnctus, Annointed, Joh [...] 1.42. and 4.25. [...], by way of eminency, Believers in a measure are made partakers of this Unction, who by true Faith adhere to Christ the chief head, as Esa. 61.3. 2 Cor. 1.21. 1 John 2.20, 27. Whence they also are rightly denominated, [...] ▪ Christians, (with respect to their primitive vocation or Original) from the Annointed Saviour Christ. See Rom. 5.5. Tit. 3.5, 6. Zach. 12.10. &c.

[Bread] is attributed to God, and Sacrifices with which it is said he is pleased,Bread. as a man with meat and drink, Numb. 28.2. Upon which place, Vatablus says, by the term Bread, Flesh is understood as verse 24. and the sense is, keep up the Rites of offering flesh and victimes which are sacrific'd that they may be a pleasure to me, therefore let me be refreshed with the favour of it as I appointed. God calls sacrifi­ces his Meat, after the manner of men, who are chiefly fed with Flesh, Wine, Oyl, Meal, Bread, &c. So God would have those things in his sacrifices, not that he feeds on them, or (in proper speaking) is delighted with them, but that they are grate­ful to him upon another account, viz. For their Faith in his beloved Son, who was typified and shadowed by all the Sacrifices. Christ is called the Bread of Life frequently, John 6.35, 48. and other places for his quickning, strenghtning, and salutiferous energy, and power, which is exerted or communicated to Believers, who by true Faith do spiritually eat Christ, that is, recieve him, and apply his benefits to their own Souls.

By this Trope God is an Hypothetical speech,A Seal. attributes a Signet or [Seal] to him­self, Jer. 22.24. Though Coniah— were the Signet upon my right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence, that is, although he were most dear to me, and always in my sight, &c. For a Sealing Ring or Signet is a symbol of Love and singular Care, as Cant. 8.6. Hag. 2.24.

The Character of the substance of God, Heb. 1.3.Heb. 1.3. The cha­racter of his sub­stance. [...], character sub [...]tanti­ae ejus. Is an appellation given to Christ— the term [Character] is a Metaphor taken from the image, figure or im­pression of a Seal, representing the Prototype or first p [...]ttern it self in every thing: Bullinger in his Comment says, as the Seal is most properly exprest in the wax, so the subsistency of the Father most properly shines forth in Christ. [...] (which [...] comes from [...], insculpere, to ingrave) in this place does not so much respect the Image or impression taken, as the Seal it self. The Father has (as it were) most indelibly ingraven, his whole Essence and Majesty upon this his Eternal Son, and has drawn his own effigies upon him from Everlasting, being his substantial Image, and exact representation, which explication fairly agrees with this Mystery, leading our mind to such discoveries as will stir us up to desire the gracious participation of its fruit and efficacy. For it opens the secret of eternal generation, and shews us the Love of the heavenly Father. A Seal is highly valued, and more closely kept then other things. Of the Fathers most fervent Love to the Son, we have instances, Esa. 42.1. Matth. 3.17. and 17.3. John 3.35. and 17.24. By Zerubbabel, Hag. 2.23. Is meant Christ (of whom that Captain of the People was a Type) the phrase I will make thee as a Signet is thus to be understood, viz. I will take care of thee, in thee will I rest in Love, thou shalt be always in mine Eye, worn in my hand for I have chosen thee alluding to, Esa. 42.1.

The use of a Seal is to make impression in Wax, by which Covenants are Sealed, Ratified and Confirmed— Christ is the heavenly Signet who has the Glory of the Father, and the most express figure of his Majesty instampt upon him from Eter­nity. The Foundation of God standeth sure having this Seal, 2 Tim. 2.19. By which Believers are Sealed, 2 Cor. 1.22. Eph. 1.13. and 4.30. John 3.33. with 6.27. A Signet leaves the Impression in the wax▪ By Christ the lost Image of God [Page 74] is restor'd in Believers, now inchoatively or with respect of beginning; after Death consummatively, or with respect to perfection, Col. 3.10. Renewed in knowledge after the Image of him that created him, in him, and by him, believers are made par­takers of the Divine nature, 1 Pet. 1.4. Not by essential transmutation but a Mystical Union.

Trea­sures.[Treasures] are ascribed to God, which is sometimes applyed for Good, so the Heavens are called his Treasures, Deut. 28.12. which is expounded, Act. 14.17. He did good, and gave us Rain from Heaven, and fruitful Seasons, filling our hearts with Food and Gladness.

Sometimes it is put for Vengeance or Divine Wrath, Deut. 32.34. Is not this laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my Treasures? To me belongeth Venge­ance and Recompence, &c. Here is noted the certainty of Divine punishment, be­cause it is hoarded and laid up by God as it were in a Treasury, and sealed up so, as that it becomes most certain.

(2.) His Justice and Righteousness, for by the infidelity and stubborness of men their punishment is Treasured up, and they exposed to the Wrath of God, &c. Rom. 2.5.

(3) The long Forbearance and Patience of God in his delays of executing Ven­geance; for those things only are laid aside, of which there is not a present, but a fu­ture use, &c.

(4.) His Severity, for which. See Jer. 50.25. and Rom. 2.9, 10. This seal­ed Treasure will be opened at the great Judgment, &c.

God is said to bring the Wind out of his Treasuries, Psal. 135.7. Jer. 10.13. and 51.16. By which not only its hidden original is declared, John 3.8. But also its utility, and efficacy, and those other rare qualities which are in the Wind. Job 38.22. There is mention made of the Treasures of Snow and Hail, for the same Reason.

Heavenly and Eternal good things are called (and indeed they are the best) Trea­sures, Esa. 33.6. Matth. 6.20. and 19.21. Mark. 10.21. Luke 12.33. and 18.22. 2 Cor. 4.7. This is a Treasure that never faileth, and they that use it become the Friends of God, &c. Col. 2.3. All the Treasures of Wisdom and Knowledge are said to be hid in Christ, that is, the whole fulness, or eminent plenty of Divine Wisdom.

Cloath­ing.[Cloathing] is ascribed to God, Psal. 93.1. The Lord reigneth, he is Clothed with Majesty, the Lord is Cloathed with Strength, wherewith he hath girded himself, Psal. 104.1. Thou art Cloathed with Honour and Majesty, verse 2. Who coverest thy self with light as with a Garment, &c. By this is signified the infinite and admirable Ma­jesty and Beauty of God, who in his Creation of light, and other great works, gave himself to be seen as it were by men. See Esa. 51.9. and 59.17. For in these places certain Garments are ascribed to God, in his execution of Vengeance against his Ene­mies, by an elegant Hypotuposis— The metaphor is taken from a Warrior compleatly armed who comes into the field to encounter his Enemy. In both places Christ the Captain of our Salvation, is to be understood by the Analogy of the Text— He is said to be the arm of the Lord, because he is the Power of God, 1 Cor. 1.24. And Esa. 59.14. It is said that there was no intercessor of the race of man (that was dead in sin) that could free him from the power of Satan, which is a plain intimation Christ himself would be the intercessor, the Conqueror of Satan, and Death, and our Saviour. See ver. 20, 21. Where the promise of the Redeemer is plainly gi­ven. And the Redeemer shall come to Sion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord— &c. Psal. 45.8. The Mystical habit of Christ the Coelestial Spouse is described, upon which place Brentius thus paraphrases.

All thy Garments smell of Myrrhe, and Aloes and Cassia, out of the Ivory Palaces, whereby they have made thee glad— that is, all the Garments wherewith thou art apparelled, and which can be produced for thy use, are not composed of wooden or vile materials, but brought from Ivory (and most precious) Repositories (for these are called the Houses or Palaces of Garments) they yield no other Odor, but Myrrh, Aloes, and Cassia, that is, a most fragrant and odoriferous scent, of which thou tak­est pleasure; that is, that most sweet fame which Christ himself and his Apostles by [Page 75] Preaching the Gospel have spread not only in Judea, but in all parts of the World, Luke 10.17, 18, 19, &c. 2 Cor. 2.15, 16.

Christ is said passively to be put on by Believers, Rom. 13.14. Gal. 3.27. When he dwells in their hearts by Faith, Eph. 3.17. and makes them partakers of his Ce­lestial benefits.

The Apostles are said to be endued with strength from on high, Luke 24.49. When they receive the gift of the Holy Spirit as it is expounded, Act. 1.8. On the other side, a man is said to put on the Spirit of God, when it powerfully speaks or operates in or by him, as a man that goes forth in order to any work amongst men covers himself with a Garment, Judg. 6.34. 1 Chron. 12.18. 2 Chron. 24.20.

Moses calls Jehovah [A Banner,] when he gave the Altar he erected a Name, Banner. [...] Jehovah nissi. The Lord my Banner, Exod. 17.15. That is, the Lord is my helper both now and hereafter, against the Amalekites, and all other Adversa­ries, Esa. 11.10. it is said, the Messiah shall stand for an Ensign (or Banner) of the People, by which his Kingly Office is noted, as this passage is quoted, Rom. 15.12. He shall rise to Reign over the Gentiles; For a Banner or Trophy is a sign of Vi­ctory, Superiority, and Lordship, inasmuch as the People are said to act under the Banner of the Prince. Christ is the only Asylum or Refuge, where such as fly to him by Faith are protected and kept safe from the spiritual Enemy, as the Souldiery re­pair to the Standard of the General, where they are secure. See Cant. 2.4.

Psal. 60.4. Thou hast given a Banner to them that fear thee, that it may be dis­played because of the Truth— Which may be truly applyed to Christ; upon these words Ainsworth says, that the word (Banner) is applyed to the Flag or Ensign of the Gospel, Esa. 11.12. and 49.22. and 62.10. Here to David and his Vi­ctory— to be high displayed, or to use for a Banner, which hath the name of lifting high, Esa. 59.19. The Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a Standard against him, that is he shall bring to passe that Christ shall be that Standard (or Banner) of the Peo­ple, for as Souldiers aggregate or repair to the Military Standard, so the Saints are gathered together by the knowledge of Christ, the Captain of their Salvation.

A [Rod] and Staff, is attributed to God and our Saviour Christ, Psal. 23.4.A Rod. Thy Rod and thy Staff comfor me, of which we have spoke in the Metonymie of the sign for the thing signified, Psal. 45.6. Psal. 110.2. Heb. 1.8. The Rod or Scep­ter of Christ, signifies his saving word whereby he directs his Church and People. See Esa. 2.3.

The Rod of God, signifies also Castigation and Punishment, Job 9.34. and 21.9. In both which places the Chaldee renders it a Stroke. The King of Assyria is called the Rod of Gods Anger, Esa. 10.5. Because by him, as with a Rod, he was to chastise the People, and declare his Wrath against sin. See verse 24. The Word has almost the same signification, Psal. 2.9. Where (the epithete of Iron being ad­ded) it is a symbol of a more grievous and severe punishment, Thou shalt break them with a Rod of Iron, viz. Such contumacious and stubborn Enemies, that despise thy Kingdom, whether they be Jews or Gentiles, as ver. 1, 2. These are propheti­cal words of God the Father, respecting Christ his only begotten Son, who was constituted King of Sion, and (as it were) inaugurated to the sacred Offices of Judge and Redeemer. See Act. 4.25, 26, 27. All those were to be broken with and Iron Rod by Christ the Judge, who would not submit to the Scepter of his sav­ing Grace, Psal. 45.6, 7. and 110.6. Esa. 2.3. but stubbornly resisted him, and therefore by the Sword of his Anger (which is that Iron Scepter or Rod) as of a severe Judge they were to be destroyed.

To this place of the Psalmist there seems to be an Allusion, Ezek. 21.10, 13.Ezek. 21.10, 13. ex­pounded In our Translation, thus— A Sword is sharpned to make a sore slaughter it is furbished that it may glitter: Should we then make Mirth? It contemneth the Rod of my Son, as every tree (or as in the marginal reading,) the Rod of my Son despiseth every Tree, and verse 13. —What if the Sword contemn even the Rod? &c. Where an obscure Pe­riphrasis [Page 76] in the original Hebrew, has begot diverse Interpretations— What seems to me to be most proper and suitable I will lay down, and submit it to the Judgement of the Godly and Learned.

1. It is certain that the Prophets do frequently cut off their speech, introducing even in the very context,In cap. 8. Jerem. then this, and then another speaking, upon which Jerom says, that the change of persons, especially in the Writings of the Prophets, makes the Text difficult to be understood; which, if delivered with a clearer distinction of places, causes, and times, would render those things plain which seem to be ob­scure, Nahum. 2. Hence the Prophets are so obscure, because when one thing is treated of, there is suddenly a change to another thing or person. as Psal. 2.1. The New Testament is introduced, as speaking and complaining of Christs Enemies (See Acts 4.24, 25. &c.) And verse 3. The Wicked themselves speak— ver. 4. The Churches or the Psalmists words are set down, ver. 6. God the Father speaks, ver. 7. God the Son; then again the Father, ver. 10. And then the Royal Psalmist speaks the Conclusion.

Esa. 51.1. Jehovah is represented as speaking, ver. 3. The Prophet, ver. 4. Jehovah again, ver. 9. The Prophet, ver. 12 Then Jehovah, and so on — Some­thing of the like nature may be observed, Esa. 53.1, 4, 14. And in the whole Book of the Canticles, wherein there is a vicissitude and change of Persons continued.

2. There are frequent Allusions in the Prophetical Writings to things written by Divine Revelation before them, as shall be shew [...]d, chap. 20. following.

3. In the very Text of Ezek. 21.27. He prophesies of Christ the Son of God, as constituted a Judge by the Father, and in the stead of God attributes Judgement and the power of Judging to him; as our Saviour himself says, John 5.22. That all Judgement was committed to him by the Father. These things presupposed the explication of these words will not be difficult— The Prophet declares the vindica­tive Anger of God against the rebellious Jews, by the similitude of a furbished and sharpned Sword delivered into the violent Enemies hand in order to slay; but sudden­ly changing his speech, by the change of persons and alluding to Psal. 2.9. Thus speaks ver. 10. A Sword is sharpned to make a sore slaughter, it is furbished that it may glitter, (so far the words of Jehovah, to which a short but Divine Paraenesis (or ex­hortation) of the Prophets is subjoyned, advising the people what they should do to avoid that destruction) should we, or shall we then make mirth (that is, shall we vaunt proudly, let us rather tremble, and submitting to and serving the Lord as en­joyned, Psal. 2.11. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoyce with Trembling; let us rejoyce and work Rightousness, as true Conversion and Piety towards God is ex­pressed, Esa. 64.5. If you do this, it will be well, but if not says, Jehovah again) Virga filii mei spernens omne lig­num. The Rod of my Son, despising every Tree, (so the Hebrew) [shall come upon you, or [...], is at hand, as v. 13. And whereas it is said that this Rod despises every tree, we are to understand that it consists of more lasting materials, then any sort of Wood, being of Iron, which is very hard and difficult to be broken, as Ps 2.9. See Esa. 30.32.] This, but more concisely, is laid down, v. 13. VVhen there was a tryal, what then? (as if he had said, whilst by my castigations they were in a fatherly manner corrected, have they hitherto repented? Or what effect has it produced? Even nothing at all) shall not therefore a Rod despising (viz. that Iron Rod despising, [or hard in comparison of] all other wood) came upon them, (that is, shall I not deservedly save that Iron Rod of my Son as a sharpned Sword amongst them, and so, rather deal with them as open Enemies, then transgressing Children) says the Lord God. So much for that place. But observe that as Ezekiel alludes to the second verse of that Psalm in this place. So Esa. 13.14. Alludes to the later part, he shall break it as the potters Vessel, &c. In alike description of punishment upon a stubborn and refractory people.

CHAP. VIII. Of Metaphors Translated from other Creatures to God.

THE things existing in Nature besides Man are either Animate or Inanimate. The Animate are such as have a sensitive Life, as Beasts, or a vegetative, as Plants. From Beasts are taken and attributed to God.

1. Certain Names of Living Creatures,Lamb. as when Christ is called a [Lamb] John 1.29. Rev. 13.8. Because he was made an immolation or sacrifice for the sins of the whole World, which the sacrifice of Lambs in the Old Testament Typically prefigured, 1 Cor. 5.7. 1 Pet. 1.16. Rev. 5.6. as also, with respect to his mildness, patience, innocence, and beneficence, &c. See Esa. 16.1. 2 Sam. 8.2. with 2 Kings 3.4. &c.

Christ is called a [Lyon] Rev. 5.5. Behold the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Lyon. hath overcome. He is so called, because of his great and Divine Fortitude in his Resur­rection from the Dead, and his victory over the Devil, the World, and Hell. D. Franzius, in Hist. Animal. pag. 73. Gen. 49.9. says— Tota po­litia Ju­daeorum dicitur leo & ca­tulus leo­nis, propter summam firmita­tem ipsi Imperii, &c. The whole Polity of the Jews is called a Lion, and a Lions whelp, because of the great firmness of that Empire, which endured even until Christs time, and was esteemed then the most famous among the Governments of the World; and although in some respective seasons they had Kings, emi­nent for Power and Wisdom. Yet Christ only is called a Lion ( [...] or) by way of eminency, that is, he was the most powerful, most wise, and most excellent of the Kings, that ever ruled in Juda, &c. And Drusius lib. 10. p. 410. The Lion of the Tribe of Juda, whose Coat of Armour was a Lion, which was painted in the Ban­ner of that Tribe in three colours; with these words, Arise, O Lord, let such as hate thee be scattered, and thine Enemies Fly from before thee, &c.

The Coats of Armour of the four principal Tribes of Israel, as R. Kimchi, on Ezek. 1. ult. recites them from the Thalmud, were thus. In the Banner of Judah the shape of a Lion, according to that which is written (Gen. 49.9.) Judah is a Li­ons whelp. In the Banner of Reuben, the shape of a man, according to what is said of it (Gen. 30.14.) And Reuben found Mandrakes in the Field, which are of a mans shape. In the Banner of Ephraim, the similitude of a Cow, according to (Deut. 33.17.) His Glory is like the firstling of his Bullock or Cow. And in the Banner of Dan, the shape of an Eagle, as it is said (Gen. 49.17.) Dan shall be a Serpent by the way, and it's said here (as Esa. 30.6.) The Viper and Fiery Flying Serpent.

Psal. 22. In the Title, Luther and other interpreters say,A Hind. that Christ is called [...] Ascleth, the morning Hind; upon which see Luth. Tom. 2. Lat. Jen. fol. 238. Illyricus in Clav. Script. Col. 112, 113. D. Gerhard. Harm. histor. passionis Dominicae cap. 7. p. 310. D. Franz. Hist. Animal. p. 163, &c. To which also some refer, the Chald. Paraphr. which says, for thy Everlasting and Morning sa­crifice, by which the end or reason for which this afflicted Hind was slain, seems to be fairly expressed. For the Oblation of Christ upon the Cross is truly an Everlast­ing and a most perfect sacrifice, Heb. 10.12, 14, 26. It is called the Morning (Hind) because his vertue and prefiguration, began about the beginning of the World after the fall of our first Parents, Rev. 13.8. Hebr. 13.8. Typified by the Morning sacrifices wont to be offered in the Old Testament, Numb. 28.4. The Appellation of a [Morning Hind] is thus expounded viz. By it is denoted a Hind, which the Hunters, in the Morning when it goes abroad to feed, lye in wait for, take, and slay; so Christ with his Disciples going abroad in Judea in the morning, [Page 78] season, that is, in the beginning of his Kingdom, or the first beamings of his Divine and Evangelical light, to the pastures of Life, (not so much to feed himself, as to administer to others) was hunted by the Devils, and by their setting Dogs the Jews, and his Apostles, being as Hinds dispersed, he was at last taken and slain by them which seems to be intimated, ver. 16. For Dogs have compassed me, the as­sembly of the wicked have inclosed me, they peirced my hands and my Feet.

To this phrase some apply the search that Herod made for him even in his Infancy, and his being driven into Egypt, Matth. 2.14, 15. And the gathering together of the Chief Priests, Scribes and Elders of the People early in the Morning to condemn Christ, as Mark. 15.1. And as the Morning Hind is not taken and slain meerly to destroy it, as Wolves are wont to be killed, but that it may serve for pleasant food: So Christ in the sacrifice of his Cross and Death becomes most sweet food of Life and Salvation for us, to be sacramentally and spiritually eaten. Upon which Musculus says thus— O Flesh of Christ truly like that of a Hinds, but more exceedingly sweet to the faithful Soul, then any things the Nobles of this World tast in their delights. And that there may be nothing wanting to give it a delicate savour and relish, he was not meerly slain, but well turmoiled, hunted, and tyred before, as our great men are wont to do in hunting and agitating their Deer before they kill it, that the Flesh may become more sweet, tender, and delicate▪ &c. Adding, and see how agreeable this compari­son is to the Death of Christ, for as the side of the pursued Hind is exposed to the Hunters dart, Christs side was upon the Cross pierced with a spear.

Psal. 22.6. Christ calls himself a [Worm,] with respect to his debased state, and the extream contempt to which he was exposed in the World;A Worm. Upon which Eran­zius in the aforesaid Book, pag. 826. says, Sicut vermis habetur pro vilissimo excre­mento, &c. As a Worm is accounted a most vile excrement, which men will not so much as handle, or if they do will wash their hands after it, and if they see them lye upon the Earth will remove them from the sight of men— So was Christ treated with extream con­tempt, when he hung upon the Cross.

It may not be amiss here to insert the paraphrase of De pre­cipuis si­dei Mys­ter. Tract 2. p. 256. Weidnerus upon Prov. 30.19. Difficilia mihi sunt ista tria cognoscere: Viam Aquilae in Coelo, h. e. Viam Christi ascendentis in caelum cum carne assumpta, &c. Those three things are difficult for me to know: The way of an Eagle in the Air, that is, the way of Christ ascending into Heaven, in his humane Nature: The way of a Serpent upon a Rock, that is, the way of Christ from the Cross to the Sepulchre, which was cut out of a Rock, and from whence he rose the third day, whence Christ himself says, as Moses lifted up the brasen Serpent, &c. The way of a Ship in the middle of the Sea, that is, the way of Christ passing through the World in Tempests and Storms. The way of a man with a Maid, that is, the way of Christ in his incarnation in the Womb of a Virgin, &c. It is added, ver. 20. Of the way of an Adulterous Women, that is, the Trea­cheries and Machinations of the Synagogue against Christ— See Burgensis upon Esa. 7. Addit. 5. fol. 21. What is spoken of the Eagle by Gregor. Nazianz is accommodated to the Diety of Christ,Super Orat. 6. de spir. S. which is ineffable, as D. Franzius cites it, page 327. &c.

2. Some Actions of Living Creatures, are ascribed to God.

To Roar.AS [Roaring,] which is the property of Lions, Joel 3.16. Amos 1.2. By which the Power and Efficacy of his Anger, and his Word is intimated. See Amos 3.8. Hosea. 11.10. Esa. 5.29. &c.

Upon which Illyricus says, it is a Metaphor, for as the voice of a Roaring Lion is terrible to all other Living Creatures, so men ought to be moved and tremble, when the Divine Majesty speaks to them from Heaven by Thunder and and Light­ning.

[Page 79] Jer. 25.30. The Lord shall Roar from on high, and utter his voice from his Holy habitation, Roaring he shall Roar upon his habitation, that is, like a Lion ready to seize upon his prey he shall thunder horribly. See ver. 38. In all this speech to the end of the chapter, God is compared by an Allegory to a Lion, Kings and Princes to Shepherds, the People to Flocks, and the Nations to Pastures and Sheepfolds.

Job. 37.4. Roaring is applyed to Thunder (which is called the voice of Cod.) To the cry of Christ, Psal. 22.1. Why art thou so far from my Salvation (or helping me) and the words of my Roaring. See Heb. 5.7. and Psal. 38.8.

God is said to [Fly] 2 Sam. 22.11. Psal. 18.10.To Fly: Because of the most swift and impetuous motion of the Wind, and sudden Tempests of which he there speaks. The Spirit of God is said in the first Creation to move or rest upon the Waters, Gen. 1.2. While by its operative and vital power it cherishes, and as it were made the waters apt for the production of all things, (together with Heaven and Earth, which then were mixt together.) A metaphor taken from Birds, who sit upon their eggs,Gram. Sacra. p. 299. and by their vital heat bring their young to maturity and perfection.

Some Members or Parts of a Living Creature are ascribed to God.

AS [the Horn of Salvation,] 2 Sam. 22.3. Ps. 18.2. To Christ, Luke 1.69.Horn. For as a Horn defends Beasts, and thereby their strength is exercised; so God is the most strong defence of the Godly. Chemnitius, on Luke 1.69. By the word Horn strength and Power is understood, (as Psal. 75.10. and 112.9. Lam. 2.3.) By the word lifting up is described its solid strength and invincible stability, against which even the Gates of Hell not prevail. It is called, the Horn of Salvation, that is, it is salutiferous, obtaining victory against the Enemy, and bringing safety to Captives, &c. As Bulls or Cows, strike, gore or push down their Enemies, so we by Faith in the Mediator, are sufficiently armed against the power of the Devil.

[Wings] are attributed to God, by which that singular defence, patronage, care,VVings. and protection which he affords his people is signifyed, Psal. 9.4. He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his Wings shalt thou trust, whence it is called the sha­dow of his Wings, Psal. 17.8. and 36.7. and 57.1. and 63.7. The Covert of his Wings, Psal. 61.4. A metaphor taken from Birds or Fowl, especially Hens, who gather their Chickens under them, cherish them, and protect them from being seized upon, by Kites or other Birds of prey— The whole similitude is to be read, Deut. 32.11. Esa. 31.5. Matth. 23.37. As to Exod. 19.4. I bare you on Eagles Wings. See Gram. Sacr. p. 483.

There are some Metaphors taken from [Plants,] and attributed to God,Plants. A branch as A [Branch,] Esa. 4.2. Esa. 11.1. Jer. 23.5. and 33.15. Zach. 3.8. and 6.12. Which places by the Chald. Interpreter are elegantly expounded of Christ the Messiah. Here principally his temporal Nativity or Pedigree according to the Flesh is noted, as a Branch derives its original from the Earth, and having that (as it were) for its Mother. It intimates also the greenness, felicity and perpetuity of his Kingdom, as the Hebrew word ( [...] germinavit, crevit,) he hath budded, grown, or increased is used of the Kingdom of Christ, and the blessings thereof, Esa. 43.19. and 61.11, 12. Psal. 85.11, 12. Zach. 6.12. The Messiah is called the fruit of the Earth, Esa. 4.2. With respect also to his Original as to his humanity, Psal. 67.6. Then shall the Earth yield her increase or fruit— This whole Psalm treats of the blessings and benefits that will accrue to believers from Christ.

Luke 23.31. Christ calls himself a Green-tree, opposing to himself a Dry-tree, by which we are to understand the Wicked— If they do these things in a Green-tree, [Page 80] what shall be done in the Dry— that is, if God suffers me, that am innocent, and like a Green and Fruit bearing Tree, to be so grievously afflicted, and cut down as a dry or barren-Tree, how much more grievously will he permit you to be afflicted who are guilty persons, and sinners, and like dry trees, that will bear no Fruit. Some by the tree of Life, Rev. 20.7 and 22.2, 14. understand Christ, others Life it self and Eternal happiness, which is almost the same, that consisting solely in Christ, 1 John 5.11, 12, 20.

The Root of Jesse and David. In die Pasch. Serm. 1.Christ is called [The Root of Jesse and David, Esa. 11.10. Rom. 15.12. Rev. 5.5. and 22.16. Which some expound by a Metonymie, as the Root is put for that which springs from the Root, as Esa. 11.1. Others say 'tis spoken with respect to his Divinity, Bernard says, it is not said that David is his Root, but he the Root of David, because he bears, and is not born by any. Fitly therefore O Holy Da­vid dost thou call thy Son, thy Lord, because you did not bear the Root, but the Root, thee. Some derive the Reason of this appellation from these Places, Esa. 14.30. I will kill thy Root with Famine, the Chald. renders it, thy Son; the Septu­agint, thy Seed: Mal. 4.1. He shall leave them neither Root nor Branch, the Chald. renders it, neither Son nor Sons Son, or Nephew— whence it appears that a Son, espe­cially the first born, is as it were, the Root of the Family, from whom such as are sprung, are like Branches. Hence the Patriarchs, from whom the People of Israel sprung, and with whom God first entered into Covenant are called a Root, and their posterity Branches, Rom. 11.16. Christ is therefore called the Root of Jesse and David, because he is that first-born, Psal. 89 27. (Also I will make him my first-born higher then the Kings of the Earth) issued (as to his humanity) from the fami­ly of Jesse and David, and was the Foundation or Root of all the spiritual Family of God, whence he is called the first born among many Brethren, Rom. 8.29. Which Reason seems to be hinted, Esa. 11.10 Where he is said to stand for an Ensign of the People, to which the Gentiles shall seek by which the Call and Conversion of that People is described, and the Constitution of the New Testament, Church four fold, which is like a fruit bearing tree, standing upon Christ as a Root, drawing Juice, Nou­rishment and Life from him.

A Vine. Christ is called a [Vine] John 15.1.5. By which metaphor, principally, his most strict and close Union with his Disciples and all Believers is intimated, hence they are called Branches ingrafted in him, verse 2, 4, 5. The Vine is homogeneal, or of the same Nature with the Branches, so is Christ according to his humanity with Believers, Eph. 5.30. Heb. 2.14.— The Vine imbibes or drinks in a copious humor, and plenty of moisture, which it after Communicates to the Branches: So of the fulness of Christ we all receive grace for grace, John 1.16. By a vital jujce de­rived from the Vine, the branches are animated, vegetated and fertiliz'd, so as to bear sweet fruit: By the vertue of Christ and his Spirit given to Believers they are in­livened, quickned, and made apt to bear the fruits of Piety to God (which fruit cheareth God and Man, Judg. 9.13.) but in the manner of this conjunction, there is a diversity or difference. For, Branches grow upon the Vine naturally; but Be­lievers are ingrafted in the true Vine Spiritually, &c.

This is the primary Reason of this metaphor; but by way of inference other things are intimated, viz. The meanness of the Vine, as to outward aspect, Ezek. 15.2, 3. Quadrates very well with Christ in his state of Humiliation, Esa. 53.2, 3. —The dignity of the Vine, before other Plants, the delicate smell of its flowers, and the excellency and preciousness of its fruit, &c. with other things may be congruously applyed to Christ the true and Celestial Vine.

Christ is called A [Bundle of Myrrhe] Cant. 1.13. Of which, abundance grows in Arabia;A Bundle of Myrrh Myrrh is indeed bitter, but most fragrant, and of singular profit, in clean­sing and healing of VVounds, in expelling corrupt humors out of the Body, in easing pains or griefs, in comforting the heart, and most effectual in preserving the body from putrefaction. All which may be most fairly accommodated and improved in paralells applyed to our blessed Saviours passion, most holy Merits, and their fruit and efficacy to the Saints when improved in Faith.

[Page 81] Exod. 30.23. There is mention of the Myrrhe of Liberty, (so the Hebrew) the Chald. pure, incorrupt, our Version, pure Myrrhe, of which was made the Holy Oyntment with which the chief Priests were wont to be Annointed— Which prefigured the Holy Unction of Christ, the Sacrifice of whose Death is that Myrrh of Liberty, afford­ing a heavenly deliverance from Satan, Death, Sin and Hell, John 8.36. &c.

He is also called a [Cluster of Camphire] Cant. 1.14.Bundle of Cam­phire. This Tree is said to be odoriferous bearing Clusters of an exceeding greatness, Plin. lib. 12. cap. 24. Some interpret it Cypress, for its sweetness, fragrancy and plenty of glorious Fruit, which things also may be attributed by way of improvement to Christ. Some Pa­raphrase it thus, Jesus is Myrrhe to me in his bitter passion, and a cluster of Cam­phire, in his glorious Resurrection.

He is called the [Rose (or flower) of Sharon,] and the Lilly of the Vallies, Rose of Sharon. by which his true humanity, his purity and sanctity, as also the amability of his Office, and blessings he bestows are intimated, as shall be treated of elsewhere more large. See D [...]. D. Gerhard. Meditat. in Postilla Salomonea Dominic. quinquages. fest. puri­fic. 17. post tr. fest.

What Metaphors are deduced from inanimate things, in Nature,Things inani­mate. and transferred to God, do belong either universally, or severally to those things. To the former Classe belongs,

When there is a certain [Dimension] ascribed to the Infinite and Unmeasurable God,Dimensi­ons. and a comparison with this whole Universe, whereas betwixt Finite and Infinite, there is properly no proportion, Job. 11.8. It is (viz. Jehovah) the heights of Heaven, The Deeps (which is the perfection of God as ver. 7.) beyond Hell, what canst thou know? ver. 9. The Measure thereof (is) longer then the Earth, and broa­der then the Sea: By which the infiniteness and immensity, of God, and his Wis­dom, is intimated, of which ver. 7. Canst thou by searching find out God? (others render it, canst thou find out the Depth, viz. of the Wisdom of God?) Canst thou find out to the perfection of the Almighty (others say, canst thou find out the end of Al­mighty Wisdom.) To this belongs that Sacred Mathematical expression of Paul, speaking of the Love of God and our Saviour Christ, Eph. 3.18. That ye may be able to comprehend with all Saints, what is the breadth, the length, Eph. 3.18. latitude, longitude profundi­ty, subli­mity. and depth and heigth, viz. Of the Love of Christ, as verse 19. Which passeth knowledge, shewing by an Anthropopathy, the unmeasurableness and immensity of that Love, as if he had said, it is higher then the Heavens, deeper then the Sea, larger then the Earth, lon­ger then any time, enduring even to all Eternity— Upon which place Osiander says, the sence is, I pray God that ye may be able with other sincere Christians, after a certain manner to comprehend the unmeasurable Love of Christ towards you, which, that I may use a Metaphor, extends it self to all Dimensions. And Hyperius in his Comment very excellently— The sence is (says he) My prayer is that you may have a full, certain, and absolute knowledge of the Love of Christ in all its parts. Geometri­cians are wont to observe these differences of Dimensions, when they inquire into the magnitude of solid Bodies. Such therefore as belong to coporeal things, the A­postle artificially compares with things incorporeal and spiritual; and signifies that he earnestly desires that they should arrive to an equal certainty and perfection in the knowledge of spiritual things, chiefly of the Love of Christ, as Mathematicians do in the measure of solid bodies, &c.

Here we are to note, that when Magnitude is attributed to God, not the quantity of a corporeal or bodily size and bigness, but the very infiniteness of his Essence, and essential proprieties is to be understood, Exod. 15.16. and 18.11. Numb. 14.19. Deut. 3.24. Exod. 5.8. Psal. 48.1, 2. and 147.4, 5. Jer. 32.17, 18, 19. Dan. 2.45. Mal. 1.14. &c. Job. 33.12. There is a comparison of God with man, (with respect to greatness— whereby the unsearchable Immensity of God is intimated, (as if he had said) God, not only in Majesty and Power, but also in Truth, Justice, VVisdom and Mercy, infinitely excells all Mortals, therefore thy presumption is unjust to contend with him.

1 John 3.20. It is said that God is greater then our Hearts, when the Speech is of a guilty Conscience, as if he had said, if Conscience, which in many is blind, con­vinces [Page 80] [...] [Page 81] [...] [Page 82] us of Hypocrisie, how much will God, who is the greatest of all things, and infinite in knowledge charge us in his Judgment. 1 John 4.4. God is said to be greater then him that is in the World, that is, Antichrist, as ver. 3. Whom believers by the power of the infinite and invincible God, dwelling by grace in them, do overcome.

John 10.29. God is said to be greater then all, that is, that he (beyond compa­rison) excells the whole Universe in Power and Majesty.

By the same reason a discretive quantity, or plenty, is ascribed to God, as Psal. 86.15. [...] much (or plentiful) in Mercy and Truth, Psal. 103.8. Great (or plentious) in Mercy, Psal. 130.7. With him is plenteous Redemption, by which is noted the infiniteness of God and his attributes, as it is described, Psal. 147.5. Great is our Lord, and of great Power, and of his understanding (there is) no number— So the Hebrew. See Psal. 36.6. Rom. 11.33. 1 Cor. 2.1.

In [Speaking] of things inanimate severally, we will distribute them,

  • 1. Into things Celestial. And,
  • 2. Things Elementary.

To the first kind belongs when God is said to look down from Heaven, and sit in, or inhabit Heaven, as his Throne. Of which before.

Light.Also when God is called [Light] 1 John 1.5. By which his Majesty, Holi­ness, Perfection, and Blessedness is noted, as when celestial Light is transmitted to us, there is nothing Fairer, Clearer, Purer, or more comfortable, whence it is said, Eccl. 11.7. Truly the Light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the Eyes to behold the Sun. The Greeks had an Adagy or Proverb [...], dulce lumen so­lis, sweet is the Light of the Sun.

1 Tim. [...].16. God is said to dwell in ( [...],) lucem inaccessibilem, inac­cessible or unapproachable Light, or as our English Translation renders it, The Light which no man can approach unto, that is, to act with, that Glory, Majesty, and Felicity, which no Creature either can have, or comprehend. Upon which Chrysostom. Hom. 3. de incom­prehens. Dei Nat. says, The Apostle says that God dwells i [...] inaccessible Light, which is more then if he had said incomprehensible, for that which by inquiry and search we cannot find out, we call incomprehensible, but that which prohibits all essay of search, and to which none can come near we call inaccessible.

Some with inaccessible Light, compare an opposite phrase, where the difficulty of fully knowing God in his Majesty and Essence is described by his dwelling in Mists and Clouds; for every corporeal Light, which for its exceeding brightness cannot be beheld, may be truly stiled a Mist, and therefore inaccessible, &c.

