Dud Dudley's Mettallum Martis OR, IRON Made with Pit-coale, Sea-coale, &c. And with the same Fuell to Melt and fine Imperfect Mettals, and Refine perfect Mettals.

[...] Printed by T. M. for the Authour

TO THE KINGS Most Sacred Majesty.

May it Please Your Majesty;

ALl Your Kingdoms, Do­minions, and Territories, being the happy Subjects of Your Cares, are there­fore the proper Objects of Your View: Great Brittain, O Great Brittain, Your Principal Island, here Humbly Presents her self unto Your Royall Presence, View and Care; be Plea­sed, to interpret this her Obsequious­ness, to be her Duty; for since Your Majesties safe Return, has already [Page] Graciously dayned, to View, and of­ten to review her Shipings, Stores, Armories, Ordnance, Magazins, and Trade; Vouchsafe, Great Sir, Great Brittain Your Royal Patronage, and once more, at some one hour, or two, to Grace it with Your Auspicious As­pect, in this Mite, with all Humility Presented, By,

A Faithful Servant, of Your Sa­cred Fathers; And a Loyal Sufferer, for Your Sacred Majesty; And by Pattent-Servant, Dud Dudley.

TO THE Honourable, His Maje­sties Great Council; The High Court of Parliament.

YOur Predecessors in former Ages, had both serious Con­sultations, and Considerati­ons, before they made those many Wholesom and Good Lawes, for the Preservation of Wood, and Timber, of this Kingdome, 1 Eliz. 15. 23 Eliz. 5. 27 Eliz. 19. 28 Eliz. 3. 5. in whose dayes, and since in King James's Reign, Ships in most Ports and Rivers of this Kingdom, (Thames Excep­ted) might have been built, for forty Shillings per Tunn; but now they can hardly be built for treble the value, wood and timber is so much decayed; there­fore men of War, Trade of Merchants, of Fishing, of Navigating, unto Planta­tions will decay, if not timely prevent­ed, [Page] which is hoped will be one of Your Principallest Cares, seeing our Enemies have carried Timber from England, and the Iron Works have much exhausted it; For the prevention of so great a Con­sumption, almost incureable: First is to put the Wholesome Laws in Execution; Secondly, not to permit Timber to be Exported. Thirdly, to animate, as King James did, and also Prince Henry, the ma­king of Iron in England, Scotland, and Wales with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, and Peate; which if the Authour (who had a Pattent for it) had not been opposed, after he had made much good Iron with Pit-cole, it had long since, by his Inventions, been fully perfected. The Fourth is, to stop all the Exportation of Pit-cole, and Sea-cole (paying His Majesties Duty) if the Cole be in a fit place, to make Iron therewith. Fifthly, That the Authour, or his Agents may have power to preserve many thou­sand Tuns of Pit-cole, which are annually destroyed, for ever in England, Scotland, and Wales which are fit to make Iron; [Page] and the Authour in this Treatise hath demonstrated it, being moved with pitty, seeing his Native Country decaying, Humbly offers but his Judgement, and and leaves the grave consideration there­of, to your Learned, and more serious Consultations and Actings, praying that you may animate good things, & new in­ventions, that may bring unto His Sacred Majesty, and all Loyal Subjects Safety, Strength, Wealth, and Honour by our Ships, and Men of War, Fishing, Navi­gation, and Merchandizing, unto For­reign Nations; but more especially, to, and from the Territories of Great Brit­tain, our North Indies abounding in Mines and Minerals, that they that are of the Honourable Corporations of Mines Royal, and Batteries, or any others, would lay in a Common, or Joynt Stock, fully to set the Mines at Work, by imploying our idle, and burdensom supernumerary peo­ple therein, Iron, Tin, Lead, Copper, Quick­silver, Silver and Gold, besides many o­ther Minerals, and Marcesit's, Lapis Cala­minaris, [Page] Antimonie, Maganes, &c. also many Mineral Earths and Precious Stones: Did I call Great Brittain our North Indies? give me leave to repeat a passage till fur­ther satisfaction, of King Josina of Scot­land, a great Phylosopher, Physitian, and Herbalist, living before Christ, 161. years, at which time, two venerable Phy­losophers and Priests passing from Portu­gall to Athens, their Ship and Company, and Marriners, all perished at Ros, they only saved; after refreshing, and good Entertainment, the King desired of them what they understood by their Science of the Nature of the Ground of Scotland; after deliberate advisement, said, There was more Riches and Profit to be gotten within the Veins of the Earth of Scotland, then a­bove, for the winning of Mines and Metals; They knew this by the Influence of the Hea­vens: This you may see in the Chro­nicles of Scotland.

My Dear Master, our Sacred Martyr, Charles the First of ever Blessed Memory, did animate the Authour by Granting [Page] him a Pattent, Anno 14 of His Reign, for the making of Iron, and Melting, Smelt­ing, Extracting, Refining, and Reducing all Mines and Metals with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf, which was Extinct, and Obstructed by reason of the War; and had not this unnatural and unparal­lel'd War been, His late Sacred Majesty himself had set at work many of His Mines, and much good had been produ­ced to Great Brittain before this time.

At present the Authour is in good hope, and incessantly prayes, that the Mines be set at work in his dayes, by the Honourable Corporation of the Mines Royal, for he verily believeth the time to be near, when the Omnipotent God, before he Judge the World in Fire, will shew His Omnipotency unto the Nations, by revealing of the wonderful and incre­dible things of Nature, of which the Learned do believe very many to be, in the Mineral Kingdome, by working of Mines and Fusion of Metals, gotten by honest labour under ground profitable to Man, and Acceptable with God.

[Page] I might here speak somewhat of Supe­riour Planets producing Metal, Saturn, Lead: Iupiter, Tin: Mars, Iron: but these abound in Great Brittain, so do the Inferiour Planets produce Venus, Copper: Mercury, Quicksilver: Luna, Silver:

If God permit me health and leasure from Sutes and Troubles, not onely to write of them, but also the manner of the Melting, Extracting, Refining, and Reducing of them with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, &c. In the interim to let you know that Great Brittain abounds with Copper Mines, much neglected, yet of great use for Ordnance, at Land, and also at Seas, and for the making of Brass, with our Lapis Calaminaris, so much Ex­ported by the Dutch, which doth hinder our manufactories of Brass, and causes the Dutch and Swedes to raise the price of Copper and Brass ever since our small loss at Sea by the Dutch. Mercury, Quick­silver is not wanting, but few Artists have made any Experiment of that Mine in this Kingdome.

[Page] Luna, Silver doth abound in Great Brit­tain, especially a very Rich Vein, Rake, or Fibrey thereof was wrought at Binny-Hills near Lithgo in Scotland, in the Au­thors dayes, some part of which he hath, is malleable Silver in the Oare or Mine, yet neglected. And so are many of our richest Mines in England, and Wales, &c. the cause is conceived to be the want of a general and joynt-stock for the imploy­ing our idle people in getting, and work­ing of the Copper, and Silver Mines.

