THE REFORMED LIBRARIE-KEEPER With a Supplement to the Reformed-School, As subordinate to Colleges in Universities.


Whereunto is added

  • I. An Idea of Mathematicks.
  • II. The description of one of the chiefest Libraries which is in Germanie, erected and ordered by one of the most Learned Princes in Europe.

LONDON, Printed by William Du-Gard, and are to bee sold by Rob. Littleberrie at the sign of the Ʋnicorn in Little Britain. 1650.

To the Reader.

Learned Reader!

THese Tracts are the fruits of som of my Sol­licitations and Negoti­ations for the advance­ment of Learning. And I hope they may in time becom somwhat ef­fectual to rais thy Spirit to the ex­spectation of greater things, which may bee raised upon such grounds as these. All which are but prepara­tives towards that perfection which wee may exspect by the advance­ment of the Kingdom of Christ, wherein the Communion of Saints, by the graces of the Spirit, will swallow up all these poor Rudiments [Page] of knowledg, which wee now grope after by so manie helps; and till then in those endeavors I rest in the Truth▪

Thy faithfull and unwearied servant SAMUEL HARTLIE.

A SUPPLEMENT TO THE Reformed School.

Loving freind!

YOu have offered to mee that which I confess I did not re­flect upon, when I wrote the discours you have Published under the name of a Reformed School; which is, that som may think by the waie of Education, which I propose all Universities and eminent places of Learning might subtilly bee undermined and made useless, becaus therein a waie is shew'd how to initiate youths not onely to the Principles of all Religious and Rational knowledg, and in the Exercises of all Mo­ral virtues, but in the grounds of all Civil emploiments, so far, as will make them fit for all profitable undertakings in humane societies, whence this will follow (in their apprehensions) that they shall have no ad­vantage [Page 2] by beeing sent to anie Universities, to attein anie further perfection: becaus the Universities will not bee able to add anie thing unto them, which by their own Indu­strie, they may not afterward attein anie where els, as well as there. Truly it never came into my thoughts, either directly or indirectly to make Universities useless; nor can it bee rationally infer'd from anie thing in the matter form or end of that discours of mine: but I will grant that such as can see no further then what wee now ordinarily attein unto; and withal think that there is no Plus ultra in nature atteinable above that which they have conceived, such as I saie may frame to themselv's this jealousie a­gainst that discours: but if they would rais their thoughts with mee a little above the ordinarie pitch, and consider what the Na­ture of man is capable off: and how far it may, by diligent instruction, by Method and Communication, bee improved: they might rather bee induced to make this in­ference, if the natural abilities of youths in a School (when reformed) may bee thus far improved: how far more may they bee improved, when they are past the age of Youth, and com to Manhood in Colleges and Universities, if namely Colleges and Universities, could in the sphere of their [Page 3] activities bee proportionally Reformed, as the Schools may bee in their sphere: for it is rational to conclude thus: if the first step of our Reformation will lead us thus far, how far will the second and third lead us? and if Scholastical Exercises in Youths of eighteen or twentie years, will advance them to that perfection of Learning and Virtues, which few of double their age or none almost ever attein unto, what will Collegial and Academical Exercises (if re­formed and set upon their proper Objects) bring them unto? I shall therefore to eas you, or such as may have this scruple and jealousie over mee, declare that my purpose is so far from making Colleges and Uni­versities useless, that if I might have my de­sire in them, they should becom a thou­sand times more useful then now they are, that is, as far above the ordinarie State wherein they are set, as this School is above the ordinarie waie of Schooling: for if wee look upon the true and proper ends of School, College and Universitie-studies and Exercises; wee shall see that as in na­ture they are in a gradual proportion, di­stant from, and subordinate unto each o­ther, so they ought to rise one out of ano­ther, and bee built upon each other's Foun­dations.

[Page 4] The true and proper end of Schooling is to teach and Exercise Children and Youths in the Grounds of all Learning and Virtues, so far as either their capacitie in that age will suffer them to com, or is re­quisite to apprehend the principles of use­ful matters, by which they may bee made able to exercise themselvs in everie good Employment afterwards by themselvs, and as the Proverb is, sine Cortice natare. The true and proper end of Colleges should bee to bring together into one Societie such as are able thus to Exercise themselvs in a­nie or all kind of Studies, that by their mu­tual Association, Communication, and Assi­stance in Reading, Meditating and confer­ring about profitable matters, they may not onely perfit their own Abilities, but advance the superstructures of all Learn­ing to that perfection, which by such means is attainable. And the true and proper End of Universities, should bee to publish unto the World the Matters, which formerly have not been published; to discover the Er­rors and hurtfulness of things mistaken for Truths; and to supplie the defects and de­siderata, which may bee servicable to all sorts of Professions.

Now according to those aimes and ends, I suppose it may bee inferred, that none [Page 5] should bee dismissed out of the Schools, till they are able to make use of all sorts of Books, and direct themselvs profitably in e­verie cours of Studie or Action, whereunto their Genius shall lead them; and that none should bee admitted into anie Colleges, but such as will join with others, to elabo­rate som profitable Tasks, for the Advance­ment and facilitating of superstructures in things already by som discovered, but not made common unto all; And that none should bee made Publick Professors in Uni­versities, but such as have not onely a Pub­lick aim, but som approved Abilities, to supply som defects and to Elaborate som desiderata of usefull knowledg, or to di­rect such as are studious, how to order their thoughts in all Matters of search and Medi­tation, for the discoverie of things not hi­therto found out by others; but which in probabilitie may bee found out by rational searching.

Thus then I conceiv, that in a well-Re­formed Common wealth, which is to bee subordinate unto the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, wherein the Glorie of God, the hap­piness of the nature of man: and the Glori­ous libertie of the Sons of God is to bee revealed; all the subjects thereof should in their Youth bee trained up in som Schools [Page 6] fit for their capacities, and that over these Schools, som Overseers should bee appoint­ed to look to the cours of their Educati­on, to see that none should bee left desti­tute of som benefit of virtuous breeding, according to the several kinds of emploi­ments, whereunto they may bee found most fit and inclinable, whether it bee to bear som civil Office in the Common-wealth, or to bee Mechanically emploied, or to bee bred to teach others humane Sciences, or to bee imploied in Prophetical Exercises. As for this School, which at this time I have delineated, it is proper to such of the Nobi­litie, Gentrie and better sort of Citizens, which are fit to bee made capable to bear Offices in the Common-wealth: the other Schools may bee spoken off in due time, so far as they are distinct from this; but that which now I have to suggest is chiefly this, that as out of the Schools the chois, which ought to bee made for Colleges, ought, Caeteris paribus, onely to bee of such as are most fit to Advance the Ends of a Collegial Association; so out of Colleges a chois ought to bee made of Professors for the Universitie onely, of such as are fittest to advance the Ends of Publick teaching in Universities, which are not to Repeat and Compendiate that which others have pub­lished [Page 7] twentie times already, over and over again, but to add unto the Common stock of humane knowledg, that which others have not observed, to the end that all these degrees of Studies and Exercises of the minde of man, beeing subordinate unto the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, the happiness of Man by all Rational and Spiritual waies of improving humane Abilities, may bee ad­vanced unto it's perfection in this life so far as may bee.