To this is referred, where God, Jam. 1.17. is called the Father of Lights, with whom is no variableness nor shadow of turning; in which phrase is denoted his essential Majesty, and Immutability in acting. Some (and very fitly) judge that the phrase [Father of Lights] is a Periphrasis of the Sun, attributed to God, [...] or after the manner of men: For as that super-celestial Sun is distinguisht from the cor­poreal, and visible Sun, it is added, that with him is no variableness, nor shadow of turning. When the Sun is in the opposite Hemisphere it leaves ours darkned and obscure, which vicissitude of darkness and light agrees not with God; for he is ne­ver the Cause of Sin and Death (which are noted by the term darkness) but always the Authors of Good and Life (noted by the term Light) and this is the scope of the Apostle, as ver. 13. Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: For God cannot be tempted of evils, neither tempteth he any man, &c.

Salmeron upon the words, says, in the words, [...], (viz shadow of turning,) he alludes to the Sun, which by a certain vicissitude, and declination of it self from one Tropick to the other, begets shadows of a different size, and the near­er it is to us, the greater are the shadows; but these vicissitudes are not compatible with God — But the first interpretation is more conformable to the Apostles scope.

[Page 83]From this Denomination of Light attributed to God, with respect to his Essence and Majesty, the Son of God is called [...], The splendor (or brightness) of the Glory of God, Heb. 1.3. The primary reason of this appellation is, in respect of the heavenly Father, from whom he, by ineffable generation (as it were) shined from Eternity, Ut in Niceno symbolo est, as in the Ni­cene Creed as Light does from Light: For [...], signifies, a shining again, or a resplendency, as it were from the Sun beams; and so by the force of the proposition, his Eternal Original from the Father is indicated or shewen. Brightness cannot be separated from the Sun, and is of equal age with it; so, from the Father of Lights, (of whom on Jam. 1.17. we have spoke) this brightness, viz. the Son, can never be separated, because co-eternal with him, John 14.10. Lyranus, thus expresses himself, The Son proceeds from the Father, as Light or splen­dor from the Sun: Which splendor is of the same Age with the Sun, and would be Eter­nal, if the Sun were Eternal.

A secundary reason may be in respect of men, and that manifestation which the heavenly Father made to us by the Son. The Light of the Sun is sent on the Earth to cherish, vegetate, and render it fruitful; Christ the brightness of the Fathers Glory is sent to illuminate, vivifie, and save us.

God is said to be a Light and a Sun, with respect to his energy, or power and operation amongst men, Psal. 27.1. The Lord is my Light, that is, who gives the true and saving Light of his Spirit unto me, where the Psalmist exegetically (or by way of exposition) adds▪ The Lord is the strength of my Life. Psal. 84.12. The Lord God is a Sun and a Shield, the exposition is annexed; The Lord will give Grace and Glory, no good (thing) will he withhold from them that walk uprightly, Esa. 10.17. And the Light of Israel shall be for a Fire, and his Holy One for a Flame; that is, God shall illustrate, and sanctifie the Israelites. From hence arise those different phrases, wherein the Light of God signifies,

(1.) His Favour and Grace, as when his Face is said to shine, Numb. 6.25 Psal. 80.3. &c. Or,

(2.) His Saving Revelation of Light and Truth by the Word, Psal. 43.3. Send out thy Light and thy Truth, let them lead me, &c. Psal. 67.1. Let God cause his face to shine upon us; which is meant of the revelation of his way and Doctrine, as ver. 2. See Psal. 19.8. Prov. 6.15. 2 Cor. 4.4, 6. &c. Or,

(3.) Or Eternal Glorifying, as Esa. 60.19, 20. The Lord shall be to thee an Everlasting Light, which Rev. 22.5. is applyed to Eternal Life.

In General, The Light of God is to be taken with reference to some Celestial benefits, as Psal. 36.9. In thy Light shall we see Light, where the preceeding and following words shew, the sence to be, that by the Grace of God manifested in his Word, we come to true blessedness. By the Light of God here Galatinus says, lib. 8. cap. 11. and Drusius lib. 15. observat. cap. 4. That some ancient Rabbies under­stood the Messiah.

Hence we come to our Saviour, who is particularly called the Light and Sun, not with respect to his Divine Essence, and Person as distinct from the Father, as before, but with respect to his office, benefits, and operations, Esa. 9.2. and 42.6. and 49.6. and 60 1. Matth. 4.16. Luke 2.32. John 1.4.9. and 3.19. and 8.12. and 12.35, 36. Act. 13.47. The Metaphor of [Light] in Scripture expresses information, whereby the darkness of the understanding is dispelled, as also a taking away of Sin, (which is compared to Darkness, and a giving of Comfort, all which our Saviour most eminently exhibits from himself to Believers.

Concerning the Appellation of [Sun,] these two places are most eminent.

(1.) Mal. 4.2. But unto you that fear my Name, Mal 2.4. The Sun of Righte­ousness. Sun. shall the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in his Wings. That this is spoke of our Saviour Christ, plainly ap­pears from the scope and context of the Prophet▪ See chap. 3.1, 2, 3. and chap. 4.5. With Matth. 11.10. and 17.11, 12, 13. Luke 1.17. &c. For there is a most fair and sweet comparison betwixt Christ and the natural Sun. As,

[Page 84](1.) With respect to Oneness— There is but one Sun, which is the Eye of the World, which is enough to enlighten and cherish all— So there is but one Media­tor between God and Man, the Man Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. 2.5.

(2.) That Sun only shines by its own Light, and communicates brightness to the Moon and Stars, —So Christ is the Fountain of true Light, illuminating the Church, and Teachers of his word (which are compared to Stars, Rev. 1.20.) with his own proper Light.

(3.) As there is but one Sun which excels and illuminates the inferior luminaries of Heaven; so Christ has the preheminence ( [...]) over all, Col. 1.18.

1. With respect to Efficacy; for as the Sun chaces away darkness and clouds, illustrating all things: So Christ dispels the darkness of the mind, by the Light of his Word; the darkness of sinners, by the light of his most Holy Merits; and the darkness of calamity, by the light of his comforting Grace.

2. With respect to Equality, for the Sun rises on the Evil and the Good, (afford­ing its light without distinction to all things sublunary) Matth 5.45. which never­theless blind men, and such as Sleep by day, do not enjoy: So Christ illuminates every man that cometh into the World, (that is, he affords the means of illumination,) 1 John 1.9. Yet unbelievers, who are blinded by the Devil, and such as give them­selves the liberty to sleep securely in sin (and that by their proper, fault and particu­lar vice) John 3.19. and 2 Cor. 4.4. Do not enjoy that saving light or illuminati­on; which is the reason why the Prophet Malachy speaking of the actual illumination of the Sun of Righteousness, says, —To them that fear the Name of the Lord shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, &c.

3. No man can resist or hinder the course and efficacy of the Sun: So no Devil, or Tyrant can retard or hinder the course and energy of the Gospel of Christ, the Sun of Righteousness.

4. The Sun refreshes and quickens the World by its heat, which nature demon­strates in the Spring: So Christ quickens and makes alive those that are spiritually Dead, Eph. 2.5. and causes a Divine heat of Love and Devotion, Luke 24 32.

5. That which the Prophet mentions, by the phrase [with healing in his Wings] is to be understood of the first beams or rays of light called the Wings of the morning, (or the first appearance of the Sun) Psal. 139.9. that is, the first Sun beams— This celestial Sun is also a Physitian which can heal and deliver from spiritual Death. The Sun when it rises gives some ease and comfort to sick persons, let all that are soul sick rejoyce in this justifying and healing Sun of Righteousness.

6. The Sun rising causes Joy to all things, who were (as it were) immersed in the Melancholy sadness of night as the Poet says,

Phosphore redde diem, quid gaudia nostra Moraris?

Come sweet Phospher bring the Day,
Why dost thou our Joys delay.

So by this heavenly Sun of Righteousness, true cause of Joy is given unto men, Luke 2.10, 11. Esa. 9.2, 3.

7. The Sun does make all sorts of Earthly fruit Ripe, to which it also gave the be­ginning of vegetation— So Christ is the Author and finisher of our Faith, Heb. 12.2. He worketh in us to will and to do, Phil. 2.13. That we may walk worthy of the Lord, unto all well pleasing, being fruitful unto every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God, Col. 1.10.

8. It is said of the Heliotrope, (an herb so called) that it always turns and inclines to the Sun: So let our hearts always incline to Christ.

[Page 85]9. There is nothing more pleasant to those in Captivity then to behold the Sun: So there is nothing ought to be more comfortable to us in our spiritual Captivity, then by the Eyes of Faith to behold Christ the Sun of Righteousness, &c.

The Second place is, Luke 1.78.2. Luk. 1.78. Through the Bowels of the Mercy of our God (so the Greek) whereby the day-spring from on high, hath visited us— Some think that this metaphorical appellation, (viz. [...], oriens ex alto) arising from on high, is taken from Plants which are said ( [...]) to branch or spout forth, when they grow, or begin to flourish, that so it might respect those places of the Old Testament, where Christ is called a Plant and Branch, Jer. 23.5. Zach. 3.8. and 6.12. Where the Septuagint render [...] by [...], orientem arising, and that we are to understand here, the arising, or Branch from on high, sent from heaven to us, and widely differing from all Earthly branches. But the words immediately following shew that Zachary had respect rather to the similitude of the Sun and light, as verse 79. of this place, viz. [...], to give light to them that sit in darkness, and in the shadow of Death, to guide [as a clear light does] our feet into the ways of peace. By a good reason it is therefore said, that the Holy man respected the Prophesie, Esa. 9.2. (whence the phrase of sitting in the darkness and shadow of Death is tak­en) and chap. 60.1, 2. Mal. 4.2. To which places Junius (Parallel. 1, 55.) does learnedly shew that he had immediate reference.

[...], oriri, to arise, is proper to the Sun, Moon and Stars, from whence the Noun, [...], that is, an arising, or the action or Region of the orient Sun, and Metonymically it is put for the rising Sun it self— to which is, [...] from on high, for distinction sake is added, by which Junius says, we are to understand that meridian and powerful spendor whereby the Sun (chiefly at Noon) illustrates all things, to difference it, [...], from its first uprising. But it seems to be referred more truely to the first original of the Sun of Righteousness, viz. His vi­siting (and shining upon) us on Earth, and that from on high, viz. Heaven, as 1 Cor. 15.47. John 3.31.

That the Messiah is called a [Star,] Numb. 24.17. is the Judgement of many,Star. there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Scepter shall rise out of Israel, which words are thus rendered by the Chaldee, there shall arise a King out of Jacob, and the Mes­siah shall be exalted out of Israel, &c. The same exposition Galatinus lib. 8. cap. 1. produces from R. Salomo, and R. Moses Hadarsan. Vatablus, paraphrases the whole verse thus— O Balak, my Counsel is that you be quiet, and fear not at this time, for that which I foretell of things to come, shall not come to pass in thy time, but in the latter days, viz. in the time of the Messiah, whom I see, but not near me, for he is yet afar off, when he comes, he will be as a great light and vehement splendor, which is signifyed by the Star, &c. So says Brentius. Junius and Tremellius in their notes say, that by the Name of a Star and Scepter is meant the Kingdom of Gods people, begun in David, and compleated in Christ, between whom, the interjected time was the progress of the Star, &c. See Junius in analyt. explic. h. l.

Such as understands this Prophesie of Christ, paraphrase it in this manner, [I shall see him, but not now, I shall behold him but not nigh,] that is, my Curses will be in vain against that People, whom God hath peculiarly chosen for himself, and from which according to the Flesh the Messiah is to descend, but the time of that Nativity is not yet come, therefore I seem to behold him at a great distance, but that promise will be certainly fulfilled, and God for his sake will preserve this Kingdom so long [there shall come a Star out of Jacob] that is, the Son of God, manifested in the Flesh shall come of this people, and shall spread the beams of his Doctrine and Miracles far and near, arising as the Day-Star in the hearts of Believers, 2 Pet. 1.19. Enlightning them to Eternal Life [and a Scepter shall rise out of Israel] that is the Messiah shall not only be a Teacher of his people, but also a heavenly King [and he shall smite through the Princes of Moab, and destroy all the Children of Seth] that is, all such as will not obey his Government, but remain unbelievers, he shall destroy with an Eternal Death, [ver. 18. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir shall be a pos­session for his Enemies] that is, all his Enemies (who by the Idumeans, the capital Enemies of Israel, inhabiting Seir are set forth) shall be destroyed by the Sword of [Page 76] the Spirit [but Israel shall do valiantly] that is the Church, which is the Kingdom of the Messiah, shall be gloriously triumphant, [ver. 19. out of Jacob shall come he that shall have Dominion, and shall destroy him that remaineth of the City] that is, he shall rule in the House of Jacob for ever, and of his Kingdom there will be no end, Luke 1.33. He shall put all his Enemies under his feet, 1 Cor. 15.25, 26, 27. &c.

Christ calls himself [The bright and Morning Star] Rev. 22.16. Because of those shinings of saving knowledge which proceed from him,Morning Star. Rev. 22.16. whence he is [...]. The light bringer (usually Translated Morning-star, or day-dawn) arising, in the hearts of men by the sure word of Prophesie. But more especially because of his promise of Life and Salvation: For as the Morning Star is as it were the Suns harbinger, declaring its speedy approach; so by the clearness of Christs Resurrecti­on, and his sure word or promise, he discovers unto men what an extraordinary light of Glory will be afforded to Believers in the general Resurrection, when they shall shine as Stars for ever, Dan. 12.3. The Morning Star gives light, but much less then the Sun; so the light of the knowledge of Christ in this Life, is not to be compared with that most illustrious and shining Glory, which the Saints shall enjoy in bliss, and which by Faith they expect, 1 Cor. 13.12.

Fire.Secondly, Elementary things. God is called [Fire] yea, a consuming Fire, Deut. 4.24. and 9.3. and 32.22. Esa. 10.17. and 66.15, 16. Ezek. 21.31. &c. Which denotes his Wrath against sin, which consumes those miserable persons, against whom it burns, as Fire does stubble. See Psal 18.8. Where by smoke also the Wrath of God is signifyed, as also Psal. 74.1. and Psal. 80.4. How long wilt thou smoke against thy People? (so the Hebrew) Deut. 29.20.

A Lamp.God is said to be [A Lamp] Candle or Lanthorn, when he exhibits his grace and favour to any, 2 Sam. 22.29. Thou art my Lamp, O Lord, Psal. 18.28. For thou wilt light my Candle (or Lamp) the Lord my God will enlighten my Darkness; that is, he is the author of my light, felicity, and Salvation. So the Candle of God is said to shine upon Jobs head, Job 29.3. in the same sence, as the following words shew, viz. By his light I walked through darkness, where he subjoyns a clear description of his former felicity.

Prov. 20.27. The Spirit of man is the Candle of the Lord, searching all the in­ward parts of the Belly, that is, the Lord kindles a light in man, by which he looks into the most inward things; and therefore it shines in the mind of a wise King, that he may search out a matter, and take away the wicked, Prov. 25.2, 3. The Word of God is called a Lamp, or Candle, Psal. 119.105. Prov. 6.23. 2 Pet. 1.19. Because of the light of saving institutions which it exhibits to Believers.

To the Element of [Ayr] belongs, when [Blowing,] or a Blast, or Breathing is attributed to God,A Blast or Blow­ing. by which his Divine Grace and Refection, is noted, as a cool breeze refreshes a man in Summers heat— thus some aptly translate that passage, Esa. 57.16. For I will not contend for ever, neither will I be always wroth, the Spirit be­fore me shall roll it self, and I will cause a Blowing, that is, the Holy Spirit, which I will send to sorrowful and contrite Believers, shall (as it were) open it self to them, dwell in them, and in the heat of Temptations, shall with a comfortable gust or breeze refresh their fainting Spirits.

Sometimes it denotes Divine Wrath and vengeance, as a strong Wind overthrows whats before it, and inflames the Fire, Job 4.9. By the Blast of God they perish (that is, the wicked) and by the breath of his Nostrils are they consumed, Psal. 18.15. At thy rebuke, O Lord, at the Blast of the breath of thy Nostrils, Esa. 30.33. The breath of the Lord, like a stream of Brimstone doth kindle it, that is, Hell, as brimstone is a great nourisher of Fire, so the infinite and never ceasing Wrath of God, shall be (as it were) an Eternal nourisher or continuer of Hell; for whilst a pair of Bellows blow the Fire, it burns; so the breath of the Lord, (viz. his Wrath) shall be al­ways of efficacy to torment the souls and bodies of the damned in that infernal stream of brimstone.

[Page 87]To the Element of Water belongs where God is called a Fountain of Living Waters, Jer. 2.13. and 17.13.Water. Fountain Because he is the indeficient Author of all Life and refresh­ment, here and hereafter. Psal. 36.9. With thee is the Fountain of Life, which is to be understood in the same sence, which verse 8. is called the River of his Plea­sures. The Spirit is called a River of living VVater, John 7.38, 39. to which belongs the expressions of pouring out, Esa. 44.3. Joel 3.1. Zach. 12.10. Act. 2.16, 17, 18, 33. Tit. 3.5, 6.

Christ in general calls the blessings derived to men through him, living water, John 4.10, 14. For he is that most abounding Fountain of Eternal Life, John 1.16. Water cleanses, refreshes, quenches thirst, softens or mollifies, &c. which with other good qualities, may be most fitly ascribed to the blessed Saviour in a Spiri­tual sence. See Esa. 55.1. Ezek. 36.25. Zach. 14.8. Psal. 23.1, 2. &c.

The Heavens or Clouds are called the River of God full of water, Psal. 65.9. Because he sends plenty of Rain from thence to make the Earth fruitful.

To the [Earth. Earth.] we will refer whatsoever (besides what was produced before in their proper places) have a being in it, that are metaphorically transferred to God, whether they be natural productions, or made by humane Art.

Christ is sometimes called a [Stone] and [Rock,] as Psal. 118.22.A Stone. Rock. The Stone which the builders refused, is become the head of the corner, which expressely referred to Christ, Matth. 21.42. Act. 4.11. 1 Pet. 2.7. By the Builders we are to understand the Priests and Great men, and others among the Israelites, whose of­fice it was to build, not destroy the Church of God. How these refused Christ, the Evangelical History plentifully informs us; yet notwithstanding he is made the head of the Corner, or the firm and chief corner stone of the whole Church fitly framed together, and growing in him, Eph. 2.20, 21. To Wit both of Jews and Gen­tiles, having broken down the partition wall, verses 14, 15, 16, &c. Other places, are, Esa. 8.14. and 28.16. Zach. 3.9. Luke. 2.34. Rom. 9.32, 33. 1 Pet. 2.4, 6, 7, 8. Where he is called a Rock of offence, and a stumbling Stone, with respect to unbelievers and wicked men, &c. who are apt to despise his mean worldly estate, and be offended at his severity against their sinful ways.

God is called a Rock to such as trust in him, Deut. 32.31. Psal. 18.2. Psal. 31.2, 3. Psal. 42.9. and 73.26. Esa. 26.4. that is, a most certain and invinsible giver of help; for there were Rocks in those Countries which for their height, strength, steepyness and difficulty of access were reputed impregnable, &c.

Matth. 16.18. Christ alluding to the name of Peter calls himself that Rock upon which he was to build his Church, that the Gates of Hell should not prevail against it— Upon which Brentius very well paraphrases. I have called thee Cephas before, that is, a Rock, (John 1.43.) and I do not yet repent for giving thee that title; for now in your own and Brethrens name, you acknowledge the true Rock and Founda­tion, in confessing, that I am Christ the Son of the living God— This Confession, is the true Rock, and upon it, as upon a Rock and Foundation, will I build my Church.

D. Calixtus, says, that the words, the Church is built upon a Rock are said by a metaphor, which is taken from the firmness, strength or solidity of the Rock, not from any Rule or Government it has, for there is no such thing in it, and denotes a solid, stedfast and immovable Foundation; but what needs any further explication, when Paul an undoubted interpreter says, 1 Cor. 3.11. For other Foundation can no man lay, then that is laid, which is Jesus Christ, but upon this Rock, are laid other Rocks, or Stones, (for [...], being an appellative signifies a Stone, not a Rock) cut out of the Living Rock, which being single are not foundations, but many being joyned, cemented, or united, constitute or make a secundary foundation, Rev. 21.14. And the wall of the City had twelve Foundations, and in them the Names of the twelve Apo­stles of the Lamb, Eph. 2.20. And are built upon the Foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, &c.

1 Cor. 10.4. Christ is called the spiritual Rock, of which the Israelites did drink in the Desart, that Rock being a Type of him, Exod. 17. See Gram. Sacr. p. 504.551.

[Page 88]God is called a Secret or [Hiding place] Psal. 91.1. Psal. 119.114. also a Co­vert,Hiding place. Refuge, or Hiding, Esa. 4.6. By which his gratious defence against all hostile violence is intimated. For the same Reason he is called a [Munition] (which signifies a Fortification,Muniti­on or Fortress. or Strong-Hold) Psal. 31.2, 3, 4. Psal. 71.3. Psal. 91.2, 9. Psal. 144.2.

He is called a [Wall of Fire] Zach. 2.5. Where the Epithete of Fire is ad­ded,Wall of Fire. to shew, that he is not only the defender of his Church, but also a most terrible avenger, that will consume its Enemies, as Fire does combustible matter.

Strong Tower.He is called a [Strong Tower,] Psal. 61.3. Prov. 8.10. Because of his Divine protection also; for as in high and well fortified Towers we are safe from the assaults of the Enemy; so much more eminently does Jehovah place them in safety, who trust in him, 2 Sam. 22.51. He is the Tower of Salvation, (says David of God) which is called great deliverance, Psal. 18.50. The Tower is Fortified.

1. With warlike Engines, which are his Divine vertue and power, and all the Creatures which he makes use of to the Destruction and overthrow of his Enemies, Psal. 148.8. Fire and Hail, Snow and Vapor, stormy Wind fulfilling his Word.

2. With Provision, as the Bread and Drink of Life, Psal. 36.8, 9, 10. They shall be abundantly satisfyed with the fatness of thy house, and thou shalt make them Drink of the Rivers of thy Pleasures, &c.

3. With a Garrison or brave Defendants, which are the Holy Angels, Psal. 91.12. Dan. 7.10. So that this Tower is impregnable, &c.

Temple.The Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are called the Temple of the Heavenly City, Rev. 21.22. By way of opposition to the outward and Earthly Temple, as if he had said, in Eternity there will be no need of those visible and external signs, by which God manifested himself to his people under the Old Testament dispensa­tion, in the Temple and in the Ark of the Covenant; for God will exhibit himself to be seen by his elect face to face, that in this spiritual Temple they may give him Eternal and Celestial praise, celebrating a festival of Everlasting Joy, &c.

Way.John 14.6. Christ calls himself the [Way—] viz. by which there is a passage to the Father, as ver. 2, 3, 4. The words of the verse are I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life, no man cometh unto the Father but by me, that is, you say you know not the way to the Father, and heavenly felicity, why, I my self, whom you know, am the Way, by which you can arrive there, nor am I only a way, but a guide also, by the Truth which I teach, and together with the Father, am the end of your Jour­ney, that is, Life, which the blessed enjoy. Calixt in Harmon. Evangel.

John Husse (as VVolfius cites him, Tom. 1. lect. Memor. p. 750.) says, Let the humble passenger behold Christ, who says I am the Way, the Truth and Life, here is a way for him that will go, for Christ is the way: A way whither he would go, for Christ is Truth: And where he would tarry, for Christ is Life.

Tho. a Kempis lib. 3. de Imit. Christi, cap. 56. I am the way, Truth and Life, none can Go without a Way, nor Know without Truth, nor Live without Life. I am the way which you ought to follow, the truth which you ought to believe, and the life which you ought to hope for. I am the inviolable way, the infallible Truth, and indeterminable Life. I am the most right way, the most supream truth, and most certain blessed and increated life— If thou tarry in my way, thou shalt know my truth which shall deliver thee, and in it thou shalt find Eternal life. The light and truth of God leads us, Psal. 43.3. Which Christ applies to himself, John 8.12. and 14.6. For he leads us to himself who is Eternal Life, 1 John 5.11, 12. In whom we have all things, Rom. 8.32. How he leads to the Father is fairly ex­pounded, Heb. 10.19, 20. &c.

1. The Way of the Lord God signifies his heavenly Doctrine, Psal. 5.8. Psal. 25.4, 9, 10. Psal. 67.2. Psal. 119.3, 14, 2 [...], 30. &c. Esa. 2.3. Hos. 14.10. Matth. 22.16. Act. 13.10. and 18.25. &c. Hence comes the phrase to keep the ways of the Lord, Psal. 18.21. that is, to lead his life according to his Word and precepts.

[Page 89]2. His Providence and Divine Government, more generally as the whole Course of his VVill, Counsels, Endeavours, and Actions, as Psal. 25.10. Psal. 77.13. Esa. 55.8, 9. Hab. 3.6.

More particularly it signifies some singular actions of God, Exod. 33.13. Psal. 103.7. Job 40.14. Prov. 8.22. John Baptist is said to prepare the way of the Lord, Mal. 3.1. Luk. 1.76. that is, to bear a serious Testimony of his speedy coming, by preaching the VVord, and administring the Holy Ordinance of Baptism— A metaphor taken from great men, at whose coming the ways are wont to be made plain and level. See Esa. 40.3, 4. &c.

God is called a [Shade] Psal. 121.5. The Lord is thy Shade upon thy right hand, A Shade or Sha­dow. which denotes his heavenly protection, which he affords believers, as a Shade re­freshes and defends from the scorching heat of the Sun; hence such are said to abide under the Shadow of the Almighty, Psal. 91.1. VVhen it is said the Shadow of his VVings the metaphor becomes double and more emphatical, for he is not only a plea­sant Shade in dry and torrid places, but such a nourishing, protecting Shade as the Hens wings are to her Chickens; and so denotes a singular Love and Care.

VVe read also of the Shadow of Gods hand, which also denotes a strong protecti­on against all Enemies, for a hand when attributed to God denotes so much. Of which before.

There is an eminent emphasis in that Text, Luke 1.35.Luke 1.36. ex­pounded And the Angel answe­ring and said unto her, the Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the High­est shall over shadow thee, [...]. Mary being astonished by the view of that Angelical Messenger, enquired ver. 34. How shall this be, seeing I know not man? viz. what was said ver. 31. And behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a Son, and shalt call his Name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the highest, &c. ver. 32. To Mary wondring at this, the Angel answers, that it should be by the supernatural, and most singular operation of the Holy Spirit and Highest power, which operation is by an Anthropopathy expressed by overshadowing, describing the manner of, as that there should be Divine protection, which is the metaphorical signification of a shadow, as before. For God being a consuming Fire, would consume Mary, by filling her with his peculiar and Majestical Glory, unless there were some Divine obumbration or Shade between; as God covered Moses with his hand in that peculiar and extraordinary appearance of his Divine Glory, lest by the dazling and Majesty of Gods presence he should be consumed, Exod. 33.22. It may also respect that hidden formation of that most Holy child in the Virgins VVomb, and his being secured from the least spot of sin, in his most admi­rable union with humanity.

This Emphasis the word (Shadow) carries which being contrary to light is a note of the incomprehensible and hidden energy of God— intimated also by the Shadow of a Cloud over the Tabernacle, Exod. 40.35. Let this Shade therefore be a prohibi­tion from any rash or curious inquisitiveness into this adorable Mystery. The Cloud was put over the Tabernacle, that we should not rashly rush in, and the Cherubims covered the Ark, 2 Chron. 5.8. Lest any body should be curiously prying into the Majesty of God which dwelt upon it: So the Shadow of the highest, obumbrates this Mystery, lest our foolish Reason should be inquisitive into the manner of it. And so with a shadow of imperfect Revelation of these Divine things, we end this Chapter.

CHAP. IX. Of Metaphors whereby Things are proposed as Persons, which are not Persons, which kind they call Prosopopeia.

PROSOPOPEIA is, when any thing (which is not a person) is metaphori­cally introduced or proposed as a person: Or when the properties of a man are attributed to other things, for things, for likeness and agreements sake— Pro­phane Authors use very elegant metaphors of this kind, as that of Cicero— VVhat did that drawn Sword of your do in the Pharsalian Field? Whose side did that point seek? What was the sence of your Arms. Aristotle defines this metaphor— that which is in act, bringing in inanimate things doing something, as if they had life and sence— But we will follow the distinct Classes of Scripture Examples.

Some things are said of the Members of a Humane Body, which is properly the act of the mind, [...] as Gen. 48. He made his hands to understand, (so the Hebrew) that is, (as Vatablus and our Translation notes) he guided or laid his hands knowingly, skilfully and wittingly, when his eyes were dim with age, that he could not discern by seeing, which was the Eldest Son, therefore of set purpose did he lay his hands crosswise; and therefore Moses says, that he made his hands to understand, as if they (viz. his hands) could tell things to come, because he did not hastily nor gropingly put them forth, but as one well knowing directs his right to Ephraim the youngest and his left to the first-born, &c. See Tract. cap. 2. following towards the end.

Ear. Eye. Job 29, 11. When the Ear heard, then it blessed me, and when the Eye saw, it gave witness to me— Here to the Ear and Eye is attributed, what belongs to man, Job. 28.4. The Flood breaketh out from the Inhabitant, forgotten of the Foot, where forgetfulness is attributed to the Foot, that is, (as Junius and Tremellius note) such Floods as no foot ever experienced, because so deep as not to be waded or gone through.

Psal. 35.10. All my [Bones] shall say, O Lord, who is like unto thee? Psal. 51.8.Bones. The Bones which thou hast broken shall rejoyce (so the Hebrew) here Glorying and Rejoycing in God is ascribed to the Bones which is the property of man; as if he had said, I will inwardly and heartily glorifie thee and rejoyce in thee. By the same Reason it is said, Psal. 103.1. Bless the Lord O my Soul, and all that is within (or my Bowels) bless his holy Name. Bowels. Psal. 68.31. Ethiopia shall make her hands to run to God. (so the Hebrew) that is, shall with speed stretch them out in prayer; as the Chald. expounds it:Hands. Or shall quickly extend her hands to give gifts of Gold to the Lord as R. Aben Ezra and R. Salomo expounds it. See Psal. 72.15. Some take this Metonymically, where extending the Hands is put for a gift, as before.

Psal. 73.9. They set their mouth against the Heavens, (that is, the foolish and wicked,Tongue. as ver. 3.) and their [Tongue] walketh through the Earth, that is, they do rashly and licentiously throw reproaches upon God and Man, neither sparing hea­venly or earthly things, Psal. 137.5. If I forget thee O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget, (that is as Junius and Tremellius say, it self,) viz. Let it be rather dead or withered then I should give over singing, or as Illyricus says, let my right hand for­get its musical dexterity, as in the next verse let my Tongue cleave to the roof of my Mouth, if I prefer not Jerusalem above the head of my Joy— that is, let the Lord vouchsafe, that I may never play upon Musick, or sing more, then I should admit so great a wickedness, as to desert Jerusalem, and its Religion and Ministry, [Page 91] and give over to celebrate with Hymns, Musick and Voice; yea, I will prefer thee to the chief esteem before all other things, Joys, Comforts, &c.

Prov. 10.32. The Lips of the Righteous, know what is acceptable, that is, they speak so prudently, as if knowledge resided in them, which Job 34.35. Is in the negative expressed, Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom. — Matth. 6.3. But when thou givest Alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth — this is spoken to prohibit the vain glory of Almsgiving, when done for praise, &c. Theophilact expounds it— if it be possible you are even to for­get all your own good deeds, or at least by no means to glory in them or rest upon them, lest you be vainly lifted up. To this may be referred, where Anger is at­tributed to the Eyes, Gen. 31.35. and 45.5. Esa. 3.8. And Concupiscence, Pleasure or Desire, 1 Kings 20.6. Ezek. 24.16.21. 1 John 2.16. (hence the phrase of the hearts walking after the Eyes, Job 31.7. that is, the desires and lusts follow, which the Eyes moved by outward objects, endeavour to stir up in the heart. The Abominations of the Eyes, Ezek. 20.7. that is, which were the ob­ject and scope of desire) And Adultery, 2 Pet. 2.14. and Compassion, as when the Eye is said to pity, Deut. 13.8. Esa. 13.18. &c. And Hope or Expectation, Psal. 119.82, 123. and 145.14.15. vid. Gram. Sacr. p. 282.

2. Words are used of [Brutes] which properly belong to man, as Job 12.7.Gram. Sacr. But ask now the Beasts, and they shall teach thee, and the Fowls of the Air, and they shall tell thee, or speak to the Earth, and it shall teach thee, and the Fishes of the Sea shall declare unto thee. To ask and speak in this place signifies to meditate, search into, or contemplate; for the teaching, telling or narration, of Beasts, Fowls, the Earth and Fishes intimates that they are a real Testimony and Evidence of the wis­dom of the Creator. What he said ver. 2. that he had understanding and skill in what his Friends discoursed of, he prosecutes here, as if he had said, ye have talkt much of the Wisdom and Power of God, and that he creates and preserves all things, as if they were unknown to me, but the very Creatures tacitely inform me of that. See Job 9.10. Rom. 1.20.

Job 41.29. He (the Leviathan or Whale) laugheth at the shaking of a spear, that is, he cares not for it, Prov. 30.25. The Ants are a people not strong, &c. ver. 26. The Conies are but a feeble people, &c. Joel. 1.6. For a Nation is come up upon my Land, strong and without Number, &c. The speech here is of Canker Worms, Locusts or Caterpillars mentioned ver. 4. and which by the same Metaphor are called the great Army of God, chap. 2.11.25. By the same reason the multitude of Locusts are represented as an Army, Prov. 30.27. Neh. 3.17. Hieron. upon Joel 2. thus writes— This we saw lately in this Province (viz. Palestine) For when whole Troops of Locusts came, and filled the Air between Heaven and Earth, they flew with so great an order by the disposal of God who commanded them, so that like square stones placed by the hand of an Artificer in a pavement, they kept their places, that not one was observ­ed to incline to the other by any transverse or irregular motion— This was a great pu­nishment upon enormous sinners, which Moses in Gods stead threatens. Deut. 28.38, 39. and Salomon prays against 1 Kings 8.37. And Pliny himself a Heathen Writer, lib. 11. cap. 29. acknowledges the Anger of the Gods by the multitude of these Insects. Some with these words of Scripture, parallel Virgils words, of Bees, Lib. 4. Georg.

Magnanimosque Duces, totiusque ex ordine gentis
Mores & studia, et Populos, et praelia dicam.

And of Ants.

It Nigris Campis Agmen, praedamque per herbas
Convectant calle Angusto, pars grandia trudunt
Obnixe frumenta Humeris, pars agmina Cogunt,
Castigantque Moras, &c.
lib. 4. Aeneid.

To this Classe may be referred when the word Son is ascribed to Beasts, as Exod. 29.1. Take a young Bullock the Son of a Cow, (so the Hebrew) that is, a sucking Calf or one not yet weaned, Gen. 49.11. The * Son of an Ass is put for its Colt or Foal, Zach. 9.9. A Colt the * Son of Asses, that is, one of the she Asses, accord­ing to the Idiotism of which see the Book cited in the Margent.


[Page 92]By another Reason Rams are called the Note that in the places markt with the Asterisc it is not so in our English but 'tis so in the O­riginal Hebrew. Sons of Bashan, Deut. 32.14. that is, fat Rams of the breed of Bashan, because that was a good place for Fatning. Note that in the places markt with the Asterisc it is not so in our English but 'tis so in the O­riginal Hebrew. A hand is attributed to a Dog, Psal. 22.20. Note that in the places markt with the Asterisc it is not so in our English but 'tis so in the O­riginal Hebrew. To a Lion and a Bear, 1 Sam. 17.37. In general a Hand is ascribed to every Beast, Gen. 9, 5. In which places power and strength is to be understood, especially and more eminently in the last. Gram. Sacr. p. 138.See Gram. Sacr. p. 138. It is said Prov. 30.28. The spider taketh hold with her hands, that is, with her feet which are on either side so pliable as a mans hand to spin their web, and seize upon their prey— Junius.

3. Some things are spoken of [things growing out of the Earth,] which properly belong to man, as Levit. 19.23. And when ye shall come into the Land, and shall have planted all manner of Trees for food; then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncir­cumcised, three years shall it be as uncircumcised unto you; it shall not be eaten of. —The meaning is, that the fruit of the three first years shall be accounted unclean and re­jected, as an uncircumcised man was accounted unclean before God, and was not to be received among the People. And in the fourth year that fruit was to be offer­ed to God as a sign of Thanksgiving ver. 24. but the fifth year the common use of it was allowed, ver. 25.

Job 14.7, 8, 9. Hope, Old Age, Death, the scent of Waters, are applyed to the Bough of a Tree, which is cut off, and buds again, and compared to a man once dead cannot return or revive again, viz. into this Life, which was the scope of Job, as chap. 7.7, 9, 10. and 13.15, 16. and 19.25, 26, 27. Where he evidently declares the Resurrection of the dead to the enjoyment of Everlasting Life.

Psal. 78.4. [Killing and Death] is attributed to Plants as he killed (so the He­brew) their Vines with Hail, and their Sycomores with great Hail Stones. Con­trary to this is that [...], (zoopoiesis) quickning or living of the seed cast into the Earth, by which its budding or growth is noted, as in the follow­ing verses— Ezek. 31.9. Envy or Emulation; ver. 14. Exalting or Elevation of heart and drinking of Water, ver. 15. mourning or grief of mind; ver. 16. Con­solation or Comfort are attributed to Trees, by a certain Prosopopeia and in a way of comparison of a goodly Tree with the King of Assyria. See Hos. 9.6. —Joel 1.10. The New Wine is ashamed or blushed, that is, there is so bad a Vintage or Wine Harvest, that it is ashamed, because it did not answer the peoples expectation. In the same verse languishing or a disease is attributed to Oyl, which properly belongs to man, Psal. 6.2.3. But metaphorically denotes a spoil and devastation of the fruit of the Earth, as Esa. 16.8. &c. It is said Habak. 3.17. That the labour of the Olive shall lie (so the Hebrew) when it answers not the desires of men, but fails their expectation of much fruit, which is also ascribed to New Wine, Hos. 9.2. —It is said, Psal. 58.9. Before your pots can feel the Thorns, he shall take them away as with a whirlwind, that is, before your pots grow hot with a fire of Thorns (which were wont to be used) for that fire lasts but a little while, and will not boyl the Flesh, so shall they quickly perish, &c.

