THE REFORMED SCHOOL.

BY JOHN DƲRY.

LONDON, [...]ted by R. D. for Richard Wodnothe at the Star under S. Peters Church in Corn-hill.

The Publisher to the Reader.

Christian Reader,

NOthing from without hath supported my spirit in the course of life, wherein God hath led me hitherto (through manifold private difficulties and pub­lick desertions,) but the usefulnesse thereof towards the Publick. & whiles the graciousnesse of Providence hath from time to time succoured me, chief­ly then when I was sinking under my [...]rdens; I have been taught from within, to look up to God alone in well-doing, till he bring his Salvation out of Sion: for, to propagate this Sal­vation of his with my poor talents, and to stirre up others to contribute [...]eir help thereunto, is the utmost aim [Page] which I have in the Agency for Lear [...] ing; wherein the goodnes of the Par [...]ament hath owned me. And althoug [...] towards the businesse it self, nothi [...] hath been further done then to na [...] me for it; (which for the time ha [...] made my burdens somewhat heavie [...] yet because my genius doth leade [...] this way; and I hope still in God th [...] he will not leave me without encouragements: therefore I am not weary in well-doing, so long as I have op­portunity. Having then, upon a moti­on made by some, made my self Instru­mentall to draw forth from others these following Directions, towards the Reforming of Schools, and the Ad­vancement of Piety and Learning therein; I thought it expedient to ac­quaint thee with them, Christian Rea­der; that if thou doest think thy self any way concerned either in furthering the benefits of such a way of Educati­on towards others; or in partaki [...] [Page] thereof for thine own, thou mayest be­think thy self how to do that which is fitting and conscionable; that such an Endeavour as this may be set forward towards the Publick Good. For mine own part, I shall confesse freely, that amongst all the Objects whereunto I have dedicated my thoughts and pains (whereof the extent is as large as eve­ry Good and Rationall Work in the whole life of Christianity) there is not any one which doth lie nearer my heart then this of the Education of Children in the way of Christianity. For, all things being rightly weighed, we shall perceive that this Endeavour alone, or nothing, will be able to work a Refor­mation in this our Age. For whiles the Magistracy and Ministry is made an Object of violent Contradictions, and thereby almost wholly put out of frame and made uselelesse, as to the Reforming of Vices in Church and Commonwealth; it cannot be expect­ed, [Page] although they be never so knowing and willing, that in the execution of their places, they should be able to bring matters to perfection. There­fore, to meddle directly with the mul­titudes of Aged people (the Objects of their charges) who are now settled and habituated in the way of their own choosing, and to think to draw them from it, is to attempt, without discretion, an impossibilitie. For it is not possible, that the extraordinary strains and distempers, whereinto we are fallen in these times, can be reform­ed without some extraordinary abilitie, either of outward Authority and Power to restrain exemplary disorder­linesse; or of inward Conviction, to leade men captive under the yoke of Christ, which are things [...] de­cayed, now adayes, amongst the pro­fessions of men. Seeing then, the cor­ruptions of those that are of age, are too strong and sturdy to be conquered [Page] by ordinary and weak means, and none extraordinary or strong enough, are apparent; it followeth, that there is none other way left, but to deal with the young ones, before any corrupt ha­bits, and perverse engagements be confirmed upon them; that they may be trained up from their Infancy, to a course of Reformation, both of Virtue and Learning. But because the train­ing up of Schollars in one School or two, though very great and most ex­actly Reformed, will be but an incon­siderable matter, in respect of a whole Nation, and have no great influence upon the youth thereof, where so many Schools remain unreformed, & propa­gate corruptions; therefore the propa­gation of reformed Schools is mainly aimed at; and to that effect, the train­ing up of Reformed School-Masters, is one of the Chief parts of this De­signe. Now to endeavour to make out this, that the readiest way to Re­form [Page] both Church and Common­wealth, is [...]o reform the Schools of Education therein; and that the way to Reform these, is to send forth Re­formed School-Masters amongst them, is, as I suppose, altogether superfluous: For it cannot be thought, that any ra­tionall man should be such a stranger unto the affairs of humane Societies, as not to see, that from the ordinary Schools, all Magistrates, and Ministers, and Officers of State are taken throughout the Nations of the World, to be set over others; and that the impressions both of vice and vir­tue, which they have received in the Schools, are exercised, and become effectuall, for good or evil, afterward, in their places towards the Church and Common-wealth: so that the Schools are to be looked upon▪ as the Ordina­ry and Naturall fountains of a Settle­ment, as of our Corruption, so of our Reformation; if God will blesse us [Page] with any. And the School-Master in a well ordered Common-wealth, is no lesse considerable then either the Mi­nister or the Magistrate; because nei­ther the one nor the other will prosper or subsist long without him. I shall not need to adde any thing further con­cerning this subject, to make thee sen­sible, either of the Usefulnesse of the undertaking, or of the Scope of my ne­gotiation in it.

This onely I would have thee fur­ther to observe, judicious and true­ly Christian Reader (for none but such can see any thing in this businesse) that the Authour of this new Model of schooling was intreated to put it to pa­per, upon a serious motion made to him, and to some Friends of his, by others; for the entertaining and regulating of a Christian Association, whereof all the Members might be serviceable to each other, and to the Publick: therefore he speaks not in his own name alone con­cerning [Page] the Association, but in the name of those, who were jointly called upon to give their assent thereunto, who agreed with him in these Proposals. The Motion is not as yet come to ma­turitie in the Resolution of those that first made it, and the cause is of some Conveniences to effect it, and the fears of unsettlement, after that it shall be set upon: and till there be a further ground laid for the prosecuting of this Designe; it is needlesse to give the Di­rectory concerning the Education of Girls. In the mean time, I have thought good to publish this, with an addition of some directions for teaching of Logick; that such as can judge, may see that there is an easier and rea­dier way to attain the perfection of Vir­tue and Happinesse, known and practi­cable, then as yet hath been published to the World, or put in practice by any; and that to set these wheels agoing, nothing is wanting, but a quiet place of abode, [Page] and some assurance of necessary Prote­ction.

Let thy prayer go along with it, to supply these wants, if thou hast any Rationall or Spirituall apprehension of the good sought thereby unto all: and if thou canst, say with the Prophet Psal. 14. v. 7. O that the salvation of Israel were come out of Sion! when the Lord bringeth back the Captivitie of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Isra­el shall be glad. To the expectation and accomplishment of this hope and pro­mise, I leave thee, in him who is the God of our Salvation, and the confi­dence of all the ends of the earth, and of them that are afarre off upon the Sea, Psal. 65. ver. 5. in whom I rest,

Thy most willing Servant, for the advancement of Piety and Learning, Samuel Hartlib.

THE REFORMED SCHOOL.

Concerning an Association for the Educa­tion of Children.

UPON the motion which is made of entring into a Socie­tie, wherin a certain number of Children, Boyes & Girles, should be educated unto Reli­gion, to Morall Sciences & Virtues; we shall return this Answer.

1. That we hope never to bee found un­willing to contribute that which we can, to­wards the Advancement of Godliness in any Body or Societie; or towards the Reforma­tion of Vices, which bring the judgments of God upon this Babylonian Generation wherin we live.

2. That we conceive the wayes of Chri­stian Associations amongst those that are of [Page 14] riper years; and the Rules of Christian education amongst those that are not yet come to years of discretion, to be most conducible unto these ends: therefore as we shall bee willing to become serviceable, and concurre with such as entertai [...] these thoughts; so wee shall desire to see the hand of Providence leading, and opening a door for action to us.

3. And that we may be able to discover whether yea or no, how far, what way, and with whom this Aim should be prosecuted; we shall offer (to those that make the Motion to us, and to all others whose inclinations may bend this way) these following points to be taken into consideration: that if upon the Proposall thereof, any just Engagement doth follow; we may see God before us in the prosecution of this Enterprise.

First of the Association.

1. The Association should be only of free Persons: therefore we shall not consent to joyn with any (specially with women) but such as are free to dispose of themselves this way, either by their owne right, as being under no Parents or Tutors to whom they are accountable of their actions: or by the full consent of freinds that may pretend to have some right to oversee them, and con­troll their proceedings.

[Page 15]2. Those that associat should not come to­gether to live an easie life without all cares; but their whole aime should be, to advance the life of Christianity in themselves and others, with all diligence.

3. The way of [...] the Societie, of staying in it, and of going out of it, should be free: only at the coming in, and going out; the expresse motives should be declared for which the Association is taken up, or left off; that all things may be done openly and to edi­fication, as it becometh the Children of light.

4. The form of the Societie should consist in the cohabitation of those that are associated in one house, for the joint exercise of daily worshipping of God, for the furtherāce of pro­fitable employments by mutuall concurrence, for the comfort of Table-communion, and for mutuall assistance in necessary consultations.

As concerning the place of cohabita­tion, it may easily be found when the number and names are known, of those that will asso­ciat.

The daily worshipping of God should be performed in Prayers, Meditations, and Con­ferences about the word of God: whereof, the exercises ought to bee regulated in Privat and Public, jointly & severally, according to the capacity and free willing inclinations of those that shall engage to entertaine the same.

[Page 16] [...] furtherance of profitable employments should be partly for the improvement of Ra­tionality, Discretion and Prudency, to ma­nage Rightly the affaires wherin every one by his calling is bound to do service unto others. Partly for the improvement of handy-works and tradings proper to either sex, which may become a relief to the poore; according to the proportion which every one shall be willing to enlarge himself in.

For the enioyment of Table-Societie; there should be a certain rate set down for dyet and other things; and a Steward appointed who should have the care of providing all things according to the rates appointed; who should give in his accounts weekly and monethly of all his disbursments.

The mutuall assistance to be given in neces­sary consultations should respect three things: First, the matters of spirituall concernment in common; Secondly, the matters of com­mon outward concernment; and Thirdly, the matters of particular concernment whether Spirituall or Bodily.

Concerning all matters of common con­cernment, whether spirituall or outward; there should be of course some set times appointed, wherin, first, the spirituall state of the Socie­tie, and then the outward affaires, should be taken into consideration.

[Page 17]As for the spirituall state; matters of commō edification are to be minded therein, as the fruit of that watchfulness which Christians ought to have over each other in the common profession of the name of Christ.

As for the outward affaires; all orders tending to regulate the same should be setled by mutuall and free consent: concerning which, this fundamentall Rule is to be obser­ved: that, nothing is to be counted a matter of common concernment, but that wherein every one doth knowingly and judiciously professe himself to be concerned freely and willingly.

Concerning matters of particular concern­ment; any time should be free for those that stand in need of Councell, to call the rest of their Associats, either all or some, to give them assistance there [...]

If these Generall Rule [...] [...]e first assented unto by those who are willing to [...]gage in such a way; the particulars may be afterward set downe to be ratified by common consent, concerning the exercises of daily worship, me­ditation and conferences how to advance [...] Christianity in each other thereby, and con­cerning the course of their daily employments in other things.

Secondly of the Education of Children.

The Girles should all be lodged in the same house with the associated women; to be under the perpetuall inspection of the Governess, by whom, their severall tasks for all the dayes of the week and houres of the day, should be set unto them; and the tymes of taking an account of them concerning every thing, or­dered and strictly observed.

