[Page] THREE SERMONS Preached in St. Maries Church IN CAMBRIDG, UPON THE Three Anniversaries OF THE

  • Martyrdom of Charles I. Jan. 30.
  • Birth and Return of Charles II. May 29.
  • Gun-powder Treason, Novemb. 5.

By JAMES DUPORT D. D. Dean of Peterborough, and Master of Magdalen College in Cambridg, and one of his Majesty's Chaplains in Ordinary.

LONDON: Printed for Henry Brome, at the Gun in St. Pauls Church-yard the West end M DC LXXVI.




  • Ro. Mapleloft Procan.
  • Ja. Fletewood.
  • Ri. Minshull.
  • Jo. Pearson: now Lord Bishop of Chester.

A SERMON Preached upon the Anniversary of the Martyrdom of King CHARLES the First.

Acts 7. 60.‘—Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.’

IT is the Prayer of St. Stephen the Proto-Martyr for his Persecutors and Murderers: and it was the Prayer of our late Royal Martyr for his Persecu­tors and Murderers too; for these were his words in his Speech at his Death, I pray God, with St. Stephen, that this be not laid to their charge. And this is one part of the Parallel may be drawn between these two Martyrs, to make the Text verbum diei, sutable to the time. Another may be taken from the 9 and 10 Verses of the foregoing Chapter, where we find the Synagogue of the Libentines and others, disputing with Stephen; and they were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which he spake. And did not our Royal Martyr too dispute with the Libertines? (for Liberty was the pretence both in Church and State) did he not dispute with the Kirk-men of Scotland, and others here at home, and so confound 'um, that they were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which he spake, as is notoriously known, and yet to be seen in his incom­parable [Page 2] Works? 3. Was it not for the Cause (and Non poena sed causa facit Mar­tyrem. S. Aug. Epist. 61. tis the Cause that makes the Martyr) of God and a good Conscience, and the Gospel, and the Church of Christ, and true Religion, that he suffer'd as well as Stephen? 4. Some part of a parallel, by way of allusion, may be in the name: Stephen signifies a Crown, and ever since 'tis call'd the Crown of Martyrdom, Martyrium Stephani Martyrii Stephanus: 'tis not mine, but Gregory Nyssen's in his. Encomiastic Oration upon him: Stephen [...] [...] Greg. Nyss. Tom. 3. Orat. in S. Steph. was the first that wore the Crown of Martyrdom. And was not the Murther of our Royal Charles the Martyr­dom of a Crown? for our Regicides did not only kill the King, but the Crown it self, as much they could, not only an annointed Crowned King, but the Crown and Kingdom too. Thus they found out a way to bring Caligula's wish to effect, and by a Compendium of Cru­elty, uno ictu to decoll the whole Kingdom; for when they cut off his Head, they cut off the Head of the Peo­ple (so Carolus in Greek signifies [...]) and they made account the People shu'd never have a head more, but be Acephali both in Church and State; not any one head, no Monarch, nor King, but I know not what; and so they shu'd have been a kind of a Hydra, or bellua multorum capitum. 5. And lastly, St. Stephen was the Proto-Martyr, or first Martyr; and so was our St. Charles: but how can this be? you'l say: is not this a contradi­ction, that there shu'd be two Proto-Martyrs, two first Martyrs, and those so long one after another? but my meaning is, ours was the first that ever was Murder'd or Martyr'd in the like kind: for was it ever heard of, re­corded or read in any Story, that there ever was in any age of the world the like horrid Barbarity, such a quint­essence of Treason, Rebellion and Cruelty, as was acted this day upon his Sacred Person? He being the first [Page 3] crown'd and anointed King that was thus murder'd by his own Subjects at his own Palace-gate, and that by a Mock-High-Court of Justice, or rather by a deep­dissembling Court of most high Injustice; the first ex­ample in this kind, and so a Proto-Martyr too. But I shall leave these, and return to that part of the Parallel, which we meet withal here, viz. his praying for his Enemies, Persecutors, and Murderers, as St. Stephen does in the words of the Text, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. In which words observ with me these five particulars.

1. Here's Designatio criminis, the designation of a Crime, or Sin; the pointing out of some special, signal, remarkable Sin, this Sin.

2. Reatus, or meritum peccati, the guilt or demerit of Sin in general, 'tis to be layd to the Sinner's charge.

3. Misericordia Dei, the mercy of God in giving a discharge to Sinners sometimes, and not laying their sins to their charge. This suppos'd, else it had been in vain for Stephen to ha' made such a Prayer.

4. Virtus Orationis, the efficacy and power of Prayer in procuring a pardon, and prevailing with God to grant a discharge, and not to lay sin to the charge of a Sinner.

5. And lastly, Officium Christiani, the duty of Chri­stians under the Cross, by St. Stephen's example to pray for their Persecutors, as he did here, Lord, lay not, &c.

1. Here's Designatio criminis, the pointing out of some special, signal, remarkable Sin, this Sin: some extraordi­nary great Sin sure it was, a Sin of the first magnitude, crimen majoris abollae. This appears by our Martyr's Praying, and Praying so earnestly with a loud voice, for the pardon and forgiveness of it, lay not this sin, this [Page 4] Sin; with an emphasis; this great, grievous, heinous Sin, lay not this Sin to their charge. 'Tis true, there's no Sin but stands in need of pardon; yet all Sins are not equal (as the Stoics wu'd have them) but some greater than others, and so require a greater measure of repentance; and men must pray and cry louder than ordinary for the pardon and forgiveness of them: Especially when we pray for the pardon of other mens Sins, making parti­cular mention of 'um, we do not commonly take notice of Gnats but Camels, not of Moats but Beams, not of Mole-hills but Mountains: I mean, we do not use to spe­cifie or particularize any with a demonstrative, hoc pecca­tum, this Sin, unless it be some extraordinary heinous crying Sin; and such a one (it seems) was this here; a crying Sin, or else Stephen wu'd never have cry'd so loud for the pardon, and non-imputation of it. Indeed this was the last Sin he knew they were guilty of, and they were now flagrant in the actual commission of it, and so he might be the more concern'd for 'um, and the more sensible of it; and the rather because he felt the fruit or rather the smart of it, while the stones came ratling about his ears. But this was not it; sure there was more in it then so: for what cu'd his crying out avail him, or do him good as to that? he knew they were implacably set against him: he knew he cu'd not hold their hands from stoning him, but he hop'd God might hold his from striking them; 'twas not then his own particular interest that made him put an emphasis upon the Sin, this Sin: 'twas not the stones on his head that troubled him so much, nor the stones i'their hands, but the stone i'their hearts, their hard, and obdurate, and stony hearts; of which their [...], and hardness of heart, this Sin in stoning him was too evident, and pregnant a proof. And though this was the last Sin he knew of 'um, yet he [Page 5] knew 'twas not the least, but rather the greatest that ever they had committed, the most heinous, and barba­rous, and bloody Sin that ever they were guilty of, next to that of crucifying their King, and Murdering his and their Lord and Saviour. And therefore in his Sermon to 'um, of all their other Sins, he only takes notice of this, and upbraids 'um with it, v. 52, As your fathers did, so do ye; which of the Prophets have not your fa­thers persecuted? And so our blessed Saviour in that pathetical exclamation of his, where he so passionately bewails and laments the sinful estate of Jerusalem, though he knew her to be guilty of many other heinous and grievous Sins, yet he singles out this Sin above all, as the most capital Crime, and chief of all, O Jerusalem, Matth. 23. 37. Jerusalem, thou that killest the Prophets, &c. This then was the Sin, this Sin here i'the Text, killing a Prophet, stoning a Minister and Messenger of God, that was sent unto 'um to teach 'um the way of Salvation, and Mur­dering him, only for preaching Christ and the Gospel, and standing stoutly in defence of the truth. And was not this a Sin (as I may say) with a witness, thus to slay a Witness and Martyr of the Lord Jesus? Homicide in general, the murder of any man whomsoever, is a hei­nous and bloody Sin, one of those three crying Sins, so call'd in Scripture, and I think the chief of the three, that cry loud to Heaven for vengeance. And as it was the Sin of Adam's first-born, so it was the first-born Sin we read of next to Adam and Eve's; and we find God setting a brand and a mark upon it (as he did upon Cain the first committer of it) and threatning it with a special curse of retaliation, He that sheddeth man's blood, by Gen. 9. 6. man shall his blood be shed: and this long before the giving of the Moral Law by Moses; it being one of the seven Precepts given to the Sons of Noah, not to kill, or [Page 6] commit Murder; a Sin so foul and heinous in its own na­ture, and so directly against the Law of Nature, that the very Heathen by the Divine light of natural reason, saw the ugliness and deformity of it; and therefore did hate and abhor it, and made it a capital Crime, and so to be punish'd with Lex talionis, according to the fore-named Divine Law. Such is this Sin, this Sin here of Blood­shed and Murder in general, a black, foul, grievous, and horrid Crime, a crying Sin, a Sin that crys loud to Hea­ven for vengeance: but much more when 'tis the shed­ding of innocent blood, the putting of a just and righte­ous man to death: and how much more yet, when 'tis the killing of a Prophet, a Minister and Messenger of God, and that for no other cause i'the world, but for speaking the truth in the name of the Lord, and in the very act of his preaching to them the truth of God; the Murder of a Martyr and witness of Christ, yea and of his very witness too which he bare, and the thing witnessed, (what in them lay) Now such as was the stoning of Stephen, who here seals the truth of the Gospel, and of Christian Religion with his blood, and thus prays for his Murderers, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. This the Sin i'the Text; and what think ye of the Sin o'the Day? Stoning of Stephen, the Sin i'the Text; Killing the King, the Sin o'the Day. Somthing I pre­mis'd in the beginning concerning these two Martyrs and their Sufferings by way of Parallel. And though I con­fess the stoning of Stephen as to the ground and cause of his suffering scarce admits of any Parallel since the cru­cifying of Christ, the Martyrdom of St. Stephen being a direct Murdering of Christ again, in the first preaching of the Gospel to God's ancient people by his inspir'd Evangelist and Prophet; yet, in some respects at least, I think I may safely say, the transcript not only equals, but [Page 7] even exceeds the Proto-type, and the Copy outdoes the Original, I mean, the Sin of the Day outgoes the Sin i'the Text; whether we consider the rank and quality of the Sufferers, or the malice of the Murderers, or the manner of the proceedings, cloath'd with many black, foul, ag­gravating circumstances; of which I shall not need now to speak particularly, they being so well known to the world. I shall only at present take notice of the rank and quality of the Sufferer, or Person of our Royal Mar­tyr; which alone is sufficient to aggravate this Sin, to enhance and heighten it to the highest point and pitch of impiety. And here I shall take a brief view of him in a double capacity, first in his Political capacity, as a King; then in his Moral or Personal capacity, as a man, or a Christian: And I hope I may make a better use of this distinction, than some have formerly done. First, look upon him as a King; he was a Royal Martyr. St. Stephen though he had a Crown in his name, and wore the Crown of Martyrdom, and that set with stones, and those pre­cious stones (for Precious in the sight of the Lord is the Psal. 116. 15, death of his Saints); yet he had no Crown on his head; I mean, he never wore a Crown of Gold, as our Royal Martyr did, who was a crowned and anointed King, and so his Person Sacred and inviolable; Sacrosanct a Re­gum Majestas, being generally own'd and acknowledg'd by all, even the most barbarous Nations; and the Supreme Majesty having a stamp of Divinity, and so a Noli me tangere set upon it by the Laws both of God and Man. Such was the Martyr o'the day, our late dread Soveraign Charles the First of ever blessed and glorious Memory, whose Sacred Majesty cu'd not not secure it self from the malice and cruelty of blood-thirsty men, though his own natural profess'd Subjects. The Jews that ston'd Stephen, were his Enemies; but they were not [Page 8] his Subjects: they might be sworn against him, be his sworn Enemies, but they were not sworn to him, not his sworn Subjects: he was not their Leige Lord and Master; they never swore fealty nor allegeance to him as our Jews had done to our Martyr-King. Those Jews that put Stephen to death, Persecutors they were, and Murderers; but they were not Traitors nor Rebels, as ours were: they were guilty of shedding innocent blood, but yet they were not guilty of shedding Royal blood, as our Jews were: Homicides they were, yea and Propheticides (as I may say), they kill'd a Prophet, a Preacher of righteousness, a Deacon, a Church-man; but they were not Regicides, not guilty of Rebellion and Treason, as ours were to purpose. In stoning of Stephen, they did not Murder their Lord and Master, their Leige Lord and Soveraign King, as ours did this day: Traytors they were not, they did not betray him, nor did they conspire and contrive and plot his death by any premeditated malice; but transported with a rash blind zeal, and hurry'd on with a sudden impetuous fury, they ran upon him with one accord (saith the Text) and cast V. 57. 58. him out of the City, and ston'd him: but our Jews did their work in a more deliberate way; they did plot and forecast; and drive on their design by a long train and myne of mischief; they wove a curious web of wicked­ness, spun a fine thread of Rebellion and Treason, and then cut it, or rather cut him, off, in a methodical way, by a Pageantry of villany, by a Mock-Court of Justice kill'd their King, and embrew'd their hands (animus me­minisse horret) in the blood o'their Soveraign, the Lord's anointed. That for his Political capacity, as King and Supreme. Now for his Moral or Personal, take him as a Man or a Christian, [...];—so just, so sober, so chast, so temperate, so prudent, so gentle, [Page 9] so merciful, so patient, so charitable, so religious (wit­ness his duely and daily frequenting his Closet and Chap­pel, besides his private Devotions); in a word, so ver­tuous and free from vice, that even malice or slander could fasten nothing upon him: yea some o'the chief Rebels confess'd he was too good for us; this sinful Na­tion was not worthy of him, yea the world was not wor­thy of him; and therefore by a new kind of Ostracism, far worse than that of Athens, he must be banish'd from off the face of the earth, only because he was so good and so excellent a Person. I read in a very good Au­thor of a strange custom among a people of Scythia call'd Grot. De Satis­fact. cap. 10. De Albanis hoc specialiter pro­ditum, solere ab ipsis immolari eum, quem cre­derent Sancti­moniâ maximè pollere. Albani (and Strabo lib. 11, has something like it, speak­ing of the same people) who were wont to offer up that man in Sacrifice to their gods, whom they thought to be most eminent for holiness o' life (ye know what Countrey is called Albania, and ye know who deliver'd up our Royal Martyr, though I will not say they offer'd him up, with an intent he shu'd be made a Sacrifice, as it afterwards prov'd). I shall leav it to you to apply it. Thus the case stood between the King and the Rebels; because he did Sanctimoniâ maximè pollere, was so holy a man, a most gracious King, therefore they proceeded to make him a most glorious King too; and so they did, by bestow­ing upon him the glorious Crown of Martyrdom. What­ever they pretended, to palliate so foul a cause, yet their Conscience told 'um, they cu'd find no fault in him; as Pilat said, I find no fault in this man. Our Schismatics of neither hand, neither Papal, nor the other, cu'd Joh. 19. 6. Talis cùm sis, utinam noster esses! Nunt. à Mort. Nemo, demtâ haer [...]seos labe aut justior, aut san­ctior, &c. p. 7. find any fault in him, but only that he was not theirs; Nuntius à Mortuis, who knows the mind, and speaks the sense, of his Brethren o' Rome, confesses plainly that he was so good and vertuous a Prince, nothing cu'd stick upon him, or be laid to his charge, but only that he per­sisted [Page 10] in the Schism, forsooth, and Heresie, begun by his Predecessor Henry the Eighth; that is, that he continued firm and constant, and immoveable in the profession and maintenance and defence of the true Protestant Refor­med Religion. They on the other side quite contrary, blam'd him for nothing else, at least for nothing so much, as his inclination to Popery; and all because he wu'd not dance after their pipe, nor suffer himself to be carried with the stream o'the Faction, nor swim with them down the Leman lake; but stood firm for the Church of England, in opposition to both extreams. Thus he was crush'd be­tween two milstones, and Crucify'd like Christ by Jew and Gentile, and between two thievs: For 'twas resolv'd and decreed, one man must dye for the people, as Caiaphos said: for the people indeed, he must be made a Sacrifice, and a Martyr for the Laws and Liberties, and Religion too, of the Church of England, as it stood by Law esta­blish'd both for Doctrine and Discipline. I hope, after all this, ye do not expect, I should give you a complete Character of him, nor an exact Catalogue of all those vertues and graces, of which I nam'd but a few even now, that were so eminent and exemplary in him, and shin'd so remarkably in his Royal Person. This is a task I wu'd not, nay cu'd not undertake, [...]: I shu'd wrong both Him, and you, and my self, if I shu'd go about it. Look not then that I shu'd draw a Portraicture or Picture of him with my rude un­skilful pencil; 'tis done already, and done to the life, and no Apelles can draw it so well, as he has done himself with his own hand, in his most exquisite and incompa­rable piece, called [...]; a Book which so con­founded his Adversaries, that when they cu'd not con­tradict nor confute it, they were fain calumniari forti­ter, yea, and meutiri turpiter, by denying it to be his own. [Page 11] And now methinks I may say, as Pilat did of him whose example this our Royal Martyr follow'd, Behold your Joh. 19. 14. Joh. 19. 5. King, and again, Behold the man: Look upon him as a King, and look upon him as a Man, he was a Mirror of both, the best of Kings, and the best of Men. And may I not then upbraid our Jews, as St. Stephen does his here, v. 52, by calling our Martyr the Just one, of whom they ha' been the betrayers and murderers, and apply that in Daniel to Him in a qualify'd sense, the Messias was Dan. 9. 26. cut off (our Anointed, so Messias signifies) but not for himself, i. e. not for his own Sins, but the Sins o'the people. Thus in all respects the Sin of our Regicides, the Sin of this day, was a bloody and a scarlet Sin; and therefore the Pilat of this day might well be clad in Scarlet, when the Sin he acted was so deep-dy'd; and all of 'um, both they and their President, were so scar­letted all over, so dibaphi, double-dy'd, and twice dipt, dipt i'the blood of a gracious King, and dipt i'the blood of a righteous man. But I labour in vain to show you the ugliness of this most execrable and heinous Crime: to describe and portray this horrid Monster in its full proportion, in all its lineaments and lively colours, wu'd require a volume, or rather many volumes, to be writ of it: yea, he that wu'd paint out this Sin in its colours, must not do it in writing, not in black and white, but in black and red; for 'twas as black as hell, and as red as blood; as red as the red Dragon, yea as red as Scarlet, as the Scarlet whore, if Rome be she; and sure the hand of Joab, the Jesuit with his King-killing Doctrine, was in all this, and every one o'the Regicides had a Pope in his belly, to give him a Dispensation, and absolv him from his Oath of Allegiance. This was the Sin o'the day, hoc peccatum, this Sin; and so much for the first particular; wherein the longer I ha' been, the [Page 12] shorter I must be in the rest that follow.

