AN ESSAY FOR ADVANCEMENT OF Husbandry-Learning: OR PROPOSITIONS For the Errecting COLLEDGE OF HUSBANDRY: AND In order thereunto, for the taking in of Pupills or Apprentices.

AND ALSO Friends or Fellowes of the same Colledge or Society.

LONDON, Printed by Henry Hills. 1651.

To the Reader.

Courteous Reader,

I Find by Experience, that it is nothing but the Narrownes of our Spirits that makes us miserable; for if our Hearts were enlarged beyond our selves, and opened to lay hold of the Advantages which God doth offer, whereby we may become joyntly serviceable unto one another in Publicke Concernments; we could not be without Lucriferous Employments for our selves; nor Unfruitfull to our neigh­bours, as now for the most part we are, only because we mind not the Objects of that Industriousness, which without a mutuall Concurrence cannot be advanced. For mine owne part, although J can contribute but lit­tle; yet being carried forth to watch for the [Page] Opportunities of provoking others, who can do more, to improve their Talents, J have found experimentally that my Endea­vours have not been without effect as to this undertaking: for GOD hath brought beyond what J could imagine unto my hand from time to time, Objects of Service answerable to the enlargement of my Spirit: So that J must conclude▪ that it is nothing but the Narrownesse of all mens Spirits that makes their Miseries to ly heavy upon them: for there are infinite Meanes of Reliefe and Comfort, for all sorts of Calamities to be found in Nature, and well ordered So­cieties, if men were not enviously, or cove­tously, or peevishly, or ambitiously, or drousily straitned within themselves, in the use of that which God hath given them to serve the Glory of his Goodness withall; towards the reliefe of themselves & others. And to waken such as are Upright in heart, but yet [Page] Lazie and Drowsie under their Distracti­ons, J have thought good to offer these Hints to the Publique, which have a long time lain by me; that in this Hopefull Appearance of your Settlement, those that droope might see a possibility (if they will not be wanting to themselves) to make themselves and others in this Nation, and juncture of time, more happie & Plentifull in outward Pos­sessions then their Forefathers have been; by a Colledge or Corporation of Hus­bandry. For if in all other Trades & Scien­ces, Colledges and Corporations have been & are exceedingly Advantagious (if rightly ordered) for the Improvement of the Talents of those that betake themselves thereunto; Why may we not conclude that in the Science and Trade of Hus­bandry, which is the Mother of all other Trades and Scientificall Industries, a Collegiall way of Teaching the Art there­of [Page] will be of infinite Usefulnesse? J shall leave the thing to thy rationall Conside­ration, that if the least part of Industrie is highly improved by Collegiall Institution and Education, how much more may the Chief part and as it were the very Root of all VVealth, be advanced to perfecti­on by this means? This Essay therefore is but an Overture, and a Hint of this mat­ter, that it may be further in due time ripened, and with more mature considera­tions brought to perfection, for the good of the Common-wealth, and the relief of the poor therein, which is the very earnest desire of

Thine and the Publiques Faithfull Servant, SAMUEL HARTLIB.

PROPOSITIONS for Advancement of Husbandry-Learning.

IN humane affaires, and which relate not immediately unto God; nothing doth more tend to the good & wel-being of a Nation (God giving his blessing there­unto in an humble and right use of it) then plenty of Food and Raiment, and of all other Merchantable Commodities to send abroad; which will not faile to returne the prosperity and happinesse of other Nati­ons again in exchange. And surely a Nation thus bles­sed can want no Earthly Comfort; but will doubt­lesse be hated of some, feared of others, and sought to of all. But neither the one, nor the other of these are any other, then the fruits of or in the Earth: And those are not to be obtained but by the helpe of In­genuity and Industry. The first wisely teaching, what is to be done; the second acting according to those good and right instructions diligently and careful­ly. By these two (instrumentally) we enjoy all out­ward things; and without them nothing. These [Page 2] are the first movers to all Trades or Professions under heaven; and particularly, to that most Auncient, most Noble, and most necessary Trade of all others (viz.) good Husbandry, consisting of abundance of Parts, of which these are some.