The Boyes should be in a severall house, or part of the house so, that they should not be able at any time to have free communication with the Girles; but should be alwayes under the inspection of their Tutors who should be men belonging to the association, for such Offices which women are not fit to be em­ployed in: and these Tutors and Teachers should all be under one generall Overseer, who should give them their tasks, and see the same performed according to settled Orders.

The main scope of the whole work of Edu­cation, both in the Boyes and Girls, should be none other but this; to train them up to know God in Christ, that they may walke worthy of him in the Gospell; and become profitable instruments of the Common-wealth in their Generations. And in order to this, two things are to bee taught them. First, the [Page 19] way of Godliness, wherein every day they are [...]o be exercised, by prayers, reading of the word, Catecheticall Institutions, and other [...]xercises subordinat unto the life of Christia­ [...]ity. Secondly, the way of Serviceableness to­wards the Society wherin they live, that they may be enabled each in their sex respectively, [...]o follow lawfull callings for profitable uses; [...]nd not become a burden to their generation [...]y living in Idleness and disorderlinesse, as most commonly those do which come from [...]he Schools of this age.

The Rule then according to which their [...]ducation is to be Reformed fundamentally, [...]s this.

That no time of the day is to be lost with­out some teaching exercise; and that nothing [...]s to bee taught but that which is usefull in [...]t self to the Society of mankind, therin fitting [...]hem for employments approvable by the Gospel; and which will bring them to be­ [...]ave themselves so as it becometh those who [...]re called to walke with the lamb upon mount [...]ion in the presence of God, that is, as Saints [...]n his Church.

Upon this ground, all the matters of shew [...]nd appearance, which please the fancies of [...]en in the world, whether they be in points [...]f knowledge or practice; (wherin all the [...]ime of the youth is most commonly spent in [Page 20] ordinary Schools) are to be laid aside in the course of this Education.

Therefore as to the Girls, the ordinary van [...]ty and curiosity of their dressing of hair an [...] putting an of apparell; the customes and prin [...]ciples of wantonness and bold behaviours which in their dancings are taught them; an [...] whatsoever else doth tend onely to fomēt pri [...] and satisfie curiosity and imaginary delights shall be changed, by this our course of Edu [...]cation, into plain, decet cleanliness and health full wayes of appa [...]relling themselves; an [...] into such exercises of their hearts, heads an [...] hands, which may habituat them through th [...] fere of God, to become good and carefu [...] houswiues, loving towards their husbands an [...] their children when God shall call them t [...] be married; and understanding in all thing belonging to the care of a Family, accordin [...] to the Characters which Salomon doth give [...] a virtuous Godly woman. And such as ma [...] be found capable of Tongues and Science [...] (to perfect them in Graces and the know [...]ledge of Christ for all is to be referred t [...] him above the ordinary sort) are not to b [...] neglected; but assisted towards the improv [...]ment of their intellectuall abilities.

As for the Boyes; the same Rule is to be o [...]served in the way of their Education, bo [...] for Tongues, Sciences and Employments. S [...] [Page 21] [...]at all the preposterous Methods of teach­ [...]g the same; by which, not only their time is [...]st, but their spirits and affections are in­ [...]red to evill customes of Disorderliness, of [...]anity, Pride and Self conceitedness, which is [...]he root of all our contentions about matters [...]f Learning and Science falsly so called: and [...]ll the unprofitable exercises of their mind [...]nd body in things which take them off from [...]e aime of Christianity unto the customes of [...]e world shall be altered into profitable [...]mployments which may fit them to be good Commonwealths men, by the knowledge of [...]l things which are fundamentall for the [...]tlement of a State in Husbandry, in ne­ [...]ssary Trades, in Navigation, in Civill Of­ [...]ces for the Administration of Justice; in [...]e [...]ce and War; and in Oeconomicall Duties [...] which they may be serviceable to their own [...]milies, and to their neighbours.

And if these Generall Grounds be assented [...]nto by those that have a mind to associat, [...]d to help forward the Education of youth [...]r a beginning of some Reall Reformation in [...]r age; the particular Models both for Boyes [...]d Girls Institution, Inspection and Employ­ [...]ents may be soon added, and offered to their [...]nsideration.

THE DIRECTORY For the Particular Education of Boyes.

IF we suppose that fifty or threescore Boye [...] are to be educated, according to the Princi [...]ples heretofore mentioned; we conceive th [...] care which is to be taken of them should b [...] ordered after this manner.

1. Let there be one Governour over them and three Ushers under him.

2. Let these Ushers do all things by the Go­vernours Direction, which he shall afte [...] previous Consultation with them, give: th [...] they may the better understand their wor [...] and go about it with cheerfulnesse.

3. And that these may without distractio [...] be able to attend their work; Let them b [...] provided with all outward things necessa [...] for lodging, food, and raiment, without the cost or care, by the Diligence of him th [...] shall be Steward of the Association.

4. Let the Governour and Ushers obser [...] the settled Rights and Duties of their severa [...] places, and the Determined Rules of educ [...]tion towards the Children.

The Rights and Duties of the Gover­nour, and Ushers places.

AS it is the Governours Duty to in­struct and Oversee the Ushers in all [...]ings which concerne the Children; so it [...]all not be lawfull for Ushers to alter any [...]ing in the Orders which the Governour [...]all settle, without his knowledge and ap­ [...]obation.

2. The Governour shall have power, as t, [...]ovide and place, so to displace the Usherso [...] he shall see cause: which cause, it will be fit [...] him to make known to any of the Asso­ [...]tion, who shall desire to be informed [...]ereof.

3. The Governour shall give all his Di­ [...]ctions in writing to the ushers.

4. Every Usher shall have a peculiar number [...] Schollars committed to his inspection [...]ose lodgings shall be together, all next unto [...]s Chamber, that in the night-season as well by day, he may oversee them.

5. The Ushers shall see their peculiar Schol­ [...]s rise and go to bed, at the houres appoin­ [...]: and when their Schollars are retired or [...]ne to bed; they shall come to the Gover­ [...]ur every evening before they go to bed [...]emselves; that they may conferre about their [...]tters together.

[Page 24]6. The Governour shall either by himself or some other see both the ushers and their schol­ars in their severall quarters at the set hours, before he goeth to bed himself: and the Steward shall see the other servants retired and all the doores shut at the hour appointed, and shall bring such keyes to the Governour as b [...] shall ordain to be brought unto him.

The Rules of Education.

The Chief Rule of the whole Work is, tha [...] nothing may be made tedious and grievous t [...] the Children: but all the toilsomeness of the [...] business the Governour and Ushers are t [...] take upon themselves; that by diligence an [...] industry, all things may be so prepared, metho­dized and ordered for their apprehension; th [...] their work may unto them be as a delightfu [...] recreation by the variety and easiness thereo [...]

The things to be lookt unto in the care o [...] their education, are 1. Their Advanceme [...] in Piety. 2. The Preservation of their Healt [...] 3. The Forming of their Manners. 4. The [...] Proficiency in Learning.

Concerning their Advancement in Piety.

That they may be advanced in Piety; th [...] shall be exercised every day, 1. in Prayers. [...] [Page 25] in Reading the Scriptures. 3. in Cateche­ [...]icall conferences. 4. And on the Lords day [...]n the duties of solemne worship.

Their daily Prayers, reading of Scriptures, [...]nd conferences, shall go together in this order.

In the evening when the time of retiring is [...]ome, every Usher shall see his Scholars in [...]heir Chamber (for if they could be all that [...]elong to each Usher made to sleep in one [...]rge Chamber like a gallerye, two and two [...] a bed; the way of overseeing, and uniting [...]hem in their exercises would be most commo­ [...]ious:) and when they are going to uncloth [...]hemselves, one of their number shall be taken [...] his turn according to a List, to go before [...]e rest in a short prayer or the Usher himself all do it before they begin to put off their [...]lothes; each of them kneeling at the beds-side [...]here he is to sleep: and the prayer being [...]ded he whose turn it is shall read unto them [...]me part of the Holy Scriptures, while they [...]cloth themselves; and pray in two or three [...]ords for a blessing upon their rest. He [...]hose turn it is to do this duty, shall sleep [...]at night with the Usher to whose care he is [...]mmitted; and in the Morning shall rise with [...]m half an hour before the rest; to waken [...] fellow-Scholars (at the hour appointed) [...] cause them rise, which whiles they are a [Page 26] doing, and putting on their clothes, and combing their heads; he shall againe with a previous short ejaculation, reade some part of the Scripture unto them; and with a short prayer (every one of the rest kneeling o [...] standing by the bed where he slept) thank God for his preservation over them in the night past, and crave his direction, blessing and protection for the day following. This is to be done within the space of half an hour, to be measured by a Sand glasse: after which time, every one shall go abroad for the space of another half hour to stretch, wash, and cleanse himself: till, by the ringing of a Bell▪ the whole family be called together: at thi [...] meeting, the Women and Girls shall be in on [...] roome by themselves, and the Men an [...] Boyes in another, so that they shall not se [...] one another, and yet both be able to hear him, who shall be appointed to go befor [...] them all in the family-duty. He shall be som [...] man of the Association in his daily or weekl [...] turn, as they shall appoint it, who shall wit [...] a short prayer crave a blessing upon the [...] meeting, and read a parcell of the Holy Scrip [...]tures, and conclude the Reading with a sho [...] prayer: all which shall not exced the space o [...] half an houre: and the next half hour fo [...]lowing shall be spent in Catecheticall exerc [...]ses and conferences according to the ord [...] [Page 27] which the Governour shall settle in that mat­ [...]er differently towards the different Ages and [...]egrees of proficiency in the younger and more [...]ged Scholars. As for the members of the As­ [...]ciation; their conferences shall not be [...]inted within such a time, but may be exten­ [...]ed at pleasure: only the way how they ought [...] be ordered, that all may profit therby, and [...]nfusion may be avoided; is to be determi­ [...]ed by the Governour, with their approbation.

At Dinner and Supper-time (which shall [...]ot exceed half an houre) one of the Chil­ [...]en shall in his turn daily crave a blessing in [...]e name of all, upon their food: and read part of the Scripture unto them while they [...]e at table; and when they have done, they all jointly sing a stave or two of a Psalme [...] thanksgiving.

After supper, before they go to their [...]hambers, they shall meet all againe in their [...]verall roomes each sex by themselves, to [...]yn in prayer, and in reading the word, as in [...]e morning they did, for the space of half an [...]ur: and another half hour afterward shall [...] spent in Conferences; wherin the Children [...]ll be encouraged, and accustomed to pro­ [...]se Questions to their Teachers, or to one [...]other concerning matters of doubt which [...]y have been incident unto their thoughts, [...]her from the reading of Scripture or some, [Page 28] other thing observed in the day-time: which being done, they shall all retire unto their se­verall quarters, and prepare to go to bed.

This Course of daily exercise in Piety is to be continued without interruption, no bod [...] is to be exempted from it, but only in case o [...] sickness.

On the Lords day, over and above th [...] daily sacrifice within doores to be observed the Children shall be brought forth unto th [...] public meetings, to joyn with the Congrega [...]tion of others in the worship of God; and [...] the intervalles of times between the pub [...] meetings, and the last Sermon and supp [...] time; Conferences shall be entertained wi [...] them, concerning the things which they ha [...] heard.

And if those of the Association should e [...]tertain any Propheticall exercises among themselves, or with others, from without; th [...] some of the most advanced Schollars shou [...] be admitted to be present with them.

This Care of advancing Piety and keep [...] the Lords day, is to be made the Chief [...]f things belonging to their Education.

