A Treatise of Baptism: WHEREIN That of Believers and that of Infants is examined by the Scriptures.

WITH The History of both out of Antiquity; making it appear, that Infants Baptism was not practised for Three Hundred Years, nor enjoyn'd as necessary till (by the Popes Canons here at large) Four Hundred Years after Christ; with the fabulous Traditions, and erroneous Grounds upon which it was (with Gossips Chrysme, Exorcisme, Consignation, Baptising of Churches and Bells, and other Popish Rites) found­ed: And that the famous Waldensian and old British Churches and Christians witnessed against it.

With the Examination of the Stories about Thomas Munzer, and John a Leyden.

As also, The History of Christianity amongst the Anci­ent Britains and Waldenses.

And, A brief Answer to Mr. Bunyan about Com­munion with Persons Unbaptized.

That Persons Baptised in Infancy, are to be Baptised after they Believe, which is not to be esteemed Rebap­tisation, but Right Baptisme. Pet. Bruis the great Waldensian Martyr, Osiander Cent. 12. L. 3. P. 262.

By H. D.

Ephes. 4.5. One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism.

Act. 17.28. As certain also of your own Poets have said.

London, Printed for Francis Smith, at the Elephant and Castle near the Royal Exchange in Cornhil, 1673.

The Preface.

AMongst all those Ordinances and In­stitutions of Christ, that the Man of Sin hath so miserably mangled, metamorphised and changed, none hath been more horribly abused than that of Baptism; which as to Matter and Form, Subject and Circumstance, hath suffered such apparent Alteration and Subversion, that no­thing but the very name of the thing remains, and yet that also very improperly too, if duly considered.

Which the better to Demonstrate, you have here not only a Platform of the Primitive Institution, in Christ's Commiss [...]on, the Apo­stles Precepts and Practice, and the Spiritual Ends thereof, plainly laid down from the Scriptures, and confirmed by the Learned; But the change it self of Believers into Infants Baptism, traced out and detected, with all the Foppish, Ridiculous Superstitions, and Fooleries, made essential to it, and conco­mitant with it, and that according to Apo­stolical Tradition, as their impious Forgeries would impose upon us;

Than which, as nothing did ever more tend to defile and ruine the true Church, and re­proach the Wisdom and Authority of Christ their Head; So nothing could rationally more establish and confirm the false, or more ap­parently promote the Soveraignty a [...]d Dignity of Antichrist their Head; which is so plain, that he that runs may read.

For if the very Act of Sprinkling, or pouring a little Water on the Childs Head, or Face (with the Charms attending it) must give Grace, Regenerate, take away Sin, save the Soul, adde to the Church, and give right to all the Ordinances; as Mr. Pope hath been pleased, sitting in the Temple of God, as God, to Ordain and Decree, and that with Ana­thema's too, against every one that shall not so receive it:

How naturally must it needs follow;

First, That Christ's Conversion, and the powerful Preaching of the Gospel, his means to effect it, must be slighted and despised; Ignorance and Prophaness, the true Interest of this State, necessarily; brought in; Christ's Baptisme, with all the Spiritual Ends and Ʋses, outed and contemned; the Jewish Anti­christian Rites of a National Church and High Priest-hood, with all the Apurtenances, intro­duced.

But Secondly, That as the Nations should accept this New Project of being made Chri­stians and Church-Members by the Popes Christening, they necessarily oblige themselves by receiving his Law, to embrace also his Government, and to be Ruled in chief by him­self (as the greatest part, called Christendome, have done accordingly) who can deny it? To the erecting a Throne for the Beast, and to give that vile Person (who blasphemously they call his Holiness) cause to say (looking over his goodly Fabrick, with his Father of old, Dan. 4.30.) Is not this great Babylon, that I have built by the might of my Power, & for the honour of my Majesty? And so hath it become the Corner and [...]oundation-Stone of the Anti­christian Church and State.

For as they who take (as far as they can judg) living Stones (called the Spiritual Seed, Saints by Calling, or Believers) to build Christ a House or Church, Orderly joyning them to­gether by Dipping, Do yield Obedience to Christs Command, conform to the Primitive Patern of the New-Testament-Churches, a­scribe honour and glory to the Lord Christ the Institutor:

So they, who take the Carnal Seed, viz. Ig­norant and Ʋnconverted ones, to make up the National, or any particular Church, joyning them together by Sprinkling, do thereby yeeld Obedience to the Popes Canons, conform to the Jewish and Antichristian Pattern, and re­flect Honour and Dignity to their Soveraign Lord the Pope, the Contriver and Imposer thereof. And is not this very observable, that Pope Innocentius the first, (that Abaddon and Apollyon) that had so many marks of Antichrist, as you'l find in the account here given of him, was the first Confirmer and Imposer here­of.

But that which is most to be lamented is, That the Protestant Reformers, who detected and cast away so many Antichristian Abomi­nations, should yet hold fast such a Principal Foundation-Stone of their Building; though it is granted, with the rejecting of many of its Superstitions, and also upon other pretended Grounds. For when the Rotteness of the Popish Grounds aforesaid did appear for Infants-Sprinkling, it had certainly faln to the Ground, but for some new Contrivances to support it, though therein they have not been so happy to agree amongst themselves in their Conclusions.

For some are for Baptizing all Children, whose Parents are never so wicked; others [Page] only the Children of Professors; whilst others are for the Baptising the Children of such Professors only, whose Parents are Inchurch­ed, viz. Belonging to some particular Con­gregation. Some are for Baptising Children upon their own particular Faith, (which with much confidence 'tis affirmed they have.) Others deny that with great Vehemency, affirming they ought only to be Baptised upon an Imputative Faith, viz. upon the Faith of others, though herein, as you'l find, they vastly differ; some saying, it must be by the Imputative Faith of the Church; others of the Gossip; others of the Parent or Proparent in Covenant upon the account of Federal Right.

So that some are for Baptising upon an Ecclesiastical Faith, some an Imputative, some a Seminal, some an Habitual, some a Dogmatical, & some upon a Justifying Faith.

Upon which Variety of Differences, you have Mr. Baxter himself in the beginning of his Book of the Sacraments say, That it may seem strange, that after 1600 Years use of Christian Baptism, the Ministers of the Gospel should be so unresolved to whom it doth belong; Yet so it is (saith he) and I observe it is a Que­stion that they are now very sollicitous about: and I cannot blame them, it being not only about a matter of Divine appointment, but a practical of such concernment to the Church.

And it is no wonder, that such Contradicti­ons should proceed from such contrary Princi­ples; For if from [...]ne Baptism, Ephes. 4. Christ would oblige and engage us to Ʋnity, Let it not be thought strange, that from a Baptism so different from Christs, such Differences and Divisions should flow.

For as one ingeniously observes, That as it [Page] happens to Travellers, when they are out of the way, one conjectures he should go this way, another that, and sometimes at hot Disputes and Contentions about it, and in the contest many By-wayes are attempted. Yet still the further they go, the more they are out of the way, till they can come to the true Road again. So it hath been with the Bapti­sers of Infants, they are faln into many New Devices to maintain it, which hath occasioned many hot Contests, Breaches and Divisions a­mongst themselves, whose principal Argu­ments and Scripture Pretences for the Practice, you have here also Examined, and Answered.

The Antient Waldenses you find here from good Authority, were great Assertors of this Primitive Institution of Believers Baptism, and faithful Impugners of Infants, as a Human and Antichristian Tradition and Invention.

And is it not very strange, that the Pro­testants, who pretend to derive their Suc­cession from them, should so much degenerate in so principal a Foundation, and give there­by so much advantage to the Common-Enemy to reproach their whole Separation? For since they assert but two Sacraments in opposition to their Popish seven, how lamentable is it that by this deviating from this Primitive Rule and Patern, they should so miserably differ in both, but more especially in this of Bap­tism?

Object. 1 But it may be objected, That if the business of Believers Baptism, be a thing so clear, as you would make it; how cometh it to pass, that so many learned and pious men, so many fearing God, both Men and Women, should so zealously and conscientiously cleave to such a piece of Error and Darkness, in Sprinkling [Page] their Children, whilst so few, in comparison, do embrace this great Truth of Baptizing Be­lievers?

Answ. In answer to which Enquiry, I present the following Considerations for Satisfaction, viz.

1. That the Wisdom and Grace of God may more appear, that many times Reveals his Truths to Babes and weak ones, which he withholds from the wise & prudent, to prevent boasting, and that no flesh should glory in his presence, and to fulfil his holy good Pleasure, who opens Hearts and Ears, and gives Ʋnder­standing, as seemeth him good.

2. To demonstrate that great Truth, That as Gods People went into Mystical Babylon gradually, that Iniquity prevailing by Steps; so must their coming out be, some at one time, and some at another, as they came out of Li­teral Babylon.

Therefore hath it been, that some Ages have recovered much of the Doctrinal part, whilst yet they have been very corrupt in Discipline, and held fast many Dregs of Antichristianism; as Luther and many of these Reformers, that under their zealous pleading for the Doctrine of Justification against Popish Merits, &c. yet held fast Images in Churches, and Consubstan­tiation, and many other things. And again, many that have got light in the Discipline, have yet been very corrupt in Doctrine, if not in Manners. Many having recovered the Form of Godliness, that have not lived up to the Power; and on the contrary many who have lived much in the Power of Godliness, and holy living, that have been zealous opposers of the Right Form.

And as to that of Discipline, how Gradually [Page] hath it got Ground, sometime in the Nega­tive, opposing false Worship and Superstition; sometime in the Positive part; some Age get­ting and recovering one piece, some others an­other, as for instance;

How zealous have the Protestants been in opposing Popery in one Age, and yet as zea­lous opposers of any further Light that sprang up in the next? And again, how zealous the Puritans and Non-conformists were in oppo­sing the Hierarchy and Prelacy, and yet as zealous opposers of a further Reformation as to Church-Order and Discipline according to Christs Pattern? Oh what a strange thing was Independency among many holy, zealous and learned Men a few years since, and how few were there that stood up to assert it? But especially what a monstrous, prodigious thing was Anabaptism!

3. Another Reason m [...]y be from the incon­siderable Persons, as to Gifts, Parts, Learning, Worldly Power and Greatness, that have been in the Profession and Practice of it, few but the Poor having embraced it.

4. Another from the Contemptibleness of the thing it self, in the Administration thereof, being calculated not for the Meridian of fleshly Wisdome, or shew, but the quite contrary; yet exceedingly accommodated to further Grace, Humility, Mortification, Self-denial, to en­crease Faith, Love, Holiness, &c.

5. An other may be from the Reproaches and Slanders cast upon the Professors thereof; or real Falls and Scandals of those under it, who may be suffered to fall for the offence of others that seek it; for it is said, That offen­ces must needs be, Matth. 18.

[Page]6. And lastly, to instruct Humility in all attainments, having nothing but what we have received, and therefore to exercise Ten­derness and Compassion to those that differ, knowing that he which is first may be last, and he which is last may be first.

Object. 2 But why have you so many Quotations from Paedobaptists? As though it were probable, That men that so much oppose your Practice, would advantage you by their Assertions, if truly urged.

Answ. 1 Answ. 1. To which I would reply, That it must be granted, that there needs no better Testimony, than the Confession of Parties them­selves, and herein, I conceive, there is enough from their own Pens, to contradict and con­demn their own, and to justifie our Practice in every part thereof. And if they have in­jured themselves by their acknowledgments, it will be their parts to shew their own Mistakes, or to reconcile, if they can, their Contradicti­ons.

Answ. 2 2. It is not so much from the force of the Authorities, as the strength of the Reason urged by them, that they are produced, not that any new thing is brought forth by them that hath not been offered by some of our own; But Arguments from some Persons of Note among themselves, prevail forty times more than the very same, from persons they have a prejudice against; And therefore Paul quoted thei ownr Poets, Acts 17.

Answ. 3 And 3ly. By how much they are against the Truth in their Practice, by so much the power and Providence of God may appear so, to make their own Pens and Tongues to fall upon them­selves; witness what more especially is quoted from Mr. Baxters Right to Sacraments, and [Page] Dr. Taylors Plea for the Anabaptists in his Liberty of Prophecy.

Object. 3 But is it possibly to be imagined, that Mr. Bax­ter, that hath been esteemed the great Maul [...] of the Anabaptists, should make Assertions so much in Contradiction to his former Positions? Hath he then changed his mind, and revoked his former Apprehensions?

Answer. Answ. That he hath made all these Asser­tions, and many more to the same purpose, his own Books are witness, from whence they are faithfully quoted, especially that which he calls The Second Disputation of the Right to Sacra­ments: From whence it is that Mr. Tombes fetches the twenty Arguments he wrote against Mr. Blake, and improves them all against him­self, discovering Contradiction to his former Principles in every one of them, in his Book which he calls Felo de se, or The Self-Destroy­er; to which Mr. Baxter hath never made the least Reply, that I have heard of, though in the end of Mr. Tombe's said Book he pro­voked him to a Reply, by these words, viz. By the reading of this Book, all Intelligent Per­sons may perceive Mr. Baxter's deceitfulness, or heedlesness, and if he persist in defending In­fants Baptism, his unreasonable pertinacy in his own Conceit; and if he do not declare his forsaking his Doctrine in his Book of Baptism, his Impenitency, and unrighteous dealing with the Church of God, which he hath injured. Therefore how much is he concerned to give some account, how such Assertions can be re­conciled to his former Writings, which in the apprehensions of such ignorant Creatures as we are, seem to be as contrary to each other, as Light to Darkness.

Though I doubt not, but that through the Prosoundness of his Speculation, and Subtilty of his Distinction (having therein so much out­done Thomas Aquinas himself in his late Writings) he will as soon Reconcile these seeming Contradictions, as many of his for­mer, wherein he hath so much abounded, (none more that I know of,) being, as you'l find, sometime a great Opposer, then a great Defender of Episcopacy; sometime for Non-Conformity (in whose Tents he hath seemed to shelter himself in the Storm, and with their Indulgence to come forth of his hole) and yet at length so highly to disgrace the same. Some­times a friend to Calvin, and then a greater to Arminius; sometime a great Defender of the Parliament and their Cause, & then none more to renounce them, or to betraitor them for their paines; sometimes a great Opposer of Tra­dition, and anon a great Defender thereof; sometimes a violent Impugner of Popery, and yet at last, who hath spoke more in favour of it, witness those very strange Passages in his late Book, called the Christian Directory, so much the talk of the Town, which coming just to my hand upon the writing hereof, I shall presume for the novelty of them (to make a little Digression) to give you an Account of some of them,Popish Christen­ings law­ful. and which you may please to take as followeth, viz. That it is lawful to offer ones Child to be baptised in a Popish Countrey, in their way of Baptizing, viz. with E [...]orcisme, Chrysme, Milk, Honey and White Garments, rather than not have it baptized. Those Ceremonies of Milk, Honey, White Garments and Chrysm, being (as he tells us) so Ancient, that their Original is not known; called by Epiphanius and others the [Page] Tradition and Custome of the Universal Church, p. 826.

That Temples, Fonts, Utensils, Church,Reverence due to holy Pla­ces and things. Lands, much more Ministers are holy, and Reverence due to them; For to say, as some do, that [they are indeed Consecrated and Se­parated, but not holy,] is to be ridiculously wise by self-contradiction. And that to be uncovered in the Church, &c. doth tend to pre­serve due Reverence to God, and to his Wor­ship, 1. Cor. 16.20. P. 915.

That the unjust Alienation of Temples,Alienat­ing holy Places & Things. Utensils, Lands, Days, &c. which were sepa­rated by God himself, and consecrated by Man, are sacrilegious. P. 916.

That the name Priests, Sacrifices, Altars, may be used instead of Christs Ministers, Popish Names of Priests, Altars, Sacrifice justified. Wor­ship, Holy Temple; And that sober Christians should allow each other the liberty of such Phra­ses, without Censoriousness or breach of Cha­rity or Peace, p. 882.

That the Communion-Table may be turned Altar-wise, and Railed in to keep Dogs and Boys from it, Railing the Altar. and that it is lawful to come up to the Rails, and to communicate Kneeling, as being indeed things that Christians ought not to censure or condemn each other for. P. 882. compared with 859.

That it is lawful,Keeping Holy-Daies, or Saints-Daies.to keep Anniversary Fe­stivals, in Commemoration of Saints Departed, if it be lawful to keep the fifth of November. P. 762. Sect. 24.

And to keep Humane Holy Days and Lent also, if Abstinence be enjoyned, not in imitati­on, but Commemoration of Christs fourty days East. P. 866.

That Church-Musick is profitable, being a Natural help to the minds alacrity. And it [Page] is a Duty, Church-Musick. not a Sin, to use the Helps of Nature and lawful Art, though to institute Sacraments of our own: And that as it is lawful to use the comfortable help of Spectacles in reading the Bible; so is it of Musick, to exhilarate the Soul towards God. Jesus Christ joyned with the Jews that used it, no Scripture forbiddeth it; nothing can be against it, that I know of.

And whereas some say, they find it doth them harm; as wise men say, they find it doth them good. And why should the Experience of some prejudiced self-conceited Person, or of an half-man, that knoweth not what Melody is, be set against the Experience of all others, and deprive them of all such Helps and Mercies, as these People say they find no benefit by? It is a great wrong that some do to ignorant Chri­stians, by putting such Whimsies and Scruples into their heads, &c. P. 885.

That it is lawful to make Vows of Chastity,Vows of Chastity. and that such Vows, though amongst the Pa­pists, ought not to be broke. P. 488.

To use Crucifixes. That a Crucifix, or Historical Image of Christ, is lawful, to excite and stir up in us Worshipping Affections. And that a Crucifix well befits the imagination and mind of a Be­liever. P. 876.

That the Romish Clergy may be reputed true Ministers of Christ, by vertue of their Ordi­nation, P. 775.

That their erroneous saying of Mass, or Preaching their erroneous Doctrines, Popish Clergy Christ's Ministers. doth not nullisy their office to the Church, no though they derive from Antichrist, the Head there­of, who sits not in the Temple of God as Anti­christ, but as God; and so not an open, but a secret Deceiver, p. 776. And that neither the Ordinati [...], [...]n Baptism that they confer, [Page] are to be esteemed Nullities, Page 777. That it is not necessary to believe that the Pope is Antichrist, ibid.To read Apocrypha and Ho­melies &c.

That it is lawful to read the Apocrypha, Homilies, or any good book in the Church, besides the Scriptures, p. 901. & to read a Prayer, p. 848.

That there is a Praying to Saints or Angels, Praying to Saints. which is Superstitions, but not Idolatrous, Rev. 22.8. Col. 1.18.

That it is lawful to bow at the name of Je­sus, p. 858. To stand up at the Gospel, p. 858.Romish Rites. To kneel at the reading the Commandments, p. 854. That the Ancient Church-Custome of Worshipping towards the East, was not to be condemned, p. 877.2d Origi­nal Sin.

That there is a Secondary Original Sin, besides that from Adam, p. 822.

But lest I should tire you with Instances, I must refer you to that great Book it self, ho­ping though, that some judicious hand may ere long furnish you with a more exact Col­lection of these things, with some Animad­versions also, to antidote the Poison of them, lest with the good things in the Book, tending to promote Vertue and Morality, the Anti­christian Infection be taken in also; so de­structive to Christ's Institutions.

Oh! Was ever the like yet heard from any Protestant-writer, so to palliate, if not to ju­stifie such abominations (and that at this time-a-day too, in the midst of the fears of Popery) by such endeavours, not only to Reconcile us to so many of the Idolatrous Popish names (so long spued out) as Altar, Priests, Sacrifices, &c. But so many of their things also; yea and those too, wherein so much of the Heart and Life of their Religion consists; viz. not only their Baptism, that Foundation-stone, though [Page] attended with so many impious and blasphe­mous Circumstances, as the following discourse makes manifest: But their Ministry also, those Locusts and Frogs that come out of the Bottomless-Pit, the top-stone of their Building!

But that which is most to be admired there­in, is his Plea for the validity of their Ordi­nation by the Pope, though Antichrist him­self; Because he doth not Ordain them as Antichrist, but as God (viz. as Christs Vicar in the Name of Jesus.) As though the aggra­vation of the thing, wherein the Mystery of the Iniquity, Antichristianisme, and great Blasphemy lies, should be urged for its exte­nuation, and to enforce its validity. For by the same Argument, are not all their cursed Idolatrous Rites and Ceremonies to be vindi­cated, with all their Blasphemous Bulls, and Bloodiest Inquisitions and Massacres that have been imposed and perpetrated by the Popes Authority, who never did them as Antichrist, but in the Name of Jesus Christ, and to pro­mote his Service and Interest. And if this be a good Argument for the Popes, why not for the Turks Ministers also, the Mufti being not Ordained from Mahomet, as a Blasphemer, but as the greatest Prophet of God. And could not Jeroboam have pleaded much of this kind for his Calves, as Mr. Ainsworths Arrow against Idolatry, very excellently upon the point reasoneth, which yet nevertheless would not excuse him and his Adherents for their worshipping the Devil therein, nor deliver them from all the wrath and vengeance that followed them for the same.

But alas! Whereto will not men run, left to themselves, who leave the Word for their Rule, to embrace the Traditions and Inven­tions [Page] of men? Oh! were not those twenty Queries, In his 2d Admonit. p. 142. so much against the self-evidencing Authority of the Scriptures, in favour of Tra­dition, a hainous provocation, to say no more of them?

And not only so favourable to their Mini­stry, but so many of their Ministrations also, of Bowing, Kneeling, Musick, Homilies, A­pocrypha, Vows, Holiness of Days, Times, Places, yea even Images and Crucifixes also. And as though by a Monkish zeal and confi­dence, and some sweet pretensions to Brother­ly Love, Peace and Moderation, with the Legerdemain of Fallacy and Quiddity, and (as Rutherford calls it) unwashen distinction, we were at last to be Trapan'd into Popery, and perswaded to lick up all the vomit again. And thereby to creat to himself the honour of being (as the great Dictator, so) the great Reconciler of the World, and to do no less in the atchieve­ment, than to reconcile Christ and Antichrist, God and Belial, Heaven and Hell.

And is there not ground from hence to cry out with the Prophet, Be astonished, O ye Hea­vens at this, and be ye horribly afraid? And admiringly to say, Is not this one of God's wonders we are to marvel at, mentioned Isai­ah 29.13, 14. Forasmuch as their Fear to­wards me is taught by the Precepts of Men. Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a mar­vellous work among this People, even a mar­vellous work and a wonder. For the wisdom of their Wise men shall perish, and the under­standin [...] [...]f their Prudent men shall be hid, and surel [...] their turning things upside down, shall be esteemed as the Potters clay: with 1 Cor. 1.19. For I will destroy the wisdome of the wise, [Page] and will bring to nothing the understanding of the Prudent, Where is the wise? Where is the Disputer? &c.

And as to those other Quotations that are so often cited from Dr. Taylors Liberty of Prophecy; I know it is usually said, That what he wrote therein, was not his own Judg­ment, but done on purpose to set the Parlia­mentarians together by the ears, in taking so much the part of the most hated Sect a­mongst them.

To which I would say, That surely Dr. Tay­lor had the Reputation of a person of more In­tegrity, Conscience, and Honesty than so egre­giously to prevaricate in the things of God.

Yet if that really was his design in bringing forth so much Truth (with such fulness of Demonstration) though in guile, envy, and deceit, we are yet therein to rejoyce, as saith the Apostle Phil. 1.4. And the more also to magnifie the Power, Wisdome, and Grace of God, so to take the wise in their own crafti­ness, and that can make Balaam himself, that designs to curse his People, to bless them al­together.

Object. 4 But why do you take so much pains, and Quote so many Authors, to prove Believers Baptisme? who ever denied it? For is it not all along urged, that Pagans and Infidels should not otherwise be Baptised, but upon Profession of Faith; and that the Children of Christians, if not baptized in Infancy, should be baptized upon Profession of Faith?

Answ. To which I Answer, That the Arguments in the first Part, are not so much to prove that Believers professing Faith are to be Baptised; but that they only are so to be, and not others. And that the Authors that are produced to [Page] prove Believers Baptism, whether from the Commission, Order, or Ends thereof, do also by Substantial Arguments conclude against the Baptising of any other; and so necessarily, by their own Grants, exclude ignorant and Ʋnconverted ones: And besides, as so many of themselves acknowledg, the Catechumens were not only the Children of Heathen, but of Christians also, and such too as were born to them after their Christianity; witness those many instances given in the Fourth Century, and by Mr. Baxter himself.

And as for Baptising Professors, whether the Children of Pagans or Christians, we ask no more, Because Sprinkling of Infants, as by many Arguments you'l find, is a meer Nul­lity, no Baptism, if not worse than none, as you'l find made good: An Ordinance being so prophaned, and the Name of God taken in vain, where neither true Matter, nor right Manner is observed.

Object. 5 But it may be said, and I have already met with it, To what purpose is this coming forth, in a point so controversal, at this juncture, where there is more need of Healing than Di­viding Subjects?

To which I reply, Answer. That if Paul useth so powerful an Argument from one Baptism, Eph. 4. to press Ʋnion and Peace, then if there hath been another Baptism set on foot in opposition to it, that must needs be a Make­bate with a witness, it being no less than an Error in a Foundation, Nay that which doth assert two Foundations, and two Principles; And if so,

Then what more hopeful Endeavours can there be put forth to effect Peace, than to discover & remove such a Rock of offence, by Delivering [Page] from the false, and Recovering to the true and one Baptism, which doth not only heal the Division betwixt the Baptist and Poedo­baptist, but the Poedobaptists amongst them­selves, who are, as you have heard, at so great odds in the point, and so sollicitous, as Mr. Baxter tells us, in a Practical of such Concernment.

Without which, there being such an Error in the Principle, such a Foundation of Anti­christ held fast, all Exhortations to Ʋnion, viz. in Church-fellowship and Communion will signifie little. Therefore let the cause be re­moved, the bone of contention taken away, the peaceable effects necessarily follow.

A faithful Pleading and Pressing whereof, is the upright design of this Ʋndertaking, and is therefore with the more Faith and Confi­dence recommended to the Blessing of God, and to the Hearts and Consciences of all Sincere, Ʋpright Ones, that desire to keep the Com­mandments of God, and the Testimony of Jesus Christ.

With this earnest Desire and Expectation, that the Candid, Ingenuous Reader, however contrary-minded, will overlook what of frailty and weakness he may take notice of, which may be too much; and eye principally the De­sign, Drift and Scope thereof. And that if by the multitude of Quotations, through so an­tient a track, he finds any particular mistake, misquotation, or misapplication, that he will not so dwell, or insist upon it, to reject the Truth of all the rest, that are full and clear without exception; which is the way that Carpers and Sophisters take, and the method that Papists have all along taken in Reply to our Protestant-Writers. Though this withal [Page] I can assure you, that I have not willingly given any such occasion; But have either transcri­bed the Authorities from their own Works, or from some Authentick Writers, that have so done, and especially from the Magdiburgensian History, so much esteemed amongst the Pro­testants, and whereof I shall be accountable to any judicious Enquirer, that may doubt the truth hereof.

Though by the the way, it must be remem­bred, That all Humane Authority urged from Antiquity, is at best but Argumentum ad Hominem: It being Scripture-Authority only, that is of Divine force, and, as coming from God, can oblige the Conscience.

Therefore if you will but please, before you make up your Judgment, and pass the Defi­nitive Sentence, to read the whole, and laying all parts together, weigh them (with an im­partial mind) in the Ballance of the Sanctu­ary; you will find, I doubt not, That as no Ordinance of Jesus Christ is more fully and clearly asserted from the Scripture, founded with greater Wisdom and Righteousness, or of more excellent Use to the Church, than that of Believers Baptism, however it hath been con­temned, nick-named, and reproached:

So no Invention of Man, or Innovation of Antichrist hath been more pernicious, either to the Church or World, or founded upon less of Reason, Righteousness, and Truth, than that of Sprinkling Infants, though it hath so long and so currently past for Christs Ordinance of Baptism.

Lastly, If any shall be offended at this Wit­ness, (though thus made good by a seven-fold Demonstration twice told) Let th [...]m know, (that the Providence of God hath so ordered, [Page] as they'l find herein) that they cannot oppose it, without opposing and contradicting them­selves; there being scarce one Argument in the whole Book, that is not substiantially con­firmed by some eminent men of their own.

Amongst several Mistakes committed by the Press, the Reader is desired to correct these following, some where­of alter the sense, viz.

PAge 29. Line 15. Read, or Church. P. 30. l. 18. r. and re­spective. l. 19. none for man. l. 22. r. Body of Christ. P. 50. l. 2. r. of Infants Bapt. P. 72. l. 4. r. by for t [...]. P. 86. l. 14. r. that. P. 94. l. 24. r. uncapable. P. 129. l. 19. r. the name. P. 134. dele rather. P. 145. l. 17. r. new Garment. P. 151. l. 4. r. for. P. 152. l. 23. r. know that P. 191. l. 22. r. intail. P. 229. l. 8. r. Generations. p. 271. l. 12. r. them. P. 276. l. 16. r. conform to. P 285. l. 15. r. Lani­frank. P. 287. l. 18. dele for. P. 296. l. 18. r. Manichean. P. 307. l. 12. r. [...]ppositions. In the Postscript. p. 41. l. 13. r. contemptious traducing, p. 50. l. 1. dele which. p. 51. l. 19. by the Church.

The Contents of the whole. The Book consists of Two Parts, the first proving Believers; The second dis­proving Infants Baptism, under these two Heads.

1. That the Baptising of Believers, is only to be esteemed Christs Ordinance of Baptisme.

2. That the Baptising of Infants is no Or­dinance of Jesus Christ.

The first whereof is proved in seven Chapters, viz.
  • 1. From Christs positive Institution and Commission commanding it, P. 1.
  • 2. From the Apostolical Doctrines and Pre­cepts teaching it, p. 6.
  • 3. From the Examples of Primitive Saints practising it, p. 9.
  • 4. From the Spiritual Ends in the Ordi­nance enjoyning it, p. 15.
  • 5. From the New-Testament-Dispensation requiring it, p. 35.
  • 6. From the Constitution of all the Primi­tive Churches confirming it, p. 39.
  • 7. From the Testimonies of Learned Men in all Ages, since Christ, witnessing to it, p. 55.
The second is also made good in seven Chap­ters more, viz.
  • 1. From the Scriptures total Silence as to any Precept or Practice to warrant it, p. 97.
  • [Page]2. From the Silence of Antiquity it self, as to any practice of it for 300 years, or the im­posing of it, for at least till 400 years after Christ, p. 107.
  • 3. From the erroneous Grounds, both as to fabulous Traditions, and mistaken Scriptures pretended for it, p. 151.
  • 4. From the Change and Alteration of the Rite and Ceremony it self of Dipping the whole Man, into Sprinkling a little Water on the Head or Face, p. 232.
  • 5. From the Nullity and utter Insignifican­cy of it as to any Gospel-Ordinance, p. 253.
  • 6. From the Absurdities and Contradictions of it. p. 261:
  • 7. From the eminent witness born against it all along. p. 269.
  • The Examination of the Stories about Thomas Munzer, and John a Leyden. p. 318.
  • With the History of the Antiquity of the Chri­stianity of the Antient Britains and Wal­denses.
  • And a Postscript in Answer to Mr. Bunyan.

Believers Baptisme Proved.

CHAP. I. Wherein the Baptism of Believers is proved to be the only true Baptism,I. From Christ's positive Commis­sion. from Christs positive Institution and Commission, viz. MATT. 28.18, 19.

ANd Iesus spake unto the Dis­ciples, saying, All Power is gi­ven to me in Heaven & Earth, Go ye therefore, and teach all Nations, Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy-Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things that I have com­manded you, and lo I am with you al­wayes unto the end of the world. With

Mark 16.16. And he said unto them, Go Ye into all the World, and Preach the Gospel to every Creature. He that believeth and is Baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned,

Where we have have this plain order of Christ laid down.

First, That men should be taught the Doctrine of Faith; And Secondly, Be­ing so taught, they should be Baptized; And thirdly, That they should in his School [or Church, whereof they are then made Members] be instructed in every thing else, they ought to learn.

Baxter.Which Method Mr. Bauter himself doth fully acknowledge in his Book called, The Second Disputation of right to Sacraments, P. 149, 150. in his 16th. Argument, where he hath these Words, viz. This (saith he, speak­ing of the Commission of Christ [...]o his Disciples) is not like some occasional mention of Baptism; but it is the very Commission it self of Christ to his Disci­ples for Preaching and Baptizing, and purposely expresseth their several Works, in their several places and Orders.

Their First task is to make Di [...]ciples, which are by Mark called Believers. The Second work is to Baptize them; where­to is annexed the Promise of their Salva­tion. The Third work is [...]o teach them all other things, which are after to be learned in the School of Christ.

To contemn this Order (saith he) is to contemn all Rules of Order; for where can we expect to find it, if not here. I profess, my Conscience is fully satisfied from this Text, that it is one sort of Faith, even saying, that must go be­fore Baptisme, the Profession whereof the Minister must expect, [But is it possible, that an Ignorant Babe can observe this Order, and answer this expectation] of which (saith he) see, what is to this purpose before cited by Calvin and Piscator, which he also mentions, P. 85. viz.

Calvin Calvin upon Mat. 3.6. saith, There­fore, that men may rightly offer them­selves to Baptism, Confession of sins is required, otherwise the whole Action would be nothing else but sport.

Piscator, Piscator. upon Mark 1.4. saith, It is called the Baptism of Repentance for Remission of sins, because John Preached the Remission of sins to the Pe­nitent Believers.

Which Quotations of Mr. Baxters both here and hereafter fetcht from that his second disputation, &c. I desire the Reader to take notice, I transcribe out of Mr. Tombe's Book, called Fel [...] de se, (th [...]t of Mr. Baxter being not [Page 4] not at hand, nor easily to be come by) in which Book Mr. Tombes very judici­ously returns Mr. Baxters 20. Argu­ments, he wrote against Mr. Blake, upon himself, as naturally opposing In­fants Baptism. And which I conclude were faithfully recited, and would hope convincingly improved, because Mr. Baxter hath never contradicted them, that I have heard, nor given the least reply thereto, as his Bookseller inform­eth.

Mr. Perk. Mr. Perkins in concurrence here­with upon these words; Teaching all Nations, Baptizing them, saith, I ex­plain the terms thus; mark first of all, it is said, Teach them, that is, Make them my Disciples, by calling them to believe, and to repent. Here we are to consider the Order, which God ob­serves in making with men a Covenant in Baptisme. First of all he calls them by his Word, and commands them to be­lieve and to repent. Then in the second place, God makes his promise of Mer­cy and Forgiveness. And Thirdly, He Seals his promise by Baptisme. They that know not, nor consider this Order which God used in Covenanting with t [...]em in [...]aptisme, deal preposterously, [Page 5] oversliping the Commandment of Re­penting and Believing. And this (saith he) is the cause of so much profaneness in the world.

ParaeusParaeus. also upon Mat. 3.5. shews, That the Order was, that Confession as a Testimony of true Repentance goe first, and then Baptisme for Remission of sins afterwards.

But how possible it is for an Ignorant Babe, or any but men of Knowledge to answer this Rule, and Order in Christs Commission is left to common sence to determine: And whether they that assert another Order, viz. of Baptizing first, and then teaching and expecting Repentance and Faith after, (which is the case of all Children) do not contradict this, and hold out there­by a necessity of some other Commissi­on to justifie such a practice.

CHAP. II. Wherein the Baptizing of Believers is proved to be the only Baptism from the Apostles Doctrine teaching the same. ACTS 2.37.

II. From the Apo­stles Do­ctrine.ANd when they heard this they were pricked at the Heart, and said unto Peter, and the rest of the Apostles Men and Brethren, what shall we do? Then Peter said unto them, Repent and be baptiz [...]d every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the Remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.

Acts 8.36, 37. And the Eunuch said, See here is Water, what doth hin­der me to be baptized. And Philip said unto him, If thou believest with all thy Heart, thou mayst.

Acts 10.42. And he commanded us to preach unto the people, to testifie, That it is he, which was ordained of God to be Judge of quick and dead; To him gave [Page 7] all the Prophets witness, that through his name, whosoever believeth in him, shall receive Remission of sins, while Peter spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the Word, &c. Then said Peter, Can any man for­bid Water, that these should not be bap­tized, which have received the Holy-Ghost, as well as we. And he com­manded them to be baptized.

Acts 16.29. And the Keeper of the Prison fell down before Paul and Silas, and said, Sirs, What must I do to be savd; and the said, Believe on the Lord Iesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy House. And he accordingly believing in God and his House, as it is said, v. 34. were baptized he and all his straight way.

To which may be added the Apo­stolical Order in laying down the Prin­ciples of the Doctrine of Christ, viz. First, Repentance from dead works. Secondly, Faith towards God. Thirdly, ly, The Doctrine of Baptismes, Heb. 6.12.

BedeBede. saith, That men were first to be instructed unto the Knowledge of the Truth, then to be baptized, as Christ hath taught, because without Faith it [Page 8] was impossible to please God. Magdeb, Cent. 8. p. 220.

Erasmus Erasmus in his Paraphrase upon 28. Math. observeth, That the Apostles were commanded first to teach, and then to Baptize. The Jews were brought by Ceremonies to the Knowledge of the Truth, but Christians must learn first.

So that doth it not from hence ne­cessarily follow, that if the Apostles only taught, that persons should be baptized after Repentance, and Faith, according to the Commission, and that there is no instance to be found of any other teach­ing, that then such should be baptized, and no other. And for any to introduce another practice, it is not only contrary to Christs Commission, but contradi­ctious to the Apostles teachings.

CHAP. III. Wherein believers Baptisme is proved the only Baptisme from the exam­ple and practise of the primitive Saints. ACTS 2.41.

THen they that gladly received his Word were baptized.III. From the exam­ple of pri­mative Saints.

Acts 8.12, But when they believed Philip Preaching the things concerning the Kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized both Men and Women, Verse 37.32. And Philip said, if thou believest with all thy Heart, thou mayst. And he answered and said, I believe that Iesus Christ is the Son of God. And he commanded the Chariot to stand still, and they went down both into the Water, both Philip and the Eunuch, and he baptized him.

Acts 18 8. And Crispus the chief Ruler of the Synagogue believed on the Lord with all his House, and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized.

Acts 22.14. And Ananias said unto Paul, the God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest know his will, and see the just fine, & shouldst hear the voice of his mouth. And now why tarriest thou? Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord, Acts 9.18. And he aros [...] forthwith and was baptiqed.

Which is also confirmed by the fol­lowing Testimonies.

LutherLuther. de Sacrament. Tom. 3. fol. 168. saith, That in times past it was thus, that the Sacrament of Baptisme was administred to none, except it were to those, that acknowledged and confessed their faith, and know how to rehearse the same, and that it was necessary to be done, because the Sacrament was constitu­ted externally to be used, that the faith be confest and made known to the Church

Bulling.Bullinger in his House-book 48. Ser­mon, Baptisme (saith he) hath no prescribed time by the Lord, and there­fore it is left to the free choice of the faithfull.

Those that believed at the Preaching of Peter upon the day of Pentecost, as also the Eunuch, whom Philip bapti­zed. Cornelius the Captain, Paul [Page 11] the Apostle at Damascus, Lydia the seller of Purple, a Woman that feared God, the Keeper of the Prison at Phi­lippi, and other more as well Women as Men, so soon as they tasted the gifts of Christ, and believed his Word, presently desired to be baptized.

Mr. Baxter further in his 16. Mr. Bax. Argu­ment against Mr. Blake in the aforesaid 2d. Disputation, P. 149. (saith most significantly) If there can be no example given in Scripture of any one, that was bap­tized without the profession of a saving Faith, nor any precept for so doing, then must we not baptize any without it.

But the Antecedent is true, therefore so is the Consequent. In proof whereof he produces the several Scripture ex­amples of Persons that were baptized, which (saith he) might afford us so many several Arguments, but I shall put them together, viz.

First, John, as I have shewed you, re­quired the profession of true Repentance, and that his Baptisme was for the remissi­on of sin.

Secondly, when Christ layeth down the Apostolical Commission, the Na­ture and Order of the Apostles work, is [Page 12] first to make them Disciples, and then to Baptize them into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, as be­fore.

That it was saving Faith that was re­quired of the Jews, Jews. and professed by them (Acts 2.38.) is plain in the Text.

The Samaritans Samari­tans. believed, and had great Joy, and were baptized into the name of Jesus Christ, Acts 8.12. whereby it appeareth, that it was both the Ʋnderstanding and Will that were both changed, and that they had the profession even of a saving Faith, yea, even Simon himself, 37. v.

The Condition upon which the Eunuch Eunuch. must be baptized was, if he believed with all his Heart, which he professed to do, and that was the Evidence Philip expected.

Paul Paul. was baptized after true conversi­on, Acts 9.18.

The Holy Ghost fell on the Gentiles be­fore they were baptized, Acts 10.44.

Lydia. Lydias Heart was opened before she was baptized, and she was one the Apo­stles judged faithful to the Lord, and offered to them the Evidence of her faith, Acts 16.30.

The example also of the Jaylor Jaylor. is very full to the resolution of the Question in hand. He first asketh, Wrat he shall do to be saved; The Apostle answereth him, Believe in the Lord Jesus, and thou shalt be saved, and thy House. So that it was a saving saith that is here mentioned. He rejoyced and believed with all his House, and was baptized the same hour of the night, or straight way.

Crispus Crispus. the chief Ruler of the Syna­gogue, believed on the Lord with all his House.

And many of the Chrinthians hearing, Corinth. believed, and were baptized, Acts 18.8.

Philip Philip. in Acts 8.37. is determining a Question, and giveth this in as the decision? If thou believest with all thy Heart, thou mayst. And to say that this is but de Bone esse, meaning that it includes not the Negative, otherwise thou mayst not, is to make Philip to have deluded, and not decided, or resol­ved.

In a word; (saith he) I know of no one word in Scripture that giveth us the least intimation, that ever man was baptized without the profession of a saving Faith.

Thus Fa [...] Mr. Baxter, who to save us the labour, hath himself (you see) given such an exact Catalogue of the Examples of the baptized in the Scrip­ture, among whom (as he so well observes) there is not one to be found, that answered not Christs Commission, and the Apostles Precept in a professed Faith and Repentance: But 'tis said, he mentions only such as were baptized aged. That is very true, and the rea­son is; because the Scripture affords examples of none other as he confesseth.

But Secondly, By his own grant in the words beforegoing. If Philips answer was decisive, and not delusive, all others are excluded. And that none but such as are capable to give some de­monstration, that they believe with all their Heart, ought to be admitted to Baptism.

CHAP. IV. Wherein believers are proved to be the only subjects of Baptisme,IV. From the Spiri­tual ends of the Or­dinance. from the Spiritual ends of the Or­dinance.

THe first End or Use we shall men­t on, is,1. To be a Sign of the Mysteries the Gospe [...] that the Baptized might have that represented in a Sign or Figure, and preacht to his Eye in the Ordinance which had been preacht to his Ear and Heart by the Word and Spirit of God, re­specting the whole Mystery of the Gospel, and his Duty and Obligation therein? A Sign being, as Paraeus observeth, some out­ward thing appearing to the Sense, through which some inward thing is at the same time apprehended by the Ʋnderstanding. Therefore he calls the Sacraments, Signa in oculos incurrentia.

And therefore Mr. Perk [...]ns saith, That the Preaching of the Word, and the Ad­ministration of the Sacraments are all one in substance; for in the one the witness of God is seen, and in the other heard. Case Cons. p. 177.

And some do call them Hierogly­phicks, viz. Such visible Representati­ons of things, as the Egyptians used to teach and instruct by.

Which therefore calls for Understand­ing and Judgment, and Senses to be exer­cised in all that partake thereof, otherwise the action will be wholly insignificant, & therefore for any to carry a poor Igno­rant Babe to the Ordinance of Baptisme, is as much as if you should carry it to hear a Sermon, which would be as sig­nificat, as if you should represent some goodly Shew to a Blind man, or instruct a stock or a stone.2. To wit­ness Re­pentance.

The second [...]nd that we shall menti­on, is, that the party Baptized might thereby witness his Repentance, Mat. 3.11.3, 6. Act. 2. called therefore The Baptisme of Repentance, Mark 1. To which whoever offered themselves, were to bring forth fruits meet for Re­pentance, and amendment of Life.

Mr. Bax.For which we are beholding to Mr. Baxter for very convincing Arguments, upon his first Argument with Mr. Blake in the fore mentioned Book, viz, where­in he doth positively affirm, that we must not Baptize any without the pro­fession of true Repentance, which he proves thus.

First Argument. If John Baptist re­quired the profession of true Repentance before he would baptize them; then so must we; but John did so; therefore the third Consequence is clear. The An­tecedent I prove from Mark 1.3, 4. He Preach'd the Baptisme of Repentance un­to Remission of sins, and doubtless that Repentance (saith he) which is to Re­mission of sins, is true special Repentance.

Second Argument. If Jesus Christ hath by Scripture, Precept and Ex­ample directed us to baptize those that profess true Repentance, and no other, then we must baptize them, and no othe [...]. But the Antecedent is true, so therefore is the Consequent, which is fully made good from Mat. 4.17. Mark 1.15, & 16, 12. Acts 17.30. Luke 24.47. Where Christ himself did, and sent forth his Disciples a [...]so to Preach Repentance to prepare them for Baptism, which after­wards followed, as Mat. 3.11, Mark 1.8. Luke 3.16. Acts 2.37, 38, 41.

Third Argument. If they that profess to be buried with Christ in Baptisme, and to rise again, do profess true Repen­tance, &c. But all that are Baptized must do so, &c. Colos. 2.11, 12, 13 Rom. 6. 4, 5. Then in further Conficmation he Quotes.

Bullinger Bullinger upon Acts 2.38. Who saith, To be Baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, is by the Sign of Baptism to testifie, that we do believe in Christ for the Rimission of sins. First mark, it is not only an engagemenent to believe hereafter, but the profession of a present Faith. Secondly, And that not a common Faith, but that which hath Remission of sins. Thirdly, and this was not an accidental separable use of Baptisme, but the very exposition of, to be baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ.

A Third End of [...]aptisme is to evi­dence present regeneration,3. End to evidence present Regene­ration. whereof it is a lively Sign or [...]ymbol. Regene­ration being called in allusion to it, The washing of Regeneration, Tit. 3.5. And a being born of Water and of the Spirit, John 3. Which is so essential to the Ordinance, that if that thing signifie [...] thereby be wanting, the Sign only will be very ineffectual, and insignificant [...] As,

D. TaylorDr. Taylor late Bishop of Down, very elegantly faith it in his Plea for th [...] Baptists, lib. of Proph. p. 242. This indeed is truly to be baptized, whe [...] it is both in the Symbol, and in the Mystery. [Page 19] Whatsoever is less then this, is but the Symbol only, a meer Ceremony, an opus operatum, a dead Letter, an empty shadow, an Instrument without an Agent to manage, or force to actuate it. And to the same purpose you have,

Mr. Baxter in his 10 Argument p. 117, 118.Mr. Bax. Christ hath instituted no Baptism, but what is to be a Sign of present Regeneration: But to men that profess not a justifying Faith, it cannot be administred, as a Sign of present Re­generation. Therefore he hath instituted no Baptisme to be admininistred to such.

The Major is plain, saith he, in John 3.5. Except a man be born of Water and tho Spirit, he cannot enter into the King­dom of God And so in Tit. 3.5. Where it is called The Laver of Regenerati­on,

And what can be a fuller grant, that Infants Baptisme is neitheir signifi­cant, nor any Institution of Christ, then what these two learned men have here given us?

4th. End is signally to represent the Covenant and Promise,4. End signally to represent the Cove­nant on mans part that the Belie­ver enters into hereby, viz. to dye [Page 20] to sin, and live to Christ in new Obedi­ence, by that Figurative Death and Re­surrection, in being dipprd in Water, and by so going down under, and rising up out of the water, he is said to be bu­ried, and to rise with Christ, to be planted into the likeness of his Death and Resureection, to dye and live with Christ by Morti [...]ation and Vivification To which purpose you have

Mr. Perkins very significant, viz. The Action of the party baptized is a certain stipulation, or Obligattion, whereby he bindeth himself to give Homage to the Father, Son and Holy Ghost. This Homage standeth in Faith, wherereby all the promises of God are believed, and in obedience to all his Commanaments. The Sign of this Obligation is, that the party baptized willingly yield himself to be washed with Water? and also you have

Mr. Baxt.Mr. Baxter very fully upon his Thir [...] Argument to Mr. Blake, viz. It is o [...] the instituted Nature of Baptisme to b [...] in general a professing sign for the present as well as an engaging sign for the future

For first the Minister doth baptiz [...] into the name of the Father, Son an [...] Holy Ghost, and the party doth consen [...] [Page 21] thereto; First voluntarily offering him­self to Baptisme; And secondly volunta­rily receiving that Baptism: And his offer of himself here goeth before the Ministers baptizing of him, and his reception of that Baptisme is essential to it: So that Bap­tisme essentially containeth on his part a signal profession of consent, to that which is meant in the form used by the Minister; [viz. I Baptize thee in the name, &c.] So that it is a most clear case, that Bap­tisme as Baptisme according to its insti­tuted nature and use, doth contain the persons actual signal profession of present assent to the Gospel, and acceptance of God, the Father Son, and Holy Ghost, as there in offered; and anactual sig­nal profession that we there presently consecrate, devote, and dedicate our selves to God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost in the aforesaid Relations.