But how far short wee com now of all these designs, I need not to relate unto you: the Colleges as they are now Constituted, can scarce reach to the half of that which the Schools might bring us unto: and the Professors of the Universities com not up to that, which the Collegial Associations might elaborate, if they were rightly directed to set their Talents a work; and if the publick Spirit of Christian love and ingenuitie did posses those, that are possessed of publick places in the Colleges of the Universities. For if this Spirit did rule their Aims and Endevors, there would bee no self-seeking, no partialitie, no envie, nor anie cross act­ings for private ends, to the prejudice of the Publick; but the generous love of vir­tue and of profitable Learning, would swaie all their inclinations to a free conjunction; [Page 8] and make all their endeavors subordinate unto the publick good of the Common-wealth of Israël in the Communion of Saints. But how far this Principle of acting is now wanting amongst us all, I shall not need to mention: you have considered it long ago, and wee have together lamented that defect, and the doleful effects thereof: our endevor must bee to seek out the best means of a Reformation therein, and to make use of them as God shall give us op­portunities. And truly somthing of this kinde might bee don, without anie great alteration or stir, even as matters now are formed in the Colleges; if God would bee so gracious to us, as to beget in the mindes of those that understand those things, a heartie Aim and Resolution to benefit the Christian Common-wealth of Learning, by their Collegial Relations and Associations one to another. For if men that are in genu­ous will call to minde the end first, for which God doth give them all their Talents, and then also for which men of publick Spirits have erected Colleges and Universities, and endowed the same with long and compe­tent maintenances; that such as are fit for Studies, and called to bee Instrumental in the propagation of Truth and Virtue, might not bee distracted with the care of the [Page 9] World, in reference to outward matters, but might have all the conveniences which are imaginable to improve those Talents to the utmost, either singly or conveniently with others, if (I saie) ingenuous Christi­ans would minde these ends, for which the benefit of their Talents from God and of their accommodations from men to im­prove those Talents are bestowed upon them: it would not bee possible for them; to bee so unthankful towards God, and avers from the rule of Christianitie, and from the love of doing good to the generation wherein they live; that they should intend to lead a Collegial life onely for their own private eas and conveniencie in outward things; that beeing accommodated with all necessarie helps of the Bodie, they may pleas themselvs onely in the course of their Studies, with that Reservation and Reti­redness, which is proper to a Monkish life in Popish Cloisters; wherein the Spirit of Mutual envie, of detraction and division is more irreconcilably entertained, then in anie other Societies of the World. For their Cloister-constitutions, obliging them onely to the observation of som formal works as an opus operatum; for which their maintenance is allowed them; they not knowing anie further design of their life, [Page 10] or any greater happiness in this World, then to pleas themselvs; bestow all the rest of their time and thoughts, as their natural inclinations lead them, which is common­ly to nothing els but to self-love and Pride, which became a Provocation unto others, to discover mutually their corruptions, which by reaction make them all full of envie, of hatred, of evil surmises, and of ma­licious practices one against another: so that no where Satan doth dwel and rule more effectually, then in those Religious Houses, as they are falsly so called. How much of this Monkish disposition doth re­main as yet in the formal Constitutions of Colleges, or in the Spirits of those that partake of Collegial accommodations, is not a thing which I shall take upon me to Judg; but I shall leav it to God, and to his daie to discover; onely I would bee glad that all such as are true Israelites, and know the end of their calling unto Christ, and are not willing to burie their Talents, or to make them useless unto others, for whose sakes they have received them would laie this matter to heart, that their Aim in a Collegial life, should not bee to enjoie an easie careless waie of subsistence by and for themselvs, to follow private fancies in their Studies about matters of Learning; [Page 11] but that they should minde the stewardship of their gifts and places, and tbe advantages of their Association, whereby they might bee, (if they would make use of it) able to elaborate som tasks, which otherwise cannot bee brought to anie perfection, for the building up of the Citie of God in our generations. There is no want of parts and abilities in the Spirits of our men, but the waie to order them for publick Use, and to bring them together as stones fitly com­pacted to make up a perfect Palace, is that which make's us all useless one to another; wee finde that now and then, as it were by chance, som exquisite pieces of Learning, which som have been hatching all their life time drop out; wherein appear's, besides the usefulness of the Subject, or the uselesness thereof, som inclination to bee found ex­traordinarie; but these endevors, disjoint­ed from publick Aims, advance little or nothing, the Happiness, which true Learn­ing rightly ordered in all the parts thereof; and Subordinate unto Christianitie, is able to bring unto Mankind. Such pieces there­fore serv onely as a witness, to shew what wast there is of profitable time and abili­ties, for want of loving combinations for publick Designs. It is the observation of Forreigners concerning our Universities, [Page 12] that they finde in them men of as great learning as any where els; but that they lie as it were dead and unknown to the whole world of other men of Learning; becaus they delight to live a retired and unsociable life: this humor therefore amongst other parts of our Reformation, must by som Gospel-principles and Rational in­ducements bee Reformed, not onely in Colleges but in other Associations. The Lord teach us the waie of Truth and Righ­teousness, that wee may profit in all things to advance the glorie of his name in the Kingdom of his Son, in whom I rest

Your friend and servant. J. D.




LONDON, Printed by William Du-gard, Anno Dom. 1650.

THE Reformed Librarie-Keeper: OR Two copies of Letters concerning the Place and Office of a Librarie-Keeper.

The first Letter.

THe Librarie-Keeper's place and Office, in most Countries (as most other Places and Offices both in Churches and Uni­versities) are lookt upon, as Places of profit and gain, and so accordingly sought after and valued in that regard; and not in regard of the ser­vice, which is to bee don by them unto the Common-wealth of Israël, for the advance­ment of Pietie and Learning; for the most part, men look after the maintenance, and livelihood setled upon their Places, more then upon the end and usefulness of their emploiments; they seek themselvs and not the Publick therein, and so they subordi­nate all the advantages of their places, to [Page 16] purchase mainly two things thereby viz. an easie subsistence; and som credit incom­parison of others; nor is the last much re­garded, if the first may bee had; except i [...] bee in cases of strife and debate, wherein men are over-heated: for then indeed som will stand upon the point of Honor, to the hazard of their temporal profits: but to speak in particular of Librarie-Keepers, in most Universities that I know; nay in­deed in all, their places are but Mercenarie, and their emploiment of little or no use further, then to look to the Books com­mitted to their custodie, that they may not bee lost; or embezeled by those that use them: and this is all.

I have been informed, that in Oxford (where the most famous Librarie now exstant amongst the Protestant-Christians is kept,) the setled maintenance of the Li­brarie-keeper is not above fiftie or sixtie pound per annum; but that it is accidentally, viis & modis somtimes worth an hundred pound: what the accidents are, and the waies by which they com, I have not been curious to search after; but I have thought, that if the proper emploiments of Libra­rie-keepers were taken into consideration as they are, or may bee made useful to the advancement of Learning; and were or­dered [Page 17] and mainteined proportionally to the ends, which ought to bee intended thereby; they would bee of exceeding great use to all sorts of Scholars, and have an universal influence upon all the parts of Learning, to produce and propagate the same unto perfection. For if Librarie-keepers did understand themselvs in the nature of their work, and would make themselvs, as they ought to bee, useful in their places in a publick waie; they ought to becom Agents for the advancement of universal Learning: and to this effect I could wish, that their places might not bee made, as everie where they are, Mercenarie, but rather Honorarie; and that with the com­petent allowance of two hundred pounds a year; som emploiments should bee put up­on them further then a bare keeping of the Books. It is true that a fair Librarie, is not onely an ornament and credit to the place vvhere it is; but an useful commoditie by it self to the publick; yet in effect it is no more then a dead Bodie as novv it is consti­tuted, in comparison of vvhat it might bee, if it vvere animated vvith a publick Spirit to keep and use it, and ordered as it might bee for publick service. For if such an al­lovvance vvere setled upon the emploiment [Page 18] as might maintain a man of parts and gene­rous thoughts, then a condition might bee annexed to the bestowing of the Place▪ that none should bee called thereunto but such as had approved themselvs zealous and profitable in som publick waies of Learning to advance the same, or that should bee bound to certain tasks to bee prosecuted to­wards that end, whereof a List might bee made, and the waie to trie their Abilities in prosecuting the same should bee described, least in after times, unprofitable men creep into the place, to frustrate the publick of the benefit intended by the Doners towards posteritie. The proper charge then of the Honorarie Librarie-Keeper in an Universi­tie should bee thought upon, and the end of that Imploiment, in my conception, is to keep the publick stock of Learning, which is in Books and Manuscripts to increas it, and to propose it to others in the waie which may bee most useful unto all; his work then is to bee a Factor and Trader for helps to Learning, and a Treasurer to keep them, and a dispenser to applie them to use, or to see them well used, or at least not abused; And to do all this, First a Ca­talogue, of the Treasurie committed unto his charge is to bee made, that is all the Books and Manuscripts, according to the [Page 19] Titles whereunto they belong, are to bee ranked in an order most easie and obvious to bee found, which I think is that of Sci­ences and Languages; when first all the Books are divided into their subjectam mate­riam whereof they Treat, and then everie kinde of matter subdivided into their seve­ral Languages: And as the Catalogue should bee so made, that it may alwaies bee augmented as the stock doth increas; so the place in the Librarie must bee left open for the increas of the number of Books in their proper Seats, and in the Printed Ca­talogue, a Reference is to bee made to the place where the Books are to bee found in their Shelvs or repositories. When the stock is thus known and fitted to bee ex­posed to the view of the Learned World, Then the waie of Trading with it, both at home and abroad, is to bee laid to heart both for the increas of the stock, and for the improvement of it to use. For the in­creas of the stock both at home and a­broad, correspondencie should bee held with those that are eminent in everie Sci­ence, to Trade with them for their profit, that what they want and wee have, they may receiv upon condition, that what they have and wee want, they should impart in that facultie wherein their eminencie doth [Page 20] lie; As for such as are at home eminent in anie kinde, becaus they may com by Native right to have use of the Librarie-Treasure, they are to bee Traded vvithal in another vvaie, viz. that the things vvhich are gain­ed from abroad, vvhich as yet are not made common, and put to publick use should bee promised and imparted to them for the in­creas of their private stock of knowledg, to the end that what they have peculiar, may also bee given in for a requital, so that the particularities of gifts at home and a­broad, are to meet as in a Center in the hand of the Librarie-keeper, and hee is to Trade with the one by the other, to caus them to multiplie the publick stock, where­of hee is a Treasurer and Factor.