Of the Planet Sol, Gold: I may not be silent, whose Golden, Glorious, Pure, Sulphurious, Percing, Spirit, communi­cating his virtue Mineral unto all things in the Mineral Kingdom, as well as to the Animal and Vegetable Kingdom, whose pure influence producing Gold, caused the poor indigent people of Scotland, which the Author did see, Anno 37 at Shortlough, six men to dig and carry with wheele-barrows, the common Earth or Mould unto Rivolets remote, out of which those men did wash Gold-grains, [Page] as good as is in the sand of the Rivers, in which Rivers many have gotten Gold, and seen Grains of Sol, near one ounce weight, both in the Low-lands, and in the High-lands; also he hath seen Gold got­ten in England, but not so plentifull as in Scotland: For Sir James Hope, An. 1654. brought from Scotland, Baggs of Gold Grains unto Cromwell, some of which Grains were very large, and as fine as any Gold in the world, that is in Mines; thus I came to see the Baggs, taking a view of the Low-lands, and High-lands of Scot­land, Anno 37, in which year, I spent the whole Summer (in opening of Mines, and making of discoveries) was at Sir James Hopes Lead Hills, near which I got Gold, and he coming to London, imploy­ed Captain David Acheson, a Refiner, whom I met with in Scotland, Anno 37 to find me out; when I came unto Sir Iames Hope, dwelling in White Hall, he produ­ced the Baggs unto me, and poured the Gold out upon a board, in which was one large piece of Gold, which had to it ad­joyning [Page] a large piece of white spar very transparent, which Cap. David Acheson yet living at Edenburgh saw; but I would never Act with Sir Iames Hope, hoping of these times to see good things acted, for I believe God is about to reveal many of his secrets, unto his Israel in this latter Age, which made me not to Answer the Letter of Sir Iames Hope, as followeth.


If I had found the opportunity before my parting, I purposed to have been a sutor to you, and I perswade my self, you are so kinde and generously disposed, that you would have answered my desire, and therefore also even at this distance adventure to offer it: And it is that you would confer upon me one breviate of your journey through the North of Scotland; as to the discovery of Minnerals upon some ac­count, and at first view, this may seem as un­reasonable of me desired, as improbable that you should grant it, but the circumstance of time and persons and substance of the things consi­dered, I am not altogether out of hope of it; onely, I shall say, if you condescend to me in [Page] this, though it be more in satisfaction, to my curiosity, then for any designe I have upon the matter; yet you shall singularly oblige me to indeavour and be ready as opportunity shall of­fer, to expresse my thankfulnesse, in what way you will prescribe, that is in the power of;

your very affectionate brother and Servant, Iames Hope.

This Sir James Hope, was a Judge at the City of Edinburgh, and by Cromwel made Lord Marshall of Scotland.

My hope now is, that the Honourable and ingenious Corporation of the Mines Royall, will set the Mines at work, that my Inventions, in which I have spent much time and charge, in melting, smel­ting, extracting, refining and reducing of Mines and Mettals with Pitcoal, Sea-coal and Peats; and have made with the same Fuell many hundred Tuns of good Merchantable Iron, into cast works and Bars; may by the Inventioner be enjoyed according to the Act of Parliament, 21. Jacob. Seeing the Authour can make it [Page] appear he hath been much obstructed by lawsuits and the Wars hitherto: De­sires that his Talent of Undoubted truths (may not be buried) for the general good, but be brought to light, after all the sad Sufferings of the Authour, whereby he may add unto his new Inventions, what he conceives fit to be done: That not onely this so exhausted Kingdome may enjoy the benefit thereof, but also Scot­land and Wales which abound with Coals, Iron, Stone and Mines of all sorts, mine­rals and precious Stones, &c.

Yet from England's Granery, Scotland making no Iron, and other Territories, have their thorow supply, not onely of I­ron, but of Iron manufactories many, so hath Wales; yet might Scotland and Wales not onely supply themselves, but supply His Sacred Majesties other Territories with Iron and Iron Wares and Steel also, by Iron and Steel made with Pit-coale, Sea-coale and Peat; and thereby be help­full unto themselves and England, and all Plantations of his Majesties, on this side and beyond the line,

To the Reader, especially of England, Scotland and Wales.

THe injury and prejudice done unto me & to this Island, my native Country for the making of Iron, in cast works and bars with Pitcoal, Seacoal, Peat and Turff, and with the like feuell, to melt, extract, refine and reduce all Mines and mettals, moved me in the neg­ligence of better Wits and Pens to apologise for it; in this ensuing Treatise, and believe me Reader, twas no private, or politick designe in my Invention, but meer zeal, becomming an honest man, Patriae, parentibus & amicis; that Engaged me (after many others failed) in these Inventions, for the general good and preservation of Wood and Timber, which,

Eque pauperibus, locupletibus eque,
Eque neglectis pueris senibus (que) nocébit;

Therefore it concerns His sacred Majesty, his high Court of Parliament, all his Counsels, Mariners, Merchants, Royall and Loyall Sub­jects (the destruction of Wood and Timber) to lay it to heart, and helping hands, upon fit oc­casions, in these so laudable Inventions, of making Iron & melting of mines and refyning [Page] of them with Pitcole, Seacole, Peat and Turf; for the preservation of Wood and Timber for maintenance of Navigation, men of War, the Fishing and Merchants Trade, which is the greatest strength of Great Brittain, and all o­ther his Majesties Kingdomes and Territories, whose defence and offence next under God, con­sists by his sacred Majesties assisting care, and view of his men of War, Ships, experienced marrinours, merchants, Ordnance of Copper, Bras and Iron Armories, Steels and Iron, of all sorts; both of bars, squares, and cast works and which ought and may be suplyed from Scot­land and Wales by Iron, Copper and Brasse, and made there, with Pitcole, Seacole and Peat; and which abound there and in England also; In Cornwall, Devonshire, Sommerset, Glocester, Stafford, Darby, York, Lan­caster, Westmerland, Cumberland; are many Copper mines: so is there in Pem­brook, Carmarthin, Merionith and Den­byshires, also there are very many rich Co­per mines in very many places in Scotland, at Sterling, at Dumfad and many other places well known unto the Authour,

Dud Dudley

Dud Dudley's Mettallum Martis.

THat Great Brittain with her Men of Warr, Fleets and Shiping, have had in all Ages, and in these latter Ages, as great Suc­cess at Seas as any people whatsoever in the Universe cannot modestly be denied in 88, overthrowing that Invincible Ar­mado so long a preparing, and since other Navies also; and whose Armadoes, Na­vies, Armes, and Men, have been a Ter­rour to other Nations; nay her own Grand Magazins, are the very Granary from whence all His Sacred Majesties Kingdomes, Dominions, and Territories both in the East and West-Indies, on this side and beyond the Line, they have their whole and thorow supply of Ship­ing, [Page 2] Men, Armes, Food and Rayment, and more then can be, from any King­dom of the Christian World.

Now if Wood and Timber should de­cay still, and fail, the greatest Strength of Great Brittain, her Ships, Mariners, Mer­chants, Fishings, and His Majesties Na­vies, and Men of War, for our Defence, and Offence would fail us, which before, and since 88 made his Sacred Majestyes Prodecessors, Queen Elizabeth, and her Great Council, the then Parliament, to make Lawes for the preservation of Wood and Timber, especially near any Naviga­ble River; 1 Eliz. 15. 27 Eliz. 19. 28 Eliz. 3. 5. 23 Eliz. 5. All which Laws, and others, for the Preservation of Wood and Timber are still in force, but not duly Executed; also King Iames His Sacred Majesties Grand-father, and Prince Henry, for the Preservation of Wood and Timber in this Island, did in the 9th Year of His Reign, Grant His Letters Pattents of Priviledge unto Simon Sturtevant Esq for 31 years, for the making of Iron with [Page 3] Pit-cole and Sea-cole for the preservati­on of Wood and Timber of Great Brittain so greatly then consumed by Iron works; This Invention was by King Iames's com­mand to be at large put in Print, which Book did contain near a quire of paper in quarto, called, Simon Sturtevant His Mettallica. Anno 1612. May 22. Printed by George Eld, Cum Privilegio.