1. Tillage, or setting or sowing of several sorts of Corne and Graine, for the reliefe and sustenance of man and beast.

2. The breeding of Cattel, (in which the breed­ing of Sheepe may seem particular.)

3. The feeding of Cattel.

4. The Use of the Dairie.

5. The planting of Orchards.

7. The planting of Gardens.

8. The breeding and feeding of Swine.

[...]. The breeding and feeding of the several sorts of tame Poultry.

9. The planting of Hops.

10. The sowing of Hempe, Flax, or Rape.

11. The breeding, preserving and taking of wilde Beasts, as Conies &c.

12. The breeding, preserving or taking of wilde fowle, particularly of Duckes in and by a Decoy.

13. The making and managing of Rivers, Moats, Ponds, &c. for the preserving and taking Fish of all sorts for the use and sustenance of man.

14. The planting of Woad, and all outlandish rare or extraordinary Roots, fruits or plants.

15. The dreining, fencing, mowing, and making of Grasse in Meadowes into Hey.

16. The making of Malt.

17. And (that now so exceeding necessary en­deavour) the planting all sorts of Wood for Timber or fire.

[Page 3]Besides very many others which I forbeare to name, as either not so easily practicable in this Nati­on, or included in or subordinate to the former, as Shearing of Sheepe, Thrashing of Corne &c. or not vul­garly taken for the parts of Husbandry (though in­deed they are so) as the digging of Coal-pits, & produ­ction of all Minerals, Quarries of Stone, or useful Earths &c.

As these are encouraged and enabled: so is a Na­tion more or lesse prosperous, or outwardly happy; both these in their distinct natures or uses are most excellent; and are also (at least ought to be) insepa­rable companions: of which if either precede it is In­genuity; for that Industry as it is distinct from Ingenui­ty, can do nothing till the other have contrived what and how.

Men take him for a foole or a mad man, that ha­ving store of wealth in his trunck, doth yet complain of want. What though the key be rusty for want of use? 'tis easier to get that scoured, then to obtaine such another treasure. And surely I may upon most sure grounds say, that our Native Countrey, hath in its bowels an (even almost) infinite, and inexhausti­ble treasure; much of which hath long laine hid, and is but new begun to be discovered. It may seem a large boast or meer Hyperbole to say, we enjoy not, know not, use not, the one tenth part of that plenty or wealth & happinesse, that our Earth can, and (Inge­nuity and Industry well encouraged) will (by Gods blessing) yield.

Now whereas there hath been earnestly desired (in the mean time, till the publique Magistrate shall be at leasure, to give a more strong and ample en­couragement [Page 4] & assistance to a Designe so exceeding­ly for the honour & Advancement of the whole Nation) the erection of a private Colledge or Society of good Husbandry; wherein some may teach, some learne, and all practise the whole and every part of this so honourable an Art, so deep a Mystery, and that not one­ly in the more customary and Common way; but ac­cording to the most Excellent Rules, that Ingenuity and Experience gained by rational trials & real Experiments have or can attaine to; that so the honour, wealth, and happines of this State maybe multiplied, even before it self is aware, and the duller members there­of wonne by emulation or example to such practises for their own private & Publique Good, as no perswasi­on nor force could ever have effectually led them to. And in respect that there are already diverse Proposi­tions made, & some Engagements also in order thereto; so as the Worke hath begun to move, and is dayly advanced, and endeavoured to be advanced by some such faithfull branches; as first and chiefly seek the Prosperity of the whole Stock, but have not suf­ficient power in their owne hands to go through with, and bring to perfection this great and good Worke:

It is therefore PROPOƲNDED First, to those, whose great Wealth is joined with as great Vertue and Love to their Countrey; [Page 5] And Will as well as Power to advance the Publique Good, without seeking their own Private Benefit.