Thus hee should Trade with those that are at home and abroad out of the Univer­sitie, and with those that are within the Universitie, hee should have acquaintance to know all that are of anie parts, and how their vein of Learning doth lie, to supplie helps unto them in their faculties from without and from within the Nation, to put them upon the keeping of correspon­dencie vvith men of their ovvn strain, for the beating out of matters not yet elabora­ted in Sciences; so that they may bee as his Assistants and subordinate Factors in his [Page 21] Trade and in their own for gaining of knowledg: Now becaus in all publick A­gencies, it is fit that som inspection should bee had over those that are intrusted there­with, therefore in this Factorie and Trade for the increas of Learning, som tie should bee upon those Librarie-keepers to oblige them to carefulness.

I would then upon this account, have an Order made that once in the year, the Li­brarie-keeper should bee bound to give an account of his Trading, and of his Profit in his Trade (as in all humane Trades Factors ought, and use to do to their principals at least once a year) and to this effect I would have it ordered, that the chief Doctors of each facultie of the Universitie, should meet at a Convenient time in a week of the year, to receiv the Accounts of his Trading, that hee may shew them wherein the stock of Learning hath been increased, for that year's space; and then hee is to produce the parti­culars which hee hath gained from abroad, and laie them before them all, that everie one in his own facultie m [...] declare in the presence of others, that which hee thinketh fit to bee added to the publick stock, and made common by the Catalogue of Addi­tionals, which everie year within the Uni­versities is to bee published in writing [Page 22] within the Librarie it self, and everie three years (or sooner as the number of Additio­nals may bee great, or later, if it bee smal) to bee put in Print and made common to those that are abroad. And at this giving up of the accounts, as the Doctors are to declare what they think worthie to bee ad­ded to the common stock of Learning, each in their Facultie; so I would have them see what the Charges and Pains are whereat the Librarie-Keeper hath been, that for his en­couragement, the extraordinarie expences in correspondencies and transcriptions for the publick good, may bee allowed him out of som Revenues, which should bee set a part to that effect, and disposed of accord­ing to their joint-consent and judgment in that matter. Here then hee should bee bound to shew them the Lists of his cor­respondents, the Letters from them in An­swer to his, and the reckoning of his extra­ordinarie expence should bee allowed him in that which hee is indebted, or hath free­ly laid out to procure Rarities into the stock of Learning. And becaus I understand that all the Book-Printers or Stationars of the Common-wealth are bound of everie Book which is Printed, to send a Copie into the Universitie Librarie; and it is impossi­ble for one man to read all the Books in all [Page 23] Faculties, to judg of them what worth there is in them; nor hath everie one Abi­litie to judge of all kinde of Sciences what everie Autor doth handle, and how suffi­ciently; therefore I would have at this time of giving accounts, the Librarie-kee­per also bound to produce the Catalogue of all the Books sent unto the Universitie's Librarie by the Stationars that Printed them; to the end that everie one of the Doctors in their own Faculties should de­clare, whether or no they should bee ad­ded, and where they should bee placed in the Catalogue of Additionals; For I do not think that all Books and Treaties which in this age are Printed in all kindes, should bee inserted into the Catalogue, and added to the stock of the Librarie, discretion must bee used and confusion avoided, and a cours taken to distinguish that which is profitable, from that which is useless; and according to the verdict of that Societie, the usefulness of Books for the publick is to bee determined; yet becaus there is seldom anie Books wherein there is not somthing useful, and Books freely given are not to bee cast away, but may bee kept, therefore I would have a peculiar place appointed for such Books as shall bee laid aside to keep them in, and a Catalogue of their Titles [Page 24] made Alphabetically in reference to the Autor's name, with a note of distinction to shew the Science to which they are to bee referred. These thoughts com thus sud­denly into my head, which in due time may bee more fully described, if need bee, chief­ly if, upon the ground of this account, som competencie should bee found out and al­lowed to maintein such charges as will bee requisite, towards the advancement of the Publick good of Learning after this man­ner.

The second Letter.


IN my last I gave you som incident thoughts, concerning the improvement of an Honorarie Librarie-keeper's-place, to shew the true end and use thereof, and how the keepers thereof should bee regulated in the Trade, which hee is to drive for the Advancement of Learning, and encouraged by a cōmpetent maintenance, and support­ed in extraordinarie expences for the same. Now I wish that som men of publick Spirits and lovers of Learning, might bee made acquainted with the Action, upon such grounds as were then briefly suggest­ed; who know's but that in time somthing might bee offered to the Trustees of the Na­tion, with better conceptions then these I have suggested.