Secondly another part of Baptisme is the Ministers washing the person; and the person first offering himself to be wash­ed, and after actually receiving it, doth hereby signally profess his consent. Now this washing doth essentially signifie our washing from our former filth of sin, toge­ther with the guilt, our putting away the old man, which is corrupt according [Page 22] to our deceitful lusts, being buried with Christ? for all that are baptized must profess to be buried with him; and to rise again signifieth a being dead to sin, and alive to God to newness of life, and not only an engagement of this for the fu­ture, but a profession also of it at present, which is made good from Col 2.11, 12, 13. Rom. 6.4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11. Yea he that readeth the whole Chapter with judgment & impartiality will soon discern, that true Repentance, & abrenuntiation of the service of sin was to be professed by all that would be baptized, and there­upon they sealed their own profession and Covenant by the reception of Baptisme, as Christ sealed his part by the actual baptizing of them

Dr. Tayl.Concerning which you have Dr. Tay­lor very excellently, Page 243. Bap­tisme (saith he) is never propounded, mentioned, or enjoyned as a means of Remission of sins, or of Eternal Life, but something of duty, choise and [...]anctity, is joyned with it in order to the production of the end so mentioned Know ye not, that as many as are baptized into Christ, are baptized into his Death? There is the Mystery and Symbol together, and declar'd to be perpetually united. All [Page 23] of us who were baptized into the one, were baptized into the other; not only into the Name of Christ, but into his Death also; But the meaning of this, as it is explain­ed in the following words of St. Paul, makes much for our purpose. For to be bap­itzed into his Death, signifies to be buried with him in Baptisme; That as Christ rose from the Dead, we also should walk in newness of Life; that is the full My­stery of Baptisme. For being baptized into his Death, or (which is all one in the next words) into the likeness of his Death, cannot go alone, if we be so plant­ed into Christ, we shall be partakers of his Resurrection, and that is not instanced in precise reward, but in exact duty; for all this is nothing but Crucifixion of the old man, and destroying of the body of sin, that we no longer serve sin.

And therefore it is, that Baptisme is called, The answer of a good Conscience towards God, 1 Pet. 3.21. Which can by no means be applied to the Infant. And thereupon Dr Taylor again p. 244. That Baptisme which saveth us, is not not only the washing with Water, of which only Children are capable; but the answer of a good Conscience towards God, of [Page 24] which they are not capable till the use of Reason, till they know to refuse the evil, and choose the good.

Mr. Bax.And Mr. Baxter very fully p. 156. If (saith he) according to the institu­tion, the answer of a good Conscience must be joyned with Baptisme, for the attain­ing of its end, then we must admit of none that profess not the answer of a good Conscience; but the former (saith he) is certain from the Text; for Baptisme is said to save; that is its appointed Ʋse; yet not the External washing, but the Answer of a good Conscience doth it. Therefore this is of a necessary injunction, and without it Baptisme cannot attain its Ends: But it is to be administred, and received only in order to the attainment of its End; and theerefore never in a way, by which the end is apparently not attain­able. What the answer of a good Con­science is, the common Expositions fully confirm, as I maintain.

The Assemblies Annotations (saith he) recite both thus, viz. By the An­swer of a good Conscience, we may un­derstand that unfeigned Faith, whereof they made confession at their Baptisme, and whereby their Consciences were puri­fied, and whereby they received the Re­mission of their sins.

The Fifth End of Baptisme is to be a Sign to the Believer of the Covenant on Gods part of washing away his sins by the Blood of Christ,Fifth end to be a sign of the Covenant on Gods part. to give Spiritual Life and Salvation, Act. 2.32, 3.3. Act. 22.16. 1 Pet. 3 21.

To which truth Mr. Perkins sets his Seal.Mr. Perk. We see (saith he) what is done in Baptisme, the Covenant of Grace is so­lemnized between God and the Party bap­tized; and in this Covenant something belongs to God, and something to the Party baptized.

And Bullinger Bullinger upon Act. 2.38. That Baptisme is an Agréement or Covenant of Grace which Christ enters into with us, when we are baptized, as well as a professing sign of our true Re­pentance.

A Sixth End is,Si [...]th end to repre­sent the union be­twixt Christ & the Belie­ver. That it might be a signal Representation of a Believers union with Christ, called therefore a being baptized into Christ, and a putting on of Christ figured out by such an Uni­on and Conjunction with the Element, as imports a being born thereof, and and being clothed therewith.

Ʋpon which (saith Dr. Taylor) Whoever are baptized into Christ, Dr. Tayl. have put on Christ, have put on the [Page 26] new man. This whole Argument is the very words of St. Paul; The Ma­jor proposition is Dogmatically de­termined, Gal. 3.24. The Minor in Eph. 4.24. The Conclusion then is obvious, that they who are not for­med in Righteousness, and Holiness and Truth. (They who remaining in their i [...]capacities, cannot walk in newness of Life, they have not been baptized into Christ; and then they have but one Member of the distincti­on used by St. Peter; they have that Baptisme, which is the putting away the filth of the Flesh; but they have not that Baptisme, which is the Answer of a good Conscience towards God, which is the only Baptisme, that saveth. And this, saith he, is the Case of Children.

Mr Bax.And to this purpose also Mr. Baxter again p. 98. If it be the appointed use of all Christian Baptisme to solemnize our Marriage with Christ, or to Seal or confirm our Ʋnion with him, or ingrafting into him, then must we baptize none that profess not iustifying [...]aith, because this is necessarily prerequisite, and no other can pretend to union Marriage, or ingrafting into Christ.

Both the Antecedent and the Conse­quent are evident in Gal. 3 27, 28, 29. For as many of you, as have been bap­tized into Christ, have put on Christ, ye are all one in Christ Jesus; and if ye be Christs, then are ye Abrahams seed, and Heirs according to Promise. Here we see, that it is not an accidental or se­parable thing for Baptisme to be our Visible entrance into Christ, Our putting him on, Our admittance by solemnization into the State of Gods Children, and Heirs according to Pro­mise. For (as all own) if we be truly baptized, we are baptized into Christ, then are we Christs, and have put on Christ, and are all one in Christ, and Abrahams Seed according to Pro­mise.

A seventh End of Baptisme is,Seventh End en­trance into the Visible Church. that the Baptized person may orderly there­by have an entrance into the visible Church, and have a right given him to partake of all the Ordinances and Pri­viledges thereof. For as Circumcision of old was the visible door of entrance into the Old testament-church, and so essentially necessary thereto, that without it none were esteemed either Church Members, or were to Partake [Page 28] either of the Passover, or of any of the Priviledges thereof, all without, being called the Uncircumcision: So also was Baptisme such a Door, and Visible en­trance into the New-testament-church, that none were esteemed Members thereof, or did partake of its Ordinan­ces before they were baptized, being so Gods Hedge and Boundary, that others were esteemed without: And therefore as Christ had laid down the Order in the Commission, first to teach, then to Baptize, and then to teach them all things, viz. in the place of teach­ing his School or Church. So did they practice accordingly, as we read Act: 2.41, 42. Where after Peter had taught them, it is said, That they who gladly received his Word, were bap­t zed, and the same day there was added unto them 3000. Souls, and they con­tinued stedfastly in the Apostles Doctrine & fellowship, and breaking of Bread and Prayer: So that after Baptisme, not before, the Believers were said to enjoy, and partake of all the Church Privi­ledges, And which is Christs dire­ctory and Standard for Rule and Order to the end of the world. The Church of Corinth were said 1 Cor. 11.2. to [Page 29] have kept the Ordinances, as they were delivered to them. And it was the Apostles joy and rejoycing to see the Order and Faith of the Saints, Col. 2.5.

And therefore it is said 1 Cor. 12.13. That by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, Bond or Free, and have been all made to drink into one Spirit, viz.

The same Spirit of Faith, Regenera­tion and Holyness, which gives right to Baptisme, orderly lets into the Body and Church, and so admits also unto the Supper, which is the received sense of most interpreters upon the place.

And by this Order believers were said to be baptized into Christ, and to be implanted together with him, Rom. 6 3 Gal 3.27.

For as publick Officers are invested into their trust by some external solem­nity, that passeth upon them at the time of their installment: And as the Husband and Wife enter into their Rela­tion by some solemn act done at the time of their Marriage. Or as a Corporation by some publick act done, doth receive its Members at their Enfranchisement; [Page 30] Even so according to the import of these Scriptures mentioned, do Men and Women receive that Relative being, which they have in Christ, and as Vi­sible Members of that Spiritual [...]orpo­ration, wherein Christ is Head and Chief, from that solemn act of being baptized into him.

And as the Officer is not invested with his Authority: Or Husband and Wife with that Power over each o­thers Bodies, (as 1 Cor. 7.4.) nor any Members with the Immunities of the Corporation by any prequalificati­ons, or actions preparatory thereto, [...] that be acted and done by way of Solemnity, which immediately invests them with their several Respect [...] and Capacities. In like manner m [...]n are to [...]e esteemed capable of those privi­ledges, which visibly do belong to the body of the Church, upon the account of any precedaneous Qualification or Action whatsoever, until first they have past through those spiritual solemnities in Baptisme, upon which they are in­vested with the denomination and visi­ble priviledges, which belong in com­mon to the Members of Christs Mystical body.

Which Order of Christ hath had such a sanction upon it, that all, or for the most part all, that have profest Christi­anity, whether Papists, Prelatists, Presbyterians, or Independents have owned the same, not communicating in the Supper with any they judged un­baptized.

In a word, Baptisme hath been called of old amongst the Ancients, and not without Reason, Janna Sacramentorum, the Gate of the Sacraments, whereof they gave this Reason.

In all respects the Order of the Myste­ry is kept, that first by Remission of sins a Medicine be prepared for their wounds, and then the Nourishment of the Heavenly Table be added. Am­brose.Ambrose

Which Truth is further witnessed unto and confirmed by the following Testimonies, viz.

Justin Martyr, Justin Martyr. in secunda Apologiâ pro Christianis; speaking of the Lords Supper, to which the new baptized person is admitted, saith, This food we call the Eucharist, to which no man is admitted, but only he that believeth the truth of our Doctrine, being washed in the Laver of Regeneration for Remission of sins, &c.

Ʋrsinus Ʋrsinus. in his Catechisme; Bap­tisme is a Sacrament of entrance into the Church, whence it cometh, that the Sup­per is presented to none, except first bap­tized.

The Assemblies Catechisme. [...]ssem­ [...]lies Ca­techisme. Baptisme (say they) is a Sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Chri [...]t, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the Visibit Church: But &c.

Mr. Bax.Mr. Baxter in his plain Scripture proof, p. 24. As a Souldier before Listing, and a King before Crowning and taking his Oath; so are we Church-Members before Baptisme: But as e­very one that must [...]e admitted solemnly into the Army, must be admitted by Listing, as the solemn engaging sign: So every one that hath right to be solemn­ly admitted into the Visible Church must ordinarily be admitted by Baptisme; pro­ved thus.

If we have neither Precept nor Ex­ample in Scripture, since Christ or­dained Baptisme, of any other way of admiting Visible Members, but only by Baptisme; then all that must be admit­ted Visible Members, must ordinarily be baptized.

But since Baptisme was instituted, we have no Precept or Example of admit­ting Visible Members any other way, but constant Precept, and Example for ad­mittance this way.

Therefore all that must be admit­ted Visible Members, must be bapti­zed.

I know not (saith he) what in shew of Reason can be said to this by those that renounce not Scripture. For what man dare go in a way that hath neither Precept nor Example to war­rant it from a way that hath a full cur­rent of both. Yet they that will admit Members into the Church without Bap­tisme, do so.

I had thought to have been larger upon this Point, and intended particu­larly to have answer [...]d a late piece of Mr. [...]unions in contradiction hereto: But [...]eing so well replyed to by Mr. Paul, in his serious Reflections so lately Print­ed; I shall say thereto little more, then what you find in the Sixth Chapter, re­specting the constitution of the Pri­mative Churches.

Now may it not be referred to the Judgment and Conscience of the consi­derate Impartial Reader, whether any [Page 34] but the believer can possibly reach, or attain these Spiritual ends mentioned? and how capable poor ignorant Babes are to answer any of them? and whe­ther it is not contradictious to common sence and Experience for any to assert it? For what Repentance or Faith are they capable to profess? What present Regeneration can they evidence; What Testimony of a good Conscience can they give in striking, or keeping Cove­nant with God herein? And how can they embrace, or improve the Cove­nant on Gods part for Pardon, Purg­ing, Justification, Sanctification, and Salvation?

And therefore is Mr. Faxter forced to confess in his plain Scripture proof, p. 301. That as to the Ends of Baptisme they are rather to be fetched from the Aged, then Infants; and that because the aged 1. are the most fully capable Subjects. 2. The most Excellent and Eminent Subjects. 3. Of whom the Scripture fully speaks, &c. But on the contrary, as for Infants Baptisme be ac­knowledgeth in the same place, that the Scripture speaketh darkly of it: Yea, that it is so dark in the Scripture, that the Controversy is thereby become [Page 35] not only hard, but so hard, as he saith, he finds it.

Wherein if he hath not said more in a few words for the baptizing of Belie­vers, and against that of Infants, then all his great book can answer: Let all the world judge, though he calls it in contradiction hereto, plain Scripture Proof for Infants Church-Membership and Baptisme.

CHAP. V. Wherein the Baptisme of believers is proved to be the only Baptisme from the New-testament-dispen­sation, so differing from that of the old.

THe Old Testament Church,Fifthly, from the new Te­stament Dispensa­tion. we find, was national, consisting of the Natural and Fleshly Seed of A­braham: Therefore were Infants by the Ordinance of Circumcision added thereto: Wherein they had a worldly Sanctuary, Carnal Ordinances, a Tempo­rary Priesthood, and multitude of Cere­monies.

The New-testament-church was by Christs appointment to be a separated people out of the Nations consisting on­ly of the Spiritual Seed of Abraham; and therefore believers upon profession of Faith by the Ordinance of Baptisme were added thereto, Acts 2.31, 1 Cor. 12.13. Wherein a [...] in the Spiritual house, the true Tabernacle, they par­take of Spiritual Ordinances in Com­munion of Spiritual Members: And by an unchangeable Priesthood do offer Spiritual Sacrifices, and Worship God, as true Wroshippers in Spirit and Truth.

And therefore upon this change you have John Baptist discharging that Pri­viledge, (of Abrahams natural Seed) that admitted into the old Church, from any such Rite in the new, Mat. 3.9, &c. telling them in express terms, That now in Gospel dayes they must not say within themselves, That they have Abraham for their Father, viz. That they are the Children of a godly Parent, No, that which m [...]ght have served turn under Moses, will not a vail, nor must not be admitted now under Christ. Nothing now but fruits meet for Repentance give right to [Page 37] the Bap [...]isme of Repentance; and no­thing short of the Spirits birth can or­derly admit to Water-birth and Spiri­tual Ordinances. And the Genuine Reason Christ himself gave to that Do­ctor in Israel; (though yet, it seems, ignorant of the Mystery of the new birth, which only gives the right of admission into the New testament church) Because (saith he) that which is born of the flesh, is but flesh; Regenerati­on being not entailed to Generati­on.

To which purpose therefore Dr. Owen Dr. Owen. very excellently in his Catechisme about Government, p. 106. Our Lord Jesus Christ hath laid down (saith he) as an Everlasting Rule, that unless a man be born again, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God, John 3.3. Requiring Regeneration as an indispensible conditi­on in a Member of his Church, a Subject of his Kingdom: for his Temple is now to be built of Living Stones, 1 Pet. 2.5. Men Spiritually and savingly quickned from their death in sin, and by the Holy Ghost (whereof they are partakers) made a meet habitation for God, Eph. 2 21 22 1 Cor. 3.16. 2 Cor. 6.16. Which receiving Vital supplies from Christ its [Page 38] Head increaseth in faith and holiness, edifying it self in love. Thus far the Doctor.

Under the Law, Ceremony, Shadow, Letter, and Carnal Seed suited to Car­nal Ordinances: But when the substance and Spirit was come, (under the Gos­pel) then only a spiritual Seed as most meet and suitable, must attend the spiritual Worship, and spiritual Ordi­nances.

Dr. Tayl.And herein doth Dr. Taylor very well accomodate this Truth, P. 242. They (saith he) that baptize Children, make Baptisme to be wholly an outward Duty, a Work of the Law, a Carnal Ordinance, it makes us adhere to the Letter without regard of the Spirit, to be satisfyed with Shadows, to return to Bondage, to relinquish the mysterious­ness, the substance and spirituality of the Gospel, which Argument is of s [...] much the more consideration; becaus [...] under the Spiritual Covenant, or th [...] Gospel of Grace, if the Mystery go [...] not before the Symbol; (which doe [...] when the Symbols are consignations o [...] Grace, as the Sacraments are) yet i [...] always accompanies it, but never follow [...] in order of time. And this is cle [...] [Page 39] in the perpetual Analogy of Holy Scrip­ture.

CHAP. VI. Wherein Believers Baptisme is con­firmed to be the only true Baptisme, from the constitution of the Primi­tive Churches, who were formed not of Ignorant Babes, but of pro­fessing Men and Women, that up­on Baptisme were joyned together to observe all the Ordinances of Christ, which is also further evi­denced by the Dedications of the Epistles to the Churches, as well as Contents of the same.

THe Truth whereof appears not on­ly from the Order directed unto in Christs Commission,6. From the consti­tution of the Pri­mitive Churches which (as al­ready observed) requires, that men be first taught in the Faith. 2. That then they be baptized into the Faith. And then thirdly, that they be edified or taught in the Faith, viz. in the [Page 40] place of teaching, the Church, or School of Christ. (The contemning which Order, as Mr. Baxter saith, is to con­temn all Rules of Order.)

Sect. 1 But also from the pattern and exam­ple, the Apostles gave in observation of the aforesaid direction in planting the New Testament Churches we read of. As first the Church of Jerusalem.

Jerusa­lem.Acts 2.41, 42. Then they that glad­ly received his Word were baptized, and the same day there were added to them 3000. Souls. (The (them) that they were added to, appear to be the Bap­tized Disciples mentioned Acts. 1.15, 21, 22.) And so they continued in the Apostles Doctrine, fellowship, breaking of Bread, and Prayers. Where you have the order fully observed; 1. Receiving or believing the Word. 2. Baptizing. 3. Church fellowship in Doctrine, breaking Bread, and Prayer.

And so in like manner you will find the self-same order was observed in all the Churches: As,

Secondly, The Church of Samaria. Samaria.

Acts 8.12. Where it is said, that when the Samaritans believed Philp Preaching the things concerning the Kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus, [Page 41] they were baptized both Men and Women, (but not a Word of Chil­dren)

Thirdly, The Church at Cesarea. Cesarea.

Acts 10 47, 48. Where Peter upon Cornelius and his Companies believing and receiving the Holy Spirit) said, Can any man forbid Water, that these should not be baptized, which have re­ceived the Holy Ghost, as well as We? And he commanded them to be bapti­zed.

Fourthly, The Church of Philippi. Philippi.

Acts 16.14. It is said, That Lydia a Worshipper of God heard us, whose Heart the Lord opened, that she attended unto the things that were spoken by Paul, and was baptized, and her houshold.

And Verse 32. They said unto the Ialour, believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved: And they spake unto him the Word of the Lord, and to all that were in his house. 33. And he was baptized, he and all his straightway. 34. [...]elieving in God with all his House.

Where you have two Families bap­ti [...]ed, but no Child mentioned in either, but only such, who were capable to hear [Page 42] the Word of the Lord, and to believe the same.

Fifthly, The Church at Coloss. Coloss.

Col. 2.10, 11, 12. Where the Apo­stle asserts, that that Church at Coloss was buried with Christ in Baptisme, wherein they were risen with him, through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.

Which cannot be truly said of any but professed believers.

Sixthly, Concerning the Church at Corinth, Corinth. it is said.

Acts 18.18. And Crisp [...] the chief Ruler of the Synagogue believed on the Lord with all his House, and that many of the Corinthians, hearing, believed, and were baptized; and in 1 Cor. 1.13. Paul tells the Church at Corinth, That they were not baptized in his name. And in 1 Cor. 12.13. That by one Spirit they were all baptized into one Body, viz. That they were joyned to the Church by baptisme; of whom it is said, 1 Cor. 14.2 That they kept the Ordinances, as they were delivered to them.

Seventhly, of the Church of Rome it is written.

Rom. 6.3. Know ye not that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his Death. Therefore we are buried with him in Baptisme into Death.

Eighthly, of the Church at Galatia. Galatia.

Gal. 3.26, 27. For ye are all the Children of God by Faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ.

And lastly, of the Church at Ephesus Ephesus. it is Recorded.

Acts 9.1, 2, 3. That Paul having past through the upper Coasts, came to Ephesus, and finding Disciples, said unto them, Have you received the Spi­rit since you believed; and they said, No &c. And he said, unto what were you baptized, &c.

By which Scriptures it manifestly ap­peareth, that the New Testament Churches were formed only of bapti­zed believers, wherein we neither find one Ignorant Babe, nor one unbaptized person a Member.

And that Infants have as little right to be admitted into the Church, and e­steemed Members thereof, or to partake of the spiritual Ordinances therein, as they have to that initiating Ordinance [Page 44] Baptisme. It may further appear, if you do but consider, how incongruous it is to Reason and sense to imagine, that little Children are any way concer­ned as Church-Members, either in the Dedications of the Epistles sent to the Churches, or in the Epistles them­selves.

Sect. 2 First, In the Dedications and Dire­ctions of the Epistles; as first, that to the Church of Rome, Rom. 1.7. Di­rected to the beloved of God, called to be Saints, and whose Faith was spoken of through the whole world.

But can that be said of any In­fant?

And secondly those Epistles to the Corinthians, are they not also directed to those that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be Saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ, our Lord and theirs, enriched with all utterance and Know­ledge, &c.

But what Ignorant Babe could be concerned therein?

And thirdly, that Epistle written to the Church at Ephesus; Is it not to the Faithful in Christ, the chosen, adopt­ed, [Page 45] abounding in Wisdome and Pru­dence?

But what poor silly Babe could be in­tended thereby?

And Fourthly, In the Letter direct­ed to the Church at Philippi. Is it not to all the Saints in Christs Jesus, who have had their fellowship in the Gos­pel from the first day till then? Philip. 1.1.

But how can that be said of any Child.

And fifthly, those Epistles inscribed to the Church at Thessalonica, were they not to such as did abound in Love, Faith, Hope, Patience, that recei­ved the word in much affliction, and joy in the Holy Ghost, &c. 1 Thes. 1. 2 Thes. 1.3.

But what Patience, Love, or Hope can be attributed to silly Children.

And lastly, those seven Epistles writ­ten to the Asian Churches, wherein several Graces are commended, and s ns reproved and threatned, and every one that had an Ear commanded to hear what the Spirit said to these Churches.

But how could there be one Child concerned therein?

The Church of England Church of England. in their 19th. Article, do acknowledge, that the Visible Church is a number of Christians by profession.

Dr. Owen gives a descripti­on of a Gospel-Church.Dr. Owen in his Catechisme about New Testament Worship, P. 89. tells us, That a Gospel-Church is a society of Persons called our of the World, or their Natural worldly state by the administra­tion of the Word and Spirit unto the obe­dience of the Faith, or the Knowledge and Worship of God in Christ joyned to­gether in an Holy band, or by special a­greement, for the exercise of the commu­nion of Saints in the due observation of all the Ordinances of the Gospel, Rom. 1.5, 6. 1 Cor. 1.2. 1 Cor. 14.15. Heb. 3.1. James 1.18. Rev. 1.20. 1 Pet. 2.5. Eph. 2.21, 22, 23. 2 Cor. 6.16, 17.

And again in Page 106. As the Apo­stles in their Writings do ascribe unto all the Churches, and the Members of them, a Participation in this effectual Vocati­on, affirming, that they are Saints, Called, Sanctified, Iustified and Ac­cepted with God in Christ; for which he again cites the foregoing Scriptures) so many of the Duties which are required of them in that Relation and condition [Page 47] are such, as none can perform to the Glory of God, their own benefit, and the edification of others, (the [...]nds of all obedience) unless they are partakers of this effectual Calling, 1 Cor. 10.16, 17. 1 Cor. 12.12, Ephes. 4.16.

Mr. Baxter in his 10th. Argument to Mr. Blake, Mr. [...]ax. hath these words very sig­nificant to our purpose, viz. Paul call­eth all the baptized Church of Corinth justified: None that profess not a justifi­ed Faith, are called justified, therefore none such should be baptized. The Major is proved out of 1 Cor. 6.11. Ye are Wa [...]hed, ye are Sanctified, ye are Iustified in the Name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.

To which he adds, I confess it is sad, that good men should be so unfaithfull to the Truth, which is so pretious, and is not their own, and which they should do nothing against, but all they can for i [...].

Secondly,2. Nor in the Epi­stles them­selves. As Children are not con­cerned in the Dedications of the Epistles, so neither are they as Church-Members in the Epistles themselves, as may ap­pear by a few instances, to which you may abundantly add in your reading the Epistles.

The first we shall mention is that 1 Cor. 6.4.1 Cor. 6.4 If then you have Judgment of things pertaining to this Life, set them to judge that are least esteemed in the Church. And that he meant least e­steemed for Wisdom and Iudgment, the fifth Verse explains.

But Infants of 8 or 10 dayes old can neither judge nor speak, therefore we must necessarily conclude, there were no such Members in the Church of Corinth.

2. Another you have in 1 Cor. 10.16, 17 compared with 11.28, 29. The Cup of bles­sing which webless is it not the Communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the Communion of the Body of Christ? For we being many are one Bread, and whosoever doth eat and drink unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, and eateth and drinketh Damnation to himself, not discerning the Lords body, &c. But poor Ignorant Babes without under­standing cannot possibly either examine themselves, or have the least discerning of the Lords body, whether consider­ed as Symbolically or Mystically repre­sented in that Ordinance.

Therefore were none such to be sound in the Church at Corinth, nor in any other Gospel-church, as Dr. Owen saith very well.

Dr. Owen Dr. Owen p. 103. As God hath ap­pointed Saints to be the seal and subject of all his Ordinances, having granted the right of them to them alone, 1 Tim. 3.15. Instructing them with the exercise of that Authority, which he puts forth in the Rule of his Disciples in this world: He hath also appointed the most holy in­stitution of his Supper to denote and ex­press that Ʋnion and Communion, which the Members of each of these Churches have by his Ordinance among themselves, 1 Cor 10.7. The Cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the Communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the Communion of the body of Christ? For we being many are one bread and one body, for we are all par­takers of that one bread.

How consonant, (by the way) and agreeable both to Rule, and Reason, and Righteousness doth it appear to be, to admit men upon profession of Faith to both Ordinances, keeping thereby the right Subjects, as well as to the due Order.

But how Childishly ridiculous it was in those first inventers of Baptisme for 600. years, so well to observe the Or­der, [viz. first to baptize and then to communicate] and yet so miserably to miss it in the Subjects, applying the Spiritual Ordinances to Ignorant Babes.

And how much worse in the Prote­stant Reformers, that so lamentably miss it both in the due Order, and right Subjects also.

Which the Prelate and Presbyter do in admitting Children to Baptisme and Membership, but not to the Supper?

And the Independent more in point of Order in admitting them to B [...]p­tisme, but neither to Membership, nor the Supper.

A third observeable Passage we have in 1 Cor. 12 25, 26.1 Cor. 12.25, 26. Where the Apo­stle exhorts, That there be no Schisme in the body, but that the Members should have the same care one for another.

But how ridiculous would this be to be applied to a little Ignorant careless Infant.

A fourth considerable Instance may be fetcht from 1 Thes. 5.2, 4.1 Thes. 5.2, 4. Where the Apostle saith, That they all knew [Page 51] perfectly; that the Day of the Lord so cometh, as a Thief in the night. That he speaks of all is evident verse 4, 5. in these words. But ye, brethren are not in darkness, that that day should over­take You, as a Thief; Ye are all the Children of the Day, and of the Light, &c.

But little Children that have no un­derstanding, are no such Children of the Light, as to know perfectly, or in part the coming of the Day of God; For they know nothing at all of it: therefore no such Infants were Members of the Church at Thessalonica.

And fifthly, another convincing Pas­sage we have in Heb. 6.11, 12.Heb. 6.11, 12. The Apostle thus exhorting; And we desire, that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope to the End, that ye be not slothfull, but of them, who through Faith, and Pa­tience inherit the Promises.

But little Children can shew no such diligence to the full assurance of hope to the end, neither can they shew such diligence in following of them, who through Faith and Patience did inherit the Promises: For they have no understanding in Earthly things; [Page 52] How then can they understand Heaven­ly? John 3.12. Therefore no such Babes were Church-members in the Church of the Hebrews.

And as a further proof against In­fants Church-membership,3. From the Cha­racters Christ gives his Disciples. we may add the Character Christ gives of his Disciples, viz.

John 8.31, 32. Then said Jesus to those Jews, which believed on him; If you continue in my Word, then are ye my Disciples indeed, and ye shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free.

And John 15.8. A new Command­ment I give unto you, that you love one another, as I have loved you; That you also love one another: By this shall all men know that you are my Disciples. And again.

John 15.1. Herein is my Father glo­rified, that you bear much Fruit; so shall you be my Disciples.

And again, Luke 14.27. And who­soever doth not bear his Cross, and come after me cannot be my Dis­ciple

And Verse 33. So likewise, who­soever he be of you, that forsaketh [Page 53] not all that he hath, cannot be my Dis­ciple.

But how absurd would it be to apply any of these Characters to little Igno­rant Infants?

And lastly, from that General Ex­hortation, that Christ gives to all his Disciples, Mark 13.37. Watch and Pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things, and to stand before the Son of Man, and what I say unto you, I say unto all, Watch.

But how ridiculous would it be to in­clude a little Babe herein?

Which Argument about Church-membership, we shall conclude with those full words of Dr. Owen Dr. Owen so much to the purpose, P. 107. viz.

From all which it appears, who are the [...]ubject matter of these Churches of Christ, as also the means whereby they come to be so, namely, the Admi­nistration of the Spirit and Word of Christ. As also by the Gifts and Gra­ces of the Spirit given to them, to make every one of them meet for, and useful in that place, which he holds in such Churches, as the Apostle discourseth at [Page 54] large, 1 Cor. 12.15, 16, 17, to 27. Col. 2.9. Ephes. 4.16. It being ma­nifest (saith he) that no Ordinance of Christ is appointed to be observed by his Disciples; No Communication of Gifts of the Holy Ghost is promised to them; but with respect unto these Churches of his Institution

CHAP. VII. Wherein there is an account of some eminent Witness, that hath been born to Believers Baptisme, in a brief History thereof; giving the Decrees of Councels, and the Opinions of the Learned, (through out the Centuries) with the neces­sity of Instructing and Catechising not only the Child [...]en of Pagans, bu [...] of the Christians also in Order to it; with some rema [...]kable Instances of the Children of Christians no [...] Baptized till Aged, Collected [...]u [...] of several Authors, especially the famous Magdiburgensian History.


NOt further to mention the Elders and Fathers of the first Century all of them so fully,VII. The Testimo­ny of Learned men in all Ages wit­nessing to it. (as you have heard) confirming and establishing this great Truth; as Mathew, Mark, [Page 56] Luke, John, Paul, Peter, Barnabas, Timothy, Titus, Jude, &c. many of whose Authorities have been at large rehearsed; We shall proceed to give an Account here, of some Humane Autho­rities also, which we produce not for any Proof; but by way of Illustration on [...]y, and because they may be of weight with some; and whereby it may be manifest, that not only Scrip­ture Authority, but even Antiquity it self, (which hath been so much boasted of) is altogether for Believers, and not fo [...] Infants Baptisme.

The Magdiburgenses in their excel­lent History, do tell us, that as to the business of Baptisme in the first Centu­ry they find to have been after this man­ner, viz.

First as to the Subjects of Baptisme, The 1st. Subject of Baptisme they tell us, that in this Age they find they Baptized only the Adult or Aged, whether Iews or Gentiles, whereof they say we have instances in the Chapters of the Acts; but as to the baptizing of Infants, they confess they read of no Example, Cent. 1. l. 2. 496.

Secondly, as to the Administrators The 2. Admini­strator. of Baptisme, they say they find other [Page 57] Ministers of the Church besides the Apostles did baptize, which in after Ages came more especially to be fixed upon Bishops, though in Case of ne­cessity, not only Lay-men, but Wo­men also were admitted to administer that Ordinance.

Thirdly,The 3. Place. As to the Place of Bap­tisme, they find it was as occasion offer­ed, where Rivers and Fountains, and other coveniencies for baptizing were, and which was done as well privately, where only two Persons, Philip and the Eunuch, were as in a great Con­gregation, Acts 2.

Neither do they find that the Wa­ter was in this Age first Consecrated before baptisme, which with so much Ceremony was after enjoyned to be in Fonts and Baptisterious fixed in the Temples.

Fourthly,The 4. Time. As to the Time when it was to be done. They say they find to be as any fit season, no certain Day or Feast being either by Christ or his Apostles, appropriated thereto, as after it was to Easter and Whitsen [...]ide,

Fifthly,The 5. Manner. As to the Manner of Bap­tizing; It was by Dipping or Plung­ing [Page 58] in the Water into the Name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, which was (they say) so agreeable not only to the sence of the Word, which signi­fies Immersion in Water, but to the Allegory of Death, Burial, and Re­surrection, to which the Apostle so properly alludes, Rom. 6. Col. 2. As also to the many Places where it is used for the washing away of sin, as 1 Pet. 3. Heb. 2.10 Eph. 5. Tit. 3. and in the 22. Acts, where they observe, that Ananias commands Paul to be Bapti­zed, and to Wash away his sins, which said Custom of dipping the whole body in Water, was chang­ed into sprinkling a little Water in the Face.

The 6. CeremonySixthly, As to the Ceremonies, they tell us, the Parties Baptized did fréely come and offer themselves, pro­fessing their Faith, though not in any formal way of Confession, which after was enjoyned, and that without any Gossips or Sureties, to confess or un­dertake for them, which after was re­quired, both for the Adult, as for the Infant, neither were there any giving of Names in Baptizing, no Excorismes, Chrysmes or Annointings, no Con­signations, [Page 59] Albes, Salt, Spittle, no Gifts given or received, no Confirma­tion or Bishoping, no giving of Meats, Milk or Honey, all which were after introduced and enjoyned, as you'l hear Magdib. Cen. 1. l. 2. c. 6. p. 496. 497.


AS to Baptisme in the second Century, they say, Cent. 2. c. 6. p. 109. That it doth not appear by any app [...]oved Authors, that there was any mutation or variation from the former; and in Confirmation thereof, Quote what Iustin Martyr, Justin Martyr. saith in his second Apology to Anto [...] Pius the Emperor. Which because it is so con­siderab [...]e an Instance, I shall give it you at large, as I find it in the Apology it self in the words that Mr, Baxter himself hath rendered it in his Saints Rest, c. 8. Ser. 5. viz

I will declare unto you how we offer up our selves to God after that we are re­nowed through Christ Those amongst us that are Instructed in the Faith, and believe that which we teach them is [Page 60] true, being willing to live according to the same, we do admonish to fast and pray for the forgiveness of sins, and we also fast and pray with them; And when they are brought by us into the Water, and there as we were new born, are they also by new birth renewed; and then in calling upon God the Father, the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit, they are washed in Water. Then we bring the Person thus washed and instructed to the Brethren; (as they are called) where the Assemblies are, that we may pray both for our selves and the new illumina­ted Person, that we may be found by true Doctrine, and by good Works worthy ob­servers and keepers of the Commandments, and that we may attain Eternal Life and Salvation. Then Bread and Wine being brought to the chief Brother, (so they call the chief Minister) he taketh it and offereth Praise and Thanksgiving to the Father, by the Name of the Son and Holy Spirit: And so awhile he celebra­teth Thanksgiving; after Prayers and Thanksgiving, the whole Assembly saith, Amen.

Thanksgiving being ended by the Pre­sident, (or chief Guide) and the con­sent of the whole People, the Deacons as [Page 61] we call them, do give to every one present, part of the Bread and Wine, over which Thanks was given, and they also suffer them to bring it to the absent.

This Food we call the Eucharist; to which no man is admitted, but only he that believeth the truth of the Doctrine, being washed in the Laver of Regene­ration for Remission of sins, and that so liveth as Christ hath taught. And this, saith Mr. Baxter, is you see no new way.

This Justin Martyr is believed to have been converted to Christ within 30 years after the Apostle John, when it is credible also very many were living, who had been frequent Auditors of the Apostle, who was beheaded under Verus the Emperor.

Now they that shall consider this description he makes of the Christian Baptisme, and the manner that Chri­stians were admitted after it into the Churches of Christ in those days, can hardly, I presume, pick out any good warranty for Infants Church-member­ship, or Baptisme out of the same.


IN this Third Century, they say as to the Rites of Baptisme in the Asiatick Churches, they have no Testimony as to any Alteration; but concerning the Affrican Churches they give some ac­count, and of the great corruptions creeping into the Church, respecting this Ord [...]nance of Baptisme at least in Opinion, (though as to practice, they say they cannot give any particular In­stance) both as to subject, time, manner and ceremonies, Cent. 3. c. 6.123, 124, 125.

Tertull They tell us, That Tertullian in his Book de Baptismo, opposeth himself (by several Arguments at large, to some that asserted Infants Baptisme, affir­ming, That the Adult were the only proper subjects of Baptisme; because, saith he, fasting confession of sins, prayer, profession, renouncing the Devil and his Works is required from the Bap­tized.

Mr. Bax. Mr. Baxter is pleased to give us this farther account of Baptisme in this Age, in his Saints Rest, Part 1. c. 8. Sect. 5 in [Page 63] these words, viz. That Tertullian, Origen, and Cyprian, who lived, saith he, in the second and third Centuries, do all of them affirm; that in the Prima­tive times, none were bap [...]ized without an express covenanting, wherein they re­nounced the World, Flesh and Devil and ingaged themselves to Christ, and promi­sed to obey him.

And again he is pleased to tell us in his defence of the Principles of Love, P. 7. in these words. That he knew that in the days of Tertullian, Nazianzen and Austin, Men had liberty to be baptized, or to bring their Children, when, and at what age they pleased, and that none were forced to go against their Consciences therein And that he knew not that our Rule or Religi [...]n is changed, or that we are grown any wiser or [...]e [...] then they.

Eusebius Eusebius Lib. 6. Hist. Eccles. saith, That Origen was appointed by Deme­trius, to be at Alexandria a Catichist, that is, a Teacher of those that were Dis­ciples and Scholers in the faith, which Office before his time after the Apostles Plautius and Clemens did execute, whose Disciples he saith were Plutarch, [...]erenus, Heraclus and Heron; and that a Wo­man [Page 64] after she was Baptized with Water, was as a Martyr put to Death, and Baptized with fire for Christs sake; after Origen, Heracles; and after him D [...]onysius taught in the said School of Alexandria those that were to be instruct­ed in the faith before Baptisme. And again in Lib. 7. Chap. 8. There was with us a Brother which believed, who being present amongst those that were to be Baptized and heard how they were Questioned, and how they answered, came weeping to me, and desired of me to be cleansed, and washed by Christian Baptisme.


IN this Age they tell us, That it was the Universal practice to Baptize the Adult upon profession of Faith, and for which they give us several Authorities out of the learned Fa­thers and Councils at that time, some whereof you have as followeth.

Athan. Athanasius contra Arianos. Our Saviour, saith he, did not slightly com­mand to Baptize. For first of all he said Teach, and then Baptize, that [Page 65] true Faith might come by teaching, and Baptisme perfected by Faith.

HillaryHillary. Lib. 2. de Trinitate. The Lord hath commanded to baptize upon the Name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, that is upon Confession of the beginners, the only begotten, and him that was given And farther, the said Hillary prayeth thus to God, O living Lord preserve my Faith, and the Testi­mony of my Conscience; so that I may always keep what I have confessed in the Sacrament of my Regeneration, when I was Baptized in the Name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, namely, that I may worship thee O God our Father, with thy Son, and stir up thy Holy Spirit in me, which proceedeth or goeth out from thee.

And again saith, That all the Ea­stern Churches did only Baptize the Adult.

Basil Basil. contra Eunomium Lib. 3. Must the faithfull be sealed with Baptisme, Faith must needs precede and go before. And in his Exhortation to Baptisme, saith, that none were to be baptized but the Catachumens, and those that were du­ly instructed in the faith.

Gregory Nazian.Gregory Nazianzen in his Third Ora­tion, saith, That the Baptized used in the first place to confess their Sins, and to renounce the Devil and all his Works before many Witnesses. And a­gain, That none were baptized of old, but they that did so confess their sins, and how dangerous it was headily, and without due preparation to partake there­of.

He therefore adviseth, That the Bap­tisme of Infants be defer'd till they could give an Account of [...]hei [...] Faith, as Dr. Taylor, p 239.

AmbroseAmbrose saith in his Third Book de Sacramentis, c. 2. That the Baptized did not only make Confession of his Faith, but was to desire the same.

And in his Second Book de [...]piritu Sancto. In our Sacrament, saith he, there are three Questions propounded, and three Confessions made, without which none can be washed

Arno [...]iusArnobius in Ps. 146 Thou art not first (saith he) baptized, and then be­ginnest first to affect and embrace the faith but when thou art to be baptized, thou signifiest unto the Priest what thy de­sire is, and makest thy confession with thy mo [...]th.

JeromJerom. upon Matthew saith, The Lord commanded his Apostles, that they [...]ould first Instruct and Teach all Na­tions, and afterwards should baptize those that were instructed in the Myste­ries of the Faith; for it cannot be, saith he, that the Body should receive that Sa­crament of Baptisme, till the Soul have before received the true Faith.

JeromJerom. saith, That in the Eastern Churches, the Adul [...] were only Baptiz [...]d in his Epistle against the Errors of John of Jerusalem. And again in his Epistle to Pamachius saith, That they are to be admitted to Baptisme to whom it doth properly belong, viz. those only who have been Instructed in the Faith.

Decrees of Councels.

IN the 4th. Council of Carthage it was determined,C. Carth.That whoever was to be baptized, should give in his Name, and that then after due Examinations and Preparations Baptisme was to be ad­ministred, Magd. Cent. 4 c. 6. 417.

C. Laodi. In the Council of Laodicea in their 46. Canon, it was determined, that the baptized should Rehearse the Arti­cles of the Creed, Magd. Cent. 4. 418.

C. Neo. In the 6. Canon of the Council of Neocesaria, It is said, That Confessi­on and free choise was necessary to Bap­tisme, Mag. Cent. 4. 616.

GrotiusGrotius. in his Annotations upon Mat. 19. saith. That the Canon of the Syn [...] of Neocaesaria, held in the year 315. Determined, that a Woman with Child might be baptized, because the Baptisme reached not the fruit of the Womb; be­cause in the Confession made in Baptisme each ones own free choise is shewed; from which Canon, saith he, Balsamon and Zoncras do infer, that an Infant cannot be baptized, because it hath no power to confess or choose the Divine Bap­tisme.

Dr. TaylorDr. Tayl upon mentioning the Ca­non, p. 238. saith. It speaks Reason, and it intimates a practice, which was abso­lutely universal in the Church of interro­gating the Catechemeni concerning the Articles of their Creed, which is one Ar­gument, that either they did not admit Infants to Baptisme, or that they did pre­varicate [Page 69] egregiously in asking questions of them, who themselves knew were not capable of giving answers.

And in farther assurance and confir­mation of this great truth, you have most remarkable Instances of several of the Most eminent Persons of this Centu­ry, that were not baptized till aged, though the Offspring of believing Pa­rents; viz. Basil, Gregory Nazi­anzen, Ambrose, Chrysostome, Ierom, Austin, Nectarius, Constantine, Theo­dosius, &c. and for proof whereof take the following Authorities.

Osiander Cent 4. l. 3. c. 42. 371. Basil baptized aged. saith, That Basil the great Bishop of Caesaria, the Son of Basil Bishop of Nisen, and his Wife Eumele, whose Grandfa­ther was a Martyr, under the persecution of Maximinus, was tenderly educated like a second Timothy under his gratious Mother, became a learned man, and great Preacher, and after Baptized in Jordan by Maximinus the Bishop, as he saith, is declared by Vincentius in specu­lo; and for which Story he also quotes Socrates, l. 4. c. 26. Sozam. l. 6. c. 34. Magd. Cent. 4. c. 10. p. 939.

Gregory Nazian. baptized after 20. years old. Osiander Cent 4. l. 3. c. 43. p. 380. Tells us, That Gregory Nazianzen was the Son of Gregory Bishop of Nazianzen, by his Wife Nonna, a very pious holy Woman, and instructed this her Son as Hannah of old did Samuel, who in the 20th. Year of his age was bap­tized.

Hugo Grotius Anot. in Mat. 19.14. saith, It was no small Evidence that Baptisme of Infants many hundred years was not ordinary in the Greek Church; because not only Constantine the great,Constantine bap­tized a­ged. the Son of Helena, a zealous Christian was not baptized till aged: But also Gregory Nazianzen, who was the Son of a Christian Bishop, and brought up long by him, was not baptized till he came to years; as is, saith he, related in his Life.

Paulinus in vita Ambrosi, saith, That Ambrose, Ambrose baptized after Bi­shop of Milan. born of Christian Parents, his fathers name was Ambrose, and his Mothers Marcelina, remain­ed instructed in the Faith unbaptized, till he was chosen Bishop of Mil­lan, as which time he received Bap­tisme.

Hugo Grotius farther upon Mot. 19. Chr [...]sost. Baptized at 21. tells us, That Chrysostome was born of Christian Parents, and educated by Miletius a Bishop, was not baptized till past 21. years; who adds farther, That many of the Greeks in every age unto this day, do keep the custom of deferring the Baptisme of little ones, till they could themselves make a Confession of their faith.

Erasmus in Vita Hieronimi,Jerom Baptized in his 30. year. Testifies, That Jerom, born in the City of Strydon of Christian Parents, and brought up in the Christian Religion, was baptized at Rome in the 30th. year of his age.

Walafridus Strabo, who lived about 840. in his Book de Reb. Eccles Cap. 26. saith, That in the first times the Grace of Baptisme was wont to be given to them only who were come to that inte­grity of mind and body, that they could know and understand what profit was to be gotten by Bap [...]i [...]me, what was to be confessed and believed, Austin Baptized about the 30th. year of his Age. what lastly was to be observed by them that are new born in Christ, and confirms it by Austins own Confession of himself, continuing a Catachumenus, long afore Baptized: But afterwards Christians [Page 72] under­standing Original sin, and least their Children should perish without any means of Grace, had them, he saith, Baptized to the decree of the Council of Affrica, and then adds, how God-fathers and God-mothers were invented, and the superstitious and impious consequent of it, &c.

Nauclerus Generat. 14. An. 391. saith, Austin the Son of the virtuous Mo­nica, being instructed in the faith, was baptized when he was about 30. years of age.

Vossins de Baptismo Pag. 106. saith, That Nectarius was made Bishop of Constantinople before he was bap­tized.

Historia Tripartita Lib. 1. affirmeth, That Theodosius the Emperor,Theodo­sius bapti­zed aged. born in Spain, his Parents being both Christians, was even from his youth instructed and educated in the faith, who falling sick at Thessalonica, was by Achalio bapti­zed, and thereupon recovered of his sickness.

Mounsieur Daille, the learned French man, a great searcher into Antiquity, in his Book called the Ʋse of the fathers, saith, In ancient times they often defer­red the Baptisme of Infants; as ap­peareth [Page 73] by the History of Constantine the great, Constantinus, Theodosi [...]s, Valentinian, Gracian, and in St. Am­brose, and also by the Orations of Greg. Nazianzen, and St. Basil on this sub­ject, and some of the Fathers have been of opinion, that it is sit it should be deferred; but whence is it, saith he, that the very mentioning hereof is scarce to be endured at this day, Lib. 2. P. 149.

Dr. FieldDr. Field. on the Church, P. 729. saith, That very many that were born of Christian Parents, besides thos that were converted from Paganisme, put off their Baptisme for a long time, insomuch that many were made Bishops before they were baptized.

Beatus RhenanusB. Rhen. in Anot. sup. Tert. saith. That the old Custom was, that those that were come to their full growth, were baptized with the Bath of Regene­ration, which Custom, saith he, was ob­served till the time of Charles the great, and Lodwick Emperours, as by the Statutes by the [...] established appear­ed, &c.

Mr. Den,Mr. Den. besides the former Instan­ces of the Children of Christian Parents not baptized till aged, adds, Pancrati [...], [Page 74] Pontius, Nazarius, Tecia, Laigerus, and Erasma Tusca.

Dr. Tayl. Dr. Jerom Taylor in his Lib Proph. P. 239. affirms out of an Antiquity, That the Parents of Austin, Jerom, and Ambrose, although Christians did not baptize their Children till they were 30. years of Age, and that it will be very considerable, in the example, and of great efficacy for destroying the supposed necessity of derivation of Infants Bap­tisme from the Apostles.

