The SECOND & THIRD EMBASSIE to ye. EMPIRE of TAYSING or CHINA. with Previledge Ao. 1672.



WITH A Relation of the Netherlanders Assisting the Tartar against Coxinga, and the Chinese Fleet, who till then were Masters of the Sea.

AND A more exact Geographical Description than formerly, both of the whole Empire of China in general, and in particular of every of the fifteen Provinces.

Collected out of their several Writings and Journals, By ARNOLDUS MONTANUS.

English'd, and Adorn'd with above a hundred several Sculptures, By IOHN OGILBY, Esq

Master of His MAJESTY'S REVELS in the Kingdom of IRELAND.

LONDON, Printed by Tho. Iohnson for the Author, and are to be had at his House in White Fryers. M. DC. LXXI.

TO THE Supream, Most High and Mighty Prince HARLES II.





  • TItle.
  • The City and Castle Zelandia in the Island Taywan Fol. 39
  • Matzou 42
  • The Idol Sekia 43
  • Quantekong, a Half sheet 44
  • Castrum à Meinjaceen 77
  • The City Quemoey 134
  • The City Aimuy 138
  • Hocsieu with its Suburbs 192
  • The Royal Presents given to King Singla­mon 232
  • The Departure of the Emperor from Hock­sieu to the Imperial Court at Peking 259
  • The City Kinningfoe 264
  • The City Jemping 262
  • Pouching 265
  • Hitsiu 277
  • Hanchieu 278
  • Lankin, or Nanking 284
  • Paolinxie Pagod 286
  • Pecking 319
  • The Imperial Palace where the Presents were received, Marked A. B. C. D. 223
  • The Royal Banket 334
  • The Station of Ceremonies used at the Fune­rals of great Persons 388
  • The Station used by the great Mandarins 414
  • The Marks of the Mandarins, Figure 1. a Half-sheet 417
  • Idem Figure 2. a Half-sheet 418
  • Divers sorts of Bonnets, Figure 1. a Half­sheet 419
  • Divers sorts of Caps or Bonnets, Figure 2. a Half-sheet. 420
  • Gods and Goddesses, Number 1. 569
  • Idem Numb. 2. 570
  • Idem Numb. 3. 571
  • Idem Numb. 4. 572
  • The Idol Sechia 574
  • The Idol Vitech, or Ninifoe 582
  • Directions for building of Pagod-Temples in two Divisions 600
  • RHabarbarum Witsoniarum, a Half-sheet. 680
  • Li-Ci, Kia-Giu, Arbor Papaya 681
  • Su-Pim, Po-Lo-Mie, Cieu-Ko 685
  • Cinamonium, Ya-Ta, Du-Liam 686
  • Pi-Pa▪ Man-Ko, Giam-Bo 687


MAny Years are past since several Europeans, especially the English, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Hollanders, have with indefatigable Endeavors persever'd towards the acqui­ring a free and unmolested Trade in CHINA: Yet though they have variously attempted what might seem probable to this Effect, their whole Undertakings have prov'd little better than a Labor in vain; for the Chineses priding in the Subsistance of their own Pro­duct, and too strictly observing an Ancient Law, prohibiting the Admission of any Strangers into their Countrey, excepting such onely as bringing Tributes from the adjacent Borders, paid Homage to their Emperor, as Supreme Lord of the World; or else Foreign Embassadors, under which pretence many drove there a subtile Trade, have shut out and abhorr'd all Correspondency abroad; which Trigaut affirms, saying, The Chineses have a Law that forbids Strangers to come amongst them; but if any such be found, the onely Penalty is, That he must dwell there, and never return: Yet these are not suffer'd to go where they please, but limited in the Entries and Out-skirts of the Empire, mov'd by a Superstitious Fear, from a Prophecy, That they shall be supplanted by Stran­gers.

But the Interpretation or Suspition extends not onely to remote and un­known People, but their Neighbors, with whom they have some Converse, and use the like Customs, Habits, and Religion; for the Coreans, the nearest of their Neighbors, were never seen in China but in the condition of Slaves.

Father Martinius also, in his Chinese Atlas, relates, That China is lock'd up soHistor. Sinic. 65. close and cunningly to keep out all Strangers, that scarce any, unless by way of Embassy, are once suffer'd to come in. The Turks, Tartars, Moguls, and [Page 2] other adjacent People, address themselves as Embassadors, when indeed are disguis'd Merchants, and so drive there a profitable Trade; for feigning fantastick Names, for several Princes that never were, nor are, present Gifts to the Emperor, which they buy at low Rates; cheap, but fit Commo ties to be transported thither: Nor can they be Losers; for they receive atleast twice the Value as a grateful Return; the Emperor counting it a high disho­nor to do otherwise.

Besides this, all Embassadors, during their stay, going, and coming through the Countrey, are with their whole Retinue maintain'd at the Publick Charge, and their other Goods, whatever, that are not Presents, in stead of Customs and Taxes, are brought on several Carriages, at the Emperors Expence, to the Palace, where they are permitted to expose them to Sale, or Barter: But al­though this care be taken concerning their Expences, and that they shall no way be Losers in making their Addresses to the Court; yet whatever Ambas­sadors they be, though the Negotiation be never so serious, and of greatest im­port; nay, though they come loaden with Treasure, to be pour'd into the Em­perors Exchequer, and be ancient Friends and Allies, yet they are entertain'd like Spies and Enemies, not suffer'd in their Journeys to see the Countreys, but hood-wink'd, have no more Prospect than the Road they tread upon; and in like manner are as close Prisoners, lock'd up in their Inns, and Places of purpose for such Reception; and when come to Court, not onely secur'd, but never permitted to Publick Audience, or to see the Emperor, but manage all their Business by the Mandarins, or Officers of State.

Besides, Trigaut also tells us, That they severely punish their own People, that hold any Commerce or Intelligence with Strangers, without especial Licence from the Emperor. And what is of more remark, If there be occasion to send any Person of Qua­lity forth by way of Envoy or Embassy beyond the Limits of the Empire, it is a Work of difficulty to procure them; but when prevail'd upon by Per­swasions, at his departure all his Acquaintance, Kindred, and Relations lament, as if going to suffer Execution; but at his return he is receiv'd with as much joy, and specially advanc'd by the Emperor; which is no wonder, the Chineses having such a reluctancy to whatever seems strange, nay, scorning to learn out of any Books but their own, believing, that all Humane Knowledge is within the Sphere of their Activity, and looking upon all Outlandish as ig­norant Animals, and when they mention them in their Writings, take notice of them no otherwise; for their Characters that spell Beast, anagrammatiz'd, signifie a Stranger, also stigmatizing them with some Mark or Accent, that may interpret them worse than Devil.

These Orders were more than strictly observ'd towards Strangers, while the Chineses were Govern'd by their own Native Princes; but the Oriental Tar­tars, which so lately by Conquest are become Masters of the Empire, let loose the Reins of that part of their Ancient Policy, and less scrupulous, are more indifferent, leaving opener Doors to the admittance of Trade and Commerce.

The Chief Council of New Batavia still watching all Opportunities for Im­provement of Traffick, being inform'd by Father Martinius, That the Con­quering Tartars, now setled in China, would more readily receive Addresses concerning Trade, than the former Chinese Princes, resolv'd to make Tryal thereof, by sending a Vessel laden with several Merchandises from the Island Tayowan; to which purpose Frederick Schedell, being order'd with a Ship call'd the Brown-Fish, from Tayowan, came within nine days after his departure from [Page 3] thence, to an Anchor in the Mouth of the River Canton, near the Island Hay­tomon.

His Business at first was so well resented, that the Vice-Roys of Canton grant­ed him under their Hands Licence to sell and barter the Contents of his Cargo, and also to build a Store-house in Canton, for their better Accommodation; al­though they were advis'd and perswaded to the contrary by the Portuguese Sta­ple at Macao, who in their Letters to the Vice-Roys gave but a sad Account of the Hollanders, saying, That they were Traytors and Rebels against their true Prince, scarce having any Countrey of their own, or Religion, but liv'd by Pyracy, robbing and plundering whatever they light upon, either by Sea or Land; hoping by thus decrying their Reputation, to set a stop to their begun Proceedings, and new Factory. In like manner the Chinese Philosophers, great Students of their Countreys Antiquities, by the Instigations of the Portuguese Iesuits, inform'd also the Vice-Roys, that the Hollanders were a Nation odious, and through all Ages detested by the Chineses, and never upon any account had the least admittance into their Empire.

But though this Intelligence did something, yet it had not the expected efficacy, and the Hollanders had gone on, and carried the Business, when ac­cidentally a great Person coming from the Imperial City Peking to Canton, first disswaded the Vice-Roys from what they intended therein, saying, It was quite another thing to permit any one free Egress and Regress into their Dominions, than to give them a Place of Residence on the Shore, without the knowledge of the Supreme Authority; but that he ought to acquaint the Emperor there­with, if he intended not to incur his displeasure: Upon which the old Vice-Roy, changing his Determination, civilly sent to Schedell, desiring him for that time to depart with all his Company, lest his abiding there so long, might be misconstru'd by his King Matsuyker, as a deterring, or some restraint upon them; although Schedell urg'd much, that there could be no such cause of mis­trust there, using many Arguments. The Vice-Roys presenting him at his departure, gave him also two Letters to Nicholas Verburgh Governor of Tayowan, first complementing, and then advising him, that the best and onely way for the Hollanders to obtain liberty for setting up a Factory at Canton, and licence to Trade in China, was by Address to the Emperor, by way of Embassy, carrying rich Presents to the Emperor at Peking.

The Council at Batavia, observing the Advice they receiv'd, would not of themselves undertake so great a business, unless so order'd from their Masters of the East-India Company; which asking some time to bring about, they in the mean time resolv'd to venture out another Ship, to try her Fortune at Can­ton: To which purpose they chose Zacharias Wagenaer a Merchant, and the same Frederick Schedell, who with two Ships, the Brown-Fish, and Whiting, laden with Merchandize, arriv'd a Month after they left Batavia, in the Mouth of the River Canton, and from thence went to Wangsoe, a Village three Leagues from the City.

Wagenaer at last arriving at Canton, deliver'd his Letters from the Council in Batavia, by the old Vice-Roys Secretary (having no admission to the Vice-Roy) and receiv'd for Answer, That since the Hollanders had neither brought Letters nor Presents for the Emperor in Peking, of which they were expresly advis'd, the more to fa­cilitate their business; therefore lest he should be question'd, he neither would nor could see or speak with them. So that Wagenaer and Schedell return'd, having made a fruitless Voyage, without any success, to Batavia.

[Page 4]Soon after they having receiv'd Expresses from the Governors of the East-India Company in Holland, to set forth an Embassy, according to the Advice of the Vice Roys of Canton, sent Peter de Goyer, and Iacob de Keyzer Embassadors Peking, to the Emperor of China, with Letters of Credence and Presents, to obtain his Imperial Licence that they might Trade in China.

These Embassadors arriv'd Anno 1656. in the Chief City Peking. The next day some of the Council, and the Prime Secretary Thouglauja, with two other Tartar Mandarins, Quanlauja, and Hoolauja, came to complement the Embassa­dors in the Emperors Name, to inquire after their Health, the number of their Attendants, concerning what their Presents were, and from whom, and whence they came? To all which Questions, the Mandarins receiving particular An­swers, listed all those Persons that attended the Embassy (which according to the Information sent from Canton were in all twenty four) which they set down one after another by their several Names; nor did they leave out those Hang­ers on which were not included in the List.

After that, they turn'd and look'd over several Presents; then inquir'd, whence they came, how and who made them, for what use, and in what part of the World? And lastly, How far, or how many Months Sail Holland lay distant from Peking? To which the Embassadors having return'd fitting An­swers, the Mandarins inquir'd further, Whether they were a People that dwelt only upon the Seas, and had no Land-Habitations (which the Portuguese Iesu­its put into their Heads) or if they inhabited any Countrey, what they call'd it, and where it lay? From whence, and to what purpose they were sent? What was their Kings Name, and of what Age? All which the Embassadors answer'd. Yet they were not so satisfied; but interrogating, forc'd them to recount the same Answers again. But after they grew more curious, and be­gan to inquire concerning their manner of Government, and if the Embassa­dors were not of the Blood Royal, and of Kin to their Prince: ‘For no For­reign Embassadors (said they) if they be not of Consanguinity with their King, are admitted to appear, bowing their Heads with all humility, before the Imperial Majesty.’

Whereupon the Embassadors reply'd, ‘That they were not of the Blood Royal; for the manner of their Countrey was not to send Princes of the Blood on such remote Embassies, but imploy'd other Men of good Quali­ty, and well esteem'd at home, upon such Foreign Negotiations.’

The Mandarins further inquisitive, came at last to ask, What Offices they bore in their Princes Court? What their Names and Titles of Honor were? How many Men they had under their Command? All which the Embassadors answer'd very punctually.

Then they inquir'd again, If they came directly from Holland, or Batavia? If from Batavia, What kind of Place it was, and what manner of Person the General? Which being resolv'd, the Mandarins went away satisfied.

The next day the Embassadors, with the Presents, appear'd by order of the Chancellor before the Council, without which they were not to be admitted; where the Chancellor sate uppermost, on a high Bed, cross-legg'd: Next him, on the right Hand, sate two Tartar Lords; and on the left, a Iesuit call'd Adam Schal, an ancient and venerable Person, and being close shaven, look'd like a Tartar: he had dwelt above forty six years, in the several Reigns of Chinesy Princes, in the Court at Peking.

The rest of the Council sate promiscuously, without any Order or State, [Page 5] one among another, upon Benches onely cover'd with old white Linnen.

The Chancellor welcoming the Ambassadors in few words, Commanded them to sit; then laying the Presents on a Table, he ask'd upon the matter all the Questions which the Mandarines had formerly; whereto the Ambassa­dors, by the help of Father Adam their Interpreter there, gave ready An­swers.

Mean while Order came from the Emperor to the Council, wherein the Je­suit was desir'd to write down, and to deliver to his Imperial Majesty that night, if the Hollanders possess'd any Land; and also where, and how far it lay distant from his; and also how their Prince was call'd, and what kind of Go­vernment they maintain'd? All which Schal deliver'd in Writing to the Chan­cellor: Adding, that their Countrey did formerly belong to the King of Spain, from whom they keep it unjustly, &c.

But the Chancellor perceiving that the Jesuit had no kindness for them, scrupling, made him put in, and put out, and write the whole matter twice over; then ordering him to Transcribe it fair, he refus'd, excusing himself by age, and weakness of sight; Upon▪ which, he commanded one of his Un­der-Clerks to write it over; which done, it was immediately with some small Presents carry'd to the Emperor. Who soon after having receiv'd this advice, sent a Mandatory Letter to the Council, signifying, That he receiv'd the Hol­landers as Ambassadors, and permitted that they might be brought into his pre­sence, so soon as he should sit upon the Throne in his new Court. The Let­ter to the Council was written in these words:

‘Most Honorable, and our great Lords, the Holland Ambassadors are come hither with their Presents to Complement the Emperor, and shew their obedience to Us, which no Record shews, nor any remembers, that they ever did to this Crown in thousands of years before: Therefore, since this is their first Address, We receive them as Ambassadors, and permit, that they, when We shall sit on Our Imperial Throne, in Our New Palace, may be brought into Our presence, to shew their obedience to Us, that afterwards they may be well entertain'd, and dealt withal according to their own requests, and also be speedily dispatch'd for their better departure; and the rather, because out of respect to Our Fame, they are come an unimaginable vast way by Sea, and also by Land; nay, as if they came out of a shadow from high Mountains, to rest their Feet at Peking; there with open Eyes, to behold the clear Sun in the Firmament; therefore how can We with­stand and deny the Requests of such Persons, after their long and tedious Voyages?’

But after, when the Ambassadors Letters of Credence, Translated by Schal, were read to the Emperor, he sent to the Chancellor a second Order in these words:

Having on the sixteenth day of the sixth Moon read over the Hollanders Stilo vet. 6. Aug. Stilo novo 16. Aug. Letters a second time, and gotten a right understanding thereof, We find that their Embassy which they have undertaken is freely out of their own kind­ness and inclination towards Us, and that from a Countrey lying beyond the great Sea; just like a Bird that takes a voluntary flight through the Air, and cannot be forc'd to come down: And since We esteem this Embassy higher than ought else, and would befriend as Our self, therefore We charge you, Our Chancellor, and the rest of Our Council of State, upon their Re­quests which they shall make by way of this Embassy, to permit them [Page 6] egress and regress through Our Empire; and what other Agreements you drive with them, you acquaint Us therewith.

This Letter being read, the Chancellor ask'd the Ambassadors if they could in like manner make annual Addresses, if not, every three year; whereupon the Ambassadors answer'd, That they could with more certainty and Cere­mony wait on the Emperor with their due obeisance in Peking every fifth year, so that they might be Licens'd yearly with four Ships to come and Traf­fique at Canton: Which Proposal the Chancellor put to the Vote, and the Tar­tars with one voice judg'd, their Designs were fit, just, and reasonable: But the Chineses thought it sufficient, if they made their Addresses to the Emperor but every ninth year, to save the trouble and danger of so long a Journey, supposing what the Tartarians did not observe, that it was not fit the Hollanders should Trade all that while at Canton.

Moreover, they urg'd that these that call'd themselves Hollanders, might be English, neither they nor their Shipping being much unlike, which would be a high scandal upon their Government, to suffer that Nation that had done them such prejudice within memory, when they came but with four Ships into the Haven Heytamon, and ruffled their Fleet there, sinking some, and taking others, and so batter'd the Castle, that they took the Mandarine himself Prisoner, fight­ing more like Furies than Men, for which they were ever since declar'd Ene­mies, nay, according to an Edict made at that time, never after to be permit­ted to Trade in China; so that they ought to have greater proofs, whether the Hollanders were not English, before they should be suffer'd to Traffique upon their Coasts.

And also (besides that, it was contrary to their ancient Laws and Customs to grant to any Nation a free Trade in the Empire) they could not perceive any thing concerning this Request in their Lettrrs of Credence; therefore, according to their opinion, the Ambassadors went beyond their Orders.

This stop of the Council so unexpected, seem'd very strange to the Ambas­sadors, who thought of nothing more, but that all things had been done, and a free Trade granted, and that they were onely to return him their humble Thanks.

All which was brought thus about by the influence of Father Adam Schall, and some other Portuguese at Peking, foreseeing the undoing of their Factory at Macao, if the Dutch set up at Canton, and also there wanted not a less Sum than 300 Tail of Silver, which was to be dispos'd to Bribe the Council, with pro­mises of more: The Tartars also now adding, that the Hollanders under pretence of Trade, sought to get footing in the Empire, and then to Ransack the Coun­trey, and Pillage, and make Prize of what e're they could lay hold on.

All which was more confirm'd as a positive truth, by the Allegation of a Commissioner that had dwelt at Canton three years before; and also by the Tu­tang's Letters, which at that time was at Canton, and Brib'd for that purpose by the Portuguese at Macao, had wrought such an opinion in the Hearts of the Peo­ple, that they look'd upon the Hollanders no otherwise than a company of Out­laws and Exiles, which had no home or abodes, but dwelt on the Sea, their whole subsistence drawn from Spoil and Piracy.

Lastly, The Ambassadors found that the Chancellor and other Councellors could not without Bribes understand, that these words in their Letters of Cre­dence, To have leave to go and come, could signifie nothing but a free Trade: which seem'd very strange to them, since they knew no otherwise but that the [Page 7] five and thirty hundred Tail of Silver, which they had oblig'd themselves to pay to the Vice-Roy at Canton, was to be distributed amongst the Council. Therefore being thus deceiv'd by the Vice-Roy, they were forc'd to fall to new Consultations to obtain their desire.

First, They Declar'd to the Chancellor and Council more at large, what was intended by that Point concerning their Annual Trade in Canton, and de­sired earnestly to obtain it.

Next they offer'd by the old Vice-Roy of Cantons Mandarin, to the Chancel­lor, that they would stay in Peking, till his Majesty was fully assur'd, that they were Hollanders and not English. They also requested, that the Emperor would be pleas'd to give them a Seal, with some peculiar Mark Engrav'd in Brass, therewith they might Seal Passes for all Ships that either Sail'd by, or put into the Harbors of China, thereby to distinguish them from others of their neighboring Nations.

At last they exhibited a Proposal, drawn by one of the Clerks of the Coun­cil; wherein they urg'd, that they might as Loyal Subjects Trade in China, upon the Grant whereof, they would undertake to pay all Taxes and Customs whatsoever, like those of Licukieu, Ainan, and Siam; and when those three Na­tions made their Addresses, being every third year, they would in like manner attend the Emperor with peculiar Presents.

But all their Proposals were to no effect, wanting at least ten thousand Tail of Silver, there being no other means in that Court to make their way, for what party Brib'd most, abnubilated their understandings, and gave them a sense of their Cause, which Sum they being then not able to raise, for none could be took up upon any Security whatsoever, under ten, or eight at least per cent. a Moneth Interest: Which exaction the Ambassadors judg'd no way fit or rea­sonable, because if they were at this Expence, it lay still doubtful, whether their business should be effected.

The Emperor at last inform'd of all the Proceedings by his Council, and how the Hollanders were inclin'd to come in an Embassy to his Majesty, every fifth year; and that they had made it appear, that in less time they could not go and come: Therefore his Majesty, out of a respect to the Hollanders, and for their better accommodation, order'd them to come but every eighth year, ‘For, said he, otherwise they would not be able to hold out; and why should We lay an unnecessary Obligation on a People which We neither need, nor fear? and who of their own inclination come to tender their. Obedience to Us with Presents? No, We have resolv'd to Treat them so tenderly, that af­ter they have ended their great Journey, they may have two or three years rest at home.’

By this Declaration of the Emperor, they saw plainly nothing more was to be done, but to apply themselves onely to patience, and to put off the Design till another more fit opportunity; for the Councils chief Secretary had told them, that too much pressing, and eager sollicitation, would rather hurt than help the Business.

Amongst others, having made their Addresses concerning this matter, by the Vice-Roys of Cantons Mandarins, they receiv'd this Answer:

Is it not enough, that at this first time they are admitted as Ambassadors to tender their Presents to the Emperor, and notwithstanding the bad fame which hath rendred them odious in the Eyes of the most eminent Persons in China, they were now accepted as Friends, and had leave to dispose of their [Page 8] Goods which they had brought; let them not urge too much for a free Trade, lest perhaps for the future they be deny'd all.

They must not think nor imagine that We are oblig'd to grant them all things at first; if they come the next year, or so soon as they can, and with Presents return the Emperor thanks for his kind accepting of them; then perhaps there will be better Conveniencies to effect their desires.

At last the Ambassadors having shew'd due reverence to the Emperor's Seal, appear'd before the Throne, and been at three of the Emperors Feasts, where they were very nobly Entertain'd, receiv'd their Dispatch, together with his Imperial Majesties Letter to his Excellency Iohn Maetzuiker, in New-Batavia.

The Emperor sends this Letter to the Netherlanders, Batavia, and to their King John Maetzuiker.

Ur Countreys are as far distant as the East from the West, so that We can­not easily visit each other; Many Ages are past since the Hollanders have been seen amongst us, but you have done very prudently, in that you sent to Us Peter de Goeyer, and Iacob de Keyser, which in your Name have brought Us Presents. You have shew'd your good inclination, by remembring Us; wherefore Our heart is also much inclin'd to you; and as a testimony there­thereof, We send you two Rowls of Sattin, four Rowls of Flower'd Sattin, four Rowls of blew Sattin without Flowers, four Rowls of Kin, four Rowls of Camlet, ten Pieces of Peelings, ten Pieces of Parsu, ten Pieces of light Colour'd Stuffs, and three hundred Tail of Silver▪ You have desir'd to come and Trade in Our Countrey, to bring Commodities thither, and carry others out, by which a private Man might reap good profit: But because your Countrey is so many thousand Leagues distant, and here blow very hard Winds, so that the Ships run great danger which come hither, and for that also it is very cold here ashore, by very great Hails and Snows; it would be no small trouble to Us, if any of your People should come hither and mis­carry; but if this satisfie not, unless they have permission to visit these parts, then let them come every eighth year once, with a hundred in their Train, of which twenty may come to the Palace, where we keep our Imperial Re­sidence; and you may lay your Merchandize ashore in your Store-house, without disposing of them at Sea before Canton. This We have thought good out of Our inclination for your benefit, and believe that it will likewise be to your satisfaction. This is that which we intended to advise you.

In the thirteenth Year, the eighth Moneth, the nine and twentieth Day of the Reign Xunchi. Somewhat lower stood Hongtee Thoepe.

The Hollanders thus frustrated of their expectation, having obtain'd nothing else than to come every eighth year once, with Merchandize to Trade in the Countrey, left off prosecuting the Design with so much eagerness for a consi­derable time.

But since the loss of the Islands Tayowan, and Formosa, taken from the Hol­landers by Koxinga, or Iquon, and his Associates, Anno 1661. they renew'd their Suit to the Tartar for a free Trade, on promise and assurance, that if they [Page 9] should meet with Coxinga, either at Sea or Land, they would endeavor to de­stroy him, as a common Enemy both to the Tartars and Hollanders.

Therefore since the Isles of Tayowan, Formosa, and Coxinga will be often made mention of in this our Relation; and that from the loss of those places, the Hollanders renew'd their old Request, under pretence of help to ruine the ene­my; it will be necessary, and this our Business seems indeed to require a brief Description of them in the first, and withal, a Relation how Coxinga took them from the Hollanders.

Of Formosa.

THe Formosan Isle, formerly call'd by the Chineses, Paccande, extends it selfDescription of the Island Formosa. in length from the South to the North, and in breadth East and West, being an hundred and thirty Leagues in Circuit: the Prospect shews you much rising Ground, and a Hilly Countrey, which abounds with Deer, great store of Wild Goats, Hares, Coneys, Swine, Tygers, and the Luvasey, whose flesh hath a delightful and excellent relish. The Woods also have no want of Pheasants and Pigeons. The Ground being fruitful, produceth store of Sugar, Ginger, Cinamon, Coco-Nuts, and several other Necessaries fit for humane sustenance; besides, full of populous Villages. They are Govern'd by several Lords, not de­pending on, nor acknowledging any Superior, so that each Town being a Re­publick, they still have Wars, and are at difference one with another, Town against Town, Village against Village, insomuch that Peace never set Foot in that Isle.

Of their many Villages, the prime and of chiefest note, are Sinkan, Mandauw, Soulang, Backeloang, Taffacan, Tifulucan, Teopan, and Tefurang; the last in a Valley near the High-lands, where Fort Zelandia stands, formerly call'd Tayovan.

The Inhabitants of this Village are rude and salvage, robust, and almost of aThe Inhabitants of Tefu­rang are very salvage. Gigantick size, not black like the Caffers, and count it no immodesty to go starkTheir Customs. naked. Their Women, well built for Stowage, short, and inclining to gross­ness, wearing Apparel; yet twice a day they strip themselves, and are not asham'd to bathe and wash in publick.

These, though a barbarous People, are kind to the Netherlanders, heartily en­tertaining them with their own, though mean, yet wholsome Fare.

Soulang breeds a needy, spiteful, inhospitable, and bloody People. Not­withstandingInhabitants of Soulang. the fruitfulness of the Soil they commonly live in want, being extreme lazy, Tilling no more than they suppose will supply their necessity; which often falling short, they are so hardly put to it, that when they per­ceive Provision growing scant, they live sparingly many days, or else they might be utterly famish'd; for in such exigencies they never help one ano­ther: nay, they are so supinely slothful, that the Women do all the business of the Field, Plough, Sow, and Reap, having neither Horses, nor any other Cat­tel to help them; the Drudgery being the more, because they make it Gard­ners work, for onely with Spades they dig and turn the Glebe; and where their Corn grows thickest, especially Rice, they pluck it out with their Hands, and set it where they find the Blades come up thinner; and in Harvest know­ing neither Scythe nor Sickle, which tries their patience, crop with a Tool like a Pruning Knife, Stalk by Stalk, a Span below the Ear; which with­out Threshing, they store up in their Houses, hanging it in the Evening in [Page 10] small Bundles over the Fire; and early in the Morning the Women rise andHow they order their Rice. Pound so much as will serve them that day for their lazy Lord and Family Besides Rice and other Grain, they Sow Carrots, Set Water-Melons, Pinang, Quach, Taraum, and Pting.

This Isle is not stor'd with such Wines as other places in India have, which their Trees produce; but they have another sort of Liquor, that inebriates no less than the Indian, or Juyce of the Spanish Grape; which they prepare in this manner: They take a quantity of Rice, which they put in a Vessel made for that purpose, and boyl it; which turning out, they knead into little Balls, or Pellets; when they are well chew'd, they put them into another Pot, there let­ting it stand till grown sowre; to this they pour a good quantity of Spring-Water, which being so put together, works a Moneth or two, for so long it will ferment; then it becomes a clear, pleasant, wholsom, and strong Li­quor: which the longer kept, the better grows, for it will hold good thir­tyStrange Liquor in Eorme­sa. years. The top of this Drink is thin and clear, the bottom or sedi­ment thick like our Pap: the thin makes their Drink, with which they often Fuddle; the thick makes their Cawdle to recover them, which Crop-sick, they eat with Spoons. This they carry with them to the Field, and take a Dose thereof when they think fit: and thus yearly they spend most part of their Rice.

The Women when their Cultivation or Land-work is done, then they be­takeThe Women Fish and Till. themselves to the Sea, and Launch out their Boats, which they call Cham­pans, and fall to Fishing, where they catch great store of Crabs, Oysters, and Gurnets, which they Salt without Gutting, and therefore, though Pickled, keep not long, but are apt to putrifie and breed Worms; yet they like it never the worse, but look upon their Dish as the greater Dainty, the rancker the Hogooe.

Their Youths, though strong and of able Bodies, spend their time in idle­ness and sloth; and when forty years old, then they settle themselves to Lazi­ness, as if it were a Trade or Handicraft, spending twenty years in a metho­dical doing of nothing, in a small Hut or Hovel, dandling their Children, or Dalliance with their Wives, seldom or never stirring out of their own Limits, or Patch of Ground, unless invited either to a private or publick Feast, or Hunting-Matches, in which pleasure they take some pains, using several, andSeveral ways of Hunt­ing. indeed ingenious ways to catch the Game, sometimes practising deceit, laying Snares and Traps of complicated Rushes and Reeds so artificially, that they look fresh, as if growing and ungather'd, setting them in the Haunts of wild Boars, Lays of Deers, and the like, and so catch them, wondring who made their new Lodges and Beds so soft, and lay Meshes in other inviting places, which if they take not willingly, nor observe such Allurements, they drive them in, where they also make them their Prey; and they trapan them into Pits, digg'd and spread over with a light Swarth, or Turf of Grass, supported with brittle Twigs laid athwart the Holes: here to make them sure from get­ting out, they place a Snare, which suddenly arrests them, taking them Priso­ners by the Neck or Legs, and then they with a shout fall upon the so taken Quarry.

Besides this, they use Hostility and open Arms, whole Villages march outStrange manner of Hunt­ing in Firando. together, nay, two or three Townships, joyning their Forces, taking the Field; where drawn out in a single File, they stretch a Ring, which extends four or five English Miles in compass, every one brandishing in each Hand a Javelin, [Page 11] some carrying three or four: thus all prepar'd, with a rally of Hounds they rouse the Prey, then contracting their wide Circumference by degrees into a narrower▪ Circuit, closing up at last Man to Man, Shoulder to Shoulder; this done, if any one of their thrown Spears hit and fasten into the Body of the Game, they never lose him, for their Launces being short, not above six Foot long, and Pointed with Iron, having three retorted Hooks, stick so fast, that though flying to shelter amongst the Bushes and Shrubs, will not, when impe­ded by intangling Branches, drop out, and also having ty'd at the But▪end of the Staff a long String with a Bell, so that if by chance the Beast thus impark'd break the Pale, yet they never lose him, for they follow not only by the scent, but by the sound, both which seldom fail.Venison how▪eaten.

They use also Arrows, especially when they hunt wild Deer. The remain­der of the slain Venison, when they have Feasted themselves, they barter for Clothing and Raiment with the Chineses, seasoning with Salt the Humbles, to keep for their own private Store; but if by chance they kill a pregnant Doe, they unlace her, and Feasting upon the Slinck, eat up Skin and all.The Formosan Mens Ex­ercises, and their manner of Fighting.

To this their Manly Divertisements, and Exercises of Saiha, pleasing Labor, as pursuing their Game, they have also rougher work, and serious engage­ments, which, when successful, brings no less delight to such a barbarous People, that is, a Civil War, ancient Feuds, or fresh Animosities, still upon new occasions fermenting, so that Town against Town, and Village against Village all the Countrey over, are in open Hostility, either publick Slaughter, or private Murder being their Sports, which thus they carry on: First one Town begins, sending the other a bold Defiance; this is follow'd by twenty or thirty in a Party, which Row in their Boats, or Champans, to their Enemies Village, near which they lie as if in Ambuscade till Night, then growing dark, they Landing, march up and down and explore the Fields, culling out private Huts, and such like Houses, where the Graver sort, the Marry'd People, as we said before, at their ease and pleasure dwell: Those that be thus supinely careless they suddenly surprise, and off goes their Heads, Hands, and Feet; some­times more cruelly they slice out their whole Bodies, each one carrying a Col­lup in triumph home, as an evidence that he had no small share in that bloody Slaughter, but, as they suppose, honorable Action: But finding no small Game, or such single Adventures, then they attempt secretly the next Village, where silently breaking into a House or two, they spare none, but salvagely kill Men, Women, and Children, carrying their Heads, Hands, and Feet home, as Trophies of their Victory: But sometimes falling short of their De­sign, are glad to escape to save themselves; and often, the whole Town so suddenly taking the alarm, they with as little mercy are all cut off: at other times in their flight so few appearing, that the Enemies in hopes of revenge, are trepann'd to their Boats, where in greater and unexpected numbers they Fight so valiantly, that they put them to the Rout; yet these though seeming Furio­so's, receiving the least Wound, basely Retreat and quit the Battel.

Their Defensive Arms are Shields, so large, that they cover their whole Bo­dies;Their Arms. their Offensive, Darts and Faulchions.

It often happens, that two or three Villages joyn against one or more asso­ciated Towns: these have no Commission-Officer, or Commander, but who­soever shews most Men, they make their General, and hath the prime Autho­rity to rule over the others according to their numbers. Neither are their Warlike Stratagems common, for when they intend to Attaque some Village [Page 12] by a sudden surprisal, for they have no Works to storm, opposite to the way that they appear upon, and ready to enter the Village; on the contrary side they lie in Ambush, which when they Charge in, giving a smart alarm, the▪ People struck with a sudden fear, in a confus'd manner, betake themselves to their Heels, and flying from, fall just into the Mouth of the same Enemy, who suddenly starting up, are not sparing, but oftentimes make a general slaughter, whilst the others ransack and pillage the Houses. Sometimes in the Night they break into a House or two, which leaving, their business being done, two of the Par­ties stick fast in their likeliest way to return, so to stop the Pursuer, sharp-poin­ted Reeds, about half a Yard long, they making their Retreat by another im­probable way. Each Conqueror that shares for his own part a Head, carries it through his Village upon a Spear, insulting and singing in praise and glory of his God, to whom he solely ascribes his Victory; thus proudly vaporing, they are joyfully receiv'd every where, and entertain'd with the best Liquor the Town affords.

Every sixteen Houses have their own Chappel, to which they carry thisFormosans have great Churches. their bloody Spoil, which afterwards he boyls till the Flesh comes from the Bone, then drying it in the Sun, they pour strong Liquor (a Custom which they never omit) upon the bare Scalp: fourteen days they keep Holy, Feast­ingKeep great Feasts when they are Conquerors. and Sacrificing to their gods, who gave them so great and glorious a Victory.

Of these Heads, who e're enjoys one, looks upon it as his greatest Treasure, prizing them beyond Gold or Silver, or the most precious Jewel, and when any sudden accident of Fire, or the like happen, this they take most care of, how to carry it with them, or leave in safety.

This Isle, as we said before, hath no King, nor Supreme Governor, but eve­ryHave no supreme Go­vernor. petty Village is a small Republick, Ruling it self under twelve Magistrates, chosen every second year; whose chief Qualification is to be fifty years old:Strange Councellors. these when going out, in Honor and Commemoration that they were once prime Rulers, have all their Hair pick'd off from their Temples, and each side of their Heads with Tweasers; which baldness is the well-known Badge of their former Authority. But these Governors Power hath but small Limits,Their Authority. for in every Exigence all the Villages meet in the Temple there, having no Representatives, every Man speaks to the purpose according to his abilities, or as he is biass'd; which done, the Twelve take into their consideration, and from the general result of their various opinions, give their special Verdicts, which the People as they like or dislike, ratifie or refuse. But they have abso­lute Power to seize the Clothes of whomsoever wears Apparel in that three Moneths, when by their Laws they are commanded to go naked, and Pray to their Idols for Rain, being about that time always a dry Season. This also in part they inflict upon the Women that go too gorgeously in that Quarter. This their Court of twelve Aldermen suffer great hardship or Penance, not be­ing allow'd by their Laws to taste any strong Drink, as Pietang, use Sugar, or eat any Fat of their Meat, till such time as their Rice is half ripe, believing that onely preserves the sprouting Blade from the harrase of wild Beasts, as Deer, Swine, and such like.

Their chief Practise, and special Vertues, are Theft, Murder, and Adultery,The punishment of Cri­minals. at which they are very dextreous, either by Stratagems, or down-right vio­lence, and he that reckons up the most of such dire Actions, appears amongst them the bravest Fellow.

[Page 13]These People▪ though they have no superiority amongst them, neither by theShew great respect one to another, and chiefly the Youth to the antient Peo­ple. honor of Birth, nor their own acquir'd Riches: yet the Seniors keep the Ju­niors at a greater distance than we in Europe; the old Men exacting a greater Respect from the younger by far, over whom they exercise absolute Authority, and Arbitrary Power, without any limitation, Youth being no better than a Slave to Age; for wheresoever a young Man sees one more aged than himself (though at a great distance) he must start suddenly out of the way, as if a Prince were coming with all his Train; and if he chance to call and beckon to him, then sending him of an Errand, he dare not refuse, though to the farthest part of the Isle; neither dare they once offer to come near, or intrude into any Room where Parents are together; so that to be young, is to be a Slave▪ and when old, a Prince, having no honor of Superiority but by their years.

The Males must not Marry before their one and twentieth Year, nor wearStrange Marriage. long Hair till the seventeenth. Their ceremonious Rites of Matrimony are on­ly consummated thus: The Suiter, who by the advice of his Parents or his own Affection, hath cast his Eye upon a Mistress, begins his Courtship or Gal­lanting with a Present, which his Mother, or a near Relation, carries to her House, there presenting in her Servants Name, with all Complements, and Manifestations of his Affection. These Gifts are commonly eight Skirts or Pet­ticoats, as many Wastcoats, or Upper-Bodice, four hundred Armlets of pleited Rush, a dozen Rings for their Fingers, either Copper, or white polish'd Harts­horn, and so many Laces of red Dogs Hair, five Linnen Girdles, twelve Dogs Hair Coverlets, thirty Chinesie Pieces of Cloth, a great Box full of Dogs Hair, with which they make a Border, or Love-shade, to beautifie their Forehead and Temples, which they call Ayam Maniang, and five pair of Hart-skin Stock­ings. These Presents are sent onely by the Wealthiest; and those that are less able according to their abilities. If what they thus present is receiv'd, the busi­ness is concluded, and Marriage presently confirm'd by the Nuptial Bed.

Notwithstanding the concluding Ceremony, the Husband and Wife dwellThe Formosan Men live not with the Women▪ not together, but live apart by themselves; but in the Night he is allow'd in a clandestine way to steal to his Enjoyments; whither making his approaches, he is neither allow'd Fire nor Candle, but with all silence and secrecy steals in­to the Bed; neither there must he speak to his Bride, but if he want any thing, that he signifies by Coughing; upon which, guessing what it may be, his Wife administers, and her Houshold-business being done, she comes to Bed; a hard Lodging, where indeed they have no Bed, neither Pillow nor Bolster, but a Buck-skin spread upon the Floor; yet others have a Bedstead spread with Rushes. These hardships, as they suppose, makes them fitter for the encoun­ters of Venus, and more stirs up Loves fervor than warm dalliance in softer ac­commodations: Neither may he linger there, but e're the Dawn visibly ap­pear, thence he must, that so his departing with an appetite, he may be the more earnest for a second fruition: But all this while neither of them are a burthen to one another, but each provide for themselves, and follow their own affairs; and if they meet by chance in the Day, they pass by like Strangers, the HusbandMay not speak to them in the day-time. not daring to speak to his Wife without her License. The Charge of bring­ing up of the Children is left to her Care, till they are above one and twenty years of age, then their Father receives and keeps, or disposes of them as he thinks fitting.

But the Formosan Women have a barbarous Custom (void of all Motherly af­fection, and humane reason,) for whoever proves with Child before thirty [Page 14] seven years of age, when the Fruit of her Womb waxeth ripe and fit for Delive­ry, they cruelly and in unspeakable manner destroy: for in stead of a Midwise that should assist them in their Labor, or Childbed-throws, they employ a cruel Dame, who laying them in a fit posture on their best and softest Bed, crushesHorrible Murder of their Infants. and kneads the tender Infant in the Womb, till it become like a lump of Dough, which departs from them with more extreme torture, than if they were natu­rally deliver'd.

Georgius Canidius, a Minister of the Gospel, residing in Formosa Anno 1628 re­lates, that he knew a Formosan Woman, who was deliver'd of sixteen Children in that horrible manner, her first Abortion being in her seventeenth Year; and he being inquisitive to know why she thus made away what would have been her own dear Issue, and to be esteem'd most of all worldly joys by her, receiv'd this answer from her, That her shamefac'dness and modesty forbad her to be a Mother before she was of age of discretion, being accounted amongst them thir­ty seven Years.

The Husband (as we said before) in the fortieth Year of his Age, forsakes hisIn what year the Formo­san Men begin to keep House with their Wives. solitary abode, and lives with his Wife, spending the remainder of their days to­gether in small Huts or Hovels in the Field: but upon the least jangling or fall­ing out, they part; so that sometime they change their old for new Wives once a Moneth. If he can clearly convict her, shewing just reason for his separation, he recovers her Dowry, seizing those Gifts which he presented before Marri­age; but failing either in his Arguments or Proofs, the Divorc'd Wife preserves her own Estate. Some Marry two Wives, but they are look'd upon as commit­ting Fornication or Adultery; but of late, Custom, and the common practice, makes the offence not altogether so hainous.

Their Youth and Batchellors have their peculiar Residence; for in every Vil­lage,Unmarry'd People have their Dwellings apart. as we said before, sixteen Houses have their Chappel, in which they have distinct Lodgings, as in a Colledge, where they keep their Batchellors Place, though Marry'd, till such time as they go to live with their Wives.

The Formosan Houses are the handsomest, and exactest built of any after theThe Formosan Houses are artificial. Indian manner; for in stead of digging deep, they raise a Foundation six Foot high of firm Clay; the Walls of the Fabrick are rais'd onely with Reeds and Rushes, artificially strengthen'd with interweavings, having four Doors open­ingTheir Houshold-stuff. to the four Winds; but the prime Buildings have eight: The Ornament without, and Furniture within, are Stags Crested Heads, and wild Boars, Chi­nesie Raiments, and Deer-skins; and also Assagays or Javelins, Shields, Swords, Bowes and Arrows, Cattel, Axes, Cans, Pitchers, and Troughs, Vessels of Barks of Trees, and Earthen-Ware. But they pride most in the Bones, Sculls, and hairy Scalps of Enemies Conquer'd by their own Hands.

They use no private, but publick Feasts, to which every sixteen House-ParishFeasts. repair, being kept in their little Temple, or Chappel, where after their Devoti­on to their gods, they spend the rest of their time in Feasting, Singing, Dan­cing, and all manner of Idolatry; and he that appears there in a Dogs Hair Coat, is the bravest Fellow.

The manner of disposing their Dead, and Funeral Obsequies, are thus:Strange ordering of their Dead. When any dies, the Corps being Laid out, after four and twenty hours they elevate it upon a convenient Scaffold, or Stage, four Foot high, Matted with Reeds and Rushes, near which they make a Fire, that so the Corps may by degrees dry: to which place the Friends of the Deceased daily flock toge­ther, and that they may keep up Sorrow the better, bring along with them [Page 15] store of Mans Flesh, and several strong intoxicating Liquors. But before the sick Person departs, being just ready to give up the Ghost, thus they begin their inebriating Grief: One beats on a Drum made of a hollow Tree, which gives notion of a Person deceas'd; at which Summons the Women come from all Parts near, bringing their Pots and Vessels of Strong Drink with them, and making themselves, and the Relations of the Deceas'd, drunk. They Dance all Night before the Door after this manner: They take a Trough like a Chest,Strange Dancings but longer and broader, and turning the bottom upwards, the Women get up, and two by two, Back to Back, move their Legs and Arms in a Dancing time and measure; which pace, or taboring tread, sends a kind of a murmur­ing, or doleful Sound, from the hollow Tree; when these mounted Couples are weary, they come down, and others supply the Place: Thus the Maudlin-Drunkards dance nine Days together, whilst the Body lies parching by the Fire, sending forth a very noisom Stench; then having bath'd the Corps nine times over, they wrap it up close in a Mat, and lay it higher than before, so co­vering it with a fitted Canopy from all Light, there lying three years, till such time as nothing remains but a Skeleton, all else being consum'd to Dust; then they Interre him in his own House, with all the Ceremony of Feasts, as if lately departed.

The ordering of their Sick is no less unnatural and preposterous; for theyHow strangely they or­der their Sick. use them worse than if the Devil were their Doctor; for in stead of Potion or Pill, and the like, they have but one Medicine for all Diseases, and that's a dry Halter, especially in the Village Teopan; for as soon as any Person falls sick, and begins to complain, lying down, and not able to walk about, and follow his Business, they presently prepare a tough Cord, in stead of Cordial; so putting the Noose about his Neck, they hoise him up to the top of the House with a Pulley kept for that purpose, then let him suddenly fall with a Jolt, which commonly proves an immediate Cure, by killing them; yet some mend upon this choking Medicine, either by the strength of Nature, or their Spi­rits irritated by the fright.

The Formosans neither Write nor Read, using no Books, Letters, nor Cha­racters:The Religion of the For­mosans. but yet that Law and Religion which they have amongst them, they observe without alteration, deliver'd by Tradition from Generation to Generation: For certain young Men are appointed to be instructed from the elder; and faithful Memories are their onely Registers and Records.

First, They believe the Universe, Heaven and Earth, to have been without beginning, and shall be without end.

Secondly, they acknowledge the Immortality of the Soul; for which rea­son, they build a little Place, in which they put a Tub of Water with a Dish in it, before the Door of the Deceased, supposing the Spirit thereof comes dai­ly thither to bathe or cleanse.

The next Article of their Faith is, That there are several Punishments af­ter this Life, according to the equality of their Crimes, and Rewards of Eter­nal Happiness for those that have, when living, merited by doing well: there­fore they dig broad and deep Trenches, filling them with Mud and Slime; over which they make a floating Bridge of bundled-up Rushes, which leads to the most delightful and luxurious Vales in the Countrey: Over these, as they affirm, the Souls of the Deceased must pass, which the Wicked endeavoring to cross, the unstable Truss, or rowling Bridge, tumbles them over into their Sty­gian Lake; but the Just and Godly walking in safety over, enjoy there all Pleasure in an everlasting Elysium.

[Page 16]Those Sins which they account most hainous, are but frivolous Toys, builtWhat they account Sin. upon Superstition and sleight Observation, as not to go naked (as we said be­fore) at their set and appointed times; to wear Clothes or any thing of Silk▪ Women to bear Children before their seven and thirtieth year; to fetch and eat Oysters not in due season; and to venture to undertake any Business; though of little or no consequence, before they have observ'd good Auguries from the Notes or Language of the Birds: All these are Capital, and, as they hold sorth, unpardonable Offences; but Murder, Theft, Lying, and Forswear­ing, these have their Qualifications; for some may commit them, and some may not, without any scruple; but in general they are look'd upon no more than Peccadillo's, and venial Offences.

When they take an Oath, they ratifie it by breaking a Straw. To be a pub­like and common Drunkard, and to be an Adulterer, and Debaucher of young Women, if carried privately, is no harm.

Though they believe the Immortality of the Soul, yet they utterly deny the Resurrection of the Body.

Amongst their several gods which they worship, the chiefest are Tamagisan­hach, Their chiefest Idols. who Governs and Inhabits the South; his Celestial Spouse, Taxankpada Agodales, commands the East, where when it happens to Thunder, they be­lieve that she exercises her Tongue, the Females best Arms, scolding so loud at her Husband in the South, because he neglects his Office, not sending Rain when the Earth needs; who being nettled with his Wives bitter and sharp ex­pression, not enduring to hear her any longer, opens his Mouth, sending, and dispersing with his Breath abundance of Water.

Another Deity which they worship out of fear, because Tamagisanhach, as they say, creates Men with comely Visages, and well-proportion'd Bodies; this being an angry and ill natur'd Power, delighting in mischief, makes it his whole Business to spoil and mis-shape what Tamagisanhach hath made fair and handsom, disfiguring their Faces with Pox and Blasting, bunch­ing their Backs, withering and crooking their Limbs, and the like, then deriding at their Lameness and Deformity: so this Sariafing they hold in great Veneration, that he would be pleas'd to spare them, and do them no harm.

When they take up Arms, and proclaim Hostility, they offer Sacrifices toTheir gods of War. Talafula and Tapaliape, their two gods of War.

Their Priests, or rather Priestesses, which they call Inibs, are Women, theWomen perform Divine Services. whole Function in Divine Service, or Worship, belonging to them; for they not only Pray to their gods, and Preach, but also Sacrifice: Their chiefest Offerings are Stags and Boars Heads, presented in a Charger, upon boyl'd Rice, Pynang, and other strong Drinks, as a Condiment: This perform'd, two of the Female Order stand up before the Congregation, and make a Sermon, in which they set forth the Praise and Honor of their gods, going on with that vehemency of expressions and loud declamations, that at last their Hair stands upright, and their Eyes rowling, seem ready to start out of their Heads; thenStrange actions. near the Conclusion of these their dire Exhortations, they fall down in a Trance, and oftentimes lie so for a whole Hour, whilst the People gathering near them, tear their Throats, and cleave the Air with hideous shrieks and cries; when coming to themselves, in a cold and faint Sweat, their Limbs trembling, their Teeth chattering, strangely discompos'd, they tell the Peo­ple, That in their Trance the gods appear'd to them, unfolding mysterious [Page 17] things for their good, not yet to be express'd; besides, two others of these Women mount the Battlements of the Temple, and standing at the gable ends, they make afresh loud, and long Supplications to their gods: At last they strip themselves, and thus denuded, crying more earnestly to their gods, and first shaking, then taboring, or clapping with their Hands, raging as in a phanatick distraction. All the Women, following their impudent example, throw off with their Weeds all Shame at once, and so Tope and Deboush, tillDrunkenness a Vertue. they disgorge their too plentiful excess.

Besides this their publick Worship in the Temple, they Offer in the open Streets, and exercise private and domestick Devotions, performing Family­duties daily in their own Houses, to which those that please may repair, and joyn with them in this their Idol-Service.

With these Inibs also they consult concerning fair or foul Weather, whenThe Office of the Inibs. they have any Business abroad; also of future Events, which they seem to foretell, and if bad, advise how to prevent, or at least to mitigate: They also profess Exorcism, to drive away Evil Spirits, and to charm and confine the Devil, and all such deceitful Tempters; which they perform in a Rant, with loud Hectoring Acclamations, drawing a Iapan Faulchion, with which they Fence, Strike, and Thrust, flourishing it in the Air, making them believe, that thus they Fight the Fiend, and slice Satan out in Sippets, forcing him, thus being mangled, and cut almost into Attoms, to dive for his better safety into the Sea.

Yet these so salvage People, and blind with an over-grown ignorance, haveFormosans become Chri­stians. lately (since the Hollanders East-India Company setled here, and built a Fort for their Defence, and conveniency of Trade) without any great difficulty embrac'd the Doctrine of the Christian Faith; which was the easier introduc'd, the Inhabitants being their own Governors, and under no Supream Authority,Why they are easier converted than other Indi­dians. who exercising a Tyrannical Power, would, as other Persecutors, force them back from Gods true, to their false Idol-Worship, as at that time most part of India was, being either under Heathen or Mahumetan Governors, who with great fury obstructed the Gospel, which else might have flourish'd through the Oriental World: Besides, the Formosans kept no Books, wherein the Bounds of Religion were fix'd, and a setled maintain'd Doctrine, which still caus'd great variance, and hot Disputes amongst themselves, the whole Conduct of their Divine Laws being left to a few frantick and ignorant Women, who know nothing but by Tradition. This made it the more easie to reduce them from their Paganism and Idolatry; and finding little in their frenzied Inibs, that might perswade them to persist in their former Superstitions, many of them, with small difficulty, became good Christians. Thus far Candidius, which we have acquainted you with in our Iapan.

David Wright a Scots-man, and later than Candidius, who dwelt in the Isle seve­ral years, hath thus enlarg'd more particularly in every part.

This Island is not under the Jurisdiction of one peculiar Governor, butThe Island Formosa is divided into eight Domi­nions. stands divided into eleven Shires or Provinces, all lying to the In-land, of which every one hath several Towns and Villages belonging to them, be­sides divers Lordships on the Mountains.

Under the Hollanders Command, (with which we will begin first) were for­merly in the Northern Confines Sinkkan, Tavakan, Baklawan, Soelang, Mattou, Ti­verang, Faberlang, Takhais, Tornap, Terenip, and Assoek.

[Page 18]The second Province is Kabelang, a Territory by the Netherlanders call'd The Bay of Kabelang, and contains seventy two Towns and Villages, every one govern'd by their own peculiar Laws, and in amity with each other. The Hollanders never being able to subdue the Inhabitants thereof, were forc'd to make Peace with them; after which they not onely Traded with several sorts of Merchandise, but also sold their Sons and Daughters to them for Slaves, taking commonly for a Youth of thirteen years old, ten Rix-Dollars.

The third Dominion belongs to the King of Middag, lying against the North-East of Tayowan, Southward of the River Patientia.

This Prince hath seventeen Towns that obey him, the biggest whereof, call'd Middag, is his chief Seat, and Place of Residence: Sada, Boedor, Dere­donesel, and Goema, are four other of his eminent Towns, which last is a hand­som place, lying five Miles from Patientia, in a Plain, whereas all the other are built on Hills. He had formerly twenty seven Towns under his Jurisdiction; but ten of them threw off the Yoke. He keeps no great State, being at his going abroad accompanied onely with one or two Attendants. He would never suffer any Christians to dwell in his Dominions, but onely allows them to Travel through his Countrey.

About seven Leagues to the Northward of Middag, and four Leagues from the Sea, lies Mount Gedult, so call'd from its difficult and hard Ascents: It ap­pears square like a Table, so even and smooth, as if it were the Work of Art, not of Nature, having the advantage of adjacent Plains round about, and is over-grown with Brambles. On the South-side, at the Foot of this Hill, glides a River with so strong a Current, that the stoutest of the Natives, which are Men of able Bodies, dares not adventure to wade through it in any place; so that to make it fordable, they never attempt with less than twenty or thirty together, holding fast one by another; wherefore the Spaniards have by an Irony call'd it Rio Patientia, The Patient River; because to pass that rapid Stream, asks not only a great deal of Labor, but also some Patience.

The fourth Jurisdiction is that of Pimaba, comprehending eight Towns, and several Villages, the chiefest whereof is Pimaba, the Residence for the Go­vernor. The Inhabitants thereof are a stout and warlike People, and most ex­pert in their manner of Arms, of all the Formosans. This King, look'd upon as a brave Person, keeps a constant Guard, and is always quarrelling, and making War with his Neighbors. He was formerly in Friendship with the Hollanders, and proud to serve under them as Serjeant of a Company.

The fifth is Sapat, lying quite on the other side of Formosa, and commands over ten Towns; the Governor whereof is in League with Pimaba.

The sixth Dominion is call'd Takabolder, and hath eight Towns, besides se­veral Villages under its Jurisdiction.

In Takabolder appears an exceeding high Mountain, which may be seen from Tayowan.

The seventh Lordship is that of Cardeman, govern'd by a Woman, who for her kind reception of the Christians, was by the Hollanders call'd The Good Woman: She commands over five Villages. When the Hollanders march'd into the Field, she sent them Provisions, had a great Authority over her Subjects, and being a Widow, married to one of the Princes of the Countrey.

The eighth Territory hath twelve Villages, of which the chiefest are Dere­dou, Orrazo, Porraven, Barraba, Warrawarra, Tannatanna, and Cubeca.

The ninth is call'd Tokodekal, and hath seven Towns, and seven Villages; [Page 19] the chief whereof is Tokodekal, where the Governor hath his Residence.

The tenth, nam'd Pukkal, consists onely of one handsom City, and main­tains a continual War against the seven Villages of Tokodekal, and likewise against Percuzi and Pergunu, two Towns, which make the eleventh Dominion.

Besides all these foremention'd Places, there are abundance of Lordships in the Mountains; but we will not trouble the Reader with naming them, because they are so numerous, and for that every one is for it self, and conti­nually make War one against another: But those Places which formerly the Hollanders had reduc'd, they kept in good order and quiet.

These Islands of Formosa and Tayowan, especially the Coasts, suffer much [...] Storms and Tempests; for oftentimes the Wind blows down whole Trees and Houses, rending both Walls and Roofs from top to bottom: Besides by these Huricanes yearly many Ships are lost that approach near the Coasts.

Both these Isles also endure terrible Earthquakes. Anno 1654. hapned a mighty Earthquake, on the fourteenth of December, which continu'd, with short intermissions, almost seven Weeks together. It also rains here very much; wherefore none can travel above two Months, being December and Ianuary, for then is generally the fairest Weather; but their greatest and per­petual Rains happen onely in Iuly and August. There are two Mousons, o [...] Stormy Seasons; the one the Northern, and the other the Southern Mouson: The first begins in October, and continues till March; the second begins in May, and holds till September, which the Hollanders call'd The unconstant Month, because of its often change of Weather.

The circumjacent Sea, that washes the Skirts of these Isles, abounds with Fish, especially the Harder, or Shepherd-Fish, and another call'd the Kings-Fish. The Chineses come yearly towards February, from the Main-Land, with thousands of Jonks, to take these Shepherds, some of the Jonks being able to carry five or six hundred Tun. There sail also another sort of Vessels amongst these Jonks, which they call Koiaes, or Wankans, somewhat smaller than our Cock-boats.

This Harder, or Shepherd, is a Fish about the bigness of a Whiting, which when taken, is slit to the Back like Habberdine, then salted, and pack'd up in Barrels, is sent in Pickle all over China, as we and the Hollanders send our Her­rings through Europe. The Rows of these Fishes are also salted, and put into Pots, which remaining very red, are accounted for a great Dainty amongst the Chineses.

For the Priviledge of Fishing under this Island, the Chineses us'd to pay the Tithes of all Fish for Custom, to the Hollanders there resident.

The Soil hath in it a natural Fertility, yet lies most part waste, through the ignorance and sloth of the Inhabitants: The fruitfullest Tract the King of Middag possesses, which produces abundance of Rice, Wheat, Barley, Rye, Kayjang, Ginger, Sugar, several sorts of Trees, and great variety of Fruits, as Lemmons, Oranges, Citrons, Pumpeons, Water-Melons, Cucumers, Ananasses, China-Roots, Kadjang, Fokkafoka, Potatoes, Ubes, Sweet-Herbs, Cabbage, Car­rots, and abundance of Physical Herbs, and Cane-wood. Kadjang is a certain small Seed, green, and about the bigness of Coriander, which boyl'd with salt and fresh Fish, gives a more pleasant taste. Fokkafokas is a Fruit like a Pear, but thrice as big as one of our greatest; white on the shady side, and on the other, in stead of Red, of a Purple Colour, and shines on the top like Glass. It is first cut into four Quarters, then boyld with Flesh or Bacon, like Turneps, [Page 20] Carrots, or Coleworts: Of the Broth, sweetned with Sugar they make good Drink.

They also have some few Sheep, and store of Harts, Goats, stags, Conies,Beasts. Hares, tame and wild Swine, Tygers, Bears, Apes, and the like : But they have there also another kind of Creature, by the Hollanders call'd Tayowans Devil, about an Ell long, and five Inches broad▪ it is full of Scales, both un­der his Belly, and on his Back; hath four Feet, a long sharp Head, very sharp Claws, and a Tail thin at the end; his Food nothing but Pismires; for be­ing hungry, they put forth their Tongues, which when they perceive creep upon it, they draw in again, and so swallow their Prey: It is an Enemy on­ly to the Ants, and is very fearful of Men, from whom it flies upon the first sight, into any hole, or else winds it self together; but if taken by the Tail, and shaken, opens again; so that the Hollanders have by an Irony nam'd it the Tayowans Devil, being so harmless, that it will neither offend another, nor defend it self. None of these are found in all Asia, but on this Isle, where they have all manner of Fowl else, except Parrots. There are also Serpents, Millepedes, Scorpions▪ Hedgehogs, and many other monstrous Creatures. They likewise oftentimes see great Swarms of Locusts.

Anno 1655. abundance of Locusts spread themselves over these Islands of For­mosa and Tayowan: At their first appearance in Tayowan, they fell down from the Sky, like a great Snow here with us, and cover'd the whole Ground: Af­ter two days they directed their way to Sakkam, multiplying in such manner, that no place was free of them. The People endeavoring to destroy the young Locusts in Sakkam, in four or five days got thirty thousand Picol weight: ButEvery Picol is 125 pound weight. all prov'd in vain, and they were forc'd to give over, when they saw their prodigious increase, utterly destroying their Sugar and Rice Fields every where.

Against the North-East part of Formosa lies a great and rich Golden Mine, surrounded by many other Marble Quarries: At the Foot thereof runs a Ri­ver, with many winding Reaches; so that any one which intends to go in quest of the Gold, must cross this Stream above twenty times, and not with­out great danger, because of the Stones, which frequently tumble from the Rocks. In August the great Rains sweep down an incredible Store of this rich Metal, which falls into Pits made on purpose at the Foot of the Hill, which the Inhabitants draining, gather the pure Oar from the bottom.

These Mountains are inhabited by a People which know no Prince, nor hitherto have been conquer'd by any. The Hollanders have often endeavour'd to gain some Ground in these High-lands; but were always repuls'd.

The Men of Formosa are very large and strong Limb'd, especially those in the Plain Countrey; for those of the Mountains are generally of lesser Stature, and the Women yet smaller than either. They are full-fac'd, and without Beards, not naturally, but by continual plucking out of the Hair so soon as it buds: They have great Eyes, flat Noses, large Breasts, and very long Ears, which they count a great Ornament, and are bored through, and tenter'd out broad with a Horn; some hang a round Tablet in the Hole, painted and carv'd after their manner; others, colour'd Shells; but chiefly on Festival days, and when they are to appear before their Idols; for on other days they leave their long extended Lugs, which cover their Collar-bone, naked and without Ornament, then no beautifying Addition to take Strangers, hanging almost half way down to their naked Breasts: Their Hair as black as Jeat, [Page 21]


is also very long, and by most worn as they do in Europe; but some, after the ancient Chinese manner, tye it on the top of their Heads, or braid it into one Lock. They are of a Tawny or Olivaster Complexion, not much fairer than the Mulatto. The Women of Midag are bright, like the golden Yellow, as likewise like those of Soetan Nouwe, and the Island Lamey.

They are ingenious, of subtile Wit, and great Memories, and none of the Indians are fitter to understand the Mysteries of, and readier to embrace the Christian Faith.

Their Habit or Summer-Garment, is only a thin Cotton Coat, made wide,Apparel. tied fast on the Breast by two Corners, and then put under one of their Arms; so that generally one side of their Bodies is cover'd, and the other bare; about the middle close girt, and hanging down below their Knees. They neither wear Shoes nor Stockins; but sometimes a kind of Pumps or Sandals, made of Goat-skins, which they fasten on the top of their Feet.

In the Winter time they wear Tygers, Leopards, Bears, and other Wild­beasts Skins. The People of Soulang went habited like the Dutch, being still conversant among them; but all the rest, like the Chineses.

Before the Spaniards and Hollanders coming thither, the Inhabitants went na­ked; which Salvage Custom those that live in the Mountains still continue, wearing onely a small Cloth before.

The Womens Habit agrees almost with the Mens, onely with this diffe­rence, that they tie Clouts about their Legs, like Spatterdashes, and have short Coats, like a Half-shirt without Sleeves, which reach down to their Middle, and under that a Cotton Cloth, falling down to their Knees. Their Heads are filleted with a piece of Silk, about a Yard and half long, whose two ends stick out like Horns, on their Foreheads; and none of them ever wear Shoes: But every Woman hath commonly a great Pig running after her, as we use to have a Dog.

[Page 22]


The Men paint the Skin of their Breasts, Backs, and Arms, with a Colour which remains in the Flesh, and will never be got out, and by them account­ed a great Bravery: about their Necks and Arms they hang Glass Beads strung, and Iron Armlets, which sit very straight, like an Elbow-Gauntlet, so narrow in the Wrist, that it seems impossible almost how they could be put over the Hand; and on their Legs they have Anclets of white Shells, joyn'd together like a Scallop Lace.

The Men of Tokdadekol wear as an Ornament a long Cane, which they stick behind their Backs at a Girdle, the other end bowing over their Heads, having a white or red Flag about two Handfuls broad.

Their Heads on Holydays are gay with Cocks Feathers, and their Arms and Legs with Bears Tails: The Women also use Glass, and Stones, and sometimes also Rix-Dollars. The Skins of Deer, spread on the Ground, serve them for Beds and Blankets. They have no Societies of Artificers, or Ma­nufactory; but every one is his own Work-man, and Seamster, making what is necessary or useful for themselves to wear: They are very dexterous and rea­dy in handling their Bowes and Arrows; and such excellent Swimmers, that they will bear on their Backs another Person through the swiftest Current.

They exercise themselves much in Running, and are very swift of Foot; so that some of them are able to beat a Horse at full speed: When they run, they hold a kind of a Bell about six Inches long in their Hand, which tinkles slower or faster according to their motion.

They never venture out to Sea, but Fish in Rivers with small Canoos.

The Inhabitants neither understand to brew Beer, as in Europe; nor press Wine, having no Grapes: But they use a certain Liquor call'd Musakkauw, or Machiko, made of Rice and Water, after this manner. A Vessel about the bigness of a Hogshead, or a Barrel, they fill two third parts with chaw'd and boyl'd Rice, and then fill'd up with Water to the top: This being a Brimmer, luted up, is put seven Foot deep under Ground, where it stands a whole Year; then [Page 23]


'tis again taken up, and the Moisture press'd out of the Rice (for most of the Water is soak'd into the Rice) with their Hands: After eight days the Juyce works it self into a very wholesom Liquor, which may compare with the strongest Wine, and will remain good twenty or thirty Years; for the older it grows, the stronger and pleasanter it tastes, being preserv'd in the same Pots it was made in, and cover'd over with Earth. There are some Houses which have stow'd in their Butteries two or three hundred of these Vessels. At the Birth of a Child, the Father prepares two or three Pots of this Drink, and preserves it till the Childs Marriage. All the Wild People, both Men and Women, are great Lovers of this Liquor, and account it the chiefest Regalia, when they are caress'd with this Cordial.

They have yet another sort of Drink, by them call'd Cuthay, made of the same press'd Rice (which they preserve, and through not away) in this man­ner: They take a Handful of this Rice, and put it into a Callabash, which con­tains about two Gallons, which they fill up with Water: This is a cool Drink, not strong, and hath onely a smatch of the Masakauw.

In the Northern Part of Formosa, between Kelang and Tamsay, and between Tamsay and Mount Gedult, they make another Drink of Wood-ashes, which is also very strong, but unwholesom for the Europeans, because 'tis apt to excori­ate, breeding the Bloody-Flux: But the Natives, though so well stor'd with these several Liquors, yet for the most part satisfie themselves with Water.

Their usual Diet is dry'd Venison, Flesh of Wild Swine, and Fish; all which they eat raw, without Seething or Rosting: Boyl'd Rice serves them for Bread, which they take with their four fingers, and toss into their Mouthes. They seeth not their Rice in Water; but putting it into a Cullender, hang it over a Pot fill'd with boyling Water, from whose ascending Steam and Heat, the Rice grows moist and warm.

In the Southern Parts of Akkou and Zoetanau, they make Cakes of Rice, and prepare their Venison after a strange manner; viz. The Flesh cut from the [Page 24]


Bones in Slices of two Inches thick, is salted in a Trough, and pack'd very close; and after lying thus one Night, they set it on the Roof of their Hou­ses to dry in the Air, where it becomes so hard as Stock-fish, yet tastes better than Mutton, and is generally sold for about a Shilling a Cattay, that is, a Pound.

The Inhabitants also take Tobacco▪ although it grows not there, but is brought to them from China: Their Pipes are thin Reeds or Canes, with Stone Heads: That which the Hollanders often smok'd there, was brought from Iapan; which though strong, is but like the Refuse of other Tobacco.

Their Houses are all built of Wood and split Canes, which because of theirHouses. ignorance in preparing of Lime or Stone, and the decaying of the Canes, seldom last above four or five years, at which time they pull down the old, and build new ones in the same place, though not without great charge, oc­casion'd by the unsatiable drinking of the Work-men all the time of their Building; so that an ordinary Man is scarce able to build a House. They generally stand six Foot from the Ground, on a Hill of Clay: When the Foundation is first laid, they raise several Steps from the Street to go up to it: The foremost part of the Foundation resembles a Semicircle, or Half-Moon, and likewise the Roof over the Front; the rest thatch'd with Straw, and other such like Materials, is above twenty, and sometimes above thirty Foot high, jutting four Foot over the Front, that in rainy Weather they may stand dry. Every House is almost sixty Foot broad, and two hundred Foot long, with onely one Room, and one Story. Their Penthouse, or Front-Roof, they hang full of Swines Teeth, Glasses, Shells, and such like Baubles, strung on Thred, which by the Wind being stirr'd and blown one against another, make a ging­ling noise, very pleasant. The Roof, which they finish on the Ground, is by the Builders divided into two parts, one on one side, and the other on the other laid upon the House. They begin their Buildings at a certain time of the Year, viz. in Ianuary or February, because those are dry Months; but before [Page 25] they build, they make Observations of their good Success by Dreams, which they tell to one another every Morning: If they dream of a Post, or Pisang Tree, or short Cane, they look upon it as a good signification, and begin their Building▪ but if they Dream of a long Reed on Cane, in their Language call'd Foerik, they take it for an ill Omen, and defer the Work till they have better Visions. When they begin to build, they thus invoke one of their Idols: Oh Father, be with us; when we go to cut Canes, and we will build an Edifice for thee, and pull the old one down; which done, we will serve thee with more Zeal than ever we did before.

Coming into the Cane Thicket, they first cut off one of the slenderest of all, speaking these words: Ipatahoang, Tuataki, Maganich, Maling; that is, To your Honor, O ye gods, we cut this Cane, because you have made good our Dreams. This Reed or Cane is not strip'd of its Leaves, because the gods may see what it was cut off for, and is Planted on the North side of their Temple; for on the South side is the Burying and Offering places for their Dead; but on the North side they offer all living things.

After they have cut as many Canes as they want, they pull down the old House, having before made a small Hut, just big enough to hold their Goods; before they go to work upon the main House, they offer to their gods a Box of Pinang, boyl'd Rice, and a dry'd Shepherd, or some other the like Fish, with en­treaties that they would not be angry at it; for say they, We will build you a new House, we pray you preserve us; O you that help us in all our troubles, defend us against our Enemies, and provide for us in necessity; We pray you be not offended with us; receive our Offerings, and enter with us into our new Houses. Which done, enquiry is again made amongst themselves, what appear'd to every one in their sleep the Night before, and he who is judg'd to have had the best Dream, begins the Work first, and offers strong Drink, and Pinang to the gods, praying them to grant him two quick Hands to perform his Labor. When the Walls are made, the Master of the Work first entring the House, makes an Offering to the gods be­fore all the People.

When they raise the Roof, three or four Women stand ready with Calliba­shes full of Water, out of which drinking, they spit some part into the Mouths of each other, which if deliver'd cleanly, and receiv'd without sprinkling, they count it a good Omen, that their Houses will prove stanch and long lasting. But the Women must be very quick in this performance, for according to their thinking, the more exquisite and nimbler they are in performance, the sooner they believe the whole work will be ended; which when effected, and the House perfectly finish'd, then they Tope at such a free and plentiful rate, that they conclude these Ceremonious Rites in the heighth of Ebrity. After this, some distance from the House, sit two or three Men, every one holding a black Pot, which they call Tatak, and Worshipping, say, Here is Liquor, come let us drink up all, neither be offended with us, O you gods, but assist us now, and always, in our Buildings. Lastly, They ask again for every ones Dream, and he that hath Dreamt best, must lay the Floor, and kindle the first Fire.

But concerning their Superstition in Divine Worship, they give to each Priestess a Box of Pasie, that is, a Peck of Rice in the Ear, desiring them about Noon to come to their Houses, to make an Oblation to their gods, which they perform in this manner:

First, A fat Porket being brought to the place, is laid with his Head to­wards the East, then the Priestess strikes him with all her strength on the back [Page 26]


with a Pestle, such as they beat Rice with, for they touch not the Head, for fear of bruising the Brains, which must remain whole, and without any confusion; if the Pestle chance to break with the blow, they take it for a certain sign, that they shall die that year. With the Hog they offer Pinang, Siri, and scalded Rice; on the Head they pour Masakhaw, and cut the Belly into handsome slices, where­of they lay one on a Chest in the House for an ornament, praying their gods to fill it with costly Goods. In like manner, they lay another piece on their Swords and Shields, and then pray to their gods to strengthen them against their Enemies; nay, they leave not a Callabash in the House without Sanctify­ing it by laying a piece of the flesh upon it; but all the Inwards are offer'd to their gods, with these words: This we give to you, our gods, to keep our Swine, and make them fat; for this trouble the Priestess, as a reward, hath ten Boxes of Pa­sie, and two yards of Painted Cloth, the right shoulder of every kill'd Pig, a piece of the Belly, a piece of the Heart, Liver, Kidney, some of the Guts, and Masakhaw; then they desire her to come every day to their Houses, there to Implore, that they may stand a long time: And such a prevailing power do the Formosans ascribe to these Sacrifices, that they believe no evil Spirit after can hurt them or theirs.

If any House accidentally happen to be set on fire (by which oftentimes whole Streets, nay whole Villages, by reason of the combustible Materials, are burnt to Ashes) they Apprehend, Accuse, and without Examination, as if Con­victed, punish that Man whom they first find in the Street, forcing him to make good, if able, the damage towards the Re-building, which if he refuse, his House is immediately set on fire; but if they find no body in the Street to accuse, then as if all were guilty, they lay their hands to the work, and at their own Costs and Pains finish it.

The chief Power and Strength of this Island consists in its People, the Coun­trey being wonderfully populous.

The Towns which War continually one against another, are fortifi'd with [Page 27] all manner of Inventions for strength; and in stead of Walls, surrounded with great Woods, Planted on purpose, and much stronger than any Walls, for the Trees stand exceeding close, and above three hundred Paces in breadth.The strength of the Island.

The Passages in and out are onely little cross Paths, with many turnings and windings, onely wide enough for one Man to walk, so that they must fol­low each other: On both sides of the narrow Ways are some little Out-lets, in which they may lie in an Ambuscade, so that no man can pass by them, but they command him with their Bowe. In the Night they stick them full of Spikes like our Galthrops, which they make of a very hard Wood; sometimes they use Snares and Traps, which whoever comes amongst them is caught be­ing intangled; these Paths thus made, as occasion offer, they can change and desert, and make new ones when they please.

In Middagh and Pimeba, nay, in every Town are three or four very high Towers built of Canes, on which Men Arm'd watch with Bowes and Arrows Night and Day.

They continually maintain War one against another, Lord against Lord,Manner of Fighting. and Village against Village: In like manner, before they March into the Fields they Superstitiously observe their Dreams which they had the Night preceding; and augury, from the singing and flying of a certain small Bird, call'd Aydak; if this Bird meets them flying with a Worm in his Bill, they take it for an in­fallible sign, that they shall conquer their Enemies; but if the Bird flies from them, or pass by them, they are so much dishearten'd with the ill Omen, that they return home, nor will Engage till they have better signs: They chuse always one most approv'd for Valor as their General, whom they stile Tama­tuwa, who never takes the Field, or Engage in Battel, before he hath by Of­ferings endeavor'd to pacifie and implore the gods for good success.

They shew no Mercy, nor give any Quarter, but Slaughter all, not sparing Women and Children; neither are they satisfi'd with killing them, but carry home the Heads of the Slain as Trophies of their Victory, being receiv'd at their return by their Wives and Children, with great rejoycing express'd by Singing and Dancing, and enter the Towns with the Heads of their Ene­mies erected upon long Poles, which they present to their gods seven succeed­ing Nights; after having taken off all the flesh, they hang up in their Houses the Sculls as Ornaments, as we in Europe use Paintings or Statues.

When they draw forth again to the like bloody Work, they take the before­mention'd Sculs with them, and stop their Mouths full of Rice: And when thus cramb'd, invoke after this manner: You Reliques, though of our Enemies, O let your Spirits departed from you, march with us into the Field, and help us to obtain the Vi­ctory; which if you please to grant, and we have the day, we promise to present you with continual Offerings, and reckon you among the number of our favoring gods: But if they be routed and some slain, whose Bodies they could not bring off, they return to their Towns with great lamentations, then feed their fancies with represen­tatives, dress'd up as Babies in Clouts, like those that were lost in the Field, whom they Interr, as if the very same Persons, and get the Priestess to make Offerings to the Deceas'd Souls, conjuring them not to go amongst, nor by in­telligence help their Adversaries: Then the Priestess goes by her self to the ap­pointed place, and offers to the Souls of the Deceas'd a Swines Liver, Heart, and one or two of the Feet, together with scalded Rice, Pinang, and Masakhaw; at her return she relates what a sad complaint the Souls departed made, and that they were almost starv'd.

[Page 28]Their Arms are Bowes, Arrows, Shields, Swords, Faulchions, Spears, ofArms. Darts, about the length of a half Pike, headed with pointed Steel, and having four Rings of Barbs, close to which hangs a long Line, wherewith when they have discharg'd the Dart, and wounded any, they hale to them by the Line and Staff of the Javelin the struck Enemy, whom when within their reach, taking hold of the Hair with their left Hand, with the right they whip off their Heads, and leave the Corps neglected.

They fight not always, though drawn up in battel array, but when the two Armies are in view, often from each Party a bold Champion steps forth, Arm'd with a Shield, two short Swords, a Spear, and half a dozen lesser Darts; thus provided they fight valiantly till one is slain, and the Victor returning with his Head upon his Lance, about whom his Friends flock, Rejoycing, Dancing, Singing, and Drinking Masakhaw; then returning home, he fixes his bare Scull as a Register and Trophy of their Victory; and this Duel, for that time decides the Quarrel, and all march off in quiet.

If any of the Natives of this Isle happen to fall sick, they apply themselves on­lyCuring of their Sick. to Women-Doctors, for no other officiate there; who finding out the part affected by inquiry, they rub and chafe it very strongly, and if that cure not, which seldom happens, they are at a loss, being utterly ignorant of the know­ledge of Physick, or how to make any application, either by Herbs or other Compound Medicines fitting for Distempers, or in any manner how to rectifie the Diet of the Sick. But before the Tamatatah (for so they call their Doctress) comes to the Patient, she Sacrifices to their gods; if the Distemper be small, then only with Masakhaw; but if the sickness be dangerous, with Pinang and Siry; if the Disease be stubborn, then the Priestess being sent for, makes Offering to the gods Tagitelag and Tagesikel; but if the Distemper doth not remit, then the Do­ctress and Priestess come both together, and seek by Charms and Incantations to find out whether the Person shall Live or Die, which they perform after this manner: The Priestess pretending to speak with the Sick Mans or Wo­mans Spirit, pulls them by their Fingers, which if they crack, she comforts them with hopes of recovery; but if not, they look upon it as a certain sign of Death. Secondly, they take a Leaf from a Tree, by them call'd Fangack, which putting before the Sick Persons Lips, the Priestess comes with a Mouth full of Water, and spurts on the Leaf; if the Water runs off towards her, it is a sign of Life; but if it remains with the disaffected, or fall on the other side, they expect certain death; but if at last the Sick recovers, he is not permitted to come into their Congregation during their Karichang, for that is a testimony of his Thankfulness for the preservation of Life; and then he brings to the Prie­stess a Pot full of Masakhaw, an Offering to the gods Takafocloe, Telumalum, and Tapali Appe, saying, Accept this as a token of Thanksgiving from my Hands; you have well done to give me Life. While they are going to the Priestess about this affair, they must take heed that they meet with no Blind or Decrepit Person, for if they should, they must return, lest they be punish'd with another Sickness. They also account it a strange Omen, to hear any one Sneese in their going: But if the Distemper increase daily to a greater height, either by Convulsions or other acute Pains, they lay the whole blame upon the Devil himself, as being the Author, whom they call Schytinglitto; whom to expel, they send for the Priestess, who conjures him in this manner: First, after some Oblations, she prays to the gods to strengthen her against the Devil, and banish all man­ner of fears from her; then calling for a Sword, and a Pot of Masakhaw, at­tended [Page 29] with some of the stoutest Youth, which are so valiant as to venture with her, hunts through all the corners of the House after the Devil; whom when she hath found, as she crys out, she drives away, assisted by the young Men, making a most terrible noise. Having thus driven him a considerable way to the Bank of a River, or some running Water, or to the Woods if there be no Water near, then she takes the Pot with Masakhaw, and first drinking a good Soope out of it, throwing the remainder Pot and all after the Devil, and says these words, Take that, and return not to the Patient from whom I expell'd you. This done, she plants a Cane in the Ground, of which (as they report) the Devil stands in great fear.

When the Fiend (as she saith) approaches her, she strikes very fiercely at him, and shows some Hair hid about her for that purpose to the People, which she makes them believe (and they credit) that she hath broke the Devils Head, and pull'd those Locks from it; and for this her trouble she receives a Red Strip'd Garment, and so departs: But if the Distemper still continues, and that there is no sign of amendment, they send again for the Priestess, who coming thither, saith, That the Devil loves the House, and therein intends to dwell; Whereupon, being desir'd to drive him from thence, and also her Re­ward shew'd her, she takes a Spade, Digs a Hole in several places of the House, and pulls out some more Hair which she hath hid, crying aloud to all the standers by, that she hath had the Devil by the Head, and that that is his Hair; then seeming to force him out of the House, with many scurrilous Exclama­tions.

After all endeavors us'd in vain, and that their Stiches and Pains no way abate, then they commit them to their gods; but when they are ready to yield up the Ghost, they pour so much strong Liquor down their Throats, that run­ning out at their Mouth and Nostrils, it drowns and suffocates: Thus having fetch'd the last Gasp, all those that are about him cry out with a lamentable voice, making strange Gesticulations, clapping, and stamping with their Hands and Feet; and to give notice that one is dead in the Town, they go up andMourning for the Dead. down Tabering upon one of their Drums; which done, and the Corps wash'd in warm Water, his best Clothes are put on, adorn'd with Bracelets and other Ornaments, his Weapons laid by him, and Rice and Masakhaw proffer'd to him, all which lie two days by the Body; which if they should not do, his Soul (they say) would be angry: Likewise they kill a Hog for his Provision, to supply his long Journey, and then they offer the Corps up to their gods: Before the House they set up a long Cane, with a Pennon on the top, and near it a great Tub with Water, for the Soul to Bathe in: Against the Even­ing, all the Friends come thither, accompany'd with most of the Towns-men, every one with a Pot of Masakhaw; the nearest of Kin to the Deceas'd, lay themselves down by the Corps, and making a mournful complaint, utter these words; Why didst thou die? why didst thou leave us? What hurt, what harm have we done thee? O my Son, my loving Child come hither to us, and stay with us; If you will not, take us to your self, since we are ready to die and follow you; What shall we do without you? what do we do here after you?

To increase their sorrow, the Women make a very doleful noise, by tram­pling and tabering with their Feet on a hollow Trough before the Door, at which the standers by cry, Hark, how the Trees bemoan the loss of this Man. This stamping on the Trough, is by them call'd Smaghdakdaken: They also hire se­veral Women which sit constantly crying by the Corps, and sometimes make [Page 30] sad Complaints, and Sing mournful Elegies which they name Temulidid▪ These Women likewise pray to the gods, that the Soul may have a good place in Heaven, and find a new Wife and Friends there: The young Men, in the mean time running up and down with Rattles in their Hands.

After the Corps hath lain two days on Rushes, they bring it to a place call'd Takay, where they wash it several times with warm Water; but if a rich Per­son, with Masakhaw, then scrape it so long, till pieces of Flesh and Skin hang▪ dangling about it. Lastly, they make a gentle fire nine days under the Corps▪ which Roasting by degrees, occasions a horrible stench.

The Body thus Broyl'd is wound up in a Mat, and laid again on the Rushes as before; then they make a great Feast call'd Gahalhal, killing ten or twelve Swine, some for offerings to the gods, others for Taghimihe, or Provisions for the departed Souls Journey.

Some of this Pork is cut in small pieces, and serv'd about to the Mourners; at that time the House is fill'd with Men and Women, every one with a Pot of Masakhaw, all which sometimes Weep, and sometimes Drink, till they are all Maudlin-Drunk; they mix a strange complaint with horrid confusion: Then the nearest Relations go again to the Corps, and make the foremention'd com­plaints, why he dy'd, &c. If it be the body of a rich Person, it is kept some years before it is Bury'd, and serv'd every day as if living, setting fresh Meat and Drink before it.

If the Deceas'd dy'd a Batchellor, then they relate all the Heroick Exploits which he perform'd in his Life time, and the number of his slain Enemies; over his Head they hang a Cane, with as many Notches in it as he hath kill'd Men. Lastly, they carry the Dead to the common Burying-place, close by their Temples, where some must watch nine or ten days, for they certainly be­lieve that the Devil watches about him all that time; after the ten days expired, their Friends go thither with Rattles, and Boughs of Pisang Trees, with fire in their Hands, making a terrible noise, under pretence to hunt the Devil from thence. The Wife to the Deceased (if he leaves one behind him) Prays before him so long as he lies in the House, desiring the gods, that they would be kind and merciful to him. And while the Corps is above the Ground, the House may not be swept, but when the Corps is carry'd out, and the House swept, the Woman that did it must throw away the Broom towards the South, saying, Who owes the House? whereupon answering her self, It doth not belong to me nor us, what then have we to do with this House?

These People observe seven Solemn times as Festivals with great Ceremo­nies:Seven Feasts.