After Simon Sturtevant could not per­form his making of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, according unto his Engage­ment, King Iames, and Prince Henry, cau­sed him to render up his Pattent, and a new Pattent was Granted unto Iohn Ro­venson Esq who also was Enjoyned to write a Book of his Inventions, called, Rovenson's Mettallica. Printed for Thomas Thorp, Cum Privilegio: May 15. An. 1613.

After Iohn Rovenson Esq had often fail­ed with his Inventions, and great under­takings, Gombleton Esq a Ser­vant of Queen Ann's, undertook (by Pat­tent) to perform the Invention of ma­king of Iron with Pit-cole, and Sea-cole; [Page 4] but he being as confident of his Inventi­on as others, did Erect his works at Lam­beth, which the Author view'd; and Gum­bleton failing, the Learned, and Ingeni­ous Doctor Iorden of Baths, the Authors Acquaintance, and sundry others obtain­ed pattents for the making of Iron, and melting of Mines with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, for the preservation of Wood and Timber all which Inventions and endea­vours to Effect and Perfect the said Works, have been by many heretofore well known, to have worthily attempted the said Invention, though with fruitless success.

Having seen many of their failings, I held it my Duty to endeavour, if it were possible to Effect and Perfect so laudable, and beneficial, and also so much desired Inventions, as the making of Iron into cast Works and Bars; and also the Melt­ing, Extracting, Refining and Reducing all sorts of Mines, Minerals and Metals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole Peat and Turf, for the preservation of wood and timber, [Page 5] so much exhausted by Iron Works of late.

Having former knowledge and delight in Iron Works of my Fathers, when I was but a Youth; afterward at 20 years Old, was I fetched from Oxford, then of Bayliol Colledge, Anno 1619, to look and manage 3 Iron Works of my Fathers, 1 Furnace, and 2 Forges, in the Chase of Pensnet in Worcester-shire, but Wood and Charcole, growing then scant, and Pit-coles, in great quantities abounding near the Furnace, did induce me to alter my Furnace, and to attempt by my new Invention, the making of Iron with Pit-cole, assuring my self in my Invention, the loss to me could not be greater then others, nor so great, although my success should prove fruitless; But I found such success at first tryal animated me, for at my tryal or blast, I made Iron to profit with Pit-cole, and found Facere est addere Inventioni.

After I had made a second blast and tryal, the fesibility of making Iron with [Page 6] Pit-cole and Sea-cole, I found by my new Invention, the quality to be good and profitable, but the quantity did not ex­ceed above 3 Tuns per week: After I had brought my Invention unto some per­fection, and profitable, doubted not in the future to have advanced my Inven­tion, to make quantity also.

Immediately after my second tryal, I wrote unto my Father what I had done, and withall, desired him to obtain a Pat­tent for it from King Iames of Blessed Memory; the Answer to which Letter I shall insert, only to shew the forward­ness of King Iames, in this his much ani­mating the Inventor, as he did both Si­mon Sturtevant, Iohn Rovenson, Doctor Iordaine and others; The Letter follows;

Son Dudley,

The Kings Majesty being at New-Mar­ket, I sent Parkes thither on Saturday to some Friends of mine, to move the Kings Ma­jesty for my Pattent, which he coming on Sun­day Morning, in the Afternoon His Majesty [Page 7] sent a Warrant to Master Atturney to dispatch my Pattent, for the which I am infinitely bound unto His Majesty, that it pleased Him of His Great Grace and Favour to dispatch it so soon; I have been this night with Master Atturney, who will make hast for me; God Bless you, and Commend me unto all my Friends:

Your Loving Father, Edward Dudley.

This Richard Parkes, à Parks-house Esq in the Letter before mentioned, was the Authors Brother in Law, which did a­bout 1 year after the Pattent was granted, carry for the Author much good Mer­chantable Iron unto the Tower, by King Iames's command to be tryed by all Ar­tists, and they did very well approve of the Iron, and the said Parkshouse had a fow­ling Gun there made of Pit-cole Iron, with his name gilt upon the Gun, which Gun was taken from him by Colonel Le­vison Governour of Dudley Castle, and never restored.

[Page 8] The said Richard Parkshouse's son my Nephew, Edward Parkshouse, the 5th. of January 1645. pressed me much to put Pen unto Paper, to shew what I have done in the invention of making of Iron with Pitcoale and Seacoal, not unknown unto this Country, and to my brother Folliott, Esq and my Nephew Parkshouse Esq and to my Kinsman Master Francis Dingley, to whom I intend to leave the Secrets of my Inventions, notwithstanding all my sad sufferings from time to time this for­ty Years in the inventions, my Sufferings in the War, and my Estate sold for my Loyalty; and also my sad sufferings and obstructions since his Sacred Majesties happy Restauration many wayes; and also upon sundry and many references, at the Authors very great charge, pains, and time spent of Foure years in his aged dayes, for the general good, by his inven­tions for the preservation of Great Brit­tain's Wood and Timber.

Now let me shew some Reasons that induced me to undertake these Inven­tions, [Page 9] after the many failings of others, well knowing that within Ten miles of Dudley Castle there to be neer 20000. Smiths of all sorts, and many Iron works at that time, within that Circle decayed for want of Wood (yet formerly a migh­ty Woodland Country.)

Secondly, The Lord Dudley's Woods and Works decayed, but Pitcoal and Iron, Stone or Mines abounding, upon his Lands, but of little Use.

Thirdly, Because most of the Coale-Mines in these parts, as well as upon the Lord Dudley's lands, are Coals, Ten, Ele­ven, and Twelve yards thick; the top or the uppermost Cole, or vein, gotten upon the superficies of this Globe or Earth, in open works.

Fourthly, Under this great thickness of Coal, is very many sorts of Iron, Stone Mines, in the Earth Clay or Stone earth, like bats, in all four yards thick; also under these Iron mines is severall yards thick of Coals, but of these in an other place more convenient.

[Page 10] Fifthly, Knowing that when the Col­liers are forced to sinck Pits for getting of ten yards thick or more, that be got­ten under the ground, being small are of little or of no use in that inland Country nor is it worth the drawing out of the Pits, unlesse it might be made use of by making of Iron therewith into cast works or Bars.

Sixthly, Then knowing that if there could be any use made of the smal-coale that are of little Use, then would they be drawn out of the Pits, which coles pro­duceth often times great prejudice unto the Owners of the works and the work it self, and also unto the Colliers, who casting of the smalcoles together, which compelling necessity enforcing the Col­liers so to do, for two causes; one is to raise them to cut down the ten yards thicknesse of coles drawing onely the bigger sort of cole, not regarding the les­ser or small cole, which will bring no money; saying, He that liveth longest let him fetch fire further: Next, These Colliers [Page 11] must cast these coles, and sleck or drosse out of their wayes, which sulphurious small cole and crouded moyst sleck heat naturally, and kindles in the middle of those great heaps; often fals the cole-works on Fire, and flaming out of the Pits, and continue burning like Aetna in Cicily, or Hecla in the Indies.