Dr. B. Letter. Dr. B. late Dr. of the Chair, a per­son of great learning and eminency, hath these words in a Letter I have seen in Print. viz. I do believe and know that there is neither Precept nor Example in Scripture for Pedobaptisme, nor any just evidence for it for above 200 years after Christ, that Tertullian condemns it as an unwarrantable Custom, and Na­zianzen a good while after him dislikes it too, sure I am that in the primitive times they were Chatacumeni, then Illu­minati or Baptizati; and that not on­ly Pagans, and Children of Pagans con­verted, but Children of Christian Pa­rents.

The truth is, I do believe Pedobap­tisme; how, or by whom I know not, came [Page 75] into the world in the second Century, and in the third and fourth began to be pra­cticed, though not generally, and defend­ed as lawfull from the Text, grosly mis­understood, Jo. 3.5, upon the like gross mistake of Jo. 6.53. they did for many Centuries both in the Greek and Latin Church Communicate Infants, and give them the Lords Supper, and I do confess they might do both as well as either: But although they baptized some Infants, and thought it lawfull so to do; yet Austin was the first that ever said it was necessary; and farther saith.

I have read what my learned and wor­thy friends Dr. Hamond, Mr. Baxter, and others say in defence of it, and I con­fess I wonder not a little, that men of such great parts should say so much to so little purpose; for I have not yet seen any thing like an Argument for it. Thus far Dr. B.


BElieve i [...] Baptisme was asserted in this Age, and the grounds thereof by many of the learned writers, where­of you have the following Instances.

Chrysostome Chrysost. saith, That the time of G [...]ce on Conversion was the only fit [...] for Baptisme, which he saith, was the season the 3000. in the second Acts, and the 5000, afterwards were baptized, Acts 4.

And again, In Baptisme the Princi­pal thing to be lookt after, is the Spirit by which the Water is made effectual; for saith he, in the Apostles time the Bap­tisme of Water, and the Baptisme of the Spirit were different things, and done at different times, Magd. 5, Cent. 363.

And again, As Isaac was brought forth by the Word of Promise, so must we be b [...] by the Word of God, which only makes Baptisme powerfull and effectual, 364.

AustinAustin. himself in his Book de fide & bono aper. Cap. 6 saith, That none with­out due. Examination both as to Doctrine and Conversation, ought to be [...]dmitted to Baptisme, Cent. 5 p, 654.

And again, That no ignorant or scan­dalous Person ought by any means with­out due Instruction and fruits of R [...]p [...]n­tance, to be admitted to Baptisme, 654, 655.

Austins Creed, and Chrysostomes Creed also were calculated for the Cata­chumeni, [Page 77] for their better instruction be­fore Baptisme, p 655.

The names and qualities of several Adult persons that were baptized in this Age, are inserted p. 655.


IN this Age the Adult upon profession of faith were baptized.

GregoryGregory. Lib. 4 Cap. 26. saith, That a Sermon was used to be Preached to those that were to be baptized, and that the pomps of the Devil were used to be renoun­ced before Baptisme; and that the hearts of believers are through Grace cleansed thereby.

Gregory, in Baptisme the Elect re­ceive the gift of the the Spirit, whereby also their understandings are enlightned in the Scripture, and that by faith in Baptisme all sins are relaxed, Cent 6. 226, 227.

CassiodarusCass [...]odor calls Baptisme the Divine fountain, wherein the faithfull have the new Creature brought forth, Cent 6. p. 226.

Olimpi [...]dorusOlimp. saith. Our Spiritual life is one and the same effected with our spiri­tual [Page 78] death, for they who are born, are buried with Christ in Baptisme, p. 226.


THe Bracarens Councel Brac. C. in Spain decreed, That no Adult Person, but such who had been well instructed and Chatechised, and duly examined, should be baptized, Cent. 7. 146.

The 6th Councel of ConstanceC. of Con. ordain­ed, That none should receive Baptisme without rehearsing the Creed, or Lords Prayer, 146.

The Councel of Tolletanus,C. of Tol. in the 5th. Chapter saith, That by being dipt into Water, we do as it were descend into Hell, and by rising up out of the Water, we do witness a Resurrection.

Paulinus Baptized in the River Trent in England, a great number both of men and women at noon day, Bead. l. 2. c. 16. Cent. 7. 145.


BEde saith, That men were first to be instructed into the knowledge of the Truth, then to be baptized as Christ hath [Page 79] taught, because without faith it was im­possible to please God, Cent. 8. p 220.

And again, as the body is visibly cleansed by Water, so the soul of the faithful is invisibly cleansed by Bap­tisme,

And again, only that kind of Bap­tisme where the Spirit of the Lord rege­nerates is effectual, 223. And again, if the Word or Water be wanting, it is no Baptisme, 218.

And again upon Jo. 3. All those that came to the Apostles to be baptized were instructed and taught concerning the Sa­craments of Baptisme, then they received the holy administration thereof.

HaimoHaimo. in Postilla upon Mat. 28. Go and teach all Nations, Baptizing them, &c Fol. 278. In this place, saith he, is set down a Rule how to baptize, that is, that teaching should go before Baptisme; for he saith, Teach all Nations, and then he saith Baptise them; for he that is to be Baptized, must be first Instructed, that he first learn to believe that which in Baptisme he shall receive; for as faith without works is dead, so works when they are not of faith, are nothing worth.


Rabonus.RAbonus Cap. 4. saith, That the Catechisme which is the Doctrine of faith, must go before Baptisme, to the intent that he that is to be Baptized, may first learn the mysteries of faith. And farther, he saith, the Lord Christ an­nointed the Eyes of him that was born blind, with Clay made of Spittle, before he sent him to the Water of Shiloah, to signifie, that he that is to be Baptized, must first be instructed in the faith con­cerning the incarnation of Christ, when he doth believe, then he is to be admitted to Baptisme, to the intent that he may know what the Grace is which he recei­veth in Baptisme, and whom he after­wards in duty ought, and is bound to serve.

AlbinusAlbinus. saith, Three things are visible in Baptisme, viz. the Body, the Water, and the Administrator, and three things are invisilbe, the Soul, Faith, and the Spirit of God, which being all joyned by the word, they are effectual in that Sacrament, Cent. 8. 225.

Damascenus, Damas. We are buried with the Lord in Baptisme, as saith the Apostle, p. 220.

RabonusRabonus. again saith, That the Adult were first to be instructed in the faith, and duly examined before they were bap­tized: And that as Noah and his fa­mily were saved by Wood and Water, so the faithful are saved by Baptisme, and the Cros [...], Cent. 8. p. 144.

Remigius saith in 22. Remig. That faith is the principal thing in Baptisme; for without it, it is impossible to please God, p. 145.

Walafrid Strabo,Walafrid Strabo. who lived about 840. in his Book de Reb. Eccles. Cap. 26, saith, That in the first times, the Grace of Baptisme was wont to be given to them only, who were come to that in­tegrity of mind and body, that they could know and understand what profit was to be gotten by Baptisme, what is to be confest and believed, what lastly is to be observed by them that are new born in Christ; and confirms it by Austins own confession of himself, continuing a Chatachnmenus long before Baptisme. But afterwards un­derstanding Original sin, and least their Children should perish without any means of Grace, had them, he saith, baptized [Page 82] according to the Councel of Affrica, &c.


Auslbert.AƲslbertus saith, That the faithful are born not of blood, but of God, viz. of the Word of God Preached, and of the Baptisme of God duly administred, by which Sacraments saith he, Gods Chil­dren are begotten. Cent. 10 p. 186

Smarag.Smaragdo on Mat 28. First men are to be taught in the faith, then after to be baptized therein; for it is not enough that the body is baptized, but that the Soul first by faith receive the truth thereof, p. 187.

Theophi.Theophilact saith, Whoever are truly baptized into Christ, have put on Christ, p. 189.


ANselme saith, That believers are baptized into the death of Christ, that believing his death, and conforming thereto, may as dying with him, live also with him, Cent. 11. p. 169.

Anselme. And again, The Baptisme of Christ is the washing in Water into the Word of life, take away either Water or Word, Bap­tisme ceaseth, p. 116.

And again, Whoever is baptized, hath Heaven opened to him, and knows God is there above ready to receive him, which as by the Steps of a Ladder he must from his Baptisme ascend to him, for as Solo­mon saith, The way of life is above to the wise, p. 160, 170.

AlgerusAlgerus. saith, As Water extinguisheth, cleanseth and whitneth above other Li­quors, so in Baptismal Water fleshly lusts are quenched, sin both Original and Actu­al washed away, and white Innocency thereby begotten; and so whilst the Image of the Heavenly father is reformed, the Sons of Adoption are begotten.


RƲpertusRupertus saith, That they who do be­lieve and make confession thereof, are to be Baptized, Cent. 12. p. 597.

And again in his 4th Book of Divine Offices, Cap. 18. saith, That in former times the Custom of the primitive Church­es was, that they administred not the Sa­crament of Regeneration, but only at the feast of Easter and Pentecost, and all the Children of the Church, which throughout the whole year through the Word were moved, when Easter came, gave up their [Page 84] names, and were the following days till Pentecost instructed in the Rules of faith, rehearsing the same and by their Bap­tisme, and dying thus with Christ, rose again with him.

Johannes Bohemius Bohemius Lib. 2. de Gent. moribus, It was in times past, saith he, the Custom to administer Baptisme only to those that were instructed in the faith, and seven times in the week before Easter and Pentecost Catechised, but afterwards when it was thought and adjudged need­ful to Eternal life to be baptizeed. It was ordained, that new born Children should be baptized, and God-fathers were appoint­ed, who should make Confession, and re­nounce the Devil on their behalf.

RupertusRupertus again saith, That many who are baptized with Water, are not renew­ed in the Spirit of their minds, have not put off the old man, and his deeds, as if he was drowned in the Water, and the new man really put on, in his 3. Book up­on the second of John.

And again, That the visible Baptisme of Water may confer, but that in which the virtue of Baptisme doth consist we cannot, p 598.

Peter LumbardP. Lumb. saith, That the Rea­son why Baptisme was instituted was, [Page 85] that the mind might be changed, that the man, who by sin was made old, by Grace might be renewed. And that Believers, who are baptized in faith, receive both the Sacrament and the thing; but they who have not faith, may receive the Sa­crament, but not the thing intended in the Sacrament, p. 529.

Albertus MagnusAlbert. Magnus. saith, That the Laver of Regeneration is not proper; but to the Illuminated and Called, who can draw virtue from the Death and Resur­rection of Christ, Cent. 13. 413.

And again, That Baptisme is Christs Seal, wherewith he seals Believers, and that where Regeneration is, there the sanctifying power of the Spirit operates with the Water, 414.

And again, That Baptisme works to Salvation in those that are Regenerate, but not in those that are not Regenerate, p. 425.

Thomas AquinusTh. Aqui saith, That in Bap­tisme God works inwardly, as he dispenseth outwardly, there is not only a consignati­o [...] of the Soul, but the Body, because the whole man by Baptisme is dedicated to God for by Baptisme we die to the life of sin, and begin to live a new life of Grace, d. 424.

And again, In Baptisme there is a four fold purification, viz. [...]y the Word, by the Spirit, by the Blood of Christ, and by baptismal Grace, viz. Repentance, Faith, and Mortification fetcht from Christs Death, p. 425.

Alexander, Bonaventure, Aegedius, and other learned men of this Age, spake also after the same manner in [...]ustifica­tion of Believers Baptisme.

CENTURY 14, 15, 16, 17.

THough the Magdiburge [...]stan Hi­story reach no farther then the end of the 13th. Century, yet we do find, than both the Principal and pra­ctice thereof, was owned by many of the learned downwards in the rest of the Centuries.

Ludovicus VivesL. Vives. saith, That they con­tinued to baptize the Adult, even in Italy in his dayes, in his Comment upon August, l. 1. c. 26.

Bellarm. And Bellarmine himself tells us in his Book de bon. Operib l. 2. c. 17. That amongst the Lutherans the Custom of Baptizing the Catachumens, and absol­ving the penitent at Easter is abolish­ed, [Page 87] whereas amongst the Catholicks; (but especially in the City of Rome) there is no year wherein great multitudes are not baptized, whereby a relick and footstep of Truth may appear even in Rome it self.

GrotiusGrotius. saith, That in every age many of the Greeks unto this day keep the Custom of deferring the Baptisme to little ones, till they could themselves make a Con­fession of their faith; and the Armenians are confest by Heylin in his Microcos. 573. to defer Baptisme of Children, till they be of grown years.

ZwingliusZwingli. in his Book of Articles, Art. 18. In the old time saith the Children were openly instructed, who when they came to understanding, were called Ca­tachumens, that is, such as are instruct­ed in the Word of Salvation, and when they had imprinted the faith in their Hearts, and made confession thereof with their mouths, they were admitted to Bap­tisme, and this Cu [...]tom, saith he, of teaching, I wish it were in use in our time.

Luther, Luther. In times past it was thus, saith he, that the Sacrament of Baptisme was administred to none; except it were to those that acknowledged and confessed [Page 88] their faith, & knew how to rehearse the same

Bullinger in his house Book, 48. Sermon, Bulling. upon these words, God hath not sent me to Baptize, but Preach the Gospel, saith, This must not slightly be understood, as if he were not sent to to baptize at all, but that teaching should go before Baptisme, for the Lord com­manded his Apostles both to Preach, and also to administer the Sacraments.

ErasmusErasmus paraphraseth, that upon those words in Mat, 28. When you have taught them the Word of God if they then believe you, and receive it, if they begin to repent themselves of their former life, and are ready and willing to embrace the Doctrine of the Gospel, then let them be baptized. with Water in the Name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, that they may be marked with his Mark, and written amongst the number of those which trust, that are through the merits of his death freed and washed from their sins, and received to be Children of God

Ludovicus Vives in his Comment a­foresaid, L. Vives. l. 1. c. 27. None, saith [...]e, were baptized of old, but those that are of Age, who did not only understand what the Mystery of the Water meane, but desired the same, the perfect Image whereof [Page 89] we have yet in our Infants Baptisme; for it is askt of the Infant, Wilt thou be bapti­zed, for whom the sureties answer, I will.

Melancton upon 1 Cor. 11. In times past, saith he, those in the Church that had Repented them, were baptized,Melanc. and was instead of an Absolution, wherefore Repentance must not be seperate from Baptisme; for Baptisme is a Sacramen­tal sign of Repentance.

BezaBeza. upon 1 Cor. 7.14. saith, That to permit all Children to be Baptized, was unheard of in the primimitive Church, whereas every one ought to be instructed in the Faith, before he were admitted to Baptisme.

BucerBucer. in his Book entituled, The Ground, Work, and Cause, saith, That in the Congregation of God, Confession of sins is always first, the which in times past went before Baptisme; For commonly Children were baptized when they came to their understanding, and that in the beginning of the Church no man was Baptized, and received into the Con­gregation; but those that through hearing the Word, wholly gave over, and submitted themselves to Christ.

Chamier Chamier. Tom. 4. l. 5. c. 15. Ser. 19. saith Who seeth not that the Custom of the [Page 90] scrutiny of the Baptized, was not in that time, when scarce the 1000 Person was Baptized before he came to Age, and was diligently exercised in Catechisme.

Dr Ham Dr. Hamond in his Chat. Lib. 1. l. 3, p 23. saith, That all men were instru [...]t­ed in the Fundamentals of faith anci­ently before they were permitted te be bap­tized.

Dr. FieldDr. Field on the Church, p. 729. saith, That very many that were born of Christian Parents, besides those that were converted from Paganisme, put off their Baptisme for a long time, insomuch that many were made Bishops hefore they were baptized.

Ch. Cate. The Doctrine of the Church of Eng­land held sorth in their publick Cate­chisme, gives Testimony to this Truth, where it is asserted, That Repentance whereby we forsake sin, and faith where­by we stedfastly believe the promises are required in every one that is to be bap­tized, confessing also that Children can neither repent nor believe. Which though they would salve by saying they do both by their Sureties; upon which invention they lay the stress of the whole; for if there be no warranty for Sureties in the Case, they have in these few words given [Page 91] up the Controversy. For they grant that Faith and Repentance are requisite to qua­lifie to Baptisme, and ingeniously ac­knowledge, that Children are not capa­ble of either; but that they do repent and believe by their sureties; which how Con­sonant to Reason, Rule, and Righteous­ness, l [...]t all the upright judge; and con­cerning which Practice take the judg­ment of Dr. Taylor, Bishop of Downe,Dr. Tayl. p. 239. of his Lib. of Pro.

I know, saith he, God might if he would have appointed God-fathers, to give answer in behalf of Children, and to be fiduciors for them, but we cannot find any authority or ground that he hath, and if he had, that it is to be supposed he would have given them Commission to have transacted the solemnity with better Circumstances, and given Answers with more truth; for the Question is askt of believing in the present, and if the God-fathers answer in the name of the Child, I do believe, it is notorious they speak false and ridiculous, for the In [...]ant is not capable of believing, and if he were, he were also capable of discenting; and how then do they know his mind; and there­fore, [Page 92] said he, Tertullian and Gregory Nazianzen gave advice, that the Bap­tisme of Infants should be deferred till they could give an account of their own faith.

How this invention of Gossips came in, and by what Pope it was instituted, and how they were required in the Baptisme of Bells and Churches, as well as Infants, you will hear farther in the other Historical Part. We shall now conclude this Chapter with that wonderfull Testimony given by M [...]. Baxter, in his 20th. Argument to Mr. Blake in these words.

Mr. Bax.Here note (saith he) speaking of the Eunuchs not being admitted [...] Baptism, till he made a profession of his Faith, first that Baptisme as received, is the Seal of our Faith, (how much so­ever denied by Mr. Blake) as it is the Seal of Gods Promise; secondly, That the constant order is that Baptisme follow Faith; thirdly, That it is [...] better then an impious prophanation of it, if it go without Faith, that is firs [...] if the Party seek it without the pre­sence [Page 93] of Faith, secondly if the Pastor admi­nister is without the profession of Faith.

Thus you see by plentifull Evi­dence, that the Lord hath not left him­self without witness hereto from men, and that in several Ages not only before, but since the Antichristian darkness took place; but that which is most to be admired and adored in this Providence is, that much of this blessed Testimony for Truth, hath proceeded from the Pens of some of its chiefest Adversaries, whereby the Wisdom and Power of God hath much appeared, who cannot only out of the mouths of Babes and Sucklings, but out of the very mouths of Enemies also, create and perfect his own praise. And make even their own Tongues to fall upon themselves, for what is esteem­ed better Evidence and Testimony a­mongst men, then the confession of Par­ties themselves.

But it may be Objected, Object. that how­ [...]ver you improve many of these say­ings of the Pedobaptists to justifie your way, and condemn theirs; yet they have another meaning, which will well enough reconcile such Principles to [Page 94] their Practice of baptizing Infants, and whereby you will be found mistaken in in the supposed advantage; for is it to be thought possible that such pious, wise and learned men, should so positive­ly contradict themselves, as you seem to make them do?

Answ. To which I answer, That whatever their meaning may be, yet their word and reasons appear substantial Argu­ments for the Baptists, and full and clear Evidence against themselves; for is not the Commission it self fully own­ed, the Order of it, and Practice upon it, viz. That Persons ought first to be taught in the faith, before they are to be baptized into the same, and that none in the Apostles times, and for some Ages after were otherwise baptized; and that it is ridiculous, yea prophane for any otherwise to practice, and that there was neither Precept nor Example for the baptizing of Infants, who as con­fest are so capable either of themselves, or any for them to answer the great ends thereof: but owned to be a practice taken up, and enjoyned several Ages after, as many of the forecited Pedo­baptists, both Papists and Protestants, [Page 95] have confessed, and will more fully and particularly appear in the next part, And what is or can be said more by the Baptists themselves, in confirmation of of their way and Practice.

Thus we have dispatcht the first part and may it not now be recommended to the Conscience of the impartial unpre­judiced Reader, whether this first asser­tion, [viz That Believers Baptisme is only to be esteemed Christs Ordinance of Baptisme] is not substantially made good, not only from clear and undeniable Scripture, and Reason: But from most pregnant Authohities of learned men, and most of them parties themselves.

End of the first Part.

Infants Baptism Disproved. The Second Part disproves In­fants Baptism under this Head, viz. That the Baptising of Infants is no Ordinance of Jesus Christ, which is made good in the se­ven following Chapters.

CHAP. I. Wherein the Scriptures total silence about Infants Baptism is ob­served, with the necessity of Scri­pture-warranty to authorize eve­ry Ordinance, and that by the confession of Parties themselves.

IF Infants Baptism had been any Ap­pointment or Ordinance of Jesus Christ,No Scrip­ture for Baptising Infants. there would have been some [Page 98] Precept, Command, or Example in the Scripture to warrant the same; but in as much as the Scripture is so wholly silent therein, there being not one syl­lable to be found in all the New Testa­ment about any such practice, it may well be concluded to be no Ordinance of Jesus Christ; for where the Scrip­ture hath no tongue, we ought to have no ear according to that known Max­ime, To practise any thing in the Worship of God, as an Ordinance of his, without an Institution, ought to be esteemed Will-worship and Idolatry.

And that there is neither Precept or Example for any such thing as Infants Baptism in the Scripture,The Par­ties them­selves owning it. we have the ingenuous confession of Parties them­selves, viz.

Magdib.The Magdiburgenses, in Cent. 1. L. 2. p. 496. do say, That concerning the baptising of the Adult, both Jews and Gentiles, we have sufficient proof from Acts chapters; but as to the baptising of Infants, they can meet with no Example in the Scriptures.

Luther. Luther in P [...]still. saith, Young Chil­dren hear not, nor understand the Word of God, out of which Faith cometh, and therefore if the Commandment be [Page 99] followed, Children ought not to le bapti­zed. And again;

In his Epistle of Anabaptism, saith, We cannot prove, by any place of Scrip­ture, that Children do believe; neither do the Scriptures clearly, and plainly, with these or the like words, say, Baptize your Children, for they believe; where­fore we must needs yeeld to those that drive us to the Letter, because we find it no where written.

Erasmus Erasmus. in his Book of the Union of the Church, saith, It is no where ex­pressed in the Apostolical Writings, that they baptized Children.

And again, upon Rom. 6. Baptising of young Infants was not in use, saith he, in St. Paul's time. And again;

In his 4th Book, De Ratione Concio. saith, That they are not to be condemned that doubt whether Childrens Baptism was ordained by the Apostles.

Calvin, Calvin. in his 4th Book of Institutes, Chap. 16. confesseth, That it is no where expresly mentioned by the Evan­gelists, that any one Child was by the Apostl's hands baptized.

Bucer Bucer. upon Mat. saith, That Christ no where commanded to baptize In­fants.

Staphilus Staphilus in Epitome saith, That young Children should be baptized, is not expressed in the holy Scriptures.

Choelens, Choelens. De Bapt. Parvulorum, saith, That Jesus took a Child, and placed him in the midst of them; what Child was it? I think it was not a young or new-born Child, and that the same was not baptized.

For Infants were not in those dayes baptized, but such as being come to their full growth, confessed their sins.

Melancthon, Melanct. in his Treatise concern­ing the Doctrine of Anabaptists, writ­eth, That there is no plain Command­ment in the holy Scriptures, that Chil­dren should be baptized.

Zwinglius, Zwing. In his Book of the Mo­vers of Sedition, speaking of baptizing of Children, So it is, saith he, That there is no plain words of the Scripture, whereby the same is commanded.

These latter Quotations from the Germane Doctors, you have in an old Dutch Author, called, A ve­ry plain and well-grounded Treatise concerning Baptisme. Englished 1618.

Mr. Daniel Rogers, Mr. Rogers. in his Treatise about Baptism, Part 29, confesseth himself to be unconvinced by demonstra­tion of Scripture for it.

Mr. Baxter Mr. Bax­ter. himself, that wrote that Book called, Plain Scripture-proof for Infants Church-Membership and Bap­tism; yet in contradiction thereto, in the same Book, p. 3. confesseth, That Infants Baptism is not plainly deter­mined in the Scriptures.

And again, in the Defence of the Principles of Love, in the Epistle, saith, That he having had more invitation to study the Point throughly, and to treat of it largly, than most that are offended herein, that they must give him leave to say, that he knoweth it to be a very difficult Point.

Dr. Taylor, Dr. Tay­lor. Lib. Proph. p. 239, saith, It is against the perpetual Analo­gy of Christ's Doctrine to baptize In­fants; for besides that, Christ never gave any Precept to baptize them; nor ever himself, nor his Apostles (that ap­pears) did baptize any of them: All that either he or his Apostles said con­cerning it, requires such previous dispo­sitions to Baptism, of which Infants are not capable, and those are Faith and [Page 102] Repentance. And not to instance in those innumerable places that require Faith before Baptism, there needs no more but this one of our Blessed Saviour. He that believes, and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be condemned. Plainly thus, Faith and Baptism will bring a man to Heaven; but if he hath no Faith, Baptism shall do him no good; so that if Baptism be necessary, so is Faith much more, for the want of Faith dawns absolutely; it is not said so of the want of Baptism.

The neces­sity of Scripture Authority to warrant every Or­dinance.Thus you have it acknowledged by Adversaries themselves, that there is neither Precept, President, or Exam­ple in Scripture for baptising of Infants.

And in the next place you have it fur­ther owned, That there is a necessity for Scripture-Authority to warrant e­very Ordinance and Practice in Divine Worship, viz.

Luther Luther. upon Gal. 1.9. saith, There ought no other Doctrine to be delivered, or heard, in the Church, besides the pure Word of God, that is, the holy Scrip­tures; let other Teachers and Hearers, with their Doctrines, be accursed.

Calvin, Calvin. Lib 4. Inst. Cap. 8. Serm. 8. Let this be a firm Axiom, saith he, [Page 103] That nothing is to be accounted the Word and Will of God, to which place should be given in the Church; but that which is first contained in the Law and the Pro­phets, and after in the Apostolical Writ­ings.

Basil, Basil. in his Sermon de Fide, saith, That it would be an Argument of In­fidelity, and a most certain sign of pride, if any man should reject things written, and should introduce things not writ­ten.

Austin Austin. himself saith, Detrabe Ver­bum, quid est Aqua nisi Aqua? Take away the Word, what is the Water but pl [...]n Water? If the Word of Institu­ti [...] be wanting, what doth the Element of Water signifie?

Theophilact, Theophil Lib. 2. Paschal. It is, saith he the part of a Diabolical Spi­rit, to think any thing Divine, without the Authority of the holy Scrip [...]ures.

Tertul. Tertu. Contra Hermog. I do adore, saith he, the fulness of the Scripture; Let Hermogines shew that it is written, if it be not written, Let him fear the wee destined to those who add or de­tract.

And Mr. Ball, Mr. Ball. very excellently to to this purpose, in his Answer to the [Page 104] New-England Elders, p. 38, 39. say­ing, We must for every Ordinance look to the Institution, and neither stretch it wider, nor draw it narrower than the Lord hath made it; for he is the Insti­tutor of the Sacraments, according to his own good pleasure, and it is our parts to learn of him, both to whom, how, and for what end the Sacraments are to be administred, in all which we must affirm nothing but what God hath taught us, and as he hath taught us.

The sixth Article of the Churh of EnglandThe sixth Article of the Church of England, saith very fully to this Point, That the Holy Scriptures do contain all things necessary to Salvation, so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required by any man that it should be believed as an Article of Faith, or be thought re­quisite and necessary to Salvation.

We shall conclude this Chapter with that notable Observation that Bellar­mine makes in the Case, upon the Ana­baptists calling for plain Scripture-proof for the Baptising of Infants, from them who so exactly require it from others, and will not in any other case admit the omission thereof; in his Book De Bapt. Lib. 1.Bellarm. c. 8. where he saith, That [Page 105] though the Argument of the Anabap­tists, from defect of Command or Ex­ample, have great force against the Lu­therans, forasmuch as they use that Principle every where, viz. That the Rite which is not in Scripture, having no Command or Example there, is to be rejected. Yet is it of no force against Catholicks, who conclude that Apostolical Tradition is of no less Authority with us than the Scripture, for the Apostl's speak with the same Spirit, with which they did write. But that this of bapti­sing of Infants is an Apostolical Tra­dition, we know whence we know the Apostolick Scripture to be the Apostolick Scripture, viz. from the Testimonies of the Antient Church.

Objection The Objection that is usually brought under this Head is, That there is no ex­press Command or Example for Womens receiving the Lord's Supper; yet who doubts of a good ground from conse­quential Scripture for their so doing.

Answer. In Answer whereto, you'l find there is both Example and Command for the Practice, viz.

1. From Example, Acts 1.14. where we read that Mary and other Women were gathered together, and [Page 106] that these Women, together with the rest of the Disciples, were all together in one place, and continued stedfastly in the Apostl's Doctrine and Fellow­ship, and breaking of Bread and Pray­ers, Chap. 2.42 44. it being expresly said, That all that believed were toge­ther.

2. It appears from command, 1 Cor. 11.28. Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat; the Greek word signifieth a Man or a Woman, the word is [...], a word of the Common Gender, as appears 1 Tim. 2.4, 5. There is one Mediator betwixt God, and Man, and Woman; there is the same word used Gal. 3.28. There is neither Male nor Fem [...]le, but ye are all one in Christ: Let but as good proof appear for Infants Baptism and it shall suffice.

CHAP. II. Wherein by an Historical Account of Infants Baptism in its Rise and Establishment, viz. when, by whom, and to what ends in­stituted, it doth appear, that there was no authentick Practice there­of for 300, nor any humane A [...] ­thority enjoyning it till 400 years after Christ. Together with an account also of its growth, and how, and by what lying Autho­rities it was; with many su­perstitious Rites, founded upon Apostolical Tradition; with the impious and ridiculous fooleries added to it in every Age.

FRom the learned Authorities before given, we have gained thus much; That as there was no Precept in Scrip­ture for the baptizing of Infants, so neither was there the least Practice to be [Page 108] found thereof in the Apostl's dayes, as was so ingenuously before confessed by the Magdiburgenses, Luther, Calvin, Erasmus, Rogers, &c.

Secondly, That the approved Pra­ctice, and known Custom of the Pri­mitive Church was to baptize the Adult, as all Ages acknowledge, and only they (at least) for the first Ages, as so fully attested by Eusebius, Beatus Rhenanus, Lud. Vives, Bullinger, Hai­mo, the Neocaesarian Councel, &c.

Thirdly, That not only the Children of Pagans were as the Catachumens, to be instructed and taught in the Faith, in order to their Baptism; but the Chil­dren of the Christians also, as those famous Instances given from the Fourth Century, by Field, Naucler, Daille, Grotius, Walafrid Strabo, Taylor, and others.

Fourthly, The next thing we shall make appear is, that as there was no Scripture-Authority to inforce it, so there was no Humane-Authority to en­joyn it till above 400 years after Christ, though to justifie that injunction, Apo­stolical-Tradition, to supply the want of Scripture-Institution was pretended; whereof you have by the way this [Page 109] following account out of the three first Centuries.


The first and most antient pretended Authority that hath been urged to prove Infants Baptism to be an Aposto­stolical Tradition,The first pretended prooff for Apostoli­cal Tradi­tion, is Di­onisius the Areopa­gite. is that of Dionysius the Areopagite, Paul's Convert at A­thens, who flourished, as is supposed, about the 70th year of this Century: Who (as the Story tells us) after his converse with Paul, was sent by Cle­ment, Bishop of Rome, to preach the Gospel in the West with Saturninus, Lu­cianus, Rusticus, and others; and that his Lot was to go into France, where he Preach't, and wrought many Mira­cles, and was afterwards martyr'd at Paris; And that he wrote a multitude of Books, as enumerated by Suidas and others, and amongst them, that famous Piece, called his Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, which tells us of the seve­ral Orders and Dignities of the Clergy; Rites, Services, and Sacraments of the Church; and among them, acquaints us of the baptizing of Infants, which he tells us he received from his Pre­fectors, [Page 110] as an Ancient Apostolical Tradition; with the additional Rites belonging thereto of Consecration, Con­signation, Confirmation, Chrysme, Ex­orcism, which he affirms were all in use in the Apostl's time: As Magdiburg. Cent. 1. p. 625. which was, they tell us, also learnedly refuted by Erasmus, &c. especially by Laurentius Valla, who observeth, that none of either the Greek or Latin Fathers, or Church-Historians do so much as mention him, or any of his Works. Neither Euse­bius, Origen, Chrysostom, Epiphanius, or Gregory. Nor that Jerom, who gave a Catalogue of all the eminent Writers, takes the least notice of him; and how ridiculous and contradictious his lying Stories are about Monkery and the Clergy, and all the Romish Cere­monies about Baptism, that had no footing in the World, for several Ages after, and that the Learned in his dayes supposed these Books fathered upon Dionysius in this Age, were done by one Apollinarius, several Ages after, as the Magdib. Cent. 1. p. 616.


As a further proof of Infants Bap­tism, and the several Rites annexed thereto, we have more Authorities fa­thered upon, and pretended to be fetcht from this second Century, of which the Magdiburg. do give us the account, viz.

First, The second proof is from Just. Martyr's Responses The Responses fathered upon Justin Martyr, the 56 whereof, pro­pounds the different condition of those Children who die baptized and unbap­tized, and in others, affirm that Gossips, Oyl, and Consignation, were then used in Baptism, which they renounce as spurious, upon many considerations, Cent. 2. p. 111.

Secondly, Third P. Clement. That of Pope Clements appointing Oyl in Baptism, and also that he in his fourth Decretal Epistle affirms, that after Baptism there should be Consignation, viz. a signing with the sign of the Cross, and Confirmati­on, viz. a laying on of hands for the seven-fold Spirit.

A third is that of Pope Hyginus his appointing of Gossips, or Sureties,Fourth P Hyginus both in Baptism and Consecration; which [Page 112] Decree of Pope Hyginus, we have word for word out of Gratian L. Osiander, Cent. 2. Lib. 2. cap. 5. viz. In Cate­chism, Baptism, and Confirmation, let there be a Gossip if necessity require.

5th P. Victor.A fourth is that of Pope Victor, who is said to confine the Catholick celebra­tion of Baptism to Easter, except some urgent necessity intervene; and that they should baptize in Fonts as well as Rivers.

6th P. Pius.A fifth is that of Pope Pius (who was much about Justin's time) his Consecrating Baptisterions, or Fonts to baptise in.

But how feigned and fabulous these are, you have at large hereafter.


In this Century we have two other famous Testimonies, that are much lean'd upon by all sorts to prove In­fants Baptism to be an Apostolical Tra­dition.

7 Origen.The first is that of Origen, who in his Homelies upon Levit. and the Ro­mans, is said to affirm, That the bap­tizing of Infants was a Tradition of the Apostles, and according to the [Page 113] usage of the Church, Century 3. p. 124.

The second is that of Cyprian, 8 Cyprian in an Epistle said to be writ to one Fidus a Priest, who herein is supposed to de­liver it to be his, and the Opinion of 66 Bishops, that Children should be baptized at any time in opposition to Fidus his confining it to the eighth day, after the manner of Circumcision; both which Authorities you have at large examined afterwards.

Tertullian in this Century, gave se­veral Arguments against Infants Bap­tism, whereof you have a particular [...]ccount hereafter.

Many were the corruptions about Baptism,The Cor­ruptions a­bout Bap­tism creeping in in this Age. that in this Age were creeping in, as the confining Baptism ordinari­ly to be performed by a Bishop, Mag. Cent. 3. p. 123. Limiting the time to Easter and Whitsontide 129. altering the Form from Dipping to Sprinkling; and the place from Rivers and Foun­tains, to Baptisterious; with divers su­perstitious Rites, as p. 125, 126. Though they tell us with all, p. 125. That they do not find, by any Authentick Testi­mony, that any one person was actu­ally baptized in this manner and form [Page 114] this Age, whereby it may be conjectu­red that their corruptions were more in the Notion than Practice, which though afterwards c [...]me all of them to be in use.


By the Decrees that pass'd in several Councils in this Age, viz. that of Carthage, Neocasaria, Laodicea, &c. holding out the necessity of Confession and Profession before Baptism, already in the former History mentioned; As al­so by those famous Instances of so ma­ny of the eminent Persons of this Cen­tury, born of Christian Parents, that were not baptized till aged, before ex­pressed; It doth manifestly appear, that Infants Baptism was neither esteemed an Apostolical Tradition, nor so much as in use the greatest part of this Century, either in the Latin or Greek Church.

In the lat­ter end of the fourth Century, Infants Baptism practised.It is true, towards the latter end of this Century, it is said, That in some parts of Africa they did baptize Chil­dren, as Magdiburg. Cent. 4. p. 415.

And that some of the Greek Church did begin to approve it also.

Greg. Nazianzen (who by Perkins is placed 380.) is said, in his fortieth [Page 115] Oration, to admit Infants to be bapti­zed in case of necessity, being in dan­ger of death, that they may not miss, as he sayes, of the common Grace; but gives his Opinion of others, that they should stay longer that they might be instructed, and so their Minds and Bo­dies might be sanctified.

Jerom that by Helvicus is placed ten years after him 390, is said to in­cline to it also after Origen and Cy­prian.

Many are the corruptions fetch'd from this and that former Age,Lying for­geries a­bout the baptism of Constan­tine by the Papists. and not a few of them fathered upon Constan­tine in his Baptism, which they say was done at Rome, in a Baptisterion, by P. Silvester, and administred with all the Romish Rites of Consecration, Con­signation, Chrysm, Exorcism, Albes, Ringes, Donation, &c. how Constantine was first miraculously cured thereby of his Leprosie, and the great Donation he gave the See Apostolick, and the ac­knowledgment to their Universal Bi­shoprick; all held forth in an Edict, said to be writ with Constantine's own hand, and fairly kept in the Vatican Library, writ in Letters of Gold, as saith Du Plessis, in his Mystery of Iniquity; [Page 116] yet all a notorious forgery and cheat, Constantine being Baptized at Nicome­dia, and not at Rome, and not by P. Silvester, who was dead fifteen years before; neither had Constantine any such Leprosie, or miraculous Cure, nor gave any such Donation or Acknow­ledgment to the Romish See, as you have at large evidenced by the Magdiburg. Cent. 4. p. 568.

And concerning which Osiander saith, Cent. 4. c. 38. Which foolish and impudent Fable is by many Learn­ed Men refuted, viz. Marsilius, Pata­vinus, La [...]r. Valla, Cardinal Casanus, and Aeneas Sylvius, after Pope Pius the Second.

The working of the Mystery of In­iquity, did, as the Magdiburgenses tell us, strongly begin to act in many Particulars, viz. Not onely in the cor­rupting the Rites and true form of Baptism, but by those superstitious and sumptuous Ceremonies that were used in the Dedication, Bapt. of Churches. Consecration, or Bap­tizing of Churches, viz. either such Idol-Temples that were given by the Emperors to Christian Service, or such new ones that were now erected, as Cent. 4. p. 76, 497, 499, 520.

The superstitious Collection and Ex­posure of the ReliquesReliques. of Saints for Adoration, p. 499.

The inclination to prohibit Marri­age,Priests Marriage. as appeared by the Council of Nice, where it was only checkt by the famous Paphnutius, p. 1088.

The distinction in point of Sanctifi­cation,Distincti­on betwixt Lay-men and Cler­gy began. now made betwixt Lay-men and Clergy-men, the one reputed Spi­ritual, the other Carnal.

And it was in this Age, as appears by the Decrees of P. Silverster, Julius, and Sericius, Priests ap­pointed to Marry folks. that all Marriages must pass the Benediction of a Priest, and to be esteemed little less than Sacri­ledge to omit it; of which, in the for­mer Centuries no mention is made, Magd. Cent. 4. c. 6. p. 482.— and for which they quote Gigas and Luitpraud.


This was the Age wherein Infants Baptism did receive its Sanction by the Decrees of Popes and Councils, Infants Baptism first en­joyned in the Mili­tan Coun­cil. and as absolutely necessary was enjoyned and imposed by Anathemas, never till then, concerning which, Dr. Taylor in his Lib. o Prophecy, p. 237. gives us a [Page 118] true, brief, & notable account, which you may please to receive in his own words; And the truth of the business is, (saith he) as there was no command of Scripture to oblige Children to the susception of it, so the necessity of Paedobaptism was not determined in the Church till the Canon that was made in the Milevitan Coun­cil, a Provincial in Africa, Never till then. I grant, saith he, it was practised in Africa before that time, and they, or some of them, thought well of it; and though that is no argument for us to think so, yet none of them did ever pretend it to be necessary, none to have been a Pre­cept of the Gospel. Austin the first that ever preacht it necessary. ☞ St. Austin was the first that ever preach't it to be necessary, and it was in his heat and anger against Pelagius, who had so warmed and chafed him, that made him innovate herein.

This Milevitan or Militan Council, was celebrated by 92 Bishops, Anselm the Pop's Legate, and Austin presiding in the fifth year of Arcadius, and first of Pope Innocentius, in the year 402, as Magdiburg. Cent. 5. p. 835.

The occasion of the Council, is ex­prest to be about the difference that had hapned betwixt Pelagius and Coelestius, Austin and others, respecting Origi­nal [Page 119] sin, baptizing of Children, &c.

The Constitutions and Decrees of the said Council are at large exprest by the Magdiburg. out of the Book of Decretals, and among other Canons, made in this Council, we find this, viz.

That it is Our Will, The Canon of the Mi­levitan Council a­bout In­fants Bap­tism. That all that affirm that Young Children re­ceive everlasting Life, albeit they be not by the Sacrament of Grace or Baptism renewed; And that will not that young Children, which are new born from their Mothers Womb, shall be baptised to the taking away Original Sin.

That they be Anathematised.

Which with the rest of the Decrees was transmitted to Rome to Pope Inno­centius for his Apostolick confirmation in their large Letters, p. 841.P Innocent the first ratifies it.

And which with a ready mind he performs accordingly by his Decretal Epistle, exprest at large p. 845.

Afterwards the fifth General Coun­cil at Carthage, in the year 416, did Decree to the same purpose in these words.

The Canon of the 5th Council of Carthage. We will, That whoever denies that little Children by Baptism are freed from Perdition, and eternally saved,

That they be accursed.

Which was also by Austin, and se­venty Bishops in their Letter, trans­mitted to the same Pope Innocent for his further ratification,Confirmed by Pope Innocent. and according­ly received the same in his Decretal Epistle at large, p. 822, 825. Inscrib­ing their Letters thus, The Fathers of the Council to Innocent the Pope and High Priest, stiling him Most Holy Father

And that Pope Innocentius in these A­frican Councils, was the first that ever enjoyned the necessity of this practice is further confirmed to us;

By Wilfrid Strabo, Wilfrid Strabo. as before, who tells us, That Children were baptized, according to the Decree of the Council of Carthage, for the taking away of original sin, which aforetime was not practised.

Luther Luther. saith, It was not determined till Pope Innocentius.

And Grotius Grotius. in his Annotations, [Page 121] Mat. 19. saith, It was not enjoyned till before that Council of Carthage.

Which Canons of Pope Innocentius were afterwards confirmed by Pope Zosimus his Successor, and afterwards by Pope Boniface that succeeded Zosi­mus, as appears in Cod. Can. cap. 110. Aff. cap. 77. & de Consecrat. distinct.

The Opinions of the Doctors of this Age, in confirmation hereof, The Doct. of this Age approving Infants Baptism. we find to be as followeth.

Chrysostome saith,Chrysost. That Infants ought to be baptized, as universally received by the Catholick Church to take away Ori­ginal Sin.

And again, that which the Holy Church throughout the World, unani­mously teacheth and practiseth about the baptizing of Children, ought not care­lesly to be slighted, Mag. Cent. 5. p. 375.

Austin Austin. was as a great Patron, so a great Defender of Infants Baptism, in his con­tests both against the Donatists, and the Pelagians, and the Coelestians, whereof you have some Instances.

In his Sermon, De Baptismo Parvu­lorum, [Page 122] against the Pelagians, chap. 14. saith, That Children should be bapti­zed, because of Original Sin, and that without which they could never be rege­nerated or saved, Mag. Cent. 5, 377, 378, 379.

And in his third Book of Free-Will, Cap. 23. saith, Infants may be bapti­zed by the Faith of another, and that the Faith of the Party that offers and dedicates the Child to Baptism, profits the Child therein, as the Church (he saith) wholsomly appoints: For if the Faith of the Widow profited to the rai­sing of the dead Child, much more may the Faith of another profit the young Child, p. 516.

And again, in his Fourth Book a­gainst the Donatists, Cap. 23. Infants, saith he, are to be baptized, who can neither believe with their Hearts to Ju­stification, nor confess with their Mouths to Salvation, p. 516.

This Controversie he managed with much furious Zeal against the Pelagians in the African Councils; And so in­ordinate was he herein, that in his 23d Epist. to Boniface, he holds forth such a certainty of Regeneration by it, that he not onely puts Regeneration for [Page 123] Baptism, but also makes no Question of the Regeneration of Infants, Baptism to cure Diseases. though they that brought them, did not bring them with that Faith that they might be regenerated, but only to procure health to their Bodies; a custom, it seems, they had to bring persons to be baptized for Cure.

Justifying thereby such a prophane Use thereof, as that of Athanasius, A School­boy bapti­zed in sport, con­firmed by a Bishop. who baptized a Boy in sport, (playing the Bishop amongst his School-fellows) which was confirmed notwithstanding to be good Baptism by the Bishop of Alexandria.

And again, in his 7th Tom. Lib. 1. c. 27. asserts to the same purpose, That all baptized Infants are Believers, and that the unbaptized are Unbelievers, say­ing, Who knows not that to Infants to believe, is to be baptized, not to believe is not to be baptized.

All the foolish ridiculous Ceremo­nies, called the Romish Baptismal Rites, before mentioned, were owned and pra­ctised by Austin and others in this Cen­tury, with this addition, viz.

That the Lord's Supper was given to the baptized Infants,Lord's Supper gi­ven to In­fants. as Austin in his 107 Epistle saith, where he holds a like [Page 124] necessity of their receiving that Sacra­ment with that of Baptism from Joh. 6.53. wherein he was also so earnest, that he boldly saith, in vain do we promise Infants Salvation without it. Thus far Austin.

In the next place before we leave this Century,The Cha­racter of Pope In­nocent 1. I think it will not be amiss to give some little account of this Pope Inno­cenitus (our first confirmer and imposer of Infants Baptism) of whom it may s [...] truly be said that he was one that chan­ged Times and Laws, and that sate him­self in the Temple of God as God. As we find it recorded by the Magdiburg: Cen. 5. page. 1228. viz.

He set up the Ʋni­versal Bi­shoprick. That he most strenuously laboured for the Universal Bishoprick and Supre­macy over all Churches, as appears (say they) in all his Epistles designing to bring the Determiation of all Principal Ecclesiastical Causes into that See, espe­cially in his Epistle to Victoricum and Decentium whereby say they it was ma­nifest that the mistery of Iniquity 2 Thes. 2. did gradually get Ground and increase.

Who was (say they) a great Establi­sher of humane Traditions, Gave Di­vine ho­nour to the Popedome. and who blasphemously attribu [...]ed divine Honour to the P [...]pedom, as appears in that E­pistle to Victoricum.

It was he that made Con [...]irmation a Sacrament, made Con­firm. a Sa­crament. and confined it only to the Bi­shops to lay hands on Baptised Infants 1230.

It was he also forbad Priests Marriages 1231.Forbad Marriage. and Damned the Nunnes if they married; That also forbad Marriage to any that by due Divorce put away their Wives; that also instituted many of the Jewish and Pagan Laws, as appears say they in his Book de Pontiff.

And it was he that to witness his Su­premacy did excommunicate the Empe­rour Arcadius and the Empress Eu­doxia and all his Ecclesiasticks that had their hands in the Banishing of John Chrysostom 662. 663.Excom­municated the Emp. Arcadius, &c.

It was he that first appointed that the Eucharist should be given to Young Children so soon as they were bapti­sed; Ordained the Eu­charist to Children after Bapt. a Cust [...]m that continued several Hundred Years after

And as head of the Anti-Christian race was the first sayth Socrates Lib. 7.19.Expelled the Nova­tians. That expell'd the Novations from Rome that famous worthy Church and People. Concerning whom we shall conclude with what the Magdiburgs say in their Epistle to this 5. Cent. To Ericus King of Sweden.

That it might then be understood that Rome that had heretofore Governed the world, was now made the very Seat of Antichrist. And again that the Spirit of Antichrist did then man [...]festly begin to spread it self by the Bishop of Rome lift­ing up himself in Supremacy above all other B [...]shops and Churches.

And this was that Innocent who was the first great Patron and Imposer of this Innovation: and was it not excel­lent Service think you, for Austin to play the Game into the hand of such a vile Wretch.


The Councel of Gerunden in Spain held about 520. Ordained,

Gerunden Canon. That young Children from their Mothers womb be baptised.

The Councel of Bracarense 572, and the Council of Vivense ordained the very same, Vossus de Bapt. 179.

Tee Maris Canon.The Councel of Marisconenses held 580. Ordained.

That the Baptism of Ehildren should be at Easter except necessity hindred. Magd. Cent. 6. 613.

P. Greg. D [...]cretal.Pope Greg. the Great, Lib 3. Ep. 4. ad Boniface-dist. 4 de Consec. Let all [Page 127] young Children be Baptised as they ought to be according to the Traditi­on of the Fathers.