THat whereas it is manifest, that such a Colledge or Society cannot be erected without the build­ing or buying (at least a long lease at an easie rent, if not the inheritance) of some large and convenient House, with some good quantity of Land adjoyn­ing and belonging to it (though that is not all the Land which must be had for this purpose); and it is as manifest that such a purchase cannot be made without good Sums of Money.

It is therefore desired, that all such Well-wishers to their Countrey's wealth and prosperity; be pleased to contribute such sums to this good and laudable Worke, as in their own Wisdomes and bounties ap­pear necessary, and deliver the same into the hands of Mr. Samuel Hartlib, whose abundant Zeale for the Publique Good, renders him most worthy to be entru­sted therewith, till there shall be a competent Stock obtained for the setting forward of this great and good Worke before mentioned: And to subscribe their Names and Sums; that so the whole Society (when erected) and the whole Nation (when in due time they shall have tasted the sweet effects from hence proceeding) may know to whome to render all due thanks through all Ages, as to the bountiful Promoters of; by contributing to a Designe so much [Page 6] conducing to the good of the present and Prosperity of all Ages to come: a Plentifull Reward to every Noble Spirit.

It is therefore also PROPOUNDED Secondly, to those whose good Wills pos­sibly are great, but their Powers lesser then the former; and are therefore neces­sarily withheld from such free and vo­luntary contributing.

THat whereas the knowledge and good influ­ence of the actings of this Society and its mem­bers, cannot without a good, large, and consider­able Stock encrease in its number and power, nor cast it selfe into all the formes of Practise in the several parts of this Art before mentioned, or that may be mentioned: and for want of which, the maine End of the erection of this Colledge or Society would not be obtained, viz. the infusing into the more sturdy Husbandmen of the Nation in generall (now too much wedded to their more customary and lesser profitable workings) the more perfect Principles of their own Art, and such additional Ʋses and Instruments, as shall make their Practises more rational, easie, & really effectual & beneficial, as to them­selves: so to the advancement and encrease of publique plenty and wellfare.

It is therefore Offered, that whosoever shall dis­burse [Page 7] and engage any sum, for the encrease of that Stock, and consequently the imployment of the So­ciety: shall by an unerring, unaltering rule, receive yearly; while his money remaines in the hands of the said Colledge, for every 100. pound, 20. pound, and so for a greater or lesser sum proportionably. And if any particular Person shall desire to have his sum dis­bursed, to be imployed in any one particular single part of this copious Art here before mentioned; he shall have his desire fulfill'd: provided that his Stock be sufficient to drive on that way; and that he be contented to forbeare his revenue till nature hath produced the returne.

And whosoever shall thus engage, shall at any time (upon six moneths warning given) call in and again receive his sum formerly disbursed.

And all those that shall thus engage, are desired to enter their Names and Sums, by subscribing and delivering the money into the hands of Mr. Samuel Hartlib. And for Security they shall have; As to Law, the Propounders bond; As to Love, the word of him that desires to prove himselfe a just and honest man, to God and man, (to his utmost power) and to all Enga­gers a faithful Steward.

PROPOSITIONS, for the erecting a Colledge of Husbandry: and in order thereto for the taking in of Pupills or Apprentices: and also Friends or Fel­lowes of the same Colledge or Society.

I PROPOUND, That there may be a Colledge or school of all the sorts and parts of Good-Hu [...]bandry erected; that so the knowledge and practise m [...] [Page 8] come more universal, and men may have more sweet invitations and stronger allurements, to seek the knowledge of this deep and excellent Mystery; and practise it to the advancement of a more gene­ral and Publique good: not as now in a sordid clownish way, for meer selfe-profit; nor as now according to unsound and rather Customary then rational rules and grounds; nor as now in a dishonourable drudging way; which indeed is the grand cause that hinders or takes off the most ingenious spirits (which yet are most fit to be engaged.) For it is plain, that the chief reason, why this so excellent an Art, hath hitherto arrived at no greater perfection, is; that no Publique course of incouragement and high prizing the same hath been thought of; and so the best wits shut out, that should have searched it out, and discovered this Art more perfectly; which once generally known, to­gether with the vast advantages thereby arising, as to the whole Nation: so to every particular practiti­oner; we need not feare to want Disciples. It is most evident, that those few Ingenious persons, that have looked into the wayes of improvement, (having some­thing also to worke upon) of late years have ad­vanced their particular Interests to a double or treb­ble proportion. I am very confident, that those ve­ry improvements may again be doubled by yet bet­ter wayes.