2. Reatus or meritum peccati, the demerit and guilt of Sin; in common right and justice 'tis to be laid to the Sin­ners 2. charge; 'tis to be imputed to him, and laid upon him. 'Twas God's saying to Cain, (the Ring-leader of Homi­cides, the first man that ever committed Murder) Sin lies Gen. 4. 7. at the door. Every sin, especially this bloody crying Sin, lies at the door, at the Sinner's own door, and he must take the brat home to himself, and not father it upon any other; none else to bear the blame of it, nor to be chargeable with it, neither [...], nor [...], nor [...], (by his leav in Homer) neither God, nor Fate, nor Destiny, nor Chance, nor Providence, nor Nature, unless it be corrupt nature; and that's the Sinner himself. No, nor yet is the Devil by himself alone chargeable with it; he is suasor, but not actor; the Tempter, but not the Sinner; speaking of this Sin, you may call him the Father of it, as he is of every Sin; for as he is a lyar, and the Father of it, so he was a murtherer from the be­ginning, Joh. 8. 44. and the father of it: so then he may pass for the father, if ye will; but the flesh, or our sinful cor­ruption is the mother, and that's the surer side; and so every man's Sin to be laid to his own charge, at his own door, Noxa caput sequitur. Now of all others▪ a Mur­derer is a Sinner in grain, a deep dy'd Sinner, as deep­dy'd as blood can make him; and as every Murderer is such an egregious Sinner, so every Sinner is an egregious Murderer, for he's [...], a Self-murderer, he's felo de se, guilty of his own death, he contracts a guilt, and incurs a penalty, and that no less than of death, and that as due as the workman's wages, for the wages of sin is Rom. 6. 23. death: there's a charge drawn up against him under his own hand in the Court of Heaven, a guilt cleavs unto him, and that not only reatus simplex, as they call it, [Page 13] or a guilt in actu 10, but also reatus redundans in perso­nam, or a guilt in actu 20, without the mercy of God through the merits of Christ interceding for him. This St. Stephen supposes, that in the ordinary course of God's justice Sin is laid to the Sinner's charge; and he to bear the burden, and to undergo the penalty of it: and yet he supposes withal, that the mercy of God sometimes intervenes, and takes off the charge.

And that's the third Particular, Misericordia Dei, the 3. mercy of God in giving a discharge to Sinners sometimes, and not laying their Sins to their charge: were it not for this, and for hope o'this, neither of our Martyrs wu'd ha' thus pray'd for their Murderers. When a Sinner is arraign'd and condemn'd at the bar of God's justice, he sometimes finds both a reprieve and a pardon at his mercy seat; when he's cast in Law, and the Cause carry'd against him in the ordinary Court of justice, he finds some relief and favour by getting a pardon under the broad seal of Hea­ven, the Gospel of Grace, sign'd and seal'd with the blood of Christ. Were it not so, wo worth the day V [...] etiam lau­dabili vitae ho­minum. Aug. Conf. l. 1. c 22. Si quoties pec­cant homines, sua fulmina mittat. that ever we were born, the best of us all; if God shu'd charge home upon us, and lay all our Sins to our charge. But, blessed be God, there's hopes, yea very good hopes to the contrary, be our sins never so great and grievous; that's our comfort, and that's the ground of our Martyr's Prayer, Lord, lay not this sin, this heinous and crying Sin, Lay not this sin to their charge. Sins may always be laid to the Sinner's charge, that's their merit; but they are not always so laid, that's God's mercy: they may de jure, that's the guilt o'Sin; but they are not de facto, that's the goodness o'God. But I shall wave the further prosecution o'these, and pass to the

4th. Particular, and that is Virtus Orationis, the efficacy 4. and power of Prayer, in procuring a pardon, not only [Page 14] for our selves, but for others; I say, in procuring a pardon, and prevailing with God to grant a discharge, and not to lay sin to the charge of a Sinner, though never so great and grievous. That God is a God forgiving iniquity, and Exod. 34. 7. transgression, and sin (as he says himself), i. e. all man­ner of Sin, Sins of all sorts and sizes; that he sometimes acquits and discharges even the greatest Sinners, relea­sing 'um from the penalty and guilt o'their Sins, non im­putat, that we had before, and St. Stephen takes it for granted: but now, Quare non imputat, whence comes it to pass, by what means or motives is God prevail'd with, and wrought upon, so as non imputare, to deal so graciously with the wretchedest and vilest Sinners, as not to lay their sins to their charge, no, not hoc pecca­tum, not this Sin, though never so foul, horrid and hei­nous? this we have here, viz. St. Stephen's earnest and fervent Prayer for 'um. Stephen was a righteous man; justitia causae, and justitiae personae, both met in him, and that in an eminent manner; he was a righteous man, and had a righteous cause: and the Prayer of such a man (says St. James) of a righteous man [...], is very Jam. 5. 16. effectual, and availeth much. O the perswasive Rhe­toric of a good man's Prayer! The Prayer of a Saint, of a Martyr especially, is very powerful and prevalent for procuring a pardon, and that not only of his own Sins, but of the Sins of others, even to a nè imputes, so as to take off the charge, and free 'um from the guilt and penalty of 'um. But what? shall we then make Saints and Martyrs our joint-Mediators and Intercessors? or shall we say, that their Blood, and Tears, and Prayers procure a discharge, and sue out a pardon, and obtain a non-imputation of Sin? Is not this derogatory to the mercy o' God, and the merit o' Christ? not at all: for the Prayers of the Saints are prevalent only through his [Page 15] merits and mediation. Indeed 'tis the free Grace and Mercy of God, that is the prime and principal proegu­menous cause, whereby God is inwardly mov'd and en­clin'd to give a discharge and release to Sinners, and to grant pardon and forgiveness o' Sin: and 'tis the all­sufficient merit and mediation of Christ, that is the prime and principal procatarctic cause, the only impulsive meri­torious cause, whereby God is mov'd and induced to show pity to poor Sinners: 'Tis Christ alone that is our Advocate with the Father, and he is the propitiation for 1 Joh. 2. 1, 2. our sins, says St. John; though, if Socinus say true, the blood of Martyrs may avail almost as much for the expia­tion and pardon of Sins, as the blood o' Christ; yet the same Apostle tells us, that (not the blood of Martyrs, but only) the blood of Jesus Christ the Son of God clean­seth 1 Joh. 1. 7. Heb. 9. 22. us from all sin. Without shedding o' blood (his blood) no remission o' Sin, not of the Sin of Blood-shed and Murder, this Sin, to be sure: 'tis his blood alone can wash out this blood, the guilt and stain of this Crimson and Scarlet Sin, especially the stain of innocent and Royal blood, the Sin of this day. 'Tis not the blood of all the Martyrs and Holy men that ever were slain since the beginning o'the world, not all the righteous blood Matth. 23. 35: shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of our righteous King Charles the First, that can make an atonement or propitiation for any one Sin. The blood of Saints and Martyrs may cry aloud to Heaven for vengeance, but it can never cry for mercy; no, that's proper and peculiar to the blood of Christ alone: No other propitiatory nor deletory of Sin, but only the blood of that immaculate Lamb. Nor have we any other Advocates in Heaven, that we know on, nor Mediators of intercession, no more than of Re­demption, but only that one Mediator between God and 1 Tim. 2. 5. [Page 16] men the man Christ Jesus. I say, no other Advocates nor Me­diators in Heaven; yet we have a sort of inferiour Advo­cates and Intercessors on earth, viz. our fellow. Christians, that may and do make intercession for us, and are daily Orators in our behalf at the throne of Grace; praying to God for us, that he wu'd not impute our Sins unto us. Some on earth then we have, that intercede and pray for us, but none in Heaven, but our Saviour Christ; I mean none that pray for us in particular,"though in the gene­ral, the Church Triumphant in Heaven, may pray for the Church Militant here on earth; yet, I scy, no Saints de­parted pray for us in partkcular, for ought we know, and Viventes pro viventibus, ergo Defuncti, is no good consequence by the Cardinal's leav; for they that live and converse with us here on earth, may see and know our wants, or we may impart our thoughts and desires, our needs and necessities to 'um: but that the Saints in Heaven either know my wants, or hear my Prayers, I ha' no ground to believ, because no warrant at all in Scrip­ture; therefore I cannot in Faith call upon 'um, nor pray unto 'um to pray, and intercede for oe: and though St. Stephen's Prayer might prevail for his Persecutors, while he was upon earth, yet it cannot prevail with me to say, Sancte Stephane, or a me, now he's in Heaven. How­ever this benefit and advantage we have by that Article of our Creed, the Communion of Saints, that we who are members of the Catholic Church here on earth, reap the fruit of one anothers Prayers. Nor is this sweet perfume of the Prayers of the Saints confin'd within the verge and pale o'the Christian Church, but extends it self to the benefit even of Jews, Turks, Infidels and Heretics; so that when this alabaster box is broken, and these Prayers pour'd forth, the whole world is fill'd with the odour of the Oyntment. Though then the mediation and [Page 17] intercession of Christ in Heaven be the sole meritorious cause of a nè imputes, of not laying sin to the sinner's charge: yet by the vertue of his merit and mediation, the Prayers and Intercessions of Holy men upon earth are very prevalent, and impetratorious in their kind, as motives and inducements to God to give a discharge, not as meriting, but procuring causes, or rather not cau­ses but occasions, of the remission of Sins; and not only of their own, but even of other mens Sins. Yet is not this done per saltum neither, but by degrees, I mean, by some previous qualifications and conditions requisite to be perform'd by the Sinner himself, to render him capable of so great a favour as this non-imputation; such as godly sorrow, and hearty repentance, and, an unfeigned purpose of amendment o'life: therefore, Qui vult fi­nem, vult media: he that prays for another, that God wu'd not lay his sins to his charge, is presum'd to pray withal, that God wu'd give him Grace to repent of his Sins; this latter being the way and means to procure and obtain the former: for as without shedding o' blood (the blood o' Christ) so without shedding o' tears (the tears of a Sinner) i. e. without godly sorrow and repen­tance, there is no remission. So then the Prayers of the faithful are a powerful and prevalent means, whereby God is mov'd and enclin'd to give repentance to Sin­ners, and consequently remission of Sins. Let the Elders pray over the sick person (says St. James); and the Prayer Jam. 5. 15. of faith shall save the sick, and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him: therefore, saith Simon Magus to Simon Peter, here i'the next Chapter, Pray to Act. 8. 24. the Lord for me; meaning, as appears by the context, that his Sins might be forgiv'n him. And, Pray not thou Jer. 7. 16. for this people, says God to the Prophet; implying that the Prophet's praying for 'um, was the ordinary means to [Page 18] move God to give 'um a pardon, and not to lay their sins to their charge. That Austin ever was St. Austin, he might partly thank his Mother Monica, for her Prayers and Tears. Fieri non potest ut filius istarum lacryma­rum Aug. Cons. 1. 3. c. 12. pereat. So powerful and prevalent are the Prayers and Tears of holy Men and Women, of Saints and Mar­tyrs, to obtain repentance and salvation for others; the Prayers of Martyrs especially; for as Sanguis Martyrum semen Ecclesiae, so Oratio justi clavis coeli. As the soil of the Church is manur'd and made fat by the blood of dying Martyrs; so being blown and breath'd upon by the soft gentle gales of their Prayers, especially of those Prayers they make for their enemies, it becomes more fruitful by a new addition o' Converts and Proselytes; who by observing both the constancy and charity of these holy men at their deaths, by seeing their patience in constant suffering for the truth, and by hearing, or rather God's hearing, their charity in such servent pray­ing for their persecutors, are effectually wrought upon, converted and brought home to Christ. Thus in thesi; and thus it was no doubt in hypothesi, in St. Stephen's case: for we may well believ, that by his patient suffering, and powerful praying, some of that durum genus, of those hard stony-hearted Jews, with their stones i'their hands, and their stone i'their hearts, were mollify'd to conver­sion, and brought to repentance; and that as God was able, so he was willing, of those stones to raise up chil­dren Matth. 3. 9. to Abraham; and so there was this good effect of our Martyr's Prayer for his Persecutors, that the Lord did not charge this nor the rest o'their Sins upon 'um. That thus it was with some of 'um, is more than proba­ble; but of one we are certain, viz. St. Paul; who by vertue of the Proto-Martyr's Prayer was giv'n and gain'd to the Church, and of a persecuting Saul was made a preaching Paul. According to that known saying of the [Page 19] Father, Si Stephanus non orâsset, Ecclesia Paulum non S. Aug. Serm. 1 De Sanctis. haberet; St. Paul's Conversion was the fruit and effect of St. Stephen's Devotion. And not only Paul, but some others among 'um 'tis like were hereby converted, and brought to repentance, and so their Sin, this Sin, this horrid, bloody, crying Sin, forgiven and not layd to their charge. Thus prevalent was our Martyr's Prayer here i'the Text, this happy effect it had upon his Perse­cutors and Murderers. And now shall we say that our Royal Martyr's Prayer this day had the like effect upon his? we hope it had; at least upon some of 'um. 'Twas his charity to pray for 'um, and it must be our charity (and nothing else) to hope the best of 'um, that the guilt of that innocent and Royal blood (this day shed) was wash't away from 'um by the blood o' Christ, and the tears of true repentance, and so this bloody Sin not layd to their charge. However our Proto-Martyr here i'the Text, and our Princely Martyr here o'the day, have both set us a Copy, and taught us our Duty, viz. by their example to pray for our Persecutors:

Which is the fifth and last Particular, Officium Christia­ni, 5. The duty of Christians under the Cross, by Stephen's ex­ample to pray for their Persecutors. Thus we are taught by our Church to pray, first in her Litany, That it wu'd please God to forgive our Enemies, Persecutors, and Slande­rers, and to turn their hearts; & then in her Collect for our St. Stephen's day; That we may learn to love and bless our Persecutors, by the example of the first Martyr St. Stephen, who pray'd for his Murderers. And thus we are taught by our Saviour to pray; first by his Precept, in his Ser­mon on the Mount, Love your enemies, bless them that Matth. 5. 44. curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them that despitefully use you and persecute you: and then by his practice, at his suffering on the Cross, [Page 20] Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. Luk. 23. 34. Pater ignosce and Domine nè imputes, forgive, and dis­charge, come both to one, both the same Prayer in ef­fect; and Stephen herein follow'd our Saviour's example, nay, borrow'd this Prayer from Christ's own mouth, say some; who therefore affirm that he was present at our Sa­viour's passion. 'Tis possible he might be; but yet this is gratis dictum, and only conjectural; and however this be, whether he heard it or no, yet he learnt it, to be sure, of our Saviour, thus to breath out his last with such a transcen­dent charity, and with such a zealous and ardent affection thus to pray for his Persecutors; I say, with such a zealous and ardent affection, for he cry'd with a loud voice, says the Text; and when he had said this, he fell asleep: as if he had been unquiet as it were in his mind, and in a kind of restless condition, till he had vented his fervent cha­rity, and perform'd this last duty of love to his Brethren, (for so they were, though his enemies) till in lieu of their heaping stones on his head, he had heapt coals of fire on theirs, by his ardent zeal and affection for 'um; in a word, till with great earnestness and contention o'Spi­rit, he had pour'd out this short, but pithy and pathe­tical Prayer for 'um; and when he had once done this, then he was quiet, and found rest for his Soul; when he had said this, then he fell asleep Here then is a pat­tern for our imitation, an example for us to follow; and we know who follow'd it this day, even our late Mar­tyr'd Soveraign, who pray'd for his Persecutors, as the Proto-Martyr did, and was a follower of him, as he was of Christ; for he follow'd not the steps of Stephen only, but of his blessed Master and Saviour, and according to his pattern pray'd for his Murderers, says our Church in one of her Collects for this day. Let his memory therefore be ever precious among us, that we may fol­low [Page 21] the example of his patience and charity; as it follows there. You'l say, this is a Doctrine and a Duty for Christians under the Cross, but (thanks be to God) we are not so; we are not with Stephen under a show'r of stones, nor with our Royal Martyr in the hands of Mur­derers. Beloved in the Lord, 'tis well we are not; yet we know not how soon we may be: for who of us knows what days we may live to see, or what times God has reserv'd us for? If we look abroad, the face of things has no such pleasing nor promising aspect. But I will not malè ominari; and now especially when I am upon a theme of charity, which thinketh no evil, loth I am to 1 Cor. 13. 6. suspect the worst. Yet let things be at the best, while we are Pilgrims here on earth, travelling through the wilderness o'this world, we are but in a suffering and conflicting condition: In the world we shall have tri­bulation Joh. 16. 13. (says our Saviour), I, and enemies too; there­fore we ha' need o' patience to endure the one, and o' charity to pray for the other. But my Text is not a Theme of patience, nor our Martyr's Prayer here a Prayer of patience, so much as of charity; and there­fore to this latter I shall confine my self, viz. to Charity, which teaches us by their example to pray for our Ene­mies; and Enemies we have, to be sure, and those not a few, the Lord forgive 'um: For what good Christian can want Enemies now adays, when Atheism and Pro­phaness has so many friends? what sober Christian can want Enemies, as long as Riot; and Luxury, and Debau­chery has so many Friends, that in some places 'tis almost counted a Sin to be civil? once more, What peaceable Christian can want Enemies, as long as Schism and Se­dition has so many Friends, and there are so many Secta­ries and Malecontents in Church and State? And ha' we not need o' charity, think ye, to pray for these enemies; [Page 22] that God wu'd give 'um a sight o' their Sins, and so lay 'um home to their hearts, that they may never be layd to their charge? You'l say, these are close and secret ene­mies; the Text speaks of open and publick ones, Perse­cutors and Murderers, and we hope, we ha' none such: I hope so too. Blessed be God, we are not yet ad ecu­leum redacti, not brought to Racks and Strapado's, Axes and Gibbets; nor are we in danger o' wearing a stone coat, [...], (as he calls it in Homer;) yet I must Hom. Il. 1. tell you, and I think I may tell you without breach o' that charity which I am commending to you, That if some men had their wills, and were well arm'd, and had stones i'cheir hands, and I, as Stephen stood i'their way, I wu'd not trust 'um. You easily ghess who I mean: they are those fratres in malo, those red-hot fiery Zealots o' both sides; your furious hair-brain'd Fanatic, and your perfidious disloyal Loiolite: I joyn 'um together, Bithus cum Bachio, for I know not which is the worse o'the two; and I think they plough with one anothers heifer. But as for the Persecutors and Murderers, those 'ithe Text, and those o'the day espe­cially, they are the objects of our Martyr's charity, and therefore of ours. I mean them that are capable of it; For as for those Alastors, the prime men, and ring­leaders of 'um, who sign'd the Writ, and had an imme­diate hand in the Royal blood that was shed this day, some of those blood-thirsty men did not live out half their days (at least not the days that they might ha' liv'd), but were deservedly cut off by the Sword of Justice, and made a Sacrifice to divine and humane Laws here on earth. If any of 'um repented, and found mercy in heaven, before they dy'd, well far [...] our Martyr-King with his Prayer and charity for 'um, while they were living: but whether they repented or no, they have [Page 23] had their doom already; now they are dead, and in another world, our charity will do 'um no good, 'tis in vain to pray for 'um: The living, the living are they we must pray for, and they to whom we must extend our charity. If then there be any of 'um yet alive, who had either a head in plotting and contriving, or a hand in acting and executing the hoc peccatum, the Sin o' this day, our charity bids us pray (and we cannot do less for 'um) that God wu'd give 'um a sight o' their horrid Sin, and Grace to repent earnestly and heartily of it, that so it may never be layd to their charge; nay, fur­ther, our charity (that believeth all things, and hopeth 1 Cor. 13. all things) bids us believ and hope, that some of 'um at least, I wu'd willingly say, many of 'um, have already repented, and are become real Converts. And this (though we may wish to see more apparent signs of it, yet) where we see no manifest signs to the contrary, this, I say, in charity we are to hope and believ. And if we thus hope and believ, then let us forgive and forget; forgive after the example of our Martyr King, and for­get according to the pattern of his Son, our now Gracious Soveraign, whom God long preserv; who has profess'd, as I have heard, that he that touches his Royal Act of grace and favour, I mean, that most gracious and mer­ciful Act of Indemnity, touches the apple of his eye. Let us then pass such an Act of Amnestie and Oblivion too in our own breasts; I mean, an Act of Oblivion as to others, but not to our selves; for we must never for­get, but remember, that we our selves all of us, more or less, have had a finger, if not a hand i' this Sin o'the day. I know, this will startle some: How? will some say, I hope not so; God forbid; who, I a hand i'the King's death? I defy him that says it: I thank God, I am as innocent herein as the child unborn; I am innocent of Matt 27. 24. [Page 24] the blood of that good King, that just person. So said Pilat, but yet he was not for all that: he wu'd ha▪ wash'd his hands of it, but cu'd not. No more (I fear) can we; for some guilt o'this blood must neede stick upon us in some degree or other, seeing our Sins were the meritorious cause of the shedding of it. We curse the Jews that crucify'd Christ; we cry out o' them that stoned Stephen; and we exclaim o' those that murder'd the King, as a pack of most vile Varlets and Miscreants: and as we cry out upon 'um, so it may be we cry out for 'um, I mean, cry earnestly and with a loud voice too, as St. Stephen did; with as loud a voice, but not with so good a heart as he, nor wi' so much charity, Lord, lay not this Sin to th [...] [...]arge. But now after all this, let us a little, I pray, [...]ct upon our selves. This Prayer, I told you, was a Prayer of charity, and charity begins at home: Let us then look homewards, and see whe­ther we our selves are altogether free from the guilt o' this blood, or whether we have not cause to read the Text with a little alteration, by changing the person, Lord, lay not this sin to our charge. For did not God take away our good King in his wrath? and were not the Sins o' the Nation the fuel that kindled and fed the fire of his wrath? and ha' not we contributed some sparks at least, yea and some fuel too to this fire? God be merciful to us all; for sure we must all cry guilty before him, and take shame to our selves: And that in­deed is the business of this day, not to make bitter inve­ctives and declamations against others, but in the bitter­ness of our Souls to lament and bewail our own sad con­dition; to weep bitterly for our own Sins, whereby we ha' made our selves accessory in some kind or other to the commission of so execrable and horrid a Crime. I say, in some kind or other, remotely at least, if not im­mediately; [Page 25] meritoriously if not executoriously; virtually if not formally; by consequence if not directly; by a sinful connivance and complyance it may be, though not by a down-right plotting and contrivance. However accessories we are, though not the Principals; our Sins being the procuring meritorious cause of God's permit­ting this Sin, this bloody Sin, this Sin of the day. 'Twas for our Sins, our national Sins, our personal Sins, that God open'd the flood-gates, and suffer'd the banks to be broken down, and let loose those torrents of Belial, those floods of ungodliness, that deluge and inundation of wickedness, that overwhelm'd and drown'd both King and Kingdom. We abhor the very name and me­mory of those cursed and cruel Rebels, and if we shu'd meet any of 'um, we are ready to cast dust and dirt, and throw stones at 'um: But if none but he that is without sin among us, shu'd take up the first stone to fling at 'um, truly the stones might lye still long enough for all us. Therefore let us take off our eyes a while from beholding o' them, and reflect, and look a little upon our selves, and knock at our own doors, to see whether all be well at home. Though I hope we had no direct immediate hand nor heart in the Sin of this day; yet shu'd we be called to account for it, who of us all here present (if then alive, and of ripe years) cu'd now plead not guilty? Doubtless they were the Sins of the Nation in general, and the Sins of every one of us in particular that shar­pen'd the Ax, and brought the King to his end. It was for our many and great provocations that God did suffer his Anointed to fall this day into the hands of violent and blood-thirsty men; as our Church in her Collect for this day devoutly confesses; and again, We humbly con­fess, that the Sins of this Nation have been the cause which hath brought this heavy judgment upon us. [Page 26] Many national Sins I might name, which were then rife and common among us, and so they are still; which then provok'd God's wrath against us, and so they do still (for truly the world is not much mended since). But because St. Stephen had so much to do with Libertines, and our Royal Martyr with those that cry'd out so much for Liberty, I shall therefore only take notice of that universal Libertinism, looseness, and licenciousness, that seems to overspread the whole body o' the Kingdom. Men every where taking Liberty enough, whether it be giv'n 'um or no. We ha' need of more Stephens to beat down our Libertines; such a general Libertinism possesses the Nation: An Atheistical loosness, licenciousness, and prophaneness, in point of Morality, as to life and pra­ctice: a Sceptical loosness, latitude, and indifferency in Religion, as to matter of Opinion and Doctrine: an Anarchical loosness (what shall I call it?) remisness and slackness of the reins of rule and government, in point of Order and Discipline: Every one of which is of dangerous consequence, and has a very sad aspect and malignant influence upon a Kingdom and Nation, threat­ning the ruin and dissolution both of Church and State, if not timely prevented; especially that I last mention'd, that general loosness and slackness of the reins of government in point of Discipline, that uni­versal neglect and contempt of Autority; that Epidemical undutifulness, irreverence, and disrespect to Superiors, a rust and restiveness contracted in the late lawless irre­gular and rebellious times, and yet not rub'd off, nor worn away; the dregs and reliques of that old leaven not yet purg'd, nor wrought out of the minds and spirits of men; the seeds of Rebellion and Treason still lurk­ing among us; for all undutifulness to Superiors is a kind of petite Treason; Lex est copulativa; there's a [Page 27] concatenation o' duties; and he that breaks one link o' the chain of Subordination and Subjection to lawful autority, endangers all: and this is certain, He that is undutiful and disobedient and disrespective to his Supe­rior, will not stick upon occasion, to be disloyal to the Supreme; and then, beware of hoc peccatum, the Sin o' the day. Now as for personal Sins, I must leav that to every man's Conscience in particular, to call himself to account, and see how the case stands between God and his own Soul. Let us then do so, I beseech you, every one of us, seriously and thorowly search and examin our selves in private (for that's the work of this day, and not only to pray, and hear a Sermon in public), I say, let us search our own hearts, to find out what Sins we are most guilty of, our bosom and beloved Sins; for they are the Murderers and Malefactors that must be attach't, ar­raign'd and condemn'd this day at the bar of Con­science; they are the Regicides, that have had so deep a hand in the Sin of this day; they are the Traytors and Rebels, that betray'd and murder'd the King. Let then every one of us put these and the like interrogatories to our own Souls; Was it not by my high-mindedness and self-conceit, pride and ambition, that God was pro­vok'd to let proud aspiring Tyrants and Traitors climb so high? Was it not my uncleanness, my lusts which war in my members, that contributed to the kindling of that unnatural war between the Head and the members? Did not the heat and fire o' my lusts (among others) incense and provoke God to let fire come out o' the bramble, and devour the Cedar of Lebanon? Was it not by my envy, hatred, and malice, and uncharitableness, and hardness of heart, that God was provok'd to harden the hearts of those cruel Regicides against their lawful King, and per­mit 'um to be fill'd brim-full with hatred and malice [Page 28] against his Royal person? Was it not my rash swearing and prophaneness, my false-swearing and perfidiousness, my breach of Oaths and Covenants, Promises and engage­ments made in my Baptism, that mov'd God to give up those false perfidious Traitors to a reprobate mind, so as to break all those Sacred bonds and obligations, and Oaths of Allegiance to their Leige Lord and Soveraign, and in stead of them to enter into those two bonds of iniquity, the Covenant and Engagement? Lastly, was it not my intemperance, gluttony, and drunkeness, that provok'd God to suffer such a crew of savage and barba­rous Rebels to glut themselves with the flesh of Nobles, and to be drunk with Royal blood? Thus shu'd we with sorrow of heart reflect upon our selves, who were then in being, and at years, when this horrid Sin was commit­ted. But then what shall we say to our Postnati or Puines, those of the younger sort? Indeed they cannot be said to be guilty o'the Sin o'this day, or any way accessory to it, seeing they were not then in rerum natura; not so much as enter'd upon the Stage o'the world, when this sad Tra­gedy was acted; they were not born, when the King was beheaded. Yet by way of prevention of future cala­mities, let them take heed o'those Sins, which in those times were the meritorious causes of this fearful judg­ment, and provok't God to suffer it. In a word, let all of us, both old and young, fear to commit those Sins, which as they were then, so they may be still, the merito­rious procuring causes of as heavy and dreadful a judg­ment upon the Land and Nation. Let us, I pray, take heed of persisting in the perpetration of our old wicked­nesses and impieties, and of acting over those Sins a fresh, by which God was provok'd to permit cruel men, Sons of Belial, this day to imbrew their hands in the blood of his Anointed, and thereby to deprive us of so good and [Page 29] gracious a King. This then is the proper work o'the day; every one of us to say with Pharaoh's Butler, I do remem­ber my faults this day, and so to humble himself before the Lord, not only in public, but in secret; to lay his hand upon his heart, and put his mouth i'the dust, and take the shame and guilt of his Sins to himself, and say, God be merciful to me a sinner; and, deliver me from blood­guiltiness, O God: and, Lord lay not this sin to my charge. Thus we shu'd do, and O that we cu'd do it with that brokeness of heart, and contrition o' spirit, with that true godly sorrow, and remorse o' Conscience, that God may hear in Heaven, and have mercy, and forgive and pardon, that so no one drop of that Royal blood may ever be upon the head of any one of us in this Congre­gation, and much less upon the whole Kingdom and Na­tion! O gracious God, when thou makest inquisition for blood, lay not the guilt of this innocent blood (the shedding whereof, nothing but the blood of thy Son can expiate) lay it not to the charge of the people of this land, nor let it ever be requir'd of us or our posterity. Be mer­ciful, be merciful unto thy people whom thou hast re­deemed, and be not angry with us for ever; but pardon us for thy mercie's sake, through the merits of thy Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.