Who gave Instruction to his Legat Austin to give Christendom to Children when he sent him into Britain which you may Read at large in the Book of Martyrs.

Justinian the Emperor, who reigned 530, Ordained,The Decree of the Em­peror Jus­tinion. That Children should be admitted to Baptism, and yt those that were come to their full growth shal be taught before they be baptised. Novel Institute. 444.

Justinus the Emperor who Reigned 570. Ordained, That it séemed him good, that when the Samaritans that desire the unspotted Baptism, that they for the space of two years toge­ther be Instructed in the Faith and the holy Scriptures and that upon their Repentance they be admitted thereto. But as concerning the Chil­dren which in regard of their years cannot Receive Divine Doctrine, they shall without delay be made worthy, or pertakers of Baptism.

That Gossips were appointed to all that were Baptised, as saith Paulus Diaconus. Lib. 16 in Justiniano.

And that it was the Custom when the Children of Princes and Potentates were Baptised, that Bishops should be the Gossips. Magd. Cent. 6. 332.

Maxentius Maxen­tius. saith, that Children are not only adopted into a State of Sonship, but have the Remission of all Sin by Baptism. Cent. 6. p. 227.

All the forementioned Superstitions of the Romish Baptismal Rites were in use in this Age, with this addition.

Ri [...]icu­lous Cere­mo [...]ies.That l [...]ghted Tapors were to be put into the hands of the Baptised p. 332.

The Temples or Churches, Altars and Reliques in their Dedications were Christined by Sprinkling the Water of Conjuration upon them. p. 369.

The Ʋn­cleanness and Mur­ders found in Mona­stries.In this Cent we meet with a dread­ful piece of Infants Baptism viz. the Heads of 6000 Infants that had been murdered and buried in a Warren near a Monastry, as Test [...]fied by Udulricus to P. Nicolas, Cent. 6. p. 388.

CENT. 7.

Canon of Toletan. The Councel of Toletanus insti [...]uted, That Infants without natural capa­city should be baptised, and that none should deny Baptism to them at their peril.

The Council of Constance Ordained the same. Mag. Cent. 7. p. 146. Canon of Const.

IsidorusIsidorus. saith, That if Children were not baptized, and so thereby renewed, and Original Sin washed away, they were in a state of damnation. p. 98.

To the former, ridiculous Ceremonies now in use, were added, That the names of Saints departed, or Relations, should be given to the Baptized at their Baptism.

That none should be admitted to be Gossips without rehearsing the Lords-Prayer and the Creed.

And that none of the Gossips might marry together,Gossips must not marry to­gether. because of the spiritual Affinity and Relation they had contracted at the Font. p. 147.

At the Consecration and Dedication of Temples, the names of some Angel or Saint departed was to be given to them.

A Childe that died unbaptized this Age, was taken up and Christened,A dead child chri­stened. and had his Fathers name given him. Magd. cent. 7. p.

CENT. 8.

Carolus Magnus declares,Decree of the Emp. Charles the Great. Daniel. That Bap­tism should be administred to Infants as well as to the Adult. Cent. 8. p. 219.

Daniel in his Epistle to Boniface con­cludes, that Infants should be baptized. p. 347.

Bede also concludes for the baptizing of Infants. p. 218.

To all the former continued Super­stitions there were added,

Supersti­tious rites1. That the Administration be in the Latine tounge. p. 384.

2. That Salt be used in Baptism. Aponius, lib. 1. p. 349.

3. That the Hair of the Baptized be cut. p. 350.

4. That some Gift was to be given in Baptism, which was to be called Deo­dans. p. 349.

Temples baptizd in the name of the Tri­nity.5. That Temples should be consecra­ted in the name of the Trinity. p. 336.

Bells were posited in Temples in this Age. p. 342.

CENT. 9.

Sericius Sericius. at large demonstrates, That according to the Custom of the Church little ignorant Babes should be bapti­zed: for which he cites the Decrees of the African Council by Pope Innocent; another of Pope Leo's; and another of Pope Gregories at large. Cent. 9. p. 140, 141.

Gizelbert Gizelbert. saith, That after Baptism neither Original nor Actual Sin Re­maineth. Who also calleth Marriage a Sacrament. p. 171.

To the former filthy Customs this Age added, That in Exorcism the Head,Impious Customs. Ears, and Nose should be salted and anointed before Baptism. p. 235.

To the former christening of Tem­ples, they added the pouring out of Oyl, and anointing with holy Chrism, singing Jacobs words, This is no other than the House of God; how dreadful is this place! according to the 24th Ca­non of Aquensis. Cent. 9. p. 229.

CENT. 10.

Smaragdus Smarag­dus. saith, That little Infants are to be baptized, because it is said, Suffer little Children to come unto me, and forbid them not, &c. Hence (saith he) the Holy Mother the Church doth beget the Innocent Infant into a holy and pure state by the grace of Baptism. Cent. 10. p. 188.

Zonaras saith, That the Infants as well as the Adult were to be baptized. p. 292.

To the former wicked Customs they now added,

1.Wicked Additions That the Water of Baptism should on Easter-day be consecrated after this manner; viz. The Priests hand should be stretched over the Water, as Moses his hand was over the Sea. 2. That he [Page 132] should blow upon it. 3. Hold a burning Taper over it, to answer the Type of the fiery Pillar. 4. That as they entred the Red-Sea by Night; so should Baptism be administred in the Evening. p. 239.

The Gossips were to put on White Garments as well as the Priests and the Baptized. p. 299.

And as a further addition to Church-Christening, the Bishop was before the Water was brought to him to strike the Earth, and then to pour down a great deal of Water, and then to name the Church.

And further; It was in this Age that Bells began also to be Christened, which from henceforward was most re­ligiously observed.

Bells first baptized by P. JohnPope John the 14th was the first that baptized Bells, who christned the great Bell of the Church of Lateran, calling it John: which was done to drive away evil Spirits, and to prevent any ill acci­dent that might happen by Lightning and Tempest. Magd. cent. 10. p. 295.

Vossius Vossius. in his Book de Bapt. p. 158. tells us, That though the more prudent did call this Baptizing or Christning of Bells Consecration, yet that they had most of the Baptismal Rites and Ceremo­nies, [Page 133] both Godfathers and Godmothers, sprinkling, Anointing, giving of Names, and great Donations; and that the silly Women used to bring Presents of Coral, Linen, and other things; and that they had a Superstitious Conceit, that the sprinkling of that Baptismal Water pro­cured Health to the Sick.

Vossius also informeth us in the said Book from good Authority,The abo­minable custom to baptize naked for 7 or 800 years. That from Austin till Bernard's time, seven or eight hundred years, the custom was to baptize naked both Men, Women, and Children, with the Reasons usually given by the Ancients for the same, viz. That they might therein be as in the state of Inno­cency; and be as naked in their second, as in their first birth; And as they ex­pected to be in Heaven and therein no otherwise then Christ was upon the Cross, which you may reade at large in page 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36. quoting these seve­ral Authorities to justifie it, viz. Cyril Heir. Cat. Mystag. 11. Amphilochius in vita St. Basil, Chrysost. Tom. 6. c. 11. Elias Cretenses in Orat. 4. Naz. Zeno Varonenses, Anselm on Mat. 3. Ambros. Serm. 10. Bernard. Serm. 46. de Pau­per. Greg. Mag. tom. 2. col. 269. Al­cuinus in divin. off. cap. 19. Chrys. ep. ad Innocent, &c.

So, just was it was it with God to leave men that went a whoring after their own Inventions [forsaking the Word of God, to imbrace the Traditions of man] to such unseemly and unna­tural practices.

Mr. Bax­ter sh [...]me­ful ssander fixt upon the Ana­baptists.Yet is not Mr. Baxter ashamed to fix such an abominable slander upon the Baptists of this our Age of baptizing naked (which it seems was so long the real practice of the Pedobaptists) and a­bout which he spends three whole pages in his Scripture-proof, viz. 136, 137, 138. to aggravate the heinousness of that their custom (which he is pleased to father upon them). And though I am perswaded he cannot but be con­vinced that the thing is most notori­ously false, and brought forth by him rather out of prejudice (not to say ma­lice) rather than any proof or good testimony he ever received thereof. Yet have I never heard that he hath done himself his injured neighbours, and the abused world that right, as to own his great weakness & sinful shortnes there­in, in any of the many Editions of that Piece, which I humbly conceive as well deserved a Recantation as some other things he has judged worthy thereof.


AnselmAnselm. asserts that Children should be Baptised, and gives these Reasons:

1st. That the Devil by the faith of the Parent may be cast out of the Children in Baptism; as the Woman of Canaan in the 15. Mat. v. 21. had the Devil cast out of her Daughter. p. 171.

2ly. That they may thereby be freed from Original sin, and be rendred Saints and holy ones by Baptism as they are owned to be, 1 Cor. 7. p. 171.

3ly. That they may die to sin: for they that are Baptised into Christ are so, being Baptised into his Death; which he says is without exception: for whosoever is Baptised into Christ, is Baptised into his Death.

MeginhardusMegin­hardus. saith, if little Infants or weak ones be brought to Baptism, let them answer for them that bring them, and then let hands be laid upon them with holy Chrysme; and so let the Eucharist be Communicated to them. p. 168.

Ivo saith, that the Infants as well as the Adult are to be Baptised, be­cause of the Faith of the Sacrament; p. 260.

The Latins in this age did Rebaptise the Greeks who dssowned their Baptism. [Page 136] p. 263. And the Greeks did excom­municate the Latines for renouncing theirs. p. 401.

To the former Superstitious Rites, they added, That Salt should be put into the mouth of the Baptized. p. 261.

And to the Christning of Churches, that Salt should also be mixed with the Water of Execration.

Waldenses witness a­gainst In­fant Bapt. The Waldenses did appear this Age to witness against the Romish Supersti­tions, and amongst the rest that of the Real Presence in the Eucharist, and Baptizing of Infants: which you have at large hereafter, with the opposition and persecution they met with for the same. They were called B [...]ringarians, from Beringarius one of their chief Lea­ders.

CENT. 12.

Peter LombardPeter Lombard. saith, That to the baptizing the Adult, their proper faith is required; but to the baptizing an In­fant the faith of others sufficeth. Cent. 12. p. 418.

And] again, Children are to be bapti­zed, because they are thereby clensed from original sin. p. 596.

BernardBernard. saith, That without Baptism Children cannot be saved. p. 604.

And again, As Children of old were circumcised without or against their wills for their Salvation; so may they now be baptized. p. 599.

Peter CluniacensesPeter Clu­niacenses. writing against Peter Bruis, one of the Waldensian Barbes who denied Infants Baptism, saith, Lib. 1. Ep. 2. They who are not baptized with Christs Baptism, cannot be Christians: And shall the Children of the Jews be saved with the Sacrament of Circumcision, and shall not the Children of Christians be saved with the Sacra­ment of Baptism? p. 599.

HeldigardHeldigard saith, That as our little Children that are not capable to feed themselves, have others to feed them to keep them from temporal death; So is it with them in Baptism, who being neither capable to believe or profess, have spiri­tual helps provided for them, that they may not want that spiritual food that may preserve them from eternal death. p. 602.

AlexanderAlexand. the 3d, in his Decretals, L. 3. Tit. 40. c. 2. saith, They who have any doubt concerning their Baptism, may be baptized with these words, [If thou art baptized, I do not baptize thee; but if thou beest not, I do baptize thee in the Name of &c.

The former ridiculous Rites were this Age observed with this Addition.

Bernard saith, To the Dedication or right-Christning of Churches, there must be Aspersion, Inunction, Illumina­tion, Benediction, & Nomination. p. 861.

And that if the Temple should come to be polluted by the Priests commit­ting Adultery in it, The sprinkling it afresh with Holy-Water cleanseth it again. Alex. 3. L. 5. Decret.

When Mar­riage pro­hibited. The certain times wherein Marriages were prohibited was from Septuagesima to Easter, from R [...]gation to Whits [...]ntide, from Advent to Epiphany: Which were done by the Edict of Pope Cle­ment, as saith Gigas. p. 919.

The Waldenses were in this Age great Witnesses to the baptizing of Be­lievers,Petro Bru­sians writ against Infants Baptism. and as great opposers of Infants Baptism, called by the name of Petro-Brusians, Apostolici & Henerici; and for which they were great Sufferers, is hereafter. p. 844, 845, 846.

CENT. 13.

Thomas AquinasTho. Aqui. saith, Children are to be baptized not in their own proper faith, but in the faith of the Church. p. 419.

And again, That they may be freed from Original Sin and Condemnation. p. 422.

Alexander saith, Baptism conferrs grace to little ones, not only purging them from Original Sin, but by the Merits of Christs Suffering, the faith of the Sure­ty, but by the vertue of the Sacrament. p. 426.

BonaventureBonavent. saith, If Children dye that are baptized before they come to years of discretion, they so receive grace by the faith of another, that by Christs merit they shall be saved, which (he saith) is denied by certain cursed Hereticks. p. 419.

Concurring hereto are several other Doctors of this Age, as Hugo, p. 544. Gulielmo, p. 419. Albert, and the De­cree of the Neomansian Synod, 594. the Synod of Coloniae, 938, 944. but let these already mentioned suffice.

Tho. Aquinas saith, Though a Priest be the proper Administrator of Baptism, yet, in case of necessity, not only a Dea­con, but a Lay person, yea a Woman; nay, an Heretick or Pagan may baptise, so be it the true form of the Church be observed, and intend thereby what the Church intends. p. 419.

An Expo­sition of many of their ridi­culous Customs. Gulielm. All the Abominable Rites before­mentioned, were in this Age observed with this following Exposition upon them:

Gulielm. saith, That the matter of the Sacrament of Confirmation is Oyl-Olive mixed with Balsom, and incorporated upon the fire, called Chrysm, and which can only be done by the hands of a Bishop. The form of which Sacrament, he saith, is this, viz. I sign thee with the sign of the Cross, & confirm thee with the Crysm of Salvation in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, Amen. And which only a Bishop can administer. p. 417.

By Ex [...]rcism the Devil is blown away. Hugo.

AlbertusAlbertus. saith, By blowing in Exe­cration the power of the Devil is expel­led; and being signed upon the breast and forehead with the sign of the Cross, he is driven not only from the heart, but more visibly from the outward man. And that the Salt is to be put into the mouth, the better to endue with spiritual savour and wisdom; And that the ears and nose is to be anointed with spittle, that grace and discretion from God may be conferred, which because the spittle descends from the Head that is thereby signified. And that [Page 141] the Breast must be anoynted to prepare the Heart for God; and the Shoulders anointed to be inabled to bear God's bur­den.

After Baptism the Neck must be a­noynted with Chrisme, that the mind may be better disposed for God and holy con­templation, which by Chrism is signifi­ed being made of shining Oile and healing sovereign Balsome. They must be endew­ed with white Garments, to hold forth that Innocency which is received in Bap­tism; as well as the Glory which they are to pertake of at the Resurrection. And a burning Taper put into the hand that the Word of God may be a light to his Feet.

Gulielmus saith, That as to the form of Baptism the Ʋirgin Mary, A blasphe­mous ad­dition. is to be added to the Father, Son, and Holy Spi­rit, viz. I Baptize thee in the name of the Omnipotent, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the blessed Virgin Mary, 419.

Thom. saith there are seven Sacra­ments; 7 Sacra­ments. viz. Baptism, Confirmation, Eu­charist, Penance, Extream-Ʋnction, Or­der, and Matrimony. Two whereof, viz. Baptism, and the Eucharist were instituted by Christ, and the other five by the Apostles, as Alexander. 406.

Which seven Sacraments were after confirmed by the Councel of Trent, with Anathema to those who should deny them.

When and by whom Tyths first granted. Pope Gregory X. was the first in Anno 1271. granted Tythes to the Churches. Those that opposed and witnessed against Infants Baptism and other Popish Superstitions in this Age, were the Albigenses and Aumionen­ses, Magdeburg. Cent. 13. P. 554, &c.

CENT. 14, 15, 16, 17.

That the Baptizing of Infants, with all the Rites and Ceremonies, still con­tinued, especially in the Romish Church, we need not question, when we read the Canons of the Council of Trent, which was called on purpose as to establish their old Superstitions and Idolatries, so to suppress the Light and Truth that especially did shine in the Empire: In which Council, which ended 1564. we have the following Canons. The Ca­nons of the Council of Trent a­bout Inf. Bapt.

In the 5th Session about Original Sin in the 4th Canon,

It was Decreed, That they who shall deny Baptisme to young Chil­dren [Page 143] from their Mothers Womb, for the taking away Original Sin.

Let them be accursed. Os. 16 Cent. c. 60, 380.

In the 7th Session about Baptism, in the 13 Canon,

It was Decreed, That whosoever puts not young baptised Children a­mongst the faithful, or saith they must be re-baptised at the years of discretion, or that it is better to omit their vaptism till then,

Let them be accursed.

And in the 14 Canon It was decreed, That whosoever shall say, that bap­tised Children, when they come to Age, ought not to be enjoyned to ra­tifie the promise made in their name, but to be left to their will if they re­fuse, Not compelling them to Chri­stian life, but denying them other Ordinances,

Let them be accursed.

In the 3 Canons about Confirma­tion, it was Decreed,

That whosoever said, It was an idle Ceremony not a Sacrament properly, or that it was formerly used, that Children might give an account of their faith. 2. That to [Page 144] give vertue to Chrysome, was t [...] wrong the Holy Spirit. 3. Tha [...] every simple Priest is the ordinary Minister for confirmation and not th [...] Bishop only.

Let them be accursed. Os. 16 Cent. pag. 417.

And as a standing Rule to justifie themselves in their Determinations they conclude and Decree,

A blas­phemous Decree. That their Traditions should b [...] observed Pari Pietatis affectu, with the same pious affection with the Holy Scriptures.

Charl. V. his Inte­rim.In that Instrument, called the In­terim, That Decretal of Charles the Fifth, made till the Councels Canon [...] could be perfected, it was determined,

That young Children by the faith and confession of the Sureties, should be Baptised.

And that all Ancient Ceremonies that pertained to the Sacrament [...] Baptisme, should be continued, as Exorcisme, Chrysme, &c. Osiander p. 482.

Among the many A [...]christian op­pressions the Princes of Germany ex­hibited to the Pope from their Conven­tion of Norimberg, they complained o [...] [Page 145] that of baptizing Bells, wherein they say, The Suffragans have invented, Baptizing of Bells complain­ed of by the Princes of Germany that no other but only themselves, may Bap­tize Bells for the Lay-people, Whereby the simple people, upon their affirmation, do believe, That such Bells so baptized, will drive away evil Spirits and Tem­pests: Whereupon a great number of God-fathers are appointed, especially such as are rich, which at the time of the baptizing holding the Rope where­withal the Bell is tyed, the Suffragan speaking before them, as is accustomed in the baptizing of young Children, they altogether do answer, and give the name to the Bell; the Bell having a new name put upon it, as is accustomed to be done to the Christians, after this they go to sumptuous Feasts, whereunto also the Gossips are bidden, that there­by they may give the greater reward to the Suffragans, their Chaplins and Mi­ [...]sters; whereby it happeneth oft-times, that even in a small Village an hundred Florins are consumed, in such Cristen­ings; which is not only superstitious, but contrary to Christian Religion, a se­ducing of the simple People, and meer Extortion. Wherefore such wicked un­lawful things are to be abolished. Fox's [Page 146] Acts and Monum. 990. Pius the Fifth baptized the Duke of Alva's Standard; Standard Baptized. and called it Margaret. Dr. Morison de Depra. Bel. p. 24.

The German Protestants about Infants-Baptism.

Luther August. Confess [...]ō.The Lutherans in their Augustan Con­fession made 1530. do declare,

That Baptism is necessary to Sal­vation. That Gods Grace is confer­red thereby. That Children ought to be baptised, who by Baptism are dedicated and received into the grace and favour of God: condemning the Anabaptists, who deny Baptism to Children, and who affirm that Chil­dren without Baptism may be saved, Osiand. 16 Cent. p. 153.

In the Smalkald Articles 1536. the Lutherans say,

In the Smalkald Articles. Concerning Infants we teach, that they are to be baptized; For inasmuch as they do belong to the promised Re­demption made by Iesus Ehrist, the Church ought to baptize and to de­clare the promise to them. Osiand. Cent. 16. p. 278.

In the Conference betwixt the Calvi­nists and Lutherans at Mumpel­gartens. 1529.In the Confe­rence at Mumpel­gart.

It was agreed, that Baptisme came in the room of Circumcision, and that the Children of the Christians are to be Baptized. Osiand. Cent. 16. 1020.

Though about the Ground of Bapti­zing them they differed; The Luther­ans affirming, that they had a proper and peculiar Faith to intitle them there­to. The Calvinists asserting they had none, but ought to be baptized by vertue of the Faith of the Parent in Covenant.

In the Book of Concord, In the Book of Concord. 1580. by the Lutherans.

They agree that the Tenets of the Anabaptists are to be renounced, that say, Infants are not to be baptized, be­cause they have no use of reason. Osi­and. 16 Cent. p. 254.

The English Protestants about In­fants Baptism.

In the Reformation begun in Edward the Sixth time,In the E [...] ­glish Li­turgy. about 1549 the Form of Worship and Administration of the Sacraments, with all their Rites and Ceremonies, were held forth in the English Liturgy, as it was translated [Page 148] out of the Latin Mass-Book, concern­ing which we have this account from Mr. Fox in his Martyrology, p. 1499.

That in the Rising in Devonshire, upon the translating the Latin Mass-Book into English, the King writes after this manner to quiet them, viz.

The En­glish Ser­vice tran­slated out of the Latin Mass-Book.As for the Service in the English Tongue, perhaps it seemeth to you as New Service, when indeed it is no other but the Old; the self same words in English which were in Latin, saving a few things taken out, so fond, that it hath been a shame to have heard them in English; as all they can judg that list to repeat the truth: And if it was good in Latin, it remaineth good in English, for nothing is altered, but to speak with knowledg what was spoken with ignorance, &c.

Wherein the Time, Order, Manner and Ceremony of Baptizing of Infants, is directed and enjoyned, with all the Rites appertaining thereto.

In the said Service-Book in the Rubrick before the Catechism it is said, That Children being baptized, have all things necess ry for their Salvation, and be undoubtedly saved. And therefore after Baptism the Priest must say, We [Page 149] yeeld thee hearty thanks, that it hath pleased thee to regenerate this Infant with thy Holy Spirit. And the Child is afterwards to be instructed, when he comes to understanding, to say, That therein he was made a Member of Christ, and a Child of God, and an Inheritor of the Kingdom of Heaven. Just com­porting length and breadth with Pope Innocents first Canons.

In the 27th. Article of the Church of England, 27. Article of the Chu [...]ch [...] England. it is said, That the Bap­tizing of young Children, is in any wise to be retained in the Church, as most agreeable to the Institution of Christ, made in Q. Eliz. time, 1562.

In the Scotch Service-Book,Scotch Service-Book. imposed in the begining of the late War, it is said, That as oft as new Water is put into the Font, the Priest shall say, San­ctifie this Fountain of Baptism, Oh thou which art the Sanctifier of all things.

The Directory, Directory in the Parliamen [...]s time, leaves out Gossips, and signing with the Sign of the Cross, changes the Fonts into Basons. And the Par­liaments Ordinance May 2. 1648. made it Imprisonment to affirm, Infants Ba­ptism unlawful, and that such should [Page 150] be Baptized again. Mr. Marshal in­formes us, out of Phocius, p. 3334 That some of the Greek Churches have Laws, That whatsoever baptized Per­son refused to bring their Children, and Wives too, to be baptized, should be Anathamatised, and punished also.

The wic­ked Decree of Zurick.At Zurick, as Dr. Featly tells us out of Gassius, p. 68. The Senate made an Act, That if any presumed to Rebaptize viz. to baptise any that had been baptised in their Infancy, That they should be drowned; and that at Vienna, many for Baptizing such were so tyed toge­ther in Chains, that they drew the o­ther after him in the River, wherein they were all drowned.

And that at Roplestein, the Lords of that place Decreed, that such should be burnt with a hot Iron, and bear the base Brands of those Lords, in whose Lands they had so offended.

And p. 182. out of Ponton Catalog. through Germany, Alsatia, and Swede­land many Thousands of this Sect, who defiled their first Baptisme by a second, were baptised the third time in their wn Blood.

CHAP. III. Wherein the Erroneous Grounds both as to fabulous Traditions, and mistaken Scriptures, upon which Infants Baptism hath been both formerly and laterly found­ed, is made manifest.

THe First and Principal Ground that hath been asserted for this practice, hath been Ecclesiastical and Apostolical Tradition; or however (as hath been said) the Scripture is so si­lent in the Case, yet the clear, full and uninterrupted Tradition of the Church, makes up that defect, to which the Church of Rome and some others have adhered.

Though many Protestants, since the Reformation, have chose to flye to some Consequential Arguments deduced, as they suppose from the Scriptures to ju­stifie the same.

Both which in this Chapter are brought forth, and duly weighed in the Ballance of Truth.

The First we shall examine is the [Page 152] point of Tradition, and therein do these two things, Shew that it hath pri­marily been asserted to be the ground thereof. Secondly, The insufficiency of the Authorities that have been ur­ged to prove the same.Tradition the prin­cipal ground of Infants Baptism.

That Tradition hath principally been leaned upon, as the main ground of the Practice, you have the following Instances.

Austin Austin. tells us, That the Custome of our Mother the Church in Baptizing little Infants, is not to be despised, nor to be judged superfluous, nor to be believed at all, unless it were an Apostolical Tradition. Lib. 10. de Gen. c. 23.

And again in his 4th Book against the Donatists, 24 Chap. saith, That if there be any that do inquire for a Divine Authority for the Baptizing of Chil­dren, Let them that know what the Uni­versal Church holds, nor was instituted in Councils, but alwaies retained, is most rightly believed to have been deli­vered by no other than Apostolical Au­thority.

Chrysost. Chrysostom saith, That Infants ought to be baptized, as universally received by the Catholick Church, to take away Original Sin. Mag. Cent. 4.

Bellarmine, Tom. 1. L. 4. c. 2. saith, That the Baptism of Infants is an Apostolical Tradition not written; because, saith he, it is not written in any Apostolical Book though written, he saith, in the Books of almost all the Antients.

And which Tradition of the Apostles, saith he, is of no less Authority with us, than the Scriptures.

In the Council of Trent, Council of Trent. after they had in the 5th and 7th Sessions made those Canons about Infants-Baptism, before mentioned, do conclude, That their Traditions, touching the same, should be received, Pari Pietatis affectu, with the same pious affection with the Holy Scriptures, as you have it, p. 144.

In the Council of Basil, Council of Basil. in the Ora­tion of the Cardinal of Ragusi, It is asserted, That in the beginning of this Sacrament of Baptism, they only were to be baptized, who could by themselves answer Interrogatories concerning their Faith; And that it was no where read in the Canon of Scripture, that a new-born Infant was baptized, who could neither believe with the Heart to Justi­fication, nor confess with the Mouth to Salvation. Yet nevertheless, saith he, the Church hath appointed it.

Eckius Eck us. against the Lutherans writes, That the Ordinance concerning the Baptism of Children is without Scri­pture, and is found to be only a Custome of the Church. And in his Enchiri­dion calleth it a Commandment and Or­dinance of Man, and that it is not to be proved out of the Holy Scriptures.

A great Papist, lately in London, go­ing to a Dispute about Infants-Baptism, told his friend, He was going to hear a Miracle, viz. Infants Baptism to be proved by Scripture.

And the Ground and Reason why they do so firmly own this Truth to the Protestants upon that subject, is but the better to inforce and introduce their many other Traditions, there being no­thing else for that.

But whereas some object, That Bel­larmine and others do also bring Scri­pture for it, Becan. Bec [...]n. Lib. 1. c. 2. Sec. 24. answers, That some things may be pro­ved out of Scripture, when the Churches sence is first heard about the Interpreta­tion thereof, for so, he saith, it is con­cerning Infants Baptism, which is pro­ved from John 3.5. Except a man be born of Water and the Spirit, &c. But the sense whereby to prove it, it only ma­nifest [Page 155] by Tradition. And it is confir­med in the Canon Law and Schoolmen, That Infants-Baptism was not reckoned perfect, till the Bishop laid on hands, which was called Confirmation, viz. of the imperfect Baptism in Infancy: and therefore saith Caistans Caistans. secundum Jewel, That an Infant wanting In­struction in the Faith, hath not perfect Baptism, Tom. prec. p. 86. Dr. Field, Dr. Field. Lib. 4. P. 375. saith, That Infants-Baptism is therefore called a Tradition, because it is not expresly delivered in the Scriptures, that the Apostles did baptise Infants, or that they should do so.

The Oxford DivinesOxford Divines. in a full Convo­cation, Jan. 1647. say, That without the consentaneous judgment and practice of the Universal Church, they should be at a l [...]ss, when they are called upon for proof in the point of Baptizing Infants, Mr. Tombes.

Dr. Prideaux Dr. Prid [...]. Controv. Theol. Sec. 392. Infants Baptism (saith he) rests upon no other Divine right than Episco­pacy, viz. Diocesan Episcopacy, in use in these Nations.

Mr. Baxter Mr. Bax­ter. in Defence of the Prin­ciples of Love, p. 7. saith, That the Anabaptists are Godly men, that differ [Page 156] from us in a Point so difficult, that many of the Papists and Prelatists have main­tained, That it is not determined in Scripture, but dependeth upon the Tra­dition of the Church. (Though, he saith, he is of another mind himself.)

To which many more might be ad­ded, to prove to you, That Apostolical Tradition, for want of Scripture, hath been urged as the principal and first ground of this Practice. And not only for this, but for all other Rites and Ceremonies, as well those that have been already declared; as Chrysme, Exorcisme, Consignation, and innume­rable more, as those that have not yet been heard of or declared: for as a late learned. Author excellently observes, That the Papists, Dr. Owen in point of Tradition, do herein very much exceed the Jews, those old Tradition-mongers, who so made void the Law of God in their days by it. For they tell us plainly, that now their whole Oral Law is written, and that they have no reserve of Authentick Traditions not yet decla [...]r'd: But here the Romanists, saith he, fail us, for although, they have given us heaps upon heaps of their Traditions, yet they plead that they have still an inexhaustible treasure [Page 157] of them laid up in their Church-stores, & [...] breast of their Holy Father, to be drawn forth at all times, as occasion shall re­quire. And which Principle hath been the means of their Apostacy, and is the great Engin, whereby they are rendered incurable therein. Dr. Owen his Pro­leg. P. 67.

Dr. Taylor, D. Taylor P. 237. argues so fully and strenuously upon this point of Tra­dition, that I cannot pass him by, who saith, Tradition by all means must supply the place of Scripture, and there is pre­tended a Tradition Apostolical, that In­fants were baptized. But at this (saith he) we are not much moved, For we who rely upon the written Word of God, as sufficient to establish all true Religion, do not value the allegation of Tradition: And however the world goes, none of the Reformed Churches can pretend this Argument for this Opinion: Because they who reject Tradition, when it is against them, must not pretend it in the least for them; but if we allow the To­pick to be good, yet how will it be veri­fied? For so far as can yet appear, it relies wholly upon the Testimony of Origen, for from him Austin had it. Now a Tradition Apostolical, if it be [Page 158] not consigned with a fuller testimony than of one person, whom all other Ages have condemned of many Errors, and whos, works, saith Erasmus, are so spurious that he that reads them is uncertain, whether he read Origen or Ruffinus. Therefore will obtain so little reputation amongst those, who know that things have upon greater Authority, been pre­tended to be received from the Apostles, but falsly; that it will be a great Argu­ment, that he is ridiculous and weak, that shall be determined by so weak Pro­bation in matters of so great concern­ment. But besides that the Tradition cannot be proved to be Apostolical, we have very good evidence from Antiquity, That it was the Opinion of the Primitive Church, That Infants ought not to be Baptized, which, saith he, is clear in the Canon of the Council of Neocaesarca, which he mentions at large in the original Greek; Determining that none ought to be baptized, without giving an ac­count of their Faith, and desiring the same. That tie Tradit­ons for Inf. Bapt. are fabu­lous. Thus far Dr. Taylor.

In the next place we shall give you some account of the insufficiency and weakness, if not the wickedness of those first Authorities, that have been leaned [Page 159] upon to prove this Practice to be an Apostolical Tradition, and which ap­pearing fabulous, all others depending upon the same, necessarily fall to the ground; whereof you have four or five of the principal of them, and which may be useful to the Protestants, what­ever they are to the Papists, viz.

The first and earliest we meet with to prove Infants-Baptism to be an Apo­stolical Tradition, is that of Dyonisius the Ar [...]opagite, mentioned already P. 109. & quoted by Bellarmin, Tom. 3. Lib. 8. Cassander in his Book de Bapt. and many other learned Papists, for Authentick proof that Infants-Baptism was Apostolical, out of his Ecclesiasti­cal Hi [...]rarchy, &c. But that this was a piece of Forgery put upon the world, may yet further more fully appear to you in that which followeth, viz.

This Dionysius the Areopagite living at Athens, Dionysius Areopag. who some will have to be Bishop of Corinth, though Eusebius calls him Bishop of Athens (for you must know, according to Eusebius and Dorotheus, all men of Name in the New Testament, must be Bishops of some place or other, and therefore they can tell you, not only the Names of the [Page 160] seventy Disciples, but what Bishopricks each did belong unto.) Now this Per­son being an Athenian, must be sup­posed to be a learned Greek Philoso­pher, and therefore upon none more fitly in this Age could be fathered all those Philosophical Tracts that are put upon him; and amongst which you have two of most eminency, viz. his Hierarchy of Angels, wherein you have the Orders, Ranks, Dignities, Names, and Offices of the Angels and Arch­angels (a profound piece no doubt.)

The other his Ecclesiastical Hierar­chy, wherein the Consecrations, Orders, Offices and Ranks of the Inferiour An­gels, viz. the Priests, Friers, Monks, Bishops, Arch-bishops, and Popes are methodically treated and handled, as also divers Rites and Ceremonies discus­sed, amongst which that of Infants-Baptism is asserted to be an antient A­postolical Tradition, which he declares he received from his Prafectors, toge­ther with various Ceremonies, that ac­cording to like Apostolick Authority, are confirmed as an Appendix thereto, viz. Gossips, or Sureties; Chrysme, or the Anointing Cream; Exorcisme or Sufflation, viz. a blowing used in Bap­tisme, [Page 161] whereby the Devil was to be blown away; Consignation, or the sign­ing the baptized with the Sign of the Cross; Confirmation, or Bishoping the Baptized Children, afterwards, to com­pleat his imperfect Baptism by laying on of Hands, Albes or white Garments for the Baptised, Baptisterions, or large Fonts to be placed in the Temples, Altars also for the Eucharist, and seve­ral other things, which he affirms to have been in use in the Apostles days.

And this is one of the first Autho­rities that Father Bellarmine and others of them give us, for the proof of this Apostolical Institution, and which must be received with equal Authority to the Holy Scriptures (and a very convincing one no doubt) concerning which, though if there was nothing but the bare Re­petition thereof, it may sufficiently de­tect the Cheat; the lies being so gross, so ill made, and laid together, that every common understanding may easi­ly perceive the juggle; For how ab­surdly ridiculous is it to say, that Paul or his Praefectors should acquaint him, that it was an antient Apostolical Tra­dition; if it had been true, Paul might have told him it had been new, [Page 162] but by no means in those days an old Apostolical Tradition. And to tell the world of Baptisterions and Altars in Temples, when no such things as Temples for Christian Worship, for a­bove 200. years after. And also of those other impious fooleries, that were not known nor heard of for some Ages after, so strangely, by Gods Providence, were they infatuated, to come forth with such ridiculous madness to detect their own folly: And to testifie that this was to be that Interest that should appear with all deceivableness of Un­righteousness.

Which horrid Cheat you have very convincingly discovered and detected by many Learned Men; & besides those already mentioned Page. 110 in the first Chapter, You have he Magdibur­genses, Cent. 1. L. 2. p. 625, 626. and Cent. 4. p. 420, 554, and 1129. Also by Perkins, Reynolds, Rivet, proving by many Arguments it was wholly spurious and supposititious, and that it could not, from many considerations, be written by the ingenuous Contri­ver, till the fourth or fifth Century, that none of the Church-writer, in those times took any notice of it, and [Page 163] that Austin himself went not higher than Origen, And which wretched Forgery is excellently detected in 39 Arguments by the Learned Dailly, a late renowned Protestant-writer in France, in his Book called de Scriptis.

A Second Proof leaned upon to veri­fie the truth of its Apostolicalness, is that of Justin Justin. Martyrs Martyr. Responses, Responses. espe­cially to the 56 Questions before men­tioned, Page 111. and Chap. 2. which many of the aforesaid Authors do learnedly detect to be spurious also, as Perkins, Rivet and others, yea and many of the very Papists themselves do disown the same as ridiculous, for­asmuch as Origen and the Manichees are mentioned therein, that were not in being for so long time after. And concerning which Responses, M. Baxter Mr. Bax­ter himself, in his plain Scripture proof, P. 155. is pleased to tell us, That as to that of Justin Martyrs to the 56th Que­stion, He would not insist upon it, be­cause though the place be most express for Infants Baptism, (for when the Friars hand was in, he could do it to a hairs breadth) and the Book antient, yet that it was either spurious or interpolate.

A Third antient Proof urged in [Page 164] Confirmation hereof, is the Decretals and Institutions of several Popes in this 2d Cent. viz. Pope Clement P. Clem. for Chrysm, Consignation, and Confirmation. Second­ly, Pope Hyginus P. Hugi­nus. for Gossips, Chrysm, and Dedication of Churches, upon whose Authority Mr. Baxter layes so much stress, that he Prints it in the front of his Scripture-proofs, amongst other of the Antients, and boastingly calls for as good proof from Antiquity against Infants-baptisme, concluding that Gossips could not be but for In­fants-baptism: Though the words out of Gracian, as L. Osiander gives them, are otherwise, Cent. 2. L. 2. C. 5. viz. In Catechisme, in Baptisme, and in Confirmation, if necessity require, there may be one Surety, (or Gossip, as usually rendred) Infants being not so much as mentioned, having it seems Gossips (as hereafter you will find) in other Rites, as well as in Baptism; and for Men and Women, as well as Children.

Thirdly, Pope Victor P. Victor. for confining Baptism to Easter. Fourthly, Pope Pi­us P. Pius. for Baptisteri [...]ns; The spuriousnes of all which Decretals is learnedly by Osiander, Perkins, Rivet, &c. detected. And to whom I shall adde what I [Page 165] find in Mr. Fox Mr. Fox. in his Martyrology, Vol. 1. P. 75. who speaking of these Decretals, saith judiciously, if not prophetically, viz. Most lamentable it is, that the falsifying of such trifling Tra­ditions, under the false pretences of An­tiquity, either was begun in the Church to deceive the People, or that it hath re­mained so long undetected: For (saith he) I think the Church of God will never be perfectly reformed, before these De­cretal Constitutions and Epistles, which have so long put on the vizard of Anti­quity, shall be fully detected, and appear in their colours, wherein they were first painted.

And concerning which the Magdi­burgenses Magdib. very excellently, Cent. 2. p. 111. That if it should be taken for granted, that all this was true, as is ex­pressed in these Decretals of these Ro­man Bishops, then what could be more certain than that even now the Mystery of Iniquity began to work in the Church of Rome, in their so corrupting and con­taminating the simple Form of Baptism, concerning which nothing is so much as mentioned of in any other Church.

The next Testimony that is alledged for Authentick proof in the Case, is [Page 166] that of Origen in the Third Century,Origen's Testimony examined. and of which there is so much stress laid by Austin and others, for from him, saith Dr. Taylor, he only had his proof of Apostolick Tradition, for as yet, it seems, the former Testimonies had not seen the Sun; his words are these, taken out of his fifth Book in his Homilies upon the sixth Chap. of the Rom. viz. The Church received a Tra­dition from the Apostles, to give Bap­tism to Children.

But whether this Testimony ought any more to be regarded than the for­mer, let these following Considerations determine:

1. Origen a single Testimony.And first it is to be considered, that if this was Origen's own, as it is as­serted out of his supposed Homelies up­on Lev. & the Rom. (it being mentio­ned in both) yet that is but one single Testimony in the Case, as Dr. Tayler well observes before, and that against so much positive witness to the con­trary, who with one mouth do testify, that none but the Adult were either in the Apostles times, or the next Centuries after, baptised.

2. Origen very cor­rupt. Secondly, His writings, or at least those that are fathered upon him, are [Page 167] so notoriously corrupt and erroneous, as the Magdiburgenses do affirm in Cent. 3. P. 262, 263, &c. and whereof they give several instances, viz. That he was not only very Heretical and blasphemous about Christ, asserting two Christs, and denying his Godhead, who was (as Epiphanius saith) the very Head of the Arrians; but as Jerome saith, holding very desperately about the Spirit, and very corruptly about Angels, Devils, Creation, Providence, Original Sin, Church-Government, and the Resurrection, a fearful Allegoriser of Scripture, but desperately Errone­ous about Baptisme it self, viz. First, That the very Act it self of Baptizing in Water, merits the Spirit. Second­ly, That in that very Act, all Sin is taken away. Thirdly, That it enables to keep the whole Law. Fourthly, That there is to be a Baptisme after the Re­surrection, to purge away Sin: And that the Baptized ought to be signed with the Sign of the Cross: And upon the 5th of Math. saith, Peter by pro­mise ought to be the Foundation of the Church: and upon Luke 17. That Peter was the Prince of the Apostles. Whose Writings therefore, (for a great [Page 168] part of them) for their Corruption, were impugned and rejected by Jerome and others; yea, and not only by se­veral of the Greek Fathers, as Alex­andrinus, Epiphanius, Theophilus, Cy­renus and others, but by some Greek Councils too, as appears by the Magd. Eusebius, and others: So that we may say of Origen, if these indeed were his own, as the Magdiburgens. say of the former Decretals, That they bespoke him an early Factor for Antichrist, and that the Mystery of Iniquity did work strongly in him; But what appears in the next Consideration, may give us to hope better of him.

Origen's Homeiies upon Lev. and Rom. spurious.But Thirdly, and more especially, It is to be observed, That many of Origen's Works fell into ill hands, and particularly those Homelies of Levit. and the Romans, if indeed there were any such, which Mr. Perkins and o­thers doubt, because no Greek Copies thereof have been extant, and of which Vossius in his Book De Baptis. saith, Sed de Origene minus laborabi­mus, quia quae citabimus Graece non ex­tant. There being only a corrupt La­tin piece, called a Translation of Ruf­finus, who ingenuously confesseth, that [Page 169] he took so much liberty in his Transla­tion, as to adde and alter at his plea­sure; which gives Erasmus so much occasion to say, That you know not when you read Origen, and when Ruffinus. And therefore are those Homilies rejected as spurious, and put by Perkins and others amongst his counterfeit Works: And well they may, if you consider the Story the Magdiburgs tell us of this Ruffinus, and his way of Translation and Writing, of which, I shall take the freedome to give you a brief account, as I find it in Cent. 4. cap. 10. p. 1201, &c. That you may better understand what trade was driven of this kind, and what fine Merchants we have to deal with about this Romish trash.

This Ruffinus, you must know,Th [...] Histo­ry of [...]uf­finus and his F [...]r­ge [...]ies. li­ved about the latter end of the 4. Cen­tury, who was an Italian M [...]nk of Aquila, a wicked, though wi [...]ty, learn­ed Man, who went away with a fa­mous Roman Cu [...]tizan into Asia, and sojourned at Jerusalem with her above thirty years; at first a great friend and companion of Jerome's, but afterwards when Jerome discovered his wickedness, especially in his abusing Origen's Works, [Page 170] many whereof he translated out of Greek into Latin, sophisticating them at his pleasure, and for which, and for several bastardy pieces he brought forth, Jerome, Anastasius, and others write several pieces to detect and reprove him. Several corrupt Heretical Trea­tises he wrote, and fathered upon o­thers, viz. One containing divers cor­rupt Tenents of Origen, he fathered upon Pamphilia a Martyr, who lived about the Third Century, the better to put it off in the Martyrs name; Another Book of one Xystus a Pytha­gorean, which he fathered upon a Ro­man Bishop and Martyr; seve [...]al Homilies upon J shua, which he fa­thered upon another eminent Person; A Book of the Lives of the Monks of Basil, a feigned piece; and another Book of Monks, innumerating a Mul­titude, as Jerome saith, that [...]ever were, and fathering Origen's Errors upon those that were. He made a corrupt, vicious Translation of Jose­phus, as discovered by Gallenius that w [...]s more faithful therein; he added two lying pieces to the History of Eu­sebius from Constantine to the Death of Theodosius, which Socrates reproves; [Page 171] and he wrote another frivolous Book of Jacobs blessing the Patriarchs, and an Explanation thereof.

By whose Impostures of this kind, you may discern what stuff was forged at the Antichristian Anvil, and par­ticularly what Credit is to be given to this Mans Works.

Another Traditional Testimony, greatly boasted of, is that of Cyprian, Cyprians Evidence tryed. about the middle of the third Century, in that his Epistle, said to be writ to one Fidus a Priest, wherein he declares his own and the judgment, as 'tis said, of Sixty six African Bishops, That Children should be baptized, as well be­fore as after the Eigth day, with the Reasons and Grounds thereof, as at large exprest in the Epistle, viz. From the extent of Gods Grace and Salvation tendered to all, even the greatest of Sinners, therefore that Children should be baptized. Concerning which testi­mony of Cyprian, there are these things to be considered.

First, That he doth not urge the Practice of it from any Ap [...]stolical Tra­dition or Prece [...]t, but fr [...]m his own and Bishops Arguments (such as they are) to enforce the same: And truly, [Page 172] if he had asserted it to have been an A­postolical Tradition, his word would no sooner have been taken, than when he tells us that Chrysme was so.

Secondly, Because there is good ground to question, whether this was Cyprian's and sixty six Bishops, Conclu­sion. First, Because we meet with no such Council, neither can it appear where it was held: and if Austin's Ar­gument before-mentioned be good to prove it an Apostolical Tradition, be­cause no Council had determined it, it concludes against any such Council. Secondly, That the grounds upon which the Conclusion is grounded, are so weak and frivolous. Thirdly, Because it was a Doctrine so much contradicted by his great Master Tertullian, whom he so much reverenced. And there­fore if you will believe Baronius, Tom. 1. p 415. Cyprian was not for Infants-Baptism, as Mr. Blackwood observes. Fourthly, Because other things have been fathered upon him, which were not his, as a piece called, De Cardina­libus Operibus Christi, by an Abbot in France, as Dailly demonstrates in his Book De Scriptis. p. 466. c. 39. L. 2.

CyprianBut if his own, there is as little cause [Page 173] to receive it as other corrupt and Anti­christian Tenents,very cor­rupt. that are found in his Writings, and said to be his, viz. That the Church of Rome is the Mother Church. That there ought to be one High Priest over the Church: And the Principle Church is Peters-chair, from whence the Unity of the Priest­hood ariseth; And that upon Peter the Church is founded, with much more such stuff, which the Magdiburgenses have collected out of his Book, called De Ordine in Ecclesia, Cent. 3. c. 4. p. 84. A violent impugner of Priests Marria­ges, p. 86. In his Sermon of Almes concludes, That Sins committed after Baptism were done away by Alms and good Works, p. 80. And again, That as Water extinguisheth Fire, so doth Almes extinguish Sin, p. 81.

And concerning Baptism it self very absurdly corrupt, Saying, That the Water ought first to be Consecrated by a Priest, to make it more efficacious to take away Sin. That the Person bapti­zing conferred the Holy Spirit, and the baptized was inwardly sanctified thereby. That Chrysme, or anointing the baptized, was absolutely necessa­ry, page 82.

That Exorcismes were also necessary to drive away the Devil; That Bap­tism should be done in Temples, and that the Kiss should be given by the Priest to the Baptized Infant, and that Sprinkling might serve instead of Dip­ping, p. 125.

By all which you may understand, that either Cyprian had been vilely Ruffined, and these things Fathered up­on him, or that he himself was a nota­ble Factor for Antichrist, and that in him the Mystery of Iniquity did very strongly work.

But we would rather believe, That these things were foisted into his Wri­tings by that villanous cursed Generati­on, that so horribly abused the Writings of most of the antient Writers, as appears by the Index Expurgatorius, and who durst venture upon any Forgery, how impious soever, for the benefit of the Holy Church, witness that impudent Fable, as Osiander calls it, of the Ba­ptism of Constantine, before mentioned, in the fourth Century, in the first Chap. 2. Part.

Thus you have the Principal Au­thorities urged for Apostolical Tradi­tion, proved forged and fabulous; and [Page 175] what doth more refute that fond con­ceit of the uninterrupted Tradition, so much boasted of, to prove this Practice, than the Testimony Justin Martyr gives, That the Believers were in his days the only subjects of Baptism. And the wit­ness Tertull, gives against Infants-Bapt. in the third Century, & the advice that Nazianzen gives to defer it; The De­crees of so many Councils to that pur­pose, and especially so many eminent Christians in the fourth Century that did not baptize their Children, till they could give an account of their Faith, as hath been before so learnedly obser­ved by Dailly, Grotius, Dr. B. Dr. Tay­ler and others, and which I humbly conceive, are unanswerable Arguments against it.