The first call'd Trepaupoe Lakkang, which begins at the latter end of April, First. and is kept by the Sea side, whither both Young and Old, Rich and Poor, flock in great multitudes: Here their Priestess pretends to speak with, and re­ceive Answers from their gods, offering them Swines-flesh, Rice, Masakhaw, and Pisang, with Prayers to send them store of Rain for the forwarding the growth of their Corn, or if it be already grown, to keep it from hurtful Winds.

After their Sacrifices ended, they sit down about the same place, and fall a Drinking to excess; while the ancient men standing on a row every one with a whole Reed in one hand, and a Lance in the other, sprinkle them with Masak­haw. In their Huts they discourse of all their Villanies committed, or brag who hath slain the most of their Enemies, and brought home their Heads as [Page 31] Trophies; but he that hath done the most work in Harvest, is accounted the bravest Fellow.

The second Feast call'd Warabo Lang Varolbo, that is, Tying Fast, they generallySecond Feast. hold in Iune, against which they observe their Dreams, and Singing of the Birds.

At the day of Offering they rise very early, and make themselves ready for the Work, both Men and Women, with great Zeal; the Women first Conse­crate the Irons with which they Weed; the Basket in which they carry their Caps, likewise the Callabashes, Rings, Bracelets, Chests, the Front of the House and Bridge; Praying also to the gods Tamagisangak, and Tekaroepada for good Fortune, and security against Fire, and to be their Defence against Poysonous and Voracious Beasts; all which they do before they go out.

The Men Pray to the gods Topoliap and Takavoelie, and offer them Masakhaw, boyl'd Rice, Pinang, Siri, and Swines flesh, begging of them in time of War, to defend them against their Enemies, to sharpen their Swords, Arrows, and Assa­gays; and lastly, to harden their Bodies against their Adversaries, Darts, and Arrows.

Then both Men and Women, but most of the Female Sex go to their Priestess call'd Ibis, to whom they shew great Reverence and Obedience; some years ago there was a certain Ibis call'd Tiladam Tuaka, which was us'd to per­form many abominable Ceremonies at this Feast, viz. She climb'd on the Roof of the Temple, where she stood in sight of all the People, then began to tell them, that the gods would have taken her to them from the Temple; which done, she call'd for the Drink-Offerings, and holding a great Pot with Liquor in both Hands, said, That the gods, unless she did so, would not drink; then being drunk, she pull'd off all her Clothes, Because the Children of God, said she, cannot enter into Heaven with any Earthly Robes. Thus standing in sight of all People, she began to evacuate what she had so greedily swallow'd, saying, That the gods, according to the quantity of her Vomit, would send them Rain; whereupon the People force upon her more Liquor, that they may have plenty of Rain: If the Priestess chances to Urine thorow the Roof of the Church, then the Spectators promise to themselves a fruitful year, but if not, great scarcity, so that they often drink the more to satisfie the People; then bidding the whole Congre­gation look up, she Tabors on her private parts a considerable time, which Taboring the Spectators observe with as much Zeal, as in our Countrey the Auditors give ear to the Preaching of a Sermon.

Lastly, coming down, she falls flat on the ground, and begins to roar and foam, rolling too and again, and spreading her Hands and Feet, then lies still a while, as in a Trance; her associates come to lift her up, but seem to have met with too weighty a burthen; yet at last recovering, after she hath made a small Speech to the People, her Companions lead her into the Temple, where she drinks her self dead Drunk; all which impudent debaucheries, as they say, are done to the honor of their gods, to grant them store of Rain, and a plentiful Harvest.

All the Women must appear naked at this Feast, except their Privacies, which they cover with a Kagpay, that is, a little piece of Cloath; so also must the Men: When they have drunk out all their Liquor at the Temple, the Congregation goes home, where they Drink till the Morning, and walk from house to house, committing all manner of Villanies, not fearing to lie with, or vitiate their Sisters and Daughters.

[Page 32]The third Feast call'd Sickariariang, they keep in Iune; the manner thus:Third Feast.

After every one hath done their Private Devotions in their Houses, and as they say, spoke with the gods, they make themselves ready to go to the general place of Sacrifice near the Sea. The Men walk stark naked, but the Women have a small Clout before them. At their general Assembly, the Priestess offers to the gods, of whom they now request, that they may be strengthen'd against their Enemies; and the Women, that the Corn be preserv'd from Tempests and Wild Beasts.

Amongst all other, this is the most Celebrated, because it is as one of Bacchus and Venus's Feasts; so that it differs much and exceeds the rest, in perpetrating unheard of Abominations, both night and day: The young Men are comman­ded by the Magistrates of the Town, to go naked to this Feast, and to exercise themselves with Running, and Martial Discipline, which they willingly per­form.

The fourth nam'd Lingout, begins in Harvest, and kept also on the Sea shore,Fourth Feast. near the mouth of a River: Hither also both Men and Women going naked, pray to the gods for Rain, to keep the Corn in the Ears, to banish Storms and Tempests, which very frequently rise in that Moneth. Great villanies are committed at this Feast. The Youths are stuck and hung with green Boughs and Garlands, and so adorn'd, must run Races with Rattles in their Hands; he that gets first to the River wins the Wager, and by the Maidens is conducted and carry'd over, where he enjoys the handsomest of them at his pleasure.

The fifth Feast call'd Piniang, is kept in October, at which time the MagistratesFifth Feast. have a piece of Wood cut in the fashion of a Tortoise-shell, ty'd to their Bo­dies, whereupon in the Night, with their whole Congregation, they walk Drumming and Shouting up and down the Town. At this Feast they come all clothed to their place of Offering, to run about with the artificial Shell, which is first perform'd by those whose Parents are yet living, then by those that are Orphans. This Feast is no less polluted by vicious performances than the other.

The sixth they name Itaoungang: At this Feastival the old and young Men ap­pearSixth Feast. in peculiar Habits, and have a pretty way of moving their Hands and Feet, Capering, and hitting their Feet one against another, and likewise act se­veral Postures with their Hands; besides many other Ceremonies, too long here to relate. This continues two days, meeting both Morning and Evening, at the sound of the artificial Tortoise-shell; after they have perform'd their se­veral Offerings to their Deities, they fall a Drinking, in which they spend the whole Night.

The seventh Feast call'd Korouloutaen, is kept in November with great Solem­nity.Seventh Feast. At the time of this Feast they adorn their Arms and Heads with white Feathers.

The Formosans (except those by the Hollanders converted to Christianity) believe not in God, the Creator of Heaven and Earth, but Worship thirteen Idols.

The first and chiefest is call'd Tamagisangak, and resides in the West part of Heaven.

The other his Wife, Takaroepada, and dwells over against him in the East: both these are by them accounted for their powerfullest gods, and reverenc'd with great Devotion; for if any War lay desolate their Cities, or Sickness and Famine oppress the People, they say all proceeds from the neglect of their duty in worshipping these gods.

[Page 33]The third God call'd Tamagisangak reigns in the South, and shapes handsome People, as the fourth his heavenly Consort Teckarupada, in the East gives growth to Corn and Field-Fruits; they say, these Deities have the ordering of Mans Life, wherefore the Women present them with Seeds and Plants: They believe likewise that Thunder is the Goddess Teckarupada's voice, chiding at her Hus­band for not sending Rain timely upon the Earth, and he always, when thus ratled up by his thundering Wife, delays not to send Rain in abundance.

The fifth God call'd Tugittellaegh, and his Queen Tagisikel the sixth, have the cure of the Sick, and are worshipp'd by them.

The seventh Deity being Tiwarakahoeloe, and the eighth Tamakakamak, are chiefly reverenc'd by such as frequent the Woods and Forest, to hunt and kill wild Beasts.

The ninth call'd Tapaliat, and the other Tatawoeli, govern all Martial Affairs, and are for the most part invok'd by Soldiers.

The eleventh nam'd Takarye, and the twelfth Tamakading, preside their annual Feasts, and punish the omission of their long setled Customs.

The thirteenth Farikhe, they say resides in the North, they esteem him a cross­grain'd and ill natur'd God, whose business is to deform what ever nature makes Comely, and therefore onely worship him that he may not mis-shape them.

The Natives relate, that this last God was formerly a Man living in Sinkam, very fierce, and of a stern Countenance, with an exceeding long Nose, which caus'd the People so to mock at him, that growing impatient to bear such in­dignities any longer, he desir'd of the Gods to take him amongst them, which was immediately granted; that after some stay there, he descended again, and gave his Countrey-men twenty seven Articles or Commandments, charging to observe them strictly, threatning, that if they neglected, he would send upon them many and great Plagues. These Commandments they keep ten days together every Month, beginning when the Moon enters Aries, which time is by them call'd Karichang▪ of which Laws more hereafter.

The Formosans are very slothful, and Till but little, although they possess much fruitful and rich Land. None dare be so bold to Sowe his Ground, be­fore he hath offer'd two Hogs at Tamacuwalo and Tamabal, chief Houses belong­ing to the third and fourth Gods, Teckarupada, and Tamagisangak; and this Ob­lation is requir'd by one of the Priests belonging to the same Houses. In like manner, the Oldest of the Village, when it Rains, bring a Hog, and abun­dance of Masakhaw to the Priests that dwell in those two Houses, to be offer'd to their Gods.

If at their going to Sowe their Fields, they chance to meet a wild Beast, and kill it, they carry the Liver and Heart as a Victim, to their Gods in the two Houses; and when all the People are assembled, the Priests of the two Houses must first Sowe a small spot of Ground, and then all the rest may proceed, ha­ving first laid between two Bundles of Straw, by them call'd Tenguro, a Pisang Leaf, a little Siri and Lime, to be offer'd to their Gods.

The Seed being put into the Ground, a Rice Pot, in their Language call'd Sangi, is placed on the North side of the two Houses, and left there till the Rice hath attain'd its full growth.

If the Corn near the Pots (for close by them they Sowe a little) grows well, they take them away with great joy, and freely believe, that they shall have a kindly and plentiful Harvest.

They are not permitted to take Tobacco in the Seed-time, lest (as their [Page 34] Priestesses tell them) all their Seed should turn into that stinking Vapor. The are forbidden in that time to throw the Bones of Salt Fish, or Peels of Onions on the Ground; but must carry them in a Talangack, or Pot, into the Woods, to prevent the devouring of their Corn by Poysonous Serpents.

They must keep no Fire, lest the Corn should be burnt. Sugar-Canes or Pomegranates they may eat onely in the Evening; but they may not during that Season taste any Roast-meat, for fear the Corn should be set on Fire by wild Swine; nor any Mahall, that is, Powder'd Flesh, lest it should be devour'd by Worms: They must also abstain from Kanging and a Hay, both Fishes, because they believe, if they should eat of them, that the Corn would have no Ears.

They conceit, That if they should sleep in the Field during their Seed-time, their Corn would not grow upright, but lodge on the Ground; and if they drink any Water, except mix'd with Masakhaw, that the Grain would never ripen, but be green and watery.

If the Dust or Sand happen to light in ones Eyes, he may not endeavor to get it out by rubbing, or otherwise, till he has quit the Field they have sown.

They never cut their Corn before they have made Offerings to their Gods.

If a Thorn chances to get in any ones Foot, he must not pull it out in the Field, but must leave the Place.

No Woman may turn her back Parts to a Man, nor go naked.

Many more ridiculous Customs they use during the Seed-time, which are strictly observ'd by them; as, when the Corn is ready to be cut, they thresh one Bundle, and laying a Lump of Earth upon it, implore the Gods to fill and make weighty the Ears of all the rest.

After they have brought in the Corn to their particular Houses, they offer a Swine, and use many Ceremonies in the killing of it; amongst others, they lay a great piece of Clay on a large black Pot, which they firmly believe makes their Corn grow more full and weighty.

Their Hunting, which is never less than twelve days together, is perform'dHunting. sometimes by few, and at other times with many People, who for the most part use Snares and Canes, and also Assagays, Bowes, and Arrows. When they have appointed a great Match, they build a House in the Fields, which they call Cadelang, wherein they hang all their Implements.

And as they have their third and fourth Gods that look over their Tillage, so their seventh and eighth, nam'd Tawarakakoeloe, and Tamakakamak, bear the sway in Hunting. Before they go out, they tell to one another the Dreams they had in the Preceding Night, and also neglect not Augurial Observations; insomuch that if the Bird Aydak meet them, they count it a good Omen; but if it flies either on the right or left side of them, they put off their Venating Sport till some other time.

Others also go to a River side, where they make a peculiar kind of Sacri­fice to their Gods, with these Words, If the Devil, or any other Evil Spirits follow us, we beseech that you would drive and banish them from us.

From the first Quarry of every sort of Wild Creatures, they take a snip from the Tail, Mouth, Heart, and Kidneys, which with a Pisang Leaf, scalded Rice, and Masakhaw, they present to their Deities.

Coming back from their Recreation, they return thanks to the Gods, in the House which they built to put their Arms, and Hunting-necessaries in, praying, That those which come after them may have no success, nor kill any thing.

[Page 35]Lastly, They pull down and burn the House, having first sent for the Wo­men to carry home the taken Venison, who coming thither, bring abundance of cheering Tope to make merry with.

They often kill at one of these great Hunting-Matches, eight hundred, a thousand, nay, sometimes two thousand Head of Deer; so that the Nether­landers could buy there the best and fattest Hanch of Venison for a Shilling.

All the Formosans much differ from one another in their Speech, so that youLanguage. shall seldom find two or three Villages, though but three or four Leagues di­stant from one another, but their Dialects vary so much, that they are forc'd to use Interpreters.

They have neither Letters, Writings, nor Books, neither were willing to learn, although both the Spaniards and Hollanders have offer'd to teach and in­struct them.

The Islands Formosa and Tayowan lay very convenient for the Netherlanders Chinese Trade, because at most Seasons of the Year they could sail to them from the Coast of China, out of the River Chinch, or Chinchieu.

The chiefest Merchandise which the Hollanders got at Formosa, consisted in Sugar, Goats and Deers Skins, which they transported thence to Iapan.

The Companies Merchandise was carried in Chinese Jonks to the River Chin­chieu, and the City Eymuy, to their Factors or Merchants residing there, and also to other peculiar Chinese▪Merchants, whose Credit was good, to send them such Returns as were desired at Iapan, India, and the Netherlands, which Trade was conniv'd at by the Koabon of the Territory Fokien. There also came some pe­culiar Merchants out of China, with their own Vessels, to dispose of their pri­vate Merchandise, though of small concern: Therefore when the time ap­proach'd, that the Ships were to go Annually to Iapan or Batavia, and that the Goods came but slowly from China, they were necessitated to go themselves with two or three Vessels to China or Eymuy, where the Goods were brought, weigh'd, and receiv'd aboard in several Parcels, and were forc'd to give eight or ten Tail more on a Picol of Silk, than▪ otherwise; each Tail valued at about five Shil­lings Sterling, and a Picol, a hundred twenty five Pound weight.

The Formosans observe a Time, which they call Karichang, very strictly, ab­staining from several things while it lasteth.

This Karichang comes every Month once, which is when the Moon (as we mention'd before) enters our Vernal Sign Aries. It was, they say, first consti­tuted by one that liv'd in Sinkan, call'd Fariche Fikrigo Gon-go-Sey, being of a very stern Countenance, with a long Nose, for which, mock'd and derided by all his Acquaintance: He therefore tyr'd with their continual gybes and jeer­ing, having still one fling or other at his Nose, desir'd the Gods that they would please to take him from this wicked World, and place him in Heaven; which being, as they say, granted, after some time he descended again on the Earth, where he commanded the People, as a punishment for their former de­rision, strictly to observe the following twenty seven Commandments, which if omitted, he threatned them with severe Punishments.

  • I. Thou shalt not in the time of Karichang build either Houses, Walls, or Resting-places, by them call'd Taekops; nor any Hedges or Fences in the Field.
  • II. Thou shalt neither buy nor sell Skins, Salt, Gangans, Painted Clothes, nor any thing else of that kind.
  • [Page 36]III. No Married-men shall sleep with their Wives in the time of Kari­chang, neither shall a Young Man espouse, nor bring his Houshold-stuff or Goods to his Bride, nor enjoy her, lest he die soon after, have a lingring Sickness, or live at debate.
  • IV. Thou shalt not manure new Lands, nor lay Straw or Grass upon them, nor sow any Seed upon them, lest all thy Labors, and what thou hast done, be destroy'd.
  • V. Thou shalt not make Bowes, Arrows, Shields, Swords, Assagays, or Snares; neither shalt thou catch any Beast. If any Woman make Brace­lets, they shall have great Pains in their Arms.
  • VI. Thou shalt not put on any new Garment, nor use any new thing whatsoever, lest thou lose that, and suffer also a great Sickness.
  • VII. Thou shalt make no Bridges, lest they fall, or be broken down, and thy Swine die.
  • VIII. No Clothes, Gangans, Rice, Rice-Stampers, Black Pots with two Ears, nor any other Drinking Vessels, shall be brought into the Houses: None shall cut green, but onely dry Canes; and those they may not put into their own Houses, but into one of their Neighbors.
  • IX. Thou shalt not plant Pinang, nor Clapper-Trees, nor Canes, nor Pota­toes, nor any other Plant.
  • X. Thou shalt kindle no Fires on thy new Place of Assembly, which is call'd Kavo, nor sleep in them, lest thou be punish'd with great Sickness.
  • XI. No young Men shall exercise themselves in running the Race call'd Tragaduwell.
  • XII. No Child born in that time shall be taken from his Mother; lest it die immediately.
  • XIII. Let no Man wear any Armlets call'd Salahim, lest their Arms should grow sore.
  • XIV. Thou shalt not kill any Swine, though one of thy chiefest Friends come to visit thee, unless at Obits.
  • XV. Thou shalt not Fish or Hunt for more than thy own Provision.
  • XVI. Thou shalt not put any Swine in the new Houses made before the Karichang, if there were none in before.
  • XVII. Thou shalt not name the Child that is born in that time, till the Karichang be over, lest the Child die:
  • XVIII. Nor shall the Mother stir with her Infant from the Child-bed Chamber, further than the next Neighbors.
  • XIX. A new Tamatawa, or General, shall not march into the Field till the Karichang is over.
  • XX. A Bridegroom shall not walk with his Bride, except he hath gone abroad with her before, lest some dangerous Sickness ensue.
  • XXI. No Parent shall knock out their Daughters two upper Teeth be­fore (as it is customary with them) nor bore Holes in their Ears during the Karichang.
  • XXII. No Man that never travell'd before, shall then begin his Journey.
  • XXIII. No Maid shall taber with her Feet on a Funeral-Trough, if she never Danc'd before.
  • XXIV. Young Children, call'd Taliglig, shall wear no Armlets, lest some hurt should befal them.
  • XXV. None shall go in Pilgrimage, call'd Zapuliung, to the City Mattou, in this time, except they have been there before.
  • [Page 37]XXVI. Thou shalt not receive into thy House any Chinese, or other stranger; but carry them to thy Neighbors. And if thou make any Con­tracts or Alliance, thou shalt do it with a Straw in thy Hands over a Chost, saying, Shall I gain by this, or not? If I speak angerly, will he be patient? Which said, thou shalt pay the Gods the usual Offering.
  • XXVII. Thou maist not make any Mariche thad Kaddelangang, either in thy
    A kind of their Meat or Drink.
    Towns, Houses, Fields, or at thy Hunting, nor no Vagacang, in the time of Karichang.

ANno 1652. the seventh of September, the Chineses of Tayowan and Formosa being then under the Hollanders obedience, depending on the great numbers of their People, broke out into Rebellion, led by Fayet, a Ruler of Smeerdorp, lying two Leagues from Sakam, with a design to surprise or force the Castle of Tayowan, which thus they contriv'd, viz. To invite the Governor Nicholas Verburgh, with all the Officers and chiefest of the Merchants residing in the City Zelandia, to their Full-Moon Feast, resolving when they were in the midst of all their Mirth, to dispatch them in a general Massacre.

This done, they intended to march to the Castle, under pretence to bring the Governor home, and upon the opening of the Castle-Gate, to press in upon them, and so Master it.

But one Pau, a Chinese Commander, who dwelt in Zelandia, and Brother to Fayet, the Chief Leader of the Conspirators, disputing with his Brother the probability of carrying on the Plot, said, The Design is good, very good, and may be brought to effect; but if we should fail, and the Plot be discover'd, and these Devils the Hollanders get the better, what will become of us then? You shall not suffer onely, and the Party that you have engag'd; but thousands of Innocents, that knew nothing, shall scarce satiate their Revenge with their miserable Slaughter. To which their Ge­neral Fayet replied, Brother, if you are not satisfied, and your Fear overcome your Iudgement, you are at your Liberty to dispose of your self; be Neuter, go to your Ha­bitation, and which way soever the Victory falls, there you may in safety, and unsuspected, enjoy your Freedom.

Pau having receiv'd this Reply, departed, musing as he went, but at last re­solv'd to discover the Plot, and make himself secure indeed. Coming there­fore to Tayowan, near the Castle, he desired the Serjeant to admit him to speak privately with the Governor; but the negligent, left Pau waiting with a slight Answer, the Governor and the rest being then at Prayers: But he more im­portunate, and big with so great a Business, by earnest solliciting was let in to the Governor, to whom he discover'd all: At which Verburgh the Governor being startled, first commanded to secure Pau in the Castle, and sent an Officer with eight Men to Smeerdorp, as Spies, and to inquire News; who brought word back, that the Chineses were already gotten into a Head, and that setting upon them, they had escap'd by flight. At this Alarm, the Hollanders that had setled in Sakam, being to the number of thirty, in great fear fled for safe­ty to the Forts.

Fayet, who judg'd Delays dangerous, and doubting that his Brother would, or had discover'd the Plot, march'd with his Forces to Sakam, where falling without mercy upon the Town with Fire and Sword, he gave no Quarter to any.

A Gardener belonging to the Dutch, going on that Sunday Morning early with a Basket of Fruit to the Governor, in the Castle Tayowan, the Revolters [Page 38] overtaking him, cut off his Head, and taking out the Fruits, laid it in the Bas­ket, designing to have sent it before them; but the Humor altering, they cast both it and the Body under a Bridge. The News of this Massacre spreading a strange Fear seiz'd all the Hollanders, where-ever setled through the Country, so that dispersing, they hid themselves where-ever their Fear carried, or their Hopes led them, to escape the Slaughter. But one Captain Marine, well mounted, with three more, with their Swords in their Hands, broke through the Enemy, and killing the first that oppos'd him, came safe to Tayowan.

Verburgh the Governor well knowing how untowardly the Business stood, and the hazard wherein the Hollanders abroad were, lying open to destructi­on, immediately sent out a hundred and twenty Men, commanded by Captain Danker. This Handful, in comparison of their Enemies great Forces, went in one Sloop and a Boat from Tayowan to Sakam, whither being come, the first that endeavor'd to Land, being Captain Hans Pieters, leap'd Breast-high into the Water, by which Example, the rest encourag'd, forsook their Boats, and resolv'd wading to fight their way to the Shore; which the Enemy observing, sent down with the Lieutenant-General a thousand Men, to oppose their Land­ing. While they were thus drawing up towards the Shore for the Service, Fayet the General gave his Lieutenant Loukegwa new Orders, thinking it more fit to suffer them to Land, saying, It would be a higher pleasure to him to see the Christian Dogs die on the Land, than in the Water, which would be much the better sport, having them there inviron'd with his Army, as in a Net. But Loukegwa not so perswa­ded, nor willing to receive these new Commands, earnestly advis'd the Gene­ral that he might go on, and set upon them in the Water, averring, That these being the Hollanders choicest and pick'd Men, if they did not cut them off at this Advantage, they should never have the like: But however the Generals Opinion prevailing, he obey'd, and retreating, gave the opportunity of Land­ing in safety; where a little towards the left Hand of the Enemy, he drew up his small Party into a Body, when a Negro that had married a Hollander, com­ing out of a Wood where she had hid, running for her safety towards them, they intercepting, ripp'd up her Bowels, and cutting the Child in pieces, threw the Limbs at them, vaporing aloud, That so they would serve them all. But the Hollanders not replying, march'd boldly up to the Front of the Enemy, where in the first Charge killing fortunately their Prime Commander Fayet, which presently nois'd through the Army, all struck with a Panick fear, threw down their Arms, and disbanding, fled, shifting for themselves; but the Hollanders pursu'd, firing at their Heels through Sakam, and the Town clear'd, they sate down in their Enemies Head-Quarters: But before Night, while yet they were triumphing for the Victory, came two thousand Christian Formosans, rais'd by the Governor Verburgh, to their Aid, who, according to present Orders, march'd together in pursuit of the Enemy, some few of whom the next morn­ing they spied drawn together upon a rising Ground, but a River betwixt im­peded their present Charge; but soon after the Formosans, who knew the Fords and Avenues, got over, and charging them smartly, one being slain, they were suddenly dissipated; which Victory they and the Netherlanders pursu'd, making Execution till Sun-set, from whence returning to their Camp weary and hun­gry, they found store of fresh Provisions, boyl'd and roast, with which they feasting, were refresh'd.

Thus the Enemy dispers'd, and their whole Design frustrate, Fayet's Lieu­tenant, having sculk'd in the Mountains eight days, enforc'd at last by necessi­ty [Page] [Page]


[Page] [Page 39] to venture to Toukoya, seven Leagues from Tayowan, was there apprehended by the Dutch, and thence carried to Tayowan, where he was Executed, being, to the Enemies great terror, roasted alive, then taken off, and having been dragg'd at a Horses Heels through the whole Town, his broyl'd Head was fix'd on a Pole before the Castle: And those that ripp'd up the Bowels of the before-men­tion'd Woman, were broke alive upon the Wheel, and afterwards Quarter'd.

This Tumultuary Commotion was in fourteen days thus concluded, inThe Rebellion ended. which, of the Enemy were slain four thousand Men, besides as many more Women and Children, and not one Hollander so much as wounded.

Two Years after this War, Anno 1645. in May, came abundance of LocustsA Plague of Locusts. out of the North-West of the Isles, which devouring all the Fruits of the Field, occasion'd so great a Famine, that eight thousand Persons died of Hunger. These Locusts were of a strange shape, having a Back and Breast like a Pike­man, and an Helmet on their Heads, such as Soldiers wear. They made an affrighting noise with their Wings in their flight, as if it had blown a Storm.

They flew from the Island Tayowan to Formosa, where they staid three Months, and at last took their Progress from thence, towards the North-West, from whence they came at first, on Sunday the ninth of August about Sun-set: Yet though they were gone, the fear of that Plague was no ways abated; for they left young ones behind, which were far worse than the old▪ eating up all that remain'd; yet by the Industry of the Inhabitants, with the Governors Order, most part of them being not fledg'd, were taken and destroy'd.

The Island TAYOWAN.

THe Island Taywan, or as others call it Tayovan, and Tayowan, lieth South from Formosa, the uttermost North-Point being distant almost a League, but the Southermost Point within a Bowe-shot of the Land, over which at low Water they wade to and again; but between the North and For­mosa, it is at least thirteen Foot deep at Low Water.

It spreads South-East and North-West, and hath two Leagues and a half inTayowan very barren, yet populous. length, and a quarter of a League in breadth, being naturally a spot of barren Sand, rather than a fertile Isle, producing onely Pine-apples, and other wild Trees; yet here resided above ten thousand Chineses, who liv'd by Merchan­dize, besides Natives.

On the North-side, upon a Sand-hill, stands the Fort Zelandia, built by theFort Zelandia. Hollanders, Anno 1632. surounded with a double Wall, one investing the other, whereof the outermost fortified with Sconces and Redoubts.

Under the Castle, Westward, lies another Fort, square, guarded by two Points of the Sea.

A Bowe-shot distant lies a strong Out-work, being the Key to the CastleCastle of Utrecht. call'd Utrecht, rais'd sixteen Foot high with Stone, and defended with se­ven Pallisadoes: Eastward from which stands a Town, built also by the Ne­therlanders, call'd by the name of the Isle, and about a Mile in Circumference; adjoyning to which, is a Haven, call'd by the Chineses, Loakhau, and by the Dutch, The Straights of Tayowan. On the other side of the Castle lies a rising Sand, call'd Baxemboy, where a few scatter'd Villages appear.

Since the Chineses possess'd Tayowan, under the Pyrate Coxinga, and his Son Sepoan's Jurisdiction, they made a new Gate to the Castle, between the Amster­dam and Guelderland Points; and near the new Point, a Moat of a Fathom [Page 40] wide, Wall'd in on both sides, and joyning to the Wall strengthned with Iron Rails, through which the Water and Fish passing, rendezvouz in the Castle, before the Governors House, in a Pond, on which a Banquetting-house being built, which the old Koxin oft frequented, taking his Pleasure in Fishing there.

Anno 1664. according to the Information of the Netherlanders, which then lay with a Fleet before Tayowan, under Command of the Admiral Balthasar Bort, sent thither to obtain the Netherland Prisoners from the Enemy, and like­wise to conclude a Peace with him, the Castle was every where well fortified with Guns, and the Breast-works strengthned with new Canes, besides the Platform before the Haven, which was planted with twenty four Pieces of Cannon. In the Castle dwell onely the old Koxins Wives, with a Guard of Soldiers.

On the other side, in the Main of Formosa, stand the Fort and Village of Sakkam, well planted with Cannon: The Village near it was inlarg'd with Houses to the number of five hundred; but not all of Stone. The way to­wards the South was also more built and inhabited than formerly; but they could see but twenty four small Vessels, which were most A sort of small Ves­sels. Koyaes, that lay within the Haven, under the Forts.

Most of the Inhabitants of Tayowan are at present Out-law'd Chineses, whichInhabitants. first rebell'd against their Native Emperor, and since will not acknowledge the Tartar; who taking both Tayowan and Formosa, Anno 1661. from the Hollan­der, brought all under the Subjection of their General Coxinga.

The Chineses on both these Isles, and those that live in China, differ onely in the wearing of their Hair long, and braided, after the old Chinese manner; which following the Tartars, they now wear short in China.

And as the Formosans have several Gods which they worship, so have like­wise the Chineses inhabiting these Islands: Our Author, David Wright▪ reckons seventy two in the following Discourse.

They acknowledge one Almighty God, Governor of Heaven, Earth, Sea, Sun, Moon, and Stars, whom they call Ty, and look upon him as the Supream and first Deity. They make Offerings to this great God, yet but once a year, at which time they sacrifice a Wild Boar, burning alive with Sandal-wood; for to offer this their Almighty any thing but Swines Flesh, they account Abomination.

The next whom they worship is call'd Tien Sho, and Ioch Koung Shang Tee, who is the second Person or Governor of Heaven; wherefore he is nam'd Tien Sho, that is, The second Person of Heaven; and Ioch Koung Shang Tee, that is, Governor of the Earth. He commands three ministerial Spirits more: The first is Heu­oung, that is, The Ruler of Rain.

The second Aerial Spirit, Teoung, hath Power over all Living Creatures, whether Rational, Sensitive, or Vegetative.

The third Spirit, and eighth Deity, call'd Tsuy Zyen Tei Oung, that is, Com­mander of the Sea, and of all that is therein, or upon.

The third Person in Heaven the Chineses call Iok Tie, who was formerly a Prince on Earth, but so righteous, that he was taken up to Heaven for his Pi­ety and Justice.

The fourth God they stile Quanoung, who also was formerly a Prince; and likewise the fifth, whom they call Iamoung; but both of them were after­wards for their meritorious Actions taken up to Heaven.

To these five Gods, being as Chief in the Government of Heaven, belongs [Page 41] the three foremention'd ministring aerial Spirits, and are indeed, though Dei­ties themselves, subservient to the first five, making up eight Gods.

Besides these eight Gods, there are twenty eight Councellors, or Ministers of State, which have formerly been Learned Philosophers, and now preferr'd to the Government of the Stars.

Moreover, the Chineses have many Demy-gods, or terrestrial Deities, which ascend every year to Heaven, there to intercede and gain Indulgence for the sins committed by Mankind all the year past.

The first of these is rather a Nymph, or Demy-goddess, and being the thirty seventh, goes by the Name of Potsou, and is represented in the shape of a Wo­man with a Child in her Arms, and was, as the Chineses believe, a Kings Daughter, a great Prophetess, and a Virgin that bore a Child and not impreg­nated: which Fatherless Child they nam'd Bachu; who coming to years of perfection, was also a great Exemplar of Prudence and Magnanimity; yet not so much look'd upon, or worshipp'd as the Mother. They make her also to have a Servant call'd Pausat, a very antient Man.

There are some Traditions amongst them, that this Heroine is not a Native of China, but born in a foreign Countrey: Others again conjecture, that she is the same with the Virgin Mary, and the old Man, her reputed Servant, is in­deed her Husband Ioseph; but the vicissitudes of affairs and time have left us nothing of the truth of this fabulous Tradition.

The thirty eighth terrestrial Numen they instile Quanien; but Paulus Venetus▪ Quamina; and Iohannes Gonsales, Quianira, who said that she was the Daughter of the Chinese Emperor Tzonton, which built the Wall between China and Tartary. But this Opinion David Wright explodes, making her the Daugh­ter of the Emperor Biou Tsongong, which Reigned many years before the first Emperor Quantekong, presently after the Deluge, which he thus endeavors to prove.

This Biou Tsongong (says he) had three Daughters, two of which he had bestowed on Husbands, but the third, Quanien, he could not prevail with to enter into that Estate, although her Father had selected for her a Companion worthy her Love and Esteem: but seeing her no ways inclin'd to it, he resolv'd to put her into a Cloister; where to humble her, he commanded the Overseers to put her to do the Drudgery of the House, viz. fetch in Wa­ter and Wood, and make it clean. But the Swans, as the Chronicles of China relate, came from the Mountains, and the Angels from Heaven to help her to carry Water, and the Beasts out of the Forrests brought Wood for her. Her Father inform'd thereof, judging she did those things by Magick, was very much enraged, and commanded the Cloister to be set on fire. The Daughter observing that she onely was the occasion thereof, thought to make her self away. But the Heavens pittying her innocency, commanded Hevong the God of Rain, to send down such an impetuous Shower as might quench the Fire, now beginning to rage in the Cloister as bad as her Father in his frantick fury, which was accordingly per­form'd. Nevertheless Quanien sled to the Mountains, where she continued a great while. Her Father in the interim by Divine Providence was struck with Leprosie, and almost de­vour'd alive by Worms, no Physitians or Medicines being able to cure him: Of which his Daughter having at last some knowledge, touch'd with a natural affection, and feeling as it were in her self her Fathers misery, came and cur'd him; which so wrought upon the old Man, that through an excess of joy converting his rage into a contrary passion, he would have worshipped her; but she refusing such honour, bad him return thanks to Heaven and the Gods; which he ceased not to do, after that becoming a zealous Penitent. Not long af­ter Biou Tsongong dy'd, and Quanien betook her self to Lamhay, a Place in China, [Page 42] where she spent the remainder of her Life in great Piety. After her Death they built a stately Temple in honor of her, and Interr'd her Corps in the middle, which remains at this day (as the Chineses believe) as fresh and sound, as if it had been buried but a day. Every year the Priests go thither to celebrate the Anniversary of her Death, in the sixth Moon, on the eighteenth day, with Sports and Feasting, which hath won so much esteem, that the Chineses implore her help and assistance in all Tribulations.

The thirty ninth Goddess is call'd Nioma, or as others will have it, Matzou; she was born in the City Kotzo, in the Territory of Houkong, where her Father was Vice-Roy. This Nioma resolving also to live and die a Virgin, to that end went to dwell in the Island Piscadores, or Fishers-Isle, otherwise by the Inha­bitants call'd Pehoe, lying to the Northward, twelve Leagues distant from For­mosa, where she spent her Life in a Pious and most Religious manner. Her Image not long after was set up in the Temple with two Servants, one on the right, and another on the left-side, each of them holding a Fan in their Hands, which cover'd the Goddesses Head. She hath also (as they say) Spirits under her command, and is highly honor'd amongst the Chineses for so great and powerful a Deity, that all the Emperors at their Inaugurations must not omit to pay their Devotions in the Temple of this Nioma. Her greatest Festival is on the three and twentieth day of the third Moon; when the Priests repair from all Places of the Empire to her Tomb, because she knows (as they believe) when any Strangers shall address themselves to that Countrey, and whether their intentions be good or evil; nay more, will give certain Responses to any that consult her, in what affair soever; so that they are so perswaded and superstitious concerning her admonishments, that they think all is lost if she advise not thereunto. The original of her Adoration sprung hence (as the Chinese Records have it;) One Campo, a Chinese Admiral, going out with an Armado to Engage with a foreign Enemy, being driven by contrary Winds, was necessitated to anchor under the Lee of this Isle: but afterwards the Storm ceasing, and the Wind and Weather growing fair, the Fleet weighed, and hoi­sing Sail, set forward; but all the Sea-men with their conjoined strength could not get up his Anchor; which while they wondred at, this Goddess appear'd to the Admiral; whom imploring, she advis'd to take her aboard: for the Peo­ple against whom he had Commission to Fight were great Magitians, practi­sing the Black Art, and could raise or lay Spirits at their pleasure, but she was able to frustrate their diabolical practises. Thus perswaded, the Admiral with great reverence took her into his Ship, and coming to the Shore where they intended to Land, these Masters of occult Sciences us'd their skill as Nioma had foretold; but she baffled them in their own Arts, and so made their powerful­lest Charms of no effect: wherefore the King that trusted to his Necroman­cers, being necessitated to Engage with the Chineses, was by her direction and assistance, contrary to his confidence, utterly defeated and brought under sub­jection. The Admiral, though sensible of the wonderful Service which she had done by her power, desir'd that she would do something in his presence that he might relate, having so many eye-witnesses, to the Emperor. And having accidentally a wither'd Cane in his Hand, Nioma took it, and upon his Request immediately made it grow and blossom, and to yield a sweet smell: Which signal Prodigy the Admiral fix'd on his Stern, and coming to the Emperor, related to him all his Adventures: whereupon he in honor and commemoration of her favors, commanded that they should worship her as a Goddess through the whole Empire. Since which every Ship bears her Image in the Stern, and the Sea-men are strangely devoted to her.

[Page] [Page 42]




[Page] [Page 43]The fortieth God call'd Sikjaa, born in the Kingdom Tantaico, opposite to the West of China, they held for the first inventer of that Religion which the Chineses observe to this day. He always went bare headed, neither eating Flesh, Fish, or other Creature that had life▪ and lived single. This Sikjaa Drawn or Carv'd to the life, stands upon the Altars in their Temples, and on the right-side at the entrance of the Door. Over against him, and in some Tem­ples round about him, stand long Tables; at which the Priests sit reading and muttering to themselves Prayers to Sikjaa, to receive them into Heaven. Two Priests watch day and night before his Altar, often bowing to the Ground, and lifting up their Heads equally together, whilst their Tabors and Pipes, consor­ted with other Wind-Instruments, makes no unpleasing harmony. In their Diet the Priests follow the strict Life of Sikjaa, eating nothing but Rice, Grapes and Herbs: they live some in the Wildernesses like Hermits; others frequent the Temples abroad, and spend their time for a small gratuity in making Offer­ings in peoples Houses, having no allowance either from the Emperor, or Charity of the People: They never pare their Nails, some of them growing six, eight, ten, and twelve Inches long, which the Chineses count a great Or­nament. The Doctrine of this Sikjaa is at large declared in the following Description of China.

The one and fortieth God is call'd Ang-jaa, and is carried from House to House on the eleventh day of the third Moon on an Altar by six Priests, where­of three go before and three behind; before him stands a Perfuming-pot with burning Incense, and other Aromaticks. The Mendicant Priests stop at every House, and never leave Singing and Praying, tinckling two small Basons one against another, till the Master of the House comes and brings them some Mo­ney in a piece of Paper, as an Offering to this God.

This Ang-jaa is not Clothed like the other Gods, but quite naked, having onely a Cloth about his Middle, which reaches down to his Heels, and over his Shoulders a Scarf: his Hair, Beard, Mustacho's, and Face, differ much from the other Chinese Numens, the Hair of his Face more resembling an European than an Asiatick; concerning which dissimilitude the Chineses themselves are al­together silent.

The two and fortieth Deity call'd Tontekong, is represented in the shape of an antient Man with a white Beard, and said to be a great abhorrer of Gaming and Adultery, which by all means possible he sought to extinguish; wherefore the Chineses have placed him in Heaven, and also invoke him daily to defend them from Thieves.

The three and fortieth God, nam'd Teiton, a valiant Heroe, represented with a drawn Sword in his left-hand; whose Services in redeeming the Empire, like to be lost by the Invasion of the Enemy, have listed him in special rank amongst the number of their Gods.

The four and fortieth Schercong next takes place, adored for the invention of Tragedies and Comedies, and other Enterludes Acted on the Stage.

The five and fortieth God, nam'd Amkong, hath obtain'd the like honor meerly for his great Merits and Vertues.

The six and fortieth Tswajong, was in his life-time a mighty Man, of a Gi­gantick Stature: his Club, which he could flourish with one Hand, weighed ninety two pounds, so that for his strength and valour he was very famous in China, and therefore worshipp'd as a God.

The seven and fortieth Hangoe, another Giant, whose Helmet weighed one [Page 44] hundred twenty five pound, whose strength and valour made him living, a Vice-Roy, and after death, a Deity.

The eight and fortieth Hanzing, with whom none could stand in competiti­on either for Prudence or Science (except Quantecong and Sodejong) who per­form'd with a few Men greater Acts by his subtile Stratagems, and politick Conduct, than others with vast Armies, and therefore the Chineses worship and hold him for a God.

The nine and fortieth Sodejong, a wise and politick Prince, yet meek and loving to his Subjects, look'd upon as superior in his Character to Hanzing, but much inferior to Quantecong.

The fiftieth Sjengoesoeng, also a very strong Giant, and much reputed for ser­ving his Countrey against the common Enemy.

The one and fiftieth Goumatzintzing, signifies Pastor Gregis, The Shepherd of the People, and a Servant to God. He had (if you will believe the Chineses) five Eyes, two in the right places, and two above them, and the fifth in the middle of his Forehead, like the Cinque upon a Dye; two of these were alway sawake, or open, whilst the other three were shut, for which they implore him as their Watch in Heaven.

The two and fiftieth Soumanoaom, had four Eyes, two in his Neck, and two in his Forehead: when those two in his Forehead closing slept, the other two kept open watchful; wherefore he being General, was never defeated, whom for his never-sleeping Care and Conduct they worship as a God.

The three and fiftieth Zjenzucung, a Lord of small Stature, wearing short Hair, but of an acute Wit and profound Understanding, and abominator of Gaming and Drink.

The four and fiftieth Quantecong, though by Iohannes Gonsales and others call'd Vitie; whom the Chineses honor'd more than any of their Gods, being reckon'd the first Emperor in China: for Valour, Subtilty, and Science, unpa­ralell'd, and not to be match'd: such was his wonderful and Gigantick Sta­ture, being as they fable, twelve Foot and eight Inches high, and his Shoulders four Foot broad; his Sword weighed ninety two pound, which he us'd with one Hand. In the beginning of his Reign he possessed onely one Province, but by his Conquests and Atchievements became Master of the fifteen which now make the Empire. He established many Laws and Ordinances, especial­ly one against Idleness. He first invented Clothing, and Dying of Stuffs, which they use to this day, for before they went naked like the Indians. He al­so modell'd and invented Ships, made Saw-Mills, Gun-powder, and Guns, and improved Architecture. Some Buildings and Edifices are yet to be seen, whereof, as they say, he was the Contriver. He made a Law, That all Me­chanicks should continue their Parents Trades from Generation to Genera­tion. He erected Cities, Towns, and Villages, and commanded the People to inhabit them. And as their Chronicles relate, this Quantecong with his own Hand slew in one Battle three thousand, some say four thousand Men. He had a Negro for his Squire, or Armor-bearer, who was no less valiant than himself, for he accompanied him in all dangers whatsoever, and was called Tzicutzong; he perform'd great Exploits in his Masters Service, by conquering many Peo­ple and several Countreys: but besides Quantecong had another Servant, a White, call'd Quanpiong, yet no Martialist.

This Quantecong is so highly esteem'd and honor'd amongst the Chineses, that most of them, except Sea▪men and Fishers, and they also make him weekly [Page]


[Page] [Page 45] Offerings, and burn every Night a Lamp with sweet and odoriserous Oyl be­fore him. Their Oblations consist in two pounds and a half of Hogs-flesh, three quarters of a pound of Deers-flesh, one boil'd Hen, nine Cakes of Meal-Flour, half a pint of a certain Liquor call'd Aoytziu, a Cup full of the Drink Lotchin, another full of Souchin and of the good Tope Samsoe, and lastly two Dishes of Rice; all which is set before the Image Quantecong, and stands three hours; after which time it is taken away again: both which are perform'd with great Ceremony, as bowing of Heads and Bodies; afterwards the Meat is eaten by the Offerers.

In every City is also a Temple erected to the honor of Quantecong, in which stands his Image: On one side of him stands his black Squire, with a Sword by his Side, and a large Knife, like a Mowers Scythe; four Paces from him on the other Side his white Page Quanpiong. Nor was he invocated onely by his Countrey-men, but also by the Tungkins their Enemies: for as soon as any War broke out, they set a Guard before his Temple that none might hurt him; for they believe he would punish their neglect with the loss of their Army. Nay farther they say, That mounting his red Horse Angbea (for he onely us'd a red Steed, there being none of that kind else in China) he Rid against their Enemies, and destroy'd their whole Army, in revenge of the damage done to his Temple.

The six and fiftieth Kongsou, is held for the first inventer of Printing, which the Chineses have us'd eight hundred years and upwards, insomuch that they say the Christians learn'd that art from them; because at that time they Traded with Christian Merchants.

This Kongsou stands on a Throne, environ'd with People of several Nations, every one holding a Book; of all which the Germans stand nearest to him, be­cause they (according to the testimony of the Chineses) have greater Judgment, and Print better than any other Nation.

The seven and fiftieth Tegoe, that is, Transitory Bull.

The eight and fiftieth they nominate Kjenke, that is, Crow, or Chicken-Thief. A strange fancy and belief possesses the Chineses about these their two Deities: for, say they, when Tegoe hath the Earth on his Shoulders, then Kjenke comes from Heaven and pecks Tegoe on his Body; whereby necessitated to shake him­self, the Earth trembles and shakes with him: and as soon as any such trepi­dation begins, they fall a laughing, saying, Now is Tegoe peck'd by Kjenke.

Father Martinius, in his Chinese History saith, That the Soil of China is veryLib. 9. pag. 389. little subject to Earthquakes: yet the Chronicles of that Countrey mention, That the Year before the Birth of our Saviour 73. hapned such a great Earth­quake, that several Mountains were swallow'd up: from whence the Chineses, a People much inclin'd to Superstition, prognosticated the destruction of their Empire, such things, say they, proceeding from an angry and threatning Heaven.

The nine and fiftieth Luikong, or The God of Thunder, for Lui is Thunder, and Kong a Governor. They represent him with a Head like a Crane, Feet and Hands like an Eagles Claws, and large Wings, wherewith he seems to flye through the Clouds. When this Luikong (say they) intends to Thunder, he stands between four Clouds, with a Drum on every one, on which he beats continually with two great Iron Pestles: And when any one is struck by a Thunder-bolt, they say that Luikong is much enraged against that Person, and therefore struck him with the foremention'd Pestles: so that they are very [Page 46] fearful of him, and when it Thunders creep on their Hands and Feet under Benches and Tables.

The sixtieth is the Ruler of Lightning, and represented by the Chineses with a Straw Wisp in her Hand, which when it Lightens she spreads abroad.

The sixty first Kieugkong, the God of Rainbows: the Chineses nick-name him Omho, that is, Mischievous, because at his appearance he spoils all their Fruits of the Field; so that they honor him onely because he should come but seldom.

The sixty second Pankun, according to the Chronicles of China, finished and compleated the World; for they say that the World when God Created it was without shape or form, but was by Pankun brought to its full perfection in four years time. They represent him with many Iron Instruments, such as the Stone-cutters use. He was the first that invented the Art of Stone-cutting, and therefore is the peculiar God of Bricklayers, Stone-cutters, and Potters.

The sixty third Houngkong, rules Winds and Spirits, and is figur'd like a great Bird with huge long Legs and Feathers, sticking up like Hogs Bristles. The Chineses say, that the fluttering of his Wings occasion great Winds, Storms and Tempests: therefore Fishers, Sea-men, Gardners, and other People that fear too much Wind, adore him.

The sixty fourth Khuotquan, in his life-time was a Vice-Roy in China, and the first that made Salt, which he accounted the richest and best Commo­dity in the World. Another Vice-Roy having at the same time found out Sugar, esteem'd that above Salt: upon this they fell at variance; but both sides appealing to the Emperor, he commanded a Proof to be brought him of each sort, and having tasted both, he preferred the Sugar, as being more plea­sant. But Khuotquan contradicted this sentence, saying, That there never was a thing of greater value than Salt, which gave a rellish and savoury taste to all things. The Emperor angry at Khuotquans petulancy, commanded him to go out of his Presence: who thereupon much discontented, went instantly and drown'd himself in the River Melo, which flows by the City Siangin, in the Territory of Huquang; but highly advanced him that made the Sugar. The next day (saith Wright) after which Khuotquan was drown'd, being the fifth Day of the fifth Moon, in the Morning (as the Chinese Chronicles affirm) there began an extraordinary great Rain, which without cessation continu'd twelve Moneths, wherefore for want of dry Weather no Salt could be made, by which means a third part of the People died, and some that lay just upon the point of Death, having but one Corn of Salt put into their Mouths presently reco­ver'd: The Emperor inform'd of this Calamity by his Substitute Governors, commanded him that had made the Sugar to be kill'd, and that none should dare to make any more mention of him, that thereby his Name might be for­gotten: whereupon the Rain immediately ceasing, the Emperor sent strict Edicts through all his Dominions, that they should worship the foremention'd Khuotquan as a God. On the day of his decease, which is kept with great so­lemnity, and call'd Tuonu, the Houses are hung round with Garlands of Roses, Palm-Boughs, and the Ships adorn'd in like manner; and every Chinese wears a green Sprig on his Head: neither do they any Work in five days, all which time they hold his Festival. The second day they represent Wayangs, or Stage-plays. On the third they go with hundreds of curious Gilt and Carv'd Boats, hung with all manner of green Boughs, Flowers and the like, and full of People up and down the River, seeming to look for the Corps of Khuotquan; [Page 47] coming to the Place where they say they find Khuotquan, they lift up their Oars, and take hold of their Flags and Pendants, and then beating on their Drums, cry with a loud voice, We have found him. This Ceremony, which is observ'd in all Places and Rivers in China, continues three days one after another.

This Khuotquan died about three thousand years since, and being taken up two days after his Decease, was kept ten years Embalm'd before he was Buried.

The sixty fifth Schante, was in his life-time a valiant Man, and a great pitier of the Poor, to whom he was very charitable.

The sixty sixth Naon, was an Assistant to the God Tegoe before mention'd: he is represented with a Ball on his Foot; for (as they fable) when Tegoe grow­eth weary with carrying so great a burthen as the World, then this Naon helps him to support it with his Foot: wherefore they place this Naon in Heaven, and worship him, because when displeas'd he should not let the World fall by taking away his Foot.

The sixty seventh Atzion, was Conceiv'd after a strange manner by his Mo­ther Lintion, who walking in the Field, and casting her Eyes up toward Heaven, espi'd a Lions Head in the Clouds; by which Vision she Conceiv'd with this Atzion, without knowing Man: for which his wonderful Conception he is by the Chineses honor'd for a God.

The sixty eighth Alsa, taught the People first to Boil and Roast their Meat: for before his time the Chineses did eat both Flesh and Fish raw. He instructed them also to build Huts of Wood for a defence against wild Beasts; and to make Clothes to cover their nakedness.

The sixty ninth Huntzuihoykong, they say first invented Fire, and taught them to Buy and to Sell.

The seventieth Otzoe, was Conceiv'd after as strange a manner as the be­fore-mention'd Atzion; for his Mother Hautzibon going to the Garden for an Onion, she saw some Foot-steps of a Man that had been there before her, in one of which she put hers, to try how much bigger it was than her own; which she had no sooner done, but a great Light encompassing her, she imme­diately Conceiv'd this Otzoe, who was the first that established Matrimony amongst the Chineses, and invented Musical Instruments.

The seventy first Ezolon, the first Finder of Medicines and the Vertue of Herbs; had great knowledge in Astronomy, Soothsaying, and Magick; in­structed Men in Agriculture by the use of the Plough and Spade, and all sorts of Ploughing Tools.

The seventy second Skadingkon, was the first, as they say, that taught them the use of Arms, and Martial Discipline.

Besides these five Governors of Heaven, three Spirits, eight and twenty Councellors, and thirty six earthly Deities, in all seventy two, the Chineses, ac­cording to the foremention'd Wright, have three Cacadaemons, or evil Spirits.

The first is call'd Tytsoequi, that is, Prince of Devils, for Tytsoe signifies Prince, and Qui the Devil: and as their Stories would make out, he was first an Angel in Heaven, but the supream God observing the wickedness of Mankind on Earth, he call'd Tytsoequi to him, saying, I have seen the wickedness of Men on Earth, and their hearts are inclin'd to evil; wherefore none of them shall come to me in Heaven: Therefore do you descend; I have prepared a Place for you, and an everlasting Prison of torments for them. I elect you as our Substitute to Govern Hell; take them to you and punish them; they shall stay with you for ever, and never come near me.

[Page 48]


The Chineses are of opinion, and believe, that this Prince of Devils knows all future things, and that he sends out his Spirits to fetch vitious People to Hell, where he torments them for ever; therefore they worship him that they may not be tortured.

They also firmly believe, That the Souls of the Wicked return again on Earth to plague and terrifie those alive, which, they say, appear to them in se­veral Visions.

On the fifteenth day of the seventh Moon they present him a well drest Swine whole, and likewise Hens, Ducks, Pinang, and Cakes of fine Meal, Keekieuw, that is, Arak, or Brandy, and Sugar-Canes. The Hog they lay down on his two foremost Knees, with his Head on his fore-Feet opposite to the Image Tytsoequi; and use afterwards so many extraordinary Ceremonies at this Offering, that beginning early in the Morning, it continues above an hour after Sun-set.

Several Gilded pieces of Paper, made like a Boat are also burnt in honor to him; and they are very zealous in their Prayers to this Tytsoequi.

In Hell, they say, he is served like a King, having two Councellors and twelve Spirits, which wear mighty Knives, and wait upon him continually like Halberdeers, to receive and execute his Commands; besides several other Spirits which serve him as Gentlemen.

The second, or Vice-Roy of Hell, they call Iamkoen, who Commands with great Authority, wherefore they worship and fear him.

The third Iamtouwi.

The Chineses also observe a certain day in the Year, on which they Offer to all the happy departed Souls, calling it Chinkbinch, and is kept Annually on the third day of the third Moon the Year after Leap-year, but in the Year be­fore Leap-year on the twentieth day of the same Moon. Thus far David Wright.

In Valour and Warlike Policy the Chineses of Tayowan and Formosa far exceed [Page 49] those on the Main Land, most of them at all times wearing Skeans by their sides, except when at Meat in their own Houses.

They use no Knives, Forks, or Spoons to eat withall, but take it up with two small Sticks made of Ivory or Ebony-Wood, Tipt at the ends with Sil­ver or Gold.

Women of mean Capacity maintain themselves with Spinning and Twist­ing of raw Silk, which is brought thither from the Territory of Chickinny.

The Women eat not constantly with their Husbands at Meals; and when heretofore the Men found no Women according to their minds on the Islands, they sent for them out of China, and barter'd for them as other Commodities.

Lastly, it is requisite in this place to give a short account how Coxinga and his Associates, Anno 1661. took both these Islands from the Netherland East-India Company; but first we will shew his Extract, strange Rise, with the Ruine of his Father, who was call'd Chunchilung, and by Foreigners Iquon, or Ikoan and Equan: a Man of mean Descent, born in a small Village on the Sea­shore, in the Territory Fokien, near the City Annay, his Father very poor, and as some say, a Taylor by Trade: He first Serv'd the Portuguese in the City Makao, and afterwards the Hollanders on the Island Formosa; where soon after he be­came a great Merchant by the Iapan Trade, and at last a Pyrate. Having from this small beginning gotten a great Fleet of Ships, and obtain'd by his po­litick Designs and grand Undertakings, to so great Treasure, that the Chi­nese Emperor was not able to stand in competition with him; for he onely of all the Chineses ingrossed the Commodities of all India in his own hands, driving therewith a vast Trade with the Portuguese at Makao; with the Spaniards on the Philippine Islands; and with the Hollanders at Formosa and Batavia; and likewise with the Iapanners; besides other Oriental Kingdoms and Islands. He onely Transported the Chinese Commodities by his own People, bringing back the Indian and European in Returns for them; so that he began to grow so exceeding­ly rich, that he could fit out a Fleet of three thousand Sail.

Yet this Chinchilung, or Iquon, not contenting himself herewith, began to Plot how to be Emperor of China; but well knowing that he could never effect it, so long as any of the Imperial Tamingian Family was in being, which at that time held the Royal Seat, therefore he made choice of a time to extirpate that Family, which was Anno 1644. when the Tartars over-ran the whole Empire, except three Provinces, being Folnien, otherwise call'd Chincheo, Quantung, and Quangsi; and the more closely to hide his Design, he pretended to take up Arms against the Tartars, as Enemies to the Chineses, and defend that Empire with all his Forces. And without doubt under this Disguise he would have been taken for the Redeemer and Protector of that Crown, had he not held Correspondence with the Tartars, to whom he gave what Intelligence he thought good for his advantage. At the same time when the Tartars fell into the Countrey of Fokien, Iquon was declar'd General by the Emperor Lungun, of all his Forces; the Officers also were either his Brothers or Friends, so that being able to do what he listed, he permitted the Tartars to come into the Em­pire; for which they gave him the Title of King, making him King of Pingnan, which is in the Southern part of China, and sent him many great Gifts, the more easily to delude him: and though perhaps not ignorant of his De­sign, but fearing his formidable Power, they durst not use any rigorous course against him, but rather Treated him very honorably with Presents, high En­tertainments, and large Promises of the Government over the Territories of [Page 50] Fokien and Quantung; so that he thought easily to get an absolute Command over the Southern Countreys. But when the Tartar intended to return to the Imperial City Peking, and all his Vice-Roys according to custom came to attend and accompany him some part of the Way; Iquon also not suspecting any danger, came to shew his Respects in like manner, and went with a few, having left his Fleet in the Haven before the City of Focheu: but now being ready to depart, having perform'd his Complements, and desiring leave to re­turn, the Tartar Prince requested him to go with him to Peking to the Empe­ror, where he promised him the highest Preferments: and although Iquon sought with many Arguments to put off this Journey; yet was he at last for­ced to go; so that by this Stratagem he was taken, which could not be by force of Arms, or any Device whatsoever. Coming to Peking he was put close Prisoner, not onely under a strict Guard, but the Door of the Place wherein he was kept, made up with Stone, and himself loaded with Fetters about his Neck and Feet; and if any new Troubles hapned by his Son Coxinga, and the News thereof brought to the Court at Peking, as it did Anno 1657. (at which time the Netherlanders were there in an Embassy) they laid fifteen Chains more upon him. His Son Coxinga and Brothers inform'd of his Imprisonment, be­took themselves again to the Fleet, and made all the Seas near China by their Pyracies almost useless.

Upon this account Coxinga with his Associates, and a crew of Rebel Chine­ses, kept the Tartars on the Coast of China in continual Alarms, and had his chiefest Residence on the Islands Ay, Quemuy, and others lying under the Conti­nent of China. The Chineses themselves on the Main Coast, who had submitted, and in token thereof shav'd off their Hair, conform'd to the Tartars, brought them all sorts of Provisions, and drove also a private Trade with them. The Tartars at last, to stop all Provisions from going to the Enemy, commanded all the Villages, Towns and Hamlets that stood along the Sea-shore, or the Main Continent, to be burnt to the Ground, and the Countrey laid waste, and no People suffer'd on pain of death to live within three Leagues of the Sea. By this means, and likewise by the great Losses which Coxinga sustain­ed from the Tartars, assisted by the Netherlanders, who set upon them both at Sea and Land, he found himself so straightned, that Anno 1660. he Sail'd with all his Forces to Tayowan and Formosa, both which Islands, and also the Castle Ze­landia; he took in March, Anno 1661. after a Siege of ten Moneths. Very cruelly were several of the Netherlanders dealt withall, especially the Ministers Anthony Hantbroel, Aren Vincenius, Leonard Campen, Peter Muts and others, and at last put to death: others against Agreement kept in Prison, without hopes of attaining their Liberty, notwithstanding the great trouble the Hollanders took upon them to procure their enlargement. Therefore in revenge of Coxinga's Cruelties, and also to regain the conquer'd Places, a Fleet was sent out the next year af­ter, under the Command of the afore-mention'd Admiral Balthazar Bort, and Vice-Admiral Iohn van Campen, with the Ambassador Constantine Nobel, with Letters from his Excellency Iohn Maetzuiker, to Singlamong, Vice-Roy of the Ter­ritory Fokien, and the General Taisang Lipoui for the same purpose, and also to request liberty for a free Trade.

Since the Letter to the Vice-Roy Singlamong in brief contains the Reasons and Intentions for sending out the Fleet to the Coast of China, and the dispatching of an Ambassador thither, and may also serve for a small declaration of our fol­lowing Discourse, I judge it no way amiss to set it down before-hand, being to this effect:

This Letter comes from John Maetzuiker, chief Governor, and the Councel for the Ne­therland State in the Countreys of India, to Singlamong, Vice-Roy, or Governor for the Mighty Emperor of Tartary and China: of the Territory Fokien, whom the God of Heaven grant long Life, and Prosperity on Earth.
Great and Powerful Sir,

THe Letter sent some time since from Your Highness to our Governor of Tayowan he hath receiv'd in due time, and also not been negligent to Answer according to Request, and with all speed sent five Men of War with some Soldiers, to the Bay of Engeling, that according to Your Highness's noble Proposal and Request they might, bidding defiance to Coxinga, fall upon him. But We were so unhappy, that as soon as the Ships set Sail from Tayowan, they were surpris'd by a mighty Storm, which separated them one from another, so that some of them came back to Batavia, and others were forc'd to return again to Tayowan, which is the onely Reason that We could not perform Our good Intentions according to Your Highness's Pleasure. Since which time Coxinga hath joyn'd all his Forces together to Master our Castle in Tayowan, having Besieged it ten Moneths, rais'd great Batteries against it on all sides, and so straitned the Besieged with his Army, that the Governor and his Councel concluded to deliver him the Fort; which We have resented very ill of our People, because, as We suppose, they have not as they ought to have done, manfully resisted the Enemy; which as an Example to terri­fie others, We will not pass by unpunished. Yet since We have suffer'd so great a Loss and Damage, and chiefly for that against his Promise he hath most cruelly Murder'd several Unarmed Christians on the Island Formosa; God who is a hater of such Villanies, and a righteous Judge, commands Us to take Revenge for our sustained Wrongs; so that we are resolv'd with all our Forces to prosecute this Tyrant, and not leave, till by force of Arms We have brought him to nought. And since we are inform'd, that Your High­ness also intends and endeavors the like Ruine towards him; so at once to free the Empire of China from the Oppression which it hath suffer'd so many years by his Means: Therefore We think it now the most proper time to obtain as well Your Highness's, as our own Desires: to which end, accord­ing to Your Highness's own Proposal, We are inclin'd to joyn all Our Land and Sea-Forces with Your Highness's Militia, against which We suppose Coxinga will not be able to subsist long. And to shew that We really intend it, We have sent from hence under the Command of Our Admiral Balthazar Bort to the Bay of Hossien, the number of twelve well prepar'd Men of War, which, considering their strength and fit posture for defence, may justly be term'd Floating Castles, and will be able to make Coxinga quit the Sea, which will not a little trouble and disable him: of which We hope Your High­ness shall in a short time see the Event. We therefore fortifie Our selves, (hoping that Your Highness will do the like) that We may enter into a firm League with the Empire of China, with Promises faithfully to assist one ano­ther against Coxinga, and to hold him for our mortal Enemy, and with all Endeavors, if it be possible, bring him and all his Party to utter Ruine, so to make him taste the sharpness of Our Revenge for his committed Villa­nies. But since at present, having lost Tayowan, We have no convenient Har­bors to preserve Our Ships in stormy Weather, Our humble Request is, That [Page 52] your Highness would please to do us that favor, as far as your Commands reach along the Sea-Coasts, to Permit and Order us a place wherein our Ships, if they should chance to be necessitated, may come to an Anchor, and that they may be kindly receiv'd, and our People entertain'd as Friends, and buy Provisions and other Necessaries for Money.

China and Batavia (as your Highness very well knows) lie a great distance one from another, therefore it is very necessary and requisite, that we had a convenient place of Rendezvouz near Coxinga's Channel, there to keep our Ships together, and watch for his Jonks; so that we desire of your High­ness, that you would be pleas'd to direct us to such a place, and to give us leave likewise to Fortifie the same against Coxinga's Assaults; for we do as­sure your Highness, if this cannot be granted us, it is altogether impossible for us to do the Enemy that damage which may be expected: Therefore if we intend to manage this War with Prudence, we must be there to wait on our business continually, or else we shall not be able to clear the Sea of Cox­inga's Ships.

And as the driving of Trade makes all Nations and People flourish, and we are us'd from Antiquity to promote the same, for the benefit of the pub­lique good, we thought fit to make our inclination known to your High­ness, that we heartily desire to furnish the Emperor of China with our Com­modities, which formerly the same Coxinga hath prevented by his wicked Practices; therefore to perfect all our good Undertakings, we desire that we may be permitted to come into the Empire of China, and have Passes from the great Cham, which we intreat your Highness to procure for us, not doubt­ing, but they may easily be attain'd; because when two years ago the Em­peror was Complemented by two of our Ambassadors with Presents, he in part promis'd it to us; which your Highness having at that time the Com­mand over Canton, and conversing much with our People, may perhaps re­member.

We send to your Highness with this Letter our peculiar Friend Captain Constantine Nobell, humbly to Complement your Honor; and at large de­clare our Intentions, with Request, that your Highness would favorably be pleas'd to hear him, and speedily to dispatch him: We also promise, that whatever your Highness agrees with him about, we will approve of, and stand ingaged to: And for a Present, we here send to your Highness these un­der-written Commodities, desiring your Highness to accept them in good Friendship.

  • One Piece of
    • Scarlet
    • Green Cloth.
    • Black Cloth.
    • Blue Cloth.
  • One Piece of
    • Red Crown Serge.
    • Grass Green Crown Serge.
    • Blue Crown Serge.
    • Musk Color Crown Serge.
    • Black Crown Serge.
  • A handsome Musquet, Guilded and Varnish'd.
  • A Fire-Lock or Snaphance, adorn'd like the first.
  • One pair of Pistols and Holsters, like­wise well Varnish'd and Gilt.
  • Twenty Ounces of Blood Red Coral, upon one String, in an hundred and one pieces.
  • Sixteen Ounces and a half of Branch Coral, of the same Color, in one Polish'd Branch.
  • Three Pound and three Ounces of [Page 53] Amber, in four great pieces.
  • One Pound and four Ounces of Am­ber Beads, in fifty five pieces.
  • One great Bengael Alkatiff.
  • Ten pieces of fine Moereisen, or white Linnen.
  • One Pikol of Cloves.
  • Half a Case of Rose-Water.
  • Two hundred and sixty Katty of San­dal-wood, in three pieces.

From the Castle of Batavia, Iune 21. 1662.

Iohn Maetzuiker.

The Letter to the General Taisang Lipovi, was writ almost after the same manner, with the same Requests and Promises; viz. A League with the Em­pire of China, to help to ruine Coxinga, upon condition, that the Netherlanders should be free to enter any Haven, and take possession of a convenient place on the Coast of China; as may be seen in the same Letter in its proper place, where it is set down Verbatim. Hereupon the Grand Commissioners at Batavia, the General Iohn Maetzuiker, and the Indian Council began to prepare and make ready several stout Men of War, storing with plenty of Ammunition, and Provisions, and Manning them also with Soldiers and Sea-men.

The whole Fleet that lay thus ready at Batavia for any Engagement, fittedNumber of Guns, Sea­men, and Soldiers. out to retake the Islands Tayowan and Formosa, consisted in twelve Sail, eight Frigats, viz. the Naerden, Zierikzee, Domburgh, Hogeland, Meliskerke, Overveen, the Sea-Dog, Ankeveen; and four Pinks, the Vink, Loenen, Breukelen, and Ter-Boede, every one well Arm'd with Guns and Ammunition, and Mann'd both with Soldiers and Sea-men. The Naerden Commanded by the Admiral Balthazar Bort carry'd four Brass, and twenty eight Iron Guns, and an hundred and ninety Men, whereof an hundred and thirteen Soldiers, and eighty four Sea­men. Zierikzee, Commanded by the Vice-Admiral Iohn Van Campen, had also four Brass, and twenty eight Iron Guns, with an hundred ninety one Men, viz▪ eighty one Soldiers, and an hundred and ten Sea-men. Domburg, Com­manded by Captain Constantine Nobel, and Captain Ysbraent Boumeester, had four Brass, and twenty one Iron Guns, an hundred forty seven Men, to wit, sixty two Soldiers, and eighty five Sea-men. The Hogelande, Commanded by Har­men Symons, carry'd twenty four Iron Guns, and an hundred and six Men, twenty nine Soldiers, and seventy seven Sea-men. The Meliskerke, Dirk Ger­ritsen Captain, had five Brass, and sixteen Iron Guns, an hundred and two Men, thirty six Soldiers, and sixty six Sea-men. The Overveen, Commanded by Ba­rent Iochemz, carry'd one Brass, and twenty Iron Guns, an hundred and sixteen Men, thirty five Soldiers, and sixty one Sea-men. The Sea-Dog, Commanded by Iohn Hendrikson, had twenty four Iron Guns, an hundred twenty nine Men, fifty three Soldiers, and seventy six Sea-men. The Ankeveen, Iohn Ysbrandsen Van Bank Captain, with one Brass, and seventeen Iron Guns, had ninety three Men, twenty eight Soldiers, and forty five Sea-men. The Vink, under Captain Dirik Valk, with two Brass, and eleven Iron Guns, had sixty eight Men, twen­ty five Soldiers, and forty three Sea-men. The Loenen, Commanded by Iacob Hors, with eleven Guns, had sixty six Men, that is, twenty six Soldiers, and forty Sea-men. The Breukelen, Abraham Ben Commander, carry'd eight Iron Guns, and fifty eight Men, twenty five Soldiers, and twenty three Sea-men. The Ter-Boede, Commanded by Auke Pieters, had two Brass, and eight Iron Guns, one and fifty Men, fifteen Soldiers, and thirty six Sea-men. In all the Ships, were twenty three Brass, and an hundred and sixteen Iron Guns; five [Page 54] hundred twenty eight Sea-men, and seven hundred fifty six Soldiers; in the whole, one thousand two hundred eighty four Men: With these twelve Ships of War, three Merchants, being the Leerdam, Singing-Bird, and Loosduinen, set Sail, richly Laden for Iapan, under the Command of Captain and Admiral Henry Van Indiik, having Command to keep company with the Fleet, so long as they did not go out from their Coast.

The day on which they were to set Sail, the Admiral Bort, and Council ofThe Fleet divided into three Squadrons. War, for certain reasons, divided the Fleet into three Squadrons, and every Squadron under one chief Commander, viz. The Zierikzee, Meliskerken, Hoge­lande, Ter Boede, with the Fly-Boat Leerdam, under the Command of the Vice-Admiral Campen. The Naerden, Overveen, Sea-Dog, and Vink, with the Singing-Bird Pink, under Captain Balthazar Bort▪ The Domburgh, Ankeveen, Breukelen, Loenen, with the Pink Loosduinen, Commanded by Constantine Nobel.

When his Excellency, General Iohn Maetzuiker, and the Council Charles Hert­zing, and Ryklof Van Geuns, went aboard the Naerden Frigat, Commanded by the Admiral Balthazar Bort; and the Vice-Admiral, Iohn Van Campen; and the Rear-Admiral, Constantine Nobel, and there impower'd every one in their seve­ral Offices and Places, by taking their Oaths; and delivering them their Com­missions and Orders the Fleet Weigh'd Anchor from Batavia, and on Satur­dayWeighs Anchor. Morning, Iune the 29. Anno 1662. firing their Guns, set Sail, and Steer'd North-East, bending their Course directly towards China.

About Noon, the Fleet being be-calm'd, cast Anchor on the North of theIsland of Hoorn. Island Van Hoorn, lying in sight of Batavia, near several other Isles, which bear the Names of divers Cities in Holland, as Amsterdam, Enkuizen, Medenbleck, and the like.

All these Isles, though desolate and uninhabited, are Planted along the Shores, and up into the In-land, with several sorts of excellent Trees, which make a pleasant Prospect off at Sea, and stand in such order, as they had been the Workmanship of Art, and not the meer Dress of Nature.

And likewise the Vallies, Plains and Hills upon them afford, divers sorts of Flowers, Herbs, and Drugs.

Under these Islands the Iapanners and Chineses that dwelt on Batavia, us'd to fish, and catch abundance of Breams, Shepherds, and other sorts of Fishes, un­known in Europe.

The Trees are loaden with all manner of Singing-Birds, whose Harmonies are so pleasing, that the Inhabitants of Batavia often go to this Island in Boats, to recreate themselves with their Musick, as we to our Wood sides, to hear the Thrush and Nightingale.

On the same day, the Council concluded to Sail first to the Islands Laver and Timon, lying in their way close by one another, that there they might supply themselves with fresh Water, all sorts of Provisions and Fuel, Anchor­stocks, Hand-spikes, and other Materials of Wood, which that place yields in abundance.

In the first Watch of the Night, the Wind coming gently out of the South, they Weigh'd Anchor, and Steer'd their Course, though but slowly, towards the North-East.

The twenty fifth, the Fleet Sail'd in the depth of thirty one or thirty two Fathom, Tacking up and down, having the Wind against them out of the North-East, yet blowing gently.

[Page 55]On Munday morning, being the twenty sixth, the Fleet came near Thou­sand-Islands, Thousand Islands. having the Wind Easterly, and fair Weather, in twenty two and twenty three Fathom Wather, and hard Ground; and were at Noon in five Degrees and eighteen Minutes South Latitude, the Ground still the same, but the depth only fourteen or fifteen Fathom.

The same day, the Admiral Balthazar Bort, and the Council of War made an Order, which the Commanders of every Ship in the Fleet in their Sailing were to observe as followeth.

During the Voyage, or till such time as it is order'd otherwise, the good Ship Ter Boede (being under Iohn Idze de Vinke) shall carry a Light on his Poop, and in the day time Sail before, because the Master of her is experienc'd in these Seas.

Therefore all the Captains of Ships are expresly Commanded, continually to observe his motion, that when he Anchors, Sails, or Tacks, they do the like, so the better to keep the Fleet together, and prevent separation.

None shall offer in the Nght to Sail by the same Vessel, much less alter his course on forfeiture of four Rix-Dollars for the Master, chief, or Under-Mates, in whose Watch soever this misdemeanor shall happen.

If the Pilot thinks it fit to Tack in the Night, either for the Winds shrink­ing, or otherwise, he shall put Candles into two Lanthorns on his Poop, and all the other Ships one, that thereby it may be known, whether they see the Sign or not.

In the Night, the altering of the Course shall be left to the discretion of him that carrys the Lanthorn.

When they have Sea-room enough, they shall not Tack, for the Winds shrinking of one or two Points, for the prevention of all dangers, and keeping together.

If he that carries the Light, thinks fit to Anchor in the Night, he shall set two Lights, one over another on his Stern, which sign being seen, the other Ships shall instantly come to an Anchor, and likewise set a Candle on their Sterns.

When it is thought fit to set Sail again, he shall fire a Gun, and make a sig­nal by another Light from the Poop; which the other Ships seeing, shall also put out a Light, and then Weigh Anchor.

If it should happen that any Ship or Ships should by accident either prove leaky, run a-ground, strike upon a Rock, Land, or ought else, he shall unfurle a Pennon from his Fore-Mast, and fire a Gun; whereupon, every one shall be oblig'd to come with his Boat and Pinnace, and assist the Vessel according to the utmost of their power, on forfeiture, as in the Council it shall be judg'd fit.

If an accident shall happen by fire, they shall discharge two or three Guns presently one after another, that with Buckets and Pails the rest may come and help the Ship in distress.

And that the Ships in dark or misty Weather may not straying loose each other, they shall sometimes speak to one another with their Guns, and as often reply. If the Lanthorn Ship judges it fitting to Tack, he shall fire a great Gun, which the rest hearing, shall answer him, and Tack to­gether.

If in a dark Night they are forc'd by stress of Weather, or an overgrown Sea to lie at Hull, or carry no Sail, the guide shall set forth two Light [...] of one [Page 56] height, and the other Ships one apiece, the better to keep together.

In a calm, with a rowling Sea, they shall take great care that the Ships do not fall foul one upon another, by endeavoring to keep as far distant as they can.

When it grows light, and they from Sea descry Land, Sounding for Ground, they shall unfurle the Princes Flag or Colours, and also fire a Gun; if in the Night they chance to discern Land, or Fathom Ground, he shall light two Can­dles by one another, and fire two Guns.

If any Ships stray from the Fleet, and afterwards appear in sight, they shall hoiss up their fore-Sail three times, and then let it down again; then fire a great Gun, and draw back the fore-Sail, till probably the rest have seen it, and also furle up his Sprit-Sail and Mizzen; after which signs he may come again to his company.

If this should happen in the Night, they shall call to one another, by the word, Holla, Ship, if it be one of our Fleet, he shall answer, Victoria, which if he does not do, it is a certain sign that it is a strange Ship, and either a Chi­nesy Jonk or Vessel; and if it be possible, give notice of it to the Admiral, Vice- or Rear-Admiral, who ever of them be nearest, however, to keep within shot; and if it be an Enemy, to give notice to the rest, by the firing of Guns.

He that descrys any strange Ships, or Jonks by day, shall let his Colours flie from his Stern, and Veare his fore-Shete, and soon after hale it up; if by night, he shall light two Candles together, without making chase after it, before he hath spoke, and receiv'd order from the Admiral, except it be a Portuguese, or Chinesy Vessel, which by that means might make his escape.

In this exigent, though the Enemy be never so powerful, let him fall on, and if he can possible make himself master thereof; afterwards to do accord­ing to the Orders given in Martial Affairs.

If any Frigats should be separated from the Fleet, either by Storm or other accidents, they shall according to an express Order from his Excellency the Lord General, and Lords of the Indian Council, come to the place of Meet­ing or Rendezvouz chosen by them, being Isla de Lemas, one of the most Eastern Islands of Makao, which lies in the way of our Voyage, and we may touch at without prejudice or loss of time; and also because his Excellency hath receiv'd information, that there is not onely a good Haven, but fresh Water; so that the separated Ships are strictly Commanded, not to pass by the foremention'd Island De Lemas, but put in to it, and there wait for the Fleets coming, that so they may proceed on together in their Voyage, and the more resolutely bid the Enemy defiance, if they should Rancounter.

After leaving the Island De Lemas, and coming on the Coast of China, they shall first put in for the Bay of Engeling, or rather that of Hoksiu (they being the safest and convenientest Harbors in the Southern Bay or Mouson) and with the whole Fleet (except those bound for Iapan, which will part from us be­fore) run into them, to inquire how the Affairs of War stand between the Tartar and Coxinga, and whether he be in China, or Formosa; therefore if in the way from Lemas to the Coast of China any Frigats should be separated from the Fleet, let them put in for the foremention'd Bays of Engeling, or Hoksiu, where they shall joyn with the Fleet again.

When the white Flag shall be set up at the Admirals Stern, and a Gun be fired from his Ship, then the General Council of War shall meet, consisting of these following Persons to consult with the Admiral, viz.

[Page 57] Henry Indiik of the Ship Loosduinen, Iohn Idze de Vink, or Van Campen▪ Vice-Ad­miral of the Fleet; but so long as Indiik is by the Fleet, the Finch shall carry the Flag as Rear-Admiral of Zierikzee.

The Merchant Constantine Nobel; who carries the Light before the Fleet, af­ter Indiik hath taken leave, shall bear the Flag of Domburgh.

Peter Iansz Veldmuis, Captain of the Naerden: Ysbrand Bowmester, Captain of the Domburgh: Barent Iochemsz, Captain of the Overveen: Harman Symonsz, Commander of the High-Land: Iohn Hendriksz, Master of the Sea-Dog: Dirk Gerritz, Commander of the Meliskerke: Iohn Ysbransz Van Bank, Captain of the Ankeven: Valk, Master of the Vink: Christopher Edwartsz, Secretary.

If the Admiral lets flie his Red Flag from his Poop, then all the remaining Commanders of the Fleet, as Brukelen, Loenen, and Ter-Bode, shall also come a­board with the foremention'd persons; and likewise their chief Officers of War, as the Ensigns and Serjeants: But if the Admiral will have his Privy Council to come aboard, he shall put out his white Flag with a Bend from the Poop.

The Privy Council shall consist in the following Persons: Henry Indiik, Iohn Idze de Vink, Constantine Nobel, Peter Iansz, Veldmuis Commander of the Naerden, Ysbrand Bowmester Captain of the Domburgh.

If the Admiral is desirous to speak with the Captain of the Loosduine, he shall let a Pennon flow from his Mizzen-Yard; if with the Zirikzee, a Pennon from the Fore-Yard; if with Domburgh, a Jack from the Sprissel-Yard.

If any one be found to neglect these Orders, he shall be put in mind of it by the Secretary, and after examination of the cause, receive all due punishment.

All these were made, and agreed on in the Naerden Frigat, Sailing about the Thousand Islands, the 26. of Iune, 1662.

Balthazar Bort, Iohn Idze de Vink.

On Thursday morning, being the twenty seventh, the Fleet having the same Weather, found themselves to be in four Degrees and eighteen Mi­nutes South-Latitude; and in the afternoon, beyond the Point of Boomy's Riff, Boomyes Riff. in nine and ten Fathom Gravelly Ground; in the Night, on fourteen and fif­teen Fathom, the same Ground, they spy'd the Banks of the foresaid Riff at a pretty distance.

On Wednesday Morning the twenty eighth, the Fleet (being in thirteen and fourteen Fathom Water, the Wind Easterly) saw the Island Lucipar, or Lu­kapar, Island Lukapar▪ lying to the South-West, about a League and a half from them. This Island lies near Sumatra, in the Mouth of the Straights of Banka, and is fourteen Leagues in Circumference. It is uninhabited, yet Wooddy, and yields a plea­sant Prospect with its high Trees towards the Sea; it is interlac'd with many murmuring Streams, which abounding in Fish, and the Woods with Beasts, makes it a fit place for the Sea-men to refresh in.

In the afternoon, being in three Degrees, and seven Minutes, Lukapar lay three Leagues South South-East from the Fleet; and having got the first Point of Sumatra on their Starboard, their Course being North-East and by East, they Sail'd along the Coast of Sumatra in ten and thirteen Fathom Water.

The twenty ninth about Noon, the Fleet Sail'd by Poele Nancha, lying in the Straights of Banka, thirty Leagues to the In-land, in two Degrees and twenty five Minutes Southern-Latitude, and were got within a small League from the third Point of Sumatra.

[Page 58] Poele Nancha, that is, The Isle Nancha, (for Poele is Island, and Nancha the pro­per name of the place) and signifies Round Island, so call'd, being indeed al­most Circular, and hath eight Leagues in Circumference, very barren, being onely Sandy Ground, having on the Shore nothing but a few Turtles.

In the Evening, about Sun-set, they came up with the high Promontary Monapien, on the North of the Island Banka; and the Fore-Land of Sumatra ly­ing West South-West, about a League from them.

Banka, an Island about a League from Sumatra, is inhabited, fruitful, andIsland Banka. full of Woods.

The thirteenth, being Friday, the Fleet was at Noon gotten into one De­gree and twenty two Minutes South-Latitude; and had Poele Toutyon, that is,Poele Toutyon. seven Islands, East and by North, four Leagues from them in sixteen and seven­teen Fathom Water. These Isles, though they lie close by one another, yet are uninhabited.

Close by Poele Toutyon, towards the East, lies the Isle of Linge, Inhabited onIsland Linge. the Shore by Fishers and Rusticks; but in the Countrey by a People who came thither from the Mountain Passarvan, which is in Iova; for these People opprest by the King of Passarvan, with great Tributes and other Inconvenien­cies, fled for their better accommodation to several places; most of them being Licens'd by the King of Bantam to have setled behind the City, on the Coast of Sunda, at the foot of the Mountain Gomon Bezar, where they have built the Ci­ty Sura, and several Villages, Electing a King of their own, which pays Tri­bute to the King of Bantam. Others have setled themselves on this Isle, and built Towns and Villages, which they enjoy'd in Peace a long time, but sub­mitted themselves at last, either out of kindness, or force, to the King of Sura.

These People live peaceably and friendly, maintaining themselves with Husbandry or Tillage; and observe the old Pythagorean Doctrine, concerning the Transmigration of the Soul; therefore they neither kill nor eat any animated Creature.

They go clothed in white Paper made of Trees, of which they tie only one piece about their Head, and another about their Middle, for decency.

This Isle hath all manner of good Provisions, though not in very great plenty; but abundance of Birds, which are from thence Transported to China for a great Dainty.

The first of Iuly, about Noon, the Fleet finding it self in twenty five Minutes South-Latitude, spy'd the East Point of the Isle of Linge, North-West from them; and Poele Zay, South-West and by West, in eighteen and nineteen Fa­thom grey Sandy Ground, mixt with little Shells; their Course North and by East; the Wind at South-East and by South.

Poele Zay are several small Rocky Isles, and uninhabited, lying in a TrainPoele Zay. one by another.

The second, being Sunday, the Fleet Sail'd about Noon in fifty three Minutes Northern Latitude.

In the afternoon the Pink Loosduynen being seven Leagues to the Eastward of the Island Poele Panjang, ran on unknown Rocks, not specifi'd in the Maps, to which the Vice-Admiral Iohn Van Campen Rowing with his Boat, and some Tackle, giving speedy assistance, helpt the Pink off from the Rocks without any Damage.