A SERMON Preached upon the Anniversary of the Birth and hap­py Return of King CHARLES the Second.

1 S. Pet. 2. 17.‘Fear God. Honour the King.’

FEw words, but full, and pregnant, and big with variety of matter. Two short Sentences, but long and large in sense and signification. Two breif compendious Precepts, but of a huge diffusive, and comprehensive reach. Two short Lessons, but of so grand importance, and so vast a latitude, that it will take up a man's whole life to learn them: the first of them especially, Fear God; which the Royal Preacher in the close of his Ser­mon, makes the Totum hominis, the whole duty of man. Eccles. 12. 13. And if so, we need learn no more, but put a stop at Fear God, and go no further. For if that be the whole duty of man, then Honour the King will fall under it, as included and comprehended in it: and so he that hath learn't to fear God, hath learn't also to honour the King. And though the latter of these Duties be not so comprehensive as the former, as to the direct and imme­diate [Page 32] import of it in regard of the object; yet take it in its full extent and latitude, and in all the due qualifi­cations of it as to the act prescribed and enjoyn'd, to­gether with the grounds and reasons of it, and then it implys and presupposes the other: And so he that hath learn't to honour the King, hath learn't also to fear God. And this shall be my task at this time, to shew the [...], the mutual coherence and connexion of these two Precepts, the reciprocal clasping and concatenation of these two Duties together.

Well then, Fear God is a large Theme, and would af­ford matter for many Sermons: and so would Honour the King too, if one should discourse of them severally and apart, as simply and absolutely in themselves consi­der'd: but I shall not do so, but twist them both toge­ther, and so handle them joyntly, as they have a mutual [...] and reference one to another, and a mutual depen­dance each upon other. Juncta juvant. And so I shall speak to these two Aphorisms or Propositions: 1. No man can truly honour the King, but he that fears God. 2. No man can truly fear God, but he that honours the King. So that here in this Text St. Peter reads two Lessons, or Lectures, one to the prophane ranting Royalist, the other to the fanatic hypocritical Rebel.

1. No man can truly honour the King, but he that fears God. Loyalty and subjection to the Higher Powers, is a fruit and consequent of the fear of God: where there is not this root in the heart, there can be none of that fruit in the life. 'Tis nothing but Conscience and Reli­gion, and the fear of God, that can aw the spirits of men into a sense of their duty, and keep 'um within the bounds of loyalty and allegiance. Let every soul be sub­ject to the Higher Powers, saith St. Paul, Rom. 13. but how can he be subject indeed to the Higher Powers, [Page 33] in obeying their Laws, that is not first subject to the most High in keeping his Commandments? Can I think that man religiously observes the fifth Commandment, that makes no conscience of keeping the other nine, and so pays God but the tithe of the obedience due unto him? He that would truly honour the King, and give due obe­dience to him and his Laws, must do it for conscience Rom. 13. 5. sake (saith the Apostle), but without the fear of God where is conscience? if it be any where, it's asleep to be sure, for the fear of God will rouz it up and awaken it. There is no power but of God (saith the same Apostle in Rom. 13. 1. the same place) the powers that be, are ordain'd of God; and so the Supreme Power, Soveraignty, or Supremacy, is the Ordinance of God, and upon that account it chal­lenges our dutiful submission and subjection to it. Now how can he that fears not God, truly submit to the Ordinance of God? and consequently, how can he truly honour the King? Again, the King is God's Lieute­nant (as I may say) upon earth: his Vicegerent and Depu­ty: how then can he truly honour the King, that disho­nours God, whose Person the King represents? The Judge in the Gospel neither fear'd God, nor regarded man, Luk. 18. 2. (and he was not asham'd to say so himself): Indeed if he fear'd not God, no marvel he regarded not any man in the world, so as to give him any due honour, respect, or reverence, though never so much his Superiour. Abraham (to be sure) was in the right, when he made the want of the fear of God, the root of all evil, the Parent and Nurs of all Sin and Wickedness, Adultery, and Murther, and the like. Gen. 20. 17, Surely the fear of God is not in this place, and they will slay me for my wives sake; either to kill him, or abuse his Wife, he thought they would make no bones of either, as long as the fear of God was not among them. And 'tis likely [Page 34] our Common Law borrows that phrase in her form of Inditement, viz. of a Malefactor's not having the fear of God before his eyes, either from that speech of Abra­ham, or else from that of the Psalmist, The transgression Psal. 36. 1. of the wicked saith within my heart, that there is no fear of God before his eyes. And from thence he knew it was, viz. from the want of this fear, that all his wick­edness did proceed. For 'tis the fear of God, that keeps all in aw, and in order; and where that is wanting, nothing is safe, nor secure, neither Money in the Chest, nor Wife in the Chamber, nor Man in his House, nor King in his Throne. It is that great wheel in the clock that sets all the other o' going; it makes a man move order­ly and regularly in all his relations: if that fail, the rest of the wheels will move slowly, or stand still; a man will drive heavily, or not at all. First, Fear God, then Honour the King: without the former no hope of the latter. If a man fear not God, never look he should honour the King, honour his Natural, Civil, or Eccle­siastical Parents, or keep the fifth Commandment, or any else. By this that hath been said already, and much more that might be said, it may plainly appear, that wicked and ungodly men, men void of the fear of God, whatsoever they pretend, can never truly honour the King, nor be faithful and loyal Subjects to their Prince and Soveraign. Honour him they may from the teeth outward, and after a fashion, or rather flatter him for their own by-ends, and sinister respects, for their secular interest and worldly advantage; but they can never love and honour him, serv and obey him, from their heart and soul: they can never give him the honour due unto him, out of love or respect to his Person, out of duty to God, or for Conscience sake. We use to say, and we say truly, A thorow-pac't Jesuited Papist can never be a good [Page 35] Subject: if he would be so, he must quit and forsake his Principles. So we may say, and say as truly, A lewd and vicious, and debauch't person cannot be a good Subject; if he would be so, he must quit and forsake his practices. Take the wicked from before the King, Prov. 25. 5. saith Solomon (a King, and the wisest of Kings), and his throne shall be establish'd in righteousness; and if so, then on the contrary it follows, that while the wicked stand before the King, and yeild him feigned obedience (and they can yeild him no better) his throne will not be establish'd: such wicked, and unrighteous, and ungodly Subjects and Servants, will undermine his Throne, shake his Crown, and endanger his Person. And therefore our gracious Soveraign, when presently after his happy Return, he set out that his most religious and godly Declaration against Drunkeness, Debauchery, and Pro­phaness, he did not only do an act of Christian Piety, but of State-Policy: nor did he only consult the honour and glory of God, but likewise his own honour, and interest, life, and safety. For what greater honour, and safety to a King, than the godly lives of his Subjects? on the contrary, what greater enemy to the being, and well-being of the Prince, than the wicked lives of his People? What are the loud thundring ratling Oaths, and horrid Curses and Imprecations of Subjects, but as so many Cannons, or Pieces of Ordnance, not only with their mouths set against heaven (as the Psalmist speaks), Psal. 73. 9. but even planted and levell'd against the face of the King? What are the fightings, and feuds, and quarrel­lings, and duels of Subjects, but as so many Swords drawn, with their points set against their Soveraign? What are those prodigious luxuries, and excesses, riotings and revellings, debaucheries, and drunken meetings of Sub­jects, but as so many Conventicles, Juncto's and Conspi­racies, [Page 36] though not directly and formally, yet collaterally and by consequence, against the Lord's Anointed? In a word, what are those torrents of Belial, that inunda­tion of Atheism and Prophaness, that at any time breaks in upon a Kingdom or Nation, but a deluge that threatens to over whelm and drown both Prince and People? The King is the Head of the People; I am sure, the name of our King signifies so, [...]: Now it's no strange thing, neither in the Natural nor Political Body, for the Head to suffer, when the Members miscarry, or any time dis­order or distemper themselvs. It is no news (for we our selvs have liv'd to see it) no news to see the best of Kings cut off for the Sins of the people. So was Josiah King of Judah, and so was Edward the Sixt our English Jo­siah, and so was King Charles the Martyr, our late Sove­reign, of ever blessed and glorious Memory, cut off, not only by the Sins and wickedness of a few cursed mis­creant Rebels and Traytors, but even for the Sins and wickedness of the rest of his people, yea and of those too perhaps that counted themselves to stick closest to him, and to be his best and most loyal Subjects.

But I shall not any longer, hoc ulcus tangere, rub or grate upon this sore. I have no particular reflexion up­on any; only this I shall add in the general, that some­times the best caus may miscarry in bad hands, becaus the goodness of the caus, makes men more confident, and so more secure and careless of their lives: they pre­sume so much of justitia causae, that it makes them neg­lect justitia personae. Well, let none presume upon their fidelity to their Soveraign, nor flatter themselvs with professions and protestations of Loyalty to the King, while they go on with their Sins and Impieties to pro­voke and offend the King of Kings. They that rant and roar, swear and swagger, and drink the King's health, [Page 37] but seldom or never pray for it, do such men think they honour the King, or are His Majesties good friends and faithful Subjects? whatsoever these prophane Atheisti­cal people may profess or pretend, yea and boast of their good affections to His Majesty; I dare boldly affirm, they are so far from being true honourers of him, that they are no better than false Traitors to him, and Ene­mies to his Royal Person, Crown and Dignity. Do such men think they can honour the King by dishonouring God, or shew themselves good Subjects by being bad Christians? For my part, I am sorry such heathenish people make such a profession of Loyalty; yea, I could almost wish that they made no profession of Christianity neither: for by their loos and vicious lives, they are a reproach and a scandal both to the one and the other, and so bring an evil report upon the good Land, and make the enemies of God and the King to blaspheme, saying, Lo, these are the men, and this their conversation, and thus they are all. Though (by the way) as Chri­stian Religion is not the wors, for some wicked mens professing of it, no more is Loyalty neither: rather on the contrary, it shows there is some extraordinary beauty and excellency in them both, becaus hypocrites and ungodly men use them for a cloak and a cover, sheltring and shrouding themselvs and their Sins under the colour and profession of them. To draw towards a conclusion of this point: The way to honour the King, is to honour God first: the way to fear and reverence and obey the King, is first to fear the Lord. Therefore Solomon puts them both together, My Son, fear thou the Lord and the Prov. 24. 21. King. In a word, the way to be the King's good Sub­jects and Servants, is to serv the Lord. I find several godly and religious Courtiers, and Kings Servants in Scripture, as Joseph, and Mordecai, and Nehemiah, and [Page 38] Daniel, and others. But I take notice of two especially above the rest; some it may be do not take so much no­tice of them; but I mention them the rather, becaus of their names, and they are Obadiah and Ebedmelech. Obadiah was Steward of King Ahab's house: and of him we read, that he fear'd the Lord from his youth, 1 Kings 18. 12. Ebedmelech was a great Officer in the hous of King Zede­kiah, and of him it is said, that he put his trust in the Jer. 39. 18. Lord. But why do I mention these two? only to this pur­pose, by way of allusion, to prove that none can be a good Subject and Servant to the King, that is not the Servant of God: and for this there may be an argument drawn from the Etymology of their names. Obadiah signifies the servant of the Lord, and Ebedmelech is as much as to say, the servant of the King. He that would be an Ebed­melech, a Servant of the King, must be an Obadiah, a Servant of the Lord. Except you serv and fear, honour and obey God, you can never conscientiously, nor truly serv nor fear, honour nor obey the King. And so I have finish'd St. Peter's first Lesson or Lecture, which was a Lecture to the prophane ranting Royalist, in the first Aphorism or Proposition, No man can truly honour the King, but he that fears God.

I come now to his second Lecture or Lesson, which is to the fanatic hypocritical Rebel in the second Aphorism, which is this:

2. No man can truly fear God, but he that honours the King. Hitherto we have render'd to God the things that are Gods, and fear to whom fear is due. Now let us render to Caesar, the things that are Caesar's, and ho­nour to whom honour; for this due is proper and pecu­liar, Rom. 13. 7. especially, Personae Principis, says one upon the place (and he no great Royalist neither) though indeed Pareus in locum: in rendering to Caesar his due, we shall render to God [Page 39] his due still; and in honouring the King, we shall honour God too. For do we not honour God, when we keep his Commandments? and is not the fifth Commandment concerning honouring our Parents, part of the Decalogue? And is not the King Pater Patriae, the Father of his Country, and our Political Parent? And is it not God that speaks to us here by the mouth of his Apostle St. Peter, and bids us honour the King? And 'tis well we have it here in such express terms, that our Antimonar­chical rebellious Corahs, may have no subterfuge, nor evasion. And here the Chapter of Loyalty, the 13th to the Romans, comes in agen: from whence I shall fetch but this one argument. A godly man is afraid to resist the ordinance of God; The higher Powers, and so the Regal, is the ordinance of God: and consequently, he that truly fears God, will honour the King; and if he honour him, he will not resist, but obey him. To obey Magistrates, to honour the King, and to be in subjection to our Parents, and to the Higher Powers, is not only an imperat, but an elicit, act of Religion. Not that we think religious worship is due to Magistrates, (for we do not Idolize nor adore our Princes, as the Persians did of old, and as some do the Pope at this day,) but becaus the Higher Powers are certain Models and Em­blems, Images and Representatives of the most High; and so the honour we give unto them, does more imme­diately reflect upon God, and more directly redound to his honour and glory. And therefore some Divines have made the fifth Commandment a branch of the first Table, which concerns our duty to God; at least an ap­pendix to it, viz. becaus our Parents, whether Natural, Civil, or Ecclesiastical, are loco Dei, in the place and stead of God, and represent his Person. However, if it be not part of the first Table, it is the next to it; [Page 40] wherefore it is observed by Divines, that in Humane Au­thors, as well as in the Holy Scriptures (as 1 Tim. 5. 4.) honouring and obeying and requiting our Parents, is call'd Religion and Piety: Let them consider this that are undutiful, disobedient, and disrespectful to Parents: there can be no true piety, no godliness nor religion in 'um, that's certain; and the same is to be said of those that are undutiful and disobedient to Princes. And if Scripture be the rule of our Religion, as sure it is, then it must needs follow, that, as long as the Scripture commands us to be subject to Principalities and Powers, and to obey Magistrates, Tit. 3. 1. and to submit our selves to every Ordinance of man (or to every humane creature, [...], that is in Place and Auto­rity, Omnibus filiis hominum, as the Syriac renders it, to all the Sons of men, viz. that are set in Autority over us) for the Lord's sake, whether it be to the King as Su­preme, or unto Governours, as unto them that are sent by him, 13 and 14 vers. of this Chapter: I say, if this be Scripture, and the Scripture the rule of our Religion, then it must needs follow that those Men are the most godly and religious, who most honour the King, and are most dutiful and obedient to their Natural, Civil, and Ecclesiastical Parents. True Religion is both the causa procreans & conservans, both the Mother and Nurs, of our subjection to Magistrates: and the fear of God, the direct, proper, and immediate caus of honouring the King: now Positâ causâ proximâ, ponitur effectus, & contrà; and so the argument will hold reciprocally, by a mutual demonstration from the caus to the effect, and from the effect to the caus: Such a man fears God, there­fore he honours the King; and again, such a man honours the King, therefore he fears God. And thus I think, as to the general, the point is clear. And if so, if [Page 41] there be such an inseparable union and connexion be­tween these two, then is it not strange, that any should neglect the one that pretends to the other? that a man should think he fears God, when he does not honour the King? yea, and that for fear of offending and displea­sing God, he should venture to displeas and dishonour the Supreme Magistrate by disobeying his lawful com­mands, who is the Ordinance of God; yea, who is in the place of God, and represents his person? Is it not strange, that when the Apostle bids us be subject to the Higher Powers, and obey lawful Autority for conscience sake, any should pretend conscience for their disobe­dience? I do not love to give hard words instead of strong reasons, nor to pin odious unnecessary consequen­ces upon any mens Practices or Opinions: for I desire to deal with others, as I would be dealt with my self, that is, fairly and candidly, in a way of love, and in the spi­rit of meekness. But is it not so indeed as I have said? Are there not those among us, that scruple and boggle at the lawful commands of the Supreme Magistrate, yea and refuse to obey him, even in those things which they themselvs confess to be lawful becaus indifferent, and yet will not have them impos'd nor commanded, be­caus indifferent? And is not this said to proceed from tenderness of conscience, and fear of doing somthing against the will of God reveal'd in his Word? Thus men must be disobedient to lawful Autority, and so resist the Ordinance of God, even for conscience sake. And though sure they do not much honour the King, who disobey him by transgressing his Laws; yet such men think they fear God as much, yea more than any; and that they are the most, if not the only, religious and conscientious men, and all others but formalists, and time-servers, and meer moral men in comparison; [...]. [Page 42] But now becaus there is such a nois of conscience, I would earnestly entreat and beseech such men for the love of our Lord Jesus Christ, diligently to search and examin their own hearts (for the heart is deceitful Jer. 17. 9. above all things), and see whether instead of that they call conscience, and make it a plea for their disobedience, there may not be something else lying at the bottom, that looks like conscience, when indeed 'tis nothing less, but rather humour, or passion, or fancy, or faction, or pre­judice, or interest, or singularity, or hypocrisie, or spiritual pride. If our heart condemn us (saith 1 Joh. 3. 20. St. John), God is greater then our heart, and knows all things. I am very well aware of what follows in the next vers, from whence some would infer, that they may boldly and lawfully do whatever their conscience bids them; If our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence towards God. But sure that must be under­stood 1 Joh. 3. 21. of a heart and conscience truly enlightned, and rightly inform'd; otherwise we have no caus to be con­fident; for our heart may deceiv us; and conscience, if misguided, is a dangerous thing, and will soon marr all, and make foul work, and set the whole world on a flame. Did not Paul persecute the Church out of Zeal to Reli­gion? and did not they that kill'd the Disciples and Saints of Christ, think they did God good service? Thus conscience if misled, and not well guided, taught, and Joh. 16. 2. instructed, may do a world of mischief where it is: But then again, is it not easie to pretend it, where it is not? for have not we known the most horrid and devilish de­signs, carry'd on under a shew and pretence of conscience, and the Caus of God, and Religion? The truth is, Con­science is made a sadle for every hors, a bush or sign to hang at every door: And as long as the heart is so deceitful, as long as there is so much hypocrisie in the [Page 43] world, we have little reason to trust every such show and pretence of conscience, either in our selvs, or others: Especially when we have a more clear light to guide and direct us, and a more sure rule to walk by, viz. the Word of God. Conscience is a dark, close, secret, in­tricate thing, it has many crooked windings and turn­ings: but the Word of God (at least in things necessary to Salvation, such as is obedience to lawful Autority) is plain and easie, clear and evident, and there are no such Maeanders or ambages in it. Conscience may err, and lead us into errour, like an Ignis fatuus, 'tis fallible and uncertain, it may deceiv, and be deceiv'd; but the Word of God is an unerring guide, a certain and infalli­ble rule. Conscience then is no sure rule to trust to; we have a more sure rule, even the sure Word of God, whereunto we shall do well to take heed, as to a light 2 Pet. 1. 19. that shines in a dark place, as our Apostle St. Peter speaks. In brief, the Word of God is the rule of our lives, and of our consciences both; and truly consci­ence will play mad pranks, if not regulated and guided by this rule; and for men to pretend conscience against the express Word and Commandment of God, what is it else but to turn Antiscripturists, and so Atheists, under pretence of Religion? Does not Solomon counsel us to Eccles. 8. 2. keep the Kings commandment, and that in regard of the oath of God? where we see, he expresly makes Religion towards God, the ground and foundation of our obe­dience to the King; so that he that keeps the King's com­mandment, keeps the commandment of God. And is not this the clear and express commandment of God here in the Text, Honour the King? And shall any then plead conscience for not Honouring him? Can any man in con­science truly fear God, and not honour the King? for can a man fear God, and not keep his commandments? And [Page 44] is not the fifth commandment one of the ten? or, can any one honour the King, and yet slight his Autori­ty, or refuse to obey his Laws? And are not the Eccle­siastical Laws (by the way) the King's Laws? And have not they the impress of Regal Sanction, and the stamp of Royal autority set upon them, as well as the Civil? What plea then or excuse can men have for not keeping and observing of them, especially when they pretend to be so good Christians, to fear God, and keep his commandments? If mens consciences be misled and mistaken (which is the best can be imagin'd), yet God and the King must not loos their right. An erroneous conscience cannot cancel the bond of obedience, nor excuse any from doing his duty: Indeed it may so en­snare and entangle him, that, durante illâ conscientiâ, he cannot proceed one way or other without Sin: but still datur exitus, for Nemo angustiatur ad peccandum (saith the School), still there's a way left to get out, and to extricate himself, and that is deponere errorem conscien­tiae, to rectifie his conscience, to quit and forsake his errour, which he may do, by giving all moral diligence, and using all good means for his better information: And if he would do that, let him not lean too much to his own understanding, but rather distrust his own judg­ment, Prov. 3. 5. than the judgments of so many wise, grave learn'd, and godly men, his Superiors in Church and State; the King, and those that are in autority under him. And then let him in the fear of God, duly and impartially weigh and examin the grounds and reasons of his dissent and disobedience; not thinking it sufficient, that he has met with some little umbrages, and shadows of offence in general, taken at the King's Ecclesiastical Laws, the Orders and Ceremonies, and Liturgy of the Church; but let him come to particulars, and then seriously con­sider [Page 45] and ask his own heart, whether indeed he be able to prove by Scripture or reason, any one thing enjoyn'd, to be unlawful, and repugnant to the Word of God; (for till that be done, 'tis in vain for any to plead or pretend tenderness of conscience for their contempt and disobedience). And then let him ask himself but one question more, viz. how far he thinks some few needless niceties, doubts, and scruples, about things indifferent, will bear him out and excuse him another day, for his neglect of so necessary and fundamental a duty, as honouring the King, and yeilding obedience to his Laws. That submission to lawful Autority, and Obe­dience either active, or passive, is a most necessary duty, no Christian can or will deny. I say, Obedience either active or passive, active in things lawful, passive in others. Now if men bring themselves into danger, or lie under any hardship, for disobeying the King, and not perfor­ming his lawful commands, what joy of heart their pas­sive obedience can be to them, or what great content, or comfort, they can find in their sufferings, I cannot con­ceiv, but shall leavs it to all prudent and unprejudiced and impartial men to judge.

And here I shall only add this as to the matter of Non-conforming to the Kings Ecclesiastical Laws; and so draw to a conclusion. Let men diligently take heed and beware, lest in stead of conscientious Non-conformists (for some such I believ there are, though it's pity there should be, men of of such weak and tender consciences, that for want of due instruction and right information, they are really and truly dissatisfy'd), I say, let men take heed lest in stead of being such, they prove (as too many I fear there are) pervers and stubborn and obstinate Schismatics, or (which is all one) fanatic hypo­critical Rebels. And if so, then as I said before to [Page 46] the prophane ranting Royalists, That by their vicious and ungodly lives, they bring a scandal and reproach upon Loyalty: So I must say to these men, That by their spurning at lawful Autority, and their undutifulness to the Higher Powers, they bring a scandal and reproach upon Christianity; while they make Religion a cloak for Rebellion, and pretend conscience for their disobe­dience. I have been the longer upon this, because in­deed 'tis Morbus Epidemicus, the diseas of the times: and I would fain, if possible, help to beat men out of this hold, viz. of making the fear of God a plea for not honouring the King: a pretence so directly contrary to the Doctrine of St. Peter here in the Text; where he joyns these two duties together in a bond of insepa­rable union; I say, these two Duties, which I have hitherto prov'd to be like Hippocrates's twins, that live and dy together; Fear God; Honour the King; so that no man can do the one, and omit the other: and as he that is a prophane, wicked, and ungodly man, cannot be a true, faithful, and loyal subject: so on the other side, he that is a fals, disloyal, undutiful subject (pretend what he will) cannot be a holy, good, and godly Christian. [...], which is the thing I have been proving all this while, viz. that No man can truly fear God, but he that honours the King. Now there are several ways of honouring, or giving honour to any, several sorts of honour; I mean of honour strictly taken, as here in the Text: for otherwise honour is taken in a more large ac­ception, as oppos'd to contempt, scorn, or hatred; and so in the beginning of the vers, Honour all men, that is, have a due respect to all; do not hate, nor scorn, de­spise, nor contemn any. But honour strictly and pro­perly taken is only due to Superiors; and so in this sens there are several sorts of honour, these three [Page 47] especially: The honour of Obedience, the honour of Re­verence, and the honour of Maintenance; and all these comprehended, and included in the word honour, both in the fifth commandment, where we are bid to ho­nour our Parents; and also here in the Text (which is a branch of that commandment) where we are bid to honour the King. Of the first of these I have been speaking all this while, viz. of the honour of Obe­dience; and for the two latter, the honour of Reverence, and the honour of Maintenance, as I have now no time, so no need (I hope) to say much of them. For that both these sorts of honour are due to the King or Su­preme Magistrate, as well as that of Obedience, is out of all question; it being so consonant to the principles both of Religion and Reason, and so agreeable to the rules both of Divinity and Policy: So that most men yeild their assent to the truth of it, as to the Theory, though in the Practice sometimes they fail and fall short. So then, besides that of Obedience, there are these two other sorts of honour more, both confessedly due to Kings and Princes, viz. the honour of Reverence, and the honour of Maintenance; the one for the safeguard and defenc of their Royal Persons; the other for the sup­port of their Regal Estate, Crown, and Dignity. For first, if their Persons be once slighted, undervalu'd, and disesteem'd, their lives will soon be in danger: and then again, if their jura Regalia, their Regalities, or Revenues of the Crown, be clipt and cut short, the Reverence of their Persons will not long continue. Therefore we find Honour in Scripture, sometimes put for supply or maintenance, or payment of rights and dues, as of Tithe or Tribute, and Offerings, and the like. Honour the Lord with thy substance, and so the King too: Honour widows, that is maintain them, by Prov. 3. 9. 1 Tim. 5. 3. [Page 48] supplying their wants and necessities; and to this pur­pose St. Paul in that 13th to the Rom. v. 7, Render there­fore to all, and so to Kings and Princes, their dues, tri­bute to whom tribute, &c. where we have tribute, and custome, and honour, put together; tribute and custome, being a great part of the honour due to Kings. There­fore our Saviour commends and commands it both by his precept and practice; by his precept, in his Reddite Caesari; by his practice, when he pay'd tribute him­self; Matth. 22. 21. yea, and rather than not pay it, he would work a miracle, and fetch it out of a fishes mouth; and he made St. Peter to do it, which St. Peter's Successor the Fisher­man of Rome (I fear) is not so forward to do, to pay tribute, I mean, to Kings and Emperours, but rather make them pay homage and tribute to him; which if they refuse to do, and so prove Heretics, Rebels to the Apostolic See, the Chair of Rome, and the Triple Crown, presently ipso facto they forfeit their own Crowns, I, and their Lives too; away with 'um, de­pose and kill 'um. This is the Jesuits Doctrine; but they learnt it not of Jesus, nor Peter, nor Paul, nor Ter­tullian, nor of any of the ancient Fathers. What Christ, and Peter, and Paul have said, we have already heard: Let us hear now, if you will, what Tertullian saith for himself, and the rest of the Primitive Christians of his time, Colimus Imperatorem, tanquam hominem à Deo secundum, & solo Deo minorem. We honour, and wor­ship, and reverence the Emperour next to God. And St. Chrysostome (to name no more) upon that famous place to the Romans, Omnis anima, Let every soul be subject. [...], though he be an Apostle, or Evangelist, or Bishop, or whatever he be, if he come within the com­pass of Omnis anima, and have a Soul to save, he must be subject to the Higher Powers; honour the King or [Page 49] Kaisar, obey him, and reverence him, and pay him due homage, custome, and tribute. VVhat shall we say then? that our Jesuits never read the precept of Jesus Reddite Caesari, nor our Romanists the 13th to the Romans, no [...] our pretended Catholics, this Catholic Epistle of St. Pe­ter? Sure if they read it, they do not regard it. For were they to honour the King, to be subject to the Higher Powers then, and are not we now? Consider but what Caesars, Kings, and Emperours, they were in those days, in the time of our Saviour, and of his Apostles, and afterward in the time of Tertullian, and the rest of the Primitive Fathers, for 300 years after Christ; Tiberius, and Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, cruel and bloody Ty­rants, the very worst of the Roman Emperours, yea the worst of men, the very monsters of mankind; these and the like in the time of Christ and his Apostles. And then in the Primitive times, Trajan, Marcus Anto­ninus, and others, though the best of Heathen Empe­rours, yet Heathen Emperours, utter enemies to the Gospel and Church of Christ, and cruel Persecutors of Christian Religion. Give Caesar his due, saith Christ, though that Caesar was no other than Tiberius, Lutum Sanguine maceratum, a lump of clay molded and tem­per'd Theodorus e [...]m sub [...]de appella­vit, [...] Sueton. Tiber. with blood, as his School-master call'd him, in regard of his dull, and yet cruel, disposition. Honour the King, saith St. Peter, though that King or Emperour was no better than Claudius, (for it was in his reign that he wrote his Epistle; Pontus, Galatia, and the rest that he wrote to, being then Provinces of the Roman Empire). I say, Claudius, a Heathen and wicked Emperour; who banisht the Christians out of Rome, Impulsore Chresto assiduè tumultuantes, as Suetonius has it, mistaking the word, (the name Chresto for Christo) but much more the Sueton. Claud. [Page 50] thing, as if Christ had been a Ring-leader of Sedition: and likewise the time, as if he had liv'd in the days of Claudius, whereas he suffered some years before in the reign of Tiberius. And yet these were the Emperours, whom the Primitive Christians were to honour. How much more then does this duty concern us? How much more should we honour the King? the King, whom this day God bless'd us with, by bringing him into the world, and also this day, by a miracle of mercy restor'd unto us, by bringing him back to his Kingdom, even our Gracious King Charles the Second, whom God long preserv; not a Heathen Em­perour, but a Christian King; not an Enemy to Christ, and the Gospel, nor a Persecutor of the Church, and Christian Religion, but a nursing Father of the Church, a zealous Mainteiner of the Christian Religion, of the true Orthodox Reformed Religion, a Defender of the Faith, of the true ancient Catholic and Apostolic Faith; not a Nero or Dioclesian, but a Constantine, a Theodosius; not a cruel and bloody Tyrant, but the very picture and mirrour of Mildness and Clemen­cy; not a VVolf or Butcher of the flock, but [...], a Shepheard, and Father of his people: Under whose auspicious and gracious Protection, we enjoy our Lives and Liberties (and which are dearer to us) our Church, Faith, and Religion, the pure and Reformed Religion, the true and sin­cere Worship and Service of God: whereas before his happy Restauration, you know how it was with us, and in what sad and horrid confusions we were wrapt and involv'd, both in Church and State. For which ever-glorious and wonderful Revolution, as with joyful, and thankful hearts, we look up un­to God this day, as the principal Author, so we [Page 51] cannot but with loyal and humble hearts, reflect upon our Gracious Sovereign, as the cheif Instrument under God of all our happiness. Therfore as we bless God, so let us honour the King; honour him with our substance, by paying him due homage, custome, and tribute; honour him by our Obedience, in a chearful submitting to his Laws and Constitu­tions; honour him by a dutiful Reverence and re­spect to his Sacred Person: honour him with our hearts, by entertaining high and honourable thoughts and apprehensions of him, loving and loyal affe­ctions towards him: honour him with our hands, by fighting (if need be) or writing in defence of his Royal Person, Crown and Dignity: honour him with our mouths, by speaking highly and honourably of him, and not in the least kind, slandering or aspersing, dispa­raging or defaming Him or his Government. Take we heed and beware of the blasphemous rudeness of those railing Rabshakehs, and filthy dreamers, who despise dominions and speak evil of dignities, Jud. 8. or, as our Apostle St. Peter has it, they despise government, 2 Pet. 2. 10. and are not afraid to speak evil of dignities; [...], they tremble not to blaspheme Dignities. Blasphemy is properly against God; now is a kind of Divinity in Dignities, and Higher Powers; so that to speak evil of them is a kind of blasphemy. Naboth did blaspheme God and the King; a capital crime, had it been true: but you see blaspheming God and the King go together; He that blasphemes or speaks evil of the King, blas­phemes and speaks evil of God, whose Image and Vicegerent he is. Wherefore to conclude, Honour we the King ore and opere, both by word and deed, [Page 52] I and corde too, with our hearts and souls. Let us show that we fear God by our honouring the King. Let us declare our-selves to be good Christians, by being good Subjects; and so joyn these two together in our life and practice, which St. Peter does here in the words of the Text, Fear God, Honour the King.