4. Some things are spoken of Inanimate Creatures, which properly belong to a living man (or more generally to living Creatures.) As,

Gen. 4.10. The Voice of Blood.(1.) Of Dead men Gen. 4.10. The Voice of thy Brothers bloods cryeth unto me from the ground. Here a voice and crying is attributed to the blood of slain Abel by a very weighty Emphasis— As to the phrase of a voice and crying directed to God, it manifestly intimates these two things— First, that he is a just Judge, and the avenger of wickedness, and therefore the violent murther of Abel, could not but come to him for Justice on the assassinate, as it is said in the like case, 2 Chron. 24.22. The Lord look upon it, and require it, viz. the blood of Zechariah. The Second is, that he is a gracious loving Father and defender of such as are his, and minds them as well in Life as in Death; for he had not only a respect for Abel when alive, but hearkens also to the cry of his blood when Dead according to Rom. 14.8. Whether we live or die, we are the Lords.

Some put an Emphasis in (bloods) being in the plural number, intimating as it were, that there were many slain in Abel, that is, such off-spring as he might have had, which tacitely call for Justice, hence the Chald. translates it— The Voice of the seeds [Page 93] of thy blood which were to come, and issue from thy Brother, but seems to be far fetcht. By the plural word (of bloods) are noted slaughters, because the blood gushing from the veins scatters into diverse parts, Psal. 5.6. The Lord will abhor the man of bloods and deceit, (so the Hebrew) Psal. 51.14. Deliver me from bloods, (we translate it blood-guiltiness, Hos. 4.2. They break out and bloods toucheth blood. But here blood violently shed is understood by a Synecdoche, and Matth. 23.35. The blood of Abel is expressed in the singular number, [...], (haima.) As to the sence and connexion, because Cain did not only, not confess his sin, but also impudently deny that he was concern'd in the care or keeping of his Brother, God deals more openly, saying: The voice of thy Brothers blood cryes to me from the Earth, that is, thy Brother is slain; I do not vainly inquire where he is, his blood demands venge­ance of me, and I am concerned to call his Murtherer to account, therefore speak plainly what hast thou done? that is, Why didst thou dare or presume to lay vio­lent hands on him? Thou sayest, thou art not his keeper, as if the question were whether thou hast kept him? Tell rather what thou hast designed against him; this is the paraphrase of Musculus upon the place.

To this place Heb. 12.24. refers, where the crying blood of dead Abel is fairly compared to the living blood of Christ our Mediator and Intercessor.Gram. Sacr. p. 261.

Esa. 14.9, 10. The [Dead] are feigned to come from Hell or the Graves, to deride the Pride and Haughtiness of that inhumane King of Babylon, speaking to him when fallen from his greatness, and upbraiding him for his monstrous pride, and shameful downfal.

Jer. 31.15. Rachel the Mother of Joseph and Benjamin, long before dead is brought in as bitterly weeping for the Captivity of the people; which prophesie is alleaged to express the cruelty of Herods Massacre of the Infants, Matth. 2.18. for the agreement of that tyrannical fact with that place. Rachels Sepulchre was near Bethlem, in which and the adjacent places, that most cruel villany was committed, &c. See also Ezek. 32.21. &c.

2. Of other things void of Life and Soul, Gen. 4.11. And now art thou cursed from the Earth, which hath opened her Mouth to receive thy Brothers blood from thy hand; by this Prosopopeia the wickedness of Cain is aggravated, as if he had said, the very Earth though destitute of sense and reason, yet was more humane and kind to thy Brother then thou wert, because it received and laid up, that blood which thou hast spilt, from the sight of men lest it should cause horror in them. Others say that this speech denotes the extream grievousness of his wickedness, and the horror of his guilty Conscience, rendring the very senseless Creatures his Enemies, as if he had said, the very Earth which (as it were) with open mouth received the blood of thy Brother from thy hand, will account thee as execrable, which agrees fairly with the following words.

Gen. 47.19. Death is attributed to the Land, which denotes desolation. Exod. 9.18. It is said of Mount Sinai, that Jehovah appearing it quaked, that is, it had such commotions as if, like a man, it had trembled for fear— Levit. 18.18. Spu­ing out its inhabitants, is attributed to the Land which signifies their expulsion for their wickedness, Deut. 32.42. God is said to make his Arrows drunk with blood— that is, that out of his just wrath he would send the Enemies of the Land, to kill the wicked and rebellious people. See Esa. 34.5. Jer. 46.10.

Josh. 24.27. And Joshua said unto all the People, behold this stone shall be a Witness unto us: For it hath heard all the words of the Lord, which he spake unto us, &c. The stone erected there is by a Prosopopeia, said to hear, because it was present (as it were a Witness,) and was appointed, as a memorial and Testimonial sign of the Covenant God then made with his people.

Judg. 5.20. They fought from Heaven, Judg. 5.20. The Stars Fight. &c. the Stars in their courses (or degrees) fought against Sisera. —The Stars are said to fight, because they were instruments of exciting those Hails and Storms which God probably used against his Enemies— Josephus says, that when the Canaanites encountred with the Israelites a violent show­er fell, and much Rain and Hail by the force of the Wind was fiercely driven into the Canaanites faces, so that their bows and slings became unprofitable and useless, neither could they being so benummed with cold handle their Swords; which tem­pest [Page 94] nevertheless did no way prejudice the Israelites. Brentius thus expounds it' we simply expound it that God was no way favourable, but an Enemy to the enter­prize of Sisera, because he dwells in Heaven and terrifi'd the Host and Chariots of Sisera, &c. chap. 4.15. And whereas the Stars are said to Fight, it carries the shew of a Proverb, signifying that no prosperous Fortune was on Sisera's side, for when any ill luck betides men, they are wont to say, that no Star shines upon them, or that the Stars resist them, by which is meant, that all Creatures both Earthly and Heavenly threaten their destruction— Junius and Tremellius Translate that the Stars (e suis aggeribus) from their sconces or Bulwarks, fought against Sisera, that is, from the superior Regions of the Air, a speech translated from Souldiers fighting from higher places.

Job 3.8. [Eye-lids] (in the Hebrew text) are attributed to the morning, by which its early beams are understood, or the first shining of its rays arising from the approaching Sun; a metaphor taken from one newly awake that lifts up his Eye-lids, or as others say from the swift motion and vibration of the Eye-lids, because the Sun-beams move swiftly, till they are diffused to the ends of the Hemisphere.

Job 31.38. If my Land cry against me, or that the furrows thereof weep—. The good man declares that he is ready to bear judgment, censure or curses if any per­son can justly complain, that he has done them injury; which by an elegant Proso­popeia he expresses; the explication follows, ver. 39. If I have eaten the fruits there­of without Money, or have caused the Souls of the owners thereof to expire, (breath out, or grieve) so the Hebrew. Illyricus says, that the Land and Furrows are put Me­tonymically for the Husbandmen, but the former explication is the best. See Job 38.7. with Psal. 148.2, 3, &c.

A [Nativity] or Birth is attributed to Rain, Dew, Ice, and Frost, Job 38.28, 29. for their production from God, where there is also an Anthropopathy.

Psal. 19.1 The Heavens declare, &c. Psal. 19.1. The Heavens declare the Glory of God, and the firmament sheweth his handy work that is, they exhibit, shew, and demonstrate to the Eyes of all things, a real testimony and instruction of the glorious power of God) ver. 2. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge, that is, by that succession and vicissitude of days and nights, which is so certain, so constant, and so profitable for men and other Creatures, the Glory of God the workman is most evidently ce­lebrated. See Psal. 104.20.21, 22, 23, 24.

Some by a Metonymie understand day and night of those things which are done or happen by day and night, that the sence may be, that every day and every night some new thing is discovered by which to right observers, the glory of God may be illustra­ted) ver. 3. There is no speech nor language where their voice is not heard, that is, there are no people, though of different languages, whom that speech of the Hea­vens, and their real publication of praise may not instruct in the glory and power of God. See Rom. 1.19.20. Because that which may be known of God, is mani­fest in them (or to them) for the invisible things of him from the Creation of the World are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made even his eter­nal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse) ver. 4. Their line is gone out through all the Earth, and their words to the end of the World, that is, in the ex­treamest parts of the Earth, that stately fabrick of celestial bodies is seen, as if it were exactly done by line and square, which seems instead of words, &c. Rom. 10.18. For their line- we read their sound, because what is said in the Psalm of the moti­on of the celestial bodies, the Apostle elegantly accommodates to the course of Evan­gelical Preaching. Genebrard says, that the Hebrew word signifies indeed alive, but the Septuagint respect the sence, whom the Apostle followed, [that being the most used and received Version]) ver. 5. The going forth of a Bridegroom out of his Chamber, and his rejoycing, is by the same metaphor ascribed to the rising Sun, to his never ceasing and most swift course.

Psal. 65.12. The little Hills are Exul­tatione colles ac­cinguntur girded with Joy on every side, ver. 13. The Pastures are clothed with Flocks, the Vallies are also covered over with Corn, they shout for Joy, they also sing. The Ornaments of the Earth, which by the blessing of God it every where enjoys, are expressed by this Metaphor. Mathesius says, that the Metaphor of girding, ver. 12. is to be expounded of the various and winding veins of Mettals in the Bosom of the Earth.

[Page 95] Psal. 77.16. The waters saw thee O God, the waters saw thee, they were afraid; the Depths also were troubled— he speaks of the Red Seas being divided, and the people of Israels marching through the middle of it, which is described, Exod. 14. But the sence of seeing and the passion of fear is attributed to the waters by a Prosopo­peia, for to see here signifies to experience— as if he had said, they have experien­ced thee, and felt thy power, when by a strong Wind they were cut, and the bot­tom of the Sea became naked, to make a way, or passage for thy people— They are said to fear, when at the beck of God, like trembling persons, they fled from their place, against their nature, and by the tremendous omnipotency of God stood as a Wall on either side, as it is said of the same Miracle, Psal. 114.3. The Sea saw it and fled, &c. ver. 5. What ailed thee, O thou Sea, that thou fleddest? &c,

Psal. 98.8. Let the Flouds clap their Hands, let the Hills sing, (so the Hebrew) These things are ascribed to inanimate Creatures, to stir up men to a desire after the coming of the Lord. So Psal. 96.11, 12. &c. More examples you may see, Psal. 103.16. with Job 7.10. and 8.18. Psal. 104.19. Cant. 1.6. Esa. 3.26. with Job 1.20. and 2.13.

Esa. 5.14. Hell (others translate it Sepulcher) hath enlarged her Soul (so the Hebrew) and opened her mouth without measure— By a Prosopopeia he compares the insatiable condition of Hell (or the Grave) with the unsatisfied Gluttony, and Luxury of the Jews, and foretells the punishment that God in his Wrath will there­fore inflict upon them. Jerome in his Commentary upon this place says— Hell is said to have a soul, not that it is a Living Creature, as some erroneously conceit, but because by words of humane custom we may express the affections of things insensi­ble: It is insatiable because it can never be filled with the multitude of the Dead. See more examples, Esa. 24.4. and 33.9. Jer. 4.28. and 12.4. Lam. 2.8. Hosea 4.3. Joel 1.10. Amos 1.2. &c.

Esa. 24.23. Then shall the Moon blush (so the Hebrew) and the Sun shall be ashamed, when the Lord of Hosts shall Reign in Mount Sion, &c. This Prosopopeia intimates the light of Divine Grace in the Church, as if he had said, the glory of the Sun or Moon will be nothing, if compared with the Glory of him that rules in the Church of God, Esa. 55.12. The Mountains and the Hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all the Trees of the Field shall clap their hands. By this most ele­gant Prosopopeia likewise spiritual Joy in the Kingdom of Christ is figured, as chap. 49.13. where the Heavens and Mountains are excited to singing, by the same Prophetical voice. And Jer. 51.48. Then the Heaven and the Earth, and all thats therein, shall sing for Babylon, &c. By which Hyperbolical Prosopopeia, an im­mensity of Joy for the destruction of Babylon and the Deliverance of all true Israelites is set forth, Lam. 1.4. The ways of Sion do Mourn, because none come to the so­lemn Feast— This intimates a forsaking of the solemn Worship of God.

Hosea 1.21, 22. And it shall come to pass in that day, I will hear saith the Lord, Hos. 2.21. I will hear the Heavens, and they shall hear the Earth. —And the Earth shall hear the Corn, and the Wine and the Oyl, and they shall hear Jezreel. Besides the gracious blessing of God, the connexion of first and second causes is fairly intimated by this speech. Jezreel, that is, the Congregation of the faithful (which according to this Name, is the seed of God) does as it were cry, that is, expects Corn and Wine and Oyl; and these (as it were) cry to the Earth, that they may receive juice and nourishment from it, for their nourishment and increase— And the Earth (as it were) invokes Heaven for Heat, Rain, Showers, Dew, Snow, Winds and celestial in­fluences: And the heavens (as it were) invokes God the chief cause of all things, without whom no second causes can effect or produce any thing, and who when he hath a mind to punish can make the Heavens as Brass, and the Earth as Iron, Deut. 28.2 [...]. and detain the fructifying Rain, Jer. 14.22. But here being gracious and propitious to men he is pleased to hear, giving power to Heaven, that by Clouds made of collected vapours, and by various fructifying ways it should influence the Earth; and the Heaven shall hear the Earth, by giving Rain and other things needful to make it fruitful— And the Earth shall hear the Corn, and the Wine, and the Oyl, and other things growing upon the Earth, whilst moistned from Heaven it gives them [Page 96] juice and vigor: And these shall hear Jezreel, that is, they shall answer the prayers or desires of the Godly, and so shall Divine blessing be conveyed to them, &c.

Jonah. 1.4. But the Lord cast forth a great Wind into the Sea and there was a mighty tempest in the Sea, so that the Ship thought to be broken, so the Hebrew, that is, it was like to be broken, as if the Ship had a mind— Some explain this by a metonymie of the thing containing; that is, they that were in the Ship thought that they must speedily suffer shipwrack.

John 3.8. The Wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, John 3.8. The Wind bloweth &c. nor whither it goeth, &c. A Will and Walking is attri­buted to the Wind and Ayr, to signifie its various, wonderful vicissitudes unknown to man; upon which Erasmus in his paraphrase excellently says— This Ayr by which we are vegetated, and whose power, and utility we only feel, is very subtile, and is called a spirit (or Wind;) and this spirit is not restrained at the pleasure of men, but is carryed by its own force, by which it is known to diffuse it self through all things, having a wonderful power over all corporeal things: Sometimes giving Life, sometimes Death. Now calm and silent, then more violent, sometimes blowing from the East, sometimes from the West, and sometimes from other diffe­rent quarters of the World. And discovers it self by the effect: You hear its voice, when you see no Body, neither can it be graspt by the hands; you feel it present, but you see it not coming, neither can you tell whither it goes at its departure— The New-birth is like it— The minds of men by the Spirit of God are carried away and transformed by secret breathings. The ineffable power and effect of it is felt, but what is done is not discern'd by the Eyes. And so they that are born again, are not now acted by a humane and carnal Spirit, but by the Spirit of God who quickens, and moderates all things. See Rom. 8.22.

To this Classe belong some Nouns, and some Verbs.

1. NOƲNS, as when Arrows are called the Sons of the quiver, Lam. 3.13. because they lye hid there, as a Child in the Womb, Psal. 127.3, 4. So Sparkles are called sons of burning Coals, Job 5.7. (for in both places the Hebrew is so.) A Tongue is ascribed to Fire (Esa. 5.24. and Flame, because of some similitude be­twixt a Tongue and the tapering Flame. See Act. 2.3. A Tongue is also attribut­ed to the Sea, Josh. 15.2, 5. which is to be understood of a Bay in form like a Tongue. So the Tongue of the Egyptian Sea, Esa. 11.15. is a certain Bay or Ri­ver, &c. The (oblong) wedge which Achan took, is called, in the Hebrew, a Tongue of Gold, Josh. 7.21. A Hand is attributed to a Sword, Job 5.20. To a Flame of Fire, Esa. 47.14. To Hell, Hos. 13.14. By which (as in our Translation) their power is understood. The beginning of a parting way is called the Mother, and Head of the Way, Ezek. 21.21.

2. VERBS, Bread is said to be gone away, when it is spent, 1 Sam. 9.7. See Rev. 18.14. A City is said to Cry, Esa. 14.31. So is a Stone, Habak 2.11. The Hire of Laboarers defrauded, Jam. 5.4. which denotes the grievousness of the sin or punishment. See Luke 19.40. To Eat, is ascribed to consuming Fire, Le­vit. 10.2. Job 1.16. Nah. 3.15. To the destroying Sword, 2 Sam. 2.26. Esa. 1.20. Jer. 2.30. And to a Land or Region, Numb. 13.33. Either because being hard it wasted mens strength in tilling, or because of the unwholesomeness of the Air. To Heal, Cure, or Revive is put for repairing decay'd buildings, 1 Chron. 11.8. 2 Chron. 24.13. Neh. 4.2. 1 King. 18.30 Healing is put for bles­sing the Land, 2 Chron. 7.14. Psal. 60.3, 4. For making the Waters wholsome 2 Kings 2.21, 22. Ezek. 47.8. See more examples, Gen. 18.10, 14. Gen. 23.16. Cant. 5.5. Jer. 23.9. Jer. 5.28. &c.

5. Sometimes Kingdoms, Provinces and Cities (which are, as it were, incorpo­rate bodies) are spoken of, as if they were a single person, as

(1. The People in general, as Esa. 1.5, 6. expounded ver. 7, 8, 9. Deut. 33.12. Esa. 7.20. and 8.8. and 30.28. Hab. 3.13.

[Page 97](2.) Of the whole People more specially, but less frequently, Lam. 3.1. Esa. 7.20.

(3.) Of a whole City the Scripture speaks as of a Woman, Esa. 32.9. An evident example of this Prosopopeia you will find, Esa. 1. and Lam. 2. See also Esa. 32.11. with ver. 9. Hence the people of the Jews are proposed as a faithless and Adul­terous Woman, Jer. 3.1, 3, 4. and 4.30. Ezek. chap. 1 [...]. and 23. By which the conjunction of the Church with God is compared to humane Wedlock. God him­self is proposed in this Allegory as the Husband, the Commonwealth of Israel as the Mother, out of which sprung the two Kingdoms of Israel and Juda, which are com­pared with Daughters, (Ezek. 23.2. There were two women the Daughters of one Mother, ver. 3. and they committed Whoredoms in Egypt) And when they were espoused in a Covenant way to God, they most wickedly forsook him, and com­mitted frequent Adulteries, &c. For they are spiritual Adulteries and Whoredoms which Jehovah so often reprehends and detests by his Prophets, when joyned with im­penitence, Exod. 34.15, 16. Deut. 31.16. Judg. 2.17. Esa. 1.21. and 57.3. Nah. 3.4. &c. Esa. 23.15, 16, 17.

(4.) The Name of Mother is attributed to a City, 2 Sam. 20.19. By which the Chief or Metropolitan City is understood, from whence the rest derive their original, and owe subjection to, Josh. 17.16. Numb. 21.25. Judg. 11.26. 2 Sam. 8.1. The whole people of God are called Mother, Esa. 50.1. Hos. 2.2. Because it begets or ought to beget spiritual Sons to God. Hence 'tis translated to the heavenly Jerusalem, the New Testament Church, Gal. 4.26.

(5.) The Name of Daughter and Virgin, is often attributed to a People or City, either distinctly or conjunctly, Psal. 45.12. and 137.8. Daughter of Babylon, is put for the Kingdom of Babylon, so Lam. 1.6. and 2.1. &c. Daughter of Sion, for the people of the Jews, and hence Lam. 2.2. She is called the Daughter of Juda. So Zach. 9.9. Esa. 1.8.—10.32.—16.1.—37.22. Jer. 4.31. —6.2. Micah 4.10.13. Zeph. 3.10, 14. &c. So the Virgin of Israel, Jer. 31.4, 21. Amos 5.2. Sometimes Virgin and Daughter are joyned, as Esa. 23.12. —37.22. —47. 1. Jer. 46.11.

1. When the Name of Virgin is attributed to the People of God, some say,Why the name of Virgin is attri­buted to the Peo­ple of God. In Com­ment Esa. 37. it is with respect to the true Worship of God, observed by them without corruption, because such as depart from its purity, are called whorish and adulterous, upon which Jerome says, Sion and Jerusalem is therefore called a Virgin and Daughter, because when all other Nations adored Images or Idols, this alone preserved the chastity of Religi­on, and the adoration of one Divinity, But Drusius denies this (lib. 16. obser. cap. 5.) from two reasons, First, because with respect to Israel she is rather called the Wife of God, and when she Worships other Gods, a whore. Secondly, because the Scripture calls Israel a Virgin even when she adores false Gods, Amos 5.2. and Jer. 18.13. The Virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible thing, others add a third rea­son, because Babylon and Egypt, are also called Virgins as before, which yet were full of Idolatry and impiety. But Drusius thinks she was called a Virgin before the Cap­tivity; and was so no more when she was subjected to a strange yoke.In Esa. 37.22. Brentius says, That Jerusalem was called a Virgin, either because its Kingdom was a free Mo­narchy, and did not serve any forreign King, but had a King of its own Nation, as a Virgin is not subject to the yoke of any strange man: Or because, as a Virgin yet un­touched or uncorrupted by man, the City Jerusalem was not yet spoiled by any Enemy, nor her Citizens translated elsewhere. But Drusius objects that place, Jer. 18.13. To himself, for Jeremy Prophesied after the ten Tribes were carryed away, and yet he calls Israel a Virgin, which doubt (says he) may be resolved by understanding by Virgin the People of the Jews, so called in specie, as not yet exhausted by a total carrying away, as ver. 11. But although this may satisfie that doubt, yet Lam. 2.13. strongly confutes this interpretation of Drusius, where Jerusalem is called the Virgin, and Daughter of Sion after its total devastation by the Babylonians. So that Virgin is put for the Congregation of the people, under what circumstance soe­ver they were by a Prosopopeia— And hence the Chald. translates it a Congregation, People or Kingdom.

2. By Israel we are to understand the Land, and by Virgin or Daughter the Inha­bitants, for the Ancients were wont to call their Countrey, their Mother.

[Page 98]6. The Scripture speaks of certain [Accidents] as if they were men, and had a Body, which kind they call Somatopeia, as Gen. 4.7. And if thou dost not well, sin lyeth at the door— Sin is here proposed as lying at the door like a Night watch­man; whereby is noted that a sure punishment will follow ill doing, as a Watch­man sleeps not, but observes all things and discovers what is evil or hurtful, in order to punishment

There are other places where a body (as it were a person) and his actions are at­tributed to Sin, as Esa. 59.12. Jer. 14.7. Acts 7.60. Rom. 6.6. It is Em­phatically called the body of sin, because it struggles with so great force, soliciting us strongly to do evil, as if it were a living body, or something existing by it self.

Rom. 7. Sin revived and I died— By the knowledge of the Law, sin is known, then Conscience makes a man tremble,Rom. 7.9. and a fearful consternation follows, by which man sees nothing before his Eyes, but eternal Death as the reward of his sin, for the consideration of the Commandment broken by it, makes it exceeding sinful, ver. 13. And in the following verses it is brought in as a cruel Tyrant detaining the miserable sinner Captive, dwelling in him, and warring against the spirit (not that it will be a per­petual Conqueror in the regenerate, for that will not be, Rom. 6.6, 12, 14. &c. but for that unavoidable repugnancy which naturally remains in the flesh against the Spi­rit, whilst the regenerate man lives in this life, ver. 24. See Col. 2.11. and 3.5. Where the members of this body of sin, are recited as Fornication, Ʋncleanness, Inordinate affections, Evil Concupiscence, Covetousness, &c. By which the Will and Reason are depraved, as the body by its members. Compare the following texts together, James 1.14, 15.18. 1 Pet. 2.11. Jam. 4.1. Rev. 18.5.

To this Classe also belong, Gen. 30.33. So shall my Righteousness answer (or wit­ness) for me when it shall come for my hire before thy face, that is, the future event shall declare that God has an account of my Righteousness, which you shall then evi­dently see, &c. here witnessing which is the proper action of a Person is attributed to Righteousness. Punishments are called Witnesses, Job. 10.17. with 16.8.

Psal. 85.10. Mercy and Truth will meet together, Righteousness and Peace shall kiss each other;Ps. 85.10 &c. the affinity and conjunction of those vertues or graces is set before our eyes by the similitude of persons, who after the manner of their Countrey, do at meeting embrace and kiss each other, in Testimony of Friendship. He speaks of the Kingdom of Christ, expressing its blessings and manner of Administration by this Prosopopeia, ver. 12. It is said that Righteousness shall look down from Heaven, that is the Righteousness of Christ, through whose merits we become justified before God, Rom. 1.17. —3.22. It is said ver. 13. That Righteousness shall walk before him, that is, to testifie his gracious coming and presence, Esa. 59.14. Judgment is turned away backward, and justice standeth afar off: For Truth is fallen in the street, and Equity cannot enter. Here is an elegant Prosopopeia of vertue and piety, intimating how scarce they are and how rarely found amongst men.

CHAP. X. Of Metaphors taken from God, Angels, Heaven, and the Elements.

IT was said Chap. VI. That there should be a general division of this Trope into the distinct Fountains and Classes of Metaphors, which with Divine help shall be essayed in the following Chapters. The chief Division of universal beings is into the Creator, and the Creatures— From the Creator we shall produce some— But from the Creatures there are abundance of Metaphors taken in Scripture, which we shall endeavour to make plain.

Metaphors taken from God.

AS sometimes from his Name, sometimes from his Actions. His Hebrew Name [...] Elohim, when taken properly, belongs to none but the only true and Eternal God, and because it is of the plural number it intimates the Mystery of a plurality of persons in one most simple Deity. See Gram. Sacr: p. 87, 376. But metaphorically this Name is attributed to Creatures also, As,

1. To [Angels] who are endued with more eminent power, and more abundant happiness, then any other Creatures, as Psal. 8.5. Thou hast made him a little lower then (The Gods. Elohim) the Angels, as the Chald. the 70. Interpreters, Pagninus, and our Translation render it; But we have a most certain interpreter, Heb. 2.7. viz. the Apostle who expressely quoting this text says, but thou hast made him Or a little while in­ferior to. a little lower, [...], (ti par Angelous) than the Angels, see ver. 9. Where the same is repeated — In both places it is spoke of Christ, with respect to his state of humiliation, an evident specimen is the Angels comforting him in his Agony in the Garden, Luke 22.43. So Psal. 86.8. and 97.7, 9. where the word, Elohim, is put for Angels, as it expresly appears, Heb. 1.6. The meaning is, that there is no power so sublime but must be subject to the soveraignty of Christs Kingdom.

2. To Men of eminent dignity, and his substitutes on Earth by whom God Go­verns, Judges, Informs, and Helps men, as if he had metaphorically call'd them Divine men. Gen. 6.2. The Sons of God saw the Daughters of men, &c. The Chald. renders it, Sons of great men, or grandees; Pagninus, the Sons of Princes— Brentius in his Comment. upon the place thus expounds it.Filii Dei sunt filii Pa­triarcha­rum prae­cip [...]i, & Heroes, penes quos erat, &c. The Sons of God, are the principal Sons and Heroes of the Patriarchs, in whose hands because of the right of primogeniture and other gifts of God, the chief authority was lodged and who in Do­ctrine and example, ought to go before others, as the Princes and heads of the Peo­ple, as Judges and Princes are in other places of Scripture called Gods. But the Daughters of Men were either women of the Families of the Canaanites, or without difference any Maids or Women of the common and vulgar sort, that you may un­derstand that the Princes, who ought to be an honest example for others, look to themselves at their pleasure, any that they met and liked what ever they were, whe­ther Kinswomen, or such as were of Affinity to them, whether Honest or Dishonest. These things were wickedly done, for here was a neglect of Consanguinity, which [Page 100] the Law of Nature commands, contempt of Parents and Superiors, and an indul­gence of Polygamy, (or having many wives) and rash and causeless Divorces, &c.

Exod. 4, 16. He shall be to thee a Mouth, and thou shalt be to him a God (we translate instead of a Mouth, and instead of a God) the Chald. renders it for a Prince or Captain, that is, thou shalt be his chief Magistrate, telling him what he shall say to the People. So God speaks to Moses, Exod. 7.1. See I have made thee a God unto Pharaoh, the explication follows, ver. 2. Thou shalt speak all that I command thee, and Aaron thy Brother shall speak unto Pharaoh. Moses is called a God because of the Commission or Embassy he had, to perform in those wonderful works before Pha­raoh— So Judges are (in the Hebrew) called Gods, Exod. 21.6. and 22.8, 9, 28. So 1 Sam. 28.13. That spectrum or apparition in the likeness of Samuel, is so called, Psal 82.1. He judgeth among the Gods, that is, among the Judges. See ver. 6. I have said ye are Gods, from which Christ argues, John 10.34, 35, 36. that he was much more the Son of God. See Psal. 138.1, 4. Psal. 119.46. I will speak of thy Testimony before Kings and be not ashamed: which Kings are else­where called Gods, &c.

It is also attributed to [Idols] Exod. 23.24. Esa. 36.18. But 'tis by a Meto­nymie of the Adjunct, by which the opinion of men is put for the thing it self, as chap. 4. before-going. For Idols are really things of no value, as Lev. 19.4. Psal. 97.7. Esa. 10.10. and 19.3. Yea, no Gods, 2 Chron. 13.9. (1 Cor. 8.4. an Idol is nothing in the World) but they are Worshipped by Idolaters as Gods, or at best by them they pretend to Worship God. Hence they are called Gods with the addition of another word, as Exod. 20.3. Strange Gods, Deut. 5.7. Josh. 23.16. Gods besides the Lord, Exod. 22.20. Molten Gods, Lev. 19.14. New Gods, Judg. 5.8.

The Greek name of God is [...], (Theos) which is metaphorically ascribed to the Devil, 2 Cor. 4.4. The God of this World hath blinded the minds of them which be­leive not, &c. For as the the true God administers the Kingdom of Grace to such as believe in him, and is by them religiously Worshipped: So Satan infuses his malig­nity into unbelievers, Eph. 2.2, 3.) who obey his Will, Command, and Se­duction. Upon which Erasmus in his Annotations says thus— The Devil is not really a God, but he is so to them, who prefer him before Christ, just as to covetous men their Money or Mammon is a God, and to their Heirs their Luxury is a God, and (ho­mo homini Deus) a man is a God to a man, as the proverb runs. And in his para­phrase— Whatsoever any person hearkens to, (obeys or prefers) before or more then God, makes that his God.

This name is also attributed to the Belly, Phil. 3.19. Whose God is their Belly, that is, such as account their cheif good and felicity to consist in the satisfaction of the desires of the Flesh, and prosperity in this World, without suffering any persecution for the sake of Christ. Whatsoever any person puts the chiefest value upon, is to him a God, if he slights the true God. —In the New Testament also the Name of God is attributed to [Idols,] Act. 7.43. —14.11. by a metonymie, as was said of the Name Elohim, by the opinion of men. as Gal. 4.8. [...], (me phusei ontes theoi) qui natura non sunt Dii, who by nature are not Gods, (but by the depraved imagination of Idolaters) 1 Cor. 8.5. [...], (legomenoi Theoi) who are called Gods (by Idolatrous men) but are not really so — And to these that one and true God is opposed, ver. 6. So much for the Name of God. To which metaphor some refer when the Names of God, [...] (Elohim) [...] (Jehovah) [...] (El) are added in the room of an Epithet for Divine, Chief, or most Excellent— vid. Gram. Sacr. p. 58. seqq. Gram. Sacr. p. 58.

As to the [Actions] of God, the word [Creation] [...] (Bara) properly sig­nifies to make any thing of nothing, which God alone can do— But metaphorically it is Translated to the other great works of God, as Exod. 34.10. I will do marvels, which were not created in the whole Earth, &c. That is such wonders, and so ma­ny, as never yet were done in the World, Numb. 16.30. If the Lord will create a Creation (so the Hebrew) that is, if he will afford a New, and Unheard of miracle, such as was the swallowing up of the Earth, which then happened to the seditions. See Esa. 45.8.

[Page 101]More especially it is taken for the Restauration and Renovation of men, whether in this Life by the Word and Faith; or in the future, by a clear and beatifical vision of God, Psal. 51.10. Create in me a clean Heart, the explication, and renew a right spirit within me— 'Tis as well the work of God to create a pure heart, that is, to convert and regenerate a man, cleanse him from sin, justifie, and save him, as 'tis to create him. The impurity, therefore, of our hearts can with no humane strength or art be purged away, but we have need of the Creators work, and the Redeem­ers vertue, and power to make us New Creatures, John 1.12. But to as many as re­ceived him, to them gave he power to become the Sons of God, even to them that believe on his Name.

Psal. 102.18. And the People that shall be created, shall praise the Lord, that is, the Church that shall be restored and gathered by Christ. For this Psalm treats of that and his Kingdom, of grace, as is alleaged, Heb. 1.10, 11, 12. — Esa. 65.18. Be you glad and rejoyce for ever in that which I create: For behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoyceing and her people a joy. That he speaks of the Glory of Christs Kingdom and Church here, is evident by the following verses; for its restitution and the whole celestial Administration is expressed by the Word Creation, to indicate the Omnipo­tency and most powerful operation of Christ— ver. 17. There is mention of the Creation of a New Heaven, and a New Earth, in the same sence, which promise shall be most perfectly fulfilled in Eternal Life, as Esa. 66.22. and 2 Pet. 3.13. —Eph. 2.10. For we are his Workmanship, Created in Christ Jesus unto Good works, &c. that is, regenerated and renewed in the Image of God. See Psal. 100.3. Esa. 29.23. &c. This is that New Creature of whom it is said, 2 Cor. 5.17. If any man be in Christ he is a New Creature, that is, he is renewed by the Holy Spirit, to lead a new and Holy Life in the Faith of Christ▪ What is corrupt in man by sin, is restor'd and reform'd by Regeneration and Renovation— and so the Image in which man was at first created, but lost it because of his sin, begins to be restored— very fitly therefore is the Regeneration and Renovation of a man expressed by the term Creation, for God alone is the Author and Cause of both.

Of Metaphors taken from Angels.

THE Creatures of God are divided into invisible, and visible— The invisible are Spirits [...], (asomatoi) without bodies, and by them we understand An­gels, because being in their own nature incorporeal, they cannot be seen by humane Eyes— The visible are whatsoever things have an existence in this whole universe, whether they be simple or mixt bodies. There are Good, and Bad Angels, and from both; some, though not many metaphors are taken.

1. From the good Angels, some think that the Ministers of the Gospel are by a me­taphor called Angels, Judg. 2.1. Hag. 1.13. Mal. 2.7. —3.1. Matth. 11.10. Mark. 1.2. Luk. 7.27. 1 Cor. 11.10. Rev. 1.20. and 2.1, 8, 12, 18. and 3.1, 7, 14. and hence not improperly imply an analogy, from the Holy Angels of God to the Prophets, and other Preachers of the Word. But the Hebrew word [...] (Male­ac) and the Greek [...], (Angelos) being an indifferent and common noun,They are called Cheru­bims from the He­brew word Rabcabh to ride because the Lord rid be­twixt them, Psal. 18.10. de­noting any Messenger or Legate, it is better to understand that term properly, be­cause Ministers of the Gospel are really, and not metaphorically Gods Ministers.

Exod. 28.14. The King of Tyrus, is called by a metaphor, the annointed, [...] (cherub) by which term Angels are called Gen. 3.24. and Ezek. 28.14. The covering cherub. As if God had said, as Angels amongst created things are by Nature and Ministry Commissioned by me for the protection of men, so thou (King of Tyrus) didst in thine own conceit and fancy Judge thy self. This metaphor alludes to Gen. 3.24. As Junius and Tremellius in their notes say— This is a most elegant de­scription of that Royal Majesty, by comparing it to that Cherub, which was placed by God in the Garden of Eden, Gen. 3.24. For as an Angel was appointed to [Page 102] keep that Garden, and arm'd with that flaming Sword which turned every way, it was a terror to all, so thou King of Tyrus, since the Kingdom became thine, didst fancy thy self to equal the Angels of God in Glory. Some think it has respect to those An­gelical figures placed in the Sanctuary, Exod. 25.20. covering the Mercy Seat. Riding upon a cherub is attributed to God, Psal. 18.10. 2 Sam. 22.11. When the speech is of Winds, Storms, Clouds and Tempests, to which this name is ascribed by reason of their vehement swiftness, and dreadful effects. The Chald. renders it— And he is revealed in his Magnificence upon most swift Cherubs, and he is led in strength upon the Wings of the Wind.