Poele Panjang, signifies, Long Island, so call'd from its narrowness andPoele Panjang. great length, it is uninhabited, but full of Woods, where a Bird by the In­dians [Page 59]


call'd Emy, or Emeu, breeds. He hath a long Neck, which when he stretch­eth out, makes him at least four Foot high; before at his Throat hang two Lappets, like slips of Parchment, two Inches long, and red. His Neck, as Clusius relates, is about thirteen Inches long, and his Body two Foot broad, and three Foot long from Breast to Stern; his Legs seventeen Inches long: The Feathers with which his whole Body was cover'd, were all double, being grown out of one little and short Quill, and lying one upon another, were thick at the ends, and thin and small at the Root, and of several lengths. These Feathers resembled rather a Bears Fur than Plumes: His Wings consist­ed chiefly of four long black Quills; but the upper part thereof had the same kind of Feathers that grew on the Breast; for it is to be suppos'd that with these Wings he helps himself in running, not being able either to fly, or lift himself from the Ground. The Head holds no proportion to the Body, be­ing little, and almost bald: The Eyes, a little above the opening of the Bill, were very big and sparkling: Upon the top of his Head grew a Crest or Comb, hard as Horn: The upper part of his Bill five Inches long; the fore­part of the Neck, about four Inches below the Bill, had two fleshy Gills, two Inches long, of ruddy colour; the hindermost part of the Neck also bald, and from the Head to the Back reddish, and the lower part cover'd with a few red Feathers, mix'd with some black. And although this Bird seems to resemble the Ostrich, taking all things that are thrown before him, yet he hath not cloven Feet, but three very strong Claws, with which side-ways he seizes his Prey. But though he swallow'd what-ever was cast to him, as whole Oranges, and the like; yet his usual Food was Wheaten or Rye-Bread, which broken in great pieces, he gobbles up; and mad after new-laid Eggs, which went down Shells and all; but if they were hard, or lay heavy upon his Sto­mach, he muted them, and then taking them the second time, digesting, put them well over. These Birds, they say, breed not onely on the Molucco Islands, but also on Sumatra, Taprobane, and in the neighboring Countreys.

[Page 60]On Munday, being the third, the Fleet proceeded on her Course North-North-East, full before the Wind, and reach'd about Noon in two Degrees and three Minutes Northern Latitude, and in sight of the Island Poele Tingi▪ which lay North-West from them. In the first Watch the Zierikzee and Ter-Boede Frigats came to an Anchor on the West side of Aura, in thirteen Fathom Water, and put each of them a Light in their Lanthorns, for a Sign to those Ships that were behind.

The fourth, being Tuesday, the Admiral with the Naerden Frigat, accompa­nied with the Overveen, Sea-dog, Singing-bird, High-land, and Vink, came to an An­chor in the same place; for the Domburg, and six more, took their Course to the Isle of Timon, according to Order when they set sail: Their Boats going ashore to fetch fresh Water and Wood, brought also many Baskets of Fish and Fruits, besides some Hens and Goats, which they either bought for Money, or barter'd for.

Next Morning, being the fifth, the Singing-bird, Sea-dog, and the Gold­finch weigh'd their Anchors, and sail'd to Poele Pisang for fresh Provisions and Wood. This Island is Populous, and full of Villages. All the In­habitants observe strictly their Fishing and Tillage, being bred to such Drud­gery from their Childhood. Here, as also on the Coast of the Kingdom of Sampan, and on the Island Lingen, a kind of Birds-nests are plentifully foundStrange Birds-nests. which at Feasts and Entertainments are look'd upon as a great Regalia; nay, the Inhabitants on their New-years Feast, which they keep with great Solemnity, commonly present one another with these Dainties, as an infallible sign of unfeigned Friendship. They are also transported, as a great Delicate, to Chi­na, and every Pound thereof sold for half a That is, about two Spanish Duckets. Tahers, they being a great Cordial, much relieving both the Stomach and Brain.

A Bird like a Swallow, about the time of the year when they chuse Mates, and fall to coupling, yields a kind of glutinous or slimy matter, which lying on the Rocks, is the first Material of these Nests, and by a daily additional Moisture, or Morning-dew, gather'd on their Wings, and sprinkled on it, at last becomes both large and perfect, which when dry, resembles the Bowl of a Spoon, with high Edges, and are found here in such abundance, that they gather some Hundred weights of them yearly.

When their Coupling time is past, and the Nests finish'd, which happens all at one time, they lay their Eggs, and Brood upon them; which Father Kir­cher thus describes.

Between Cochinchina and the Island Hainan, lie in a long Ridge a Series both of great and lesser Rocks, to which in March flock abundance of strange Birds like Swallows, there building their Nests, but of what, or how, not known; and having bred up their Young fit for flight, they quit their Birth-place, and leave their empty Nests, which Ships coming thither from China and other places, transport from thence, and sell at home at great Rates, because they are esteem'd as the onely Condiment either to Fish or Flesh, which be­ing handsomly season'd with it, gives a delightful Hogooe.

Philip Martyn, in his Relation of the Kingdom of Tunking, saith, That in that Province are many strange Birds and Fowls, especially some little ones, that fly like a Swallow, making their Nests on the Rocks, which are ga­ther'd, and sold at no ordinary price, because they believe that they owe their Health to the use of them mix'd in their Dishes, and that it is a certain Cure for the loss of Appetite.

[Page 61]They are of a bright colour, and hard, like Sea-horn; and they esteem the greatest Feast no Entertainment without this Dainty, which they prepare af­ter this manner: First they lay it a whole Night in warm Water, till it grows soft and mellow; then again dried in the Sun, mince it very small.

It hath of it self almost no taste; but, like Mushrooms prepar'd in Sal­lads, provokes an Appetite; and as other Food asswages Hunger, and sa­tisfies the Stomach, this, on the contrary, makes the Appetite greater, and still desirous of more.

There is also much Ager-Wood, and Cotton.

On Thursday the sixth, Admiral Bort firing a Gun from the Naerden-Frigat, signified his intention to set Sail; but no sooner had he weigh'd his Anchor, but the Ship was strongly driven by the Current towards the Shore, so that he was forc'd to let it fall again, and firing several Guns, the Vice-Admiral Van Campen coming thither with his Pinnace, Long-boat, and Tackling, found the Naerden Frigat to ride about three Cables length from the Rocks, on good Ground, able enough to hold out a great Storm: But carrying out a small An­chor, and weighing the other, at last got under Sail, and was follow'd by the rest of the Ships.

The seventh, being Friday, the Zierikzee, Highland, and Ter-Boede Frigats came about the East side of the Isle of Timon (for the Naerden and the other Ships lay at the North-East Point) to an Anchor in thirteen Fathom, where they took in Water, Firing, and fresh Provisions, as Hens, Goats, Fish, Potatoes, and the like.

The eighth, being Saturday, the Zierikzees Men going into the Woods, cut Anchor-stocks, Oars, Hand-spikes, and Leavers; and fishing in their Sloop, took some Shepherds and Breams.

About Noon hapned a great Thunder-shower.

The ninth day, being Sunday, the Zierikzee, Highland, and Ter-Boede, weigh­ing their Anchors, ran to the North-East Point of Timon, to the Naerden, and the other Ships.

Admiral Bort putting out his white Flag to call a Council, they judg'd it convenient to steer further out from the Shore, and also seal'd their Orders.

The Admiral here complaining that he had many young and unexperienc'd People in his Ship, Order was immediately given, That two of the stoutest Sea-men should be taken out of each of the other Ships, except the Gold-finch, and put aboard of him.

In the afternoon the Fleet set sail, and took their Course North-North-East, and saw the Isle of Timon about Sun-set, bearing South and by West, and South-South-West, about five or six Leagues distant.

The tenth in the afternoon, under three Degrees and eight Minutes, the Fleet had thirty eight Fathom Water, sandy Ground.

But by the eleventh at Noon they had reach'd five Degrees and four Mi­nutes Northern Latitude, and in forty and forty one Fathom Water, gravelly Ground.

The next day at Noon they were in five Degrees and fifty six Minutes, and had thirty nine Fathom Water.

The thirteenth, the Fleet being in seven Degrees and six Minutes, had twenty nine, thirty, and thirty one Fathom Water: But the Naerden sailing with his Squadron about the East, had almost lost sight of the Zierikzee.

The fourteenth about Noon the Fleet was in eight Degrees and sixteen Mi­nutes, [Page 62] and had twenty two and twenty three Fathom Water, fine sandy Ground, mix'd with white Gravel. At Night, about the latter end of the first Watch, appear'd the two Isles lying to the West of the Island Poele or Candor, a League from the Fleet, which had eighteen Fathom Water. This Poele or Candor lies in the Bay of Siam, near the Coast of Vancinaer Cambodia, uninhabited, and about three or four Leagues in Circumference, surrounded with high Rocks and Mountains, crown'd with shady Trees, and abounding with good Provi­sion, to the great refreshment of those Ships that put in there.

The fifteenth in the Morning the Fleet came up with the North-East Point of Candor, which bore South-East and by East about three or four Leagues di­stance from them, in the depth of seventeen and eighteen Fathom Water, white Sand, mix'd with small Pebbles.

The sixteenth in the Morning they sail'd in fifteen and sixteen Fathom Wa­ter, the Table-Mount being North-East, about three Leagues from the Shore. About Noon they found themselves by observation in ten Degrees and thirty one Minutes Northern Latitude, and had fifteen Fathom Water, about three Leagues from the Coast of Champa.

Champa, so call'd according to Texeira, from the Portuguese Pronunciation, Champa; by Martinius, Changpa; and by others, Ciampa, is a Kingdom, which hath the Principality of Camboya on the West, and, according to Father Lerin, that of Laos, from which it is separated by the vast Desarts and Mountains of Samao; the East respects Cochinchina and Tunking, and reaches with its Coasts to the main Continent of China, before you come to the Shore against the Island of Makou.

The chief City, which lies up in the Countrey, hath its denomination from the Kingdom: The other Towns are Varella, Penaria, and Tauchonarella. This Countrey abounds in all sorts of Provisions, and the Hills with Elephants, which are transported from thence to several Places. There is also store of the best Calamback-Wood, by some call'd Calampart, by Linschot, Calambu, and Ca­lambes, Lignum Aloes. or Lignum-Aloes; by the Arabians, Agalugen, and Haut; and by the Inha­bitants of Zaratte and Dekan, Ud, which hath a most sweet and odorife­rous smell, said to proceed from its rotting under Ground; for the sound Wood hath no smell at all. The Tree (saith Garzias) resembles that of an Olive, but somewhat bigger; and the firm and sound Wood hath no kind of smell; but with the putrifying of the Bark and Wood, the fat and Oily Moisture may also communicate of its Sweetness to that likewise. This Wood they prize so highly, that they equally value it with Gold; yet much us'd by the Chineses in their Offerings to their Gods. The Countrey, though badly stor'd with Gold and Silver, yet is en­rich'd with excellent Drugs, costly Woods (as the Sampan and Ebon-Wood) Rice, Lint, and Cotton: There is also plenty of a Fruit call'd Oaby, which is very great, weighing ten or twelve Pounds apiece, and by the Chineses us'd for Bread, and sometimes mingled with Meat like the Bottoms of Artichokes: They also have a very large Fruit, by the Inhabitants and other Indians call'd Nankussen, and by some, according to Garzias and Acosta, Iaka.

The Countrey is Govern'd by a King, that Rules, neither acknowledging Subjection to the Emperor of China, the Cham of Tartary, or any other Supe­rior. The Vice-Admiral Van Campen spoke with the King himself, who sate in a great Court, in a very large Hall, hung with rich Tapestry; but was not permitted to enter the Presence, till he pull'd off his Shoes and Stockings, be­cause none may appear before the King unless bare-footed, such was their Custom of due Reverence.

[Page 63]The Grandees or Persons of Quality there, are mounted on Steeds, with Bells in their Ears, like our Cart-Horses.

The seventeenth, in the Night, the Fleet doubled the South Point of theBay of Pangerang. Bay of Pangerang, which bore West and by South about three Leagues from them. In the bottom of this Bay, being a most convenient Harbor for Ships, stands a great City, whose Jurisdiction extends a vast way into the Countrey, and Govern'd by a peculiar King. The Vice-Admiral going ashore, spake with him with his Shoes and Stockins on, and was presented by the King with soms Fans and Stuffs. The Countrey thereabouts abounds with Calamback-Wood.Lignum Aloes.

The Fleet steering North and by East, found her self about Noon to be in eleven Degrees and thirty five Minutes, about three Leagues from the Champan Shore. In the Morning they plied about the five Islands, close by the foremen­tion'd Coast, the Southermost part of which appears like a round Hay-stack.

The eighteenth, at Noon, by Observation they found themselves in twelve Degrees and thirteen Minutes, two Leagues from the Shore, in seventy Fathom Water.

On Wednesday about Sun-rising the Fleet made St. Iohn de Fyks, on the Coast of Champan, North-East and by North, about three Leagues from them, and at Noon were in thirteen Degrees and five Minutes Northern Latitude; and Coasted about Sun-set Cabo Avarelles, which lay Northerly from them, steering North and by East.

Cabo Avarelles being a very high Mountain, appears a great distance off like a Man on Horse-back, and serves for a Beacon.

The twentieth they found themselves in thirteen Degrees and forty nine Mi­nutes, and saw the Point of Poele Candor, North and by East, a good distance from them.

The one and twentieth, in the Day-watch, the Vice-Admiral Van Campen (for the Admiral Bort going that Night with seven Ships about the East, was by break of day gotten quite out of sight) with the Ships belonging to his Squa­dron, came opposite to the Northermost of the Box-Islands, and spied four Sail,Box-Islands. bearing North-East and by East, near the Coast of Champan, or Quinan; whe­ther he, and those that belong'd to the Ter-Boede, row'd with their Sloops well Mann'd and Arm'd; but three of them escaping, they took only one, which they carried aboard the Vice-Admiral, and found him to be laden with Rice, Honey and strong Arak, Mann'd with seven Men, and having also five proper Women aboard, that coming from Poeyan, intended to sail from Taywan, Poeyan. not far from thence. They judg'd it convenient to let them pass with their Vessel; but the Women would rather have staid with the Netherlanders, if they might have had their desires; yet at their departure, they were presented with three Pieces of course white Linnen, which they receiv'd with great thank­fulness.

The City Poeyan, lying on the Coast of Quinan, at the foot of a Mountain, between two Rivers, is surrounded with high thick Walls of Stone, fit to plant Guns upon. Their Fortresses are not fortified with Towers, but here and there with some Galleries eighteen Foot high, to which they ascend by a Ladder, and from thence assail their Enemies.

The City hath three straight and long Streets, which all concenter before the Royal Palace, from whence one leads to the Sea, the second to one of the City-Gates, and the third to the Mountain-Gate. None of the Streets are [Page 64] pav'd, except those three; for the other By-Lanes and Alleys are Sandy. And notwithstanding the whole may be Navigated by Channels that run through every Street, which receive their Waters from the foremention'd Rivers, yet are they very foul, because when the Water falls, it goes off so slowly.

Near the Court, on the West side of the City, stands a spacious Temple; on the East-side, the Arsenal; and on the South side, the Kings Palace, artifi­cially built, with spacious Courts and Walks within. At the end of the Street that leads into the Countrey, stand the Mayor or Chief Magistrates House, wherein all the Kings Servants or Slaves reside, and where are also his Stables, and other Offices.

The City stands divided into four parts, over every one of which a No­ble-man hath the chief Command in time of War, Fire, or other Accidents. In each of these is also a Drum, as big as a Rhenish-Wine Fat, whereon they beat with a Hammer, which always hangs near it, when any Uproar happens.

The Merchandise to be had there, are all sorts of Wrought and un-wrought Silks, flower'd and plain, of divers Colours; as Peelings, Hokiens, and the like: They trade also in white Linnen.

At Noon the Vice-Admiral Van Campen found himself in fourteen Degrees and forty Minutes Northern Latitude, and in the Morning came up with Ad­miral Van Bort, with seven Ships and a Jonk.

The twenty second, about Sun-rising, the Fleet spied Poele Canton, North-WestPoele Canton. and by North, about five Leagues from them, and were in the Latitude of fifteen Degrees and thirty one Minutes, their Course North-East.

The twenty third the Fleet was in sixteen Degrees and fourteen Minutes North Latitude.

The twenty fourth, being Munday, they discover'd the Island Hainan, at aIsland Hainan. good distance from them; and taking observation at Noon, were in eighteen Degrees and fifteen Minutes, about four or five Leagues South-East from Hainan.

The twenty fifth about Noon they reach'd nineteen Degrees and fifty one Minutes.

The twenty sixth they had twenty one Degrees and seven Minutes North Latitude, and were within four or five Leagues, bearing South-South-West, from the Southermost Island of Macao, or Macau, in twenty six and twenty se­ven Fathom Water.

The twenty seventh the Zierikzee and Ter-Boede cast Anchor in the Evening near the Island of Macau, by the Box-Heads, being separated from the rest of the Fleet by Misty Weather, that being the appointed Rendezvouz, where they were to meet, if by any Accident they should lose one another.

The next day in the Forenoon Indiik, accompanied with the Loosduinen, Sing­ing-bird, and three Frigats, Domburgh, High-land, and Meliskerke, came to an An­chor in the same place, under the Coast of Macau, in thirteen Fathom Water, gravelly Ground, which made up their Number eight.

The Islands of Macau receive their Denomination from the City of the same name, scituate on a small hanging Islet, joyn'd to one that is somewhat bigger; a Ship may without danger in Stormy Weather Sail betwixt, and there lie Land-lock'd, riding in an always smooth Sea, where they never want store of Fresh-water from the living Spring.

The twenty ninth, being Saturday, Indiik by putting out a white Flag, gave the Signal to the Commanders of the other Ships to come aboard to Coun­cil, [Page 65] where it was judg'd convenient, because Indiik suppos'd that the staying with the Ships bound for Iapan would be chargeable, to weigh Anchor in the Morning, put again to Sea, and sail through the Isles of Macau, ordering every Ship now and then to fire a Gun, in hopes thereby to meet again with the other five. Their Course being Nor-East by East, and Nor-Nor-East, in six­teen, seventeen, and eighteen Fathom, gravelly Ground, about nine of the Clock they bore up with one of the greatest of the Macau Islands, in Portu­guese call'd Ilhas de Lemas, where they saw five Champans or Jonks lying neer the Shore, which had a few Houses. Here also eight of the Fleet dropp'd An­chor; for Indiik with two laden Flyboats steer'd for Iapan.

The Boats went ashore well Mann'd, where they found five great Champans with their Fishing-Nets, and above five thousand dried and salted Shepherd-Fish, with two hundred Pots of the Rows of the same Fish pickled.

The Chineses taking their flight into the Woods, so left all their Goods to the disposal of the Hollanders; onely three were overtaken by the Sea-men, and carried aboard the Vice-Admiral, who asking them from whence they came, they told him, From Xantung, and also inform'd him of Coxinga's Death, who were glad of the News, and paid the poor Men for their Fish.

In the Afternoon they joyn'd with the Admiral Bort, and the other lost and separated Vessels, which lay at Anchor full three Leagues to Lee-ward of the most Easterly Macaan Isles, where they were not able to row ashore with their Boats, because of the swiftness of the Current.

The Admiral making the usual Signal, the rest of the Captains came aboard, where he ruffling a little, and chiding them for not keeping their Rendezvouz according to Order, he set upon each of them the Penalty to bring him aboard eight Hogsheads of Water.

The one and thirtieth in the Morning the Fleet setting sail, was at Noon in twenty two Degrees and twelve Minutes, a League and a half North-East and by East from Pedro Branke.

About Noon spying five Sail in the North-East, the Vice-Admiral Van Cam­pen made Chase after them, and coming up with one in the Evening, took it, with three Chineses from Tamsua, and some fresh and salt Fish.

On Tuesday, the first of August, the Vice-Admiral went aboard the Naerden Frigat, to know what he should do with the three Chineses and their Vessel: Bort replied, That he should let them go.

At Noon the Fleet was in twenty two Degrees and thirty six Minutes, in twenty and twenty one Fathom Water, fine Sandy Ground, mix'd with Shells; and the next day at Noon, in twenty three Degrees and thirty eight Minutes, bearing about three Leagues West-South-West from the Island Tang Goie, inTang Goie. twenty two and twenty three Fathom Water, Sandy Ground, mix'd with small Shells, their Course North-East and by East.

In the Afternoon they spied several Fisher-Boats in the North-East, which the Admiral and Vice-Admiral order'd to be chased: The Loenen Pink overta­king one of them, found onely one Man in her, the rest escaping by swimming.

The third, the Fleet came up with the Point of Puthay, lying on the mainCape Puthay. Coast of China, Northward from them, their Course North-East and by North along the Shore. This Point of Land appears in Prospect Mountainous, yet full of Valleys and Plains, planted with Trees of a wondrous height, whose Wood is as black as Pitch, and as hard and smooth as polish'd Marble or Ivory; some resembling Ebony; some a reddish Colour, and others yellowlike Wax.

[Page 66]The Admiral putting out the Signal, commanded all the Officers to come aboard, and caus'd the Chinese Prisoners to be ask'd in their presence, From whence they came? If they had no knowledge of the Tartars Army? And where Coxinga's Fleet lay? Whereupon they replied, That Coxinga was dead, that the Tartars had a great Army near Chinkzieu and Zwansifoe; and that they were fitting out abundance of great and small Jonks in all the Havens, to War against Coxinga.

In the Night the Fleet sail'd by the Island Quemuy, to the great dislike of the Admiral Bort, and contrary to the General and Indian Councils Order, which notwithstanding none of the Commanders knew, onely that the Vice-Admiral Campen had direction, That if the Ships should be separated from one another in the Southern Mouzon, they should stay at the North Point of the Island Que­muy; and in the Northern Mouzon, at the Promontory of Puthay, lying about two Leagues North-East from Quemuy; or else, in and before the River Hok­sieu. On this Island Quemuy appear two Towers; the one with a Spiry Point; the other, being that of the City Engely, flat and broad.

The City Engely, which stood on the Island Quemuy, was pull'd down, to prevent that Coxinga might not possess or harbor there; and at present there appears onely some few Ruines of it, not far from the Sea-side.

In the Afternoon the Fleet rais'd twenty four Degrees and forty six Minutes, about two Leagues and a half from the Coast of China, where in the South-South-East they spied three Jonks, which the Admiral and all his Fleet chas'd, but they escap'd by their nimble Sailing. About Sun-set they were three Leagues distant from an Isle lying at the South Point of the Storm-bay, where­on stands a Tower built like a Pyramide.

This Storm-bay makes a convenient Harbor for safety in bad Weather, or toStorm-Bay. take in Provisions. On the Shore are divers Towers, with several Entrances, adorn'd with Images of their Gods, and before whose chief Gate by turns one of their Priests keeps continual Watch.

On Fryday, being the fourth, about Noon, the Vice-Admiral Van Campen de­scried the Cape of the Cavalles, in twenty five Degrees and thirty seven Minutes,Cape of Cavalles. about two or three Leagues East and by North from the Rough Isle, in the depth of thirty four and thirty five Fathom Water, their Course North-North-East.

This Point of Cavalles is a great Promontory, full of many handsom Towns and Villages, and exceeding fertile; for besides the great conveni­ences of Rivers, all sorts of Provisions may be purchased there at a cheap rate, as Sheep, Swine, Poultrey, and the like; there are also Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, and several other Fruits of that kind, especially one shap'd like a Pear, with a thin Shell, resembling the outward Husk of a Chesnut, white within, and of a delicious taste; they preserve it in Sugar and Oyl, because if boyl'd, it loseth the relish: The Horses of this place are generally very small.

Near this Point lye certain desolate and barren Isles, which by the Nether­landers are generally call'd the Cavalles.

The fifth the Vice-Admiral was by a Storm and hollow Sea separated from the other Ships, when he saw three Isles not appearing in the Maps, about three Leagues South-West and by South from him, in the depth of thirty one and thirty two, and sometimes twenty seven, twenty five, and twenty four Fa­thom Water, muddy Ground. About Noon they found thirteen several Isles in the Latitude of twenty seven Degrees, all which the Vice-Admiral sup­pos'd to be the Isles of the Old Sayer.

[Page 67]Thither the Vice-Admiral sail'd, to wait for the Admiral and the other eight Ships, where he was so ruffled by a sudden Storm, that his Main-Mast had like to come over-board, his Sails and Rigging much torn; yet at last he came to an Anchor, with his four Ships, in twenty seven Degrees and nine Minutes Northern Elevation.

The sixth the Vice-Admiral Van Campen commanded the Officers of the Ships that were with him to come aboard, to know of them if they were inclin'd (not to spend any time in vain) to seek for the Admiral, with the other eight Ships, by sailing Southerly or Northerly, because his Orders on the third of the same Month were to meet in the Latitude of twenty seven Degrees and thirty Minutes before the City Hoksieu (if possible,) if they should happen by Storm to be separated one from another, and there to inquire after the state of the Tartars.

Van Campen judg'd it convenient to sail but fourteen or fifteen Leagues to­wards the South, along the Coast of China, and if he miss'd of him there, to take his Course back again towards the North, or to stay there till they came to him, and then go together to find out their Admiral, which was agreed on.

The eighth Van Campen weigh'd Anchor with his Squadron, sailing a pretty way to the Offin, and then stood in towards the Coast of China, there to dis­cover some Haven or River, but saw a little to the Northward of a Cape on the Coast of China, six or seven Isles, which passing by, and plying several times from and towards the Shore, they came again to an Anchor behind the Isle where they had lain before.

The ninth the Vice-Admirals Pilot went ashore, to seek For Water, which he found running out of the Rocks, between the Hills: About Noon they weigh'd Anchor, and sail'd to a high Isle, unknown to them, and not found in the Map. In the Evening they spied ten or eleven Sail of Fishermen, to reach whom Van Campen sent his Pilot with a Sloop well Mann'd, and one who spoke some broken Chinese; but they onely overtook one of them, which they brought aboard, where they question'd them, From whence they came, and whereabouts Hoksieu was? They answer'd, From Kita, and that Hoksieu was about six or seven Leagues Southerly from them: And selling their taken Fish to the Netherlanders for three Spanish Rials, promis'd the next Morning to bring them Hens, Swine, and Chinese Apples aboard.

With Sun-set they came between the Main Coast of China, and four unknown Isles, and dropp'd their Anchors in thirteen Fathom Water, about Cannon­shot from the Shore. On the greatest stood a Light-house, with Burning Candles in it.

The tenth, being Thursday, the Vice-Admiral set Sail in the Morning to­wards the South-South-West, between the main Coast of China and the Islands, a Cannon-shot from the shore. On the Main Continent appear'd a House in a Bay. About Noon they were come back into twenty six Degrees and twen­ty seven Minutes, and in the Evening by calm, yet contrary Tides, enter'd the Bay of Kita, half a League Southward from an unknown Island.

The eleventh in the Morning Van Campen setting sail again, spied two Jonks lying before Tenhay, to which he sent Iacob Black, with a Boat and Skiff, Mann'd with armed Sea-men and Soldiers, to fight them; but the Jonks by swiftness of their Sails got clear off; yet in the Pursuit they saw in the North-West, near the Coast of China, three or four unknown Isles, and seven Ships at an Anchor near the Shore, which were the lost Ships, with the Admiral, that they were in quest of.

[Page 68]About Noon the Vice-Admiral was commanded aboard of the Admiral Bort, by Captain Auke Pieterson, Master of the Ter-Boede Frigat, and inform'd by him, That he had taken nineteen Jonks, great and small, near Tenhay, six or seven of which they had fetch'd from the Shore, and burn'd the rest, except one, which was blown up by its own Powder.

The Booty of the taken Jonks consisted in forty one square Packs, nineteen Fardels, and five Bales of fine white Silk, a hundred and thirteen Pieces of Spiljauter, sixty seven Pigs of Lead great and small, two hundred sixty eight Bags of Pepper, besides sixty nine Guns and Blunderbusses.

The twelfth, being Saturday, the Fleet setting Sail, steer'd their Course to the River of Hoksieu, to perform the Orders of the General and Council of India; but was forc'd by calm Weather, and contrary Tides, to come to an Anchor again in seven Fathom Water, a little to the Westward of the Bay, not far from the Land, border'd with a white sandy Shore.

In the hanging of the Mountain appear'd a great and well-built City, call'd Sotiha, whereof the Walls of one side were wash'd by the Sea.

Near the Shore, and against the Gates, lay some small Jonks, and many other Vessels, that were hall'd up above the Water-mark; whither the Admi­ral Bort, and Vice-Admiral Van Campen, in the afternoon sent ninety seven Sea­men, and one hundred and fifty Soldiers in five Boats and seven Sloops, with Command to set them all on fire (for they belong'd to Coxinga,) but to spare all Houses.

The Hollanders coming near the Shore, were roughly entertain'd by the Chineses, with great Guns and Musquets; but being once Landed they met with little resistance, for the Chineses fled unto the Mountains: whereupon Van Campen entring the City with his Men, set a Watch in a great House nearSotiha taken. the Gate, and sent the rest of his People in three Parties through the City.

This City Sotiha had been ruin'd and burnt by the Tartars about a year be­fore, but since that rebuilt with many handsom Houses, wherein they found good quantities of Rice, Salt, and dri'd Fish. Three Chineses were also taken, with four Women, but set at liberty again immediately. A young Woman was found Murder'd, but how none knew.

This Place is now inhabited chiefly by Chineses, short-hair'd like the Tartars, that maintain themselves with Fishing and Husbandry, being Licenced there­to by the Governor of Hoksieu.

After the firing of twenty seven small and great Vessels Laden with Pepper, Silk, and other Commodities to be Transported to Iapan, Van Campen with his People in the Evening leaving the Shore went aboard, where he related his Adventures to the Admiral. Hence the Fleet Sail'd somewhat Southerly, and Anchor'd before the City Tenhay in nine Fathom Water.

This Tenhay hath no Walls, and inhabited onely by Fisher-men, and some Merchants.

The thirteenth being Sunday, the Fleet between Tenhay and the River Hoksieu came to Anchor in eight Fathom Water, where in the Bay of Linkun they espi'd some small Fisher-men with their Nets.

This Bay of Linkun lies also between the River Hoksieu and Tenhay, where some Priests coming to the Netherlanders, requested of them a Pass, that they might go free if any of their Ships should meet with them at Sea, promising to do the same to them, if the Hollanders had occasion to travel by Land or Water.

[Page 69]The Vice-Admiral Van Campen sent to the Admiral Bort, to know if the six Jonks should stay near Tenhay, or go into the River Hoksieu, that if a Storm should happen they might not be driven from their Anchors, with which they were but meanly provided, and had scarce Provision for six or seven Days. In the Night they saw many Fires upon the Mountains.

The fourteenth being Monday, in the Morning the Fleet Anchor'd near the Banks of Hoksieu, about a League from the Shore, and to make their coming known to the Tartars, Bort commanded seven Guns to be fir'd from the Naerden Frigat, five from the Zierikzee, three from the Domburgh, and one from all the rest of the other Ships.

Here it was concluded, that Captain Abraham Pon, Commander of the Breukelen, with six Men, one Quarter-master, and the Interpreter Lakka, with three Tartars that came to the Hollanders at Tayowan the year before, should car­ry a Letter to the Governors and Vice-Roy.

On Tuesday the fifteenth the Vice-Admiral Van Campen, according as order'd the day before, Sail'd with two Frigats, three Pinks, besides the six foremention'd Jonks, towards Hoksieu or Chancheu, commonly call'd The River Chang, Steering his Course West and by South between two Sands near the White Rocks, which appear like Pyramids, and close by the North-east Foreland: and bringing the Pyramids on his Starboard, he alter'd his Course towards the South-west, through a narrow Channel six, seven, or eight Fathom deep gravelly Ground. Thence he Steer'd his Course East North-east, and Anchor'd in eight Fathom Water between two pleasant Isles, and left on his Starboard two other within Cannon-shot, which serv'd as safe Harbors for all Ships against foul Weather. Near the Evening Van Campen fell down with the Ebb out of the River, to­wards the Bar of Hoksieu, and came about four Glasses after Sun-set to the rest of the Fleet; where going Aboard the Naerden Fregat, he gave an account to the Admiral of Affairs, to his great satisfaction.

The sixteenth being Wednesday, the Fleet pass'd into the River Hoksieu, and came presently after Noon with the Flood, by the high North-east Point of the Eastermost Island, having the White Rocks on their Starboard, and work­ing through a strong Ebb in a narrow Channel, they came to an Anchor in five Fathom Water, where immediately three handsom Chinese Vessels, with five grand Mandarins, came Aboard of the Naerden Fregat to the Admiral Bort, and with much Ceremony and Complement welcom'd both the Admiral and Vice-Admiral. At Low-water the Naerden Frigat sitting upon the Sand much troubled the Admiral, who call'd to Van Campen, telling him that he had brought the Ships to a bad Place to Anchor in; but he little regarding such a danger, repli'd, To Morrow, if it be the Admiral's pleasure, I will carry the Ships out of the River again.

The seventeenth in the Morning the Fleet weigh'd Anchor, and Sail'd along in five, six, seven, and eight Fathom Water: thence they Sail'd North­west up the River along the Northermost Island; against the middle of which being a safe Harbor, the Ships came to Anchor.

Not far from hence lay four Islands, formerly peopled, but now laid waste, and depopulated by the Tartars. A whole Moneth the Netherlanders lay near these four Islands, where they got all things in a plentiful manner, though the ordinary Sea-men were not permitted to go ashore without leave, and onely six at a time, because they should not be burdensom, nor affright the Inha­bitants.

[Page 70]On Friday the eighteenth Van Campen went ashore with his Sloop, and cameVan Campen go's ashore. to the South-west Point of the smallest Island at a Stone Cawsey, along which he walked to a deserted Place, wherehe saw many large Ruines of former Houses, and under the jutting of a Hill several Towns, besides two fair Temples, and in them, on a row, many Chests with dead Corps standing against the Walls above the Ground: There also were two Light-houses, fur­nish'd with many Images, sitting on Stools at a Table, before which they burnt Offerings, imploring indulgence to departed Souls.

The nineteenth Admiral Bort sent Philip Mew, who had some smattering of the Chinese Tongue, to the Fort of Minjazen, three Leagues from Hoksieu, to the Governor, with Desire to permit them with Boats, and two of the taken Jonks, to Sail up the River for fresh Water for the Ships, and to buy Provisi­ons. He brought Answer, that they might go with all their Boats and Jonks, and fetch as much Water as they pleas'd.

The twentieth and one and twentieth nothing hapned of any remark, eve­ry Ship being busie to take in Water.

The two and twentieth being Tuesday, five Mandarins, with a considera­bleFive Mandarins come aboard the Naerden. Train, came in great Tartar Vessels Aboard the Naerden Frigat to the Ad­miral, where they were welcom'd with the firing of Guns, and three Vollies of small Shot: Upon the Admiral's Order the Naerden fir'd seven, Zirickzee five, Domburgh three, and all the rest of the Ships two Guns apiece, and three Vollies of small Shot more. The Pilot of the Naerden Frigat carried in a Tar­tar Vessel, aboard of the Vice-Admiral Van Campen (who at that time being troubled with an Ague, could not be at the Mandarins Entertainment in the Naerden) one fat Calf, five Hens, five Ducks, three Water-Lemons, with a great Pot of Chinese Beer, all sent as a Present to Van Campen, from the Governors of Hoksieu and Minjazen.

The twenty fourth a Corporal with four Souldiers was sent ashore with a Flag to the Island, being on the North side of the River, with Command to go to the top of the Mountains, and see if he could descry any Ships or Jonks: if they saw Ships, then they were to wave their Colours as many times as there were Vessels; if Jonks, betwixt every Flourish to fire a Gun.

In the Afternoon Ysbrant van Banke, Commander of the Ankeveen, who dy'd the Night before, was Buried on the Island, and Iacob Swaert put in his Place, being the Pilot to the Vice-Admiral in the Zirickzee.

The twenty sixth and twenty seventh nothing of remark hapned.

The twenty eighth three Chinese Vessels came with three Mandarins from Hok­sieu aboard the Naerden Frigat, and brought a Letter from the Governor there­of, and Commander of the Castle Minjazen: The Contents consisted in ma­ny Complements, with promise of Favors and all kindness from them both; likewise a free Grant to go unmolested up the River, and buy Necessaries for their Money for the Fleet; and lastly, wishing them a kind welcom into China: by which it appear'd, that the Tartars intended to joyn with the Nether­land Forces. The Letter being read, several Guns were fir'd from the Naerden.

At Noon the three Mandarins taking their leave went away in the same Ves­sels, whilst five Cannons were fir'd in honor to them, and also three Vollies of small Shot: they carry'd with them a Letter from the Admiral Bort, written by the Chinese Interpreter Lakka, to the Governors of Hoksieu, with many civil Expressions of thankfulness.

The twenty ninth, thirtieth, and one and thirtieth, nothing hapned of any note.

[Page 71]The first of September all Officers were commanded by the Admiral to Land their Soldiers on the middle Island, and take up their Quarters in the best Houses of the ruin'd Town, with Order, that every Officer should furnish his Soldiers with all Necessaries for the Dressing of Meat, and to give them double allowance on the Shore of Rice, Pork, Oyl, Vinegar, and Arak, which daily occasion'd a murmuring amongst the Sea-men, who said, That they did the worst Work, and hazarded their Lives as well as the Soldiers, and there­fore ought rather to have the greatest allowance.

The second, being Saturday, Auke Peters, Commander of the Ter-Boede, and Captain Constantine Nobell, came back from Hoksieu (whither they were sent by Order of the Admiral on the thirtieth of the last Moneth) and brought with them to the Admiral in the Naerden, five Cows, thirty six Ducks, five great Pears, with some Pot-herbs.

The third, being Sunday, Vice-Admiral Van Campen went ashore in his Sloop, where he saw divers Burying-places defaced by their own Soldiers, who out of hope to find Gold, Silver, or Jewels buried within, broke open the Chests, and threw out the Corps, which lay in all their Apparel, as Caps on their Heads, Coats, Breeches, and Shoes, and in their full shape, but as firm as a Mummy.

On the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh days nothing hapned worthy of relation.

The eighth, being Friday, Iohn Melman with two Soldiers, and three Tartars A Mandarin with a Letter from the Vice-Roy and General to Admiral Bort. that came with the Fleet from Batavia, besides the Chinese Interpreter and Secre­tary Lakka, came back from Sinksieu through Hoksieu, after a Journey of twenty four days, accompanied with a Mandarin, sent to the Admiral Bort, with Let­ters from the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and from the next Person to him, the Ge­neral Taysing Lipovy, besides a Letter from a great Lord call'd Santing Hoube­thetok, Governor of the great City Zwansyfoe; in all which they express'd them­selves in a handsom Style, signifying the Hollanders kind welcome thither. The two chief Commanders, the Vice-Roy and General, desir'd moreover, that the Admiral would please to repair to them, or some other he should Depute (for they would be glad of some People of Quality to Confer with) and likewise, that they would be pleas'd to send the Letters from the Lord-General and Councel of Batavia, by a special Envoy by Land to the Camp at Sinksieu, that so they might better know, by communicating their Intentions, how to carry on the grand Affair; and that they should in the interim leave the Presents for the Vice-Roy in their Ships till farther order; and accordingly he Commission'd the Vice-Admiral Van Campen and Constantine Nobell (yet their Letters did not so earnestly require it as the Interpreter Iohn Melman related to the Admiral,) with Commands to deliver the Lord-General and Indian Councels Letters to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and the Person next to him in State, the General Tay­sing Lipovy, and withall, to Treat and conclude with them concerning the grand Affair: This being concluded on, they sent advice concerning it to the Go­vernor of Hoksieu, who return'd this Answer:

THe dispatching of the Vice-Admiral Iohn van Campen and Constantine A Letter from the Go­vernor of Hoksieu to Bort. Nobel, with Letters from the Lord-General and Councel of Batavia, to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and the next Person to him, Taysing Lipovy, will, according to my Judgment, come to a good issue; but to joyn with You, and make a League to go against Coxinga or his Adherents, is beyond my [Page 72] Commission: but I will prepare my self, if the Ambassadors and Letters are ready, to assist them, and provide them Attendants, and all Necessaries which they shall want on their Journey to Sinksieu to the Vice-Roy and General. About Matters of War and Merchandise I am not permitted to Treat with You, but You must expect Your Answer concerning it from the Vice-Roy, or Court at Peking.

The eighteenth, being Monday, in the Morning two Jonks, with the Inter­preter Melman, and the Chinese Interpreter and Secretary Lakka, sent from the Governor of Hoksieu, with permittance from the Commander of the Fort Min­jazen, to the Fleet to fetch the Vice-Admiral Iohn van Campen and Constantine Nobel, with their Goods and Retinue, and conduct them up to Hoksieu, and from thence by Land to travel to Sinksieu to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Lipovy.

Van Campen and Noble making themselves ready for their Journey, went at­tended each with six Men, besides a Trumpet, Interpreter, and two Soldiers, in all eighteen Persons: the Commands and Orders which they were to ob­serve, and were deliver'd them by the Admiral Bort, were verbatim as fol­loweth:

THe Reasons and Occasions are known, which have forc'd and mov'dThe Instructions of the Admiral to the Agents go­ing to Sinksieu. Us and the Councel to send you to the chief Governors of the Terri­tory of Fokien, wherein Hoksieu is the Metropolis, and the usual Place of their Residence and Court, though at present they are not there, but lie Encam­ped with their Army near the City Zansifoe, about nine or ten days Jour­ney Post from Hoksieu. I say to you both, because Constantine Noble hath Order from the Lord-General and Indian Councel, to Negotiate and Con­clude that Affair with those great Officers, according to their Excellencies Order, and the Letters to the same Governors, viz. the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Taysing Lipovy: the Copies of which you having between you, must serve for your full Directions, without needing any rehearsal to be made of them; so that We onely to obtain their Excellencies favor, entreat you to obey and observe these following Orders.

I. After you have taken leave of Us you shall go to Hoksieu, and at your arrival there, obtain Licence to repair to the Governor Haitingkong, and prof­fer him great Presents, and inform him that you are ready to travel to the Vice-Roy Singlamong and Taysing Lipovy, with Letters to him from the Lord-General and Councel of Batavia, with a Request, that he would help you by a quck dispatch to go thither. In the Letter which he lately Writ to Us he he hath promised to provide all things fit for the Journey: whereupon We have Answer'd according to the Copy which you have, containing chiefly Our taken Resolution of the Domburghs staying here with the Presents to the fore-mention'd chief Governors; Our setting Sail with the other seven Ships about the North, to infest and gawl the Enemy, and Intentions to be here against your Return; and amongst other things, a quick Dispatch for your Journey: so that I hope you will find all things there in a readiness.

II. When you have left Hoksieu, and come to Zansifoe, Commanded by the Lord Santing Houbethetok, who seems to favor Our Designs, you shall deli­ver Our Letter to Him, and also these Presents, because with the Return of the Interpreter Iohn Melman (who hath already been with the said chief Go­vernors,) he Writ to Us, and thereby express'd his good Inclinations to­wards Us.

[Page 73]The chiefest, nay the sole occasion of your Journey, is to deliver the Letters of their Excellencies before-mention'd to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Taysong Lipovy; and if they are so inclin'd, to Treat and Con­clude with them all those Affairs which they desire of them in their Letters, and authoris'd us to Agree on, consisting chiefly in these Points.

First, to make an inviolable League with them, for the best and most ad­vantage of the Hollander, and destruction of theirs and our Enemies, being the Pyrate Coxinga and his Adherents.

Secondly, to obtain a free and unmolested Trade through the whole Em­pire of China.

To which two chief Points are joyn'd some others which our Masters have commanded us, viz. to permit us to chuse some convenient Place for Factory, where there is a good Harbor for the securing of our Ships, and fit to fortifie against Coxinga's assaults, and to that end keep a small Garrison of Soldiers there.

To promise to procure a Grant from the Great Emperor of China for that which they shall Conclude with you about.

That if they joyn with us against Coxinga, we will follow their Advice and Resolution: Nay, if they are inclin'd to drive Coxinga from Formosa, we will assist them, and carry part of their Forces in our Ships thither.

Yet nevertheless, that we at present will use our Ships to seize and con­quer Coxinga's Jonks, which Sail to and from Iapan, and likewise to hinder his Fishing behind the Mountain Tankoia on the South-side of Formosa, which begins every year with eighty or a hundred Jonks in the latter end of No­vember, and ends about the middle of Ianuary. But these Articles are strictly to be insisted upon, as of most concern for the destroying and disabling of the Enemy.

After delivery of your Letters you must wait for their Answers. If they should ask you if you have ought else to request of them that is not menti­on'd in the Letters, then tell them, That if they grant those, there is no other Business of any consequence to Treat about. But if you observe them not to be willing to consent to the chiefest Articles, you must ask them im­mediately what they resolve to grant us. Then accept of all things which redound to our Profit, and by all means extoll our Strength, and what we are able to perform by force of Arms, and the faithful Service which we shall be ready to do them when time requires, in assisting them with all things, whereby they may see our fidelity: nay, lend them our Ships and Men against the Enemy Coxinga, and all other Enemies of the Empire; for recom­pence of all which they desire nought else but a free Trade. If they should speak of Custom and other Taxes, desire them to tell you what they amount to, if reasonable, consent to it; for our People ought not to pay either more or less than their own Natives, which you are to take notice of. We are afraid, that at present they will not permit us to Traffick, nor Conclude on any thing concerning it, but deny the Request, and onely speak and debate about the business of War. If so, and observing that to press it on any long­er, or more, all other Business might be neglected, we judge it convenient to take no Cognizance of it at this time; yet if any hopes be, to procure leave for the Sale of those few Merchandise laden in some of the Ships: what they are we desire you to see in the general Inventory of all the Goods. It may be that they will direct you to the Court at Peking, there to obtain [Page 74] the liberty of free Trade from the Emperor, and also to advise us to send another Embassy from Batavia, which you may assure them shall be done the next year. Yet nevertheless, if you cannot attain to our Desires, leave off further Suit, that so we may avoid such vast Expence and Charge: but if they be inclin'd to send to Batavia, you may seem to be very well pleas'd at it, and promise to Transport them thither in our Ships, except they will send one or two of their Jonks, which would be the better for us. Concern­ing the possessing and fortifying of a peculiar Place, you may also desist from▪ if you see them not to favor the Request, but to be satisfi'd that our Ships may lie in the Haven of Hoksieu, and there drive a Trade, provided they can be assur'd to lie safe, and without danger there. When you come to Agree with them concerning the War with Coxinga and his Party with our joynt Forces, take care that they oblige themselves thereto by Writing, and with us declare themselves Enemies to the same Coxinga and his Adhe­rents, and that they shall not without our knowledge, much less to our preju­dice, agree with the Enemy, which we will do also on our part. Moreover, make a strict enquiry, whether or no they have not already Treated, and are inclin'd to be reconcil'd to him, if he should submit himself to the Em­peror; this may be suspected, because they say Coxinga is dead, and his Son in Ayanny not concern'd at it: Which if you observe, let them by no means detain you, but hasten your self from thence and come to us; for the Vice-Admiral ought on all occasions to be in the Fleet, because his Presence is continually requir'd there: wherefore if he can come away before, let Nobel tarry there so long till he thinks he can effect no more by staying. If they desire us, with them, to agree with the Enemy, you may easily under­stand on what Articles, and with what advantage and satisfaction it may be done, though you conclude noton any thing.

If you can find out any means for the delivery of our Prisoners in Eymuy, These were taken before by Coxinga. let nothing be wanting to procure their liberty, because the General and Council in Batavia have highly recommended their Release to us; but that we should do nothing without acquainting them with it, and their consent. The Hostage with his Retinue shall be kept so long in the Domburgh, till perhaps by the advice of his Friends he may do something that may be requisite for that Business, because he also longs for his Liberty. The Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Taysong Lipovy have every one sent us a Letter by the Interpreter Melman; we now therefore send an Answer to every one of them, to the same effect and purpose as theirs were, with some small Presents, as appears by the Copies which you have, to which I refer my self, desiring you to deliver them at a convenient time, either with their Excellencies Letters, or afterwards. The Presents which belong to them, and are signi­fi'd in their Excellencies Letters, I have caus'd to be taken out of the Naerden, and put into the Domburgh: By the same Copies you may see how they are Pack'd, and wherein they consist, which at all times shall be ready upon your Order, whose Acceptation you must in a manner press, although hither­to they have not been willing to receive. Of the Merchandise which are onely aboard the Domburgh, I also give you Patterns, if they should chance to fancy any of them; and likewise of the Goods sent along with you, that thereby you may see what Presents to give to one or other, as you shall think fit.

Lastly, I desire you to promote and advance His Excellency's and Councels [Page 75] Desires, which at present so highly concerns the Publick, with all care and diligence imaginable; and think, that if all things fall out successfully, you will get no small honor and advancement by it, which God grant, into whose Protection I commit you.

Balthasar Bort.

The next day after, having Shipp'd all their Necessaries for the Journey, and put the Presents into the Jonks, they took their leave of the Fleet, and Sail'd South and by West up the River of Hoksieu. Presently after Noon they pass'd by a Town call'd Quanto, lying on the North-west Shore, about a Mus­quet-shot up in the Countrey.

This Quanto is Wall'd, being about half an hours Walk in circumference, fortifi'd with Bulwarks and Watch-Towers, and strengthned with a great Garrison. Here, as in most Towns in China, are several Parades, for the Meet­ing and Exercising of Foot and Horse, and to Train them up in all sorts of Martial Discipline. There are also Exchanges, or Burses for the Sale of Mer­chandise, besides Markets where the Countrey People bring their Fruits and Provisions to sell.

A little farther the Agents pass'd by a populous Village call'd Sanwan, near the Shore.

The Inhabitants of Sanwan are ingenious Artificers, viz. Weavers, Smiths, Coopers, and other Labouring Trades, who live in peculiar Places of the Vil­lage apart one from another, and every Precinct under a particular Governor, who gives an account of all Differences and Misdemeanors to the chief Ma­gistrate.

All the Villages through which they pass'd in the Territory of Fokien are wild, and have daily Markets of Herbs, Fish, and Oysters.

After they pass'd on Southerly with their Retinue to the River which flows East and by South into the Sea, and hath a small Island in its Mouth, with a Sandy Shelf in the Channel, where they found on the North-west Shore the Village Sayon, and came after a little Sailing to the strong Fort Benantien, or Minjazen, which is fortifi'd with Towers, Walls, Bulwarks, and a broad Mole: it lieth three Leagues from Hoksieu, hath the bigness of a small Town, with several Streets and fair Houses, set forth with divers Tradesmens Shops, and in the middle a very large open Court, where on one side stands the Go­vernors House, and on the other a Pagode.

Here Van Campen and Nobel went ashore with their whole Retinue, to Com­plement the Governor, and were receiv'd into the Fort by three Mandarins with the usual Ceremonies, who conducted them into a great Temple; but they could not speak with him by reason of his indisposition. After they had pre­sented them Bean-broth mix'd with Milk (which is accounted the greatest honor they can shew to any Person) they return'd with their Train into the Jonks, and after many Complements took their Leave. Being got about half a League high, there appear'd a most delightful and pleasant Place on the South-east side, call'd Plethoeu, or Pethou; and opposite to it on the North­west Shore, a large Pagode, nam'd Possang, by them held for one of their Wonders.

[Page 76]On the other side of the River appears a spacious Area, built about with fair Edifices, and planted with Gardens, and Banquetting-houses in them. About four a Clock in the Evening they came to the South-east side, near a Stone-Bridge, built over the Water on Pillars and Arches, and cover'd close on the top with long and thick Planks, from Arch to Arch on each side thereof are Rails of blue Stone, here and there adorn'd with Dragons and Lions, Hew'n and Carv'd out. Over this Bridge four Horsemen may conveniently ride abrest.

The twentieth, being Wednesday, they went in two Pallakins, or Horse-Litters,The Agents come to Hoksieu. carry'd by four Horses, over the Bridge to the City Hoksieu, there to Comple­ment the Vice-Roy Singlamong's Wifes Mother, and to present her with an Am­ber Necklace, and to speak with the Governor: Being pass'd over the Bridge, they found the High-ways built, the Streets pav'd, and crowded with thousands of People all along the City to the Palace, insomuch that they were scarce able to pass for the Throng.

The Vice-Roys Palace, in which at that time his Wifes Mother resided, wasThe Viceroy's Palace. a handsom Edifice, surrounded with Walls of Free-stone, with great Portals and fair Gates, and guarded with Horse and Foot. At their entring they were courteously receiv'd by the Vice-Roy's Mother-in-law, who conducting them into a Hall furnish'd with Pictures and Stools, desir'd them to sit down. When seated, they were entertain'd each of them with a Cup full of Bean-broth, and afterwards they were all plac'd before a little Table, to eat both boyl'd and roasted Meats, serv'd up in Plate of Massy Gold. The Vice-Roys Brother (for he was also there) discoursed with them about several affairs, and amongst other things, ask'd of them if they had as great and well built Towns in Hol­land as they had in China? and if they had Horses, Cows, and Sheep there? to which they answer'd, that they had: Then he inquir'd how long they were coming from Holland to China? they reply'd, Six or seven Moneths. Then the Vice-Roy's Mother, who had many Women waiting upon her, came to them, saying, That she intended to have eat and drank with them, but her indisposition had hindred her; but would Write in their behalf to her Son the Vice-Roy, and at their return sit at Table with them: for you are (said she) in a strange Countrey full of People, and therefore had need be careful to Travel circumspectly, that you may meet with no inconveni­ence: Nay, she admir'd that they durst venture themselves where they knew no Place, nor any Person. Van Campen being ask'd what Place he bore, and how qua­lifi'd, answer'd, He was Vice-Admiral of the Fleet: whereupon she reply'd, Then your Princes and Lords must needs wear rich Apparel, and go bravely, being much taken with the Velvet Jump he had on. This pass'd, Van Campen and Nobel civilly taking their Leave of the Lady, parted from her, and went to the City Governor's House, Guarded both with Foot and Horse; by which pas­sing, and being entred, they soon return'd, upon a Servant's saying that his Lord was troubled with an Ague, and lay at rest in his Chamber, so that at present there was no opportunity to speak with him, wherefore he desir'd they would please to come again the next Morning: whereupon they were carry'd in Pallakins out of the City, the Streets being so crowded with Men, Women, and Children quite to the Bridge, where their Jonks lay, that they were scarce able to make their way through.

The one and twentieth, being Thursday, they were Visited in their Jonks byThey come to the Fort Engely. the Governor of the Fort Engely, and several Grand Mandarins, who giving them a courteous welcome, Drank to each of them in Bean-broth. The Governor invited them to Dinner; which they not daring to refuse, Rode with him to [Page] [Page]


[Page] [Page 77] his House; where after a noble Treat he presented Van Campen with a cu­rious Tent to use in his Journey, which folded, was but one Man's work to carry and pitch. When they had all Feasted very plentifully, the Governor led them over a Bridge towards the West-side of the Island whereon the Fort stood: near which lay a great Village, and well peopled. Here, being conduct­ed by the Governor, they saw several great Temples hung round with burning Lamps, and adorn'd with Altars and Images; into which entring upon curi­osity, the Priests presented them Tea, or Thee, and other Sweet-meats with more than ordinary respect. After a little stay they were brought into a de­lightful Place, where with a Bowe and Arrow they shot at a Mark: and from thence as they pass'd towards their Vessels, they went to the House of Han­lavia, Governor of the Fort Minjazen, where they were again Treated. In the Evening they came to their Jonks, to take their repose as they had done the Night before.

The two and twentieth in the Morning going again to Hanlavia, they pre­sented him with some red Cloth, thereby to obtain his favor and assistance in their speedy dispatch to the Vice-Roy Singlamong. From thence they Rode to the City Governor's House, that he might furnish them with People for their Journey: where coming, they found him somewhat indispos'd; yet never­theless they had Audience in the same Place where he generally sits with the chiefest of the Countrey, consulting about publick affairs. Upon their asking if he would be assisting to them in their Journey to the Vice-Roy Singlamong and Taysing Lipovy, he answer'd, That he would be ready to do all things that lay in his power, saying he had Writ in their behalf to the Emperor at the Court at Peking, and to the Vice-Roy Singlamong in Sinksieu, and provided two Mandarins with ninety Men to Travel thither with them. Being ask'd if he thought it convenient for the Admiral to put to Sea with eleven Sail, to Cruise up and down to the Northward, if there he could, to annoy Coxinga and his Party, and leave one Frigat, in which the Presents were, in the River Hoksieu: he reply'd, That he durst not advise about it, but their Admiral in that case might do what he thought fit; yet as he suppos'd, it were better that the Ships stay'd there till the Vice-Roy's coming home, that there might be a better un­derstanding: However, you may go (said he) to the Governor of Minjazen, Hanlavia, and he will be better able to inform you in these punctillio's what to do. Hereupon they leaving Hoksieu, went about Noon to Hanlavia, by whom they were invited to Dinner; when taking opportunity to ask the same Que­stion, they receiv'd the like Answer, viz. That the Admiral might do what he thought fittest: all which Van Campen and Nobel writ to the Admiral Bort, with their Opinions. A little after Dinner they went with their Retinue into their Jonks, to proceed in their Journey to Sinksieu, and came about three a a Clock after Noon to the Fort Aulavia, or Lavyt, near a Ferry, where on the the Shore they were courteously receiv'd by the Governor, and entertain'd with the customary honor of Bean-broth.

The Fort Aulavia, surrounded with high Walls, hath a strong Garrison bothThe Fort Aulavia. of Foot and Horse, and stor'd with all sorts of Ammunition and Provisions. Here whoever pass over, they pay Custom for all those Goods and Commodi­ties that are after sold and dispers'd through the Countrey.

Several Troops of Horse are daily sent out of this Fort, to keep the Ways clear from Thieves, which have their lurking-places in the neighboring Mountains.

[Page 78]After some stay here they set Sail again, and in the Evening came to theThe Village Lanpon. Village Lanpon, where they stay'd all Night. This Lanpon is a Place of good Repute, being inhabited by many rich Chineses, which drive a Trade through all the Countrey; and also much frequented by the neighboring People, be­cause of a Temple wherein they worship an Idol, said to give good and com­fortable advice in great misfortunes or adversities, and therefore visited daily both by rich and poor, that in their Troubles they may receive some consola­tion from him.

The twenty third, being Saturday, at nine a Clock they leaving Lanpon, went by Land in Palakins along a Cawsey pav'd with blue and gray Free-stone. This day they travell'd through abundance of Rice-Fields, and Plains full of Fruit-trees, and all manner of eatable Plants, scatter'd with many populous Villages, and moistned by murmuring Streams, that flowing out of the Moun­tains made it a most delightful Prospect. They also saw several antient Mo­numents, all Sculpt out with Imagery resembling Men, Horses, Lions, and Dragons; over which stately Arches rais'd high, like our, Triumphal with Inscriptions in Chinese Characters of Gold, being antient Epitaphs in honor of the Deceased. About Noon they came to two great Forts, and about six a Clock in the Evening into the City Hokzwa; which entring, they were receiv'd by the chiefest of the Town, and carry'd into a great House, provided for the most eminent Persons of the Countrey in their Journeys.

Here they had sent them for Presents three Pigs, twenty Hens, and four Geese; which they requited by returning some small Trifles. In the Night, by Order of the Magistrates of the Town, a Guard was set about their Lodgings, that they might suffer no injury by the Common People.

The twenty ninth, being Sunday, though they prepared for their Journey, yet they could not set forward for want of Convoy, because a strong Party of three hundred Horse was sent by the Vice-Roy's Mother, with Money and other Goods to the Army at Sinksieu, to her Son Singlamong, for the paying of the Souldiers, so that being forc'd to stay in Hokzwa all that day, they were visited by many great and eminent Mandarins of the City, and presented with Oranges, Pears, Chesnuts, Coco-Nuts, besides several other Fruits, two Pigs, five Geese, and ten Hens, in requital for Money and Goods worth full as much. The People seem'd to be very obliging, when they heard that the Hollanders lay with a Fleet on the Coast of China to joyn with them against the Islanders of Quemuy, and the rest of Coxinga's Party. In the afternoon they view'd the Town.

This City Hokzwa, lying in a pleasant Place, encompassed with many de­lightfulThe City Hokzwa. Gardens, contains several Markets and great Plains, and appears beau­tiful with divers Triumphal Arches, and stately antient Buildings, rang'd close together with Party-walls, not being usual in China. It hath thick and strong Walls, or rather Bulwarks, continually Guarded by many Horse and Foot. About an hours walking from thence are many pleasant Groves, with Arbors, and other like Receptions for such as Walk to refresh themselves in, where they call for all sorts of Fruit whatever they have a mind to, so making themselves merry.

The twenty fifth, being Monday, they began their Journey anew about day­break, with a Convoy of fifty Tartars; and passing by several strong Holds, and through many Villages, they came to two Rocks, which so straiten the Passage, that two Carts or Wagons can scarce go between: at each Entrance stands a [Page 79] Block-house, so that none can pass without leave. Upon the top of these Rocks, where there is no kind of Mould to be seen, grow many Cypress and Ash-Trees. About Noon passing by another Hold, the Governor invited them to Dinner, which they modestly refus'd by their Interpreter; yet their Reti­nue had as much strong Chinese Beer given them as they pleas'd to drink. Then proceeding on, in the Evening they pass'd through a Wall'd City, and well Garrison'd; and a little Southward from the City they took their repose in a Pagode, where several of the chief Citizens visiting, for welcom present­ed them with several Provisions, such as the Countrey afforded: in return whereof they gave them some Spanish Ryals, and four Pieces of course white Linnen: Besides, their Followers were entertain'd with two great Pots of strong Chinese Beer, a Drink very pleasing to their Palats.

The twenty sixth about Sun-rising, being ready for their Journey, they had such a concourse of Men, Women, and Children, which came to see them from all places, that they were scarce able to pass along the Streets, for the Palakin, or Sedan, in which the Vice-Admiral Van Campen was carry'd, was often stopt and held by the People to see his Face and speak with him: but because he could not answer them, and his Interpreter not being able to come to him through the Crowd, they let him pass. This Day they went by and through more Forts and Villages, and in the Evening came to the City Hokexcho, where they stay'd all Night, being Entertain'd by the eminentest of the Town, and visited by many antient Merchants, which stay'd with them so late, that they took but little rest.

The City of Hokexcho lies but a days Journey from Hokzwa: whose Inhabi­tants maintain themselves for the most part by Husbandry, (for there are few Merchants) being a kind and hospitable People: for Hok signifies Good, and Zwa, Bad.

Between Hokzwa and Hokexcho lies a Village, in which they make great quan­tities of Porcelin.

The twenty seventh before Sun-rising they betook themselves to their Jour­ney, accompany'd with several Troops of Horse and Foot; and pass'd most by and through several great strong Towns and Villages. About three a Clock in the Afternoon they Rode through a great Town, and in the Evening arriv'd at a strong Castle, where they were courteously receiv'd by the Governor, and first entertain'd with Bean-broth, afterwards caress'd both with Meat and Drink; which kindness they requited with other Presents.

The twenty eighth they proceeded again on their Journey very early, and in the Afternoon, about three a Clock, arriv'd at another City, where they were welcom'd and presented by the Magistrates with Provision, and receiv'd again in a bartering Return, as others had before: after which they drank Spanish Wine and Brandy with the Agents, shewing a great liking thereunto, having never tasted such Liquor; so that it was mid-night before they went away.

The twenty ninth, being Friday, they set forward again with the Dawn af­ter Day-break, beholding very many large and sumptuous Tombs, and stately antient Buildings, besides several Triumphal Arches, adorn'd with Horse­men, Tygers, Bears, Lyons, and Dragons, hew'n out of Free-stone, and the Arches beautifi'd with Golden Characters: Then they pass'd a long Bridge over the great River Loyang, consisting of divers Stone Arches, Pav'd with Free-stones of an incredible size, some of which being about seventy Foot long, [Page 80] three and a half broad, and half a Foot thick, on each side Rail'd in, and ac­commodated with Benches of blue Stone, with the Honors of the Empire, as Lyons, Dragons, and the like, on several Pedestals.

The Chineses report this Bridge to have been built in one Night by the An­gels, and look upon it as a great Wonder.

At the Bridge-foot stood an old House, and in it several Figures of Men gilded with Gold. In the same House also was a great blue Stone, inscrib'd with the antiquity of this wondrous Bridge.

The middle Arch of this Bridge had lately been broke down, to hinder the Enemy's Passage, about which they were then busie in mending, laying great Beams of Timber over the Gap.

A little before Noon they came to the City Zwansifoe, where at the Gates they were kindly welcom'd by three Mandarins (sent thither to meet them by Santing Houbethetok, Admiral of the Sea, and Governor of the Place,) and con­ducted into a great Pagode, where they were civilly entertain'd with a Draught of honorable Bean-broth: after having stay'd a little while, they entred the City in company with the same Mandarins, who carry'd them into a fair House, whither many of the eminentest Citizens out of curiosity came to visit them.

The Letter from the Admiral Bort to Santing Houbethetok, with the Presents, being a pair of Snaphance Pistols with Holsters, four Yards of Scarlet, and four Pieces of fine Linnen, were by the Agents two Interpreters Bedel and Lakka, sent to him: but he told them, That he durst not receive any Letters or Pre­sents before they came back again from Sinksieu, and had spoke with the Vice-Roy and General Lipovy: but he intended to have visited them, had not his present indisposition hindred him.

But Houbethetok caus'd his Servants to carry them Oranges, Nuts, Chesnuts, besides some Porkers, Hens, and Geese; for which they return'd the Servants good Spanish Coyn.

The next day, being the thirtieth, they with their Retinue went to see the City, whilst the Convoy made all things ready for their farther Journey.

Zwansifoe is a Place of great Trade, full of Shops and Merchandise, adorn'dThe City Zwansifoe. with several Triumphal Arches made of blue Stone, whereon Men, Women, Horses, Dragons, Tygers, Lyons, Bears, Apes, were all presented in Graven Work, to the Life, in their various Colours, and on the top the Names of those in honor of whom they were erected. It hath also three high Steeples, with Galleries about them; besides many inferior Temples.

The Wall about the City being twenty seven Foot high, and of equal thick­ness, is fortifi'd with many Bulwarks, Moats, and Breast-works: upon the top of it always lie heaps of Stones and Timber, for defence against sudden Storms or Assaults.

This City hath three Gates with winding Entrances, rais'd of great blue Stones, and was never Conquer'd by the Tartars, but deliver'd up by Collonel Houbethetok, conditionally, That he should still possess the Place of Governor: and likewise because of this free Surrender, the old Magistrates kept their seve­ral Offices, and the City their antient Priviledges and Liberties: yet as a sign of Conquest, the Tartars caus'd all the Steeples to be pull'd down, except the three before-mention'd. Coxinga once laid Siege to it, but was forc'd to leave it, and depart with the loss of many Men.

In the Morning about nine a Clock they proceeded on their Journey,The City Engeling. and at Noon travel'd by the ruin'd City Engeling, and all the day long past [Page 81] thorow, and in sight of divers strong Castles built of Stone, and many Villages.

About the Evening, they came to two great Forts, call'd Twaia, distant fromForts Twaia. each other a quarter of an Hours walking, whose Walls built of Free-Stone, were twenty five Foot high, and twenty eight thick.

The first of October, in the Morning, the Agents leaving these Forts, came about three a Clock with their Retinue, which consisted of above a hundred Persons, Hollanders, Chineses, and Tartars, to the City Tanwa; surrounded with a Stone-Wall, and Fortifi'd with high Bulwarks and deep Trenches.

Tanwa is accounted one of the most delightful and populous Cities of all Chi­na; City Tanwa▪ seated in a rich Valley, abounding with plenty of all things, so that ma­ny Merchants resorting thither, take up their Residence, to enjoy the benefit and pleasure of the adjacent Countrey.

Without the City are many stately Monuments, where the Towns men make daily Offerings to the Souls of their deceas'd Parents.

Three grand Mandarins well Mounted, and follow'd by a great Train of Servants, bidding the Agents welcome, carry'd them into a stately Inn, to which they ascended by seven Marble Steps; in it were many Chambers, all the floors neatly Pav'd, and furnish'd with Chairs and Stools, Benches, and costly Bedsteds, to accommodate Persons of Quality when they travel'd; with Stable-rooms for an hundred Horse, and Lodgings for twelve hundred Men: Here the Agents choosing one of the most convenient Chambers, took their re­pose that Night.

The second being Munday, about nine a Clock, the Agents with all their Attendance left Tanwa, and passing a large Stone Bridge, saw several Ruin'd Towns and Villages, besides others yet in their Splendor, but commanded by Garrisons.

A little before Sun-set, they came to a Fort on the top of a Hill, which whilst they ascended, they were met and courteously welcom'd by the Go­vernor; from whom they understood, that the Islanders of Eymuy and Que­muy were upon a Treaty of Peace with the Tartars, but he fear'd, that it would come to nothing: This Night they Lodg'd in the Castle, where they had good Entertainment for their Money.

The third, being Tuesday, the Agents set forward about three a Clock in the Morning, and travel'd by and through many Villages, coming at last to a Stone Bridge, at each side Guarded with a Fort.

In the afternoon, the Agents pass'd by several Pagodes, where the Chinesy Priests seem'd to shew them great Respect, Presenting them with Sweet-Meats and Tee: After some stay, proceeding on their Journey, came at last in sight of Sinksieu, whither they were sent, not far from whence, they were met byCome in sight of the Ci­ty Sinksieu. three Mandarins with their Attendants, sent from the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and the General Lipovi, to Complement and welcom them.

After the Ceremonies were past on both sides, the Agents were by the Man­darins Are fetched in. carry'd to a great Pagode, from whence after a short Treat, they were con­ducted through the City into a spacious Court, the usual place of Reception for their travelling Grandees. This House was of so large Reception, that it not only afforded Stable room for above a thousand Horse, but also Lodgings for as many Men; having divers large and handsom Chambers, furnish'd with stately Bedsteds, Stools and Benches. Here the Agents took their repose, seve­ral Soldiers being sent to Guard the House, from the overpressing intrusions of [Page 82] the common People, which by thousands out of curiosity came thither to see and gaze upon the Hollanders.

The Agents immediately gave notice of their arrival by their Interpretors,Make their Arrival known, and desire Audience. Pedel and Lakka, to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Taysing Lipovi, with request to grant them Audience, and suffer them to speak with him, that they might deliver the General of Batavia's Letters, that so time might not be lost in imploying so stout a Fleet, as lay at present in his own River. Whereupon, the Vice-Roy and General reply'd, That they were come a great and long Voyage by Sea and Land, and were weary with travelling, thefore they should stay till the next day, on which they should have Audience.

Mean while, several Mandarins came to Congratulate their welcome, bring­ing with them divers sorts of Fruit, as Oranges, Nuts, Chestnuts, and Pears; besides Hens, Geese, and two Swine, for which they return'd them Thanks, and gave their Servants Money.

The fourth in the Morning, the Agents made themselves ready to deliverRide to the Army. the small Presents and Letters from Batavia, to the Vice-Roy and General in the Camp. About eight a Clock, twelve Horses were brought to their Lodg­ing, which they and their Attendance Mounted, and with two Mandarins Rode thorow a great part of the City Sinksieu, by many fair and large Tri­umphal Arches. A little Southward from the City ran a River, which ha­ving cross'd, they came into the Army, which lay about a Mile and a half distant, consisting of sixty thousand Horse and Foot; five grand Mandarins attended by a File of Musqueteers, conducted the Agents with great ho­nor to the Secretaries Tent, who hearing of their coming, immediately carry'd them to a great Pavilion, where the Vice-Roy Singlamong sate in Council with the General Taysing Lipovi, besides two other great Lords, the one being Santing Hou Bethetok, and the other Haitankon, Governor of Sinksieu.

The Floors of this Royal Pavilion were Matted; had three publick Gates or Entrances close by one another; thorow the middle most and greatest the Vice-Roy passes only, and his Attendants thorow the other two. Coming close to the Vice-Roy and General, the Agents were order'd to sit down and deliver their Letters, which they did with great Ceremony; the Presents also were presented and deliver'd to the Lords; all which were receiv'd very courte­ously, but they would not accept their Presents, before they had a Warrant for so doing, by an answer from the Emperor at Peking. But they kindly ac­cepted of the small Presents which the Admiral Bort had sent them; being twelve Pound and two Ounces of Amber-Beads, strung on a Thred, to the number of twenty five; one Amber Hour-Glass, and an Amber Cup.

The Presents from the Lord General and Council of Batavia, sent to thePresents for the Vice-Roy. Vice-Roy, were these following:

  • One Piece of
    • Scarlet
    • Green Cloth.
    • Blue Cloth.
    • One half Piece of Red Cloth.
  • One Piece of
    • Red Crown Serge.
    • Grass Green Crown Serge.
    • Blue Crown Serge.
    • Musk Colour Crown Serge.
    • Black Crown Serge.
  • [Page 83]One Musquet, Gilt and Polish'd.
  • One Fire-Lock, Gilt and Glaz'd.
  • One pair of Polish'd Pistols, Gilt, with Holsters.
  • One pair of Pocket Pistols.
  • One Sword with a Golden Hilt.
  • Twenty Ounces of Blood Coral, upon one String, in an hundred and ten pieces.
  • Sixteen Ounces of Blood Coral, in one Polish'd Branch.
  • One Pound and four Ounces of Am­ber Beads, in fifty five pieces.
  • One great Bengael
    A kind of Iapan Chest of Drawers.
  • Ten pieces of fine white Linnen.
  • One Pikol of the best Cloves.
  • One Case of Rose-Water.
  • Two hundred and sixty Katty of San­dal-wood, in three pieces.

The Vice-Roy and General falling in Discourse with the Agents, ask'd how long they had been from Batavia? Whereupon they answer'd, about seventy days: Then they ask'd, in what time they could come from Holland to China? Answer was made, in about eight Months; at which they marvel'd exceed­ingly, and likewise at their answer to the question, If there were any Horses, Cows, Hogs, Sheep, Fruit, and Herbage? and they reply'd, By thousands, and more than in China. Next they enquir'd, Why they came with such a Fleet on their Coast? Whereto the Agents said, To serve the mighty Emperor of China, and to prosecute that great Pyrate Coxinga, to do him all the damage they could, both by Sea and Land; because, said they, He without ever giving any no­tice or reasons thereof, came with an Army, in a Warlike Fleet, the last Year in April, and set upon the Netherlanders in the Islands of Formosa and Tayowan, and in nine Months time, not only made himself Master of the Countrey, but also took the Castle Zelandia from them into his own possessi­on; therefore we seek to unite with the Emperor of China his Forces, and make a League with him, to Engage Coxinga, both by Sea and Land, till we have Conquer'd and brought him under the subjection of his Imperial Ma­jesty: Whereupon the Vice-Roy and General Reply'd, The Islanders of Que­muy, and Eymuy have already Treated on Peace, and made ready their Ambas­sadors to come to the Court of Peking, to obtain the Emperor's Ratification. Being ask'd upon what Articles, they began to smile, and answer'd, they could not tell.

Then the Hollanders enquir'd, if they knew where their Prisoners were? and if there was no likelihood to get them releas'd? They reply'd, they were in Quemuy, and that they would use their best endeavors in a short time to send them to their Ships. Then the Ambassadors propos'd, if they might not take possession of some place on the Main Continent of China, or on some Island, for the Harboring their Ships? They answer'd, you are free to choose any good place, either on the Main, or any Island where you please, and to take possession of it; and likewise to put into all Havens, Bays, and Rivers on the Coast of China, to take in Water and Firing, buy Provisions, and in bad Wea­ther seek for a safe Harbor. To which purpose We will Command Our Sub­in all Havens, Bays, and Rivers, to aid and assist you, which We doubt not but they will perform.

The Agents asking them to Grant them leave for the disposing those few Merchandize for Money, which were loaden in their Ships, to pay and refresh their Men with. The Vice-Roy and General answer'd, That they had no [Page 84] Power, but they must have Order from the Emperor at Peking; but had they moved it before, they might perhaps have had Authority to Grant.

After these Discourses ended, every one according to the fashion of the Countrey, was placed by himself at a Table; viz. the Vice-Roy Singlamong, the General Taysang Lipovi, the Admiral Santing Houbethetok, the Governor of Zwam­sifoe, the Vice-Admiral Van Campen, Constantine Nobel, and Bodel the Assistant, beside several Mandarins. Their Meat was all brought and set upon the Ta­bles in Golden Chargers; and their Drink fill'd out in Cups of Gold, rare­ly Imboss'd; so that their Entertainment was very splendid. After Din­ner, the Vice-Roy carry'd them through his whole Army, and shew'd them his Forces, making some of his Soldiers to be Exercis'd before them. Towards the Evening, the Agents taking their leave, returning humble thanks for the Honor they had receiv'd, they Mounted their Horses, and Rode towards their Lodgings, where the remainder of the Feast and Banquets which they had left at Dinner was brought after them; and according to the manner of the Countrey, they were visited and Complemented by divers Persons of Quality.

The fifth being Thursday, the Agents prepar'd themselves to deliver theirThe Agents go to the General Lipovi. Excellencies Letters from Batavia, to the General Taysang Lipovi, with the Let­ter, and small Presents sent to the same Lord, from Admiral Bort; viz. One Pound and four Ounces of Amber; one String of fifty five Corals; one Am­ber Hour-Glass; with a tender of the other Presents sent from Batavia, which were yet on board.

About eight a Clock, the Tartars brought eight Horses to the Agents Quar­ters, with which, they Rode with their Attendants into the Field, about a Ca­non shot from the Vice-Roy, to the General Lipovi.

Coming into his Presence, the Agents made their Obeisance, delivering the Letter, and were commanded to sit down; with the Letter they also proffer'd him the Presents, which were for the same reasons as the Vice-Roy Singlamong gave, refus'd. The Contents of the Letter were thus.

John Maetzuiker Governor, and the Council for the Netherland States in the Countrey of India, send this Letter with our kind Salutation, to Taisang Lipovi General, and Deputy Governor of the Territory Fokien, for the Great Emperor of Tartary and China.

SO soon as Our Governor of Tayowan, had receiv'd Your Highness's Letter, and understood that You would in a short time March with a great Ar­my against Coxinga, that all means possible might be us'd thereto; so by Our Order, he prepar'd five Men of War, which he sent to the Bay of Ingeling, to Engage with the foremention'd Coxinga; but the Ships were by unexpected bad Weather stopt in their Voyage; after which We also had the Misfor­tune, that Coxinga after a ten Months Siege took Our Castle of Tayowan; but had the Commander of it been a Valiant Soldier, (who is to be sufficiently punish'd for his Cowardise) it could not possibly have fal'n into his Pos­session.

All these Accidents and Misfortunes have occasion'd, that We have not been in a condition to serve you, and satisfie Singlamong and Your Highness's Desires: Therefore We entreat You not to take it ill, nor think that We have been wanting in Our Endeavors; for We heartily Declare, joyntly [Page 85] with the Emperor of China, to seek and use all means to Ruin Coxinga and his Party; with this Proviso, that We may put into all Harbors, and drive an unmolested Trade; and also to take a place in possession on the Continent of China, without which We should not be able to do Coxinga the intended Da­mage: So that We desire Your Highness to be assisting to us in this Business, and We promise if that may be perform'd, to clear the Chinesy Seas from that Pirate.

And to shew that We on Our part, really intend what We Propose; We have at present sent to the Bay of Hoksieu twelve Men of War, and a con­siderable number of Soldiers, furnish'd out with all things fit for the Service, in whose sight, We believe Coxinga will not dare to venture forth to Sea. The Admiral Balthazar Bort, whom We have made Chief Commander of them, hath Order to joyn with Your Highness's Forces, and prosecute all such Adventures as shall happen; to which, God grant a good and happy Event.

To Salute the Lord Singlamong, and Your Highness, in Our behalfs, and to speak with You about several Affairs; We have expresly sent with these Letters, Our Agent Constantine Nobel, whom We desire Your Highness to re­ceive Courteously, and Credit his Words; for all things shall be to Our Content, what he shall Treat with Your Highness about; and as a sign of Our good Inclination towards You, We send to Your Highness the under­written Presents, with Request, that Your Highness would be pleas'd to accept of.

  • One Piece of
    • Green Cloth.
    • Blue Cloth.
    • Black Cloth.
    • Half a Piece of Scarlet.
    • Half a Piece of Stammel, in one Case.
  • One Piece of
    • Red Crown Serges in a Bale.
    • Grass Green Crown Serges in a Bale.
    • Blue Crown Serges in a Bale.
    • Musk Colour Crown Serges in a Bale.
    • Black Crown Serges in a Bale.
  • One long Fowling-Piece.
  • One pair of Pistols and Holsters.
  • One Sword with a Gilded Hilt, in a Case.
  • Eighteen Ounces and a half of Blood Coral, in an hundred and eight pieces.
  • Three Pound and three Ounces of Am­ber, in four pieces.
  • One Pound and an Ounce of Blood Coral, in fifty four Pieces, in a Box.
  • Six Pieces of fine white Linen, in a Pack.
  • Half a Pikol of Cloves, in a Bag.
  • A Case of Rose-Water.
  • An hundred eighty five Pound of San­dal-Wood in three Pieces.
Iohn Maetzuiker.

The Letter to the Vice-Roy was written almost after the same manner, viz. to Request a Free Trade through the Empire of China.

After delivery of the Letters, and Complements from the Lord General and Council, with Wishes of long Life to his Highness Lipovi, that he might Tri­umph over his Enemies; they fell into Discourse about business concerning the occasion of their coming thither; as in the Audience the day before, the [Page 86] General had understood already: They Requested him that he would be assist­ing to the Vice-Roy, in the releasing of the Hollanders, in number thirty nine, thirteen Men, six Women, seven Children, and thirteen Slaves and Slavesses) which were said to be Imprison'd on the Islands Euymuy, or Quemuy, and ex­change them for a Mandarin, and his Servants, being of Coxinga's Party, and came over with the Agents from Batavia; whereupon General Lipovi promis'd to do his best Endeavors, and send the releas'd Prisoners aboard.

The General being also ask'd, If the Netherlanders might not Sail in and out of the Bays, Havens, and Rivers on the Coast of China, to fetch Water and Wood, and buy Provision for their Money, or in time of bad Weather, to come into any Harbor. He answer'd, All Havens, Bays, and Rivers are free­ly open for you, to fetch Water, Wood, and buy Provision; nay, that which is more, said he, We will from this time forward, send to all Harbors, Bays, and Rivers, that are inhabited by the Subjects of this Empire, to aid and assist you in all things; and if you want Money, We will furnish you with it.

Lastly, being ask'd, If his Excellency could not assist the Netherlands in the permitting of a free Trade through the Empire: He reply'd, That to promise such a thing was not in his Power, but must be granted by the Emperor at the Court of Peking; yet promis'd, that he would write in their behalf about it to the Emperor, if possible, to grant them a free Trade, which was a business that the Merchants in the City Hoksieu much Requested and long'd for. But the Ge­neral Lipovi wonder'd extreamly, that the Admiral Bort should go out of the River Hoksieu with twelve Men, leaving only one behind with the Presents, when as, said he, the Admiral Borts intentions are not known to the Vice-Roy nor my self; which seem'd very strange to the Agents themselves.

This Discourse ended, they were Treated and Serv'd in Silver Dishes, Plates, and Goblets, Emboss'd after the same manner as at the Vice-Roy's.

Dinner being ended, the Agents desir'd leave to depart, but the General Lipovi modestly intreated them to stay, and be Merry a little longer; asking them likewise if they had ought else to impart to him; whereupon they an­swer'd, Nothing but what they had already acquainted his Excellency with, viz. the releasing of their Prisoners; On which he made answer, that he would loose no time, but do his best endeavor, and shorly send them aboard.

Then the Agents enquir'd about Coxinga's Death; to which the General reply'd, That he had been Deceas'd a considerable time, and that those of the Isles of Quemuy and Eymuy had Treated with them about a Peace, and were send­ing Ambassadors to Peking, to get the Emperor to ratifie it.

Lastly, Seeing their importunity for dispatch, he said, Why are you so hasty in all your Business? every thing must have its time. About eighteen days hence, I am to be at Hoksiu, with the Vice-Roy Singlamong, then We will con­sult together with the Governor of Hoksiu, if you may sell those Commodities that are in your Ships, which to my judgment may be done by the way of connivance.

The Agents having thus receiv'd answers, rewarding the Servants, took their leaves, and Rode to the Inn, whither all the Meat that was left on their Tables was brought in Chinesy That is, Baskets. Suebas.

About the Evening, nineteen Jonks came thither from the Isles of Quemuy and Eymuy, Laden with Pepper, Cloth, and other Merchandize; wherefore none of the Netherlanders were permitted to go that day, nor the next out of their Lodgings.

[Page 87]Yet the Agents sent out Ships to enquire what those of the Isles Barter'd their Commodities for, who coming back, inform'd them, that they ex­change Rice and other Commodities; for the Inhabitants on those Isles, want­ed Provision extreamly, because the Tartars had Burnt and Ruin'd all the Towns, Villages, and Hamlets, which stood along the Shore, on the Main of China, leaving nothing but heaps of Rubbish to testifie their former being.

Neither were any People allow'd to live within three Leagues of the Shore, for those that were found in the foremention'd Limits, were put to Death without Mercy, so to prevent all manner of supply, either of Provisions or Merchandize to go from those or the Main to their Associates, the publick Enemy.

In the Evening came three Negro's, who could speak Portuguese, and running away from Makou, a Factory of Portugal, were now in service amongst the Tar­tar Horse; these entring the Agents Lodgings, fell upon the Hollanders with re­proachful Language.

The seventh being Saturday, the Agents Rode in the Morning with theirThe Agents address them­selves to the Vice-Roy, and General in the Army. Attendants to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Lipovi into the Army, with Request to both, That they would be pleas'd to Sign what they had in words promis'd them, that they might give it to their Masters, the Lord Ge­neral, and the Lords of the Indian Council, and to the Admiral Bort, viz. that they promis'd to do their best endeavors, if it were possible, to send the Pri­soners aboard the Hollanders Ships; and secondly, that they may put into all Harbors, Havens, and Rivers, on the Coast of China with their Ships, and to Sail to and from all Islands, to get Water, Firing, and Provisions for Money, for their Sea-men; and in bad Weather, choose any good Harbor to secure their Vessels in. Thirdly, That those Goods which were in their Ships, might be privately sold in Hoksieu; whereto the Vice-Roy answer'd about eighteen or twenty days since, (as I said before) I am to be in Hoksieu, then I will con­sult with the Governor, if you may sell those Goods there, which you have brought in your Ships, which I no ways doubt.

But as to what concerns the Journey of your Forces with ours, to Ruine Coxinga and his Party, there is no more to be said of it, for those of the Isles are now Treating with us concerning a Peace, so that the Admiral must be si­lent therein; yet if he should chance to meet with any of their Jonks, or Ves­sels at Sea, or in Harbors, Havens or Rivers, he may take and carry them away; nevertheless, it would be better to let them pass, rather than to disturb the Coast of China with such sudden Alarms.

Then the Agents made a complaint to the Vice-Roy, and General of the three Negro's, that abus'd them the other Night; whereupon they were im­mediately brought, and severely punish'd before them.

Lastly, The Vice-Roy desir'd the Ambassadors, that their followers would stay and be merry with them, and shew some skill in their way of Dancing, but they making excuses for them, and taking their leave, went to Sinksieu.

The eighth being Sunday, in the Morning, the Chinesy Interpreter Lakka, with the two Hoksiean Mandarins (belonging to the Vice-Roy's Mother) were sent to the Vice-Roy in the Army, to request, that the Agents might return to Hoksieu.

After some stay, the Vice-Roy sent some of his Servants with fifteen Hor­ses Sadled and very richly furnish'd to their Lodgings, to carry them thorow the City to the Army.