Concerning the Preservation of their Hea [...]

The next Principall Care is concerning [...] Preservation of their Health, wherin [...] [Page 29] [...]hings belonging 1. to their Diet. 2. their sleep­ [...]ng. 3. to their bodily exercises 4. and to their Cleanlinesse are to be rightly ordered, and [...]verseen; that the Orders may be observed.

Concerning their Diet.

Their Diet shall be appointed for every [...]ay of the week what it shall be, and when it [...]hall be given them.

Their Breakfast, at 8 of the clock in the [...]orning, of Bread and Butter or some other [...]ing. they may be at it for the space of half [...] hour.

Their Dinner of good healthfull plain food.

Competency is to be upon the table for [...]em precisely at 12 of the Clock.

Their Supper of some food of light and [...]sie digestion is to be upon the table precisely [...] half an hour past six of the clock, and be­ [...]re seven, taken away.

Bread and beer of good quality shall not be [...]fused to any that shall desire it, in case of [...] being satisfied with the ordinary al­ [...]wance.

In case of Sickness there should be a peculiar [...]om appointed for them, and some to attend [...]em, with such a Diet as shall be prescribed; [...]d to entertain them with such thoughts [...]d conversation, as shall be fitting for their [...]position of mind.

Concerning their Sleep and Rest.

In Winter, the Aged Scholars shall be wa [...]kened at five; in sommer, at four of th [...] Clock in the Morning: the yonger, in Som [...]mer at five; in Winter, at six in the Morning and they shall all be in bed before, or at ni [...] of the Clock at night. The Governours, Ushe [...] and Steward, if they be in health, should n [...] go to bed till Ten.

Concerning their Bodily Exercises.

They shall exercise and stir their Bodyes [...] the morning-season before dinner from [...] till 12 a clock, and before supper they sh [...] again exercise themselves in Sommer, fro [...] half an hour past five, till half an hour pa [...] six, and in winter, from five till six, and fro [...] half an hour past twelve after dinner, t [...] half an hour past one, it shall be free [...] them, to do privat businesses, in their Cha [...]bers or else where.

The particular wayes of Exercising the Bodyes shall not be left at random, but o [...]dered to some advantage of the Associati [...] and of their own experience in matters eit [...] of Husbandry, or Manufactures, or of [...]litary Employments.

Concerning their Cleanliness.

They must be taught Cleanliness without Curiosity; and made in love with it, as it is [...]sefull for Health; in which respect the Care of [...] must be recommended to them, and obser­ [...]ed in them .x. in their Feeding, that through [...]rediness they eat or drink nothing that is [...]asty. 2. in their Body, head hands feet and [...]lothing; that they keep themselves from [...]ilthiness of sweat, from vermine and other [...]ncleanness. 3. in their Chamber, that they [...]efile it not with stench, or suffer it to be un­ [...]wept; but that they keep it clean and sweet with refreshment of aire.

Concerning the Forming of their Manners.

Godliness and Bodily Health are absolutly [...]ecessary; the one for spirituall, and the other for their temporall Felicitie: Next [...]nto these two, to make up and perfect the [...]tate of their Happiness; Care must be taken of their Manners. by which word I under­ [...]tand their outward life, aswell in respect of [...]he Actions which they do, as in respect of [...]heir Cariage and behaviour in performing [...]he same: that those may be Just and Honest; [...]his, Civil and unblameable. For, good [Page 32] Manners, in this sense, are farre to be prefer­red unto all Humane Learning of what kind soever; because without Morall Honest [...] all the perfection of Learning is nothing els [...] but an Instrument of wickedness to increas [...] and aggravat the miseries of Mankind: whera [...] without Learning this alone with Bodi [...] health is a sufficient ground to partake [...] temporall Felicitie.

And because in the ordinary Schools th [...] Care is wholly neglected and the youth [...] left to habituat it self to its Corrupt inclina [...] tions, while their wits are sharpened a [...] exercised in all the subtilties of Humane A [...] and Sciences; therefore Satan doth fortifie [...] strong holds by these within them, to ma [...] them impregnable: and their Spirits (as [...] find by dolefull experience in these times) a [...] heighthned to that degree of unconscion [...] bleness in Deceit▪ Mischief and Malice, th [...] nothing in former [...]ges can be compar [...] therunto. which should make us so much [...] more carefull to rectifie this evill in o [...] Scholars, by how much it is neglected [...] others, and destructive to all.

The way then to Reforme our Scholars this matter, and the Care to be taken of the [...] should have two parts. The one should rel [...] unto the Inward Principles of Moralitie; [...] work the true Impressions thereof upon the [Page 33] [...]pirits. The other should relate unto their Out­ [...]ard behaviour and carriage towards their [...]eighbour, to make it decent and without [...]ffence. and the first of these cannot be [...]ightly taken up without the last, because without the observation of their unseemly [...]ehaviour and offensive Carriages; a disco­ [...]erie can not be made of the diseases of their [...]ules, that the Remedies of wholesome In­ [...]tructions, Admonitions and Corrections [...]ay be applyed therunto. This then is the Master-peece of the whole Art of education, [...]o watch over the Childrens behaviour in [...]heir actions of all sorts, so as their true in­ [...]linations may be discovered; that the inward [...]auses of their vicious disposition and di­ [...]tempers being found out▪ the true and pro­ [...]er Remedies thereof may be applyed unto [...]hem. And this is to be the subject whereof [...]he Governour and Ushers are to have daily Conference every night: that upon the parti­ [...]ular discoveries of the severall inclinations [...]f their Scholars by the qualities of their [...]nruliness; they may judiciously determine [...]hat to do with them, and how to proceed [...]owards them, to reforme that which is amisse. [...]here we conceive this studie should con­ [...]aine these endeavours.

First, to discerne the proper Character of [...]very Childs humour by his behaviour; to [Page 34] discover the predominant qualitie thereof, and what is good, and what is evill in it.

Secondly, to contemplate rationally the in­ward disposition and frame of his spirit; to find out the Principles, by which he is led, and from whence that humour and behaviour doth arise; and the Impressions of virtu [...] whereof he may be made capable.

Thirdly, to determine the way how to de [...] with him; that is, not only how to corre [...] his outward visible misbehaviours; and [...] incourage him in that which is good and de­cent: but how to make him sensible, and ra­tionally apprehensive of the true ground [...], both of the correction, and encouragement.

Here againe I conceive their studie m [...] runne in these Channels.

First, what peculiar Restraint to lay upo [...] them, lest they get a custome in that whi [...] is evill.

Secondly, what Rationall Maximes, an [...] Rules of Moralitie to infuse unto them, a [...]cording to the degree of their Capacitie, a [...]bent of their inclination in that which [...] good.

Thirdly, how to ingraft those Rationa [...] Maximes and Rules upon the Main Princi [...]ples of Godliness; that their spirits may [...] raised, and their resolutions exalted to [...] things Morally Just and decent, not on [...] [Page 35] because they are found in reason to be so, but because they who do them, are bound in Conscience through Love and feare towards God to do all things as in his presence, with [...]elight and care to do alwayes that which is well pleasing in his sight. So that all Morall Actions to free them from Hypocrisie, and make them truly virtuous; that is, without [...]ll Leaven of pride and self-seeking (which will mixe themselves with spirituall actions [...]lso, if care be not taken to set our heart [...]right) must be reduced unto the grounds of Christianity; and made conformable unto [...]he life of Christ; by comparing our way, [...]nd our mind in following him, with his way [...]nd his mind in walking before us amongst [...]hen towards God. And except their educa­ [...]on by the Reformation of their Manners fi­ [...]ally tend and result unto this; it will avail [...]hem nothing towards the salvation of their [...]uls; it will only make lesse them hurtfull [...]nto the societie of mankind.

Now the particulars which are subordinat [...]nto this Care and studie are innumerable; [...]ut yet certain generall Rules may be pru­ [...]entially set down, according to which, they [...]ould be limitted and directed to order their Conversation and behaviour towards the [...]ds aforesaid, and by which, those that watch [...]ver them should take notice of their wayes [Page 36] and give an account thereof unto the Gover­nour of which Rules it will suffice at this time to give these Heads.

First, laws are to be published amongst them concerning their very looks, their angry words, and their hasty actions, proceeding from passion, and tending to the breach of Christian Love; forbidding the same under the notion that they are contrary to the life of Christ.

Secondly, Rules and Directions (leading them to the practice of Justice, Equalitie, Meeknesse, Humility, Love and Liberality; an [...] to the hatred of Iniuriousness, Pride and Co­vetousness) are to be published, and hung [...] in their Chamber and School, and made fa­miliar and plain unto their Capacity and Me­morie.

Both these sorts of laws may be gather [...] out of Salomons Proverbs for the main sub­stance thereof, and from other Scriptures▪ and so be delivered as the will of God un [...] them, to oblige their Conscience therunto.

Thirdly, the law of watchfulness (whic [...] they ought to have over themselves for the ob [...]servation of these Rules) is not only to [...] taught them; but some that are more stay [...] then others, and better set, are to be ma [...] Monitors of the rest, and besides the Monitor [...] Spyes are to be appointed to oversee them: an [...] [Page 37] [...]n Cases of grosse failing, after due admoni­tions, some exemplary punishments of shame and smart may be used, that all may feare.

Fourthly, the great law of Truth and of Faithfulness (to suppresse the basenesse of Lying and of Deceitfulness in words, Promises and Actions) is above all other Rules to be prescribed and pressed upon them in their dealings towards one another: and speciall care is to be had to observe the practise thereof.

And, that the lying and deceitfull spirit may be hunted out from amongst them; a speciall reward is to be proposed unto every one that shall, upon due admonition of his neighbour before witnesses, discover to the Usher any matter of falshood practised by any. For, no­thing doth more inwardly corrupt the spirit, then a course of falshood; nor doth any thing more deeply discover the wickednesse of the heart and want of true virtue, then this.

Fifthly, the Civilities to be used towards Strangers, to receive and entertaine them courteously; to be generously affected towards them, and the way to maintein the Principles, and Practises of publick Spiritedness without ostentation and vain-glory, should be descri­bed and taught them.

Sixtly and Lastly, the seemly way to carry their Bodyes, to looke upon people stayedly and freindly in their salutation and conver­sation [Page 38] with them should be made known unto them by Example and Rule.

Concerning all which Directions, how to propose, and apply them, towards the cor­rupt dispositions of Children to rectifie the same; the Ushers themselves are to be taught their Duty, what to observe in them, and how to proceed in dealing with them. and [...] must be the Governours great and speciall care to see the Ushers well principled and pra­ctised in this way, for, upon their abilitie, faithfulness, and diligence all depends.

Concerning their Proficiencie in Learning.

The last and least part of true education is only minded in the ordinary Schools, and that in a very superficiall and preposterous way; for Children are taught to read Au­thors and learn words and Sentences before they can have any notion of the Things signi­fied by those words and sentences, or of the Authors strain and wit in setting them toge­ther: and they are made to learn by hear [...] the Generall Rules, sentences, and Precep [...] of Arts, before they are furnished with any matter wherunto to apply those Rules an [...] Precepts. And when they are taught these things wherin Reason is to be employed, they are lead into a Maze of subtile and unprofi­ [...]able [Page 39] Notions; wherby their mindes are puft [...]p with a windy conceit of knowledge: their [...]ffections taken off from the plainnesse of [...]sefull Truths; their naturall Corrupt incli­ [...]ations to pride, vain glory, and conten­ [...]iousnesse not reformed, but rather strength­ [...]ed in perversitie; So that they become [...]oth unwilling to seek, and incapable to [...]eceive any Truth either Divine or Humane [...]n its simplicitie: for their heads are filled [...]ith certain termes and empty shewes of [...]earning; which neither containe any sub­ [...]tance or solidity of Matter; or give them any [...]ddresse by way of Method to make use of [...]hat which they know for the benefit of Mankind.