For, if it bee considered that amongst manie Eminencies of this Nation, the Li­brarie of Oxford is one of the most consi­derable for the advancement of Learning, if rightly improved and Traded withal for the good of Scholars at home and abroad; If this (I saie) bee rightly considered and [Page 26] represented to the publick Reformers of this age, that by this means this Nation as in other things, so especially for Pietie and Learning, and by the advancement of both, may now bee made more glorious then anie other in the world; No doubt such as in the Parlament know the worth of Learning will not bee avers from further overtures, which may bee made towards this purpose. What a great stir hath been heretofore, about the Eminencie of the Li­brarie of Heidelberg, but what use was made of it? It was ingrossed into the hands of a few, till it became a Prey unto the E­nemies of the Truth. If the Librarie-kee­per had been a man, that would have traded with it for the increas of true Learning, it might have been preserved unto this daie in all the rarities thereof, not so much by the shuttings up of the multitude of Books, and the rareness thereof for antiquitie, as by the understandings of men and their proficiencie to improv and dilate know­ledg upon the grounds which hee might have suggested unto others of parts, and so the Librarie-rarities would not onely have been preserved in the spirits of men, but have fructified abundantly therein un­to this daie, whereas they are now lost, be­caus they were but a Talent digged in the [Page 27] ground; And as they that had the keeping of that Librarie made it an Idol, to bee re­spected and worshipped for a raritie by an implicite faith, without anie benefit to those who did esteem of it a far off: so it was just with God that it should fall into the hands of those that in all things follow an Idolatrous waie, to blinde men with shewes without all realitie of substantial virtue, which is onely eminent in this, that it becometh profitable unto all, by dilating the light of knowledg, and the love of grace and goodness in the hearts of all men, that are fit to receiv the one and the other; And where this Aim is not in those that are intrusted with publick places; there they in the end will bee found unprofitable servants; for the trust which God hath put into their hands to profit withal, they dis­charge not for the account which everie one is to give unto him of his Stewardship, is not how careful hee hath kept things of use unto himself, to pride himself in the possession of that which others have not, (as the custom of men is, that know not what true glorie is) but how faithfully and diligently hee hath distributed the same to such as were worthie thereof for their good, that they might bee stirred up both to glorifie God for his goodness; and to [Page 28] imitate him in the Communication of all good things unto others for his sake freely. This was Christ's Work on Earth to re­ceiv us, unto the Glorie of God; this was that vvhich hee taught by this practice, that it is more blessed to give, then to receiv. This is that which this envious World can­not rellish, and vvhat stop's the current of true love in the hearts of men? Nothing so much as the self-seeking of men in the vvaies of Learning, by vvhich they cove­tously obstruct the fountains of life and comfort, vvhich might overflow and vvater abundantly the barren and thirstie Souls of those that perish for vvant of address nnto vvisdom; vvhich in all the vvaies of hu­mane and divine Learning might bee main­ly advanced, by the industrie of one man in such a place, vvhose Trade should bee such as I formerly described, to deal vvith the spirits of all men of parts, to set them a vvorking one by and towards another, upon the subjects vvhich hee should bee intrust­ed vvithal to keep in the stock of Learning. It is the Glorie and Riches of Nations and of great Cities, to make themselvs the Cen­ter of Trade for all their Neighbors; and if they can finde vvaies of politie, to oblige their Neighbors to receiv from their Maga­zines the Commodities whereof they stand [Page 29] in need, it is everie vvaie a great benefit unto the State, so it may bee in matters of Learning, and by the Trade of Sciences this Church may oblige all the Neighbor Churches, and that Universitie all For­reiners that Trade in knowledge to receiv pretious Commodities, whereof they stand in need, from our Magazines and Store­houses; if a painful Steward and dispenser thereof, bee imploied and mainteined to use industrie for so blessed a work, from whence much Glorie to God in the Gospel, and honor will redound to the Nation. For although the waies of humane Learning are almost infinite and wonderfully various, and have their peculiar uses in the outward life of man, for which most men affect them, yet in one that is to minde the universal good of all, the whole varietie and diversi­tie of matters useful unto this present life, as they com within the sphere of Learning must bee reduced, and may bee subordi­nate unto the advancement of the Gospel of Christ, wherein the Glorie of the Nati­on, at this and all times should bee thought to stand: And truly that is the thing which take's most with mee, for which I would have that Librarie thus improved by a faith­ful keeper, that when his Trade is set on foot, with all those that are of eminent [Page 30] parts in their several faculties, wee know­ing who they are and wherein their emi­nencies do lie, may have opportunities to provoke them to the right use thereof, by giving them Objects from our store; and furnishing them with tasks and matters to bee elaborated, which cannot bee diverted from the scope of God's glorie to bee made known unto all men in Jesus Christ, for there is nothing of knowledg in the minde of man, which may not bee conveniently referred to the virtues of God in Christ, whereby the humane nature is to bee exalt­ed to that dignitie whereunto hee hath re­ceived it, that it should by him rule over the whole Creätion. And the want of this Aim to look upon things in order to him, and to set them a working without relation to him, is that which blast's all our ende­vors, and make's them determin in confusi­on and disorder; For whatsoëver is not di­rected in it's own place with som reference unto him must bee overthrown; nor is there anie waie left for anie to prosper in that which hee undertaketh, but to learn to know him and respect him in it, for the ad­vancement of the Kingdom over the Souls of men, which by the Sanctified use of all knowledg is chiefly effected. If then the Trade of Learning is to bee set a foot in a [Page 31] publick waie, and regulated to deserv the countenance of a Religious State, this Aim, and the waie of prosecuting of it must bee intended and beaten out; For except Sci­ences bee reformed in order to this Scope, the increas of knowledg will increas no­thing but strife, pride and confusion, from whence our sorrows will bee multiplied and propagated unto posteritie; but if hee, who is to bee intrusted with the managing of this Trade, bee addressed in the waie which leadeth unto this Aim without par­tialitie, his negotiation will bee a blessing unto this age and to posteritie.

I have no time to inlarge upon this Sub­ject, or to conceiv a formal and regular dis­cours, but the thoughts which thus fall in­to my minde I impart unto you, that you may give them as hints unto others, who of themselvs will bee able to inlarge them ei­ther to the Hous, or to such as can in due time swaie the Counsels of leading men in this Common-wealth.

AN Idea of Mathematics written by Mr Joh. Pell to Samuel Hartlib.


THe sum of what I have heretofore writ­ten or spoken to you, concerning the advancement of the Mathematics, is this: As long as men want will, wit, means or leisure to attend those studies, it is no marvail if they make no great progress in them. To remedie which, I conceiv these means not to bee amiss.

  • 1. To write a Consiliarius Mathematicus, (so I call it) answering to these 3 que­stions:
    • Q. 1. What fruit or profit ariseth from the studie of Mathematics?
    • Q. 2. What helps are there for the at­taining this profitable knowledg?
    • Q. 3▪ What order is to bee observed in using these helps?

[Page 34] To this purpose it should contain

  • 1. A plain and popular discours of the ex­tent of the Mathematics, with the profit that redound's, first to the Student him­self, and then to the Countrie wherein there are manie such grounded Ar­tists.
  • 2. A Catalogue of Mathematicians and their works in this order:
    • 1. A Synopsis of all the several kinds of Mathematical wri­tings, either extant in print, or accessible Manuscripts in pub­lick Libraries, with several numbers set to everie kinde.
    • 2. A Chronical Catalogue of all Mathematician's names that ever were of note, according to the order of the years when they li­ved, with the year when anie of their works were first prin­ted,
    • 3. A Catalogue of the writings them­selvs, in the order of years in which they vvere printed in anie language: And this I vvould contrive thus: First, the year of our Lord, and then the names of all the Mathematical Books Printed that year in anie Coun­trie [Page 35] or Language, after the usu­al manner of Catalogues: but
      • 1. Adding the volume, that is, not onely what fold [40. 80. &c.] but also the number of leavs, that wee may esti­mate the bulk of the Book.
      • 2. Prefixing before the title the year to vvhich you must look back to know either vvhen it vvas vvritten, or vvhen it vvas last before Printed, in that or any other Language.
      • 3. Setting in the margent, after the Title.
        • 1. The year vvherein it vvas the next time Print­ed.
        • 2. The number of reference to the Synopsis in the first page; By vvhich num­bers one may presently run over all the Books of one sort, of this or that particular subject.
  • 3. A Counsel directing a student to the best Books in everie kinde; In vvhat order, and how to read them, What to observ, what to beware of in som Mathe­maticasters, [Page 36] how to proceed and keep all.
  • 4. A Paraenesis, First, To all those who have means and leisure, and a wit not unapt for these studies, to set upon them in regard 1. of their profitableness to the student, and to mankinde. 2. of that more refined pleasure of hunting out hidden truths, vvrastling vvith difficult Problemes, and getting the victorie; and so much the ra­ther, becaus 3. of the great facilitie that is novv in that studie, by reason of the ma­ny helps to spare much labor, time and cost, vvhich our forefathers vvere forced to spend. Secondly, To all those who have understanding to estimate the worth of these studies, and wealth vvherewith to purchase themselvs lasting honor by the vvise dispensing of it, to take more notice of this sort of students, and to encourage them, setting apart the choicest of them, to perfect the inventions, to vvhich their Genius lead's them. Especially, To all Princes and Estates, vvhom it concern's to take a cours, 1. that their dominions may bee better furnished vvith this sort of stu­dents. 2. That the vvaie may bee made less laborious and costlie, 3. That Mathema­tica ingenia may bee discovered and assist­ed.

[Page 37] To vvhich end it vvould bee good.