2. As to what respects evil Angels or Devils, Christ calls Peter Satan, when he would disswade him from suffering, Matth. 16.23. Mark 8.33. Get thee behind me Satan. Erasm. pa­raphrase. Some take this as a Noun appellative, and so [...] (Satan) signifies any ad­versary, as if Christ had said— Give over to contradict the Will of my Father: 'tis thy part to follow, not to go before. Now thou gainsayest, studying to hinder what will save mankind, what the Father will have done, and what becomes me to do. Thou desirest to be a partaker of the Kingdom, and yet thou hinderest me, that am hastning willingly to the Cross whereby it is to be purchased; where you see me go (viz. the Kingdom of Heaven) there you ought also to bend your course. Thou dost not yet savour of God, but led by humane affections, resist the Divine Will. Hinder me not therefore, thou unprofitable monitor, but follow behind me, and rather act the part of a Disciple then a Master. But because our Saviour uses not the Greek [...], (antikeimenos) or [...], (antidikos) which signifies an adversary or opposer, but the Hebrew or Syriack, Satan, by which always the De­vil is understood in the New Testament, and Christ uses the same phrase to the De­vil, Luke 4.8. it is more rightly said that Christ calls Peter, Satan by a metaphor, because in his opposition he acted the Devils part, in giving Satanical Counsel direct­ly contrary to the Will of God— From whence Luther fairly infers this maxime, Tom. 4. lat. fol. 363. that whatsoever Peter, with the universal Colledge of Apostles speaks from his own sence (in Divine matters) and not by Divine Authority and Revelation (as ver. 16.17, 18.) is to be accounted Diabolical and Opposite to Christ— See 1 Cor. 3.11. — 16.22. Gal. 1.8, 9. 2 Pet. 1.19, 20. &c. And then he adds— That Christ in this pas­sage with Peter and his Apostles, prefigured the future History of his whole Church, to wit, that there should be some true confessors of Christ, viz. Good Bishops and Martyrs, who should confess and Preach Christ the Son of the Living God purely, by the example of Peter speaking from the Revelation of the Father— But be­cause the same Peter and the Apostles a little after savour of the Flesh, yea, and (as Christ says) become Satans, it signifies that after the Successors of the Apostles and good Bishops, there would come Devilish Bishops: And that at length he that would usurp the title of Peters sole and only Successor, should follow Satan as his Fa­ther for Revelation, and would seek not the Kingdom of God, but of the World. Which Prophesie we see most palpably and horribly fulfilled, so far Luther.

John 6.70. Christ calls Judas Iscariot a Devil; because he was like him in Lies and Treachery, and so signally malicious that the Scripture says, he was of the De­vil, John 8.44. 1 John 3.8. And the Son of the Devil, Act. 13.10.

Metaphors taken from Heaven.

COrporeal or Bodily Creatures, according to their Physical distinction are either simple, or mixt, and compounded. The simple are Heaven and the Elements, or the Ethereal and Elementary Region of the World.

Heaven properly signifies that outermost celestial body that incloses or compasses the Elements, and is the receptacle of the Stars and Constellations, Gen. 1.8, 14▪ &c. Gen. 15.5. Psal. 8.3. and 19.1.5. Esa. 14.13.

Also the Airy Region which is above us, and this either in conjunction with the [Page 103] Ethereal or Starry Heaven, Gen. 1.6, 7, 8, 9. (where by the mention of the waters being gathered together in one place under the Heavens, is intimated, that also, to be a Heaven, which is next and immediately above them, which is the lower Region of the Air) or separately from it, and so only the Air, Lev. 26.19. Deut. 28.23. 1 King. 8.35. 2 Chron. 7.13. Job 1.16. —2.12. Psal. 8▪8. Matth. 6.26. Luke 9.54. —12.56. But metaphorically Heaven is taken.

1. For Divine Glory, and infinite Majesty, which is called [...], (phos aprositon) light inaccessible (or which none can approach to, 1 Tim. 6.16. By reason of similitude, from the greatness, splendor, beauty and elegancy of Heaven— to which we may refer the words of Bonaventure, Corpus quod est sursum, dicitur Caelum, &c. The Body which is above is called Heaven, because it is capacious,lib. sen­tent. dist. 2. n. 33. secret, and quiet; and because this threefold propriety is found in the celsitude of the Divinity, it is therefore called Heaven; it is capacious in the immensity of Pow­er, secret in the depth of knowledge, and quiet in the tranquility of delight. This is superior to all Heavens, not by situation but dignity, and greater than every Heaven, not by extension, but from his own immensity, by which he is beyond all, but not excluded, &c.

So it is taken when God is said to dwell in Heaven, Psal. 2.4. 1 King. 8.39.43. &c. So Deut. 26.15. Look down from thy Holy Habitation from Heaven, and bless thy people, &c. So it is said of Christ that he came down from Heaven, John 3.13. —6.33, 50, 51. 1 Cor. 15.47. That is, he went forth from that inaccessible Light of Divine Majesty, and manifested himself in the Flesh. And the same Throne of Majesty is in the Heavens, Heb. 8.1. and 1.3. to which Christ (as God-man) in his state of exaltation went. See John 17.5. Heb. 7.26. Made higher then the Heavens, Eph. 4.10. Ascended up far above all Heavens, that he might fill all things. See Psal. 8.1, 2. and 108.5. &c. By which places, not so much the hight of the place, as the sublimity of the Divine Majesty is expressed.

2. Heaven is metaphorically taken for the spiritual Kingdom of God, and that state of happiness wherein he manifests and communicates himself to Angels and Men— And that is,

(1.) Of Grace, viz. The gathering and gracious Government of the Church Militant in this Life, to which belongs the appellation of the Kingdom of Heaven of­tentimes attributed to the Church, Matth. 13.11, 24, 31, 33. and 20.1. and 22.1. &c. So when it is said to plant a Heaven, Esa. 51.16. and to create a New Heaven, Esa. 65.17. By which phrases the Restauration of the Church by Christ is noted, which is begun in this Life, and compleated in Eternity, 2. Pet. 3.13. The Reason of the Comparison is, because as the natural Heaven is very far distant from the Earth, so the ways of God in ruling his Church, and giving blessedness to believers do exceedingly surpass the manner of Earthly Administrations, Esa. 55.9. And as in the natural Heaven all things are in the exactest order, full of Light and radiance: So God in his Church, is the God of order and peace, 1 Cor. 14.33. Leading, Teaching, and saving his people by a most convenient order of mediums, and that by the Light of his saving Word.

(2.) Of Glory, viz. The Eternal and unspeakable felicity of Angels and Holy men, in the beholding and perfect fruition of the glorious God. To which belong those phrases, Matth. 18.10. Their Angels in Heaven behold the face of my Father— the speech is of the Angels appointed as keepers of the little ones— By which it ap­pears that the Angels though acting on Earth for the good of Christians are neverthe­less really in Heaven, that is, in a celestial state of blessedness, Matth. 6.20. Trea­sures are said to be laid up in Heaven, Luke 8.22. To have treasures in Heaven, Phil. 3.20. To have our Conversation in Heaven— By which phrases Faith and Christian Hope aspiring and tending to Eternal blessedness is to be understood. From this Heaven Satan is said to fall like Lightning, Luke 10.18. Satan (says) Illyricus) fell not from a place, but from his degrees of dignity— to wit from the favour of God and spiritual Blessedness, into the greatest wickedness, punishments and eternal and spiritual calamities. Of the scope of these words of Christ, Erasmus says thus— Jesus that he might fortifie their Mines, against that disease of vain glory, which even the Saints are sometimes tainted with, proposes the example of Lucifer to them, who for his pride was suddenly cast down from so great felicity — I saw (says he) Satan falling from Heaven [Page 104] like Lightning. His dignity in Heaven was very eminent, and yet for the swelling pride of his mind is flung from the highest (glory) to the lowest (wretchedness) how much more ought you to beware of pride who carry a mortal body about you, obnoxious to all perils. But others understand this of the power and efficacy of Christ, which by the Preach­ing of the Apostles he put forth, to which Satan against his Will was forced to give way, and was (as it were) cast down from the height of that power which he exer­cised over men.

In [Heaven,] we are also to consider the Ornaments of it, as the luminaries as they are called, Gen. 1.14. The Sun, Moon, and Stars which are the Organs of Light, —The Sun and Moon constantly shining do metaphorically denote eternal blessedness in Heaven. Thy Sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy Moon withdraw it self— Esa. 60.20. the explication follows, For the Lord shall be thine Everlasting Lights, and the days of thy Mourning shall be ended. See Rev. 22.5. Such things as concern the state of the Church in this Life, and Heaven are mixt in this chapter of Esaiah, as an accurate inspection into it, will shew. The Chald. in Translating these words of the Sun and Moon, does (not unelegantly) expound them thy Kingdom shall no longer be abolished, nor thy Glory transferred. The Light of the Sun denotes prosperity, as shall be shewed hereafter; therefore on the contrary the setting or darkness of the Sun metaphorically denotes calamity, sorrow and misery, Jer. 15.9. Her Sun is gone down while it was yet day. Chald. their glory is translated in their Life time— that unexpected and most heavy calamities are treated of here, the foregoing and fol­lowing verses shew. Amos 8.9. I will cause the Sun to go down at Noon, and I will darken the Earth in a clear day, that is, I will suddenly overwhelm you with hea­vy strokes and calamities. So Micah 3.6. Joel 2.10. and 3.4. Esa. 13.10. On the other side an Increase of the Sun and Moons Light, metaphorically signifies great spiritual happiness, Esa. 30.26. The light of the Moon shall be as the light of the Sun, and the light of the Sun shall be seven-fold, as the light of seven days, &c. As if he had said, the help which I will afford you shall be so great and illustrious, that in that time the two luminaries of the World the Sun and Moon (as if they would congratulate the Deliverance of the People) will be more chearful and more shining then they were wont to be. Some refer this to an Hyperbole.

By the Name of [Stars] illustrious and principal men are understood, Dan. 8.10. And it (viz. that little horn by which Antiochus is understood) waxed great even to the Host of Heaven, and it cast down some of the Host and of the Stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. By the Host of Heaven the People of God or the Church sometimes circumscribed in Judea is understood; but by Stars, the Princes or chief men, who by their administration in the Church or Commonwealth were of more eminency then others, are noted, hence in ver. 24. it is so expounded, he shall destroy the mighty and the holy people— that is, he shall destroy the highest and the lowest. See 1 Macchab. 1.25.

2. By the Name of [Stars] the Teachers of the Word of God, and Church Ru­lers are figured, Rev. 1.15, 20. and 2.1. Which consideration fairly leads us to know.

A paral­lel be­tween Stars and Ministers of the Gospel.(1.) Their Lord and Master, whose Countenance is said to shine as the Sun in its strength, Rev. 1.16.

1. As the Sun communicates his light to the Stars in Heaven: So Christ the Sun of Righteousness, Mal. 4.2. imparts the light of saving knowledge to his faithful Ser­vants, 2 Cor. 4.6.

2. The Lord brings forth the Host of the Stars by number, and calleth them all by Names, Esa. 40.26. So Christ leads forth his Ministers in his Church as a sacred Host, against Satan and the World, and calleth them also by Name, Ps. 68.11.

(2.) Their Office: God placed the Stars in the Firmament, to enlighten the Earth, Gen. 1.17.

3. The light of Doctrine which the Ministers bring to the Church is from heaven, and taken out of the heavenly and divine Word alone, 2 Pet. 1.16.19. which is [Page 105] sweeter then honey to the souls of such as are taught of God, Psal. 19.10. Psal. 119▪103. but to others as Wormwood, Rev. 8.11. Because they tast nothing but bitter­ness and a denunciation of damnation in it.

4. A Star led the wise men to Christ, Matth. 2.9. —Ministers propose only that end in Preaching, 1 Cor. 2.2.

5. It is said that at the Commandment of the Holy One, Eccles. 43.10. they (viz. the Stars) will stand in their order, and never faint in their Watches— Of the Ministers of the Word it is said Heb. 13.17. That they watch for the Souls of men— Nor ought they to be discouraged in their Watches, nor faint because of the Worlds ingratitude, but both by doctrine and good example to keep the same order constantly, and so, they shall be quite different from these wandring Stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever, Jude ver. 13. They are to take care that all things be done de­cently and in order in the Church, 1 Cor. 14.40.

6. It is said of the Stars that they fought from Heaven, against the Enemies of the People of God. Judge 5.20. So a most grievous fight against Devils is proposed to the Ministers of the word, Eph. 6.12. Let them look to it therefore, that they manage their warfare rightly, 2 Cor. 10.3, 4, 5. That they may be able to Glo­ry in the Lord, for the heavenly reward that will follow, 2 Tim. 4.7, 8.

7. It is said of the Stars, that together with the Sun and Moon they divide between the day and between the night, and are for Signs, and for seasons, and for days and for years, Gen. 1.14. —So it is the duty of Gospel Ministers to divide between the day and night, light and darkness, that is, to inculcate and diligently shew the dif­ference between good and evil, piety, and wickedness, Esa. 5.20. Jer. 15.19. Rom. 13.12, 13. 2 Cor. 6.14, 15. &c. Also to give signs and seasons, that is, to provide so as that the publick worship of God be kept up timely and seasonably, and in their Ministerial function to impart their gifts suitable to the wants of the flock in the respective seasons, that so there may be no disorder or confusion— to shew also days and nights, that is, to proclaim the acceptable year of our Lord, Esa. 61.2▪ and earnestly to inculcate the appointed day in which the Lord will Judge the World in Righteousness, Acts 17.31.

8. It is said of the Stars that they differ from one another in Glory— So there is a great diversity of the gifts of the spirit in the Ministers of the Word, 1 Cor. 12:4. &c.

9. All the Stars of light are commanded to praise God, Psal. 148.3. with Job 38.7. —So all the Ministers of the word, what measure of Grace soever they have received, or whatsoever gift they exercise in the Church, ought with ardency of spi­rit to praise the Lord, to serve him heartily, and without selfishness or envy to pre­serve mutual Peace and Concord among themselves, and their reward shall be certain if they behave themselves faithfully, and not only in this world, but also in Eter­nity.

10. Stars were seen by John worn in the Right hand of Christ, Rev. 1.20.—So let the faithful Labourers in the Gospel be certain of a most gracious protection by the om­nipotent hand of Christ, Esa. 51.16. &c. and in the Life to come they that turn many unto Righteousness shall shine, as the Stars for ever and ever, Dan. 12.3.

So much for Ecclesiastical Stars; —The Stars being obscured, sometimes denote Calamity, Esa. 13.10. Ezek. 32.7. Joel 2.10. as was said before of the Sun and Moon.

The brightest Star that shines in our view is called in Greek [...], (phosporos) in Latine Lucifer, both which words signifie a bringer of light, in Hebrew 'tis cal­led [...] of the root [...] (halal) which signifies to shine; and is metaphorically translated to describe the unexpected ruine and overthrow of the King of Babylon, Esa. 14.12. How art thou fallen from Heaven O Lucifer Son of the morning That Star is called Son of the Morning, because while it accompanies the morning it seems, as it were, to be born of it. Its course is perpetual and constant, so that it was not feared that it should fall from Heaven— And therefore to appearance it seemed impossible and incredible that so great a King, illustrious and splendid in pow­er and Majesty beyond other Kings (as the Morning Star is before other Stars) should fall from his lofty and magnificent grandeur. Pope Gregory upon Ezekiel, and other School Doctors expound this of the Devils fall, because the Prince of De­vils is called Lucifer— But this Epithet does not belong to that malignant spirit in [Page 106] this place, for God himself confirms our explication, ver. 4. saying, thou shalt take up this Parable, (Proverb, or Taunting speech for so the Hebrew is) against the King of Babylon, not against the Devil, &c. Where Christ our Saviour is cal­led Lucifer, is expounded before in the chapter that treats of an Anthropopathy Be­sides the phrase [...], (after proinos) stella matutina, the Morning Star is a symbol of the glorious light in Eternity, Rev. 2.28. See also Dan. 12.3. 1 Cor. 15.41, 42.

Metaphors taken from Light.

THere are two principal effects of the Luminaries and ornaments of Heaven, viz. to give light to the World, and distinguish times. In Metaphors taken from light we will distinctly treat of Nouns and Verbs, which are sometimes joyned together.

Generally light is taken,

1. For Life it self, Job 3.20. Wherefore (has God) given light to the miserable, (so the Hebrew) the explication follows, and Life to the bitter in soul, ver. 21. Which long for Death, but it cometh not. Hence comes the phrase to see the Light, that is, to live, or be born alive, Job 3.16. To walk in the light of the living, that is, to act amongst the living, or to live, either a corporal or spiritual Life in God, Ps. 56.13. So David prays, Ps. 13.3. Lighten mine Eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of Death.

2. For any prosperity and joy of mind arising from thence, Esth. 8.16. The Jews had light and gladness, and Joy and Honour, where the synonymous terms make out that it signifies the eminency of the Jews prosperity, and joy for their Divine deliverance, Job 29.3. By his light I walked through darkness, that is, being free from Calamities I led a happy Life, ver. 24. The light of my countenance they cast not down, that is, they grieved me not, but studied to please and gratifie me in all things, Psal. 97.11. Light is sown for the Righteous, the explication follows, and gladness for the upright in heart. The word sowing is also emphatical, as if he had said, 'tis reposited and hidden as seed is in the ground, but in its own time it will certainly come forth. See Esa. 61.11. Col. 3.3, 4. It is sow'n with the seed of the heavenly word, and a most full and bright harvest of this celestial seed will fol­low in the Resurrection to eternal Life. So light is also taken, Psal. 112.4. Pro. 13.9. Esa. 45.7. and 58.8. and 59.9. The Reason of the comparison in this and the forgoing passage is to be fought in the profitableness, and pleasure of light, Eccl. 11.7. &c.

3. For the open and manifest state of things, Matth. 10.27. What I tell you in Darkness, that speak ye in the light, another Metaphor of this publication follows, and what ye hear in the ear, that Preach ye upon the house tops. The sence is, you are there­fore called by me, that you may Preach publickly to the whole World, what you privately heard from me. So Zeph. 3.5. John 3.21. 1 Cor. 4.5.

4. For Grace, Benevolence or Favour, Prov. 16.15. In the Light of the Kings Countenance is Life, the exposition follows, and his favour is as a cloud of the latter Rain. So tis taken of God as was said in the chapter of an Anthropopathy.

More especially the mystery of Regeneration, Renovation, and Salvation, is fre­quently expressed by the metaphor of light, and that respecting,

1. The Organical cause, which is the word of God, which is frequently called so, by a Reason deduced from the quality of light, which represents the difference and knowledge of things to the Eyes, Psal. 43.3. Prov. 6.23. Esa. 2.5. —5.20. 2 Cor. 4.6. 1 John 2.8. Thus the Apostles because of their Preaching the word of God are called the light of the World, Matth. 5.14. and their light is said to shine before men, ver. 16. that is, the light of Doctrine by diligent Preach­ing, as also the light of a good life and example.

[Page 107]2. The Formal Cause, which is the saving knowledge of Christ and true Faith manifested by love and good Works, Act, 26.18. Eph. 5.8. 1 Pet. 2.9. 1 John 1.7. Hence believers are called Sons of light, Luke 16.8. Eph. 5.8. 1 Thes. 5.5. And good works the Armour of light, Rom. 13.12.

3. The Final Cause, and the last scope and effect of Faith, which is life eternal often noted by the term of Light, Esa. 60.19, 20, John 8.12. Act. 26.23. 2 Tim. 1.10. &c. From these there may be an easie Judgment made of certain Verbs belonging to light.

Psal. 13.3. Lighten mine Eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of Death. Verbs. He prays for the light of heavenly wisdom from the Word of God, also the light of watchfulness and circumspection, whereby he may avoid the snares of the Adversary. He alludes to humane sleep which easily overcomes those that sit in darkness, or shut their Eyes — whereas if the light shines in our Eyes we can hardly sleep.

Psal. 19.8. The Commandement of the Lord is pure enlightning the Eyes, that is, the mind, by giving understanding and knowledge as well of the Divine Will, as of our own corruption, and prudence in the management of affairs, that a man may not belike a brute, which is void of rational intellectuals; Psal. 34.6. They looked on him and were enlightned, that is, believers were made glad by the Lord by his gracious and saving deliverance, lest they should be dejected and derided by the wicked. See Prov. 4.18, 19. Eccl. 8.1. with 2 Cor. 3.18. Esa. 60.5. John 7.37, 38, 39.

John 1.9. That (viz. Christ) was the true light, which lighteth every man that cometh (or coming) into the World— Upon these words Erasmus very fairly para­prases. In this darkness of the World, men eminent for holiness shined, as little Stars in the thick obscurity of night, and as it were through a Cloud shewed some light, but only to the Jews and the adjacent parts. But this true light imparted its splendor not to a single Nation only but to all men, that come into this dark World— He came, that by a Gospel Faith he should shine in and give light to the Hearts of all men in the World— No Scythian, no Jew, no Spaniard, no Goth, no Brittain, is excluded, neither King nor Servant. There is a sufficiency of light for all, and if they remain in darkness. it is not the lights fault but their own, who perversly love darkness and abhor the light —He shines to all▪ lest any one should have a pretext of excuse; for if they perish, they do it wilfully and knowingly, as if one would dispute against the Sun-shine at Noon, and will not lift up his Eyes to be confuted, &c. 2 Cor. 4.6. There is an eminent description of spiritu­al illumination. See Eph. 3.8, 9.

To light by way of privation is opposed sometimes a [Shadow, Shadow.] which is light hindered from a total shining, by the interposition of some body. This metaphori­cally signifies protection and defence against adversaries of any sort, as a shade de­fends from the Suns intemperate aed scorching heat, Esa. 16.3. —30.2, 3. Lam. 4.20. &c. For so 'tis attributed to God as before chap. 8. towards the end.

But where the Ceremonies and Types of the Old Testament are called Shadows with respect to Christ, Col. 2.17. Heb. 10.1. It is not to be understood that they are naturally so, but artificially and like a picture, for Painters first draw a shadow or or an umbratile kind of delineation, and afterwards perfect their picture with lively colours, the former vanishing out of sight. So it was with the sacrifices and Cere­monies of the Ancients, which figured Christ, and ceased when he came— which explication is evident by the opposition of Shadows, and the very Image of things, Heb. 10.1.

Sometimes, Mists, Fogs, and Darkness are opposed to light, which hide the splendor and beauty of things, and hinder men from making, a right distinction separation or definition of objects, begetting disturbance and confusion in the mind, and contain in themselves nothing pleasing or laudable and therefore signifie evil in Scripture. But because there is the same Reason of contraries, (which mutually answer each other) we shall be able by the consideration of light, to pass a judgment upon its opposite.

[Page 108]1. As light signifies Life, so darkness and a shadow metaphorically denote Death; Job 10.21. Before I go, whence I shall not return, to the land of darkness, and the shadow of Death: ver. 22. A Land of darkness, as the gloominess of the shadow of Death and without order and it shineth as darkness. This is a periphrasis of Death and the Grave. —Psal. 88.12. Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? See ver. 10.11. and Job 28.3.

2. As light signifies Prosperity and Joy; so darkness denotes evils, unhappiness and calamity, and consequently that sorrow, mourning, and grief that follows. See Job 5.14. —15.22. —17.12. —18.5, 6. Psal. 44.19. and 88.18. and 143.3. Esa. 5.30. —47.5. —50.10. —59.9. Jerem. 8.21. —13.16. Lam. 3.2, 6. Ezek. 32.8. Joel 2.2. —3.4. Amos 5.18. Micah 7.8. Nahum. 1.8. Zeph. 1.15. &c.

3. As light is put for that which is manifest and apparent, so darkness is put for that which is hidden, secret and unknown, Job 12.22. Eccl. 6.4. Esa. 45.19. Matth. 10.27. See John 3.20, 21. Eph. 5.11, 12.13. So obscure, or the meanest sort of men, is put for such as are of no eminent note or fame, Prov. 22.29.

More especially as the mystery of Regeneration and the restoring of man to Eter­nal Salvation is expressed by light, so by opposition darkness denotes a state of cor­ruption, sin, and damnation, and that also with respect to,

(1.) The Organical cause, which is the Truth revealed in the word of God, in which respect, darkness signifies errors, lies and perverse doctrines, Esa. 5.20. and 9.2. and 60. (with 2, 3.) John 12.35. Rom. 1.21, 22. Although by way of consequence the things which follow are also noted in these places.

(2.) The Formal Cause, which is the knowledge of Christ, and Faith which works by piety. —in which respect darkness signifies infidelity and an indulgence in sin, Psal. 82.5. Prov. 2.13. John 1.5. and 3.19. Act. 26.18. Rom. 13.12. 2 Cor. 6.14. Eph. 4.17, 18, 19. and 5.8, 11. 1 John 1.6. and 2.9, 11. Although the antecedent member is also noted in these sayings, all infidelity, impiety, and sins arising from ignorance and errors in Doctrine.

(3. The Final Cause and last effect; in this respect darkness signifies eternal death and damnation, Matth. 8.12. and 22.13. 2 Pet. 2.4. Jude ver. 6. And whereas the Devil is the Authour of all those evils, he with his whole infernal Socie­ty are called the power of Darkness, Luke 22.53. Eph. 6.12. Col. 1.13.

Metaphors taken from Time.

THE other effect of the luminaries of Heaven, is the differencing of Time, from which differences some Metaphors are deduced.

Day.(1.) A [Day] is taken for the profit and benefit of the time allotted or granted by God, 1 Sam. 25.8. We come in a good Day, that is, seasonable and for our profit, your preparation and store being such as that you can relieve our want, John 9.4. I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day, that is, while the allotted season lasts, for that purpose given by Heaven. Upon which Erasmus paraphrases, I am therefore sent into the World, that I should by Deeds of this kind purchase Glory for God, by con­vincing unbelievers that I speak true, that they may believe, and be cured of their blindness. This Command I must diligently follow, while it is day; for men that have any thing to do, work by day, the night being unseasonable for labour, in the mean while therefore, while the present day affords an opportunity of acting what is necessa­ry for the obtaining of eternal Life I must not give over. For the Night is coming wherein men neither will nor can work. See Luke 13.31, 33. John 11.9, 10. and 12.35. Rom. 13.11, 12, 13. 2 Cor. 6.2.

[Page 109]2. For the knowledge of God and the season of grace, Rom. 13.12. The night is far spent, the day is at hand— Here is an opposition between an unconverted state, which is compared to night, and a state of Conversion to the Kingdom of Christ, which he calls Day, for the reason before given, 1 Thess. 5.5, 8. Ye are the Chil­dren of light, and children of the day: We are not of the Night, nor of darkness— But let us who are of the day be sober— In this text there is an elegant Antanaclasis— for the word Day, ver. 2.4. is to be understood of the day of Judgment, and ver. 5. of the gift of Gospel restauration by Christ, to which ver. 7. the mention of the natu­ral night opposite to the Day is subjoyned, 2 Pet. 1.19. until the Day-dawn arise, &c. here life and eternal Glory seem to be noted, that in the words of the Apostle there may be an opposition between this Life, and that which is to come, this life being compared to an obscure place which needs a Candle to light it (which Candle is the Prophetical Revelations) but life to come is compared to a clear Day, in which Christ our [...], (phosporos or) light-bringer shall illuminate the Eyes of believ­ers with a most full and bright radiance. And thus the great perfection of the Pro­phetical Scriptures (as also of the Apostolical, which are exactly conformable to them, and as it were an explanatory light to them) is proved, because most suffici­ent (with the help of Divine Grace,) for the obtaining of Everlasting life, &c.

The parts of the day are the Morning, Noon, and Evening, Psal. 55.17. Eve­ning and Morning and at Noon will I pray, &c. The morning season metaphorically de­notes diligence, sedulity and care, because men rise early to go about such business as they are careful of, and are much upon their hearts, Job 8.5. Psal. 5.3. and 92.2. and 101.8. Prov. 8.17. 2 Chron. 36.15. Jer. 35.4. Zeph. 3.5, 7. The Watch­man said the morning cometh, and also the Night, &c.Morning Some understand that the morning is here put put for Prosperity, as if he had said to Dumah or the Idumeans, The yoke of the Israelites being shaken off of thy Neck (as it is said, Gen. 27.42. You shall enjoy liberty, prosperity, and plenty of good things: But another Calamity hangs over thee from the Assyrian by which, as with the darkness of night thou shalt be obscured. Others take the word morning properly, but not unlike the former sense; the morning indeed comes, (as ye ask ver. 11. Watchmen what of the night? that is, when shall the day-dawn come? And what will happen then?) But together with it, that night comes, which is more dark and terrible. For when the days are calamitous, there arises with the Sun, as it were, a new light, yet ending in a night more full of calamity then the former. Illyricus, says, Although the Morning properly taken will come, yet the metaphorical morning will not come, but it will be a me­taphorical Night.

The Chald. takes it metaphorically, but applies it more generally; thus it para­phrases the whole verse— The Prophet said there is a reward provided) for the just and vengeance for the wicked, if you will repent, do it, while you may.

Esa. 47.11. Therefore shall evil come upon thee, the morning thereof thou knowest not (so the Hebrew) that is, whose sudden coming or beginning thou that shalt not at first mind, as in the morning betimes, the Sun rises, and darts out its beams upon a sudden. Some think that the Prophet derides the vanity of the Chaldean Astrologers. Others thus, the morning or day break gives an indication of the Suns coming, so this evil that was to come upon Babylon was not without its marks and tokens that went before it, which were as illustrious as the dawn that ushers in or harbingers the day. But not known to Babilon because of its blindness and conceited security, Hos. 10.15. In a morning shall the King of Babylon be utterly cut off, that is, swiftly and suddenly. He speaks of Hosea the Son of Elah, 2 Kings 17.1, 5. &c.

This term moreover denotes divine grace to believers, because of the beauty and sweetness of the springing and arriving light.Ps 110.3. From the womb of the morning, &c. For as the morning brings the begin­ning of day light after the tedious sadness of a dark night, and is no little comfort to them (especially if sick) that are weary of darkness, and earnestly long for day, so the grace of divine consolation does wonderfully recreate and refresh the hearts of such as are troubled and afflicted, &c. Of which take two examples, Psal. 110.3. From the Womb of the morning, thou hast the Dew of—Of which place many have [Page 110] said many things. It is certainly to be expounded by a metaphor, denoting the Grace of God given in his Word, which is compared to the Morning, Esa. 58.8. Hosea. 6.3. A Womb is attributed to the morning, because of the mystery of God in his spiritual begetting of his Children— The unfolding of this Trope is thus, as the Dew by a wonderful and invisible way, as it were, born of the Womb of the morning, that is, it plentifully falls at that time, without any help or assistance of man, Job 38.28. So by the grace and mercy of God, and by the power of his hea­venly word, (but in a far more abstruse and mystical manner) the youth of the Mes­siah, that is, that willing people in the day of his power. and in the beauties of ho­liness, of which the Psalmist speaks in the same verse. See Psal, 22.30, 31. Ps. 87.4, 5. Esa. 53.10. and 54.1. Micah 5.7. John 1.12, 13. and 3.5, 8. Jam. 1.18. &c.

Esa. 8.20. Who have no Morning &c.The other place is Esa. 8.20. where the morning is put for the grace of God, and that comfort and peace of spirit which flows from it, the words in Hebrew are, because there is no morning in him— But Interpreters do not agree whether this is to be understood of men, or the perverse Doctrines of such as consulted them that pre­tended to foretell things to come, by a devilish or familiar Spirit. If it be referred to men, it bears this sence— To the Law and to the Testimony: If they speak not ac­cording to this word, they shall have no morning that is true light. This is true in it self, but the letter of the text is not altogether conformable to it, for it is not in the plural to them, but in the singular to him (or it.) But others expound this text better thus— Note that this explica­tion of the He­brew text which is word for word as here English­ed. [To the Law and the Testimony] that is, recourse must be had, thither for the Law and Testimony must be consulted according to the Will of God, [otherwise] (that is, if they do not speak the truth of Divine Grace there) [let them speak,] an Ironical concession joyned with indignation: let them speak, because they will not do otherwise, though seriously and frequently admonished, let them speak (I say) according to this word, (viz.) in which there is no morning] that is, no light of Divine Grace or Comfort, ver. 21. And let him pass through it (the Earth) hardly bestead and hungry (the singular for the plural) and it shall come to pass, that when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and curse their King and their God, &c.

Now whereas the Prophet calls this speech of that wicked People, (viz. that they were to seek Councel of them that had familiar Spirits, &c. and not of the Law and Testimony) a word without a morning, or void of the light of divine Grace and Consolation, it certainly follows according to the intention of the Prophet, that that morning of Grace and Comfort is to be found in that word of the Law and Testimo­ny alone, with sure and safe counsel in Tribulations and Afflictions, which to distres­sed minds is like the morning sweetness, or the pleasure of a lovely day-spring. Such as neglect or reject this Word, walk in darkness, and are involved in errors, and perish everlastingly. The other Interpretation in substance agrees with this.

[Noon] is taken for things most evident, Deut. 28.29. The Latines have a Proverb, meridiana lux, Noon light, which is put for a most clear and evident thing. There is a comparison with the Noon time, when there is mention made of the light and splendor of felicity, Job 11.17. And (thy) time shall arise above the Noon day, (so the Hebrew) that is, thy most illustrious Glory shall shine all round or a­bout thee. See Psal. 37.6.

The [Evening] is elegantly opposed to the [Morning,] when the speech is of the vicissitude of Calamities and Comforts which God observes in Believers, Psal. 30 5. Weeping may endure for a night (or as the Hebrew, may lodge for an Evening) but joy (cometh) in the Morning: that is, the Godly are compelled to weep in the dark­ness of the Cross and Sufferings, but the most joyful morning and light of Divine help will come again. See John 16.20, 22. Psal. 126.5, 6. So the word Vesperascens drawing towards an Evening, is used for ceasing, Esa. 24.11. The Sun-setting in the Evening leaves the darkness of night to succeed it, so when joy ceases it leaves Calamity and Mourning.

[Page 111]To the day is opposed [Night] by the same Reason almost as darkness is,Night. which in a Moonless Night and cloudy sky invade us, Job 17.12. They change the Night into day: The light (they said) is near because of darkness; he speaks of his thoughts, which ver. [...]1. he called the possessions of his heart, because of his hope and expecta­tion of good as Christ commands us, Luke 21.19. In patience (and hope) to pos­sess our souls— Therefore he said that his Thoughts or Possessions of his heart were broken of, denoting that all hope of good perished; and then adds that the same co­gitations turned night into day, and that light was near (with respect to those dark dispensations—) that is, he certainly hoped that those Calamities (which he com­pares to an obscure night) should be turned into prosperity, which he shews by the word Day, and that the light of long expected peace is near. This explication a­grees with what follows, ver. 13. If I wait, the Grave is mine house, &c. ver. 15. And where is now my hope? As for my hope who shall see it? ver. 16. They shall go down to the bars of the pit, when (our) rest together is in the dust: As if he had said, my expected hopes together with my body shall ere long be carried to the Grave, and expire with this Life, Job 35.10. But he said not where is God thy maker? Who giveth Songs in the Night; that is, who in adversity giveth help and deliverance, for which Praise and Glory becomes due to him. See Micah 3.6. &c.

Sometimes the Night signifies the Reign or Dominion of Impiety and Hell, Rom. 13.12. But what we find, 1 Thes. 5 7. (For they that sleep, sleep in the Night, and they that are drunken are drunken in the Night,) is understood by some of natural sleep and night, but others interpret it of spiritual sleep, that is, carnal security in wickedness (Rom. 13.11. Eph. 5.14.) and the night of infernal power. Erasmus in his pa­raphrase elegantly joyns both, and thus unfolds this Apostolical text— The Day (of the last Judgment) is to be dreaded by those, who are blinded by vice, and lead a life like Nights— But you that are Brethren are not to fear it, because it shall not find you unpro­vided; for all you that follow Christ do not belong to the Kingdom of darkness but to the Kingdom of light and God, especially if in piety and reality ye walk close to the rule of your Profession, and so live as that it may appear, that ye watch in the light and not snort in darkness. There if we would not be oppressed, let us not sleep as others do who have not known the light of Christ: But let us be watchful and sober, having always a circum­spect mind, that we admit not any thing through incogitancy, which may prove offensive to the Eyes of God or men. For as such as sleep a natural sleep, do it by night, and such as be drunk with wine, are usually so in the night; so they that sleep in sin, are involved in darkness of mind, and such as are drunk with carnal desires and delights (so called) are entangled in the mists of a dark mind. But it becomes us to whom the light of the Gospel day hath shined, to be sober and watchful, &c.

Metaphors taken from Fire.

SO much for Heaven and what belongs to it. We shall now treat of the Elements which are four, viz. Fire, Air, VVater and Earth, and produce what meta­phors are taken from them. The Metaphors taken from Fire shall be considered with respect to its quality and effects, viz.

1. Its clearness, purity, splendor and other Attributes, and in that respect it is translated to Angels, Psal. 104.4. Heb. 1.7. Fire in its efficacy of acting and penetrating, in agility and celerity is eminent before other Creatures of God, which qualities may be fitly applyed to those holy Ministers of God. The Fire always moves upwards: So all the actions of Angels tend to the Glory of God. By a flame of Fire, Charity or Love is signified, Eccl. 8.6. Angels are wholy inflamed with a Divine Love.

From Fire Angels are called, [...] Seraphim, that is, flaming or fiery from [...] Saraph, in Latin, incendit, cremavit, in English, he burnt. Arias Montanus In lib. Joseph. S [...]de ar­ [...]ano S [...]r­mone pag. 13. says that Seraphim signifies purity from any spot, filth, or heaviness, for so Fire [Page 112] is, and therefore those Ministers of God, which Esaias saw to have a purging and purifying efficacy, in their divine ministrations for the profit of men, Esa. 6. ver. 3.6, 7. In that Vision one of the Seraphims exercised his purifying vertue, by apply­ing the external symbol of a live Coal to the Prophets Lips. Musculus in his Com­ment says, That this Vision of Angels standing about the Lord sitting in his Throne, was in Fire, that they may be called burning (Seraphims) which is very suitable to the thing in agitation. The Lord was angry with his wicked and rebellious people. To judge whom he sate in his judicatory Throne. And therefore as that great Session and Tribunal is an argument of his wrath, so the fiery appearance of his ministring Angels be­tokens his dreadful Anger, for that conflagration which was to consume the wicked, was then and there a burning.