A SERMON Preached upon the Anniversary of the Gun-Powder Treason.

Psalm 124. v. 7.‘Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers, the snare is broken, and we are delivered.’

THIS Psalm, as ye may perceiv by the tenour of it all along, is a Gratulatory or Eucharistical Hymn, or Psalm of Prais and thanksgiving to God for delivering Israel, both King and People (for it was in King David's time, the Author of the Psalm), the Church and people of God out of the hands of their mer­ciless and cruel enemies, the Philistins, most like, or the Ammonites. However some extraordinary preservation, some remarkable signal deliverance belike it was; and 'twas the Dominus nobiscum that did the deed, for If the Lord himself had not been on our side, when men rose up against us, they had swallowed us up quick, &c. but Blessed be the Lord, who hath not given us over as a prey to their teeth. [Page 54] Our soul is esaped, &c. In the words we may observ these three Particulars:

  • 1. The Danger that the Church was in, or the Plot lay'd for her, i. e. The snare of the fowlers.
  • 2. The Prevention of the Danger, or the Defeating and Disappointing of the Plot, The snare is broken.
  • 3. The Churche's Deliverance and safety ensuing thereupon, Our soul is escaped as a bird, and we are delivered.

1. Then, The Church was in Danger; and that's no news, the Church is in a conflicting condition, militant here on earth, a lily among thornes, in the midst of her enemies; among the pikes, and many a push made at her, many a snare laid for her. And thus Israel, the Church and people of God in King David's time, was in great danger it seems, and that by reason of a snare; and that snare the snare of the fowlers, whether Philistins, or Ammonites, or others. And was not our Israel, the Church of England, the Church and people of God with us, in as great danger too, as upon this day 64 years ago? and that by reason of a snare too, the snare of the fowlers, those Popish Philistins; such a snare as the like was never laid by any fowlers that ever were, such a Plot as the like was never contriv'd by all the wit and malice of Devils and Men; the Gun-powder Treason: which having once nam'd, I have nam'd the very quintessence and elixir of all villany and barbari­ty, mischief, and cruelty; a Plot that none but the Devil or a Jesuit, or a Jesuited Papist could ever invent; and a snare it was to purpose. Wicked and ungodly men, especially Tyrants and Persecutors, the enemies of God, and his Church, are often in Scripture compared to Hunters and Fowlers; and their mischeivous machina­tions, malicious plots, and contrivances, to traps, ginns, [Page 55] and snares; as in the book of Psalms, and elswhere. And very fitly so compar'd, and that in these three respects especially:

  • 1. Because they are Mala dolosa & occulta, cunning and close mischiefs.
  • 2. Repentina & improvisa, sudden and unexpected.
  • 3. Perniciosa & mortifera, dangerous and deadly. And was not this days treason a snare in all these respects?

1. In regard of the closeness and cunningness of it. A ginn or a snare is laid very closely and cunningly, that the bird shall not see nor perceiv it; for in vain the Prov. 1. 17. net is spread in the sight of any bird, saith Solomon. And such was the mischievous design of this day; the snare was laid very closely, and cunningly, hid in a dark vault, in a deep mine; These Popish Pioneers and Powder. Traytors dig'd so deep to hide and conceal, and cover their Plot and Powder, as if they would have dig'd as deep as Hell; Flectere si nequeo superos, as if when God and men fail'd them, they would have mov'd and call'd in the Devils to help them; indeed such a black and horrid treason could not be hatcht and hammer'd but in the Devil's forge, in the deepest and darkest cell, and caverns of hell; A dark vault or coal­hous they hir'd to this purpose under the Parliament hous, where in they hid their Wood and Powder: and truly such a dark vault was a fit place for such a work of darkness; and a coal-hous a fit shop for such Romish Incendiaries with their fides Carbonaria, their Collier's faith: Now besides this close and secret conveyance, the better to cover and conceal their cursed conspiracy, they bound themselvs by an Oath of Secrecy; yea, under the Seal of the holy Sacrament, not to discover nor reveal it to any without common consent. Thus [Page 56] closely and cunningly was the mischief contriv'd, and the snare laid; for a company of cunning Fowlers they were. The cunning Fowler when he cannot get his quarrie, nor kill the birds with his gun and shooting, then he spreads his net, then he falls to his snare, then he lays his ginns and snares privily for them. These Romish Fowlers or Hunters (if you will) yea, and Fishers too (for sure the Fisherman of Rome sub Annulo Piscatoris, St. Peter's pretended successor, had a main hand in the business) I say, these Popish Fowlers had often shot at us before; and fought against us as in 88, and at other times, Many a time had they fought against us, &c. Psal. 129. but they did not prevail against us. Yea Catesby and Faux with some other of their complices, had been very lately tampering with the Spanish Guns, dealing with the King of Spain about an Invasion: but when that fail'd, and those Guns wu'd not go off, nor take fire, then they fall to the snare; (yet there was gun-powder good store in the snare too), when they could not prevail against us by open force and violence, then they make use of their craft and subtilty, then they seek to entrap and entangle us with their ginns and snares, their close secret Plots and Conspiracies; for they had learn't Lysander's [...], when the lion's skin would not reach, they peic't and eek't it out with the foxe's; when neither the wild beasts of the field, nor the roaring Bulls of Rome, of themselves could do us any harm, then those crafty subtil foxes the Je­suits seek to circumvent and supplant us, to undermine and blow us up: for 'twas the Jesuites powder that was able to cure an ague, and all other diseases; 'twas Father Garnet and Greenwell, and others of that cunning crew, the spawn of Ignatius (with ignis, fire, in his [Page 57] name), 'twas they that animated and encouraged Catesby and Peircy and the rest of the Conspirators, to under­mine both Church and State, to work in the mine, and blow up King and Parliament, Lords and Commons, and all at a blast, all of a sudden; which leads me to the second Consideration, the second Circumstance, in re­spect whereof this horrible Plot and Conspiracy is fitly term'd a snare, and that is,

2. In regard of the suddenness and unexpectedness of it: The bird is taken in the snare of a sudden, ex im­proviso, and surpriz'd at unawares, Eccl. 9. 12, As the birds that are caught in the snare, so are the sons of men snar'd in an evil time, when it falleth suddenly upon them; and Luke 21. 35, As a snare shall it come, &c. viz. the last day, that is to say, suddenly, unexpectedly, and unawares. Such was the mischief of this day, Malum repentinum & impro­visum, sudden and unexpected, in a time of general peace and tranquillity, in the days of Great Brittain's Solomon, wise and peaceable King James of happy Memory; no forrain foes from abroad, no domestic enemies suspe­cted at home (he having oblig'd his Roman Catholic Subjects, as he thought, by many signal favours); when all things were thus calm and serene, no clouds gathering at all in appearance, then this storm was to break out of a sudden, and fall upon King and Kingdom; and like a Hurricane, sweep all away in a moment; Sudden it was in regard of the time and season, when 'twas con­triv'd, viz. when all was quiet, and no such desperate or fatal blow was in the least fear'd, or suspected (as the bird is surpriz'd, and caught in a snare when she little suspects it): thus it was Malum improvisum. And sudden it was too, in regard of the quick dispatch and havock it would have made, had it succeeded and taken (as the bird is caught in the snare of a sudden, in a trice, in a [Page 58] moment). And thus it was Malum repentinum: and both these, both the unexpectedness of the danger, and the sudden dispatch, mystically and covertly imply'd in the Letter to the L. Mountegle, by which the business was discover'd; the former in these words, Though there be no appearance of any stir, yet they shall receiv a terrible blow, this Parliament, yet they shall not see who hurt them: The latter in these, The Danger is past so soon as you have burnt the Letter. That is as that sagacious Oedipus, wise and learned King James rightly expounded the Riddle) The blow shall be suddenly given by a blast of Powder, which is as soon over as the blaze of a Letter burnt in the fire. And so you see, this mischie­vous Plot laid this day for this Church, the Church and People of God here in England, may very well be compar'd to a snare in regard of the suddenness and unexpectedness of it, both in respect of its sudden coming, and likewise of the sudden dispatch it shu'd have made when it came.

3. And lastly, As it was sudden, and unexpected, so 'twas dangerous and deadly. The snare of the Fowler is a fatal engine, an instrument of death; the bird that's caught in a snare, seldom escapes with her life; such was the mischief design'd and intended this day, a fatal and deadly blow it had been indeed, if it had taken; The snares of death encompass dus (as David speaks), and so Psal. 18. 5. our Church expresses her self in her Collect, O Lord who didst this day discover the snares of death that were laid for us. Indeed a deadly snare it had been, if it had not been broken; King and Parliament, Prince and Peo­ple, Peers and Prelates, Lords and Commons, all blown up at a blast: a whole Kingdom, Church and State, swal­low'd up and destroy'd by a [...]. A dangerous, dreadful and deadly design it was, to cut off, or rather [Page 59] blow up, the King and the whole Representative Body of the Kingdom, head and tail, branch and rush, in one day, nay, in a moment, at one blast; and yet thus they had done if the snare had held; this they intended, and had it in voto, nay in parato: Caligula's wish, O! that the people of Rome, nay, O! that the people of England, becaus they were not the people of Rome, O! that the Church of England had but unam cervicem, one neck, that they might cut it off; and why, think ye? even be­caus it had not that unum caput, that one Head which they would have set on. Cursed be their anger, for it Gen. 49. v. 7. v. 5. v. 6. was fierce, and their wrath, for it was cruel: Instru­ments of cruelty were in their habitation, and in their self-will they digged through a wall. They heaped up wood and faggots to burn up us Heretics: Indeed these Romish Beautefeu's and Incendiaries had been at their fire­works before; they had been trading and tampering long with fire and faggot by retail, in the Marian times; and now they thought to do it by wholesale, by making a Bonfire of the Parliament-house, burning and blowing up the whole Body of the Realm, Head and Members, the King with all the three Estates of the Kingdom as­sembled and met together. But blessed be the Lord who hath not given us as a prey to their teeth. Our soul is escaped, &c. The snare is broken, the danger prevented, the design blasted, the Plot defeated: that is the second particular we observ'd in the words, viz. the Prevention of the Danger, or Disappointment of the design.

The mischievous machinations and devices of wicked and ungodly men against the Church and people of God, though never so closely and cunningly contriv'd and carry'd, are often frustrate and broken, defeated and disappointed. [...], Such wicked works do not always succeed and prosper, they often prove abor­tive [Page 60] and come not to the birth; The reason is, there is a [...], an all-piercing eye that sees and discovers them, a [...], a God above that blasts and disappoints them and brings them to nought. And so it was this day, the snare was broken; and how was it bro­ken? just as it is here in the Psalm, by a Dominus nobis­cum, in the first verse, The Lord was on our side; and by an Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini, in the last; Our help was in the name of the Lord. How was this Treason discovered, and the danger prevented? just as God says to Zerubbabel, Zech, 4. 6, Not by might, nor by power (I may add, not by wisdom, nor by policy) but by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts. The snare is bro­ken, and we are escaped as a bird, tanquam Avicula: 'tis not by her own strength or cunning that the poor bird makes her escape: Alas she is weak and simple, only there comes some strong hand and breaks the snare, Nodos & Virg. Aen. 5. vincula linea rupit, in the Poet, and then away flys the bird; so it was here, a strong hand from heaven broke this snare, This was the Lords doing, and it is marvellous Psal. 118. 23. in our eyes, 'twas by the spirit of the Lord, and 'twas the Lord's doing that the Treason was discovered, and the snare broken: Yet our Zerubbabel, our pious and prudent Prince King James under God had a hand in it too, in the breaking and disappointing of it, for sure he was guided by the Spirit of the Lord, and more than ordinarily in­spired and directed in opening the secret, and unfolding the mystery and Riddle of the Letter; and according to that of the wisest of Kings, There was a Divine Sentence Prov. 16. 10. in the lips of the King (Great Brittain's Solomon) so that his mouth transgressed not in judgment, when up­on his reading of that dark aenigmatical writing, he past his sentence, whereby the whole business was happily discovered and brought to light, and so the snare was [Page 61] broken, and we were delivered; that's the third and last Particular, the Churches safety and deliverance following upon the snare being broken; we are delivered.