Yet when these loose Sulphurious composts of cole and sleck, being con­sumed in processe of time, the Fire de­cayes, yet notwithstanding the Fire hath continued in some Pits many years; yet colliers have gotten coles again, in those same Pits, the Fire not penitrating the solid and firme wall of coles, because Pabulum ignis est Aer, the Ayre could not penetrate, but passe by it in the loose cole and sleck; for comming into those pits afterwards, I have beheld the very blows of Pikes or tools that got the coles there formerly. Also from these Sulphurious heaps, mixed with Iron, Stone (for out of many of the same pits is gotten much I­ron, Stone, or Mines; the Fires heating [Page 12] vast quantities of Water, passing thorow these Soughs or Adits, becometh as hot as the Bath at Bathe, and more heal­ing and sovereign even for old Ulcers and Sores; but because many of these Baths doe proceed not onely from com­mon Sulphur and vitriol of Mars, but also from Solars sulphur in this Iron stone, I hope, Filii Artis, will excuse my digesion from the making of Iron with Pitcole, Seacole, Peat or Turff, and the melting of mines and mettals and refi­ning of the same, with the like fuell: the first Pattent being granted by King James for 31. Years in the 19th year of his Reign upon just and true information, that the Authour had the year before made many Tuns of Iron with Pitcole at a Furnace or Iron-work, in the Chase of Pensnet, in the County of Worcester, be­sides cast Iron Works of sundry sorts with Pitcoles; and also at two Forges or Iron Mills, called, Cradly Forges, fined the said Iron into Merchantable good Bar Iron: But the year following, the grant [Page 13] or Pattent for making of Iron with Pitcole or Seacole, There was so great a Flood, by rain, to this day, called the great May-day-Flood, that it not onely ru­inated the Authours Iron works, and in­ventions, but also many other mens Iron works and inventions; but also many o­ther mens Iron works: and at a market Town called Sturbridge in Commitate Wi­gorae, although the Authour sent with speed to preserve the people from drow­ning; one resolute man was carried from the Bridge there in the day time, and the nether part of the Town was so deep in Water that the people had much ado to preserve their lives in the upper­most rooms in their Houses.

My Yron works and inventions thus demolished, to the joy of many Iron ma­sters, whose works scaped the Flood and who had often disparaged the Authors Inventions, because the Authour sold good Iron cheaper then they could afford it; and which induced many of the Iron masters to complain unto King Iames, a­verring, [Page 14] that the Iron was not Merchant­able; As soon as the Authour had repair­ed his works and inventions (to his no small charge) they so far prevailed with King Iames, that the Authour was com­manded with all speed possible, to send all sorts of Bar Iron up to the Tower of Lon­don, fit for making of Musquets, Car­bines and Iron for great Bolts, fit for Shipping, which Iron being so tryed by Artists and Smiths, that the Iron masters and Iron-mongers were all silenced until 21th. of King Iames: At the then Parlia­ment, all Monopolies were made Null, and diverse of the Iron-masters endea­vouring to bring the invention of ma­king Iron with Pitcole, Seacole, Peat and Turff, within the compasse of a Monopoly; but the Lord Dudley and the Authour did prevaile; yet the Pattent was limitted to continue but Fourteen years; after which Act the Authour went on with his invention cheerfully, and made annually great store of Iron, good and merchant­able, and sold it unto diverse men yet [Page 31] living at Twelve pounds per Tun; I also made all sorts of cast Iron Wares, as Brewing-Cysterns, Pots, Morters, and better and cheaper than any yet were made in these Nations, with Charcoles; Some of which are extant to be seen by any man (at the Authours House in the City of Worcester) that desire to be sa­tisfied of the truth in the Invention.

Afterwards, The Authour was outed of his works and inventions before mentio­ned by the Iron-masters and others wrongfully, over long to relate: yet be­ing unwilling his Inventions (having undergone much charge and pains there­in) should fall to the ground, and be bu­ried in him, made him to set forward his Invention again, at a Furnace called, Himly Furnace in the County of Stafford, where he made much Iron with Pit-cole, but wanting a Forge to make it into bars, was constrained for want of Stock to sell the Pig-Iron unto the Charcole Iron-masters, who did him much prejudice, not onely in detaining his stock, but also [Page 16] disparaging the Iron; Himley Furnace be­ing Rented out unto Charcole Iron-Ma­sters.

The Authour Erected a new large Fur­nace on purpose, 27 foot square, all of stone for his new invention, at a place cal­led, Hasco Bridge, in the Parish of Sedgley, and County of Stafford; the Bellows of which Furnace were larger then ordina­ry Bellows are, in which work he made 7 Tuns of Iron per week, the greatest quantity of Pit-cole-Iron that ever yet was made in Great Brittain; near which Furnace, the Author discovered many new Cole-mines 10 yards thick, and Iron-Mine under it, according to other Cole-works; which Cole-works being brought unto perfection, the Author was by force thrown out of them, and the Fellows of his new Furnace and Inven­tion, by riotous persons cut in pieces, to his no small prejudice, and loss of his In­vention, of making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, &c. So that being with Law-Suites, and Riots, wearied and dis­abled [Page 17] to prosecute his Art and Invention at present, even untill the first Pattent was extinct: Notwithstanding the Au­thor his sad Sufferings, Imprisonments wrongfully for several thousand pound in the Counter in London, yet did obtaine a new Pattent, dated the 2d of May, Anno 14. Caroli Primi of ever Blessed Memory, not only for the making of Iron into cast-works, and bars, but also for the Melting, Extracting, Refining and Reducing of all Mines, Minerals and Mettals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf, for the preservation of Wood and Timber of this Island; into which Pattent, the Au­thor, for the better support and manage­ment of his Invention, so much opposed formerly at the Court, at the Parliament, and at the Law, took in David Ramsey Esquire, Resident at the Court; Sir George Horsey at the Parliament; Roger Foulke Esquire, a Counsellour of the Temple, and an Ingenious Man; and also an Iron Master, my Neighbour, and one who did well know my former Sufferings, and [Page 34] what I had done in the Invention of ma­king of Iron with Pit-cole, &c.

All which said Patentees Articled the 11th of Iune following, they Grant not on­ly to pay the Authour all the charges of passing the Pattent laid down by him, but also to lay in for a common and joynt­stock each man of the four, one hundred pounds, and so from time to time, what more stock any three of the Pattentees should think fit to be laid in for the ma­king of Iron into cast works and bars, and likewise for the Melting, Extracting, Refining and Reducing of all Mines, Mi­nerals, and Metals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf, which Articles are yet extant.

Now let me without offence insert the opposition we all had, by means of pow­erfull Iron-Masters, with Sir Philibeard Vernat, a Dutch Man, and Captain Whit­more, who pretended much unto his late Sacred Majesty, but performed not their undertaking, which caused the Author, and his Partners thus to Petition.