That therefore Ingenuity may be ransomed from her too tedious captivity; And Industry awaked from a kind of lethargie; occasioned through wonted dis­content: I PROPOUND more particularly, (to lay a little foundation for such a Colledge or Society, which I doubt not, time, emulation, and my own profit, will agree to finish) That

[Page 9]If any Person of quality have a Son or Kinsman 15. years old or upwards, with whom he will give (besides well-suiting him with all necessary wear­ing apparel, and more, to the value of twenty marks; in such other necessaries, as the Ʋndertaker shall ap­point) 60. l. in ready money at his first Entrance, and bind him Apprentice for seven years; he shall be in that time faithfully instructed in both the Theo­rick and Practick parts of this (of all others) most Auncient, Noble, and honestly gainfull Art, Trade, or Mystery. And at the end of that time, he shall receive at one entire payment, to set up withal, 300. pound. And shall for foure years next ensuing the end of the said 7. years, receive at the end of every year 100. pound more; the better to support him till he have taken sufficient root.

Note, that none are to be actually entertained till there be at least 10. entered: at which entrance, they are to pay onely 10. pound apiece, and for far­ther performances reciprocal subscriptions. And when there are 10. entered, they are all to be ready upon a moneths warning to appear, to pay down the o­ther 50. pound apiece.

Note, that not above 36. will be entertained at first, neither afterwards; but as by death, expiration of time &c. there shall happen to be some wanting of that number.

Into this Colledge also any man may enter himselfe as a free-man, or Friend to, and Member of the Socie­ty; upon the following conditions.

1. He must pay down at his Entrance 50. pound, as given to the Society for the encouragement of In­genuity in the practise of Experiments, for the obtain­ing [Page 10] of yet more and more perfection in this (almost) infinite Science.

2. He must bring with him some skill, at least In­genuity; and testifie himselfe to be a Well-willer to the profession and professors of Good-Husbandry; and particularly to the Master and Fellowes of this Socie­ty.

3. He must produce at least 250. pound as a Stock to set up for himselfe, to be driven by himselfe, ac­cording to the best direction and assistance to be given by the Master and Fellowes of the Colledge·

4. He shall (not swear, but) subscribe himself un­der hand & seale, a faithful Seeker of the Advancement of the Mystery and Society; and to be aiding and as­sisting, to the Master and the Fellowes to his power, at all times, and in all cases, (his own interest al­wayes preserved) and to consent and submit to all such Orders, as shall be from time to time made, by the agreement of the Master and the Major part of the Fellowes of the said Colledge, for and concerning the same Society, and to stand to their Award in any case of difference: And not directly or indirectly to discover all or any part of the same Art or Myste­ry to any person whatsoever, upon any pretence whatsoever, without their consent first had and ob­tained.

5. He must be alwayes in Commons at the Hall of the said Society ▪ at the rate of 8. s. per week, or such other rates more or lesse, as the then present state of things shall require. And he is alwayes to pay off all arreares at the end of each moneth at the farthest, without any deductions for absence how long or short soever. But if he keep a Servant (who must also [Page 11] be in Commons when present) he shall be allowed to deduct for his absence. As also he is not to be accomptable to the Stable for his Horse when absent.

6. He shall at his first Entrance, pay for Himselfe 10. pound, for his Servant 5. pound, for his Horse 40. s. for their habitation: besides providing of all ne­cessary furniture; but be ever after free till death or departure.

7. Lastly, he must be a single man; and if he shall at any time marry, he is from thenceforth to be ac­compted dead to the Society, to all intents and pur­poses whatsoever; save onely in point of debt or discovery.