2. [Fire] also denotes the Word of the Gospel of Christ published among the Gentiles, Luke 12.49. In treating of this we must have respect to the vertue and efficacy of Fire— as well to its shining and enlightning quality (wherein it agrees with what we said about light which betokens conversion and the mystery of Salva­tion) as also its kindling quality, for the Word of Christ kindles the Love of God, Holiness, and heavenly desires in the Hearts of men, to which is referred Jer. 20.9. Luke 24.32. And the appearance of the Holy Spirit in the likeness of Fire, Acts 2.3. Matth. 3.11. And lastly its consuming and destroying quality— For the Word of Christ shall consume all its adversaries, Judge, Condemn, and De­stroy them, John 12.48. To which may be reduced, Jer. 5.14. and 23.29. To this Divine Fire, there seems to be another strange Fire opposed (as in the Type, Lev. 10.1.) viz. of false Doctrine and humane Traditions, Esa. 50.11. Behold all ye that kindle a Fire, that compass your selves about with sparks; walk in the light of your Fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindled, &c. Junius and Tremellius upon the place say— That Christ in this place convinces the proud Spirit of the Pharisees, and almost the whole Jewish Church of impiety, because in their spiritual darkness they went about to kindle lights for themselves, neglecting the light of Gods Word, and that Gospel illumination which Christ offered them, &c. They esteemed that a profitable Fire and light, which really brought the Fire of di­vine Wrath and Eternal Damnation upon them.

3. Because of its burning quality Fire is attributed to them who bring perdition, hurt, loss, or utter destruction; hence Fire is said to be before God the just Judge, and avenger of his Enemies, Psal. 50.3. and 97.3. Esa. 26.11. and 29.6. and 30.33. and 66.15, 16, 24. 2 Thes. 1.7, 8. But there is no doubt but in these and other places respect is had to Hell-fire,Clav. Script. p. 404. of which Illyricus says, in the description of Hell and Eternal punishments, the Scripture frequently inculcates that there is an Eternal and unquenchable Fire or Brimstone, whether there be real­ly any material Fire, or that something bitter and direful is metaphorically signifyed is left to inquiry, because in this Life there is nothing more violent, more tormenting or more terrible then a raging and prevailing Fire. —But it is far better to endea­vour the avoiding of that hellish Fire, then in a Spirit of Contention to be too curi­ously inquisitive into its Nature.

Hither must be referred those places where by the term (Fire) we are to under­stand invading Enemies and desolating Wars, Psal. 78.63. Esa. 42.25. Jer. 48.45. and 50.32. Ezek. 21.32. and 30.8 (in which place the Chaldee for Fire, puts a people strong like fire) Amos 1.4, 7, 10, 12, 14. and 2.2, 5. Some think there may be a Synecdoche, because Wars for the most part are managed by Fire and Flame.

It is also attributed to other things, by means of which terror, hurt, and death are brought upon any, as Judg. 9.15, 20. Esa. 33.11, 12. Obad. ver. 18. James 3.5, 6. Jude ver. 23. See Prov. 26.23. and compare Jer. 51.58. Heb. 2.13. Joel 1.20. together.

4. It agrees to this, that Fire generally denotes any adversities which are the effects of Divine Wrath, as also Calamities and Afflictions, as Psal. 66.12. and 140.10. Esa. 9.18, 19. and 10.16. and 24.6.15. and 43.2. Lam. 1.13. and 4.11. By which signification sometimes respect is had to the purifying quality of Fire, for God tries and cleanses believers by Crosses and Calamities, as Gold is [Page 113] tryed in the Fire, Zach. 13.9. 1 Pet. 4.12. See also Psal. 17.3. and 66.10. 1 Pet. 1.6, 7. To this also are the two following texts referred, Mark 9.49. For every one shall be salted with Fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt — The particle [...] (kai) and is frequently put for as, or, even as, —It is therefore an inversed similitude which is to be resolved in this sence— As every sacrifice in the Old Testament was wont to be salted with salt by the appointment of God, Lev. 2.13. So every man that would avoid sin, (or offences) and Hell-fire, the consequence of it (as appears by the foregoing verses, which have a co-herence with this) must be salted with a certain wholesome Fire, that is, seasoned by Crosses and Afflictions: Or, this Fire will have the same efficacy on him, as salt has on flesh, viz. to preserve him from the putrefaction of security in sin. Elegantly therefore is salting attribut­ed to Fire, and both are joyned to denote the Mystery of the Cross: Because there is an agreement betwixt those two, both causing pain, and both abstracting and con­suming that which is corrupt or putrifyed; as also because they were joyned toge­ther in sacrifices▪ Scaliger in his notes thinks that this should be read [...] that is, every sacrifice shall be salted, that it may be the same with what fol­lows, [...], every oblation shall be salted with salt, because Lev. 2.13. There is a Repitition of the same.

The other place is 1 Cor. 3.13, 14, 15. Upon which Chemnitius thus ex­presses himself— There is a Fire of probation (or tryal) sent by God, either by outward Troubles, or inward Temptations, or by a clearer manifestation of Truth by the Word, that they, should not remain in the darkness of Error and Ignorance, who hold the fun­damental Articles of Truth, but that such opinions as are disagreeable to the Foundation shall be purged away, either in Life, or at the hour of Death. Some by the terms Day and Fire, understand Truth shining from the Word of God by the Holy Spirit, and enlightning the mind, Mal. 3.3. But others, the Day, and Fire, of the last Judgment, 2 Thes. [...].8. Of which obscure place, we are not concern'd here to treat much. But the Reader may peruse, Tom. 8. locorum. Theolog. Dn. D. Ger­hardi, de morte Sect. 254. seqq.

To the Element of Fire belong other,Other Nouns. things which bear Analogy or Relation to it, as well Nouns, as Verbs.

Of Nouns a [Flame] by a metaphor signifies a bright and shining blade, or plate of that form, as Judg. 3.22. 1 Sam. 17.7. (where what we Translate Spears­head, is in the Hebrew spears-flame) So Job 39.3. The flame of the Spear (we Translate it the glittering spear— So also a [...] Flame is attributed to the Sword which turned every way, with which the Cherubims, (which were the keepers of Paradise) were armed Gen. 3.24. See Esa. 13.8. Cant. 8.6. Love is called the flame of the Lord, that is, such as the Lord by the light of his Spirit kindles so, as that it shall last perpetually— And for its continual energy, because it always tends up­wards, and darts its splendor and increases that way, what are the properties of a natural Flame of Fire, agree also to Love, Esa. 47.14. A Flame signifies most heavy punishments inflicted by God.

[Lanthorn, Candle, and Lamp,] (1.) Denote Prosperity, and a happy success of things, Job 29.3. Psal. 18.28. Hence the extinction or putting out of a Candle or Lamp, signifies approaching adversities, Job 21.17. Prov. 13.9. —20.20.

(2.) It more especially denotes the happiness of a Kingdom or Government, 2 Sam. 21.17. Thou shalt go no more out with us to Battel, that thou quench not the Candle (or Lamp) of Israel —the sence is, lest thou be'st slain, and the Kingdom of Israel and its tranqui [...]lity perish. So the conservation of Davids Kingdom in his Po­sterity is called a Lamp or Candle, 1 King. 11.36. and 15.4. 2 King 8 19. 2 Chron. 21.7. Psal. 132.17. In which last place there is respect had to Christ, the Heavenly King, and Davids Son according to the Flesh. Some refer to this head, Numb. 21.30. And their Lamp perished from Hesbon to Dibon (so the He­brew) that is, their Kingdom or Soveraignty.

(3.) This word is elegantly translated to signifie the Word of God, Psal. 119:105. Prov. 6.23. 2 Pet. 1.19. Of which we have treated before in the chap­ter of an Anthropopathy▪ John the Baptist, that eminent Preacher of the Word of God, and forerunner of Christ is called a burning and shining Candle, John 5.35. [Page 114] For between him (who was a Candle lighted by the Divine Wisdom) and Christ, the true light of the World there is a manifest difference put, John 1.8, 9. To this Notion, that passage which our Saviour inculcates, Luke 12.35. is very agree­able, viz. Let your Loyns be girded about, and your Candles (so the Greek) burning, by which phrase the serious study of Watchfulness and Holiness is commanded, in pursuance to Gods prescriptions.

[Burning Coals] sometimes denote Calamities, and grievous punishments, Psal. 140.10. See Esa. 47.14. Sometimes they signifie Lightning, Psal. 18.8. An only Son is called a Coal, 2 Sam. 14.7. Because as Coals raked up in ashes are (as it were) a seed of Fire, so that one Son would be a means to propagate a posterity and continue a Family, so that it should not be wholly extinguished, Prov. 25.21. and Rom. 12.20. It is said that when we do good to an Enemy we heap Coals of Fire upon his head, that is, it will aggravate that guilt which shall bring severer ven­geance upon him because of his causeless and ungrateful malice to such as do him good.

A [Coal] is put for the Plague or any disease, that is, fiery and inflamed like a burning Coals, Deut. 32.24. Hab. 35. For Arrows which grow hot by motion, and pierce like Fire, Psal 76.3. For Lightnings which burn like Coals, Psal. 78.48. And for Love thats very fervent, Cant. 8.6.

A [Fire-brand] (or burning wood taken out of the Fire that it should burn no longer) sometimes denotes contempt, because of the privation of Fire and light) as Esa. 7.4. Let not thy heart be tender (or faint) for the two tails of these smoking Fire-brands; as if he had said they are like Firebrands, which (when extinguisht) smoke but cannot burn. Neither are they barely called Fire-brands, but the tails of Fire-brands, as if he had said, they are like brands that are consum'd even to the very ends or extreams, which have nothing but smoke the remains of Fire, which shall speedily cease. So it is with Tyrants who oppose Christ and his Gospel, who seem like great Fires to us that in a moment would consume all; but to God and Faith, they are as the tails of smoking Fire-brands, who for all their threatning will in a miserable manner at length be destroyed. Yet Jerome in his Comment upon this place gives another Reason why the term tail (which is the extremest member or part of a Beast) is attributed to these two Kings; viz. that in them should be ended the Kingdom of Syria, that is, Damascus, and the Kingdom of Samaria, that is, of the ten Tribes which by another Name were called Ephraim, according to what is related 2 Kings 15.29. —16.7, 8, 9. —17.5. and the following verses.

Sometimes it denotes divine deliverance from evil, as it were from Fire, Zach. 3.2. Is not this a Brand pluckt out of the Fire? He speaks of Joshua the High Priest, who by the Favour and Grace of God was delivered from the Babylonian Captivity, came to Jerusalem, restored the Temple, and exercised the Priesthood. See Amos 4.11. Jude ver. 23. &c. Job 12.5. Esa. 42.3.

[Smoke] The excrement of Fire, and a sign of it is metaphorically put for punish­ments inflicted by God, and Calamities, Esa. 14.31. There shall come from the North a smoke— the Chald. renders it vengeance, Revenge— some understand this speech of Ʋzziah with his Host, who subdued the Philistines, 2 Chron. 26.6, 7. But Jerome in his Comment upon the place by smoke understands the King of Assyria, who amongst other Nations destroyed the Philistines, and he quotes, Jer. 47.2.

Smoke is used to signifie any Enemy, because it is very swift in invading, very pe­netrating and searching, and can by none be resisted, and being a certain token of Fire —So the Fire of Gods Wrath once kindled smokes after the same manner. See Psal. 37.20. Esa. 65.5. —34.10. Rev. 14.11. Joel 3.3. Acts 2.19. In which places Smoke is a symbol of Wrath and Divine punishments, &c.

Some Verbs belong to this head as to be hot, which is an effect of Anger, which (as Fire) inflames the heart, Deut. 19.6. Psal. 39.5. and 57.4. The Anger of a Godly man, proceeding from an holy zeal against sin is said to burn, 2 Cor. 11.29. The like is said of lustful and depraved affections, 1 Cor. 7.9. So Virgil says, Est mollis flamma medullas, that is, a soft flame eats my Marrow, and elsewhere et caeco carpitur igni, &c. —The Syriack renders it, to burn with lust.

[Page 115]Thus the Jews are said to inflame themselves with Idolatry, which is spiritual Whoredome, Esa. 57.5. Whereby they are sharply reproved for their vehement pursuit of Idolatry, which was like burning lust, whereby the Whore is inflamed with desires after the Adulterer, whence ver. 3. they are called the Seed of the Adul­terer and Whore

To this may be referred what is spoken of Hereticks forbidding the use of Marriage viz. [...], Having their Consciences seared with an hot Iron, 1. Tim. 4.2. Which imports two things,

(1.) The Hurting and wounding of Conscience, as if he had said they teach and compel others to observe such things, which they themselves very well know to be not only impossible but wicked, and therefore their own Consciences reproach and check them for the falshood of what they deliver and impose, and hence in the same verse, they are said to speak lies in Hypocrisie.

(2.) The Cause of that hurt, viz. the heats or burning of various lusts, for both (as I said) are comprehended in that word, for it is derived of [...], cauter, that is, an instrument whereby stigmatized persons are burnt: which hurts and pains both flesh and skin; and the manner of it is by fire and burning. Besides the Apostle seems to have respect to spiritual Infamy, which cannot but, in a matter of so great moment wound the Conscience, as wicked men that were stigmatiz'd, carried a brand of Infamy about them. Eph. 6.16. Fiery darts, are attributed to the Devil, by which inward Temptations and outward Persecutions, scandals and sins stirred up by the Devil are intimated.

There is an emphasis in that word of Pauls Translated from Fire, 2 Tim. 1.6. Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou [...], s [...]tare ignem instar so­piti, &c. stir up the gift of God which is in thee, &c. The Greeks word properly signifies to stir up Fire, lest it go out, that it may flame. Beza upon the place says, The gift of God is a certain live flame kindled in our hearts which the Flesh and Satan endeavour to suffocate or smother, but on the other side we are so much the more concern'd to cherish it, and stir it up when it is as it were asleep. Where this Divine little flame is not stirred up, Love or Charity waxes cold, Matth. 24.12. And then the Fountain of Love, which is saving Faith, and external Salvation is lost, &c. Thus Paul exhorts not to quench the Spirit, 1 Thes. 5.19. The saving light of the knowledge of God kindled by the Holy Spirit is extinguisht by neglects of the Word of God and devout Prayer; by security, impiety, and ingratitude, hence an exhortation to follow that which was good ver. 15. and to pray without ceasing ver. 17. was premised; and despising prophesyings, that is, the interpretation of the Word of God is immediately prohibited, ver. 20.

The word [...] Zaraph, which properly signifies to melt Mettals in order to pu­rifie them from dross— but is translated by an elegant Metaphor to signifie the purifica­tion and tryal of the Godly, which is done by Crosses and Sufferings. Whence the similitude of melted or burnt Mettal is sometimes expresly added, Psal. 66.10. and 105.19. Esa. 1.25. Jer. 9.7. Dan. 11.35. Zach. 13.9. Hence the Furnace where Mettals are melted and purified, is put for Afflictions sent by God, Deut. 4.20. 1 Kings 8.51. Jer. 11.4. In which place the Epithet of Iron is added to denote the tribulation, severity or cruel nature of servitude.

A passage more notable than the rest we read, Esa. 48.10. Behold I have refined thee, but not with Silver; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction; Jehovah inti­mates that he purges his people moderately and gently, not as Silver or Gold are purged, because such are wont to be most exactly and wholly melted in order to their purifying— as if he had said, I do so temper and qualifie corrections, that I suit them rather to your weakness, then proportion them to your Wickedness, I do not deal with you with the utmost severity, for if you should be purged as Silver and Gold from all dross, you should totally perish. See 1 Cor. 10, 13.

In generall, it is put for the inward proof or tryal of the heart which God alone can do, Psal. 26.2. and 17.3. See Prov. 17.3. It is put for outward choice of some from others, which is done by an outward rise, Judg. 7.4. The Word of God is said to be refined or as it were tryed in the Fire, 2 Sam 22.31. Psal. 18.30. Prov. 30.5. Psal. 119.140. that is, most pure, most true, and most certain. Which is emphatically declared, Psal. 12.6. The words of the Lord are pure words, as Silver tryed in a furnace of Earth, purified seven times— Which passage without [Page 116] doubt respects the quick and lively experience of the Saints, in whose hearts the Truth of Gods word is experimentally felt and approved to be of undoubted effica­cy, by the Fire of tribulation. Whence some by (Furnace of Earth) understand Godly men, in whom the Words of God are tryed. The Furnace burns in the Fire: The Godly are seasoned by the Fire of Afflictions. By the same metaphor the Office of Christ is described. Mal. 3.2, 3.

Metaphors taken from Air.

THE Hebrew Word [...] Ruach a Spirit, signifies Air or Wind. And whereas the motion of the Air is uncertain, inconstant and vanishing, and that there is nothing solid or substantial in the Wind, therefore they are metaphori­cally put to signifie things that are vain and vanishing, Job 6.26. Do ye imagine to reprove my words and (turn) the speeches of one that is desperate into Wind? that is, do ye think that I utter vain words, and despise them as things of no weight or sence, Job 15.2. Should a wiseman utter knowledge of Wind? that is, vain as the Wind, which has nothing but an empty sound resolving into Wind— he adds, or fill his belly with the East Wind? that is, admit vain and fluctuating thoughts in his mind inward­ly. Eccl. 5.16. What profit hath he that hath laboured for the Wind? that is, who hath heaped together much riches, with great labour which is in vain, when he can have no benefit or profit by them. Jer. 5.13. The Prophets shall become wind, that is, as the Chald. renders it vain, and of no worth, Jer. 22.22. The wind shall eat up all thy Pastours, that is, they shall vanish and perish. So on the other side, It is said Hosea 12.1. Ephraim feedeth on wind, and followeth after the East-wind— the meaning is, that the people of Israel shall feed upon a thing of nothing, viz. They shall commit Idolatry, with great earnestness, which has no soul feeding ver­tue in it (but the contrary) for it proves as pernicious as it is to follow the East-wind; which is immediately expounded of their making Covenants with the Assyrians, a wicked and Idolatrous people.

Micah 2.11. A man walking in the wind and falshood, is put for a vain and lying person. See Esa. 41.29. —57.13. Hosea 8.7. To this belong the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. 14.9. For ye shall speakinto the Air, that is, in vain and to no purpose. He speaks of that Prophesied in the Church in an unknown Tongue, and therefore could not be understood by the hearers, 1 Cor. 9.26. To beat the Air sig­nifies when one undertakes a vain and unprofitable work. The metaphor is taken from men that fight, who when they miss their stroke, spend their strength vainly against the wind or Air, Eph. 4.14. that we henceforth be no more Children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of Doctrine— by this tossing to and fro of the wind, instability and inconstancy of mind is denoted, a metaphor taken from a Ship which is tost and driven here and there by the violence of the Winds and waves, as Heb. 13.9. Be not carryed about with diverse and strange Doctines, for it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace.

More because vehement winds are hurtful, therefore Enemies which annoy and commit devastations on the Earth are called by this appellation, especially the East-wind, which blasts Corn, and suffers it not to ripen, and if ripe, scatters and blows it down, Psal. 55.8. Esa. 41.16. Jer. 4.11. and 51.1. Hosea 13.15. Job 27.21. See also Esa. 27.8. Jonas 4.8. Jer. 18.17. &c. Job says of God when he punished him, Job 30.22. Thou listest me up to the wind, thou causest me to ride upon it, and dissolvest my substance, that is, as a Whirlwind scatters chaff or stubble; thou dost va­riously toss and consume me.

To this Classe we shall reduce [Meteors,] which are imperfect mixtures conden­sed in the Ayr.Meteors. The Hebrew [...] Aeid, and the Greek [...] Atmis, signifies a [Page 117] vapor or exhalation, but metaphorically denotes Calamities and Destruction, because such things as evaporate, may be said to perish or be reduced to Nothing: Or as others say, because vapours cause darkness, and obscure the splendor and shining of the Sun, or lastly because vapors beget a certain sweet Dew (commonly called Mill-dew, which is very hurtful to Corn and Plants. So [...] Aeid a vapor is put for vengenance or destruction, Deut 32.35. Job 18.12. —21.30. and 30.12. and 31.3, 23. Psal. 18.18. Prov. 1.26. and 6.15. Jer. 18.17. and 46.21. and 49.8.32. Act. 2.19, &c. So it is put for a thing that is frail and vanishing, Jam. 4.14. What is your Life? It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanish­eth away? See Psal. 144.4. A vapour and smoke ascending into the Air, at length vanishes and perishes hence [...] (Gnolah) to ascend, sometimes signifies the same with perishing and Death, Deut. 46.4. —49.4. Psal. 102.24. Jer. 48.15. &c.

[Clouds] because of their Diverse attributes, have also different metaphorical no­tations, as

1. Calamities and Ruine, because men are deprived of the light and spendor of the Sun and Firmament by them, and Cloudy days make men dull and Melancholy, Lam. 2.1. How hath the Lord covered the Daughter of Sion with a Cloud in his An­ger? Some think that by a tacit Antithesis, allusion is made to the Cloud of Glory which first appeared in Jerusalem at the Dedication of the Temple, 1 Kings 8.10. to which this Cloud and Fog of present Calamity is plainly contrary. Hence a day of Clouds, or a cloudy day, is put for times of calamity, Ezek. 30.3. and 34.12. Joel 2.2. Zeph. 1.15. By which metaphor the Poet said, Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris, that is, if times be Cloudy, thou shalt be alone; because seeming Friends will then forsake the distressed.

2. Because of the Number and multitude of the Clouds, for in tempestuous weather a great plenty of thick Clouds appear, Heb. 12.1. VVherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a Cloud of Witnesses, &c. that is, so numerous a com­pany of Witnesses▪ which are like a thick Cloud. He speaks of those Holy men of God mentioned particularly, chap. 11. who by their own example are Testimo­nies that we are justifyed, and please God by Faith. Clouds are likewise used in Comparison, Jer. 4.13. Behold he shall come as Clouds; that is, his Army will make a vast appearance. The targum, says, as a Cloud which comes up and covers the Earth. See Ezek. 38.9. In the same sense the Chaldee interprets that passage, Ezek. 30.18. A Cloud shall cover her, (viz. Egypt) thus it renders it— A King with his Hosts shall cover her, as a Cloud which comes up and covers the Earth: This may be also referred to the first signification: For by Clouds and darkness calamity is de­noted, whence it is said before at Tehaphnehes also the day shall be restrained, that is, his light.

3. Because of their vanity and inconstancy, as some Clouds seem to promise Rain, but being chased away by the Wind, give none, 2 Pet. 2.17. These are— Clouds that are carryed away with a tempest. He speaks of False-Teachers, who fluctuate or are uncertain in their Preachings and Confessions, not affording the Rain of saving Doctrine and Consolation, Jude ver. 12. Such are called Clouds without Water: The Apostle therefore has respect to those Clouds which seem to us to be Rainy, but are condensed exhalations without water, as chap. 4. Sect. 4. before: For False-teachers seem to be Orthodox to many, &c. The other appellations in each text do confirm this Exposition.

4. Their Celerity or Swiftness, because we see the Clouds to be carryed under Hea­ven with very quick speed, as if they did fly, being hurryed on by the impetuosity of the Wind, Esa. 19.1. Behold the Lord rideth upon a swift Cloud, and shall come into Egypt, that is, he will speedily and unexpectedly punish the Egyptians as if he did fly upon the Clouds. See Esa. 60.8. Psal. 104.3. Nahum. 1.3. Some think that the Prophet used this phrase because the Egyptians lookt upon Clouds of this kind to be ominous, whereas Egypt was not wont to be troubled with Clouds.

A [Tempest] (which properly signifies a sudden and very strong Wind or Whirl­wind, sometimes accompani'd with Thunders, Rain, and Hail) when attributed to [Page 118] God, signifies that his dreadful Wrath and tremendous punishments shall be poured out upon sinners: But if attributed to men, it metaphorically denotes disturbance, and violent invasions. There are [...] * [...] two principal words in the Hebrew, which are sometimes joyned together as ( [...]) a whirl-wind, or Tempest which denotes the Wrath of God and Punishment, Job 9.17. Psal▪ 83.15. Esa. 41.16. Jer. 23.19. and 30.23. Ezek. 13.11. Amos 1.14. Et ver­bum [...] procello sum esse. Job 27.21. Psal. 50.3. and 58.9. Zach. 7.10.

The Church is said to be tossed with Tempest, (or overwhelm'd with whirlwind) Esa. 54.11. that is, it was afflicted and destitute of comfort. The other word [...] is of the same signification, Psal. 83.15. Esa. 29.6. Hosea 8.7. Nah. 1.3. Amos 1.14. &c. And Storms (or an horrible, or burning tempest) Psal. 11.6. Whence comes terrors or storms of Famine, Lam. 5.10. that is a most vehement Famine by which men are cruelly agitated and consumed, as if it were by a Whirlwind or Tempest. But if the word be attributed to men, it denotes confusi­on of mind (as the Air is disturbed and troubled with whirlwinds and storms, 2 Kings 6.11. and an hostile attaque or ruinous invasion, Dan. 11.40. See Psal. 55.3.8.

[Thunder] (to which Lightning is joyned, because they terrifie, penetrate and sometimes destroy the Creatures) is only attributed to God, and by a metaphor sig­nifies,

1. His Majesty and Glory, Psal. 81.7. I answered thee in the secret place of Thunder. The Chald. in a hidden place, in the house of my Majesty, where the spheres of Fire resound before me. —Illyricus: The sence is in my hidden Seat, or hiding place, in a thick Cloud I heard thee in the Red Sea, terrifying the Egyptians with Thunder and Lightning. See Exod. 19.16, 18. Psal. 77.18, 19.

2. His Wrath and Punishment, 1 Sam. 2.10. The Adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to pieces: Out of Heaven shall he Thunder upon them, that is, in his Anger he will grievously punish and destroy them. See Esa. 29.6. Psal. 18.8; and the following verses Rev. 16.18, 21.

3. His Word, because in old times Jehovah for the most part made known his Will by Thunder, as in the promulgation of the Law, Exod. 19. his manifestation to Job chap. 37.2. and 38.1. And his voice to Christ, John 12.28, 29. Thunder it self is often called a voice, Exod 9.23. Jer. 10.13. Rev. 4.5. and 6.1. and 10.3. &c. Sometimes the voice of the Lord, Psal. 29.3. &c. Thus the Word of God is stiled, with respect to his inward or efficacious decree of Creat­ing things, Psal. 104.7. compared with verses 5, 6. Gen. 1.9. As also with respect to the Gospel of Christ, Psal 68.34. (by the term voice respect is had to the voice of Thunder, Psal. 29.) peruse ver. 12.19. Eph. 4.10.11. To this belongs the Sirnames which Christ gave, John and James [...], Sons of Thunder, because they were principal and powerful Preachers of his Word.

[Lightning] by a metaphor signifies the bright or furbisht blade of a Lance or Sword, [...] which shines and terrifies like lightning, Ezek. 21.10. Nahum. 3.3. To denote the Anger of God, a glittering Sword is attributed to him by an Anthro­popathy, Deut. 32.41. So is a glittering Spear, Hab. 3.11. So it is said Job 20.25. The Lightning cometh (so the Hebrew) that is, as our translation gives it, a glistering Sword — or as Pagninus render Iron (or a Sword) like Lightning.

[Hail] likewise (as Thunder and Storms do) carries the notion of Anger, Ven­geance and most heavy punishments, and hence in that description of God in his great Majesty and manifestation of his power, and Wrath, Psal. 18.12, 13, 14. Hail is joyned with Lightnings and Thunder. Esa. 28.17. And the Hail shall sweep away the Refuge of lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding place— that is, the vengeance to come shall overthrow the Refuge in which you vainly hope, Just as if a storm of Hail and overflowing of Waters should overthrow and overwhelm the Tents you inhabit in, in the Fields, Esa. 32.19. And it shall Hail in the descent (or steep part) of the wood, and the City shall be utterly abased. This has a coherence with the foregoing description of the celestial happiness of the Godly by an Antithe­sis: As if he had said, although the whole World (which the Prophet expresses Sy­necdochically [Page 119] by a wood and City, that is, unmanured and habitable places) should be terrifyed for their wickedness, or should threaten, yet the Godly shall be pre­served safely from all the impending or menacing mischiefs. See Psal. 46.2, 3. and the following verses.

[Rain] because it brings great profit to the Earth, and yet if it be immoderate or unseasonable becomes hurtful, is therefore metaphorically used in a twofold manner, viz. in a good and bad sence. Examples of the former are to be seen, Ezek. 22.24. Thou art the Land, which is not cleansed, nor Rained upon in the Day of Indignation— that is, thou shalt not feel any case or relaxation of the pains or punishments which shall be inflicted on thee from on high. —Ezek. 34.26. The spiritual blessing in the Kingdom of Christ is set down in the similitude of a Shower (or rain) in season (as the fruitfulness of the Earth is ver. 2 [...]) —Hosea 10.12. It is time to seek the Lord, till he come and Rain Righteousness upon you: Or (as the Hebrew is) wet you with the rain of Righteousness, viz Of Christ the Redeemer and Saviour, the sence and ap­plication of whom in the hearts of men, refresh [...], rejoyces, and makes them fruit­ful in good works, as Rain refreshes the Earth and renders it fruitful. The Word is emphatical, and signifies both Raining, and Teaching, (and therefore some tran­slate it, that he may teach you Righteousness) to intimate that true saving Righteous­ness cannot be obtained but through the Word of God, which is a shower of Rain in season to refresh contrite sinners, and hence it is compared to Rain because of the Rains usefulness, Esa. 55.10, 11. But that it signifies Rain in the place cited the foregoing Allegory of Raining deriv'd from fertilizing the Earth is very clear. See Hos. 6.3. Zach. 14.7.

2. Examples of the latter are to be read, Job 20.23. VVhen he is about to fill his Belly, God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and shall Rain it upon him while he is eating. By this and the following metaphors the plenty of punishments inflicted on the wicked as the effects of Gods Anger are denoted, Psal. 11.6. Ʋpon the wicked he shall Rain snares, Fire and Brimstone, that is, he shall copiously exercise dreadful Judgments upon them. See Eccl. 12.2. Psal. 42.7. Deep calleth unto Deep, at the noise of thy water-spouts. By the Conduits or water conveyances, for so the Word signifies, are understood Clouds which pour down much Rain; the meaning is, that one trouble brings on another; and whilst the former is scarce over, another stands at the door, as if invited or called by the first. And as the Clouds send down great showers upon the Earth with much fierceness and noise, causing hurtful floods and sometimes dangerous deluges: So one Calamity ushers another upon me, so that I am afflicted and terrified with great perils.

[Snow] is put for Glory, Prosperity, and Pleasantness of Canaan when delivered from Enemies, Psal. 68.14. and Psal. 51.7. For cleansing from sin. Esa. 1.18. And the eternal felicity of believers.

[Dew] which falls from the Air, moistning and fertilizing the Earth, in two places denotes the state of Believers.

(1.) In this World as Psal. 110.3. The Dew of Christs youth is mentioned, that is, the Church of Believers adopted by the Spirit of Christ, which like Dew is born again by the VVord and Gospel Ministrations, and may be fitly compared to Dew, because a faithful confession and pious conversation are edifying to others and win them for Christ rendring the Church fruitful as the Dew does the Earth; as also with respect to the mutual commiseration, love, and benefits with which Christians comfort each other, as Dew sweetly refreshes and as it were cheers the Earth when scorched and dried up by the Suns intemperate heat. See Micah 5.7. Hos. 14.5. Psal. 33.3.

(2.) In the world to come, and Resurrection from the Dead, Esa. 26.19. Thy Dew is as the Dew of herbs— This is an acclamation to God, whose gracious power and most powerful Grace which he exercises in the Resurrection of Believers is called Dew, and compared to the Dew that falls upon herbs: As if he had said, as the Dew of Heaven refreshes and raises up those herbs which were as it were Dead and wi­thered because of the Suns heat: So thy power, O God, shall raise up and make thy Dead to Live, &c. For the connexion of the whole verse and propriety of the words [Page 120] shew that the Resurrection of the Dead is here treated of. The Chaldee interprets it the Dew of Light, which gives the light of eternal blessedness. The paraphrase upon the whole verse is thus— Thou art he which quickens the Dead, thou raisest the bones of their Carkasses; they shall live and praise thee before all, who were before con­verted into dust; because the Dew of light is thy Dew to such as observe thy Law; but the wicked to whom thou gavest power, and yet transgressed thy Law, thou wilt cast in to Hell.

Metaphors taken from Water.

THese metaphors may be thus distinguished.

  • (1.) Such things as concern the Name or Appellation of Waters.
  • (2.) The Subjects or Things containing Water.
  • (3.) Its Adjuncts or Qualities.
  • (4.) Its Operations or Actions.

1. As to what concerns the first, in Waters two things are especially remarkable, viz.

First, Their Plenty, Multitude, and Depth, in which respect they are often­times prejudicial and hurtful.

Secondly, Their Profit and Usefulness. So that the metaphors deduced from Water signifie sometimes good, and sometimes hurt or evil.

In the latter sence, (1.) It signifies a strong and numerous People, especially such as invade a Country in an hostile manner, ravaging and spoiling it, Esa. 8.7. Be­hold the Lord bringeth up upon them the Waters of the River strong and many. The Chald. An host of many people like a rapid and strong River— The interpretation fol­lows, even the King of Assyria and all his power— The Allegory is continued, And he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks, ver. 8. And he shall pass through all Judah, he shall overflow and go over, he shall reach even to the neck. that is, the King of Assyria with his numerous Armies, like swelling and strong wa­ters shall over-run and destroy all; first the land of Israel, and afterwards the Land of Judah, in which those waters are said to overflow even to the Neck; that is, even to Jerusalem, wherein was the head of the Kingdom, by a Prosopopoeia, whereby a Kingdom is compared to a humane body, &c. Jer. 47.2. Thus saith the Lord, Behold waters shall arise up out of the North, and shall be an overflowing flood, and shall overflow the Land and the fulness thereof. Chald. Behold a people shall come from the North, and shall be as a strong flood, and shall prey upon the Earth. The Hosts of the Babylonians are meant. See Esa. 17.12, 13. Ezek 26.3, 19. Where an Hostile people are expresly compared with Water. Also Rev. 17.1, 15. The Vision of a multitude of waters signifies many people.

(2.) It denotes any great Calamities and Tribulations, 2 Sam. 22.17. Psal. 18.16. and 32.6. and 66.12. and 124.4, 5. and 144.7. Esa. 28.17. and 43.2. Lam. 3.54.

We are also to note, that the most bitter and exquisite passions of our Saviour are metaphorically compared to Deep and overflowing Waters, Psal. 69.2, 3, 14, 15. See Psal. 40.2. See also Psal. 73.10. Some by the Waters of a full Cup would have the same thing understood; but the usual exposition is, that it rather gives a description of the wicked, who enjoy Prosperity and Plenty. And this leads us to the acceptation of water wherein it signifies good, in which as in the foregoing particu­lar we must consider it,

  • (1.) As it refers to Men.
  • (2.) To things themselves.

(1.) Water metaphorically signifies posterity, which is propagated from its own stock or head, as water flows from a Fountain, Num. 24, 7. He shall pour the wa­ter out of his Buckets, that is, God shall so bless the people of Israel (represented by [Page 121] Jacob) that they shall have a numerous off-spring, and increase into a great posteri­ty— Another metaphor taken from water follows— And his Seed shall be in many waters, which the Chaldee expounds of peoples (according to the above signicati­on) thus he paraphrases, a King shall spring up who shall be magnifyed by his Sons, and he shall rule over many people. But R. Salomo says, that this signifies prosperi­ty, as Seed (increases best) that's sown besides the waters.

To this sence we are to refer, Esa. 48.1. Hear ye this O house of Jacob? called by the Name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, that is, such as are descended of Jacob and Judah, as from a Fountain; as Deut. 33.28. and Psal. 68.26.

(2.) By the metaphor of waters the blessings of God and our Saviour are often not­ed, as in the chapter of an Anthropopathy.

2. [The Subjects,] or things containing Waters are various. The chief is the [Sea,] which for the plenty of waters,The Sea. the violence or impetuosity of its VVaves and Storms, metaphorically denotes a multitude of Enemies, Jer. 51.4. The Sea is come up upon Babylon: She is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof. Chald. The King with his numerous Hosts in plenty like the Sea came up against Babylon— So it is to be understood, Psal. 65.7. and 89.9. and 93.3, 4. See also Esa. 17.12, 13. and 57.20. Jer. 6, 23. and 50.42. Where there is an expresse comparison.

When our iniquities are said to be cast into the depths of the Sea, Micah 7.19. It signifies a total remission and utter oblivion of them.

[Waves] of the Sea denote Calamities and Punishments, because they rush upon us and are noxious, as the Waves are troublesome to Ships and Seamen, Psal. 42.7. and 88.7. To which that phrase, Lam. 1.20. and 2.11. Relates Psal. 3. Esa. 57.24.

Jude ver. 14. Raging Waves of the Sea, foaming out their own shame. This is spoke of unquiet, untamed, vagabonds, or impetuous violent men, who possessed with a spirit of giddiness by false Doctrine, and wicked lives disturb the Church, and raise scandals. A Metaphor taken from a turbulent and frothing Sea. See the ex­press similitude, Esa. 57.20, 21. To which place the Apostle seems to have re­spect.

[Fluctuating] or being tossed to and fro, [...]. Eph. 4.14. is attributed to men unsta­ble in the profession of Christianity. See Jam. 1.6.

A [Stream] [...] (Nachal) which runs in a Valley (which is also denoted by the same Hebrew word) and suddenly increases in tempestuous Rainy weather, and brings not only terror but loss and dammage to men and other Creatures▪ metaphori­cally signifies great Afflictions, Terrors, and Dangers, Psal. 18.4. The flouds of Belial terrifyed me. Chald. The multitude of oppressors made me afraid— Junius and Tremellius. The flouds of wicked men affrighting me; he compares the persecutions and violence of the wicked who would prosecute him even unto Death to flouds, which vio­lently and, ere we are aware, break upon us. Musculus upon the place: This flood of the wicked rightly agrees with the valley of Kidron, that is, the Kingdom of darkness.