And this indeed is a necessary consequent of the for­mer, for when the snare is once broken, the bird will soon fly away and escape. We are delivered, so we were this day indeed, delivered from death and destruction, delivered from fire and faggot, delivered from the mouth of the lyon, and from the paw of the bear, and from the horns of the bull, the Pope's Bull, I mean, and from the tayl of the Dragon; delivered from the savage cruelty of Catesby and Faux, Et ab ipsis faucibus Orci; from the very jaws of Hell: delivered from passing through the fire to the Moloch of Rome, from being made a holocaust, a whole burnt-offering to that Idol, by those Priests of Baal, Father Garnet, and the rest of those Gun-powder-Saints and Martyrs. Thus we were and are delivered; I, and which is more, our soul is escaped: I know, by soul here (according to the usual Idiom of the Hebrew tongue), is meant nothing els but life or person, as much as to say, our persons are escaped, or we are escaped with our lives; her life, that's all the bird looks after. Yet I hope I may without forcing the Text, take occasion from hence, by way of accommodation, to put some greater stress or emphasis upon the word soul, and to observe from hence, that the Deliverance wrought tnis day was a Soul-Deliverance, not only a Corporal but a Spiritual Deliverance; not only a Deliverance of the body, but of the soul too, we escaped not only with our lives, but with our Religion; Our soul is escaped, escap'd out of the snares of Popish Idolatry and Superstition, laid in our way by those Romish Fowlers; snares, I say, laid in our way; for what is their [...], for instance, or worshipping the Host, but an Idolatrous snare? [Page 62] what are their numerous, superfluous, superstitious rites and ceremonies, but tot Laquei animarum, so many snares, upon the Souls and Consciences of men, espe­cially as us'd and impos'd by them of the Church of Rome, who place holiness and religion in them, and make them matters of necessity, and parts of Divine worship: things (by the way) which our Church in her few, her very few, ceremonies, has ever expresly dis­claim'd; enough in the judgment of any moderate or sober men, to clear her from any suspicious or supersti­tious symbolizing or syncretizing with the Church of Rome. Well, these were the snares; but by the blast­ing and defeating this Powder-treason, these snares were broken, and our soul escaped, and we were delivered. Again, their Auricular confession, consisting in an anxious punctual enumeration of all particular sins to the Priest in private once a year: Mistake me not; I am not against private Confession to a Priest, I would it were more practis'd amongst us; but that Auricular Sacramental Confession, as they call it, and as it is pra­ctis'd in the Church of Rome; besides, that it is a kind of a pick-pocket, as it is us'd, and a picklock of the cabinets and counsels of Princes: what a Carnificina & Laqueus Conscientiae is it? what an intolerable snare upon the soul and conscience? I instance in this the ra­ther, becaus under this pretended cover of Confession (though indeed it was no formal Confession, the busi­ness being reveal'd to Garnet and others, as he himself confess'd at last, not in way of Confession, but of dis­cours and consultation only) but under this cloak and cover of Confession, the treason was hid and conceal'd sub sigillo, a Seal so sacred and inviolable, that 'tis not to be broken in any case whatsoever, saith Bellarmine; no, not to avoid the greatest evil that may possibly [Page 63] happen, Catholica Doctrina non permittit ad ullum ma­lum vitandum secretum Confessionis detegi; and he speaks Bellarm. sub nomine Matth. Torti. pag. 94. it in defence of this days treason. Not to be broken, no, not to save the lives of all the Kings in Christendom; so said F. Binet the French Jesuit to Casaubon upon this very occasion, as that learned man tells us in his excel­lent Epistle to Fronto Ducaeus; Praestaret Reges omnes pe­rire, quàm si vel semel sigillum Confessionis violaretur: But by the disappointment of this horrid design, both this pretended seal, and this snare was broken, and our soul escaped, and we were delivered. Once more; Their Pope's Pardons, Bulls, and Breves, their Papal Indul­gences and Dispensations (which gave Luther the first occasion of plucking his foot out of the Romish snare) what are they els but pitiful snares to catch Dotrels, poor silly souls, that will pay so dear for a new-Nothing? But by defeating this Devilish plot, this snare was broken, our soul is escaped, and we are delivered. What should I speak of their Transubstantiation, and Purgatory, wor­shipping of Images, and Invocation of Saints, and the Rest of Pope Pius the fourth's new Articles of the Tri­dentine faith, equal in number, and equal in authority, to those of the Apostles Creed; snares laid for our souls by the fowlers of Rome, especially those subtil Emissaries and cunning fowlers the Jesuites, who as they did then, so have they done since, and still (no doubt) do go a birding among us, though some are so blind and simple they will not see it. Had they caught us in that [...], that capacious Catholic snare, set this day for King and Kingdom, Church and State, those other snares would have followed of course; for that was on purpose laid, to bring these upon us. But Bene­dictum sit Nomen Domini; hitherto our soul is escaped out of these snares, the snares of their dangerous and [Page 64] pernicious doctrines and principles, and the snares of their wicked and cruel designs and practices; especially out of the great snare of this day, Our soul is escaped, and we are delivered. And now may not this justly pro­voke and stir us up to a detestation and hatred of that Church and Religion, which brings forth such cursed and bitter fruits; whose principles are productive of so sad and direful effects? I will not say, (though it has been said) the Romanists Faith is Faction, and their Re­ligion Rebellion; but this I must say, that they teach and broach such Doctrines as are very scandalous to Christian Religion, and very dangerous and destructive to Kingdoms and States; as having a direct and natural tendency to sedition, rebellion, and treason: And here­in I dare boldly impeach and implead the Church of Rome, as the mother and nurs of this hideous monster, (though, blessed be God, it prov'd but an embryo) this monstrous Gunpowder-treason. And that herein I do her no wrong, I shall make it appear; For though our Romanists may wipe their mouths, and disclaim the business, by laying the blame upon a few rash hot-headed discontented Catholic Gentlemen; yet if we examine it well (and it has been examin'd pretty well already) we shall find it to have been the genuine issue and pro­duct of their Popish Principles, the natural result and con­sequence of some doctrines and opinions commonly and openly held and maintained in the Church of Rome. I shall instance in one especially, which is instar omnium, and the [...], the ground and foundation of all the rest, and that which gave the first birth and breeding to this barbarous and bloody design, and that is that bel­dame doctrine of the Pope's Infallibility, or (which is all one) of his Supremacy (for if he be Infallible, he must needs be Supreme) or, if you will, his universal temporal [Page 65] Monarchy, his Lordship Paramount, his absolute Sove­raignty and Dominion, his unlimited Power and Autho­rity, over Kings and Kingdoms, his power to depose Kings and to dispose of their Kingdoms. That the Pope hath power to depose Kings (if they be Tyrants or He­retics (and so they must be, if he once say the word, and pleas to call them so) is Communis Doctorum, the com­mon received opinion of their chief Doctors and Casuists; especially the Jesuits and their Adherents, who bear the great sway in the Church and Court of Rome. This I could shew at large by producing the concurrent testi­monies of Becanus and Bellarmine, Suarez and Lessius, Mariana and Santarell, Bonarscius or Scribanius (which ye will), and Emanuel Sa, and divers others. I shall only quote the sayings of one or two for all. Kings have no wrong done them (saith Bellarmine) if they are de­priv'd of their Kingdoms, when they prove Heretics; Nec ulla eis injuria fiet, si deponantur. And again, Here­ticum Bellarm. sub nomine Sculken, contra Wid­drington. est (saith he) 'tis a point of Heresie, to say that the Pope, as Pope, has not power Jure Divino, by Di­vine right, to depose Kings; but indeed you must under­stand him right; 'tis onely in ordine ad spiritualia, viz. Cùm id bonum spirituale sive ingens Ecclesiae necessitas requirit, when the caus of God and the Church, when the Catholic caus, or, if you will, when the Good Caus shall require it: And a little after, Pontificem habere po­testatem deponendi Principes est de fide, the Pope's power of deposing Kings is a matter of faith; and therefore to hold the contrary, must needs be a point of heresie. No marvel we are counted Heretics for denying this article of the Romish Creed: and no marvel (saith Lessius) that it is De fide, and we are bound to believ it as an article of faith, seeing it hath been determin'd and given as an Oracle out of the Infallible Chair: for Gregory the 7th, [Page 66] aliàs Hildebrand, has decided it long ago in express terms in a Council held at Rome 600 years since, Quòd Papae Less. Apolog. pro Potest: S. Pontif. Part 2. Sect. 3. Santarel▪ de Haeresi & Schism. liceat Imperatores deponere: and, saith Santarel, (whose Book being Printed at Rome was burnt at Paris, Ringente Papâ, & multùm frendentibus Jesuitis) Potest Papa Reges movere, & mortis poenâ punire, depose Kings, and put 'um to death; and that sine Concil [...]o; Papa sine Concilio deponit Imperatorem, si sit Haereticus: How does he prove it? Quoniam Papae & Christi unum est tribunal. And again, Qui Religionem Catholicam Romanam dese­rit, regnandi jus omne amittit: that's down-right; so Creswel. Philo­pat. Num. 156. says our Countryman F. Creswell in his Philopater. I shall name but one more, and that is Emanuel Sa in his Aphorisms, Verbo Clericus: Clerici rebellio in Regem non est crimen laesae Majestatis, quia Principi non est subditus. Excellent Jesuitical Doctrine, enough to make Kings and Princes in love with Jesuites as long as they live! A Church-man cannot be guilty of treason, because he is none of the Prince's Subjects: and no marvel, as long as he is one of the Pope's Vassals. But this wu'd not serv F. Garnet's turn; who was convicted and found no­toriously guilty of this day's treason by his own confes­sion, and suffer'd accordingly. 'Tis true, this Aphorism of Em. Sa's, either for shame, or rather for fear, is left out of the Paris Edition, this Doctrine being not so cur­rent in France as at Rome: but 'tis still extant in the first Colen Impression, and in that of Antwerp. Well, it seems this is the new Heresy of the Jesuits, as a late Author, even a Papist, calls it; and these Doctrines they com­monly vent and publish in their Books Printed Con Li­cenza at Rome and elswhere: nor did they ever retract or recant them, as far as I could hear. I know what is commonly pleaded and pretended of late by our Roma­nists; viz. that these dangerous, destructive, King-killing [Page 67] Doctrines are but the private Tenets and Opi­nions of some particular Doctors, and were never own'd and receiv'd as the public Doctrines of the Romish Church, nor ever decreed nor confirm'd by the Church of Rome in a Council. And this is the last and latest [...], the newest shift and refuge they have found out for themselvs. But let me ask 'um, 1. Is not the voice of their Pope Boniface the 8th, claiming a right to the Temporal Sword by vertue of Ecce duo gladii, and Repone gladium in Vaginam, and the like; and when he told King Philip of France, Scire te volumus, We wu'd have you to know, that you are Subject to us both in Spirituals and Temporals: I say, is not this Vox Ecclesiae, the public voice of the Church of Rome? Let me ask 'um, 2. Has not that of their Pope Gregory the 7th, aliàs Hildebrand, Nos, nos Imperia, Regna, Principatus, & quicquid habere mortales possunt, auferre & dare posse, as Platina has it in his life; 'Tis in our power to give and take away Empires and Kingdoms at our pleasure; I say, has not this fine Hildebrandine Doctrine been the public acknowledged Doctrine of their Popes, and of their Church, at least of the Court, of Rome, ever since? 3. Was the 4th Lateran Council under Innocent the 3d, a General Council, or no? If not, as sure it was not, (nothing being fully and openly determin'd in it, saith Platina, Nec decerni quicquam apertè potuit) how then comes their Transubstantiation to be made an Article of Faith by vertue of a Decree of that Council? If it was a lawful Oecumenical Council, as they will needs have it, then that the Pope has power to absolv Subjects from their Oath of Allegiance and fealty to their Princes, is a receiv'd authentic Doctrine of their Church; for that, they confess, was decreed in a Canon of that Lateran Council under Pope Innocent. 4. Suppose these King-killing [Page 68] Doctrines are not publicly own'd and declar'd to be the Doctrines of their Church, nor decreed in their Councils, either of Lateran, Florence, or Trent, are they a whit the less dangerous and pernicious for that, seeing they are the current Opinions of their most learned Casuists, Doctors, and Confessors, commonly receiv'd and embrac'd, I and openly publish'd and printed, by their greatest Clarks among 'um, and that without any check or controul, yea with great Approbation, Licence, and liking? But now, 5 and lastly, If in good earnest the Church of Rome disallows and renounces these dan­gerous Doctrines and Opinions so destructive to Kings and Kingdoms, then, I pray, let his Holiness seat himself in his Chair, and condemn these Doctrines, as he did, (or wu'd have seem'd to do) those of the Jansenists late­ly; let him limit his Ordo ad Spiritualia, and disclaim and quit his Temporal Monarchy; let him disown all power, so much as indirect, over Princes Temporals; let him confine himself within his own Precincts and Ter­ritories, and renounce his Catholic Supremacy, and his Universal Jurisdiction over all the Kingdoms and Chur­ches of Christendom: Let the Church of Rome publicly declare to the world in Print, that she disowns and dis­claims these treasonable, disloyal, Loiolitical Principles, these pestilent pernicious Antimonarchical Tenets of the Canonists and Jesuits; and then we may hope that our Romanists may be good Subjects. But till this be done, and while the Doctrine of Deposing Kings, allow'd by so many Decrees, I and Practices too, of Popes, and maintain'd by so many of their chief Authors, stands yet uncondemn'd; they must still give as leav (becaus they will give us caus) to doubt of their loyalty. I do not, I will not, say, All our Romanists are enclin'd to Re­bellion: I doubt not but there are many faithful and [Page 69] loyal Subjects among 'um: but this I must say, As long as they own a forrain Jurisdiction, either Spiritual, or Temporal, which they must do, if they are thorow-pac't; and as long as the Pope usurps the power to depose and dispose, to depose Kings, and dispose of their Kingdoms, and to absolv Subjects from their Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance; so long the Romish Religion must needs have a natural tendency to disloyalty: And therefore if Papists be good Subjects, no thanks to their Popery; and I fear, 'twill be hard for 'um to be good Catholics at Rome, and good Subjects at home: for if they be so, it must be only durante bene-placito, as long as the Pope is well-pleas'd: but if once he be angry with Kings and call 'um Heretics, then have at 'um Fowlers, let 'um look to themselvs. And indeed how our Jesuited Papists, if they be true to their Principles, can be true to their Princes, and take the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance, without mental Reservation, or Jesuitical Equivocation, or Papal Dis­pensation, first to take it, and then to break it upon occasion, which is to play fast and loos, to play with Oaths, as boys do with Cherry-stones; I say, how they can otherwise do it, for my part I confess, it passes my understanding. And therefore the Case was well stated and determin'd long ago by our Reverend and Learned Bishop Davenant, Jesuitici Pontificii non possunt esse Davenant. De­term. Qu. 17. boni subditi. Ye have hitherto seen what the Jesuits Doctrine is; now see what an influence it had upon this day's Treason; For I shall not say any thing of the As­sassines of the two Henrys of France, Clement and Ravailliac, one of which was a Novice in the Jesuits College at Clermont, but both acted by a Jesuitical spi­rit, and animated and spur'd on to the perpetration of those horrid Villanies by reading such Books as Maria­na's, and others. Nor shall I recount those many attempts [Page 70] made upon the life of our Renowned Queen Elizabeth of blessed Memory; those many snares laid for her by those fowlers of Rome, especially after that famous or rather infamous Bull of Pius Quintus was published against her, declaring her Excommunicate as a Heretic, and so de­priv'd of her Crown and Dignity, and absolving her Subjects from their duty and allegiance. What sad effects that Bull produc'd, what treasons and conspira­cies, rais'd against her by her own Subjects by the advice and instigation of Holt and Walpole and other Jesuits, commending it as a meritorious act to kill an Heretic Excommunicated and depriv'd by the Pope, is a thing notoriously known to the Christian world. In the head or title of that Bull, I find these words, Deinceps obedientes anathemate illaqueantur: where I take notice of the word, illaqueantur; all that would presume to be her obedient Subjects hereafter, were intangled in the same snare of the Pope's Anathema. However (God be thanked) those snares were broken, and she was deli­vered. But we need not look so far back: This days treason will speak enough for all, Crimine ab uno Disce omnes, we need fetch in no more, Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof. And first, 'tis as clear as the Sun at noon-day, that the Jesuits, Garnet, Hall, Greenwell, Gerard, and others, were deeply engaged in the Plot, and had a main hand in it, as being the Principal Au­thors if not Actors, in this horrid Tragedy. 2. That the rest of the Conspirators were influenc'd and in­fected with the traiterous Doctrines and Principles of the Jesuits, their Ghostly Fathers, and Confessors; and also animated, abetted, and encouraged, by their Coun­sels and instigations, this likewise is plain and evident by the Authentic Records of the Proceedings against them. [Page 71] 3. And lastly, 'tis no less evident, that it was the Pope's Bull that engendred this hideous Monster, that gave the first rise and growth to this unparallel'd Powder-Treason; the Pope's Bulls being Tauri ignivomi, like those in the Poet, Vulcanum naribus efflant, they breath gunpowder, fire, and brimstone. About the latter end of Queen Elizabeth, Clement the 8th (by the procure­ment no doubt of some here at home) sent two Bulls or Breves into England by the aforesaid Garnet, the Jesuit, and Superiour of that Order here, wherein he straitly charged all Roman Catholics not to receiv or admit any to be King (how near soever in blood) that was not well affected to the Catholic Religion: thereby prejudging and precluding (what in him lay) King James's Right here to the Crown; But these were but Bruta fulmina; they could not stop nor hinder the King, his way and Title were both so clear and open. And now his good Ca­tholic Subjects are at a loss; and what shu'd they do? they could not keep him out, and therefore [...], they will blow him out, or rather, blow him up; and for that they had sufficient warrant and encouragement from the fore-named Clementines: for proof whereof when Father Garnet told Catesby, 'Twere not amiss, if the Pope were sent to, and made acquainted with the business, to know his mind, and how well he approv'd it; Catesby reply'd, That needed not, for he knew the Pope's mind well enough, he having already declar'd himself for the King's non-admittance; and who knows not, (saith he) that Qui admitti nolit, expelli velit? So you see upon what Grounds he went, and what it was that prompted and mov'd him, and his Complices, to this cursed Conspiracy; yea, I dare boldly affirm, that those two Bulls, the one of Pius the fifth against Queen Elizabeth, the other of Clement the eighth against King [Page 72] James (Pius and Clement indeed with a witness) toge­ther with the Jesuitical suggestions, doctrines and de­vices, as so many Glosses and Comments upon those Texts, have given ground and occasion not only to this, but even to all the treasons and conspiracies practis'd ever since, against this Church and State, King and Kingdom; not excepting the late grand rebellion and treason, which we in this age have liv'd to see. For do you think our Roman Catholics, at least the Jesuits, were idle spectators all the while, and had not a hand in the 30th of January, as well as in the 5th of November? Is it not well known that the train to entangle us in that horrible snare, and intrigue of the late confusions, was laid by a great Cardinal Minister of State, and perhaps the whole Conclave? are we not yet convinc'd, that the design was hammerd at the Romish forge, and fire fetcht from thence to kindle our combustions? Is it not yet apparent, that the Popish Emissaries and Incendia­ries were sent hither on purpose under the name of Ana­baptists, Seekers, and Quakers, and I know not what, to blow the coals, and foment the flames of our late dissentions? And are we not yet sensible, how some fa­ctious and seditious Separatists have been, and still are, acted and carried on by Jesuitical principles in their re­bellious practices; and so brought to be the Pope's drudges; and to do his work for him, though the leaders of them are so blinded with partiality and prejudice, and others so led with blind obedience to their Teachers (a point of Popery too) that they will not see nor perceiv it? I will name but two or three Doctrines of Bellarmine and his fellows; and you shall judg how well they have been followed by some of late, who yet would be thought to be the only Antipodes almost and enemies to Rome. A Prince, saith Lessius, that is a Tyrant, [Page 73] cannot be put to death by any private men, while he continues a Prince, but must first be deposed; but by whom? why, A Republica, vel Comitiis Regni, by the Less. de Just. & Jur. l. 2. c. 9. Commonwealth, or by the Parliament, vel alio habente authoritatem, (i. e.) the Pope. And to the same purpose Suarez, Post sententiam latam omnino privatur Regno; and then ye may do what you pleas with him, A quo­cunque privato poterit interfici, any fowler may fetch him in. Potestas immediatè est tanquam in subjecto in tota Membris Eccles. Bellarm. de Membris Ec­cles. lib. 3. qui est deLaicis. multitudine, saith Bellarmine, The soveraign Power is in the People; Et si causa legitima adsit, &c. and if there be a lawful caus (and who shall judg of that but the Pope or the People?) the People may turn a Kingdom into an Aristocracy or Democracy. And this he stands to in his Recognitions, stoutly maintaining Potestatem Po­liticam Bellarm. in Re­cog. lib. suprà dict. non esse immediatè in Regibus; That the Civil power is not immediately in the Prince, nor immediatè à Deo, sed mediante consilio & consensu hominum. And again elswhere, Potestas Regis est à populo, quia populus Bellarm. de Concil. l. 2. facit Regem; whence it follows, saith he, that if the King prove a Tyrant, Licèt sit caput Regni, tamen à po­pulo posse deponi, & eligi alium. And what could some among us have said more? Sure I am they did no less. I shall add but one piece more, or rather a master-piece, of Bellarmine's Politics. In his Book against Barclay, he brings in the Pope discoursing with a Prince's subject to cajole and debauch his Loyalty and Allegiance; When I absolv you (saith he) from your Oath and bond of Al­legiance, be not mistaken, I do not give you leav to disobey or resist your King, Non permitto ut Regi non pa­reas; Bellarm. de Po­test. S. Pontif. adv. G. Barcl. cap. 31. no, by no means, take heed of that; that were contrajus divinum, against the law of God. Very good. I, but how then? Sed facio ut qui tibi Rex erat, non sit deinceps tibi Rex; but I make, appoint, and ordain, [Page 74] that he who was your King, is not now your King any more: No King any longer, if the Pope saith the word; and then take him Fowlers, and do what ye pleas with him; he lyes open either to your gun, or your snare. And now tell me, were not some among us of late very prompt Scholars of Bellarmine, think ye, they had so perfectly learnt this distinction? they did not oppose nor resist the King, but you know whom; no gun had they to hit him, no snare to take him in his Political ca­pacity, but only in his Personal. Ye see how thorough­ly these Jesuitical lessons were learnt and got by heart by our Regicides and Rebels of late; and shall any make me believ that they are Protestants, and of the true Reformed Religion, that are so apt Disciples of Bellar­mine? Just such Protestants as this days Traytors. Sir Edward Cook, then the Kings Atturney General, in his Speech upon the Gun-powder-Treason, has several Ob­servations, of which this is the last, That there was ne­ver any Protestant Minister found guilty of any conspi­racy or treason against the King. And no marvel; for certainly Rebels and Traytors can never be true Prote­stants, what ere they pretend. Disloyalty, Rebellion, and Treason, are so against the grain and strain of our Protestant Profession, so directly contrary to the geni­us and temper and spirit of the Gospel, and of the true Reformed Religion. Let us then, I beseech you, stick close to the Principles of our Religion, which are Prin­ciples of obedience and loyalty; Let us hold fast the profession of our faith, and Religion, without warping or Heb. 10. 23. wavering, i. e. of the true ancient and Catholic Faith, and the true Orthodox Reformed Religion, profest and maintain'd in the Church of England. And as we bid defiance to the Pope's Bulls, so let us take heed of plowing with the Romish Heifer; I mean, of being act­ed [Page 75] and led by Popish and Jesuitical principles, which have born so great sway, and had so strong an influence upon some mens practices of late in this Nation, who yet pretended so much zeal for the Reformed Religion.