Now, to Rectifie this cause of our Igno­ [...]ance and Disorderliness which hath taken [...]ossession of all Schooles and Universities, and [...]ath spread it self over all matters of Humane Learning; wee shall endevour to seek out the [...]rue Method of teaching Sciences, by the Grounds and Rules which, we hope, none, [...]hat is Rationall and free from prejudice, will Contradict.

Concerning the Grounds and Rules of teaching Sciences.

We take this to be the fundamentall and [Page 40] undenyable Maxime of all Order to be kept i [...] teaching of Sciences, and educating of youth unto any part of Learning: Viz. That th [...] whole way of his Undertaking must be mad [...] answerable unto the nature of the End, an [...] proportionat unto the property of the Meane [...] and Parts of Learning: and whatsoever i [...] not subordinat unto that, and proportion [...] unto these, is done irrationally and unprofi [...]tably towards the advancement of Lear [...]ning. The Grounds therefore from when [...] we shall gather all our Rules to direct us i [...] the true Method of profiting, are Three; th [...] first, concerning the End; the scond, concer [...]ning the Meanes; the Third, concernin [...] the Parts of Learning.

Concerning the End of Learning.

The true End of all Humane Learning [...] to supply in our selves and others the defect [...] which proceed from our Ignorance of the n [...]ture and use of the Creatures, and the diso [...]derliness of our naturall faculties in usi [...] them and reflecting upon them.

From this Truth follow these Rules [...] Teaching.

1. That nothing is to be counted a Mat [...] of true Learning amongst men, which is n [...] directly serviceable unto Mankind towar [...] [Page 41] [...]he supply of some of these defects, which de­ [...]rive us of some part of our naturall Hap­ [...]iness.

2. That if any doth Teach or Learne any [...]cience for any other end but this; he doth by the false end, which he proposeth to him­ [...]lf in Teaching or Learning) pervert the Truth either of the Science, or of the Method [...]ereof, or of both: by which meanes, the [...]emedie of our disease being spoiled; he ma­ [...]eth so farre as in him lyeth our sickness in­ [...]rable.

3. That none ought to be taught any [...]atter of science, before he doth understand [...]e true end, wherefore he is to learne it, and [...]ow he ought to use it▪ towards that end: for [...] he be ignorant of these two, he will not [...]nly lose his labour; but may become hurt­ [...]ll to himself and others by his knowledge. [...]or as a thorne goeth up into the hand of a [...]unkard; so is a parable in the mouth of fools. [...]rov. 26.9. And at the best he will be un­ [...]rviceable and disproportionat to others in [...]s walking therby: For as the legs of the [...]me are not equall, so will a parable be in the [...]outh of a foole Prov. 16.7. Now, he is a [...]ole who knoweth not the end and use of [...]e things which he hath.

4. That to marshall sciences rightly, that they [...]ay be taught orderly and profitably; The [Page 42] subordination of their severall ends to eac [...] other (as they jointly relate unto man to sup [...]ply his defects) and the way of teaching th [...] same (as it is sutable to the Capacity of thos [...] that are to be taught) must be observed: so if these things be not observed; either th [...] sciences will be made useless to each other, o [...] all of them, to him that is taught. For, ho [...] can he, that teacheth them, benefit his Scho [...]lars therby? For the Encyclopedia of Scienc [...] must answer the whe [...]l of humane facultie and this wheel must answer the Circle of th [...] Creatures whence man is to supply his d [...]fects. As then in a watch, one wheel right set, doth with its teeth take hold of anothe [...] and sets that a work towards a third; and all move one by another, when they are [...] their right places for the end for which [...] watch is made: so is it with the Faculties [...] the humane nature, being rightly ordered [...] the ends for which God hath created the [...] but, contrarywise, if the wheels be not right set, or the watch duly wound up; it is useless [...] him that hath it; and so it is with the Facult [...] of Man; if his wheels be not rightly order and wound up by the ends of Sciences in th [...] subordination; leading him to employ [...] same, according to his Capacity, to make [...] of the Creatures for that wherunto [...] hath made them; he becomes not only usele [...] [Page 43] [...]ut even a burthen, and hurtfull unto him­ [...]elf and others by the misusing of them.

Concerning the Means of Learning.

The true Means by which all Humane [...]ciences are attainable, are three, and no [...]ore: The First, is Sense; the second, Tradi­ [...]on; the third, Reason.

Sense is the first, because it conveighs unto [...]ur Imagination the shapes and images of all [...]ings, which memory doth keep in store, that [...]eason may make use thereof. nor can any Tradition be entertained with profit, but [...]at, whereof the Imagination hath received [...]om Sense the originall representations.

Tradition is the second, because it is no­ [...]ing else, but a Communication of those [...]bservations which others have made of the [...]reatures, wherby our want of knowledge [...] them is supplyed. For we ought, To En­ [...]ire of the former Age, and be willing to [...]ake search of their Fathers; because we are [...]ut of yesterday and know nothing, and our [...]yes upon Earth are a shadow. Job. 8.8, 9.

Reason is the third and last Means of [...]umane Learning, because it makes use of [...] the reports of our Senses, and of other [...]ens Tradition; and without these it can [...]ake no inferences to enlarge knowledge, or [Page 44] teach us the right use of Creatures for neces­sary occasions.

From the subordination of these Means to one another, and their properties to advance us unto Learning; we shall gather these fol­lowing Rules of teaching Arts and Sciences.

1. The Arts or Sciences which may be received by meer Sense should not be taught any other way: for it is no wisdome to make work to our selves: Frustra fit per plura quod fieri potest per pauciora.

2. Whatsoever in any Art or Science can be made obvious unto Sense, is first to be made Use of, as a Precognition unto that which is to be delivered by way of Traditio­nall o [...] Rationall precept.

3 As in Nature Sense is the servant of Imagination; Imagination of Memory; Me­mory of Reason: so in teaching Arts and Sciences we must set these Faculties a work in this Order towards their proper Objects in every thing, which is to be taught: whence this will follow, that as the Faculties of Mans soul naturally perfect each other by their mutuall subordination: so the Arts which perfect those Faculties should bee gradually suggested, and the Objects wherewith the Faculties are to be conversant according to the Rules of Art should be offered in that Or­der, which is answerable to their proper ends [Page 45] and uses and not otherwise: for the propor­tion of every thing to its owne end, doth de­termine the order and place wherin we are to make use of it: for nothing is truly Usefull, but as it is, in its naturall place.

4. As Childrens Faculties break forth in them, by degrees to be vigorous with their years and the grouth of their Bodyes; so they are to be filled with Objects whereof they are capable, and plyed with Arts: whence followeth that while Children are not ca­pable of the Acts of Reasoning; the Me­thod of filling their Senses and Imaginations with outward Objects should be plyed: Nor is their Memory at this time to be charged further with any Objects then their Imagi­nation rightly ordered and fixed, doth of it self impresse the same upon them. Moreover hence followeth, that no Generall Rules are to be given unto any, concerning any thing either to be known or practised according to the Rule of any Art or Science; till Sense Imagination and Memory have received their Impressions concerning that wherunto the Rule is to be applyed; and so farre as those faculties are stored with matters of Observa­tion, so farre Rules may be given to direct the mind in the use of the same and no further. Lastly hence followeth, That the Arts or Sciences which flow not immediatly from [Page 46] particular and sensuall objects, but tend im­mediatly to direct the universall Acts of Rea­soning, must be taught after all the rest: be­cause their Use is to Regulat that, which is to make Use of all the rest, viz. the Rational fa­culty; therefore it is a very absurd and prepo­sterous Course to teach Logick and Metaphi­sicks before or with other Humane Sciences, which depend more upon Sense and Imagina­tion then Reasoning.

Concerning the Parts of Learning.

The Parts of Humane Learning wherin Children are to be exercised are first the grounds and precepts of profitable Arts and Sciences. Secondly, the Tongues which are most usefull to enlarge the knowledge thereof.

By profitable Arts and Sciences, we meane all matters of knowledge which direct man to the right use of all Creatures, and the ordering of his owne Faculties about them.

The Tongues which are ordinarily most usefull to enlarge the knowledge of these Arts and Sciences, are Latin and Greek; and that which in an extraordinary way will in due time be usefull heerunto, is Hebrew, and the other Orientall Tongues which are a kinne unto it.

Concerning these parts of Learning, [Page 47] we lay down these Maximes as grounds of teaching the same.

1. Arts and Sciences are immediatly use­full by themselves to restore the defects of our nature by the Creatures.

2. Tongues are no further finally usefull then to enlarge Traditionall Learning; and without their subordination unto Arts and Sciences, they are worth nothing towards the advancement of our Happiness.

3. The Immediat Use of Tongues is only to Understand what others say to us, accor­ding to their custome of speaking; and to ex­presse our mind unto them significantly ac­cording to our custome.

From these Maximes we gather these fol­lowing Rules of Teaching.

1. The teaching of Arts and Sciences ought not to be suspended upon the teaching of unknown Tongues, but made familiar unto the childrens capacity in their Mother-Ton­gue first; and afterward enlarged by the Use of other Tongues.

2. The Arts and Sciences which lead us most directly unto the Use of the creatures without any reflexion upon our own Facul­ties are first to be taught; because they may be taken up by the simple Acts of Sense, Ima­gination and Memory, without much Rea­soning.

[Page 48]3. The Arts and Sciences which lead us to reflect upon the use of our owne Faculties, are not to be taught, till we are fully acquain­ted with their proper Objects, and the direct [...]cts of the Faculties about them.

4. The knowledge of Tongues is the proper effect of Memory, and not of any Reasoning abilitie, because they depend upon the Ob­servation only of that which is the constant custome of people; and not upon any ratio­nall inducement why they do so. whence follo­weth. 1. That those things which are most helpfull and subservient unto memory, are to be set a work in teaching Languages; rather then those that employ the Judgement. 2. That the wayes which fix and order the Imagina­tion most effectually towards the sound of the words and the thing signified therby, are most advantageous to this way of teaching. 3. That the teaching of words, is no further Usefull then the things signified therby are familiar to the Imaginatiō, and that the teach­ing of Rules before the Materiall sense of the words is known, or before the formall co­herence of things which their construction is to represent in a Sentence, can be appre­hended; is wholly preposterous and unprofi­table to the Memory.

5. So farre as children are capable of Tra­ditionall knowledge: so farre in every degree [Page 49] of Science they may be taught the Tongues which serve for that Use; but till they be fitted for the one, the other is Useless to them.

6. Whatsoever in the teaching of Tongues doth not tend to make them a help unto Tra­ditionall knowledge, by the manifestation of Reall Truths in Sciences, is superfluous, and not to be insisted upon, especially towards Children. whence followeth that the Curious study of Criticismes, and observation of Styles [...]n Authors, and of straines of wit, which speak [...]othing of Reality in Sciences, are to be left [...]o such as delight in vanityes more then in Truths.