But 'tis said, Object. That by Tertullians op­posing it, it may seem that there were some that practised it in the third Cen­tury, and can it be supposed that any did so, except it had been warranted by such Apostolical Tradition?

It is granted,A [...]swer. Tertullian did oppose it. But who it was that asserted it, and whether upon any such account, as supposed, is not mentioned; if any do affirm, it will be on their part to prove [Page 176] the one and the other, The Magdibur­genses and others, as you have heard, do tell us, That they meet with no in­stance of any that either practised this or any other of these Inventions fathered also upon Apostolical Tradition, as Chrysme, Exorcisme, Consignation, &c. in that Age. But 'tis said, If they did, it would demonstrate, especially in the pra­ctice of the latter, That the Mystery of Iniquity did then begin to work, in so corrupting that Ordinance of Christ, and had they not as good ground to do the one as the other?

Whereby that word of Prophecy 2 Thes. 3. concerning the taking place of that Mystery of Iniquity was so much fulfilled, which was to come on with all Deceivableness of Unrighte­ousness, and with strong Delusions to believe Lies; and which in nothing more appears than in this very thing, having not only forged so many Lyes about it, but imposed their Lyes to be believed by others. As their Fore­fathers, the Priests of old, that hired the Soldiers to tell a Lye about the Bo­dy of Christ, and then imposed, that their Lye to be believed, to de­lude others, Mat. 28.12, 13, 14, 15. [Page 177] The consideration whereof may, I hope, be of use to Protestants, though as to the hardened and deluded Pa­pists they are, as well observed before, utterly incurable herein.

In the next place we come to exa­mine the Scripture-grounds urged for the practice, and to evince,Scripture grounds for Infants Baptism examined. That they have been no less mistaken in their Scriptural, than in their Ecclesiastical Author [...]ties to found it upon, whereof we shall give you an account of some of the principal, and leave you to judg of the rest.

1 The First we shall mention, is that which was called (of old) the Scripture-Canon for Infants-Baptism, and upon which much stress hath been laid since to prove the same, viz. Mat. 19.14.Mat. 19.14. Suffer little Children to come to me, and forbid them not, for to such belongs the Kingdom of Heaven. But may we not well say, How doth Baptism come to be concerned in this Text, except it can be made out, That blessing was baptizing. D. Tayler And to which Dr. Tayler hath spoken so fully for us, that I need say no more, p. 230. Who saith. From the Action of Christ's blessing Infants, to infer, that they were baptized, proves [Page] nothing so much, as that there is a want of better Arguments: For the Conclu­sion would, with more probability, be derived thus; Christ blessed Children, and so dismissed them, but baptized them not, therefore Infants are not to be baptized. But let this be as weak as its enemy, Yet that Christ did not baptize them, is an Argument sufficient, that he hath other ways of bringing them to Heaven than by Baptisme; He passed an Act of Grace upon them by Benedicti­on and Imposition of Hands. And therefore, although neither Infants, nor any Man, in puris Naturalibus, can at­tain to a supernatural end, without the addition of some Instrument, or means of Gods appointing, ordinarily and regu­larly, yet where God hath not appointed a Rule, nor an Order, as in the Case of Infants, we contend he hath not, the Argument is invalid.

And as we are sure God hath not com­manded Infants to be baptized, so we are sure God will do them no injustice, nor damn them for what they cannot help; viz. If the Parent baptize them not.

Many 1000 ways there are, by which God can bring any reasonable soul to him, but nothing is more unreasonable than [Page 179] because he hath tyed all men of years and discretion to this way, Therefore we of our own heads shall carry Infants to him that way, without his direction: The conceit is poor and low, and the action consequent to it, is bold and venturous. Let him do what he pleases with Infants, we must not.

2 A Second Scripture that hath been much leaned upon, is that of Joh. 3.5.Joh. 3.5. Except a man be born of Water and the Spirit, he can in no wise enter into the Kingdom of God. From whence it is concluded, that there is no other way to regenerate and save Infants, and add them to the Church, but by Baptism; and therefore have they baptized them, as the Canons and Decretals of Popes, and the Opinions of the Antients do demonstrate.

But the Consequences drawn from hence, to infer the Baptizing and Sa­ving of Infants, savours of so much Ignorance and Popish Darkness, that we need say little to it; for since the Reformation, most of the Protestants have protested against this as erroneous; Yet for the sake of others that yet cleave to it, saying, That in Analogy hereto, Children are hereby made [Page 180] Members of Christ, Children of God, and Inheritors of the Kingdom of Heaven, I shall refer them to Bishop Tayler for Solution, whose words will have more weight than any thing I can say in the Case, who in p. 231. Calls such a sence of the words, a prevarica­ting of Christ's Precepts. For, saith he, the Water and Spirit in this place, signi­fie the same thing, and by Water is meant the effect of the Spirit, cleansing and purifying the Soul, as it appears in its parallel place of Christ's B [...]p izing with the Spirit and with Fire: For although this was litterally fulfilled in the day of Pentecost, yet mor [...]lly there is more in it, for it is the Sign of the effect of the Holy Ghost and his productions upon the Soul: And you may as well conclude, that Infants must also pass through the Fire, as through the Water. And that we may not think this a trick to elude the pressure of this place, Peter saith the same thing. For where he had said, That Baptism saves us, he adds by way of Explication (not the washing away of the filth of the Flesh, but the answer of a good Conscience towards God,) plainly saying, That it is not Water, or the pu­rifying of the Body, but the cleansing of [Page 181] the Spirit that doth that which is sup­posed to be the Effect of Baptisme.

But to suppose it meant External Bap­tisme, yet this no more infers a necessity of Infants Baptism, than the other words of Christ infer a necssity to give them the holy Communion: Joh. 6.53. Except you eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his Blood, you have no life in you. And yet we do not think these words a sufficient Argument to Communicate them. If men therefore will do us ju­stice; either let them give both Sacra­ments to Infants, as some Ages of the Church did, or neither. For the wit of man is not able to shew a disparity in the Sanction, or in the Energy of its expression. And therefore they were honest that understood the Obligation to be parallel, and performed it accordingly; and yet because we say they were de­ceived in one instance, and yet the Obli­gation (all the world cannot reasonably say but) is the same, they are honest and as reasonable that do neither: And sure the Antient Church did, with an equal opinion of Necessity, give them the Communion, and yet men now adays do not, Why should men be more burthened with a prejudice and a name of obliquity, [Page 182] for not giving the Infants one Sacrament more than you are disliked, for not afford­ing them the other? And farther, p. 242. If we must suppose Grace to be effected by the external work of the Sa­crament alone, how doth this differ from the Opus operatum of the Papists, save that it is worse; for they say the Sacra­ment do [...]h not produce its effects, but in a Suscipient disposed by all Requisi es and due Preparat [...]ves of Piety, Faith, and Repentance; though in a subject so di­sposed, they say, the Sacrament by its own virtue doth it. But this opinion says, it doth it of it self, without the help, or so much as the co-existence of any condi­tion, but the meer reception.

M. BaxterMr. Baxter to this point, p. 306. of his plain Scripture-proof, That Baptism in it self can work no such Cause, for the Water is not a subject capable of re­ceiving Grace, or of conveighing it to the Soul, it cannot approach or touch the Soul, nor infuse Grace into it if it could.

Amesius in Bel. Enervat. Tom. 3. L. 2. c. 3. Outward Baptisme, saith he, cannot be a Physical Instrument of the infusing of Grace, because it hath it not in any wise in it self.

Zwingli. Zwinglius denieth Baptism of it self [Page 183] worketh any Grace, or pardoneth Sin, or reneweth, as Tom. 2. p. 119, 120, 121.

Dr. Owen Dr. Owen. in his Theolog. l. 6 ch. 5. p. 477. upon the point, saith, That the Father of lies himself could not easilier have invented a more pernicious Opini­on, or which might powre in a more deadly poison into the minds of Sinners.

3 A Third Scripture insisted on, is the Commission it self, Mark 16.16, He that believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved. Mar. 16.16 But Infants are Believers, Therefore according to the Comm [...]ssion, they are to be baptized. In wh [...]ch though all Parties agree, yet how they do believe, and what faith this is, there is great confusion and contradiction.

Viz. The Antients said they had the Faith of the Sacrament, as Austin: The Papists the Faith of the Church; as Tho. Aquinas, which is intailed to all within the Pale thereof. The Lu­therans say, they have a proper Faith, which they hotly desended at the Con­ference with the Calvinists at Montpel­gart, and therefore Baptize all whether the Parents be good or ba [...]. The Calvi­nists say, they have an imputative Faith from the Parent in Covenant, as Mus­culus, Oecolampadius and others at that [Page 184] Conference maintained, and therefore baptize only the Children of Believers.

The Prelatick Protestants affirm, they have the Faith of the Gossip or Surety, but none of their own, as the Com. Ca­techisme tells us: Most of the Non Con­formists do agree with the Calvinists, that it is an imputative Faith from the Parent, or Pro-parent in Covenant. Mr. Baxter in his Right to Sacraments, as before, saith, They have a Justi­fying, and Mr. Blake his opposite allowes but a Dogmatical Faith; some say it is a Physical, some a Metaphysical, and some a Hyperphysical Faith; some saying, as before, that Baptisme is an Instrument to conveigh real Grace to Infants; some say to all, as Mr. Bed­ford and others; some only to the E­lect, as Dr. Burgos: And thus you see they are not agreed in their Verdict, nor who shall speak for them. But for an Answer hereto, I shal again refer you to Dr. Tayler, D. Tayler p. 240. speaking so much my mind, and the truth herein, saith he, Whether Infants have Faith or no, is a Question to be disputed by persons that care not how much they say, and how lit­tle they prove.

First. Personal and Actual Faith they [Page 185] have none, for they have no acts of Un­derstanding; and besides, how can any man know that they have, since he never saw any sign of it, neither was he told so by any that cold tell? Secondly, Some say they have Imputative, but then so let the Sacrament be too, that is, if they have the Parents faith or the Churches, then so let Baptism be imputed also by deriuation from them, and as in their Mothers Womb, and while they hang on their Mothers Breasts, they live upon their Mothers Nourishment: So they may upon the Baptism of their Parents, or their Mother the Church: For since Faith is necessary to the susception of Ba­ptisme (and they themselves confess it by striving to find out new kinds of Faith to daub the matter up) such as the Faith, such must be the Sacrament: for there is no proportion between an actual Sacra­ment, and an imputative Faith; this being in immediate and necessary order to that. And whatsoever can be said to take off from the necessity of Actual Faith, all that and much more may be said to excuse from the actual susception of Baptisme. The first of these devices was that of Luther and his Scholars; the second of Calvin and his, and yet [Page 186] there is a third Device, which the Church of Rome teaches, and that is, that Infants have habitual Faith; but who told them so? How can they prove it? What Revelation or Reason teacheth any such thing? Are they by this habit so much as disposed to an actual Belief, without a new Master? Can an Infant, sent into a Mahumetan Province be more confident for Christianity, when he comes to be a Man, than if he had not been baptized? Are there any Acts prece­dent, concomitant, or consequent to this pretended Habit? This strange Inven­tion is absolutely without Art, without Scripture, Reason, or Authority; But the Men are to be excused unless there were a better.

To which, saith he, this Consideration may be added, That if Baptisme be ne­cessary to the Salvation of Infants (as the Fathers of old, and the Church of Roms and England since) upon whom is the imposition laid? To whom is the Com­mand given? To the Parents, or the Children? Not to the Parents, for then God hath put the Salvation of innocent Babes into the Power of others, and In­fants may be damned for their Fathers carelesness or malice. It follows that it [Page 187] is not necessary at all to be done to them, to whom it cannot be prescribed as a Law, and in whose behalf it cannot be reasona­bly entrusted to others, with the appen­dent necessity; and if it be not necessary, it is certain it is not reasonable, and most certain it is no where in terms prescri­bed; and therefore it is presumed that Baptism ought to be understood and ad­ministred according as other Precepts are with reference to the capacity of the sub­ject, and the reasonableness of the thing.

And again to this purpose, p. 242. And if any Man runs for succour to that ex­ploded Cresphugeton, that Infants have Faith, or any other inspired Habit, of I know not what or how; we desire no more advantage in the world, than that they are constrained to answer without Reve­lation, against Reason, common Sense, and all the Experience in the World.

The Argum. from federal Holiness examined. 4. Argum. From Fe­deral Ho­liness ex­amined.

The other Scriptures we shall speak to, are those that are supposed to hold cut a Covenant-Right to the Children of Believers, and from whence Argu­ments are drawn for the Baptizing of them, which are principally, 1 Cor. 7.14. Gen. 17.7. compared Rom. 4.11. and Acts 2.39. From whence it is [Page 188] asserted, That the Children of Believers being a holy Seed, and in Covenant, that to them therefore belong the Seals of the Covenant, which we shall examine with care and circumspection; so much stress being laid thereon. And as previous to our Answer thereto, shall in the fir place take notice, that this way of arguing hath been the new way, which since the Reformation hath been taken up to prove Infants-Baptism by.

Antiquity of the Argum. from Fe­deral Ho­liness.For when the unsoundness and rot­teness of the antient ground of Infants-Baptisme appeared, they being loath to part with the Tradition, endeavoured to build it upon this new Foundation; for when it was discovered that Infants might be saved without Baptism, and that they were not damned if they di­ed without it, and that the Sacrament did not give Grace by the bare work done, nor took not away Original Sin, it was high time to lay a new Founda­tion for it, or else it would have faln, therefore is this new way of Covenant-Holiness found out, upon which our Congregational-Men, especially both in Old as well as New-England seem to go, of which Zwinglius about 120 years since, forasmuch as I can learn, was [Page 189] the first Founder, wherein he was sin­gular from all that went before him. And which he seems himself to owne in his Book of Baptisme, Tom. 2. Fol. 57. Saying, That all those who have from the Apostles times written of Bap­tism, have not in a few things erred from the scope; he having it seems, found out a way freer from Error and Exception, than all the Tracts of the Antients.

Having observed to you the Anti­quity of this new Foundation, we shall in the next place weigh and consider the Arguments themselves.

The First and chiefest is from 1 Cor. 7.14. Else were your Children unclean, The Argu­ments from Foederal-holiness examined. 1 Cor. 7.4. but now are they holy. From whence this Argument is raised,

That they who are holy with a Covenant-ho­liness, may be baptized: But the Infants of Believers are holy with a Covenant-holiness, for it is said in the Text, but now are they holy; therefore they may be baptized.

In which Argument we have these two things asserted, but not at all proved. First, that the holiness in the Text is a federal, or Covenant holiness. Secondly, That Federal or Covenant holiness qua­lifies Infants for Baptism. Both which are positively denied upon the following Grounds.

First, Because the Holiness in the Text, be it what it will, whether Mo­ral, Federal, or Matrimonial, is neither here, or elswhere, assigned to be a ground of baptizing Children upon; it being only the ground laid down in the In­stitution that can warrant the same.

The Female, as well as the Male Children, under the Law, had all of them a Legal or Federal Holiness, yet must none of them be Circumcised, be­cause God had not so ordained; And for twenty Generations before the Law, Circumcision was neither administred to Male or Female for the like Reason. It being Gods Word only, not our Rea­son, or the Inventions or Persuasions of Learned Men that can warrant our pra­ctice in Gods Ordinances. That Pro­fession of Faith and Repentance is a sub­stantial ground to Baptize upon, is un­deniably proved from Scripture, and consented to by themselves. But that foederal Holiness, or any other Quali­fication in Infants, is any Scriptural ground for the same, is yet to be pro­ved, this Text being altogether silent herein.

But Secondly. If it should be granted that Federal Holiness was a ground to [Page 191] baptize Children upon under the Go­spel, as it was to circumcise them under the Law, which must not be owned by any means. Yet from substantial Ar­guments it will appear, that no such Holiness is intended here.

First, No such Federal Holiness in the N. T. Because there is no such Holi­ness in the New Testament, as a federal Holiness belonging to Children, That because the Parents are Believers, and in the New Covenant, their Natural Seed must therefore be so esteemed, and have the like right thereby to the E­vangelical, as the Children under the Law had to the Legal Ordinances; which, as no where to be found, so not to be admitted upon the following Considerations.

1. Because it contradicts the Gospel Dispensation as before.

2. Because such apprehensions in­tails Grace to Nature, Regeneration to Generation; in contradiction to that of our Saviour, John 3. That which is born of the flesh, is fl [...]sh. And that we are all the Children of wrath by Na­ture, Eph. 2.

3. Because it contradicts all the ex­perience, both of former and latter [Page 192] times, wherein Godly Men have had Wicked Children, and wicked Men good Children; as Abraham had an Ishmael, Isaac an Esau, David an Absolom; and on the contrary wicked Ahaz begat good Hezekiah, wicked Abia good Asa, wicked Amon good Josia.

4. Because it necessitates an owning the Doctrine of Falling from Grace.

2. The Text in­tends an other Ho­liness, viz Matrimo­nial. Secondly, Because the Text intends another Holiness, viz. A Civil or Matrimonial Holi­ness in opposition to Fornication, Unclean­ness, Bastardy. And which doth fully appear,

First, From the Scope of the place; The Question propounded by the Believing Co­rinthians for Solution was,1. From the scope of the place. Whether their new Spiritual Relation to Christ, in the Gospel, did not dissolve their Carnal Relation entered into in Unbelief; and whether they could, without defilement, maintain their Converse without Sin any more than they could in Ezra and Nehemiah's time?

To which the Apostle replies, That the Ci­vil Relation, before orderly entered into, was clean now, as before; The unbelieving Hus­band is as much clean and sanctified to his be­lieving Wife; and that she might as freely converse with [...]im in the Conjugal State now as before the Spiritual difference happened be­twixt them. For Religion breaks no Bands nor Civil Contracts, They being as true Man and Wife as before the Marriage, as Honour­able as before. And therefore the Apostle [Page 193] adviseth that they should abide in the state and Calling, Religion findeth them in, Ver. 20. And that by no means the believer should depart, and upon that account break the Relation, but that he should maintain his Civil, in expe­ctation of gaining her over to a spiri­tual Relation. And in confirmation hereof brings an Argument ab absurdo; for otherwise the Children that they had together would be unclean, viz. if they should depart from their Rela­tions from the unlawfulness of the Marrage, and uncleanness of the bed, what would they make their Children but Bastards, or unclean. But in as much as they had no question of their legitimacy or holiness; neither had they any cause to scruple the other. And farther also, the believer had the least ground to doubt hereof, because to him all lawfull things are clean, whether Husband, Wife, Child, E­state, &c. which is all the Holiness I conceive can be meant in the Text a­greeable to the Holiness, 1 Thes. 4.3, 4. & Mal. 2.15. the Bastard being amongst the unclean and unholy, Deut. 32.2. as Mr. Calvin upon Mal. 2.15. saith wtll, namely.

Calvin. Wherefore hath God made one? to wit seeking a Seed of God, a Seed of God is here taken for Legitimate, as the He­brews do name that Divine, which is pure from any fault or spot, therefore he sought a Seed of God, that is appoint­ed Marriage from whence should be born a Legitimate and pure Offspring; secret­ly therefore doth the Prophet here shew, that they are all Bastards that shall be born by Poligamy; because they neither can, nor ought to be accounted legiti­mate but they who are begotten according to Gods institution; but where the Husband violates the faith given to the Wife, and takes to himself another, as he perverts the order of Marriage; so also he cannot be a lawfull father; thus Calvin.

2. The ho­liness the same spo­ken to be in the un­believer.A second Argument, why it is a Holiness of this kind, and not such a faederal Holiness as suggested; because the Holiness of the Children is of no o­ther nature, then that spoke of the un­believing Parent in the Text, and if one will intitle to the Ordinance so the other.

A third is from the consideration that Children in the Text, is not to be limited to Infants, or such Children that they might have since the Religious [Page 195] difference happened,3. Chil­dren not to be taken for Infants only. but of grown Children; for a Mans Child is his Child whilst he lives, through 30, 40, or 50, years old; and we suppose it would be as absurd to say, a Heathenish Son should be baptized upon a faederal Ho­liness, as to say the unbelieving Parent should so be.

A fourth Argument,4. Ber. it cannot be known. why this can­not be a new Covenant-holiness that must qualifie and intitle to Baptisme; first, because that cannot be known; for if the Parent professing faith be a Hypocrite, and not in Covenant themselves, then may you baptize a wrong subject as well as a right one.

And secondly, such an absurdity would follow, that no unbelievers Child is in Covenant or Elect, which is notoriously false; for as before Heze­kiah was the Son of wicked Ahaz, and Asa of Abia, and Josia the Son of wick­ed Amon.

Thirdly from the concurrent Te­stimony and Confession of many learned Commentators,3. From the con­fession of Commen­tators upon the place. and parties themselves.

Austin Austin. a great asserter of Infants Baptisme, as before, saith hereupon. It is to be held without doubting, whatso­ever that Sanctification was, it was not of power to make Christians, and remit sins.

Jerom saith, Because of Gods ap­pointment, Marriage is Holy.

Ambrose Ambrose thus upon the place; The Children are Holy, because they are born of lawful Marriage.

Melanc. Melancton in his Commentary up­on the place thus. Therefore Paul an­swers, that the Marriages are not to be pulled asunder, for their unlike opinions of God; if the impious Person do not cast away the other, and for comfort he adds as a Reason, The unbelieving Husband is sanctified by the believing Wife; meat is sanctified, for that which is Holy in use, that is granted to believers from God; so here he speaks the use of Mar­riage to be Holy, and to be granted of God, things prohibited under the Law, as Swines flesh, and a Woman in her pollution were called unclean. The Connexion of the Argument is this, If the use of Marriage should not please God, your Children would be Bastards, and so unclean: But your Children are [Page 197] not Bastards, therefore the use of Mar­riage pleaseth God, and how Bastards were unclean in a peculiar manner, the Law shews, Deut. 23.

Musculus in his Comment upon the place, confesseth,Muscul. That he had abused formerly that place against the Anabap­tists, but found it impertinent to that purpose.

Camerareus in his Commentary up- the place, saith,Camera. (For the unbelieving Husband hath been sanctified an unu­sual change of the Tense, that is) san­ctified in the lawfull use of Marriage; for without this, saith he, it would be that their Children should be unclean, that is infamous, and not Legitimate; who so are Holy, that is during the Marriage, are without all blot of ig­nominy.

Erasmus upon the place, saith thus.Erasm. Infants born of such Parents, as the one, being a Christian, the other not, are holy legitimately; for the conversion of either Wife or Husband doth not dissolve the Marriage which was made, when both were in unbelief.

And to which we might add many more; for as a learned searcher into this Controversie affirmeth, that [Page 198] all the ancients went this way, and that none ever affirmed this new way of fae­deral Holiness till the Controversie of Anabaptists in Germany arose, Mr. Tombes in his Examen 82.

Object. But you give another sence of the word Holy then is to be found in Scrip­ture; for no where is Holy the same with Legitimate, but throughout the Bible (yea in 600. places saith Mr. Sydnam, and Mr. Baxter again and a­gain) Holiness is taken for a separati­on to God, but never in a common sence.

Answ. To which I answer first, That sup­pose it was so, that the word in all places but this should have another sence, it followeth not but it may have this sence properly enough here, the scope of the place leading to it. As for Example, the word [...], signi­fying authority or power in all other places; yet in the 1 Cor. 1115. is ren­dred a [...]ail: So the word [...] that generally; and in most other places is translated to bless, doth in Job 1.5, 11. & 2.9. signifie a quite contrary sence, namely to Curse, and of which [Page 199] we might give you many Instances, but let one more serve for all in the very word it self, viz. [...] which generally signifieth Holiness; yet in Deut. 23.17. Hosea 4.14. 2 Kings 23.17. is rendred Whoredom or Sodomy.

And secondly, neither are we to seek of some parallel place. where the word Holy signifieth this sort of Holiness, viz. Matrimonial or Conjugal Holiness, Mal. 2.15. a Holy Seed, viz. a Le­gitimate Seed, as Calvin and Camer, and others inlarge upon it in opposition to Bastardy or unholy; for so were Bastards to be esteemed, Deut. 23.17. And so 1 Thes. 4.3, 4, 5. This is the will of God, even your sanctification, that you should abstain from fornicati­on, that every one should know how possess his Vessel in sanctification and honour, as 'tis said of the Young men, 1 Sam. 21.5. and not in the lust of Concupiscence, &c. Where Holiness is put in opposition to uncleanness and for­nication.

But Thirdly, neither can Matrimo­nial Holiness be said not to be a separa­tion to God; for it is no other then a setting apart according to Gods Ordi­nance, and which is called honourable, [Page 200] (or in this sence holy) and that too all whereby Men and Women are dedica­ted and devoted to each other by mu­tual solemn contract, according to Gods Institution, that of two they may be made one, and fill up a Relation to the Holy ends God appointed, viz. to prevent uncleanness for mutual help and propagation: And though we do not call a Marriage a Sacrament with the Papists, yet we own it an honourable and holy state, Gods Ordinance having made it so.

Object. But this seems to be a sence contrary to the express words; for is it not said that the unbelieving Husband is sancti­fied by the Wife, which is a sanctifica­tion derived from the Believer.

Answ. To which I Answer, that the word [ [...]] translated [by] should be ren­dred [to] as it is Gal. 1.16, [to me] 2. P. 2.5. [to faith] Acts 4.12. [to men] which the scope over-rules, and which must needs be so here, which Mr. Marshal grants Tombs Ex. P. 79. for in no sence can it be sanctified by her: for he is not spiritually sanctified, being as yet an unbeliever; and one Argument therefore of the Wives re­maining to endeavour to convert him: [Page 201] Neither can it be a faederal Holiness; for that by this Argument would intitle him to Baptisme as well as the Children; nor can it be proper to say, the unbelie­ver is sanctified in a Matrimonial sancti­fication by his believing Wife for that is only so by Gods appointment; there­fore must it necessarily be to the Wife, viz. to her use and lawfull enjoyment, as Food and Rayment, and all Gods blessings are, it being not as [Mr. Marshal grants] a Holiness of State, but of use, and therefore she did not sin in continuing in the station and place Religion found her, which is the Answer to the Scruple.

But is it not said, Object 3 now are your Chil­dren holy? implying some present al­teration for good to them, upon the change of the state of the Parent, which did not belong to them before.

Answ. To which Beza's sence of the words may be a very proper Answer, viz. That the word (is not to be understood an Adverb of Time, but a Conjunction that is wont to be used in the assumptions of Arguments; and so the sence is [but now] that is, for as much as the unbe­lieving Husband is sanctified to the Wife, your Children are holy, that is lawfully begotten and born.

Therefore notwithstanding your dif­ference in Religion, that although he be an Idolater, and you a Christian, yet the civil state lawfully entered into be­fore this alteration may be converst in without sin: For if the Believer should depart, and break the Relation, it was either for the defect of the first Band or Tie, or for unequal yoaking with In­fidels, as in Ezra s time. But as to the latter, there being no such Law to the Gentiles to put away Wives and Chil­dren upon that account. And to the former you having no doubt of the Le­gitimacy of your Children, but take it for granted they are Holy, neither need you doubt of your lawfull Marriage state, your new Relations infringing neither: Therefore from the Holiness both of Bed and Birth continue toge­ther, and let not the believing Husband put away his unbelieving Wife; not let not the believing Wife depart from her unbelieving Husband, which is all the Holiness that is found in this Text, and no such thing as a faederal Holiness, Though if there was, it would be no ground to Baptize an Infant upon, as before:

The Arguments from Cir­cumcision Examined.
Another, and none of the least Ar­guments that is urged to prove Infants Baptisme by, is from pre­tended Consequences, from the Covenant made with Abraham, Gen. 17.
From whence it is thus argued.

THose to whom the Gospel Cove­nant belonged, The Ar­gument from Cir­cumcision to them the Seal thereof appertained; but to Be­lievers and their Seed, the Gos­pel Covenant belonged; as Gen. 17.7. I'le be a God to thee, and to thy Seed; and Acts 2.39. The Promise is to you and your Child [...]en.

Therefore to them the Seal thereof Circumcision so called, Rom. 4.11. did appertain, Gen. 17.10. For the Foederati were to be Signati, those in the [Page 204] Covenant were to have the Seal thereof. And therefore by Consequence it naturally followeth; That if Circumcision, the Seal of the Gospel Covenant belonged to the Seed of Believers under the Law, then doth the Gospel Seal, Baptisme, much more appertain to the Seed of Believers under the Gospel, which comes in the Place, Room, and Ʋse of Circumcision, otherwise the priviledge under the Gospel, would be less then that of the Law; should Children be denied such a benefit.

Answer. That this is falacious, and false reasoning, (and that there is [...]o natural Consequence at all from this Scripture, to infer the Baptizing of Infants; nor any ground to build the Gospel-Ordinance Baptisme, upon the command of the Legal-Ordinance Circumcision) may fully appear by examining the following particulars, which are begged, but not proved in the Argument.

1. Whether Circumcision, called here the Gospel Seal, did of old belong to all in Gospel-Covenant.

2. Whether the new (or Gospel) Co­venant, and that mentioned Gen 17. be one and the same.

[Page 205]3. Whether the Seed mentioned was Abrahams Natural or Spiritual Seed.

4. Whether Circumcision was a Seal of the new Covenant to the Children under the Law.

5. Whether Circumcision was admi­nistred to Believers as Believers, and to their Seed only.

6. Whether Baptisme did succeed in the Place, Room and Ʋse of [...]ircumcisi­on.

7. Whetheo the not baptizing Infants makes the priviledges under the Gospel, less then the Circumcising them under the Law.

To the first,Circum­cision, not the Seal of the Gospel Covenant to all Be­lievers. Whether Circumcision called the Gospel-Seal did belong of old to all in Gospel-Covenant.

'Tis answered, that the contrary doth manifestly appear upon a double account; 1. Because some that were in the Gospel-Covenant were not Sealed; and 2dly. some that were out of the Co­venant were Sealed therewith.

1.1. Many in Cove­nant not Sealed with it. There were many persons in Co­venant that were not Circumcised, that were Foederati, but not Signati; as for instance, all the Believers from Adam to Abraham, who received no such Seal; nor 2dly. did any of the Be­lievers [Page 206] out of Abrahams Family, as Lot, Melchisedeck. Job, that we read of, received any such Seal; neither 3dly. did any of the believing Families in any Age receive it.

2. Many out of the Covenant they were Sealed.And 2dly. there were some to whom the Covenant did not belong, that re­ceived that called the Seal of Circum­cision: For of Ishmael God had said, that this Covenant was not to be esta­blished with him, but with Isaak, and yet he was Circumcised, Gen. 17.20, 21, 25. Gal. 4.29.30. And the same may be said of Esau, Rom. 9.10, 11, 12.13. And as to all the Strangers in Abrahams House, or bought with Mo­ney in Israel, that were Circumcised, it may well be doubted whether the New Covenant Promises did belong to them.

2. The Covenant in Gen. 17 a mixt Covenant as the Seed was.To the second, Whether the Ne [...] Covenant, and that mentioned in Gen. 17. be the same.

In answer whereto it must be under­stood, That as Abraham by Promise stood in a double Capacity, viz. The Father of a Nation, viz. the Natural Israelites; so to be also a Father of many Nations, comprehending the Spi­ritual Israel, whether Jews or Gentiles [Page 207] throughout the world; and so accor­dingly the Promises were of two sorts, sometimes respecting his Natural Seed, whether Domestick or National, who were Typical of the Spirtual, as the Birth of Isaac, the deliverance of his Posterity out of Egypt, the possessing of the Land of Canaan, with many outward Temporal Blessings, and bene­fits annexed thereto, as Gen. 15.13,, 16. Acts 7.3, 4, 5, 6.

And others again respecting in a pe­culiar manner the Spiritual Seed, the Family, of the faithful, viz. the Elect, of whom through Christ he was Father, and which are Evangelical, and in an especial manner belonging to the new Covenant, as Gen. In thee shall all Nations be blessed, which is called a Gospel-promise, Gal. 3.8, 9. so Gen. 15.5. So shall thy Seed be, Gen. 17.5. A Father of many Nations. And Verse the 8th. To be his God, and the God of his Seed. And therefore must the mind of Wisdom rightly distin­guish, and truly apply the Promises that are many times so mixed, that the one may be taken for the other, and sure I am, much of the mistake and [Page 208] error lies here in this very thing, by applying that to the one, which belongs to the other.

3. The Seed in the 7th. Verse the Spiritual Seed only.But 3dly. What Seed of Abraham is it to whom the Promise doth belong? In the 7th. Verse, Whether the Natural or Spiritual, and who those Children of Pro­mise, Acts 2.39.

To the clearing the first, namely, That of the Seed, Verse the 7th. I shall refer you to the Exposition it self, the Scripture hath given us hereof, with the concurring sence of many judicious Expositors, and all of them parties themselves.

1. The Scriptures expounding this Text are Gal. 3.16.Gal. 3.16 Now to Abraham and his Seed were the Promises made; he saith not to Seeds as of many, but as of one, and to thy Seed which is Christ; And therefore saith Ver. 29. If you be Christs, then are you Abrahams Seed & Heirs according to Promise, and farther, Rom. 9.7, 8.Ro. 9.7, 8 Neither because they are the Seed of Abraham are they all Children, but in Isaac shall thy Seed be called; that is, they which are the Children of the Flesh. These are not the Children of God; but the Children of the Promise are counted for the Seed. And Rom. 4. [Page 209] 13, 14.Rom. 4.13, 14. For the promise that he should be the Heir of the World, was not to Abraham, or to his Seed through the Law, but through the Righteousness of faith; for if they which are of the Law be Heirs, faith is made void, and the Promise made of none effect.

Which so fully confirms the Seed here mentioned, to whom the Promise belonged, not to be the Carnal but Spiritual Seed, and in farther confir­mation thereof, you have these follow­ing Authors, and all of them Paedo­baptists, viz.

Calvin Calvin, upon Gen. 17.7. saith, That it is manifest that the Promise under­stood of Spiritual blessing, pertaineth not to the Carnal Seed of Abraham, but to the Spiritual; as the Apostle himself saith, Rom. 4. & 9. Chap. For if you understand the Carnal Seed, (saith he) then that Promise will belong to none of the Gentiles. but to those alone who are begotten of Abraham, and Isaac according to the Flesh, Estius Ann. Gen. 17.7.

Ainsworth on Gen. 12.7.Ainsw. [thy Seed] That is, all the Children of Promise, (the Elect) who only are counted Abra­hams Seed, Rom. 9.7, 8. And in Christ [Page 210] are Heirs by Promise, as well the Gentile [...] as the Jews.

Dr. Owen Dr. Owen in his Book called the Do­ctrine of Saints perseverance, in Chap. 4. arguing from the Covenant of Grace, to prove the unchangableness of the love of God, begins with Gen. 17.7. saying, That the effectual dispensation of the Grace of the Covenant is peculiar t [...] them only, who are the Children of Pro­mise; the Remnant of Abraham accor­ding to Election, with all that in al [...] Nations were to be blessed by him and his Seed Jesus Christ; Ishmael though Circumcised, was to be put out; and not to be Heir with Isaac, and a little after he writes thus; what blessing then was here made over to Abraham. All the blessings saith he that from God are con­veyed in and by his seed Jesus Christ, i [...] whom both he and we are blessed, are wrapped therein, what they are, the Apostle tells you, Eph. 1.13. They are all Spiritual blessings, if perseverance, if the continuance of the love and favour of God towards us be a Spiritual blessing, both Abraham and all his Spiritual Seed, all faithfull ones, throughout the world are blessed with it in Jesus Christ, and if Gods continuing to be a God to them [Page 211] for ever, will enforce this blessing, (be­ing but the same thing in another expressi­on) it is here likewise asserted.

Amesius Amesius. de Praedest. Chap, 8. Ser. 6. saith, There are many of the Seed of Abraham, to whom the word of Pro­mise doth not belong, as Ishmael and Ishmaelites. But if so, there be many of the Seed of Abraham; to whom the word of Promise doth not belong: Then the rejection of many Jews who are of the Seed of Abraham doth not make void the word of Promise. From whence may we not safely conclude, that if the na­tural Posterity of Abraham, were not within the Covenant of Grace by vertue of the Promise, Gen. 17.7, Then much less are our natural Posterity; but the former is true, Rom. 9.6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. so is the latter.

To which we might add divers others, but let these suffice.

And from the contrary perswasion what dismal Consequences would arise.The evil Conse­quences of the contrary: For if God made his Covenant of Grace with the Posterity of Believers, as this Doctrine asserts. Then all the Posterity of Believers should certainly have Crace bestowed upon them; for it is the Covenant of God which doth [Page 212] convey Grace, Rom. 4.16. 2 Cor, [...] 30. None missing of Grace from Go [...] faithfulness, which Mr. Blake doth [...] confidently affirm,Mr. Bla. P. 6. saying, Th [...] Christianity is hereditary, that as t [...] Children of a Noble man is Noble, t [...] Child of a Free man Free, of a Turk Turk, and of a Jew a Jew; so the Chi [...] of a Christian is a Christian, in contr [...] diction not only of Scripture, whic [...] saith, we are Children of wrath b [...] Nature, but of all former and latter experience.

Then would Grace be a Birth, Pr [...] viledge, and Regeneration (as before tyed to Generation, contrary to J [...] 3.3. & Jo. 1.12, 13.

Then must all the Posterity of Believers be saved, without you will necessitate the Doctrine to be true, th [...] men may fall from Grace.

Then must we tie up and confine th [...] Grace of Gods Covenant to the Children of Believers only, and then wha [...] hope for the Children of unbeliever [...] contrary to the Experience of all Age [...] For was not Grace extended to th [...] Gentiles, who were not the Children o [...] Believers when the natural Branche [...] [Page 213] the Children of believing Abraham were [...]ut off.

Then is the Covenant of Grace it self o­verthrown, concluding an Interest with­out faith, Rom. 4.14. deriving a Ti­ [...]le by natural Generation.

And as to the other Scripture of the 2. Acts 38, 39.Act. 2.38. answ. urged as a Parallel to the other. It is so indeed, rightly understood, but not at all in the sence supposed.

For first it is to be observed, that the promise there made, is the giving the Sperit, called the promise of the Father, prophecied of by Joel 2.28. and doth follow the receiving of Christ in the Gospel, Eph. 1.13. Gal. 3.14. and the obeying his commands, Acts 5.32. Therefore in the 38. Ver. Peter exhorts them to Repentance, and faith in order to the receiving of it; because the Promise is to them and their Chil­dren, viz. to the Jews, and to them that are afar off to the Gentiles also, e­ [...]even as many of both as the Lord should call, therefore the Promise is not made but upon condition of Calling, and Faith, and Baptisme.

Secondly, It is remarkable that the Apostle doth first exhort to Repen­tance, then to Baptisme, shewing the order that Christ had directed to in the Commission; neither is the Promis [...] mentioned, as though of it self it gave right to Baptisme without Repentance but as a Motive why they should re­pent and be baptized, that they migh [...] also as others had done, before the [...] Eyes be made partakers of the Hol [...] Spirit, which the Prophets had foretold, and Christ had promised, where in Infants [neither capable of Faith▪ Repentance and Calling] are not con­cerned in the Text, and by Childr [...] spoken of are no other meant, then th [...] posterily of, the Jews, for who know not that they are so called, and that m [...] Child is my Child, though 40. or 50 years old; upon which Text Dr. Ha­mond in his Resolution concerning Infa [...] Baptisme, Dr. Ham Sect. 81. hath to this pur­pose. In the next place, saith he, [...] attempted the disproving of all Argu­ments brought in defence of Pedobaptis [...] from Peters words, Acts 2.39. T [...] which saith the Dr. I answer, That [...] any have made use of that unconclude [...] Argument, I have nothing to say in de­fence [Page 215] of them; I think the practise is founded upon better Basis then so, and the word Children there is really the posterity of the Jews, and not particularly their Infant Children.

And Dr. Talor upon this Scripture, Dr. Tal. Page 233. saith, That the words men­tioned in St. Peters Sermon, (which are the only Records of the Promise) are in­terpreted upon a weak mistake. The Promise belongs to you and your Chil­dren, therefore Infants are actually re­ceptive of it in that capacity; that is, the Argument, but the Reason of it is not yet discovered, nor ever will; for [to you and your Children] is to you and your Posterity, to you and your Chil­dren, when they are of the same capa­city, in which you are receptive of the Promise. But he that whenever the word [Children] is used in Scripture, shall by [Children] understand Infants, must needs believe, that in all Israel there were no men but all were Infants, and if that had been true, it had been the greater wonder they should overcome the Anakims, and beat the King of Moab, and march so far, and discourse so well; for they were all called the Children of Israel.

The fourth thing to be inquired into, is, Whether Circumcision was a Seal of the new Covenant to the Believers, and their Seed?

To which I answer in the Negative, that it was neither a Seal to them,Circum­cision on­ly a Seal to Abra­ham not to Belie­vers, nor their Seed. not much less a Seal to them of the new Covenant. It is true, it was a Seal, Confirmation, or Ratification of the faith that Abraham had long be­fore he was Circumcised; but so could it, not be said of any Infant that had no faith. It was a Sign put into the Flesh of the Infant; but a Sign and Seal only to Abraham witnessing to him that he not only had a justifying faith, but to the truth of the Promises, viz. That he should be the father of many Na­tions, Gen. 12.23. 2dly. The father of the faithful, Rom 4.11. Heir of the World, Rom. 4.13. That in hi [...] all the Families of the Earth should [...] blessed, viz. in Christ proceeding fro [...] him which was no wayes true of any Infant that ever was Circumcised; for none had before their Circumcisio [...] such a faith, that intitled them to such singular Promises; the scope in that place in the 4. Rom. being to shew, That Abraham himself was not justified [Page 217] by Works, no not by Circumcision, but by faith which he had, long before he was Circumcised, and so but a Seal or Confirmation of that faith which he had before, and to assure him of the truth of those special Promises, made to him and his Seed both Carnal and Spiritual.

And to which purpose you have both Chrysostome and Theophylact, Chrysost. and The. as Mr. Lawr. P. 168. viz. It was called a Seal of the Righteousness of Faith; be­cause it was given to Abraham as a Seal and Testimony of that Righteousness, which he had acquired by faith: Now this seems to be the priviledge of Abra­ham alone, and not to be transferred to others, as if Circumcision in whom ever it was, were a Testimony of Di­vine Righteousness; for as it was the priviledge of Abraham, that he should be the Father of all the faithfull, as well Circumcised as uncircumcised, being already the father of all uncircum­cised, having faith in Ʋncircumcision, he received first the sign of Circumcision, that he might be the father of the Cir­cumcised. Now because he had this pri­viledge, in respect of the Righteousness which he had acquired by faith, therefore [Page 218] the sign of Circumcision was to him a Seal of the Righteousness of faith: But to the rest of the Jews it was a sign that they were Abraham's Seed; but not a Seal of the Righteousness of faith, as all the Jews also were not the fathers of ma­ny Nations.

Secondly, Much less was Circum­cision a Seal of the new Testament, as before; for nothing is a Seal thereof, but the Holy Spirit, Eph.

Thirdly, Neither is Baptisme more then Circumcision called a Seal; It i [...] called a Figure, 1 Pet. 3.21. And [...] is a sign as before: But a sign and fi­gure proper only to men of understand­ing, representing Spiritual things and Mysteries: And not as Circumcision, which was a sign not improper for In­fants; because it left a signal impression in their flesh to be remembred all their days, but so cannot Baptisme be to any Infants.

5. Cir­cumcisi­on not ad­ministred only to be­lievers & their seedThe fifth thing to be examined it, Whether Circumcision was administred to Believers as Believers, and to their See [...] after them; as such, to which Baptisme was to Correspond.

It is answered by no means; for it was an Ordinance, which by the insti­tution [Page 219] belonged to all the natural Li­nage, and posterity of Abraham good or bad, without any such limitation, as was put upon Baptisme, If thou be­lievest with all thy Heart thou mayst, Acts 8. or any such qualification to an Infant capable to receive it, that he should have a believing Parent; but will you deny Abraham to be a believing Parent? and was not he a Father to them all? What then! he was a pub­lick common Father, which reaches not the case in hand; for he was no such father to them; neither have they any other in his stead, therefore the Analogy holds not; yet if they had would it avail? for that Priviledge would not stand the natural Children of Abraham in any stead to admit them to Baptisme; which though they claim­ed upon that account, Mat. 3. John rejects them upon it calling them a Ge­neration of Vipers, bidding them bring forth fruits meet for Repentance, and which only would give them admit­tance to the Baptisme of Repentance, and that it was not enough to say they had Abraham for their father. And to the same purpose doth our Saviour tell Nicodemus a Mr. in Israel, that with­out [Page 220] the new Birth his Birth-priviledge would not avail him in the Gospel-pri­viledges, Joh. 3. and with more seve­rity doth he tell the Jews, that how­ever they bore up themselves, as the Sons of Abraham, yet without belie­ving in Christ, who could only make them free, 6. Bap­tism came not in the room, place, & use of Circum­cision. 1. Not in the room and stead they were Bond-slaves to sin, and the Children of the De­vil.

The sixth thing to be searched after is, Whether Baptisme did succeed in the Room, Place and use of Circumcision. To which I answer by no means, for the following Reasons.

1. Not in the room and stead.

1. Because then only Males, not Females, would be baptized; because no other Circumcised, but all believing women, as well as men, were to be baptized, Acts 8.12, 16.14.15.

2. Because then some, not all Be­lievers, should be baptized; because not only women, as before, were not admitted; but all Believers out of Abra­hams Family, to whom he was a Spiri­tual father; because he was a Believer before he was Circumcised, Rom. 4.11, 12. Whereas all Believers according to [Page 221] the Commission were to be bapti­zed.

3. Because then the Circumcised needed not to have been baptized, if they had been already sealed with the new Covenant-seal: But Christ him­self, and all his Apostles, and so many of the Churches were Circumcised, yet nevertheless were baptized.

2. Not to the ends and uses2. Not to the ends and uses. neither as suggested upon the following grounds.

1. Because Circumcision was a sign of Christ to come in the flesh; and Baptisme, that he was already come in the flesh, witnessing to his Incarnation, Death, Burial, and Resurrection.

2. Circumcision was to be a parti­tion Wall betwixt Jew and Gentile; but Baptisme testified the contrary, viz. That Barbarian, Scythian, Bond and Free, Jew and Gentile, Male or Female, were all one in Christ. Cor­nelius the Gentile must be baptized, and have the Spirit given to witness, that nothing must be called common or unclean, where God had purified the Heart by believing.

3. Circumcision initiated the Car­nal Seed into the Carnal Church, and gave them right to the Carnal Ordinan­ces; [Page 222] but Baptisme was to give the Spiritual Seed an orderly entrance in­to the Spiritual Church, and a right to partake of the Spiritual Ordinan­ces.

4. Circumcision was to be a Bond and Obligation to keep the whole Law of Moses's; but Baptisme witnessed that Moses Law was made void, and that only Christ's [...]aw was to be kept.

5. Circumcision was administred to all Abrahams natural Seed, without any profession of Faith; Repentance or Rege­neration; whereas Baptisme to be admi­nistred to the Spiritual Seed of Abraham, was only upon profession of Faith, Re­pentance and Regeneration, and which appears more fully by the following In­stances compared.

1. Because a Carnal Parent, and a fleshly begetting by the the Legal Birth-priviledge, gave right to Circumcision; whereas a Spiritual begetting by a Spi­ritual Parent, gave only a true right to Baptisme.

2. Because a Legal, Ecclesiastical, Typical Holiness (when Land, Moun­tains, Houses, Birds, Beasts, and Trees were holy) qualified for Circumcision; whereas only Evangelical and Personal [Page 223] Holiness was a meet qualification for Baptisme.

3. Because Strangers and Ser­vants bought with Money, and all ig­norant Children of Eight days old, yea Trees were capable of Circumcision; whereas only men of understanding that were capable to believe with all their Heart, and to give an account thereof with their mouths, were to be esteemed capable Subjects of Bap­tisme.

6. Circumcision was to be a sign of Temporal Blessings and Benefits to be enjoyed in the Land of Canaan; whereas Baptisme was to be a sign (as before) of many Spiritual benefits, viz. Re­mission of sins, Justification, Sancti­fication here, and Eternal Salvation hereafter.

It is granted there are in some things an Analogy betwixt the one and the other, both signifying Heart-Circum­cision, and an initiating into the Church, though as a different Church; so diffe­rent Subjects, and Church Members, upon different grounds, and to diffe­rent ends, as before, and in a far diffe­rent manner; one to be done in a pri­vate House, and by a private Hand, [Page 224] and the other in some publick place, and by the hand of some publick Minister appointed by the Church to administer the same.