But I shall no longer hanc Camerinam movere, nor harp any more upon this unpleasant string; this is not the day nor the time for it: Only let not the Church of Rome, nor such as Philanax Anglicus, or the Author of Jerusalem and Babel, think to choak us with our Re­bels and Regicides, the Authors of the late horrid Re­bellion, as a blot scandal and reproach to our Religion: For we own them not, nor do we look upon them as ours, I mean Protestants, and true Sons of the Church of England; seeing they were wholly acted and sway'd by Jesuitical and Popish principles: Our Protestant Re­ligion teaches us another lesson; yea, and this I must be bold to say further, As for those that have any seeds of this Rebellion still lurking and remaining in them (if there be any such, as I hope there are none here) that look asquint at the Government, Civil or Ecclesiasti­cal, and are disaffected to the present settlement of Church and State, as it stands now by Law establisht, I cannot see how such men can cordially join with us in keeping this Fifth of November. The horrible plot of this day was intended (saith our Church in her Collect) for the subversion of the Government and Religion estab­lisht among us: Now how can they be truly thankful to God for this days deliverance, that will not own nor al­low the Subject-matter of it, viz. the Government and Religion establisht among us? This is a day of Thanks­giving to God for the preservation and continuance of our Government, Civil and Ecclesiastical, the preserva­tion both of the Church and State; the Church, I say, both in her Doctrine and Discipline; her Doctrine in [Page 76] the true ancient Catholic and Apostolic Faith; her Dis­cipline, in her true, ancient, Catholic and Apostolic, E­piscopal Government. The Church of England had both these then establisht by the Laws of the Land, and so both these struck at this day; and are any still hewing and hacking at 'um? Both these should have been blown up this day; and are any still lifting and heaving at 'um? If so, who are they? or what can we count them, but the sons of father Garnet, or the spawn of Catesby and Faux? And certainly our factious, fanatic, turbu­lent, and schismatical spirits, are but the Jesuits Journey­men, though they are so blind they cannot, nor will not perceiv it. And I would heartily beseech and entreat our dissenting Brethren, who make such a fearful pudder, rupture, and rent in this poor Church, I say, (if there were any here) I would earnestly beseech and entreat them in the bowels of our Lord Jesus Christ, seriously to consider what a scandal they bring upon the Refor­med Religion, and what hopes and advantages they give to the adversary. They have been hammering (say they) a Reformation all this while, and yet now they cannot tell what they would have, or where they would be. O! how Rome triumphs in our Divisions! how the Pope warms himself at the fire of our feuds and ani­mosities, schisms and dissentions! the best fire I believe that ever he had next to that of Purgatory. They that wu'd break down the fence of our Ecclesiastical Go­vernment by undermining and weakning the power and autority of the Church of England in her Laws and Canons, and Constitutions, what a gap wu'd they open to the Foxes of Rome, the little Foxes, to enter in and spoil our vines? They that would unhinge the frame, discompose and ruffle the Government of so well-order'd and setled a Church, by shaking and loosning the pinns [Page 77] and joints of it, especially when establisht by the Civil Power, and Royal Autority, what do they els in effect endeavour to do, but what this day was intended, viz. to bring us into a woful labyrinth, and into a snare of horrid confusions? And then let our Popish Fowlers a­lone, they desire no more, [...], Hoc Itha­cus velit, & magno mercentur Jesuitae, who hope that a Church thus divided against it self cannot stand. Doubt­less if things go on in the same pass they have done of late, and schism and faction still get ground, and grow and increas upon us, the Pope in time will have a fair pull for it; we shall need no Fauxes with dark Lan­thorns, nor gunpowder-men to blow us up and our Re­ligion together; we shall do it our selves. Do we not think our Romish Fowlers are at work still among us, very busie in laying their snares for us? and shall we be quarrelling among our selvs, till God give us up for a prey to their teeth? Quarrelling about I know not what; (I dare say the quarrelsome part know not what they wu'd have.) Give me leav to repeat a saying which I heard many years ago, as long ago almost as I can remember; Si unquam Papismus remeaverit in Angliam, Puritanis­mus erit in causa; if ever Popery return into England, and we be brought into that snare again, and fall into the hands of those Fowlers of Rome (which God forbid) we may thank our Schismatics and Sectaries for it. God be thank'd, hitherto this snare hath been broken; and this day it was broken, and I may say it was broken too not many years since by a miracle of mercy, this snare, or a wors; well, the snare is broken and we are delivered; and we still enjoy our Laws and Liberties, Lives and Re­ligion, under a most Gracious Prince (who may far bet­ter be call'd Pius and Clemens, then either of the two men of Rome we spoke of before) I say under a most [Page 78] Gracious King, whom God long preserv; in a Church most pure, and Orthodox, and Apostolical, and best re­formed of any Church this day in the Christian world. O fortunatos nimium! if we would but know it. Happy is that people that is in such a case, under such a King, and Psal. 144. 15. in such a Church; a happiness which nothing can de­prive us of, but our monstrous and wretched unthank­fulness for such a great mercy. As ever then we hope or desire to have this happiness prolong'd and continu'd to us and our posteritie, and still to escape these snares, snares of superstition, and snares of confusion; snares of the head, and snares of the hand; snares of corrupt and pernicious principles, and snares of cursed and cruel practices; in a word, as ever we look to enjoy the fruit and benefit of this days deliverance, let us be really and truly thankful to God for it; let us escape as a bird; the bird when she is escaped out of the snare, flys aloft to­wards Heaven, as it were in token of thankfulness, Vo­lans in nubila fugit, with her in Virgil: so let us; let us be really thankful, let us express our thankfulness by flying aloft towards Heaven, I mean, by our Hea­venly-mindedness, by the purity and holiness of our lives, by an humble and chearful submission and confor­mity to the Laws of God and the King; in a word, by our lowly and loyal, peaceable and godly Conversation. And now let me ask but this one Question, Is our soul escaped? I say not, since this days Deliverance, 'tis so long past, but of late since the snare was last broken, eight or nine years ago? Is our soul the better for it? it may be our body is, our bodily and temporal estate per­haps is better, but are we grown better as to our Souls and spiritual estate? are we more reformed in our lives since that late wonderful Revolution? are we since that grown more holy and religious, more sober and tempe­rate, [Page 79] more meek and peaceable, more humble and cha­ritable? If so, then our soul is escaped. But if on the con­trary we are nothing amended by it, nor more reformed in our Lives; if we are not the better, nor walk any whit the closer with God after such an extraor­dinary signal deliverance from such a dangerous snare as this, our body is escaped it may be, but our soul is in the snare still, though not in the snare of Popish superstiti­on, yet in as bad or a wors snare, the snare of Atheism and prophaness; and so our soul is not escaped. Yea, and as to our outward and bodily estate, however it be with us at present, yet for the future we are never the sa­fer, but in as bad a case, in as much danger as ever, yea and in more, for if we sin more and more, a wors thing will come unto us; God will bring us into the same or a Joh. 5. 14. worse snare; for assure we our selves this, if we still go on to provoke the Lord by our sins, notwithstanding these his miraculous mercies towards us, a wors thing will come unto us, a worse snare will befall us, and we know not how soon; it may be here in this world, but be sure hereafter in the world to come. [...] Fear and the pit and the snare shall be upon us; it is an Jer. 48. 432. elegant Paronomasy that in the Prophet, but a sad one, horror of Conscience, the snares of death, and the pit of hell. So then, is our soul still hamperd and entang­led in the snares of our sins, and can we say, our soul is escaped? Sin it self is a snare, and all snares come by sin. The wicked is snared in the work of his own hands, saith David the Father; and, In the transgression of an evil Psal. 9. 16. man there is a snare, saith Solomon the Son. If then we Prov. 29. 6. would escape the snares of evil men, such as was that of this day, take we heed of the snares of the Devil, which St. Paul speaks of in his Epistles to Timothy, those two 1 Tim. 3. 7. especially, which he there makes, one of them at least, 2 Tim. 2. 26. [Page 80] the root of all evil, Pride and Covetousness; these are in­deed 1 Tim. 6. 10. the cause of all other snares both in Church and State; Ambition and Avarice, for the most part, the foun­tains and inlets of all Heresie and Schism, Rebellion and Treason; yea of all sin and wickedness, mischief and mi­sery whatsoever: these are they that set our Romish Fowlers a work this day, though zeal for Religion and the Catholic cause was pretended. Wherefore to con­clude, Flee youthful lusts, (saith the Apostle) Let us 2 Tim. 2. 22. flee sinful lusts (to be sure) especially these two leading grand cardinal lusts, Pride and Covetousness, and then we shall the sooner and easier flee schism and faction, atheism and prophaness; which if we do not, we have no part nor portion in this days solemnity, nor can we cordially close with the Church in the celebration of it: but let us to the purity of our Reformed Religion, add the purity and reformedness of our lives; let us walk in the ways of peace and holiness, humility and charity; and then we may with joyful, and chearful, and thankful hearts, acknowledg and commemorate the great deliverance of this day, and say with the Psalmist in the words of the Text, Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers, the snare is broken, and we are delivered.


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