From these Maximes and Rules the Ra­ [...]ionality of the ensuing Method may be made [...]ut to the full, if time did permit; but we shall [...]ot insist upon that now: only we shall shew [...]hat by them we are led to teach and consider [...]atters of Learning in this Order.

First, to consider the Children that are to [...]e taught; Secondly, the Things which are to [...]e taught unto them; Thirdly, the Manner [...]nd way of teaching the same.

Concerning the Children; we must reflect [...]pon their ordinary Capacities, and distin­ [...]uish the same into their naturall degrees.

Concerning the Things which are to be [...]aught; we must reflect upon a twofold pro­ [...]ortion therin▪ first, we must find out that [Page 50] which is proportionat to the degree of every ones Capacity. Secondly, we must order every thing which is sutable to each Capacity, pro­portionally to the end for which it is to be taught, as in its proper place it is subordinat [...] unto other things, which must follow in the Course of Education.

Concerning the way and manner of teach­ing and proposing the same; we must studie by the properties of Things to be taught, to find all manner of advantages; and accord­ing to circumstances determine the way which will bring no losse of time, nor be wearisom [...] and tedious to the Children, and which wil [...] make the matters taught most easie for the [...] apprehension, and delightfull to their affe­ctions in apprehending the same. For, I sup­pose that this Conclusion in this matter is a [...] firme, as any Mathematicall Demonstratio [...] in other matters. viz: If all degrees of Chil­drens Capacities be fitted with proper Ob­jects, if none of the Things, which any [...] their Faculties can receive, be left untaugh [...] if no time be lost in teaching, nor any thi [...] offered before it be seasonable, if that whic [...] is taught in the first place be not disiointe [...] from that which followeth after, but made [...] steppe therunto.

If all matters offered, by their conjunctio [...] make him that receiveth them a perfect ma [...] [Page 51] [...]eading him without distraction to his true end: and if no servile constraint be laid upon [...]he inclination of him that is taught, by for­cible meanes to break his Spirits: but his af­ [...]ections raised to a delightfull willingness, to [...]eceive that which is offered; by allurements [...]nd generous insinuations readily.

If (I say) all these things be observed, in [...]he Course of Teaching; then little or no­ [...]hing will be wanting, which can be wished [...]or towards the advancement of learning in [...]his way, or can be prosecuted by rationall [...]ndevours and humane Industry.

Of the Ordinary degrees of Childrens naturall Capacities.

Till a Childs tongue be untyed and con­firmed in some measure to speak and imitate [...]he ordinary Sounds of speech; he is to be [...]ounted an infant. and this ordinarily is not [...]ll Children be four or five yeeres old: [...]et, before this time their Senses are awake, [...]heir Imagination is not idle; and therefore [...]ught to be exercised with some Objects fitt [...]r the framing of their Memory towards [...]ture preparatives of Learning.

From the time of Infancy, till the age of [...]entie; there are three different degrees of [...]apacities, which ordinarily shew themselves [Page 52] in three periods of yeeres; from foure or five, till eight or nine, is the first, from eight or nine, till thirteen or fourteen, is the second▪ and from thirteen or fourteen, till ninetee [...] or twenty, is the third period of Capacity.

In the first of these periods, the Capacity of Children is none other but Sense and Ima­gination, with the beginnings of Memory.

In the second, it is Imagination and Me [...]mory with the beginnings of Reasoning, an [...] now we count him past Childhood, and be­comes a youth.

In the third, he is Capable of all the Acts [...] Reasoning, and of the Principles of Judge [...]ment and Prudencie; wherby he ought t [...] order himself in all things aright toward God and Man. And when a Schollar [...] brought thus farre, he is not to be under Tu­tors any longer: and till he be brought th [...] farre, he is not safe, without some Tutori [...] and Discipline.

Concerning the Things to be taught to each degree of Capacity.

First, while a Child is capable of nothi [...] but what he receiveth by Sense and upon t [...] similitudes of sensuall Objects, by Imagina­tion; nothing is to be offered unto his Memo [...] but what can enter in, by those dores. Here t [...] he is to be taught.

[Page 53]1. To speake his Mother-Tongue, di­ [...]tinctly.

2. To read his Mother-Tongue readily, [...]telligibly, and without any affectat Chil­ [...]ish tone, with his owne naturall sound of [...]peech.

3. To write his owne Mother-Tongue le­ [...]bly; or any other Tongue what soever, [...]s to the forming of any Letters after a Copye.

4. To draw all manner of Lines and Ma­ [...]hematicall Figures with a Ruler and com­ [...]asses; and other Lines and Figures, which [...]re the Rudiments of Painting to represent [...]he lineaments and features of things.

5. To know the signification of all Nu­mericall Figures; and to observe by the eye, [...]are and hand, the differences of Things in re­ [...]ect of their number, their parts, their quan­ [...]ties, their measures, their proportions and [...]isproportions, and the like.

6. To take notice of all Things offered to [...]is Senses; to know their proper names, to [...]bserve their shapes; and to make circum­ [...]antiall descriptions thereof by word of [...]outh, and painting in black and white.

7. To mind, and repeate the things which [...]re to be related unto him; which should be [...]he Generall Heads of the History of the [...]orld; whereof the ground work should be [Page 54] the Historicall Cathechisme of the Bibl [...] and the superstructure, a description of t [...] Parts of the world; of the Things that [...] therin; and especially of the Nations of [...] earth; and the Chiefest Revolutions a [...] Changes which are befallen to his owne N [...]tion since the beginning thereof.

These things ought to be taught unto Ch [...]dren before they come to any of the Ushe [...] belonging to the Association; for (none un [...] eight or nine) ought to be brought unto the [...] except they be sufficiently qualified before th [...] age with these endowments: and that th [...] things may be taught sufficiently, as a prepa [...]tive for their future education in Sciences; peculiar School should be appointed as a N [...]sery not farre from the place of the Soc [...]e [...] wherin Children of this Age should be train [...] up according to the Directions which may [...] given to that effect: and although the Gove [...]nour should not be charged with any peculi [...] inspection over them; yet he might be oblig [...] to repaire thither at certain convenient ti [...] to helpe with Counsell, by conferring wi [...] those that should teach them these things, a [...] to oversee their way, and direct them chie [...] in point of Manners; how to prevent e [...] Habits, and the Customes of perverse incl [...]nations, which then beginne to take head an [...] discover themselves: and for want of d [...]prevention [Page 55] become ordinarily a great preju­dice to their Education in after times.

Secondly, from eight or nine, till thirteen or fourteen, a Childs Imagination and Memory is throughly to be cultivated and exercised; supposing then, that a Child can speake his Mother-Tongue distinctly and readily, can read and write, and hath gotten a generall view of all things, and is able to name that which is obvious to his Sense by its proper name in his Mother-Tongue: yet these im­pressions and shapes of Things are like a Chaos or confused masse of notions in his head. These now in the second Period of his Education are to be Ordered, and his Memory so exercised about them, as to pre­pare him to entertaine the Traditionall and Rationall Learning which in the third and last period of his education is to be delivered concerning them. Heer then the Children shall be exercised.

1. In writing faire and readily; and in drawing the pictures of Things whereof the Impressions are to be fixed in their Me­mories.

2. In observing all Things Naturall and Artificiall extant in the world, wherunto their Imagination shall be ledd in a certain Method; to cause them reflect orderly upon them, and observe in them their severall [Page 56] kindes, coherences, differences, parts, actions▪ properties, uses, and references unto Man by Trades and Manufactures.

3. In Learning all the Names of the Things themselves and of that which doth be­long unto them in Latin, in Greek and in Hebrew; which Tongues they shall withal [...] Learne to Reade and write; and to Interpre [...] so farre, as their experience in the observation of Things doth go, and no further: For so farre their Janua's in each Tongue shall go and be offered to them pari passu, with that which they have been taught to observe in the Things themselves.

4. In the Practicall Parts of the Mathema­ticks; wherin they shall be taught (togethe [...] with their Latin, Greek, and Hebrew names.)

1. The Geographicall Descriptions of the world, and of the Kingdoms thereof in Globes and in plain Tables.

2. The Astronomicall descriptions of the Heavens, in Models, Globes and plain Tables.

3. The Arithmeticall Rules of Addition, Substraction, Multiplication, Division, the Reduction of Fractions, and the Rule of Proportions called the Golden Rule, and no further.

4. The Geometricall Doctrine of Lines, Surfaces, Bodyes, and the Rules of Measuring the same, and shewing their proportions, to­gether [Page 57] with the experimentall way of Measu­ [...]ing Land, and the use of the Instruments be­ [...]onging to that part of Mathematicall studies.

5. In the observation of Husbandry and Gardening; of Fishing and Fouling; and the generall Rules thereof.

6. In the Anatomy of Mans Body by a Model and Picture of all his parts, with their names in the Learned Tongues.

7. In the Summary knowledge of the Hi­story of the four Monarchies of the world, [...]nd of their own Nation: together with a Brief of the History of the Church since Christs dayes.

8. In the Rudiments and necessary Rules of Grammaticall constructions; so farre as may inable them to interpret their Janua's whereof they shall have Learned the Single words with the observation of the Things [...]hemselves: and these Rules in all the three Languages are to be given, first in that wherin they agree; and afterward in that wherin they differ: and exercised in the reciprocal Translations of their Janua's.

Thirdly from thirteen or fourteen, till ninteen or twentie; the things which are to be taught them, and wherin they shall be exercised, are all the Usefull Arts and Scien­ces, which may fitt them for any employment in Church and Common wealth. Here then [Page 58] all the Meanes of Traditionall and Rationall Learning are to be set a foot; and to this effect they shall be taught their Gramma [...] Rules more exactly and fully then formerly▪ and brought to read Authors in all the Scien­ces whereof they have gained the foundations; with directions how to observe the Marrow, and Method of them; and out of them to gather to themselves an Encyclopoedia. To this effect.

1. The Latine Authors of Agriculture Cato, Varro, Columella, may be put into their hands by parcels, to be an enlargement unto that which they have alreadie been taugh [...] concerning Husband [...]y

2. The Naturall History of Pliny an [...] Others, by choice parcels are also to be per­used by them; and brought home to wha [...] they have formerly seen; together which the Histories of Meteors, Minerals, &c.

3. In like manner some Models and book [...] of Architecture, Enginry, Fortification, Fire-works, Weapons, Military Discipline▪ and Navigation are to be lookt upon.

4. The Greek Authors of Morall Philoso­phie, Epictetus, [...]ebes, Arrianus, Plato, Xenophon, Plutarch; and some Latin Tract [...] in this kind should be read by them; and a [...] account taken of their proficiencie therby.

5. The Doctrine of Oeconomicks, of Civill [Page 59] Government, and Naturall Justice and Equitie in the Laws of Nations should be offered unto them; as the grounds of that Jurisprudentia whereof the summe is to be given out of the Institutions of Justinian and Regulae Juris.

6. The Theorie of all the Mathematicks, with the full Practise of that which was defi­cient in their former Institution; where the Opticks with the Instruments belonging ther­unto, and the Art of Dialing is to be enter­tained; and in Arithmetick the way of keep­ing Accounts.

7. The Principles of Naturall Philosophie and the main Grounds of Medicin, with the Instruments of Distilling and other Chimicall Operations, and the Art of Apothecaries, are to be offered unto them partly in books, partly in the Operations themselves by an ocular inspection thereof, and of their drugges.