[Page 88]Having therefore made ready some small Presents, they mounted, and rode directly to the Army, addressing themselves in an humble manner to the Ge­neral, and the rest of the Captains, giving them thanks for the Honor they had receiv'd. Hereupon, according to order, the Interpreter Lakka appearing, prof­fer'd the Vice-Roy, in the Vice-Admiral Iohn van Campen's Name, a great Case with fifteen Flasks of Brandy, sixteen Rummers, sixteen Beer-glasses, six hand­som Knives, with a Bever Hat.

The General Taising Lipovi receiv'd from the Hands of the same Interpreter, in the Admirals Name, a Bever Hat, a pair of Pistols and Holsters, eight Flasks of Brandy, eight with Spanish Wine, three Knives, three Rummers, and three Beer-glasses.

The Presents given to Haitangkong, Governor of Hoksieu, was a Castor, six Dutch Knives, three Rummers, three Beer-glasses, six Flasks with Spanish Wine, and six with Brandy.

The Lord Santing Houbethetok, Admiral of the Sea, and Governor of the City Zwansifoe, was also presented with a Castor, five Flasks of Spanish Wine, and five of Brandy, three Rummers, three Beer-glasses, and five Dutch Knives; all which, though of a small value, were accepted with extraordinary kind­ness.

After this, the Agents had a long Discourse with these four Great Ministers, who promis'd to assist them in all that lay within their Power, alledging, as a proof thereof, That they had already sent their Generals Letter to the Empe­ror, and written in their behalf; so that they did not doubt to get them Li­cence for a Free Trade through the whole Empire: But at last the Vice-Roy added,

You Hollanders must not be too hasty; for We are not to be forc'dVice-Roy's Discourse to the Hollanders. to grant any thing to you; much less can We joyn our Forces, and make a League with you, against the grand Pyrate Coxinga, both by Sea and Land, before We have Order from the Emperor at his Court in Peking.

We have (continu'd he) Power to perform what We have promis'd you; As, Freedom to put into all Havens, Bays, and Rivers lying on the main Coast of China and the adjacent Isles, to fetch Water, Wood, and buy Provision, and furnish your selves with other Necessaries; nay, We will accommodate you with it upon a free Accompt: Nay more, you have full Licence to take a convenient place in possession, which is pro­vided of a good Harbor, either on the main Coast of China, or on one of the Islands in the River Hoksieu, or on one of these Places, Tenhai, Sotiha, Kitat, or Onkia, every one of which have large and safe Havens for the accommodati­on of many Ships.

As to what concerns your Prisoners, We will speedily send away Letters to the Governors of the Islands Quemuy and Eymuy, to inquire if they be there? If so, We promise to procure their Liberty, and send them aboard your Ships.

Lastly, The Vice-Roy and General caus'd the Interpreter Lakka to tell them, ‘That if they would stay four or five days in Sinksieu, they should have an Answer of their Letters from the Governors of the Islands, and so hear if the Prisoners be there, or not: But if they would depart, they must tarry six­teen or seventeen days in Hoksieu, for the Vice-Roy and Generals coming thither, because they were desirous to see their Forces and Fleet; mean while they would consult with the Provincials of Hoksieu, and then give their Resolution by the Governor, Whether the several Cargoes which they [Page 89] had in their Ships might not be sold in private.’ Likewise the Interpreter be­ing so commanded, further told them, ‘That it had been better that their Ad­miral had staid in the River Hoksieu, and not gone to Sea, because he would effect little by so doing; for along the Sea-Coast we have nothing but ru­in'd Cities and Villages, where some poor Fishermen, with their Vessels and Nets, with leave of the Governors, live to maintain themselves, because all the greatest Towns and Villages in those Parts were by the Emperors Order pull'd down to the Ground, to prevent the sending of Provisions and Merchandise to the Islands Eymuy and Quemuy, by which means Coxinga and his great Forces being much straightned, he betook himself, with all his Ar­my and Jonks, to Formosa, and not onely won that, but Tayowan also, leaving onely some small Garrisons of Soldiers on those Isles; yet if by the Treaty now on Foot a Peace be concluded, the Hollanders may easily obtain it of us again.’

Hereupon the Vice-Admiral Campen directed the Interpreter to tell the Vice-Roy, ‘That the Hollanders hoped, that now would have been the onely time to enter into a League with the Great Cham of Tartary, and Emperor of China, that joyning their Forces, they might reduce all under the Subjection of his Imperial Majesty.’

Whereupon the Vice-Roy return'd, ‘That is done already, and needs no more to be spoken of: We are now at a Cessation of Arms with the Gover­nors of the Islands; but if the Emperor hath or will accept of the Peace, We know not; yet it hath proceeded thus far, that young Coxinga and all his People will obey, and submit themselves to the Emperor, by shaving off their Hair, except one Tuft, and also become Tributaries; onely they de­mand a peculiar Government, and Garrisons for their own Soldiers; which whether the Emperor will grant, is much to be doubted: However, you must stay sixty or seventy days for an Answer from the Emperor at Peking, viz. If you shall have a Free Trade granted through all China? Which We suppose may be done.’

But Van Campen order'd the Interpreter Lakka to tell the Vice-Roy and Ge­neral, ‘That in Peking were many subtile Jesuits and Priests, who bore great spleen to the Hollanders, and sought to scandalize and make them seem odious to the Emperor, because of their difference in Religion among themselves, and likewise for the War maintain'd by the Hollanders against the two Mighty Kings of Spain and Portugal, to whom these Jesuits and Priests were Confessors.’

The Vice-Roy and General made answer, ‘That for the same Reason must the Tartars, who under their Emperor the Great Cham of Tartary, have by force of Arms subdu'd and taken the whole Empire of China, be accounted a despicable People by the Jesuits, because they had done the same thing with the Hollanders; adding, That the Hollanders were the welcomer to them in China, and that they would look to the Priests and Jesuits somewhat better than they had done heretofore.’ Thus ended the Discourse.

Then the Vice-Roy and General, in the presence of many great Mandarins, entertain'd the Agents and their Retinue, who sate every one at a particular Table, furnish'd with variety of Meat, serv'd in Gold and Silver Dishes, and being very merry, drunk the Emperors, and the Hollanders General Iohn Maet­zuiker's Health.

Then the Vice-Roy presented each of them with two Pieces of Silk Stuffs, [Page 90]


and a Silver Plate, whereon their Names were engraven in Characters or Let­tersSilver Plates given by the Vice-Roy to the Agents▪ of Gold: These Plates serv'd them as a Pass, with which they might, without danger, travel through all the Empire of China, and every where be acknowledg'd as Lavyaes, that is, Lords.

The General likewise gave them each two Pieces of Chinese Silk Stuffs, and one Silver Plate; for which the Agents humbly return'd them both thanks, and likewise for the Honor and Favor which they had been pleas'd to shew them.

The Plate given by the General to Van Campen was the biggest and thickest, weighing above twenty Ounces, and eight or nine Inches in Diameter: The undermost or greatest part is quite round, and neatly imprest in the middle with six gilded Chinese Letters; the Edges about it embost with Flowers, and gilt. On the top, for an Ornament, was like a Handle, a piece Scallop'd, the Edges gilt, and the middle wrought with Leaves and Flowers.

The other Plate, being the Vice-Roys, was much lighter, weighing not above six Ounces, very thin, and no way so well gilded or flowr'd at the Edges, but onely on the Handle, having in the middle sixteen or seventeen Chinese Characters.

Besides these, every one of the Attendants had a Silver Cognizance given them; but much lesser and lighter than the other.

Upon the Hollanders first arrival, the Vice-Roy sent a Letter to the Empe­ror, informing him of their Intention; and likewise another to the Admiral Bort, whom he desir'd to stay for his coming, because he was very desirous to see their Fleet, and to that end, for encouragement, proffer'd to furnish them with Provisions at his own Charge: But Bort being gone with the Fleet to­wards the North, before the Vice-Roys Letter came to his Hands, and the Vice Roy coming afterwards in vain, it was resented very ill; yet at last he seem'd pacified, when told, That it hapned through the mistake of not deli­vering the Letters in good time.

[Page 91]And now the Ambassadors having leave to return, took their Farewel with many Ceremonies, complemented by the Vice-Roy and General after the manner of the Tartars, then wishing them a safe Return, they commanded seven Mandarins to conduct them through the Army, beyond all the Guards: From whence they rode over a great Bridge, into the City, to their Lodgings.

The City Sinksieu, lying eleven days Journey into the Countrey, is cutCity Sinksieu. through the middle by a River, which takes its Original out of a Mountain, about an Hours walk beyond the Fort Lantyn: It stands inviron'd with a Stone Wall, broad enough for a Cart and Horses to go upon, and set full of long Poles, pointed with a sharp Iron like a Scythe, with which they can cut a Man asunder at one stroke.

The City hath handsom Streets▪ pav'd with Free-stone, high Buildings, large Pagodes or Temples of blue Stone, several Houses and Shops well furnish'd with all manner of Silks, Pourcelan, Linnen, and other necessary Commodities.

All the Windows of the Houses were fill'd with Spectators, and the Streets on both sides crowded with thousands of People, who out of curiosity came to see the Hollanders, many of whom, as they pass'd by, wish'd them all happi­ness, and a prosperous Journey.

Being past through the City with all their Train, which consisted in seven­teen Hollanders, about a hundred to carry their Baggage, and fifty Horse and Foot, sent by the Vice-Roy as their Guard and Convoy, they rode in four days to Zwansifoe, from whence in the Evening they came to a great Village nam'd Chinhoe, where they were welcom'd by three Mandarins, and conducted into a spacious Pagode, wherein the Images sate on Stools and Tables, being there kindly entertain'd and treated by the Priests.

The ninth the Ambassadors set forth very early out of Chinhoe, and travel­ling all day, at night arriv'd at a strong Hold, where they intended to take up their Lodging for that night; but they were carried into a Mandarins House, and accommodated very generously, where amongst others they saw three La­dies, one of whose Feet (with Shoes and all) were but six, another five and a half, and the third five Inches long, occasion'd from the straight swadling of their Legs and Feet in their Infancy, after the Chinese manner; for Women with great Feet they account homely, and those that have little Feet, Beauties; so that the bigger they are, the lesser they strive to make their Feet.

The tenth setting forward again, they travell'd by several ruin'd Villages; They saw also nine strong Castles, and many long▪hair'd Chineses Heads, hanging in Baskets on Trees; for all the Chineses of Coxinga's Party, which re­fus'd to cut their Hair, were (when found) by the Emperors Command de­collated, and their Heads hang'd up in that manner.

In the Evening they came to the City Tamwa, where they were receiv'd byCity Tamwa. three Mandarins, conducted to a great House like a Court of Guard, and enter­tain'd with variety of Meats.

The Eleventh in the Morning they left Tamwa, and proceeding on their Journey, went through several other Villages and Fortifications; in the af­ternoon coming to the Castle Tamhoe, they retir'd thither to rest themselves,Fort Tamhoe. because Constantine Nobel was much troubled with an Ague, where the Governor entertaining them with variety of Dishes, they made by several Presents a ci­vil Return.

The twelfth they left Tamhoe, and travell'd that day by five great Villages, and many Garrisons, and at Noon arriv'd at the City Zwansifoe, where met byCity Zwansifoe. [Page 92] the Mandarins, and conducted into an antient Building: After a little stay, they pass'd on to Santing Houbethetok his House, a Man of great Quality, and Go­vernor of this City, whom they proffer'd the Presents sent him by the Admi­ral Bort, viz. A pair of Pistols, five Dutch Ells of Scarlet, and four Pieces of fine Linnen; but because they seem'd to Van Campen and Nobel too little, they added a Demy-castor, five Dutch Knives, three Rummers, three Beer-glasses, five Flasks of Brandy, and five of Sack; all which Santing Houbethetok re­ceiv'd, and caus'd to be brought to him by his Servants; and having treated the Ambassadors very splendidly, gave each of them two Chinese Rolls of Silk, and a great Silver Medal, whereon with Golden Letters his Name was engra­ven, which was a Pasport, signifying, That whoever bore it were Persons of Quality, and so to be look'd upon as no less than Lavyaes, that is, Lords, or Fa­thers. This done, they began a long Discourse about the Dutch and Chinese Wars, and also that of Coxinga. Lastly, they desir'd his Assistance in the pro­curing for them a Free Trade in China; of which he seem'd no ways to doubt, saying, Were your Ships here hard by, or in the River, I would buy all your Commodities. Having discours'd a little while, and been plentifully feasted, they took their leaves, and rode to their Lodging, where divers Mandarins, out of curiosity, came to visit and speak with them, and bringing Fruit and Sweet-meats, kept them company most part of the Night.

The thirteenth at day-break the Agents left Zwansifoe, and travell'd until they reach'd Zwansehoo, a Place of very considerable strength, into which theyFort Zwansehoo. were receiv'd by three Mandarins, who gave them a very handsom Entertain­ment.

The fourteenth, being Saturday, they left Zwansehoo, and going on all day, came towards Evening to a well-guarded Place call'd Enwacho, where they took their Repose that Night in a Temple, in which they were nobly accom­modated by the Priests.

On Munday Morning, the sixteenth, the Agents set forward again, and that night reach'd the City Enwa, into which being conducted by three great Man­darins, City Enwa. they were brought into a great Wall'd Pagode, wherein above fifty Chi­nese Priests having their abode, gave them a welcome Reception.

Many Apartments were in this Pagode, every one furnish'd with various Images, which being as big as the Life, sate cloth'd in rich Apparel, on Stools, round about Tables: All the Priests offer'd Incense to these their Idols, before whom also burnt many Lamps, with taboring on a Drum, and singing.

The next day the Vice-Admiral Van Campen presented the Priests with twen­ty Crowns of Silver Coin, for which they return'd him many complemental Thanks, after the Chinese manner.

The same day proceeding further on, they pass'd a most delightful and rich Countrey, which had not been wasted by the War, but remain'd still in its full Glory: Here they saw divers well-built and wall'd Villages, and likewise many antient Structures, and beautiful Tombs, each of which had a conveni­ent Entrance, and within that an arched Passage leading to the Grave, where they burnt Offerings to the Dead. There were also Tombs on which lay great Turtles carv'd of blue Stone, and others adorn'd with Columns, and arch'd above.

In the Evening they arriv'd at Fort Lantongzwa, standing on Mount Tishoo, Fort Lantongzwa. into which they were introduc'd by three Mandarins, and conducted to the Go­vernors House, who entertain'd them nobly, and had a long Discourse about the Dutch, Tartar, and Chinese War.

[Page 93]


The eighteenth they began their Journey about Noon, not able sooner to get Men to carry them and their Goods, and travell'd towards the Evening through a great unwall'd Village, where they were invited to a civil Treat by a grand Mandarin.

Here the Agents found five Chineses, which a few days before were fled with a Jonk from Tayowan, amongst which was one who smatter'd so much broken Dutch, that Van Campen could understand when he told him, That Coxinga, and the General Bethekok, two such Leaders that China afforded not the like, being overpower'd and straightned by the Tartars, both despairing, ended their days in Tayowan, where since hapned such a Famine, that many died, suffering by extremity of want.

At the Evening arriving at the City Hokzwa, three Mandarins led them to a spacious House, whereto all Governors, when they travel about Publick Af­fairs, are conducted; for these Houses, as we said before, have many large Chambers▪ furnish'd with good Beds, and all manner of Furniture, both for their Lodging and Diet, with large Out-rooms for Servants, and Stables for Horses. The Governor of the Town sent the Agents good store of fresh Provisions. After Supper many Grandees of the City, and two Mandarins that came lately from Peking, visited them, who told them, that all the News there was, that the Peace between the Emperor and Coxinga would not be con­cluded, because the Islanders of Eymuy and Quemuy would have their own Go­vernors and Soldiers. They also acquainted them of the sudden Death of Coxinga's Envoy in his Journey to Peking, and that there was no News of send­ing another in his stead.

Thursday, being the nineteenth, a great Train of People rode through the City, that came from Hoksieu, and were going to Sinksieu, to the Vice-Roy, with Clothes and other Goods, and also with News of his Wives Mothers Death, which forc'd the Agents to stay for Men to carry their Necessaries. Mean while the Vice-Admiral Campen went to view the City, and walking [Page 94] along, met with a Slave that was run away from Macaw, and serv'd now in the Chinese Army as a Soldier, who leading him out of the City, shew'd him a Christian Temple, where, according to the Slaves Relation, Father Martinius, famous for his Writing of the Chinese Atlas, and other remarkable Antiquities of that People, died thirty seven days before.

Anno 1653. this Martinius came with a Portuguese Frigat from Macasser to Ba­tavia, Martinius Hist. of Chi­na, publish'd in 1653. after having been ten or twelve Years in the Empire of China, where he preach'd the Gospel, and converted, as they say, above two thousand Souls, and went the same Year from Batavia in the good Ship the White Elephant, com­manded by the foremention'd Iohn Van Campen, to Holland; but the Ship run­ning into Bergen in Norway, Martinius travell'd from thence through the Sound to Amsterdam, where he publish'd the foremention'd Works.

At Noon leaving Hokzwa, and proceeding on their Journey, in the EveningLeave Hokzwa▪ they enter'd a Village, and according to custom went into a great Pagode, where they were courteously entertain'd by the Priests, and took repose that Night.

On Friday Morning, being the twentieth, setting out very early, they rode through a Village abont an English Mile and a half long, which the Night be­fore was the greater part burnt down by Thieves, and in the Fire about a hun­dred Men, Women, and Children consum'd to Ashes, or otherwise murther'd.

About Noon having pass'd the Village, they were brought to a great House where the Chineses kept Watch. Here was but one Mandarin, who receiv'd the Agents very friendly, and seem'd heartily to rejoyce that they had not shared in the last nights Calamity. In the afternoon they took their leave, and went, being guided by the Mandarins, to the Shore of an In-land River, where they and their Retinue Embarqu'd themselves in a Vessel that lay ready for to carry them to Hoksieu. Towards Night they came to Lavyit, or Anlavja, a Strong­hold,Fort Anlavja. built on the top of a Mountain: Near which was a Ferry for the ease of Travellers.

The one and twentieth, being Saturday, in the Morning they came to Lamthay, belonging to Hoksieu, where they were kindly receiv'd by divers Mandarins, and the Governor of the City Engeling, who nobly entertain'd them. After Dinner they were conducted through the City, and shew'd may antient Edifices, and spacious Pagodes, or Temples. At Night they return'd to their Vessel, not­withstanding the Governor of Minjazen proffer'd them his House for their Lodgings.

The two and twentieth they sent the Chinese Interpreter Lakka, with two Mandarins, to the City Hoksieu before them, and prepared themselves with some Presents of Scarlet, Crown-Serge, and Bays, to give to Han­lavja the Governor of Minjazen, and likewise to the Ruler of Hoksieu: who hearing of their arrival by the Interpreter Lakka, sent them fifteen Saddle-Horses: But Van Campen not being very well dispos'd, staid in the Barque, ordering Constantine Nobel to take the Presents, and ride with all their Atten­dants to Hoksieu, where after a kind Reception, towards Evening he return'd to Lamthay, to the Vessel.

The next day, being the twenty third, the Mandarin of Lamthay invited the Agents to Dinner, which they would willingly have put off; but fearing his Displeasure, they granted his Request. Many great Mandarins, besides the Go­vernors of Minjazen and Engeling, were present at this Feast, which was ended to the general satisfaction of all, with great jollity and good cheer. The Chi­nese [Page 95] Lords advis'd the Agents to stay seven or eight days longer, to congratu­late the Vice-Roys Return, and for the farther accomplishing their Business; promising them their Assistance in their Request, for selling those Merchan­dizes that were in the Ships.

The twenty fourth, being Tuesday, in the morning Van Campen and Nobel rode both to Hoksieu, to complement the Governor and other Mandarins, and likewise to present them with five Ells of Scarlet, a piece of Crown Serge, and a Demy-Castor; which the foresaid Lords receiv'd very courteously, pro­mising to be assistant to the Agents in the procuring a Free Trade for them, provided they were not too hasty.

About Sun-set the Agents took their leave, and mounting their Horses, rode through a great Throng of People out of the City, and came at Night to their Vessel, lying at Lamthay, where they took their Repose.

The City Hoksieu, otherwise call'd Changcheu, hath many stately Buildings of blue Stone, and several great Pagodes or Temples; being inviron'd with a high Wall, fortified with Bulwarks and deep Ditches, and the Streets well pav'd.

The twenty fifth the Governor of the Fort Engeling, accompanied with se­veral very eminent Mandarins, came to visit the Agents in their Jonk, where they were welcom'd by the Hollanders with Spanish and Rhenish Wine, which having drunk, they spent some time in discoursing about the War.

This Fort of Engeling stands on the Sea-shore, before which is a safe Harbor for Ships: Near the Bay stood formerly a great Town of Trade of the same Name, but was quite ruin'd and raz'd by the Tartars.

But during the Mandarins▪ and Agents Discourse together in their Jonk, came a Tartar, a Soldier of Hanlavia, with a Letter from the Admiral Bort, to the Agents Iohn Van Campen, and Constantine Nobel: The Contents thereof to this purpose.

THis Morning I have understood of your coming back to Hoksieu, from Our Secretary Iohn Melman, sent from Us to the River of Hoksieu to inquire for you, and deliver a Letter to the Governor of Minjazen. Since that being inform'd, as likewise by your Letter written in haste, That the Tartars have concluded Peace with those of Eymuy and Quemuy, from whence We may suppose that they will begin nothing with Us to their prejudice, but rather prevent it (if they have but any opportunity) and to make Satisfacti­on for all Damages (because with this Peace they are become their Subjects) done already, and which hereafter we may do them: To prevent all, We wish that We had the Domburgh Frigat here with us.

Yet nevertheless, We give no such Order by these Presents, that by such sudden alterations we may create no suspitious thoughts in them: But We do hereby send you Our good Sailer the Sea-dog Frigat, that upon the receit hereof you may come to us. This we desire you to observe, that We may hear your Adventures, and what you have effected in your Business, that then We may consult and resolve one with another, what is best to be done in this Affair, for the Benefit of the Publick, and prejudice to the Enemy.

Balthasar Bort.

[Page 96]The Governor of Engeling, with the Mandarin of the Fort, at the Agents Re­quest, provided instantly thirteen Saddle-Horses, whereon they rode to Hok­sieu, to obtain Licence to return to their Ships; whither they came about Noon, and went to the Governor and Mandarins, of whom they desir'd leave to depart to their Fleet; whereto the Governor reply'd, Why so hasty, when you are still weary of your Iourney? It is better for you to stay till the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Lipovi come hither: Your Business hath a good face, and We have writ to the Emperor, at his Court in Peking, on your behalf; and in all likelihood We shall have an Answer back in fifty or sixty days; and in nine or ten days, at farthest, the Vice-Roy and General will be here: It will be requisite that you stay so long, and be present to fetch in the Vice-Roy, which he will take as a great Kindness: Mean while you may come daily to visit the Mandarins, which will much promote your Desires. We do certainly believe, That the liberty of a Free Trade will be permitted you, and likewise to dispose of all those Goods in your Ships. Whereupon the Agents return'd their humble and hearty Thanks, but told them by their Interpreter Lakka, That their Admiral had writ to them to make what haste they could to the Fleet, which lay near the Cape of Tinghay. Whereupon the Governor made Answer, Will they go? Let them do what they please: But first we will eat. Upon which, Meat being brought, every one was set at a distinct Table, according to the fashion of the Countrey, and serv'd in Gold and Silver Chargers. Dinner being past, they had a long Discourse concerning the Chinese and Dutch War; which ended, the Agents took their leaves; then mounting, they rode through the City, and came at last to Lam­thay to their Barque, where having given the Governor and Mandarin of the Fort a Visit, they went aboard their Jonk.

The twenty sixth, being Thursday, the grand Mandarin, Hanlavia, GovernorThe Agents Treatment with Hanlavia. of Minjazen, came in the Morning to the River side, and fetching the Agents with great Ceremony out of the Jonk, invited them to a Treatment: They fearing to incur his displeasure if they refus'd, accepted of his kindness, where they were courteously welcom'd, and saluted by the Servants with loud Accla­mations, crying out, Fueet, that is, Long live; a peculiar Ceremony of great Honor in this Empire, and us'd by none but Persons of great Quality, which generally command their Servants to do it. The Feast ended, they began a long Discourse about the War in Holland and China, which last continu'd twen­ty Years, in which Hanlavia always perform'd great Service for the Cham of Tartary, and was a main Assistant in his Conquests.

He also told them, That he prepar'd himself to bring that grand Pyrate Coxinga under the Emperors Subjection; to which purpose (said he) I am by the Emperors Order sent towards the Sea, not seeing any hopes at all of a Peace between the Cham and Cox­inga, who by Ambassadors sent to the Emperor in Peking much desires it. I also under­stand, That the Hollanders coming into the River Hoksieu, is very acceptable to the Great Cham; so that to obtain liberty for a Free Trade for you through all China, is not to be doubted: Why then (proceeded he) are you so hasly to be gone? You ought rather to have stay'd in the River Hoksieu, till the Vice-Roy and General Lipovi were come, since the Peace with Coxinga will come to no effect.

This Discourse and their Entertainment being ended, the Agents took their leave of the Governor Hanlavia, and other eminent Mandarins, who, according to the manner, wish'd them a Boon Voyage.

Whilst they were sitting at Table, they heard the Word Fueet several times repeated, whereat some of their Attendance bow'd, and others fell flat on the Ground.

[Page 97]The Tartars being ask'd if the Word Fueet signified Holy, they answer'd, No, but it was a Word of Ceremony, by which they partly express'd how their Servants obey'd them, and partly how welcom their Guests were.

The Vice-Admiral Van Campen having gratified the Servants for their Atten­dance, went immediately with his Jonk aboard the Sea-hound Frigat, Com­manded by Iohn Hendrikson, who the next day, being the twenty seventh, weigh'd Anchor, and fell down with the Ebb to the Mouth of the River, that so he might with the first fair Wind sail to the other Ships at Tinghay, where he arriv'd the following day in the Evening, when the Vice-Admiral and Nobel caus'd themselves immediately to be put aboard the Admiral, in the Naerden Frigat, there to give him an account of their Affairs and several Adventures, and especially deliver him the Letters sent him from the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Lipovi; the Contents of which consisted most in the Pro­mises already mention'd by the same Lords to Van Campen and Nobel, of their kind proffer of Friendship, License to put into all Bays, Havens, and Rivers on the Coast of China, with their Ships, either in foul Weather, or otherwise; and likewise to take Water and Wood, and buy Provision for their Sea-men.

The thirtieth, about Noon, Constantine Nobel was sent with the Sea-hound Frigat, and Ter-Boede Pink, from the Fleet to the River Hoksieu, there to pro­mote the Business, and strictly to observe all Passages.

The one and thirtieth the Vice▪ Admiral, though surpris'd with a Pestilen­tial Fever, and great Sickness, was commanded to Sail about the East with six Ships.

The second of November, being Thursday, the Finch went from Tinghay to the River Hoksieu.

The third, by the Admirals Order, two hundred Soldiers were put ashore to drive the Chineses out of Tinghay into the Mountains; but finding them in a good posture of defence, they retreated without effecting any thing.

The fourth the Sea-hound Frigat came again from the River Hoksieu to the Fleet at Tinghay, as also the Finch the next day; and then all the Ships took in Wood.

The sixth the Breukelen Pink set Sail for Batavia, with the Goods that had been taken at Sea, and Letters of Advice concerning the Agents Adventures at Sinksieu, being convey'd beyond the Islands by the Sea-hound Frigat, and Ter-Boede Pink, who on the next day came again to an Anchor with the rest of the Fleet near Tinghay.

The eighth in the Morning Van Campen put to Sea with the Zierikzee, Ankee­veen, and Loenen Frigats, to Cruise Northerly; but being hindred by a Storm and contrary Tides, came to an Anchor again about Noon in ten Fathom Water.

Fryday, the tenth, the Vice-Admiral weigh'd Anchor again, to steer Nor­therly, but came back without any effect; yet soon after they spied fifteen or sixteen Chinese Jonks in the South-West, at a great distance, to chase which, they presently sent the Sea-hound and Calf Frigats, with the Zierikzees Boat, and those of the Ankeveen, full of armed Men; but the Chineses escap'd by their nimble Sailing, onely one Champan, with a few Fish, was taken by the Vice-Admirals Boat near the Shore; and another larger Vessel, deserted by all her Men, was sunk by the Hollanders.

The eleventh, being Saturday, Van Campen went out again with his Frigats, to sail towards the North; but being driven Southerly by a strong contrary [Page 98] Current, he cast Anchor in fourteen Fathom Water, near one of the nether­most Islands of Pakka▪

On Sunday Morning, being the twelfth, they saw two Jonks in the South-West, seeming to steer towards Tinghay, which Van Campen chasing, endeavour'd to get to the Northwards; but labour'd in vain, because of contrary Winds and Tides: at last he was forc'd near the Islands of Pakka, which althoughIslands of Pakka. pretty large, yet are for the most part waste and untill'd, and inhabited by none but Fishers and poor Rusticks: Nevertheless there is good Harbor for Ships, and Refreshments of Water, and Provisions to be had.

The thirteenth, being Munday, Van Campen with the Ebb set Sail North­wards, between the Islands Pakka, in eighteen, nineteen, and twenty Fathom Water; but came, after the Tide spent, to Anchor in thirteen Fathom Water, under the Eastermost Island.

About Noon the Fleet weigh'd to get more towards the North, and against the Evening Anchor'd in eight Fathom Water, about half a League Nor-East­and-by-East from the Eastermost Isle before Pakka.

The fourteenth Van Campen set Sail again with a Nor-Nor-East Wind, in six, seven, and eight Fathom, between the Isles of Pakka▪ and about Noon, forc'd by contrary Tides, came to an Anchor in seven Fathom: Towards Evening weighing again with the Ebb, he let fall his Drag about midnight in eighteen Fathom, gravelly Ground, not far from the place where the Coast of China hath many high Mountains, and broken Land; yet behind them very pleasant and fertile Meadows and Rice-Fields.

The fifteenth setting Sail again, he Anchor'd about Noon under an Isle, in thirteen Fathom Water, gravelly Ground, about Cannon-shot from Shore, whither he sent his Boat to see for Water.

From hence setting Sail, he came into a Bay behind Campens Point, so call'dIohn Van Campen's Bay▪ from himself, where he dropp'd Anchor in five Fathom Water, there being a convenient Harbor, and safe Retreat against hollow Seas and turbulent Winds. On the North side of this Point, lying in twenty six Degrees and fifty one Minutes Northern Latitude, may be seen the Ruines of the City Tikyen, or Ty­kin, formerly a place of great Trade, but lately destroy'd by the Tartars. Here the Zierikzee's Boat was sent ashore, with the Pilot Auke Pieters, and thirteen Men, to fetch Water. Near the Shore, between the Mountains, appear'd a pleasant Valley, flourishing with Rice, Carrots, and all manner of Fruit. You may freely, without fear or danger, sail between the main Coast and these Isles; yet not without some care, because divers Shoals lie near the Coast.

The eighteenth, being Saturday, Van Campen set Sail with his Squadron, the Wind Nor-Nor-East; and laveering it between Campens Point and the fore­mention'd Isles, between seven and thirteen Fathom Water, gravelly Ground, they discover'd the old Zajer Isle East-Nor-East, four or five Leagues distant, in twenty seven Degrees and fifteen Minutes Northern Latitude, and about Noon came to an Anchor in ten Fathom Water, gravelly Ground. In the Night set­ting Sail again, they ran the next day about Noon behind Campens Bay, where they were forc'd to lie till Friday the twenty fourth, by contrary Winds, Tides, and Calms. Towards Night the Finch came also to an Anchor there.

Friday the twenty fourth the Ships went to Sea together, and with a Nor-Nor-East Wind endeavor'd to sail Easterly; but being driven back by the Tide, they came to an Anchor in eight Fathom, and had the North Point of the Island with Brests, South-West, and the old Zajer▪ East and by North. At [Page 99] Night, in the second Watch, when the Tide was almost spent, they weigh'd Anchor again, and the next Evening rode in eight Fathom Water, having the Chinese City Samzwa Nor-East and by East, and the Isle Old Zayer Sou-Sou-East, and Sou-East and by South, and the Isle with Breasts Sou-Sou-West.

The City Samzwa seated on the hanging of a Mountain, and planted roundCity Samzwa▪ about with high Trees, was ruin'd by the Tartars: It boasts a safe Harbor for Ships, to defend them from the Southern and Northern stormy Seasons. The Hollanders going ashore here, found one Pagode or Temple, with divers Images, about fifteen Leagues from Tinghay.

The twenty seventh the Point of Samzwa bearing Westward two Leagues from them, they descry'd a white Cliff in the Sea, about three Leagues from the Shore, and three Isles in the East-Nor-East, and by Observation found themselves at Noon to be in twenty seven Degrees and thirty nine Minutes Northern Latitude.

In the Evening Van Campen came to an Anchor with the Ankeveen Frigat in eleven Fathom Water, gravelly Ground; but the High-land and Meliskerk Fri­gats, with the Loenen and Finch, went behind the Isle of Good Hope. Van Campen in the Night, the Tide favoring him, set Sail again, and was follow'd by the Ankeveen Frigat onely, the other four lying still behind the Isle, without making the Reason thereof known.

The next day, forc'd by Storm to come to an Anchor again in ten Fathom Water, he was driven from two Anchors, towards the seven Rocks a little Southward of Zwatia, not without great danger of Shipwrack.

The City Zwatia, lying in the mouth of a River near the Sea, and also ruin'dCity Zwathia▪ by the Tartars, is inhabited by mean and poor People, which are very slow in rebuilding the same. Opposite to the Nor-West side of the River lies a Village call'd Zwatho, whither most of the Citizens fled, it being not laid waste by the Tartars.

The first of Ianuary, Van Campen concluded, upon Advice of the Ships Coun­cil, by force of a Storm out of the Nor-East and by East, to set Sail again, to get from the Shore; so that he drove down Sou-West and by South, to Brest-Island, and in the afternoon came to an Anchor in the Bay behind Campens Point in nine Fathom.

The other Frigats, and the Finch, lay still at Anchor, contrary to their Orders.

The third, the Ankeveen Frigat, commanded by Iacob Swart, having been bu­sied about getting his Anchors aboard, came and rode by the Vice-Admiral.

The fourth in the afternoon they spied in the Sou-Sou-West between seven­ty and eighty Fisher-Jonks, and other Vessels, standing towards the North, which they let all pass: About the evening they stood to and again, yet were got out of sight next Morning, on which the Captain Auke Pieters was com­manded to go ashore, with fifty Men, to gather Sallad-herbs and Potatoes to refresh their People.

The sixth in the Evening the four other Ships came to an Anchor near Van Campen, having before lain behind the Isles Northward of the River Zwatia.

The eighth in the Morning they spied six Jonks fishing in the Sou-East and by East, behind the Breast-Isle; and in the afternoon, two Ships in the Sou-East, in the Bay of Pakka, and also heard the Report of several Cannon▪ shot from thence; whereupon a Council being call'd, Harmans Symonsz, Comman­der of the High land Frigat, was sent thither, with Order, That when he came [Page 100] to them, he should fire five Guns one after another, if he needed Van Campen's Assistance; if not, to fire none, but come back to the Fleet.

Against the Evening the High-land Frigat came to an Anchor South-West and by South, three Leagues distant from the Fleet.

The ninth in the morning they saw above twenty Fisher-Jonks near the Shore of Pakka, who were putting to Sea to fish; but not being able to get out, were by the Current driven towards the South: Van Campen chas'd them between the Islands; yet the Jonks by their swift sailing, escap'd him.

In the afternoon the Hollanders came again to an Anchor behind Campens Point, in nine Fathom Water, about a small Cannon-shot from the Shore.

The tenth they saw two Frigats in the Bay of Pakka, viz. the Sea-hound, in which the Admiral Bort was, (as they understood the next day) and the High­land, which on the eighth was sent thither for Intelligence.

The eleventh in the morning the Admiral Bort came in the High-land Frigat to an Anchor about half a League from the Vice-Admiral.

Mean while the Admiral Bort had by Storm taken the Fort Kitat, lying inFort Kitat taken by the Netherlanders. the Bay of Pakka, and with it plunder'd all the Towns, Villages, and Hamlets, being twenty in number, belonging thereto: All which he had written to the Vice-Admiral Van Campen, the tenth of the said Month, from the Bay of Pakka; adding thereto, That had he not been detain'd eight days by tempestuous Wea­ther, he had been with him before that time, to find out Zwathia, lying about the North, in hopes there to find several Trading Jonks.

The same day Harman Symonsz went aboard the Vice-Admiral, being sent thither by the Admiral from the Bay of Pakka, with the Letters before-men­tion'd, bringing also with him a small Supply of fresh Victuals, which was equally distributed amongst the Ships.

They found in Kitat nothing but a little Rice, Salt, and a little Lumber, besides twelve Women, and fifteen Youths, which were transported for Ser­vants to Batavia.

The Hollanders fell upon this Place, because some of Coxinga's Party resided there.

The twelfth they descried three Jonks and a Fishers Boat in the North-East, one of them being without a Mast: Van Campen, by the Admirals Order, set Sail towards them with five Ships: That Jonk which had lost her Mast was onely taken, the rest escaping by the advantage of the Tide. In the taken Jonk they found no more but onely Salt, Rice, and Wood. Towards Evening the Frigat came again to the Prize-Jonk, and about eight at Night tow'd her along with them to Campens Point.

In the afternoon the Sea-hound and High-land Frigats, and Ter-Boede Pink, came up to the Vice-Admiral, and at Night Anchor'd South and by West about a League from them.

Wednesday, being the thirteenth, the Ter-Boede was sent from the Fleet to the River Hoksieu, there to stay till Van Campen's Squadron came back from the North.

Against Noon the Overveen Frigat came out of Kitat-Bay, near the Fleet, and turning up Northerly, in the afternoon was forc'd by contrary Winds to lie in seven Fathom water.

About midnight the Fleet weigh'd Anchor, and hearing several Cannons fired, and Van Campen fearing some of the Frigats to be run ashore, sent his Boats thither, and found the Calf to be drove very near the Shore, on which [Page 101] the High-land Frigat had also been fast, but was got off again: whereupon Van Campen return'd.

Ysbrant, Pilot to the Admiral, and another, were sent aboard of the Vice-Admiral, to enquire how many healthy persons he had in his Ship, of Sea­men and Soldiers; and what number of Sea-men he could be able to send ashore fit for Service: whereupon he reply'd, about thirty.

Thursday about Noon the Fleet was in twenty seven Degrees and nineteen Minutes Northern-Latitude, two Leagues and a half from West and by North from Zwamzwa Cape.

In the afternoon about two a Clock the Fleet weighed Anchor again, and in the Morning were within four Leagues North and by East of Zwatia, three Leagues East Nor-East from Cape Elephant, and three Leagues and a half West and by South from Zwamzwa. About Noon the Fleet, forc'd by contrary Winds and Tydes, cast Anchor in eleven or twelve Fathom Water, about three Leagues Nor-West, and Nor-West and by West from the River Zwatia, and two Leagues and a half South-east and by East from Cape Elephant; where Ri­ding all Night, they Sail'd next day toward the North, and soon after turn'd Westward up the River of Zwatia, where the Vice-Admiral had Cruised with six Sail the twenty eighth and twenty ninth of the last Moneth.

The Marks whereby Sea-men may know this River, are towards the North a great white Shelf, and on the Shore many Cliffs.

A little more to the Northward of it lie two Islands, behind which is a safe Harbor.

About Noon the Fleet found themselves in twenty seven Degrees and thirty five Minutes Eastward from the South-Point of the River Zwatia, from whence Sailing West-South-west into the River, they had from six to twenty three Fathom Water, being the shallowest gravelly Ground; and with the same Course they came before Zwatia, where they cast Anchor in seven Fa­thom Water, about a Musquet-shot from the Shore: on which the short-hair'd Chineses stood with Red Flags, (a sign of Peace by them, as the White is with us) in great companies, expecting the Netherlanders, without any offering to come to their Ships. This continu'd a whole hour, when the Admiral Bort Commanded the Guns to be fir'd upon the Town. The Chineses thus rudely saluted, immediately let flie their White Flag in sign of War, and shooting with Musquets and Blunderbusses, flourish'd their Faulchions and Scythes over their Heads, yet betook themselves with all their Movables which they were able to carry out of the City, to flight towards the Mountains; others with their Vessels ran up the River; whereupon the Admiral Bort Commanded the Vice-Admiral Van Campen to go ashore with eight Boats and seven Shallops well Man'd and Arm'd, which Bort himself promis'd to follow. Van Campen Land­ing without any resistance on the Shore, found the City Re-built, and the Houses furnish'd with Tables, Chests, Stools, and Benches, besides abun­dance of Thrash'd and Unthrash'd Rice, call'd Bady, Salt, great store of dry'd and Salt Fish, and also Nets: There appear'd seven large Temples, every one apart in a pleasant Grove, Wall'd round about, and within Pav'd with Blue Stone, where stood many Humane Figures, Cloth'd in all sorts of Stuffs, Caps, Coats, Breeches, Shoes, and Stockings, all, as alive, about Tables on Wax'd Benches or Stools, Gilded; on each Table stood two large square Vessels, or Pots, wherein the Priests burn Incense to their Idols, with perfum'd Calambak, Agar, and Sandal-Wood, which yield a most fragrant smell. [Page 102] On the Tables also lay four pieces of Wood, each a large half Foot long, round on the top, and flat at the bottom, which, to know future events, they throw three times one after another before the Idols.

Towards Evening Van Campen leaving the Shore went aboard again with all his Men, loaden with the best Plunder, and many Images not spoil'd by the Tartars.

Here it is to be observ'd, that many Native Chineses are to be understood byThe Conquer'd Chineses wear their Hair short as the Tartars. the Name of Tartars, viz. those who by shaving off their Hair, leaving onely a long Lock, have yielded themselves to the subjection of the Cham of Tartary.

The seventeenth, being Sunday, in the Morning the Ankeveen Frigat, and the Loenen and Finch Commanded by Ysbrant, Pilot of the Naerden, besides four Boats and a Sloop, Mann'd with Armed Soldiers and Sea-men, Sail'd up the River to surprize five Jonks laden with Goods, and said to lie for their safety a great way up the River, and if possible to bring them to the Fleet; but if not worth the trouble, to burn them. About Noon they came up with seven Jonks and three Coya's (which are a kind of Vessels lesser than Jonks, as our Mackrel-boats,) which Boarding, many Chineses with their Coats of Mayl, Helmets and Arms, leap'd over-board and swam, and others escap'd ashore in their Champans, and the rest, being most of them Women and Chil­dren, were taken by the Netherlanders; but all soon released, except five Women. Towards Evening the Master of the Finch went aboard the Naerden Frigat to the Admiral, with Tydings that their Vessels had conquer'd three great, and five small Jonks, amongst which some carry'd seven Guns of a side; whereup­on he was again sent withthe Meliskerks Boat and Pinnace, well Mann'd and furnish'd with Tackling, which he said was wanting for the taken Jonks; all which having aboard, he left the Frigat, and Sail'd up the River again in the Night.

Monday the eighteenth about Day-break they heard a great Cry, made by the Men of the Meliskerks Boat, which was over-set near the Shore: whereupon Van Campen and the Master of the Sea-hound Sailing thither, found five Men sit­ting on the Keel of the Boat, so benumm'd with Cold, that they were not able to give account what was become of their Fellows; but Rowing up farther where the Boat had been over-set, they found another Man sitting on the Shore, which had been driven three times that Night into the River by the Chineses: He told them that he had not seen one of his Fellows; so that ten Men (they having been sixteen in number) were either drown'd or kill'd. At Night the Finches Pinnace went aboard the Naerden to the Admiral with a Letter of Advice, that they had taken eight Jonks, of which they had burnt four, and brought away the other four.

The nineteenth, being Tuesday, the Chineses made a Sign, by setting up their red Flag, inviting the Netherlanders to come to them: Whereupon Van Cam­pen and the Master of the Sea-hound went ashore to know what they desir'd, and Landing found a great number of Chineses with five red Flags of the five neigh­boringThe red Flag among the Tartar-Chineses signifies Peace, as the white Flag War. Villages, with the chief Governor from every Village, and five Chinese Priests.

These being carry'd aboard to the Admiral, begg'd and intreated, that he would save their Houses and Temples, that they might make Fires, and shelter themselves from the cold Winter; and likewise not to spoil their little Cham­pans and Fishing-nets; which if it might be granted, they would serve him in all things possible, and within four days bring him out of every Village twenty [Page 103] five Porkers, one hundred twenty five Hens, fifty Ducks, and as many Oranges, Raddishes, and other Herbage as they could gather: whereupon, in consideration they would keep their Promise, he assur'd them to save their Pagodes, Houses, Champans, and Fish-nets; after which three onely return'd ashore, for the other two were kept aboard, as Hostages till the three return'd in four days with the Provisions before-nam'd, and all things else they could get out of the five Villages. Those Chineses which stay'd aboard being ask'd by the Admiral, If no Jonks were expected that Season from Japan to Zwatia? they reply'd, That not one had Sail'd thither that Year; which afterwards he found to be true.

The twentieth, being Wednesday, the two Pinks and Ankeveen Frigat, sent up the River the seventh with four Boats and one Sloop, came to an Anchor with the six taken Jonks, viz. two great and four small: in which they found a lit­tle Rice, Pady, or unthresh'd Rice, Salt-petre, Indigo, several Priests Coats, Helmets, Swords, Scythes, ten Blunderbusses, besides several Chinese Men, Wo­men and Children, whereof five young Women, and four young Men were kept aboard, and the rest released. Seven other Jonks were also set on fire and sunk in the River, out of which many Chineses leaping were either drown'd and kill'd. The next day two of the small Jonks were broke up and us'd for fewel, but the biggest of them were new Trimm'd.

The two and twentieth they had a general Thanksgiving in all the Fleet for their Victories over their Enemies. The day after the Admiral by put­ting out the Companies red Flag, commanded all the Officers of the Fleet aboard, where the Ships Councel (for certain Reasons) propos'd, yet did not conclude, that the Vice-Admiral Van Campen with his Frigat, the Zierikzee, ac­company'd with the Highland, Meliskerke, Ankeveen, and the Loenen and the Finch, should Cruise out at Sea before Zwatia, to see for the Iapan Trading Jonks which come from thence, till the middle of February, and the Admiral Bort should put to Sea the twenty sixth with the Naerden, Calf, Overveen, and Sea-hound Frigats, besides the five Jonks, two great and three small, and cross over to Kitat and Tenhay, and from thence Sail to the River Hoksieu, there to enquire how affairs stood. It was also judg'd convenient, that the Ankeveen Frigat, and the Loenen and Finch, should immediately weigh their An­chors, and Sail to the Mouth of the foremention'd River, to look for some Jonks that were daily expected; but these Proposals never were put into exe­cution.

The twenty fourth in the Morning, Van Campen was by Borts Order sent ashore with a hundred and ten Soldiers, and fifty Sea-men, to burn Zwatia. No sooner was he Landed, but they saw five Priests, with a great many Chineses standing about a red Flag, which all fell down at his Feet, and humbly begg'd him to save their Temples, Champans, and Fish-nets, which if he did not, they should perish with Cold and Hunger; and promis'd against the next Morning (according to their first Proposal) to bring them the Porkers, Hens, Ducks, Oranges, Raddishes, and Pot-herbs: Van Campen mov'd with compassion, was perswaded to forbear.

The twenty fifth, being Christmas-day, Van Campen going aboard to the Admi­ral in the Naerden Frigat, ask'd him what was best to be done with Zwatia? whereupon Bort reply'd, That he should lay it in Ashes: which said, Van Campen went ashore with three Boats and three Sloops well Mann'd, where he found lying on the Shore five Hogs and fifteen Baskets of Oranges, brought thither [Page 104] by five Priests and fifteen Chineses: two of the Hogs, and five Baskets of Oranges were by Van Campen carry'd aboard to the Admiral, who remitting somewhat of his anger, gave him order to do with Zwatia what he pleas'd and thought convenient: But before Van Campen came ashore again, the Houses were all in a Flame, occasion'd through the wilfulness of the Sea-men. Out of the Houses and Pagodes came divers sick Men and Women creeping on their Knees to escape the Flames.

The same day the Admiral leaving Zwatia, according to their agreement in the Councel, with the Naerden, Ankeveen, Calf, and Sea-hound Frigat▪ two great and two small taken Jonks, went to the Bay of Kitat and Tenhay, to go from thence in some of the Frigats to Hoksieu, as was before design'd.

The twenty sixth Van Campen put also to Sea with four Frigats and two Pinks, wherewith steering about the Shore towards the North, they came to an Anchor in the Evening near an Island (by them call'd The Good Hope,) three Leagues Northerly from the River Zwatia, in twenty four Fathom Water, gra­velly Ground, about Cannon-shot from the Shore.

The Admirals Order to Van Campen, was to keep that Course, or to Cruise for the Chinese Jonks that Traded to Iapan, till the middle of February, and then to fall down Southerly to Tenhay.

The twenty seventh the Councel in Van Campens Squadron Consulted, whe­ther according to Bort's Order they should keep at Sea, or lie still near the Isle of Good Hope, and to place six or seven Men on one of the highest Hills, there to spy what Jonks were out in the Offin: To which last Proposal they all agreed, from thence Sailing early the next day, with intention to get up higher, yet were by contrary Winds and cross Currents forc'd back to their former Road.

The twenty eighth, being Thursday, seven Men were sent ashore, as they had before agreed, up to a rising Ground, there with their Glasses to descry what Traffickers that Sea afforded. In the afternoon six Chineses came in a Champan aboard the Vice-Admiral, bringing with them a fat Swine, nine Hens, twenty four Ducks, eleven Baskets with Oranges, and fourteen Pum­peons, not having a greater store: Amongst them were two of their Priests, which they kept aboard till they should return with more Provisions, which they promis'd in three days; but they fail'd, not coming the third day, yet Van Campen set the Pledges ashore on the twenty sixth, who afterwards return'd to inquire for one Chilo, a Chinese Merchant, whom they fear'd was slain, or their Prisoner: Van Campen answer'd, That he knew of none such, but would enquire of the Admiral, and if he found him alive in the Fleet, he should be set ashore at Tenhay; they humbly thanking him, and having receiv'd satisfa­ction for their Provisions, departed.

The twenty ninth some of the Vice-Admiral's Men went ashore for Wood and Water; where also they Shot a great Hart, and therefore call'd it Harts-Isle.

The one and thirtieth, being Sunday, they espi'd two Fishers-Jonks in the East, which Van Campen chasing took, with thirteen Chineses, some fresh and salted Fish, which were taken out, and carry'd aboard the Vice-Admiral. The Chinese Prisoners being examin'd in the presence of the Commanders from whence they came? reply'd, From Zwatia: If they had seen any Holland Ships? answer'd No: and being demanded if no Jonks were expected that Season from Iapan at Zwatia? they also reply'd, No: and being farther ask'd if none went that Year from Zwatia to Iapan, and if some Jonks about two days [Page 105] before had not Sail'd from Zwatia towards the North? they again answer'd No: so that the Netherlanders could get nothing out of them: whereupon they were order'd to be kept aboard the Vice-Admiral, till he thought fit to send them out a Fishing for the Fleet.

After the Admiral's and Vice-Admirals parting at Zwatia the twenty fifth of December, the Admiral arriv'd before Hoksieu the twenty seventh of the same Moneth, having in his Way, especially in the Bay of Succor, otherwise call'd Siang, in the Rode of Pakka, and likewise in that of Good Fortune, seen and met several Jonks, which all escaped from him by flight, except five. But at So­thun, a Town which Bort sent out a Party against, having one Man kill'd, and five wounded; yet the next day with better success Charging the Enemy out of Town, he Commanded that, and likewise all the Houses in Tenhay to be burnt.

At the earnest Requests of those of Hoksieu, and the Agents Letters to the Admiral, he went thither the seventh of Ianuary, Anno 1663. with the Overveen, Seahound, and all the Prize-Jonks; but the Calf and Naerden Frigats had Order to stay at Tenhay, and not upon any occasion to go ashore, for the prevention of all Mischiefs; yet in fair Weather they sometimes sail'd to the neighboring Isles, to see for the Enemies Jonks, especially those that come from Iapan: all which the Admiral gave advice of to the Vice-Admiral by the fore-mention'd Letters, adding that the small taken Jonks were fitted and made ready to Sail with News to their Excellencies the Lord-General and Councel at Batavia: to which purpose he had given a Pacquet of Letters to Captain Barrents Io­chemse, which he had Order immediately to send away by the Jonks, and then come to him with all speed. But if upon the Tartars desire he should re-deli­ver the Jonks, he intended to make use of the Ter-Boede; and to that end at his coming into the River of Hoksieu, where it now lay, he would send it away to the other Ships.

The sixth, being Tuesday, Van Campen summon'd the Commanders of all the Ships in his Squadron to come aboard, where after Consultation they conclu­ded, if that day, or early on the next, they had no News out of the River Hok­sieu, to send the Highland Frigat to the Admiral in that River, there to enquire how affairs went, which they were very desirous to know, because they had receiv'd no Advices, nor heard from them since the twenty fifth of the last, to the seventh of that Moneth.

The seventh they resolv'd (the time to Sail back to Batavia drawing near) to send the Loenen and the Finch to fetch Water, as well for themselves as for the other Ships, which were to carry their empty Casks aboard them, and at their return when fill'd to fetch them again: Mean while the Boats of those Ships that stay'd should go ashore for Fewel, that when part or all the Fleet should put to Sea, there might be no want.

The same day the Terr-Boede coming from the River Hoksieu, in the Evening anchor'd behind Van Campen at Tenhay, from whence according to Bort's Order he was to go by Siam to Batavia, but first to speak with Van Campen at Tenhay.

The tenth, being Saturday, the Ter-Boede set Sail, being sent as an Advice-Boat, under the Command of Nanning Claesz to Batavia, the same day the Highland Frigat, Commanded by Harmon Simonse, and the Ankeveen by Iacob Black, went to the River of Hoksieu, according to the Admiral's Order, Dated the seventh.

The eleventh they saw four Sail in the River Hoksieu: and now the Crui­sing [Page 106] up and down with the Frigats for Jonks that Traded to Iapan was laid quite aside by reason of bad Weather, and till further Order from the Admiral, which Van Campen by Letters of the seventh of Ianuary advised him of from his Fleet lying before Tenhay.

The fourteenth in the Morning the Ankeveen Frigat came out of the River Hoksieu, into the Bay of Linkun, to turn about the North to Tenhay, but the Tyde being spent he could not get forward; which being seen by Van Campen, he immediately sent the Pilot, Iohn Cortz, with a well Mann'd Sloop thither to enquire after affairs, before whose return seven Glasses were run; yet at last he return'd with Iacob Black, Master of the Ankeveen, who brought a Letter with him from the Admiral, Dated the seventh of the same Moneth in the Ankeveen, then Riding in the Channel of Hoksieu; the Contents were these: ‘That Nobel with all his Attendants were detain'd in Hoksieu, and not permitted to come aboard; That himself was come with all the Ships down to the Mouth of the River, where stopp'd by contrary Winds from coming to him, he had lay'n three days, but would have come in stead of the Letter, had not the Night before three Vessels come down the River with Melman, two Man­darins and Letters from Nobel and the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Lipovi, who still desir'd the stay of all or some of the Fleet fifteen or twenty days longer for an Answer from Peking; which if he would not do, Nobel and all his Retinue must be forc'd to wait there, and mean while Trade in private, selling some of their Merchandise, and buying others; about which he was to resolve the next day with the two Mandarins that were sent to him, there­fore he desir'd Van Campen, on receipt of the Letter, to come to him with all speed in one of the Frigats that least drew Water, that he might consult with him about it, and resolve what was best to be done: Bort desir'd Van Campen also to leave Order with the Ships to store themselves plentifully with Wa­ter and Firing at Tenhay, that when the other Ships came to them, they might furnish them also, that then they might proceed on their Journey to Batavia without any hinderance.’ Whereupon Van Campen went in his Ship aboard of the Ankeveen Frigat, lying at Anchor about half way at Sea, between the River Hoksieu and Tenhay, and came about four hours after Sun-set West and by North right against the Pyramids, but being forc'd by a contrary Tyde to cast Anchor in fourteen Foot Water, hapned to be aground; yet soon after was by the Tyde put afloat again, and the same Night came to the Admiral; who be­ing fetch'd aboard the next Morning, he understood that the Secretaries Clerk, or Interpreter, Iohn Melman, was the Night before gone to Hoksieu, from whence he was to come the eighteenth of the same Moneth, with the Merchant Constan­tine Nobel, and that then all things would be in readiness for them to put to Sea. Five Tartar Jonks came with three Mandarins, and cast Anchor near Van Campen, sent thither by the Vice-Roy Singlamong and the General Taysing Lipovy, with two hundred Picols of Rice, twenty Porkers, and twenty great Vessels of Chinese Beer, which were sent to be divided as a Present amongst the Sea-men.

The sixteenth the Ankeveen set Sail out of the River to the Ships at Tenhay, and came thither again the next day with some Goods for the Admiral, and a Chest for the Secretary of the Naerden Frigat, who was to stay ashore in Hok­sieu. The same day Van Campen Embarq'd himself with his Necessaries.

The eighteenth in the Morning the Domburgh and Overveen set Sail out of Hoksieu to the Ships at Tenhay: In the afternoon the Admiral receiv'd a Letter from Constantine Nobel, cóntaining, That the Admiral should stay ten [Page 107] days longer for the Emperors Letters from Peking, and that they requir'd also two Hostages, viz. the Vice-Admiral Van Campen, and the Captain with one Eye, not knowing his Name, which was Ysbrant Builder: but neither the Ad­miral nor Vice-Admiral thought this advice fit to be follow'd.

The twentieth the Deputy-Secretary, Iohn Melman, came in a Tartar Vessel from Hoksieu to the Ships, but it was so foggy, that those of the Fleet, being not able to see him, but hearing him Row, hal'd him aboard: Van Campen also Rowing in his Sloop to meet him, was three hours before he could either find the Tartar Vessels or his own Frigats again, notwithstanding they were very near, and had it not been for the sound of the Trumpets, it had been impossible to have found one another that Night.

The one and twentieth Van Campen hoised Sail, and with a gentle Gale out of the North North-east came to the Channel of Hoksieu, where he lay by the Ad­miral in five Fathom gravelly Ground.

The two and twentieth in the Morning the Sea-hound Frigat set Sail with a fresh North-east Wind; but Van Campen, advised by Iacob Swaert, and the chief Pilot Claes Iohnson, who told him that in such blustering Weather their Ships could not be rul'd, because of their fresh experienc'd Sea-men, and that they had better stay for fairer Weather, stirred not: In the afternoon, the Wind blowing very hard out of the same Quarter, and the Sea growing very rough, drove the Ankeveen towards the Pyramids from her Anchor, and enforc'd them to cast out another; which done, they weighed the first Anchor, supposing it to be incumbred; then the Frigat dragg'd the other; and being engag'd among the Rocks, had neither time nor distance to drop another; whereupon the Master loosned his Fore-sail and Mizzen, so bearing up to the wind to keep her from what they were almost upon, the Rocky Shore; but all endeavors were in vain, for with the headiness of the Stream, the violence of the Wind, and hollowness of the Sea, she was driven upon the cruel Shore, and carry'd where she was hemm'd in with Rocks; when to prevent the mischief they sent a Boat from the Ship with Tackling; but that also not able to keep off, was with the Frigat driven among intervening Rocks beyond the Ship, while she bilging against the Pyramids was split: when to save the Men a Sea-man was order'd to swim to Shore with the Plumming-line, to which they fastned a stronger Rope, by which help they might betwixt swimming and wading get ashore; but he was so bruised and beaten by the Billows upon the Rocks where he Landed, that he was not able to draw the Halser to the Shore: but about two hours after Sun-set the Sea did with her impetuous Waves so batter the Frigat, and she rol­ling so much, that they look'd every Minute to be stav'd, they were forc'd to cut down their Masts by the Board for the preservation of their lives. About two hours after Sun-set Van Campen sent one or two ashore on the West-side of the Pyramids, to make fast a Halser on the Rocks for the purpose before­mention'd: after that Van Campen Sail'd up the River Hoksieu to look for his Boat, but could not find her.

The twenty third, being Thursday, Van Campen went ashore with a Sloop on an Island lying close by the Pyramids, to see if any sweet Water was to be had there, which they found in a Pit or Well. A Tent also was carry'd ashore and set up, into which they brought Rice, Beef, Pork, and fresh Water for those that were Ship-wrack'd, where two by Cold and drinking of Brandy, misera­bly lost their Lives in the Night.

The twenty fourth in the Morning some Chineses coming to a Jonk by Van [Page 106] [...] [Page 107] [...] [Page 108] Campen on the Island, proffer'd to carry him to the Fort Minjazen, saying that the Governor Hanlavia would entertain him nobly; for they suppos'd the Fleet to have been gone to Batavia: they also gave him some fresh Pork, Eggs, and Rice, and shew'd him other Civilities.

The Admiral by Letters advis'd Van Campen the same day, that all his expe­ctation and stay was for him, that they might set Sail together, but suppos'd that the bad Weather had hindred him from coming out; and that in the Morning when he heard him Shoot, he was about weighing Anchor with all the Ships that were with him at Tenhay, of which he had sent him the Finch and Sea-hound, and desiring him, that if any more Tydings came from Hoksieu, that he should Fire three times, and for a little while keep in his Flag.

The same day the Sea-hound Frigat and Finch came to an Anchor near the Wreck in the River of Hoksieu, whither Van Campen went immediately with his Boat, to see what Goods could be sav'd; which to do was almost impossible, because of the raging Billows, which beat so violently that no Boat was able to come near her. In the interim the Fleet which lay at Tenhay also setting Sail, fell down towards the Wreck; yet afterwards changing their purpose, Tack'd about, lying Northward.

The twenty fifth the Admiral's Sloop, with his chief Pilot, went aboard the the Vice-Admiral in the Sea-hound Frigat; from whence after midnight he was sent again to the Fleet with News concerning the Wreck. Little was per­form'd that day, no Vessels being able to lie near the foundred Ship: but the next day they recover'd some Cordage, Lead, Tin, and Sandal-Wood, which was put aboard the other Frigats.

The twenty seventh, fetching the last Cables that lay on the Deck, they car­ry'd them aboard the Sea-hound in the Night; and then likewise sav'd the Guns and some Shot.

The next day seven Tartar Jonks came to an Anchor near the Wreck; to which Van Campen Rowing, put one Mey aboard to look to the Pepper, and other Goods that were yet remaining; which at last being given to the Tartars, was by them esteem'd a great Prize.

In the afternoon the Sea-hound and Finch weighed and set Sail to get out of the Channel of Hoksieu, and came towards Evening to an Anchor by the Fleet in the Bay of Linkun, where Van Campen immediately went aboard of the Naer­den to the Admiral Bort; to whom having given a Relation concerning the loss of the Ankeveen, he Row'd aboard the Zirickzee.

The first of March, being Thursday, the Admiral at Day-break fir'd a Gun, as a Signal that the Fleet should all weigh Anchor, and putting to Sea, proceed on their Way to Batavia. In the Evening about Sun-set they came up with the South-Point of the Isle of Crocodiles, which bore South-west about five Leagues, and the South-Point of Carellos Nor-Nor-east about six Leagues from them, their Course West-South-west.

The second they saw several Fishers Jonks near the Coast, and about Noon came into twenty four Degrees and fifty three Minutes Northern Latitude, and had the Southern Island Makau North-west and by West about five Leagues from them, they steering South-west, and West and by South.

Saturday, being the third, the Fleet at Sun-set was about three Leagues and a half from another Isle; and on the next day at Noon in twenty two De­grees and thirty eight Minutes Nor-Nor-East, about four Leagues from the Sandy Banks; and against Evening came up with the Black Hill on the Coast of [Page 109] China, about four or five Leagues from them, their Course being South-west and by West, and West-South-west.

The fifth the Fleet was about five or six Leagues from Ilhas dons Viedos; and at Noon in twenty one Degrees and twenty nine Minutes; the next day in twenty Degrees and thirty Minutes; and the day after, being Wednesday, at Noon in nineteen Degrees and fifty Minutes.

On Thursday Van Campen was got out of sight of the Fleet in nineteen De­grees and thirty six Minutes; and the next day reach'd nineteen Degrees and twenty Minutes.

The tenth in the Morning he came up with the East-Point of the Island Ainan, but at a great distance from him, and found himself at Noon in nineteen Degrees and twenty four Minutes Northern Latitude, the East Point West and by South, and West-South-west, about four or five Leagues, and Poele Tayo, North-west, about three or four Leagues distant: The East-Point of Ainan ap­pears like two Isles as you come about the North.

The twelfth about Noon Van Campen was in eighteen Degrees and twenty seven Minutes, three Leagues from the South Coast of Ainan, which is found to be six or seven and forty Minutes more Southerly than it is placed in the Maps; and in the afternoon coming near the Shore, he espy'd the Fleet stand­ing South-South-east; and the next Morning he descry'd the Admiral Bort with seven Sail, to lie a little to Leeward on his Larboard. About Noon be­ing eighteen Degrees and thirty two Minutes, the Mount Tinhosa bore West and by North, about four Leagues from him, appearing like three Isles, whereof the middlemost is the biggest: More into the Countrey are two other Hills to be seen; and in the South-west and by West many Highlands: The South-west Shore was seen in the South-west and by South, about four or five Leagues from him. This Countrey is not rightly placed in the Maps, neither in its due Latitude nor Longitude; for it lies forty six or forty seven Minutes more Southerly in the Maps than it stands.

The fourteenth in the Morning the Admiral Bort with all the other Ships were behind in the Channel East-North-east, and about Noon in eighteen De­grees and seventeen Minutes Sail'd Northerly up to the Fleet, which in the Evening came up with Tinhosa: The next day at Noon they came to seven­teen Degrees and fifty nine Minutes, and the day after to Fifteen Degrees and forty Minutes Northern-Latitude, their Course South.

The seventeenth about Day-break they espy'd the Coast of Champan, which is very high Land, lying South-west and by West from them: Six hours after they discern'd the Isle call'd Round Holm, near the Coast of Champan, and about Noon were in the Latitude of twelve Degrees and ten Minutes; and Sailing along the foremention'd Coast, in the Evening they past by the Bay call'd Ba­gerang, and about Sun-set they descry'd Poele, or the Isle Cicier de Terra, West­wards about a League from them.

The eighteenth Van Campen being about midnight separated from the Fleet, found himself about Noon in nine Degrees and nine Minutes, and about Sun­set saw Poele Candor West-Nor-West, five Leagues from him, his Course South-West and by South.

The nineteenth he came into six Degrees and twenty nine Minutes; the twentieth, in four Degrees and thirty Minutes; and on the one and twentieth, in the Morning seeing Poele Tymon South-west and by South about three Leagues distant, he made towards it, and dropp'd Anchor at the South-Point [Page 110] eighteen Fathom Water: and soon after the Admiral Bort with all his Ships, coming also to an Anchor, put their Pennon under their Vein, except the Loe­nen Pink, which after a little stay steer'd her Course for Batavia. In the after noon the whole Fleet setting Sail again to proceed onward of their Voyage, steer'd South South-east.

The next day about Sun-rising Panyang bare about four Leagues to the South South-East from them: At Noon the Fleet found themselves to be in forty six Minutes Northern-Latitude, and saw Panyang West and by North; and about Sun-set they saw Pismires-Isle in the South-west about four Leagues di­stant, and the Island Lingen South-west, and South-west and by South, about six or seven Leagues off: and about Noon the next day Van Campen was with the Fleet in six Minutes Southern-Latitude, and saw about Sun-set Poele, or the Island Saya, South and by West, and the Cape of Lingen Nor-West and by West, three or four Leagues from them.

The twenty fifth they discern'd the Seven Islands, or Poele Toutyons, in the South-east and by South, and Poele Saya in the Nor-West, and Nor-West and by West: about Noon the Poele Toutyons were Eastwards four or five Leagues from the Zirickzee.

The twenty sixth they descry'd the Mountain Monapin about Sun-rising to lie South-east and by East, about five Leagues distant, and at Noon about three Leagues from thence they were in two Degrees and nine Minutes South-Lati­tude: At Night about Sun-set they saw the third Point of the Island Sumatra South-South-east, two Leagues from them, and Poele Nanko East and by North, about three Leagues from the Zirickzee; and Monapin in the Nor-West, and Nor-West and by North, all lying along the Coast of Sumatra.

The twenty seventh at Sun-rising they descry'd the first Point of Sumatra South-east, and South-East and by East, about two Leagues and a half from the Zirickzee, who at Noon was in three Degrees and five Minutes South Latitude; and having the Island Lucipar South-east about three Leagues from him, Sail'd close along the Coast.

The next day about Noon the Zirickzee was in four Degrees and twelve Mi­nutes Southern Latitude, and on the twenty ninth in the Morning coming up with the Thousand Islands, which lay Westward from him, he espy'd the Admi­ral Bort with seven Sail in the Nor-East and by East, and one lying at an An­chor near the Island Agnietes. At two a Clock in the afternoon the Fleet came to an Anchor before Batavia, where they found the following Frigat and Pinks, viz. the Stadthouse Frigat of Amsterdam, the Holland Remedy, the Nightin­gale Pink, the Arms of Batavia a Frigat, the Griffin, being the Reer-Admiral of the Harbor.

The thirtieth, being Friday, the following Ships arriv'd there from Holland: the Kennemerland, Orange, Rhynland, and the Kogge.

The next day the Flushing Frigat came also to an Anchor from the Coast of Malabar, with News, that Rykloff van Gouns had taken the City Coessien, and likewise the Rising-Sun Frigat from Rekkam.

On Tuesday the third of April a Thanksgiving Day was kept for the Con­quest of the City Coessien, and in the Evening Bon-fires were made, and all the Guns fir'd from the Fort, and round about the Walls of the City Batavia, and likewise from all the Ships.

The eleventh the Ter-Boede Pink came also to an Anchor before Batavia from Sian; and the Agents related their Adventures to the Lord-General.


Being a Journal of the Adventures that happened to the two Fleets sent from Batavia to the Isles of Formosa, Tayowan, and the Coast of China, under the Command of Balthazar Bort, as Admiral, and General of the Land-Forces, since the Year 1663. Iune the 27. until Anno 1664. March the 21.

THe great Damage which the Netherlanders suffer'd, Anno 1661. by the loss of Tayowan and Formosa, taken from them by the Pyrate Coxinga, not only staining their Honor, but also damnifying their Estates, and preju­dicial to their Trade, was not satisfi'd by the Fleet and Land-Soldiers, sent out the last Year, as was expect­ed, because the Tartars were not only wanting to joyn their Forces for the Defeating of the common Enemy, but also detain'd them most of the time idly at Hoksieu, feeding the Admiral with fair Promises, without any performance, although a fit opportunity seem'd to be presented to the Hollanders, because the Enemy by the death of their General Coxinga were all in confusion; yet notwithstand­ing, as our former Relation mentions, the Hollanders Fleet at several times took thirty three Jonks, besides many lesser Vessels which they burnt, and also the strong Fort of Kitat, leaving whole Towns and Villages in Flames, whose Inhabitants fled to the Mountains, whilst the Tartars took not the least Cog­nizance thereof, although they knew that Coxinga's Party made Overtures of Peace, and had to that purpose sent Ambassadors to their Emperor at Peking, as it was reported at the departure of the Fleet; though his Majesty having put them off with dilatory answers, signifying altogether, that they should shew the first Point of their Obedience, by wearing short Hair, as himself and all his Subjects did, which (as the Hollanders suppos'd) might procrastinate the business; and besides all this, the Tartars did not perform what they promis'd concerning the inlargement of the Dutch Prisoners, yet confin'd in the Isle Ey­muy, although they shew'd all outward Civilities in their Entertainments, still Complementing their Ambassadors, yet would not grant them a free Trade before they had full Orders from the Emperor, with which they held so long [Page 112] in suspence so long, that they would not any longer attend with their whole Fleet such continual delays; but having done little or nothing, set Sail from thence the first of March, and came safe on the twenty ninth of the same Month before Batavia, leaving the Ankeveen Frigat behind them, which suffer'd Ship-wrack before the Channel of Hoksieu, as before mention'd; and the Mer­chant Constantine Nobel, with eight Netherlanders which were kept by the Tartars; and as their Governors pretended, in kindness to them, that they should not return until they carry'd from the Emperor what should give satisfaction to their General Maetzuiker; all which cast up together, amounted to more Jea­lousie, than Hopes, so that Ballancing their Actions, they could not positively say, that either they were Friends or Enemies whom they Treated with: Yet howsoever, let them be what they will, whither against the General Maetzuiker and his Council in Batavia, pitch'd resolutely upon, that with all their Forces they would prosecute those that had done them their Injury, viz. the Coxingans, and would never hearken to any accommodation, until by reprisal or other­wise, they had fully satisfi'd themselves of the Damages sustain'd in Tayowan and Formosa. Which Decree of theirs was luckily confirm'd by Letters from their Masters at Amsterdam, bearing Date October the 22. Anno 1662. Whereby they were inform'd, that a Peace was concluded between Holland and the Por­tuguese, which giving them more liberty, they prepar'd to equip their Navy with greater speed and diligence, and send forth once more, under the Com­mand of Balthazar Bort, to the Coast of China; and if by Treaty with the Tar­tars they could not obtain their desires, they would try what they could do by force of Arms, and look upon both as one Enemy.

In this their great Expedition, sixteen Ships were appointed, and fitted out with Men and Arms according to the following Schedule.

Names of the Ships.MarinersLand-MenVolunteers had no PayReformadoesIron GunsBrass Guns
Ulaerdingen95944 30 
Mars1121061 283
Naerden921023 288
Flusshing105964 303
The Arms of Zealand1001171 28 
Kogge901053 302
Overveen75741 26 
Ionker77412 26 
Meliskerke64551 183
Buiksloot6451  20 
New Dam4824  16 
Finch3422  101

Which make in all 16 Ships, bearing 2653 Men, and 396 Iron, and 44 Brass Guns.

[Page 113]All which Vessels were Victual'd for twelve Moneths, and furnish'd with Necessaries of War accordingly.

At the same time, four Merchant-Men, viz. the Venenburg, Pepper-Bag, Grave-Land, and Amstelland, all Laden with rich Cargo's, and Bound for Iapan, were order'd to go and continue with the Fleet, till they came in sight of Formosa.

The Soldiers in Batavia were divided into twelve Companies, which had three Captains, twelve Lieutenants, twelve Ensigns, thirty eight Serjeants and Corporals, every Company according to the Councils Order, consisted at first of an hundred Men, that afterwards if need requir'd, they might be divided in­to fifty or seventy in a Company, and then choose new Officers for them.

The several Commissions to the Officers of the Fleet, were first given them ashore in the presence of all the Militia in Arms, by the Lord General, and afterwards by the Governor of the Company, Charles Hertsing, accompany'd aboard by the Lords Adrian Vander Moyden, and Iacob Hutzaerd, where their Commissions and Orders were publickly read before all the People.

The chiefest Orders in their Letter of Advice, given in Writing to the Ad­miral and his Council, from the Grand Council at Batavia, consisted in the following:

AFter you have furnish'd your self with Water and Wood, at Laver and Ty­mon, Orders from the grand Council of Batavia. you shall Steer your Course directly to Formosa.

Your first place of Rendezvouz shall be at the Isle of Pehoe, otherwise call'd Piscadores, about twelve Leagues Westward from Formosa.

If any Ships run beyond the Piscadores, they shall Sail on to Hoksieu, lying on the Main Coast of China, and there expect the Fleet.

Coming in sight of Formosa, five or six Ships shall Sail to the South Shore of Tayowan, to enquire how Affairs stand there, and bring a speedy account of it to the Piscadores.

If the present Possessors should proffer freely to deliver up Tayowan and For­mosa, do not refuse, but make the best advantage of the opportunity.

You shall Sail with the whole Fleet from the Piscadores first to Hoksieu, and put all other affairs aside, till such time as you have made inquiry, in what Po­sture our business stands with the Tartars.

Let the absolute knowledge of the Tartars well meaning, or otherwise, be a guide to the Admiral and his Council, what seems fit to be done.

Take all Chinese Jonks which you meet with by the way, or on the Coast, not regarding from whence they come, or whither they go; neither make any distinction, whether they belong to the Tartars or Coxinga.

Send peculiar Ships to Cruise up and down for those Jonks that Trade to Iapan, and let them not Sail to the South of Cabo de Sumber; but to the North­ward of it towards the Gulf of Iapan.

When it's convenient, let them put into the Isles of Meaxima, Gotto, and Co­ray, lying to the Westward of Iapan; and if it may be done without any consi­derable hinderance, to make Inspections, and enquire what convenient Harbors there are for Ships.

If two or three Jonks be taken, send them with the Cruisers.

To use no Hostility to the Portuguese, because of the concluded Peace.

Let the Merchandize which are distributed in the Fleet, if the Tartars will not permit a free Trade, be sent to Iapan; and likewise keep the four Mer­chants Freighted thither in your company, till you come within sight of [Page 114] Formosa, then let them proceed on their Voyage, except the Amstellant, which shall Sail with you to Hoksieu, to take in the Merchandize for the Chinesy Trade, out of the several Ships (but if they will not allow it) then carry them to Iapan.

Make your first coming at Hoksieu known to the Governor of the Fort Min­jazeen, and sending a Chinesy ashore, ask for the Merchant Constantine Nobel, de­siring him to come aboard.

If all things stand well in Hoksieu, send their Excellencies Letter by some per­son of Quality to the Governors, and desire their Answer to it.

If the Tartars are united with the Coxingans, and would perswade you not to use Hostility, by no means condescend, except they will consent to make good the Damage which the Hollanders had suffer'd in Tayowan, and Surrender up Formosa and Tayowan, with all the Forts and Castles; and also procure the Emperors Letters to forbid the Chinesys to Trade with any, but with our Peo­ple in Tayowan: Neither should any Chinesys Sail with their Jonks Southward of the Isle Ainan, nor to Iapan; and that those which were found there, might be taken by them; and also to release the Netherland Prisoners.

The Chinesys shall be permitted to Sail to Batavia and Malakka, provided they have our Pastports, if the Article of their not Sailing to Iapan be too hard for them, pass it by.

But all the other Proposals must be perform'd, which if not, no way to agree with them; and that they should also get the Articlrs concluded upon Sign'd and Seal'd at Peking.

If they should request an Embassy to be sent to the great Cham, and there to make our Addresses; by no means agree to it, but promise them, if satisfacti­on be made of all things, to send a Honorable Embassy in recompence to his Majesty.

If the Tartars and Coxingans are joyn'd in a League, and do not regard the Netherlanders as much as formerly, neither will make satisfaction, declare them both Enemies, and use Hostility to one as well as the other, by Burning and Ruining all places on the Main Continent of China: Then also Steer to the Chincheu Isles, and there endeavor to destroy the two Towns, Que and Aymuy. If there be a conveniency there for a strong Hold that might be kept by a small Garrison, to take it in Possession; for which purpose the Isle Kolong lies very convenient, and likewise the Piscadore's, but barren and unfertile, where also a Fort might be erected for our better Guard.

Not to accept to take any other place in possession, if you can get Tayowan again.

Endeavor to Conquer Formosa and Tayowan by force of Arms, if it cannot be done by Peaceable means; yet take not so much Ground in possession as formerly.

The lower Castle of Zelandia being a good Garrison, would be a sufficient Defence against the Assaults of the Chineses.

The upper Castle shall be Dismantled, and left ungarrison'd, that after­wards on farther Order it may be pull'd down, and build a strong Redoubt in its place.

To keep the Fort Provintia, and Garrison it with a hundred Men; as also that of Quelang.

To begin somewhat in more safety in Tayowan, the Forces ought to be brought ashore through the Straights of Lakge Moey on the main Land, and there [Page 115] first to Attaque and win the Fort Provincia, and likewise endeavor to get the Inhabitants there, to joyn with our People; to which purpose it will be re­quisite for you to take flat bottom'd Vessels from the Chineses, because our Boats cannot carry so many Men in those shallow Waters; neither could the requir'd Forces be brought ashore together; and if they wanted those Vessels, it would not be convenient to attempt any thing on that side, but be better be­hind Tonkoya, about six Leagues Southward of Tayowan, where in the Northern Mouson the Water is very smooth, and a higher Shore to break off the Winds.

From thence they should March up in two or three days by Land to the Fort Provincia at Sakkam; and besides the convenient Landing there, the Inhabitants of the South might perhaps joyn with the Hollanders, which if they should, all the Chineses in Formosa would not be able to withstand them.

If the Tartars should deny the Trade, and that those of the Isles Ay and Que­muy live apart from Formosa and Tayowan, and are in friendship with the Tartars, and also inclin'd to agree with you, do you likewise seem willing to it, nay, seek to joyn with them, provided they procure us those Articles demanded of the Tartars, and use their assistance towards the regaining of Formosa and Tayo­wan; nay, to fall upon the Tartars themselves, if occasion should require.

No time is limited you to come with the Fleet from the North to Batavia, but is left to the Discretion of the Admiral and his Council.

After the Admiral Balthazar Bort had on Iune the 30. Anno 1663. been con­ducted by several Friends aboard his Ship, he set Sail the next Morning three hours before Day, with all the Fleet, consisting in sixteen Men of War, and four Merchants, bound for Iapan, out of the Haven of Batavia, with a South East Wind, and running between the Isles of Hoorn and Edam, they stood to the North-East. At Noon, the Fleet had the Isle South-Wayter South West and by West three Leagues from them, in five Degrees and thirty Minutes Southern Latitude; in the Evening about Sun-set they had the Isle North-Wayter, about West-North-West, four Leagues distant.

The second at the usual Signal of a White Flag, and firing of a Gun, all the Commanders and Chief Officers of the Militia, came aboard the Admiral, who according to the Lord General, and Indian Councils Order, chose out of them all for his Privy Council the Persons under written, which the rest were to follow in Order, viz. next to the Admiral Balthazar Bort, who is to be always Chief: was

Huybrecht de Lairesse, Vice-Admiral.

William Volkersz, made Commander of those Ships that were to go to Iapan, and Rere-Admiral as long as he stay'd with the Fleet.

Bartholomeus Verwei, who at Volkersz departure was to carry the Rere-Admi­ral's Flag; and in that Degree take place in the Council.

Peter Coker, Master of the Admiral's Ship.

Ernest Van Hogenhoek, Merchant in the Kogge.

And the first Captain Christian Poolman, Commander of the Nut-Tree.

These having taken their places, the Fleet was by them order'd to be divided into three Squadrons, as had already been consider'd by the Admiral, and approv'd of by the Vice-Admiral; and the Orders which the Fleet was to fol­low, being read were also affirm'd, and likewise the proportions of Diet was agreed on.

At Noon the Admiral was in four Degrees and five Minutes Southern Lati­tude, and had the High Island with the Trees, West-North-West, about seven Leagues from him.

[Page 116]The third about day-break, they spy'd the Coast of Banka; at Noon they Sail'd Eastward of the Isle Lucipa; and in the Evening past within two Leagues and a half by the first Point of Sumatra, South and by East from them.

On Thursday, being the fifth, they saw the Mountain Monapyn, and were within two Leagues of the Shore of Sumatra; towards Evening, they Sail'd by the River Palimboang, and between Poele Tousjou, and Poele Sayo.

The sixth, they saw the Isles Tousjou, and were at Noon in one Degree and sixteen Minutes South Latitude.

The seventh, the Fleet found Poele Sayo North-West and by West, about three Leagues and a half from them, in nineteen Minutes Southern Latitude; and in the Evening descry'd in the North the Isles which lay near Lingen.

On Sunday they discover'd Dominies Island, West-South-West, four Leagues from them; and crossing the Line, saw the High Isle of the Box-horns, about se­ven Leagues distant.

The ninth at Noon, the Admiral was in fifty four Minutes Northern Lati­tude, and in sight of the Isle Pangang, West and by North, about three Leagues and a half from him.

On the tenth appear'd the Isles Tinghy, North-West and by West, and Laver North and by West from them; in the Morning, the Fleet being near Laver, cast Anchor on the West side of it. Tymon hath no Wood, neither for Firing nor any other use, with which Laver is plentifully supply'd: This Isle is pretty high, and hath two rising Promontories, one on the South, and the other at the North end, which make a Plain in the middle.

The twelfth about Noon, five Ships upon the Admiral's Order set Sail from Laver to Poele Tymon, to take in Water, Fuel, and other Wood; and likewise to Barter for Provision, according to their agreement of the eleventh.

The Bay on the South-East Point of this Island lies very convenient for the fetching and taking in of fresh Water, Firing and other Wood, which is to be had ashore in great plenty; but Provision is somewhat scarce here, because the People of this Countrey have their Habitations more towards the South-West side; and also that which is to be had, is much dearer than at Poele Laver.

The nineteenth, the Admiral about Sun-rising set Sail from Poele Tymon, and came in the afternoon to an Anchor, with the whole Fleet, by those Ships that were sent out before from Laver.

The Fleet thus furnish'd with all Necessaries, Weigh'd Anchor on the twen­tieth about Day-break; and in the Evening had the Isle Poele Tymon, about four Leagues Southerly from them.

The one and twenty, they kept a Fast.

The twenty two, twenty three, twenty four, and twenty fifth, nothing hap­pen'd of any remark.

The twenty sixth, the Isles Candor bore Easterly about seven Leagues from the Fleet.

The twenty seventh, and twenty eighth, nothing happen'd, only a strong Gale of Wind blew from South-East out of the River Cambodia.

The twenty ninth, the Finch Sailing before, made a sign that she saw Land, which was afterwards found to be the two Sand Hills on the Coast of Champan, about six Leagues Northerly from the Admiral; who in the Evening descry'd Poele Cecier de Mare, three Leagues in the South-South-East; and Cabo Cecier in the North-East and by North, three quarters of a League from them.

The thirtieth, the Bay of Padaran bearing West-North-West, they came by [Page 117] Avarella Falso about Noon, and were in twelve Degrees and seven Minutes Northern Latitude; their Course North and by East.

The first of August, Poele Cambir was East and by North from the Admiral, and in the afternoon the Isle Canton, North-North-East, about six Leagues.

The second, the private Iuncto being assembled, the Admiral read to them some peculiar Orders, chiefly about the putting in at the South of Tayowan with four or five Ships, and the manner how they should best get knowledge con­cerning the condition of their Enemies, according to his Excellencies Order in Batavia; and also in what time it was best to Cruise for their Jonks, that Sail richly Laden to and from Iapan; and likewise how they should dispose of those Jonks which they should take on the Coast of China, Manilhas, Makkaw, Tunking, Quinam, Ciam, Ligoor, Patany, and other places; and also of those which they might find in the Haven of Tayowan, and in the Piscadores.