But now because there is some Ana­logy in some things, is there therefore ground to conclude, it cometh into the room, stead, and use thereof? by no means; for by the same Argument we may as well conclude, that it cometh in the room and stead of the Ark, Manna, Rock, &c. And from such like Argu­ments drawn from Analogies what Jew­ish Rites may not by our wits be intro­duced, to the countenancing the Papists in their High Priesthood, National Churches, Orders of Priesthood, Tythes, and all other their innumerable Rites and Ceremonies, that without any In­stitution of Christ, or pretence of new Testament-authority, they have intr [...] ­duced or imposed upon the account of Analogy with old Testament-Rites and Services. Concerning which you have the Lord Brooks in his Treatise of Episcopacy,L Brooks P. 100 saying very well, viz. That the Analogy which Baptisme now hath with Circumcision in the old Law, is a fine rati [...]nal Argument to illustrate a Point well proved before; but [Page 225] I somewhat doubt (saith he) whether it be proof enough for that which some would prove by it, since (besides the vast difference in the Ordinance) the persons to be Circumcised are stated by a positive Law, so express that it leaves no place for Scruple; but it is far otherwise in Baptisme, where all the designation of Persons fit to be partakers, for ought I know, is only such as believe; for this is the qualification which with exactest search I find the Scripture requires in Persons to be baptized, and this it seems to require in all such Persons; now how Infants can be properly said to believe, I am not yet fully resolved.

And very full and most excellently you have to this point Dr. Taylor, Dr. Tayl p. 228. Who saith, That the Argument from Circumcision is invalid upon infi­nite considerations: Figures and Types prove nothing, unless a Commandment go along with them, or some express to signifie such to be their purpose: For the Deluge of Waters, and the Ark of Noah, were a Figure of Baptisme said Peter; and if therefore the Circumstances of one should be drawn to the other, we should make Baptisme a Prodigy, rather than a Rite; the Paschal Lamb was a Type [Page 226] of the Eucharist, which succeeds the other, as Baptisme doth to Circumcision; but because there was in the manducation of the Paschal Lamb no prescription of Sa­cramental drink, shall we thence conclude that the Eucharist is to be administred but in one kind? And even in the very Instance of this Argument, supposing a Correspondency of Analogy between Cir­cumcision and Baptisme, yet there is no Correspondence of Identity; for although it were granted, that both of them did consign the Covenant of faith, yet there is nothing in the Circumstance of Childrens being Circumcised that so concerns that Mystery, but that it might very well be given to Children, and yet Baptisme on­ly to men of Reason; because Circumcisi­on left a Character in the flesh, which being imprinted upon Infants, did its work to them when they came to age, and such a Character was necessary, because there was no word added to the Sign; but Baptisme imprints nothing that remains on the Body, and if it leaves a Character at all, it is upon the Soul, to which also the word is added, which is as much a part of the Sacrament, as the Sign it self: for both which Reasons it is requisite, that the Parties Baptized should be capa­ble [Page 227] of Reason, that they may be capable both of the word of the Sacrament, and the impress made upon the Spirit; since therefore the Reason of this Parity does wholly fail, there is nothing left to infer a necessity of complying in this Circum­stance of a [...]e, any more then in the other Annexes of the Type; then the Infants must also precisely be Baptized upon the Eighth day, and Females must not be baptized, because not Circumcised; but it were more proper, if we would under­stand it right, to prosecute the Analogy from the Type to the Antitype by way of Letter and Spirit and signification: and as Circumcision figures Baptisme, so also the adjuncts of the Circumcision, shall signifie something Spiritual in the adherences of Baptisme; and therefore as Infants were Circumcised, so spiri­al Infants shall be Baptized, which is Spiritual Circumcision; for therefore Babes had the Ministry of the Type, to signifie that we must, when we give our names to Christ become Children in ma­lice, and then the Type is made compleat, &c. Thus far the Dr.

7. Whether the not Baptizing In­fants makes the priviledge under the [Page 228] Gospel less then under the Law, who had then Circumcision.

7 Not baptizing of Infants, makes not Gospel-Privi­ledges less then Legal.To which I answer, not at all, for the Reasons following.

1. Because they were not Circum­cised, because they were Children of Be­lievers, or Sealed with a new Covenant Seal, as being in the new Covenant thereby, as before proved; but upon the account of a Birth-priviledge as be­ing of the natural Linage and Seed of Abraham, as a Typical shadowy thing; all whose posterity were to he marked therewith, to distinguish them from the Nations, and to keep that Line clear, from whence Christ according to the Flesh should come, and to oblige them to keep the Law, &c. But no such thing in the Gospel; the Body and Substance being come, the Shadow was to vanish and pass away, no common Father then but Christ, and if Christs, then Abrahams Seed, and Heirs of Promise, no Birth priviledge, but the new Birth; therefore to go back to the national Birth priviledge, is so far from being a Priviledge, that it i [...] a Bondage rather, to return to the Type and Shadow, the Antitype and Substance being come.

[Page 229]2. Neither ought such a thing to be any more esteemed the loss of a Privi­ledge, then our not enjoying literally a Holy Land, City, Temple, a successi­on of a High Priest, and a Priesthood by Generation or Lineal descent, (for y [...]u know their Children were Priests successively in their Generation, a [...]e­vite begat a Priest or Minister, as well as the other Tribes begat Church-Mem­bers) since all those Types are Spiri­tualised to us the Believers under the Gospel, who are now the Holy Nation, the Holy City and Temple, the Royal Priesthood, and all Church-Members by Regeneration, not Generation. There­fore we are so far from being loosers by the Bargain, that as far as Christ exceeds Moses and Aaron, the Gospel, the Law, the Antitype, the Type, the Spiritual Birth, the Carnal, the Extent of all Nations, the Confines of Judea; so far are we better, and not worse.

Nor thirdly, if it should be ta­ken for granted, that Circumcision was a Seal of the new Covenant belonging to all the Children of Israel, then would not the Baptizing of the Children of Believers answer it; Neither a­mount to so great a Priviledge, no [...] [Page 230] be equivalent to it, for these Rea­sons.

First, there were all the Families and Tribes of Israel (and all Pros [...]lyt­ed strangers) with their Children without distinction of good or bad, to be Circumcised: But here only one of a City, or two of a Tribe; for Believers are but thin sown, and the Children of unbelievers, and wicked men are to receive no such be­nefit in the judgment of so many.

And Secondly, you [...]ould be very short in another respect, as being at an utter uncertainty when you had a right Subject; for if the Parent was a Hypocrite, or no Elect Person, which is out of your reach to understand. you cannot know whether the Child be fit for Baptisme; for the Seed of a wick­ed man you must not meddle with by any means, whereas there was not the least doubt or scruple in Israel as to the Subject; for the Father being Circum­cised, it was an infallible mark they were right.

And Thirdly, neither can the Child (when he is grown up) have any cer­tain knowledge, that such a Ceremony hath past upon him in Infancy, he having [Page 231] no Infallible mark thereof; whereas the Circumcised Infant had an indelible Character and mark in his flesh, to as­sure him that he had received that Rite.

By all which demonstrations you may understand; that we loose no Priviledge under the Gospel for not Baptizing our Infants, though they were Circumcised under the [...]aw.

CHAP. IV. Wherein is made manifest, that the Ordained Ceremony of Baptisme is in this of Infants altered and changed, and another Rite in­troduced, quite contrary both to the signification of the Word, nature of the Ordinance, and manifest practice thereof; not only in the Apostles time, but ma­ny Ages after, as confest by Parties themselves.

The Ce­remony of Baptisme is by dip­ping.THat the manner and Ceremony of Baptisme ought to be by dipping or plunging the whole Body under Wa­ter, and not by sprinkling or pouring a little Water on the Face or Head, as hath commonly been used, especially since the Subjects have been changed from Men to Babes, is thus made good, viz.

First,First, from the significa­tion of the word, from the proper and genuine signification of the word so well agree­ing with the ends and use of Baptisme, the Ceremony to the Substance, Sign to the thing signified.

The word we call Baptisme, and the Latins Baptismus, is no other then the Greek word it self [...] [being so retained all along, as Gomarus ob­serves in the Latin Church] and in plain English is nothing else but to dip, plunge, or cover all over.

The Truth whereof will more fully appear from our best Greek Lexicons, and by the observation of our most emi­nent Criticks.

Scapula and Stephens, Scapula & Steph. two as great Masters of the Greek Tongue as we have any, (and also great defenders of Infants Baptisme) do tell us in their Lex­icons, that [...], from [...] sig­nifies m [...]rgo, imergo, submergo, obrue, item tingo, quod fit immergendo, inficere, imbuere, viz. To dip, plunge, over­whelme, put under, cover over, to die in Colour, which is done by plung­ing.

Grotius Grotius. tells us, it signifies to dip o­ver Head and Ears.

Pasor, Pasor an Immersion, Dipping, or Submersion.

Vossius, Vossius. that it implyeth a washing the whole body.

Mincaus Mincaeus in his Dictionary, That [...] is in the Latin Baptismus, in the Dutch Doopsel or Doopen, [...]nglish Baptisme or Baptime, viz. to Dive or Duc [...] in Water, and the same w [...]th the Hebrew [...] to dip.

Leigh, Leigh. in his Critica Sacra, saith, its native and proper signification is to dip into Water, or to plunge under Water, for which he Cites these Scriptures, where so used, viz. Mat. 3.6. Acts 8.38. And that it is taken from a Dyers Fat, and imports a Dying, or giving a fresh Colour, and not a bare washing only, Rev. 19.13. And for which he quotes Casaubon, Bucan, Bullinger, Zanchy, Spanhemius. He saith with­all, That Beza and some others will have it signifie washing, and which sence Eras­mus opposed, affirming, that it was my otherwise so, then by Consequence; for the proper signification was such a dipping or plunging, as Dyers use for Dying of Clothes.

Mr. Daniel Rogers in his Treatise of Sacraments, 1. P. C. 8. P. 177. saith,Mr. Dan. Rogers. That the Minister is to dip in Water, as the meetest Act, the word [...] notes it; for the Greeks wanted not other words to express any other Act besides dipping if the Institution could bear it. What resemblance of the Burial or Re­surrection of Christ is in sprinkling? All Antiquity and Scripture, saith he, con­firm that way.

Dr. Taylor in his Rule of Consc. Lib. 3. Ch. 4.Dr. Tayl If you would attend to the pro­per signification of the word, Baptisme signifies plunging in Water, or dipping with washing.

Mr. Joseph Mede in his Diatribe on Titus 3.2. saith,M. Mede That there was no such thing as Sprinkling or Rantisme used in Baptisme in the Apostles dayes; nor many ages after them.

I might add many more,Dr. Ham but shall conclude with that observable Remark that Dr. Hammond gives us hereon in his Annotations, viz. upon Jo. 13.10. Tel­ling us, That [...] signifies an Im­mersion, or was [...]ing the whole Body, and which answereth to the Hebrew word [...] used for dipping in the Old Testa­ment: And therefore upon Mat. 3.1. [Page 236] tells us, That John Baptized in a River, viz. Jordan, Mark. 1.5. in a confluen [...] of much Wuter, as Aenon, Joh. 3.23. Because it is added, there was much Water, upon which account he saith That as the Greeks called the Lakes where they used to wash [...] so the Ancients called their Baptisterio [...]s or the Vessels containing their Baptism [...] Water, Columbethras, viz. swmiming [...] diving places, being made very large wit [...] partitions for Men and Women. And upon Mark 7.4. tells us, That the Wash­ing or Baptizing of Cups, Vessels, Bed [...], &c. was no other then a putting them i [...] to the Water all over, rinsing them.

I have carefully examined all the places in the Old Testament, where the word Dipping or Baptizing is me [...] ­tioned, and do find it is expressed by the Hebrew word [...] as Mincaeus and Dr. Hamond observes, and which al­ways signifies to dip, (the word ren­dred washing being by another word) as the following Scriptures will inform you, Gen. 37.31. Exod. 12.22. Lev. 4.6, Lev. 9 9. Deut. 33.24. Joh. 3.5. Num. 16.18. 2 King. 5.14. which are all the places [Page 237] I can find the word used in, in the Old Testament.

The word generally used for wash­ing in the Hebrew is [...] which signi­fies such a washing as taketh away filth from persons or things, by swilling, rinsing or rubbing, as Buxtorfius and Leigh, and which answereth to all the three words for washing that we meet with in the Greek, viz. [...] a washing of the Body, [...] the Hands, and [...] Clothes, as Stephens saith in his Thesaurus, which word you find in very many places in the Old Testament, as Exod. 30.19, 20. Exod. 25. Lev. 14.8, 9.16.24. &c. which significa­tion and sence of the word is emphati­cally confirmed to us by the several Me­taphors used by the Holy Spirit in Scripture in allusion hereto, viz. for Persons to be plunged into great suffer­ings, they are said to be Baptized there­in, Mark 10.38. And so for per­sons that were indued with great mea­sures of the Spirit, they are said to be Baptized therewith, Acts. 1.5. The Children of Israel being incompassed with the Cloud over their Head, and the divided Sea on both sides were said to be Baptized in the Cloud and Sea, [Page 238] 1 Cor 10. And Baptized persons are said to be de [...]d and buried, in allusion to putting men into the Earth, and covering them therewith, none of which can hold good by sprinkling.

2. From the Scrip­ture pra­ctice.Secondly, It appears to be so from the practice and usage we find hereof in Scripture, and the opinion of the learn­ed upon it.

First, in the Story of Christs Bap­tisme we read, Mat. 3.5.Mat. 3.5 That Je­sus came from Galilee to Jordan unto John to be Baptized of him, and Ver. 16. And when he was Baptized he went up straight way out of the Water.

C jetan.The learned Cajetan upon the place, saith Christ ascended out of the Water; therefore Christ was Baptized by John, not by sprinkling, or by pouring Water upon him, but by Immersion, that is, by dipping or plunging in the Wa­ter,

A second Scripture considerable is that of Joh, 3.23.John 3.23. And John was Bap­tizing in Aenon near Salim. (and the Reason why he pitcht upon this place, is given) because there was much Wa­ter there.

PiscatorPiscator. upon the place sayes [...] signifies many Rivers, as [...] in the Singular number signifies the Ri­ver of Jordan; this, saith he, is men­tioned to signifie the Ceremony of Bap­tisme which John used in dipping or plunging the whole Body of Man stand­ing in the River, whence saith, Christ being Baptized by John in Jordan, is said to ascend out of the Water.

Calvin Calvin. upon these words, saith, That from this place you may gather, that John and Christ administred Bap­tisme by plunging the whole body into the Water.

A Third Scripture worthy our notice,Acts 2.36. is Acts 8.36, 38. As they went on their way, they came unto a certain Wa­ter, and the Eunuch said, see here is Water, and they went both down into the Water, both Philip and the Eunuch, and he Baptized him, and when they were come up out of the Water: upon which place.

Calvin Calvin. saith, We see what fashion the Ancients had to administer Baptisme; for they plunged the whole Body into the Water: The use is now saith he, that the Minister casts a few drops of Water only upon the Body, or upon the Head.

A Fourth Scripture we shall menti­on, is Rom, 6.4.Rom. 6.4 Buried with him in Baptisme, where the Apostle elegantly alludes to the Ceremony of Baptizing in our death, and Resurrection with Christ.

Cajetan Cajetan. upon the place. saith, Thus we are Buried with him by Baptisme in­to death: By our Burying he declares our Death from the Ceremony of Bap­tisme; because he who is Baptized is put under the Water, and by this carries a similitude of him that is Buried, who is put under the Earth Now because none are Buried but dead men, from this very thing that we are Buried in Bap­tisme, we are assimulated to Christ buried, or when he was Buried.

Tilenus Tilenus. in his disputation, P. 886, 889, 890. A learned Protestant Writer gives a most remarkable Testimony in the Case: Baptisme, saith he, i [...] the first Sacrament of the New Testament instituted by Christ in which with a most Pat and Exact Analogy between the Sign and the thing signified, those that are in Covenant are by the Mi­nister washed in Water. The outward Rite in Baptisme is Three old, 1. Im­mersion into the Water; 2. Abiding un­der the Water; 3. Resurrection out of [Page 241] the Water: The form of Baptisme, viz. Internal and Essential, is no other then the Analogical proportion which the signs keep with the things signified thereby: For the properties of the Water in wash­ing away the defilements of the Body, do in a most suitable similitude set forth the efficacy of Christs Blood in blotting out of sins; so dipping into the Water doth in a most lively similitude set forth the mortification of the old man; and rising out of the Water, the Vivication of the new, The same plunging into the Water holds forth to us that horrible Gulfe of Divine Justice, in which Christ for our sins sake (which he took upon him) was for a while in a manner swallowed up. Abiding under the Water, how little a while soe­ver, denotes his descent into Hell, even the very deepest of lifelesness, while lying in the sealed and guarded Sepulchre, he was accounted as one dead: Rising out of the Water, holds out to us a lively si­militude of that Conquest which this dead man g [...]t ever Death, which he van­quished in his own Den, (as it were) that is, the Grave. In like manner therefore (saith he) it is meet, that we being Baptized into his Death, and buried with him, should rise also [Page 242] with him, and so go on in a new Life, Rom. 6.3, 4. Col. 2.12.

Bish. JewBishop Jewel in his Apology, P. 308. Brings the Council of Wormes, deter­mining the manner of Baptisme, viz. That the dipping into the Water is the going down into Hell, (or the Grave) and that the coming out of the Water, is the Resurrection.

And most remarkable is the Testi­mony that Mr. Baxter himself gives to this Truth,Mr. Bax. wherein he also owns the changing of the Ceremony in his third Argument against Mr. Blake, in these words, viz.

Quoadmodum, To the manner saith he, it is commonly confessed by us to the Anabaptists, (as our Commentators de­clare) that in the Apostles time the Baptized were dipped over head in Wa­ter; and that this signifieth their pro­fession both of believing the Burial and Resurrection of Christ, and of their own present renouncing the World and Flesh, or dying to sin, and living to Christ, or rising again to newness of Life. or being buried and risen again with Christ, as the Apostle expoundeth in the forecited Texts of Col. 2. & Rom. 6. And though, saith he, we have thought it law­full [Page 243] to disuse the manner of dipping, and to use less Water; yet we presume not to change the use and signification of it: So then he that signally professeth to die, and rise again in Baptisme with Christ, doth signally profess saving Faith and Repen­tance; but this do all they that are bap­tized according to the Apostles practice. Thirdly, from the use of the Ancients, and the confest Change thereof, since this Rite of dipping in Baptisme is con­firmed.

Daille Daille. on the Fathers 2d. Book, P. 148. saith, That it was a Custom here­tofore in the Ancient Church, to plunge those they baptized over Head and Ears in the Water, as saith he, Tertullian in his Third Book de Cor. Mil. Cyprian in his 7. Ep. P. 211. Epiphanius Pan. 30. P. 128. and others testifie. And this, saith he, is still the practise both of the Greek and the Russian Church at this day, as Cassander de Bapt. P. 193. And yet, saith he, notwithstanding this Custom, which is both so Ancient and so universal, is now abolished by the Church of Rome; and this is the reason (saith he) That the Muscovites say, that the Latines are not rightly and duly Baptized; because they are wont not to [Page 244] use this Ancient Ceremony in their Bap­tisme.

Walfrid Strabo.Walfridus Strabo de Reb. Eccles. Tells us, that we must know, at the first Believers were Baptized simply in Floods and Fountains.

Mr. Fox Mr. Fox. tells us in his Acts and Monuments, Part. 1. P. 138. out of Fabian Cap. 119, 120. That Austin and Paulinus did in the 7th. Century Baptize here in England great multi­tudes in the River Trent, and the River Swol; where note by the way, saith Mr. Fox, it followed there was no use of Fonts. The like also as you'l here after find, Germainus and Lupus the two French Evangelists, did in the fifth Century Baptize multitudes in the River Allin near Chester.

Hierem. Pa. Con. Hieremias Patr. of Constantinople ad Thelo. Wit [...]bergenses Resp. 11. C. 4. saith, The Ancients Baptized not by sprinkling the Baptized with Water with their hands, but by Immersion, fol­lowing the Evangelist, who came up out of the VVater; therefore did he descend, which must needs be Immersion, and not Aspersion.

Zepperus Zepperus de Sacramentis, from the Annotation and Etymology of the word it doth appear what was of old the Custom of administring Baptisme, which though we have changed into rantising or sprink­ling.

Dr. Taylor in his Rule of Conscience, Dr. Tayl. B. 3. C. 4. P. 644, 645. The Ancient Church did not in their Baptisme sprinkle VVater with their Hand, but did Im­merge; and therefore we find in the Re­cords of the Church, That the Persons to be Baptized were quite naked, as it is to be seen in many places, particularly in the Mystagogy Chat. of St. Cyril, and many others, (as you have before in the second Chapter of this Part from Vossius P. 133.)

And this of Immersion was of so sa­cred an account in their esteem, that they did not esteem it lawfull to receive him into the Clergy, who had been only sprinkled in Baptisme as the Epistle of Cornelius to Fabianus of Antioch, Euseb. lib. 6. c. 43. It is not lawfull that he who is sprinkled in his Bed by reason of sickness, should be admitted to Holy Orders, doubting whether such a sprinkling should be called Baptisme.

And therefore Magnus in his Epistle questions, whether they are to be esteemed right Christians, who are only sprinkled, and not dipt in VVater.

And that Chrysostome saith, That the old man is buried and drowned in the Immersion under VVater; and when the Baptized Person is afterwards raised up from the VVater, it represents the Resurrection of the new man to new­ness of life.

And therefore concludes, that the con­trary Custom being not only against Ec­clesiastical Law, but against the Ana­logy and Mystical signification of the Sacrament, is not to be complyed with.

Marq. of VVorcestThe Church of Rome confesseth by a Learned Pen, the Marques of Worcester in his Certam Relig. That she changed dipping the Party Baptized over Head and Ears into sprinkling upon the Face.

Until the Th [...]rd Century we find not any that upon any consideration did ad­mit of sprinkling. The first we meet with is Cyprian, in his Epistle to Mag­nus, What Clinical Bap­tisme. Lib. 4. Ep. 7. where he pleads for the Baptizing of the sick by sprinkling, and not by dipping or pouring, called the Clinical Baptisme, Magdib. Cen. 3. Ch. [Page 247] 6. P. 126. As also for the sprinkling of new Converted Prisoners in the Prison House: And which by degrees after­wards they brought in use for sick Chil­dren also, and then afterwards all Chil­dren.

Aquinas, Scotus, and others of the Schoolmen conclude, that dipping is most agreeable to the Institution; but admit that in case of necessity, viz. when either many are to be baptized, scarcity of VVa­ter, or sickness, and weakness, they may sprinkle. Vossius, P. 38.

All which Arguments from the Ge­nuine Sence of the Word, Nature of the Ordinance, Usuage of the Ancients, were excellently inculcated by the learned Dr. Tillotson, in a Sermon Preached at his Lecture in Michaels Cornhill London, April 15. 1673. from Rom. 6 4. There­fore we are buryed with him by Baptisme into Death, proving from thence, That Dipping or plunging was the proper Ce­remony and Rite in the Ordinance; and how naturally Arguments did arise from that Sign in Baptisme, to inforce Holiness and Mortification the thing signified thereby.

Object. But the word [...], which you so much stand upon, signifies if not to sprinkle, yet not only to dip and overwhelme, but also to wash, as Mark 7.4. The washing of Hands, Cups, Pots, Vessels, Beds, and Tables, which we hope you will grant may be done without dipping or plunging in Wa­ter.

Answ. That Baptisme in a sence is washing I no ways doubt; for you can­not dip a thing, but you may be said to wash it; therefore in allusion hereto, 'tis said, Acts 22. Arise and be bap­zed, and wash away thy sins, and Tit. 3. The washing of Regeneration, and Heb. 10. Bodies washed with pure VVater. And so in dipping of Clothes they wash them. And so here by dipping of un­clean Hands, Pots, Cups, Vessels and Beds; for Tables are not there, the word being [...], which as in your Mar­gent signifies a Bed, but never a Table, [as a Learned Critick observes] they are also washed.

Object. But Hands, Cups Vessels and Beds may be washed, though not dipt.

Answ. It is true they may (though not from this Scripture, the word be­ing [...]) for though all dipping is washing, yet all washing is not dip­ping in a proper sence, (for Water sprinkled or poured upon a thing, may be so called in an improper sence) though it is a very unusual thing so to deal with unclean Hands, Beds or Ves­sels: And I presume you will account her but a Slut, and give her no thanks for her pains, that having unclean Hands, Vessels, Beds, or Clothes to wash, doth only sprinkle or pour a lit­tle water upon them, as though that would serve the turn; and doth not our familiar experience tell us, that to dip our dirty hands in Water, rinsing them, is the most effectual way to wash them, and that sprinkling or pouring a little wa­ter will not do the business. Therefore are we to take washing here in this 7. Mark 4. to be dipping in a proper sence as the word imports, and as most agree­able to known Custom and Use, for nei­ther the word [...] to wash, nor [...] to pour, [...] to sprinkle, are ever ta­ken to dip or baptize; nor is the word [...] simply taken for washing, by pouring or sprinkling that I can find.

The divers washings mentioned Heb. 9.10. may well be explained from Lev. 1.9, 13. & 6.27, 28. & 15.6. Exod. 30.19. to be such as was done by baptizing in water, not sprinkling with, or pour­ing water upon.

And in the 2 Kings 5.10. the Prophet bids Naaman go and wash in Jordain seven times, and accordingly Ver. 14. 'tis said in obedience hereto, and in explanation of that kind of washing the Prophet intended, he went and Baptized himself seven times in Jordain.

Therefore for any to shun the pro­per true Genuine sence, and build a practise upon an uncouth, indirect, un­usual, and at best an Allegorical sence, is no other then as the Proverb is, To leave the Kings High way, and to take Hedge and Ditch

And besides, if you will follow the Allusion, do you not wash all that is unclean, whether of Hands, Cup, Vessel, or Bed; but the whole man is all un­clean, every Member, and every Part; therefore all and every Part ought to be washed, and not the Head and Face only, as you expect to have all your sins washed away, and every Member cleansed by Faith in Christs Blood; As [Page 251] well as in this Figure, to represent that as every Member hath lived to sin, should here also die, be buried, raised and quickned spiritually with Christ, in firm assurance of Christs Resurrection, and confident expectation of the whole mans being to be raised and glorified in the Resurrection of the Just. And to which purpose we have Dr. Goodwin,M. Good. in his support of faith, P. 54. very ex­cellently, viz. That the eminent thing signified and represented in Baptisme, is not simply the blood of Christ, as it wash­eth us from our sins; but there is a far­ther representation therein of Christs Death, Burial and Resurrection in the Baptized, being first buried under wa­ter, and then rising out of it, and this is not in a bare conformity to Christ, but in a representation of a Communion with Christ in that his Death and Resurre­ction▪ Therefore it is said, (We are buried with him in Baptisme) and whrein we are risen with him, &c. And moreover, here it is that the answer of a good Conscience, which is made the inward effect of this Ordinance of Baptisme, 1 Pet. 3.21. Is there also attributed to Christs Resurrection, as the thing signified and represented in Baptisme, and as the cause [Page 252] of that answer of a good Conscience, even Baptisme doth now also save us, &c.

As for the Cavils of unseemliness and hazarding of health to the weak,; they are as the fruits of Carnal wisdom, un­belief, and shunning the Cross, so no other then to reproach the wisdom of Christ, that so ordained, and him­self so practised, telling us that (however the world may call it undecent) that it is a comely thing therein to fol­low him in the fulfilling of Righteous­ [...]ess. And as for that of unseemliness they that have or shall see the decency of the Practise, will sufficiently vindi­cate it from such a Calumney, and be able to convince Mr. Baxter, or any o­ther Cavilers of their unchristian slan­ders of that kind (already touched.) And for hazard of Health to the Weak, the Constant, Known Experience doth amply refute that vain Imagination and Suggestion.

CHAP. V. Wherein you have an account of seve­ral Mischiefs, Absurdities, and Contradictions that are justly to be charged upon the Practise.

I. BY its altering Christs Order in the Commission, Mat. 28.19. where in teaching Repentance and Faith, are required always to precede or go before Baptisme, which this makes to proceed or follow after altogether.

II. By its changing the Subjects of Christs appointment, viz. Men and Women of Knowledge and Ʋnderstand­ing capable to Evidence Faith and Re­pentance for ignorant unconverted Babe [...] that know neither good nor evil, their right hand from their left.

III. By frustrating all the Holy and Spiritual Ends of the Ordinance which you have before at large, viz. to be a Sign of present Regeneration, a dying, burying, and rising with Christ, to be [Page 254] the answer of a good Conscience, to be a mutual stipulation or contract then and there entred into betwixt God and the Party, as well as a visible entrance into the Church, all which as applyed to a poor Ignorant Infant, are but mock­shews, and utterly insignificant and in­valid

IV. By its inverting the Order and manner from dipping the whole Man, into sprinkling or pouring a little Water upon the Head or Face, contrary to the Sence of the Word, Nature of the Ordinance, and constant Ʋsage of the Primitive times, as confest by Parties themselves, obliging thereby the Ad­ministrator to tell a lie in the name of the Lord, saying he doth Baptize, when he doth but Rantize.

V. By introducing so much Error and false Doctrine into the world, viz.

1. That it was to take away Original sin.

2. To work Grace and Regeneration, and to effect Salvation by the Work done

3. That it was an Apostolical Tra­dition.

4. That Children have Faith, and are Disciples of Christ.

[Page 255]5. That all Children of Believers are in the Covenant of Grace, and faede­rally Holy.

VI. By defiling and polluting the Church, viz.

1. By bringing false Matter therein, who are no Saints by Calling, being neither capable to perform duties, nor enjoy Priviledges.

2. By laying a foundation of much ignorance and profaneness.

3. By confounding World and Church together which Christ hath separated, bringing the World into the Church, and turning the Church into the World.

VII. By introducing and establishing many Humane Traditions and Inventi­ons of Antichrist together with it; as Gossips or Sureties, Bishoping or Confir­mation, Chrysme. Exorcisme, Config­nation, &c. prophaning thereby so so­lemn an Ordinance, taking Gods name in vain, and making his Command­ments void.

VIII. By being such a make-bate, such a Bone of Contention; and that amongst themselves too that own it, as well as with those that oppose it: For what Divisions and Sub-divisions are [Page 256] there amongst them both, as to Subject, Time, Order, Circumstances, what endless strifes about Womens baptizing, and whether Bastards, or the Children of Apostates, Heathens, or Excom­municated persons should be baptized.

IX. By being an occasion to stir up much bitter hatred, wrath, strife, en­mity and persecution against those that oppose it. Oh how have they been loaded with Calumney and Reproaches as the vilest of Men, and how in all Ages have they been followed with Stripes, Imprisonments, Confiscations, yea Death it self, as the Historical Part informeth you.

X. By confirming hereby the whole Antichristian Interest, as made good in the Preface.

XI. By ushering in great Absurdi­ties,Absur­dities. viz.

1. That persons may have Regene­ration and Grace before Calling.

2. That Persons may be visible Church-Members before Conversion.

3. That Persons may Repent, believe, and be Baptized, and saved by the Faith of another.

[Page 257]4. That Types and Shadows are pro­fitable, after the Antitype and Sub­ [...]tance is come, introducing thereby the Legal Birth-priviledge, the Carnal Seed, the Typical Holiness, the National Church, &c. to the reviving Judaisme, and outing Christianity.

5. That the better to exclude believers Baptisme, new Church-Covenants are in­vented to enter into the Visible Church by, instead thereof, especially amongst those that own Infants Baptisme, yet deny them the right of Church-Mem­bership.

XII. By the manifold Contradictions Contra­di [...]tions: that attend the Practise.

1. By asserting, that Baptisme is a Symbol of present Regeneration wrought, and yet apply it to ignorant unconverted Babes, so uncapable of regeneration, as Jam. 1.18. 1 Pet. 1.23. Joh. 1.12, 13. And as so well defin'd by Dr. Owen in his Theo. l. 6. c. 4 p. 480. viz. To be a Renovation, new Creation, Vivification, opening blind Eyes, raising from Death to Life, &c.

2. That it truly figures and repre­sents a Death, Burial, and Resurrecti­on, and yet do nothing but sprinkle or pour a little Water on the Face.

[Page 258]3. That Faith and Repentance is r [...] quired in Persons to be baptized, an [...] that it is ridiculous, yea impious an [...] prophane to do it without, and yet co [...] fess that Children, to whom they apply it, have neither.

4. That it is the declaration of the Spi­ritual Marriage, the stipulation that is mutually entred into betwixt God and the Believer, and yet assign it to Sub­jects as uncapable of either, as Stocks or Stones, Bells or Church-walls, that yet Antichrist makes capable Subjects thereof, as well as Infants.

5. That the Baptismal Covenant enters into the Visible Church, and yet deny the Church-Members the Privi­ledges thereof, or seperate from them without any warrantable cause shew'd, or orderly proceeding either against them, or they that do own them as such.

6. That seperate from Rome as the false Church, and yet own their Bap­tisme the Foundation Stone thereof: And others that pretend seperation from National and Parish Churches, and to disown the baptizing the Children of [Page 259] all, good and bad, with the sinful Ceremonies attending it, yet if Pa­pist or Protestant either, upon their Tearms tender to their fellowship, they are received without Renoun­cing their sinfull Baptisme and per­forming it in the way they judge right.

7. That they own the Doctrine of Perseverance, and d [...]sown falling from Grace, yet baptize all the Children of Be­lievers, because they conclude them in the Covenant of Grace, yet afterwards teach them Conversion, and in Case of unbelief reject them as Reprobates.

And to all which you may familiarly add by your daily observation, which Chapter we shall conclude with these high expressions of Dr. Tayler, Dr. Tayl in his Lib. Pro. P. 244. And therefore who­ever will pertinaciously persist in this opinion of the Paedobaptists, and practice it accordingly, they pollute the Blood of the Everlasting Covenant: They disho­nour and make a Pagentry of the Sacra­ment: They ineffectually represent a Se­pulture into the Death of Christ, and please themselves in a Sign without effect, [Page 260] making Baptisme like the Fig-Tree in Gospel, full of Leaves, but no Fruit; and they invocate the Holy Ghost in vain, doing as if one should call upon him to illu­minate a Stone or a Tree.

CHAP. VI. Wherein the nullity and utter insig­nificancy of Infants Baptisme is made appear.

THat it is no way safe for any to rest contented with that Baptisme which they received in their Infancy, may appear, because such their Bap­tisme is a meer nullity, an insignificant nothing, in respect to the New Testa­ment Ordinance of Baptisme; and the reason is plain, because there is that wanting in it which is so essential to true Baptisme.

For first,Neither right matter nor form. there is as the right Subject of Baptisme wanting, so the true Ex­ternal form is wanting also, as practised with us: For the External form as be­fore shewed is not sprinkling, or pour­ing a little Water upon the Head or Face, but a dipping the whole person under Water, and raising him up again, to figure out death, burial and Resur­rection, as before.

If then matter and form be wanting; which is Essential to its being, it must needs be a nullity, for what is more es­sential to the being of a thing then mat­ter and form, and how is it possible to define Baptisme, or any thing else, where they are wanting; and which is such a difficiency in that or any thing else that makes it a non-entity, or a meer nullity.

Object. But 'tis said there was the right words of Baptisme, it was done in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Answ. So there was also in bapti­zing of Bells and Churches, which in your judgment is so far from making it a right Ordinance, the true Subject being wanting, that it is no less then a prophanation thereof, and a misera­ble taking of the name of God in vain.

And farther to demonstrate and illu­strate this point, you know it is gene­rally owned, that Baptisme is no o­ther then our mystical Marriage, as being the solemnization of a mutual consent and striking of a Covenant (the [Page 263] essentials of Marriage) betwixt Christ [...]d a believer,Mr. Bax. as Mr. Baxter [...]ly owns and acknowledges in his 9. Argument to Mr. Blake, saying, I conclude, Christ hath appointed no Baptisme, but what is for a visible Mar­riage of the Soul to himself, (as Prote­stants saith he ordinarily confess) there­fore he hath appointed no Baptisme, but for those that profess to take Jesus Christ [...]o be their Husband, and to give up them­selves to him as his Spouse.

Now mutual consent in Marriage is so essential an Ingredient, that without it there is no Marriage, being as Beza saith, the formal cause thereof, because only Consent makes the Marriage, as saith the Lawyers; so that if there should be only the consent of one Par­ty, it is but like a bargain wherein on­ly one side is agreed; for as well known there is no Covenant, where no Con­sent.

And just so it is in the Case of In­fants Baptisme; for if you dip an In­fant without Consent or Ʋnderstand­ing, (that indeed is capable of neither) it no more makes Baptisme then a bargain, a bargain, though one side only be a­greed, or if made with an Infant, or an I­diot, [Page 264] or then a forc'd bed is lawfull Ma­trimony; for as Mr. Baxter before [...] ingeniously confesseth, That for per­sons to be baptized without such a pro­fest Contract, is a Baptisme not of Christs appointment, and that being done without Repentance and Faith, i [...] an impious prophanation, yea ridiculous saith Mr. Calvin, as before.

And in Confirmation of this weighty point of nullity, we are yet farther be­holding to Mr. Baxter, who is pleased in his Christian Directory amongst the many Cases of Conscience to give [...] the discussion of this, and which in P. 817. you'l find managed after this sort, viz.

Q. 41. Are they really baptized, who are baptized according to the English Liturgy, and Canons, where the Pa­rent seemeth excluded, and those to consent for the Infant which have [...]o power to do it?

Answ. I find (saith he) some puzled with this doubt, whether all our In­fants Baptisme be a meer nullity; for say they, the outward washing without Covenanting with God, is no more Bap­tisme [Page 265] then the Body of Corps is a Man, the Covenant i [...] the chiefe essential part in Baptisme: And he that was never en­tred into Covenant with God, was ne­ver Baptized. But Infants according to the Liturgy are not entred into Co­venant with God, which they would prove thus. They that neither ever Co­venanted by themselves, or any authori­zed person for them were never en­tred into Covenant with God; (for that is no act of theirs which is done by a stranger that hath no power to do it) but &c.— That they did it not themselves, is undeniable: That they did it not by any person impowred by God to do it for them, we prove; first because God fathers are the per­sons [by whom] the Infant is said to promise; but God-fathers have no Power from God, 1. Not by Nature, 2. Not by Scripture. Secondly, because the Parents are not only included as Cove­nanters, but prositively excluded, 1. In that the whole Office of Covenanting for the Child from first to last is laid on others; 2. In that the 29. Canon saith, [No Parent shall be urged to be present nor admitted to answer [...] God-father for his own Child] by [...]ch the Pa­rent [Page 266] is excluded: Therefore our Chil­dren are all unbaptized, to which he is pleased to answer to this purpose.

Mr. Bax. Answer.That though the Parents be absent, who yet may if he please be silently present, yet his consent is supposed, be­cause he chooseth the Sponsors, and gives the Minister notice before hand; and though my judgment be, that they should be the principal Covenanters for the Child expresly, yet the want of that expresness will not make us unbaptized persons.

Now whether Mr. Baxter herein hath not most amply confirmed, and not at all answered the Scruple, let all men judge.

For first, if it be so as scrupled, and by him not denyed; 1. That the entring Covenant with God, it so the Essential part of Baptisme, that without it, it is not.

2. That Children cannot.

3. That the Sureties (either by the Law of God or Nature ought not.

4. That the Parent by the Canon Law must not.

How then is it possible, (which our learned Casuist would impose upon us) that a Parents [...]pposed Consent can cre­ate [Page 267] a power in another to do a thing, which neither the Law of God nor Na­ture enjoy us, for approves.

And therefore have we not good and substantial ground from this Argument to conclude, That for as much as Chil­dren by the Liturgy are baptized with­out any covenanting with God, either by themselves or others, (authorized by God thereto) therefore their Bap­tisme, is a meer nullity.

And as to his saying, [Dictator and Oracle like] that a Parent hath a Co­venanting Power for his Child inherent in him, and which he may confer upon another: It is but begging the Question in both parts, and no less then opposing the Canon, but especially a contradict­ing the whole Current of Scripture.

As to the Humane invention of Gossips or Sureties for Children and Bells, &c. you have before at large treated of, both as to their Original and Use; and also how sinfull and ridiculous by the Bishop of Downe, P. 91, 92.

Which Chapter therefore I shall con­clude with the words of Mr. L. a per­son of great learning and moderation, as generally esteemed in his book of Bap­tisme, upon this Point, P. 359. And [Page 268] the Patrons of Baptisme I hope will par­don me; If what Chamier affirms of Baptisme, not given by a right Mini­ster, I with more Equity and Reason affirm here. That it is not a Sacra­ment, but a rash mockery or deceiving, by no [...]ans to be endured in the Church.

CHAP. VII. Wherein there is an account of some eminent witness that hath been born against Infants Baptisme from first to last.

THe first we shall mention is that excellent Testimony Tertullian bore against it, Tertul. upon the first appear­ance of it in the 3. Century, in his Book de Baptisme Cap. 18. Wherein he dis­swades from the practice by such like Arguments as these, viz.

First, From the mistake of the Scrip­ture usually brought to enforce it, which was afterwards called the Scripture Ca­non for Baptisme, viz. Mat. 19.14. Suffer little Children to come to me, and forbid them not, for of such is the King­dom of Heaven, &c.

It is true saith he, the Lord saith, D [...] not forbid them to come to me. Let them come therefore when they grow Elder, when they learn, when they are taught [Page 270] why they come; let them be made Chri­stians when they can know Christ.

Secondly, From the weightiness of the Ordinance which ought not to be trifled with: For, saith he, they that do understand the weight of Baptisme, will rather fear the attaining it, then the de­ferring it.

Thirdly, From the sinfulness of such a Practice: So rashly, saith he, to give such Holy things to Dogs, and to cast such Pearls before Swine, and so headi­ly to partake of other mens sins.

Fourthly, From the absurdity of it, To refuse to commit Earthly and Secular things to their trust by reason of their in­capacity, and yet to commit to, and in­trust them with Heavenly and Spiritual things.

Fifthly, From the folly of exposing of Witnesses, Who by death may not only frustrate their Promises but be disap­pointed through the evil disposition of them they so largely undertake for, Mag. Cen. 3. c 6. 125.

Sixthly, From the consideration that the Adult were the only proper Subjects of Baptisme; because, saith he, Fasting, Confession, Prayer, Pro­fession, Renouncing the Devill and [...] [Page 271] Works is called for from them. Coron. Mil. 124.

The Witness Born by the Donatists.

THe second we shall mention is the Witness that the Novations and Donatists gave against it,2. Nova­tions & Donatists Austin. as Austins 3. and 4. Books against the Donatists doth demonstrate, wherein he mana­geth the Argument for Infants Bap­tisme against them with great zeal, en­forcing it by several Arguments, but especially from Apostolical Tradition, and cursing with great bitterness they that should not embrace it.

And therefore Osiander Osiander in his Epit. Gen. 16. P. 175. saith, That our modern Anabaptists were the same with the Donatists of old.

And Fuller Fuller. in his Ecclesiastical Hi­story, l. 5. p. 229. saith, That the Anabaptists are the Donatists new dipt.

And in farther Confirmation there­of, Pope Innocent I. the first Institutor and Imposer of Infants Baptisme, did [Page 272] banish th [...] People (called Cath [...]ri) out of Rome, as Socrates Socrates. l. 7. c. 9. We put the Donatists and Novations together, because they did so well agree in Princi­ple, Cryspin. as Cryspins French Hist. P. 17. [out of Albaspinaus upon Optat. Mi­levitanus Observat. 20.] telleth us, say­ing, That they hold together in the fol­lowing things, viz.

First, For purity of Church Mem­bers, by offering, that [...] ought to be admitted into Churches, but such as were visibly true Believers, and re [...] Saints.

Secondly, For the purity of Church-Discipline, as the Application of Church Censures, and keeping out such as had Apostatised or scandalously sinned.

Thirdly, They both agreed in assert­ing the Power, Rights and Priviledges of particular Churches, against Anti­christian incroachments of Presbiters, Bishops and Synods.

Fourthly, That they baptized again those whose first Baptisme they had ground to doubt.

Eckbert. Eckbertus and Emericus, two great opposers of the Waldenses, for denying Baptisme to Children, (as afterwards you'l find) do assert, That the new Ca­thari [Page 273] or Puritans, (which they called the Waldenses) do conform to the Do­ctrine and manners of the old Cathari, viz. the N [...]vations.

And Paul Perin Perin. in h [...]s History of the Waldenses, tells us, That the Fratricelli, or little Brethren, another name given to the Waldenses, were time out of mind in Italy and Dalmatia, and were the Offspring of the Novations persecuted and driven from Rome about 400. and why for their purity in Communion, were also called Cathari.

And as for Cassanders Reason in his Epistle to the D. of Cleve, why the Donatists did not disown Infants Bap­tisme, mentioned also by Mr. G [...]bb [...]t, I conceive hath no weight at all in it, viz. because the 6 Council of Carthage decreed, That all that returned from the D [...]nat [...]s, should be received [...]to the Catholick Church without Rebaptisation, th [...]gh [...]aptized in Infancy; which is b [...] [...] supposition at [...]st that they might be baptized in Infancy, o [...] they might not, and c [...] signifie nothing a­gainst all the former Evide [...].

[...]bje [...]s. But the N [...]vations and Do­ [...]is [...]s, were by Popes and Coun­cels [Page 274] adjudged and dealt with as Here­ticks.

Answ. So were the Waldenses, as you'l hear none more, and so have [...]een the Christians in all a [...]es, therefore all that have heen so Censured, ought not so to be esteemed, Paul himself tells us, That in the way they called Heresie, so worshiped be the God of his Fathers. And indeed what part of the purest Gospel way and worship has escaped this Censure.

Neither doth is follow, if Christians should erre, or mistake themselves in some things, that therefore they must be rejected as Hereticks in others.

I could enumerate several gross er­rors and mistakes of Austin himself, (their great opposer) as they are [...] corded amongst his Navi, m [...]st be there­fore be esteemed [...] Heretick.

But as to the Nova [...]us and D [...]na­tists, (so much one in principle and pra [...]ti [...]e) however adjudged by Popes and Councils, I [...] find they [...] other then a very Holy Peopl [...], [...] cially the Novations, whose great Crime was, that they prest after puri­ty in worship, and to separate, [...] you [Page 275] have heard, from Antichristian defile­ment, & therefore called Puritans or Ca­thari, concerning whom Socrates, Scho­lastious speaks so honourably, and so largely vindicates from the Calumnies cast upon them, defending them to be a holy, zealous, sincere, faithfull Peo­ple.

The Witness born by the An­cient Britains.

THe next we shall mention,3. Bri­tains. is that witness we find born by the Old Britains, (of whose Antiquity and Pu­rity in Christianity, you have a more particular account in the following Hi­story) who having as you will find, received the Christian Doctrine and Worship from the Apostles time, did en­tirely keep thereto, cleaving to the Scriptures, utterly renouncing all Ro­mish Traditions, and Superstitions, es­pecially the Remains of them, that after the Roman and Saxon invasions, inhabi­ted Wales; to whom Austin the Monk, the [...]gate of Pope Gregory about the year 604. did address in two Assem­blies, [Page 276] that he procured upon the Bor­ders of Wales, to engage them as he had done many of the Saxons, to em­brace the Romish Rites, especially in Christening Children, and keeping Easter. But in as much as they utterly refused to be seduced by him therein; he not only threatned their ruine, but ac­complished the same in a short time after.

Concerning which Mr. Fox Fox: in his Martyrology, P. 153, 154. 1. Part, tells us, That Austin having charged them to Preach with him to the English, and that they should among themselves form certain Rites and Ʋsages in theer Church, especially for keeping their Ea­ster-Tide, and Baptizing after the man­ner of Rome, and for which he quotes Bede, Polichron, Huntingdon, Jor­nalenses, and Jeff Monmouth, and Fabian,Fabian. 5. Part Ch. 119. &c. Fabian expresseth himself thus, Fol. 125. Part 5. viz. Then he said to them, since you will not assent to my Hosts generally, assent you to me, especially in that things. The first is, that you keep Easter i [...] d [...] form and time as it is Ordained. The second, that you give Christendome t [...] Children. And the third, that you [Page 277] Preach to the Saxons, as I have i [...] h [...] ­ed you: And all the other debate I shall s [...]ffer you to amend, and reform amongst your selves; but saith he they would not thereof. To whom then Austin spake and said, That if they would not take Peace with their Brethren, they should receive War with their Enemies: And if they disdained to Preach with them the way of Life to the English Nation, they should suffer by their hands the re­venge of Death; and which Austin ac­complisheth accordingly, by bringing the Saxons upon them to their utter ruine, as you will hear afterwards at large. And thereupon saith Fabian, That Faith that had endured in Britain for near 400 years, became near e [...]ti [...] through all the Land.

And that the Churches in Britain did oppose the baptizing of Infants, and assert and practice that of Believers, is farther manifest by these following Ar­guments.

1. Because as you'l find in the Hi­stor [...] that they received the Scriptures, th [...] C [...]istia [...] Faith, Doctrine and Dis­cipline from the Apostles and A [...]tick Churches, who had no such thinges [Page 278] the baptizing of Infants amongst them, as you have largely heard.

2. Because it appears they so fully pr [...]ed, and faithfully adhered to the Scriptures both for Doctrine and Dis­cipline, wherein no such thing is to be found, as also you have understood, and as is confest.

3. Because they did so vehemently reject Humane Traditions in the Wor­ship of God, especially all Romish In­novations, Rites and Ceremonies, this [...] before undeniably appearing to cou [...]e from Romes Ordination and Impo­sition.