8. The Art of Chirurgery described in books, with an ocular inspection of all their tooles, and Compositions of plaisters and ointments, and the use thereof.

9. The Rules of Logick, Rhetorick and Poesie; shewing them first how to Analyse Authors, and observe their Art of Reason and Utterance to perswade: and then how to or­der their owne thoughts and expression, to [Page 60] search out Truths and to declare the same; Historically, Philosophically, Oratorically, Poetically.

10. Directions for the studye of all Hu­mane Histories and what to observe in them, for the attainement of Wisdome and Pru­dencie in the Government of a mans owne life; where with the Directions to observe the wayes of others; the Rules of Judgement, Discretion, Prudencie and Civill Conversa­tion to order their owne wayes aright towards all, are to be given unto them which is to be concluded with a speciall recognition and in­sight into Salomons Proverbs, and Ecclesia­stes. And so they are to be sent into the world to apply themselves to any employ­ment, or more particular study wherunto God shall call them. For now they will be fitted therunto so farre as Humane Industry can advance them.

Amongst all these, I have not mentioned Musick▪ Vocall and Instrumentall, by it self, because it is a part of the Mathematicks and the Practise thereof is to be insensibly at spare times brought in use amongst them as a part of their Recreations. Nor have I mentioned any Hebrew books which they should read; because their daily reading of the Scriptures should be in Greek and in Hebrew: and their Analyticall exercises should be employed for [Page 61] the most part in resolving the Rationality of the Scripture about the most Materiall Do­ctrines of Divinity. Nor have I mentioned any particular Body of Divinity to be put into their hands; because I speak only of the Method of Humane Learning, how it should be delivered; and no Divinity is to be taken up from the teaching of men: it is to be re­ceived from the Holy Scriptures alone: and the daily Catecheticall exercises and confe­rences which will be appointed for these of this third period; will sufficiently by Gods blessing enable them in all the Truths of Divinity both Theoreticall and Practicall; so that there will be no need of any other In­stitution in that kind.

Thus I have done with all the Matters which are to be taught to each degree of Capa­city within the period of the years appointed for their education: now followeth the Last point of this Method; how all this is to be taught and expedited within the time appoint­ed with ease and delight.

Concerning the Manner and way of Teaching all these things, to Each Capacity.

In the Manner of Teaching, experience will bring the way unto perfection, if it be prosecuted, according to the Maximes, and [Page 62] Rules heretofore mentioned, in a Constan [...] Course. And to be able to put the design in Practise; three main things must be ordered: first the taskes of both the lesser and the greater parts of the work must be determined accord­ing to times and seasons; what and when every thing is to be done.

Secondly, the way of proposing to the Schollars that which they are to receive, and of entertaining them to dwell upon it, till it be fixed in their mindes, must be regulated.

Thirdly, the meanes and instruments wher­by, all taskes are to be performed on all hands, both by those that propose, and those that receive and entertaine Learning, are to be had in a readiness and ordered for Use.

Concerning the Taskes what and when every thing is to be done.

Salomon tels us, that There is a season to every thing, and a time to every purpose under the heaven; Eccles. c. 3. v. 1. and v. 11. and that God hath made every thing beautifull and consequently, delightfull and acceptable, in its proper time. If then we can discerne this time, and determine the work to be done in it we shall find successe in it, and that with ease.

In the first Period, from five till nine; an Order of taskes must be observed in the pre­paratorie School, aswell as in the other fol­lowing. [Page 63] but now we shall not speak thereof, because we suppose that such a School cannot be had speedily; and that we must take such Scholars at first as can be had, till Schoolma­sters be trained up who shall be able to follow the Directions which may be given for the training up of Children in such a Nursery.

In the second Period, from eight or nine, till thirteen or fourteen, we have five years, to be­stow upon the Objects of Learning which are proper to that Age and Capacity, whereof the Perfection is nothing else but Memory. These five years shall be divided into three parts, whereof the first and second shall each comprehend two years; and the third, one.

In the first part (that is in the two first years of this period) they shall be led through all the Objects of Fancy and Memory be­longing to that Period in the Method; which shall be prescribed unto the Ushers: and to every thing which shall be shewed them by their Ushers; the Latin and Greek names shall be added and commended unto their Remembrance. so that here, in these two first years they shall be obliged to runne over all the taskes of the whole period, to take up the Ideas thereof, and keep them in memory with their two Learned names only. And to that effect, in the first quarter of the first year, they shall be diligently exercised in writing the La­tin [Page 64] and Greek characters faire and readily; and in copying out some Pictures, and the Fi­gures of Models of Things.

Then in the last quarter of that year, when they are stored with almost the half of the words of those two Tongues; the Rudiments of the Grammaticall Rules of both Tongues are to be taught them, so farre as to help them, to make use of their Janua's therin; which from that time forward they shall be made to ply diligently, till towards the end of the sccond year; then about the last quarter thereof, they shall be taught to write Hebrew faire and readily. and when they have attained to some perfection heerin, the Rudiments of the Hebrew Grammar also shall be taught them, so farre as it doth agree with that which they formerly learned of the Latin and Greek Grammars.

In the second part of this period (that is in the third and fourth years thereof) the same taskes which formerly were taken in hand and prosecuted shall be renewed by the same Me­thod of leading them through all the Objects belonging to the whole period the second time, only with a twofold difference: first, that to the Latin and Greek names of Things which were formerly taught and now are to be repeated, the Hebrew shall be added. Se­condly, that in this second course of observa­ [...]ion [Page 65] they shall descend to some things more [...]articularly in every Object, then they did in [...]he first course; and in a way more exact and [...]istinct: wherby they shall be taught to look [...]pon every thing so, as to take up the notion [...]hereof orderly in four things when they once [...]ave gotten the Generall shape thereof in their mindes. The First is, to look upon the parts [...]hereof, and know their distinct names in the [...]earned [...]ongues. The second is, to look [...]pon the properties of those parts and [...]he forme o [...] frame of the whole arising [...]rom thence. The third is, to look upon the Action or Passion or fitness to Action or Passion which ariseth from that frame and properties of the whole and parts. And the Fourth, is to look upon the usefulness which [...]he thing, with the parts, properties and [...]ctions thereof, hath towards man. When [...]very Object formerly observed in the bulk [...]hall be thus reviewed in these particulars, and the chief names formerly not mentioned ad­ded therunto; the second course of this period will be also finished: whereof at this time, this only is further to be added; that, at the latter [...]nd of the third year, and the beginning of the fourth, the Grammaticall precepts are [...]ully to be delivered in each Tongue in respect of their differentiall properties, which thence­forth are to be taken notice of in the Use of their Janua's.

[Page 66]In the third and last part of this Perio [...] (that is in the fifth year thereof) they shall r [...]peat all what in the four former years the [...] have learned: but Chiefly the Addition [...] part of Learning, which the second Cou [...] had, more then the first; that is, their He [...]brew Janua; the particularities, to be [...] take [...] notice of, in the Observation of all Sensu [...] objects, and the Grammaticall differen [...] in the Constructions of the three Tongues.

In the third Period of Learning, from thi [...]teen or fourteen, till nineteen or twentie; [...] have six years to bestow upon the Traditio­nall and Rationall wayes of Teaching [...] Sciences: those years also shall be divided in [...] three courses, and to each course two year [...] shall be allotted.

In the first course of this third Period, a [...] the Sciences belonging therunto are to be de [...]livered Historically, which may be done thr [...] wayes. First, by way of ocular Demonstra [...]tion in things that can be shewed unto Sen [...] in every Science, whose subject hath any thin [...] of Sense in it. secondly, by way of Schemes a [...] Pictures to represent Hieroglyphically the [...] things that have no visible shape; and fo [...]mally those things which have a reall shape but are not at hand to be seen and shewe [...] unto sense. And thirdly, by way of Narra­tives and Relations, expounding both tha [...] [Page 67] which is shewed unto Sense, and that which is offered unto it in Pictures and Schemes, whe­ther Hieroglyphically or Formally.

In this Course (besides their Janua's which are to be repeated) the easiest of the Latin and Greek Authors which handle the Scien­ces (whereof the Ideas have been offered unto them) are to be read by them according to the Directions which shall be given: and after the first year of this course (or sooner as upon triall shall be found expedient) their speech shall be wholly Latin▪ and to beginne to tran­slate some remarkable passages of Greek Au­thors into Latin, and of Latin Authors into Greek; shall be one of their exercises.

In the last quarter of this course (or in the last half year as experience shall direct) the grounds of Logick shall be taught them so farre as to let them see. 1. What the faculty of Reason is in man, and wherin it doth differ from Imagination and Memory. 2. What the Use thereof is in all Sciences. 3. What the Acts thereof are, in making up many single thoughts into Propositions; and of many Propositions said together to draw thence Consequences. 4. How that these Acts are to be taken notice of, and observed in the Au­thors which they have read who write of Sciences; in whom they shall be taught to Analyse some of their Rationall Propositions [Page 68] and consequences. Thus the first course of thi [...] period shall be ended.

In the second course (that is, in the third and fourth year) of this Period, all the Scien­ces belonging to the whole Period shall b [...] taught Dogmatically; that is, the Rules and Precepts thereof shall be delivered, according to that Order wherin they are subservient unto the Necessities of Man, and branch them­selves out one upon another; the latter grow­ing up from the Principl [...]s of the former; an [...] all tending to make the Creatures serviceable unto Mankind; or to rectifie his disorders within himself. In this Dogmaticall course of Sciences, towards the latter end of the first year thereof (that is, in the last quarter of the third year of this period of Education) the Precepts of Logick shall be fully taught, first the Analyticall, and then the Geneticall way of Reasoning, to find out Truths which are doubtfull, and towards the latter end or the middle of the second year thereof, the Precepts of Oratory and Poetry shall be taught them; and they directed to observe in the Authors which they have alreadie perused, how those Precepts have been put in Use by them, that they may learne to imitate their practise.

In the third course of this period, that is, in the two last years thereof; all the Sciences belonging to the period shall be taught Pra­ctically, [Page 69] that is they shall be exercised in the practise of all that which they have been [...]aught, in the whole former Course of their education: and they shall be put upon the occasions of making Use of their skill in every Science for their own and others advantage, and the improvement of the wayes of lear­ning: and here as their Genius shall lead them, they shall be left a little larger scope to follow it: either in wayes of Action, or of Theorie, or of Utterance: in the first year of this course they should be exercised and put upon the practise of all; but in the last year, according as their Faculty should be found most eminent (with some few Directions and Manuductions to Improve it) they should be suffered to apply it to the subject which amongst all the Sciences they should like best to exercise themselves in. And in the latter end of this year, that is, in the last quarter thereof, having received such Directions for the future Government of their life as will be found necessary to order it Judiciously and Prudently; they may be dismissed to take some Publick Service in hand; or follow some private Calling which the Comman­wealth doth stand in need of.

And thus I have reckoned up the main and generall Taskes, as they are to ans­wer the years; the subdivision thereof [Page 70] into moneths, weeks, dayes and hours will not be difficult; and needeth not now to be in­sisted upon, but must be delineated before we set upon the work it self. We come now to speake in brief of the way of proposing those Taskes unto the Scholars, and of their way of entertaining their thoughts about them.

Concerning the way of proposing all the parts of Learning unto the Scholars, and of their entertaining the same, to fixe their mindes thereon.