To the Kings Most Excellent Majesty: The Humble Petition of Sir George Horsey Knight; David Ramsey, Roger Foulke, and Dud Dudley, Esquires:

Humbly Sheweth,

That whereas Your Petitioners, being called before the Right Honourable, the Lord Keeper by Your Majesties Appointment, touching the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf, for which they have Your Majesties Pattent; and seeing that Sir Philibeard Ver­nat, and Captain Whitmore, who are not Inventors, have obtained a Pattent also for the same; yet before their Pattent Granted, Sir Philibeard was ordered at Council-board, according to his Great Undertaking, to perfect his Great Undertaking and Invention within Two Years, and there hath been near Three Years passed, and yet have made little or no Iron; still he Opposeth Your Petitioners, and doth neither benefit himself, but hinders Your Majesty, and the Kingdom.

[Page 20] The reference unto the Petition fol­loweth; At the Court at Greenwith, May 20. 1638. His Majesty is pleased to re­fer this Petition to Master Atturney, and Master Solicitor General, to call the Pe­tioners before them, and to compose the differences between them; (if they can) or otherwise, to certifie his Majesty their opinions therein:

Sir Sidney Mountegue was then Master of the Requests.

But Sir Philibeard Vernat, and Captain Whitmore never appeared any more for their Invention.

Not long after the Wars came on, and caused my partners to desist, since which they are all dead, but the Author, and his Estate (for his Loyalty unto his late Sa­cred Majesty) and Master, as by the Ad­ditional Act of Parliament may appear) was totally sold.

Yet nevertheless, I still endeavoured not to bury my Tallent, took in two [Page 21] Partners into my Inventions, Walter Ste­vens of Bristow Linnen Draper, and John Ston of the same City Merchant, after the Authour had begun to Erect a new work for the Inventions aforesaid, near Bristow, Anno 51. and there we three Partners had in stock near 700l. but they not only cunningly drew me into Bond, entered upon my Stock and Work, unto this day detained it, but also did unjusty enter Staple Actions in Bristow of great value against me, because I was of the Kings Party; unto the great prejudice of my Inventions and Proceedings, my Pat­tent being then almost extinct; for which, and my Stock, am I forced to Sue them in Chancery.

In the interim of my proceedings, Cromwell, and the then Parliament, grant­ed a Pattent, and an Act of Parliament unto Captain Buck of Hampton Road, for the making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole; Cromwell, and many of his Of­ficers were Partners, as Major Wildman and others; many Doctors of Physick, and [Page 38] Merchants, who set up diverse and sun­dry Works, and Furnaces at a vast charge, in the Forrest of Dean, and after they had spent much in their Invention and Experiments, which was done in spacious Wind-Furnaces, and also in Potts of Glass-house Clay; and failing af­terwards, got unto them an Ingenious Glass-Maker, Master Edward Dagney an Italian then living in Bristow, who after had made many Potts, for that purpose went with them into the Forrest of Dean, and built for the said Captain Buck and his Partners, a new Furnance, and made therein many and sundry Experi­ments and Tryals for the making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, &c. But he failing, and his Potts being all bro­ken, he did return to Bristow frusrate of his Expectation; but further promi­sing to come again, and make more Ex­periments; at which time Master John Williams, Master Dagneys, Master of the Glass-House was then drawn in to be a Partner for 300l. deposited, and most of [Page 39] it spent, the said Williams and Dagney hear­ing that the Authour had knowledge in the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, &c. they from Cap. Buck, and the other Partners importuned the Author, who was at that time in great danger by the Parliament, (being a Colonel of the Kings Party) to go along with them into the Forrest of Dean, which at that time durst not deny; Coming thither, I ob­served their manner of working, and found it impossible, that the said Edward Dagney by his Invention should make any Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, in Pots to profit: I continued with them till all their Potts and Inventions failed; at eve­ry Dinner and Supper, Captain Buck, Captain Robins, Doctor Ivie, Doctor Fowler and others, would aske the Author why he was so confident that Iron in quantity could not be made by their new Inventions? I found it a difficult thing to disswade the Partners from their way, so confident were they to perform the ma­king of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole to [Page 24] profit; that they desired me to come a­gain a second time into the Forrest to see it Effected: But at that time, I saw their failings also.

Yet nevertheless Captain Buck, and his Partners Erected new Works at the City of Bristow, in which they did fail as much as in their former Inventions; but Major Wildman, more barbarous to me then a Wildman, (although a Minister bought the Authors Estate, near 200l. per Annum, intending to compell from the Author his Inventions of making of Iron with Pit-cole; but afterwards pas­sed my Estate unto two Barbarous Bro­kers of London, that pulled down the Au­thors two Mantion-Houses; sold 500 Timber-Trees off his Land, and to this day are his Houses unrepaired.

Anno 1655. Captain Buck and his Part­ners wearied of their Invention, desist­ing, An. 1656. Captain John Copley from Cromwell obtained another Pattent for the making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole; He and his Partners set up their [Page 25] Works, at the Cole-Works near Bristow, and endeavour'd by Engeneers assistance to get his Bellows to be blown, at, or near the Pits of Cole, with which En­gines the Work could not be per­formed: But the Author coming to see the said Works, and after many Dis­courses with Captain Copley, his former Acquaintance, told him plainly, if his Bellows could have been blown by those Engines, yet I feared he could not make Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole; he seem­ed discontented, whereupon, and with­out those Engines I made his Bellows to be blown feisibly, as by the Note under his hand appears (the first Note) follow­eth;

Memorandum, The day and year above-written, I John Copley of London, Gent. Do acknowledge, that after the Expence of di­verse Hundred Pounds to Engineers, for the making of my Bellows to blow, for the making of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole near Bri­stow, and near the Forrest of Kings-wood; [Page 42] that Dud Dudley Esq did perform the blow­ing of the said Bellows at the Works or Pits a­bovesaid, a very feisible and plausible way, that one man may blow them with pleasure the space of an hour or two; And this I do acknowledge to be performed with a very small charge, and without any money paid to him for the same In­vention:

John Copley.

Captain John Copley thus failing in his Inventions, An. 1657. he went into Ire­land, and all men now desisting from the Inventions of making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole: The Author, Anno 1660. being 61. years of Age, and mo­ved with pitty, and seeing no man able to perform the Mastery of making of Iron with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, imme­diately upon his Sacred Majesties happy Restauration, the same day he Landed, Petitioned that he might be restored to his place, and his Pattent obstructed, re­vived for the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf, into cast [Page 43] Works and Bars, and for the Melting, Extracting, Refining and Reducing of all Mines, Mettals and Minerals, with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat and Turf; which said Laudable Invention, the Author was and is unwilling should fall to the ground and dye with him, neither is the Mistery, or Mastery of the Invention Effected and Perfected by any man known unto the Authour, as yet, either in England, Scotland or Wales; all which three abound with Pit-cole or Sea-cole, and do over­much furnish other Kingdomes many with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, when they might make far better use of it them­selves, especially Scotland and Wales, both for the making of Iron into cast Works and Bars; and also for the making of Steel, and Melting, Extracting and Re­fining of Lead, Tin, Iron, Gold, Copper, Quicksilver, and Silver, with Pit-cole and Sea-cole.

I shall not trouble you with the Peti­tion, or my reasons and desires that were annexed unto it, for the making of Iron, [Page 28] and Melting of Mines, &c. with Pit-cole, &c. they are over long to relate, only the Reference to them is thus; (after my first Petition was lost, I Petitioned again.)