Psal. 110.7. He shall drink of the Brook in the way— This is diversly expounded,Ps. 110.7. He shall drink of the brook &c. but most fitly of the passion of our Saviour Christ, which is elsewhere compared to Drinking, for the drinking of his Cup is in this place called a drinking of the Brook in the way. By the Brook or Torrent, the multitude and bitterness of Christs sufferings are noted, and also their Shortness— For these torrents or streams quickly pass away, because they have not their source from a lasting Fountain, but from showers and snow: And therefore it is added, therefore shall he lift up the head, that is, he shall be gloriously delivered from Death and Passion or Suffering, and shall most emi­nently triumph in the Resurrection. And the Prophet says that Christ should drink [in the way] by which the course of this Earthly Life is signified, which is called the day of the Flesh, Heb. 5.7. Elias when banished and persecuted, and dwelling in a Desart drank of the Brook by the Command of God, 1 Kings 17.4.6. Christ in his passion was placed as it were in a wide Wilderness, and spiritually drank of the greatest Torrent of all tribulations and dolors, which by his passing over the [Page 122] Brook Kedron (which had its name from its blackness and darkness) is noted John 18.1. So much of that.

Sometimes a Stream or Brook is taken metaphorically in a good sence, either be­cause of the abundance of VVaters, which are transferred to plenty of good things, Job 20.17. By the brooks of Honey and Butter (to which Rivers and Floods are ad­ded) is signifyed a confluence of prosperous, pleasant, and desireable things, even to full satisfaction, Psal. 36.8. God is said to make Believers drink of the Rivers (or Brooks) of his pleasures, that is, to bestow a plenty of blessed, sweet, and heaven­ly good upon them, which is that life and overplus (or more than abundance) which Christ promised to his Sheep, John 10.10.

Prov. 18.4. The Well-spring of Wisdom, is called a flowing Brook, that is, the mouth of a wise man does largely and abundantly utter and Communicate wisedom. See Esa. 66.12 Amos 5.24. where there are express comparisons.

Or else the Reason of their being taken in a good sence is because in dry and un­watered Countries, the inundation of Brooks are very seasonable and profitable, Esa. 35.6. In the wilderness waters shall break out, and streams in the Desart. He adds ver. 7. And the parched ground shall become a Pool and the thirsty Land-springs of water. This is a metaphorical description of the blessings of Christs Kingdom, and with respect to their sweetness and abundance.

A [River] if taken in an evil sence, signifies the frequent irruptions and invasions of Enemies, Esa. 18.2. A Nation whose Land the Rivers have spoiled. Here is Di­vine vengeance foretold upon the wicked Ethiopians, by armed Enemies, who (like mighty currents which none can resist) were to overwhelm their Land▪ Some take this properly because there are frequent inundations in Ethiopia, a Country full of Rivers— Others Metonymically understand it of Enemies, who by the Rivers would invade the Country, as the Turks often do Hungary upon the River Danubius. See Esa. 8.7.

If it be taken in a good sence, it denotes the favour and blessing of God, Psal. 46.4. There is a River; the streams whereof shall make glad the City of God. The Holy habi­tation which God placed in that City, is intimated to be like a most sweet and plea­sant River, whose Rivulets or Streams exhilarate and rejoyce in the whole City; and therefore it is added, The holy of the Tabernacles of the most High.

By [River] Jehovah himself (by his Grace and protection inhabiting there) may aptly be understood; and his streams are the special blessings or benefits we receive from his Divine protection, which flow from his Grace as Rivulets from a River. Neither would it be any error, if it should be referred to the Word of God, for where that is purely taught and flourishes, God himself cannot but be graciously pre­sent there, &c.

Esa. 41.18. I will open Rivers in High Places, and Fountains in the midst of the Vallies, I will make the wilderness a Pool of water, and the dry Land-springs of water. This is a metaphorical description of the Kingdom of Christ. Brentius upon the place: By this metaphor of the Desert waters, Fountains and Trees (ver. 19.) is understood; That God was to give the Gentiles, who are called by the name of dry ground and Desert, a most large and capacious Fountain, that is, the Preaching of his VVord in great plenty, that they that are thirsty may drink of the Fountain, that is, Christ and Eternal blessedness.

John 7.38. He that believeth on me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow Rivers of Living water. John 7.38. out of his Belly shall flow Rivers, &c. Christ speaking of his being to give the Spirit to his believing Apostles by a wonderful effusion (as ver. 39.) Therefore flowing of wa­ter must be understood, of the plentiful gifts and operations of the Holy Ghost, by which the Apostles and other Ministers by Preaching of the Gospel converted many unto Christ and filled them with living comfort. VVhat Christ adds, viz. as the Scripture saith, belongs to the following words, and the flowing of living waters out of their Bellies is inferred from some certain places of the Old Testament such as Esa. 58.11. Thou shalt be like a watered Garden, and like a spring whose waters lye not, (that is, fail not, or do not wax dry) —Or from the whole substance of the Universal Gospel promises expounded or set forth by the allegory of Rivers, Foun­tains [Page 123] and VVaters, such are, Esa. 44.3. and 49.10. Ezek. 36.25, 26. Joel 3.1. and [...].23. Zach. 12.10. and 14.8.

But Heinsius elegantly joyns the words [as the Scripture saith] with the words immediately going before: He that believeth on me, as the Scripture saith. In Ari­starcho sacro p. 406. Christ has respect to that place, Deut. 18.15.18. where the Prophet is promised. Nei­ther was there any place, which was then more in their minds, John 1.21. and 6.14. Act. 3.22. John 6.40.— So that the words which follow [out of his Bel­ly shall flow Rivers of living waters] are really the words of Christ himself as is clear, ver. 39. See John 4.14. so far he.

The Hebrew word [...] (Peleg) which signifies a Rivulet, River or Stream with a gentle or natural current, is much of the signification of the former, Job 29.6. Ri­vers of Oyl, signifies abundance of good things, Prov. 21.1. The Kings heart is in the hand of the Lord, (as) the Rivulets of water, that is, he will incline it, to what he pleases. This similitude shews that Kings are carryed with great impetuosity,Illyricus: where their inclinations prompt them. But yet that it is in the power of God to convert them from evil to good, as he dealt with the waters in the beginning, direct­ing the way where every River must run.

A [Fountain] is generally taken in a good sence, with respect to Temporals and Spirituals. Examples of the former are, Deut. 33.28. The Fountain of Jacob, that is, the people of Israel, which sprung from Jacob, shall remain like a lasting Fountain, Jer. 9.1. The Eye is called a Fountain (or a vein,) of Tears, that is, it sheds Tears plentifully— See Mark 5.29. Lev. 12.7. and 20.18. &c.

Examples of the later are, Psal. 36.9. For with thee is the Fountain of Life, that is, thou, O God, art the cause of all Life and Heavenly blessedness— Psal. 87.7. All my springs, (or Fountains) are in thee— The sence is, That Believers regene­rated by the Spirit of God (of whom he speaks ver. 4.5.) should celebrate and sing praises to God in the Kingdom of Christ using this Argument— All the Fountains of our life are in thee, O our Blessed Saviour: Thou alone art the Author, Fountain, and Original of Temporal, Spiritual, and Eternal Life.

Prov. 13.14. The Doctrine of the wise is a Fountain of Life, that is, wholesome, or health-bringing, and full of comfort, like a clear Fountain which never wants re­freshing or cooling water. The like chap. 10.11. is said of the mouth of a just or Righteous man. And chap. 14.27. Of the fear of the Lord— Whence it is mani­fest that this is to be understood of the Preaching of the saving Word of God by just and wise men, that is, Believers.

The Word of Christ the Saviour is called a Fountain and Spring, Esa. 12.3. (where the word is in the plural Number, to denote abundance) Zach. 13.1. Joel 3.23. —With respect to this saving word the Church of Christ is called A Fountain of Gardens, a Well of living waters, and Streams from Lebanon, Cant. 4.15. Chald. the words of the Law are compared to a Well of Living Waters. This Fountain is only in the Church of Christ, and therefore this Name is also attri­buted to it, and it is also called a spring shut up (or locked) a Fountain sealed, ver. 12. Because it is sealed and kept by the Holy Spirit through the Word to eternal Salvation, 2 Cor. 1.22. Eph. 1.13. and that in a manner utterly unknown to all humane sence and reason. Peter calls False Teachers, Wells without waters, 2 Pet. 2.17. that is, such as make a specious shew of Divine Truth, but really have no Grace, or heavenly Doctrine, God is called the Fountain of Life, but of that we have treated in the chapter of an Anthropopathy. That Life eternal is called Fountains and Springs of Living waters is plain from Esa. 49.10. Rev. 7.17. and 21.6. &c.

More especially the Fountain or water of Siloah is memorable, Esa. 8.6. which is called the Dragon or Serpents Well, Neh. 2.13. From its slow stream and wind­ings like a Serpent, whose stream made a Pool, Fountain of Siloah. Neh. 3.15. called [...], The Pool of Siloah, John. 9.11. From this Well a Metaphor is taken, Esa. 8.6. Forasmuch as this people despiseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly, &c. By which some understand divine promises given to the Jewish People of a sure defence and protection against their Enemies, in which the Jews having no confidence or ac­quiescence, betake themselves to the protection of forreign Arms. Others by the waters of Siloah understand the Kingdom of Sion instituted or appointed by God, which was but small and weak in comparison of the Kingdoms of Syria and Israel, as [Page 124] the Fountain glided with an easie and silent current. The Chald. For asmuch as this people despise the Kingdom of the house of David, leading them quietly, as Siloah flows quietly, &c. Of this Fountain Jerome in his Comment says— that Siloah is a Fountain at the bottom of the Hill Sion, which bubbles out not with continual springs, but at uncertain hours and days, passing through the concaves of the Earth and Dens of hard stone, with much noise, we especially that dwell in this Province can­not doubt.

The Fountain Siloah by another name is called [...] Gichon, 1 Kings 1.33.38. as appears by the Chald. paraphr. upon the place, which turns it [...] Silo­ah. It is called Gichon from breaking or bursting out, hence called a Brook overflow­ing, 2 Chron. 32.4. it is also observable that Solomon Davids Son was anointed King of Israel by this Fountain, so that there is reason for the allusion, that by this Well is meant the Kingdom of the house of David.

Brentius upon the place says, metaphor â hujus fontis familiam Davidis intelligit, idquè admodum aptè. Nam Siloah, &c. By the Metaphor of this Fountain, he under­stands the Family of David, and that in a manner aptly; for Siloah though it comes with a great sound, yet it flows not always but at certain days and hours: And when it bubbles forth, it overflows not the whole Land, it destroies not the Fields, but keeps it self in the Concaves or hollow places of the Earth, without danger to any, but flows almost hiddenly: So is the family of David which for the Government of the Kingdom of Juda was sanctifi­ed by God. And although there be a great unlikeness between the Kings of Judah, one being more merciful, more clement, and more godly then another, yet they were tolerable Kings, neither were they hitherto over grievous to the people, but behav'd themselves in the administration of the Government modestly and temperately. Yet the common people in Cities and Country desirous of novelty, would rather have strange Kings, though Ene­miss, then the poor Family of David which was ordained by God himself to rule that peo­ple, &c. It appears in that VVar, that some would willingly be disingaged from danger, and others resolved to repell it any way, but the Commonalty especially the Husband­men of Juda would have the Family of David dethron'd, and that the King of Israel or the King of Syria should Rule, &c. Against these Esaiah sharply inveighs, and Prophe­sies that the time will come, that because they would not be contented to live with sa­tisfaction under the peaceable Raign of their own Kings, they should be exposed to endure the storms and bear the scourge of tyrannical, great, and turbulent Enemies. To this interpretation R. Kimchi, Vatablus and Jerome agree.

[...] Beer Puteus.A [VVell] is sometimes taken in good sence, as Prov. 5.15, 16, 17, 18. Drink waters out of thine own Cistern, and running water out of thine own well— Let thy Foun­tains be dispersed abroad, and Rivers of waters in the streets, let them be to thee only (so the Hebrew) and not to strangers with thee —let thy Fountain be blessed. This continued metaphor respects VVedlock and its lawful familiarity, Aben Ezra thus expounds it— The sence is that we must keep to our own proper wife, and to no other be­sides her, and by Fountains dispersed abroad a multitude of Children is noted— Munste­rus, the Hebrews expound it, forsake a stranger, and adhere to thy own VVife, then shall thy Fountains multiply abroad, that is, thy Children with honour shall appear in publick: For they shall be thine own, whereas if thou goest to another thy Children will be bastards, &c.

Others expound this text of two Doctrines proposed to a pious man.

First, That he should make good use of his proper goods, and by the blessings of God will augment them, ver. 15, 16, 17, 18.

Secondly, That he should live chastly and continently with his own VVife, and abstain from others, ver. 18, 19, &c. Franzius says, Drink water out of thy own Cistern, &c. that is, keep thy Goods for thy self, and thine, and to he [...]p objects of Cha­rity, but do not consume them upon whores, &c.

A [VVell] is sometimes taken in a bad sence, as great perils and mischief, Psal. 55.23. And thou, O Lord, shall bring them into the VVell (so the Hebrew) of de­struction— The Chald. into a deep Hell, Psal. 69.16. Let not the well (so the He­brew) shut its mouth upon me; Chald. Hell. Christ speaks there of his most bitter passion.

Jer. 2:13. Broken Cisterns that will hold no water (out of which fractions the wa­ter goes out, as it comes in, sailing the expectation of men that want water) this sig­nifies [Page 125] the Idolatries of Apostacy of the people, to which God the Fountain of living water is opposed.

3. The Qualities of Water, of these we will note two.

(1.) It is Fluid and Liquid, and if congealed by cold,Qualities of water. it is resolved and liquifi'd again by heat. Hence a metaphor is taken, for when (to melt) or (to be liquid) is spoke of men, it signifies fear, consternation, anxiety and griefs, Exod. 15.15. Deut. 1.28. and 20.8. Josh. 7.5. (where liquid water is added) Job 7.5. and 9.23. Psal. 75.3. and 107.26. Esa. 10.18. and 13.7. and 31.8. (where [...] sig­nifies melting, the Chald. breaking: Consternation for fear. Others render it Tri­bute, which is the other signification of the word) Esa. 6.4.7. Ezek. 21.15. Job 30.22. So Ovid de Ponto.

Sic mea perpetuis liquescant pectora curis.
So may my breasts with constant sorrows melt.

See Psal. 58.7, 8. and 22.14.15. Where there is an express comparison, Psal. 119.28. My soul melteth (in the Hebrew droppeth) for heaviness, that is, consumes as if it were liquid— the Chald. My soul is sad for sorrow. Some say that this is an hyperbolical description of his Tears, as if his soul were liquid and resolved into weeping. See Job 6.14, 15. Judg. 15.14.

(2.) Water is capable of Cold and Heat, Rom. 12.11. [...], fervent in spirit, by which spiritual ardor and the zeal of Faith and piety is denoted —the Syriack expresses it by a word which signifies boyling water Job 41.22. Ezek. 24.3.5. See Job 30.27. Rev. 3.15. [...] I know thy works that thou art neither cold nor hot, I would thou wert cold or hot, ver. 16. So that then because thou art lukewarm and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth— In this text there is a manifest translation from the qualities of water. He calls the Cold such as are without any in­terest in Christ, or the unconverted; and the Hot he calls such as are endued with the true knowledge of Christ in an eminent degree; and the lukewarm are such as would be called Christians, but do not seriously stand by, or plead the cause of Reli­gion, nor lead a life conformable to their holy profession, [...], that is, God loves such as are hot or fervent with the zeal of piety: But the lukewarm who are only Chri­stians in Name, and not in reality, he hates, nor will he reckon them among his, which by a metaphorical allusion to warm water, is here expressed— For by that a man is easily provok't to vomit; so that Christ by the term vomiting expresses that he will reprobate such.

Object. But what means this, where he wishes that he were Cold? Does that frame of spirit also please God?

Answer. This is to be understood respe­ctive in­telligen­dum. respectively, or by way of Comparison [...], the Cold, in that, with respect to the lukewarm, are more praise worthy, because they openly profess what they are, not counterfeiting that sanctity which they have not, pretending one thing and doing another, but being under the blindness of a na­tural state, if they are taught, they frequently amend, and prove good men; where­as the lukewarm, making a specious shew, of Godliness, but denying the power, are in afar hopeless condition. The sence therefore is, it is fit that thou beest put into the extream degrees, that thou mayest be judged, &c. Prov. 17.27. A man of understanding is of an excellent Spirit, the Hebrew is of a cool spirit, that is, of a se­date and quiet mind who is not easily provok't to be disturb'd with the fiery sallies, and intemperate heat of Anger.

4. The Actions of Water, are of two sorts, some, its own actions, as to break forth, Job 28.4. which signifies abundance of Wealth, and a plentiful off-spring,Actions of water. To break out. Gen. 28.14. and 30.43. Exod. 1.12. Job 1.10. Hosea 4.10. Also a pub­lishing of speech, 1 Sam. 3.1. 1 Chron. 13.2. 2 Chron. 31.5. When the wa­ters are said to overflow, it signifies an irruption, or attaques of a multitude of Ene­mies, and also, the celerity and speed of the invasion.Over­flow. Examples of the former are Esa. 8.8. and 28.15.17, 18. Dan. 11.22. Nah. 1.8. Of the latter Psal. 90.5. Esa. 10.22. Jer 8.6. Isa. 22. All Nations shall flow together to it, Jer. 51.44. Micah 4.1. Here the Prophets treat of the Conversion of the Gentiles to Christ,To flow. [Page 126] by a very significant metaphor. In the means of Conversion which is the Evangelical word by his Divine efficacy, the people willingly without any compulsion flock to him. Waters naturally descend, if they are made to ascend, it is by Engines or art, and not from any spontaneous motion or peculiar quality so inclining them; so this people when they tend Sion-wards and ascend that Holy Hill are acted, animated, and strengthned by the aid, art, and efficacy of the Holy Spirit by the Gospel of Christ.

In men converted,

(1.) This denotes diligence and fervour in piety, as waters gather together with Celerity and Impetuosity.

(2). It denotes Frequency and Plenty, as many waters flow together.

(3.) It denotes Concord or Agreement as many streams come from divers places and when they meet make up one homogeneous body, whose parts cannot be discern­ed from each other, &c. See Psal. 19.3. and Prov. 1.23. and 15.2.28. and 18.4.

Psal. 45.1. My heart is inditing a good matter, the Hebrew is, my heart boil­eth or bubbleth up a good word— The LXX. [...],To bub­ble. eructavit, prompsit; this is an elegant metaphor of the speech of the heart well premeditated, which by the mouth and lips is uttered as water when it boils, oftentimes bubbles over.

To distil.To [Distill] is put for Speech, Doctrine or Prophecy, either because like Rain or Dew it is every moment instill'd into the Ears, for all Words and Sentences are not proposed at one and the same time,To drop. but distinctly and as it were by drops: Or be­cause as Rain and Dew, Waters, Refreshes, and Fructifies, the Earth, so does heavenly Doctrine render a soul fruitful, &c. Examples are to be seen, Deut. 32.2. Job 29.22. Ezek. 20.46. and 21.2. Mic. 2.6.11. The Heavens and Skies are said to drop down Righteousness, when God gives blessings from Heaven, Esa. 45.8. See Joel 3.18. Amos 9.13. The Mountains shall drop New-wine, and the Hills flow with milk— by which is understood that plenty of Celestial blessings purchased by the Merits of Christ.

Actions of Men about water.Some Actions of a man about waters, as to pour out, which signifies Evil, some­times with respect to God, when he is said to pour out his wrath, that is, when he grie­vously punishes, 2 Chron. 12.7. Esa. 42.25. Psal. 79.6. Jer. 42.18. Ezek. 9.8. —22.23. Dan. 9.11. Lam. 2:4. Hos. 5.10. God is said to pour contempt upon Princes, Psal. 107.39, 40. that is, he will devest tyrants of all authority, and make them contemptible in exiles or banishment, as it follows there. See Job 16.13. Psal. 141.8. As it respects men it signifies the evil of guilt and punishment, or af­flictions, &c. See examples Job 30.16. Lam. 2.11, 12. Psal. 22.14, 15.73.2. Ezek. 16.15.

Sometimes it is taken in a good sence, sometimes of God, sometimes of Man: Of God, as when he is said to pour out his spirit and his grace, when he plentifully bestows the gift of the Holy Ghost upon Believers and exhibits his grace, Esa. Joel 3.1. Zach. 12.10. Act. 2.17, 33. Rom. 5.5. Tit. 3.6. See Psal. 45.3. 1 Sam. 1.15. Psal. 62.8, 9. Lam. 2.19. Job 3.24.

To [Wash] and make clean (which is wont to be done with water) is often tran­slated to signifie the Justification of sinful man before God, and his sanctification and Renovation. To be washed from sin (as from most fordid filth) is to obtain remission of sins through the Mediator Christ, Psal. 51.8, 9. Esa. 4.4. Ezek. 16.4, 9. —36.25. Act. 22.16. 1 Cor. 6.11. Heb. 10.22. Rev. Or that which is always joyned with the antecedent benefit of God, to abstain from sin and practise Holiness and purity of Life, Job 9: 30. Psal. 26.6. Psal. 73.13. Prov. 30.12. Esa. 1.16. Jer. 4.14, Jam. 4.8. &c.

Of Metaphors taken from the Earth.

IN the Globe of the Earth two things are to be considered, which afford as many metaphorical acceptations.

(1.) That it is opposite to Heaven with respect to quantity and qualities. Hence as Heaven denotes the spiritual Kingdom of God, and the state of eternal felicity; so on the contrary the Earth denotes the state of Corruption and Sin in which man af­ter the fall was involved, John 3.31. [...], he that is of the Earth, is of the Earth, and speaketh of the Earth A very fair An­tanaclasis! The first phrase [of the Earth] is properly taken and denotes an Earthly original, that is, to be begotten by a natural man in a natural way (to which is op­posed that Christ is [...], come from above and from heaven. See 1 Cor. 15.47.)

The second phrase [of the Earth] metaphorically taken, is to be carnally wise, ignorant of Divine things, lost in sin, and an absolute stranger to heaven and the spiritual Kingdom of God, which elsewhere is phras'd, [...], to mind (that is, only taken care for) Earthly things, Phil. 3.19. [...], to take care for those things which are of the Flesh, Rom. 8.5. See John 3.6. 1 Cor. 2.14. To which in this place of John, viz. 3.31. is opposed that Christ, [...], is above all, that is, the heavenly Lord and most Holy God void of all im­perfection and worldly spot.

The last phrase [to speak of the Earth] is conformable to the first and is to speak those things which are contrary to the Kingdom of God, erroneous and lying. See 1 John 4.3, 5. (To which is opposed that Christ testifies that which he saw and heard, and speaks the words of God, which whosoever receives, he Seals or Wit­nesses that God is true) the like opposition Christ uses speaking to the carnal Jews, John 8.23.

2. Because the Earth affords men Houses and convenient Habitations, in that re­spect Eternal Life, and the heaven of the blessed is called a new Earth or Land, Esa. 65.17.22. 2 Pet. 3.13. Rev. 21.1. Because in it are those many Mansions which are provided by Christ for Believers, John 14.2. —In this sence some of the Fa­thers expound, Matth. 5.5. Blessed are the meek for they shall inherit the Earth. But this may be fitly interpreted of the Earth on which we dwell: For this sentence seems to be borrowed from Psal. 37.11. The meek shall inherit the Earth, and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace, —The meaning may be, they who do violence to none, and when injur'd easily forgive, who choose rather to lose their right, then vexatiously to wrangle or contend, who value Concord and Tranquillity of mind before great Estates, to whom a quiet Poverty is more welcom, then braw­ling Riches, these I say, will truly and with a mind full of tranquillity inhabit and possess this Earth, and in it will enjoy the grace and blessing of God to them and their posterity, whilst the Goods of the wicked are by divine Vengeance scatter'd as it were into the light Winds, so that these (viz. the meek) are the true possessors of the Land, and as it were the props or pillars that conserve it, whereas the wicked together with the Devils, are but possessors of a bad Faith, and unjust Ravishers, for whose malice every Creature groans, and does as it were tacitly implore Deliverance of the great Creator, Rom. 8.20, 21, 22. &c.

So much in general, now we shall briefly shew what Metaphors are taken from the several parts of the Earth. As,

1. A [Mountain or Hill] being a more high and elevated part of the Earth meta­phorically denotes.Moun­tains.

(1.) Heaven the habitation of God, so called by an Anthropopathy, as he is else­where said, to dwell in the highest, Psal. 3.5. I cryed unto the Lord with my voice, and he heard me out of his Holy Hill, that is, from Heaven: As if he had said I am cast out from the place of the Terrestrial Sanctuary appointed in Jerusalem, but there is yet an open access to the Holy Hill of God his heavenly habitation, where my [Page 128] Prayers shall be heard, and shall implore the wished help against those rebellious and stubborn Enemies. So Psal. 99.9. Psal. 121.1. and 123.1. and 15.1.—18.8. 2, Sam. 22.8.

2. [Kingdoms] and [Empires,] which like Mountains have a preheminence in the World, Psal. 30.7. Lord by thy favour thou hast made my Mountain to stand strong, that is, thou hast given my Kingdom strength and tranquility, Psal. 76.4. Thou art more glorious and excellent than the Mountains of prey— that is, the Kingdoms of the wicked, who unjustly plunder and prey upon the World, Jer. 51.25. Behold I am against thee O destroying Mountain, saith the Lord, &c. Illyricus, So he calls Babylon, although it was situate in a plain, because of the loftiness of its Dignity and Power, by which as a very high Mountain it hung over other Cities and People. But others think, that by the vast circuit and thickness of its Walls it rise like a Mountain; for Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and Diodorus Siculus affirm that the Walls of Babylon were 50 Cubits thick and 200 Royal Cubits high. And that which is added in the same place, that Babylon should be made a burning Mountain, is to be understood of the rubbish and ruinous heap which was left like a Mountain after the burning of that great City. —Hab. 3.6. The Everlasting Mountains were scatter­ed, and the perpetual Hills did bow, that is, the Kingdoms of the peoples were sud­denly shaken and overthrown: He speaks of the blessing of God, which expelled the Canaanites and distributed their Lands to his people by his Ministers Moses and Joshua. See Exod. 15.14. &c.

3. Any proud Enemies of the Kingdom of God, Esa. 2.14. The day (of the An­ger) of the Lord— upon all the High Mountains, and upon all the Hills that are lifted up, that is, upon all such as are proud and lifted up because of their power. As appears, ver. 11.12, 17. Also by the Cedars of Lebanon that are lifted up and the Oaks of Bashan, ver. 13. And the High-Towers and fenced Walls, ver. 15. Esa. 40.4. Every Valley shall be exalted, and every Mountain and Hill shall be brought low, &c. This is a metaphorical description of the effect of John Baptists Preaching, of which the Pro­phet speaks here.In Com­ment. h. l. Upon which Musculus— The Doctrine of Repentance, humbles Mountains, and Hills, and makes plain the uneven, and crooked, that is, it brings down the proud, depraved, and wicked, And the Consolation of the Kingdom of God, which is joyned to the Doctrine of Repentance, lifts up the Vallies, that is, it comforts and re­freshes the humble, the poor in spirit and the dejected. The forerunner of the Lord did exactly prosecute both these parts in preparing the way for our Lord, saying, Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand, Matth. 3. &c. Esa. 41.15. Thou shalt thresh the Mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the Hills as chaff, that is, thou shalt destroy thine Enemies though they be most proud and powerful, not­withstanding thou dost seem but as a worm, ver. 14. He speaks by the Spirit to the Church of Christ, which by vertue of the heavenly word, works these things glori­ously: The Chald. renders it thou shalt slay those people, destroy their Kingdoms, and make them as chaff. See Zach. 4.7. &c.

More especially there is mention of Bashan, Psal. 68.15. which was a moun­tainous Country, famous for excellent pasture, the Beasts that fed there being very fat, strong, and great— hence the Bulls, Rams, or Heifers of Bashan are metapho­rically put for fat, Deut. 32.14. which is also transferr'd to Men, Psal. 22.12. Strong (Bulls) of Bashan have beset me round, that is, the Enemies of Christ who were strong and fierce, &c. See Amos 4.1. The Oaks of Bashan are used in the like sence, Esa. 2.13. Zach. 11.2.

Carmel was a Mountain famous for Fields, Vines, Olive-trees, and Fruit bear­ing shrubs, and is by a metaphor put for any good and fruitful Country, Esa. 16.10. Jer. 2.7. Some think this Translation is made because of the Etymology of the Word, that alledging that [...] Carmel is compounded of [...] Kerem, vinea, a Vineyard, and [...] plenus, full, that is, full of Vineyards. The Word is al­so Translated to spiritual things, Esa. 32.15. and mention is made of it in the de­scription of the New Testament Church, and its vigor and glory, Esa. 35.2.

[Lebanon] a Mountain, denotes the Grandees in the King of Assyria's Army, be­cause of the height, statelyness and plenty of the Trees there, Esa. 10.34. And [Page 129] Lebanon shall fall by a Mighty One, that is, even the stoutest and most valiant in that Army shall be slain by the Angel of the Lord. In the foregoing part of the verse 'tis said, and he shall cut down the thickets of the Forest with Iron, where we are to un­derstand the other part of the Army, who together with their chief Captains and Champions were to be cut off.

[Hill] if added to Mountains is sometimes taken metaphorically in the sence given before. Some by Everlasting Hills, Gen. 49.26. Understand Patriarch, Pro­phets, and illustrious Saints, who exceed others as Hills do Valleys, but it is thought that the phrase unto the utmost bound of the Everlasting Hills, is better expounded unto the end of the VVorld, that is until the Hills be moved, which are always im­movable: And by this reason also Esa. 54.10. The Covenant of Divine Grace is compared to Hills and Mountains immoveable.

A [Rock] (which is a great Stone in height resembling a Mountain) by a Meta­phor denotes a firm, stable, or secure place from dangers,Rock. and consequently Refuge and Protection, Psal. 40.2. —and 27.5. and 61.2. Esa. 31.9. and 33.16. Jer. 51.25. &c.

A [Den] is a Cavity or hollow place of Stones or great Rocks in which Thieves and Robbers hide themselves,Den. hence Christ calls the Temple of Jerusalem of a Den of Theives, Matth. 21.13. Mark 11.17. Luke 19.46. which is taken from Jer. 7.11. because of their false Doctrine, perverse lives, oppressions, unrighteousness, &c. Each of which is spiritual Robbery. Neither is the allusion of a Den to that spacious and vast Temple insignificant; for we find recorded by Josephus lib. 14 c. 27. and by Strabo lib. 16. that there were Dens in that Country so great and spacious that 4000 men may at once hide themselves in one of them.

A [Valley] because of its lowness and the obscurity of its shade which broken and hanging Hills and trees cause, metaphorically denotes humiliation, griefs,Valley. and oppres­sions, Esa. 40.4. Luke 3.5. Jerusalem is called the Valley of Visions, Esa. 22.1, Be­cause it was the seminary of the Prophets, &c. Psal. 23.4. Yea though I walk in the Valley of the shadow of Death, I will fear no evil, that is, although I should fall upon the utmost perils of Death— The metaphor is taken from Sheep, who when they stray in those obscure and desolate Vallies are in danger to be destroyed by Ravenous beasts. See Psal. 119.176. I have gone astray like a lost Sheep, &c.

Psal. 84.6. Who passing through the Valley of Baca make it a well: The Rain also filleth the Pools— This text in the Hebrew is thus— Passing through the valley of Mulberry-Trees they make him a well, and the Rain with blessings (or most liberally) covereth them, that is, although the Godly (whom ver. 4, 5. he calls blessed be­cause they dwell in the House of the Lord, still praising him, and with a strong Faith cleaving to him, &c.) should be involved in divers calamities (which is meta­phorically expressed by passing through the Valley of Mulberry-trees, that being a barren and dry place, Mulberry-trees usually growing in such ground, 2 Sam. 5.22, 23, 24.) yet they trust in God and make him their Well, by whom as from the living stream of Health and Comfort they are abundantly refeshed, raised up and comforted, and as it were with a wholesome Rain made fruitful. It follows ver. 7. That they go from strength to strength; that is, by the Power of God they shall subdue and overcome all Enemies and Evils that annoy them. It follows in the Hebrew thus The God of Gods shall be seen by them in Sion, (that is in the Church of Believers) that is, he will graciously manifest himself to them, both by the Word of Life, and by his excellent help — Compare Psal. 50.23. with this text.

There are other vallies metaphorically made use of as, Hos. 2.15.Valley of Achor. I will give the valley of Achor for a door of hope — This is a Promise of Jehovah to the Church; by which phrase the consolation of his spirit in adversity, and the comfort of hope is understood. Achor signifies perturbation or trouble, and received that name from the great perturbation of the people of Israel, Josh. 7.24, 25, 26. It was in that val­ley which borders upon Jericho, that they had the first hope of possessing the Land of Canaan. So they believing in the valley of Achor, that is, being full of trouble and d [...]sturbance, they are raised up by a gracious consolation out of Gods word, and are comforted by the hope of eternal Life.

[Page 130]The Valley of Jehosaphat is put for the Church, Joel 3.2. The valley of Gehinnon or Hinnon from whence Gehenna (put for Hell) comes, afford no other Metaphors.

A [Desert] which is a part of the Earth little inhabited, and manured, wanting pleasant Rivers, elegant Trees, Fruits, &c. is often put for the Gentiles, who are strangers to the Kingdom of God, and are destitute of the means of eternal Life— Hence Fountains of Living Waters, and good Trees are promised to the Desert, by which the Calling of the Gentiles to the Kingdom of Christ is intimated, Esa. 35.1, 2. and 41.18, 19. and 43.19, 20. And by those Fountains the saving Do­ctrine of Christ; but by Trees the Teachers of the Word, and true Believers are to be understood.

[The lower parts of the Earth] Psal. 139.15. signifie the Mothers Womb, and so the Chaldee translates it. By this phrase we are fairly inform'd what our original is, viz. the Earth.

Some say that the phrase, Eph. 4.9. He also descended into [...] the lowest parts of the Earth, is to be taken in this sence: But this is most properly to be understood of the state of his deep and most profound humiliation; as his ascend­ing on high, is to be understood of the state of his most super-eminent exaltation. Brentius upon Act. 1. pag. 19. says —See the miseries and calamities, which man must of necessity endure for his sin, and you will find him as it were in the lowest part of the Earth, what is lower than the pit of Death? What's deeper than Hell? When David said, Out of the depths have I cryed to thee O Lord, surely he cries from no other place, than from the sence of Death and Hell, in which for his sins he was comprehended, &c.

[The Deep of the Earth] and the terms that are analogical to it as a Pit, an Abyss, or swallowing deep metaphorically denote,

1. The Grievousness of Evils, Miseries, and Calamities, Psal. 55.23. and 71.20. and 88.6. Prov. 22.14. Esa. 24.17, 22. Lam. 4.20. and 3.47, 53. Zach. 9.11. Hence the phrase to dig a pit for another, that is, to conspire mis­chief, and to fall into the pit he digged for another, that is, to be overwhelmed with the same evil he provided for another. See Psal. 7.15, 16. and 9.15, 16. Prov. 26.28. Jer. 18.20. Psal. 94.12, 13. 2 Thes. 1.5. &c.

By Sepulchres which are under the Earth great Calamities are likewise signified, Psal. 86.13. and 88.3, 4. &c.

2. That which is Abstruse, hid, or inscrutable, as an abyss, or bottomless pit, cannot be seen or known through Psal. 36.6. and 92.5. Rom. 11.33. 1 Cor. 2.10. Rev. 2.24. See Esa. 29.15. and 31.6. Hos. 5..2. and 9.6. 1 Tim. 6.9. &c.

From [Mud,] [Dirt,] [Dust,] and [Dung,] also Metaphors are taken which denote

1. Men in a Vile and Contemptible condition, 1 Sam. 2.8. Psal. 113.7. Hi­ther may we refer where the Apostle calls himself [...] ▪ 1 Cor. 4.13. Made as the filth of the World, and the off-scouring of all things, because of the ignominy and contempt which he suffered. Erasmus in paraphrase, Others are much honoured by you, but we for your sake to this day, are accounted as the trash of this World, than which nothing can be more abject, or trampled upon. See Lam. 3.45. To which place a great many say the Apostle had respect.

2. Evils and Adversities, Psal. 69.2, 14. Jer. 38.22. Lam. 4.5.

3. Death, or a most ignominious casting away, Psal. 83.10. Which is called the burial of an Ass, Jer. 22.19. See 2 Kings 9.37. Jer. 16.4. &c.

4. A thing had in great esteem among men, but is really vile, sordid, and noxious, Hab. 2.6. That ladeth himself with thick Clay or Mud by this is to be understood a vast power of Riches, which do not profit, but rather prove grand snares and hurtful impediments to the wicked possessors, as if they had been immerg'd in thick Mud, or should take it along, as their burthen. As Mud is an impediment to a Traveller, by how little he can go forward: And by how often he endeavours to dispatch, by so much is he involved in a more dangerous intricacy: So great Wealth, in the way of Godliness are a hinderance to him that sets his heart upon it Mar. 10.23.24. Luk. 8.14. See Esa. 24.20.

[Page 131] Phil. 3.8. I count all things but loss — and Dung that I may win Christ— He speaks of those things, which before his Conversion he magnifi'd, and put his confidence, for Salvation, in: But now being converted to Christ, he despises them as the most sordid and vilest things, being not only unprofitable for Salvation, but most pernicious if confided in. Others expound [...], as if he had said [...], [...] quasi [...], i. e. quae cani­bus proji­ciuntur. that which is thrown to dogs— So Suidas takes it. And it is to be noted that in the second verse false Apostles are called Dogs, whose corrupt works the Apostle cautions against. By Mud, Dirt, and other Filth the Members and Apparel of a man are polluted and contaminated; which contamination is brought frequently to denote the Filthy na­ture of sin, Esa. 64.6. 2 Cor. 7.1. Eph. 5.27. Tit. 1.15. 2 Pet. 2.10, 20. (with ver. 13, 22.) Jud. ver. 23. Jam. 1.21. Rev. 3.4. To this Washing and Cleansing are Contrary, by which the taking away of sin is noted.