THe more I finde and consider of the generall Backwardnesse of men, to accept or joyne with me in the wayes by me Propounded for mutual Prospe­rity; the more I am taught to view and review the things Propounded, and that impartially. In order to this, I finde upon enquiry, that the maine Objecti­ons against what I offer are three, viz.

First, the supposed Impossibility of performing (on my part) the thing promised.

Secondly, the Newnesse of the Invention or Contri­vance, which renders it within the list of things sus­pected.

Thirdly, the Non-appearance of any such good Security as is held sufficient to encourage men to joyne with me freely, fully and speedily (that is, seasonably.) To these I answer thus.

First, upon most assured, and generally experi­mented grounds I affirme; that one Acre of good [Page 12] ground to be sowed with Wheate in the more usuall way of Husbandry, will (one place in this Nation with another) require the charges or expence follow­ing▪ viz. for rent 13. s. 4. d. dung 24. loads at 1. s. 3. d. per load, 1. pound 10. s. seed 9. pecks usually worth 13. s. 6. d. (now more) twice ploughing, sowing, har­rowing &c. usually 10. s. (now more) for weeding 3 s. for reaping &c. 6. s. 8. d. for fencing one (Acre a­mongst many) 3. s. 4. d. which in all amounts to 3. pound [...]9. s. 10. d. out of which deduct 20. s. which will remaine to be accompted with the following crops, in respect of the vertue of the dung remain­ing still in the land. Thus the Charge of sowing one A­cre of Wheate, amounts to 2. pound 19. s. 10. d. and for the returne of this, it is not unusuall to have 3.4. or 5. quarters: But take it at the lesser, and more generally certain rate, of three quarters on an Acre, and value that at the more constant and lesser price, of 5 s. a bushel, or 40. s. a quarter; yet the returne amounts to 6. pound, which is double to the charge. I could illustrate this with many other examples as full: but let this suffice.

To the second I say, that the Newnesse of my better way of planting or disposing of Corne into the ground, so as (God blessing my endeavours) to ob­taine a yet greater increase; is so farre (well weigh­ed) from being a reason to hinder: that it is to me, and may be to others (when once rightly under­stood) a spurre to hasten towards such an Engage­ment or conjunction: When it is considered that the Invention is yet our own, entirely; and consequent­ly the most just and ready way to wealth and all that outward honour & happinesse (that accompa­nies [Page 13] riches well gotten) is open to us, and to us prin­cipally; we having the opportunity (while we pre­pare for, and open the door to so great a Publique Good) to Christen our own childe first (as they say) which also is most lawful, and appointed, that the Ox that treadeth out the fodder, shall not be muzled. Which of all those (almost infinite) wayes or means, by which man hath been made Instrumental to the increase of his own well-being, was not in one age or other, as new as this Invention of mine doth seem to be in this?

Certainly it is not the Newnesse, but the Vanity or Invalidity of any Invention, that layes it open to the dislike of the more wise and Noble persons: Or if the Newnesse of an Invention can any way render it fit to be suspected, it is onely in such as being altogether New, seem also to disagree with Natural reason, and treade quite beside the path of Experience: Of this kinde it would be, if a man should pretend to make bread of stones; but to say, that I can make more or better bread of the same Wheate, will appear impossible to none but inconsiderate persons. And the thing which I hold forth is nothing else, but to screw the most profound Mystery of good Husbandry a note or two higher; but to do the same thing by a better way, and to more advantage.