His Majesty is graciously pleased to refer the consideration of this Petition to Master Atturney, and Solicitor General, or to either of them, together with the Petitioners Reasons and Desires hereunto annexed; and they, or either of them, are to inform, and certifie His Majesty, what they, or either of them in their Judgements respectively conceive fit for His Majesty to do concerning the Petiti­oners Humble Request, and then His Majesty will declare his further pleasure.

Robert Mason, Ma­ster of Requests.

After Master Atturney, and Sollicitor General would do nothing upon the Re­ference; [Page 29] the Author Petitioned His Sa­cred Majesty sitting at the Council-Board, for the Renewing of his Pattent, for making of Iron, and Melting, of Mines with Pit-cole, Sea-cole often ob­structed; the reference to that Petition followeth.

At the Court at Whitehall, July 25. 1660.

Upon reading of a Petition this day at the Board, being the same in terminis with this above-written, which His Ma­jesty was graciously pleased by a Refe­rence under the hand of Doctor Mason, one of the Masters of the Requests, to re­fer to the consideration of Master Attur­ney, and Master Solicitor General, toge­ther with the Petitioners Reasons and Desires thereunto annexed, to the Con­sideration of the Lords, and others Com­missioners for the Treasury, who upon Examination of the particulars, are to give such order thereupon, as they shall find most proper for His Majesties Ser­vice.

Sir Edward Walker was Clark to the Council, and Garter King at Armes.

[Page 46] The Author, during the Lords Com­missioners their time, could get no Order upon his Reference; But his Petition was left, with the now Right Honour­able, the Lord Treasurer▪ to take or grant further order therein, but the Au­thor hath gotten hitherto no order.

Therefore compelling necessity doth constrain (having prosecuted his Peti­tion hitherto) him to desist from his In­ventions, in which he hath taken more pains, care and charge, then any man, to perfect his new Invention in these King­domes.

Although the Author hath not as yet so fully perfected or raised his invention to the quantity of Charcole Iron Fur­nances, yet the Authors quantity being but seven Tuns per week at the most, to­gether with the quality of his Iron made with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, hath the most eminent Triplicity of Iron of all that can be desired in any new Invention.

  • 1. More Sufficient.
  • 2. More Cheap.
  • 3. More Excellent.

[Page 47] Upon which triplicity, the Authour might enlarge himself, but shall not be tedious, only give me leave to mention that there be three sorts of Cast Iron;

1. The first sort is Gray Iron.

2. The second sort is called Motley Iron, of which one part of the Sowes or Piggs is gray, the other part is white in­termixt.

3. The third sort is called white Iron, this is almost as white as Bell-Mettle, but in the Furnace is least fined, and the most Terrestrial; of the three, the Mot­ley Iron is somewhat more fined, but the Gray Iron,

1. Is most fined, and more sufficient to make Bar-Iron with, and tough Iron to make Ordnance, or any Cast-Vessels, being it is more fined in the Furnace, and more malliable and tough, then the other two sorts before mention­ed; and of this sort, is the Iron made with Pit-cole, Sea-cole for the most part, and therefore more sufficiently to be preferred.

[Page 48]2. More cheaper Iron there cannot be made, for the Author did fell pigg or cast Iron made with Pit-cole at four pounds per Tun, many Tuns in the twentieth year of King James, with good profit; of late, Charcole Pig-iron hath been sold at six pounds per Tun, yea at seven pounds per Tun hath much been sold of late years.

Also the Author did sell Bar-iron, Good and Merchantable, at twelve pounds per Tun, and under, but since Bar-iron hath been sold for the most part ever since at 15l. 16l. 17l. and 18l. per Tun, by Charcole Iron-Masters.

3. More Excellent for diverse Rea­sons, and principally, being the meanes whereby the Wood and Timber of this Island almost exhausted, may be timely preserved yet, and vegetate and grow a­gain unto his former wonted cheapness, for the maintenance of Navigation, which is the greatest Strength of Great Brittain, whose Defence and Offence, for all the Territories that belong unto [Page 49] it, next under God and his Vice-Gerent, our Sacred Majesties Cares, consists most of Shiping, Men of War, Experienced Mariners, Ordnances, Ammunition, and Stores, the Ordnance made therewith will be more gray and tough, therefore more serviceable at Sea and Land, and the Bar-iron will wall, rivet, and hold better then most commonly Charcole Iron.

2. More Excellent, not onely in re­spect the Invention of making of Iron with Pit-cole and Sea-cole will preserve Wood and Timber of Great Brittain so greatly consumed by Iron-Works of late.

But also in respect, this my Invention will preserve many Millions of Tuns of Small-cole in Great Brittain, which will be lost in time to come, as formerly they were, for within ten miles of Dudley Ca­stle, is annually consumed four or five thousand Tuns at least of small Pit-cole, and have been so consumed time out of [Page 50] mind under ground, fit to have made Pit-iron with; which coles are and (un­less Iron be made therewith) will be for ever totally and annually lost; if four or five thousand Tun of Cole be consumed within ten miles compass, what Coles is thus consumed in all England, Scotland, and Wales? which is no good Husbandry for Great Brittain, hinc ille lacrime, that our Timber is exhausted.

Must I be still opposed, and never en­joy my Inventions, nor Great Brittain the Benefit?

Must my Pattent be obstructed in Peace, as it was extinct by the Wars? And must not my Pattent be Revived for the making of Iron with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turf, but find Enemies still to oppose it? How many thousand Tuns of Iron might have been made but since my first Invention, An. Jacob. 18th by my means with Pit-cole, and Sea-cole (lost) if I had not had Enemies; and had not wood and timber been preserved? [Page 51] But most men will aver, that it doth concern the Author to Demonstrate the great losse mentioned formerly of Pit-cole annually;

It is thus,

There is at least within ten miles of the Castle of Dudley, twelve or fourteen Cole-Works, some in Worcester, and some of them in Stafford-shire (now in work, and twice as many in that Circute not in work) each of which Works get two thousand Tun of Cole yearly, some get three, four or five thousand Tun of Coles yearly: and the uppermost or top measures of Coles are ten, eleven, and some twelve yards thick; the Coles As­cending, Basseting, or as the Colliers term it, Cropping up even unto the su­perfices of the Earth, and there the Col­liers formerly got the Coles; but where the Coles is deep and but little Earth up­on the measures of Coles, there the Col­liers rid off the Earth, and dig the Coles under their feet; these Works are called Foot-rids.

[Page 52] But of these Works there are now but few, some of these small Coles in these open Works, the poor people did carry away, but paid nothing for them in for­mer times, termed the Brain Carriages.

But now the Colliers working more in the deep of these Works, they are constrained to sink Pits, some of which Pits are from eight unto twenty yards deep, and some are near twenty fathome deep, which fathome contains two yards.