[The Dust] of the Earth likewise signifies contempt, abjection, misery, and mourning, 1 Sam. 2.8. Job 16.15. Ps. 7.5, 6. Ps. 22.15, 16, 29, 30. and 44.25, 26. and 113.6, 7. Psal. 119.25. Esa. 47.1. and 52.2. Lam. 3.16, 29.

[Ashes] In a metaphorical signification and by [...] * pulvis, [...] Cinis. allusion of the Name agrees with Dust, with which it is sometimes joyned, sometimes not. For the Dust is indeed Ashes, only that is a grosser matter into which a thing burnt is reduced. By this is signifi'd frailty and vileness, Gen. 18.27. Eccles. 10.9. where nevertheless there is respect had to mans first original which was Dust and Ashes— Sometims it signifies great Calamity, and the sadness, and mourning that ensues, Esa. 61.3. Ezek. 28.18. Mal. 4.3. Lam. 3.16. For Mourners were formerly wont to throw Ashes upon. their Heads, yea to lye in it, as appears, 2 Sam. 13.19. Job 2.8. and 42.6. Esa. 58 5. Jer. 6.25. Ezek. 27.30. Jon. 3.6. Matth. 11.21. &c. The same metaphori­cal signification is in the phrase, to feed on Ashes, Psal. 102.9. I have eaten Ashes like Bread, that is, I am in very great grief or trouble, Esa. 44.20. He feed­eth of Ashes, a deceived heart hath turned, him aside— He speaks of the Idol, which can bring nothing but mourning and all evil to its adorers. So much of simple bodies and what bears Analogy with them. Of Compound we will treat in the following Chapters.

CHAP. XI. Of Metaphors taken from Minerals, Plants and Living Creatures.

COmpound Bodies according to the Physical distinction are either Inanimate or Animate.

Inanimate are Mettals, Stones, and Concrete Juices, as Salt

Animate are either Vegetative, Sensitive, or Rational.

Of the first kind are Plants, or Things growing out of the Earth.

Of the second kind, Brutes.

Of the third kind Men and Women. Of which distinctly and in Order.

Metaphors taken from Inanimate Bodies.

Gold. GOLD] metaphorically signifies quoad Naturalia, as it respects Naturals.

(1.) A clear and shining liquor like Gold, viz. Pure Oyl, Zach. 4.12.

(2.) Serenity of Sky, when it is of a yellowish red, Job 37.22. Fair weather cometh out of the North— in the Hebrew 'tis Gold cometh out of the North, that is (as Schindler says) a clear Air without Clouds, or a wind pure as Gold, and purifying the Air, making it as pure as Gold: The North Wind, hence called by Homer [...], the causer of serenity. The Septuagint rendred it, [...], Clouds shining like Gold.

As it respects Spirituals, Gold signifies the pure Doctrine of the Gospel, as Silver, and precious Stones do, 1. Cor. 3.12. Also the Grace and benefits of Christ our Saviour; or, which is the same thing, true Wisdom received by the Word of Christ, Rev. 3.18. and even Life Eternal, Rev. 21.18.

Silver.[Silver] is taken or put for an excellent or very fair thing, whence the Word of God is said to be as Silver tryed in a Furnace of Earth, purifyed seven times, Psal. 12.6. where respect is had to its great purity. Hence our Saviour is said, Mal. 3.3. To be a Refiner and purifyer of Gold and Silver, that is, to institute a repurgation of his heavenly Doctrine. The phrase in Esa. 1:22. Thy Silver is become dross, denotes corrupt doctrine, and a depraved Life. The rebellious people of the Jews are called Reprobate Silver, as if it were said, overmuch corrupt, and therefore good for no­thing but to be reprobated, or cast away.

The Excrements of Silver, as Dross, Tin, and Lead denote Idolaters, wicked and reprobate people, Esa. 1.25. (See Psal. 119.119. Prov. 25.4, 5. Ezek 22.18. and the following verses) [...] a fragment, or (by a Syllepsis) fragments, Esa. 1.28. are called the particles or refuse of that dross, with which the Prophet compares the wicked, because, like that, not to be healed, &c.

[Brass and Iron,] denote hardness and solidity, Deut. 28.23. Esa. 48.4. Jer. 1.18. Mich. 4.13. Iron also denotes great Troubles and Crosses, if a Furnace (which because of the Fire it contains, is a symbol of Calamity) be added, Deut. 4.20. 1 Kings 8.51. The like is to be understood if it be added to a Yoke, as Deut. 28.48. And to a Rod, Psal. 2.9. each of which by themselves, signifie Affliction.

There is an obscurer place, Jer. 15.12. Shall Iron break the Northern Iron, and the Steel or Brass, Jer. 15.12. Shall Iron break the Nor­thern Iron ex­pounded which some expound, that the Northern Enemy, viz. The Assyrian Army was plainly invincible. Others on the contrary, that there would assuredly come another Enemy, who should break and chastise the Assyrians, to wit, the Persians, &c. Vatablus chooses the former fence, by the first Iron, under­standing the Jews: He compares (says he) the strength of the Jews to pure Iron, and the strength of the Chaldeans to Iron, which is mixt with much steel, and there­fore stronger: As if he had said, shall the Jewish Iron Sword break the Chaldean, well temper'd with Iron and Steel? No, Iron and Brass, he calls Iron mixt with Brass, that is, Steel.

Junius and Tremellius take it as a confirmation of the foregoing promise ver. 11. which God made by the Prophet, that he would defend them from the hostility of the Chaldeans and would make them to intreat them well, and therefore they expound the first Iron, the Chaldeans, and the latter Iron and Brass (that is Steel) from the North or Chalybes, (for there were a people of that Name in the Northern parts of Pontus, from which Chalybes or Steel, took its Name, as Virgil in the 2 Book of his Geor­gicks and Strabo in his 12th. Book of Geography Witness) Jehovah himself; as if he (viz. Jehovah) had said these are Iron, but I who interpose or come to releive thee, am a Wall of Steel to thee; therefore you have no cause to fear, that you should be broken by those Enemies.

[Page 133]It is said Esa. 60.17 For Brass I will bring Gold, and for Iron will bring Silver, and for Wood Brass, and for Stones Iron— which signifies the restauration or Redemption of Mankind, and the Change of the legal into an Evangelical dispensation by the Messiah.

A [Stone] if transfer'd to a Man, sometimes denotes a great stupidity of mind, 1 Sam. 25.37. Sometimes hardness of heart, and the state of the sinner before Conversion to God, Ezek. 11.19. and 36.26. To which the Contrary is, that such as are converted and believe are called living Stones, 1 Pet. 2.5. With re­spect to Christ who is called the precious and elect Stone, upon which they are spiritually built, Eph. 2.20, 21, 22. &c. This Word (Stone) is also used in a good sence, Gen. 49.24. But his Bow abode in strength, and the Arms of his hands were made strong, by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob, from thence is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel — that is, Joseph stood and was sent by the most powerful God to feed Israel and his Family as a Pastor, and to prop them as a Stone, to wit, when he supplyed and preserv'd his Fathers whole house from Egypt. Some think that this man of God did Prophesie of times to come, and that by Pastors we should under­stand Prophets, and by a Stone, eminent Kings and Princes that were to come of the Family of Joseph among the People of Israel, which people they were to lead forth, and teach, and to support them, as a Rock or a Foundation Stone supports the Building.

It is said Zach. 12.3. That Jerusalem will be made a stone of burden for all peo­ple, upon which words Jerome notes, Formerly in little Villages, Little Towns, and little Castles, they were wont to place round Stones of great weight, which the youth for exercise sake, were wont to strive who could lift them highest, some could lift only to their Knees, some to their Navels, some to their Shoulders and Head, Quarries. some (that made an ostentation of their strength) with erected hands, threw them over their, heads, &c. Hence the Prophet alludes (say they), that if any Nations will adventure to assault the Church to remove it from its place, and toss it at their pleasure, they shall sink under their burden, and be even crusht to pieces; even by the power and strength of the chief Corner­stone of the Church, Luke 20.17, 18.

From [Quarries] of stone an elegant Metaphor is taken, Esa. 51.1. Look into the Rock whence ye are hewen, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged. He speaks of the Godly Israelites sprung from Abraham and Sarah, as ver. 2. The Reason of this metaphorical phrase Junius and Tremellius fairly deduce from the Argument of this chapter— Thus Christ argues, I promise that I will comfort and restore the Church, although it be wasted and almost nothing, ver. 3. and that you may the easilier beleive this, remember that you are come of Parents, that had never begot Children, if God by his powerful Word (as a hammer break Stones out of a Rock,) had not done it: And therefore you who are in the same Covenant, are to experience the same vertue and power of God. See Ezek. 4.1. Exod. 24.10. Prov. 17.8.23.

More specially there is a metaphorical mention of gems in the description of the Glory and the inward splendor of the Church of Christ, Esa. 54.11. Behold I will lay thy Stones with fair colours, and lay thy Foundations with Saphires— And ver. 12. I will make thy Windows of Chrystal, and thy gates of Carbuncles, and all thy borders of pleasant Stones— that this relates to the New Testament times, appears by the fol­lowing words, ver. 13. And all thy Children shall be taught of the Lord, which words, John 6.44, 45. are cited by Christ, application being made to his Church. Its Foundation is said to be laid in Saphires and Carbuncles, that is, in the true know­ledge of Jesus Christ, who is the only foundation of the Church, Matth. 16.16, 18. 1 Cor. 3.12. Esa. 53.11 and withall the most precious and resplendent Gem. It is expounded Isa. 54.14▪ In Righteousness shalt thou be established, which is the Righte­ousness of Christ applyed by true Faith in order to Salvation. Its Windows are said to be of Chrystal, by which the Apostles, Evangelists, and other faithful Preachers of the Word of God, and their sacred Preaching of Jesus Christ are to be under­stood, through which, as by Chrystalline and most transparent Windows, heavenly light gets into the Church. Its Gates are said to be of Carbuncles (a Gem of a fla­ming colour which derives its name from [...] * ab a [...]n­dendo. kindling) by which the continual Preach­ing of the Word is understood, that door of utterance, Col. 4.3. 1 Cor. 16.9. [Page 134] The Gates that shall be open continually, Esa. 60.11. By which such as enter are en­lightned as by a sparkling Gem, and kindled by a Divine Fire, Luke 24.32. Did not our heart burn within us? &c.

Lastly all its Borders are said to be of pleasant Stones, that is, most lovely and de­sirable— By which the amplitude or largeness of the Church of Christ gathered by the Preaching of the Gospel in the whole World, built upon Christ himself and his saving knowledge is understood. But we must observe, that these things are to be most compleatly fulfilled in the heavenly Jerusalem and life Eternal, as in its descri­ption, Rev. 21.10, 11, 18. &c. appears.

By the metaphor of a Pearl the saving Word of God is expressed, Matth. 7.6. So the Kingdom of heaven, that is, the Church gathered by the Word, is compared to a Pearl, Matth. 13.45, 46.

[...] AdamasAn [Adamant or Diamond] (a precious and most hard Stone) is brought to de­note the pravity and diabolical hardness of mans heart, Zach. 7.12.

Salt.[Salt] that good Creatures of God, so called by the Evangelist, Luke 14.34. Because of its vertue to preserve from putrefaction, and season, or give a relish unto meat, is by a metaphorical Translation applyed sometimes to the Apostles, and other Teachers of the Word of God, Matth. 5.13. whose office it is to take care that by sound Doctrine, and a blameless example of Life, their Auditors be preserved from any Corruption as well in the fundamentals of Religion, as also (as far as may be) from any blemish in external Life and Conversation. For as Salt applyed to meat consumes the depraved or corrupt humors, and so preserves from putrefaction; so the Ministers of the Gospel by sound Doctrines, and by a prudent application of legal reprehension preserve men from being putrified in sin, and are instruments to make them savoury, that is, that they may please God, and so obtain (through his mercy in Christ) eternal blessedness.

Quemad­modum sal carnes cohibet, &c. Theophilact on Mark. 9.50. says, that as Salt hinders the generation of Worms in Meat: So the Preaching of the Gospel, if quick and home, seasons carnal men so, that the Worm of restlesness shall not generate in them.

Sometimes it signifies Wisdom and Prudence, Mark 9.50. Col. 4.6. Upon which Illyricus, Wisdom keeps the Actions, Lives, and Manners of men from any fault, as Salt does flesh and other things: And makes life, manners, and speech grateful and ac­ceptable to all, as Salt gives a grateful relish to meat.

To this Speech seasoned with Salt corrupt Communication is opposed, Eph. 4.29. that is, obscene, foolish, or impious talk, which for the want of this spiritual Salt, as it were stinks, and is unsavoury to God and Holy men. What we translate Job 1.22. In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly, is (word for word) in the Hebrew thus, In all these Job sinned not, nor gave [...] insulsitas, unsavori­ness. unsavouriness against God, viz. sinful words, as the Chaldee renders it. Impiety is noted by the same Word, Job 24.12.

We have mention of a Covenant of Salt, Numb. 18.19. 2 Chron. 13.5. Which signifies that which is lasting and perpetual, the reason of the Speech is, be­cause things Salted last very long and do not putrifie. See Luth, marginal. Schol. in Numb. 18.19.

[Sulphur or Brimstone] joyned with Fire, denotes most heavy punishments, Deut. 29.23. Job 18.15. Psal. 11.6. Esa. 34.9. Ezek. 38.22. Hence it is put in the description of Hell, Esa. 30.33. Rev. 14.10. and 20.10. and 21.8. All which places (some say) allude to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by Fire and Brimstone, Gen. 19.24.

Metaphors taken from Things Growing out of the Earth.

THings Growing out of the Earth are to be considered distinctly, with respect to their Parts, as also with respect to their Kinds and Species.

The Parts are these,

1. [Seed,] of which a Plant grows,Seed. metaphorically signifies the Word of God by power and vertue of which, a man is New born, and becomes an acceptable Tree or Plant to God, (Esa. 61.3.) 1 Pet. 1.23. Being born again, not of corrupti­ble Seed, but of incorruptible, by the Word of God which liveth, and abideth for ever. 1 John 3.9. Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin; for his Seed remaineth in him: And he cannot sin because he is born of God; Which is expounded, Psal. 119.11. Thy Word have I hid in my heart, that I may not sin against thee; and Luke 8.15. But that sown in the good ground, are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the Word, keep it, and bring forth with patience. To this may be compared the fifth and 11th. verses of this chapter, where it is expounded, that the Seed is the word of God.

By the same metaphor it is called [...], sermo insititius, the ingrafted word, Jam. 1.21. (mention being made of Regeneration, ver. 18.) that is, which God by the power of his Spirit, does, as it were, sow and Plant in the hearts of men, that it may take root there, and bring forth fruit acceptable to God.

(1.) Seed as to outward appearance is but a mean thing, neither is its vertue ap­parent or visible: So the word of God, is much despised and contemned in the world, 1 Cor. 1.21.

2. Good Seed, cast into good ground, does germinate, and put forth a Plant, by whose vertue and power it continues its kind: So the Word of God, received in a good heart, makes a man such as it self is, that is, spiritual, and quickned with a divine life, because that Seed is Spirit and Life, John 6.63.

(3.) That Seed may grow, there is need of the Suns heat, and Rain or Dew: So God himself gives increase to the seed of the heavenly word, 1 Cor. 3.6, 7. The Sun of Righteousness influences it with its celestial heat, and waters it with the Rain or Dew of its Holy Spirit, Esa. 44.3. &c.

When the Verb [To Sow] is attributed to God,To Sow. it denotes a multiplication of blessings to men, Jer. 31.27. Hos. 2.25. Zach. 10.9. To which the phrase, Nah. 1.14. is contrary, the Lord hath given a Commandement concerning thee, that no more of thy name be sown, that is, thou shalt be slain, and shalt perish without re­covery.

When attributed to men, it signifies such things as are done in our life time, from which good or evil is to be expected. And so expresses either the exercise or pra­ctice of piety or impiety. Examples of the former are to be read, Psal. 126, 5, 6. Prov. 11.8. Hos. 10.12. 2 Cor. 9.6. Of the latter, Prov. 22.8. Job 4.8. Jer. 4.3 Hos. 8.7. Of both, Gal. 6.8. &c.

When it is said of humane Bodies that they are sown, it denotes their Death and Burial, 1 Cor. 15.42, 43, 44. To which the Resurrection from the Dead is opposed. [...] For the Apostle metaphorically changes the word speaking ver. 36. Of the Seed as of the Body; but here of the Body as of Seed.

A [Root] which is the Basis or lower part of the Plant, and the principle or be­ginning of accretion is put for any original or foundation of a thing, Deut. 29.18. Esa. 14.30. Rom. 11.16, 17, 18. 1 Tim. 6.10. Heb. 12.5. And for a prosperous state of things, Job 29.19. Hence comes the phrase to take Root or to Root, that is, to be in a good condition, or to multiply or thrive in any outward blessing, Job 5.3. [Page 136] Psal. 80.9. Esa. 27.6. and 37.31. Jer. 12.2. And on the contrary, the drying up of the Root, denotes the destruction of the wicked, Job 18.16. Esa. 5.24. Hos. 9.16. Mal. 4.1.

More specially the Roots of the feet (for so 'tis in the Hebrew, Job 13.29. but in our English Translation, heels of my feet, an exposition rather than a Translation) signifie the heels or knuckle bones, because they are the lowest part, as a Root is to a Plant. The Root of Jesse, Esa. 11.1. Seems to note the Patriarchs from which Jesse and David were sprung.

To be Rooted. To be Rooted is spoke of the Mystery of our Regeneration, and a corroboration or strengthning in Faith and Piety is signifyed thereby, Eph. 3.18. Col. 2.7. To which we may fitly compare, Job 19.28. But ye should say, why persecute we him, seeing the Root of the matter is found in me? Branch. that is, when Rooted by Faith in God I keep mine integrity, as Junius and Tremellius expound it.

A [Branch] with many Synonymous Terms is frequently proposed in Allegories signifying by the similitude of a growing, green, and thriving Tree, Prosperity, and on the contrary by the similitude of a withering Tree, misfortune and calamity, Gen. 49.22. Job 15.32. and 29.19. (where [...] signifies a Branch, as chap. 18.16.) Psal. 80.10, 11. Esa. 25.5. Ezek. 17.6. &c. and 16.10, 11. and 31.3. &c. Mal. 4.1. &c. By the term [Branches] Paul understands the Israelites of that time Rom. 11.16, 17, &c. who were descended (or proceed) of the first Patriarchs as from a Root. The Church is called the Branch of Gods planting, Esa. 60.21. Because (as it were planted in Christ the tree of Life,) he has a singular love and care for it, vegetating, comforting and preserving it by his spirit, and at last eter­nally saving it.

Leaf.A [Leaf,] because it easily falls and withers, carries the notion of vileness and vanity, Job 13.25. But in regard the leaves of some Trees are always green, under the similitude of such a Tree, eternal Life is described, Ezek. 47.12. See Rev. 22.2. also the Righteous who are Heirs of eternal Life, Psal. 92.13, 14. With Psal. 1.3. and 52.10.

The greeness of leaves is called a budding or germination, which word (viz. dicitur proprie de terrae nae­scentibus & plan­tis. [...]) is by a metaphor brought to signifie, sometimes natural things, as the hairs of the head and beard, Lev. 13.37. 2 Sam. 10.5. Judg. 16.22. Ezek. 16.7. and 43.19. and 61.11. The word flourishing, reviving, or more properly growing green again, is elegantly translated, Phil. 4.10. to signifie the mind of man stirred up by Love and Benevolence to no good. On the contrary to be dried up or withered is put for Death or being taken away, Joel. 1.12.

A [Flower] denotes prosperity, Esa. 5.24. See Job 15.33. Job 30.12. But because a Flower is easily cut down, and withered, it is put for any thing that is, frail, uncertain or transitory, Esa. 28.1, 4. Psal. 103.15, 16. Jam. 1▪ 10.11. 1 Pet. 1.24. Esa. 40.6, 7, 8.

To [Flourish] is put for a prosperous state of men, Psal. 92.7.12; 13. and 132.18. Prov. 14.11. Esa. 27.6. Hos. 14.8. See also Esa. 66.14. Ezek. 17.24. What is said Ezek. 7.10. The rod hath blossomed, pride hath budded, is understood by most Interpreters of the King of the Assyrians, now growing to the height of his Empire and authority, and preparing to besiege Jerusalem. The Chald. The Empire flou­rishes, and the wicked is got up. But Junius and Tremellius referre it to the people of Israel, translating it thus, that Tribe flourishing did bud out pride, for [...] signifies both a Rod and a Tribe— to Flourish is also used of Ʋlcers and Leprosies, Ex­od. 9.9, 10. Levit. 13.39. &c.

[Fruit] the metaphorical acceptation of this word is well known, and obvious every where, viz. that it is put for the consequent or effect of a thing, whether for good or evil. 'Tis put for the consequent reward of Godliness, Psal. 58.11. Veri­ly there is a fruit for the Righteous (so the Hebrew.) The Chald. Certainly there is a good reward for the just. So Esa. 3.10. Heb. 12.11. Jam. 3.18.

'Tis put for the punishment of impiety, Jer. 6.19. Behold I will bring evil upon this people, even the fruit of their thoughts, because they have not hearkned unto my words, nor to my Law but rejected it. The Chaldee says, the retribution or reward of their works.

[Page 137] Good or evil works are also called Fruits, the good so called Matth. 3.8. (see Act. 26.20.) Rom. 6.22. Gal. 5.22. Eph. 5.9. Phil. 1.11. Bad works. So called Esa 10.12. Jer. 21.14. Rom. 6, 21. The Reason of the Metaphor, is, because Godly and Wicked men are compared to good and bad Trees, of which the one bring forth good, the other bad Fruit, Matth. 3.10. and 7.16. And the fol­lowing verses, chap. 12.33. Jude ver. 12.

Hence the Verb to [Fructifie] is put for the Study of Piety and good works, Hos. 13.15. Luk. 8.16. Rom. 7.4. Col. 1.10. And inasmuch as that is the effect of the Word of God, implanted by Faith in the hearts of men, therefore fructifying is attributed to it, Col. 1.6. Hence the Apostle Paul says Rom. 1.13. Now I would not have you ignorant Brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you (but was let hitherto) that I might have some fruit among you also (or in you) &c. that is, that it may appear to me when present, to the comfort of my Spirit, that the Gospel is as fruitful among you, as others. As good masters repute that fruit theirs, when their Disciples have commendably profited under their Teachings. On the contra­ry, to bring forth unto Death, is to be given up to wickedness, and perpetrate all evil works, Rom. 7.5.

By another Metaphor the word preached is called the fruit of the Lips, Esa. 57.19: I create the fruit of the Lips, the Chald. the speech of the Lips; as the Verb to fructifie is put for speech, Prov. 10.31. Zach. 9.17. to be unfruitful is attributed to such as want Faith, Tit. 3.14. 2 Pet. 1.18. To Evil works, Eph. 5.11. To the Word of God, where it is not rightly received and kept, Matth. 13.22. Mark 4.19.

Hitherto we have treated of some parts of things growing out of the Earth: Now we shall proceed. 1. Generally. 2. Specially, of the rest, which we shall reckon in order.

A [Plant] if attributed to God, his Church and Believens are to be understood,To plant Esa. 5.7. —60.21. —61.3. Ezek. 34.29. Hence Matth. 15.13. Every plant which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up, which denotes such as are Heterodox, impious or hypocritical, in the garden of the Church, or in its outward Communion without the root of the matter. The word Planting attributed to God is sometimes taken generally, and signifies to form or make, Psal. 94.9. He that planted the Ear, sh [...]ll he not hear? that is, he that formed it. Sometimes speci­ally, and signifies to carry on, bless, and increase with felicity, Exod. 15.17. 2 Sam. 7.10. Psal. 44.3. and 80.9. Esa. 40.24. Jer. 12.2. and 18.9. Ezek. 36.36. Amos 9.15.

On the contrary to Pluck up is put for to take away blessing,To pluck up. to destroy and pu­nish, Deut. 29.28. 2 Chron. 7.20. Jer. 18.7. and 31.28. Amos 9.15.

Sometimes this Plantation is most especially put to signifie the restauration made by Christ, and the sanctification of men to Life Eternal, Esa. 51.16. Psal. 92.14. Rom. 6.5. To which belongs the term ingrafting, Rom. 11.17, 19, 23, 24. put for the Communion of Saints in the Church. And in regard these things are effected by the Preaching of the Word of God, therefore Planting (and Watering necessary thereunto) is attributed to the Ministers thereof, 1 Cor. 3.6, 7, 8. where there is a most elegant subordination of these Planters and Waterers to [...] him that gives the increase, viz. Jehovah, who by the Ministry of the Word effectually operates or works out the Faith and Salvation of men. To Plant is said of a Tent or Tabernacle, because the cords of a Tent are fastened to Stakes fixt in the ground as Plants are fixt, &c. Dan. 11.45.

A [Tree] is often used by way of similitude— But in a Metaphor which is a short or concise similitude, sometimes it refers to man, Jer. 11.19. Esa. 61.3. Ezek. 17.24. Matth. 3.10. and 12.33. Jude ver. 12. By which is signified his con­dition whether good or evil. Sometimes it relates to some certain, wholesom, or profitable thing, called for that Reason the Tree of Life, Pro. 3.18. —11.30. —

More specially some certain Names of good Trees are put, Esa. 41.19. and 53.13. and 60.13. To signifie the amenity or pleasantness of the Kingdom of Christ, and the variety of its heavenly gifts, Zach. 11.1, 2. Men of various or indifferent Estates in Israel; Cedars, Firr-Trees, Oaks, the Trees of the Wood are expressed [Page 138] by Name. By Cedars and Oaks mentioned, Esa. 2.13. The Nobility and great Ones of the Kingdom who were proud and elevated, are noted. Hence the Chaldee renders it, The Kings of the people strong and mighty, and the Tyrants of the Provinces. The Royal Family of David, from whence Christ according to the Flesh was de­scended, is proposed by the Allegory of a Cedar, Ezek. 17.22. The Lopping of Boughs, and Cutting down the thickets of the Forrest, denotes the destruction of the People, Esa. 10.18, 33, 34. and 40.24. Zach. 11.1, 2.

That part of a cut Tree, which is left above the Earth its called the Stock, Stem or Trunk. [...] stipes truncus. Which word is metaphorically translated, to denote the mean and humble original of Christ according to the Flesh, or his temporal Nativity from the proge­ny of David, Esa. 11.1. And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, &c.

Beam.A [Beam] [...], and the disparate term [...], a mote, (which is a small splinter flying out of a cleft piece of wood Hesych & Athen. lib. 13.) are used to express the difference and degrees of sinners, Matth. 7.3, 4, 5. Where Christ Allegorically demonstrates the craft of Calumniators, who are mighty curious and inqusitive into the failings or infirmities of others (although slight like motes) but very blind and dull in examining their own faults, (though grievous, great and weighty like a beam.) Here we have also an admonition concerning our Duty, which is first to search our own wallet, which hangs at our back, and having well shaken it and cleared it, we may proceed to the examination of our Brothers Crime.

Thorns.[Thorns] sometimes signifies wicked and mischievous men, Numb. 33.55. Josh. 23.13. (In which the Enemies are emphatically called Thorns and Prickles in their Eyes, that is, such as are of all things most troublesom and hurtful, so as that the Eyes cannot endure, so much as a little chaff, mote, thorn or prickle, without hor­rible torment) Psal. 58.9. Esa. 9.18. —10.17. —27.4. Ezek. 2.6. —28.4. See also because of the similitude, 2 Sam. 23.6, 7. Esa. 33.12. Nah. 1.10. Matth. 7.16. Luk. 6.44. &c. Sometimes Thorns signifie impediments met withal, Hos. 2.6. I will hedge up thy way with thorns, &c. Jer. 4.3. Matth. 13.7.22.

A Reed.A [Reed] is a weak shrub, easily agitated or shaken by a small gust of Wind, 2 Kings 14.15. Sometimes denotes men that are unc [...]tant, light, and of a doubtful Faith, Matth. 11.7. Luk. 7.14. Sometimes men afflicted and penitent, called a bruised Reed, Esa. 42.3. viz. A Reed of its self frail and weak, is much more weak if it be shaken and bruised. Our Saviour therefore promises that he will not by any means break such, but rather strengthen, consolidate and heal them.

Sometimes it signifies men, great indeed, but unable to help, that are more mischievous and naught, on which some are apt to rely or depend, though to their loss, as such do who lean on a weak and broken Reed, to their own destructi­on, 2 Kings 18.21. Esa. 36.6. Ezek. 29.6, 7. A [Rush] or Bulrush signifies men of the basest and lowest condition, Esa. 9.14. —19.15.

Worm­wood.[Wormwood] because of its ungrateful tast and extream bitterness, is by a meta­phor brought to signifie, sometimes sin, and evil, Deut. 29.18. Amos 5.7. and 6.12. See Deut. 32.32. Esa. 5.20. Rev. 8.11. Sometimes punishment or torment, Jer. 9.15. —23.15. Lam. 3.15, 19. See Prov. 5.4.

So much of the Species of things growing out of the Earth, which yeild any Metaphors, to which we may fitly subjoyn, where mention is made of the containing Subject; Which is,

  • (1.) A Wood.
  • (2.) A Garden.

A WoodA Wood, inasmuch as it contains many barren Trees, is a symbol of infidelity and impiety, Esa. 32.15. And because it is full of Trees and Shrubs, it carries the notion of an entire Army, Esa. 10.34. Of both which we have spoke before in the 10th. Chap. where we spoke of Carmel and Lebanon.

A gardenA [Garden] is the place of the most eminent and choicest Plants and Trees, espe­cially that first Garden which we call Paradise. The Church of Christ, Cant. 4.12. is called a Garden inclosed (or barred) A Garden, because of its spiritual fruitful­ness; [Page 139] barr'd because hid to the World, hid with Christ in God, Col. 3.3. The World knoweth us not, 1 John 3.1. The same Church with its fruits of the Spirit, ver. 13. is called Paradise. Of which elsewhere.

[Heaven,] or Eternal Life is called Paradise, Luk. 23.43. 2 Cor. 12.4. Rev. 2.7. The reason of the metaphorical Appellation being drawn from the ex­traordinary pleasantness of that Garden, and the great plenty of good things there.

Of Metaphors taken from the Olive-Tree and its Fruit.

AMongst the things growing in the Land of Canaan, three are most eminent, by which its Goodness, Fruitfulness, and other Excellencies may be known, viz. The Olive, which is a Tree— The Vine, which is a Shrub— And Grain or Corn of all sorts. All which are joyned together, Deut. 14.23. —18.4. Psal. 104.14, 15, 16. &c. Jer. 31.11. Hos. 2.8, 22. Joel. 2.19. and in the common Versi­on, Gen. 27.37. Psal. 4.7, 8. Where the Syriack Interpreter expresses all three.

From each of these, and things that bear affinity or relation to them, there are a great many delicate Metaphors deduced in Scripture.

The People of Israel are called an Olive, because of the great dignity with which they were invested by God, Jer. 11.16. The Lord called thy Name, Jer. 11.16. a green Olive-Tree, fair and of goodly fruit; as if he had said thou hast been like a green and leafy Olive, which most beautifully flourishes, giving extraordinary hope of its Fruit. But the Antithesis follows— With the noise of a greàt tumult (or tempests) he hath kindled fire upon it, a [...]d the branches of it were broken, that is, as Junius and Tremel­lius have interpreted it, they shall be like encountring storms of Winds, which rushing into this place shall shake down thy flowers, break the branches, that is, they will destroy small and great. Afterwards they will consume with fire the very Town, as if it were the stump of a Tree: That these things were transacted, the last Chapters of the Kings, Chronicles, and Jeremiah do fully make it out ver. 17. This Olive is said to be planted by the Lord, &c.

Zach. 4. What are called the two Olives, Zach. 4.14. ver. 3, 11, 12. are said to be the two Sons of Oyl, (so the Hebrew) ver. 14. that is, two Oleaginous Olives, plentiful, fat, having as it were a spring of Oyl, continually flowing. This Metaphor signifies the perpetual supplies of spiritual gifts to the Church through Christ, who was beyond measure anointed with the Oyl of gladness, Psal. 45.7. from whom believers have this unction, 1 John 2.20.27. But this was spoken to in the Chapter of an An­thropopathy.

Rom. 11.17. The Church of Israel is called an Olive eminent for fatness,Rom. 11.17. whose root Abraham may be said to be, with respect to the Covenant, God entred into, with him, and the promise of a blessed seed, divine benediction, and Eternal Life made to his believing posterity, (that is his Sons by Faith, who believe as he did, such being only the Sons of Abraham) whether Jews or Gentiles, Gal. 3.29. This be­ing observed, it is easie for any one to understand why the Gentiles are compared to a Wild Olive, and what this ingrafting into the Olive, is; and the partaking of its root and fatness, (that is, the fatness proceeding from the Root, and diffused to the Branches, by the figure Hendiadys) as also the cutting off of the branches.

Rev. Rev. 11.4. The two Witnesses raised by God (by whom those sincere few Teachers of the Church, in the midst of the Antichristian Tyranny and fury preserved by God, are understood, expressed by the number two because in the month of two or three Wit­nesses every Truth shall be established, Deut. 19.15. 2 Cor. 13.1.) are called two Olives and two Candlesticks standing before the God of the Earth. In the former Meta­phor we are to understand the consolation of the Word of God given by the Holy [Page 140] Spirit the Oyl of gladness, as also fruitfulness in good Works, as the Olive is a most fruitful Tree, and Constancy and Perseverance in the Faith under persecutions, as the leaves of the Olive do not wither, but are always green, and the wood of the Olive-Tree never rots through age: In the latter Metaphor Divine Illumination from the Word of God is understood, that this is taken from the fore-cited place of Zach. 4. is evident.

Oyl.[Oyl] The Fruit of the said Tree, is much valued, and much used amongst all sort of People and Nations. In Scripture Metaphors, sometimes it denotes an abun­dance of pleasant and acceptable things, Deut. 32.13. Job 29.6. Sometimes Joy and Refreshment of mind, if considered with respect to the anointing, Esa. 23.5. Psal. 92.10. and 141.5. Cant. 1.3. Esa. 61.3. The Reason of the Metaphor is taken from the fragrancy and wholesomeness of this fruit. From hence we may in a manner give a reason for the Name of Christ and Christians, it being derived from the Ʋnction or annointing of the Holy Spirit, which is compared to Oyl.

Esa. 10.27. There is mention made of Oyl. And it shall come to pass on that day, Esa. 10.27. that his burden shall be removed from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy Neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed from the face of Oyl, or from before the Oyl— Which the Chald. expounds of the Messiah, Junius and Tremellius follow that exposition: Prop­ter Oleum, because of the Oyl (or Anointing) that is, thou shalt be delivered by Christ, or for the sake of Christ, in whom rests the Spirit of Jehovah, who Anoint­ed him, chapt. 61.1. The Cause of that deliverance and vengeance is intimated, viz. The promise sometimes made to this People, of sending Christ to them, who is signified by the word Oyl, because he was to be Anointed with the Oyl of gladness above his fellows, &c.

Metaphors from the Vine, &c.

A [Vineyard] the place where Vines are planted, in a continued Metaphor and Parable signifies the Church as well of the old as New Testament, Cant. 8.11.12. Esa. 3.14. and 5.1. &c. Esa. 27.2, 3, 6. Matth. 20.1. &c. Of which pleasant similitude many have writ much. The quiet or free Plantation of Vineyards exhi­bits the notion of spiritual peace in the Kingdom of Christ, Esa. 65.21.22. See Deut. 28.30, 39. 1 Kings 4.25. Micah 4.4. &c.

A [Vine] sometimes signifies good, sometimes evil. Examples of the former are to be read, Psal. 80.9. &c. Esa. 5.2, 7. Jer. 2.21. Where the People of Israel introduced into the Land of Canaan, received as the people of God that they may serve him constantly in Righteousness and Piety, is understood. But this becomes degenerate, offending God with foul Idolatry and impiety; all which by the Meta­phor of a Vine, well planted, but much corrupted, is expressed in the two last places.

It is taken in an Ill sence, Deut. 32.32, 33. where mention is made of a Vine, Grapes, Clusters, and Wine, expressing the cruel and abominable wickedness of sinners.

Expositors are not agreed in what sence to take a Vine, Hosea 10.1. But the most proper interpretation seems to be this [...] vitis eva­cuans. Israel is an emptying Vine, that is, it plenti­fully brings forth fruit like a luxuriant Vine, as if it would at once empty it self of all its fruit. Yet it produces not good, but bad fruit (it is the Vine of Sodom and Gomor­rah, Deut. 32.32, 33. plentifully bringing forth wild Grapes, Esa. 5.2.) for it follows, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself: According to the multitude of his fruit he hath increased the Altars, &c. See Metaphor of a Vine in the second Book.

Hosea. 9.7, 10.The phrase [to sit under his own Vine and Fig-Tree] is a description of security, peace, and tranquillity, 1 King. 4.25. 2 King. 18.31. For the Jews were wont to love their Vines and Fig-trees beyond any other Trees; partly for the sweetness of [Page 141] the Fruit, Judg. 9.11.13. And partly for the conveniency of the shade. For (as Pliny calls them) branched or spreading Vines,Plin. lib. 17 cap. 2. vites com­pluviatae. or (as Columella. lib. 3. cap. 2. Calls them) such as are perched upon Rails or Galleries in the form of an Arbour, cove­ring it on all parts do afford a cool and delightsome shade, for repose or ban­queting.

As to the Fig-tree, (as Pliny has it) its leaf is very large,lib. 16. cap. 26. and consequently very shadowing, which may be gathered also from Gen. 3.7. —This phrase (to sit under his own Vine and Fig-tree) is Metonymical, in as much as it is a sign of publick peace and tranquillity; and Synecdochical, in as much as by these two Species of Trees and Plants, all sorts of Vineyards, Gardens, Fields, &c. are understood: But Meta­phorically the inward, and spiritual peace of the Kingdom of Christ is expressed by it, Micah. 4.4. Zach. 3.10. &c.