  • 2. to erect a Publick Librarie, contain­ing all those Books, and one instru­ment of everie sort that hath been in­vented, vvith sufficient revenue,
    • 1. To buy one copie of all those that shall bee Printed yearly in other Coun­tries. and
    • 2. To maintain a Librarie-keeper of great judgment, to whom it may belong †
      • 1. To peruse all Books of such sub­jects, to bee Printed within that Countrie, and 1. Suppress vvhatsoë­ver is not according to Art, that Learners bee not abused, and 2. Ad­monish the Writers, if they bring nothing but stale stuff.
      • 2. Upon his credit to approv excellent inventions, and unpartially to com­mend the inventors to the rewarders.
      • 3. To receiv, record and place one Print­ed copie of everie Book so perused, sent into the Librarie, vvell bound at the Autor's or Book-seller's charge.
      • 4. To resolv anie student that enquire's about anie Probleme, vvhether it have been don already or no, fearing lest hee should actum agere, and therefore perhaps suppressing som invention vvhich hee hath light upon, but [Page 38] doubts it is old and to bee found in som of the Books of that Librarie.
      • 5. To receiv,
        &c. all such Manuscripts as shall bee brought thither by vvaie of gift, Legacie or the like.
      • 6. To maintain correspondence vvith such as himself in other Countries, to know vvhat is Printed there.
      • 7. To take notice of all his Countrimen that are fit to bee Teachers, &c.
      • 8. To keep a Catalogue of all such vvorkmen as are able and fit to bee imploied in making Mathematical Instruments and representations, vvorking upon Wood, Magnets, Me­tals, Glass, &c.
      • 9. To give testimonial, after examina­tion, to all sorts of practisers, as Pi­lots, Masters, Landmeters, Accom­ptants, &c. of their speculative abili­tie and practical dexteritie, that those that have occasion to use such men, bee not abused by unable underta­kers, to their exceeding great dam­age.
        • By the Catalogue, men might bee informed, in that multitude of Books, vvith vvhich the vvorld is novv pestered, vvhat the names are of those Books that tend to this studie onely.
        • [Page 39] In the Librarie, they might finde the Books themselvs, read them, and if they liked them, knovv vvhither to send to buy them: Besides, a­nie, vvhether forreiners or others, might have recours thither, and learn vvhat helps that Countrie would afford them in these studies.
        • And this is the best cours that I can think on for the making use of such helps as wee have already. If men desire better helps, let them emploie fit Ar­tists.
  • 3. To vvrite and publish these three new Treatises:
    • 1. Pandectae Mathematicae, Compre­hending as Clearly, Orderly, and Thrftily, and Ingenuously as may bee, vvhatsoëver may bee ga­thered out of all those Mathemati­cal Books and Inventions that vvere before us, or that may bee inferred as Consectaries thereon; citing, at the end of everie period or Proposition, the ancientest Autor in vvhich it is found, and branding all later vvriters if they bee taken stealing, or borrovving vvithout acknovvledgment, or [vvhich is vvors] expresly arrogating to [Page 40] themselvs anie other man's inventi­ons. This vvould bring that great Librarie into far less room, to the saving of more labor, time and cost, to all after-students, than men can yet vvell imagine. But becaus this also vvould bee too great and cum­bersom to carrie about us, Let there bee composed
    • 2. Comes Mathematicus,
      4 †
      Comprehend­ing in a pocket-Book, [and there­fore as briefly as may bee] the use­fullest Tables and the Precepts for their use, in solving all Problemes, vvhether purely Mathematical, or applied to such practices as men's various occasions may require.
    • And lastly, that in this kinde of Learning also, vvee bee no longer tied to Books, Let there bee composed
    • 3. Mathematicus [...],
      or An in­struction, shevving hovv anie Ma­thematician that vvill take the pains, may prepare himself, so, as that hee may, though hee bee ut­terly destitute of Books or Instru­ments, resolv anie Mathematical Probleme as exactly as if hee had a complete Librarie by him.

[Page 41] And this is the Idéa, vvhich I have long framed to my self, according to my fashion, vvith vvhom this passeth for an undoubted truth, that the su­rest vvaie to com to all possible ex­cellencie in anie thing, is to propose to our selvs the perfectest Idéa's that vvee can imagine, then to seek the means tending thereto, as rationally as may bee, and to prosecute it vvith indefatigable diligence; yet, if the Idéa prove too high for us, to rest our selvs content vvith approximation.

As for this present Idéa, I am so far from counting it meerly-impossible, that I see not vvhy it might not bee per­formed by one man, vvithout anie assistants, provided that hee vvere nei­ther distracted vvith cares for his maintenance, nor diverted by other emploiments.

The excellencie of this vvork, make's me vvish mine ovvn Nation the honor of first undertaking and perfecting this design, And I conceiv I have som reason to hope that it vvill bee so. For, though I knovv fevv or none that are both able and vvilling to promote designs of this nature, yet can I not therefore bee [Page 42] persvvaded that this Kingdom is so destitute of learned Nobilitie and Gentrie, that there can bee found none to countenance and advance this part of Learning, even in this vvaie, if they could see it possible and likely to bee effected.

As for the Librarie and Catalogue, 1.2 there can bee no doubt but they may easily bee had, if Monie bee not vvanting. Nor is it unlikelie that di­vers of this Nation (if they be set a­part for it) are able to compose the other 3. new Treatises; For though I knovv no such, yet I persvvade my self there may bee found amongst us men able to encounter all the diffi­culties, and to endure all the labor, that they must needs meet vvith in the raising of so great a Fabrick. And I the rather believ that there are many such, becaus for mine own part, notvvithstanding the vvant of Coun­sel and helps in that studie, and the innumerable diversions and distra­ctions that I have had, I am never­theless com to such a confidence of my understanding the depth of that studie, that, vvere I to pen those Pandects, 3. I should laie heavier Lavvs [Page 43] upon my self, than I have alreadie mentioned; namely, First to laie dovvn such an exact Method or de­scription of the process of Man's rea­son in inventions, that afterward it should bee imputed meerly to my negligence and disobedience to my ovvn Lavvs, [and not to their insuf­ficiencie] if, from my first grounds, seeds, or principles, I did not, in an orderlie vvaie, according to that pre­scribed Method, deduce, not onely all that ever is to bee found in our Antecessor's vvritings, and vvhatsoë­ver they may seem to have thought on, but also all the Mathematical in­ventions, Theoremes, Problems and Precepts, that it is possible for the vvorking vvits of our successors to light upon, and that in one certain, unchanged order, from the first seeds of Mathematics, to their highest and noblest applications, as vvell as to the meanest and most ordinarie. Not setting them dovvn at random as they com in my head, as those be­fore us have don, so that they seem to have light upon their Problems and the solutions of them by chance, not to have found them by one per­petual, [Page 44] constant, invariable process of Art. Yet such an Art may men in­vent, if they accustom themselvs, as I have long don, to consider, not onely the usefulness of men's vvorks, and the meaning and truth of their vvritings, but also how it came to pass that they fell upon such thoughts, and that they proposed to themselvs such ends, or found out such means for them.

Were these Pandects thus made and finished, I suppose it is manifest, that by their orderlie, rational and uniform compleatness, above all that hath been hitherto vvritten, they vvould spare after-students much la­bor and time that is novv spent in seek­ing out of Books, and disorderlie read­ing them, and struggling vvith their cloudie expressions, unapt represen­tations, different Methods, confusi­ons, tautologies, impertinencies, fals­hoods by paralogisms and pseudo­graphemes, uncertainties becaus of insufficient demonstrations, &c. be­sides much cost also, novv throvvn a­vvaie upon the multitude of Books, the greater part vvhereof they had perhaps been better never to have seen.

[Page 45] And it may be som vvould like the Method of that vvork so vvell, as to extend it farther, and applie it to other studies; in speculation imita­ting this my vvariness, that no falshood bee admitted, and no truth omitted; and for practice enuring themselvs, anie subject beeing propounded, to deter­mine the number of all the Problemes that can bee conceived concerning it, and anie Probleme beeing pro­pounded, demonstratively to shevv either all the means of it's solution, or the impossibilitie of it: and if so, then vvhether it bee not yet, or not at all possible.

Men vvould easilie see hovv to contract these Pandects into a pocket-Book for their ordinarie use.4. But so to laie them up in their heads,5. as to need no Book at all [according to that desideratum of mine, to have a Mathe­maticus [...]] vvill perhaps seem utterly impossible to most: No man, that ever I heard of, having propo­sed such a scope to himself before. But perhaps they vvill conceiv it more possible, if it pleas them to su­spend their judgments, till they have considered what means may bee used [Page 46] to fortifie the imagination, to prompt the memorie, to regulate our reason, and what effects may bee produced by the uniting of these means, and the constant exercising of them.

For mine ovvn part, the conside­ration of the incomparable excellencie, unstained pleasure, vnvaluable profitable­ness, and undoubted possibilitie of this vvhole design, hath prevailed so far vvith mee, that, notvvithstanding all the discouragements that I have met vvithal, I have don more tovvards it than bare Idéa.