Lastly, It was judg'd best to refer it till the next meeting, and in the mean time to give every one a Copy of it, as was perform'd by the Secretary on the fourth of the same Month; who also put in what was consider'd before­hand, and concluded on, That William Volkers, before his departure to Iapan, might see their resolution chiefly concerning the Cruising for Iapan Jonks, and giving an account of it to the Netherlanders there, they might make use thereof when occasion serv'd.

The fifth and sixth they saw the Isles Tinhosa, and Ainam; though Tinhosa lay five Leagues distant from the Admiral.

Mean while on the sixth, according to their last Intentions, an Order was made in the Council, concerning the written Proposals, and newly added Ob­servations, taken by the Admiral and Council at that time; of which every one had a Copy given them: which the better to understand, it is requisite that we also give a Transcript thereof, as follows:

The Admiral according to Order, when he came in sight of Formosa, sent four or five Ships to the Southermost Harbor of Tayowan, that there they might enquire some News; and first propos'd what Ships and Persons out of the Fleet might be fittest for that purpose; and if the Chinesys did not come aboard of their own accords, whereby they might attain to the desir'd Informati­on, they should put out a White Flag to invite them, or fire now and then a Gun; but if they could not attain their desire by these two means, they should send one or two Hostages, which they had brought with them from Ba­tavia, (which if they did no good, could do no harm;) and there ask the Go­vernors for whom they kept the Forts and Castles on Tayowan and Formosa, whether for themselves, or together for those of Ey and Quemuy, or for the Tartar, as being his Subjects? and whether it were best to be done in writing or by word of Mouth?

If they should make answer to the foresaid Demand, and desire to know our Intention, whether it would not be convenient to intreat them to send some of their People with us to the greater part of the Fleet at the Piscadores, promising there to acquaint them with our Design. If they should be thereto inclin'd, leaving them Hostages, whether they should consent to it? Also how many days the Ships should stay on the South part of Tayowan? likewise if du­ring that time, they should use any Hostility, as taking of their Jonks and other Vessels, because the Indian Council had Commanded them to use none till they knew how they stood affected to the Tartars; but on the contrary, Commanded again, That nevertheless all Chinesy Jonks (from whence soever [Page 118] they came, and whither soever Bound) which they met withal in their Chan­nel, they should endeavor to take without any distinction, whether they be­long to the Tartars or Coxinga.

And in regard the Intentions of their Excellencies in Batavia are declar'd to us, that we may take all Chinesy Jonks coming from other Countreys, if it would not be convenient to take out the Goods, whether Skins or ought else, and sending them for a tryal to Iapan, to see how the Iapanners would refent it, whether well or ill; and whether it relate only to the Jonks, on the Coast of China, or also to those which they might find on the Coast of the Manilhas, Mak­kau, Tunking, Quinam, Cambodia, Siam, Ligoor, Patany, Iohoor, and Formosa, which if they should not be set upon at our first coming thither, might easily escape from us.

On the contrary, they consider'd that the Enemy by such harsh actions might alter from their good Resolution, if perhaps they had any before, and then not suffer the Netherlanders to speak with them, much less freely proffer to surrender up Tayowan and Formosa into our possession again, as their Excellencies would willingly have it: and to that purpose Commanded to take hold, and make good use of such an opportunity; otherwise, if the Enemy should make fair Promises, and thereby detain us from taking their Jonks, or doing ought else; when perhaps, being forc'd by sudden Invasions, they might sooner come to an agreement, and do what we should demand of them.

Therefore it was Propos'd, if they ought not to take all the Jonks and Ves­sels which they should find in the Piscadores, at the Admirals coming thither.

Secondly, Since their Excellencies had commanded to send peculiar Ships to Cruise up and down for the Jonks that Trade to Iapan, without expressing in what time it is best to be done; nay requir'd, that according to their Or­der, it should be done before William Volkerts went from the Fleet to Iapan, to carry News also thither concerning it, that in case ought should happen there he might govern himself accordingly; therefore the Admiral Propos'd, if it were best to be begun in the Southern or Northern Mouson; if in the Southern, the only time would be about the latter end of August, or the middle of Septem­ber, to get to the Northward of the Cape Sumber; and moreover, in the Iapan Sea, in which the foremention'd Jonks were best to be taken.

But then again was to be consider'd, the Cruisers would be forc'd to spend three or four Months, without any likelyhood of meeting with any Jonks; and likewise to consider, that the Ships aforemention'd would not be able to en­dure there long, if they should be surpris'd by Northerly Winds, want Water or Wood, and their Men happening to fall sick and die, which would force them to put into some Harbor or other; and also, that it was very uncertain, if by their Cruising they should meet with any thing, because that the Nether­land Ships could not always Sail in that Channel, for the Reasons aforemen­tion'd, which the Chineses use: Nay, if they should keep there continually, they might let them pass by in dark or misty Weather; and though the Netherland Ships did perhaps see some Jonks, yet they might loose them by their nimble Sailing: Adding moreover, that their Excellencies in this concern had thus exprest their opinion in the Orders which they had given to them: viz.

As We are inform'd, there may be more assurance made of those Trading Jonks that Sail to Iapan, than when they return in the Northern season, at which time it is very uncertain to wait for them, because they generally re­turn late in the Year, and Our Ships can scarce stay so long there.

[Page 119]But on the contrary, it is also to be observ'd, that if the Netherland Ships do not go at the foremention'd time, but later, they cannot get beyond the Cape de Sumber, and no likelihood to meet with any Jonks to the Southward of it, whereby we should be depriv'd of those rich Booties, that is to be had out of the Iapan Jonks; of which their Excellencies make mention in their Or­ders, saying,

And since the richest Prizes are to be had out of the Trading Jonks which Sail to, and from Iapan, therefore it is requisite that you use your chiefest en­deavors about them, and send out expert Cruisers to frequent the North Pas­sage, and not the South of Cabo de Sumber, Sailing quite to the Iapan Sea.

Provided this Cruising thus order'd, with hopes to take something, could be perform'd; yet there are no reasons to perswade us to it, for the uncertainties, if it must be perform'd by our Ships only, their Excellencies make mention of in these words:

We put it to your consideration, if it would not be convenient to take two or three Chinesy Jonks that are good Sailers (which perhaps may fall in­to your hands on the Coast of China) along with you thither, thereby to de­ceive the Chineses, and the easier take their Trading Jonks, which Our Fri­gats, because of their sluggish Sailing, are scarce able to do, since We know the Chineses commonly out-Sail them.

About this the Council ought chiefly to consider, if We had best undertake so uncertain a Design this Year, because the Fleet would not only be much weaken'd thereby, but also abated in its Power and Forces, when it should go against the Enemies; neither would they esteem nor regard us so much, as if we had all our Forces together; and we should also thereby be bereav'd of our nimblest and best Ships, which would be more assisting to us in all Affairs, than the biggest.

It may also happen, that falling on so many things together, nothing might be effected; therefore it ought to be consider'd, that all uncertain Designs which cannot be perform'd, without separating the Fleet be laid aside, and see what could be done to the Enemy with our whole Fleet together, and accord­ingly defer the sending of Ships out to Cruise up and down the Coast; the ra­ther, because in October, November, and December, it is better to get along the Shore to the Northward, as it happen'd to us the last Year; besides, their Ex­cellencies themselves have little hopes this Year to get any Jonks that come from Iapan, as by these following words more plainer appear, speaking of this concern in their Advice and Orders.

And to be ready so soon, that We may take them in their going thither, is not to be done from hence; by which We should understand, that all other Designs ought to be laid aside, and begin first with Cruising; therefore to consider what number of Ships We shall send out to that purpose, and how they shall be Man'd; and also if they shall put into the Isles of Meaxi­ma, Gotto, and Koray, to enquire if there be no safe Harbors, Bays, and other conveniencies for Ships, that in time of need, they might make use of them according to their Excellencies Order, if it may be done without prejudice or hinderance.

But it is again to be consider'd, that this Enquiry and Cruising cannot be done both in one season; and likewise to be suspected, that our Cruising Ships might be kept in the Havens aforemention'd by the Chineses; yet this might be excus'd in Stormy or Tempestuous Weather; however, We ought not to trust [Page 120] our Forces in their Hands; also that Cruising from Hoksieu, they might by Sayling along the Shore run beyond Cape de Sumber, nay, to Nanking, to see for convenient Havens and Bays, for the getting of Wood and fresh Water, of which in bad Weather, they might also make use, and at once take all those Jonks which they could meet with: On all which Proposals, they resolv'd and agreed as follows.

First, That the Admiral in person, according to his request, should go to Tayowan, with the Nut▪Tree, Vlaerdingen, Kogge, Sea-Hound, and Ionker, there to enquire concerning all Affairs, that on all accidents he might give speedy Or­der: If the Chineses do not come aboard of their own accords, he shall fire some Guns leasurely one after another, and also set up a Chieuw; if nothing be effected that way, to send the two Chinese Hostages, brought along with them from Batavia, (if they can get no Prisoners) ashore with Letters; by whom some Questions should be ask'd, viz. For whom they kept their Forts and Ca­stles in Formosa and Tayowan? whether for themselves, or joyntly with those of Ey and Quemuy? or for the Tartars, as being their Subjects? with promises, if they should truly answer them, that then the Netherlanders would also declare their Intentions; if thus they obtain'd their desire, the Admiral shall ask them to send some of their People along with him to the rest of the Fleet at the Pis­cadores, with promise, there to declare his Design, without leaving any of our Men as Hostages in their custody. If they are not inclin'd thereto, the Ad­miral shall do what time and convenience shall advise him to: For the per­formance of which, he shall only spend two or three days, in which time no Hostility shall be us'd ashore; but nevertheless, not only endeavor to make Prize of all Vessels there, but also in the Piscadores.

Concerning the second Proposal about Cruising for the Jonks in the Iapan Channel, It is thought fit that it be undertaken after the business be done at Hoksieu, if they are not prevented by receiving satisfaction for their sustain'd In­juries. But if they should not, then to wave their Cruising so long in the South­ern Mouson, but return to the Enemies chief Towns and Places; and Sailing to the North with the whole Fleet, do all the Damage possible, both by Sea and Land, and then against the time comes, to send the Merchant Ernest Van Hogenbook as Admiral with three of the best Sailers, Man'd as they were at that present, and three nimble Jonks (if they could be Masters of so many be­twixt that time) to Cruise beyond Cabo de Sumber, nay, if possible, as far as Nanking, that in their way thither, they might seek for some convenient Bays and Harbors wherein Ships might be safe in bad Weather, and be furnish'd with Water and Wood. Moreover, to flie up and down in thirty two and thir­ty three Degrees, and seize on all Ships they could light upon. They should also for that purpose, put in at the Isles Meaxima, Gotto, and Koray, provided they could do it without prejudice, according to their Excellencies Order in Batavia: In performance of which also, the Cruisers should again come to the Fleet, either at Ey, Quemuy, or Formosa in February, that then with all their Forces they might undertake such Adventures as should be thought con­venient.

The two chief Articles aforemention'd thus agreed on, it was also thought fit, after their former refusal, to Sail with the foremention'd Ships from Pe­dro Blanko to Formosa, towards the Cape of Tankoya, so to reach the South Harbor of Tayowan, and Anchor there; and likewise although William Volkerts, Admiral for the Iapan Merchants, had purpos'd with his Ships to proceed on his Voy­age [Page 121] from Pedro Blanco along the Coast of China to Iapan; yet the whole Fleet consisting of twenty Sail should first appear in sight of Formosa▪ and that then three of the Iapan Ships should go on without the Ankeveen, between Formosa and the Piscadores, and the Vice-Admiral with the remaining twelve Ships, should immediately Sail to the Piscadores, and there stay and expect the Admi­ral with his five Ships; but if bad Weather, all the Men of War should go to the Piscadores, and the three Vessels that were bound for Iapan, without staying any longer by the Fleet, proceed on their Voyage.

The same day, according to agreement, the Admiral set Sail with his five Ships, the Nut-Tree, Vlaerdingen, Kogge, Sea-Hound, and Ionker to Formosa, to­wards the Cape of Tonkayo, from thence to steer for the South Harbor of Tayowan, and there drop Anchor.

The eighth, the Sea-Hound and Ionker return'd from their fruitless chasing of a Jonk, since the sixt, which in calm Weather had escap'd them, taking only a Chinese Champan, in which the Ionker had five Men wounded, and the Sea-Hound one.

The Politick Chineses first set adrift a Pot with Arak in a Tub▪ and after­wards a Chinese Water-Vessel, on which stood a Cane with a Letter; and lastly, the aforemention'd Champan, which was taken by the Netherlanders, but the Pot with Arak the Commanders would not permit the Seamen to take up.

Whilst the Sea-hound and Ionker were yet busie chasing the foremention'd Jonk, they spy'd another under Sail, toward which, accompany'd with the Vice-Admiral and his whole Squadron, they made with all the Sail they could possible; and soon after the Admirals Sloop was put out Arm'd with six Blunderbusses, and other Necessaries of War, and Man'd with the Boats Crue, be­ing twelve Soldiers, one Ensign, and a Corporal, all Commanded by his Pilot.

In the taken Jonk, which on the tenth was brought close aboard the Admi­ral, they found seven small Guns, Sythes, Pikes, a parcel of Fire-Balls and Arrows, and likewise good store of Gun-Powder and other Ammunition; the rest of the Lading consisted in several kinds of Wood.

The Admiral first caus'd some of the Chineses to be mildly examin'd, then threatning, that if they would not speak the truth, they should die for it; to which purpose a Soldier was put behind one of them with a naked Sword, and then ask'd, To what intention they ply'd there, yet (partly supposing, that they would not confess, and partly, because the Interpreters could not well under­stand what they said) they could get but a slender account from them; but that which they agreed in most was, that they belong'd to the Tartar, and with twenty Jonks had carry'd Tartar Soldiers from Canton to the Island Ainan, to re­inforce the Garrison, and had now been in company with five of the same Jonks in their way towards Canton; besides, they made mention of their Pass, which the Vice-Roy of Canton had given them to that purpose, and deliver'd it to the Netherlanders, which were not able to understand it: At this time the Admiral was about the Craeke Deep, off from the Makaw Island.

The eleventh, the Council being assembled by the Admiral, caus'd the two Commanders of the taken Jonks, nam'd, Onghing, and Ongkeeyn, to be brought before them and examin'd; but could learn nothing from them, but what agreed with that which their People had told two days before, viz. that they had carry'd Soldiers from Canton to Ainan, and were now on their return; and reply'd when ask'd, That Coxinga had been dead a year, and that his Son Kim­sia had the chief Command in Tayowan and Formosa; but how it was with the [Page 122] Wars between the Tartars and Chineses they knew not. When ask'd if they knew the Champan taken by the Netherlanders of the second instant, and now be­hind the Admiral's Stern; they answer'd, after having see it, Yes, and that it belong'd to Canton; but if the Jonk to which it belong'd came along with them from Ainan, they could not resolve.

The Letter which they found also in the said Jonk was given them to read; but they gave another construction than the former: Neither could the Hol­landers be rightly inform'd of the Contents, because their Interpretors could not explain it; so that in stead of satisfaction, they found themselves more per­plex'd than before.

Hereupon the Admiral desir'd the Council to consider if these shaven Chi­neses, with their Jonk and Cargo, since they had shew'd no manner of Hosti­lity to the Netherlanders, ought to be clear'd and discharg'd, or if it were bet­ter to be sure by taking them along with the Fleet to Hoksieu, and put their free­dom to be judg'd by Singlamong and Lipovi Chief Governors there; or if by tor­tures, they should make a farther examination.

Which being consulted on, it was suppos'd that by tortures they might perhaps draw from them the truth, and what the Netherlanders expected, viz. That they were of Coxinga's Party, and Sail'd with false Passes, and yet be sent out by the Tartars, and be under their jurisdiction, whom by the taking of these Jonks, they ought no ways to displease; the more, because their Ex­cellencies Order in Batavia, concerning the taking of Jonks, was not specifi'd to relate to those which Sail'd to places that belong'd to the Tartars, but those that drove a Trade to Iapan: But because this Jonk thus prepar'd for Piracy was much suspected, and also the rough entertainment which they had from the small Vessel, six of their Men being Wounded, they resolv'd after consideration to declare the Jonk with the foremention'd Goods, and all her Men free Prize, and carry them to Hoksieu, there to make further inquiry concerning the truth. This being told them, they seem'd to be satisfi'd, only fearing at their return to be taken by Coxinga's Jonks.

In the Morning about Day-break, the Fleet had the North-Point of Ilha dos Viados, or the Island Lemas North and by West, two Leagues and a half from them.

About Noon, the Nut-Tree, Cogge, Zierikzee, Overveen, Naerden, and Mars, came at the firing of some Guns, from the Admiral to an Anchor, on the North-side of Lemas, within Cannon shot of the Shore. A good distance be­hind the Admiral, they saw the Bucksloot and Nieuwendam also lying at Anchor. So on the twenty ninth, the Admiral came with ten Ships safe to an Anchor, in the Road of Hoksieu; the rest of the Fleet were order'd to Sail to the Bay of Tenhay, and the Good Fortune soon after sent notice of her arrival by Letters to the Governor of the Castle Minjazeen, lying at the Mouth of the River Hoksieu; and likewise to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Lipovi.

The twentieth of October, after long stay, and many Consultations, con­cerning the Commencing the War against the Coxingans, the Vice-Admiral Hui­bert de Laresse, and Hogenbook came aboard the Admiral again at Soanchefoe, with a Letter from the Vice-Roy Singlamong, containing these words.

Singlamong's Letter to the Admiral▪

YOu are come hither from a remote Countrey, with mighty Ships, to serve Our Empe­ror, which is a certain Sign of your good Inclinations. How shall We return Kindnesses sufficient to such your Deserts? It is needless to shew Thankfulness for the small Trisles sent you. You write to have it Seal'd, what hath pass'd between us: But how can I possibly do it? because you (if it be onely Written in Our Language) cannot un­derstand it. Therefore I desire you to let the Business of the War be written in Paper, both in the Dutch and Chinese Tongues, and send it to Me, that I may also rightly appre­hend it.

When We together shall have regain'd the Isles of Ay and Quemuy, We will joyn Our Ionks and Forces to your Ships, to set upon Tayowan, and so utterly root out their whole Party.

It is most true, that Our Emperor will requite the good Service which you have done to this Empire, by permitting you a free Trade; for I and the General Lipovi will write expresly about it to his Imperial Majesty.

The Ionk which you desire to carry News to Batavia, shall be sent you, when you please to advise Us, whether you will have it Mann'd with Tartars or Hollanders: We desire you to employ none of your Ships in it, that your Forces may not be weakned, because they will be wanting in the War. If you please, We desire you to stay a little longer before you depart; for I expect an Answer from Lipovi, which so soon as I have, We will ap­point the day. This is in short an Answer to your Letter; for all things cannot so well be express'd on Paper.

The one and twentieth, according to the Vice-Roys Request, the Articles and Agreement were written in Chinese and Dutch, on Flower'd Paper, and both Sign'd and Seal'd by the Admiral and Secretary, with the Companies Seal in Red Wax, and sent ashore about Noon by the Merchant Ernest Hoogenhoek, who was also commanded to request, That the Vice-Roy would in like manner Seal that for the Netherlanders with his Seal, and return it with him. The Ar­ticles were these.

  • I. There shall be an inviolable League between us and the Subjects of his Imperial Ma­jesty of China and Tartary.
  • II. Faithfully to assist one another against the Coxingans, our Enemies, till they are brought under Subjection.
  • III. That Writings shall be deliver'd on both sides concerning the Flags and Colours, whereby to distinguish each other from the Enemy.
  • IV. That the Expedition against the Enemy shall be hastned on both Parties.
  • V. That the Emperors Ionks and Vessels shall be under Our Flags, and as Ours divi­ded into three Squadrons, shall keep under them, till their coming to Eymuy and Quemuy, that when Our Ships, which draw more Water, cannot come near the Shore, We may run with the Ionks into the Havens; to which purpose, We desire Chinese Pilots.
  • VI. That We Land and set upon the Enemy together.
  • VII. That the East-India Company shall drive a Free and unmolested Trade in Chi­na and Tartary, and all other his Imperial Majesties Countreys, for ever; but the disposing of those Goods which We brought along with Us, shall be referr'd till with joynt Forces We have conquer'd Eymuy and Quemuy.
  • [Page 124] VIII. That when We have subdu'd those Isles, upon Our Request We may take Posses­sion of one of them, or any other thereabouts, which may be convenient for Us, to keep a Garrison, to defend Us from Assaults of the Pyrates.
  • IX. That on the Conquest of Eymuy and Quemuy, your Highness Ionks and Forces shall Sail with Us to Formosa and Tayowan, and upon Conquering of those Places, deli­ver them with all the Forts and Castles, and what is found in them, into Our Possession, that We may inhabit that Countrey, as formerly.
  • X. That the Vice-Roy shall accommodate Us with a good Ionk, which we may send with Information to Batavia.
  • XI. That his Highness also take care that all this be approv'd of, and confirm'd by the Emperor in Peking, and a Grant thereof procur'd under his Imperial Majesties Signet, to the Hollanders.

About these Articles, as the Admiral was inform'd by Letters of the twen­ty third from Nobel and Hoogenhoek, the Vice-Roy made great scruple, saying, That he could not sign them, before he had made the General Lipovi, and the Emperors Deputies in Chinchieu, acquainted with the seventh and eighth Arti­cles, and had their Approbation concerning them, which at farthest within two or three days, on the Word of a King, should be perform'd; to which purpose he had already sent the foremention'd Articles, written by the Nether­landers in form of an Agreement, by Post to Chinchieu. And likewise the other Ar­ticles, especially that of Tayowan and Formosa, which upon the taking of it with joynt Forces, should be left in possession of the Netherlanders, was already grant­ed without contradiction by the Vice-Roy. Nay, he had protested to them, That upon the taking of Ay and Quemuy, the free and unmolested Trade through all the Empire of China should not onely be granted to the Hollanders for a few years, but for ever, for which he would stand oblig'd; onely he de­sir'd them to stay the foremention'd three or four days, as we said; when they answering, told the Vice-Roy, That in that Point they could not satisfie his desire; but that one thing or other thereof must be Seal'd: He again re­peated what he declar'd before.

The twenty third the Admiral sent Lairesse, and the Rere-Admiral Bartholo­mew Verwei ashore, with Order to go with Nobel and Hoogenhoek to the Vice-Roy, and desire him to Sign and Seal the Covenant for performance of all those foremention'd Articles, and also for that of the Free Trade, which his Highness had granted; and then declare to him, That the Hollanders would at present be satisfied with it, and stay the limited three or four days for the granting of that Article concerning Eymuy and Quemuy; but that in the mean time he would be pleas'd to hasten the sending of the Jonk which was to be dispatch'd for Batavia.

The twenty sixth the Vlaerdingen, Nut-tree, Tertolen, Naerden, Mars, Zierikzee, Flushing, and the Cogge, being under the Rere-Admiral Bartholomew Verwei his Squadron, set Sail from before the River Soanchieuw, steering directly for Cape Tsombou.

The twenty seventh a Servant came with the Interpreter Melman from his Highness Singlamong, who had himself been with the General Lipovi, and brought the long-expected Seal'd Agreement; as also two Letters, one from the Vice-Roy, and another from the General. The Conditions aforesaid were to this effect.

[Page 125]

SInglamong Chief Commander, and King of the Territory of Fokien, hath concluded in his Council as followeth.

Singlamong's Jonks shall carry a black Flag, in the midst of which shall stand a red Full-Moon.

Matthithel'avia, Governor in Soanchieuw, a yellow Flag with a white Pennon: The Jonks under his Command, a white Flag, and a red Moon: His Man­darins, a green Flag, with a red Moon, and a white Pennon.

Tonganpek, a black Flag, and a white Pennon: His Officers, a black Flag, with a Silver Moon.

Soensinpek, a black Flag, and a red Pennon.

Iantoetek, a black Flag, with a yellow Pennon.

Loylavia, a green Flag, with a Silver Moon in it: His Officers, a green Vane, with a red Moon, and a white Pennon.

Thelavia, a green Flag, with a red Moon, and a black Pennon: His Offi­cers, a green Flag, with a red Moon, and red Pennon.

Yoejoeng, a green Flag, with a red Moon, and a white Pennon.

The Holland Ships shall set Sail from hence with Our Jonks: The smal­lest, and those that draw least Water, coming before the Enemies Countrey, shall run up into the Harbors; and the greatest Ships, as likewise Our big­gest Jonks, shall follow. If the Holland Ships, or Ours, be in any danger, they shall not desert, but each be ready to assist the other as much as possible. We promise therefore to be faithful, as People of one Heart ought to be; and from hence forward no Hostility shall be shewn on our Part to the Hol­landers. Tonganpek shall also set out two convenient Vessels, furnish'd with experienc'd Sea-men, which shall sail before the Holland Ships, and be at their Service. Likewise he shall furnish the Hollanders with three good Pi­lots, that understand and know this Channel, which also shall serve the Hol­landers. When they set Sail from hence with Our Jonks, they shall keep to­gether, till they see if the Enemy with his Sea-Forces will come out to meet Us: If not, Our Ships shall with the Hollanders come to an Anchor at the Cape of Laetjen, which shall be the Station where the Jonks of Our Kingdom shall meet, and from thence besiege the Enemies Forts and Islands by Sea, when Singlamong shall give Order what his People are to do when they come ashore. The Hollanders shall the day before receive a Letter from Singlamong, when they shall set Sail from hence. After the Conquering of Eymuy and Quemuy, the Hollanders shall by Our Emperor be accepted as Subjects, and his Imperial Majesty shall acknowledge their faithful Assistance, and grant them their Requests, which I and Lipovi promise with all speed to procure, when once We have seen the Valour of the Hollanders. Furthermore, you may sell those Merchandizes which you have here aboard in that Ship which lies in the Hoksieu: But since the time is short that the Ships must Sail against the Enemy, it will be better that the Goods be reposited in Hoksieu, and the sale thereof deferr'd till We shall have conquer'd Eymuy and Quemuy: Yet if you will sell any thing before, you may, it being freely permitted.

Our Tartar Jonks shall all have a black Circle in their Sails, in which shall stand a black Character.

The Letter writ to the Admiral by the Vice-Roy Singlamong was to this purpose.

THe last Year you were sent hither from the King of Batavia, and came with your Ships before Hoksieu, and have acquainted by Letters and Word of mouth, That you come to serve Our Empire, and assist Us against Coxinga, which We have already made known to his Majesty at Peking.: And seeing you resolve to be fully satisfied and reveng'd to the height for all the Losses you have sustain'd, and never to desist until you have utterly extirpa­ted those Pyrates, therefore We have been the more earnest in Our Sollicita­tion: And since you are come hither again this Year to the same purpose, to joyn with Us, We have read your Letter, which We receiv'd some days since, concerning the War, with the Government and Order thereof, which We shall observe when We come to engage with the Enemy; but We find thereby, that you make more Proposals than the last Year, and those such as I and Lipovi (though Chief Governors of this Territory) cannot conclude on, before we have made it known to the Emperor, and receiv'd his Approbation. As to what concerns those things for which We have receiv'd Orders and Command from the Emperor to conclude with you heretofore, We have sent you in this Letter, and they shall also be strictly observ'd by Us.

The Letter from the General was to this purpose. Lipovi General of the Tartars in the Territory of Fokien, to the Admiral of the Hollanders, sends Greeting.

TWo days since I receiv'd Singlamong's and your Letter concerning the Agreement to be concluded between you and Us, which I have strict­ly perus'd; but finding some weighty Articles in it, I thought it not conve­nient to answer your Proposals. It is true, I am plac'd by the Emperor here as Chief Commander; yet I am not impower'd to treat about such Affairs, according to my desire; but must first acquaint his Majesty with it, and ex­pect his Confirmation: But I have very well understood your desire, and you must expect an Answer to your Business from the Court at Peking, whi­ther I have already sent a Letter. As to your going with Our Ships to Ey­muy and Quemuy, Singlamong will acquaint you with Our Intentions, and give [...]ou order concerning all things else. You have inclos'd in your Letter the Agreement We have mention'd, viz. That after the Conquering of Eymuy and Quemuy, Our Fleet and Forces shall sail with yours to Tayowan; and likewise that here in Hoksieu, or elsewhere, a Place shall be granted wherein you may drive a Trade; I have also written about it to the Court at Peking, from whence We expect a sudden Answer, which so soon as We receive, We will send you, together with the Emperors Pleasure concerning your last Articles. You request also three Pilots, which Singlamong will dispatch to you. Here in­clos'd I send you an Express of the Flags in those Ships which shall go out of this River, to Eymuy and Quemuy, by which they may be distinguish'd.

Santokquon, Lipovi's Admiral, shall carry a blue Flag, with a black Moon, and a white Pennon.

Cheytinquon, a black Flag, with a Moon Argent.

a green Flag, with a red Moon.

Schuluwan, General of the Militia, a red Flag, with a black Moon.

Captain Yoeloewan, a white Flag, with a sable Moon.

[Page 127]Captain Ian Sumpin, a green Flag.

Captain Goo Sumpin, a black Flag, and a blue Pennon.

This Seal'd Writing, being compar'd with that sent by the Netherlanders to his Highness, to be Seal'd by him, was found to differ in the principal Arti­cles, viz.

The taking possession of the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, was not mention'd, but left out.

No mention was also made, That if they conquer'd, then they would go with them to Tayowan and Formosa.

Concerning the Free Trade through the whole Empire, and also to get the Emperor to ratifie their Agreement, they express'd thus: ‘That upon the Conquering the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, the Hollanders should be receiv'd into the Emperors Subjection, and that his Majesty should acknowledge their Assistance, and grant their Request, to which Singlamong and Lipovi would be means that it should be perform'd.’

Besides, although the King and Councils Writing agreed for the most part with that of the Hollanders, yet they had inserted many new things, about the carrying of their Flags, and other unnecessary Matters.

The last Exception was, That the Vice-Roy Singlamong's Letter was sign'd with his Seal; but Lipovi's was not.

The Admiral Bort, in Answer to their Highnesses Singlamong and Lipovi, writ back, with an Account of what Flags and Colours the Netherlanders us'd to carry, and should carry in that Expedition, as follows.

BEsides the Letter from your Highness and the General Lipovi, I also re­ceiv'd yesterday the Result made in your Highness Assembly about Our Business, in which we are permitted to sell those Commodities at this time onely which We brought along with Us, being but few, and such as Captain Nobel can at any time give your Highness an Inventory of: We accept of this Grant, provided it may be forthwith publish'd, as well here in Soanchieuw, as Hoksieu, and made known to the People by divulging the Proclamation; and that Captain Nobel may go about it to Hoksieu, and there at his coming open his Cargoes, and expose the Goods to sale. And though this be but a small Requital for the great Service which We intend to do, yet We will firmly hope and believe, That his Imperial Majesty hereafter will not refuse to grant us a Free Trade for ever, through his whole Empire, it being onely what agrees with his Royal Bounty, to requite all such who to their great Charge come to his Service. We declare, That Our Fleet of Ships stands Our Masters in above a hundred thousand Taile to fit out, and forty thousand Taile a Month to maintain: That Fleet which return'd last Year with ill success to Batavia, cost also a great Sum of Money, which your Highness must needs be sensible of, and likewise what damage We sustain'd by the loss of two Ships that came to his Imperial Majesties Service. If therefore the Sale of those few Goods which We have brought along with Us, can make any satisfaction for the great Charges which We have already been at, We leave to your Highness consideration. Therefore We cannot but be still importunate in our first Request, That the Free Trade may be ratified to Us for ever through the whole Empire, and Writings seal'd in confirmation thereof.

But as concerning Eymuy and Quemuy, upon whose Conquest We desire [Page 126] [...] [Page 127] [...] [Page 128] some adjacent Isle to plant in; and also about your Sailing with Us from thence to Formosa and Tayowan, and surrendring that Countrey upon the re­taking of it to Us, your Highness makes no mention; neither of the Article to procure Us Letters from the Emperor for the confirming all things.

Yet We are confident that your Highness will be so favorable as to pro­cure what We so oft and so long have requested; upon which account We are ready and willing to venture Our Lives and Fortunes for the Emperor, and use Our uttermost Endeavors to ruine that avaritious and insulting Py­rate, so We stand ready to joyn Our Forces with yours, desiring all celerity in the Expedition, and that the time for Our setting Sail from Eymuy and Quemuy may be appointed and publish'd, because the time limited for Us to be there, by Our General and Council, is already past.

There are yet some Prisoners of Ours, whom We desire your Highness to remember, and to send them to Us, if you hear where they are, or find them. In Canton, as We understand, are two of Our Men, that went over to the Enemy, which We desire may be sent fetter'd to Us, because such as are un­faithful to their Trust, as the worst of Men, should suffer by condign Pu­nishment.

The Flags and Colours which your Highness Fleet shall carry in this Our intended Expedition, We are sufficiently inform'd of their differences by your Highness▪ Ours also you may be pleas'd to take notice of, here inclos'd.

Balthasar Bort.

The Hollanders Colours, when joyn'd with the Tartars, shall be as follows.

First, All the Vanes and Flags which constantly flow from their Ships, are Red, White, and Blue.

When a white Ensign appears on the Stern, and a Gun is fir'd, it signifies the calling of a General Council: This Ensign also signifies Peace, as the Red War, and the beginning of a Fight.

At the putting on of a red, white, and blue Pennon from the Admirals Ship, all the Ships must follow him.

The Admirals Captain shall carry a green Flag, in which on the upper end near the Staff stands a gilded Lion with a Bunch of Arrows in his Paws.

The several Inferior Officers shall be distinguish'd by their several Co­lours of Red, Blue, Yellow, and Green.

The Rere-Admiral shall carry a blue Ensign, with a Lion near the Staff; and his Inferior Officers Watchet, Blue, White, and Yellow Colours.

All other Martial Officers shall carry their Colours mingled, by which, together with their Sails and Yards, they may very well be distinguish'd from the Tartars.

The second of November, Constantine Nobel came from Soanchieuw aboard the Admiral, and brought an Answer from the Vice-Roy Singlamong, in which the time of their setting Sail, and all other things were mention'd, as appears by the following Contents.

IN the tenth Moon, the first day, I have given Order to the Agent Nobel to tell the Holland Admiral, That Our Tartar Jonks shall set Sail out of the River Soanchefoe on the ninth of this Our tenth Moon, and shall ride close by [Page 129] the Hollanders in the Haven of Schoeni, and if Wind and Weather serve, to set forth with your Ships the same day, and set Sail to the Bay of Wettauw. Let five of your best Sailers, that draw least Water, go before with Our nimblest Jonks, and so run into the Haven of Wettauw; and the remaining ten Ships, with Our great Jonks, Anchor in the Mouth of the Harbor. If We should meet with any of the Enemies Jonks in the Bay of Wettauw, as also in the Haven of Kinsakia, as We may expect, let us joyntly assail them.

Concerning your Landing on the Enemies Coasts, Bethetok and I have re­solv'd about it, which must be known onely to us two; but We will give you timely notice thereof.

I have order'd the Agent to bring me the List of the Merchandises which you have brought along with you, and I will send them by him to the Go­vernor of Hoksieu, with Orders to him to sell them in Publick, to which pur­pose the An Officer belong­ing to the City. Conbon will be very serviceable.

Nobel also brought a Letter from the General Lipovi, in answer to that which the Admiral had sent to him, containing the following Lines.

THe twenty ninth of this ninth Moon I receiv'd your Letter, and per­us'd the Contents of it, taking notice of the several distinctions of the Hollanders Flags and Colours, which We have approv'd, and at this instant acquainted Our Officers with, and order'd them to govern themselves ac­cordingly.

You are here sent from your King in Batavia, with your Ships, to assist and sail with us to Eymuy and Quemuy: Therefore We believe that you will shew your Valour, in setting upon the Enemies Countreys and Vessels, that when they are Conquer'd, you may return with Honor to Batavia, and there give an Account of your Adventures to your King, That here you have ob­tain'd your long wish'd for Desire of Free Trade, for which you have come hither two Years.

You write that We should send you Letters of Assurance, that you might for ever Trade through all this Empire, besides the appointing you conveni­ent Houses and Places; which is not possible to be granted, till we are im­power'd from his Majesty at Peking, to whom I have already writ concern­ing it, who by this time understands your Requests: But as for those Wares which you have brought with you, you may dispose thereof at your pleasure. But after the Conquest of Eymuy and Quemuy, when you shall return with Us again to Hoksieu, We shall by that time have, We hope, a pleasing Answer to all your other desires, from the Emperor.

You propose also, That if any of your Countrey-men, being Prisoners with the Enemy, should fall into Our Hands, we would not kill them; which We not onely promise, but further also, that We will send them to you; and to that purpose I have already strictly commanded both My Of­ficers and Soldiers. The day on which the Ships shall set Sail with Our Jonks, Singlamong will privately advise you.

The eleventh the Admiral Sail'd out of the Mouth of the River Soanchieuw, and with three Ships, viz. the Nut-Tree, Cinnamon-Tree, and Yonker, he came to the Cape of Sombou, although not followd by the Tartar Jonks. The Rere-Admiral Verwei, who had since the twenty sixth lain in the River Soanchefoe, set Sail also from thence with three Ships, the Vlaerdingen, Naerden, and Sea-hound.

[Page 130]The thirteenth the Admiral was inform'd by Letters from Tonganpek, That his Jonks were the day before come out of the River of Soanchefoe, into the Bay of Schoeni; and that Morning a Letter was brought to him from the Ad­miral Matitoe (who three days before was gone to the Cape of Wattauw) in which he was advis'd, That he should be with all the Jonks of the Realm at Wattauw on the fourteenth day of that Moon, and also acquaint the Holland Admiral with it, that he might Sail thither with his Ships.

According to this Advice from Tonganpek, and also perceiving the Jonks sail­ing before, the Admiral set sail with fourteen Ships from the Cape of Sombou to that of Puthay, behind which he came to an Anchor about the Evening, in nine Fathom Water.

Here Iacob Gommers, Commander of the Zierikzee, came aboard the Admiral, bringing with him one of the Dutch Prisoners, call'd Maurice Ianzen Vis, born in Mauritius-Isle, who not long before was taken by the Enemy Coxingans, and by them sent to the Netherlanders: He also deliver'd the Admiral a Letter from the Enemy, dated the tenth Instant, written by Summimpesiou, otherwise call'd Sioubontok, the second or next Person to the young Coxin Kimsia, who had the Supreme Command over the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, and other Islands lying thereabouts. The Letter was to this effect.

Summimpesiou, alias Sioubontok, Commander and Governor of Quemuy, sends this Letter to the Chief Commander of the Holland Fleet.

YOu have understood and know, that Coxinga two Years ago conquer'd Tayowan, which formerly was his Native Countrey.

This was done because he was forc'd to provide a Settlement and strong Fortress for his Soldiers, which he us'd in his War against the Tartar.

And two Years since Coxinga coming to Formosa, at Sakkam, Iacob Valencyn surrendred upon these Articles, That the Hollanders should be alotted a Place in Sakkam, or elsewhere, to go on with their Trade, and settle their Facto­ry in.

As to what concerns the Tartars, they are very much disabled, and their Forces so broken, that they have lost the Territories Huquan and Nanquin; therefore they have desir'd you to make War upon Us with your Ships, as We are inform'd; which We fear not, having Soldiers enough, all indispu­tably valiant: As for your Ships, they are very large, but draw a great deal of Water; so that they cannot penetrate the River, but must always live at Sea. You also know very well, that when We were in Tayowan We were stor'd with Soldiers, and Ammunition; therefore have a care of your selves, that these Eastern Tartars deceive you not; for they are cowardly and deceitful, as you perhaps will find too soon, when you shall see, that in the Battel, and in the greatest need, they will forsake you, shifting basely for themselves: But admit they should stand stoutly, they will always be ca­villing; sometimes they will pretend, that you have not assisted them as you ought, but that in all their Engagements they were forc'd to resist Coxinga's Forces alone: Nay, if you should conquer us, which we no ways fear, they will never grant you a setled Factory; for Singlamong and Lipovi have assur'd Us, That the Hollanders should never obtain a Free Trade in China, if We would come in. And besides, the Emperor in Peking hath not so much as once heard of your Business; for if he did, he would never put you upon a War against Us; therefore I advise you in good time to look to your selves, [Page 131] nor Engage for a false Friend against so potent an Enemy: for your Ships, of which you boast so much, are rather for Burthen than War: and if you come to Traffick with us, then know, that the Coasts you intend for have many Rocks, Sands and Shelves, where your Ships may easily suffer. But in Tayo­wan we have Sugar, Deer-skins, and other Merchandises which you desire, in far greater abundance: therefore if you will turn your Business to a friendly Commerce, intimate your Intentions to Kimsia, and he will provide a Place for your Merchants, and a Harbor for your Ships. I have with yours sent some of our Men to you to know further your Mind; and if you desire to Treat with me about any thing, send three of your Men to me, and we will first consult: we will send you aboard Valencine's Wife, your Minister Leo­nard with his Wife, and all the other Prisoners. What we Write is plain, but serious, not ambiguous, and free from all dissimulation. The Hollander Assam was Interpreter two years since in Sakkam to Iacob Valencin, therefore I have sent him with this Letter to declare to you all things, and to acquaint you with the condition of our Affairs.

The Commander, Iacob Gommers-back, sent in Writing by the same Champan which brought Maurice, an Answer to the young Coxin, That neither he nor his Officers could give any Answer upon it; but that they must first acquaint their Admiral with it, and have his Order: therefore it would be requisite for his Highness to send a Coya with Oars to him, to carry the Messenger (by the Chineses call'd Assam, and by the Netherlanders, Maurice) to receive his Answer on their Proposals.

This Maurice Ianzen Vis inform'd the Admiral and his Councel, as well of his own accord as by Examination, That the Enemy was five or six thousand strong in the Island Eymuy, and that there were no other Castles or strong Holds, but one round Stone Wall, without Batteries or Guns: That the Island Lissoe was inhabited onely by Rusticks, and that the Enemy had no Fortifications there; but on the Island Goutsoe was a small Castle: That Anpontek Command­ded in Formosa and Tayowan, yet lived on Sakkam, which was no way fortifi'd: That in the Castle there were no Soldiers, nor any but Coxin's Wives and Chil­dren: That the Militia were Quarter'd all about the Countrey, yet much decrea­sed by divers running away, and many cut off daily by the Formosan King Mid­dag; for neither he nor the People of the Mountains would submit to the Chinese Government; but all the Villages did: That before Eymuy and Quemuy lay about eighty great, and twenty ordinary Jonks with Soldiers; moreover, above two hundred and sixty Jonks Unarm'd, in which their Women and Children, and Housholdstuff, had their abodes: Lastly, that the Towns on Eymuy and Quemuy were most of them deserted, and the Chineses preparing to flie to Formosa.

Upon this Intelligence the Admiral and his Councel conceiv'd, that their dilatoriness about the Islands would strengthen Formosa, all the rest flying thi­ther, which by all means ought to be prevented. Hereupon it was thought convenient and concluded, to send the Vice-Admiral and Captain Poleman as authoriz'd Persons, to Tonganpek, General of the Tartar Fleet, lying at the Cape of Pathany, to demand of him peremptorily, If he did not intend with all his Jonks and Forces that very day, to joyn and set Sail with them, and so together fall upon the Enemy: which if he refus'd, then tell to him, That they would [Page 132] undertake the Work themselves. And that it might appear they dealt upright­ly, Maurice Ianzen was sent with the two Captains to acquaint him, That they had Overtures of Peace from Summimpessiou, yet they would not desist from their Intentions.

But they returning told the Admiral, That he was very unwilling to Engage till he heard from Singlamong and Lipovi, and therefore desir'd three or four days respite, alledging that it was not according to the Agreement, which was, That they should assail the Enemy together: but if they would go, then to leave two or three Ships for their Convoy to follow them.

The fifteenth he sent a Mandarin with Letters to the Admiral, persisting in his former Desire, that he would please to tarry but two days longer. But the Admiral suspecting delays, and the change of their Councels, and that the time expir'd they might have other Orders, pitcht upon the next day to set forward with eight Ships to Quemuy, and to leave seven small Frigats to con­duct them; of which they sent him word by his own Mandarin; desiring also, that for the more easie Landing of their Men they lend them twenty five of their Coya's, or small Boats.

In the Evening the Hollanders espy'd fifty or sixty little Tartar Jonks and Coya's to stand directly for Quemuy, to whom the Admiral immediately sent his Lieutenant Hendrick van Dalen, with the Interpreter Iohn Melman, to demand the reason thereof, and why they Sail'd thither? to which they return'd an­swer, That the Tartars had that Night taken a Coya with three Men from the Enemy, who inform'd them that there were many more at Quemuy, therefore they had sent out those Coya's to watch their motion; adding moreover, that the next Morning they were to come again to the Fleet.

The sixteenth about Day-break they saw the same Vessels according as they told them, returning from Quemuy, but seem'd to be a greater Fleet; to meet whom, upon a Signal, many more Boats set out from the Tartars by fifteeen or sixteen in a Company, which might easily be discern'd very much to decrease the Fleet; and observing they went all of them thither full of People, and re­turn'd in a manner empty, they were jealous that the Tartar either had, or would privately agree with the Enemy: whereupon they chang'd their in­tention, and resolv'd to wait another day for the Tartar Fleet, whilst they sent to them to be better satisfi'd concerning the former Passages.

In the afternoon a Mandarin, chose by Tonganpek, brought the twenty five Coya's to the Dutch Fleet, with a Letter to the Admiral, desiring some farther de­lay; but he not altering his resolution, distributed the Tartar Vessels amongst his Fleet as he saw fit: and immediately the Admiral and the Councel agreed, that the next Morning he should Sail from thence with eight Ships to the South Point of the Island Quemuy; and in the mean time the Rere-Admiral Bartholo­mew Verwei should with his Ship and the other small Frigats, being seven in number, stay with the Tartar Fleet, and Sail with them towards Quemuy; but if the General Tonganpek did not follow the Admiral with all his Forces within five days, that then the Vice-Admiral, no longer delaying, should follow to joyn with the Admiral, that so together they might fall upon the Service, the better to endamage the Enemy. Mean while came another Letter from Singlamong the Vice-Roy, to the Admiral, by all means desiring him to tarry a little longer; but he persisting, and not enduring delays, the next day with his Ships reaching to Erasmus Bay, the twenty five Coya's running in, lay behind the North-Foreland: the Admiral not doubting but that the Tartars would [Page 133]


follow him, Sail'd nearer the City; and about ten a Clock the next Morning anchor'd before the great City Quemuy: where after some difficulty in chusing their Ground, the rest of their Fleet being now joyn'd with the other seven, Rode as near the City as they could: then the Admiral sent some Boats to discover fit Landing-places, with Orders also, that if they saw any conveni­ence to Land a Party; which Coker their Captain perform'd, putting ashore fourscore Men; but the Chineses coming out of the City gave them a smart Camisado: yet the Hollanders behav'd themselves so well, that they put the Enemy, though twice their number, to flight with the loss of one Man, and some few wounded. During this Skirmish, the Hollanders having gotten some Ground, and the Chineses retreated, the one was recruited from their Ships, and the other from the Town, who after a while facing each other, came to a second Engagement: but these also, as the former, were repuls'd, and forc'd to retreat with loss; and had the later Landed Hollanders been drawn up and setled in a Body, they had probably, by a total rout in their confused flight, broke in with them into the Town; but they seeing the Hollanders ad­vance no farther, fled not in, but lay sculking behind a natural Breast-work of Rocks that lay before the Town, whence they gawl'd them very much with continual flights of Arrows. The Admiral from Sea observing the difficul­ty of the Service, sent Order that Captain Poleman should Command in chief upon the Shore to prevent all disorders and confusions, ordering them to stand upon their Guard, and not venter too near the Town, while he should Land and plant some Cannon to facilitate the Storming thereof: But whilst the Hollanders made good their Ground all that Night, next Morning the Admiral himself Landed; then consulting what was best to be done, or whether they should Storm the City that day, Letters were presented them from Singlamong, Matithelavia, or Bethetok, Tonganpek, and other Commanders, in which they advis'd, That the Tartar Forces would set forth with their Fleet that very day, therefore they desir'd them to forbear Storming till their whole [Page 134] Force were conjoyn'd, that they might first together set upon the Enemy at Sea, and having routed them there, attended with Victory, next assault the Town, alledging, That when they had taken the City, all the adjacent Places and Isles would of themselves surrender. The Admiral, though well satisfi'd by this, that the Tartars were punctual to their Promises, yet thought it better not to lose time by suspending their Motion (which would ask some days) re­solv'd to give them a present Assault: whereupon it was unanimously agreed, with two Companies of Soldiers and some Sea-men with Hand-Granado's, to draw near, having a good Reserve upon all occasions: this no sooner conclu­ded, but they march'd up to the Walls, where while some ply'd the Defen­dantsThe City Quemuy Stor­med. with Volleys of Shot, that they could not peep over the Wall, and others threw Hand-granado's, some set up Scaling-Ladders, on which they mounted very resolutely; but they being made of Canes, and over-burden'd with the Assailants, broke when they had in their hopes swallow'd the City; which the Admiral observing, and that they were like to do no good at present, sounded a Retreat; and so they drew off in some confusion, though with no considera­ble damage.

This Design falling out so unfortunately, the Admiral commanded all his Men aboard, and the next day set Sail to meet the Tartars, and the remainder of his Fleet, according to Singlamong's Desire, having sent Letters before him to that purpose.

Whilst the Admiral made these Dispatches, and went with the Vice-Admiral went aboard the Ionker Frigat, a Chinese Messenger arriv'd with a Letter from Somminpesiou, in Coxin Kimpsia, Coxinga's Son's Name, who had the chief Com­mand over his Forces. The Letter being interpreted, was found to be of the same Contents as that of the tenth instant, which we mention'd before. Be­sides this was another written by a Dutch Prisoner, Iohn Ianse of Bremen, who al­so desir'd them to agree with the Chineses, who, if the Netherlanders were inclin'd to Trade, were best able to serve them; and to that end they might chuse a Place where they pleas'd, and it should be given them; and also that their King Kimsia did with the first opportunity expect the first Messenger Maurice, who he hop'd would bring him news, that they would agree with him; in hopes of which they intended to send them their Prisoners from Tayowan.

Whereupon the Admiral sent word again to Tsioubontok, That he had re­ceiv'd his Letters too late, because the Netherlanders had entred into a League before with the Tartars, by which they were oblig'd to maintain Wars against them, unless the Tartars gave any new occasion of breach; but as concerning Assam, or Maurice, he intended to send him by some other opportunity.

All things being now ready and in order, they weighed Anchor, and had not Sail'd far before they descry'd behind the Point of Quemuy two of their other Ships at an Anchor, by which they absolutely concluded, that the Tartars whole Fleet was there with them, because they also saw a great many Jonks Sailing behind the Island Lissoe; but in stead of coming on they dropp'd An­chor: when in the Evening the Admiral receiv'd another Letter from Ton­ganpek to this effect:

THe eighteenth of our tenth Moon eight of your Ships Sail'd about Quemuy, which is very well done. This day I have receiv'd Letters from Singlamong to set Sail with your and our Ships on the one and twentieth of the tenth Moneth, from Wetauw to Tathaen: wherefore I and Matithelavia have set forward with the remainder of your [Page] [Page]


[Page] [Page 135] Ships to the West Point of Quemuy, that on the twentieth in the Morning they might be at Tathaen, Wind and Weather favouring: You mention in your last Letter, that the Coya's which were sent to your Service did not perform as they ought; the Business shall be examin'd, and their Officers shall suffer condign punishment. On the closing of this Let­ter we came with our Ionks and two of your Ships, to the Point of Osatauw, where we have taken some of the Enemy's Vessels, and with the slaughter of a few put the rest to flight: nothing now remains, but that we may▪ conjoyn Forces at Lissoe, hoping there to meet you, that the next morning we may fall upon the Service.

Which the Admiral presently answer'd, and sending Orders to his Reer-Admiral to be in a readiness, prepar'd for the Rendezvouz at Lissoe.

The nineteenth he receiv'd other Letters, both from Tonganpek and his Reer-Admiral, giving an account onely of some small Actions, and a little jea­lousie of his Reer-Admiral concerning the Tartars; which he answer'd no otherwise, but that he would meet them at Lissoe.

About day-break the Admiral receiv'd a Letter, brought in a Coxingan Vessel, from Tsioubontok, or the second Person to Kimsia; in which, in Kimsia's Name, was written to this effect:

Summimpessiou sends this Letter to the Holland Commanders in their Ships.

YOur Letters which I receiv'd yesterday I partly understand, viz. that you have made a League with the Tartars; in so doing you have done well: for we know by experience, that you Hollanders never break your Words, and inviolably observe all Covenants and Promises. Whereas the Tartars were ever a perfidious and treacherous People: for it is common with them, after Articles of Peace, and Acts of Oblivion, whom they receive under their subjection, and should honorably protect, they without mercy murder, butchering in a manner, whole Provinces; and those great Persons that were able to withstand them, after they had invited them with golden Baits of Promotion, having once got them in their power, have first loaden them with Fetters, and after murder'd, witness my Grandfather Equon and others, whereof we have had woful experience these twenty years. They have threatned to destroy us and our Fleet with Fire and Sword, and take in Eymuy, and those Isles we stand possess'd off, but never durst look us in the face, till by the like dissembling arts they have drawn you in to their assistance; for which they promise you (if you will believe them) a free Trade for ever through the whole Empire: But they are onely pleasant with you, and intending no such matter. Besides, whensoever you with your Ships shall Engage ours, they will, to keep up their character of cowardise and treachery, leave you singly either to be over­thrown, or work out a hard, and at the best, a disputable Victory: but if by your sole Prowess and Power you subdue us, which we little fear, yet they will not onely take into their possession what you have won, but assume the whole honor of the Victory unto themselves: but we will not insist further on this Point. Your Nation we have a kindness for, because we know you to be honest, therefore we, as an honorable Enemy, hoping our selves to be suffici­ent enough to fight you, advise you to beware of Rocks and Shoals, whereof there are many in our Harbors: yet if upon better advice, and surer, you will come in to us, we have in Formosa at present twenty thousand Chineses, which make abundance of Sugar yearly; for which your Ships may come into the Haven of Tayowan, and there Traffick: to which purpose we will give you Tamsuy and Kelang, formerly inhabited by the Hollanders, and provide you with a good Harbor for your Ships: If these please you not, you may take Lamoa, or any other. We therefore desire you speedily to send a Person of Quality with Assam, with whom I may Communicate and Treat concerning the whole Affair, who, if weAssam is a Hollander, otherwise call'd Maurice, and brought the first Letter from Summimpessiou. come to a right understanding, shall bring you all your Prisoners, of what quality soever. [Page 136] The Heavens, Sun and Moon, are witnesses, that what I offer is truth, and desire Peacē; but if it must be War, let us know your determination: for we have a Fleèt five hundred strong, besides two hundred Fire-ships, with which we shall put you to it, try your Valor, and know how well you Hollanders can fight, not doubting when we come to trial, but to sink, rout, and burn you all.

The Admiral onely answer'd, That he was engag'd already to assist the Tartars, and they never made any breach with their Allies without many and just Provocations: therefore he could serve him no otherwise but by return­ning thanks for his kind proffers; and that they would continue their civility to their Prisoners, as he had done to theirs.

About nine a Clock in the afternoon the Admiral set Sail with his eight Ships to Engage with the Enemy's Forces, which consisted in a thousand as well great as small Jonks, and the day before anchor'd near the Island Lissoe: Then he Sail'd to the Southward of Quemuy, where he met with the remainder of his own and the Tartar Fleet: about Noon they fell in with some of the Ene­my's Jonks between Lissoe and Quemuy; and although they endeavor'd to hin­der them from running away, yet some of them made their escape, creeping close under the Shore, and steer'd their Course to Eymuy: however, they hemm'd in about fifty great Jonks of War, which after some resistance, and the sinking one of their biggest, us'd all means possible to break through, and to fall upon the Tartars, which lay without Shot, and not once offer'd to En­gage; which after some difficulty they effected, and immediately Boarding them, before the Hollanders, by reason of a Calm, could come to their assistance, behaved themselves with so much courage, that after a little resistance the Tar­tars were forc'd to flie up to the Netherland Ships, and leave two of their Jonks behind, one Commanded by the Admiral Bethetok, Governor of the City of Soanchieuw, and the other by the General Iantetok, which the Enemy took and plundred, but were afterwards by the Netherlanders regain'd, which the Enemy could not prevent, because upon the Hollanders approach they had enough to do to secure their own Jonks by flight; for their nimble Rowing (the Ships not being able by reason of the calm Weather to follow them) was their preserva­tion, onely one running on the Shore of Quemuy, was forsaken by her Men. Against the Evening the Enemy being much scatter'd, Tyded towards the South; but part of them chased along the Coast of Quemuy by the Rere-Admi­ral late in the Evening, made their escape. The Enemy thus fled, the Battel ended for that Night. The Tartar Jonks went to the North from whence they came, but the Hollanders anchor'd at Lissoe; whereupon search he found himself no way damnifi'd, but onely in his Sails, having but one Man kill'd, and about sixteen wounded.

The Hollanders were now fully satisfi'd of the Tartars cowardise, for that with their whole Fleet, which was four times as strong as the Enemy's, they durst not Engage with seven or eight Jonks, but fled, as we said, for safeguard under the Netherlanders Guns, leaving their Admiral Bethetok, and the General Iantetok, which last was kill'd: whereas the Enemy, when he came near the great Ships, defended himself with Bowes and Arrows, and Darts, which in great abundance they shot and threw into the Sails, and likewise with small Shot and fiery Darts, yet did little damage.

[Page 137]In the Evening the Interpreter Melman was sent aboard Tonganpek, to enquire how it hapned that his Men had not defended themselves better? whereto he made this Answer: ‘That a sudden fear had surpris'd them; but desir'd him that he should be pleas'd at the rising of the Moon, to Sail between the Isle of Goutsoe and the other small Isles thereabouts to Eymuy, where he would meet him.’

The twentieth, two hours before Day, the Admiral with his whole Fleet set Sail for Eymuy, and Rowing along to the Southward, so passing by Goutsoe; not far from whence they spy'd Coxin'gas Fleet: whereupon the Hollanders made up towards them, as they on the other side did towards the Tartar Jonks, and about ten of the Clock came into the Channel between the Westermost Island of Toata and the Northern, or third of Goutsoe: but the Hollanders, because the Current was against them in that Straight, spent two hours in approaching the Enemy; by which time they had Engag'd the Tartars: but at the Hollanders coming in they quitted their Design, and shifted for their safety; which, though the Hollanders had them as in a Pound, that either they must be taken, sunk, or run ashore, they perform'd with such activity, skill and courage, that they broke through the midst of them, running their low-built Vessels close under their Guns, so fighting their Way, that of a hundred and eighty Ships of War, three onely were taken, the rest all entring with small damage into Quemuy and Goutsoe.

Lipovi, greedy to hear of the Success, came down the River Chinchieu, and sent a Batsiang, or Messenger aboard the Admiral, to know the news and ad­vise concerning the Landing of the Tartar Horse at Eymuy: to all which he return'd an Answer in Writing by the same Batsiang, relating at large the whole circumstances of the Battel.

In the afternoon the Netherlanders saw four Chinese Jonks coming from Que­muy, which designed passing by them to go to the Tartars, but they were pre­vented in their Course by the Guns, and forc'd to Anchor near the Ships, of which the Commanders that lay nearest, went aboard, and according to the Admirals Order brought them into the middle of the Fleet; who being exa­min'd by the Commanders, told the Admiral, That they had onely six Fami­lies aboard, and Provisions for their Voyage: Whereupon he declar'd the Jonks to be free Prize, and gave all what was in them to be distributed amongst the Sea-men. Notwithstanding, some Tartar Mandarins came to intreat the Admiral to let them be discharg'd, alledging, that they had an Invitation by Letter from Geitonkok, Governor of Chinchieu, to make an escape over to them: but he having a Letter from Soanghieu, to spare none upon any pretence, but to make all Prize and Prisoners, made seizure, sending two of them, and keep­ing the other two for himself.

But Lipovi not long after sent another Letter to the Admiral, acknowledg­ing, that though he desir'd to be inform'd from his Excellency, yet he had seen the Fight, though at great distance from a Hill, and acknowledg'd the honor of the Victory belong'd only to his Ships. His Letter Translated was to this effect:

Lipovi, Chief Commander and General of the Tartar Forces in the Territory of Fokien, and Admiral of the Fleet before Eymuy, by this Letter sends kind Salutations to his Excellency the Admiral of the Hollanders.

THe one and twentieth in the Morning, from a Mountain I saw the co­ming of your Ships, and with joy beheld the driving away of the [Page 138] Pyrates Jonks with the Thunder of your Cannon. Now I see the integrity of your Nation, and that you mean as you say, and perform what you promise. I will not be negligent with the first opportunity, to signifie to my Master the good Service which you have done to his Imperial Majesty, and how bravely you have behav'd your selves in the Fight, routing yours and our Enemies. Soanghieu's Supplies will be ready to joyn with us to morrow. What I have more to write, I hope ere long, Sir, to deliver by word of Mouth.

To which the Admiral return'd in brief, That he was much rejoyced that he was pleas'd to present their Business to the Emperor with such favor, that he should be the better prepar'd to requite their good Service.

With Lipovi's Letter, Bort also receiv'd one from Admiral Sitetok, who sent him four fed Oxen which he had taken in Eymuy.

The same day the Rere-Admiral brought Iohn Ianz, one of the Dutch Prison­ers aboard the Admiral, who had written the two fore-mention'd Letters, and was come in a Champan with four Chineses aboard the Rere-Admiral the day of the Fight, having on purpose misconstrued the Admiral's Letter to the Chineses desire, as if he had granted what was but in Proposal, viz. That the Nether­landers would Charge their Guns onely with Powder, and that he must go in Person to acquaint the Rere-Admiral with the Design: By which means he got his Liberty, and the rest were taken Prisoners.

Mean while, the Enemy being dispatch'd at Sea, the Tartars under Lipovi having Landed their Horse, which put the People under great consternation, they suddenly took the City of Eymuy by Storm, slaughtering the Inhabitants, and plundering their Houses.

The same day a Mandarin came with a Letter from the General to the Admi­ral, expressing his joy for having taken the City Eymuy, and desiring that on the Morrow he would be pleas'd to favor him so much as to come thither and speak with him. The Admiral congratulated his Victory, but excus'd himself as to waiting upon him, because of the distance of the Place.

The one and twentieth he receiv'd Missives from Tonganpek to this effect:

TWo days since I saw with great admiration, how valiantly your Ships behav'd themselves in the Engagement against the Enemy, which will so amaze the Pyrate himself, that he will never dare to look you in the Face. I for my particular part humbly thank you for such kind Service, in dissipating the Enemy. About three days since I sent you the Vice-Roy's Order, wherein he commands us to Sail with all our Fleet to Eymuy; but be­ing on my Way thither, I was by another Order detain'd at Liutien. Now in regard his intentions are to come in Person to Eymuy, I humbly desire you, according to his Request, that you will please to send five of your Ships to Liutien, and with the other ten lie at an Anchor before Eymuy, to prevent the Eenemy from making an escape, and in so doing you will oblige me. At present I have little of fresh Provision to send you; yet be pleas'd to accept this small Present, viz. five Porkers, fifty Capons, fifty Ducks, five Pots with Liquor, some Crabs, and ten Picols of Radishes.

To this Letter he answer'd, That on Singlamong's Request, to secure him and his Jonks from the Enemy, he would command eight of his Ships to Sail to Lissoe; and that they would not fail with the rest of their Fleet to come to the Tartars assistance.

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[Page] [Page 139]No sooner was this Answer on Shore, but Lipovi sent a second Request, and that he need not trouble himself, for he was sufficiently Guarded by Tonganpek with his Forces: therefore if he would be pleas'd to come ashore, he and his Mandarins would entertain him in the fairest House in the Island.

Upon which Invitation, first chusing two Jonks for his own use out of those which he had taken, he went ashore, accompanied with the Vice-Admiral Hui­bert de Lairesse, and Captain Poleman.

The General being assembled with his principal Mandarins in young Coxinga's House, receiv'd the Admiral with great courtesie and real joy. Lipovi also ascrib'd the honor of the Victory to the Netherlanders, telling them, That it was not themselves, but they that had put the Enemy to the rout; that he had seen the Engagement at Sea before Eymuy, and sufficiently heard of that at Quemuy: for which much rejoycing, he highly extoll'd their Valor. Where­upon he assur'd the Admiral, That though he was not able to make satisfaction for the Service which they had done to his Countrey, he would endeavor that the Emperor should.

Lipovy having ended his Discourse, the Admiral return'd in like manner, how glad he was for his Victory at Eymuy, wishing him many more, not doubt­ing but he should scowre the Sea, and clear the Port and Harbors from the Coxingans, that Pyratick Rabble.

After this the Admiral made three Requests to the General:

First, That he would be pleas'd to write a Letter to the Konbon in Hoksieu, and give Order in it, that the Goods which Captain Nobel and the Merchant Hogenhook had in Hoksieu, might be sold off.

Secondly, That they might not stay long there, but prosecute the Enemy on Quemuy and the other Isles.

Thirdly, That the Tartars should then go with the Netherlanders to Formosa, and assist them in driving the Pirates from thence.

The first and second Request Lipovi absolutely granted the Admiral, pro­mising more, That he would not fail to get them what they so much desir'd, a free Trade through the Empire, and that within two days they would Sail together to Quemuy. But concerning the third Proposal of going with the Ne­therlanders to Tayowan, he made no promise; but said, That perhaps would follow, after the rest of their work was finish'd.

Then Lipovi recounted to him what purchase they had upon the Isle, con­sisting only in a few Cattel and Sheep, of which he sent forty Oxen and some of the Sheep aboard the Netherland Ships; promising them the whole Plunder of the other Isles, that his Men might not be discourag'd, but might venture their Lives for something.

Whilst the Admiral was ashore, three Champans with Chinese Rusticks came amongst the Fleet, which dwelt on the Main Land near Goutsoe, with Request to the Netherlanders, to grant them a Pass to go to the Tartars, and submit them­selves to his Subjection, by cutting their Hair like the Tartars, and paying of Tribute, which the Admiral so soon as he came aboard granted them; in re­quital whereof, they gave him four Hogs, and five Pots of Chinese Beer.

The Rusticks being ask'd concerning the condition of the Chinese Enemies, declar'd, That they were all fled away from thence in the night, none knowing whither they were gone.

The two and twentieth, the Admiral receiv'd a Letter from his Highness, and the Vice-Roy Singlamong, in Thanks for his gotten Victories over the [Page 140] Chineses, with Intreaties, that he would Sail with the Fleet to the Isle of Goutsoe.

The same day Captain Poleman and the Secretary were sent ashore to deli­ver to the Vice-Roy and General, what so long had slept, and would not be at first receiv'd, the Letter and Presents from Maetzuiker and the Council at Bata­via, and to request of Lipovi, that he would be pleas'd, according to his pro­mise the day before, to write to the Conbon, and with it send a Letter, which the Admiral had given to Poleman and the Secretary, and directed to Constantine No­bel at Hoksieu.

The Agents having receiv'd their Orders, went in two Sloops to the Gene­ral, whom they found on the Main Land, opposite to Colongsoe; and after a kind Salutation to him from Maetzuiker, they deliver'd him the Letter, which the General having perus'd, declar'd, that their Excellencies Letters were very acceptable; yet it seem'd strange, that they should send Presents, when they knew it was not his Custom to receive any; but if they were useful in War, he would accept of them; to which being soon perswaded, he requir'd them as they were brought before him, and commanded them, without open­ing, to be carry'd to his Tent, only returning the Complement of Thanks; promising also to unite to the Conbon in Hoksieu, in the behalf of the Hollanders there: After this, the Agents having been nobly entertain'd by Lipovi, took their leave and departed.

The three and twentieth the Fleet having fir'd three Guns, set Sail to the Isle of Goutsoe, accompany'd with the Tartars; and about Noon they came to An­chor, a League and half South-West from the Island, not being able, by rea­son of a calm and contrary Tide, to double the North Fore-land, while the Tartar Jonks Anchor'd before Lissoe; from whence, the Admiral was desir'd by Sietetok and Tonganpek to come ashore, whither (having resolv'd to go be­fore) he went with Lairesse, Captain Poleman, and three Companies of Soldiers to the Isle of Goutsoe; from whence the Enemy was fled, and they took possession of three new rais'd Forts which were deserted, one of them with a Castle, and though not very beautiful, yet strong, for the Walls and Breast-Works which were twenty three Foot high, were made of firm Stones, and the Curtain on the Walls six Foot broad; the whole in Circum­ference, as big as the Castle at Batavia; but nothing was found in it, except Stools, Benches, (the Tartars having been there and Plunder'd all) and thirty nine unserviceable Iron Guns, which lay about; of these the Hollanders making themselves Masters, plac'd Centinels to look over them, till they had opportu­nity of Shipping.

The Admiral coming out of the Castle, was met by the Tartar General, who earnestly invited him aboard his Jonk to a small Treat, which he mo­destly excus'd, desiring them to take a slight Sea-Entertainment upon the Land, which he thought would not be inconvenient for either; so giving Or­der while the Meat was a Cooking, they view'd the other two forsaken Forts; one of which for the most part was cut out of a Rock, and built very strong on a Rivers side, whither oftentimes Armies of Hornets, thick like a Thun­der-Cloud, appearing cover the adjacent Countrey, devouring Plants, Fruits, and whatever they find where-ever they come; which before their lighting, to prevent, the Rusticks come arm'd with Canes, and Flags at the ends, and fight them by flourishing and waving them about their Heads, which fetches them down in thousands, where thus destroying some of them, the rest not ventu­ring to light, flie in their great bodies to other places, and so often clear the [Page 141]


Countrey. Here the Admiral having spent some time, they were call'd down, where on the Sea shore they Eat, Drank, and were Merry; and well-pleas'd each departed to their own Quarters.

The next day there came Letters from Lipovi, that he had given Order to dismantle the three Castles, excusing it from the infertility of the Countrey, as unfit for the Hollanders to make any thing of, either to improve or Garrison; and that Formosa was much better for them to resettle upon, which they need not doubt, but the Tartars should help them to regain, and then they should possess it as formerly; but the Admiral sent word, that he would not suffer them to touch it, until the next day he had spoken with their General Lipovi.

Soon after the Admiral receiv'd a Letter from Lipovi, which was to this effect:

At present you have had much trouble, but now there is nothing left but the Isle Que­muy, which I desire you will Sail to with Setetok and Tonganpek, that there you may fully take satisfaction for your losses; and therefore let your Soldiers first Pillage the Countrey, and then ours shall be contented with the Gleanings: This done, We will burn and pull down the Towns, because we do not desire to keep them; when we have won Quemuy, then we will consult of further Proceedings.

The twenty fifth in the Morning, the Admiral, and the Mars, and Zirikzee Frigats, setting Sail with all the Tartar Jonks to Quemuy, Anchor'd in the Afternoon between Lissoe and Toata, where he call'd a Council, to consult if they should take the Island Goutsoe in Possession, because of the Forts al­ready built upon it, and Garrison them, or not? Whereupon after some debate, they unanimously agreed, not to settle on that Island, nor Garrison the Forts, but suffer the Tartars to burn and destroy them, because it was little, barren, and not improvable by Cultivation; but their special reason was, that it would too much weaken them, having design'd so suddenly to fall upon Formosa.

The twenty sixth in the Morning, the Admiral set Sail again, being fol­low'd [Page 142] by nine Frigats to the West side of Quemuy, where he Anchor'd amongst several Tartar Jonks, which Sail'd thither the day before.

The Rere-Admiral Verwei stay'd with five Ships at the Isle of Goutsoe, to bring away the remaining Guns, and make those that could not be brought unfit for Service by Cloying; with Orders also, that when he had done, he should come up to Quemuy.

The Admiral and his Men going ashore, found the Enemy likewise fled from thence, and the Tartars pulling down, tearing, and rifling the City, which was contrary to Lipovi's promise, who not only in his Letters, but per­sonally assur'd the Admiral, that the Netherlanders should have all the Plunder; but after this they set a less value upon the Tartars promises.

But however, the Admiral, Vice-Admiral and Captain Poleman went to see this little City, whose Walls were of an incredible thickness, yet not so strong as those of Aymuy, and an hours walking in Circumference, with four Gates, besides fifteen or sixteen Iron Guns, which the Tartars made Prize of. More­over, the City consisted all of Stone Houses, but thinner built than Aymuy, yet all were desolated, the Inhabitants being all fled, only here and there the Tar­tars pick'd up some miserable Creatures out of Holes and blind Recesses, whom they us'd Salvagely, killing some, cutting, slashing, and driving them like Cat­tel, which the Admiral observing and pitying, towards Evening went thence aboard.

The twenty seventh, the Admiral receiv'd several Letters, but that of most concern was this from the Vice-Roy and General, Singlamong and Lipovi, which were written before, but hinder'd by bad Weather, came not till now, being in effect the Contents of all the rest.

YOu worthy Hollanders have had great care and trouble to beat the Pirate Our Enemy, which is very well known to Us; We may certainly say, that you have been a Terror to them, and put them to flight by your Valor and Conduct; I and Lipovi Thank you for the Service done to Our Empire. Three days since We desir'd you in a Letter to come to see Us at Cinwe, that there We might Communicate Our Consultations; to which We have re­ceiv'd your Answer and Resolution, that you intend to cleanse your Ships at Quemuy, which We are very well pleas'd with. But the Pirate out of fear of your Forces is fled, and hath settled on the Isle Tongsan, which place belongs to the Province of Fokien; therefore if he be not now prosecuted, he will soon return to the deserted Islands and sculking places which he hath for­saken. You write after you have cleans'd your Ships, that you will Sail to the Cape of Wetaw, or to Soanchefoe, to speak with Us; which if the Enemy should hear of, he would soon come and find the Island, which is now Guar­ded by you, in its full state as he had left it; because you desir'd that the Forts there should not be pull'd down, nor the Houses in the City be burnt; if therefore the Enemy should find your People gone and his places no way ruin'd, he might perchance soon be Master of all again; wherefore We keep Our Forces in Arms near the Enemies Borders, lest that after your departure he should return.

The twentieth of Our tenth Moon, one of Our Commanders inform'd us, that in the last Month he took near Tongsan, in the Haven of Yuntzaw, an hundred and sixty Jonks and Vessels; and also that he took and kill'd five thousand Men, of which two hundred are yet kept Prisoners, whereof one [Page 143] is an eminent Mandarin Therefore since the Pyrate is so near, and it is not to be doubted but that he will settle himself again on the foremention'd Isle, We desire you to take this trouble upon you, and do so much Service more for this Empire, as to Sail with Our Jonks to Tongsoa, that there the Foe may also be dislodg'd. To which purpose, Lipovi and I are together at Cinwe, to give Order, that all Our Jonks, as well great as small, may be in readi­ness; and being furnish'd with Men and Provisions, may Sail with your Ships to Tongsoa. We very well know, that your People understand better how to fight at Sea than Ours; therefore I and Lipovi wish, that you be in­clin'd to go thither, that We may have it from your own Mouth; where­upon We will rely, and desire that We may know your answer by these two Mandarins; but if it be possible, take the trouble upon you, and come to Us in Cinwe, that We may consult about this and other Affairs.

The Interpreter and Secretary brought also a Copy of the Letter sent by Singlamong and Lipovi, about their business to the Emperor in Peking, which being Translated was to this effect.

THe Holland Ships having set Sail with Our Jonks from Soanchefoe, and Anchor'd again at Wetauw, on the twelfth of the tenth Moon, the eighteenth of the same, eight Ships Sail'd to Quemuy, and seven Holland Ships with Our Jonks the day after pass'd thorow, and Anchor'd by Our Jonks on the West side of Quemuy.

The nineteenth, Our People drove away some Jonks from Quemuy, but on the twentieth, We saw the Pyrates Jonks, being almost two hundred, com­ing from Goutsoe, towards Us and the Hollanders, who inclos'd the Enemy, and made such a rout amongst them, that they were forc'd to flie, having left many Men, as We understood of some that came over to Us from Eymuy.

The one and twentieth day of the same Moon, the Holland Admiral went with a couragious Heart with his fifteen Ships to the Enemy at Taota, and stoutly Ingag'd him on the Isle Eymuy; from whence the Pyrate, to his great shame and disgrace, was also forc'd to flie to Goutsoe, whither the Hollanders and Our Jonks also Sailing on the twenty fourth, they found the Enemy fled thence Southwardly to Lamoa and Tangsoa.

The twenty sixth, the Holland Ships Sail'd with Ours to Quemuy, and there caus'd by Our People, all the Towns and Forts to be burnt and pull'd down. The Hollands Admiral hath behav'd himself very Valiantly against the Ene­my; they are all a People of great Resolution and Valor, to fight with their Ships at Sea, and Musquets on the Shore; they have had a great deal of labor and trouble, for they carry many great Guns in their Ships, which require much trouble to Charge and Discharge them.

The Admiral writ in answer to their Excellencies, That he intended to send a Jonk to Batavia, with advice to the Lord General and Indian Council, of their Adventures concerning the Routing of their Enemy, and his deserting of their chief Cities, Eymuy, Quemuy, Goutsoe, and others; which done, and that he had cleans'd his Ships, he would in Person come to their Singlamong and Lipovi. Highnesses, that then they might consult one with another concerning all their Affairs.

Moreover, the Admiral told the two foremention'd Messengers, how he was displeas'd, that their People had taken all the Booty on Quemuy, and given [Page 144] his Men not so much as an Ox, which was contrary to Lipovi's promises, not onely in Person, but in his Letters also; alledging, that it no ways suited with their Natures to be serv'd so; which he desir'd them to tell Singlamong and Li­povi: Who reply'd, The Messengers had to their sorrow already understood it out of the Admirals Letter, and would not forget to make satisfaction for it.

The same day the Vlaerding and Buiksloot came to an Anchor near the Island Quemuy, before Goutsoe; for the three other, viz. the Cogge, Flushing, and Naerden could not get out. Here the Rere-Admiral Verwei told the Admiral, That since his depar­ture from thence, according to his Order, he had gotten twenty Iron Guns out of the Forts on the Isle Goutsoe, besides an hundred ninety eight Bullets, which were distributed amongst the Flushing, Buiksloot and Nieuwendam.

The third in the Morning, they saw one great new Jonk, one Wankan, and two Coyaes coming about the South-West Point of the Isle, to which most of the Ships sent their Boats and Sloops, to take them, which accordingly was perform'd by the Rere-Admiral, who took the Jonk, and also the three other Vessels, who yielded without the least resistance, all of them Loaden with Bal­last, Rice, and Unthres [...]'d Rice. Padije.

The Admiral and Rere-Admiral Rowing aboard the Jonk, found in her eight Iron Guns: The Chineses aboard inform'd them, that in the seventh Moon of the Year, they were sent by the young Coxin from the Isle Quemuy to Pakka, Kitat, and other adjacent Isles, and places lying to the Northward of Hoksieu, there to Load as much Rice as they could get, and then return with all speed, because those places were in great want. They also related, That in the eighth Moon, they had found about the North several Bills of Singlamongs and Lipovi's sticking up, whereby all the Chineses that kept out of the Empire were invited to come in to the Tartars. Thus the Chineses in the great Jonk inform'd the Hollanders, perhaps on advice of some Tartars that had been with them be­fore; For those of the other three Vessels declar'd, that they thought all things had still been there in their former state and condition, and expected to have found their Families at Eymuy and Quemuy; neither did they know any other, but that their Fleet had remain'd ready to have Ingag'd the Tartars: But com­ing about the South-West Point of Quemuy, and spying the Hollanders Ships, they would fain have fled, but were necessitated by reason of the calm, and seeing they could not get clear from them, to surrender themselves without any re­sistance; therefore they desir'd that their Lives might be spar'd, which they ob­tain'd. They also said, That they expected twenty Sail to follow them, which on the second instant they had left to the Northward of the Isle Ongkoe; from whence they came with six Vessels, of which, four were now in the Ne­therlanders Possession, and two Sail'd about the South, as they judg'd, to the Isles of Tangsoa and Lamao, where they dwelt: Being ask'd if they had not seen any of the Enemies Jonks coming from Iapan, at Sea, they reply'd, No, but that in this Moneth some were daily expected from thence.

Soon after, Tonganpeks Admiral came aboard the Dutch Admiral, to ask what Vessels they were which he had taken, and from whence they came, and also if they had resisted the Netherlanders; of which they inform'd him as beforemention'd: Then he inquir'd when the Admiral intended to go to Sin­glamong and Lipovi; and if he would Sail with them to Tangsoa? To the first Question the Admiral reply'd, That he knew not the certain day: And to the second, That he did not know what his Ships should do there, because their Highnesses had advis'd him, that one of the Tartars Commanders had some [Page 145] days since taken from the Enemy an hundred and sixty Vessels, and kill'd and taken Prisoners near five thousand Men. This, reply'd he, was not of the young Coxin's power, but of another Pyrate, who kept about the Isles Tongsoa and Lamao, and was formerly neither subject to the Tartar nor Coxin, but set up for himself, and maintain'd Pyracy.

Then the Secretary related, That young Coxin had sent Agents to this Py­rate, to crave his assistance against the Tartars; and also that he was gone with all his Forces to Tangsoa and Lamao, there to joyn with him, because he did not know (being driven from the Isles Eymuy, Quemuy, Goutsoe, and others there­abouts) what he should do.

The same day they sent the conquer'd Jonk, by them call'd, The Good Tidings, to Batavia, with eight Chinese Prisoners, Letters, and Papers.

This day also the three remaining Ships which staid at Goutsoe to help take in the Guns, came to the Fleet at Quemuy; so that the whole Fleet consisting in fifteen Men of War, were all in a Body together.

The fourth, a Tartar Vessel with two Mandarins came to the Admiral with a Letter from Singlamong and Lipovi, in which they earnestly desir'd him, that he would repair to them at Cinwe. Whereto the Admiral reply'd, That so soon as his Ship was clear'd from the Rocks (for the day before it was driven within half a Musquet shot to the Rocky North-West Point of Quemuy) and lay out of danger amongst the other Ships, he would wait upon them.

Mean while came Maurice Iansz, whom the Netherlanders us'd as their Inter­preter in the Chinese Tongue, and told the Admiral, That he had heard by some Tartar Chineses which came aboard with the Mandarins, that young Coxin had sent Agents to Singlamong and Lipovi, with proffers, that they would submit themselves to the Tartars Jurisdiction, by cutting off their Hair, because he was not able to maintain War against them any longer; but especially, by reason of those great losses which he had lately sustain'd.

The Admiral to learn the Truth of it, Order'd the Interpreter Melman to in­quire of the two Mandarins, who affirm'd it, with alledging, That the Enemy had lately so many wounded and slain Men by the Netherlanders Guns, that none of his Soldiers would fight any longer; nay, that all his Forces in Tayo­wan came flocking to the Tartars, and would freely surrender both Tayowan and Formosa to the Hollanders: Therefore the Vice-Roy and Lipovi desir'd to speak with him; also that Tonganpek was to go to Tayowan with some Jonks to fetch all that would submit themselves to their Emperor, and from thence bring them to the Main Land.

The next Morning, about five a Clock three Jonks came to the Fleet, and in them one Mandarin, who came aboard the Admiral, with request from their Highnesses, that seeing it was fair Weather, he would be pleas'd in those Jonks to come to them, or at least to appoint a day, because they might not wait in vain at Cinwe, from whence they were minded to go with the first con­veniency.

The Admiral having consulted with his Council, resolv'd to go thither the next Morning; whereupon the Mandarins went in one Jonk to carry the News to their Excellencies, leaving two behind amongst the Fleet to convey the Ad­miral to Cinwe.

The sixth, the Admiral went according to his promise attended with Cap­tain Poleman, Secretary Ysbrantsz, and some other Retinue in the two Tartar Jonks sent for that purpose to the Fleet.

[Page 146]In the Evening, the Vice-Roys Interpreter came to them, and in his Masters Name entring the Jonks, bad them welcome, with promises, that he would take care the next Morning to provide that they should be well Mounted for Cinwe.

The seventh, the Admiral Landed between the Straights of Eymuy, and the main Coast of China, where he was presented with a Copy of a Letter, by a Batavian Chinese, call'd Seko, from Nobel and Hogenhoek in Hoksieu, dated the twenty eighth of November, (of which the true Letter and Post was sent by the Conbon) in which they inform'd the Admiral, That they could not go from Soanchieu before the twentieth of the same Month, and that seven days after they came into Hoksieu, where they were not permitted to Vend their Com­modities according to the Conbon or Governors promise, till he had further Order from Singlamong and Lipovi, that when they told him that it was granted by the Vice-Roy and General, he reply'd, That he had no such advice.

The Letters and Presents of the Admirals he had receiv'd, and sent a Mes­senger to their Highnesses, to know their intentions concerning the Trade; further requesting, That they would be pleas'd to send him the Originals, writ­ten by Singlamong and Lipovi concerning the same. This Copy being deliver'd to the Admiral in his way, riding to the Vice-Roy, he would not read it till he had been receiv'd in the Vice-Roy's Tent; after which, he perus'd it in the Vice-Roy's presence, and three of his Council, and explaining it to them, ask'd them, Why against their written Obligation they kept their Merchandize un­sold? But the Vice-Roy excusing himself, said, That he had sent Letters of License to the Conbon; but Lipovi had Countermanded it, and first desir'd an Inventory of all the Merchandize which they had brought with them, that he might send it to Peking; but since that he and Lipovi joyntly had given free leave to sell those, and bring in other Goods; whereupon the Admiral de­sir'd, That he might have such a Letter of Command then given him, that he might send it with one of his own to Nobel and Hogenhoek in Hoksieu, which the Vice-Roy immediately granted.

This Discourse being ended, Singlamong propos'd to the Admiral, and de­sir'd that he would send his Ships with their Jonks against the Enemy, who on the Isles Tongsoa and Lamoa did now fortifie himself; whereupon the Admi­ral reply'd, That he had heard and understood, that the Enemy had sent Agents to his Highness, and proffer'd to submit themselves to the Tartars, and therefore (said he) how shall we understand your Proposal? The Vice-Roy pausing a little answer'd, 'Tis true, but there is no assurance in these Villains, neither do I believe them; therefore he judg'd it convenient, still to prosecute the War against them. The Admiral reply'd, That he intended to Sail to Tay­owan and Formosa, and therefore intreated him to send his Forces and Jonks first along with him thither, and then they would go joyntly, and drive the Enemy from Tongsoa and Lamoa; also that he had receiv'd Orders from his Ma­sters in Batavia, that when he had beaten the Enemy from Eymuy and Quemuy, he should not go to Tongsoa or Lamoa, but to Formosa and Tayowan: Besides, the Admiral added, that he had understood that the Coxingan's were not in Tongsoa, but having Pillag'd the Rusticks, and taken what they could find, were gone to Tayowan and Formosa; and though the Vice-Roy perswaded the Admiral that he was assur'd to the contrary, yet he stood firm to his Proposal, that he might go from thence to Tayowan; whereupon, the Vice-Roy obser­ving the Admiral to be in earnest, said, That the present routing of the Ene­my [Page 147] could not be taken for a Conquest, for they still had their Forces together, and therefore without doubt, as soon as the Netherland Ships were gone, they would return to their Receptacles again, and invest the Coasts as formerly. Whereupon the Admiral reply'd, That it was impossible to kill them all, be­cause where e're they came, they fled from them, and got away by the nim­bleness of their Jonks; and if the Netherlanders should go with the Vice-Roy's Jonks to Tangsoa and Lamoa, and drive the Enemies thence; yet the Coast would not so be clear'd of them, but that there would still be some in one place or other: To which the Vice-Roy said, that if the Enemy were but driven thence, he would be satisfi'd, because then he would be hunted out of the Territory of Fokien, where he was Chief; and then (proceeded he) my Jonks shall go with yours to Tayowan; therefore he desir'd the Admiral to consult with his Vice and Rere-Admiral about it; which he promis'd to do, and so ended that Consultation.