In these Pits, after you have made or hit the uppermost measures of Cole, and sink or digged thorow them, the Colliers getting the nethermost part of the Coles first, about two yards in height or more, and when they have wrought the Crutes or Staules, (as some Colliers call them) as broad and as far in under the ground, as they think fit, they throw the small Coles (fit to make Iron) out of their way on heaps to raise them up so high, to stand upon, that they may, with the working of their Picks or Maundrills o­ver [Page 53] their heads, and at the one end of the Coles so far in as their Tool will permit, and so high as their working cometh un­to a parting in the measure of Cole, the which Coles, to the parting by his self clogging and pondrous weight, fall of­ten many Tuns of coles, many yards high down at once; with which fall and the Colliers breaking of the said Cole, many small coles do so abound of no use, and fit for no sale; that in getting of twenty thousand Tun of Pit-cole, one half near is small cole, not drawn out of the Pits, but destroyed, left, and lost; which small cole, with the sleck thrown moyst together, (heat the sooner) and by means of its sulphurousness fire in the Pits, to no small prejudice unto the Owners of the Works, and the Work­men, besides Great Brittains Loss; which Cole might have made many thousand Tuns of Iron, and also have preserved this Islands Woods and Timber: I might here give you the names, and partly the [Page 54] nature of every measure, parting of each cole lying on upon each other; the three uppermost measures are called the white measures for his white Arcenical, Salsu­ginos and Sulphurious substance which is in that Cole; the next measure, is the shoulder-cole, the toe-cole, the foot-cole, the yard-cole, the sliper-cole, the sawyer-cole, and the frisly cole, these last three coles are the best for the making of Iron, yet other coles may be made use of.

I might give you other names of coles, but desire not prolixity, yet must I tell you of a supernumerary number of Smiths within ten miles of these Cole-Works near twenty thousand; yet God of his Infinite goodness (if we will but take notice of his goodness unto this Na­tion) hath made this Country a very Granaris for the supplying these Men with Iron, Cole, and Lime made with cole, which hath much supplyed these men with Corn also of late, and from these men, a great part not only of this [Page 55] Island, but also of his Majesties other Kingdomes and Territories with Iron wares have their supply, and wood in these parts almost exhausted, although it were of late a mighty wood-land Coun­try.

Now if the Coles and Iron-stone so a­bounding were made right use of, we need not want Iron as we do; for very many measures of iron-stone are placed together under the great ten yards thick­ness of cole, and upon another thickness of coles two yards thick, not yet menti­oned, called the bottom-cole, or the hea­then cole, as if God had decreed the time when, and how these Smiths should be supplyed, and this Island also with Iron, and most especially, that this cole and iron-stone, should give the first, and just occasion for the invention of the ma­king of iron with pit-cole, no place be­ing so fit for the invention to be perfect­ed in, then this Country, for the general good; whose Woods did formerly a­bound [Page 56] in Forrests, Chases, Parks and Woods, but exhausted in these parts.

Now for the names of the iron-stone, the first measure is called the Black-row-graines, lying in very hard and black Earth.

The second measure is the Dun-row-graines, lying in dun earth or clay.

The third measure is called the white row grains, lying in very white Earth or Clay, under these three measure are sundry other measures, and are called, first, the Rider Stone; secondly, the Cloud Stone; thirdly, the bottom Stone; fourthly, the Cannock or Cannotstone, which last may wel be so caled (although all the other measures be very good) yet this Stone is so Sulphurous and Terre­strial, not fit to make Iron; because the Iron thereof made is very Redshare, which is that if a workman should Draw or Forge out a Share mould fit for a Plough in that red heat, it would crack and not be fit for the Use of the Husband­mans [Page 57] Plough or Share. I may take oc­casion here to speak of the Nature of Coldshare Iron, which is so brittle if made of the grain Oare or Iron stone would be almost as brittle as some Regulus Antimony made with Iron for which one small blow over an Anvil you may break the biggest Bar that is, if it be perfect coldshare Iron; nay the Plough-man of­ten breaks his Share point off if it be made of coldshare Iron. But perfect tough malliable Iron will not break fei­sibly in hot-heat or cold, as coldshare wil, or red hot as Sulphurious veneriated red­share Iron will; but yet tough enough when it is cold: All which aforesaid qualities of Iron the Authour very well knoweth how to mend their Natures, by finning or setting the finery, lesse trans­haw more borrow which are terms of art, and by altering and pitching the works, and plates, the fore spirit-plat, the tuiron, bottome, back and breast or fore-plate, by the altering of which much may be [Page 58] done, if the work be set transhaw and transiring from the blast, the Iron is more coldshare lesse Fined, more to the Masters profit; lesse profitable to him that makes it into manufactorage, and lesse profitable to him that useth it; but the Iron made in a Burrow work, becom­eth more tough and serviceable; yet the nature of all Iron stone, is to be consider­ed, both in the Furnace, and in the fine­ry, that the Sulphurious Arceniall and Veneriating qualities, which are often­times in Iron stone be made to separate, in both the works from the fixed and fix­ing bodies of Iron, whose fiery quality is such, that he will sooner self calfine than separate from any Sulphurious ve­neriated quality.

No man, I hope, need to be offended at any terms of Art, it hath been alwayes lawfull for Authours of new Arts and In­ventions, at their own pleasures, to give name to their new Inventions and Arts, every Tradesman is allowed it in his my­stery.

[Page 59] But the Authour hath as much as he could avoided the terms of Art that Si­mon Sturtenant and others have used, which are very many: onely the Author hath given you the common names and terms (for the most part) which are so common among Forge-men and Foun­ders, as is nothing more common; but kept secret amongst them and a mystery not yet known, but unto very few Ow­ners of Iron-works; nay I have not yet troubled your memory with any of the Founder terms, of but making his harth as the Timpe stones, the Wind-wall stones, the Fuiron stones, the Botton-stone, the Back-stones and the Boshes, in the making and picking of which harth, is much of the Mystery.

I must confesse, there is given unto some Phylosophers, & filii Artis, some few terms how the Sulphurious Arseni­call, Bituminos, Antimoniall, Venerial, and other poysonous qualities, either in the Pit-cole, sea-cole, or the Iron-stone, [Page 60] may be in part at the Furnace separated, and not permitted to incorporate in the Iron, and if it be incorporated, yet by Fi­ning at the Forge, to fetch it out; also to melt extract, refine, and reduce all mines mettals and minerals, unto their species with Pit-cole, Sea-cole, Peat, and Turff, by wayes not yet in use, which the Au­thour will make known, hereafter, if God permit him health, time and space, or leave his knowledg unto his Brother Ayl­more Folliott, Esq his Nephew Parkshouse, Esquire; and to his Kinsman Master Francis Dingley, to declare unto this lat­ter Age of the World, in which God is pleased to manifest many of his Secrets; Qui vult secreta scire, secreta secrete sciat custodire.

Having suffered much, ever since the Year 1618. unto this present, for the ge­neral good, as by the preceding dis­course appears for the making of Iron with Pitcole, Seacole, Peat, and Turff; for the preservation of Wood & Timber of Great Brittain so much exhausted, for [Page 61] future prevention of which,

Is first, to permit the Authour to enjoy His Pattent, and fully to perfect his said Inventions (obstructed in the Reign both of King James and in the Reign of his Sa­cred Majesty King Charls the First, of e­ver Blessed Memory; and lately since his most Sacred Majesties happy Restau­ration) who desires nothing but to be animated with the Patent revived accor­ding unto the Statute of 21. Iacob. for Inventors.

Secondly, to impower the Authour or any other Agents to take care that no Pit­cole, or Seacole be any wayes wilfully destroyed under ground.

Thirdly, To put all former good Laws in Execution, and to make others for the preservation of Wood and Timber of these Nations, especially neer Naviga­gable River or Seas.