In Bibliothecam Augustam.
VIderat Augustam Dea Caesia Bibliothecam,
Augusti manibus Guelphicâ in Vrbe strui:
Nunc mihi tur [...]igeras quantumvìs Ma [...]spiter arces
Objice, quas vehemens Occaracingit, ait.
Grandia si Libris praefers tormenta, memento▪
Illa homines-miseros, hanc posuisse Deum.
M. Henricus Julius Scheurl, Moralium in Acad. Juliâ Professor publicus.

[Page 49] BIBLIOTHECA AUGUSTA, quae hodie Guelpherbiri, anti­quissimâ Ducum Brunovicen­sium Sede visitur, sive locum, sive armaria, sive ipsam deni­que molem, & congeriem Librorum, sub eo nomine intelligas, primum, & unicum, Au­torem habet, Serenissimum Illustrissimum Principem, ac Dominum, Dominum AU­GUSTUM, Ducem Brunovicensem & Lu­naeburgensem, qui, ut à primis adolescentiae annis, artium cultor solertissimus, & inge­niorum censor acutissimus, ità etiam, quod istis adhaeret, praestantissimorum in omni eruditionis genere Librorum amantissi­mus.

Exemplum quidem, & ardorem, Illu­strissimus Princeps ad istos conatus, à Re­gibus & Imperatoribus, qui curam hanc ve­rè Regiam sibi propriam esse voluerunt: Rem verò nullam ab aliis habuit. Obversa­batur nempe animo Osimanduas Aegypti Rex, qui ut est apud Diodorum Siculum, lib. 1. cap. 49. sacrae Bibliothecae à se erectae, titulum esse voluit: [...], MEDICATORIUM ANIMAE, ut vertit L. Rhodomanus, ejúsque ut in Regno, itâ & in [Page 50] laudabili instituto post aliquot secula Suc­cessor Ptolomaeus Philadelphus, cujus Bi­bliotheca, exemplo, imò & Libris summi Aristotelis instructa, omnium Historicorum ore, & laudibus celebris: Eumenes item, seu Attalus, (utrique enim, huic patri, illi filio laudem hanc Historia tribuit) Pergami Reges, quorum tantum in hoc negotio stu­dium, ut cùm Ptolomaeus chartas seu papy­rum, quam sola Aegyptus suppeditaverat, invidè supprimeret, veritus, nè Attalus ve­terem illam Aegypti Bibliothecam novâ suâ aequaret; ille ferro, quod dicitur, viam sibi aperiendam, novámque Librorum confici­endorum rationem inueniendam censeret, optimo sanè successu: membranarum enim ex corio animalium confectarum usum, ut Varro autor est apud Plinium lib. 13. cap. 11. invenit, cui omne quicquid ad Typogra­phiae inventionem usque superat Librorum, unicè debemus. Unde meritò factum est, ut in aeviternam inventoris Pergami Regis memoriam, hujusmodi membranae adhuc hodie Pergamenae dicantur.

Nec defuit Principi domesticum Illu­strissimorum Antecessorum lineae Principa­lis Guelphicae, Arcis Guelpherbiti Possesso­rum, exemplum, qui & ipsi superiori seculo instructissimam Bibliothecam, copiâ tamen Librorum huic Augustae non comparan­dam, [Page 51] paraverant, quam demum Anno aeràe Dionysianae 1617. ultimus istius Lineae FREDERICVS VLRICVS Academiae Ju­liae, quae est Helmaestadii, possidendam, & utendam liberaliter contulit. Res, ut patet, augurio, & omine felicissimo non carens. Ut enim Principi AUGUSTO possessio, & avita Sedes Ducatûs Guelphici, satis du­dum destinata demonstraretur, idem Geni­us, quem in postremis istius Ducatûs Pos­sessoribus HENRICO Bellicoso, seu Juniore, JVLIO Pacifico, HENRICO JVLIO sapi­entissimo, & FRIDERICO VLDARICO mitissimo, universus Orbis admirabatur, in Principem AVGVSTVM eruditissimum, transferendus erat, atque ut illustrior esset ejus sama, omne quicquid in re Librariâ Antecessorum diligentia praestiterat, ad A­cademiam Juliam transire, omnis verò lans erectae Bibliothecae Augustae, soli & unico Principi AVGVSTO propria esse debebat.

Superâsse autem non immeritò dicendus est AUGUSTUS in hoc studio, & opere, sive Ptolomaeos, sive Attalos, sive JVLIVM, & AVGVSTVM, primos Romanorum Impe­ratores, (nec horum enim studium in ne­gotio librario eruditis ignotum) quòd Pto­lomaeus Philadelphus non proprio sive inge­nio, sive industriâ, sed alienâ, Demetrii nempe Phalerei viri Atheniensis, scriptis, & [Page 52] factis illustrissimi, rem confecerit: Caesar verò curam hanc, quam magno animo con­ceperat, & nisi fata intercepissent, absolvis­set, Marco Varroni, Graecorum Latinorúmque doctissimo, quo nullus eâ tempestate in or­be terrarum isti negotio aptior, dederit. AVGVSTVS quoque Imperator, nec ipse quidem, sed per Asinium Pollionem (Orato­rem, & Senatorem Romanum nobilem) absolvit.

Princeps verò AUGUSTUS, & primus au­tor pulcerrimi sui Operis, & sibimetipsi De­metrius, Varro, Pollio, cujus solius vigiliis, & curis nocturnis diurnisque Bibliotheca AUGUSTA acquisita, & composita est. Ex­emplo Pisistrati, Atheniensium, ut tum vo­cabantur, Tyranni, qui Bibliothecam Athe­niensem ad publicum usum, non per alios, sed ipse componebat, cui & Homerum di­gestum, correctúmque debemus: Magnus profectò vir, modò cognomen illud odio­sum tollas.

Initium Bibliothecae Augustae colligendae factum est, Anno aerae Dionysianae 1604. ad confluentem Albis, & Jetzae, in Princi­pis AUGUSTI Ducatu Lunaeburgico, in Au­lâ, & adjuncto cognomini oppido Hitz­ackerâ, loco quidem ante constitutam ibi­dem Principis Aulam, satìs obscuro, quem tamen non minùs atque olim Ulysses Itha­cam [Page 53] suam satìs illustrem reddidit. In hoc recessu satìs amoeno, inter alia Principis opera magnifica, parvis primùm initiis cre­vit haec Bibliotheca, in illam magnitudi­nem, quae hodie non sine admiratione cer­nitur.

Ex haereditate ullâ nihil erat, quod in tantae molis auspicium, aut fundamentum cederet, immensis autem sumptibus con­quirebatur, quicquid optimae notae Libro­rum, in quocunque genere eruditionis in Germaniâ, Galliâ, Hispaniâ, Angliâ, Belgio, ipsâ denique Italiâ inveniri poterat.

Quicquid erat doctorum virorum Romae, Neapoli, Venetiis, Florentiae (quibus in locis Princeps AUGUSTUS per aliquod an­nos eruditissimorum virorum familiaritate usus erat) Lutetiae, Londini, Oxoniae, ut de Germaniâ nihil addatur, illorum operâ magnis sumptibus ad conquirendos optimae notae Libros conducebatur.

Incrementum operi coepto haud con­temnendum dedit Bibliotheca summi viri, & de universâ Germaniâ optimè meriti Marquardi Freheri, Caelii item Curionis, ejus­démque filii Coelii Augustini Curionis, magno Reipubl. literariae damno, in ipso aetatis flo­re ante parentem exstincti: Joachimi quo (que) Clutenii, cujus variam eruditionem Sylloge ejus rerum quotidianarum satìs demonstrat.

[Page 54] Crevit igitur in magnum, & merito suo admirandum numerum, non quorumvis, sed optimorum, & selectorum Librorum, ut hodie, (21. nempe Maii, Anni 1649.) numerentur [...], (ut vocat Plu­tarchus in M. Antonio) singulares Libri seu Volumina, licèt in uno Volumine plures saepe Libri, sive Tractatus, inveniantur, ferme viginti millia.