Moreover, Singlamong excus'd himself concerning the forty promis'd Oxen; because he had no Vessels at Eymuy to bring them aboard the Admirals Ships; therefore he desir'd him to accept them now, and with them five hundred Pi­cols of Rice, which he had given Order to be carry'd before. The Admiral thanking him, said, That he needed not the Rice so much as the Cattel, how­ever, he would accept his kindness; but when they were brought aboard, half of them were dead, which they were forc'd to throw into the Sea, whereof the Vice-Roy having notice, promis'd, that for every dead Beast, they should have one alive.

Soon after, the Admiral having been well entertain'd, took his leave, and went to the Tents set up on purpose for them, near the Sea-side on a high Hill. No sooner was the Admiral come thither, but he receiv'd the promis'd Letter of Command to the Conbon, for selling the Merchandizes in Hoksieu, that he might send it himself with his Letter to Nobel, who was only to shew it to the Conbon, and then make Sale of his Goods, which contain'd to this effect.

Singlamong sends this open Letter of Command to the Holland Admiral of the Sea, to be sent by him to their Agent in Hoksieu.

SInce the Hollanders with their Ships and Forces have done so good Service to Our Realm, in the routing their and Our Enemies, and the wish'd for Victory remains on Our sides, therefore I and Lipovi have resolv'd to Grant them to Sell all those Merchandizes, which they have brought with them in Hoksieu, for the maintaining of their People, as We have by Letters already inform'd the Emperor in Peking: Therefore We Command the Conbon in Hok­sieu, that he assist them in the same, and provide them a Person who may be present to look that they may not be cheated by Our Merchants.

This Letter We have sent open, that the Holland Agent, upon the receipt of these Our Orders, may immediately begin to dispose of his Goods that are ashore in Hoksieu; as also those that are yet in their Ships lying before the Magazine. The Mandarin, who by the Conbon is order'd to be at the selling of the Commo­dities, shall take an exact account of what Goods and Moneys the Hollanders receive in return for their Merchandize, that they may not be deceiv'd or de­frauded by any; and he shall also inform Us of what shall be done herein.

Under Singlamong's Seal was written:

[Page 148]In the Evening the Admiral sent the forty Oxen which had been given him by the Vice-Roy, to be distributed amongst the Ships.

Soon after the Vice-Roy sent to tell the Admiral, That if he was desirous to see the Countrey, he would send Horses to his Tent; for which Proffer he return'd thanks, and sent word, That he would expect them. Mean while it began to grow wet Weather; but the Rain again ceasing, the Admiral and his Company walk'd afoot to the Camp, where the Tartars had intrench'd them­selves very handsomly within several Batteries: Here getting on Horse-back, they were conducted to the Vice-Roys Tent, who desir'd the Admiral to come in, where having sate a while, he inquir'd if he had sent Letters to his Vice-Admiral, and also his Letter of Command to Nobel and Hogenhoek in Hoksieu; to which he answer'd, Yes.

Then the Vice-Roy told him, That he hop'd the Vice-Admiral would com­ply with his Request, to sail to Tongsoa: The Admiral answer'd, He suppos'd there was no doubt; and withal added, That Nobel and Pedel desir'd they might go to Batavia, and therefore he had order'd Hogenhoek, who had liv'd many Years in Iapan, and the Factor Bartel (both Men of whom the Netherlanders and his Highness might expect good Service) to stay in Hoksieu: To which Singla­mong answer'd, That it was all one to him who staid, so they were People of good conversation, and he believ'd the Lord General would not send any other into that Empire. After this, they discours'd about the cleansing of the Ne­therland Ships, and the Island Colongsoe, which the Admiral desir'd he might see, and that if it lay convenient for the Netherlanders, they might take it into pos­session, and Garrison it with Soldiers, the situation being near the Main Land, and before the Mouth of the River Chincheu, which whatever the Netherlanders wanted, they might have from thence, and likewise drive their Trade all under one. Whereupon the Vice-Roy replied, That they had always made choice of Goutsoe; What then would they do with Colongsoe? Whereupon the Admiral replied, That if he would permit them to drive their Trade, that then they would leave six Ships there, take the Island into Possession, and Garrison the Forts with their Soldiers: Whereto the Vice-Roy suddenly said, That that was not his meaning; for he durst not give away any Lands that belong'd to the Emperor, but that they must expect his Imperial Majesties Order for that, as well as the driving of their Trade in Hoksieu: Yet at last, after many Ar­guments, he granted the Hollanders on the Emperors allowance to take and Garrison the Isle of Goutsoe, conditionally, That if the Emperor should not approve of it, then to desert it again. But concerning their Traffick, Whe­ther it would be granted them for ever or not, they must expect an Answer in five Weeks time.

Thus the Business rested; and the Netherlanders, after having been plentifully entertain'd, taking their leave, in the Evening rode to their Tents.

Towards Night the Admiral receiv'd a Letter from the Vice-Admiral Hui­bert de Lairesse, and his Council, in answer to one sent to him the day before, wherein he advis'd him, That their Opinions agreed with his, not to go with the Fleet to Tongsoa and Samoa; yet they referr'd themselves wholly to what the Admiral pleas'd to do.

The ninth the Vice-Roys Interpreter went to the Admiral, to know whe­ther he had receiv'd an Answer from the Vice-Admiral; whereupon the Admi­ral inform'd him, That he could not perswade his People to it, because it was impossible for them with their Ships to go from Tongsoa to Formosa and Tayowan, [Page 149] whither they had strict Order first to Sail; according to which, after six days, he resolv'd to set Sail thither with his Ships that lay at Quemuy, desiring that his Highness would be pleas'd to send his Jonks with him; as after the subduing of the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, he had promis'd; with which Answer the Interpreter return'd. But soon after he was sent back with the Vice-Roys Ex­cuses, That he could not send his Jonks with him to Tayowan, because they wanted Sails and Rigging for such a Voyage; but if they would please to stay a little longer, they would endeavor to fit themselves out: And as an Induce­ment to it, he granted them the Isle of Goutsoe, which they might freely take, and Garrison as they thought fit. But the Admiral much dissatisfied, answer'd, That he delighted not in such Procrastinations, nor would any longer be de­lay'd; for he plainly saw, and must be bold to say, That the Vice-Roy mind­ed not either what he said, or what he writ; and therefore they would no longer rely upon him: But as for Goutsoe, it was not then convenient for them to take the possession thereof, because they should thereby weaken their Forces design'd for the taking in of Tayowan, but if they would preserve the Forts and Houses from ruine till their return, then they would Garrison it.

Many other like Expressions he had to the Interpreter, concerning his not being satisfied with the Vice-Roys waverings and unconstancy; who relating it all to the Vice-Roy, he seem'd very much netled, to hear from the Admirals Mouth such his Character, and sent him back suddenly with several Comple­mental Excuses: But the Hollanders continuing firm to their Resolution, after many Messages toss'd too and fro, at last it was brought so far, that he not on­ly excus'd them from going to Tangsoa and Lamoa, but also consented, that with all the Fleet they might go to Formosa; promising likewise, that he would send two Jonks, Mann'd with two hundred Soldiers, to Formosa, under the Command of two Mandarins, with Letters to demand that Countrey for the Hollanders: But if the Enemies would not surrender to the Hollanders, nor sub­mit to the Tartars, that then one of their Ships should come back with the two Jonks and Mandarins to inform him of it, that he might send all his Navy and Forces to their assistance, which, according to the Admirals Request, they should have confirm'd under his Sign Manual before they set Sail.

In the Evening Admiral Bort advis'd the Vice-Admiral Lairesse, in a Letter, of all that had pass'd ashore.

The tenth, he having resolv'd to go aboard the next Morning, desir'd his Goods might be put into a Jonk, and that he might be furnish'd with Coelyes for that purpose.

These Coelyes, by others call'd Poelyes, are a mean sort of Laboring People, that for small Wages will serve any Person whatsoever, in the Carriage of Bur­dens and Commodities from Place to Place, as our Porters or Carriers: They wear Shoes of Straw or Leather, which they tie about their Ancles with a String made fast at their Toes; and are so swift of Foot, that they can match a Horse in his full speed.

In the Afternoon Captain Poleman was sent to Singlamong, to thank him for the Kindnesses shewn to them while they had been on Shore, and also to ac­quaint him, that they would wait five or six days longer for the two Jonks and Mandarins, with two hundred Soldiers, and also the Letter to the Gover­nors of Tayowan: Lastly, to present his Highness, in the Admirals name, a Pair of Pistols and Holsters, and a Sword with a guilded Hilt.

At his Return Poleman related what he had receiv'd in answer, That his [Page 150] Highness was sorry he could give no better Entertainment; but he hoped they would excuse it, as being in a Camp, and not a City; That he would send the two Jonks and Mandarins, with the Soldiers, and also the Letter to the Gover­nor of Tayowan, at the appointed day: That he accepted the Presents, because they consisted in Arms, pretending to be asham'd, because the Ong or King of Batavia had twice sent to him, and he had not made one Return: But he would not forget to present him by the Finch some of the Products of his own Coun­trey, with a Letter, and humble Thanks for his good Inclination towards him.

The eleventh the Admiral and all his Retinue took their leaves, and soon after went to the Fleet, and Singlamong with his Army to Soanchieuw.

The twelfth in the Afternoon the Admiral came near the low Point of Que­muy, aboard of the Zierikzee Frigat.

The thirteenth, several Jonks went from thence to Eymuy and Soanchieuw, whither Tonganpek was gone four days before, in which time he had written a Letter to the Admiral, to this effect.

I Thank you for the Honor and Kindness which I have receiv'd from you since We joyn'd Our Fleets. Now the Enemy is fled, there is great hopes that you may easily regain your Countreys of Tayowan and Formosa. The Py­rate is retir'd to Tangsoa, whither We must pursue him; to which purpose, I will fit out eighty great and small Jonks, under the Command of Choentsay and Goemtsin, which shall Sail to Eymuy, and there joyn with Sitetok's Fleet, I would have gone my self in Person, but that I am oblig'd to go to Soan­chefoe, to receive an Honor sent from the Court at Peking to be conferr'd up­on Me, which I thought good by these to acquaint your Honor with.

In the Evening two Mandarins brought a Letter to the Admiral from the Ge­neral Lipovi at Soanchieuw, and also five hundred Picols of Rice, which he had for­merly promis'd to the Seamen and Soldiers.

The fourteenth in the Morning the Admiral went ashore in the Island Que­muy, where he view'd some ruin'd Villages, and especially the Wall'd City Savja-Houpon, being built in a pleasant Place, and full of fair Houses, but burnt by the Tartars, before the Hollanders coming thither.

This Town, according to the Relation of the Netherland Prisoner Maurice Iansz, was first built by the foremention'd Savja, in the time when old Coxinga went from thence to besiege Tayowan, having before had his Residence in Ey­muy, from whence he went to Quemuy. About six Months before Savja and his Brothers went thence, and Embarqu'd themselves to go over to the Tartars, be­cause young Coxin continually oppress'd them by over-heavy Taxations.

Coxin having notice of this Flight of Savja, sent Messengers to him, with fair Promises not to molest him for the future, and to make him Chief Gover­nor of Eymuy and Quemuy; which Bait taking, he return'd, but was soon dis­patch'd out of the way, and all his Goods seiz'd, which being told to his Bro­thers, which were not yet come back (of which Tonganpek was one) they went over to the Tartars.

In the Afternoon the Admiral return'd aboard, whither in his way, going into the Boat, he found many dead Bodies, which had been cruelly Butcher'd by the Tartars.

The seventeenth two Mandarins came from Soanchieuw, to the Admiral, with the seal'd Letters from Singlamong, in which he advis'd the seventeen Chinese [Page 151] Commanders on Formosa and Tayowan, to submit with their Soldiers and Coun­trey-men. The Letter was this effect.

Lipovi's Letter sent to Tsiakoensin, Wetingwan, Toerlinpetensin, Posinso­jau, Yogaukiloo, Yoewetsji-kay, Gautinong, Soanchyong, Nioetingli, Chuenkicin, Lioetsingoen, Kiwintsiwan, Suangi, Gautinghtoe, Yuensau­gautingwan, Sinkintingjang, Ympincin, Lioetsinang, all Commanders in Tayowan.

THis is to let you understand, That the Heavens, Sun, Moon, and Stars, nay all the Elements, have hunted you from one Place to another, till at last you came with Coxin into Tayowan: Now I and Singlamong tell you by this Our Letter, That on the tenth Moon, the one and twentieth day, with Ours and the Hollanders Forces We have conquer'd the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, and all the other adjacent Places of your Generals, and drove them so long, till they are fled to Tongsoa, where Kimsia, Coxinga's Son, and all his Party, do now sculk, but cannot find Sustenance there for so many Peo­ple: Who knows not that in short time he will die of Hunger? His Forces have already the last Month receiv'd a terrible blow; for one of Our Gene­rals, call'd Wansumpin, slew above ten thousand Men, besides two hundred which he took Prisoners, amongst which are three Mandarins, Tsiausou, Syancin, and Rikkoe. We have also taken from them in the Haven Yuntzauw a hundred and fifty Jonks and Vessels. Yet since Singlamong and I know that you in­tend and resolve to come to Us, and freely submit your selves to Our Govern­ment and Realm, when a fair Opportunity is offer'd; therefore We have sent these Agents and Letters with the Holland Forces to Tayowan, to perswade you to submit your selves to the Emperor.

At the coming of the Netherland Ships to Tayowan, you and your Soldiers having corrected your long Hair, shall come over to Us with those Ships; but if you will not reform your exuberant Locks in Tayowan, We will de­cline the so doing till you come on the main Land, under Our Government; but whether you pole your Heads, or not, the Hollanders shall transport you and yours in safety in their Ships; which if you distrust, upon notice given, I will send you of Ours, that shall Land you without doing you the least prejudice; and after assure your selves that you shall be preferr'd to the like Dignities and Imployments in Our Army, as you have in Tayowan, which We have already perform'd to others of your Party, as Tonganpek, Tuncinpek, Ian­tetok, and many more that yielded.

The like Letter was sent to the same Commanders by Singlamong. Besides other Letters of several Advices and sleight Concerns, too long to be here in­serted.

The twenty fifth the Council unanimously concluded, That since the Fleet was equipped and ready, to sail with the first fair Wind to Formosa and Tayo­wan, and according to the States Order in Batavia, bring them under their Sub­jection.

To this purpose the two Jonks, call'd Eymuy and Quemuy, which were amongst the Fleet, were fitted out: The biggest, being Quemuy, was Mann'd with thirty Hollanders, and fifteen Chinese Captives; and the smallest with twenty five Hollanders and twelve Chineses. Then the Admiral gave order,

First, That the Fleet should steer to the Piscadores, and there Anchor near the [Page 152] South Point of the Fishers-Isle, or the South-East Point of Pehoe, where the Rendezvouz should be, that from thence they might all go together. If any of the Ships should chance to miss the Piscadores, they should lose no time, but sail straight up to Formosa, and there attend the coming of the rest of the Fleet, which all should endeavor to get to the North Foreland of Tayowan. If any of the Ships, or the whole Fleet could not reach that Point, or come before Tayowan; nay, if they were got thither, or any where else on the Formosan Coast, and be necessitated to seek for a convenienter Anchoring Place, it was ordered, That they should go behind the Cape of Tankoya, from whence in fair Weather they might proceed forward in their Voyage to Tayowan: And that the Almighty might prosper them in their Undertakings, a Fast and Pray­er-day was order'd to be kept in all the Fleet the twenty eighth of that Month.

The twenty ninth the whole Fleet set sail, consisting in fifteen Ships, besides the two Jonks taken from Coxinga, and two others that belong'd to the Tartar, which they sent with their own Letters and Interpreter to Tayowan, and steer'd their Course South-West, between the Isles of Lissoe and Quemuy, and Anchor'd about Sun-set a League from the South-East Point of Quemuy, where being hindred by foul Weather, they lay all the next day.

Mean while a Jonk from the Enemy came to the Admiral with an open Letter from the Netherland Prisoners in Formosa, sign'd by fifteen of them, and written on the sixth Instant, in the Village Loakhou, near the Straights of Tayo­wan, which Letter inform'd them, That they not onely writ this from their own free inclination, but also by the express Order of Summimpessiou, who told them, That if the Netherlanders desir'd to treat with him, and drive their for­mer Trade, he would give them Tamsuy, Kelay, or Lemao, alledging, That if they would not accept that proffer, their Prisoners should never expect to be re­leas'd by him: Therefore they begg'd, That the Admiral would endeavor to work some means for their Liberty.

Hereupon the Admiral immediately call'd his Council, and read the Letter in the presence of the Messenger, who as he had peculiarly done to the Admi­ral, so he proffer'd the Council the same Places. But he had no written Orders for so doing, neither was he impower'd to Treat; for he declar'd, That he was onely sent to deliver the Letter, and to see how they were inclin'd: And al­though they endavor'd to draw from him some discovery of the Enemies Po­sture, by variety of Questions, yet they could get nothing more, than that by the young Coxin's permission he was sent from the Governors of Tayowan and Formosa, to Singlamong and Lipovi, to make some Agreement with the Tartars.

Wherefore after serious Debate, the Admiral and his Council, with the five Tartar Agents approbation, answer'd the Bearer by Word of Mouth, That the Netherlanders would not be wanting on their parts, if they were inclin'd to agree with them, which they must manifest with the first opportunity, and to that purpose meet them in the Piscadores before Tayowan, whither they were now going. Likewise they gave him a Letter, in answer to that of the Pri­soners; yet the Contents were such, that if the Enemy should translate it, he should not pick any advantage out of it.

In the afternoon the Fleet proceeded on to the Piscadores, but was forc'd by a strong North-East Wind to Anchor two Leagues Southerly from Quemuy.

In the Morning, being the first of February, the whole Fleet set sail again,February. and on the second reach'd the South Point of Fishers-Isle, South-East and by East five Leagues from them. At the tacking about the South Point, they heard three [Page 153] Cannons fired in Church-Bay, which the Netherlanders suppos'd was a Sign to the Inhabitants, to give notice of the coming of the Dutch Fleet.

In the Evening the Fleet came between the Great Table and the South Point of Fishers-Isle, and the next Morning they all dropp'd Anchor in the Bay of Pe­hoe, lying to the South-East.

In the Night the Weather grew very tempestuous, the Wind blowing hard out of the North-East.

The sixth the Sea-hound, Buiksloot, and Cinnamon-Tree Frigats, sail'd into the same Bay, close to the Shore.

In the Evening the Captains of the Ships were commanded early the next Morning to send their Boats full of Soldiers to those three Ships, but not to Land them till farther Order.

The seventh before day the Admiral and Captain Poleman went aboard the Buiksloot Frigat, from whence Poleman was sent ashore, with a Party of Men, to explore the Countrey, and bring off some Cattel if he could. Mean while the Admiral commanded the Captain of the Buiksloot to put a Cable out of his Stern, and bring all his Guns to one side, that, if occasion requir'd, they might fire at the Shore, which was immediately perform'd.

Whilst these things were doing, the Netherlanders were inform'd, That the Tartars had been ashore, and skirmishing with the Enemy, lost four Men; whereupon the Admiral sent word to Captain Poleman to be very careful, who immediately march'd with six Companies, each consisting of forty Men, up into the Countrey, and left one Company on the Shore. He had scarce march'd a League and half, when News was brought, That the Enemy had fallen up­on him, and that in the Skirmish five or six of his Men were wounded, and an Ensign slain. Amongst the wounded was Captain Bitter, who with an Ar­row was shot into the Foot, and also receiv'd two Cuts with a Sword through his Hat and Clothes, but not into his Flesh. The Admiral by this time being also landed, gave Order to all the Ships to send as many Sea-men ashore as they could spare, each arm'd with a Pike and Sword. Being now drawn up into Battalia, he sent two Companies more to Captain Poleman, and soon after a Company of Sea-men, who had not been gone above half an Hour, but a Ser­jeant sent from Poleman brought word, that the Enemy was put to flight, and fourteen of them slain. The Admiral sent back the Serjeant with Orders to Captain Poleman to pursue the Enemy as far as was possible, and prosecute the already gotten Victory; yet not to go any farther than he would be able to come back in the Evening; for the Admiral would wait his coming upon the Shore: Whereupon the Serjeant, with another Company of Soldiers, and some Sea-men, march'd away.

In the Evening Poleman return'd, and inform'd, That he had pursu'd the Enemy as soon as he had put his Men in Order again, having seen much Blood along the way which he went, and found four more lying dead, but met no manner of Resistance, nor saw so much as one Chinese afterwards.

Poleman also brought a Horse and an Ass with him, but never an Ox nor Cow, notwithstanding he saw several hundreds, having no opportunity to fetch them.

The twenty eighth, about Day-break, six Companies of Soldiers and sixty Sea-men, under Captain Poleman's Command, were sent to the Church-Bay; and two Companies of Soldiers, and twenty Sea-men, led by Captain Shim­melpewy to the Hollands Fort, with Order, That if they could not meet with [Page 154] any of the Enemy, to fetch some Cattel aboard of the Ships: In the Evening they return'd, having not met with any Opposition, but bringing with them about seventy Oxen, and some Sheep and Goats, which were distributed amongst the Ships and Soldiers.

The ninth in the Morning Captain Pooleman, with seven Companies of Sol­diers, march'd towards the Church-Bay, and several Places thereabouts, to see for more Cattel, with order to stay there all Night, and return to the Fleet the next day. The same day also the Admiral, Vice-Admiral, and several others, march'd with two Companies into the Countrey; and in the place where the Battel was, they found the fourteen foremention'd dead Bodies, which were stripp'd of all they had by the Tartars. Soon after the Admiral return'd to the Place where they had incamped themselves.

In the Afternoon, being the tenth, the Eymuy Jonk and the three Boats came again from the Church-Bay to the Fleet; and according to the Relation of the Secretary, who the day before had march'd thither by Land, and was now re­turn'd again with the Jonk, Captain Pooleman had given one whom he had ta­ken Prisoner his Liberty, on promise that he would furnish them with Cattel, and bring the Rusticks to them; which he endeavor'd, though to little pur­pose; for Pooleman got onely two Cows, a Calf, and a few Poultrey: But Peter Coker, who had been ashore with his three Boats full of Men before Cap­tain Pooleman came thither, had found fifteen Iron Guns, twelve of which, that carried from three to eight pound Bullets, did formerly belong to the Holland­ers; but the other three were made by the Chineses.

Not long after Peter Coker came to the Admiral with some Prisoners and Chinese Rusticks of the Countrey, as also twenty six Cows and Oxen.

Lastly, the Admiral sent the foremention'd Villagers and Prisoners home, with Command, as they priz'd his favor, to bring more Cattel; and then gave them a Sack of Rice, and a Cup of Arak, for which with their Heads bow'd to the Ground they cry'd, Camsia Compagnia, that is, We thank the Company.

In the Evening the Admiral went aboard, but came ashore again the next Morning.

In the Afternoon Captain Pooleman with his Soldiers having been a foraging, brought some Chinese Peasants, and twenty Cows, to the Admiral, who dismis­sed the Men, upon promise of bringing in daily fresh Provisions.

The twelfth towards the Evening came about twenty five Countrey-men to the Netherlanders Camp, with Goats and Poultrey, for which the Admiral gave them two Bags of Rice, restor'd them the Prisoners, and granted them a free Pass, which was to this effect.

SInce the People of this Countrey have submitted themselves, and as an earnest of Subjection, presented Us some Cattel, Sheep, and such as the Countrey affords; therefore We have taken them into Our Protection; and We charge and command all Persons, and especially the Netherlanders, not to do them the least harm, when they of their own free Wills come with Pro­visions, or anything else, aboard of Our Ships.

Balthasar Bort.

The thirteenth, three Hours before day, the Fleet set Sail, and at four a Clock in the Afternoon dropp'd Anchor three quarters of a League North-East from the Castle Zelandia, with their fifteen Ships, besides the Jonk Eymuy, and the two Tartar Jonks.

[Page 155]And now in regard the Netherlanders receiv'd no Tydings from the Shore, much less Proffers as they expected of surrendring up the Countrey: there­fore the Admiral on the fifteenth proposed to his Council what it was best to do in carrying on their design of recovering it; whether it were best first to Parly, or begin with the Sword. Hereupon they concluded, that they had ac­cepted of the Tartars Proposition about sending their Ambassadors with Letters from Singlamong and Lipovi to the Governors of Tayowan, according to a Result taken the eighteenth of December; in which the Chinese Commanders in For­mosa and Tayowan were desir'd with their Soldiers to come to the Tartars and deliver up the Countrey to the Netherlanders, as we have before related: To which purpose the Agents were also among the Council; there to desire their Order to let them go with their Jonks, and two of the Netherland Ships to Tan­koya, and there to deliver their peculiar Letters, and advise them to come over to the Tartars, alledging, That they could never do it in a better time: where­upon, after serious consideration, the Council granted their Request, and as Convoys, sent two Frigats along with them.

Soon after the two Tartar Jonks, conducted by the two Frigats, took their Voyage to Tankoya.

The next Morning, about two hours before Day, the Admiral set Sail with six Frigats more to the Cape of Tankoya, and two hours after Noon Rid by the Frigats that set Sail before, and the two Tartar Jonks lying Westerly about a League from the Point.

The Tartar Agents being Landed with their Letters, they immediately met with a great company of People; who soon after ran all up into the Countrey, so that they saw not one Man afterwards.

Towards the Evening the Rere-Admiral Verwei came aboard the Admiral, with news, That one of the Tartar Agents was return'd, who told him that they had deliver'd all the Letters, to which they expected a sudden Answer, and doubted not but they should attain their Desire, four hundred Soldiers be­ing already prepar'd to come over to them; of which one hundred lay at the Mountain Tankoya, and three hundred at the River of Tamsuy, where the Ene­my fear'd that the Netherlanders would Land.

In the Morning, being the nineteenth, the Jonk Eymuy came from Tayowan to the Admiral at Cape Tankoya, with Letters from the Vice-Admiral Huibert de Lairesse, and another from the Governors of Tayowan and Formosa, to the Netherlanders.

The Rere-Admiral, presently after the Admirals departure from him, Sail'd with all the small Frigats within Shot of the Castle Zelandia: which his ap­pearance wrought such effect, that those on the Shore sent the foremention'd Letter to him; so that he did not think it convenient to make any farther pro­gress with their Boats before they heard further from the Admiral. The Let­ter was to this effect:

The Governors of Formosa, Kovia, Anghia, and Oenia, have receiv'd the Letter from the Hollanders, and return this Answer.

FOrmosa belongs to us of old. The young Coxins Father permitted the Hol­landers to live and drive a Trade with them: after which the Hollanders made themselves Masters of the Countrey, and opprest the Inhabitants with Taxes, who complain'd of it to Coxin: Whereupon he came with an Army [Page 156] and Conquering Tayowan took it into his possession, and after the Hollanders went from thence elected us to be Governors of it: and we have, according to the Articles of War, maintain'd your Prisoners, and furnish'd those that went to Batavia with all Necessaries. Coxin also sent a Mandarin with a Hol­land Ship to Quemuy, to fetch the Governor Valentine, and other Prisoners from thence: but the Hollanders did not endeavor to get thither, but carry'd the Mandarin with the rest to Batavia; so that the Prisoners remain'd in our custody, where they have wanted nothing but Liberty: but you kept the Mandarin, and carry'd him to the Tartars your Allies, who are a very fickle and false People, which the Hollanders have had trial of in Canton, where they first granted them to Trade, and afterwards defrauded and deceiv'd them. Now you have receiv'd Promises from them in Hoksieu, that you may settle on Haythom and Colongsoe, and there drive a Trade. The old Coxin knew very well what treacherous People the Tartars were, therefore he would never agree with them. They have often sent Ambassadors to Treat about Peace, under which pretence some years since they had like to have taken Eymuy; but it fell not out according to their expectation, for they were beaten from thence, and all the Prisoners we took, we chopp'd off their Hands and Feet and so sent them home, which we suppose you are not ignorant of; but on the contrary, Coxin knows the Hollanders are a People that keep their Word, therefore he hath us'd the Prisoners well: but now you are joyn'd with the Tartars, and have taken the Countreys of Eymuy, Quemuy, and Goutsoe from us; yet nevertheless the Tartars dare not take them in possession, but have one­ly burnt down the Houses; nay, they have sent Agents since that to the young Coxin, to desire him with his People to come under their Protection, which he hath refus'd. The Hollanders have a considerable time Sail'd up and down the Coast, and have not yet obtain'd from the Tartars a Place to settle on, by which they may plainly perceive their treachery. Your Letter we have receiv'd, and thereby partly understand your Request, to deliver your Prisoners, which we think very fit: they are all in good health, and have a good allowance. We know that you Hollanders seek nothing but Trade, yet we are not ignorant that you will not trust us, and therefore neither credit our Sayings nor Writings: nevertheless you may believe that Sepoan, or Kimsia, would agree with you. If you are so inclin'd, and desire to settle in any Place, send us Ambassadors, Persons of Repute, whom we will not de­tain, if you do not keep ours: if you are hereto inclin'd, do it suddenly, that we may inform Sepoan of it, and make a League with you, that we may no longer stand in fear one of another, but Trade friendly together; for the Tartar, assure your self, will at one time or other delude you. This our Writing you may credit, taking the Heavens to witness the truth thereof.

The same Morning the Rere-Admiral Verwei came Aboard the Admiral with four Tartar Agents, and two Persons belonging to the Enemy; who being heard in the Councel, declar'd, That they were sent from Siautongsiong, Com­mander in Chief of the Chinese Forces in the South part of Formosa to Treat with the Netherlanders, and make them divers friendly Proposals. Whereupon the Admiral demanded, How many Men the Collonel Siautongsiong had? they answer'd, Seven thousand; which so startled the Admiral, that he knew not what to resolve upon. At last he demanded, What they would desire of the [Page 157] Netherlanders? they reply'd, That they had no Order, but onely that they came thither to hear what the Hollanders would proffer. Lastly, having seri­ously debated the Business, they resolv'd to proffer the Collonel five thousand Tail of Iapan Silver so soon as he should come to them, with a Proviso, That if the Hollanders should want his Men, they should assist them against the Ene­my, which they promis'd, but insisted, that the Sum was too little; so that they desir'd, if the Netherlanders were really inclin'd to agree, they should send some Person of Quality to the Collonel, to Treat with him himself, proffering to leave one of their number, to stay as a Hostage till the Person whom they should send did return.

In the afternoon the Secretary, with the Interpreter Maurice, the Tartar Agents, and one of the Messengers were sent to Siautongsiong with a Letter, in which he promised him the foremention'd Sum; and another to the Dutch Prisoners, intimating to them the hopes of their Liberty.

After the Secretaries departure, a Tartar Jonk was sent to Tayowan to Lairesse, with Orders to send the two Chineses with a Letter to the Governors there, proposing the release of their Prisoners, and offering a Treaty upon honorable terms.

The same day the Soldiers in the eight Ships under the Admirals Squadron, consisting in eight hundred Men, were divided into sixteen Companies and put ashore, and the day after the Tents which were pitch'd under the side of a Mountain, were quite finish'd.

The one and twentieth about Noon, Secretary Ysbrant came back with the Interpreter Maurice, sent on the nineteenth to Siautongsiong, and related, That he had deliver'd him the Admirals Letter, and discoursed with him; whereby he found that the Collonel was inclin'd to come with four thousand Armed Men to the Netherlanders, that so he might be carry'd to the Coast of China, provided the Hollanders would give him ten thousand Tail of Iapan Silver; of which they should pay five thousand so soon as he had given them Hostage, that he might distribute it amongst his Soldiers, and the other half (being for him and his Officers) should be paid him so soon as he came aboard their Ships, alledging, that those of Sakkam and Tayowan, being about nine thousand Armed Men, would immediately after his deserting them, endeavor to agree with them; that for a little Money they should surrender up the Castle and Forts, with all the Countrey thereabouts, and go to the Coast of China. And further, he desir'd to keep five hundred Acres of Land, and two hundred Horses, that were his own, which he would lend the Hollanders till they were Masters of the Countrey. Besides, at the Secretaries Request he had underta­ken to deliver the Netherland Prisoners, and to that purpose advis'd him to send one or two Ships more from the Cape of Tankoya to Tayowan, that those of the Castle might not send out Forces, and prevent the Design.

Whilst they were driving this Bargain, the Jonk Eymuy came to the Admi­ral at the Point of Tankoya, sent by the Vice-Admiral Lairesse from Tayowan, with News, That the Enemy, as he perceiv'd with his Perspective Glasses, wrought very hard upon three Forts, which he had now finish'd, leading them cross from the Sea-shore to the In-land Water; and also that the Enemy before with eight or nine great Jonks set Sail thence.

The two and twentieth, being Tuesday, the Interpreter Maurice went again to Siautongsiong with a Chinese Letter, in which he was promis'd five thousand Tail of Iapan Silver, so soon as he brought the Netherland Prisoners from Sak­kam [Page 158] to their Camp, and that then he should with all his Soldiers come to the Netherlanders, and go over with them to the Main of China. And the same day two Ships were, according to his Request sent from the Fleet at Tankoya to Tayowan.

The three and twentieth in the afternoon the Interpreter Maurice return'd, with tydings, That the delivering of the Netherland Prisoners could not be ef­fected, because Siautongsiong, before he would undertake it, would first receive five thousand Tail of Silver. But the Admiral and his Council no way appro­ving of it, sent them and the former Hostages to their Masters, notwithstand­ing the Tartars endeavor'd to perswade the Admiral to pay the five thousand Tail, alledging, That the Chineses at their coming over must leave their Estates behind them, therefore they ought to be perswaded thereto by Money. But the Admiral answer'd, That if they should have sent him the Money, they could not have been assur'd of his coming to them by his leaving those two in­considerable Hostages, and thereupon resolutely declared, That if Siautongsiong desir'd Money, he should first deliver the Netherland Prisoners, and come to them.

The four and twenteth in the Morning, the Zierickzee and Tertolen Frigats, sent two days before to Tayowan, came again to the Fleet at Tankoya, with Let­ters from the Vice-Admiral Lairesse, and the Chinese Governors in Formosa and Tayowan, in answer to the Admirals, written to them on the nineteenth. Whilst Lairesse lay with part of the Fleet before Tayowan, they perceiv'd that those which they suppos'd to have been Battlements before the Castle of Zelandia, as he had advis'd in his first Letter, were onely Nets, hung up there to dry. The Chinese Letter was to this effect:

YOu Hollanders write to us to send two Men to Treat with you, which we are not inclin'd to do before you send two Persons to Treat with us first: neither do you understand our Language, which made you send two Chinese Rusticks with Letters. As to what concerns the Letter written to your Prisoners, we have made them translate it in our Presence, and thereby understand your kind Salutation to them all, and also your inclination to agree with us, and cut off the League with the Tartars; with Requests more­over, that the Prisoners should be set at liberty: if your meaning be so, we shall be very glad; but the contrary hath appear'd to us by a Letter brought to us ashore by Assam and another Person, viz. That the Hollanders are yet united with the Tartars, as is manifested also by Singlamong and Lipovy's Let­ters written to us; so that we know not what to think of this contradiction. We believe what ever you do is meerly to deceive us, and to draw away our People, but we will prevent it with our greatest care. Besides, you have, according to the information of your Holland Prisoners to us, writ to them, That you are cozen'd by the Tartars, because you could not get a Place in possession to drive your Trade on, and therefore forc'd to Cruise up and down the Seas with your Ships: If this be truth, we will agree with you. If you are resolv'd, and desirous to Treat with us, send Assam and two other Persons of Quality to us, whom we promise to entertain nobly, and after having Treated with them, let them go freely away; and when we are agreed, we will also send your Prisoners, and give notice to the young Coxin­ga, otherwise call'd Sepoan, that we are agreed.

The Council of War in answer to this Letter, writ to the Governors [Page 159] of Formosa and Tayowan the twenty fourth of Ianuary from Tankoya, to this effect:

WE thought to have had a better Answer from you, than your Letter, which we re­ceiv'd this instant, makes mention of; for thereby appears to us, that you will not send any body to us, neither of your own nor of our Prisoners. When we lay before Que­muy, before our coming hither, a Letter came from Sepoan, wherein you specifi'd your inclination to agree with us: and do you now require Agents from us to Treat with you? We positively declare, that you shall first send one to us, and hear our Answer to your Prof­fer, to give us Quelang, Tamsui, Pehoe, or Lamoa, and then we will Treat further, and perhaps make a good Agreement: which if you will not do, and send us no Answer here­upon, we will in the space of two days put our Flag of Defiance, and use Hostility against you every where. Our gotten Victories before Eymuy and Quemuy, with the ruine of both Cities, as also of the Forts on Colongsoe and Goutsoe, witness our Power: therefore since we cannot do any thing to you by fair means, we will try what we can do by force of Arms; for we have that God, who is Creator of Heaven and Earth, on our sides: neither are we at such difference with the Tartars, as you suppose. We drive a Trade again in Hoksieu, and their whole Countrey is at our Service, and stands open for us: we may put into any of their Harbors with our Ships: nay, they promise to assist us with all their Ionks and Forces, if you are stubborn and will not agree with us: Therefore consider with your selves, and do not refuse our good Proffers whilst you may have them. Here inclos'd is a Letter to our Friends, your Prisoners, which pray deliver to them: we observe that they have not well understood our meaning, of which at present we have given them better information.

These Letters were carry'd to Lairesse by the Zierikzee Frigat, with Orders moreover to him, that the sending to redeem the Prisoners was come to effect; and also that the Collonel Sautongsiong had already inform'd those at Tayowan concerning their Treating with him, as they had perceiv'd by their Letters.

Upon the sending of these Letters ashore, Lairesse was order'd to stay two days for an Answer; but if then he receiv'd none, to fire a Cannon with a Bullet on the Shore, and set up a red Flag from all the Ships, and then come together to the Admiral, that they might consult together what was best to be done: But if they should, according to the Netherlanders Request, send some of their Men to Treat with them, and should desire that some of the Hollan­ders should go ashore again, that Lairesse should send the Factor Philip Mey.

The twenty eighth the Ensign, Christopher Iust, came to tell the Admiral, that the Enemy was that Morning come over the In-land Water on that Tract of Land, where their Men lay Encamp'd with a considerable Army; and be­ing both Horse and Foot carry'd about seventy Colours, which he himself had told, and discover'd accidentally, going with five Men more the last Night to shoot some Venison, towards the South near the River of Tamsuy.

The Admiral immediately upon this Intelligence went ashore, where he caus'd the convenientest Place, about a Cannon-shot from the Hill (where the Netherlanders pitched their Tents,) to be Entrench'd, and some great Guns to be carry'd thither, that therewith they might put a stop to the Enemy, if he should march forward; who about two Leagues from thence had Encamp'd himself, and shown many Bravado's with his Horse, but yet durst not set upon the Netherlanders, who kept themselves in good Order at the fore-mention'd Entrenchment, that they might not lose their advantage.

The next Morning, being the twenty sixth, the Enemy sent three Men with a Letter to the Admiral, who gave them Audience, and read it without [Page 160] the Works, which were not then finish'd, in a Tent. The Letter was to this effect:

Tathonling Totoksiau sends this Letter to the Dutch Admiral, from an upright heart and good inclination, to which I call the Heavens to witness.

THe Letter written by the Admiral I have receiv'd, and understand your meaning. Our Agents also have told us what you said to them; by which I gather, th [...]t you Hollanders are a People of noble Minds, and endu'd with Wisdom and Understanding, there­fore we desire to enter into a League with you. My Intentions I have before declar'd to your Secretary and Interpreter Maurice: I am now come hither with my Army for my pleasure. According to a Letter sent to me from Sepoan at Tayowan, I have order to make Peace with you: To which purpose two Mandarins are sent to Tayowan to make an Agreement, and surrender such Places as you desire; so that I hope we shall be Friends: To attain which I send you this Letter, with Request, that you will send Agents to go with me by Land to Tayowan, that there they may make an inviolable League between us.

Underneath was his Seal.

Whereupon the Interpreter Maurice was sent with the two Tartar Agents to the Enemies Camp, fully to know their Intentions, and also to tell them the Netherlanders Resolutions. The Tartars returning before, were in the Evening follow'd by the Interpreter, who was immediately sent back again with a Mes­sage, that the Netherlanders granted his Request, viz. To send two Persons of theirs to him, so soon as the six Hostages which he had proffer'd should come into their Camp, who that very Night came thither with the Interpreters.

At the same time a Rumor was spread, and the Chinese General had also told it to the Interpreter Maurice, That the young Coxinga was gone to the Coast of China, to submit himself to the Tartars, and accordingly had commanded his Soldiers in Formosa to come to him, and surrender up the Countrey to the Ne­therlanders: But this quickly appear'd nothing but a bare Report.

The twenty seventh in the Morning, according to a Result taken by the Admiral and his Council, the Hollanders Agents were sent to the Enemies Camp, viz. the Lieutenant Hendrick Noorden, and Factor Iohn Renaldus, and Iohn Melman, as Interpreter, for their Assistant. They were fetch'd in on Horse­back, and courteously receiv'd and entertain'd by the Chinese General, who ac­cording to his Promise was ready with his whole Army, consisting in two thousand Armed Men, to break up that day, and go with them by Land to Tayowan.

The Agents had these following Orders given them in writing to Read to the Chinese Governors at Tayowan.

  • I. That they should deliver and surrender the whole Countrey of Formosa to the Ne­therlanders, that it might be possess'd and Govern'd by them as formerly.
  • II. Especially the Castle Zelandia in Tayowan, and the Fort Provencia, in Sakkam, with all the Guns and other Ammunition, and also Quelang.
  • III. To restore the Companies Goods, Merchandizes, Moneys, and other things, which at the surrender of Tayowan they took possession of; and also satisfaction for the Charge which they had been at in coming two several years with a Fleet of Ships to their Coasts, which had cost above sixty Tun of Gold.
  • IV. All Debtors to the Company, whether their Servants or Free People, shall satisfie their Creditors.
  • [Page 161] V. Our Prisoners shall immediately be redeem'd, and sent with their Goods to our Ships.
  • VI. On the granting and allowing of these Articles, there shall be an everlasting Peace betwixt them and us, and all things past shall be forgotten and forgiven.

The Commissioners having Read the Articles severally to them, said, That the Netherlanders desir'd a speedy Answer, what they were inclin'd to grant or not, and also what they would have of the Netherlanders.

Three Sea-men, which were sent along with the Agents to carry some Goods, came back with two Chineses, sent from the Enemy with two live Hogs, and four Baskets of Potato's, for a Present to the Netherlanders; who gave the Bearers two Cangans, and as much Meat as they would eat, which they devour'd very greedily: He also gave them a Pass to bring Provision into our Camp.

After the Enemy had broke up with his Army, the Admiral, according to a Resolution taken a little before, also made himself ready to go with the Hosta­ges from Tankoya to Tayowan; to which purpose towards the Evening leaving the Shore, he went aboard of the Vlaerding Frigat, and left the chief Command to Captain Poleman, the second to Schimmel Penny, and to Bittar the third, of the sixteen Companies then ashore, viz. six under the first, and five apiece under the other two. The Camp was also in good Order, their Sconces finish'd, their Guns planted, and a Breast-work rais'd with Planks, that if occasion should require, they might easily cast up Earth against it. The Nut-tree, Naer­den, Mars, Flushing, Buiksloot, with the Quemuy Jonk, remain'd there at an An­chor. In the Evening the Admiral, follow'd by one of the Tartar Jonks, set Sail, and the next Morning, without having gain'd much Ground, because of the strong Tyde towards the South, he came to an Anchor about half a League to the Southward of Tankoya.

The six Chinese Hostages, which were left in stead of the three Hollanders that went by Land to Tayowan, related and declar'd at the drinking of a Cup of Tee with the Admiral, That most of the Chineses which were then an For­mosa, were not inclin'd to stay there long, but much rather would go to the Coast of China their native Countrey where they had Friends, and submit themselves to the Tartars; That the old Coxinga came to Formosa with his Sol­diers, none was to be blam'd but one Pinqua, who was the onely Person that advis'd him to it: and since they did not find it on Formosa as they had been told; but on the contrary, lost a great many of their Men in the War and Sickness, occasion'd from the unwholsom Air: and besides, having now lost Eymuy and Quemuy, therefore the Chineses do not at all esteem of this Pinqua: nay, the Soldiers and others have desir'd to cut his Flesh alive from his Bones, and every one eat a piece of it, if it might have been permitted.

In the Evening the Ionker Frigat, sent from the Haven of Tayowan by the Vice-Admiral Lairesse, brought a Letter to the Admiral from the Chinese Go­vernors, which was to this effect:

We the Governors of Formosa, Gamia, Siautongsiong, Koulavja, Anglavja, Owilavja, Tanlavja, and another Tanlavja, write in their Names this Letter to the Lord Admiral.

WE desire nothing but Peace. We have receiv'd Letters from the Tartar, but will not hearken to it, nor have any thing to do with him. You write in Your Letter, which We have receiv'd, to send You two Agents. It is [Page 162] true, We have lost Eymuy and Quemuy, and also Goutsoe, but We care not for them; for we deserted them freely, and suffer'd the Tartars to come into them. We have fought against the same Tartars, and slain Bethetok, and other of their Officers. They have, 'tis true, destroy'd and burnt the Towns and Habitati­ons upon the Islands Eymuy, Quemuy, and Goutsoe, and pull'd down some of the Fortresses, but have not had the courage to keep them, so that We very well know what People they are. In former times You Hollanders have En­gag'd with Us in the Piscadores, Baxembay, and Loakkau; so that We know YourBy the Hollanders call'd The Straights of Tayowan. Customs, and You Ours. We have lost the Fight at Quemuy, and suffer'd Our Cities there to be taken by them, but this was done by Your help: We have lost a great many Men on Our part; but also know, that You likewise have had some loss. But now a Letter is brought to Me by two Mandarins from Sepoan, commanding that We shall endeavor to make Peace with You, and give You a Place to Trade in; Therefore if You are willing to agree with Us on that account, or not, let Us know with speed. As to what con­cerns Us, We have order from Sepoan to agree with the Admiral, that We may live as Friends and Brothers. We have also understood by Your Letter, that if We do not send Agents to You in two days, that then You will use Hostility against Us; seeing Your Writing was somewhat harsh, We have thought Your Proposal to be of like kind. But if You are minded to agree, We will grant Your Requests, and make a beginning whilst the two Agents from Sepoan are here; therefore what the one hath to say to the other ought now to be known. The Letter written by the Lord-Admiral to the Prisoners We have deliver'd to them: If You will not credit Us, send Assam ashore to examine the truth.

This Letter was Seal'd with Owiden's Seal, in the Title call'd Owilavia.

The twenty ninth the Admiral set Sail again with the Ionker Frigat, but the Tartar Jonks went back.

The thirtieth in the Morning the Admiral was got two Leagues to the Northward of the Cape of Tankoya, where by contrary Tydes he was again forc'd to an Anchor; and by two Persons that came from Tayowan, he recei­ved a Letter from the young Coxinga, otherwise call'd Sepoan and Kimsia, who at that time resided on Tangsoa. They also proffer'd the Admiral as a Present, twenty Pieces of Silk Stuffs, four Frails of Iapan Tobacco, and ten Iapan Ap­ples, which he modestly refus'd, except the Apples.

In this Letter nothing more was proffer'd the Netherlanders than the Island Lamoa, as appears more at large by the Letter it self, as follows:

TSiovan, a Servant to Tsioubontok, is come back, and hath brought good tydings from the Lord-Admiral with a Relation, That the Hollanders were inclin'd to make Peace with us. We have receiv'd the Letter from the Admiral written to the Netherland Prisoners, and understood the Contents of it. I much rejoyce at the great love which the Hollanders bear to their Prison­ers. In the last Southern Mouson, the Hollanders coming with Ships into the Piscadores, they deliver'd a Letter to the Mandarin, who durst not of himself take upon him to grant what they desir'd, therefore he hath sent the Letter to Me, on which I sent one to the Admiral; wherein I desire to make Peace with the Hollanders. But my Letter coming to the Piscadores, they were gone from thence with their Ships to Hoksieu. On the Admirals coming with his Ships to Quemuy, a Servant was sent from Tsioubontok, or Tonbeenpek, with a Letter to the [Page 163] Holland Admiral; to which he had sent Answer, That he had agreed with the Tartars, and therefore could not make Peace with the Chineses; nor that he had any reason to break the League with them; Therefore because we could not then agree with you we Fought together: in which Fight indeed a great many Rusticks were kill'd in Quemuy: but we suppose that some of the Hol­landers were also slain. Our intentions were not to Fight with them, but we thought to have made Peace. All the Villagers on the Islands, and those which dwell along the Sea-Coast, have been under my subjection. I al­so lov'd them, as I do your Nation. Therefore I send two Mandarins, Houpou-Thousou-Iapien, and Lungeugia Tsiouki, whom I have commanded to endeavor to agree with you; and we hope, you will not be backward in agreeing with us, which will be good for both, because we shall make good advantage by your Trade. If we agree, then you Hollanders must forsake the Tartars Friendship, that we may not fear them; and when the Peace is concluded, we will give you the Island Lamoa, and deliver you your Prisoners; then we can Trade to­gether, and you come with your Ships to us, and we with ours to you; which to testifie that I mean it from my heart, I take the Heavens to witness.

Underneath was fix'd Sepoan's Seal.

The Messengers that brought this Letter related, That they had first been in the Piscadores, and from thence, according to their Orders, came five days since to Tayowan: but they should have been there before, had not the bad Weather detain'd them some days at Tangsoa. Moreover, they had heard six days before, that the three Netherland Agents were on their Way to Tayowan; and also that all the Prisoners were in good health.

The Admiral told them, That if they desir'd the Island Lamoa, they could have that when they pleas'd, and needed not their Proffer: and also told them, That they did not maintain the War against them for Lamoa, but for Formosa and Tayowan.

To which they reply'd, If their Master Sepoan did not rightly understand their Desires, it was not his nor their fault; for the Netherland Prisoners had so explain'd his Letter to them, that he demanded the Island Lamoa: alledg­ing, If the Hollanders wanted Formosa and Tayowan, they should not have taken the Islands Eymuy, Quemuy, Goutsoe, and others thereabouts, from them.

Then the Admiral ask'd if they had no Commands besides the Letter, to declare any thing else to the Hollanders? whereupon they answering No, the Admiral told them, That the Netherlanders would on those terms never make Peace with them.

Whereupon they reply'd again, That they might do as they saw fit: for if they could not agree, they would go and submit themselves to the Tartar, and desire of Him not to grant them to Trade there. But these Threats the Ad­miral not regarding, told them again, That if they were not yet weary of the War, the Hollanders would not be tir'd with using their Armes, till they had ut­terly extirpated them.

Whereupon the Coxingans observing that they could avail nothing by harsh Speeches, after a little consideration desir'd the Admiral to pass by all those Discourses, for they would rather live in Friendship than at Variance, and therefore were sent to Treat; and to that end desir'd that he would be pleas'd to go with his Ship to the Harbor of Tayowan, where (after they had [Page 164] consulted with the Governor) they doubted not, but they should give him full satisfaction; To which the Admiral made answer, That he would endeavor to get with his Ship to Tayowan, and that then he would expect their sudden an­swer, what they intended to do; and if they would manifest their good in­tention, they should bring some of their Prisoners along with them, that the Admiral might know the reason, why they had not written to him since he came thither, because it created suspicious thoughts in him of their Welfare. Then the Admiral as'd them, Why they did not send their Prisoners to them according to the Agreement at the Delivery of Tayowan: To which they re­ply'd, That they were ready to have deliver'd them, if they had been deman­ded; but because that was not done, they remain'd still in their power.

But after they had promis'd the Admiral at their return to bring one of the Netherland Prisoners with them, and had been kindly entertain'd, taking their leave, they went to the Shore, and so from thence to Tayowan by Land.

The six Chinese Hostages that were aboard the Admiral, and had the day be­fore told him that most of the Chineses were not inclin'd to stay on Formosa, but would rather submit to the Tartar; inform'd the Interpreter Maurice, that some desir'd to stay and live there, of whom several were Persons of Quality.

The one and thirtieth, the Admiral came with the Vlaerding Frigat half a League Southward of Sakkam, and the next day Anchor'd in the Harbor of Tayowan, before the Castle of Zelandia.

The second against Noon, the Interpreter Melman came aboard the AdmiralMarch. in a Chinese Champan, with a Letter from the Agents Lieutenant Hendrik Noorden, and Iohn Renaldus, written in Tayowan the Night before, in which they inform'd the Admiral, That after the twenty eighth of Ianuary, having remov'd with the Army under Siautongsiong's Command, they Rode to Sakkam, where coming on the twenty ninth, on the thirtieth they were courteously entertain'd at Tay­owan, but forbidden to speak with the Netherland Prisoners.

The next day after their arrival in Tayowan, they had Audience granted them from the Governor Ouwilavia, before whom they were commanded, ac­cording to the Chinese manner to kneel, which they refus'd.

Whereupon Ouwilavia having caus'd them to be ask'd, to what end they came to him; and being told that it was to know how he was inclin'd to agree with them, he answer'd, That he referr'd himself to the Letter written by the Ne­therland Prisoners, on the sixth of October last to the Admiral; and then ask'd the Agents, if they had any thing else to say? Whereupon the Agents, accord­ing to their instructions read the Proposals, which he would no ways hearken to; but said, That they were unreasonable, and not fit to be answer'd, aver­ring, that the Admiral himself had written to the Netherland Prisoners, that he would be contented with Lamoa, whereupon they parted at that time.

The first of February, the Holland Agents met with those of Sepoan, where the Letter written by the Admiral and his Council, the one and twentieth of Octo­ber, to the Holland Prisoners, and in which they thought to shew, That the Hol­landers would have been satisfi'd only with Lamoa, was produc'd, which the Agents explain'd quite another way, viz. That Lamoa in comparison to the other places that were proffer'd to the Netherlanders, signifi'd nothing, and that they were no ways satisfi'd with it.

Mean while, being met together, the Holland Agents said, That they had understood aboard of their Ships, how their Prisoners were us'd to hard labor, nay, that they doubted whether they were yet living; they to manifest [Page 165] the contrary, brought them all out of the Castle into a Court, where the A­gents look'd upon them at a distance, but were not permitted to speak to them. At last, the Agents were directed to tell the Admiral, that the Mandarins of Se­poan were ready to go again to the Coast of China, and that he might now send a Letter with them to Sepoan, and make mention of some other place, and not speak any more of Tayowan and Formosa, for they were resolv'd not to hear any more of it.

While Affairs stood in this posture, the Chineses told Melman, That they would not deliver the Castle of Formosa, unless forc'd by necessity, which they concluded with a Challenge, That if the Hollanders would give them a meet­ing at Sakkam, they would fairly try their Valor, and fight them Hand to Hand in Champain; and if they wanted Boats, would supply them with their own Champans, to Land as many as had a stomach to the Invitation; and if their fortune were such (which they did not fear) to loose the day, they would de­liver up the Forts, and whatever else they desir'd; But if they got the better, which they could not doubt, yet they would be ready to a compliance; and laying all animosities aside, joyn in an everlasting League of Amity.

The Netherlanders seeing by this, that the Chinese Governors on Tayowan had sleighted the propos'd Articles, and commanded their Trustees not to make any further mention of surrendring, judg'd it convenient presently to send for their Agents, and break off the Treaty; only Commanding, that they should tell the Chineses at their departure, that since they had sleighted his Proposals, they must now make their Addresses to Batavia, and accordingly sent them this Letter.

BY the Letter of Our Agents which We receiv'd aboard this day, and also by the Relation given Us by the Interpreter, We understand, that you will not hearken to the surrender of Tayowan and Formosa; and since We are not impower'd without that, to conclude of any thing; therefore We desire you to send Our Agents, and to receive yours, desiring Almighty God to give you a righter understanding of your own good, that you may not deceive your selves, trusting too much in your own Strength and Valor.

This Letter the Interpreter Melman carry'd with Orders to answer their Challenge thus by word of Mouth, that if they were so hardy, to try their Fortune with the Hollanders, and put it to the hazard of a Set-day, thanking them for the offer of their Champans, they would (if they wanted Boats) rather swim to Shore, to give them their desir'd satisfaction; and though they knew their Valor, they should be allow'd to bring two thousand into the Field against their one; and also they would spare their trouble of coming to Sak­kam, by giving them a meeting and smart Entertainment at the half way.

The Tartars Agents now resolv'd to return, sent one of their Servants to Baxemboy, with Order, to deliver some Letters there, and Demand answers of those sent from Singlamong and Lipovi: But he return'd soon after with an Ar­row in his side; which the Chineses, when they perceiv'd that he was a Tartar, had given him ashore; nay, according to his own saying, they would have ta­ken his Life, had he not sav'd himself by Swimming to his Champan.

On the fourth in the forenoon, the Interpreter Melman came a second time with a Letter from the Netherland Agents to the Admiral; and also one from the Chinese Governors, in Answer to that, written to them on the second in­stant, which Translated, was to this effect.

The Governors of Tayowan and Formosa, Lavja, which is the termination of all these Names, is no other than such a one Lord, or the Lord such a one.Koulavja, Siaulavja, Gom-lavja, Anglavja, Ouwilavja, Tanlavja, and another Tanlavja, send in their Names this Letter to the Dutch Admiral.
Worthy Sir,

WE have receiv'd three Letters from you, whose Contents We understand, being thereby well inform'd of your desires, heretofore you demanded only Quelang and Tamsuy to Trade in; but now, since Our Prince Sepoan hath condescended to give you Lamoa, nothing less will serve your turn than Tayo­wan, Sakkam, and the whole Countrey of Formosa, which is Our antient Right and Patrimony; but do not deceive your selves to believe, that We will so part with what so many years hath belong'd to Us; but if you will comply, and take what you are proffer'd, well and good. The Prisoners are yet strong and healthy. Nor have We any thoughts to detain your Agents, for whether We conclude, or not, you need not fear but your Messengers shall be return'd, so well We know the Law of Arms; but send Our Agents first, because We sent them first to you, and then your own are free to depart. Sepoan hath sent a Letter heretofore, to which he desires a speedy Answer, which also is Our Request.

; underneath it was Subscrib'd,

The Holland Agents now desiring to return, were not permitted, but in stead thereof, jealousies daily increasing, a Guard was set upon them; where­fore the Dutch Prisoners earnestly desir'd in their Letters, That the Admiral would first use some mild way for their Deliverance, that they might not al­ways live as Exiles amongst a Crew of Heathens, and their Wives and Children in Batavia, as miserable Widows and Orphans.

Melman the Interpreter, according to the Admiral's Directions, deliver'd the Challenge, but receiv'd no other answer than, Very well; and inform'd them, that at his return to the Fleet, without the Castle they had lately Planted along the Shore about twenty Iron and Brass Cannon. Upon this Intelligence, Siau­tongsiong's Commissioners perceiv'd that all things were not right ashore, and therefore believ'd, that the Hollanders would not send them before their Agents came back; neither did they desire them to go ashore there, but requested, that they might be sent to Siautongsiong at Tankoya, from whence they were brought, fearing their Landing there might cost them their Lives; the rather, because Siautongsiong refus'd to go to Sakkam or Tayowan; therefore if he deser­ted those of Tayowan, the Agents believ'd that he would joyn with the Hollan­ders; for the Letter from those of Tayowan to Siautongsiong seem'd to express, That Sepoan had submitted to the Tartars, reforming his Hair, and sending for all his Soldiers and Officers from Formosa, with Commands, that they should come thence, and surrender up the Countrey to the Hollanders.

But the contrary soon appearing, rais'd in the Agents a further suspect, and as many jealousies in the Hollanders, so that now the whole business was how to contrive home their Agents; and to that purpose, concluded to write to the Governors of Formosa, that since they could not surrender up the Castle in Tay­owan, and the Fort in Sakkam, they would go to Treat with Kimsia or Sepoan him­self at Tangsoa, and there to see if they could come to better terms with him: [Page 167] This Message they sent, with design to get their Agents, but never intending any such matter as the performance of it; and accordingly the Chineses believing it, dismiss'd the Agents, who upon the sixth in the afternoon came at last aboard again, with the Interpreter Melman, and a Letter written to the Admiral from the Governors in Tayowan to this effect:

The Governors of Tayowan and Formosa, Gam-lavja, Siaulavja, Koulovja, An­lavja, Ouwilavja, Tanlavja, and a second Tanlavja, send in their Names this Letter to the Hollands Admiral.

WE have perceiv'd by the Hollanders Letter, that they are of an upright Heart, though they suspected We would detain those they sent to Treat with Us, as appears by their last, which is contrary to Our Custom, and their Opinion, who ever put it into their Heads, for We have sent them freely of Our own accords, without the Formality of meeting half way, and exchang­ing Ours for theirs, whereby you may perceive Our Integrity, and that We never had any such design: We repose the like Confidence in you, and know that you will not fail Us in Our expectations.

You (as We have understood by your Letters) will intreat Sepoan to send a Mandarin with you to Batavia, and there to agree with your King, which We will acquaint Sepoan with, who knows best what is fittest for him in Honor to do: You have also receiv'd from Sepoan himself a Letter, to which be pleas'd to send an Answer, because he will not Treat without Letters of Credence.

We also advise, that if you intend to Treat at Tongsoa, with Our Prince, that you would inform Us punctually of the time, that We may give him notice of your coming, and that he may the better prepare Jonks to Convoy you in­to safe Harbors, to prevent the loosing and endangering of your Ships.

We have no more to say, but desire Our Commissioners may be sent to Us in this Vessel.

Hereupon the Chinese Agents were sent ashore, not to Tayowan, but accord­ing to their Request to the Southward of the fresh River in Formosa. The Ad­miral also Order'd Melman to bid the Men that belong'd to the Champan, tell the Governors, That if they desir'd a Letter from him, they should send for it the next day.

The Agents Henrick Van Noorden, and Iohn Renaldus being come aboard of the Admiral again, inform'd them, That the Quarters in Tayowan, except two or three Houses, lay Ruin'd, and were nothing but a heap of Rubbish; but on the contrary, that Sakkam was much inlarg'd with Houses, and that they had seen few Cattel as they past along.

The seventh, two hours before day, according to their resolution taken the last Night, the Admiral set Sail with seven Frigats to the Point of Tankoya, where about Noon he Anchor'd amongst the rest of the Fleet.

Soon after the Admiral's arrival there, Captain Poleman coming to him, told him, That all things were well on the Shore, only some few Soldiers were sick, of which some dy'd, and the Distemper increas'd. He added also, that that very day, a Captain call'd Lita and twenty six Soldiers with their Arms, came from the Chineses with two Colours, and one Pennon to us, to go over with our Ships to Tayowan, and offer'd to fight for us against the Enemy; with promise also to get more to their Party.

[Page 168]This Captain Lita gave Information, that Siautongsiong did not in the least in­tendChineses come over to the Hollanders. to come to them, but at one time or other, would set upon them, if he could find a fit opportunity; and that the Enemies Forces on Formosa consist­ed in ten thousand Arm'd Men, of which near five thousand belong'd to this Siautongsiong, whereof he kept about him a Guard of fifteen hundred Men, the rest were distributed, some about the River Tamsuy, but the greatest part a­bout Iokan.

In the Evening, there came six Soldiers more, belonging to the foremention'd Lita, as on the next day twenty five more, furnish'd with Coats of Mail, Hel­mets, and Scythes; and about Noon nine more, each of them only with a Scythe, who had stood on the Inland Water, making signs to be fetch'd over to the Dutch Camp; and as they related, had been forc'd to throw away their Coats and Helmets, or else they could not have gotten through the Woods.

The foremention'd Captain Lita, was according to Order Presented by Ca­ptain Poleman, with four Pieces of Cangans or Clothing, to distribute amongst his Soldiers.

The tenth came ten other Chinese Soldiers, belonging to Lita's Company, with Tidings, That the Enemy on the other side did fortifie and strengthen himself very much; to which purpose he had already gotten a great number of Baskets to be us'd as blinds, and plac'd them ready for the first opportunity to lay Guns betwixt them, and that then they threatned to come, and set upon the Netherlanders.

There also came four Chineses from Siautongsiong, into the Dutch Camp, and in their Masters Name, presented the Admiral with two Kings Fish, and a Bas­ket with Potatoes; in like manner, two other Chineses came to the Camp, who brought some dry'd Fish and other Provisions to sell, which Poleman took in exchange for a Cangang; but because it was suppos'd that they were sent as Spies, none of them was permitted to come within the Works.

The eleventh came four other Chineses, who affirm'd what the ten which came the day before had related, concerning the Enemies Fortifying himself.

Those Chineses that came thus to the Hollanders (to prevent them from act­ing any mischief) were divided amongst the Overveen, Buiksloot, and Cogge Fri­gats, and their Arms taken away from them, viz. thirty in the Cogge, nine in the Buiksloot, and twenty six in the Overveen.

In the afternoon came a Person with a Letter from Siautongsiong, otherwise call'd Tatholing-Totoksiau, to the Admiral, which was to this purpose.

Tathonling-Totoksiau sends this Letter to the Hollands Admiral.

FOrmerly the Admiral sent his Secretary with the Interpreter Assam to My Army, who spoke with Me; My Inclinations have been for the Hollanders ever since they have been with Me; We then Discours'd of five thousand Tail to be distributed amongst My Souldiers, of which I have as yet not receiv'd one, so that I find My Expectations of receiving Money to be frustrated; nay fear, that by the long delay, My good Intentions which I have had in this bu­siness, and still have, will be prevented; therefore I desire, with the first to know your Honors Intentions, for when I (which I would have the Hollanders take notice of) shall come to them with my Souldiers, they may be sure of the Castles and Forts, nay, the whole Countrey of Formosa. You formerly pro­mis'd to give me five thousand Tail, when I should deliver the Holland Pri­soners [Page 169] in Sakkam, which I never undertook, neither think it needful, because they will fall with the Countrey into your hands.

And that your Honor may the better Credit Me, I promise hereby to deli­ver My Grand-father to go in the Holland Ships to Soanchefoe, and there Treat with Singlamong and Lipovi, concerning my coming over, and to that purpose Request, that they would be pleas'd to send some great Jonks hither with the Holland Frigats, which if they do, all things shall be well.

Pray Credit my Writing, for I mean all what is here before mention'd with an upright Heart, therefore I desire it may be kept private; please to send As­sam to Me, that I may hear from him what your intentions are; if that can­not be, send your Resolution in Writing, that I may Govern my self ac­cordingly.

; and underneath stood Tathonling-Totoksiau his Seal.

The same Messenger brought also two little Letters from Siautongsiong, as he pretended to the Tartar Agents; but being broken open by the Admiral, one was found to be to Tonganpek, and the other to Sibja; yet both of the follow­ing Contents.

THe Letter sent to Me by your Servant Gom, I have receiv'd and under­stood your meaning; My inclinations, as you very well know, were always to leave this State and come over to the Tartars; but to do it accord­ing to your writing with the Holland Ships, I am something doubtful, fearing they might carry Me to Holland, or elsewhere: Besides there is no conveniency for My Wives and Children, neither for My Arms in those Ships, for I am near five thousand strong with My Soldiers and Officers, which are all ready and willing to come over to you; wherefore I hereby desire you, to be importu­nate with Singlamong, that his great Jonks with the Holland Ships may be sent at farthest on the fifteenth day of the second Moneth, either to Tamsuy or Tan­koya; upon whose timely appearance, I will immediately put aboard My Com­manders, Wives and Children; as for the Soldiers it is no great matter, they may go in the Netherland Ships: I intend to send my Grand-father to speak with you farther about this Concern, which I desire you to keep secret.

The Admiral, by the Vice-Admiral's and Rere-Admiral's advice, return'd this Answer.

FRom your Writing, I understand anew your desire of five thousand Tail, which had you come to Us with your Soldiers, they had been paid be­fore this time, according as We proffer'd: But to be plain with you, We sus­pect all your Actions, which are clandestinely manag'd; you holding a Cor­respondence at Tayowan, though you pretend and desire of Us, that your Letter may be kept private.

We had also thought to have found more fair Dealings in the Governors of Tayowan, and if you were really resolv'd to go to the Coast of China, you would not have trifled so long, but sent some Persons of Quality to Us, to have been carry'd in one of Our Ships to Singlamong and Lipovi; but since We cannot by fair means, We will endeavor to bring you and those of Tayowan both to bet­ter Terms by force.

[Page 170]The twelfth in the Evening, Captain Poleman with eleven Companies being in Arms, the Guns and other Ammunition was in the Night brought aboard from the Point of Tankoya; and the next day all the Tents were pull'd down and put into the Ships; and soon after the Sea-men and Soldiers that had been appointed to stay ashore, came from thence aboard.

The thirteenth in the afternoon, the Admiral assembled his Council to con­sult what they should do further, and Propos'd, That since they had no place of meeting there, nor on the Coast of China, whither they should go with the whole Fleet, to see what condition the Forts were in at Goutsoe, and if they could be repair'd with little cost and trouble, then to Pitch there for the present, that they might have a place of Rendezvouz upon any occasion, and also might leave there some Frigats, to go out in the beginning of the approaching Sou­thern Mouson, to Cruise for the Iapan Traders.

Secondly, If they should fall short of Goutsoe, whether it were convenient, and the time would permit them to venture a design on the Isles Lamoa or Tang­soa, and from thence send the Cruising Frigats.

Thirdly, If they should directly Steer from thence to Batavia, with the greatest part of the Fleet, and send only three or four Frigats with the hundred Chineses, and their Captain with the two Tartar Jonks to the Coast of China, ac­cording to their promise to Singlamong.

These Proposals being duly weigh'd and consider'd, at last they Resolv'd,

First, To examine, how the Fleet was stor'd with Provisions, Ammunition, Soldiers and Sea-men, and then they might on better ground and with more safety, consult what they had best to do, and accordingly the whole Fleet were found to be two thousand and seventy eight Men, (nine hundred and sixty Sol­diers, and one thousand one hundred and eighteen Sea-men;) besides an hun­dred and two Soldiers, and an hundred and thirty Sea-men that were sick; the number of those that were dead, was two hundred and eleven in all.

The fourteenth the Tartars fetch'd twenty three more from the Shore that came running to them with their Arms, and in their Champans carry'd them aboard the Vlaerding Frigat.

The same day a Party of the Enemies Horse and Foot, consisting in about three or four hundred appear'd upon the Shore, but durst not come within Shot of the nearest Frigat; and towards Evening they march'd away again.

The fifteenth they agree'd to send four Frigats, under the Command of the Rere-Admiral Verwei, to the Coast of China; and that the Admiral should with the rest of the Ships go to Batavia: The Orders which Verwei was to observe, were to this Effect.

TO Conduct the two Tartar Ionks home that came with the Netherlanders from China to Formosa, and also to put ashore in China, the Renegade Chineses, being an hundred and two, besides their Captain; therefore to use all means to reach the Coast of China, and if possible, to get to Puthai, and Land them there; or if by con­trary Winds be could not reach Puthai, then to run to Chinchieuw.

To stay on the Coast till the last of February, and wait for an Answer to the Admirals Letter, which he had given the Rere-Admiral to send by the Renegade Chineses to deliver to Singlamong and Lipovi; and if he receiv'd no Answer in that time, to go thence, without any longer delay towards Batavia, whither the Admiral would set Sail with the rest of the Fleet before.

[Page 171] The Admiral's Letter to Singlamong and Lipovi, from the Fleet before Tunkoya was to this effect.

The Holland Admiral Balthazar Bort, doth hereby present his kind Salutation to Sin­glamong the Vice-Roy, and Taising Lipovi General of the Territory of Fokien; and wishes health to their Excellencies, with a happy and prosperous Government.

WE hop'd that the Chinese Forces which remain on Tayowan and Formosa, would have accepted of your Excellencies Proffer, and accordingly come over to Us to be conveigh'd to China. To the Letters written by your Highness to that purpose to them, We added another, to assure them of Our Integrity and Care, We would manifest in the carrying over and furnishing them with Provisions, which was deliver'd by your Excellencies Agents to Si­autongsiong, General of the Forces in the South part of Formosa, who pretended to be satisfi'd therewith, and began to Treat with Us, and Demanded five thousand Tail of Silver beforehand. But We observing, that if he should once have gotten the Money, he would have deceiv'd Us, therefore We would not consent to it; however, upon his assurance, that Sepoan, otherwise nam'd Kim­sia their Prince, had agreed with your Excellencies, and submitted himself to his Imperial Majesty, We dispatch'd Agents to him, and I also went from Tan­koya thither by Sea. I receiv'd a Letter from Sepoan, whereupon he offer'd us the Isle of Lamoa, and to make Peace with us, provided We would immediately break Our League with your Highness, and joyn with them, which We look upon as a business no way suiting to Our Honor; therefore We immediately Commanded Our Agents from Tayowan, and refusing all Treaties about Peace, resolv'd to go to Arms; but a Sickness arising amongst Our Soldiers that lay Encamp'd some time in Tankoya, We were necessitated to remove. Mean while Captain Lita submitted, and brought with him an hundred Men, which We have sent your Highness with this Letter, had your Excellencies sent your Jonks with Us, many more would have come over; for they pretend, that they dare not venture themselves in Our Ships: We will be here again from Batavia (whither We are now going) with a strong Fleet and Forces in the Southern Mouson, when We hope your Highnesses will also be ready, that We may fall upon the Enemy in Tangsoa and Lamoa, or where ever else he shall be, that so We may at once make an end of the Work.

When Kitat or Lita the Commander was come aboard the Admiral, and told that he should go with four Frigats to China, with all his People, he shew'd great signs of joy; affirming, That Siautongsiong did not intend to come in, but only held them in Treaty to gain time, yet they might easily master Formosa and the Fortresses thereon, if they would suddenly set upon Lamoa and Tangsoa with a well Man'd Fleet, those being the only strong places which he had on the Coast of China.

The sixteenth, the Rere-Admiral Verwei set Sail with his four Frigats, and steering Northerly along the Formosan Coast, about Noon Anchor'd a League from Ape-Mountain; and likewise the Admiral with eleven Ships, and the Jonk Quemuy putting forth, came to an Anchor on the one and twentieth in the Piscadores.

In the Evening, the Rere-Admiral Verwei set Sail with the four Frigats to the Coast of China, to Land the Chinese Revolters, either on Puthay or about the Ri­ver Chincheo, under the Tartars Jurisdiction.

[Page 172]The twenty fifth, a Letter written by the Admiral to the young Coxin, or Sepoan, in Tangsoa, was sent ashore by a Chinese Prisoner at Pehoe, that from thence he might go thither with the first opportunity, which was to this effect.

THe Holland Admiral Balthazar Bort wishes Health to Sepoan.

I receiv'd your Letter at Tayowan; but the sudden departure of your Messengers would not afford me Opportunity of sending an Answer. We did at your Request send Commissioners to Tayowan; but when they motion'd the Surrender of the Fort, they had a Guard put upon them. We always believ'd, that it was free for Us to ask, and you to deny, without such Af­fronts. Tsiautongsiong made Us believe, That your Highness had submitted to the Tartars, and commanded all your Souldiers from Formosa, with Order to deliver the Countrey to Us: Whereupon We sent Our Agents, as afore­mention'd: But when We receiv'd your Letter, We understood the contrary; for you advis'd Us to break Our League with the Tartar, and proffer'd Us onely Lamoa for a Factory, and the Releasing of Our Prisoners: In answer to which, We advise you to unite with the Tartar, and deliver Tayowan to Us, that We may live peaceably together, and Trade flourish afresh, which you very well know is Our chief aim. I much wonder why those of Tayowan, while Our Agents were there, sent not to Me, and why yours never return'd to speak with Me; perhaps they may pretend Fear, but they have no reason, for with Us 'tis usual in the midst of the sharpest War, to send Persons to Treat, and make Overtures of Peace: And themselves are able to make out, how honourably We protected them: Whereas on the contrary, those of Tayowan were so barbarously uncivil, that they would not suffer Our Agents to speak with Our Prisoners, nor take a Letter from them to Us. I have set Sail from thence, with intention to come to you at Tangsoa, in hopes to find more Civility, and withal to perswade you to send Ambassadors to Batavia; but the stormy Weather hath spent so much of the time, that to My great sorrow I could not effect My desire: Therefore I have left this Letter with the Piscadoreans, to be sent to you with the first opportunity. If you resolve to send, do it with speed.

Balthazar Bort.

The twenty sixth the Admiral set Sail again with his ten Ships, and ran by the high Western Island: The twenty seventh he saw the Sands; and the twenty eighth, the Macau Islands. On one of these Macau Isles stands the City Macao, of whose Beginning and Plantation this is the Account.

The Chineses at first permitted the Portuguese to Traffick on a desolate IsleThe Original of the City Macao. call'd Sancham, or Sancian, thirty Leagues from the Continent, and ten from Macao, where they built themselves, in stead of Houses, Bowers of plash'd Trees, and meanly thatch'd on the top. Here the Chineses came to Trade with them, after they were thus setled, nor would suffer their nearer Approaches, being terrified with the remembrance of the former Calamities they suffer'd by Invasions, especially of the Tartar in the Year 1208. yet fresh in their Me­mory. These their Fears and Jealousies increas'd upon them, by seeing and considering the Portuguese Ships, what huge Vessels they were, like floating Castles, big with Armed Men, and terrifying both Sea and Land with the Voice of their thundering Guns▪ Besides, the Mahumetans and Moors, which in great numbers daily resorted to Canton, reported, That these People (meaning [Page 173] the Portuguese) were Franks (for so they call'd all Europeans) and were a mighty People of prodigious Valour, and Conquerors of whatever they design'd, and that the Borders of their Empire were extended to the Brims of the Universe. But though the Portuguese were thus represented, and appear'd themselves to be too formidable, yet the Avarice of the Chineses overpower'd their Fear; for the Benefit accrewing by this Commerce was so great, that it did not onely redound to the Emperors Advantage, but also the Magistrates and Common People were all Sharers; so that by Degrees they suffer'd it to be driven with­in their Dominions, yet with this Proviso, That so soon as their time of Sale was done, they should go again to India with their Commodities.

The Portuguese Merchants had Annually two Markets or Fairs, to buy what the Indian Ships transported in Ianuary, or the Iapanners in Iune.

The Fairs or Markets were not kept in the Haven of Macao, nor on the Isle of Sancian, as in antient times; but in Canton it self, whither an infinite Com­pany of People resorted; for the Portuguese went from the City Macao, with the Magistrates leave of China, to the Metropolis Canton, two days Journey by Water, against Tyde, and lodg'd at Night in their Vessels in the Haven: Yet all things were done with such circumspection and vigilancy, that it was easie to see they were not without jealous Fits, and grudgings of their former Fear. These yearly Fairs continu'd two Months, and sometimes longer.

By this means that Place which was before desolate, began to be inhabited not onely by the Portuguese, but also by many of the neighboring People; so that in few Years, by the great abundance of Commodities brought thither out of Europe, India, and China it self, it grew a famous and populous City: Nay, such was the Chineses Covetousness, seeing their Wealth, that they not on­ly dwelt there, and Traded, but Married with them, and in a short time fill'd the whole Isle full of rich Habitations.

This Place is also famous amongst the Catholicks, for the great resort thither of Priests, and their converting the Natives to the Christian Faith. From hence all the Voyages for the Converting of Heathens were undertaken; as to Iapan, China, Tunking, Cochinchina, Cambaya, Laos, and other Countreys; where­fore the King of Portugal gave it the Title of a City, and by the approbation of the Pope rais'd it to an Episcopal See. But since the banishing of the Por­tuguese out of Iapan, this City hath much decreas'd.

The twenty ninth in the Night the Fleet reacht the East Point of the Isle Ai­nan, which, according to Bartholomew Verwei's Observation, lies much more Nor­therly than it is plac'd in the general Map. On this Isle lies the City Ingly, otherwise call'd Ciunchew, being fortified with very strong Walls, full of hand­som Buildings, and well seated for Trade; the whole Island being in a manner surrounded with Mountains and Woods, produceth great plenty of all Necessa­ries for Humane Sustenance.

On the Mountains grows the sweet-smelling Craine-Wood, and likewise Ebony, Roses, and Brasile, much us'd by the Dyers through all China. There are also many Indian Nuts, and a Fruit by them call'd Iaca, which grows not on the Branches, but the Body of the Tree. Amongst others, there also grows a certain strange Herb, in the Chinese Tongue call'd Chitung; for the Sea-men are of opinion, that they can find by its Joynts or Knobs, in what Month, and how many Storms there shall be in a whole Year, saying, The fewer Joynts this Herb hath, the less the number of Storms will be; and likewise from its Stalks that shoot out of the Joynts from the Root upwards, they judge in [Page 174] what Month it will be tempestuous Weather. The Island also breeds many Harts, and other wild and tame Beasts, besides abundance of Birds.

Near this Island they also fish for Pearls on the Northern Shore, between this and the Main Land. There is likewise a very strange Fish caught here, with four Eyes, and six Feet, which the Chineses affirm produces also Pearls.

There is yet another Monster in this Sea, whose Head resembles a Birds, all the rest a Fish, and yields, as they say, several Precious Stones.

Between the City Coacheu and the Isle of Hainan they catch some Sea-Crabs, which differ not much from the other, except in this, that as soon as they come out of the Water into the Air, they are turn'd into Stone, yet still keeping their former Shape. The Portuguese and Chineses use them for Medicines against Burning Fevers.

On the Southside of this Isle the Chineses catch Whales, after the same man­ner as we do at Greenland.

This Island hath divers Mountains towards the South side, whereof one call'd Kinim, hath a Quarry of red Marble.

Not far from Linkao, a little Town, there lies the Mountain Pisie, of which the Chineses tell strange Fictions; for they relate, That there was a Stag endued with Humane Reason, which conducted the Islanders Army through unknown ways, and brought them where they block'd up their Enemy, that came from Cochinchina to invade them, by which means they obtain'd a great Victory, and on the same place erected a Temple in his Honor.

Eastward of Cincheu is a Lake, where a City stood formerly, that was swal­low'd up by an Earthquake.

By the little Town Iai rises a Mountain, said to be so lofty, that neither Wind nor Rain reaches the top; and therefore call'd Hoeifung, that is, Above the Wind.

It is very remarkable what the Chineses relate of the Sea near the Town Ci­um, viz. That it neither ebbs nor flows, which is observ'd at the neighboring Places; but runs one half of the Month towards the East, and the other half to the West.

The City of Ingly is a Place of great Commerce, in which there are three Markets every day; one of which is held in a very large Place on the East side of the City, whither so soon as the Sun rises divers Merchants resort, as Arabians, Turks, Zurats, Malabars, Abyssines, and those of Pegu and Malaya, besides many of the Native Inhabitants, Indians, and Portuguese.

After this Market is ended, which continues till nine a Clock, begins a se­cond, which is kept before the Governors Palace, and lasts till Noon, at which time every one retires home to their Dinners.

In the Afternoon about three a clock the third Market begins, in a Place at the South side of the City, where those Women (for the Females drive the Trade here, and not the Men) which sell several sorts of Goods, stand apart by themselves, and separated from one another; First stand in a row the Pepper-traders; next, those that sell Betel Leaves, Onekka, Water-Melons, and Anana's; and behind them the Book-sellers. In another Quarter are the Iron­mongers and Brasiers Shops, furnish'd with Armor, Poniards, Swords, and all sorts of Weapons, and likewise Sandal-Wood: Opposite to them stand such as vend Sugar, Honey, and all manner of Preserves: Not far distant is sold white, black, red, yellow, green, and gray Beans; and lastly appears a hand­som Square, where all sorts of Herbs, either for Food or Physical use, may be bought.

[Page 175]Here also those Merchants which Trade in Linnen, and other Commodities by Whole-sale, have their Exchange; beyond which is a Market for Poultry, as Hens, Ducks, Pigeons, Parrots, and other Birds; and likewise of Cabrito's, or Goats.

Here are also three High Streets: In the first on the right side are some Jew­ellers, which sell Rubies, Hyacinths, and the like; on the left side, many Chi­nese Picture-drawers, intermix'd with such as sell divers Colours of Sowing-Silks, Silk and Damask Stuffs, Flannel, Sattin, Gold Wyre, Cloth of Tissue, Porcelane, Wax'd Baskets, Copper Basons, Pots, and Cans, great and small; Quicksilver, Chests, Writing-Paper of all Colours, Almanacks, Leaf-Gold in Books, Looking-glasses, Combs, Spectacles, Brimstone, Chinese Scymiters with wax'd Scabbards, China-Roots, Fans, and other Trifles. The second is full of Picture-Shops. The third is onely for private use. Passing on somewhat fur­ther, you come to the Fruit-Market, and through that into the Fish-Market; and from thence turning towards the left side, to the Shambles, beyond which is a peculiar Place, where the Women sell by Retail round and long Pepper, white and black Cloves, Nutmegs, Mace, Cubebs, Cinnamon, Cummin, Gin­ger, Zedoar, Sandal-Wood, Rhubarb, Galanga, Anniseeds, and the like: On the right side is the Rice-Market; close by which, the place where they sell Pots, Bags, Mats, and Salt; and opposite to it, on the left side, Oyl.

The first of March the Fleet sail'd by Tinhosa; the second, by the Cape de March. Avarelles; on the third they pass'd over the Garden of Holland, Breda, and Acker­sloot Sands, lying on the South side of the Paracelles: The fourth they sail'd by Candor, and on the seventh Anchor'd at the Isle of Timon.

The eighth was publickly read an Order of the Council, by which it was commanded, That none, either there or at Batavia, should sell any of the Chi­nese Children which the Officers, Soldiers, or Sea-men had taken, either to Moors or Heathens: And for the better prevention thereof, it was order'd, That they should all be numbred; which Office was committed to the charge of Peter Suskens, Captain Adrian Mouldpenny, Secretary Henry Ysbrands, and Iohn Renaldus. This Order was verbatim as follows.