[Wine and New Wine] signifie as well the effects of divine Mercy and Grace, as of Wrath and Vengeance. Examples of the former are to be read, Prov. 9.5. Cant. 2.4. Esa. 55.1. Joel. 3.23. Zach. 9.17. In which places by the Metaphor of Wine, the blessings or benefits of the Kingdom of Christ are expressed; which are Righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. As natural Wine is said to chear or make glad the Heart of man, Psal. 104.15. and that it chears the heart of God and man, Judg. 9.13. So Jehovah is (as it were) chear'd and delighted, with the Conversion, Faith, and Piety of men, Esa. 62.5.

Examples of the latter are to be read, Psal. 60.3. and 75.8. Illyricus says that, by this similitude he signifies most heavy afflictions, &c. Rev. 14.10. and 18.6. &c. Esa. 1.22. Thy Wine mixt with Water, denotes the corruption of all orders in Israel, as the foregoing and following words shew. The Septuagint rendens it [...], thy Taverners mix wine with water, 2 Cor. 2.17. [...]. from whence they say that metaphorical speech of Paul is deduced, 2 Cor. 2.17. For we are not as many, [...], taverning the word of God. This word (which our Bibles render corrupting the word of God,) is very emphatical, Aret. it is a Metaphor taken from Hosts, Victuallers, Inkeepers. or rather Tavern-keepers, who corrupt, and adulterate their Wines; Dr. Sclat. By which the Apostle elegantly inculcates two things,

  • (1.) Their adulterating the word of God by the mixture of their own fancies.
  • (2.) Their Covetousness and Study of filthy gain.

The Verb [...], is properly understood of Wine-sellers, and is here metapho­rically translated to signifie deceitful dealing, as it is expounded, 2 Cor. 4.2.

Chrysostom, says, [...], in English, this is, (cauponari) to Tavern, when any one adul­terates wine, when any one sells a thing of that kind for Money, which he ought to give freely. The Syriack renders, for we are not as the rest who mix (or adulterate by mixtures) the word of God, &c. Jer. 23.28. 1 Tim. 6.5. 2 Pet. 2.3.

[The Dregs or Lees of Wine] are metaphorically used two ways.

1. Either denoting very great Calamities, Psal. 75.8. Esa. 51.17. Upon which Illyricus: As the Cup signifies its part of the cross and castigation,Sicut po­culum, &c. which God in his own time distributes or gives out to every one: So the dregs of that draught do signifie the most bitter part of the calamity or punishment. See Ezek. 23.32, 33, 34.

2. Someties signifying secure tranquillity, as Zeph. 1.12. I will punish the men that are setled (or concrete, curdled, thickned) on their Lees, that is, such as with great security, tranquillity, and self conceited firmness stick close to their wicked­ness, mocking and deriding both God and Men. See Jer. 48.11. Esa. 25.6. with Jer. 48.11.

[A Vintage and Gleaning,] Judg. 8.2. Is not the gleaning of the Grapes of Ephra­im, better than the Vintage of Abjezer? By the Vintage he understands the fight it self, by the gleanings the pursuit of the flying Enemy, as if he had said, we Abje­zerites have not acquired so much honour by fighting, as you Ephramites have by your brave pursuit of those we routed, when ye took their Leaders, who, had they been safe (the Enemy being not else truly overcome) might easily recruit their Army.

[Page 142] Jer. 49.9The Text Jerem. 49.9. is to be expounded by a Metaphor, if the Grape gathe­rers will not come to thee, will they not leave (some) gleaning Grapes? The Chaldee renders it Thieves or Robbers, like Grape gatherers. The same form of speaking Obad. ver. 5. (properly to be understood) is proposed by way of Interrogation: If the Grape gatherers came to thee, would they not leave some gleanings? As if he had said they would: But thine Enemies sent by me, will carry away all thats yours, even to the very gleanings. See Jer. 6.9. In that symbolical Vision, the Vineyard denotes the Judgement of God against the Churches enemies, Rev. 14.18.19. The reason of this Metaphor is, because in a Vintage or Wine Harvest the Vineyard together with its fruit is stripped of all, and left as it were desolate. Hence it is that little gleanings (small clusters remaining on the Vine,Glean­ings. after the Vintage is over, because hid behind the leave) denote a small remnant of people after war or other publique calamity. Esa. 17.6.

So the Verb (racemare) to glean (viz. to gather the little clusters left after the Vintage, Lev. 19.10. Deut. 24.21.) denotes the destruction of such as survi­ved the former calamity, &c. Jer. 6.9. &c Judg. 20.45.

[A Wine-Press] (where the Grapes are bruised, and the juice squeezed out, de­notes divine vengeance, Esa. 63.3. Lam. 1.5. Rev. 14.19. So Joel. 3.13. Come get you down, for the press is full, the fats overflow, &c. This is a Divine call to the Angels (or strong ones of God) to proceed to the execution of his vengeance against his impious Enemies —Of whom he subjoyns for their wickedness is great.

Metaphors from Corn, &c.

A Field] the place of the production of Corn or grain, denotes in a Parable the People of God or the Church of Christ, Matth. 13.8, 23, 24, 31, 38. Luke 8.8, 15. &c. To which refers the similitude of the Apostle, Heb. 6.7.8. whose [...] poste­rior pars compara­tionis op­posita pro­tasi. Cal. Apodosis, (reddition, or answering part of the comparison,) is not expresly set down, yet it is tacitly hinted at by the terms rejection, cursing, and burning, v. 8. that is, that unbelievers and wicked men, who, like a Field untilled bring forth Thorns and Bryers, and act nothing but evil, shall be reprobated of God, cursed and consumed in Everlasting fire: Whereas on the contrary, Believers and godly men shall receive the blessing of God, because like a fertile field of which he speaks ver. 7. The Apostle Paul by a Metaphor calls the Church the [...], agri­colatio­nem. Husbandry or Tillage of God. 1 Cor. 3.9. Or rather a Field, which is spiritually tilled by the Apostles and other Ministers of the word, as ver. 6, 7, 8. is intimated.

Plowing.[Plowing] is a preparation of the Field for Sowing; by which calamity and afflic­tion is sometimes noted, Psal. 129.3. (See the express similitude, Esa. 28.24.26.) The reason is taken from the cutting or (as it were) wounding of the Field, by the Plow-share. Sometimes the Life and Actions of men whether good or evil.

Good, as Jer. 4.3. Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among Thorns, Hos. 10.12. Sow to your selves in Righteousness, reap in mercy: Break up your fallow ground, &c where by the term plowing true Repentance, and the culture or dres­sing of piety is understood: The Reason is taken from the end and effect of plowing, which is to pluck up and destroy Thorns, Bryers, and the Roots of bad Herbs, and rightly to dispose the Field to bear good fruit. Examples are to be read, Job 4.8. Hos. 10.13. Prov. 21.4.

Jer. 14.18. Judg. 14.18. To plow with ones heifer, is to use anothers help (where the rea­son of the continued Metaphor is very congruous.) The speech is of the Marriage of Sampson, whose Bride was fitly compared to an Heifer, as being now under the [Page 143] same yoke with her husband, from whence the name Conjugium or Yoke-fellow comes.lib. 2. Carm. od. 5. Hence Horace lib. 2. Carm. Od. 5. compares a proud and lascivious Maid to an untamed Heifer. &c.

[To Plow] is properly to turn the divided Earth, so as that the inner or under part may be heav'd up to the superficies, or top; and metaphorically ( [...]) denotes a search or through inquisition into secret or inward things. The sence therefore of Samsons phrase is, that it would be impossible for them to have found out the meaning of his riddle, unless they had drawn out (by some subtlety) the ori­ginal and sence of it from his spouse.

Luke 9▪ 62. No man having put his hand to the Plow, Luke 2.62. and looking back is fit for the Kingdom of God: As if he had said (according to Erasmus his paraphrase) This is the most arduous and chief business (viz. of my discipling and Gospel Preaching) that he which once enters into a profession, is concerned by continual care and study to proceed to more perfection, and not to suffer his heart or mind to decline or draw back to the sordid cares or desires of things past. This Metaphor is taken from husbandmen, who are obliged to a continual and uninterrupted care and study, in tilling and plowing their Fields which agrees well with, 1 Cor. 3.9. as before.

[Corn and Wheat] metaphorically denote whatsoever is good and profitable,Psal. 72.16. Psal. 72.16. There shall be an handful of Corn in the Earth upon the top of the Moun­tains, the fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon, &c. The sence or meaning is, that in the time of the Messiah (of whom the whole Psalm treats) all things will be hap­pily, and divinely blest; which by the increase (or multiplication of little Corn,) in unfruitful Fields, such as by Mountains tops increasing with great plenty, is expres­sed. See Jer▪ 23.28. What is the chaff to the Wheat? saith the Lord, that is, wherein do the false Prophets and their Doctrine agree with the Prophets and the Word of the Lord? The Chald. expounds it of the Righteous or Believers: Behold as chaff differs from Wheat; so the Righteous differ from the wicked, saith the Lord. With which exposition Matth. 3.12. and 13.29, 30. agree. By Wheat, the Righteous and Believers are understood, to whom in the first place chaff, in the latter Tares, that is, impious, unbelieving and condemned persons are opposed. In the former Metaphor, Manna rained from heavenly is called the Corn of Heaven, Psal. 78.24. Because it was like Corn or Wheat, and was equally useful in point of nourishment.

[Harvest] is the seasonable time of gathering in Corn or any other fruit;Harvest. from which some Metaphors are reduced and that in a twofold manner.

  • 1. Men are proposed as the efficient cause or Harvest men. Or,
  • 2. As the object, that is, handfuls or fruits measured.

In the first sence, [Harvest] answering the expectation or hope of the husband­man, denotes the reward of piety, or the punishment of the ungodly: For as every one sows, so he shall reap, Gal. 6.8. As the Apostle speaks in general terms. And more specially subjoyns the harvest and reward of good and bad works ver. 8, 9. The [Harvest] is taken for the reward of piety, Psal. 126.5, 6. where the state of the Godly Sowing in this World, and the enjoyment of glory in the heavenly life by [Harvest or Reaping] is by a metaphorical phrase expressed. See Hos. 10.12. 2 Cor. 9.6. &c. Job 4.8. Prov. 22, 8. Hos. 8.7. To set an Harvest for any, Hos. 6, 11. is to seduce to Idolatry, &c. and so give cause for being divinely punisht, upon which place see Tarnovius in his Comment. Junius and Tremellius, and Piscator.

2. Because two things are most remarkable in Harvest, viz.

(1.) That Corn or Fruits are cut or pluckt down, and so wither.

(2.) That they are reposited or plac'd in Barns, &c. to be preserved for use, there arises a twofold Metaphorical notion from the term [Harvest.]

1. To denote the Judgements of God, Jer. 51.33. Joel 3.18. Rev. 14.15, 16, 17. where it is evident from ver. 19. that the wrath of God is noted.

2. The gathering of the Church, Matth. 9.37, 38. Luke 10.2. John 4.35, 38. In the former places the wicked are (as it were) Mow'd or Reap'd down, and like Tares, cast into the fire, as Christ speaks of the Harvest of the last or eternal Judgment, Matth. 13.39. &c. In the last place the godly are (as it were) placed in a garner fit for use, &c.

[Page 144]Besides what is spoken of [Harvest] denotes the benefit of freedom, (or delive­rance) Jer. 3.20. The Harvest is past, the Summer is ended, and we are not saved, that is, all the benefits of the hoped-for Salvation and help fail us, and we conse­quently perish. For Joy is commonly figured in Scripture, by Harvest and Vintage which is at the end of Summer, Psal. 4.7. Esa. 9.3. In both those times, (viz. of the receiving Corn and Wine) there is matter of Joy administred to men.

Reapers.The Ministers and Preachers of the Word of God, are metaphorically called by Christ [Harvest men or Reapers] in this spiritual Harvest, which is the gathering of the Church, John 4.36, 37, 38. where there is an eminent comparison of those which Sow and those which Reap, &c. where by (Sowers) he understands the Pro­phets of the Old Testament; and by Reapers the Apostles he sent in Gospel times. The Prophets promulgated the promises of Christs being to come, and so, as it were did throw the seeds of Gospel universal Preaching. The Patriarchs and Prophets weeded, and cleared the field of God, of the Thorns and Bryers of Idolatry by the Preaching of the Law, as before, &c.

Matth. 9.37, 38. Luk 10.2. The Ministers of the word are called [...], La­bourers in this spiritual Harvest. In which places we are taught the great necessity of a Ministry in the Church, as well as of Labourers to save and gather the Harvest fruit.

Thresh­ing.[Threshing] in Scripture metaphorically denotes punishment and calamity, Esa. 21.10. O my Threshing and the Son of my Floor (we render it Corn of my Floor) so by an Apostrophe he calls the People of God, who were grievously afflicted in Babylon, and as it were Threshed and ventilated upon a Floor, till separated from its chaff and husks— See Jer. 51.33. Amos 1.3. Micah 4.13. Hab. 3.12. Jud. 8.7. Esa. 28.27, 28.

Chaff.[Chaff and Stubble] which is separated from the Corn by Threshing, winnowing or sifting, signifies the destruction of the wicked, Obad. ver. 18. Mal. 4.1. Matth. 3.12. Luk. 3.17. It denotes false doctrine, 1 Cor. 3.12. with which may be com­pared. Jer. 23.28. See Psal. 1.3, 4, and 83.13.14. Esa. 17.13. and 41.2. Jer. 13.24. Hos. 13.3. Zeph. 2.2. &c.

Win­nowing.[Winnowing] denotes the scattering of Enemies, as chaff is blown away from the grain when winnowed, Jer. 51.2. and 15.7. Also the separation of the godly from the Reprobate, Matth. 3.12. In which Allegorical speech by [...] the floor, we are to understand the Church of Christ, scattered through Judea and the whole world; by [...], Fan, the means by which Christ separates beleivers from hypocrites and wicked men, which means are the preaching of the Gospel, the Cross and Tribula­tion, and lastly eternal judgement; by the purging of his floor, the very act of separa­ting; by VVheat, Believers; by Chaff, Reprobates; by the Garner or Barn, the K [...]dom of Heaven and Eternal Life: And by unquenchable fire, hellish and eternal punishment, &c.

[Sifting] denotes diabolical temptation, Luk. 22.31. The grain thereby is jum­bled and agitated,Sifting. Amos 9.9. and some get or drop through and are lost among the chaff and dust— Thus Satan would confound the Disciples of Christ, shake off [...] Faith, and by his Temptations pluck them away from Christ. And as Sifting [...] means to cleanse the Corn: So Christ by these Trials and Afflictions purges his dis [...]ples, as grain is cleared from chaff, and most wisely converts those malignant Artifices of the Devil unto good, &c,

Grind­ing.[Grinding] by which grain is bruised, broken small, and reduced into Meal fit to be made into Bread, Esa. 47.2. is used to describe most hard servitude and captivity— Take the Milstones and grind Meal— (in the Eastern Countries it was counted as great a slavery or servitude to be committed to the Mill, or Bakehouses, as men esteem it now to be committed to the Gallies. See Exod. 11.5. Judg. 16.21.) by this speech the Prophet would signifie, that that Queen of Babylon, the mistriss of King­doms, that is, tender and delicate, shall be obnoxious to most abject servitude, and that there will come an extreme change of her splendor, &c.

[Page 145] Job 31.10. Let my wife grind to another, that is, as Illyricus expounds it, let her be the basest of Servants to another, or as Vatablus says, let her be forced away from me and become anothers, &c.

[Bread] made of Meal, that staff of Life, sometimes denotes joyful, Bread. sometimes mournful things.

1. Joyful, as Psal. 105.40. He satisfyed them with the bread of heaven; Man­na is called the bread of heaven, because it was food for the Israelites, and serv'd for bread, And Psal. 78.25. It is called the bread of the Mighty, (or of the strong) that is, as [...], An­gelorum Esca. sap. 16.20. the Chald. the Septuagint, the vulgar Version, and Luther render it, the bread of Angels, that is, such bread as these heavenly administrators of the Di­vine Will shall supply you with, and not any humane help. And they are said to be strong because God communicates such power to them, &c.

When Christ calls him the bread of life, having respect to manna, it is an evident Metaphor, John 6.32.33. Life Eternal is expressed by the eating of bread in the Kingdom of God, Luk. 14.15. and 22.30. By eating of stol'n bread and drinking stol'n waters, Prov, 9.17. The breach of Wedlock, or that short and wild lust of the flesh which is in Adultery, is understood, and which destruction and eternal death accompany. See Job 20.5. &c.

2. It signifies mournful or sad things, Numb. 14.9. Fear not the people of the Land for they are bread for us; that is, we shall easily overcome and consume them, as if they were our bread. It agrees hereto that Bread, and war or fighting come from the same Hebrew Root and Original; and that the Sword is said to Eat when it kills, 2 Sam. 11.25. Affliction, and Calamity are expressed by the bread of tears, Psal. 80.5. In which sence also Tears are said to be the bread (or meat) of man day and night, Psal. 24.3.

[Leaven] (made of a sharp or sowre mass) taken in an evil sence,Leaven. denotes the Cor­ruption of Doctrine, Matth. 16.16. Luk. 12.1. (hypocrisie, that is, a dissembling of true Religion) sometimes wickedness and pravity of life, 1 Cor. 5.7, 8. The reason of both is evident from the operation of ferment or Leaven, a little of which penetrates the whole lump, making it sowre and acid: So False Doctrine and impie­ty of manners, easily penetrates, to the seduction of others, and unless speedily pre­vented will quickly infect and contaminate the whole. The text which we translate My heart was grieved, Psal. 73.21. In the Hebrew is, my heart is fermented, (lea­ven'd or grown sharp) that is, it is, embittered, and full of perturbation— The Chald. it is anxious or sadden'd, &c.

Of Metaphors from the Parts and Members of Living Crea­tures.

WE are distinctly to consider of Brutes. As,

  • (1.) Their Parts and Members.
  • (2.) Their general Names, Effects and Adjuncts.
  • (3.) Their several Species or Kinds.

Their Parts and Members, we will recite in that order that nature has disposed of them. What concerns the Head of Brutes we shall expound, when we treat of their respective Species.

[The Horn] of some four footed Beasts, their principal ornament,Horn. and the instrument whereby they exercise their Strength and defend themselves, is variously used in Scripture Metaphors.

1. It denotes Power, Strength, Glory and Courage, 1 Sam. 2.1. Job 16.15. Psal. 75.10. and 89.17, 24. and 112.9. and 148.14. Jer. 48.25. Lam. 2.3, 17. [Page 146] Ezek. 29.21. Amos 6.13. An Iron Horn] is a symbol of greater power and strength, Micah 4.1 [...]. So when the Horn of the Ʋnicorn is mentioned, a Beast of more strength than others, Deut. 33.17. Psal. 22. and 92.11.

2. It denotes Rule or Government, the Majesty of which consists in power, forti­tude, and strength (some say, because the King is eminent in dignity above all his people, as the Horn is above all the Members of the Creature) 1 Sam. 2.10. He shall exalt the horn of his annointed, where the holy Woman (viz. Hannah) has re­spect to the Kingdom of the Messiah. The Chaldee renders it [...] Kingdom, both here and in Jer. 48.25.

Psal. 132.17. There I will make the Horn of David to bud, that is, I will amplifie, enlarge and propagate the strength of his Kingdom. This also most perfectly apper­tains to the Messiah, Davids Son. Chald. There will I cause to bud a Precious King to the House of David. See 1 Chron. 25.5.

This signification of power, and a Kingdom, is proposed, as it were by a lively metaphor and similitude, in that symbolical action of Zedekiah the false Prophet, 1 Kings 22.11. Also in the Prophetical visions, Dan. 7.7, 8, 21. and chap. 8.3. &c. Zach. 1.18. &c. where the fierce and strong Enemies of the Church are understood, Rev. 5.6. and 12.3. and 13.1, 11. and 17.3, 7, 12, 16.

[To push with the Horn] metaphorically signifies an exerting or putting forth of strength or power against the Enemy in fighting,Cornu­petere. [...]. Deut. 33.17. Psal. 44.5, 6. 1 King. 22.11. Dan. 11.40.

In other things a Horn signifies.

1. A more eminent place, Esa. 5.1. My beloved hath a Vineyard, in the Horn of the Son of Oyl, (so the Hebrew) that is, in a sublime and very fat place. The Land of Canaan which flowed with Milk and Honey seems to be signified by this descripti­on; for into this, the People of Israel were like a Vine, transplanted or translated, Psal. 80.8.

2. Sometimes Angels, Corners or Eminencies, having the form of Horns, Exod. 27.2. and 29.12. Lev. 4.7. 1 King. 1.51. Jer. 17.1. and elsewhere, so in the Syriack and Chaldee Tongues the extreme or angular point.Buxt of. in lexic. Chald. Syriaco p. 511, 512.

3. Splendor or a sparkling Ray, like a Horn, Habak. 3.4, And his brightness was as the light, he had Horns (or as the Chaldee has it, bright beams) coming out of his hand. Hence the Verb [...] signifies to diffuse beams in the likeness of Horns, Exod. 34.29, 30, 35, where the speech is of Moses, when his face shined. Chald. the splendor of the glory of his face was multiplied; to which Version Paul seems to have respect, 2 Cor. 3.7. &c.

A [Mouth] because it is hollow, concave, and open, and the beasts instrument of biting,Mouth. has therefore two metaphorical notions.

(1.) The Orifice of any thing, an entrance or gaping hole, and so it is said, Gen. 42.27. The Sacks mouth,, Gen. 29.2, 3, 8, 10. The Wells mouth — Also of a Den, Josh. 10.18, 22, 27. Of the Robe and Habergeon, Exod. 39.23. (for so the Hebrew) Psal. 133.2. Of the Gate of a City, Prov. 8.3. Of the brook, Esa, 19.7. The edge of the Sword, by which (as it were it bites,) hurts and cuts, Gen. 34.26. Exod. 17.13. Numb. 21.25. Deut. 13.15. and elsewhere— Of the file it is said, 1 Sam. 13.21. A file having mouths, that is, full of incisures the bet­ter to sharpen Iron. So when [Mouths] in the plural are attributed to a Sword, it denotes its two edges, Judg. 3.16. Psal. 149.5, 6. Prov. 5.4. So to rake or harrow, Esa. 41.15. See 2 King. 10.21. and 21.16. Ezra. 9.11. &c.

What are done by the Mouth, Tongue and Teeth of Beasts we will here together dispatch.

[...] mordere.[To Bite] (For the most part is attributed to Serpents, Numb. 21.7, 8. Gen. 49.17. Eccl. 10.8, 11. Jer. 8.17. Amos 9.3. &c.) is put for hostile inva­sion, spoil, and tearing in peices, Hab. 2.7. For the pains of body or mind, by reason of Drunkenness, or the relicts of Wine, Prov. 23.32. For Ʋsury, Exod. 22.25. Lev. 25.36. Deut. 23.19. Psal. 15.4, 5. Prov. 28.8. Ezek. 18.8, 13.17. and 22.12.vorax usura. So Lucan calls it devouring Ʋsury. It is said of false Prophets that they Bite with their Teeth, Micah. 3.5. that is, like Wild-Beasts they tear and destroy the flock— Others think this phrase to be no Metaphor, but to be understood of the eating of pleasant food.

[Page 147][To Eat and Devour [...]] in a Metaphorical signification is the same with (to de­stroy and consume) Exod. 15.7. Isa. 9.12. The Syrians before, To de­vour and eat. and the Philistines behind, and they shall Devour Israel with the whole mouth—, that is, after the manner of Ravenous beasts, they shall most inhumanely Treat them, captivate, spoil, and con­sume them.

[To Swallow, Gulch down, &c.] is of the same Metaphorical Notation,To swal­low. 2 Sam. 17.16. Job 10.8. and 20.18. and 37.20. Psal. 35.24, 25. Psal. 52.5, 6. and 107. 26, 27. Psal. 124.3. Isa. 3.12. and 28.7. Lam. 2.2. Hos. 8.8. Hab. 1.13. 1 Cor. 15.54. 2 Cor. 2.7. 1 Pet. 5.8. Num. 4.20. Prov. 19.28. To [Lick,] has the same signification, Num. 22.4. of which, and the Tongue, we have treated before.

[A Tooth] Metaphorically denotes a Promontory or sharp Rock hanging over or formed like a Tooth. 1 Sam. 14.4. Job 39.28.Tooth. But when Teeth are attributed to Men, it denotes virulence, and a hostile Power; the Metaphor being taken from beasts, who for they most part when they fight, use their teeth as offensive weapons to annoy those they set upon, Psal. 3, 7, 8. and 57.5. and 58.6, 7. and 124.5, 6. Job 29.17. Prov. 30.14. &c.

A Lip Metaphorically signifies a bank of a River, or the mouth of a Vessel,A Lip. Gen. 22.17. and 41.17. 1 Kin. 7.23, 24, 26. 2 Kin. 2.13. 2 Chron. 2.2.5.

The Hinder part of the Neck (Cervix) if [hard, or to be hardened] be added, Metaphorically denotes contumacy, stubbornness, and a refractory Mind; the Meta­phor being taken from horses, or other untamed Beasts, who being wild and ungo­vernable, will not suffer their Necks to be bended as the Rider would have it. Exod. 32.9. and 33.3, 5. and 34.9. Deut. 9.6, 13. and 31.27. 2 Kin. 17.14. 2 Chron. 30.8. and 36.13. Isa. 48.4. Jer. 7.26. and 19.15. Nehem. 9.17, 29. Prov. 29.1. Psal. 75.5.

The word [to Behead] Metaphorically signifies to demolish or break down Hos. 10.2. He (that is God) shall behead their Altars. To Be­head. They had certain Altars pla­ced aloft, as if they had little Heads, and also Horns, &c.

The [Wings] of a Bird,Wings. because

  • 1. They are its outward Members. And
  • 2. Because they are sometimes expanded at large. And
  • 3. Because they are the instruments of swift flight through the Ayr; do yield a threefold Metaphor.

(1.) They denote the extreme or outward part of a Garment, Num. 15.38. Ruth 3.9. 1 Sam. 24.5. Jer. 2.34. Hag. 2.12. Zach. 8.23. &c.

(2.) The sides or disposed ranks of a whole Army, Isa. 8.8. Dan. 9.27. The extreme or remote parts of the Earth, Job 37.3. and 18.13. Isa. 11.12. and 24.16. Ezek. 7.2. &c.

(3.) The wings of the Sun and the Morning are the first rays of light suddenly (like Wings) expanded over the whole Earth, Psal. 139.9. Mal. 4.2. on the con­trary Virgil thus speaks.

Nox ruit, & fuscis tellurem amplectitur alis.
Night rushes on, and does the Earth embrace
With swarthy wings;—

The wings of the wind, denote its celerity and impetuous course, 2 Sam. 22.11. Psal. 18.10. and 104.3. These three attributes of wings meet in one Text,Isa. 18.1. Woe to the land the shadow of Wings. Isa. 18.1. VVoe to the land the shadow of wings, (so the Hebrew) Where by those Ʋm­bratile wings, are understood the sails of Ships, which are the extreme parts ex­panded in form of wings, and when filled with wind, are the cause of the Ships swift motion; And are withal a shadow to the Sailors; the Chaldee has it thus, VVoe to the land to which men come from a far Country in ships, and their sails are expanded like an Eagle, which flies with his wings. Junius and Tremellius by wings understand the Coasts of the Land, that is, a land shady because of the great and opacous Moun­tains that environ it, such being every where about the Red Sea, as Strabo in his last book of Geography tells us.

[Page 148] To Fly.[To Fly] which is the property of Birds, signifies in a Metaphor to be carried or sent with a swift and very speedy dispatch. Isa. 6.6. and 11.14. Dan. 9.21. Psal. 91.5. 'tis elegantly attributed to the Eyes, Prov. 23.5. Wilt thou cause thine eyes to fly unto that—, that is, wilt thou cast thine eye upon it, with most intent and ear­nest desire? And to a sword, Ezek. 32.10. when I shall cause my sword to fly (so the Hebrew) that is, when I shall flourish or brandish my sword. This is spoke of the true God, by an Anthropopathy, when he threatens Destruction and Death.

To fly, signifies also to vanish and perish, Job 20.8. Prov. 23.5. Hos. 9 11. To fly upon, the property of rapacious Creatures signifies to rush suddenly upon a thing, as 1 Sam. 14.32. the people flew upon the spoil, &c.

The Heart.[The Heart] of a living Creature, because it is in a manner in the middle of the breast, and within the body, by a Metaphor is put for the middle of any thing, and also the inward part; Deut. 4.11. And the Mountain burnt with fire unto the heart of heaven, that is the middle of the lower heavens, 2 Sam. 18.14. In the heart of the Oak, i. e. in the middle, &c. See more Examples, Exod. 15.8. Psal. 46.2, 3. Prov. 30.19. Ezek. 28.2. Jonah 2.4. Jer. 51.1. So the [Belly] is put for the middle place of a thing,Belly. Reins. 1 King 7.20. The Reins for grains of wheat as before, Chap. 6.

The Tail.[The Tail] the hindermost part of the Creature is put for the extremes of any thing, Isa. 7.4. the tails of the firebrands, that is the very ends almost burnt, which can do nothing but smoke, and will be quickly consum'd. By which the two Kings that were Adversaries to the Jews are understood as before. Sometimes the head and tail are joined together, the first signifying Dominion, the other Subjection and servi­tude, Isa. 9.14. The Lord will cut off Head and Tail, that is, high and low, the couragious and the abject (which by another Metaphor of Branch and Rush is also there expressed) he adds ver. 15. the eminent and honourable, he is the head: and the Prophet that teacheth lyes, he is the Tail, which phrase renders them most ab­ject and detestable before God.Col. 110. Illyricus, The tail is interpreted of seducers, whether because of the extreme vileness of their life, or because they voided the venemous excre­ments of Satan, or because they wagged when they flatter men, so, as dogs fawn with a motion of their tail. Deut. 25.18. What we read in our English Version— he— smote the hindmost of thee, in the Hebrew is, he smote thy tail, that is, the rere of the Army. The Chald. And he slew all of thine, who were loytering behind thee. See Josh. 10.19.

[The Heel] the extreme part of the foot by a Metaphor signifies, the ends, bounds, or limits of a thing, Psal. 119.112. Also the gain, fruit, or reward which is the end of the work, Psal. 19.11. &c. To lift up the heel, Psal. 41.9. is said of a re­fractory enemy, and a contriver of Mischief, the Metaphor being taken from the kickings of stubborn and angry horses. See Joh. 13.18. Deut 32.15. 1 Sam. 2.29. Of the phrase to kick against the pricks, we will treat hereafter.

Homoge­neal or si­milary parts.Here we will add some certain homogeneal or similary parts of an Animal, for what we have hitherto spoken of, are (according to a Physical Notion or distinction) he­terogeneous, or dissimilary.

A Bone.[A Bone] Because it is hard and white has two Metaphorical Notions: And,

1. Denotes hardness and inhumanity of Mind, Prov. 25.15. A soft tongue break­eth the bone; that is, even the most hard-hearted and severe Man, or the most grie­vous and rigid anger: So Gideon pacified the Ephramites, Judg. 8.1, 2, 3. and Abigail pacified David, when he intended to Destroy Nabal, 1 Sam. 25.24. and the following Verses.

2. It denotes white like a Bone, 2 Kin. 9.13. Then they hasted and took every man his Garment, and put under him [...] upon the bone of the stairs; that is, a step white as a bone. Others interpret this phrase as Metonymical, imagining the steps be of Ivory, or some other sort of bone. The Chaldee turns it, upon the step of hours: understanding (as Schindler thinks) a Dial cut into the stone, in which were signed degrees, by which the hour of the day may be found by the Sun-shine. R. Kimch. upon the highest step amongst the steps, &c.

[Page 149][Marrow] The inward fat of the bones,Marrow. because it is the sweetest part of the Flesh, communicating vigor to the bones and all the body, affording it a grateful aliment. By a Metaphor is put for any good thing, Isa. 5.17. and is mentioned in the description of the heavenly banquet, Isa. 25.6. Fat is of the same signifi­cation, Gen. 45.18. Numb. 18.12, 29, 30, 32. Deut. 32.14. Psal. 81.16. and 147.14. in both which la [...] places the Hebrew Text is, the fat of the wheat.

[Fat] is put for the goodness and fruitfulness of Land, Gen 27, 28, &c. for rich and powerful men, Psal. 22.29. And because fatness and full feeding makes beasts grow wanton and wild, therefore the term is translated to men, enriched by God, and so grown rebellious and wicked, Deut. 32.15. Job 15.27. Psal. 17.10. and 73.7. &c. See Isa. 6.10. The Fatness of Gods house, denotes plenty of hea­venly blessings, the similitude taken from banquets, see, Isa. 34.6. &c.

[Blood] is Metaphorically put for that, which for redness is like a bloody colour,Blood. for which reason it is attributed to Wine, Gen. 49.11. Deut. 32.14. Eccl. 50.17. Of the place in Ezek. 19.10. Thy Mother was as a vine [...] in thy blood, &c. Illyricus in Clave. Col. 1087. thus says, I believe that blood is there to be taken for wine, and we have heard before that it is sometimes so taken. Others understand of native (or Natural) Juice. Some also understand the beginning or birth: that is when she first brought thee forth, she was strong and flourished. Junius and Tremellius render it, in thy quiet, (as derived of [...] siluit, quievit) that is, in former tranquillity. O­thers, in thy likeness (from [...] similis fuit, he was like) which the Chaldee also respects. It is said when the Moon is Eclipsed, that it shall be turned into blood, Joel 2.31. with 3.15. upon which Schlinder, In E­clipsi ru­bet luna instar san­guinis, &c In an Eclipse, the Moon is red like blood, because its proper light is mixt with the shadow of the Earth, and causes redness.

[Flesh] made and Nourished by blood, denotes a frail and weak thing,Flesh. as that which is frail, and obnoxious to Death and Corruption, Psal. 56.4. and 78.39. Is [...]. 31.3. Jer. 17.3. It is likewise put for that which is mild, tractable, and obsequious, Ezek. 36.26.

[Milk] for its sweetness and very great use,Milk. is Metaphorically brought to de­scribe the blessings of the Messiah, Isa. 55.1. Joel. 3.23. In the New Testament.

1. It denotes the most sweet and sincere word of Christ, 1 Pet. 2.2.The Word called Milk. The Word is called Milk and is compared to it in this place.

(1.) Because of its unmixt simplicity and whiteness or candor; for as Milk is not a liquor composed by humane Art, but made by Nature it self: so the Word of God owns not men for its Author, or Original, but Jehovah alone, 2 Pet. 1.21.

(2.) Because of its sweetness and pleasantness, of which see Isa. 25.6. Psal. 19.10, 11. and 119.103. Prov. 24.13, 14.

(3.) Because of its utility in feeding and preserving our souls to eternal life; 2 Tim. 3.16, 17.

(4.) Because it tends to the destruction of such as abuse it Milk is not proper to be taken by such as are feaverish or Plethorick, because it exasperates the Disease in a body so ill disposed: So to such as are stubbornly wicked and unbelieving the Word of God profits nothing, but becomes their greater Damnation, Joh. 12.48. 2 Cor. 2.16. &c.

2. If it be opposed to solid or strong meat it denotes the first rudiments of the Christian Religion; 1 Cor. 3.2. Heb. 5.12.13. Of which Beza says thus: Paulus mentio­nem facit pueritiae & lactis diverso sensu, &c. Paul makes mention of Childhood and Milk in a diverse sense: For he opposes Infancy to an adult age, and therefore by the word milk he signifies the tyrociny or first entrance into the Christian Religion. But here (that is 1 Pet. 2.2. As new born Babes desire the sincere (or seasonable) milk of the word, &c. he opposes infancy to the former corrupt life, and Commends the perpetual use of Milk (that is of the true and sincere Doctrine of the Gospel.)

Of Milk [Butter] is made Prov. 30.33. whence butter'd words are mentioned,Butter. Psal. 55.21. that is smooth and flattering words, &c.

Metaphors taken from some Generalities of living Creatures.

LIving Creatures that are Brutes are distinguished into Terrestrial, Volatile, and A­quatile. [...] fera. As to what concerns terrestrial generally, [...] Fera, Bestia, a wild Beast sometimes signifies, a Convention, meeting or gathering together; which (Schindler says) is spoken by a Metaphor taken from Beasts gathered together 2 Sam. 23.11. of the Philistines, gathered together in a Troop. By wild Beasts of the Field, Psal. 80.13. The unmerciful Enemies of the Church are Metaphorically denoted. The Hebrew word here signifies a strong and fierce Beast.

The Apostle Paul (citing the Poet Epimenides) calls the Cretans [...], Evil Beasts. For this verse is found in his works which he intituled De Oraculis, as Je­rome in his Commentary upon the place notes. Paul calls him a Prophet, either Iro­nically, or from the Argument of his Writing, or because the Cretans, his Country­men, thought him to be so, &c. See Psal. 49.10. and 73.22. and 92.6. Prov. 12.1. and 30.2. Psal. 94.7, 8. Jer. 10.8.14. &c. See also Gen. 16.12.

1 Cor. 15.32. ex­pounded.The Apostle Paul says 1 Cor. 15.32. that he did ( [...]) fight with Beasts at Ephesus— his words are, [...], &c. Si secundum ho­minem adversus Bestias pugnavi Ephesi, &c. that is, if after the manner of men (or to speak after the manner of men, or according to man) I have fought with beasts at E­phesus; that is, as some say, with beastly men. Scaliger in his Notes says, feros & praefracti ingenii viros, quibuscum illi Negotium & contentio fuit, vocat [...] Legendum vero [...], &c., that is, the men he had to do withal being of a stubborn and of an unconfutable Mind, he calls them Beasts. And therefore, for [...], as it is in our Copies, should be read [...] in this sense: I