Voluminum nempe,
  • Manuscriptorum 764
  • Theologicorum 7287
  • Juridicorum 2578
  • Physicorum, & quae ad primam Philosophiam pertinent 460
  • Medicorum. 580
  • Mathematicorum in ge­nere, & in specie Geo­metricorum 168
  • Geographicorum 86
  • Astronomicorum 197
  • Musicorum 54
  • Arithmeticorum 52
  • Ethicorum 778
  • Politicorum 682
  • Historicorum 2133
  • Ad res Bellicas pertinen­tium 142
  • Oeconemicorum 41
  • Logicorum 65
  • Rhetoricorum 401
  • Grammaticorum 407
  • Poëticorum 746
  • Variorum, seu ut vulgò vocantur Quodlibetico­rum, in quibus nempe, vel-diversi Tractatus, ad diversas disciplinas pertinentes, conjuncti visuntur: vel tales Tractatus in iis deprehen­duntur, in quibus varia, modò ad has, modò ad alias disciplinas pertinentia explican­tur. 2092
  • [Page 55] Scriptores verò seu Autores, quorum monu­menta in praedictis Voluminibus exstant, numerantur 37077
  • Tractatus autem, sive diversorum, sive eo­rundem Autorum, supra 60000.

Et nè quis inmortalia ipsius Principis AUGUSTI monumenta hìc desideret, visun­tur non tantùm ibidem ea, quae ab alienâ profecta industriâ, vitam ipsi debent, velu­ti, (ut de multis pauci nominentur) Anto­nii Bonfin [...]i symp [...]sion trimetron: Bartholomaei Fontii Commentarius in Persium, verùm etiam praeclara ejusmetipsius Scripta, eruditorum Orbi sub nomine GUSTAVI SELENI, olim exhibita: CRYPTOGRAPHIA nempe, quâ (teste Clarissimo Naudaeo in Bibliographiâ Po­liticâ) eruditissimi Trithemii Steganographia hactenus omnibus sermè eruditis, ipsi etiam FRANCISCO JUNIO magica credita, hu­júsque judicio, Vulcano consecrata, ità illu­strata est, ut quicquid in Trithemio obscu­rum involutúmque tamdiu in summâ omni­um veneratione, & opinione delituerat, omnium oculis patefactum, atque retectum sit. Videatur eruditissimus Gerhardus Joh. Vossius, ipsius Clarissimi Francisci Junii ge­ner, libro de arte Grammaticâ primo, Cap. 41. Praeter Trithemii Steganographica in Opere hoc Cryptographico omnia ea explicantur, & clarissimae luci exponuntur, quae, in isto [Page 56] reconditae scientiae & profundae indaginis negotio, humani ingenii vis excogitare potuit.

LVSVS quoque SCHACHIAE unà cum RYTHMOMACHIA seriae & profundae eru­ditionis Opus. Prodiit uterque Liber, iste quidem Lunaeburgi, hic verò Lipsiae in for­mâ majori, seu folio, ut vocant, elegantissi­mis typis excusus, & imaginibus exornatus.

HISTORIA item vitae [...] JESU CHRISTI, ex quatuor, ut vocantur, Evan­gelistarum, & reliquis novi Foederis libris, sermone Principis patrio concinnata & ac­curatâ pensitatione ità elaborata, ut quic­quid hactenus difficultatum, seu [...] omnium eruditorum ingenia mirificè exercuit, id feliciter explicatum, & sacro­rum Scriptorum consensus, ut Augustinus lo­quitur, clarissimè demonstratus sit.

Manuscriptorum, ut vocantur, librorum haud contemnendus in hac Bibliothecâ est numerus, & Thesaurus, quorum nonnullos ipse Princeps in Ungariâ, occasione itine­rum ad D. D. Imperatores RVDOLPHUM II. & FERDINANDVM II. in arduis ne­gotiis susceptorum, magno aere redemit, in tenuissimâ magni pretii membranâ elegan­tissimis litteris scriptos, laciniam illustrissi­mae Bbliothecae, Budae, Regni Ungariae Metropoli quondam, à Matthiâ Hunniade [Page 57] Corvino, circa An. Christi 1485. erectae, & Turcarum Tyranno Solimanno, cum Anno aere Dionys. 1541. fraude, & vi Budam ca­peret, viduámque Joannis Regis Hungariae Elisabetham, quam cum Regno defenden­dam se venisse simulaverat, cum filiolo in­fante ejiceret, ereptae.

Bibliotheca haec Matthiae Hunniadis (verba sunt Antonii Bonfinii, rerum Ungaricarum decad. 4. lib. 7. mirâ utriusque linguae foecun­ditate fuit completa, cultus autem Librorum lux­uriosissimus: cujus prosterioris testes locuple­tissimi sunt hi Manuscripti, quorum occa­sione haec adducta sunt.

Nec desunt Instrumenta Mathematica ex­quisitissimè fabrefacta, Sphaerae item & Globi, quibus Sphaerae coelestis sidera & motus, facies item Globi terrestris miro ar­tificio accuratè representantur.

Nequaquam verò numero isto, quem su­prà posuimus, clauditur haec Bibliotheca, cùm quotidie magnis sumptibus, & indefes­so studio accedat, & conquiratur, quicquid melioris notae Librorum sive noviter, sive denuò editum prodit, aut in omnibus orbis partibus investigari, & redimi potest, adeó (que) Bibliotheca haec AUGUSTA nè vanum sit nominis augurium, singulis diebus augetur.

Primordia, ut suprà notatum, in tran­quillo Principis AUGUSTI Hitzakerianae [Page 58] [...]thacae Regno, satis quidem auspicatò sum­si [...], parùm tamen aberat, quin Anno Christi 1636. absente Principe, & Aulam suam Brunsvicum, Urbem suam haereditariam, transferente, rapaces manus [...] Bel­lonae Filii, à Principe nunquam laesi, exper­ta fuisset: qui licèt spe & animo eam planè devoraverat; vigili tamen Principis curâ & itinere properatissimo, unguibus hujus Har­piyae intercipiebatur. Fatum istud olim ex­perta erat illustris Atheniensium Bibliothe­ca, cùm Xerxes Persarum Monarcha, de­victis Atheniensibus, hostibus suis, potissi­mam praedae partem eam faceret, & trans­ferret. Restituit tamen eandem trecentos triginta post Annos Seleucus Nicanor Sy­riae Rex, qui eam insigniter auctam, magnis item muneribus locupletatam, Athenas re­mittendam curavit.

Postquam igitur dominium & possessio Ducatûs Guelphici, Principi AUGUSTO le­gitímè delata erat, Arx verò Guelpherby­tana, avita & vera Ducum Brunsvicensium Sedes, quae Seculi hujus est iniuria, legiti­mum suum dominum nondum admitteret, transtulit Bibliothecam Princeps Brunsvi­cum, Ducatûs Guelphici Metropolin, & avi­tum Ducum Brunsvicensium dominium, unà cum Ducatu, jure haereditario sibi delatum, eíque locum concessit fatìs magnificum, in [Page 59] antiquissimâ Majorum suorum TANQVAR­DI & BRVNONIS, fratrum, Ducum Saxo­niae (cui posteriori, & ortum, & nomen Brunsvicum debet) Sede, contiguâ Augu­stissimo St. Blasii Templo, condito olim ab HENRICO LEONE nemini Historicorum non celebrato, à quo Princeps AUGUSTUS rectâ, quod dicitur, lineâ, ortum ducit.

Optimo sanê consilio, quod & olim ve­teres Aegypti Reges Bibliothecas suas Memphi, celeberrimae Aegypti Metropoli, in Templo Vulcani (cujus magnificentiam apud Herodotum videre licet) habitare vo­luerint: Ptolomaei item tam prior, quàm posterior, à Cleopatrâ, Antonii Triumviri amoribus famosa, è ruderibus excitata Bi­bliotheca, Alexandriae apud Serapidis, im­mensae molis & stupendi artificii Templum, totius Aegyptiacae superstitionis arcem, col­locata fuerit, teste Tertulliano, qui gentiles, ad inspiciendum textum Hebraeum S. Scriptu­rae, eò advocat & amandat.