SInce there are many Chinese Children, as well Females as Males, in the Fleet which be­long to the Officers, Sea-men, and Soldiers, whom We fear they may sell either here at Poele Timon, or when they come to Batavia, either to Idolaters or Mahumetans, which is neither fitting nor lawful for Us Christians, but strictly forbidden by Our Su­perior Magistrates: Therefore We give every one knowledge and warning, not to dispose of any of the Maids or Youths, or other Chineses, either here at Poele Timon, or Batavia, to Mahumetans or Idolaters, neither to barter nor give them away to such, on pain of those Punishments decreed for such Offences: And that such Misdoers may be found out, every one shall be oblig'd to give an Account of how many they have, to Our appointed Offi­cers, that they may take their Names in Writing: And this to be set up in all the Ships of the Fleet lying at an Anchor before Poele Timon. Dated the eighth of March, 1664.

The tenth it was concluded in the Council, That since there was not Pro­vision enough to be had for the Fleet, and that which was there, very dear, to go thence to the Isle of Laver, in hopes to be better provided: Towards which having weigh'd Anchor, they set Sail in the Evening, and about midnight ar­riv'd there. On his departure the Admiral left a Letter with the Inhabitants of Poele Timon, to deliver to the Rere-Admiral Verwei, in which he advis'd him of all what had hapned since they parted.

[Page 176]The twelfth it was resolv'd in Council that Evening to proceed on their Voyage to Batavia; according to which, they weigh'd Anchor, and set Sail.

The thirteenth the Fleet sail'd by Poele Panjang; and on the fourteenth pass'd Lingen, and Poele Saya, and in the Evening Poele Toesjouw.

The fifteenth towards Night they pass'd by the Rock Frederick Hendrick, and towards Evening entred the Straights of Banka.

The twentieth the Fleet stemm'd the Thousand Islands, and in the Evening Anchor'd in twenty eight Fathom, and were about three Leagues distant from the Isle of Edam.

The next day, being the one and twentieth, the Fleet came to an Anchor at Batavia, with ten Ships. The Sea-hound Frigat, sent thither with the Quemuy Jonk, with Letters from the Piscadores, were also arriv'd there, and likewise two other Jonks.

Towards Evening the Admiral Balthazar Bort, Vice-Admiral Huibert de Lairesse, the Council of War, and Commanders of all the Ships, went ashore, and were courteously receiv'd by his Excellency the Lord Maetzuiker, who in­viting them to Dinner the next day, the Admiral related all his Adventures to him, deliver'd him also his Papers, and a List of the Prisoners and the Chinese Children, which were in all two hundred forty three; viz. fifty nine Men, a hundred forty eight Male Children, and thirty six Female.

Mean while the Rear-Admiral Bartholomew Verwei, who on the twenty fourthThe return of the five Ships, with the Rere-Ad­miral, from the Coast of China. of February set Sail with four Ships from the Piscadores, to the Coast of China, to transport the revolted Chineses, and land them about Puthay, or the River Chincheo, the twenty sixth came to an Anchor at the Island Colongsoe, where he desir'd the Tartar Agents, that they would with one of their Vessels fetch away the Chineses; to which purpose he put the Agents ashore at the City Eymuy. The next day they brought a Jonk, into which they were put with their Arms, and likewise the Letters given to the Agents, to be deliver'd the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Lipovi, with which the Agents went to the City Chincheo.

The twenty eighth a Tartar Vessel came aboard the Rere-Admiral, in which was a shaven Chinese call'd Hionko, which had formerly liv'd in Batavia, and spoke Portuguese, who told him, That he was sent by Sitetok, with Request to Verwei, That he would please to come to him to Haytin (a Place about a League and a half from thence) to a Treat; but Verwei being sickly, put it off. This Hionko also related, That the Enemy with his Forces lay yet in Tangsoa, and durst not go to Tayowan, fearing the Dutch Ships that lay before it; and that about fourteen days since, five thousand Men came to them in sixty Jonks, which then lay at Haytan; that the Commanders which came in the said Jonks desir'd to inhabit the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, which if it were permitted them, the Prime of the Coxingans would come over to them: But the Vice-Roy Singlamong had denied, and would not hearken thereto, alledging, That when another Holland Fleet should come again on the Coast, they would then with­out any further trouble submit.

The first of March the Overveen, Cogge, and Buiksloot Frigats came to an An­chor by the Rere-Admiral.

The third, being Monday, Verwei set Sail with his four Ships, that according to Order he might proceed on his Voyage to Batavia, and in the Afternoon found himself half a League beyond the Island with the Hole; his Course South-South-West.

[Page 177]The fourth he descry'd Lammo, an Isle in the North-West, four Leagues from the Fleet, in twenty two and twenty three Fathom Water; and in the Even­ing the Sands, Nor-West and by West, within five Leagues.

The fifth, being Wednesday, Verwei came amongst a Company of Chinese Fish­ers, of which he thought to overtake one, or by firing of a Gun make him strike; but in vain, for they by their nimble sailing got clear away.

In the Forenoon they saw Pedro Branco, and about Noon were in twenty two Degrees eleven Minutes Northern Latitude: Towards Evening they descry'd the Isles Lemas, Nor-West, three Leagues from them.

The eighth, being Saturday, in the Morning they had Tinhosa in the West, five Leagues distant, and at Noon in the Nor-West, his Course being South-South-West.

Munday the tenth, about Sun-rising, they saw Poele Canton, West-South-West four Leagues from them; and at Noon, by Observation, found themselves in fifteen Degrees and three Minutes Northern Latitude, and at Sun-set descry'd the Box Horns in the South-West and by South.

The eleventh they discern'd the Cape Averello, in the South and by West, six Leagues from them; and Poele Cambier de Terre in the Nor-West and by West, at three Leagues distance.

The twelfth in the Morning they reach'd the Round Holm, being three Leagues to the West and by North; and the Bay of Pangerang in the Nor-West, at the same distance.

The thirteenth early they saw Poele Cecier de Mare, in the South-East and by East, about six Leagues from them; and the fourteenth at Noon the Point of Sinques Iagues about five Leagues to the Nor-West.

The fifteenth, being Saturday, they had still sight of the high Land of Cam­bodia.

On Monday they saw Poele Candor in the Nor-West, about three Leagues di­stance.

The twentieth in the Morning they had the Isle of Timon in the South, towards which Verwei steer'd his Course with the other Ships, and in the Afternoon dropp'd Anchor on the West side of the great Sandy Bay, in eighteen Fathom Water.

The Inhabitants of this Place inform'd Verwei, That the Admiral Bort had been there ten days with the rest of the Fleet.

The same day Verwei set Sail again about Noon from Poele Timon, and was the next day in the South-West and by South, four Leagues from Poele Pan­jang, which lay Nor-Nor-West two Leagues from him: The following Day the East Point of Lingen bore West-South-West from him; in the Evening, the Isle Poele Sayo Nor-West and by North; and the Northermost of the Isles, South-West and by South.

The twenty third, being Sunday, the Fleet descry'd the Mountain Monapyn, in the South-South-East, five Leagues distant, in fifteen Fathom Water. In the Af­ternoon the Monapyn bore South-South-East three Leagues off. Here he sail'd directly towards the Straights of Banka, and on Munday Morning came up with Poele Nanko, driving with a Fore-Tide into the Straights, and in the Evening descry'd the Island Lucipar East-South-East, in five Fathom and a half, from whence he steer'd his Course directly South-West.

On Tuesday, being the twenty fifth, they saw the Isle with the High Trees in the West and by North, four Leagues from them: On Wednesday the North-Watchman▪ [Page 178] in the South-South-East, about three Leagues; and towards Even­ing in the South-South-East, at one League.

The twenty seventh, being Thursday, Verwei sail'd West-ward, along by the Thousand Islands, and in the Afternoon ran safe to an Anchor in five Fathom Water, on the Road before Batavia, where going ashore, he went with the Com­manders of the other three Ships to the Lord General Maetzuiker, and the Coun­cil, and related such Adventures as had hapned to him since his departure; who for his faithful Services and valorous Conduct, gave him hearty Thanks, and promis'd him greater Rewards.

Thus much of the Relation concerning what hapned to the first Fleet, set out under the Command of the Admiral Balthazar Bort, and the Vice-Admiral Iohn Van Campen, to the Coast of China, and their Expedition to the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General Lipovi; and likewise what Adventures befel the second Fleet. Now it is requisite to give a brief Account of what hapned in Hoksieu, to the Merchant Ernest van Hogenhoek.

Till the first of March, Anno 1664. Captain Constantine Nobel had resided inMarch, 1664. the City Hoksieu, as Agent; but then he came aboard the Finch, which he freighted with Merchandises to Batavia; in whose Place Hogenhoek was order'd to look after the Companies Business in Hoksieu, and to keep a Journal as well of State as Trading Affairs, and of all his Transactions and Services done for the Company, according to his Orders given him from the Admiral Bort and his Council.

The same day in the Morning the Vice-Roy Singlamong went to Chinzieu, to receive the Enemies of the Isles Tamswa and Lamoa into Favor, except Kimsia, who was said to be gone to Tayowan.

On Wednesday, the fifth, the General Lipovi went also to Chinzieu, that there with the Vice-Roy, he might receive the submitting Chineses into Favor; from whence he sent one of his Mandarins to the Netherlanders, to Complement them, and tell them in his Name, That some Letters written by the Council of State for that Empire, were come to his Hands, and that theirs would soon follow. Not long after the General Lipovi's Chief Secretary came also with a Copy of the Council of States Letter, which was to this effect.

WE Lepous have shew'd your Letter concerning the Hollanders TradingA Copy of the Council of States Letter. here, to his Imperial Majesty.

We Ponpous have also made your last Years Writing concerning the Hol­landers, known to his Majesty.

The Piejapous have also shew'd yours written to them, to his Majesty.

The Conbon likewise hath written a Letter to the Emperor, That the pro­mis'd Ships were already come; and likewise the Hollanders Request concern­ing Trade.

Povi hath also written to the Zoetaysins, That the Holland Admiral was come with his Fleet of War to Hoksieu, and that his Request was to come and Trade here once a Year, and also that he might have a Place granted for the building of a Store-house. The Express of the Conbon written to the Zoetaysins inform'd, That the Holland Admiral hath brought some Goods with him in his Ships, with Request that he may dispose of them to pay his Sol­diers.

On all the foremention'd Writings his Majesty made Answer, You, my Lords, go and consult first about this Business; then let me know your Opi­nions, and I will give you my further Answer.

[Page 179]The Zoetaysins, Puejapous, Lepous, Ponpous, in humble Obedience to Your Imperial Majesty do certifie our Opinions in manner following.

We have look'd over antient Records, and find that it was never us'd to permit any Strangers to live in our Countrey, or build a Factory, much less to drive a constant Trade; therefore We suppose it ought not to be granted.

We also find, That in antient Times it hath been accustomed, that when any Strangers came to Complement the Emperor, their Goods which they brought with them were put into one of the Emperors own Store-houses, erected for that purpose, where one of Our Mandarins taking an Inventory thereof, sold them: But without Addresses to the Emperor with Presents, nothing was permitted.

But since the Holland Admiral comes hither to assist the Emperor against his Enemies, We think that by way of Compensation he may this one time be suffer'd to sell his Goods brought along with him, first obtaining Licence from the General Lipovi, and the Conbon in Hoksieu: But hereafter the Hollan­ders shall first make their Addresses to the Emperor, before they shall sell their Goods.

The Empeeor answer'd hereupon,

I Conghy, the twenty seventh Day of the twelfth Moon, in the second Year of My Reign, permit the Hollanders to come every other Year and Trade: The other Points I am of the same Opinion as You, my Lords. These are the Words of the Emperor, according to which, and this Letter, you may govern your selves.

In the translating of this Copy of the Council of States Letter, their man­ner of Stile was as much as possible could be imitated.

The foremention'd Lepous and Ponpous, which had written these Letters to Singlamong and Lipovi, are Judges and Councellors of Civil Affairs, as the Pie­japous are of Martial: The Zoetaysins are four Guardians in the time of his Fa­ther, plac'd over the young Emperor and Empire, to supervise Affairs during his Minority, being at the time of this Grant about twelve Years of Age.

The tenth, being Munday, Hogenhoek sent the Secretary Cheko with a Letter to the Governour of Hoksieu, who promis'd to speed it with his Post to the Nether­land Ships.

On Wednesday, being the twelfth, the Netherlanders went all to the Pagode Con­zan, being one of the greatest in all those lower Territories, situate in a most pleasant and delightful Place, about three Leagues from Hoksieu.

Monday the seventeenth, in the Afternoon, Lepora, one of the Vice-Roys Se­cretaries, came to visit Hogenhoek, to whom, amongst other Discourses, he re­lated, That the Enemies of Tanzwa and Lamao had alter'd their Opinions, ex­cept Ziekautia Chief General of Kimsia, who staid with his Wives, Children, Soldiers, and Jonks, to know on what Terms he should come in, having first cut off his Hair after the Tartar Fashion.

He also related, That there was shortly expected a Seal'd Letter from his Majesty, with great Presents for the Hollanders.

The twenty eighth, being Tuesday, Hogenhoek went to visit the Conbon and Go­vernor, and desir'd him to expound the meaning of those Words, That the Hollanders might come and Trade with their Ships every other Year: To which he courteously reply'd, That the Great Council of State at Peking would not yet permit the Hollanders a Free Trade for ever, nor grant them a Place for the [Page 180] building of a Store-house, according to their Minds declared to his Majesty; but he was assur'd that his Imperial Majesty, on the Proposal of the Council, had made answer, That they might come once in two Years; which was as much as to say, That the Hollanders coming from remote Places, could come but once in two Years with their Ships to Trade, at which time they should have leave to drive their Commerce: And it seem'd by this Order, that Gifts and Pre­sents were onely wanting to supple the Courtiers, and soften the Counsellors of State, through whose Hands all things of this nature pass'd, by reason of his Majesties Puerility: And if (continu'd he) you do hereafter order your Af­fairs accordingly, I dare promise and undertake that you may not onely come once a Year, and Traffick; but twice, if you be able so to do. Whereupon, after several such like Discourses, he took his leave and departed.

From the nineteenth, being Wednesday, till the twenty second, nothing hap­ned of any Remark, the Netherlanders being onely busie in building of one small, and two great Rooms, for the stowing their Commodities against the next Season.

On Sunday the twenty third, the General Lipovi's Chief Secretary came to to visit the Hollanders, with whom they discours'd about the News sent from the Court in Peking; and he explain'd it just as the Governor had done, say­ing, That he had discours'd with his Master about it, who had told him, The Hollanders are sure enough in this Countrey: The building of a Store-house is of small consequence; they have already a good House to Trade in. When his Majesty says, Once in two Years, they may come every Year, nay twice a Year, if they can, provided the Hobou (meaning Constantine Nobel) went back to Ba­tavia, and from thence were sent with a formal Embassy and Presents to the Court at Peking.

Against the Evening the Governor of Hoksieu sent the foremention'd Letter to Constantine Nobel back again, with information that the four Ships were gone.

On Munday the twenty fourth the Emperors Commissioners came from Pe­king, to confer Titles of Honor on Tonganpek and Zibja, the Sons of Zovja, whom his Majesty had receiv'd into Favor.

On Tuesday, being the twenty fifth, Ongsamya, Secretary to the Vice-Roy [...]rse with Singlamong, receiv'd the Netherlanders that came to visit him very courteously; and after having drank two or three Cups of Tee, and shewed them his whole House, he solemnly invited them to a Dinner, where they were nobly enter­tain'd: And having pass'd about several Cups of their Liquor, he said to them, The Netherlanders may now be assur'd of a Free Trade for ever; but that they being so eminent Merchants, ought not to deal with the meaner sort of People, (as they had done the two preceding Years) who sold their Goods again by Retail, and then could scarce dispose of half of them; but that they should Trade with the Vice-Roy, General, and Governor, who if they wanted any thing in their Requests, might intercede for them at Court; and that then also they would be assur'd to carry out as much white Raw Silk (which his Majesty had prohibited on pain of death) as they desir'd: Whereas on the contrary, if their Highnesses were not pleas'd, they could not transport one Bale; therefore they ought to be wary.

Hereupon Hogenhoek made answer, That it was certain these Proposals might be advantageous, and that they agreed with the Opinions of his Ma­sters; but if the Hollanders should Trade with their Excellencies onely, who ingross'd the Commodity, as they had done in Canton, that then they could [Page 181] not subsist at that rate; on which account, and for no other Reason, they had left Canton: And he would rather prosecute the Design no farther, but go to a Place of Trade, where they might dispose of their Goods at Profit: But if their Highnesses would deal with them, they should have the Refusal, and they would be very reasonable, according as the Market went.

After this they fell into other Discourses, viz. That Ziekautya, a famous Sol­dier, and General to Sepoan, was come to them, accompanied with six thousand of the chiefest Coxingan Soldiers; and that one of the chief Officers, Haytan's Brother, being ashore, and repenting, intended to make his Escape again in the Jonks that lay hard by, but was overtaken by some of the Vice-Roy's Sol­diers, who would immediately have Beheaded him, had not his Brother, who had been Governor of Haytan, begg'd him; yet nevertheless he was put into Prison. This Discourse being ended, and having drank a chirping Cup, he desir'd Hogenhoek to bear him Company for two or three Hours longer, and then gave him leave to return.

On Wednesday the twenty sixth, the Governor of Hoksieu's Secretary came to visit the Netherlanders, with Request, amongst other Discourses, for his Lords Cotton Quilt, promis'd by Constantine Nobel, which Hogenhoek immediately sent him.

The twenty eighth, being Friday, Hogenhoek went to the Conbon or Governor, with Requests to him, That since the Goods which he had left were not sold, he would grant him a Pass; for he intended to send some Goods to the Terri­tory of Nangkin, or Chikiang, there to exchange them for wrought Silks; To which he made Answer, That he could not do it of his own accord; but that he would write to the General Lipovi, who was also concern'd in it, and let him know his Answer in a Fortnights time.

Besides, the Governor told him, that it was their own faults, that they had not sold their Merchandizes sooner, for he was a Man of sixty Years old, in all which time he never knew Cloves sold for an hundred and sixty, or an hundred and seventy Tail; and accordingly all their other Goods were set at too high Rates, so that they would not go off, unless they sold them cheaper, although there was neither want of Buyers nor Money. The Chineses sold the Goods which they brought with them much cheaper, viz. Bags of Pepper at nine or ten; Sandal-Wood, twenty two; and Quicksilver, at an hundred and ten, and an hundred and twenty Tail; Colour'd Clothes, at three, and three and a half the Dutch Ell; Scarlet, five and six Tail; which said he, are too great gains, according to what they are bought at Kalappa. Hogenhock answer'd the Governor hereupon, That it seem'd not strange to him, that the Revolted Chi­neses sold their Goods so cheap, (for stoln Goods were always sold cheaper than those that were bought with ready Money;) at which the Governor Smiling, desir'd the Hollanders to excuse him, that he did not invite them to Dinner, because his youngest Wife lay a Dying, so that after having drank a Cup of Bean-Broth, they departed.

On Tuesday, being the first of April, the Governors Wife died, which occasi­on'd that he gave Audience to none in fourteen days time.

Wednesday, being the second, the Vice-Roy's Secretary sent the Factor Lapora with a Letter to the Hollanders, informing, That two Agents, with two Manda­rins stil'd Tzouzou (that is, Governors) came the twenty eighth of the first Moon from Peking, and had brought with them the Emperors Letter and Presents to the Hollanders, for their faithful Service.

[Page 182]On Tuesday the twenty eighth, Haytankon Governor of Sinkzieu, with two Jonks, set Sail to the Manillaes: Their Lading consisted chiefly in Raw and Wrought Silks: And it was rumor'd, That the Vice-Roy and General in­tended to send a Trading Fleet to Iapan, to which purpose abundance of Silk was already bought out of the upper Territories, which occasion'd so small Inquiry for the Netherland Goods.

About this time it hapned that no Rain had fallen for six or seven days: Whereupon the Conbon or Governor caus'd the killing or eating of Swine to be forbidden by Proclamation, on pain of death; because the young Rice-plants, that should be transplanted, dried up to nothing. And on the Thursday, being the seventeenth, the Conbon, with all his Mandarins and Nobles, went in Proces­sion on foot, (which was never seen before) into several Temples, and carried Perfumes, making great Offerings to their Idols. The Priests also went up and down every day making great Lamentations and Prayers for Rain; the more, because the Conbon had threatned them, That if no Rain fell in ten or twelve days, they should be severely beaten with Sticks.

The sixteenth, being Wednesday, the Factor Lapora came with a Letter, co­pied out of the Vice-Roy Singlamongs, written to his Secretary Ongsamya, the Contents of which were as followeth.

THe Holland Admiral hath by assisting Us against the Enemy gain'd great Honor, which I have made known to the Emperor, who hath sent two Agents from Peking, with an Imperial Letter and Presents to them: His Majesty hath also written to Us to go with your Forces and ingage Tayowan, and upon the Conquering of it, to restore it to you; and also that you may come every two Years to Trade. Acquaint the Holland Hobou with this joyful News, and that the Agents are also to be in Hoksieu within fifteen or six­teen Days.

On Friday, the eighteenth, the Netherlanders were inform'd, That the Vice-Roy and General, attended with some of the Revolted Mandarins, were gone a Voyage with their Jonks to Tanswa and Lamoa, to meet Tziekautzia, who waited there to submit, as they had been inform'd; but coming thither, they found no body, Kimsia being fled with all his People; yet the Tartars not daring to stay, fearing his Return, took away the Villagers, with their Wives and Chil­dren, ruining and burning all they could find.

On Saturday, being the nineteenth, some Merchants came with Tydings that Tziekautzia had brought a great many Merchandises with him from Tayo­wan, and the other Islands, as Pepper, Sandal-Wood, Quicksilver, Iapan-Wood, Cloves, Amber, Cloth, and the like.

About this time the Rice (by reason of the abundance of Prisoners and Coxingan Chineses, and likewise the Army which lay there) began to grow very dear; insomuch that a Sack was sold for thirty five or thirty six Maes: Their Highnesses therefore were necessitated for some time to give leave to those Chineses that were not Soldiers, to go to Sea with their Vessels, and seek to get a Livelihood, and also Till some Ground on the Sea-shore.

On Monday, the one and twentieth, News came that Houtin, one of the vali­antest Soldiers belonging to Sepoan, was come to the Tartars, accompanied with eight thousand Men, whom he deliver'd all to the Tartars; and likewise, That Kimsia was gone to Tayowan, and Anpikya to the Piscadores; and that Kim­sia resolv'd there to venture the Hollanders and the Tartars till the uttermost time, and was daily busie about fortifying and strengthning the Castle Ze­landia, [Page 183] and raising another Fort on Sakkam, so to make Formosa invincible.

On Thursday, being the twenty fourth, News came that the General Lipovi was gone from Sinchieuw to Soanchieuw, whence he was expected in ten or twelve days; likewise that a Post was come from the Court at Peking, with informa­tion, That Lipovi was made Povi, or Governor of three Provinces, viz. Fokien, Kiangsi, and Chekiang; a thing seldom done, to give the Chief Command, both in Civil and Military Affairs, of three Territories, to one Lord.

Monday the twenty eighth, a Mandarin came in the Governors Name to com­plement Hogenhoek, and to tell him, That the Emperors Agents were expected within five or six days in Hoksieu.

On Tuesday the twenty ninth, the Governor caus'd an Idol-Priest, because he had been negligent in his Prayers and Offerings for Rain (for the droughty Season still continu'd) to be miserably beaten with Sticks, threatning him moreover, That if none fell in five or six days after, he should be executed.

The first of May, being Thursday, it hapned to rain, to the great joy of theMay. Idol-Priests; and the same day the Governor sent the Mandarin Tan-lavja to tell the Netherlanders, That the Agents were expected either that day or the next, and if they would not please to go and fetch in those Lords, because they were come so great a Journey about their Business, it being the Tartars fashion, and that which Nobel had also done the last Year. Hereupon, the Netherlanders prepar'd immediately to go to meet the Agents, and Congratulate their Wel­come, as soon as they should have notice of their Arrival.

On Saturday, being the third, in the Evening the long expected Commissio­ners came to Hoksieu, with a great Train of Tartar Soldiers and Servants; so that the Hollanders could not fetch them in.

On the fourth in the Morning, Hogenhoek went with all his Attendants to the Castle, to Welcome the Emperors Agents, who came to meet him in the Hall, and conducted him thorow two or three Chambers, where several Stools were plac'd, desiring him to sit down on the left hand, (by them ac­counted the most Honorable, which Hogenhoek refus'd; yet after many Cere­monies, he was forc'd to sit right against the Chief Agent, who would not take the Upper-hand, saying, The Hollanders are Mighty Lords; and that His Majesty rejoyc'd very much that they had assisted him with such a great Fleet and For­ces, which was taken as a great kindness at Court, for to none else but the Hollanders did his Majesty ascribe that Victory: Wherefore he was sent from the Emperor to them, with returns of Thanks, together with Seal'd Letters and Presents. Then he signifi'd, that his Majesty had granted Licence to come thi­ther, and Traffique every other year; and besides, had written to their Excel­lencies the Vice-Roy Singlamong, the General Lipovi, and Governor of Hoksieu, to joyn with the Netherland Fleet and Forces, and go with them to Tayowan, which after the Conquest, should be deliver'd to them, that they might as Neigh­boring Friends, Trade with one another.

Then the Agents ask'd for the Admiral Bort, and the Fleet: Whereupon Hogenhoek reply'd, That for divers Reasons written to their Highnesses, he was gone to Batavia, but intended to return very shortly with fresh Recruits, and then with joynt Forces to set upon Tayowan. Whereto the Agents reply'd, That his Majesty and the Council of State knew not, but that the Admiral and the whole Fleet had been still upon the Coast; for which reason, they had with all speed written to their Excellencies, to go with them to Tayowan, that the Hollanders might be repossess'd of it, which his Majesty earnestly desir'd. [Page 184] They would willingly deliver him his Majesties Letter now, but their High­nesses, the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and General Lipovi, who were also concern'd in it, being absent, it could not be done: therefore they desir'd he would be pleas'd to have patience till their coming, which would be very shortly.

Hogenhoek having drank a Cup or two of Tee, took his leave, and was con­ducted out at the Gates by the Agents, who profess'd great love to the Hollan­ders. In his return home, Hogenhoek met with the Conbon or Governor of Hok­sieu, accompany'd with divers Noblemen and Mandarins, who were all going to welcome and Complement the Agents.

On Monday Morning, being the fifth, one Mandarin came in the Agents name to salute Hogenhoek; and after having been entertain'd with Wine and Fruit, took his leave.

Soon after, Hogenhoek went to the Governor to ask, If the opening of his Majesties Letter must be defer'd till the Vice-Roys and Generals coming home? Who answer'd, That it was very requisite; and because the Letter must be broke open in the presence of the foremention'd Persons, and him, he had al­ready sent an Express about it to their Excellencies: But that it would be eigh­teen or twenty days before the Vice-Roy could return, till which time he must have Patience. Then Hogenhoek ask'd the Governor, if it was requisite to invite the Agents to a Treat, and some other Recreation? Whereupon he was an­swer'd, That before they had done all their Commands and Businesses, they durst not come, but when that was done, he might do his pleasure. Asking moreover, If Hogenhoek did yet doubt, whether he was a true friend to the Hol­landers? And told him, That they were too hasty in the going with their Ships, and had they staid but five or six days longer, they might (without doubt) have carry'd this News to the King of Iacatra, (meaning Maetzuiker.) But the Admi­ral, for two years together, was gone so hastily, that he did not so much as take his leave of any person, which was not well taken by them, and they had written their discontent concerning it to the General and Governor of India: Which Hogenhoek answering, said, That necessity had forc'd them.

After being handsomly entertain'd, the Netherlanders taking their leave, re­turn'd to their Quarters.

The sixth being Tuesday, some Chinese Merchants came to the Dutch Store­house to look upon the Commodities that were left; and afterwards ask'd, if the Hollanders would dispose of them by Parcels, or all together? To which Hogenhoek reply'd, That if they lik'd the whole quantity, that he would dispose of them all, and be paid for them as in Constantine Nobel's time; at which the Merchants laughing, said, That then the Goods were sold the dearer, because it was the first time that the Hollanders drove a Trade there; and also, because the Chineses were formerly forbidden on pain of Death not to buy such Commo­dities of Foraigners: But if they would abate something of their Price, consi­dering the whole Parcel, then they would Treat with them; which if they would not do, they told Hogenhoek, that he might keep them a year or two lon­ger. Whereupon Hogenhoek desir'd them to make a proffer, which was, an hun­dred and forty Tail for the Cloves; an hundred and twenty for Quicksilver; for Amber of twelve Guilders, eight Tail; for that of eleven, seven Tail and an half; for that of six, four Tail; for that of five, three Tail; for that of twenty four Stivers, nine Maes; for the best sort of Camphier, of twenty three Ryals, eighteen Tail; for the second sort of twenty Ryals, sixteen Tail and a half; for Scarlet, six Tail the Dutch Ell; for Crimson, four Tail; for other Co­lours, [Page 185] three Tail; and if he thought fit to dispose of them at these Rates, they would deliver him White-Raw-Silk in the sixth Moneth at the Market Price which should be then; to which, Hogenhoek desiring some time of considerati­on, they return'd.

On Thursday, being the eighth, the General Lipovi return'd with all his Train to Hoksieu, where he was nobly receiv'd by the Conbon or Governor.

Friday, the ninth, Hogenhoek sent the Factor Pedel to the General Lipovi, to Complement and welcome him in his Name, because the Chollick, wherewith he was sore afflicted, prevented him from doing it in Person.

Being come home, he related, That the General had accepted of the excuse, and ask'd, if he had sold all his Goods; to which Pedel had made answer, No, and that they remain'd without any enquiry for them; which the Governor said, was not strange to him, because they held them at so high a rate; and if they intended to dispose of them before more came, they must set a more mo­derate Price, as they had done before, or else they would hereafter so stick on their Hands, that they would get nothing near so much for them as they might do now.

The tenth, being Saturday, the General sent for a piece of Crown Serge to Hogenhoek, which being carry'd him, he ask'd, What he must pay for it? Hogen­hoek answering, said, Forty Tail; to which the Factor reply'd, If the Mer­chants pay forty, my Master ought to pay but thirty eight, because he wants it for his own use, to make a Tent of it; whereupon Hogenhoek, according to his desire, let him have it.

On Sunday towards the Evening, the Governor sent his Servant to invite Ho­genhoek to come to Dine with him the next day; to which returning Thanks, he sent word, that he would come, notwithstanding he was not well.

On Monday Morning, the twelfth, Hogenhoek went to the General Lipovi's House, to Complement and welcome him; because at his coming he could not in Person do it, being prevented by Sickness, and now going to a Treat at the Governors, it might have been ill resented, if he had not first visited the General.

When coming, he had immediately Audience by the General, who before he sate down, ask'd him concerning his Health, and why he walk'd abroad so soon, and that he could see by his looks that he was not perfectly cur'd. To which he answer'd, That he did it for the Reasons aforesaid, fearing if he had deny'd, that the Governor might perhaps have resented it ill.

The General, after he had drank, and Presented Hogenhoek with a Cup of Milk mixt with Bean Flower and Peking Butter, he began to speak concerning the Letter that came from the Emperor, whereby he said, It appear'd how the Emperor lov'd the Hollanders, observing, he had Commanded his Forces to go to assist them out of his own Dominions, which was never done before, neither in the Chinese nor Tartar Government. Nay, that which is more, if the Hollanders desir'd Tayowan, they should possess it again, and then as true and faithful Friends, to Trade and assist one another; as for their Trading there, they were ascertain'd; and concerning their coming every other year, they need not to take any notice thereof, but that they might upon his word come and Traffique every Year.

But an Ambassador must without fail be sent to the Emperor, with humble Thanks and Presents for his gracious Favors; and that he had writ to his Ma­jesty, that the old Hobou (meaning Constantine Nobel) was gone to Batavia, to [Page 186] be Commission'd to that purpose; and therefore it would not be convenient, that any other should come in his stead. But Hogenhoek answering, that he could not assure it; the General seem'd dissatisfi'd, however taking no further no­tice, ask'd, When the Admiral Bort would come again, because they only wait­ed for the Fleet to go to Tayowan, to ingage it with all their Forces: To which Hogenhoek reply'd, that he knew not certainly the time, but suppos'd, that the Fleet would either be there again in Iune, or the beginning of August, as the Admiral Bort had written at his departure to their Highnesses. But the Gene­ral in return, onely declar'd himself unsatisfi'd with the Holland Admirals de­parture, laying the whole fault of the Enemies not being totally subdu'd up­on him, who (he said) pretended to be more bound up, and limited by his Commission than he was.

Hogenhoek, after many other Discourses, desir'd, That he might take his leave, which the General permitted, because he was invited by the Conbon or Gover­nor; from whence as he was going, he met with a Mandarin by the way, sent by the Conbon, to tell him, That it was time to come, because the Agents were there already.

Coming to the Court, Hogenhoek was very courteously receiv'd by the Go­vernor, and likewise by the Agents, which being pass'd, they took their places: The Governor sat below the foremention'd Lords. The Stools on which they sate were cover'd with Damask, Imbroyder'd with Gold. After having rested themselves a little, the Agents crav'd Hogenhoek's excuse, that they had not vi­sited him, alledging, That the chief reason was, because they had not fully effected all their Commands; which should no sooner be done, but they would wait upon him in his House.

Then having drunk a Cup or two of Milk, the Governor desir'd the Ne­therlanders to rise, and sit down at the Table, as the Stools were plac'd, on which they accordingly went, and seated themselves.

Whilst they were at Dinner, the Governor had order'd some other Pastimes to be presented, so to make the Treat the nobler, which was very Magnificent of it self: After the several Chargers with variety of Meat, had been chang'd for greater Delicacies thirty six several times, and the Feast ended with Mirth and Entertainment, the Agents took their leave first, and afterwards the Ne­therlanders.

On the twenty ninth, against the Evening, the Vice-Roy Singlamong return'd to Hoksieu, where he was receiv'd with great signs of Rejoycing, having Con­quer'd Tamzwa, Lamoa, and other little Isles lying thereabouts, by which the whole Coast was clear'd.

The twentieth, the Mandarins belonging to the Agents came again to the Ne­therlanders, to raise the Price of Silks, telling their Landlord, that they had understood by the way, that the Hollanders bought great quantities of Silk, which they sent to Batavia, a thing contrary to the Emperors Order. But be­cause of their Services done to the Empire, it was conniv'd at; therefore their Masters had also bought Silk to deliver to them, which if they would not take, it might easily be wrought by the Agents means, to procure the Vice-Roy, Ge­neral Lipovi, and Governor, to forbid them to buy any more, before they had leave from the Emperor, with several other such like Discourses; but Hogenhoek returning them the former answer, they went away unsatisfi'd.

About ten a Clock, Hogenhoek with all his Company, went to the Vice-Roy Singlamong's Court, to Complement and wish him joy, of the Conquest gotten against his Enemies.

[Page 187]Coming thither, the Vice-Roy was gone about half an hour before, to visit one of his Chief Captains, that lay very sick. But his Interpreter desir'd the Netherlanders to stay a little in the base Court, and he would give his Highness notice; which being accordingly done, the Vice-Roy, after a little stay, re­turn'd home, and immediately granted Audience to Hogenhoek, who Congra­tulated his happy Return, and likewise his Victory, for which his Highness return'd him Thanks, and wish'd him Joy of the Letter and Presents sent to them from his Majesty. But after some short and Complemental Discourses, the Vice-Roy made fresh Complaints of the Admiral Borts sudden departure, without giving him the least notice of it, saying, it was true, that he had re­ceiv'd a Letter from him, but it was just at his departure, when he had no time to answer it.

He ask'd moreover, if the Admiral would return, or another come in his place; to which Hogenhoek made answer, That it was at the King of Iacatra's pleasure, and that he could not give his Excellency any assurance of it.

Then the Vice-Roy said, That in regard he could not agree with the Admiral therefore wish'd, that there would come another in his stead; for had the Admi­ral (said he) observ'd my Advice, to have gone together to Tayowan, after we had Conquer'd Tamzwa and Lamoa, we had surely been Masters of it er'e this time. But the Admiral would never believe him; but there was now Order come from his Majesty to go thither; for He did not know, but that the Fleet was there yet, and therefore for their faithful Service done to the Realm, he had likewise granted them to come and Trade every Year, which they ought to take as a great Favor, and believe, that his Majesty was very graciously in­clin'd towards them, and therefore when an Ambassador should come with Addresses to his Majesty, he doubted not, but what er'e else they desir'd at Court, they would obtain. They staid only for the Fleet, which should no sooner be come, but according to his Majesties Commands, they would go to­gether to Tayowan. At last excusing himself, that he could not in person stay to Treat him, being still weary of his Journey, he Commanded two of his Coun­cil to bear Hogenhoek Company, and Entertain him, and when it was time to open the Emperors Letter, they should give him notice; which said, he went in, and the Netherlanders soon after return'd to their Lodgings.

Against the Evening, being the one and twentieth, their Excellencies sent word to Hogenhoek by one of their Mandarins, that the next Morning about Sun rising, he should go to the Emperors Poetzienzie; and accordingly at the ap­pointed time, Hogenhoek taking Horse, went thither with all speed; where coming, and finding the whole Court Guarded, he stay'd at an appointed place, till the Vice-Roy and Agents came with the Emperors Letter; where, also, the General Lipovi, with the Conbon or Governor, and all the Mandarins waited.

After they had staid some time, the General Lipovi sent to the Factor Pedel, to tell Hogenhoek, That since he could not help to fetch in the Emperors Letter at first; that now, when it came to the Court, he should fall on one of his Knees, to do it Reverence, because it was the Custom of the Country; Nobel ha­ving also done it at the fetching in of the Letter the last Year.

Hogenhoek having staid an hour with patience, the Vice-Roy Singlamong ap­pear'd with a great Train of his Mandarins, Nobles, and Courtiers, and soon af­ter, the Agents with the Emperors Letters and Presents.

The Letter was carry'd by eight Persons, all in a Livery of Red and Yel­low, [Page 188]


on two Wax'd Sticks, on which stood a Cabinet made like a Temple, richly Gilt and adorn'd with Imagery; in this Cabinet lay the Emperors Let­ter, wrap'd up in a Yellow Scarf: Afterwards follow'd five or six Red Wax'd Tables, cover'd with Damask Clothes, and carry'd by four Persons, on which the Presents which consisted in Money, Gold, and Silks lay bare: Then fol­low'd the Agents on Horse-back, accompany'd with divers Nobles.

Before the Emperors Letter walk'd above twenty Persons, beating on Drums, and playing on divers Musical Instruments; so that it rather seem'd to be a great Triumph, than for the reading of a Letter.

As it pass'd by, Hogenhoek, according to the Generals Request, shew'd Reve­rence to the Letter, by Bowing of his Head and Body; which done, they fol­low'd the Train into a great Hall, where their Excellencies were already Seat­ed, and then rose up: After they had consulted a little together, Hogenhoek was again Commanded to Kneel, and so to continue Kneeling all the time, whilst it was reading.

After the Letter had been read publickly, it was laid on Hogenhoek's Arm by the Chief Agent; for which Honor, he was forc'd Kneeling to bow his Head several times together, and likewise for the thousand Tail, and Silk Stuffs.

After this, their Excellencies went to sit under a Canopy, and caus'd a great Tankard with Milk mixt with Peking Butter and Bean Flower, to be brought to them, whereupon they invited Hogenhock also to sit down by them; at last, the Vice-Roy rising and taking his leave, went to his own Court: Soon af­ter follow'd the General Lipovi, and lastly, the two Agents, Netherlanders, and Governors, who advis'd Hogenhoek, that he should go the next day to Thank the Agents, which he accordingly promis'd to do.

The Emperors Letter Hogenhoek Commanded Lewis de Keizer to carry on his back, but the Presents were laid in Pallakins; all the way which they pass'd, several sorts of People, with Drums and other Musical Instruments, throng'd the Streets to see them.

[Page 189] Hogenhoek coming home, was welcom'd by two of the Emperors Poetzienzie, with three Volleys of Shot, and the Drums and Pipes play'd a whole hour be­fore the Letter, which they did onely to get Money; for Hogenhoek was direct­ed to give somewhat more than Nobel had done the Year before; and likewise the Vice-Roy and General Order'd Hogenhoek to go the next day to visit the Agents, and return them Thanks, because it seldom or never happen'd, that his Majesty gave such great Presents to any Person whatsoever.

After Hogenhoek had been at home some time, he caus'd the Emperors Letter to be Translated: Which was to this effect.

I Conghy Emperor, send this Letter to the Holland Admiral Balthazar.

I Love strangers who come from remote and far distant places, as an Emperor ought to do; and the more, because those that do us good, must receive good again; and those that deserve Honor, must be well rewarded. I have certainly understood that you have purchas'd Honor, therefore I have sent Pre­sents to you. I have heard, that you Balthazar have justly and valiantly gone with my Officers to War, by which I perceive you mean honestly with me and my People, as appears by your subduing the Pyrats, and driving them away, like a Bird which hath made a Nest to Hatch in, and is now broken to pieces. The Honor which I always expected from the Hollanders, by Conquer­ing the Islanders, and driving them away from thence, is perform'd; therefore I am Oblig'd to Gratifie you with some Gifts, and send this my Letter, desiring you to accept my Presents, and Honor my Letter.


The Presents that came with his Majesties Letter, consisted in a thousand Tail of Chinese Silver, and sixty Pieces of several Silks and Cloth of Tissue.

On Friday, the twenty third, Hogenhoek went in the Morning with all his At­tendance to the Vice-Roy and General, and likewise to the Emperors Commis­sioners, to acquaint them, that he was dissatisfi'd for that the Emperors Let­ter made no mention of their Traffick, or about their staying there, much less, to go with their Fleet and Forces to Tayowan, as their Highnesses had long since promis'd him, as also the Admiral Bort, and Captain Nobel; viz. that there were Seal'd Letters expected from his Majesty about it; and likewise, that the Admiral and they had not without reason complain'd of their inconstancy, appear'd now plainly, because not one of their Verbal Promises and Assurances were found to be true, which would be very ill resented by the Lord General, that they had been detain'd two years, and now receiv'd nothing but words: To which the Vice-Roy answer'd with a Grim Countenance, that' tis true, his Majesty had permitted the Hollanders to Trade, but an Ambassador must every other year be sent to him; and as to the business of Tayowan, they would be ready to go with them thither to subdue it; if therefore an Ambassador should come, they would immediately dispatch him with Letters of Recommendation to Peking; Whereupon he durst assure them, that they would obtain the ever­lasting Trade, and leave to go and come when they pleas'd, and also have an Island or piece of Land alotted them, on which they might reside without Molestation.

The like Answers Hogenhoek receiv'd from the Governor; but the General Lipovi seem'd to be highly displeas'd, saying, That so great honor of receiving [Page 190] Presents, and a Seal'd Letter from the Emperor, in which he attributed the Honor of Conquering the Enemy to them, was never yet known; so that they ought to have been satisfi'd with that only. Hogenhoek reply'd, That they thank'd his Majesty for his Favor: But where-ever the Hollanders were per­mitted to Trade, they receiv'd Seal'd Letters from the Princes, which serv'd as a safe-guard for their Governors: Nay further, (said he) the Hollanders Trade thorow the whole World, without being limited a time; but when er'e they came, they were Welcome, and Traffiqu'd as they thought fit: Whereupon the General angerly reply'd, Each Countrey had its fashion, and so accordingly had his; if they did not like the proffer of coming every two years once, they might stay away; and if they did not come in the time li­mited, they should go away again without effecting any thing. Hogenhoek an­swer'd, That this Discourse seem'd very strange, when as he himself had pro­mis'd, that he would procure him Seal'd Letters from his Majesty for it, and indeed in Honor he could do no less, their Requests being so reasonable, viz. That after the Conquering of the Islands, they might for their great Charge and trouble, only enjoy the benefit of Trade.

The Vice-Roy having been silent some time, diverted the Discourse, ask­ing Hogenhoek if Nobel would return, with Addresses and Presents to his Maje­sty at Peking? Whereto he reply'd, That he could not assure it, in regard it was in the Lord General's choice, whom he would choose to Negotiate such an Affair.

Then the General told him, as he had often done before, That he had writ to the Emperor, and at Nobels return, they would grant the Company all what they would ask; for the Emperor affected the Hollanders very much, as appear'd by his Letters and Presents, which in his time had never been done to any Stranger; and the Agents must also be better gratifi'd than Nobel had done, and that without fail, the next day, because they were just upon their return to the Court.

Hereupon Hogenhoek ask'd the Vice-Roy, that he would be pleas'd to tell him, how much more he should give than Nobel had done? Who said, That it was at his pleasure: Then Hogenhoek taking his leave, went thence to the Agents, who courteously receiv'd him, and Discours'd with them concerning the constant Trade, saying, He hop'd that they would have brought Seal'd Let­ters from his Majesty about it. To which they reply'd, That they had deli­ver'd Seal'd Letters about it to their Excellencies, Singlamong, Lipovi, and the Conbon or Governor of Hoksieu; to this effect, that if an Ambassador came to thank his Majesty, he should immediately travel up into the Countrey, and the Trade take a beginning to come every other year.

The Agents also were of opinion, That if an Embassy was sent to the Court at Peking, that the Hollanders, if they requested any thing else, it would be granted them, in regard his Majesty bore a great affection towards them, (be­cause they had so faithfully assisted in the War) and gave them the sole Honor of the Conquest of Eymuy and Quemuy. They also promis'd Hogenhoek, that when they came to the Court, they would seek to obtain a Grant from his Ma­jesty for the constant Trade, for which he thanking them, return'd to his Lodging, where he debated the General's Proposal of augmenting the Pre­sents to be made to the Emperors Commissioners, and at last resolv'd to give the prime Agent twenty two Dutch Ells of Scarlet, half a Chain of Blood Coral weighing six Ounces, two Pieces of Colour'd Perpetuana's, six Pieces of Lin­nen, with four rich Swords.

[Page 191]The second Agent they gave seventeen Ells of Scarlet, half a Chain of the like Coral, weighing four Ounces, two Pieces of Colour'd Perpetuana's, four Pieces of Linnen, and two Swords; and likewise in their Presence, their Man­darins and other Attendants were also presented every one according to their Quality.

On Saturday Morning, being the twenty fourth, Hogenhoek with his Servants went to the Agents to deliver the Presents, who seem'd to refuse them, yet after having look'd them over, and deny'd them several times, they at last over▪perswaded by Hogenhoek, receiv'd them.

At parting, Hogenhoek desir'd once more, that they would be pleas'd to seek the Hollanders advantage, before the Emperor and Council of State, in the gaining of the constant Trade, and render such an account of them, as they had found and seen during their stay; all which they faithfully promis'd.

Besides, the Hollanders had some discourse about Trading into several parts of India, and what Goods were brought thither, and carry'd from thence by the Netherlanders, which they again Transported to other places.

The Agents seem'd to be much delighted in this Discourse, saying, If an Ambassador be sent to the Emperor, and the Enemy be driven from Tayo­wan, they need not fear but all things would be granted them. Here the Dis­course ended, and Hogenhoek returning Thanks, took his leave and departed.

On Monday, being the twenty sixth, the Governor or Conbon sent the Hollan­ders a Present, being good Table-provision; for which Hogenhoek return'd him thanks by Factor Pedell.

On Thursday the twenty ninth, the Chineses kept the Feast in Hoksieu, by themFeast Peelou kept by the Chineses. call'd Peelou; and likewise on the same day through all China, viz. with long Boats with Oars, new Painted and trick'd with Silk Flags and Pennons of se­veral colours, with which they Challenge and Row great Matches.

According to the Chineses relation to Hogenhoek, the Instituter of this great Festival Peelou, was formerly Governor of the Paracelles, a Countrey that is very fruitful, and abounds with Gold and Silver, who foretold, That that Island should be swallow'd up: wherefore he and some of his Friends, and others that believ'd him, several days before fled from thence in their Jonks to the Main of China; where they honor him as a God of the Sea: for as they report, soon after his departure the Island sunk; in Commemoration of which they keep this annual Holy-day.

The Hollanders to observe the Custom of this Feast, as also to recreate them­selves, hir'd a Boat to go among the rest.

No sooner was Hogenhoek return'd home, but the General Lipovi sent his Mandarin to give him notice, that the Emperors Agents intended the next Morn­ing to go for Peking, and that he and his Men should conduct them out of the City, and therefore to send him word what Horses he wanted, and they should be accordingly furnish'd.

On Friday, being the thirtieth, about Day-break, another Mandarin, sent from Lipovi, came to Hogenhoek, to desire him that he would be at the Agents House betimes: Whereupon he and his Men went immediately thither, some on Horses, others in Pallakins; where coming they found them busie Packing up their Goods, and linking and coupling of Slaves and Slavesses, to the num­ber of six or seven hundred, taken from the Islands Eymuy and Quemuy, and gi­ven to them by the Governors of Zing and Sanzieuw, and other Officers; where­fore the Hollanders desir'd to go out before, that they might not hinder the [Page 192] Agents; which accordingly they did: and after having stay'd a considerable time at the Vice-Roys open House, the Agents came to them on Horseback▪ excusing themselves that they had made them stay so long: which they an­swering again with a Complement, told them, That they had not accounted the time long, but took it for an honor to wait upon them.

Here the Emperors Envoys thank'd Hogenhoek for the Presents, saying, That they had receiv'd them very kindly, but knew not whether his Majesty would let them keep such great Gifts without ordering to return them again. They also promis'd, as they had done several times before, to speak in the behalf of the Netherlanders before his Majesty and Council, and give them an account of all they had seen and heard; and also would do their utmost endeavor, and assist the Ambassador when he should come to Peking: for which Hogenhoek re­turning them humble thanks, Drank to them his Majesties Health in a great Glass of Sack that he had ready for that purpose, which went merrily round. The Envoy much admiring the excellent rellish of the Liquor, ask'd if it grew in their native Countrey? saying, That it must need be a brave Place, which not onely produces such excellent Wine, but divers sorts of rare Commodities, desiring him to give each of their chiefest Servants also a Glass, that when they came to Peking, they might say they had drank some Dutch Liquor. This done, and the Hollanders having taken their Leave, they return'd, and came to­wards Evening to their Quarters.

The last, being Saturday, Hogenhoek was inform'd, that the General Lipovi Lipovi will resign his Governorship. had shut up his great Gates, because he would not grant any more Audience; and also that he would not trouble himself any longer about business concern­ing his Office, being resolv'd to go to Peking, where his most pre-eminent Wife (Aunt to the present Emperor) resided, she having writ to him several times to come up to her.

The Council of State (as on the twenty fourth of April is related) endea­vor'd preferring the General, to make him chief Governor of three Territo­ries, which he modesty refused, being rather willing to give over all Offices of State, because (as he told Hogenhoek) his Age requir'd case, and that to Go­vern was a Work too great for him; and to that purpose expected his Writ of Ease, for which he had sent five or six Posts to his Majesty and the Council, whose Answer he expected daily.

On Tuesday, being the thirtieth of Iune, Hogenhoek sent Factor Pedell to theHogenhoeks Request for the Emperors Allowance. Conbon, or Governor, telling him, That he had not receiv'd any allowance of Money for his Table from the Mandarins in two Moneths, and therefore desir'd that he would please to provide it for him. The Governor, to whom this seem'd very strange, said, That his Majesty had not yet forbid, but that it should be continu'd. But however, on Thursday Morning early, he with all his Company went to the Vice-Roy and General themselves, complaining that they had not receiv'd their Table Pension these two Moneths: whereat they were much dissatisfi'd, and immediately sent Order to the two Mandarins, not to fail to pay the Arrears next day, and so at every Moneths end punctually, at their peril, and thence-forward.

On Friday, being the sixth, the Grand Mandarin Tziekautzia, came from Sin­chieu Iune. by Land to Hoksieu, with a Guard of between four and five hundred Sol­diers, and the remainder of them were to come within a day or two after, with his Jonks. It was also reported, that he should go to Iemping, a Town about nine days Journey from Hoksieu) to be Governor of it, though the Townsmen oppos'd it.

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[Page] [Page 193]On Wednesday, being the eleventh, Tziekautzia's Jonks arriv'd at Fort Minjazen, and were expected in three or four days to come up to the Bridge.

On Friday the twentieth, Hogenhoek went to the Vice-Roy and General Lipo­vi, with Request in their General Maetzuikers Name, for the delivery of some Holland Prisoners, that were brought thither with Tziekautzia's Jonks: where­upon they promis'd to enquire if it were so or not, and would give Order that they should be sent to the General Lipovi, he having the Command of the sub­mitted Chineses.

The Netherlanders heard this day the news of the death of Tonganpek, Zavja's Brother, and one of the Admirals, as also of the great Court Messenger.

On Tuesday the twenty fourth, Zanzia, chief Secretary to Lipovi, came in his Masters Name to acquaint Hogenhoek, that he had sent to Tziekautzia concern­ing the Prisoners; who answer'd, That they which came to him from the Castle Zelandia in Formosa, had told him, that they would rather chuse to be chopp'd in Pieces, than return again to their Countrey-men; and that the Negro Boys refus'd in like manner. To which Hogenhoek made answer, That it seem'd very strange to him, since every day one or other spoke to him to pro­cure their Liberty. I hear, that since I mov'd the General concerning their Free­dom, they have been in Fetters, and harder restraint than before. In brief, I am confident he has falsly inform'd the General, of which I desire you will please to acquaint him.

The twenty fifth and twenty sixth Hogenhoek sent a Letter to the General Lipovi, but it was not receiv'd in regard of his Infirmity: but on Friday the twenty eighth it was deliver'd, and Answer sent, That he had read the Letter, and finding mention'd therein, That unless the Prisoners were deliver'd, some trouble would arise thereupon, which he understood to be Threats; therefore Hogenhoek must know that he was Lipovi, and that it lay in his power to do the Hollanders good or hurt, and desir'd to hear no more such calumnious words, or else to forbear the Court.

The Sunday following the Master of the Lodgings where the Agents lay, de­sir'd him to take Tziekautzia's Goods and sell them for him, promising to give him a good Reward for so doing: The Cargo consisted in twenty four Pie­ces of colour'd Cloths, ten Picols of Amber, three hundred of Tin and Lead, thirty Birds-nests, fifty of Pepper, three hundred of Iapan Wood, twenty of Quicksilver, twenty five of Cloves, and one hundred Picols of Sandal Wood, besides other Commodities. But Hogenhoek refus'd it, alledging they had not yet put off their own Goods; wherefore he durst not undertake another Mans Business.

The same day Lepora the Vice-Roy Singlamong's Secretary lying near, came to Visit the Agent, as his custom was, and discoursing with him concerning the Prisoners, and Lipovi's rough Answer, proffer'd his Service to acquaint the Vice-Roy with the Business, well knowing that he had sent two or three days before to Lipovi to let Hogenhoek have them; to which he assented. After this, through the interposition of the Vice-Roy, Lipovi and Hogenhoek came to a bet­ter understanding, and the distasteful Letters, and harsh Repertees, were melio­rated into a Reconciliation.

The next day General Lipovi sent his chief Secretary to Hogenhoek's House,Secretary Zangia come [...] to Hogenhoek. with Orders to tell him, That there had been five Holland Ships seen about the Islands Heyton, by his Jonks which had brought Rice to Sinksieu, which caus'd great joy amongst the Netherlanders.

[Page 194]The first of Iuly the Vice-Roy Singlamong sent his Physitian to the Dutch Iuly. Agent, who for three Moneths had been troubled with the Gripes, and also desir'd him to send him two Chains of Blood-Coral, which accordingly he did.

The sixth the Governor or Conbon, went to the Castle Tiolo, lying about three Leagues from Hoksieu, to Besiege Ovatunge, an old Soldier, that held out against the Tartars from the time of Iquon, Coxinga's Father, being now of the age of seventy years, and having under his Command three thousand Men.

On Tuesday the eighth, Tziekautsia went to Iemping, to take the Government upon him, having four or five hundred Soldiers and eighty Jonks, with which upon the return of the Dutch Fleet they were to go to Tayowan, as the Vice-Roy and General had inform'd Hogenhoek.

From the tenth to the eighteenth nothing hapned of any remark: when the Merchants which came from Nanking out of the Territory Chekiang, carry'd all their Silks to Sinksieu, not coming to Hoksieu, which was to the great preju­dice of the Hollanders, as well in the Goods which they Imported, as those which they intended to Export.

Haytankon, Governor of Sinksieu, and also others, might not publickly send any Jonks to Iapan, the Manilla's and Tayowan, but us'd this Invention, which Hogenhoek makes mention of in his Annotations, viz. those Jonks which they intended to send away, they load in publick at the Keys, and when ready to Lanch them, news comes in another, that some of the Enemies Jonks are on the Coast: whereupon the Merchant immediately unladeth, and the Cargo is car­ry'd ashore, and their Jonk with others sent to Fight the hovering Enemy, while privately in the Night they load again with prohibited Goods, which get away by Day-break; but this could not be done, but by the connivance of the Searchers, knowing the Grandees are concern'd in the Freight.

From the seventeenth, being Thursday, till the twenty sixth, nothing hap­ned but a prodigious Storm, mix'd with impetuous Showres of Rain, conti­nually deluging for nine days, by which many Houses were torn down and wash'd away, and twenty People drown'd in Hoksieu. It rag'd also in the neighboring Parts; for in the Streets of Lamthay the Water was Knee-deep: and in Sinksieu the Water swell'd so high, that they lost above four thou­sand People, which were overwhelm'd and carry'd away with the Torrent, and in some Places sweeping away whole Villages: In the Fort at Sinksieu the Land-flood did rise fourteen or fifteen Foot high. Amongst others the Vice-Roy lost four hundred Picols of white Raw Silk, which he thought to sell to Tonganpek, which made Silk to rise two hundred Tail; and as it was re­ported, there was above two thousand Picols more carry'd away and spoil'd.

On Tuesday, being the twenty ninth, Hogenhoek gave the General a Visit;Hogenhoek visits Lipovi. who, though much indispos'd, rejoyc'd to see him, asking him why their Fleet stay'd away so long? to which Hogenhoek made answer, That they had a Moneth good to the time of their arrival the last year: at which the Gene­ral wondring said, You came in the sixth Moon: but he reply'd, It was be­cause there were two sixth Moons that year; but if the General pleas'd to rec­kon the days, he would find a great difference. The General seem'd to doubt whether any Ships would come thither that year, because they stay'd away so long, and ask'd if Hogenhoek would assure him of their coming? whereupon he reply'd, It was without doubt, and therefore desir'd the General to have patience; that their Ships wanted a great deal of Repair, which requir'd some [Page 195] Moneths before they could be fitted to go to Sea. We, said the General, are all ready so soon as we receive tydings, that the Admiral is arriv'd at the Pisca­dores, or before Tayowan, to send the great Mandarin, Tziekautsia Governor of Sinksieu, and Zietetok, and two other great Lords, to welcom and consult with him.

On Wednesday the thirteenth of August, Hogenhoek receiv'd news, That theAugust. General Lipovi had receiv'd his Writ of Ease from the Emperor, with Licence to come to Peking, and also that he was made a Councellor of State, for which Place he had given eight Tun of Gold, and many rich Presents: Nay, it was certain, that the Vice-Roy Singlamong at the same time gave twelve Tun of Gold, that his Son might succeed him in his Place.

On Saturday, being the sixteenth, Hogenhoek had news, That one of Haytan­kon's Jonks, the Governor of Sinksieu, in its return from the Manilla's was taken by Anpikja's Jonks, having a hundred and fifty thousand Spanish Ryals in her, and that Haytankon had on the contrary taken nine Jonks loaden with Rice, to carry to Zanchieu, in which Place Rice was very scarce. None was able to apprehend these kind of dealings, in the taking one anothers Jonks; yet never­theless Traded with one another, the one is Silks and Cotton Clothes, and the other in Rice.

Till the two and twentieth nothing hapned of remark.

The three and twentieth towards Evening, the Vice-Roy's Factor came toHogenhoek invited by the Vice-Roy to Dinner. invite Hogenhoek in his Lords Name to Dine with him the next day, which he promis'd to do.

The twenty fourth, being Sunday, Hogenhoek went with all his Attendants to the Court; where coming they were immediately call'd into the Hall of Au­dience, fill'd with Mandarins and Lords, the Vice-Roy himself sitting very stately on a Stool, with a Chain about his Neck, and an Ave Mary fix'd to it, bad Hogenhoek kindly welcom. Having sat a little while, he related, ThatHis Discourse with him, about three Moneths since he had sent a Letter to the Council of State in be­half of the Hollanders, to be deliver'd to his Majesty, but would not tell him of it before, because he knew not whether his Majesty or the Council would grant his Request, as he was now inform'd; therefore he had invited him to be merry: for which Hogenhoek humbly thank'd the Vice-Roy. Yesterday (said the Vice-Roy) there came some Agents with two Mandarins from his Majesty to Hoksieu, onely to enquire if there were one or two Ongs, that is Kings, in Batavia: And they understood there were two from the Letters that came from Canton; for that of Canton was in the Name of the Governor, Gene­ral Maetzuiker of Batavia; and that of Hoksieu written to their Highnesses, was in the Names of Captain Moor and Iohn Maetzuiker. He added also, that he had a Letter from the Lepous, or Council of State at Peking; in which was menti­on'd, That his Majesty had granted his Request, which much rejoyced the Vice-Roy, who promis'd to send them the Copy of it: for which Hogenhoek return'd him humble thanks, answering, That the Lord General would think himself much oblig'd to hear of his great Favors. As to what concern'd the Names and Titles, Hogenhoek said they were all one, and that they had but one Governor-General, which was the Lord Iohn Maetzuiker, but by the Indians was Entituled Captain Moor, that is, Chief, or Governor over all others in India; so that both Titles were butone. Hereupon the Vice-Roy ask'd how many Councellors and petty Governors he had under him? to which Hogenhoek an­swer'd, Seventeen or eighteen: at which the Vice-Roy seem'd to be much [Page 196] amaz'd, saying, He never thought that the Ong of Batavia had had so many Rice-Roys under him, saying, Can it be possible? Hogenhoek smiling said, He hop'd that his Highness should find that it was true, and thereupon nam'd most of them: after which the Vice-Roy looking stedfastly on all his Coun­cellors and Mandarins, who bowed their Heads, shewing him reverence. Then his Highness giving a Nod, all the Tables were brought in, furnish'd with Silver Chargers and golden Goblets, which fill'd with variety of Meats, made up a most noble Entertainment. The Vice-Roy was at this time more than ordinarily merry, beginning several Healths one after another.

Whilst they were at Dinner, to recreate their Eyes and Ears, as well as satis­fie their Appetites, exquisite Musick was presented, with Masquing, Dancing, and other Princely Recreations.

After having drank very plentifully, Hogenhoek desir'd to take his Leave: whereupon the Vice-Roy commanded three great Bowls, Cut and Turn'd of a Rhinocerots Horn, to be fetch'd, one for himself, one for Hogenhoek, and a third for Factor Pedell, which they were to drink out three times one after another, before he would permit them to go, which accordingly they did.

Lastly, standing up to return Thanks and take their Leave, his Highness said, That the Discourse which he had had with Hogenhoek he must within three or four days advise the Emperor of, because his Majesty and Council ex­pected it. And here again he warn'd him to take heed that all were truth, for upon the least prevarication his Majesty and Council would be very much dis­satisfi'd: Upon which Hogenhoek assur'd the Vice-Roy, that all was true which he had related. Whereupon he departed, and coming home in the afternoon, he heard that the General Lipovi had on the Morrow invited him to be his Guest, and also to tell him that the Letters were come from Court.

On Monday the twentieth, Hogenhoek went with all his Train to the General Lipovi's House, where he was Entertain'd with the like Discourse as he had with the Vice-Roy. Mean while, the Copy of the Letter which the Vice-Roy spoke of on the twenty fourth was sent to the Agent, which being transla­ted was to this effect:

To His Highness Singlamong.

YOur Letter We Lepous of the Council have receiv'd on the twenty fourth of the sixth Moon, and in the third Year of Our Emperors Reign; which We deliver'd and read to Him. We have seen Your Letter and Request, and un­derstood that the Holland Admiral is gone with his Ships, and hath left a Hou­bou, or President, and a Tonpin, or Deputy in Fokien. Your Highness writes also that You have deliver'd the Presents for the Dutch Admiral to their Agents, he being gone before. You writ also, that the Admiral behav'd himself brave­ly, having taken the Isles of Eymuy and Quemuy, for which good Service His Majesty hath Presented him: but he being subordinate to their King Maet­zuiker, who Commission'd him to our Assistance, therefore he also must be Presented. This Your Highness's Request We have acquainted the Emperor with. We have all consider'd and made our Opinions known to His Majesty, and approv'd of Your Higness's Proposal; therefore We will Present the Ong of Batavia with two thousand Tail of Silver, and with a hundred Pieces of Stuffs wrought with Gold and Silk. We have already given order to Our Officers to make them up, and prepare them for Transportation, and one of Our Lepous, with the Emperors Secretary, to go with them to Fokien, where [Page 197] they shall give the Silver and Stuffs to them, if they be there, but if not, then to leave them with Your Highness till their Return. We Lepous write this to Your Highness, that You may know how to govern Your self accordingly.

On Tuesday the twenty sixth Lipovi's Secretary, with some Commissioners and Mandarins came to Visit Hogenhoek; where after a Dish of Tee, the Com­missioners said, They were come thither purposely to hear the Lord General of Batavia's Name, and how he was styl'd, because there was some difference in the Name and Titles of the Letters, which were sent from thence to Canton. 'Tis true (said he) their Highness's Singlamong and Lipovi had already satisfi'd me, but I must hear it from your own Mouth, that I may the better render an account of it to his Imperial Majesty; being therefore sent hither, and that his great Master desir'd to know his true Title, that he might address himself the better with Presents. Hereupon the Agent drew a Letter out of his Pock­et directed to him, which contain'd the Lord Generals Title and Names, as Hogenhoek had given them to Singlamong and Lipovi, which was in these words: Captain Moor of India, Iohn Maetzuiker, residing in Batavia: but according to their manner of writing, they had writ Captain Moor of India, Maetzuiker Iohn, writing his Sur-name first, and his Christen-name afterwards. Then one of the Com­missioners from Peking said, That Holland must needs be a fertile Countrey, from whence so many good things come; asking also some ordinary Questi­ons, as it is usual there; which the Hollanders onely answer'd with a Smile: whereupon the Agents and Mandarins taking their Leave went home.

On Wednesday, being the twenty seventh, Coxinga's Mother came with his Brother Sibya to Hoksieu (who had submitted her self to the Tartars that Year before the Dutch Fleet came thither) to desire their Excellencies to furnish them with Guides to go to Peking, the Emperor having sent for them to come and live there for the prevention of further trouble and inconveniences.

The twenty eighth General Lipovi sent a Mandarin to Hogenhoek, to tell him it would be necessary for him to conduct the Emperors Commissioners out of the City, because they had taken so great a Journey for his Business, and also to Pre­sent them with something that was handsom. Whereupon Hogenhoek ask'd him if his Lord had not told him what he was best to Present: to which he said, With fifty or sixty Tail of Silver, and when he deliver'd them, to tell them, That all his Goods were sold, and that they would except of that Sum to buy Tobacco with on the Way. Hereupon Hogenhoek making himself ready, went to take Leave of the Agents and their Retinue, taking with him sixty Tail of Silver, viz. twenty five for the first Agent, fifteen for the second, seven for the Heralds, and five for some of the Attendants: Coming to them, he presented the Money as he had put it up handsom in Papers in several Parcels; which they receiv'd very thankfully, with promises, That when they came to Peking they would not fail to Serve the Hollanders in what they could possible: where­upon Hogenhoek return'd to his Lodgings.

SInce the Province of Fokien, and the Towns and Cities belonging to it, have often been made mention of, and hereafter will be more, our Bu­siness seems here to require a brief Description thereof.Borders▪

This Province, one of the fifteen which make up China, Paulus Venetus sets forth by the Name of Fugui, taken from the Metropolis Focheu: It borders the [Page 198] Sea from East to South; in the South-west, on Quantung; West and Nor-West conterminates Kiangsi; the remaining part from the North-west to the North­east verges upon the Countrey of Chekiang.

This Province is the smallest in the Empire of China: the Southermost part of it lies in twenty four Degrees and forty five Minutes, extending to twenty eight Degrees and thirty Minutes Northern Latitude; a Tract of sixty one German, or two hundred forty four English Miles.

The Kingdom of Min, or rather several Dominions, over which the Free Lords call'd Min, Commanded, were antiently accounted into this Territory. They divide it into eight Shires or Counties, as we may call them, whereof Focheusu the chief, Cineucheufu, Changcheufu, Kienningfu, Ienpingfu, Tingcheufu, Hinghoafu, Xaounfu, besides the small Colony of Foning: every one hath seve­ral Towns and Cities, to the number of fifty six, belonging to them, besides two fortifi'd Cities, and many Castles and Strong-holds at the Sea-side.Borders.

The first County Focheufu, borders Easterly at the Sea; on the North, at Fo­ningfu and Kienningfu; on the West, upon Ienpingfu; and the South looks upon Hinghoafu.

The Chinese Records tell us, that this Countrey was first planted by a Fami­ly call'd Cheu, and by them nam'd Min; notwithstanding it did not then be­long to the Emperor of China, but to certain Free Lords which they call'd the Min. The first that joyn'd it to the Empire of China was the chief of the Fa­mily Cheu; yet the Inhabitants soon shook off that Yoke, and kept themselves free, till the fortunate and valiant Emperor Hiaou, of the Family of Han, re­duced and added it to China, with all the Southern Territories, setling them in Peace, and placed a Vice-Roy over it, call'd Veuching, who kept his Court in the Metropolis thereof. Cyn, the first King thereof, call'd the chief City, and the Tract of Land thereto belonging, Cyngan; the next King Sui nam'd the Coun­trey, Mencheu; but the Tangs, of another Line, Kiencheu, and not long after Fo­cheu; which Name the Taimingian Race kept ever since.

This Countrey Focheufu contains eight Cities, Focheu the Metropolis, andCities. chief of all the Countrey, otherwise call'd Hoksieu, or Hokzieuw, Cutien, Mincing, Changlo, Lienkiang, Loquen, Iangfo, Focing.

The City Focheu, by Paulus Venetus call'd Fugui, lieth about fifteen Leagues Westerly from the Sea, on the Southern Shore of the River Min, which with a wide Mouth falls Easterly into the Sea, and brings both great and small Ves­sels up to the City Walls. The convenience of this River makes the Town very populous and of great Trade: It is adorn'd with fair Buildings, and hath large Suburbs, call'd Nantai, otherwise, according to the pronunciation of the Inhabitants, Lamthay; for those in Fokien use in stead of N the Letter L. and often say Lamking in stead of Nanking: There are also many Idol Temples.

Cross the Bay near Nantai, lies a Stone Bridge, a hundred and fifty Rods long, and one and a half broad, built all of white Free-stone, resting on a hun­dred very high Arches; on the top of each side are Rails and Benches; adorn'd at an equal distance, with Lyons neatly cut of Stone.

Next this Bridge, at the South end, stands a fair and large Pagode, or Temple.

Another Bridge not unlike this, being a hundred Rods long, may be seen at the City Focing. And many more are without and within the Walls of the chiefest Cities.

Three Leagues from Focheu stands a Temple call'd Kouzan, the largest of all in the Nether Provinces.

[Page 199]The second Division, Civencheufu, borders from the East to the South-east,Borders. and so to the South upon the Sea; and from the South-west to the West, tou­ches Chancheufu; and on the North verges with Ienpingfu.

This Countrey formerly belong'd to the Princes Min: and hath seven Ci­ties,Cities. Civencheu the chief, Nangan, Hocigan, Tehoa, Ganki, Tunygan, and Iungehung.

The City Civencheu lies near the Sea in a delightful Plain, and admits by a large Bay the greatest Ships to Ride close under the Walls, not onely on one but both sides of the City, for it is built on a Promontory encompass'd with Water, except on the North and South-east sides.

On the opposite Shore are many populous and Trading Towns, and chief­ly on a Place towards the North-west call'd Loyang, which may rather be look'd upon as great Cities. There also is a Bridge which hath the same denomina­tion with the Town, the whole World not shewing the like; for it consists of a black Stone like Touch-stone, not supported with Arches, but above three hundred square Columns, sharp above Bridge and below, the better to break the impetuous egress and regress of the Current. These Pillars are Capp'd, to walk upon, with five Stones of an exact breadth, each eighteen Paces long, and two broad, which successively touch one another at either Foot of the Bridge; of which there are to the number of a hundred and forty: it is cer­tainly a Miracle of Workmanship, not onely for its great number of Stones of such a bigness, that rest on those Columns, but most of all, where so many large and equal Stones could be had: on each side, to make the Passage the safer, are Rails of the same Stones, adorn'd with Lyons, standing on Pedestals, and other Imagery.

It is worth our observation what is written of one part of this Bridge, that is between a Village call'd Loyan, and a Castle built on the Bridge; for be­yond the Village reaches another part, not much less than the former, and of one make: A Chinese Writer saith thus concerning it:

This part of the Bridge Loyang, and also call'd Vangan, lying on the North-west side of the City, cross the River Loyang, was built by a Governor, call'd Cayang: it extends in length to about three hundred and sixty Rods, and in breadth one and a half. Before this Bridge was built they cross'd the River in Boats; but because every year many Vessels were by Storm cast away, Cayang resolv'd, for the safety of Passengers, to build a Bridge; but seeing such a great piece of Work to be too much for Mankind to undertake, and also the Water too deep to lay a Foundation in it, he invok'd the Gods of the Sea (as he says) for some time to stop the Current of the Water; which (if you will believe) he ob­tain'd. After the Essluxes were stay'd, and no Tydes swelling the River in one and twenty days, the Foundation was laid, and forty hundred thousand Tail spent in the building of it.

The third Province call'd Chancheufu, being the most Southern of all thisBorders. Territory, borders in the North-East and East with Civenchufu; on the East South-East and South, with the Sea; on the South-West touches the Coun­trey of Quantung; on the West and North-West, and North, at Tingcheufu.

It contains ten Cities, of which Chancheu is the chiefest; the rest are Changpu, Towns. Lugnien, Nancing, Changtai, Changping, Pingho, Chaogang, Huicing, and Ningyang.

The Name of Chancheu was first given to this Metropolis and Countrey byNames. the Family of the Tang, from the River Chang, on whose Western Shore situate, and was then allow'd the priviledge of a small City; but the Iuem made her afterwards a Metropolis; and at the same time built the small City Nancing: from whence Father Martin concludes, that then all these Places [Page 200] were much frequented by Navigators, and that Paulus Venetus his Zerte must needs be thereabouts.

On the South-side, where the River also washes the City, is a large Bridge of Hew'n-stone, with thirty six high Arches, and so broad, that on each side are divers Tradesmen and Artificers Shops, in which they sell every day all manner of rich and foreign Commodities, which are brought thither from Hiamuen.

The fourth call'd Kienningfu, a very wide and spacious piece of Land, bor­dersBorders. on the North and North-East, upon Chekiang; on the East, with Foningfu; on the South, at Focheufu and Ienpingfu; on the West, at Xaonufu; on the North; West and North, upon Kiangsi.

This Division belong'd antiently to the Princes Min; after which the Fa­milyNames. Tang gave it the Name of Kiencheu; and Sung, another Race, that which it hath at present.

Here are seven Towns, whereof Kienning is the chiefest; the rest are Cungan, Towns. Puchiang, Chingo, Sunghi, and Xeuning.

The City Kienning lying on the Eastern Shore of the River Min, is no way inferior, either in beauty or worth, or bigness, to the Metropolis. Father Mar­tin affirms this City to be Venetus his Quelingfu.

In this last Tartarick War this City suffer'd much damage; for having re­volted from the Tartars, it was taken after a long Siege, and laid in Ashes, and all the Inhabitants put to the Sword. The Fire consum'd here a Bridge over the swift River Min, the Pillars whereof were of an exceeding heighth of Free­stone, the other parts of Wood, beautifi'd on the top with Houses and Shops on each side: but since by re-building it hath re-gain'd somewhat of former lustre. Beyond the Bridge, on the opposite Shore, stands a stately Pagode.

Most of the new Buildings fall short of their old beauty, notwithstanding the Chinese Towns that are consum'd by Fire, are much more easily re-built than those in Europe, because most of them are nothing but Wood.

Near the City Kienning is another fair Bridge, with Shops and Houses on both sides.

This City Kienning is a Place of great Trade; for all those Commodities that come either up or down the River must pass through it. When they come to the City Pucing, they are taken out of the Vessels, and by Porters car­ry'd to a Village call'd Pinghu, belonging to the City Kiangxan, over high Mountains and deep Valleys four days Journey: In like manner they are car­ry'd from Pinghu to Puching. The whole Way, as much as is possible to be done by the Art or Labor of Man, is made even, and Pav'd with square Stones, along whose sides are built many Houses and Villages, onely to entertain Travellers. The Merchandises being first weighed, are deliver'd to the Ma­ster of the Inn, which send them for a certain Gratuity by Porters to other Pla­ces, where the Merchant without any trouble receives them: If any thing chance to be lost, the Host is bound to make it good. Here are always above ten thousand Porters ready, which wait to receive the Goods, and carry them over the Mountains. Because of this Carriage of so many Goods, a House stands erected for the receiving a small Custom, or Duty, towards the main­taining and reparation of the High-ways.

The fifth Tract of Land, call'd Ienpingfu, makes the Centre of this Territo­ry, and borders in the East, at the chief County Focheufu; in the South and South-West, at Civencheufu and Kancheufu; on the West and North at Tingcheu­fu, Xaounfu, and Kienningfu.

[Page 201]King Cyn was the first that call'd the chief City, and the Countrey thereto belonging, Ienping; the Family Tang nam'd it Kiencheu; that of Sung, Nankien; but Taiming restor'd its antient Name Ienping.

This Ienpingfu contains seven Towns and Cities, of which Ienping is the chiefest, next Cianglo, Xa, Yonki, Xunchan, Iungan, and Tatien.

The City Ienping lieth on the Western Shore of the River Min, from whence it rises with its Buildings up the Hills, rendring a delightful Prospect to those that pass by, and though none of the biggest, yet it is beautifi'd with several fair Houses: The Walls exceed in heighth the neighboring Ascents, which on the out-sides are inaccessible, making the City very strong, and indeed the Key to the whole Territory.

On the East-side is a Lake made by the Rivers Min and Si. Almost every House is furnish'd with Water, convey'd to them through Pipes from the Mountains, which Convenience no other Place in China hath.

Not far distant lay over the Rivers Min and Si two fair Bridges, near which are two Temples.

The Town of Xa lieth on the Northern Shore of the River Taisu, (though formerly on the Southern Shore) but was by the Emperors Order pull'd down to the Ground, and left desolate, because in it a young Man had Murder'd his Father.

The sixth Division being Tingcheufu, is the most Western of this Territory:Borders. borders Easterly on Ienpingfu; on the South-East, at Quantung; on the West, at that of Kiangsi; and on the North, Xaounfu.

This Countrey belong'd also heretofore to the Princes Min: King Cyn gave itNames. the Name of Sinlo; and the Tang Family that which it bears at present: in which Tincheufu was only a small Town, but the Taimingian Family made it a chief City.

This Countrey contains eight Towns and Cities, viz. Tingcheu the chief▪ Towns. Winghon, Xanghang, Vuping, Cinglieu, Lienching, Queihon, and Iungting.

The seventh County, call'd Hinghaofu, is a small, yet fruitful Countrey, andBorders. borders on the East and South-East, with the Sea; on the South, at Civencheufu; on the West, at Ienpingfu; on the North, at the Tract of Land belonging to the Metropolis Focheu.

King Sui gave it first the Name of Putien; the Family Sung, that of Hinghoa, Names. which signifies A Budding Flower; afterwards the same Family call'd it Hingan; but by the Taimingian the antient Name of Hinghoa was restor'd.

This Shire hath onely two Cities, whereof Hinghoa is the chief; the otherTowns. call'd Sienlieu is but small: but the Countrey abounds with Villages and Hamlets. All the Ways, being sixty Stadia's long, and a Rod in breadth, are Pav'd with square Free-stone.

The City Hinghoa is very neatly built and adorn'd with many triumphal Arches, and full of Colledges for the training up of Youth in Literature, and encouragement of Learning.

At the Foot of the Mount Hocung, South-Eastwards from Hinghoa, lies a Village, in splendor and bigness of Buildings like a great City, but hath nei­ther Walls nor any Priviledges belonging to it; yet many rich Merchants re­side there, which Traffick through all China.

On the Shore of the Lake Ching, lying at the Foot of the Mount Chiniven, Northward from Hinghoa, stands a great Palace, with ten Gardens belonging to it; in which, before either Rain or tempestuous Weather happens, as the Chineses say, is a ringing noise heard like the sound of a Bell.

[Page 202]The eighth County, being Xaounfu, borders Easterly at Kienningfu; in the South, at Ienpingfeu and Tingcheufeu; in the West, North-West and North, at the Territory Kiangsia.

This Division reckons four Cities, the chief of which is Xaouw, the restBorders. Quangce, Taining, and Kienning.

The City Xaouw, the most Northern of this Territory, was antiently a mean Place, under the Princes of Mins Jurisdiction, and was first fortifi'd with Walls, and the Title of City given it by the Family call'd Tang; yet hath ever preserv'd its Name of Xaouw. It lies Westerly of the River Cu, and is cut through by the River Ciao, which poures its Streams into the Cu, and from thence by several small Channels waters the City.

Because this County is a firm and profitable Soyl, and on the Borders of Countreys, whose Passage is troublesom, it is fortifi'd with several Castles Garison'd with Soldiers.

The small Tract of Land belonging to the City Foning, a MountainousThe smallest Tract of Land belonging to the City Foning. Countrey, and the most Eastern of this Territory, borders in the East and South-East, at the Sea; in the South and South-West, at Fochenfu; in the West, at Kiennunfu; in the North, at the Territory of Chekiang. It contains three Towns, Foning, Fogang, and Mingte.

The Ways through the Mountains are very scraggy, and scarce passable, especially towards the North and South-East.

The City Foning it self is fair and large, lying near the Sea, to its great benefit and advantage, having to the pleasure of the Prospect an Idol-Temple.

On the North-side of the City Xaouw a fair Bridge leads over the River Cuyun, sixty three Rods long, of the same fashion as those mention'd before. There are also two large Temples.

This Province, or Kingdom of Fokien, hath many strong Holds, especiallyFortresses. on the Sea-shore, against any Invasion of Enemies; the chiefest, built for­merly by the Chineses against the Incursions of the Tartar, are two, Ganbai and Hiamuen.

The Castle Ganhai hath a convenient and safe Haven for Ships.

On the East-side of the City is a fair Bridge, two hundred and fifty Paces in length, built of black Stone, and supported with divers Arches.

The Garison of Hiamuen lies on an Island North-West from Quemuy.

Both these Forts, for the beautifulness of their Building, Populousness and Trade, exceed divers great Cities in China; for from thence all sorts of Com­modities are Transported through all India, and foreign Goods brought thither.

Some years since the famous Pyrat Iquon, otherwise call'd Coxinga, (well known to the Hollanders, Portuguese, and Spaniards) possess'd both these Places, and was also very powerful at Sea, having a Fleet of three thousand great Chinese Jonks.

The other Forts for a defence of the Sea-Coast, are Pumien, Foning, Tinghai, Muthon, Xe, Huckeu, Vangun, Chungxe, Tungxan, Hivenchung, Iungting.

Anno 1662. the Tartars having Conquer'd the Empire of China, caus'd all the Towns and Strong-holds to be pull'd down, to prevent the Invasions of the Enemy, and hinder them from having any Supplies from thence by their Par­ty which might reside in them.

Thus ends the Continuation of the second Embassy.

A THIRD EMBASSY TO THE EMPEROR OF China and East-Tartary, Under the Conduct of the Lord PIETER VAN HOORN, CONTAINING Several Remarks in their Journey through the Provinces of Fokien, Chekiang, Xantung, and Nanking, to the Imperial Court at Peking.

Sent from Batavia, Anno 1666. the third of Iune; whither he return'd Anno 1668. in Ianuary, &c.

WHat Troubles, Charges, and Endeavors the Netherland East-India Company, and their Magistrates in India, have some Years since us'd from time to time, on se­veral Occasions, for the gaining of their so long wish'd for Chinese Trade, it would be needless here to describe, because we may plainly perceive it from other Dis­courses, especially by the former Embassies and Expe­ditions under the Conduct of Peter de Goyer and Iacob de Keizer, sent out Anno 1655. and 1656. And likewise from those of Balthazar Bort, Iohn van Campen, and Constantine Nobel, in Anno 1662.

Yet after long Referrings, Debates, and serious Considerations, it was at last again concluded, on the twenty eighth of May, Anno 1666, by the Lord General and Council of India, to send a Magnificent Embassy, with rich Pre­sents, to the Tartars Court, to the Great Emperor of China and East-Tartary, that if possible, they might at last attain to their so long desir'd Free Trade through the whole Realm of China.

To this purpose was elected and chosen his Excellency the Lord Peter van [Page 204] Hoorn, Privy Counsellor and Chief Treasurer of India, as he was intituled in his Commission, given him the third of Iuly in the same Year.

Constantine Nobel was also chosen as Chief Counsel in the Embassy, and Prime Head and Governor of the Trade in Hoksieu, or Focheu, the Metropolis of the Territory Fokien. He also was commanded, for several Reasons, to travel in the Degree before-mention'd up to Peking, and upon the Ambassa­dors Decease, to succeed him in his Place, and Negotiate that Affair to the Companies best Advantage.

Furthermore, the Embassy was by the Lord General and his Council order'd to consist in the following Persons.

  • The Lord Peter van Hoorn.
  • Constantine Nobel Chief Counsellor in the Embassy, and Governor of the Trade.
  • Iohn Putman Factor, and Master of the Ceremonies.
  • Iohn vander Does Secretary.
  • Gysbert Ruwenoort Steward.
  • Six Gentlemen, viz.
    • Banning,
    • Berkman,
    • Frents, and
    • Ruysser,
    • Van Alteren,
    • Van Doorn.
  • A Chyrurgeon.
  • Six Men for a Guard.
  • Two Trumpetters, and
  • One Cook.

During their Journey up to Peking, it was order'd, That David Harthower, Cornelius Bartelsz, and Maurice, should provide all things below in Hoksieu.

On the third of Iune before-mention'd, the Commissions were read aboard the Vlaerding, by the following Lords,

  • His Excellency the Lord General Maetzuiker.
  • Charles Hertzing Chief Comptroller.
    Usual Counsellors of India.
    • Nicholas Verburgh,
    • Laurence Pit,
    • Matthew vander Brook,
  • Counsellors Extraordinary.
    • Iohn Thysz,
    • Iohn van Dam,

After a kind Farewell, the foremention'd Persons return'd ashore.

For the more Honorable carrying on of this Embassy, a Fleet of five Sail, Laden with Presents and Merchandise, and Mann'd with Soldiers and Sea­men, was fitted out from Batavia, consisting in these Ships, viz.

The Vlaerding, Afen, Constance, Gilded Tygre, and The Blyswiik Frigat, Commanded by Iohn vander Werf. Iohn Naelhout. Iohn Hendricks. Henry Bommer. Peter Iansz.