Fourthly, Seeing there goeth out of England, Scotland and Wales, many thou­sand Tuns Annually of Pitcole and Sea-coles [Page 62] to furnish France, and also the Smiths thereof Spaine, Portugal and Flanders, and especially the Smiths thereof; the Low-Countries and the Smiths thereof, besides the Hollanders carries great quanties of our Coles unto Foreigne parts, without which those Countries cannot subsist: Now the Authors desire, is, that where there is a conveniency of Iron stone or Ewre, the Coles may not be transported (paying His Sacred Majesties Duty) un­till Order from His Majesty or his Privy Council.

Fifthly, That no Pitcole be Exported, seeing that Wood fuell and Timber is decayed for Buildings, and instead there­of Brickmaking (formerly spending Wood, but now coles) is much in use; also is Glasse now made with cole, but formerly were there many Thousand Loads of Wood fuell spent in the ma­king thereof, and the Glass Invention with Pitcole was first effected near the Authours Dwelling.

[Page 47] Sixthly, Making of Steel, Brewings, making of Coppras, Allum, Salt, casting of Brasse and Copper, Dyings, and many other Works were not many years since done altogether with the Fuell of Wood and Charcole; instead whereof, Pitcole, and Seacole is now used as Effectually, and to a far better Use and Purpose; be­sides the preservation of Wood and Tim­ber.

Seventhly, That which is somewhat neerer the mark and Invention; the Blacksmith forged all his Iron with Charcole, and in some places where they are cheap, they continue this course still, but small Pitcole and Seacole, and also Peat and Turff hath and doth serve the turn as well and sufficiently as Char­cole.

Eighthly, That which is nearest, and my perfect Invention, and neer the Au­thours Dwelling, called Greens-lodge, there are four Forges, namely, Greens-forge, Swin-forge, Heath-forge, and Crad­ley-forge.

[Page 48] Which Four Forges have Barred all or most part of their Iron with Pitcole ever since the Authours first Invention, 1618. which hath preserved much Wood: In these Four, besides many o­ther Forges do the like; yet the Author hath had no benefit thereby to this pre­sent.

Yet by this Barring of Iron with Pit-cole 30000 loads of Wood and more have been preserved for the general good, which otherwayes must have been had and consumed.

Symon Sturtevant, in his Mettallica, in the Epistle to the Reader, saith, That there was then Anno 12. Jacobi in England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales 800 Furnaces Forges, or Iron Mills making Iron with Char-cole: Now we may suppose at least 300 of these to be Furnaces, and 500 to be Forges; and each Furnace making fif­teen Tun per week of Pig or cast Iron, and work or blow but Forty weeks per Annum, but some Furnaces make Twen­ty [Page 49] Tuns of Pig Iron per Week, and two Loads of Charcole or there about, go to the making of a Tun of Pig Iron: And two Loads (or two cords) of Wood, at the least, go to the making of a load of Charcole.

Now what Loads of Wood or Char-cole is spent in great Brittain and Ireland Annually? but in one Furnace, that makes Fifteen Tun per Week of Pig-Iron for Forty weeks: I shall give you the Table, and leave you to judge of the rest of the Furnaces.

15. Tun per week spends of30 loads60 loads
Per Annum 40 weeks spends12002400 loads

Also for one Forge that make Three Tuns of Bar Iron weekly for Fifty weeks, but some Forges make double my Pro­portion, and spend to Fine and Bar out [Page 50] each Tun three Loads of Coles: To each Tun.

3 Tun per week9 Loads18 loads
Per Annum450 loads900 loads

By these Examples, may you see, the vast quanties of Charcole, or Wood, that the 300 Furnacis spend weekly, or yearly, and the 500. Forges workings all the year, spend little lesse then the Furnaces: It being impossible, after this rate for great Brittains or Ireland, to supply these her works with Charcole in Fining of Iron at the Fineries, may be permitted to use Charcole, and may be supplyed with under Woods.

Let us but look back unto the making of Iron, by our Ancestors, in foot blasts, or bloomenies, that was by men treading of the Bellows, by which way they could make but one little lump or bloom of Iron in a day, not 100 weight, and that not fusible, nor fined, or malliable, untill [Page 51] it were long burned and wrought under Hammers, and whose first slag, sinder or scorius, doth contain in it as much, or more Iron, then in that day the workman or bloomer got out, which Slag, Scorius, or Sinder is by our Founders at Furnaces wrought again, and found to contain much Yron and easier of Fusion than any Yron stone or Mine of Yron whatsoever of which slag and Sinders, there is in ma­ny Countryes Millions of Tuns and Oaks growing upon them, very old and rot­ten.

The next invention, was to set up the Bloomeries that went by water, for the ease of the men treading the bellows, which being bigger, and the waterwheel causing a greater blast, did not onely make a greater quantity of iron, but also extracted more iron out of the slag or sin­der, and left them more poorer of iron then the foot-blasts, so that the Founders cannot melt them again, as they do the foot-blast sinders to profit: Yet these [Page 52] Bloomeries by water (not altogether out of use) do make in one day but two hun­dred pound weight of iron, or there a­bouts, neither is it feisible, or malliable, but is unfined untill it be much burned, and wrought a second time in fire.

But some of the now going Furnaces with Charcole, do make two or three Tun of Pigg or cast iron in 24 hours.

Therefore I do not wholly compute the vast quantities of charcoles and wood spent in these voragious works, which quantity of cast iron, with pit-cole and Sea-cole, at one Furnace I desire not, but am contented with half the proportion, which once I attained unto before my Bellows were riotously cut, that is one Tun in 24 hours; we need not a greater quantity, if the like quantity were made in Furnaces in Scotland, and Wales, which abounds with Pit-cole and Sea-cole, as well as England; and our supernumery Smiths, Founders, and Forgemen, and other Tradesmen might be there im­ployed, [Page 53] thereby to furnish His Majesties Plantations, as well, if not better then England, where Coles are far cheaper then in England.

Although vast quantities of Coles do abound near the Authors dwelling, yet twenty thousand Smiths or Naylors at the least dwelling near these parts, and taking of Prentices, have made their Trade so bad, that many of them are rea­dy to starve and steal; so that it is wish­ed there were some courses taken to mend their Trade, imploy them in other parts, or permit them, not to take so many Prentices, all which have great oc­casions to use Pit-cole, and had not these parts abounded with cole, it would have been a great deal worse with them then it is; but of the cole there is, nor will be any want, nor of iron-stone.

The manner of the cole-veins, or mea­sures in these parts, and also of the mea­sures of iron-stone, or mines, how they lye, be, or increase, some veins lye cir­culer, [Page 54] some sami-circuler, some ovall, some works almost in a direct line, and some works parts of a Circle; as by the Circle, it being onely for a small Exam­ple to judge the rest of the Mines by may appear.

  • [Page]ΛΛ East.
  • Λ West.
  • ΛΛΛ North.

Time not permitting me to give you a Larger Mapp, conclude, &c.

  • A Two Gutters out of which issueth Water, as hot as that at Bath.
  • B The way from Himley to Dudley, and from Dudley to Burmicham.
  • C Dudley Castle.
  • O Coles ten yards thick.
  • o Iron-stone four yards thick.
  • o Coles two yards thick.

The Scale for Cole, and Stone per yard.

[Scale for map]

By the white innermost Circle, you may conceive the Scale under to be over in Diameter, a mile and a half.

[Scale for map]


[diagram and geological map of the coalfield around Dudley Castle]

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.