To the the third and last, before I answer I will so farre digresse, as to enquire, what is or can be here meant by Security? If it be required in the most high and strict sence, 'tis vaine and impossible to be had in humane affaires, and is not to be had or hoped for in this world, where the Moth and rust do corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: this is only to [Page 14] be had in Heaven; and can be no way procured on Earth; but by laying up the Treasures of GOOD WORKES: Therefore he that will put forth his money upon good Security indeed, must vent it in the wayes of Charity and Piety, as relating to Gods glory and his soules Eternal happinesse; at least in a way of bounty and noblenesse for the Pub­lique good of his Neighbour and Native Countrey, as relating to his good fame after death. But if by security be meant something more moderate and in­genuous, onely a providential care to defend a mans selfe from being abused; so farre as such prosecuti­ons are just, and agreeable to good reason, and the Nature of the thing in question, I allow; and ap­prove of it altogether: but not when it rather pro­ceeds from frowardnesse, base and groundlesse suspition, and a naturall aversnesse and enmity to all good. Thus when a man lends to another poli­tically as a meer man, he requires bills, bonds, mor­gages, or the like. But if he gives, he doth not so, neither if he lend to the Poor, or to persons so just that he esteems their word sufficient. I suppose there are very many in London, that do frequently take up great sums without giving any formal secu­rity; nay that would take it for a great afront to have such a thing required of them; and yet surely it is no absolute miracle to see such a one break; why then are men so easie in that, and so difficult in this? or is it for the mutual Advance of Trade? why, that very argument serves here too; unlesse they be re­solved to advance no trade, but their own. And even that also comes in here; for what trade can more advance the Engagers Private, then that which is faithfully driven on for the Prosperity of him [Page 15] and his Posterity? Or what can more magnify a great and populous City, then to stand in the midst of a fertile soile, that affords her plenty and abun­dance of all good things, which is already the hap­pinesse of London? and this happinesse shall by this meanes, by Gods blessing given unto and upon this means, be continually encreased.

Again, it is rationall, when men lend money for little or no advantage to themselves, but onely to do their friend a courtesie; it is but reasonable, that they should by all good meanes secure the repay­ment of their principall. But when men put forth their moneys in hope of great Advantage, they must, and do usually forbear to stand upon such precise Security; rightly considering, that Gods providence is (as the best Inheritance; so also) the best Security that can be named, and will not faile to returne with a blessing, any thing that shall be thereto intrusted faithfully. Thus, what other Security (more then rational Probabilities) hath the Souldier; that ven­tures his life, limbs, liberty and all, and this with­out any other Security then a good conscience, (or a good confidence at least) in life or death; resting in that successe the Lord of hoasts shal please to appoint. Thus the Merchant puts (if not alwayes himselfe; yet) his Estate into a weak wooden vessel; and com­mits it to the mercy of the winds and waves, ha­ving set up his rest in the goodnesse of that God that parted the Red-Sea by his power. Thus, the Mi­neralist layes out much money in sincking his pits and quarries, onely in hope to finde that richer veine he conceives to be there. Thus the Patient commits his life health and ease (under God) into the physitians hands, as relying on his care and skill. [Page 16] I say, that all these, and many more, even all men in almost all humane actions, runne some kind of hazard; and more or lesse do and must depend up­on Gods mercy and mans integrity, without any other outward formal Security. Thus also do I propound (and that upon Probabilities as certain and rational (if not more as any of these) that we may agree, en­gage, and sowe in hope; that that God that never suffers hope (rightly placed) to be frustrate; may make us return and bear our sheafes with us, may make our valleys stand so thick with Corne, hat they shall laugh and sing. Which that it may be thus, shall alwayes be the faithfull desire and earnest prayer of▪ Sir,

Your most obliged, faithfull and humbly thankfull friend and Servant

SIr, by what is above said, and by many other ve­ry evident reasons, it is or may be proved, that in such a case as this, it is not much rational to demand any other Security then the Propounders own obliga­tion [Page 17] for performance of Covenants. Yet that all men may know, that my Intentions are fair and just, and my Aimes not simply at my own private profit; but that I also much more desire the Prosperity of my Nation, and of all persons that shall joyne with me. I OFFER & am content, that if the Subscribers and consequently Engagers shall think fit to meet, and a­mongst themselves chuse three such as I shall also like of, I will endeavour to give them (in the behalf, and as the Trustees of and for all the rest) some more plain and satisfactory Security, which is impossible to be done to every particular person, that shall per­haps underwrite and engage onely 25. pound. or some such sum.


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