The way of proposing matters of learning is as considerable as any thing else in the work of Institution; and next unto that is the way of entertaining that which is proposed: the first of these is the proper work and industry, of the Governour and Ushers; the second, of the Scholars themselves, although the Ushers also may and ought to have some hand therin.

For the proposall of every thing, the Gover­nour shall prepare the particular matters of every thing which shall be taught for every houre of the day, throughout the whole course; and deliver the same in writing Quar­terly, or Monthly (at least) beforehand unto the Ushers; that they may be in full readiness and perfectly exercise themselves in every thing which they shall deliver to their Scholars [Page 71] [...]d the Matters should be thus long predeter­ [...]ined before hand, and given to the Ushers, [...]at if upon good grounds they shall suggest [...]y thing to the Governour for an alteration [...] that, which he shall have prescribed; it may [...] in time considered between them, and or­dered as need shall require, or found most [...]xpedient.

The Matters to be proposed being thus [...]repared, when the time comes to offer them [...] the Scholars; the Governour shall for every [...]ifferent kind of exercise and Institution give Directions unto the Ushers, how to behave [...]hemselves towards the Scholars, to make [...]hem affectionat towards the taske which is [...]o be offered unto them, that is, attentive and [...]reedy to receive it: and to make them more [...]erfect in following the Directions and Rules which in this nature shall be given: he shall [...]imself give them an example of the Practise [...]f it towards the children; shewing them, at [...]very change of exercise and different way of Institution, how they should go about their work: he shall therefore teach the first lesson of every kind himself in the presence of his Ushers, that they may observe his way: and at the second lesson, when they shall beginne [...]heir work; he shall be present at it, to ob­serve them how they performe it, and tell them of their faults if any be committed.

[Page 72]Two things are fundamentally to be hee [...] in the Manner of proposing every thing: Fir [...] that the Schollars before the thing be prop [...]sed be made sensible of the End, wherefore it taught them, and they ought to learne it, [...] what the necessity, use, excellency and pe [...]fection thereof is in the life of Man &c. S [...]condly, that the way of offering it unto th [...] be the same at once to all, by all alike percep [...]ble, common, plain, distinct and orderly every part. And to these two fundamental whereof the first relates unto the Will, t [...] second, unto the Understanding; a third [...] be added relating to the Memory, which [...] that in the Method of proposing every thing this Rule be observed.

Let the Generall notion of every Object or the shape of the whole; be first offered [...] the Imagination, and then the parts which a [...] contained under it, to be represented unto t [...] thought by way of Division. and this bein [...] done; Let the mind afterward be led retro­grade to review the parts as they look to o [...] another; and make up the whole by way [...] collection.

And at the conclusion of every lesson, [...] brief and summary Recapitulation of tha [...] which hath been offered unto them is to be proposed; and the Question should be aske [...] whether any hath a doubt of any thing? or [Page 73] [...]ould have so [...] king repeated; or further ex­ [...]ained? that they should speak.

The way of enterteining that which shall [...]e thus proposed is partly in the Scholars by [...]emselves, partly in them together with their [...]shers.

By themselves they shall entertain the things [...]hich have been taught them, by the exerci­ [...]s of writing, of painting, or drawing figures, [...]f compendiating, and of methodizing, as [...]hey shall from time to time he directed; for [...]e fixing of their thoughts upon that which [...]hey shall have received; and by the reading, [...]nd understanding, and translating of their [...]anua's, or of their Authours from one Tongue to another, according to the way which shall be shewed them.

Now, as the proposall of a lesson shall not [...]st above half an houre at the most; so the [...]ertaining of that which hath been offered, [...]all follow immediately thereupon, for▪ the [...]a [...]e of another half houre, so that to e [...] [...] lesson, a full houre, and no more shall [...]e allotted; whereof the first part shall be spent [...] receiving, the second, in entertaining the [...]houghts thereof.

The entertainment of things received toge­ther with the Ushers, shall be two wayes. [...]. By shewing the exercises wherewith they [...]ertained their thoughts by themselves. [Page 74] 2. By a constant course of Repetitions to b [...] observed daily, weekly, monethly, quarter [...] and yearly; whereof particular Directio [...] are to be given in due time: but the gener [...] Rule of proportion in all Repetitions to [...] observed is this; that the third or fourth l [...]son, or period of lessons, is alwayes to be R [...]petitorie in some degree or other; more lesse, as the matter is more or lesse di [...]cult, and generally rather the third is to [...] made Repetitorie of two, then the fourth [...] three: but experience will best determ [...] what is most expedient to be done in t [...]

Concerning the Means and Instruments w [...] are to be had in a readinesse, and ordered for use, that these Tasks may thus be prosecuted on all hands.

THe things necessary to be made use of [...] bringing all this to passe, are 1. a co [...]nient House fitted with rooms, wherein [...] Scholars may be at their exercises. 2. the sc [...]lasticall Furniture, & dressing of those roo [...] 3. the Books and other Implements, wh [...] the Ushers and Scholars must have at ha [...].

The House, where this course of educ [...] should be intended, must not be within [...] City, but should be near unto it, in a g [...] air, large and spacious; and as it were in [...] Countrey, with large gardens and orch [...] [Page 75] [...]ear the places of tillage and of pasturage, [...]hat the Countrey may afford unto the Scho­ [...]rs the aspect and observation of all Natu­ [...]all things, wherein they are to be taught, and be City may afford them the sight of all [...]rtificiall things; of all Trades and Manu­ [...]ctures, wherewith they are to be made ac­ [...]uainted.

The Rooms wherein the Scholars should be [...] their exercises, should be foure: Three lesser [...]nes, for each Usher and his peculiar Scholars [...]ne, and one large one; or father a Gallery [...]hich should be for common Use unto all.

The Scholasticall furniture and dressing [...]f these rooms ought to be this.

The large common room ought to be fur­ [...]shed with all manner of Mathematicall, Na­ [...]rall, Philosophicall, Historicall, Medicinall, [...]ieroglyphicall and other sort of pictures, [...]aps, globes, instruments, models, engines, [...]nd whatsoever is an object of sense in refe­ [...]nce to any Art or Science, these things [...]e to be set in their order, according as [...]ey are subordinate unto severall Sciences; [...]at at the times appointed, the Ushers may [...]ade their Scholars into it; to receive the les­ [...]ns which they shall give them▪ upon the [...]cular inspection of the Things, which shall [...]e shewed unto them.

The lesser rooms each ought to be furnish­ed [Page 76] with a high seat for the Usher; that he m [...] overlook all his Scholars, and with twen [...] distinct places, so ordered for the Schol [...] to sit or stand in; that their fac [...] may [...]e [...] towards him: and each in his place may ha [...] his own deck, to keep all his papers and oth [...] things to be used in good order. In each [...] those rooms there should be an iron forna [...] or stove to keep it warm in the winter.

The Books which the Scholars shall have [...] the School shall be none but such as th [...] Usher shall put in their hands. In the seco [...] Period of Institution, they shall have a [...] books but their Latine, Greek and H [...]brew Janua's, and the Bible of the Old [...] New Testament in these Tongues, and i [...] their Mother-tongue. In the third Perio [...] besides these books, they shall have fr [...] time to time, such as their Usher by the G [...]vernours direction shall furnish them with [...] and none other; nor any longer then thinks fit.

The Instruments besides pen, ink and [...]per, shall be a pen or stick with black lead▪ pen-knife, a pair of compasses, a ruler, s [...]ate; and some other implements which f [...] time to time shall be put in their hands, a [...] taught to make use of according to the [...]grees of their proficiency.

Of Teaching LOGICK.

BY Logick I understand the Art or skill, to make right use of our reasoning Facultie. The facultie of Reason in man, is that abilitie, by which he can set his thoughts in order to judge of all things, which are in his Imagi­nations.

As large then as the Imagination or Fan­cy of Man is, so large is the use of Reason; that is to say, it doth reach unto all things, that can be thought upon, for all the thoughts of the heart of Man are contained under this notion of Imaginations; whether they have an Idea or not expresly formed in the mind; for some thoughts are negative to all Ideas. By an Idea I mean the shape and representation of something which the mind doth frame unto it self by the Imaginative Facultie: for, the imaginative Facultie is like a looking-glasse, which being turned to any object whatsoever doth receive the shape thereof, and represents it to the eye of the Understanding: If then the under­standing Facultie doth look upon the shapes of things, which are in the Imagination not confusedly, but in an orderly way, to com­pare them and lay them together for some purpose and aim, for which they are taken in­to [Page 78] consideration; then it is said to proceed rationally; but if it hath either no aim at all or no command of its own thoughts or sk [...] to rule and order them to that aim, which [...] doth consider them for: then it doth procee [...] without Reason. Now because to man, t [...] Facultie of Reasoning is that universall Light by which he is to guide his wayes in all parti­cular objects as well of Meditation, as o [...] Action; therefore if this Light be darkene [...] in him, then all is nothing but darknesse: b [...] if the eye of his Reason be clear, then all i [...] full of Light, which he doth undertake to Ac [...] or Meditate. For this cause the Art of Rea­soning as to Man, is the chief of all othe [...] Arts and Sciences in humane things; for by i [...] all other Arts are found out; and whatsoever is amisse in them may be rectified: and con­sequently to teach how to make use of that Reasoning Facultie, which we have to some good purpose, is in all humane things, the matter of greatest importance that can be thought: and yet such is the miserie of our life, that there is scarce any thing lesse mind­ed; or when minded, lesse taught in a right and profitable way. I shall not at this time intend to make this charge good against the ordinary Teachers of Logick, who for the most part, are so farre out of the way of right Reasoning, that their very precepts are less [...] [Page 79] [...]en rationall, and they themselves incapable [...] better Rules, till they be wholly untaught [...]at which they have learned. But I shall (as [...]iefly as may be, to be well understood) deli­ [...]r my conceptions of the right way of teach­ [...]g young Scholars the Art of Reasoning by a [...]ositive Method to direct them in it, that in­ [...]nd to teach others. I will suppose then, that young Scholar is brought unto me, who is [...] puris Naturalibus (as we use to say) that [...], who is capable of institution in this kind, [...] being no wayes prepossessed with any ha­ [...]its, which may make him unfit to receive [...]he documents which are to be given him: [...]nd as being onely possessed with the com­ [...]on Notions of Naturall things which are [...]he objects of humane Senses; and under­ [...]tanding no more, but the proper sense of all [...]he words of the Language, by which the Notions are expressed in the common speech wherein he is to be taught. To such a young [...]an I first would deliver some common Pre­ [...]ognitions concerning Logick, and afterward would exercise his Reasoning Facultie in the way of Meditation whereof I should find him [...]apable, growing upon him by degrees, till I [...]hould make him master of the use of all his [...]houghts, to all purposes, which he should ap­ [...]ly them unto.

The Precognitions should bring him to consider himself.

[Page 80]1. That he hath a Naturall abilitie to think and meditate, as all other men have.

2. That men of understanding are distin­guished from fools by this, that they ca [...] make use of this Abilitie understandingly that is to say, that they understand them­selves what they do think and meditate, i [...] what order and to what purpose.

3. That therefore there is some way to order and direct the thoughts of the mind: that they may not wander at random as fools thoughts use to do.

4. That this way to order and direct our thoughts, being taught and delivered by cer­tain Precepts is called the Art of Reasoning or Logick: and that he who is exercised to follow the same is a Rationall man or good Logician.