Acceptâ tandem XIV. Septembris, Anno 1643. Arce & Urbe Wolferbyte, transiit eo­dem unà cum Principe, Bibliotheca haec Augusta, sedémque sortita est è regione Aulae illustrissima adeóque reddita ést pars Regiae, ut Principi semper in propinquo & promptu sint, immortales illae, eaedémque san­ctissimae nunquam non loquentes Animae, ut Pli­nius [Page 60] hujusmodi eruditorum monumenta scitè vocat lib. 35. Cap. 2. Locus, seu aedi­ficium ubi reposita est; olim loricis, scutis, hastis, aliísque Bellonae ornamentis & in­strumentis asservandis destinatus fuerat, dignus omninò cui hodie aureis literis titu­lus fiat:

—Armamentaria sacrae
Pallados, & doctis habitata Palatia Musis.

Aditus ejus Augustissimus, solitam Principis Magnificentiam spirans, ipsum tamen sacra­rium modicè ornatum, quin potiùs ad ex­emplum peritorum Architectorum, neque aureo lacunari comptum, neque pavimen­tum, neque armaria, seu pegmata, ut Cice­ro vocat, neque cunei, loculi aut plutei ali­uni quàm viridem colorem referunt▪ Ful­gorem enim, sive aureum, sive quemvis alium oculis officere viridem è contra colorem re­ficiendis, & recreandis esse oculis, scriptioni, & lectioni, dudum notatum est naturae Mystis.

Usum hujus Bibliothecae quod attinet, non in spectaculum, aut ornamentum stu­diosâ quadam luxuriâ, ut olim querebatur Seneca, conquisitus est hic Thesaurus, nec ut cum blattis, tineis, situ, & squalore bel­lum gerat: Sed ideo pars Regiae facta est, ut ipsi Principi in propinquo, & promptu sit sanctissimarum & sapientissimarum Anima­rum Senatus frequentissimus, cum quo dis­serat, [Page 61] animum instruat, paret, & ad quai­cunque Regii officii partes componat. Id enim exprimit ea, quam aureis Literis in ve­stibulo Bibliothecae legi voluit [...], pul­cerrima sanè, gemmis omnibus & auro con­trà carior: ‘QUANDO OMNES PASSIM LOQUUN­TUR, ET DELIBERANT, OPTIMUM A MUTIS ET MORTUIS CONSILI­UM EST; HOMINES QUOQUE SI TACEANT, VOCEM INVENIENT LIBRI, ET QUAE. NEMO DICIT, PRU­DENS ANTIQUITAS SUGGERIT.’

Eadem olim mens Alphonso Arragoniae Re­gi, cui quotidie in ore, Mortuos esse optimos Consiliarios.

Nec aliud responsum tulit Zeno Citticus Philosophus, oraculum sciscitans, (verba sunt Diogen. Laertii, lib. 8. de Vitis Philosopho­rum, in princ.) quo pacto optimè vivere pos­set? nempe: [...], hoc est, Si mortuis colore concors fieret, sive, ut Zeno verè interpretabatur, Si antiquorum mortuorum familiaritate uteretur, eorúmque Li­bros magnâ attentione & studio, ad pallorem us (que) legeret. In Bibliothecis enim, ut de Juliâ quondam cecinit Magnus Calixtus,

—vitam vivunt, & post sua fata loquuntur
Sêclorumque minas superant, & edacia rerum
Tempora, qui terris caput altiùs exeruerunt,
[Page 62] Naturaeque super fines, super aethera celsum
Evexêre animum. S [...]la haec monumenta super sunt,
Per quae pugnat adhuc, vincit gentesque, triumphat
Magnus Alexander, quin unquam magnanimorum
Quicquid in orbe Ducum fuit, ex quo blanda Cu­pido
Laudis, & humanas tentavit gloria mentes.
Nil vivit vivétque, nisi hīc quod creditur: omne
Quod reliquum est, nox alta & longa oblivio opa­cant.
Hìc etiamnum Melpomene subnixa Cothurno,
Lata Sophocleis diducit hiatibus ora,
Confusósque lares & tristia funera Regum,
Oedipodae Thalamos, & saevum plangit Oresten,
Hîc legere est, queis firmetur Respublica fulcris,
Et quid Erechthaeas olim servârit Athenas,
Quid pessum dederit: quibus artibus inclyta Roma
Creverit, & populos, magnásque subegerit urbes:
Queis etiam vitiis sensim labefacta, ruinam
Traxerii, & lapsu totum tremefecerit Orbem:
Hîc recluduntur naturae arcana, sinusque
Daedalei, & quicquid gremio complectitur, arctis
Inclusum fo iis, vigili cognoscere mente
In promptu est: hìc descriptam pictámve tueri
Terrarum faciem & vastae datur Amphitrites,
Tiranìsque Globum, Lunae errorésque, laborésque
Et picturati fulgentia sidera coeli.
Quin ipsum ad coelos & splendida panditur astra
Hìc iter, à patribus qu [...]ndam per saxa, per ignes
[Page 63] Calcatum, & largo respersum sanguinis imbre.

Et cùm ipse Princeps nullum diem prae­termittat, per quem cum mutis illis Docto­ribus, de difficillimis negotiis, sive sacris, sive civilibus, sive militaribus, non collo­quatur, fit, ut ipse sub clavibus quidem suis habeat Bibliothecam, ejusdémque jus & mancipium sibi retineat, usum verò eruditis omnibus, & praesertim ministris suis, quo­rum ope, seu sacra, seu civilia tractat, secum communem concedat, nec cuiquam alii, nisi qui nummo forsan harpacico hìc aliquid emtum veniat, deneget.

Silentio autem nequaquam praetereun­dum est, immensam istam Librorum, Auto­rum & Tractatuum molem, ipsum Princi­pem aliquot amplissimis Indicibus in eum ordinem, classes & numeros, suimet indu­siriâ & manu redegisse, ut ad primam cu­jus [...]ibet, sive Autoris, sive Materiae requisi­tionem, quocunque in genere disciplinarum, praestò sit, primóque statim momento se ti­bi sistat & respondeat, quem volueris, aut vocaveris.

Nec ullus est in tanto hec Autorum, & Librorum agmine, quem non noverit ipse Princeps AUGUSTUS, eâ in re non inferior CYRO, Persarum Monarchae, qui unum­quemque militum in numerosissimo suo ex­ercitu, proprio nomine ad se vocare poterat.

[Page 64] Sufficiant paucissima haec, de multis di­cta, ceu stillicidium, ut vetus habet verbum, de situlâ.

Experiatur qui volet, inspiciendi, & pe­nitiùs perserutandi copiam nactus, de pre­tiosissimo hoc divinae & humanae sapientiae Thesauro, idem, quod olim Regina Sabaea de Sapientiâ Solomonis profitebatur, pau­cissimis tantùm immutatis, proferet. 3. Reg. 10. Non credidi verbis narrantium mihi de rebus & sapientiâ tuâ, usque dum venerim, & viderint oculi mei: Sed ecce non indicatum mihi fuerat ejus dimidium, superas sapientiâ & bonitate fa­mam, quam audiveram.

Si igitur, teste Julio Capitolino, Gordia­num Imperatorem ad coelum tulit, Sammonici Sereni morientis sexaginta duorum millium Li­brorum relicta Bibliotheca, siquidem (verba sunt Capitolini) tantae Bibliothecae copiâ & splendo­re donatus, in famam hominum literatorum ore pervenit, adeóquē alienis planè sumptibus, & diligentiâ clarus evasit: Si Ptolomaei, Attalus, Caesar, Augustus sumtibus quidem suis, aut certè manubiis, alienâ tamen diligentiâ, cla­rissimi extiterunt: Quid de Principe Au­GUSTO fiet, cujus hunc tantum Thesaurum, non alienis sumtibus, non manubiis, non alienae diligentiae, sed propriae curae & solli­citudini, in cujus partem neminem hacte­nus vocavit, propriis item, iisdémque verè [Page 65] Regiis impensis, (quibus alii, sive Baccho, sive Dianae, sive Mercurio, sive aliis volupta­tum illecebris litant) debemus? Ubi verò estis Principes, ut vos urat ac excitet hone­stus aemulandi ignis?

Faxit DEUS, ut Thesaurus hic re­rum divinarum, aeternarum, sit & ipse aeternus, neque priùs, quàm Mundi universa machina, laboret, aut intercidat.


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