Several Chineses also Shipp'd themselves in the Fleet, to return to their Na­tive Countrey, from whence they came some Years before, and had setled themselves in Batavia.

The fourth, being Sunday, in the Morning the Fleet set Sail, and lying by the Lee about the Islands, they staid for some ready Moneys, and other Necessa­ries, which about seven a clock were brought them by one Simon de Danser, Master of the Exchequer. Then the Fleet weighing Anchor again, ran East­erly, between the Isles Edam and Alkmaer, that they might have the advantage of the Eastern Mouson (but the Wind, on the contrary, in the Afternoon came [Page 205] about to the West) and then tack'd to and again, having the Wind about seven a clock at Night to the South-West; then they steer'd their Course Northerly, and so proceeded in the same Course as we have fully mention'd in their for­mer Journals from Batavia; and therefore we think not fit to trouble the Rea­der with needless Repetitions of the same things.

The fifth of August about Noon they came to the Netherland-Haven, where a Tartar came aboard of the Ambassador in a small Vessel, who said that he was sent from the Governor of Minjazen, to inquire what People and Ships they were, and also from whence they came, and what Persons of Quality were in them? Whereupon being answer'd accordingly, the Tartar return'd ashore, to give an Accompt thereof, having first inform'd them of the General Lipovi's Death.

The sixth in the Morning, while they still rode at an Anchor, waiting for the Fleet to carry them into the Netherland Haven, there also came a Tartar Vessel aboard, with the third Person of Minjazen, to ask in the Governors Name, What Ships they were, and if an Ambassador was come with them to the Emperor? Whereupon the Ambassador answer'd him accordingly, and also told him, That they intended to send the Master of the Ceremonies, and Mr. Ruwenoort, with the Interpreter De Hase, to Hoksieu, with Letters to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, and the new General which was come from Peking in the deceas'd Lipovi's Place: To whom the Mandarin proffer'd his Service to carry them to Hoksieu, alledging, That he was sent from the Governor for that pur­pose.

After having receiv'd Thanks from the Ambassador, he return'd with the foremention'd Persons aboard of the Blyswiik, where the Letter was translated into the Chinese Tongue: The Contents were to this purpose.

That this Letter was to advise their Excellencies from the Lord Ambassa­dor, of the coming of five Ships, laden with several Merchandises, and Pre­sents for his Majesty, and their Excellencies the Vice-Roy, General, and Con­bon, or Governor, and likewise of his coming from Batavia in the beginning of the last Month, with the Merchant Constantine Nobel, and their safe Arrival in the beginning of the New Moon before the River of Hoksieu.

Their Highnesses also were desired to permit the Merchant Constantine No­bel with the first opportunity to come to Hoksieu, to complement their Ex­cellencies from the Ambassador, and acquaint them with his Intentions.

About Noon the Holland Ambassador arriv'd in safety in the Netherland-Ha­ven, where he drop'd Anchor with the Vlaerding and Blyswiik, and was visited by the chief Pilot of the Tygre, with a Letter from Hendrick Bommer Master of the Tygre, written to the Ambassador, signifying, That the Pilot beforemen­tion'd, having been several times in the Netherland-Haven, made no question to bring the Tygre thither; so that he desir'd his Order, because the Ship would be safer there than in the Bay of Sothia. On which the Ambassa­dor made answer, That he ought to govern himself according to the Agree­ment made on the fifth Instant, of which the Copy was sent him, and first steer his Course to the Bay of Sothia, till further Order came from above.

The Ambassador observing, That the entring into the Mouth of the River Hoksieu was dangerous, because of the Rocks call'd the Pyramides, commanded all the Masters and Pilots to consult about it, and give their Opinions in Wri­ting, that other Ships that should come after, might make use thereof.

The seventh against Noon three Mandarins were sent from the new General [Page 206] Siangpovi, to see how many Ships and Men were come, and likewise what Pre­sents they had brought, from whence the Ambassador came, and what Retinue he intended should go with him to Peking. But the Ambassador did not think it convenient to inform him of all things, because the Master of the Ceremo­nies and Interpreter were not yet come from Hoksieu; therefore he told the Mandarins onely, That he was come thither with five Ships, of which three lay in the Bay of Sothia, and two in the Netherland Haven; and that he had four hundred Men aboard: but as to the Presents, he could not readily give an Ac­count, because he must first unpack them, and then draw an Inventory in Chi­nese: neither could he yet tell them the Number of the Persons that were to attend him to the Court; but if they pleas'd to stay till to morrow (when he ex­pected the Master of the Ceremonies and Interpreter would be there) he would resolve them. Then the Mandarins ask'd, If there were no more Ships that had put into other Harbors on the Coast of China? To which they were answer'd No. Then they demanded further, From whom the Lord Ambassador was ad­dress'd? to which they receiv'd a suitable Answer. The Ambassador had also a Chinese Letter given him from the Governor of Minjazen, the Contents being onely to congratulate his Welcome, which the Ambassador answer'd civilly in like manner. Hereupon the Mandarins departed, saying, they would send one on the Morrow to know the Quantity and Quality of the Presents.

The Ambassador soon after was inform'd by Nobel, That the Mandarin which bore the chief Command over the Jonks that lay there, had understood the day before, that the Emperor was inclin'd to allow the Hollanders and Tartars the Isles Eymuy and Quemuy, to set up their Factories and Trade.

The eighth the Master of the Ceremonies, Mr. Ruwenoort, and the Interpre­ter De Hase, came aboard again, relating, That they had been at Hoksieu, and there deliver'd the Ambassadors Letters to the Governors: The General, who first granted them Audience, had after the reading of the Letter ask'd them several Questions, as amongst others, Whither they had a Design upon Formosa, or came onely upon Embassy? To which they answer'd, That the Ambassa­dor was come thither but with five Ships, of which two lay in the Netherland Haven, and three at Tinhay; and that they had no other Design but to wait up­on the Emperor, according to the Contents of their Credential Letters and Commission. After this, they gave the Conbon or Governor of Hoksieu a Visit, who shew'd himself very joyful at the news of their arrival. And next they visited the General, and gave him an Account of the Ambassadors arrival, who sent two Mandarins to go along them.

About Midnight in their Return they came before the Castle of Minjazen, where they lay till the next Morning, and then desir'd the Governor to fur­nish them with a Vessel to carry them aboard, to which he very willingly con­descended.

The ninth Nobel, Harthower, Secretary Vander Does, and the Mandarins which came down the next day in a Pleasure-Boat sent to the Fleet for that purpose, were carried aboard, having a Letter of Advice with them, to make use of when occasion should serve.

The same Day this Present was prepar'd for the Governor of Minjazen.

  • A Pair of Pistols,
  • A small Quilt,
  • Four Pieces of fine Linnen.
  • Two Swords,
  • Two great Pieces of Sandal-Wood.

[Page 207]From that time nothing happen'd of remark, only some Jonks came to an Anchor close by the Ambassador, to watch the Netherlanders Transactions, as had been done from the beginning, ever since they arriv'd; sometimes fresh Jonks relieving others.

The eleventh in the Morning, the Ambassador sent the Blyswiik's Boat to the Bay of Sothia, with a Letter; by which he Commanded the Captains of the three Ships, the Alfen, Tyger, and Constance, to come to him with the first fair Weather, to consult once more about the bringing in of the Ships to Hoksieu.

The twelfth, the Captains came according to the Ambassadors Letter aboard his Ship in their Sloop, and just at low Water they went with Captain Vander Werff, and Peter Iansz Vlieg, to the River of Hoksieu, to know the Soundings and the breadth of the Channel.

Afternoon, Siangpovi's Interpreter came aboard with some Tartars, to tell the Ambassador, that Nobel Landed the Night before in Hoksieu, and that Horses were provided against the Morning to carry him to the Governors to have Audience. Moreover he told him, that he was sent from the General Siang­povi, to inquire about the Ambassadors Health, and if he wanted any thing, or if any surly People slighted or neglected, to supply them with what necessa­ries were fit, and they requir'd.

The Ambassador caus'd his Interpreter De Hase to ask the Tartars, How the Governor of Hoksieu resented the Hollanders, and whether he should be civilly receiv'd? Whereupon he reply'd, That he needed not question his glad Re­ception.

Furthermore, he doubted not but that they should have all their desires gran­ted when so er'e they arriv'd at Peking.

The Tartar Interpreter also acquainted the Ambassador, that it would be convenient to invite the Captain of the Jonks that lay to watch to a Treat; which some hours afterwards was perform'd by Putmans, and the Interpreter De Hase; who coming to the Captain, and Mandarin, were kindly entertain'd, with answer, that according to their Requests, they and some other Mandarins would wait upon them the day following: They also sent a Present to the Am­bassador, of Capons, Geese, and a Vessel of Chinese strong Drink.

Towards Evening, the Masters and Pilots came aboard again to the Am­bassador, and told him, That he had search'd the Bay of Hoksieu, of which they would give an account in writing, how the Ships should get in and out with most safety, as was done the day following.

In the afternoon the Vlaerdings Boat brought a supply from Hoksieu, of Beeves, Porkers, good Liquor, and several Fruits, with Letters from Nobel, Harthower, and Vander Does, that on the eleventh they were arriv'd at the Bridge of Lamthay; and at their passing by, the Governors of Minjazen Treated them kindly; and at Hoksieu they were presently admitted to the Presence of the Ge­neral Siangpovi, the Vice-Roy, and the Conbon or Governor.

All these Visits were past with many kindnesses, and upon the delivery of their Letters from Batavia, with an Inventory of the Presents, were told, That the Ambassador was Welcome, and according to his Request should be hono­rably and kindly Entertain'd, and that he would be pleas'd presently to come ashore, that they might the better inform his Imperial Majesty of his arrival; with which, the Ambassador being acquainted, gave Order for his Landing the next day.

[Page 208]The next day they were to Treat about Commerce, which they suppos'd to be of great Consequence; the more, because by Proclamation every one was on pain of Death forbidden to Trade with the Hollanders without Licence.

When a rumor was spread in Hoksieu, that the Fort Quelang in Formosa had been Besieg'd two Moneths by three thousand Tayowan Chineses; but at last were forc'd to Retreat to Tamsuy, with the loss of their General, &c.

The fifteenth, being Sunday, nothing happen'd of remark to the Ambassa­dor, but onely expected further Tydings from Nobel, and his other Friends in Hoksieu.

The sixteenth, four Mandarins came from the General Siangpovi and the Con­bon, sent to the Ambassador to Present him with an hundred and twenty Cana­sters, or four Tun of Rice, thirty couple of Capons, as many Ducks, forty great Vessels of their best Drink, six fat Beeves, twenty Porkers, a Score and a half of Geese, and a hundred Water-Lemons.

Because the Name of Chinese Beer will be often us'd, it will be requisite to give a short Description of it.

THe Drinks which the Chineses use are many: The first call'd Samfoe, or Sampe, made of Rice, is of a clear Colour, like white Wine; wherefore they also name it, Sampe, signifying pure White.

The second call'd Looszioe, is of a brown Colour like Dutch Beer, of a plea­sant Taste, but very strong.

The third nam'd Tzonzui, and by some held for the best and strongest Li­quor in all China; is of a bright Brown, very clear, and resembles Brunswick-Mum, yet tastes like Sack, and as strong in its Operation.

Which Liquor Vulgarly the Hollanders generally call Mandarins and Chi­nese Beer.

The fourth being a sort of Distill'd Water, is call'd Hotzioe, and is not only clearer, but much stronger than Brandy, therefore by the Netherlanders call'd Strong Arak.

The fifth Drink is call'd Kietzjoe, and by the Hollanders Kniep; and is also a Water Distill'd, yet not so strong as the former, of a ruddy Colour, and much drank in the Chinese and Holland Ships, during their stay on the Coast of China.

Most of all these Liquors are made and Extracted out of Rice.

They say, That in the Emperor Yu's Raign, above two thousand Years be­foreMartin Histor. Sinen. l. 2. pag. 54. the Birth of our Savior, this famous Chinese Drink, Extracted of Rice, was first made: The Inventer thereof was call'd Ilie, who having Presented the Emperor with the new and pleasant Liquor, when he had well tasted it, said, What great Misfortune hath brought this Drink into the Realm? Now I foresee the fall of my Family, and the ruine of the Empire by this inebriating Drink: Whereupon, he straight, instead of reward and honoring him for his happy Invention, being such an assistant to weaken Nature, banish'd him the Em­pire for ever; and Commanded further upon pain of Death, that none should imitate or experiment the same: But though Yu Banish'd the first finder, yet he could not prevent the Art of making it, from spreading through his whole Dominions.

Besides these Drinks, there is an ordinary sort boyl'd of the Root Tee, or Cha; and likewise another, by the Netherlanders call'd Bean Broth, which, as some say, is Milk mixt with Peking Butter.

[Page 209]The Chineses also Press several sorts of Juyces, or Wines out of Fruit; as among other out of the Fruit Lichi.

Yet in no place, do they know any Liquor made of Grapes; that kind of Tope only belonging to the Province of Xensi, though they have store of Grapes and Vineyards in other parts of China; for the Chineses either dry or Preserve their Grapes, to eat them in Winter, which they do by Boyling in a great Pot, and then pour dissolv'd Sugar upon them.

Upon the delivery of the foremention'd Presents, Singlamong was not once made mention of, which occasion'd some jealous thoughts.

And now, because the Ambassador expected that he should Land shortly, he made an Order for his Attendants, and Information to the Comptroller, to be observ'd at his Landing, thereby to shun all Confusions, according to which every one was to govern himself.

Orders for the Attendants of the Embassy.

OF what concern this Embassy is, every one may apprehend: How circum­spectly it ought to be perform'd, in respect to our selves; and also how much Honor and Profit our Nation may reap by it, cannot be sufficiently express'd.

Therefore since the good Orders, Vertue, and fair Carriage of the Persons that shall attend us, must be observ'd and maintain'd as the Chief Point, it may be judg'd what care and diligence ought to be us'd in it, that our bad Conversation may not hinder a good Event.

This being consider'd of, we have thought it necessary and fitting to pre­scribe some short Orders to all our Followers, with express Commands, that every one shall exactly observe them upon their Perils.

  • I. Coming ashore, every one shall go to the appointed place, without separating himself, or going from the Train without special Orders from the Ambassador.
  • II. Every one shall look to his Office, and be diligent and careful in what he is imploy'd.
  • III. None shall go out of the Ambassadors Lodging, without his, or the Secretaries knowledge.
  • IV. The Comptroller Ruwenoort shall have the second Command over the Gentlemen and Soldiers, but no Power to send any one out, or Discharge him without the Secretaries knowledge, who shall, if it be requisite, acquaint the Ambassador therewith.
  • V. Every one, of what Degree soever, shall have a special care, and abstain from too much Drinking and Quarrelling, which oftentimes arise from it, on forfeiture of three Months Wages the first time, and the second, of all his Pay, loss of his Place, and be sent to Batavia; he that shall occasion a Quarrel or Contest between any Person, shall receive the same Punishment.
  • VI. Every person shall carry himself very humble, and be bare headed in the Ambassa­dors Presence; as also, the Gentlemen, Soldiers, and other Officers shall be Dutiful and Obedient; but above all, be very Courteous and kind to the Chineses.
  • VII. Putmans being Master of the Gifts and Presents, shall have a great care of the packing and dividing of them, that they may be look'd after and secur'd from spoiling, or Rain, and keep an exact account of all, by entring them down in a Book of Presents; he shall also, as Master of the Ceremonies, observe that good Orders he kept in that concern.
  • VIII. On the Ringing of a Bell ashore, or by the way, every one shall come to Prayers [Page 210] in his peculiar place, which shall be in the Evening at seven a Clock, perform'd by the Secre­tary or some Person else, on forfeiture of a Rix-Doller, for those that without great reason stay from it.

Information for the Comptroller.

I. OF the Comptroller is requir'd, that he take upon him a Grave Formality, neither shew­ing a lightness in his Behavior or Conversation, and justly to pay every one their Due; he is to be Governor of the Gentlemen, Clerks, Assistants, and Soldiers, and so necessarily requir'd to be a good Example in Vertue to others; and also to be Courteous and Civil to all Persons, especially to the Chineses and Tartars, with whom lies our greatest Concern.

II. The Comptrollers Office and Government shall consist in Domestick Affairs, that all things may be done orderly, and kept clean; to which purpose are allow'd him as Assistants, Frents, as Chief Butler, and Banning as Steward, who shall act in their Offices accord­ing to Putman's Direction, and take care not to wast and lavish, but to see that nothing be lost: Also two Assistants more are allow'd Putman, to look after all the Travelling Utensils and Necessaries, viz. Cuiper, and Van Altern, which shall look to the Bed­ding, Housholdstuff, and other things thereto belonging, and keep an exact account there­of, at the Shipping or using, that they may not be damnifi'd, that when the Ambassador shall resolve to Land, or go, and come from one place to another, and the Secretary acquainting them with it, they shall presently order the getting of them ready.

Three Tables shall daily be kept and furnish'd at twelve a Clock at Noon, and eight at Night, viz.

The first Table being the Ambassadors, shall be Oval, with room for eight or ten Persons; at this shall Eat the Ambassador; at his right Hand Nobel, Putman's, and Vander Doe's the Secretary; at his left Hand, Iohn Van Hoorn, the Ambassadors Son, and as many more Plates shall be laid ready for Strangers. This Table shall be attended by the Comptroller Ruwenoort, who must stand behind the Ambassador; besides two Gentlemen, viz. Frents, and Doornik; at every Course serving up, the Trumpeters shall Sound, and betwixt, the other Musicians play.

The second, being the Comptrollers Table, Mr. Ruwenoort shall sit, with six Gentlemen, who shall all be attended by the Negro Boys, except a Soldier to Wait upon the Comptroller.

The third Table shall consist in six of the prime of our Guard, the Inter­preter and Master-Cook, who rising, the under Waiters shall take the re­mainder.

About the Dressing of the Meat, and the quantity, great care must be us'd. To which purpose Putmans, the Secretary Vander Does, and the Comptrol­ler Ruwenoort shall first consult about the Bill of Fare, and then give or­der for it.

Every Week the Comptroller shall deliver a Bill of his Charge to the Secre­tary, which when look'd over, shall be enter'd in their due places.

Berkman shall be as Master of the Horse, and therefore is to look over them, that they have their Provender in due season, and that it be good and not Musty; and likewise be careful of their Furniture, that all things may be kept clean and in repair.

At their Landing and going up to the Court at Hoksieu this order shall be observ'd:

First, Two Trumpets shall Ride before, then six Soldiers with Carbines and Swords, next Captain Vander Werf, and Pilot Peter Iansz de Vlieg, then the [Page 211] Lord Ambassador himself; after him Bekmans and Iohn Dubon Halberdiers; Iohn Van Hoorn, the Ambassadors Son; Nobel and Putmans; Vander Does and Ruwenoort; after these the six Gentlemen, Banning, Ruysser, Berkman, Van Alteren, Frents, Van Doorn, and lastly, Hans and Sluiter.

The same day nothing happen'd of remark, only the General Povi's Inter­preter came to visit the Ambassador, and tell him, That the Vessels which were to take in the Steeds, would either come that Night, or early in the Morning.

The following day, soon after Sun-rising, the foremention'd Interpreter, with two Captains belonging to the Jonks, came aboard of the Ambassador, to acquaint him of the two Vessels arrival, to fetch the Emperors Presents, the Horses and Oxen.

After some Discourse it was concluded, That the foremention'd Captains should the next Ebb go and fetch the Horses with their great Jonks; to which purpose, the Comptroller Ruwenoort was sent with them.

In the afternoon, the Ambassadors Boat came again from above the River, with the Secretary Vander Does, who besides his own Relations, brought two Letters, one from Nobel alone, and the other Sign'd by three, in which was written, That they had acquainted his Highness of the Ambassadors intentions to Land, whereupon they had obtain'd leave to send the Secretary Vander Does with the Boat.

In which were also brought a dozen Porkers, four Baskets with Artichokes, two with Cucumbers, and fifty Pots of A Chinese Strong-Water. Chamchoe; and that it was conclu­ded, that twelve Men should first go ashore with the Ambassador, and that he should bring the Emperors Letter with him.

By the same Letters they also inform'd him, That the General had desir'd them to procure some Glasses, Quilts, Blood-Coral, and several other things for him which they had aboard, and could have wish'd, that they had been Shipt uppermost, because his Favor was of great concern, and they might do some good with him by the way of Presents, as they were inform'd, he being of a more affable Character than his Predecessor. And Nobel and Harthower told him, That the Ambassador was not concern'd in the Trade, but it was intrust­ed wholly to them; so that without doubt, the Ambassador would not be troubled about it; therefore they would on this first undertaking so prosecute their business, that it might tend to his Honor; so that they desir'd he would please to leave it to their care. They added further, that they esteem'd them­selves happy by the Ambassadors grave counsel to be provided against the Chi­neses Treachery. In the Trade nothing was to be done, but to use care and prudence, as in former times. If they intended to effect any thing, they must wait, yet not depend too much upon it. The Jonks which were should the Horses at Minjazen, were judg'd to be unfit to go to Sothia; therefore the Tar­tars desir'd, that they might be brought into the Netherland Haven, in one of the Ships, from whence they would convey them up the River.

The Governors had lately chosen a place on the other side of the River, where they intended to request of the Emperor, that the Hollanders might build a Store-house; but they knew not whether it was done out of their own incli­nation, or by the Emperors Order, (which perhaps had long since granted it.) They were inform'd, that about eight or ten days since, a Mastless Vessel ran into the Storm-Bay, and soon after went away again, and that the Comman­ders of her said, that they were sent from Batavia to Iapan, and likewise that [Page 212] an Ambassador was come thither with nine Ships; by which they suppos'd, that it was the Newpoort, because no other Ships knew of the Ambassadors coming.

There went also a rumor, That some Portuguese Ships were arriv'd at Makaw, and of an Ambassadors going to Peking, that came over in them.

The single Letter from Nobel was to this purpose: That Hopes and a good Heart was half their Business, and he much rejoyc'd at what the Ambassador had been pleas'd to write; but nothing more concern'd him, than the pro­moting and making the Embassy more Honorable, that it might be perform'd with all fitting Splendor and Magnificence, of which there were fair appear­ances. But because nothing could be assur'd from the Chineses looks, therefore time must produce it.

They declar'd, that all the Governors were exceedingly rejoyc'd at the Am­bassadors coming, and had never shown such great incouragements to their Design.

The nineteenth, the great Jonk which went the same day to fetch the Hor­ses, return'd, and brought a Letter from the Commander to this effect.

That that Morning he had receiv'd the Ambassadors Order, for the sending of the Horses and Oxen; according to which he had Shipt them in the Jonks, with three Chests full of Saddles, all in good condition, and that at their put­ting off, he had fir'd seven Guns in Honor of the Emperor, and the Ambassa­dor, which he hop'd he would opprove off.

His Excellency Commanded Ruwenoort, that so soon as it was Flood, he should go up with the Horses to Hocksieu, which was perform'd accordingly; and the Ambassador writ a Letter to Nobel and Harthouwer, advising them, that he had receiv'd theirs by the Secretary, and prepar'd himself to go in the expected Vessels to Hoksieu; and in the mean while, had sent the Horses and Oxen, as also their Saddles, and the Coach provided for the Emperor.

The twentieth, nothing happen'd of remark.

The one and twentieth in the Morning, two Pleasure-Boats came with three Mandarins, two from the Vice-Roy and General, and one from the Go­vernor of Minjazen, to attend and bring in the Ambassador, who desir'd two days for the fitting and accommodating all things for his more convenient Landing.

The three and twentieth in the Morning, the two Pleasure-Boats before­mention'd, that came with the three Mandarins, were ready to take in the Am­bassador, but prov'd much too little to carry him, his Attendants and Goods up the River. And because they proffer'd as many Jonks on the one and twen­tieth as he should need, therefore they were desir'd to procure one more, which they scrupling, he said he had been told, that they were a well Go­vern'd Nation, and therefore wonder'd that they kept not their own promise, that he should have as many as he needed; therefore he would send one up to Hoksieu to fetch written Orders from the General, according to which he would Govern himself. Upon the news thereof, without any more ado, they sent a Jonk to carry his Goods, or any thing else; whereupon he gave Order for the Shipping of his Goods and Attendants.

At Noon, the Ambassador Imbark'd himself to go up to Hoksieu, and about three a Clock arriv'd at Minjazen; of which place the Governor sent him a Complemental Letter, informing him of his indispos'dness, which prevented him from giving the civility of a meeting. Moreover, he caus'd the Ambassa­dor [Page 213] and his Retinue to be Entertain'd with As the Dutch call it. Bean-Broth, and Bak'd Meats.

The Governor of Minjazen also sent to desire the Ambassador to stay some short time, because he would send a Letter with him; and soon after, some Mandarins coming aboard said, That they were sent from the Governor to search all Chests and Trunks, which was so ill resented by the Ambassador, that he said with a displeas'd Countenance, the Mandarins had promis'd him, That his Goods should without trouble or molestation be deliver'd; and if they could not, he would rather return aboar'd, than suffer such affronts, which words made them wave their receiv'd Orders; yet he went away in the Even­ing without a Letter. The Ambassador, by reason of the Ebb meeting him, was forc'd to Anchor at Lamthay, and about Flood setting forward again, about Day light arriv'd at the Bridge of Lamthay. Here the Mandarins went to ac­quaint the General of the Ambassadors arrival, and also to know, if it pleas'd his Highness, that he should first go into the Netherlanders Inn, or come to his Highness: The Ambassador also made his coming immediately known to No­bel and Harthouwer, who came to welcome him; of whom he demanding, in what Postures Affairs stood; They told him, they had no present cause of dis­satisfaction, because the last Night Singlamong's Secretary had come and told them, that seven hundred Bales of Silk lay in store, which were to be ex­chang'd for the Netherland Commodities, and also that Singlamong would have half a share in the Trade; The General two third parts in the other half, and the Conbon a third part.

The four and twentieth, after several Houses shewn, and deny'd, a Manda­rin came to ask if the Ambassador would be pleas'd to send one of his Servants to see the House which was chosen for him. Whereupon he sent Nobel, Putmans, and Ruwenoort to the General, to desire him, to give Order for a House.

The Mandarins which had fetch'd the Ambassador, and were that Morning gone to the General, to make his coming known, return'd with Horses to con­duct him to the Vice-Roy Singlamong.

And Nobel, Putmans, and Ruwenoort came with the foremention'd Mandarins, to tell the Ambassador, that a House was making ready for him; also that his Highness expected him at Court, and before the Ambassador should have done his business with his Highness, the House would be ready.

The General also said, That if they had known of the Ambassadors coming from Batavia before hand, the Emperor would have given Order for the build­ing a new House.

And accordingly, although it Rain'd very hard, yet the Ambassador prepar'd himself to go to his Highness.

First, between the sound of several Instruments, he was conducted to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, who bad him Welcome, and shew'd him to sit on a Bench at his left Hand, (by the Tartar accounted the upper) and next him Nobel, Harthouwer, Putmans, and the Secretary Vander Does, on a piece of Cloth spread on the Ground.

Then the Vice-Roy wish'd the Ambassador much joy, for which the Am­bassador with many Ceremonies thank'd him; so that this first Visit ended on­ly in Coplements.

He at last ask'd, If he had about him the Letter from his King to their Em­peror; and also, that with the first opportunity, they should give an account to the General, how many Chests and Trunks they wanted to carry up their Goods, that they might be got ready against the appointed time.

[Page 214]And likewise, that the General might give Order for the Jonks and Vessels to fetch the Presents for the Emperor ashore: To which the Ambassador an­swer'd, That he had not brought the Letter with him, because of the badness of the Weather, but his Highness might Command it when he pleas'd; the number of Cases and Chests, he would also give an account of, as they had occasion, and so soon as they could come at the Presents, acquaint his High­ness with it.

Moreover, The Ambassador desir'd the Vice-Roy's advice, and instruction in this Embassy, which he would be sure to observe, and other such like Discour­ses. To which the Vice-Roy answer'd, That he would invite the Ambassador to his Court, and then they would further consult concerning all affairs.

From thence they went to the General, who enquired after the Ambassadors Health, and how all Friends far'd in Batavia? To which the Ambassador an­swer'd, and return'd him Thanks for sending the Mandarins to fetch him in, and also for the fresh Provisions. Then he ask'd the same question as the Vice-Roy had done before, whereon the Ambassador reply'd, That the Goods which were to be sold, lay upon the Presents; but he would give Order to Nobel to fetch them up, that they might be seen, and if they were damnifi'd, they should immediately be shown to his Highness; which said, his Highness was well satisfi'd, saying, That he would then write concerning it to the Court at Pe­king. The Ambassador also desir'd his Highness's advice, because he knew not the Customs and Fashions of the Countrey.

Moreover the Ambassador said, That he would on the Morrow present his Highness with some Glasses, and other such like Rarities, which he desir'd he would please to accept. His Highness inquir'd also of the Ambassador, if he had left good Orders on board, that his People us'd no Outrages, nor carry'd any Goods privately ashore; to which, the Ambassador said, Yes, and if any one should break such Orders, he should be severely punish'd.

The General shew'd the Ambassador two Mandarins, which (said he) shall wait upon you, when I intend to acquaint you with any thing of consequence, therefore desir'd him to grant them Audience. On which the Ambassador ta­king leave, was intreated by his Highness to Eat with him first, which was perform'd, and at Table said, That he would with the first opportunity in­vite the Ambassador to his Court, to Discourse with him concerning the Embassy.

From hence they went to the Conbon, whither they came about the Evening, and were kindly receiv'd and bid Welcome by him.

Moreover, the Conbon said, That the Ambassadors coming would prove an advantagious business to them, promising to assist him in all things he would desire. Whereupon the Ambassador taking leave, came to his Lodging about eight a Clock; about ten arose a mighty Storm out of the North, which last­ed till Midnight.

The twenty fifth in the Morning, they receiv'd the bad news, that the Jonks Laden with all their Travelling Necessaries was cast away, driven from the Anchor, and shatter'd in pieces against the Bridge of Lamthay. But Putmans and the Secretary were sent to see what could be sav'd of the Damnifi'd Goods. Towards Noon, the Vice-Roy and General sent them in all sorts of Kitchin Provision, of what the Countrey afforded, and some Vessels of their best Liquor.

[Page 215]The General sent likewise a Pass to the Ambassador, for the fetching ashore the Emperors Presents; to which the Ambassador reply'd, That it could not be done before he Traded: But the Mandarin answer'd, That it must be, or else the General could not write to Peking: Whereupon the Ambassador told him, That he would visit the General on the morrow, and discourse with him about it; on which he went away.

Next Morning Captain Putmans went to Complement his Highness Singla­mong, and in the Ambassadors Name to present him with some Rarities, who himself was ready to repair to the Court, where a Mandarin gave him notice, That he was immediately expected; whither instantly going, and after some Complements had pass'd, he deliver'd him the Copy of the Letter to his Im­perial Majesty, with a List of the Persons Names that were to go to Peking with him; and also a Schedule, being an Abstract of the Embassy, which was to this purpose.

That the Lord General Maetzuiker and the Council of India say, That the Hollanders look upon it as the best way of effecting Business, to be just, and endeavor Friendship; which hath been hitherto attested by all People that have dealt with us, either upon the score of Alliance, Commerce, or both: But the way of Traffique is look'd upon as the best Foundation, whence sprouting, it may grow up and branch like a Tree, so to enrich each other in Peace, and assist in all Exigencies of War.

That the Hollanders have many years endeavor'd both Traffick and Alli­ance with the Chineses; to which purpose the General and Council of India ten years since sent their Ambassadors with Presents to the Emperor in Pe­king, which were kindly receiv'd, and his Majesty accepted of the Hollanders as Friends, and declar'd them so publickly.

The Hollanders have now again by the Lord General and Indian Council address'd their Ambassador with Presents to the Emperor, with hearty wish­es, That his Imperial Majesty may live for ever, and that this their desir'd Affinity may last as long as the Sun and Moon endureth.

The Ambassador desires of the Vice-Roy, General, and Conbon, That they would assist him in this Negotiation, because their Mediation may facilitate, and so the sooner effect the Business.

This being translated, was, together with a Copy of the Batavian Missives to the Emperor, presented unto the General, who after inquiry concerning the brave Horses and Oxen which were to be given to the Emperor, desiring to see them, they fell into other Discourses concerning the Presents, and about land­ing the Merchandise, upon which there had like to have hapned some Con­trast; but the Ambassadors discretion seasonably broke it off, and so depart­ing, went from thence to the Vice-Roy, where they were conducted through another Gate than they went the day before, into the Inner Court, or Privy Chamber, in which the Ambassador, after having shew'd Reverence to the Vice-Roy, was by him bid to sit on his left Hand, on a small Bench, and next him his Prime Officers; to all whom the Vice-Roy seem'd to be somewhat more affable than the General, saying, That the Hollanders were now no Strangers, and that he had been acquainted with them in Canton, and done them several good Offices in their Negotiation there; and that he was as rea­dy now to serve them as heretofore, especially because a Person of greater Quality was imploy'd with like Addresses to his Imperial Majesty. Where­upon the Ambassador modestly reply'd, That he had been well inform'd of [Page 216] his Highness former Affection and Favor to their Nation at Canton, and also of the late continuation of the same Civility and Goodness to Constantine Nobel, ever since his residing there, for which he return'd him especial Thanks, not doubting but he would keep up his Hospitable Character to Strangers, in as­sisting them in this their present Embassy, in which they desir'd nothing but what was Just and Honorable, and might be beneficial to both Nations: Which he promis'd very seriously, and that he would write in the Ambassadors behalf to all his Correspondents in the Council of State at Peking: Then the Vice-Roy inquiring in the same manner as the other did about the Presents and the Lading, the Ambassador fearing that some Contest might arise, as formerly with the General, waved the Dispute, onely replying, That they would be all ready in good Season; but the Merchandise he did not concern himself with: Whereupon the Vice-Roy said, Well, let it pass; but desir'd the Ambassador to lend him his Chyrurgeon for a day or two, which he pro­mis'd, when Dinner being upon the Table, breaking off all further Discourse, the Vice-Roy desir'd them to sit at his own Table, on his left Hand, which is there the chief place, where they did eat in the same Dish, and drank in the same Bowl with the Vice-Roy: So having been plentifully treated, they took their leave, and return'd to their Lodging.

At their going away, two Mandarins follow'd the Ambassador, telling him, That the Vice-Roy return'd him many Thanks for the Presents which he had sent in the Morning, but durst not receive them as yet; therefore he desir'd him to send for them home till they went to Peking: Whereto the Ambassador made Answer, That they were onely a few Trifles for his Children; and de­sir'd that they would please to proffer them once more to his Highness, which they promis'd to do; but however, towards Evening they were return'd again with the same Excuse.

Next Morning, being the twenty seventh, the Ambassador consulted with his Council of what had hapned to him the day before, and ask'd what was further to be done for the advancing of this great Embassy; and also read over the Instructions given him in Batavia: after which, having seriously con­sider'd, they unanimously concluded and agree'd, That Nobel and Harthouwer should that Morning go to the General, to tell his Highness, That the Ambas­sador endeavoring to satisfie him in all Points whatsoever, therefore desir'd that the Blyswiik and two Jonks might come up thither with the Merchandise and Presents, and that then he should receive them.

But whilst they were yet busie about this their Resolution, three Mandarins came to desire Nobel to come to the Vice-Roy, where the General also expect­ed him; thither he and Harthouwer went immediately.

At this time the Governor of Soansifoe sent the Ambassador as a Present a couple of fat Oxen, besides other good Kitchen Provision.

Mean while Nobel and Harthouwer came back from the Court, and related, That they still desir'd that the Merchandise and Presents might be brought ashore; which they excus'd, urging the several Inconveniences; but told them that all should be done in good time, when the Presents and Frigats might by unlading be least damnified, concerning which they would come and Treat with his Highness to Morrow.

The twenty eighth in the Morning, about day-light, the Secretary carried the Message to the General, who at his return told, That having staid an Hour ere he was admitted to his Presence, and having complemented his Highness [Page 217] in the Ambassadors Name, he answer'd him roughly, saying in a teasty man­ner, That he had spoke with the Ambassador two days since, and granted him as many Jonks as he desir'd, for the unloading of his Goods; and come you now to ask more? Let it be so (said he); I will supply them with Twenties, and if that will not serve, with Hundreds; but in brief, none of their Ships shall come up the River. Tell your Master (continu'd he) that I am a Man that keep my Word, no Promise-breaker; therefore what I grant, they may be as­sur'd of. I know that you are come hither from remote Countreys, through long and turbulent Seas, with Ships freighted with Merchandise; How then should I be so inhumane as not to serve you in what I may towards the ac­complishing of your Desires? But first land your Presents, and when I have seen them, I will write in your behalf to Peking. And the more to manifest my good Intentions, and the Love I have for the Ambassador, I will suffer one of his Ships to come up to the Bridge, but accompanied with my Jonks; for which Favor the Secretary return'd him thanks in the Ambassadors Name, promising to give his Master an Account thereof.

The Ambassador order'd Nobel and Harthower to go to the General so soon as it was possible, and thanking him for his Kindness, further to request a Pass to bring up the Blyswiik Frigat, and send two Mandarins to help them, that all things might be done according to his desire.

The twenty ninth in the Morning the Comptroller Ruwenoort went with the Chyrurgeon Hans Voorechter to the Court, to carry their Highnesses the follow­ing Letters, and desire their Answers. The first being to the Vice▪Roy Singla­mong, contain'd, ‘That the Ambassador had sent his Chyrurgeon to his High­ness Service.’ The rest was written to the same purpose with the other three, viz. ‘That the Ambassador desir'd to know when his Highness pleas'd to accept of a Visit, and treat about the Embassy.’

The thirtieth nothing hapned of Remark.

Next Morning two of the Generals Officers came to the Ambassador, and in their Lords Name privately proffer'd him three hundred Tail (which they had brought with them) for the Chain of Blood-Corral and Quilt, Goods which he desir'd to be sent; on which the Ambassador smiling, return'd, That he was no Merchant, neither bought nor sold; but if the General would please to accept of those Trifles as a Present, he would take their Reception as a high Honor; and if his Highness hereafter might have a fancy to buy any Goods belonging to the Hollanders, that their Merchant Nobel should furnish him: With which Answers the foremention'd Persons return'd, to give an Account thereof to the General.

In the Afternoon the Vice-Roys Officers return'd with many Thanks to the Ambassador for his Presents, which his Highness had kindly receiv'd, and as a grateful Return, had sent him eight Pieces of Chinese Brocadoes, which they desir'd the Ambassador to accept, and he courteously receiv'd, though not va­lued at above eighty Tail of Silver.

In the Evening after Prayer the Comptroller Ruwenoort deliver'd his first Ac­compt of Charges and Expence, which the Ambassador gave to Putmans and the Secretary Vander Does to look over, and also to inquire if the Provision should be brought in by greater quantities than they us'd to have it before, it might not be had at a cheaper Rate; thereby to be as saving as they could.

The first and second of September nothing hapned worthy recounting.

The third in the Morning the Vice-Roy Singlamong's Intepreter sent the Chi­nese [Page 218] Gienso to ask the Ambassador when he pleas'd to come to visit his High­ness, and shew him the brave Horses, that he might give his Lord an Account of it; Whereupon he was answer'd, That it was left to the Choice and Plea­sure of his Highness, and that the Ambassador was always ready at his Com­mand.

In the Afternoon two of the Vice-Roys chief Factors came to Nobel, and told him, That they had Order from his Highness to ask if the Company de­sir'd to have much White Raw Silk; which if they had, his Highness would endeavor to perswade the General, because the Transportation was strictly forbidden by the Emperor; and that it might be observ'd, five Persons of Qua­lity were sent into every Territory bordering the Sea, from Peking; so that it would be very difficult to get their Consents: Therefore they ask'd (a Price never heard of) two hundred and fifty Tail for a Picol, desiring to have an An­swer upon it immediately, that they might give an Account to his Highness. Whereto Nobel made answer, That notwithstanding the time did not permit to send to Japan, yet they would exchange those Merchandises which they had brought with them, for a Parcel of Silk, to carry to their Native Countrey; but he would have them to know, not at such Prices; and therefore if they would not come nearer to the matter, he would neither Treat about it, nor make any Proffer, desiring them to be better advis'd: Whereupon they re­ply'd, That they had no other Order, and therefore desir'd the Hollanders to consider of it, and so let it rest for that time.

Mean while the General and Conbon's Factors also came thither, but made no mention of the foremention'd Business. The Ambassador to oblige them, and that they might seek to get their Masters to affect the Hollanders, invited them to Dinner; which ending, they, after they had been handsomly treated, with kind Thanks took their leaves.

Not long after the General also sent two Mandarins to tell the Ambassador, That he had been inform'd how the Hollanders in the Netherland Haven would not hasten the unlading of the Emperors Presents as they should, because they had onely loaden three Jonks full of Merchandise, and would not make use of the other Jonks, which made their Highnesses doubt (as they said) whether the Ambassador would go up to Peking, or not: They had writ to the Emperor of the Ambassadors arrival; but now they must assure him, that they had seen the Presents; therefore they desir'd a second time, that his Excellency would please to send Order to the Ships, with one of their Vessels, that they might immediately go about that Business: On which they were answer'd, That such Orders had already been given, and that their Highnesses need not doubt of the care and diligence that should be us'd in the Embassy; yet however, that he was inclin'd for their satisfaction to send another Letter thither, which they promising to tell the General, took their leave.

The fourth against the Evening four Jonks with Pepper arriv'd at the Bridge at Lamthay, which they had taken out of the Blyswiik and Vlaerding Fri­gats. The Persons that came with them gave an Account, That the Blyswiik Frigat lay at Anchor between the Tower and the Bridge of Lamthay, and hop'd that before the next Morning she would also come up to the Bridge; and like­wise that the Constance was come safe into the Netherland Haven, and that all things were in good Condition with the Ships, which the Ambassador was glad to hear.

The same day two Mandarins came to the Ambassador in the Generals name, [Page 219] to inquire how many Men there were in the Blyswiik Frigat? If any Soldiers came in her? And why they brought so many? To which they were answer'd, That there were no Soldiers in her, and but forty seven Men in all, which were requir'd to govern the Ship, and other Employments: Whereupon they return'd.

Mean while two eminent Mandarins sent from the General came to look after the unlading of the Goods, for which the Hollanders prepar'd Boats and other Vessels. The foremention'd Mandarins said also, That if the Ship did not come up to the Bridge that day, they would on the morrow fetch out the Presents with their Barques, and then send her down again to fetch others.

All the Factors belonging to his Highness, except the chiefest, came likewise to tell Nobel, That their Masters had agreed to deliver their Silks to the Com­pany; and that it was now time to Trade, because some Commissioners were expected daily from Peking, at whose coming there would be no likelihood to transport one Catty of Silk: Whereto Nobel made answer, That he would wil­lingly deal with them, but he must first see the Silk, and likewise agree about the Merchandise; but if they demanded two hundred and fifty Tail, as they had done the third Instant, it would not be worth the speaking of it. They having (as they said) no other Order, departed.

On the twenty ninth of July a Fly-boat nam'd the Poelsnip, the thirtieth, the Nieuport Pink; and the fifth of August, the Overveen, came thither without their Masts, which they had lost in a Storm about the Macaw Islands, and going after­wards to repair their Breaches at the Isle of Quemuy, the Tartar-Chineses told the Commanders, That the Coxingan-Chineses had Besieg'd Quelang; and many other things concerning that Isle.

The sixth in the Morning two Mandarins came to tell the Ambassador from the General, That the Governor of Minjazen had advis'd him▪ that another Dutch Ship had arriv'd in the Netherland Haven, which made his Highness de­sirous to know what Ship it was, and if it came from Quelang, which if it did, it should immediately return.

In answer to which, they were told, That the Occasion of the coming of this Ship would be made known to his Highness by a Letter which was wri­ting.

According to the Resolution taken the last Night, the Secretary went to the Court to deliver the Letter, the Contents whereof were to this effect.

‘That the Ambassador could not but acquaint their Excellencies, That a small Ship was arriv'd there from Quelang, bringing News, That four Months since the Coxingans had Besieg'd the Fort there, but were beaten off with great loss: Then he desir'd that he might send the said Ship again to Quelang with some Necessaries, as Tar, Kadjang, Timber, and the like Necessaries. And lastly, That all diligence was now us'd to get the Emperors Presents ashore, the greatest part of them being already arriv'd at the Bridge in the small Holland Vessel; concerning which, or ought else, he would be glad to speak with their Highnesses, when they pleas'd to command him.’

The Secretary came first to the General; but he having some Mandarins with him, could not in Person grant him Audience, but sent one of his Factors to the Secretary for the Letter, which was given him, and a speedy Answer de­sir'd upon it.

After an hours stay, the foremention'd Factor came to the Secretary, to present him in the Generals Name with a Cup of Bean-broth, and tell him in [Page 220] answer to the Letter, That so soon as the Mandarins (that were with his High­ness) went away, he would consult on their Request, and acquaintthe Am­bassador with his Resolution by his Mandarins.

From hence the Secretary went to the Vice-Roy Singlamong, where the Let­ter, as at the Generals, was receiv'd by a Servant, under pretence, That the Vice-Roy being indispos'd, could not grant him Audience.

An Hour after, the Interpreter came also to give the Secretary a Cup of Bean-broth, and tell him, That the Vice-Roy had understood the Ambassa­dor's Mind by his Letter, and had granted his Request, nay, would have done it, had it been of greater concernment; but the Hollanders must first seek the Generals Consent, which he doubted not but they might easily obtain: Where­upon the Secretary acquainted his Highness with the General's Answer, who said, That it was well, and he would speak with him about it.

His Highness also caus'd him to be ask'd, Why the Horses and Oxen were not brought to his Court, since he had a great fancy to see them? and to de­sire that it might be done about two days after. To which the Secretary re­ply'd, That it was true, they had promis'd his Highness; but he had sent word, That they should refer it till all the Presents were ashore, and that then he would see them together: Whereupon his Highness told them, That the Ge­neral had made that Answer, and not He; and therefore desir'd, as before, to see them, whether the Presents were ashore or not, two days thence: Which the Secretary promis'd to acquaint the Ambassador with; and rising to de­part, two Mandarins came from the General, to inform the Vice-Roy of the Ambassadors Request, so that he was commanded to stay a little. The Manda­rins going away again, the Vice-Roy sent him word, That the General had un­derstood that those of Quelang were by the Netherlanders furnish'd with Provisi­ons and Water; but as for the transporting of Timber, Stones, Tiles, and Nails, it could not be granted: However he had prevail'd so much, (alledging that they were but Trifles, which since Quelang had been besieg'd, were wanting for the Repairing of the Houses) that by the said Mandarins they had in the Ge­nerals Name granted the Ambassadors Request; for which Kindness the Secre­tary humbly thanking his Highness in the Ambassadors Name, took his leave.

In the Afternoon two Mandarins came again to the Ambassador, to give him an Answer to his Request which he had made in the Morning, which they deliver'd, after some Complements, in this manner: That the Netherlanders were Licensed to transport what Provisions they had desir'd, Timber and Nails excepted, to which his Highness could not consent; which contradict­ed that which the Vice-Roys Interpreter had told the Secretary, viz. That the General and the Vice-Roy had permitted it: But there were daily Commissio­ners expected from Peking, to search those Havens; and that his Highness did not doubt but they would grant it him.

Towards Evening the Blyswiik Frigat arriv'd at the Bridge of Lamthay, with the Presents: The Ambassador also sent a Letter, with the Constance's Boat, to the Merchant David Harthouwer, informing him, That the four Jonks laden with Pepper out of the Vlaerding and Blyswiik, arriv'd there yesterday, but were not all weigh'd: The Blyswiik Frigat had also been in sight, but durst not come to the Bridge. The Proposal to unlade the Alphen into the Fly-boat, was lik'd very well, and that then she might be brought in with care, and more safety; to which purpose they should send the Polesnip to Sothia, to take in the Alphens Goods (so to give little or no suspition to the Tartars) and take as much Pepper [Page 221] and other Goods out of her, as they could conveniently carry, and then let her come up the River with it, because the fore-mention'd Vessel should in few days go with Provisions to Quelang.

The Ambassador judg'd it fit, and it would be convenient in that juncture of time, to have a strict Eye upon the Concerns of Quelang, and therefore ad­vis'd them to Consult about it; to which purpose Harthouwer, Captain Vander­werf, with the Commander de Vlieg, were sent for to come up in the Blyswiik, and likewise Captain Bitter.

The Blyswiik that Evening came up to the Bridge, and in the Morning in­tended to Unlade her Presents, and two days after (if it were possible) she should be sent to fetch the rest.

The seventh about Sun-rising the Boat set Sail, and Orders was also given for the Unlading of the Blyswiik.

In the Afternoon a Mandarin coming from the General, ask'd the Ambassa­dor if he would send the Provisions to Quelang by the Blyswiik, because his High­ness had not known that that Ship would have come up so high? On which he was answer'd, That it should be done so soon as the Blyswiik had made one Turn more to fetch the remaining Presents.

Towards Evening all the Goods design'd for Presents were Landed out of the Blyswiik, but it being too late to bring them into the Merchants Lodge, they were forc'd under good Guards to lie in the Barques all Night: but in the Morning, being the eighth, they were all brought into the Lodge.

The same day Putmans, Master of the Ceremonies, and the Comptroller, went with the Horses and Oxen to the Court, to shew them to their Highnes­ses, according to their Request two days since. Coming home again they re­lated, That they had pleas'd their Highnesses exceeding well, and that Singla­mong, to whose view they went first, ask'd if they were wild or tame? to which they had answer'd, Tame: He had also highly commended the Oxen, and had caus'd them to be carry'd and shewn to his Women, by whom they were beheld with great admiration: his Son had also been Mounted on one of the Horses. After which his Father ask'd concerning the Ambassadors Health; and also desir'd his Chirurgeon might come to him the next day. The Gene­ral had also view'd and lik'd them; asking likewise about the Ambassadors Health, if he had any good Doctors? for if he had not, he would send his; and why the Hollanders sent down the Boat without leave, since he never had refus'd to grant them any of their Requests? and withal when the Blyswiik Frigat went again to fetch the rest of the Presents? Whereupon Captain Putmans reply'd, That the Ambassador was pretty well recover'd, and he knew not any thing to the contrary but that he had a good Doctor; yet humbly thank'd his High­ness in the Ambassadors behalf for his kind Proffer: why the Boat went down without leave he could not give any account; but as to the Blyswiik Frigat, she was now Unlading her Pepper, and would at farthest be gone again within two days.

The Commander of the Blyswiik Frigat complain'd to Nobel, that the Tar­tars hinder'd him in the Unlading of the Pepper, he having call'd two Barque­men aboard, which accordingly came; but the Tartars seeing them took them, notwithstanding he interceded for them, and said that he was the occasion of their coming, and caus'd them to be carry'd to Prison in Fetters, which made Nobel send Ienko to complain to the Commission'd Mandarins about it.

Mean while a Factor was sent to Nobel from the General, to enquire about [Page 222] the Ambassadors Health, and if he had any good Physicians, because his High­ness would else send him his.

In the Afternoon the Interpreter Ienko came with some Mandarins and Mer­chants to the Blyswiik Frigat, to redeem the Prisoners, and give order for the Unlading of her, which was begun immediately.

Next Morning, being the ninth, the Ambassador sent to the Vice-Roy Sing­lamong, to excuse him, that he could not accommodate him with his Chirurge­on, because he also was indispos'd, but so soon as he amended he should be immediately sent to him.

In the interim the Tyger Sloop arriv'd there with a Letter from the Mer­chant David Harthouwer; in which the Ambassador was inform'd, that with the other Officers he had thought it convenient not to let the Ship Alphen come into Netherland Haven, because it was too dangerous to come thither against Wind and Tyde: which Resolution they acquainted the Commander of her with, that when he thought convenient he might remove from Sothia to Tinhay; who had sent an Answer, That he would observe it, and consider with his Officers about it, and then send his approbation.

The fifteen Chests brought hither by the Polesnip, were put into the Constance, and in the room of them they had Laden her full of Pepper out of the Constance and Tyger, which weighed forty nine thousand six hundred sixty eight Catties; by which means the Ships had made so much room, that they could not conve­niently come at all the Goods design'd for Presents, so that they onely waited for the Blyswiik to Ship them in her.

The Polesnip Fly-boat was now ready to come up, if they had leave and a Pass for her; but the Povi's Commissioners would not permit it without Or­ders from above.

The Vlaerding had on the sixth instant Unladen thirty two thousand one hundred forty five Catty of Pepper into a Chinese Jonk, which lay there still; so that at last with great trouble they got to the Sandal Wood that was to be Pre­sented.

In the Afternoon two Merchants were sent from the General, to enquire af­ter the Ambassador's health; which Visit he order'd his Comptroller to re­quite, by giving them six Hens, five Gammons of Bacon, some Pomegranates, Chesnuts, and Pears.

The same day the Ambassador desir'd the General, that he might have the use of his Doctor but for a Day, because he was much troubled with Gripes in his Bowels; upon which Request he came immediately and prescribed him something, which he had no sooner taken, but found present ease.

The tenth in the Morning the Doctor came again to give the Ambassador some more Physick. A Factor came also to enquire of his health, and if the Medicines the Doctor had given had done him any good) to which he was answer'd, Yes, and that the Ambassador had found great ease by it, desiring the Factor to thank his Highness in his behalf; which he promis'd to do.

The Bliswyk and the Tigers Sloop were put off from going that day, and or­der'd to stay till the next, because some Mandarins scrupled the carrying away of so much Provision; about which they would first speak with the General.

In the Afternoon two Mandarins came into the Lodge with a Pass for the Bliswyk Frigat, and the Tygers Sloop; and said also, That they were sent to Sail down with the Frigat.

The eleventh the Frigat and Sloop set Sail to Netherland Haven.

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[Page] [Page 223]On Sunday Noon, being the twelfth, two Factors came to the Lodge, to present the Ambassador in the Generals Name with some Chinese Suckets. Connemomy, and to tell him, That the Ambassador had been a considerable time ashore, and that the Emperors Presents were not yet Landed: then the Ambassador desir'd that his Highness would please to give order that they might be suddenly de­liver'd, because he much longed to see them; nor that they could proceed in any Trade before the Goods were ashore, and likewise that then preparations should be made for his Journey to Peking.

Whereupon the Ambassador sent this Answer, That the rest of the Presents would suddenly be ashore, and that he thank'd his Highness for his Connemomy, and in requital of it desir'd him to take a few Conserves of Nuts, Cloves, and the like: So having been well entertain'd by the Ambassador, the Factors took their Leave.

In the Evening it was consider'd, That for several Reasons which the Governors had alledg'd by their Factors, it might happen, so soon as news came from Peking for the Ambassador to take his Journey thither, that their Highnesses might press his going, and that they (nothing being as yet in readiness, and all in a hurry) might be put to a great inconvenience; There­fore the Ambassador, to begin betimes, proposed, If it would not be ne­cessary to acquaint their Highness's to morrow, That most of the Pre­sents were ashore, and the rest expected in few days; if therefore they might begin to Pack them, and cause Chests to be made for them; of what big­ness the Chests must be, and how many Men must carry them, and also the Sad­dles and Furniture for the Horses; and likewise if their Highnesses would please to send Commissioners before the Presents? if the Sandal Wood, being very big, could be carry'd by Land as it was, or in what Pieces it ought to be cut? that they must also carry several other Goods with them to Peking to give to the Council of State, and other eminent Persons; if they saw it conve­nient, to desire their Highnesses to accept of the last Presents, being onely Trifles, sent to them by the Ambassador, because they had no Place in the Lodge to keep them; If their Highnesses should chance to speak of Trading, to press it forward, and to order that two Ships might about two Moneths hence be sent to Batavia, and from thence to Holland, to give an account of the Ambassador's Proceedings, and the like.

This the Ambassador and his Council agreed upon, and Nobel and Putmans order'd to go and acquaint their Highnesses with it.

The thirteenth in the Morning Nobel and Putmans (according to the Resolu­tion taken the Night before) went to the Court to speak with their Highnesses. About Noon coming home again they related, That they had not seen them, it being their Full-Moon, and Singlamong indispos'd; yet they had sent their Bu­siness to them by their Interpreters, and receiv'd in answer, That when all the Presents were brought ashore, their Highnesses must be inform'd of it, and that then they would send their Commissioners, to see and be present at the Packing of them; The Chests might be made for them, and about the bigness to contain a hundred Catty weight; The Sandal Wood must not be cut, but sent as it came from the Lord General Maetzuiker; The other Goods which the Hollanders would carry with them to give away when an occasion did present, should be set down with the Chests and Packs, that they might know exactly how many Porters they should want.

The fore-mention'd Trifles they could not receive before all the Emperor's [Page 224] Presents were brought up. Because they did not speak with their High­nesses themselves, they had not made any mention of the Business concerning Trade.

The fourteenth about Noon the Vlaerdings Sloop arriv'd there from Netherland Haven, with Harthouwer and Captain Vander Werf, who related, That all things as well in Sothia as Netherland Haven, were in good condition at their departure from thence, and that all the rest of the Presents were taken out of the Constance and Tyger, and put into the Bliswyk Frigat.

The fifteenth the Bliswyk arriv'd there with the rest of the Presents, and al­so the Jonks with three hundred forty four Bags of Pepper out of the Vlaer­ding. In the Blyswiik Frigat also came Captain de Bittor, who had been Gover­nor in Quelang.

A general report also went, that nine English Ships were on the Coast of Chi­na, about the Isles Eymuy and Quemuy, and that they had been in Canton, and desir'd to Trade there; but the Tartar-Chineses, not willing to take four hundred Tail for the granting of them their Trade, were sent away from thence, and were now come afresh to prosecute their old Design.

The Governor having sent word to the Ambassador by Nobel and Putmans on the thirteenth instant, That so soon as the Presents were all Landed, he should inform them of it; therefore he judg'd it convenient to advise their Highnesses of the arrival of the remaining Presents in a Letter by the Secretary, that if they pleas'd (about two days hence, when they were sorted) they might come and see them in Person, or send their Commissioners, that they might make fit preparations for them.

The sixteenth in the Morning the Secretary went first to the General, to de­liver him the following Letter in the Ambassadors Name, that the rest of the Presents were now come ashore, and that the next day they would all be put in order; therefore if his Highness pleas'd to come in Person, the Am­bassador would most kindly entertain him; or else send his Commissioners to see them.

In like manner he desir'd a Pass for the Boat, that she might go up and down without being stopp'd to enquire the certainty of the News concerning the English Ships.

No sooner was the Secretary's coming made known to the General, but he sent for the Letter, and an hour after gave this Answer; That it was not cu­stomary for the General to come in Person to see the Goods, but he would send his Interpreter if the Presents were as the Hollanders had reported them, and then consult whom he should send: as to what concern'd the Boat, he would send a Pass for her by his Mandarins.

The rumor was at Court, that the General intended that Afternoon to see the Dutch Ship; to which purpose several Flags, Halberds, and the like, were stuck in the Street.

From thence the Secretary went to the Vice-Roy's Court, where after some stay he was brought into the Presence in a back Hall. His Highness having ask'd concerning the Ambassador's health, and the Secretary given him a re­spective Answer, deliver'd his Highness the Ambassador's Letter, advising him that all the Presents were now Landed, and if his Highness pleas'd, to send Commissioners to see them. Whereupon his Highness made Answer, That he was glad to hear that the Presents were all safe ashore, and that he would not fail to send his Commissioners the next day to see them: And after having [Page 225] drunk to him in a Cup of Bean-broth, and entertain'd some frivolous Dis­courses within, the Vice-Roy gave him leave to depart.

Mean while the General's Interpreter came with some Factors into the Lodge, to bring an Answer on the Letter that was brought in the Morning to his Court, which was after this manner: ‘That a Pass should be brought for the Boat the next Morning; but when she had made one Voyage, that they should always bring the Pass to his Highness again, and at her depar­ture ask for a new one.’ Moreover the Interpreter said, That the General was not well pleas'd that the Ambassador should desire him to come and see the Presents in his own Person; yet the Interpreter had appeas'd and satisfi'd him.

Hereupon the Ambassador answer'd the Interpreter, That by the Discourse of the People he had heard that the General would come himself to see the Presents, and therefore had written, that he should esteem himself happy if it might be so; but had he known, that either the Vice-Roy or General would have been angry, he should not have done it. With which Answer the Inter­preter took his leave.

The remaining Presents were this day all brought out of the Blyswiik Frigat into the Lodge.

The seventeenth in the Morning the same Interpreter that had been there the day before came to the Lodge, to ask if the Presents were Landed; on which he was answer'd Yes, and that they were brought thither the last Night, and they onely stay'd till the Mandarin saw them.

At Noon an eminent Mandarin came to tell the Ambassador from the Gene­ral, That his Highness had heard that all the Emperor's Presents were going to be brought to his Court, therefore ask'd him how many Coelis, which are Porters, could carry them: Whereupon the Ambassador answer'd, That he knew nothing of it; and withall, that the bringing of them to the General's Court could not well be done, because of the bigness of the Packs of Sandal Wood, and other things: but if his Highness desir'd it, he entreated him to send a written Order by his Mandarins, they being not his, but the Emperor's Presents, and also that he would not bear the blame if any of the Goods should chance to be damnifi'd by their Carriage thither. Which Discourse prevail'd so much, that the Mandarin said, His Highness should onely send for a Piece of each sort to see them. To which the Ambassador answer'd, That all which his Highness should give order for in Writing he would obey. Hereupon the Mandarin rising up reply'd, That his Highness should send a written Order.

The eighteenth in the Morning, another Factor came into the Lodge, sent from the Vice-Roy, to ask concerning the Ambassador's health: and amongst other Discourses Nobel ask'd him what they should do concerning Trade? all the Presents were now ashore, and the time come which their Highnesses had limited: To which the Factor answer'd, That it would be convenient to send a Letter to Singlamong about it, and therein express, That his Highness had for three years together given them leave to Trade, and that he would also be pleased to do it now, and assist them in it; and that Nobel might be admit­ted to speak with him more at large about it; so made no question but all things would fall out according to his desire. He ask'd moreover if the Hollan­ders would sell the two hundred Bags of Pepper lying in the Storehouse to him. To which Nobel answer'd, Yes, if they could agree. Mean while two Manda­rins came into the Merchants Lodgings from the General, telling them that all the Cloths, Perpetuana's, Crown-Serges, and other Goods belonging to the [Page 226] Emperor's Presents, should on the morrow (if the Weather permitted) by an Order from the Governors be fetch'd to the Vice-Roy Singlamong's Palace, where all the great Persons would be ready to see them; the Chests to fetch the Presents in were making ready, and as for the bulky Packs that were not so curious, they should not trouble themselves.

The foremention'd Mandarins were also impower'd by the General (as they said) to search the Holland Ships, if there were no more Pepper, or other Mer­chandise in them, desiring that two of the Netherlanders would please to go along with them, who at their Return related that all things were according to the Cargo.

Since now, according to the Governors desires, the Emperor's Presents were brought ashore, and they had promis'd that the Hollanders should begin to Trade, of which as yet they saw no likelihood, therefore Captain Nobel was on Sunday the nineteenth sent with the following Letters from the Ambassador to the Vice-Roy Singlamong and General, being to this purpose, viz.

‘That the Vice-Roy had known the Hollanders several years, and always shewed them respect and favor, and assisted them in obtaining Dispatches in their Affairs. The Captain Nobel. Houpou understood the last year from the Vice-Roy and Lipovi, That an Ambassador must of necessity address himself to the Em­peror this very year, whereupon they should immediately drive their Trade; which the Houpou gave account of to the General in Batavia; who thereup­on hath sent a Person of Honor, one of his Council as Ambassador, and brought the Emperor's Presents ashore upon your Highnesses desire, and promise, that so soon as that should be done they would begin to Traffick; therefore the Houpou humbly desires, that his Highness would be pleas'd to permit it, and give order to the Factors and Merchants about it, that the Houpou may be the sooner ready to go with the Ambassador to Peking, and the rather, because that two Moneths after the Date thereof, two Ships must go to Batavia; by which the Ambassador must give an account to the Gene­ral there, and also to the Province of Holland, of his success in that Empire. The Houpou was very desirous to send some Goods with those two Ships, which he would buy of the Factors; therefore he humbly requested that the Trade might now commence.’

To which Nobel receiv'd an Answer from Singlamong, That he wonder'd at the Hollanders hastiness, since the Ambassador was not to travel up to Peking till the new Year, and that an Answer was expected from thence in twenty days; therefore they must stay till that time, because the Cargo that they had brought (which in respect of what the Hollanders carry'd into the Empire of Iapan was very small) could be sold in five days; and that the forementi­on'd Ships might then go away time enough. However, his Highness by No­bel's perswasions granted that they might conclude with the Factors about the Prices for the Goods which the Hollanders intended to Vend there, and for those which they should receive in Barter for them, and drive their Trade privately, without publishing it before Orders came from Peking, because he knew not but that the Emperor might desire all, or a part of their Commodities.

The General Siangpovi, to seem resolute and bountiful, promis'd to Nobel, That so soon as he had seen the Presents, he would send his Factors to the Lodge to agree with him concerning his Merchandise, provided the Hollanders ask'd modestly, and not more than the value for them. He also boasted much of his good inclination towards the Hollanders, because he had lent them his [Page 227] Jonks to bring their Merchandise ashore, of which they had lost nothing; and that he resolv'd from that time forward to continue his kindness, and endea­vor by all means possible to advance them. About the sending of the two Ships for Batavia he seem'd somewhat backward, because according to his judgment nothing of consequence could be advis'd by them: but being some­what better inform'd about it, made answer, That the first Orders were expe­cted from the Emperor in fifteen days, therefore would have them stay till then. Their Highnesses also ask'd courteously concerning the Ambassadors Health; and hearing of his Recovery, seem'd much to rejoyce at it.

The Mandarin Han lavja came also to the Lodge to tell the Ambassador, that the General had order'd him to go along with his Excellency as Guide to Peking, and that four Standards must be made to be carry'd before the Ambas­sador in his Journey, out of which two must be mark'd with Dutch, and two with Chinese Characters; and moreover, that he had been inform'd the Gover­nors in few days would grant the Trade.

The one and twentieth and two and twentieth nothing hapned worthy of note.

The twenty fourth in the Morning, a Mandarin came to the Lodge, asking if the Ambassador did not know when the Chineses that came from Batavia went away? and from what Place? if they were first carry'd over with the Holland Ships? and what was their native Countrey and Names?

The Mandarin receiv'd in answer, That some went over the last year as Ser­vants with Nobel and Pedel to Batavia; and as to what concern'd the rest, they came thither from Canton, Tayowan, Chinkfieuw, Hoksieu, and other Places, both in Ships and Jonks, but the Places of their Birth and Names were unknown to him, because he had never enquir'd after them. They desir'd at Batavia to be Transported to their native Countrey again, which was accordingly grant­ed them.

The same Mandarin had a Letter given him, in which a Pass was desir'd from the General, for the Blyswiik Frigat to carry down some Goods that were to be sent to Quelang, and come up again with Merchandise; and likewise from the Vlaerding Sloop.

The twenty fifth about Noon a Mandarin brought a Pass for the fore­mention'd Ship and Boat to go up and down the River.

The twenty sixth in the Morning the Comptroller made several Com­plaints to the Ambassador, That the Chineses at the buying of the Necessaries for Quelang (appointed by the General) had prevented the Person, who daily brought him Flesh, Fish, Herbs, and the like, into the Lodge, from bringing any more as he us'd to do, and had complain'd of him, and made him so odi­ous to the Mandarins, that they had put him and the Coelies Master (which had assisted the Netherlanders in buying of Provisions for their Ships) into Irons; by which means the Coelies, and other labouring People that work'd in the Lodge, durst not come any more thither, which put the Hollanders to a great inconvenience.

There also came an eminent Mandarin to the Lodge, to give order for the Pressing of Jonks at Minjazen, to fetch the Merchandises out of the Ships.

In the Afternoon, it being fair Weather, the Blyswiik Frigat went away with the Necessaries that were to be sent to Quelang, and also for fresh Provisions for the Ships in Netherland Haven.

In the same Frigat Captain Vander Werf, and Vander Does the Secretary, [Page 228] went down to take an account of those Chinese Goods which came over in the Dutch Ships from Batavia, and seize on all their Moneys and Merchandise of any value, because on the two and twentieth the Ambassador had found in one of the Chinese Chests to the value of a thousand Rix-Dollers in Money, con­sisting in Spanish Dollers and Iapan Boat-Silver, which was strictly forbidden in Batavia.

The Merchants Nobel and Harthouwer went in the Afternoon by the Vice-Roy, General, and Conbon's direction, to Treat about the Trade. When among other things Harthouwer and Nobel proposed, That upon Sale they must fetch the Pepper and Sandal Wood out of the Netherland Ships in the Haven; which the Factors refus'd, saying, That the Goods should be deliver'd to them in the Ambassador's Lodge. But at last they agreed, That the Goods being fetch'd out of the Netherland Ships, and brought up the River in Jonks by the Gene­ral's Order, were to be deliver'd on the Shore, on the hither side of the Bridge, after the same manner as in former years. Then they desir'd the particular Parcels of the Merchandise brought thither by the Netherlanders, and how ma­ny, and what Goods they would have in Return of them; which they writ down accordingly in their Notes, as China Root, ordinary Tee, Galya, Allom, Preserv'd Ginger, Hatten, Gold, &c.

Seeing the great quantity of Allom and Gold Wyer, besides Gold which the Hollanders desir'd, they seem'd to be much amaz'd, and judg'd, that the two first sorts could never be afforded for the Prizes that were set down for them by the Netherlanders; and demanded, why the Hollanders had not ask'd for Silk: To which they were answer'd, That it could not be done before the Prizes were setled on the Dutch Commodities, and that then an account might be made of their Stock; which they seeming to approve of, soon after departed.

The twenty eight in the Morning, two of the General Povi's Factors came into the Lodge, of which, one being Povi's Intimate, went with the Interpre­ter Apari to the Ambassador, and desir'd him to give him some account of what he had yesterday written to Povi: Whereupon his Excellency made an­swer, That amongst other things, he would willingly speak with Povi con­cerning the Trade, and also his going up to Peking: To which he reply'd, That he being his Favorite, could do much in it; but he would advise to pre­sent him with some more Blood Coral, which he dust assure would not be lost, and that about two days after, the Ambassador might come to visit Lipovi, be­cause that and the next were kept as Fast-Days of the first Moon. The Am­bassador hereupon answer'd, That he depended upon the Noble and Heroick Disposition of the General, and therefore desir'd his Highness to repose Con­fidence in him, as being a Person of so clear a Spirit, as would endeavor to re­taliate the General's Favors. So the Factor being Presented with ten Yards of Red Cloth, and Vowing to serve the Ambassador to the utmost of his Power, took his leave and departed.

The twenty ninth in the Morning, Putmans went with the Interpreter Ienko to the General, to inquire if he was any ways busie, because that was the appointed time for the Ambassador to visit him: Whereupon they were answer'd, That the General was always imploy'd, but that the Ambassador might come when he pleas'd; which they at their return acquainting his Excellency, he instantly went to Court, and Presented some Blood Coral to the General. Whereupon his Highness told him, That he well knew the generous Nature of the Ambassa­dor: Who reply'd, That he esteem'd the Favors and kind Receptions which [Page 229] he had receiv'd from the General, that he was oblig'd to study Requital.

Then the Ambassador desir'd to know the time, when, and which way he should go to Peking. Whereto he answer'd, That it was now the ninth Moon, and that he might set forward on his Journey very suddenly.

Next, the Ambassador desir'd that they might begin to open Trade, that the Houpou (meaning Nobel) might be ready to go along with him. To which was answer'd, That the Presents must first be view'd, and that the Mandarins there­to imploy'd, had been four days busie about their Orders, which was now done, and the Presents should be look'd over in two or three days, and then the Trade should Commence. Their Discourse ended, after a handsome Treat, the Ambassador went very well satisfi'd to his Lodgings.

Coming to the Lodge, they were soon after visited by the Generals intimate Factor, to tell them, that the General had consider'd about the Coral Chain, and durst not accept of it; yet at length through his perswasions, and that it came from the Ambassadors own Hand, he had taken it. The Factor likewise desir'd a great Blood Coral, which was given him, in hopes that he might assist them in their Trade.

The thirtieth in the Morning, the Ambassador sent a Letter by Putmans, and the Interpreter Ienko, to the Vice-Roy Singlamong to this purpose.

THe Ambassador had long since heard, and now understood, that Singla­mong had a kindness for the Hollanders; therefore he hop'd, that he would please to assist him in all things hereafter, which would be no small Ob­ligation only to himself, but also to his Masters, and desir'd to visit his High­ness, to speak with him about the Journey to Peking.

Against Noon, Putmans came again to the Lodge, relating, That he could not speak with the Vice-Roy, but after delivery of the Letter receiv'd answer, That he should be busie four or five days, so that he could not give the Ambassador Audience, and that nothing could be said about the Journey to Peking, till the Presents were look'd over, which would be done in few days; with which answer Putmans took his leave.

Against the Evening, the General Povi's Interpreter came to the Lodge to tell the Ambassador from his Master, that when the Presents were view'd, (which should be done in a day or two,) he would desire the Ambassador to be free as he would be to him, and to ask freely for what ever he wanted, who gave the Interpreter five Yards of Red Cloth for his Message.

The first of October in the afternoon, the Mandarin Liu-lavja came with OrdersOctober. from the General, to fetch all the Chineses from the Dutch Ships with their Goods; and to that purpose desir'd a Note to the Commanders of them, to which he was answer'd, that the Netherland Secretary was gone thither to search their Goods, which Liu-lavja desir'd might be brought into the Lodge; whereupon the Ambassador gave the Mandarin two Letters, one to Captain Vander Werf, and one to the Secretary Vander Does, advising them, that the Chi­neses might be deliver'd, provided they had been search'd and examin'd before by the Secretary, who if he found any thing of concern, should according to his last Letter, secure it aboard till further Order, with which the Mandarin departed.

The second and third being Sunday and Monday nothing happen'd of note.

The fourth, the Ambassador had Audience granted him by the Vice-Roy, who after Salutations, complain'd, that he was indispos'd, having great pains in his Head and Back.

[Page 230]The Ambassador first thanking him for the Honor he receiv'd by his pre­sence; then desir'd to know the time when, and what way he should travel to Peking: To which his Highness answer'd, That if news came from Peking that day, he might go on the morrow; whereupon the Ambassador desir'd that the Trade might Commence, that Nobel and he might be in a readiness: To which the Vice-Roy answer'd, That the Ambassador need not to trouble himself about the Trade, because the sale of all the Goods they had brought might be dispatch'd in four or five days; but they must first Pack up all the Emperors Presents, and bring them to the Royal House, and that day on which they were brought they might begin their Trade on the next. On this the Am­bassador reply'd, He would depend on his Highness's Royal Word, and there­fore would not trouble him any farther, but that he would give Order, that the Presents should with all speed be brought into his Palace.

Then the Ambassador's Son presented him for his Daughters a great and small Chain of Blood Coral, which he accepted; yet said, he durst not receive, but that they were a Present from the Ambassador's Son, for his Children; and though himself was much indispos'd, yet he desir'd, that the Ambassador would stay and refresh himself a little; which being perform'd, after Dinner, just at his Departure, the Vice-Roy's Daughters, as a thankful return for the Coral, Presented the Ambassadors Son with six Rolls of Silk Stuffs.

Coming to the Lodge, the Ambassador gave Order for the making of sixteen Cases against the next day, to Pack the Presents in, and carry them to Singla­mong's Palace. Soon after, Liv-lavja came to visit the Lord Van Hoorn, telling him, that he should go with him to Peking, but the time when, was yet unknown.

The fifteenth in the Morning, The Ambassador. his Lordship sent a Letter by the Inter­preter Ienko to the Conbon, advising him:

THat he knew very well the good Inclination which he bore to his Countrey-men, and also that he had always assisted them, which they would ever acknowledge with much Thankfulness, in regard the Conbon had for some time been very busie, that he could not have the Honor to speak with him; now he desir'd, that he might come to proffer his Service to him.

The Interpreter for all this civility, after their Proud manner, brought on­ly in return, an excuse of indisposition, and that in three or four days he might give him a visit.

The sixth in the Evening, Ienko the Interpreter came to tell the Ambassa­dor, that the Mandarin Liv-lavja was come with all the Chineses from the Ships up to Lamthay Bridg, and desir'd to know why he had detain'd some of their Goods; On which the Ambassador answer'd, that he had express Order from the General and Council of India, that he should do it, because the Chineses de­sir'd that they might be only brought over with their Necessaries; therefore, if either Money or Merchandize was found by them, it was forfeited, as it was likewise with his own Men: Whereupon he reply'd, That the General resen­ted, and that the Mandarin Liv-lavja would speak with the Ambassador about it the next day.

Nobel also inform'd the Ambassador, that the Factor had told him that very day, that he had privately been inform'd, that they would have suddenly news from Peking; and also that the Ambassador should not go thither him­self, but that the Presents should be sent thither, and that he should stay in [Page 231] Hoksieu, to Treat with the Governors about the Trade, which the Hollanders look'd upon as a Discourse without Truth or Reason.

The seventh and eighth, nothing happen'd of remark, but only some false rumors that troubled the Ambassador, that the Emperor had order'd the Pre­sents to be brought to Peking, and he to stay at Hoksieu; and on the other side, Singlamong was as much concern'd at the seizure of the Chineses Money, which was forfeited according to the Maritime Law.

The ninth about Noon, they receiv'd an account, that all things remain'd in a good condition at Tinghay, and Netherland Haven, only some new Dis­putes with the Mandarins and Messages concerning the Chineses forfeited Goods, which were for the most part Silver, Camphire, Coral, and Seed-Pearl.

The tenth, the Blyswiik Frigat arriv'd at Lamthay Bridge, laden with Pepper, taken out of another Vessel, and also the remaining Necessaries for the Ambas­sador and his Retinue, likewise some Packs for his private occasions. The Mandarins (which as Commissioners) had been down with the Frigat, and re­turn'd in her, coming to the Lodge, were by the Ambassador presented with as much Cloth, as would make each of them an upper Garment.

The eleventh, it was resolv'd in Council, to unlade the Tyger and Constance with the first, and send them to Tinghay, there to make themselves ready to go for Batavia, at the latter end of the Moneth.

Lapora the Factor inform'd the Ambassador, that the next day the Presents would be brought to the Vice-Roy Singlamong's, there to be view'd; in order to which all things were prepar'd.

The twelfth in the Morning, about Day light, the Netherlanders prepar'd all the Presents in a fit manner to be carry'd to Court, expecting the Mandarins; but in stead of them, the Factor Lapora brought what they little expected, that they should not bring the Presents to Court, till further Order; by which Di­latoriness, he perceiv'd, that they were not willing as yet, to suffer them to open and vend their Cargo: Therefore he propos'd to his Council, If it would not be convenient, for these Delays that he should shew his Dislike by Letter; and withal desir'd, that he might return aboard, until they had liber­ty to Vend their Goods, or receiv'd Orders for their Journey to Peking, which they approv'd.

But next Day, while he was preparing the Letter, Lapora coming to the Lodge, he told him what he was about to Write, and resolv'd to send immediately; who desir'd him by all means to forbear two or three days longer, to which he was perswaded, which fell out the better; for the next Morning he sent for the Presents.

At this time, the Ambassador heard there were many Vessels making ready at Lamthay Bridge, whereby he judg'd, that they were preparing, that when ty­dings came for him to come to Peking, then they might hurry him away upon a sudden, which made him ask what Vessels they were, and who was to go with them? To which the Interpreter reply'd, That they were in few days to go with some Tartar Lords, and perhaps with the Ambassador to Peking; for which, and that he might be the freer hereafter to acquaint him with the like, he made a Present of five Yards of Red Cloth.

The fourteenth, in the Forenoon, the Emperor's Presents were carry'd to the Vice-Roy's Court, accompany'd with the Ambassador, Nobel, Harthouwer, Putmans, the Secretary, and the whole Train, the Presents being carry'd before, were follow'd by the Ambassador and his Retinue; who coming to the Pa­lace [Page 232] were brought to the Common-Hall, to stay there while the General's coming, at last they were call'd into the Presence Chamber, where the Vice-Roy and General sate on Stools one by another, and next them on their left Hands, three Commissioners sent from Peking, to inquire what Chineses had car­ry'd themselves valiantly at the Conquering of Eymuy and Quemuy; which also after the Hollanders were enter'd, took their leave, being Conducted by the Vice-Roy to the Stairs descending into the Court, by which they suppos'd them to be great Lords: The Ambassador was also desir'd to sit down on a low Stool at the Vice-Roy's right Hand, and his Attendants in order next him; opposite to them sate the Poetzjensy, the Magistrates of the City and other great Mandarins; the Chests with the Presents standing just without in a Gallery. When the Vice-Roy began with their usual Complement to inquire of his Health, afterwards the Chests and Packs with the Presents being open'd, the Goods were taken out in several Parcels, brought and laid before their High­nesses to see them; seeming to be well pleas'd with them, especially some cu­rious Lanthorns, and Celestial and Terrestrial Spheres and Globes: Having sa­tisfi'd their longings, and pleas'd their curiosity with viewing and re-viewing, they commanded them to be laid up handsomly, and in good order again: Which done, after some familiar Discourses, they Treated them very pleasant­ly with store of good Liquor; when on a sudden the General went away, being Complemented by the Vice-Roy to the middle of the Stairs descending into the Court. But the Vice-Roy returning again into the Hall, gave leave to the Ne­therlanders to depart; whereupon they also went away: At their going out, No­bel was desir'd by Singlamong's Factor, that he and Harthouwer would be pleas'd to come to his House, that they might Treat with him concerning the Trade, which they promis'd to do. The Ambassador having sent a Rundlet of Sack to the Vice-Roy, desir'd him to accept of it, which he did, and return'd him Thanks.

According to the Factors Request to Nobel the day before, he and Harthou­wer went the fifteenth in the Morning to his House, to Discourse with him about the Trade: Soon after their coming, the Factor Rode to Singlamong's Palace; from whence he in an hours time return'd again, but could not come to any absolute Resolution, onely telling them, that he had a Parcel of Silk of about forty Pikol, which he would willingly sell: Who said, That it might be done, but that he would consider, that they could not send any Silk to Ia­pan that Year, but that they must first carry it from thence to Batavia, and then send it to Iapan the next Year, so that they should run a great Risk in sending of it to and fro; yet nevertheless, if they would deal reasonably, they would take a considerable quantity; asking the Price, which the Factor durst not tell, because the Generals and Conbon's Factors were not there present, but pro­mis'd to consult about it, and let them know their resolution on the Morrow, when they would come to the Lodge, and let them know the Prizes of all their Goods, and so begin to Trade.

He also advis'd the Dutch Merchants, that they should go to the General, or to his Factors, and give him an account of what they had done, which the Hollanders did not think convenient, because they had not been with the Vice-Roy, but went to his Factors, who also promis'd to come to them on the Morrow, desiring that they would also acquaint the Conbon's Factor with it, which was perform'd accordingly.

[Page 233]The Ambassador by the Interpreter De Hase, sent the General a small Rund­let of Sack, which he kindly receiv'd.

Then calling to mind, that the Conbon was not at the looking over of the Presents, and also having understood that he was not well pleas'd, the Am­bassador sending for his Factor, desir'd to know the reason: To which they reply'd, That the occasion was, because his Presents which were deliver'd on August 26. were much less than the Vice-Roy's or General's, which he took ve­ry ill, being as great a Lord as Povi. The Ambassador somewhat troubled at this Relation, intreated his Factors to desire their Lord that he would please to admit, that he might wait upon him, and endeavor to give satisfaction; with which they promis'd to acquaint him, and bring an answer the next Morning, as he did, letting the Ambassador know he might come to his Ma­ster two days after.

The Interpreter Maurice having again been with Sibontok, to present him with three Swords in the Ambassadors Name, which receiving with Thanks, he promis'd to do the Hollanders what Service he could; and withal, gave no­tice, that having Dined the day before at the Generals, He there understood of some Mandarins, that the Netherlanders were in ten or twelve days to travel to Peking, and that he had receiv'd his Commands to go before, and to wait for the Ambassador at Iemping, being his Dominion through which they were to pass. He therefore desir'd, that the Ambassador would please to bring with him some Coral, Amber, Sword-Blades, Pistols, Musquets, Cloth, Perpetuanaes, Linnen, Looking-Glasses, some Gold Rings, and Sparks or Pebbles, which he had an intent and desire to buy of him.

All the Governors Factors, except Singlamong's chiefest, came that day to the Lodge to give the Prizes of their Commodities, and endeavor to make a Bar­gain. Nobel and Harthouwer gave them account of these Merchandizes, viz. Pep­per, Sandal-Wood, Arek, Cloves, Nutmegs, Lead, Tin, Calicutor-Wood,, &c.

The Commodities which the Factors gave the Dutch an account of, consisted in Gold Wyer, China Root, course Tee, Galiga, Allom, Quicksilver, Cubebs, Pre­serv'd Ginger, Hatten, Gold: As for raw Silk, one of Povi's Factors said, that the Netherlanders could carry none from thence that year.

Not long after, the Stewards appear'd with a Pass for the Constance Boat, and the Vlaerdings Ship, which set Sail at high Water, Laden with Provisions to the Ships in Netherland Haven.

The eighteenth, the Ambassador went to visit the Conbon, where he was no­bly entertain'd; and after Dinner, the Cups merrily went round, Health pres­sing Health, so long, till both sides began to yield to the Intoxicating Liquor.

The nineteenth about Noon, two Factors sent from the General, came to the Lodge to present the Ambassador in their Masters Name with six Pots of Liquor, in requital for the Rundlet of Sack, which they said was very accep­table to him.

The Ambassador asking them if they knew not whether any News was come from Peking: They reply'd, That they knew of none, but that it was expected there in five days time.

The twentieth in the Morning, the Governors Factors came a second time to Nobel and Harthouwer, to agree about the Price of the Goods, but parted with­out coming to a Conclusion.

In the Evening, a Sea-man came ashore from Minjazen without the Tartars knowledge, with a Letter sent from Captain Naelhout, who inform'd the Ne­therlanders, [Page 234] That yesterday he was coming up in the Vlaerdings Sloop, but was stopt at Minjazen, which necessitated him to go again to the Ships, and had in the Night undertaken the Journey anew, hoping in the Dark to have pass'd by Minjazen; but that also fell out contrary to his expectation, because the Chineses that kept the Watch in a Jonk that lay in the middle of the Water, had perceiv'd and kept them there; so that they were detain'd at Minjazen, therefore desir'd a Pass from the Ambassador to come to him, without which they saw no likelyhood of getting thither.

The Mariner further related, That all things about the Ships were in a good condition, onely the Tygers Men going ashore in the Crab-Hole, to cut Wood, one of them was suddenly seiz'd on, and devour'd by a Tyger.

The Ambassador causing the Interpreter Ienko to be call'd, commanded him to go betimes the next Morning to the Gove