5. That of all other studies, this is the most worthy of a Man, most profitable and most necessary to attain to the happinesse of this life, so farre as by humane faculties it is attainable: and therefore, with most earnest Affections and desires to be attended unto.

Having by such Preparations as these are, fitted his Understanding and raised his Affe­ctions to docilitie and attention; I would be­gin to deliver unto him some Precepts con­cerning the use of his first Notions, and sin­gle thoughts, to reach him to take notice of [Page 81] them, what they are: not reflexively by the Term of a second Notion (as the ordinary Logicians do, teaching their Scholars to speak they know not what, nor to what use) but directly in the Terms of a single Propo­sition, to cause him to take notice of the Sub­ [...]ect and Praedicat thereof, and of the conne­ [...]ion of each to other in a way Affirmative and Negative: shewing him that every word [...]n our common speech, doth stand for a single [...]hought or Notion of the Mind, and that [...]he words which we speak, should in their or­der and coherence expresse the order and co­herence of our thoughts.

Having then shewed him what a single Proposition is, what parts it is made up of; How these Parts are set together in our thoughts: what the Differences of single Notions are; and of the wayes of their set­ [...]ing together to make a Proposition of them; [...]nd how a single Proposition doth differ from [...] compound: How a compound is made up of two, three or more single ones: and what [...]he wayes of composition are, and their diffe­ [...]ences; and consequently, How many sorts [...]f Compound Propositions there are in our Notions to make up a Period of speech: ha­ [...]ing, I say, shewed him all this, not in abstra­ [...]o and Notionally, but by an Example of very kind, and in concreto, as it were sen­sibly [Page 82] in the Period of some discourse laid open to his thoughts, and analysed before him; that they may be as it were led by the hand to consider of it; then I would set him a dayly task of new Examples which he should be obliged to take into his consideration, to Resolve Analytically by himself according to these Precepts, which I should have given him concerning single and compound Noti­ons and Propositions; to the end that by thi [...] exercise of his thoughts in Resolving the or­dinary Periodicall Discourses of Rational men into these Parts and Particles of Pa [...] whereunto they are Rationally Resoluble: he may be accustomed to observe what use me [...] make of their Notions single and compound to the extent of one Period of their Discour­ses: Now whether the Notions which he i [...] exercised in be materially Rationall or no; not at all materiall to his Instruction, becaus [...] in this first degree of Precepts, he is one [...] taught to take notice of the Difference [...] Notions, and of the frames wherein rhey a [...] set together, in the expressions which ratio [...]nally men use or may be used, but wheth [...] they be rightly used in this place, and in re [...]spect of such and such matter yea or no, th [...] is not to be the object of his consideration [...] this time, that is to be taught afterward due time.

[Page 83]This being done I would proceed with him to the second degree of Precepts, which should direct him to understand the use of his thoughts in matter of Consequence, when one Proposition is drawn out of another and be­comes a conclusion arising from it. Here I would let him know what a Consequence is, How many wayes Consequences may be in­ferred from premises, and what the Principles are, from which Consequences are raised, and by which they are to be tryed, and may be made Conclusions. In this part of the Do­ctrine as in the former, I would shew him by examples of every kind, how men of under­standing make use of their thoughts, analy­sing their discourses wherein such Acts of Reasoning are expressed, whereof he should have received Precepts; and then according to the pattern of Meditation, which I should have given him in this kind, I would oblige him to exercise himself by certain discour­ses containing Principles and Consequences drawn from them in some Authours, which he should be put to resolve, as to the matter of Consequentiall Inferences, and the Acts of drawing Conclusions from Premises to ob­serve; how these that use to discourse ratio­nally do order their thoughts and expresse the same to the capacitie of others.

Then the Scholar whom I should have [Page 84] taught these things, should in the third place be directed to take notice of the Acts of Rea­son, which are employed about the Appre­hension of Arguments, and the relation of one thing to another by the Notion of an Argument. Here then he should be taught what an Argument is, How many differen [...] sorts of Arguments there are in the use of Reason to be laid hold on; what their diffe­rent Relations are, and force of arguing, to­wards that whereof they are conceived to be Arguments. This also should be laid ope [...] to him by Precept and Example, and Practi­cally in the Analysis of some Discourse; or parcels of Discourse in an Authour shewed▪ How these that are most rationall make use of those Arguments in their Discourses▪ and when he hath been taught to observe these acts of Reason in an Author, he should be pu [...] as at former times to analyticall Tasks to re­solve the matter of some discourse into the se­verall Arguments which it containeth, a [...] they stand singly by themselves, whereby he should be able upon examination to tell me where his Authour maketh use of an Argu­ment taken from the Cause, or from the Ef­fect, or from the Subject, or Adjunct, or the whole or the part, or contrary or similitude▪ &c. and when he should be complete in this kind of Exercise, then he should be brought [Page 85] to the fourth and last degree of Analyticall Doctrine, which is to learn to consider the whole Body of a discourse, and to observe all the Acts of Reason, which a man of understanding doth make use of therein. Here then he is to be taught what a Rationall Discourse is, what is to be observed in it. viz. the Subject whereof it speaketh: the Scope and Purpose whereto it speaketh; the Parts whereof it is made up; their Co­herence and Distinction, as well in respect of the main Body, as of every particular member of this Discourse, and the order of every thing contained in it, with a reference to the matter and scope, that the whole wis­dome of the Authour may be discovered. And to instruct him to observe all this in an Authour I would Analyse a Discourse to shew him, How he should proceed in order­ing his thoughts to reflect upon all these things in his Authour; and having both by Precept and Example shewed him what he ought to do: I would give him a task to ex­ercise his mind to do the like, and wherein he should fail, I would rectifie him till he should be complete in this Act, and use of his Reason also.

All this being done by these degrees of A­nalyticall Doctrine, and as it were experi­mentall manuduction of his thoughts to [Page 86] the Practise and use of Reason; I woul [...] then bring him to exercise his Reason Gene­tically, that is by a way of begetting an [...] producing Notions within himself concern­ing a Subject which should be given him to Meditate on Rationally. Here then he should be taught what the Difference and use is of Analysis and Genesis: viz. that by the exer­cise of the former we reflect upon the Acts of other mens Reasoning, and by the exer­cise of the latter we stirre up our own Facul­tie to make use of it, to produce Acts an­swerable to the Rules which we have been taught. And to make him complete in this way also, First the Precepts belonging to the way are to be delivered, and then an Ex­ample of those Precepts is to be given, and according to these Precepts and Example he is to be exercised, first to meditate upon a simple thema. (as they call it) Genetically, and then upon a compound thema. By a the­ma is meant a Matter of Meditation, which is either a single Notion or a Proposition, ei­ther simple or compound: of which things it is needlesse now to speak at large. The summe of all is this: that the Right use of Reason is to be taught first in the Practise, before it be taught in the Theorie, and the Analyticall way of Practice is to go before the Geneticall, and in this teaching the se­verall [Page 87] degrees of every Practice are to be ob­served, and in every degree, whether the Pre­cepts directing the to mind observe the Rules of Practice, go before the Example which the Teacher is to propose; or whether they follow the same as observations, to cause the mind reflect upon the things to be imitated in the example, or whether some Precepts be given by way of Praecognita before, or some by way of observation after the ex­ample; it is not greatly materiall: if they never be separate, but go in their own de­gree of exercise together, the one alwayes giving light to the other, and both fitted by the Prudencie of the Teacher to the capaci­tie of the Scholar. And when the use of Reason hath been thus fully taught in a Pra­cticall way; then the Scientificall and No­tionall Precepts thereof are to be delivered reflexively upon the Rules of Practice, which have been fully conceived. For the di­rect knowledge must be proposed before the reflex be offered, because none can reflect upon his way of knowing before he hath at­tained it; therefore the way of knowing Actually must be experimentally proposed, before the Theoreticall way of apprehending matters be reflexively taught; which is quite opposite to the Practice of those that teach Logick in an ordinary way: who deliver all [Page 88] even to Children Reflexively and Scientifi­cally: before they exercise them in any point of Practice, except in that of a confused, endlesse, unprofitable way of disputing about Notions which is falsly called Logick, by which means those that should be made Scho­lars of Right Reason, are made habitually wranglers about the Terms of an Art, which they never have been taught: and in stead of making use of their Rationall Facultie, to set it in a way to order their Imaginations aright, they are onely directed and exercised to subti­lize their Imaginations, and pride themselves in this mainly to have such conceptions, a [...] are beyond the vulgar Capacitie. As if to speak things in the air and out of the com­mon use were to be Rationall: but of the originall of these Abuses, of the way, How men should be convicted of them and the means, How to rectifie them: and of the more speciall method of teaching the True Art of Reasoning in all the degrees and Parts of the Practice and Theorie thereof; I hope I shall at another time be able to speak more fully, when God shall give me bet­ter leisure without distraction to elaborate such tasks as in this and other Kinds lie upon my hand. In the mean while, take this as a taste of what may follow in due time; both for the Illustration of this [Page 89] way by examples, and for the more par­ticular deduction of every thing belonging [...]hereunto. I rest upon all occasions of ser­ [...]ice in this or any other kind,

Your affectionate and Loving Friend and Servant in Christ JOHN DURY.

A COPY of Mr JOHN DURY'S Letter to SAMUEL HARTLIB.

Dear Friend,

I Am glad that the Dire­ctory for the Education of Children, and teaching of Sciences is to your liking; I would be more glad if God would open it a way for us to put in practice: and although nothing should be done therein by our selves in these distracted times; [...]et it may be a satisfaction to our minds, that we have not been wanting [...]o our generation, so farre as God hath [...]nabled us to trace the wayes of doing [...]ervice to the publick; and that we [...]ave not buried our talents in the [...]round, when opportunities have been [Page] offered to us to employ them. You hav [...] told me once or twice at severall oc [...]casions, that the Discourses whic [...] Dr Kinner hath sent you from beyon [...] Seas tend wholly to the same Sco [...] which I have proposed to my self in th [...] Directory which I have sent you; an [...] that my Conceptions are as it were [...] Abridgement of that which he ha [...] written to you; as if I had read h [...] contrivement of matters; and take the cream of his whole counsell. [...] is very possible that men of the sa [...] Judgement and Principles, setti [...] themselves to order one and the sam [...] work, though they never have confe [...]red notions, may agree upon one a [...] the same way: I am glad that [...] thoughts and his, though neither [...] us have had the perusall of one an [...]thers papers, or any communicatio [...] with each other about that subject, [...] so concurre, as to confirm you in th [...] way which is most satisfactory to you [...] [Page] [...]udgement: you may say then to the [...]orld; that you have two witnesses to [...]e and the same Truth, and way of Righteousnes; and that Gods Spirit, and [...]ight Reason speaks the same thing in all [...]en; in all the parts of the world.

I shall be glad at a convenient time, [...] see those papers, whereof you say I [...]ave already given you the substance [...]efore I ever saw them: for I suppose [...]hey will not onely adde to my thoughts [...]pon that Subject; but perhaps give me [...]ccasion to adde something to him for [...]he accomplishment of your desires, and [...]he benefit of the Publick, whereunto [...]ou know I have dedicated my self; and [...]herein by Gods grace shall persevere [...]nto the end: I rest,

Your most affectionate and faithfull Servant in Christ, JOHN DURY.
FINIS.

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