4. Because Constantine the Great, the Son of Constance, and the famous Helena, (both eminent Christians) born in Britain in the year 305. was not baptized till he was aged, as before, a clear proof, that the Christians in Britain in those days did not baptize their Children.

5. Because of the Correspondency and Ʋnity that were betwixt the French Christians, after called the Waldenses, and them, who had Colledges like them, communicated in the Ministry with them, both in preaching and baptizing, viz. Germanus and Lupu [...], two famous [Page 279] French Men, sent for to help against the Pelagian Herisie, who were not only usefull and serviceable to suppress that error, but were Instrumental to convert many, and did Bapti [...]e great Multitudes amongst them upon confessi­on of Faith in the River Allin near Chester.

And lastly, another Argument why they did not baptize Children in Bri­tain, because Austin himself, the Ro­mish Emissary, was himself so raw and ignorant in the Rite, when he came best into Britain, as appears by that Question, which he amongst others writ from thence to Pope Gregory to be resolved in, viz. how long the bapti­zing of a Child might be deferr'd (there being no danger of death) in his 10th. Interogatory, Ex decreto Greg. 1. Lib. Concil. Th [...]. 2.

The Witness born by the Waldenses.

4. Wal­denses.THe next we shall produce, is the most eminent Testimony that was born by the Waldenses, those French Christians, who are so very famous in Story, for the defence of the Gospel against Antichristian Usurpations, that the learned Ʋsher in his Book of the state and succession of the Christi [...] Church, doth trace its succession through them in a distinction from, and opposition to that of the Papacy, the Ro­mish Church, and who amongst other of Christs Ordinances, (that they de­fended and witnessed too, to death, and banishment, and bonds) that of Bap­tizing Believers in opposition to that of Infants, was you'l find by plenti­full Evidence none of the least.

Leaving the History of this famous People, as to the Names they are known by in Story, their Original, Growth, Excellency, and Suffer­ing, till the Conclusion, we proceed to demonstrate to you what witness [Page 281] they gave unto this great truth, in the [...]articulars following, viz.

1. In their publick Confession of [...]aith.

2. In the particular Witness that some of their principal men bare thereto.

3. In the more general Witness born by the Body of the People, as appears by Decrees of Councils, the Decretal P [...]stl [...], and General Edicts given forth against the whole Party for the [...].

4. In the Footsteps that we find thereof in the several Countries, where they have heretofore Imprinted the same.

The first is the Witness we find hereof in their pub­lick Confessions of Faith, viz.

1. In their Confessi­ons of Faith. P. Perin IN their Ancient Confession of Faith bearing Date 1120. Article 1 [...] They say we acknowledge no other Sacra­ments but Baptisme, and the Supper of the Lord, P. Perin 87.

And in Article 28. of another Con­fession. That God doth not only instru [...] us by his word, but has also Ordaine [...] certain Sacraments to be joyned with it; as a means to unite us unto, and to make us partakers of his benefits, and that there are only two of them belonging in Common to all the Members of the Chu [...]ch under the New Testament, viz. Baptisme and the Supper of the Lord, Morland. 1. B. Ch. 4. 67. And in ano­ther very Ancient Confession of Faith,

Article 7. We do believe that in the Sacrament of Baptisme, Water is the Visible and External Sign which repr [...] ­sents unto us that (which by the Invisi­ble [Page 283] virtue of God operating) is within [...] viz. The Renovation of the Spirit, [...] the mortification of our Members in [...] Christ, by which also we are re­ceived into the holy Congregation of the [...] of God, there protesting and de­claring openly our Faith and amendment [...] Life, P. Perin P. 89.

VignierVignier. in his Ecclesiastical History; [...] They expresl [...] declare to receive [...] Canon of the Old and New Testa­ [...]ent, and to reject all Doctrines which [...]re not their foundations in it, or are [...] any thing contrary unto it. Therefore all the Traditions and Ceremonies of the Church of Rome they condemn and abo­ [...]inate, saying she is a Den of Thieves, [...]d the Apocaliptical Harlot, Usher P. 374.

And in their Ancient Confession, Article 11d We esteem for an abomina­tion, and as Antichristian all Humane Inventions, as a trouble and prejudice to the liberty of the Spirit; and in their Ancient Catechisme you have these fur­ther Principles about Tradition and Hu­mane Inventions, as you find them in P. Perin de Doct. de Vaud. Liv. 1. 168, 169. When Humane Traditions are ob­served for Gods Ordinances, then is he [Page 284] worshiped in vain, as the Prophet [...] affirmeth, Ch. 19. And our Savi [...] himself alledgeth, Mat. 19. And whi [...] done when Grace is attributed on the B [...] [...]al Ceremonies, and Persons enjoyn­ed to partake of Sacraments with [...] Faith and Truth.

But the Lord chargeth his to take he [...] of such false Prophets, to separate, avoid and withdraw from them, Mat. 16. [...] to the 23. Psal. 26.5. 2 Cor. 6.1 [...] 2 Thes. Rev. 18. And

In their Ancient Treatise concern [...] Antichrist, Writ 1120. They say th [...] [...] attributes the Regeneration of the [...] Spirit unto the [...]ad outward w [...] Baptizing Children into their Faith, [...] teaching that thereby Baptisme and R [...] generation must be had, grounding the [...] ­in all his Christianity, which is again [...] the Holy Spirit, P. Perin Lib. 3. 267.

[...]he second is the Witness we find born hereto by several of their most eminent lead­ing men.2. By their leading Men.

THe first we begin with is the fa­mous Beringarius1. Berin­garius. of Turain in [...]n [...]n, one of their Barbes, as M [...] [...].

Who in the 11. Century did so emi­ [...]ly and learnedly oppose Transub­ [...]tiation, and other Popish Innova­ [...], and for which he was persecuted [...] above 30. years, by no less then [...] Popes, viz. Leo the IX. Nic. II. [...]x. II. Greg. VII. and prosecuted by [...] desperate persecuters, viz. Gui [...] ­ [...]d, Algerius, F [...]lbertus, Heldibrand, after Greg. VII. and Lunifrank Arch­bishop of Canterbury, and Sentenced in no less then four Councils, as the Magd [...]burgs tell us, viz. The 1st. Lateran, the Vercellans, the Thureus, and 2d. Lateran, as Cen. 12. P. 454, 456, 457.

Who with his Witness against the r [...] [...]al presence doth also testifie against t [...] other of Baptizing of Children.

The Magdiburg Cent. 11. C [...]. 15. 1. 240. tell us, That Beringarius did i [...] the time of Leo the IX about the ye [...] 1049. publickly maintain his Heresies, which they set down to be denying Tra [...] ­substantiation, and Baptisme to litt [...] ones, under five Heads, which La [...] franck Archbishop of Canterbury, [...] his Book called Scintillaris answer [...] large; and as to that of his denying i [...] ­fants Baptisme, he answers by say [...] he doth thereby oppose the general Doctr [...] and Ʋniversal consent of the Church, P. 243.

CassanderCassand. in his Epistle to the D [...] of Cl [...], saith, That Guitmund Bl [...] of Averse doth affirm, that with the [...] presence in the Eucharist, he did [...] Baptisme to little ones, though not [...] latter so publickly as the former, kn [...] (as he saith) that the Ears of the [...] of men would not brook that blasph [...].

In the Bibliotheca Patrum, P [...] at Paris,Durand. Epistle to H. 1. P. 43. It is Recorded, T [...] Durandus Bishop of Leodienses, hear [...] that Henry I. King of France, had call­ed a Council to suppress the Heresies o [...] [Page 287] Brow [...] Bishop of Austen, and Berringari­ [...] of T [...]rionenses writes a large Epistle [...]o him to this purpose; first to applaud [...]is wisdom in the calling of that Coun­ [...] to suppress those pernicious Doctrines of the old Heresies now modernly revi­ved, which had filled all Ears through France and Germany.

Then Secondly, mentions the same to be, first, the affirming the Eucharist [...]o be not the real Body, but a Shadow [...]d Figure rather of the Body of Christ; [...]d Secondly, the denying, and as much [...] in them lay the destroying the Bap­ [...]sme of Infants.

Then Thirdly, shews the necessity of the Councils severity against them, [...]specially against the Bishop of Bruno, [...]hose influence in his Capacity might be of so evil Consequence, and therefore adviseth, that they should not be suffer­ed so much as to speak in the Council; And lastly, endeavours to confute the said opinions, viz. the first from seve­ral. Authorities of the Ancients, as Leo, Ambrose, Hillary, Cyril, Basil; and the second concerning Infants Baptisme. From a single quotation out of Au­ [...] against the Donatists, Lib. 4. which Epistle you have at large in the said [...]ib. Pat.

Mr. ClarkM. Clark in his Mar [...]rology, t [...] [...], That God raised up Beringari [...] who boldly and faithfully Preached, and witnessed to the Truth against the Romish Errors; whereupon the Gospelers w [...] called Berringari [...] for about 100 years after.

Math. Paris saith, That Berringa­rius had drawn all France, Italy and England to his opinion, 1087.

Dr. ƲsherD. Ʋsher tells in in the Succession of the Church, P. 252. out of Thun [...] That Bruno Archbishop of Tryer [...] did expel several of the Berringarian Sect, that had spread his Doctrine in several of those Belgick Countries, and that seve­ral of them upon Examination did say, That Baptisme did not profit Children to Salvation, [...] (saith h [...]) the Auth [...] of the Acts of Bruno (found in the Lord C [...]e [...] Library of Clapton) doth [...] stifi [...].

But [...] to B [...]rin [...]ri [...], it is objected [...] said, Th [...]t [...]e did recant and re­ [...]oke hi [...] opinio [...], a [...] appea [...] by th [...] R [...]tation it self Recorded by Gr [...] [...].

To which I [...]swer in the words of a learned Man [...]prest in CrispiusCrispin. French History, fol. [...]1. That if he did throug [...] [Page 289] frailty recant and deny the truth, it was [...] other then Peter did before him, who [...]it repented of that evil, and so did Ber­ [...]garius too.

And write against his own Rec [...] ­ [...] so viola [...]ly extorted from him; for most conclude he lived some time after, and dyed in his former profession, a man of great worth and goodness, as his Epi­laph by his Scholar Heldebert Bishop of Tryers discovers, mentioned by Malms­ [...]ry. P. 1. 14.

Vir v [...]re sapiens & parte beat [...] ab omni,
Qui C [...]lo [...] anima corpore ditat hu [...]um.
Post obitum vivam sicum, sicum qui [...]scum.
Nec sciat melior sors mea sorte sua.
He was a Man was blest on every part.
The Earth hath his Body the Heavens his Heart.
My wish shall be that at that my end.
My Soul may rest with this my Friend.

The second eminent Witness we meet with amongst the Waldenses, w [...] t [...] famo [...] Peter Bruis of Tholo [...]s [...],P. Bruis another of their renowned Barbes, who pu [...]lickly and most successfully Preach­ed the Gospel in that City, and the Provinces round about it for about 20. years, wi [...] for his opposing the Do­ctrines of the Church of Rome, was apprehended, impris [...]ed, and b [...]rnt in the Fields of Sir Giles near Tholo [...]e, about the year 1136. whose Doctrin [...] and Positions, for which he suffered, we have Recorded by the Magdib. C [...]t. 12. 843. and L. OsianderOsiander. Cent. 12. 262. And amongst which we find these about Baptisme; First, That Infants are mi­th [...] to be sword, nor to be baptized by the Faith of another, all being to be bap­ti [...]ed, and expect to be saved by their own proper faith.

Secondly, That Baptisme without proper faith saves not.

Those two Positions, saith Osiander (the Lutheran) have no Error in them, the Papists being rather to be condemn­ [...]d, who deny Infants to have proper faith.

Thirdly, That little Children that are under age, and without understand­ing, [Page 291] that are brought to Baptisme, are not saved thereby.

Fourthly, That those that are Bap­tized in their Infancy, after they are come to understanding, are to be Bapti­zed again, and which is not to be esteemed Rebaptisation, but right Baptisme.

These two saith Osiander are Here­tical & Anabaptistical. Cen. 12. l. 3. p. 262.

All which, with his assertions about Transubstantiation, worshiping of Ima­ges, Purgatory, &c. are distinctly and at large answered, by Peter Clu­niensos,Peter Cluniens. whereof the Magdiburgs do give a particular account: And also you have the said Peter (writing to three Bishops in France about this time) saying, That neither Temples nor Al­t [...]rs are made by these People, neither are Crosses worshipped, but rather bro­ken, and trodden underfoot; the Mass is esteemed an abomination, and that the benefits of the living did not profit the dead, &c. And that this Heresie of the Pe [...]ro Brusians was received in the Ga­li [...] Norbonc [...]s [...], complaining that the People were Rebaptized, the Churches, Altars and Crosses prophain'd, [...]le [...] [...] in Lent, y [...] upon Good Friday it self.

This Peter Bruis was supposed to have written the Treatise of Antichrist, whereof you have some account in the History, and so eminent and worthy a Person, that for many years the Wal­denses were called Petro Brus [...]ians.

The next we shall mention is the fa­mous Arnoldus,Arnold. or rather the Ar­noldeses, there being three of that name.

Pridieux The first, viz. Arnoldus of Bri [...]ia, was in the second, Lateran Council with Peter Bruis Censured for the Heresie of rejecting Infants Baptisme, Church-buildings, and the Adoration of the Cross. Prid. Introduct. to H [...]st Latin Councils, P. 23.

The said Arnoldus was in the year 1155. as saith ƲsherƲsher. out of Gerhohus, at Rome put to death, being first hang­ed, then his Body burnt, and his Ashes flung into Tyber, least the People of Rome following his Doctrine, should a­dore him.

Another eminent Man of this name, (and one of the Waldensian Barbes also) whom Eckber [...], a [...] Ʋsher tells us, P. 292. calls the Arch-Catheri or Puritans was with two of his Associates, v [...]z. Mar­ [...]llyus and Theodoricus, who with [Page 293] him managed a publick dispute at Co­logne, against one Eckberius, were burnt, Arnold, and Eight more of his Disciples at Cologne, August 2. 1163. And Theodoricus and Marsellyus after­wards at Bunnae near Cologne. Eck­bertus saith, That the Principal Ar­gument they brought against Infants Baptisme, was Christs Commission, Mat. 28 19. Mark 16.15, 16.

We read also of another Arnold, who in the time of Honorius II. 1124. was burnt at Rome for witnessiing a­gainst the Pride, Pomp, and Luxury of the Priests, as Prid. in his Introducti­on, and Baronius in his Anals 1124. Balaeus saith he was an English Man.

The Waldensian Sect were also called Arnoldists, as Bishop Ʋsher and P. Perin tells us after their names,

Another eminent Person we meet with, witnessing to this great Truth, Heneric. was one Henricus, a great Friend and Collegue of P. Bruis 's, whose Doctrines and Positions are also recorded by the Magdiburgs, under 11. Heads; the first whereof was den [...]ing Baptisme to Children, Cent 12. 843. which Ber­nardBernard. at large endeavours to answer, and confute, telling us, That Infants [Page 294] are to be baptized upon the Faith of the Church.

The same Bernard in his Epistle to Heldes [...]ns [...]s, Earl of St. Giles, saith, The Henerici (for so they called his followers) did deny Holy days, Sacra­ments, Churches and Priests, complain­ing that the Children of Christians were excluded the Life of Christ, whilst they denyed them the Grace of Baptisme, and not suffered them to partake of Gra [...]e and Salvation thereby.

CassanderCassand. in his Epistle before his Book of Baptisme, saith, that Peter Bruis, and Henry his Disciple and Co­legue, were great Propagators of the Error of denying Baptisme to little ones, affirming that it did only belong to the Adult.

Thirdly,By the People them­selves suffering for the same. in the Witness born not only by some particular men, but by the Body of the people, as appeareth by Decrees of Councils, de­cretal Epistles, and Edicts given forth against them, as well as the Testimony of many learned Writers.

DR. ƲsherDr. Ʋsh. out of the Fragments of the History of Acquitane, written by P. Pithao, P. 81, 82. tells us, That in the time of Robert King of France, that they of Acquitaine and Tholouse, (principal places of the Waldenses) did deny Baptisme (for so they called denying Baptisme to little ones) the Sign of the Cross, the real presence in the Eucharist, and other Rites of the Church, and that many of them were Sentenced by Council and burnt.

Dr. Ʋsher also tells us out of Papir Masson in his French Annals, That [Page 296] 14. Citizens of Orleans in the Reign of King Robert, were convicted of the same Heresie, for denying baptismal Grace, and the real presence, and were all burnt alive, and that the names of three of the chief of them were Herbert, [...]isius and Stephen.

Dr. Ʋsher tells us, That in the time of the Emperour Henry II. 1017. many of this Sect were about Mediolanenses fined and banished as he tells us, Antonius in his History, 2. Tit. 15. Chap. 23. in­formeth.

And also out of Radulp. Ard Homil. tells us, That in Germany, under the Reign of Henry IV. about 1054 seve­ral of this People, whom they called the Manchean Sect, and the Reason of it you will understand afterwards, did inhabit the Countrey of Aganenses, who denyed Baptisme, and the Sacrament of the Altar.

P. Leo IX Pope Leo the IX. in his Decretal E­pistle to the Bishop of Acquitaine, (a Principal, Place of their abode) about the year 1050. Commandeth; that Young Children should be Baptized, because of Original sin.

Pope Gregory VII. decreed 1070. That th [...]e young Children whose [...]o [...]t [...] are absent or unknown, should according to the Tradition of the [...]ers be Baptized.

BernardBernard. Abhor of Clara [...]el, in the 12 Century, in his 66. Sermon in C [...]itio [...] complained, That the Cathari did deride them, because they baptized [...]s, and pray'd for the dead, and [...]sserted [...]urgatory; and that the Soul as so [...] as it departed out of the Body, went to Salvation or Damnation.

Eckbertus a great Dr. about the same time, Eckber. in his Sermon against the Cathari, saith, That they say concerning the baptizing of Children, that through their incapacity it nothing profited them the Salvation, and that Baptisme ought to be deferred till they come to years of discretion, and that then only they ought to be baptized, when they can with their own months make a profession of Faith, and desire it, and which he largely endea­vo [...]ds, to confute in that Sermon, Bib. P [...]t. 2. To [...]. fol. 99. 106.

Erbrardus another great Dr. of this time, saith, Erbrard That the Cathari do deny Baptisme to Children, because they want understanding; and therefore [Page 298] spends his 6. Chapter to confute them; the Title of which is, Children which can­not speak ought to be Baptized; and con­cludes thus: By this therefore we find that we ought to call little ones to faith by Baptisme. Bib. Pat. Tom. 4. P. 1108.

Ermengendus.Ermen­gendus. another great writer of this Age, in his Book contra Walden­ses, proves Infants Baptisme (which he saith they deny) by two Scriptures, namely Mat. 19.14. Suffer little Chil­dren to come to me, &c. And 1 Cor. 15. Baptized for the dead; whence he thus reasons. If they of old baptized the Living for the Dead, for their Eternal Salvation, though they neither received it, nor were capable thereof; how much more doth the faith of the Gossips avail for Spiritual Grace and Salvation, in the baptizing the persons of the little o [...]s themselves Bib. Pat. Tom 4.

Dr. Ʋsh Dr. Ʋsher in his foresaid Book of the S [...]ccession of the Church, P. 292. tells us out of Decretal, Lib. 5. Tit. 6 c. 10. That Pope Alexander the III. in the Turonen­si [...]n Synod, held 1163. touching the Albigenses, made the following Canon, viz.

To damn that Heresie,Alex III Turo­nensian Canon. that had so infected as a Canker, all those parts a­bout Gascogne, requiring the Clergy of every sort to give their utmost diligence to detect and suppress it, and to require all upon penalty of Excommunication, not only to refuse harbouring of them, but to avoid all civil Communion and Con­verse with them; and if taken by any Catholick Princes, that they be Impri­soned, and their Goods and Estates con­fiscated

And in as much as multitudes under pre [...]ence of sojourning together in one Mansion house, (which was very much the Custom of the Waldenses to do) do under that Colour carry on their Errors in such Cohabitations, that all such Con­venticles should deligently be searched out; and if found, to be proceeded with by Ca­nonical severity.

And further the said Dr. Ʋsher tells us out of Hovedens Annals, fol. 319. Hoved. That the said Pope Alexander III. did [...] the year 1176. The better to extir­pate the Albigenses, send a Cardinal and three Bishops, as Commissioned Inquisi­tors against them, under the names of the Cridentes, Lyonists, Patrinos, Bon­homes, or Manichees, (of the Reason of [Page 300] which names you will understand after­wards) with a Creed to put to them for the better discovering of them, in which these following are some of the Articles,Inquisi­tors Creed. viz. We believe we cannot be saved ex­cept we eat the body of Christ, and which is not so, except Consecrated in a Church by a Priest: We believe that none are saved, except they are baptized; and that Children are saved by Baptisme, and that Baptisme is to be performed by a Priest in the Church, Hovend. Annals 319. 6.

In the same year Pope Alexander, calls another Gallican Council, to con­vince and condemn the Albigensian Heresie.

Alex. III his Canon in the Ga­lican. Council. In the Third Canon, whereof they say they do convince and judge them of Heresie for denying Baptisme to Children, or that they are to be saved thereby, urging Arguments from Christs d [...]ing for all, and from the Circumcising of Infants of old; for their baptizing, and affirming, that the Faith of the Gossips is sufficient to baptize upon, &c. which you have at large in the Book of De­cretals.

Two years after, as saith Mat. Paris,Mat. Paris. viz. 1178. Cardinal Chrysoginus, i [...] sent Inquisitor to suppress the Hereticke about Tholouse, that had evil Sentiments about the Sacraments, in which Inquisi­tion many of them were persecuted, and amongst the rest Roger [...]es.

Also the same Pope Alexander III. Alex. III his Ca­non in the Lateran Councel. in the year 1179. In the general Late­ran Council condemns the Waldensian or Catharian Heresie; and in the 27. Ca­non Anatham [...]tiseth the Cathari, &c. dwelling in Gascogne, Albi, and other Parts about Tholouse, and amongst the rest of their Heresies, for denying Bap­tisme to Children, and or their contempt of all the Sacraments, Decret.

Favin,Favin. in his History of Navarre, P. 2 [...]0. saith, That the Albego [...]s do e­steem the baptizing of Infants super­stitious.

In the year 1181. P Lucius his Ca­non in the Verone Council. P. Lucius held his general Council at Verone in the time of Fred. I. Wherein the Albigensian Sect. and Heresie were damned, and Anatha­ [...]atized under the names of Cathari, Patrini, Humiliati, poor people of Lyons, Arnoldists, for during to Preach with­out Apostolical Approbation, or mission publickly or privately, and for teach­ing [Page 302] otherwise about the Eucharist, Bap­tisme, Confession, Marriage, and other Sacraments of the Church, then the Church of Rome Preacheth and obser­veth, Decret. Lib. 5. Tit. 6. de Heret. c. 11. 126. confirmed by Urban the III. 1185. Coelestin. 3. 1192. In 3. 1200. as Favin Hist. P. 290.

P. Inno­cent III. his De­cretal Ep.Pope Innocent the III. about the year 1199. writes his Decretal Epistle to the Bishop of Aries, (the principal City in Provence) respecting the Albigensian Sect, to which Barronius in his Annals writes this Preamble; and which is also ex­prest by Spondanus in his Epitome, 981. 1199. viz. Amongst the Arlatenses were Hereticks, (saith he) who excluded Infants from Baptisme, counting them uncapable of that Heavenly Priviledge: Therefore did Innocent write this excel­lent Epistle to the Arch Bishop of Arles, to confute and confound them; which he recites at large (as it is also found both in Gratian, and the Book of the De­cretals.

Wherein having given many Argu­ments to inforce the baptizing of In­fants, he makes this Decree, viz. That since Baptisme is come in the room of Circumcision; therefore no [...] [Page 303] alone the Elder, but also the young Children, which of themselves nei-neither believe nor understond, shall be Baptized, and in their Bap­tisme Original sin shall be forgiven them.

And then after the Epistle, BaroniusBaronius adds, This Innocent writ in a time of great Immergensy concerning the Sacra­ment of Baptisme, which, saith he, the poor People of Lyons, those Albigensian Anabaptists did deny.

After this he sent a great number of Fryars in imitation of the Albigensian Barbes to go up and down those Coun­tries to preach and dispute amongst them; Dominicus, Benedict, and Francis being in the Head of them. Then af­ter them many Legates, and Inquisi­tors upon Inquisitors; after them a Crusado of Armed Men, which he sup­plyed from time to time from all Parts, and continued a bloody War against them all his dayes; but yet could nei­ther vanquish nor suppress them; who by the help of strong Allies, the Kings of England and Spain, Earl of Tho­louse and F [...]ix, were enabled in a de­fensive way to maintain the War a­gainst his mighty Armies that came a­gainst [Page 304] them, a Hundred Thousand at a time; and by which me [...]n [...] as Dr. UsherƲsher. observes, P. 266. That as the persecution about Stephen by that dispersion proved much for the furtherance of the Gospel in other Parts of the world, so was i [...] here; for those that were not so fit for the War, went up and down with more freedom into most Parts of Europe. [...]nsomuch that Aeneas, Silvas,Aeneus, Silvas. after­ward Pope Pius the II. in his 16. Chap. confesseth in these words. Nec ull [...]s vel Romanorum, Pontificium Decret [...], vel Christianarum armis deleri potuiss [...]. That neither the Decrees of Popes, nor Armies of Christians could exterpate.

Having produced to you so much Evidence to this Point, I conceive it not unseasonable before I proceed far­ther, to present to you what I meet with from Mr. BaxierMr. Bax. upon it, who

In his plain Scripture Proof, p. 157. is pleased to tell us, That for his pa [...] he cannot find in his small Read [...]ng, that any one Divine, or party of m [...]n, did certainly oppose or deny Infant [...] Baptisme, for many Hundred years after Christ.

And again, p. 261. That the World may now see what a Cause you put such a face upon, when you cannot bring the least proof so much as of one Man, (much less Societies, and least of all godly Societies) that did once oppose or deny Infants Bap­tisme from the Apostles dayes, till about Luthers time.

And yet farther, p 266. I am fully satisfied, that you cannot shew me any Society (I think not one man) that e­ver opened their mouth against Baptism of Infants till about 200. years ago, or thereabouts, which confirms me m [...]ch that it is from the Apostles time, or else some one would have been found as an opposer of it.

Though with what Evidence and Truth these confident assertions, and severe reflections are made, (in respect to what hath, and is farther to be said hereto) is recommended to his own, and the consideration of the impartial Reader.

And Mr. Cobbet in, P. 200. saith, That the Doctrine of Paedobaptisme was never ex professo, opposed by any Ortho­dox Church or Christian in time of old as far as I can learn.

By their Disciples in several Coun­tries.Lastly from the footsteps we find of this Truth in the several Countries and Pla­ces, where the Waldenses had heretofore Imprinted it, as appeareth by the fol­lowing Instances.

1. Ger­many.1. FRom what we find hereof in Ger­many, where (by what you will find hereafter) the Waldenses were so conversant, that their itinerant Mi­nisters could Travel through the whole Empire, and lie every night at a friends House. Du Plessis D [...] lessis in his Mystery of Iniquity, P. 403. saith, They are spread abroad in Germany and France, as that their footsteps are to be discerned throughout the course of History.

In which Countrey we find, yea and and in most parts thereof, Multitude [...] of this perswasion down to the 16. Cen­tury; as may appear not only by the oppositions made against those per­swasions, by the Popish Party, but by [Page 307] the Protestants also; witness not only [...]he writings of Bar [...]nius, Cassander, Eckius, Gres [...] in contradiction and [...]ty thereto; but the several Ca­nons of the Council of Trent, and the Catechisme of Pope Pius Quin [...]us, re­specting that of Infants Baptisme, print­ [...]d and annexed with the same Decre­tals to be read in every Parish (by the Popish.]

But by the several disputations,Anabap­tists in all parts in Ger­many. wri­tings, and opposition made by the Pro­testant party also; yea, and that from those that were called chief of the [...] ­formation, viz. by Regius at Ausburg about 1516. Luther in Saxony 1522. Micarius in Thuringia 1525. Zwing­li [...] i [...] Zwitzerland 1529. Brentius in S [...]via 1530 Calvin at Geneva 1537. J [...]nius about Limburg and Heidlburg 1570. and Multitude of Anabaptists in Basil, Ʋlme, Ausburg, against whom O [...]l [...]mpagius disputed, 1527. 29. As Clark in his Lives, and their respective works manifest.

Whereby it is evident they had a being in those parts before Luthers time; for it cannot rationally be sup­posed, that they should all of a sudden be so spread over so great a Territory [Page 308] as the upper Germany; and therefore cannot be concluded to be other then the Remain [...] and Offspring of those that the Waldenses had instructed in those times.

But in the next place we do not only find them in the upper,2. Hollan. but lower Ger­many, being spread all over the L [...]w-Countries.

Cassand. rep [...]rts well of Anabap­tists. Cassander in his Epistle to the Duke of Cleve, tells us, That the Anabap­tists of the Belgick and lower Germany, are followers of Menno Simonis, and since of Theodoricus, in both whom were Tokens of a godly mind, and whose Disci­ples seem to err more out of ignorance then malice, and therefore, saith he, are more worthy an amendment, then persecution and perdition.

Anab. cald Mennists from Menno. Cloppenb.From the said Menno the Anabap­tists in Holland are called Mennists to this day.

Cloppenburg in his Epistle to his Gan­grea [...]e, saith, The Troops of Anabap­tists that dwell in Friezland, although they trouble not the Common Wealth, yet they suffer not the pure reformed Church­es to be edified without daily con­flicts.

Beza in his Epistle to the Galla­belgick Churches at Embden, saith,Beza's honoura­ble Testi­mony of Anabt. Many of the Anabaptists are good men, Servants of God, Martyrs of Christ, and our most dear Brethren. Hornbeck p 364.

Vossius in his Book de Baptismo, The learned Zwinge­rius writ for Anab. fol. 175. tells us, That the learned Zwin­gerius in his Book de Baptisme, fol. 63. did maintain, that Children were uncapa­ble of Baptisme through unbelief, and that it did only belong to the Adult.

He also tells us,Erasmus a favou­rer of A­nabapt. That Erasmus of [...]tterdam himself seemed not much to differ from him, who would have all Parents either to baptize in Infancy, or to defer it till they were of years, provi­ded that they did carefully educate, them in the Doctrine of Faith, and train them up in good Manners.

Therefore Bell [...]rmine saith of him,3. Bohe­mia and M [...]rav. That he was not only a friend to them, but had sowed the Seeds of Anabap­tisme.

In the next place we find, that as P. Perin tells us, That the Waldenses of old were dispersed, and their Doctrines taught in Bohemia, Moravia, and Au­stria; so there also till they were ex­pelled by the Emperour about 50 years [Page 310] since were several Anabaptist Churches to be found.

Scultet. Scultetus in his Annals upon 1528. tells us, That the Brethren in Bohemi [...], and many godly Men in that time were Rebaptized, not that they did favour the many Errors [...]harged upon the Ana­baptists; Anabab. a nick name. but they saw not (they say) how otherwise to seperate themselves from the pollutions of the world, not owning a Rebaptisation, because they esteemed the former a meer nullity, and unlawfull

And farther tells us, That their Mar­trology mentions, That one of their suf­ferers in the year 1553. being asked whe­ther he was Rebaptized, answered, That he knew no Anabaptist; for being [...]nce baptized, was as much as the Word of God required.

Baltazar Hu [...]bmer a Dr. in Wald­shu [...]t, a great preacher of this way in Bohemia and Moravia,Dr. Hub­mer and Wife Mart. whom Osiander calls a Phanatick, and gross Anabap­tist, was taken Prisoner with his Wife, by the Emperours command, who was himself burnt at Vienna in Austria, and his Wife drowned, for Hereticks in the year 1528.

But that which is most considerable in the Account we have to give of Bo­hemi [...], is what we meet with in the Hi­story of Bohemia, writ by Commenius, p. [...]4.Comeni­us Hist. of the A­nabapt. of Morav. who giving an account of the distresses that befell them upon the de­seat of Frederick by the Emperours Forces at Prag [...], tell us, That when the Enemy resolved to exercise their cru­ [...]lty against us, they began the year after the victory with the Anabaptists in Mo­ravia, who possessing about 45.Lived in Colledges Houses or Colledges, (many Families dwelling together in them) having all things managed in partnership, in a publick, Stock or in common, according to their Custom, lived peaceably under their own Disci­pline, troublesome or grievous to none, but beneficial to all by their Trades and Callings.

They banished, saith he, these first in the year 1622. about Autumn, being forced to leave their Houses, Lands and Vineyards, though the time of Vintage was at hand, and carrying the weaker fort with them in some Hundreds of Carts, went in great Troops into the neighbouring Countries of Hungaria and T [...]nsilyania, where he saith they could find fit, Seats for themselves, and whereby [Page 312] they avoided th [...]se evils that were afte [...] to be suffered by [...] that were left behind And that [...]b [...]se were of the Stock that had been instructed by the Waldenses of old, may appear by this Custom of living to­gether in Houses or Colledges, which w [...] their Custom, as Bishop UsherƲsher. in the state of the Church tells us, p. 292. main­taining themselves by their Manufa­ctures. And living so together, not only for the benefit & comfort of their [...]o [...] having the better opportunity for Religi­ous service,4. Hung. eying also that primitive pat­tern, Act. 4. But to free themselves more from observation and persecution which flocking together from several parts might occasion.

In which way upon good informati­on I find they continue together in H [...] ­garia, Transilvania, Poland, and some parts of Germany to this day.

Concerning whom a Hungarian Scholar, that about 5, or 6. years since came from those parts, and had lived [...] mongst them, gave the within a f [...] dayes this particular account; That he himself knew four Colledges of them in those Parts, viz. two in the lower Hun­gary, one at a place called Coso [...], [...]nd another at Turk [...]s Hida, and in the [Page 313] upper Hungary another famous Col­ledge in a place called Saras Patack, in which Town he himself lived, (as he told me) and knew the People very well, and that there were near 100. Families in that Colledge, who are reputed a very Holy, Harmless, Innocent People, and that they do support themselves by their Manufactures, brought into one Joynt-stock, Eat altogether in one great Hall, Worship God toge­ther twice a day, each several Manufa­cture, being rainged together both as to their Work-Rooms, Lodging [...], and Table in the common Hall, having p [...]b­lick Officers to manage all their Affairs, and Schools for their Children.

In Transilvania he saith he knows another, at a place called Alvinez. 5. Tran­silvania. All which, as he saith, are the remains of those that came out of Moravia and Bohemia about 50. years since. I un­derstand that near Heidlberg in the Pa­latinate, there is another great Col­ledge, consisting of near 100. Families, and that in Prusia there are others of them also.

V [...]ssius in his Book de Baptismo, P. 177. tell [...] us, That the Ministers in Tran­silvania [Page 314] do reject Infants Baptisme, and Baptize only upon profession; but he with­all saith, That many of them are infe­cted with Socinianisme; though this Hungarian Gentleman tells me, That the Colledges are very free from that infection.

6. PolandAnd farther, That this Truth was spread in Poland (where the Wald [...] ­ses as you'l afterwards find had much to do) appears from what we find out of John a Lasco, the Polonian Ba­ron, in his Book de Sacramentis, where he tells, That the Anabaptists do refuse to Baptize their Chldren, because they neither do believe nor understand the Spiritual Mystery thereof, and say there is no ground from Circumcising Chil­dren under the Law, to Baptize them under the Gospel; because say they there is a Command for the one, and none for the other; and that God had other wayes to save the Children that dyed in their Infancy, then by such ex­ternal Ceremonies: And that neither by Circumcision were Children to [...]e saved of old; for then would the [...] ­mules as well as the Males have been enjoyned the fame, and that it was God [...] Covenant of Grace, and no onward Rite [Page 315] or Ceremony that were to be leaned [...]on to effect the same, to all which as an [...]my to their perswasion, he largely replye [...] in the said Book. He also in his Theologia Muscovitica, P. 157. [...] us, That the Ministers of these fraternities in Poland, do for the most part live single lives, though under no publick vows or constraint, admitting Marriage to any that desire the same, and that they live very pious lives, as Dr. Ʋsher, P. 363.

A farther and mo [...]e particular ac­count of the state of these Churches in all these parts, I doubt not shortly to give you, having lately written into Germany to a learned and very intelli­gent person, now (as I hear) wri­ting a History of them.

And lastly in England it self,7. Engl. where several of the Waldenses (and then Dis­ciples out of France, Germany and Hol­land had recourse, and) have left us some Prints of their footsteps, viz Rainard L [...]ard, a famous Waldensian Barbe, was an Evangelist sent into England, as P. Perin and Morland, P. 184. and whose Disciples were called Lo [...]ards, and imprisoned in that Towre in Pauls Church, known by the name of Lollards [Page 316] Towre to this day, and which was a Sect. so hated by the Popish Rulers both in Church and State, that they put a Clause into the Oaths of all Ma­gistrates, especially Sheriffs and Par­liament Men, utterly to exterpate and root them up, and which form of Oath continued till King James's time.

In Henry II. Time, there were 30. of the Walde [...]sian Sect taken at Oxford, and marked with a Key in their Fore­heads, and every one forbidden to re­lieve them, whereby they perished for want of Sustenance, as Hollingshead in his Cron, and Bishop Ʋsher in his State of the Church.

In Henry VIII. Time in the year 1528. Seven Dutch Anabaptists that came over with Anne a Cleve, were apprehended and imprisoned, of whom five bore the Faggot and recanted, and two of them, a Man and a Woman, were burnt in Smithfield. Stows Cron. 576.

And again in Henry VIII. Time 1535. Twenty Two Anabaptists were apprehended, and Ten of them put to Death, F [...] Act. Mon. V. 2. P. 315.

In Queen Mary's Time, about the Year 1 [...]57. we find Anabaptists Im­prisoned, giving the following grounds against Infants Baptisme, viz. 1. Be­cause Antiscriptural. 2. Because com­manded by the Pope. 3. Because Christ commanded teaching [...]o go before Bap­tisme, Pox's Acts Mon. V. 3. P. 606.

In Queen Elizabeth's time, in the Year 1575. A Congregation of Anabaptists were taken at their Meet­ing within Allgate, Twenty Seven of whom were Imprisoned, and of them Four recanted, Two were burut in Smithfield, and the rest were banished, Stows Cron. 676.

In the 16 Year of King James 1618. That excellent Dutch Piece called a ve­ry plain and well grounded Treatise con­cerning Baptisme, that with so much Authority both from Scripture and An­tiquity, proves the Baptizing of Belie­vers, and disproves that of Infants, was printed in English.

Since when (especially in the last 30. or 40. years) many have been the Conferences, that have past, and many the Treatises that have been written Pro and [...]on upon that Subject, and many have been the Sufferings both in [Page 318] old and new Englands that people of that perswasion have undergone, where­by so much Light hath broken forth therein, that not only very many learn­ed men have been convinced thereof, but very many Congregations of Bap­tists have been, and are dally gathered in that good old way of the Lord, that hath so long lain under so much obloquy and reproach, and been buried under so much Antichristian Rubbish in these Nations.

There are two material Objections that I conceive it will be necessary to ob­viate, viz. First, That Concerning the German Anabaptists. T [...]e mis­carriages of the German Anabapt. exami­ned and the re­proach from thence reflected upon the way re­moved. And Secondly, Concerning some of the Waldensian Con­fession, th [...] [...] seem to own the Baptizing of Infants.

To the first, What has been more frequent in these latter Times then to reflect some gros [...] miscarriages of some that went under the name of Anabaptists in Luthers days, upon the whole pro­fession ever since.

To which I would (say these few things, That take it for granted that things were so [...] mat [...] of Fact, that many Anabaptist did prove fo [...] horri­bly wicked, a [...] Sp [...]hanti [...]s, Sl [...]den. [Page 319] Osiander and others do report; yet how unreasonable and uncharitable would it be to render all the people either in those times or since to be such Persons also, and to judge an Error in the Principle from the Error in Conversa­tion of some that have profest it; for by the same Rule may not the purest State of the Church both in the Old and New Testament be sensured and judged, who had their Chora's, Judases, and Dia­trophes amongst them: But that o­thers that owned that Principle were Men of another Spirit, both in that as well as former and latter times you have most ample and authentick Testimony from their greatest Enemies; witness that honourable Caracter that Raine­rius the bloody Inquisitor gives of them in those days, P. 14. of those in France, Cassander, Bellarmine, Anabap­tists well reported. of. and Baronius, P. 22. of those in Germany Mr. Baxter himself, one of their severest Enemies in these Nations, yet hath done himself and his opposites that Right as to witness to the Innocency of their conversation; which you may please to read in his own words, in his Book called the Defence of the Prin. of Love, P. 7 viz. That Anabaptists are Godly [Page 320] Men that differ from us in a Point so difficult, that many of the Papists and Prelatists have maintained, that it is not determined in Scripture, but de­pendeth upon the Tradition of the Church. And I know as good and sober men of that mind, as of theirs that are most against them, and that he once motioned Tearms of Concord to the A­nabaptists, and was in as hopefull a way for peace with them, as with most others. And in his late large Book called a Christian Directory, he is pleased to say P. 827. That Anabaptists may not on­ly be admitted to Church Communion, but may be tollerated in their practice also. 1. Because they agree with us in all Points absolutely necessary to Communion, 2. That the Ancient Chri­stians had liberty either to Baptize, on to let them stay till Age, as they thought best. And therefore Tertullian and Nazianzen speak against hast: And Augustine, and many Children of Christian Parents were baptized at Age, [and if so, what greater Argument a­gainst Apostolical Tradition.] And 3. That the Controversie is of so great difficulty, that is in all such Cases none that differ be tollerated, we may not [Page 321] live together in the World or Church but endlesly excommunicate or persecute one another.

But in the next place I think it will not be unnecessary, being upon this Point, to give you some account from the best Authors of the matter of fact it self, that has occasioned so much blun­der in the world;The Ru­sticks War. concerning which you must understand there are two things especially reflected upon, viz. First those many insurrections and di­sturbances that happened in Isuria and Swe [...]ia by times for the space of 22. y [...]rs, viz. from 1502. to 1525 call­ed the Clowns or Rusticks War, where­in Munzer and several other Anabap­tists were concerned in Luthers time.

And the other, those horrible thing; that are spoken of to have been in the City of Munster in Westphalia, from the years 1532. to 1536. by J [...]. a Layden, Mathias, Gniperdoling, &c.

As to that of the Clowns War, Baronius I find in Baronius's Annals, that in the year 1502. there was a Conspiracy of Hus­bandmen against the Bishops and Ca­nons, which was called the Rustick League, which began from two Ru­sticks, of which Conspiracy the princi­pal [Page 322] Article was, That they should shak [...] off every Yo [...]e, and in imitation of the Helvetians should recover their liberty. Which beginning s [...]ith Osia [...]der, Cent. 16. P. [...]4. were the [...]ludi [...]m of that great sedition of the Rustick [...] which was in its vigour, 1525.

Gnodol. Gnodoliu [...] [...]n his History of the Ru­sticks in Germany in the year 1525. Lib. 1. saith, That in Swe [...], where they first began, they did openly signifie, that they were not Gospellers, nor did flow together for the Gospels sake, Ʋpon the account of Civil and Religious Li­berty. but because of Exactions. The first Boars that rose were against Count Ly [...]si [...], to whom after an infinite number of Rusticks did joyn themselves, crying up Gospel-Liberty after, as well as Ci­vil, in both which they were so opprest, by their Lords and Bishops (which Spanhemius himself, in his Diatro [...]e Mi­steria, refer [...] to Luthers Book of Chri­stian Liberty, as the occasion taken by them.)

Bish JewBishop Jewel in Defence of the Apo­logy of the Church of England, Part 4. Chap 1. Divi [...]n [...] to Harding to his upbraiding the reformation, saying, What became of the Hundred Thou­sand Boares of Germany, consumed by [Page 323] by the Sword of the Nobility for that their Sedition and Rebellion? answers him thus. The Boares of Germany, of whom you speak, for the greatest part, were Adversaries unto Luther, and understood no part of the Gospel, but conspired together, as they said against the cruelty and tyranny of their Lords, as they had done 22. years before in the Conspiracy called Liga Sotularia; the partners of which Conspiracy had for their word the Vergin Mary, and in honour of her were bound to say five Ave Maries every day,Papists as well as Protestants in­gaged in the Ru­stick War and touching those latter Rebels, Luther writ against them. It is true, Munzer was a busie man in Thu [...]ingia, and stir'd up the People disposed to tumults by reason of oppression.

Osiander Osiander. gives us in the 16 Century P. 36, 37, &c. the Twelve Demands of the Rusticks comprehending their Ci­vil and Spiritual Liberties, wherein people of all perswasions concerned themselves; which was no other then their Neighbours the Switzers had suc­cessively undertaken before them: And had Geneva, where they did the like, or any of the famous Men amongst the Cantons miscarryed in their attempt, [Page 324] they and their Religion too might have fallen under as much obloquy, as the chiefest of those people did in their de­feat, which the Papasts you find never­theless do reflect upon the whole Re­formation, and that upon as good grounds as the Protestants have since reflected upon the Anabaptists; because there were some of their perswasion concerned in that attempt for freedom.

The first rise of the troubles in Mun­ster.And as to the oth [...]r at Munster in 1532. &c. It is manifest both by Span­haemius and Osiander, that the first stirs in that City was about the Protestant Reformation, the Synod siding with Mr. Rotomon, and others of the Ministers against the Papists, and their Bishop and Canons that opposed them to Arms, and this before the coming in of Jo, Ma­thias, and Jo. Becold of Leyden: In the latter part of the Siege (as they say) monstrous wickedness and villany by horrid Pride,Good ground to question the Mun­ster Sto­ries. Tyranny, and Luxury in their Communities, was perpetrated by them.

Though I must needs say as to the truth thereof there is good ground to doubt.

First,Written either by invete­rate Pa­pists. Because the things are either written by the malicious Papists, their Morat [...] old Enemies, and who have said as bad things of Luther and Calvin themselves, representing them no less Monsters and Devils then these poor People, just as they used to deal with the Waldenses of old, whereof Dr. Ʋsher gives us a large account in [...]he State of the Church, or else by some of their most inveterate Enemies the Pro­testants,Or en­vious Prote­stants. who were willing to take up and improve such reprorts, to blast not only the whole party of the Anabap­tist, but their Principles also; against whom they so vehemently contended: And alas! how far good men may be transported by prejudice or malice in this kind, we need not go far for Instan­ces: For if Mr. Edwards in his Gan­grea [...] be to be believed (which it may be other Nations do that have got it) what Monsters of Men hath he repre­sented the Independents and Anabap­tist to be: Or Mr. Baxter himself to be credited in that horrid Calumney of the Anabaptists, Baptizing naked in these Countries, mentioned P. 134. What unnatural Brutes would they be esteemed; by which we may guess, if [Page 326] matter of fact cannot better be told a­mongst our selves at home, what may we expect of it abroad at such a distance.

Because of the Commu­nity of Goods that they always held.And besides, there was secondly a­nother thing by which people in all A­ges took an occasion to mis represent this people, which was found a­mongst them at Munster, and that was that Community of Goods, casting their Estates into one common Stock; which saith Hornbeck in his Summa Contra­versiarum, P. 334. was the first thing that Becaldus and Gerardus endeavou­red amongst them in the year 1533. and was the same thing that Osiander tells us Munzerius did in Mulhusi­um in Thuringia in the Rustick Tu­mults 1524. and no other then the Waldenses did so much practice of old in their Communities, and their Disci­ples do to this day both in Poland, Hungaria, Transilvania, and many parts in Germany living in Colledges in that very way, as you have heard, and will understand more thereof in the Histo­rical part, and which Custom they ob­served partly out of conveniency, and partly out of Conscience, respecting the Example, Acts 4.34. And from hence they took occasion to reproch the Wal­denses [Page 327] of old, as though with their Stocks and Food they had their Women in common too, and from hence also I perswade my self much of this Clamou [...] of the Munster business did arise.

But though if it should be taken for granted that some Anabaptists in Ger­many did turn Ranters, and were given up to such desperate Course [...] as report­ed of them, can that justly be reflected upon the Principle, and upon the Inno­cent in other parts of the world, that hate and abhor all such ways and courses.

The other Objection as to the Wal­densia [...] confession in favour for Infants Baptisme:The other Objection concern­ing the Walden­densians answer'd It is very true that Mr. Baxter, Mr. Marshal, and others beat themselves high against those that assert the Waldensians, were against Infants Baptisme from two passages.

The first is in that confession that was presented to Ladislaus King of Bohe­mia 1508. by his Subjects. and after­wards presented to Ferdinand 1535.The Con­fession to K Ladis­laus, not by the Waldens. Wherein in the 12. Article they say that they teach, That Children are to be baptized unto Salvation, and to the consecrated to Christ according to hia word suffer little Children, &c. In answer whereto we need to say nothing [Page 328] but what is contained in the very Title it self; saying that they were falsly called Waldenses justifying themselves from that aspersion, being not of their Tenents, which you may take in their own words, viz. Lo petit tropel de le Chri­stians appella per falce nom falsae ment pani [...]r [...] Ovaldes. Osiander tells us, That the professors there were a mixt Peo­ple, some that only seperated from Rome in the business of the Cup, called the Calextines. The other the Hussites that went farther then they, and the Thabarites that were more thorow for Reformation, & more especially did com­prehend those they called the Brethren or Picards, Three sorts of professors in Bohe­mi [...]. many of whom did op­pose the Baptisme of Infants; but the other two, and the greatest part of the professors in that Nation did own it, as appears by this their profession, which doth not at all weaken our assertion for I presume it will not be denyed, that all the 45. Colledges belonging to Bohemia and Moravia, containing many Thousands, were of another perswasion, this being of so late a Date as the 16. Century.

The other is a passage in that piece called the Spiritual Almanack, owning that they did Baptize their Children, [Page 329] which was written, as supposed, by George Moril about 1530. one of the Mini­sters sent by the Waldenses of Provence to Occolompadius, Bucer and Capito, to advise with them, being at that time in a very declining Condition, and to that degree so, that very many of them could satisfie themselves with going to Mass, and other their Antichristian A [...]ominations to save themselves pro­vid [...]d they kept their Hearts right with God: For which provarication Oecolam­padius in his Letter Dated 1530. and sent them back by George Morel, (recor­ded at large by P. Perin) sharply rebukes and condemns them, and for which they promised reformation, and to suite themselves according to the Documents they received from them, which for the most part since they have done, there being little or no difference between the French and German Protestants,The Wal­denses in France much de­clined from their Pristine purity. espe­cially those that own Calvins way, be­ing most of them shrunk up, (more is the pity) into little more then a bare form; little of the old purity, or pow­er being to be found amongst them, which I conceive cannot at all weaken or enervate their old Confession, pra­ctice and witness, confirmed with so [Page 330] great Authority, and for so many A­ges together. Neither would I be thought to assert such a universal Har­mony; but that 'tis possible there might be some difference amongst some of them, even in this particular, as there were many differences betwixt the Calvinists and Luthera [...]s; but I profess to you ingeniously amongst all my search, excepting these two passa­ges of so late a date, I find none.

And I must confess I cannot think it reasonable, that any of them that lived up to their Principles could embrace such a thing; for they were so zealous­ly exact, none more for the Letter of the Scriptures, founding all thereon, and rejecting whatever they found not con­tained therein, whereas this practise by Confession of all sides is not to be found in the Letter of Scripture, and none more severe rejecters of Traditions, and Popish Traditions also, whereof this is such a principal one Thus have we gone through the Waldensian Story, and witness, evidencing a concurring Testi­mony to this great Truth from first to last.

By all which you see by plentiful Evi­dence, that Christ hath not been with­out [Page 331] his witnesses in every Age, not only to defend and assert the true, but to im­pugn, and to reject (yea even to death it self) the false Baptisme.The suc­cession of Belie­vers Baptisme Insomuch that we are not left without good Testimony of a Series of succession, that by Gods Providence hath been kept a foot of this Great Ordinance of Believers Baptisme even since the first times.

And in as much as the Ancient Bri­tains, and the Waldenses have so large a share in this witness, we think it not inconvenient to joyn the History of the Antiquity and Purity of their Christia­nity hereto.


THE History of Christianity AMONGST The Ancient Britains and Waldenses; Discovering the Antiquity, Pu­rity and Progress thereof; With their great Sufferings for the same by Popish Antichri­stian Tyranny and Cruelty.

THe Antient Britains and Wal­denses, having born so early and large a part among the Eminent and Faithful Wit­nesses that have stood up for Christ and his Truths, against Antichrist and his Abominations. I conceive, it may neither be unseasonable, nor altogether unacceptable to give you a brief Histo­rical account of their Christianity, from our best and most approved Authors, whereby it may be manifested, That [Page 2] the Gospel, and the Truths thereof, did flourish in Power and Purity in these Western parts of the World, as recei­ved from the purest Times, and were so far from being beholden to the Romish Harlot for Gospel Light and Truth, as she lyingly and vain glori­ously boasteth, saying, Where was your Religion, Ministry, Churches, Ordi­nances before Luther? That she hath all along not only been the abominable Corrupter and Contaminater of the Gospel, and all the parts thereof; But the malicious and murderous Persecu­tor of all that have sincerely embraced and professed the same: A Considera­tion not unworthy the present juncture, wherein so much of her poysonous In­fection is so afresh cast about: And which you'l find is no small Antidote and Preservative the worthy Usher prescribes against it, in his excellent Piece called, The Succession and State of the Church: Renouncing any the least Succession from whorish Rome, but from these faithful Churches.

The filthiness of whose Fornications, shall in due time be more and more de­tected: [Page 3] & that however she may dream of fitting still as a Queen and as the Lady and Mistress of the Nations, yet must she certainly fall both Mother and Daughter, those that help, and those that are holpen, yea, as a Mill-stone into the Sea [...]: for strong is the Lord God that will judg her. When that Doxology, Rev. 19.1, 2. must be sung by all the Servants of God, that fear his Name, both small and great, Alle­lujah; Salvation, and Glory, and Honour, and Power unto the Lord our God. For true and righteous are his Judgments, for he hath [...]udged the great Whore, who did c [...]rupt [...]he Earth with her Fornications, and hath avenged the Blood of his S [...]ants at her hand, Amen. Allelujah.

The First we begin with is our Country-men, the Antient Britains, Of the Britains. concerning whom little is to be found from their own Writers, either before, or some Ages after Christ, who either through Ignorance or Sloth, writ no­thing; or if they did, were by the Revolutions of Time devoured.

The most we find is from Strangers, especially the Romans, their first Con­querors: [Page 4] Whose Writings tell us what a Barbarous, Salvage People they found them, with their Naked Bodies, and Painted Skins (from whence as Speed saith,Why called Brita [...]ns. their name of Britains came, viz. from Brit, Paint; and Tain, a Region.) And so inhumane, that they offered Mans Flesh in their Sacrifices, and kept their Women in Common: But afterwards as the Gospel came and prevailed amongst them, they cast a­way their Heathenish Abominations; and which was so sincerely embraced by them, and took such deep Rooting amongst them, that they became In­strumental, in several Ages, to Convert, and Conquer their Conquerors to it; viz. Both Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans.

Of the Gospels first Entrance and Progress, we have the follo [...]ing account from the best Authors we meet with; viz. The First I shall mention, giving any account hereof, is our Countrey­man Gildas, called by Balaeus, Bodonj­cus, or Sapiens, the best and mo [...]t Au­thentick of all the Antient-Brit [...]in Hi­storians, who (in his Book called, De [Page 5] Victoriâ Aurelii Ambrosii) affirmeth, That Britain received the Gospel under Tiberius the Emperour, under whom Christ suffered, and that many Evan­gelists were sent from the Apostles them­selves into this Nation, and that they came first out of France, about the Year 63. and who were the first Planters of the Gospel in this Nation. And again in his Book called De Excidio Britaniae, saith, That the Precepts of Christ, though they were received but lukewarm­ly of the Inhabitants in general, yet they remained entirely with some, less sincere­ly with others, until the ninth year of the Persecution under Dioclesian the Emperour, which was abou 290. in the third Century.

Out of an Antient Book of the An­tiquities of England, as Mr. Fox, p. 139.Elutheri­us Epistle to King Lucius. Part. 1. tells us, we find the Epistle of Eleutherius written to Lucius, the King of Britaine, Anno 169. [in answer to his] recorded; By which we understand, that Lucius had embraced the Faith of Christ, who wrote it seems to Elutheri­us, f r the Roman Laws to govern by, who in his said Epistle, as you may read at large, you have to this purpose; viz. [Page 6] You have received, through Gods Mer­cy, in the Realm of Britany, the Law and Faith of Christ you have with you within the Realm, both the parts of the Scriptures; out of them, by Gods Grace, with the Council of your Realm, take ye a Law, and by that Law, through Gods sufferance, rule your Kingdome of Britain, &c.

Tertul. Tertullian in his Book contra Judae­os, There are places of the Britains (saith he) which were unaccessible to the Romans, but yet subdued to Christ.

Origen Origen. in his fourth Hom. on Ezek. saith, The power of God our Saviour, is even with them which in Britain are di­vided from the World.

Magdib.Magdiburg. Cent. 3. Cap. 2. p. 6. We doubt not to affirm, That the Churches of the Island of Britain, did also remain in this Age.

BalaeusBalaeus. Cent 1. fol. 37. saith, That the British Churches received the Nicen Confession of Faith against the Arians, whence it was that Basil, Chrysostome, and others of the Greek Fathers make such frequent and great mention of the British Isles, their reception of the Go­spel, [Page 7] and the Divine sense they had of the Power thereof, that their Churches also were exactly constituted according to Christs pattern.

Jeffry of Monmouth in his Book,Jeffr. of Monmou. de Britanorum Gestis, Lib. 8. c. 4. tells us, That in the Countrey of the Britains, Christianity flourished, which never de­cayed, even from the Apostles Time; amongst whom, saith he, was the preach­ing of the Gospel, sincere Doctrine, and living Faith, and such Form of Wor­ship, as was delivered to the Christian Churches by the Apostles themselves; and that they, even to Death it self, with­stood the Romish R [...]tes and Ceremonies, and that about the Year 448 the English Saxons began to possess Britany, and that about 593, they having made a compleat Conquest of the Britains, began to settle their Heptarchy; That in 596 Gregory, Bishop of Rome, sent Austin the Monck into England, to bring the Saxons into a Conformity to the Church of Rome: For as long as the British Churches possessed the Countrey, they kept themselves sound in the Faith, and pure in the Worship, Order, and Disci­pline [Page 8] of Christ, as it was delivered to them from the Apostles, or their Evangelists.

That they were great Opposers of the Church of Rome, the antient Barde Taliessyence Taliessy­ence. in his Welsh Verses, recorded by Bede, and translated by Fuller in his Ecclesiastical History, 1. Book, doth testifie, viz.

Wo be to the Priest yborne,
That will not cleanly weed his Corne,
And preach his Flock among.
Wo be to that Shepherd, I say,
That will not watch his Fold alway,
As to his Office doth belong.
Wo be to him that doth not keep
From Romish Wolves his Sheep
With Staff and Weapon strong.

That about the begining of the Se­venth Century, Austin endeavoured to reduce the Britains, as well as the Saxons, to a Conformity with the Church of Rome; at which time the old Britains were principally in Wales, where Bangor on the North, and Care-Leon on the South were the two prin­cipal Seats, both for Learning and Re­ligion; In Bangor was a Colledg con­taining 2100 Christians, who dedi­cated [Page 9] themselves to the Lord, to serve him in the Ministry, as they became capable; To whom was attributed the Name of the Monks of Bangor. Yet did they no waies accord with the Po­pish Monks of that, or the following Age: For they were not reduced to any Ecclesiastical Order, but were for the most part Lay-men, who laboured with their Hands, married and follow­ed their Callings; only some of them, whose Spirits the Lord fi [...]ted and in­clined to his more immediate Service, devoted themselves to the study of the Scriptures, and other holy Exercises, in order to the work of the Ministry: Who sent forth many useful Instru­ments, Fuller, Lib. 1. p. 40. Balaeus, Cent. 1. c. 70. Many of whom Au­stin got to a Councel he kept about Worcester-shire, where he propounded to them the embracing the Romish Rites, and to join with him in Preach­ing and Administring in their way, which they refused. Then (as Rob. Fabian Fabian. in his 5th Part, c. 119. fol. 125. tells us, He said to them, Since you will not assent to my Hests generally, assent you to me specially in three things. The First in your keeping Easter-D [...] [...] [Page 10] Form and Time as it is ordered. The Second, That you give Christendome to Children. And the Third, That you Preach to the Saxons, as I have exhor­ted you. And all the other debate, I shall suffer you to amend and reform amongst your selves. But, saith he, they would not thereof. To whom then Austin said, That if they would not take peace with their Brethren, They should receive war with their Enemies; And if they disdained to preach with them the way of Life to the English Nation, they should suffer by their hands the revenge of Death: And which Austin accomplishod accord­dingly, by bringing the Saxons upon them, to their utter ruine. And there­upon, saith Fabian, that Faith that had endured in Britain for near 400 Years, became near extinct throughout the Land.

An account of the Destruction of that famous Monastery of Bangor and those worthy Christians inhabiting the same, you have thus briefly from Hum­phrey Lloyd, Humph. Lloyd. the learned Welch Anti­quary, in his Breviary of Britain, p. 70, 71. as followeth;

In Denby-Shire, saith he, near the Castle of Holt, is seen the Rubbish and Reliques of the Monastery of Bangor, [Page 11] while the glory of the Britains flourished; In the same were 2100 Monks, very well ordered and learned, divided into seven parts, dayly serving God, amongst whom those that were simple and un­learned, by their handy labour, provided Meat, and Drink, and Apparel for the Learned, and such as applied them­selves to their studies, and if any thing was remaining, they divided it unto the Poor. That place sent forth (saith he) many hundred of excellently well-learned Men, amongst whom it also vomited forth to the World, Pelagius. And afterwards, by the Envy and Malice of Austin, that arrogant Monck, and the most cruel execution of his Minister Ethelfred. Those worthy Men were destroyed, the whole House, from the ve­ry Foundation, together with their Li­brary (more precious than Gold) was razed down, and demolished by fire and sword.

And hence it is manifest, that this bloody Massacres of those glorioas Wit­nesses of Christ did arise from their Chri­stian Courage and Zeal against those Antichristian impositions of the Romish Church.

The History of Christianity amongst the Antient Waldenses.

Of the W [...]ses.THe other Historical Account we are to give you, is that of the Waldenses, that eminent and famous Christian People, who have not only given so large a Testimony to the truth before treated; but by the Learned Ʋsher, and many of our Protestant-Writers, are owned to have been the true Church, and from whom the Protestants do derive, in Opposition to the Papacy: Concerning whom, the better to preserve the savour of their precious Memory,

We shall observe in their Story, this following Method, viz.

1. Give you an account of their se­veral Names they are known by in History. 2. Their Original and Anti­quity. 3. Their excellent and worthy Conversations; as testified by their greatest Enemies. 4. The Progress and Success of the Gospel in their hands a [...]d the Methods thereof. 5. Their [...] it [...] W tness against, and great [Page 13] Sufferings under Antichrist, as I have collected them out of the best Histo­rians, both of their own and others. Though as to their own Records (as Perin and Morland inform us) the Pa­pists have used no small industry to raze and obliterate, as they have had the opportunity; though in spite of their utmost malice of that kind, Providence hath preserved something from them­selves.

First, As to the Names,Their Names in Story. by which they are known and distinguished in History, you will find to be various; viz. Sometimes from the Places and Countries of their abode; Sometimes from their Men of Name; sometimes from Reproach and Slander.

1. From the Places of their abode,1. From the places of abode. therefore called Lyonists, or the poor People of Lyons, from that City or County of Lyons in France.

Albigenses, from the City Albi in Languedoc; Tholouzions, from the City Tholous in the same Province; Arletenses, from the City Arles, the chief Seat of the Kings of Burgundy in Province; Picards, from Picardy; Lumbards, from Lumbardy in Italy; Gazars, either from a City, so calle, [Page 14] in Languedock, or from the word of disgrace, signifying Execrable.

2. From their principal Leaders.Sometimes by some of their Princi­pal Leaders; as Waldenses, as many suppose from one Waldo a Citizen of Lyons; though others suppose upon an­other account, because they were so called long before his time, as appears by the Book of Claudius Seiscelius a Councellor to Charles the Great, in the 8th Century, who mentions them by that Name, in his Book Advers. Waldenses, who though a good man, and in many things holding with them, yet in some things against them, which was 260 Years before Waldo's time.

Beringa­rians.Sometimes they are called Berin­garians, from the famous Beringarius, one of their Barbs, or Elders; some­times Petro Brusians, from that worthy Martyr Peter Bruis; sometimes Arnoldists, from Arnold, another e­minent Barb. and Martyr; sometimes Henericans, from Henericus; some­times Ioseplests, from Joseph; Lo­larde, from Lolard another of their eminent Barbs.

3. From Nick­names.Sometimes by Nick-names, or terms of Disgrace, viz. The Apostolici, or [Page 15] Apostolick men, The Cathart, or Pu­ritans, the old name of reproach, by which the Novatians and Donatists were called in the 4th Cent. Perfecti­onists, because they prest after Holi­ness. Publicanos, because they said, they were sent to publish the Gospel. The Fratracili, or the little Brethren; and Fraticelli, viz. Shift­ing Companions. Passagenes, from their Itinerat Preachings. Credentes, the Believers. The Humiliati, the humble Men. The Bon-homes, the good Men. Siccars, Cut-purses. Ga­zars, Execrable.

Turlupins, because like Wolves they inhabited. Woods, Caves, and Moun­tains.

Sometimes from slanderous, lying Reflections.

As the Paterines, as though they only worshipped the Father, but re­fused to adore the Son; because they would not fall down to the Host, nor give reverence to their Breaden God. And from like reason also Arians, as denying thereby the Divinity of Christ. Manichées, because they denied the Civil Magistrates Authority to depend upon the Popes, as men asserting there­fore [Page 16] two Principles. Deuyers of Ba­ptisme, because they denied that of Bapt. of Infants, and their Inventions to be Christ's Ordinance. Denyers of Marriage, because they disowned that to be one of the Sacraments, and that many of their Barbs lived single Lives.

Secondly, As to their Original and Antiquity which you will find to be very Antient.

The An­tiquity of their Christia­nity. Eusebius tells us in his Ecclesiastical History, Lib. 5. p. 74. That there were Churches of them in those parts of France, under Antonius Verus the Em­perour, An. 179. recording there a large Epistle written by them, and as a Preamble thereto, he makes this fol­lowing Inscription, Of the Martyrdom of Saints, and cruel Persecution in France, under Anton. Verus the Em­perour.

It was the Country of France, wherein the Theater of this Wrestling, before-mentioned lay, whose chief Cities and most frequented, in respect of the rest in the same Region, are Lyons and Viena, by both which Cities the River Rhodo­nus doth run, compassing that whole Countrey: The holy Churches there sent [Page 17] their Letter touching their Martyrs, unto the Churches throughout Asia and Phrygia, making relation of their affairs, after this manner: ‘The Servants of Christ inhabiting Vienna and Lyons, Cities of France, unto the Brethren through­out Asia and Phrygia, having with us the same Faith and Hope of Re­demption; Peace, and Grace, and Glory from God the Father, and Christ Jesus our Lord be multiplied.’

Which excellent Epistle they men­tion at large, and which also you may read in the Book of Martyrs.

In the Preface to the French Bible,Morland. and the first that ever was Prnted, they say, That they have alwaies had the full enjoyment of that Heavenly truth, con­tained in the Holy Scriptures, ever since they were enriched with the same by the Apostles themselves, having in fair Manuscripts preserved the entire Bible in their Native Tongue, from Generation to Generation, Morland Hist. p. 14.

Rainerius, Rainerius one of their grand Per­secutors, and chief Inquisitor, in the time of Pope Innocent the Third, in the thirteenth Century, gives this account of their Antiquity. Among all the [Page 18] Sects which are, or ever were, thereis none more pernicious to the Church of God than that of the Poor People of Lyons.

First, Because it is of a longer dura­tion, some say it hath remained from the time of Pope Sylvester, some from the times of the Apostles.

Theodore Belvedre, Balvedre. another of the Popish Missionaries, saith, that That Religion (which he calls Heresie) hath been alwaies in the Valleys of Angrogna, in his Book De Pro. Fide, p 37.

Beza Beza. affirms in his Book, Historie des Homes illustres, That the Walden­ses were so called from their abode in the Valleis and straiter parts of the Alpes, where they had from a long time retired themselves, and one may say, they were the Reliques of the Pure, Primitive, Christian Churches; Some of them were called, The Poor Men of Lyons, who as some men have judged had for their Head a Merchant of Lyons named John, and sirnamed Waldo; but here­in they abuse themselves, because on the contrary this John was so named, being one of the Waldenses.

Scultetus. The Waldenses in their Letter to Ocolampadius affirm, That their Churches had continued down in constant [Page 19] Succession from the Apostles times, so Scultetus Anal. in Anno 1530. p. 295.

Beza, Beza as Peter Perin, c. 6. tells us, That the Seed of the most Antient Chri­stian Church, That was and hath been most miraculously preserved in the midst of the Darkness and Errors which have been hatcht by Satan in these later times. And farther tells us, That Constance upon the Revelations sheweth, that the Reformation of the Church in the West parts of the World, began in France, and that from their source it spread it self through the rest of Europe.

In the next place you have some ac­count of their Conversation,Of their Conver­sation. given by their Enemies themselves.

Rainerius,Reinerius the Inquisitor aforesaid, saith thus of them, That whereas all o­thers procure horror by their blasphemies against God, this of the Lyonists, hath a greater appearance of Piety, in as much as they live uprightly before men, and put their trust in God in all things, and observe all the Articles of the Creed; only they blaspheme the Church of God, and hold it in contempt, and therein they are easily believed of the People.

And again Jacob de Riberia Secreta­ry to the King of France, in his Col­lections of Tholouse, hath these words, viz. The Waldenses, or Lugdenses, have continued a long time; the first place they lived in was in Narbone in France, and in the Diocess of Albie, &c. who disputed of Religion more subtilly than all others: were after admitted by the Priests to Teach publickly, not for that they approved their Opinion, but because they were not comparable to them in Wit. In so great honour was the Sect of these men, that they were both exempted from all Charges and Imposi­tions, and obtained more benefit by the Wills and Testaments of the Dead, than the Priests: A man would not hurt his enemy, if he should meet him upon the way, accompanied with one of these He­reticks; in so much that the safety of all men seemed to consist in their protecti­on. Du Plessis Myst. Iniquit. p. 331.

Amongst the Rules and Directions Reinerius gives to discover these Here­ticks by (as he calls them) these are written by him, as you will find them in the Bib. Pat. printed at Paris, 1624.

Reinerius. Hereticks, saith he, are known by Words and Manners; They are in [Page 21] Manners composed and modest, no pride in Apparel, because they are therein neither costly nor sordid. They transact their affairs without lying, fraud, and swearing, being most upon Handicrafts Trades: Yea their Doctors, or Teach­ers are Weavers and Shoomakers, who do not multiply Riches, but content themselves with necessary things: These Lyonists are very chaste and temperate both in Meats and Drinks, who neither haunt Taverns or Stews; They [...]o much curb their Passians, they are alwaies ei­ther working, teaching, or learning, &c. very frequent in their Assemblies and Worships, &c. They are very modest and precise in their words, avoiding Scurri­lity, Detraction, Levity and Falshood. Neither will they say so much as Verily, Truly, nor such like, as bordering too much upon Swearing, as they conceive; but they usually say, Yea and Nay.

Claudius, Claudius. Archbishop of Turin, in his Treatise against the Waldenses, gives this Testimony of them, That as touch­ing their Lives and Manners they have been alwaies sound, and unreproveable, without reproach or scandal amongst men, giving themselves, to their power, [Page 22] to the observation of the Commandments of God, Perins H [...]st. p 40.

The Cardinal BaroniusBaronius. attributeth to the Waldenses of Tholouse, the Title of good men, and that they were a peace­able People, Baron. Tom. 12. An. 1176. 835. However, he elsewhere (saith Perin) imputeth unto them sundry Crimes, and that very falsly.

The Lord Hailon. Bernard de Girard, Lord of Haillon, saith in his Histor. of France, Lib. 10. The Waldenses have been charged with wicked things they are not guilty of be­cause, saith he, they stirred the Popes and great Men of the World to hate them for the Liberty of their Speech, which they used in condemning the Vices and dissolute Behaviour of Princes and Ecclesiastical persons.

Viret, Viret. Lib. 4. c. 13. p. 249. speaks of the Waldenses as followeth,

The Papists, saith he, have imposed great Crimes, and that very wrongfully, upon those Antient, Faithful People, commonly called Waldenses, or the poor People of Lyons, whose Doctrine makes appear, That the Pope is Antichrist, and that his Doctrine is nothing else but Humane Traditions, contrary to the Doctrine of Christ Jesus; For which [Page 23] cause they have dealt against them, as the Antient Panims did against the Chri­stians, accusing them that they killed their own Children in their Assemblies.

Many more Evidences might be brought from their Enemies, who have been enforced, by the force of Truth it self, to give most honourable reports of them; But let this suffice.

The next thing we shall acquaint you with,The Pro­gress of the Go­spel a­mongst them. is the great Progress and Suc­cess of their Doctrine.

Bullinger tells us, That not only throughout France, but Italy, Germany, Poland, Bohemia, and other Countries and Kingdoms of the World, the Wal­denses have made profession of the Go­spel of Christ Jesus. Bullin. in the Preface to his Sermons.

Rainerius Rainerius saith, That another thing that makes this Sect more considerable than all others, is because it is more ge­neral; For there is not any Countrey al­most, whereinto this Sect hath not crept.

Math. Paris M. Paris. saith, in his History of the Life of Henry the 3d in the year 1223. That the Waldenses had goodly [Page 24] Churches in Bulgaria, Croatia, Dal­matia and Hungaria.

George Mrel in his Memorials, p. 54. asserts, That notwithstanding al the bloody Persecutions, that attended the Waldenses, That in the Year 1160. There was in those days above eight hundred thousand Persons, that made profession of the Faith of the Waldenses.

The Sea of HistoriesSea of History. tells us, That in the Year. 1315. there was in the County of Passau, and about Bohemia, to the number of fourscore Thousand Persons, that made Profession of the Faith of the Waldenses.

Le Sieur de Popeliniere Pople­niere. hath set down in his History, That the Religion of th [...] Waldenses hath spread it self almost in all parts of Europe, even amongst the Polonians, &c. And that after the Year 1100 they have alwaies sowed their Doctrine, little differing from that of the Modern Protestant, and maugre all the Powers and Potentates that have opposed t [...]emselves against them, they have defended it to this day.

Rainer. Rainerius saith, That in his time there were Churches of them in Con­stantinople, Philadelphia, Sclavonia, Bulgaria, and Digonicia, and in Alba­nia, [Page] Lombardy, Milain, and in Ro­magnia, Venice, Florence, &c.

Vignier Vignie [...]. saith, That after the Perse­cution of Picardy, that they were disper­sed abroad in Livonia and S [...]rmatia.

Trithemius Trith [...]m recounts, That they con­fessed in those times, that the number of the Waldenses was so great, that they could go from Cologne to Milan, and lodg themselves with Hosts of their own Profession, and that they had Signs upon their Houses and Gates, whereby they might know them.

In the Year 1200. they were in such a manner multiplied, that they possest at home the Cities of Tholouse, Apa­mies, Montauban, Vill [...]mur, St. An­toin, Puech Laurence, Castres, Lambes, Carcasonen, Beziers, Narbonne, Beau­caire, Avignion, Tarascon, the Count Venicin, in Dauphine, Crest Arnaud, and Monteil Amar. And had many great Lords who took part with them, as Ea [...]l Raimiand of Tholouse, and the Earle of Foix, the Vicount Beziers, Gaston Lord of Berne, Earl of Carmaine, and Earl of Brigor; The Kings also of Arragon and England too, d [...]d many times defend their Cause, by reason of their Alliance with Earl Ra [...]miand, [Page 26] Hologary in the History of Foix.

The means they used to propa­gate the Gospel.The means by which Truth came to be so propagated by them, were prin­cipally these; First, By the diligent care they had to instruct their Youth in the knowledg of the Scriptures, and to train them up in the Nurtriture, Fear and Admonition of the Lord, as the Nurseries, Seminaries, and Seed-plots of Grace and Truth.

Secondly, The industrious Care and Pains they took, not only to beget Ministerial Abilities, but the due im­provement made thereof, by those engaged therein, in all parts and places whither they were sent.

And Thirdly, By the violent Perse­cutions of them, whereby they came to be dispersed into most parts of the World, that old way, That Knowledg and Truth was propagated in the Pri­mitive Times.

1. By dili­gently in­structing the Youth.The First means blest for the en­crease of Knowledge, was the Care and Pains they took in the Catechising of their Youth, instructing them in the Knowledg of the Scriptures.P. Perrin. Perrin in his Second Book, p. 16. And in this it [Page 27] was, saith he,P. Perrin. that they have been blest of God, above all Christian People throughout Europe, insomuch that their Infants were hardly weaned from their Mothers Breasts, but their Parents took a singular Care and Diligence to instruct them in the Christian Faith and Do­ctrine, until they were able to confound the Antient and the Learned. And of which you have a very pregnant In­stance out of Vessember, Vessem­ber. in his Oration touching the Waldenses, who tells us, The Bishop of Cavaillon, in the time of the great Persecution against the Wal­denses of Merindal in Provence, first sent a Monck among them, to convert them; who returned so convinced him­self, that he confessed, he had not so much profited in his whole life in the Scriptures, as he had done in those few days of Conference with them. The Bishop not being satisfied with this trial, sent a Company of young Doctors that came lately from Sorbonne, to confound them by the Subtilty of their Question; But one there was among the rest, that said at his return, with a loud voice, That he had learned more touching the Doctrine necessary to Salvation, in at­tending to the Answers of the little Chil­dren [Page 28] of the Waldenses in their Cate­chisings, than in all the Disputations of Divinity which he had ever heard in Paris. Then the Bishop sent for the Children themselves, and caused them in the face of a great Assembly to be in­terrogated, and to Question one with another, and which was done with that Grace, and Gravity, and Ʋnderstand­ing, that it was marvelous to hear: to the confounding the Doctors and Lear­ned Men then present. The Story whereof you may read at large in Fox Martyrol. 2 Book, p. 194.

And thus it was that every Family was as it were a Colledge, to instruct into the true Learning, that maketh wise to Salvation, and furnisheth to every good Word and Work, and which was the Seed-plot to their Mini­stry.

Rainarius Rainarius tells us, That they had the Old and New-Testament in the Vulgar Tongue, and that they Teach and Learn it so well, That he had seen and heard, he said, a Country Clown re­count all Job, word for word; and divers others, that could perfectly deliver all the New Testament; And that Men and Women, little and great, day and [Page 29] night cease not to Learn and to Teach.

Secondly, 2. By im­proving their Mi­nistry. As to the way of their Ministry, That special means appoin­ted by God to beget Faith, and encrease Knowledge, you have it briefly set forth by P. Perrin, as he had extracted it out of their antient Manuscripts, viz. All those who are to be received as Pastors amongst us, while they remain with their Brethren, are to entreat our People to receive them into the Ministry, as like­wise that they would please to pray to God for them, that they may be made worthy of so great a Charge; and this they are to do, to give a Proof, or Evi­dence of their Humility. We also ap­point them their Lectures, and set them their Tasks, that they may get by heart, not only all the New Testament, but a great part of the Old, viz. The Writings of Solomon, David, and the Prophets; And afterwards having a good Testi­monial, and being well approved of, they are received with Imposition (or laying on of Hands) and Preaching. He that is received the last, ought to do nothing without the permission of him that was received before him; and in like sort, the former ought to do nothing without the consent of his Associate. Our daily [Page 30] Food, and that Raiment wherewith we are covered, we have ministred and given to us freely, sufficient for us, by the good people whom we Teach and Instruct.

Their Ministers were called Barbes or Unkles, as Fox, 186. Or as some suppose, because bearded Men, Elders or Fathers.Vignier. Of these some were married, to manifest thereby their approbation of the state of Matrimony; others kept themselves single for conveniences sake, forasmuch as they were oft [...]times obliged to remove and shift their Habitations and Abodes; and as occasion required, to undertake long and tedious Voyages, for the propagating of the Gospel, in remote and far Countries, with whom they had a particular and constant Correspondence; namely into Bohemia, Germany, Ca­labria and Lumbardy, whither the abovesaid Barbes went by turns as Ite­neraries, to visit their Brethren there, and to preach the Gospel of Christ amongst them, having not only Houses of their own to entertain their Barbes, but Schools also in divers Countries. Vign. Mem. p. 15.

Morland. Those Barbes who remained at home in the Valleys (besides their officiating and labouring in the work of the Mini­stry) [Page 31] took upon them the disciplining and instructing of the Youth, especially those who were appointed for the Ministry, in Grammar, Logick, Moral Philosophy and Divinity. Moreover the greatest part of them gave themselves to the study of Physick and Chirurgery, and herein they excelled (as their Histories tell us) to admiration, thereby rendering them­selves most able and skilful Physitians, both of Soul and Body. Others of them deale in divers Mechanick Arts, in imitating of Paul, who was a Tent-maker, and Christ himself, who was a Carpenter. Once in the Year they use to have a ge­neral Meeting in the Month of Septem­ber, to treat of their affairs. Taken out of an Antient Italian Manuscript, as you have it, Morlands Hist. 1 Book, 8. c. p. 183.

Bucer, Bucer. p. 159. saith, Besides Mini­sters of the Word and Sacraments, they have a certain Colledg of Men excelling in Prudence and Gravity of Spirit, whose office it is to admonish and correct offen­ding Brethren, to compose such as dis­agreed, and judge in their Causes.

And again in Morlands Morland. Hist. p. 179. Their Ministry were through Gods grace endued with excellent Spirits, and were [Page] for the most part, a Generation of hum­ble, holy, and harmless Men, of meek, peaceable and quiet Tempers, exceeding painful in their Calling, and carefully watching over their Flock committed to their charge. Labouring faithfully in the Lords Vineyard, and imploying their whole Time and Talents for turning Souls unto Righteousness, which they did with much Labour, Watchings, and Fastings; by suffering many Buffetings, Stripes, and Imprisonments, yea and many times by Death it self; Sealing [...] Truths they Preached to others with [...]ir own Blood: In sum, they were men [...]ortified to all the Pomp, Glories, and Riches, to all the Pleasures, Honors, and Preferments that this World could afford them; having their Conversati­ons as Strangers, Pilgrims, and Sojour­ners here bilow, conforming themselves, as near as they could, to the Scripture-pattern and Example of the Apostles, and proportionable thereto were their Labours blest, and succeeded to admira­tion in all places where they came.

Perin H [...]st. p. 16. Their Pastors, saith he, did not only content themselves to exhort them on the Sabbath-days, but went all the Week to instruct them in [Page 33] their Villages, Preaching also in the Fields to the keepers of the flocks.

The other way whereby the Gospel was thus promoted and spread,3. By their great Suf­ferings. was by the great Sufferings and Persecutions that attended them, especially from the 12th Century downwards; For till then, as observed by Fox, Usher, and others, there was more Calmness and Serenity, Satan being as it were bound, as they conceived; and the Reason thereof a Learned Pen observes to be, That Antichrist till about this time was not arrived to his [...], or perfect sta­ture, having now attained as well a Temporal as Spiritual Soveraignty; his temporal Advantages accrued most to him by the Donation of Pipin and Charles the Great, &c. And his Spi­ritual not only by the Establishment of the several Orders of the Regular Monks and Friars, viz. The Benedi­ctines, Franciscans, and Dominicans, which much advanced and strengthned the Popish Usurpations; But the Ra­tification of the Canon Law about this time collected by Gratian, as also the Sophistical School Divinity now begun by Lombard, Aquinas, and Albertus [Page 34] Magnus that gave no small addition thereto. Now it was they durst cope with Kings and Emperors for Sove­raignty, and assert their Bloody Ido­latrous Masses, Images, Breaden God, with all Force, Cruelty, and Violence imaginable.

Against whose Pride, Pomp, Ido­latry, and Antichristian Usurpation, doth the Lord raise up these his Wit­nesses, even these poor, mean, con­temptible People, who by asserting and maintaining Christs Ministry and Ordinances, according to the Simpli­city and Plainess of the Scriptures, faithfully do oppose, impugn and confront all the Popish Traditions, Usurpations, and Inventions, in all their Grandeur. And so it may be said, That against the Beast and his Armies doth the Lamb and his Army oppose themselves.

The Waldenses now standing up with a loud Voice, do call upon all to come out of Babylon, to have no Fellowship or Communion with her; detecting her to be that Abomination that was to sit in the Temple of God, and that should corrupt the Earth with her Fil­thiness; And about this time it was [Page 35] that that most excellent Piece touching Antichrist was brought forth by them, which deserves to be written in Letters of Gold, supposed to be written by Peter Bruis, the famous French Martyr, and which hath been preserved in all Ages since, by the Waldenses in the Alpes, whence Perin tells us he received it, and which he hath Printed at large, Par. 3. Lib. 3. c. 1.An Ex­tra [...]t of their Treatise of Anti­christ. In which Treatise we have Antichrist described to be the My­stery of Iniquity, or a Lye under the cloak of Truth.

2. It is said, That this Antichrist is not one single Person, but a Confederacy of Iniquity, in opposition to Christ, &c.

3. This Contrariety of Antichrist to Christ, consists, (1.) In his Wordly Wis­dom. (2.) His Pharisaical Religion. (3.) Managing Spiritual Power by Secular Tyranny, Riches, Dignity, &c. (4.) By filling up the Churches of Christ with carnal Worldlings.

4. That the perfection of Antichrist consists in a full Usurpation of the Autho­rity of Christ, according to 2 Thes. 2.4.

5. That the work of Antichrist is to change Truth into Error, and Error into Truth. (2.) To rob Christ of his Merits, &c. (3.) Placing Sanctifi­cation [Page 36] of the Spirit in externals, and Grace and Salvation in the work done. (4.) Neglecting Discipline. (5.) By maintaining Unity by Tyranny.

6. The Subterfuges of Antichrist are laid open, and its Causes.

7. The moving Causes and Scriptures loudly calling to come out from, and not to touch her, &c.

By such like Exasperations did the Popes, whose Interest & Grandeur was thus struck at, come forth now with all the Subtilty, Malice, and Revenge, that Hell and their Devilish Natures could invent, and that by several Methods and Stratagems to crush and suppress Truth; which the more they endea­voured, the more it throve and got ground, and encreast in the Nations; The Blood of the Martyrs proving the Seed of the Church.

Whose cunning, murderous Designs were much after this sort;the se­ve [...]al ways of their perse­ [...]utions First, The [...]he better to discover their Persons and Principles, they sent forth Missionaries in all points to imitate them, in a plain, humble way to go up and down afoot amongst them, to dispute with them, to preach to them, to gain upon them; of this sort was Francis, Dominick, [Page 37] and Benedict, for whose excellent Ser­vice then, they have since Sainted, and set up Orders in their Names, in imi­tation of the poor People of Lyons, or as they would be thought, in an Apo­stolick guise: But when that would not do, when they could neither flat­ter, dispute, nor preach them out of the Truth, then they.

2 Secondly came forth with Synodical Censures, Condemnations, Anathema's and Curses, Popes Bulls and Decretals, with Emperors Statutes, Decrees, and Injunctions. But they nothing pre­vailing,

3 In the next place, Thirdly, They sent our their Inquisitors, impowred and commissioned to Examine, Censure and Condemn, and to deliver up to the Secular Powers to all manner of Tor­tures and cruel Deaths, which they exercised with great Severity, but all in vain.

4 Fourthly, They betook themselves to Surprizes and Massacres, and to stir up Kings and Princes to raise Ar­mies, to suppress, and root up this Ge­neration, and by Fire and Sword to lay waste their Cities and Countries; which they did with great Devasta­tion, [Page 38] especially in Province, Daulphine, Languedoc; But the effect was, as they drove them out of one Countrey and Place, they went into others; and where ever they came, they still met with the same measure from that spirit: But God carried them through won­derfully, so that they could rejoice and glory in their Tribulations, that they were accounted worthy to suffer for Christ's sake, and whose titles of Ho­nour, as they say in the Preface of their Bible, were Injured, Reproached, Fugitives, Forsaken, Despised, Abando­ned, Excommunicated, Anathematized, Confiscated, Imprisoned, Tortured, Banished, publickly disgraced, wear­ing Miters in Derision, spit upon, shewn upon Scaffolds, their Ears cut off, their Flesh pluckt off with Pincers, drawn with Horses, drag'd up and down, broyled, roasted, stoned to Death, burnt, drowned, beheaded, dismembred, and other like glorious and honourable Titles, they say, of the Kingdom of Heaven.

But the more they designed to sup­press Truth by these means, the more it thrive; These worthy Confessors being found Overcomers by the Blood [Page 39] of the Lamb, and word of their Testi­mony, not loving their Lives unto the Death; as it was experienced in the several Countries, in the several Ages hereafter mentioned, as at large is given you in P. Perrins Hist. Viz.

The Sufferings of the Waldenses Churches in Dauphine, in the 12, 13, 14, and 15 Cent. Chap. 3.

Their Sufferings in Pi [...]dmont in the 14, 15, 16 Cent. ch. 4.

Their Sufferings in the Marquisate de Saluces, 16, 17 Cent. c. 5.

Their Sufferings in the New Lands, 16 Cent. c. 6.

Their Sufferings in Calabria, 14. and 16. Cent. c. 7.

Their Sufferings in Province, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, Cent. c. 8.

Their Sufferings in Bohemia, 15 Cent. c. 9.

Their Sufferings in Austria, 14, and 15. Cent. c. 10.

Their Sufferings in Germany, 13, 14, 15. Cent. c. 11.

Their Sufferings in England, 12, 13 Cent. c. 12.

Their Sufferings in Flaunders, 13 Cent. [...] 13.

Their Sufferings in Poland, 12, 14. Cent. Chap. 14.

Their Sufferings in Paris, 13, 14. Cent. c. 15.

Their Sufferings in Italy, 13, 14, 15. Cent. Chap. 16.

Their Sufferings in Dalmatia, Croa­tia, Sclavonia, Constantinople, Greece, Philadelphia, Digonicia, Livonia, Sar­matia, Bulgaria, in the 13. Cent. c. 17.

Their Sufferings in Spain. 13. C. c. 18.

Their Sufferings by the cruel Wars managed against them by Pope Innocent the Third for eighteen Years together, in conjunction with many Kings and Princes, in the 13 Cent. together with other Wars carried on by other Popes and Kings of France and Spain in the 13 and 14 Cent. with the wonderful detriment that accrued also to the E­nemy, who lost somtimes an Hundred Thousand Men at a Siege, you have largely set forth in Perrin's Hist. of the Albigenses, in 2 Books. Their Sufferings at Merindal & Cabriers by Fox, p. 201. vol. 2. Their late Sufferings in our time by the Duke of Savoy, in the Valleys of Piedmont, 1655. is largely set forth by Sir Samuel Morland, who was the Agent sent with the English Contri­bution.

Having thus finished the Historical Account of these Eminent Worthies, I cannot but again remember you, That this was the People that bore so great a witness for Believers, and so firmly opposed Infants Baptism, as by so many Arguments in the Seventh Chapter is made good to you.

A Postscript.

UPon the closing of my Papers, Mr. Bunions Book in Answer to Mr. Pauls coming to hand [called Dif­ferences about Baptisme no Far to Communion] defending still, That Churches may and ought to hold Fel­lowship with Unbaptised Persons.

I took my self concerned, having briefly hinted to his former, to give some short return to this also, leaving his manifold Absurdities, Contradicti­ons, unbrotherly Tauntings and Re­flections, Contemptions, traducings the wisdome of Christ, and his holy Ap­pointments, to be called to account by that hand, that hath so well begun to reckon with him.

The little that I shall do herein, is not to trace him in his Meanders, or to answer his Reflections with Reflections, but in a few things to discover, how he hath darkned Counsel by words without Knowledg, and whilst he pre­tends Brotherly love, violates the very Law of Charity, and under pretence of pleading for Truth, introduceth hai­nous Error, and fundamentally mistakes himself in both his Books.

Five of Six of which Fundamental Mistakes are here detected, and which, I conceive, may be as full an Answer to both his Books, as if Volumes w [...]re written thereto▪ For according to the Maxime, Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per panciora; In vain we do that by much, which may be done by less: which therefore take as follow­eth, viz.

Mr. Bunians Fundamental Mistakes.

1. Asserts Principles without Scripture to war­rant them First, By asserting that for a Prin­ciple and Practice in the Worship of God, that hath neither footing nor Foundation in the Word of God, and for which neither Precept nor Example is produced to warrant it.

A Presumption, then which as no­thing can savour more of Ignorance and [Page 43] Folly, Isai. 8.20. Jer. 8.9. so nothing more dangerous and destructive to Reli­gion it self, as Mark 7.7, 8, 9.

Secondly, 2. Posi­tively contra­dicts Scripture Precepts and Pra­ctice In so positively thwarting and contradicting not only the Wisdom and Authority of Christ in his Com­mission, who enjoynes Baptisme to be the next thing after Faith and Conver­sion, Matth. 28.19.

But the constant Practice of the Saints in obedience to it. As for in­stance, Acts 2.41. it is said, Then (viz. immediatly) they that gladly re­ceived his Word were baptised, and the same Day added, and so continued in Fellowship, and breaking of Bread, &c. Where you have the direct Order kept, 1. Teaching. 2. Baptizing. Then 3. Church Fellowship, and Breaking of Bread, which is the standing Directory to the Worlds end, and not Teaching, Church-Fellowship, and then B [...]ptisme after.

So Acts 22.16. Ananias exhorts Paul, after his Confession, to arise and be baptised, with a Why tarriest thou? Though he had eaten nothing of three dayes, Acts 9.9. being a Duty that ad­mits not of Delays. It was not, Arise, and go and break Bread with the [Page 44] Church, but, Arise and be Baptised in the first place.

And therefore the Jailor, Act. 16.33. must after his conversion, straitway, yea, in that same hour of the night, without further delay, be baptised, as a thing not to be neglected for a moment.

And so also Cornelius in Acts 10.47. though he was Baptized so eminently with the Spirit, yet must forthwith be commanded to be baptized with Wa­ter, a thing by no means to be deserred, as Peters words imply, who upon his seeing him so filled with the Spirit, saith, Can any man forbid Water that these should not be Baptised, &c. No sure, no man of Knowledg or Con­science, can do it, or will admit of delayes therein.

And the reason hereof is plain, Be­cause this was the Listing, Espousing, Covenanting, Ingrafting, Implanting Ordinance; Believers being expresly said hereby to be planted into Christ, Gal. 3.27. and Baptised into Christ, Rom. 6.3. And which Baptizing and Planting into Christ, is no other but an Orderly entring into the Visible Church, or Body of Christ, as so fully exprest, 1 Cor. 12.12. An Order [Page 45] faithfully to be observed as a Funda­mental Practice, Heb. 6.2. & which must be kept, Eph. 2.21. and duly regarded, 1 Cor. 11.1, 2. upon the severe penal­ties threatned, Mat. 5.19. 2 Joh. 9. Act. 3.22, 23.

And which lies so full and clear in the Scriptures, that it hath obtained an universal Consent by most that have owned the Christian Religion, and in any Form professed the same, whether Papists, Protestants, Independants, Ba­ptists. In so much that Mr. Baxter himself in his plain Scripture proof, p. 126. saith, That if any shall be so im­pudent as to say, it is not the meaning of Christ, that Baptizing should immedi­atly follow Discipling, they are confuted by the constant Example of Scripture. So that, saith he, I dare say, this will be out of doubt with all rational, consi­derate, impartial Christians.

So that Mr. Bunian, in his opposing this Principle, may well be said, Not only not to please God, but to be con­trary to all men. And whose return to Mr. Paul hereupon is so ridiculous, that it may not be unworthy your knowledg, as witnessing either his e­gregious Ignorance, or Self-condem­nation [Page 46] therein, which I shall give you in his own words, p. 98. who first sets down Mr. P. Question, viz. Whether your Principle and Practice is not equally against others, as well as us, viz. Epi­scopal, Presbyterians, and Indepen­dants, who are also of our side for our practice, though they differ with us a­bout the subject of Baptism, (viz. 1. to Baptize, then to Communicate) Do you delight to have your hand against every man?

Bun. Ans. B. Answ. I own Water-Baptism to be Gods Ordinance, but I make no Idol of it. Where you call now the Episcopal to side with you, and also the Presbyteri­an, &c. You will not find them easily per­suaded to conclude with you against me, they are agaist your manner of Dipping, as well as Subject of Water-Baptism; nei­ther do you, for all you flatter them, agree together in all but the Subject; Do you allow their Sprinkling? Do you allow their Signing with the Cross? Why then have you so stoutly an hundred times over condemned these things as Anti­christian? I am not against every man, though by your abusive Language you would set every one against me; but am for Union, Concord and Communion with [Page 47] Saints as Saints, and for that cause I wrote my Book.

This is that he calls his Answer; but let all the world judg, whether he hath so much as once taken the least no­tice of the Question.

Mr. Paul tells him, his Principle and Practice opposes all those named as us, viz. Who do own with us as a prin­ciple, that Baptism should precede Church-Fellowship; and therefore in their sence of Baptism (which is not in the Question, either as to Subject or Circumstance) do practise it according­ly, not admitting any Unbaptised Per­son into their Fellowship. And the truth whereof, if Mr. Bunian doubt, besides their Writings, I could give him some late instances of grown per­sons, not Sprinkled in Infancy, that must not be admitted upon account of their Saintship into Fellowship, till they had Water sprinkled, or poured upon their faces, and that by some that he hath leaned upon as Patrons.

But what doth he reply to this, how doth he acquit himself from this Singu­larity, so differing in Principle and Practice from all? They differ from you in the manner, as well as the sub­ject. [Page 48] I am not against every man — but am for Union, Concord and Com­munion with Saints. But would any Child, that could say any thing for it self, have made a more ignorant Return; therefore you may judg of the rest by it. But to the next.

3. That Ignorance absolves from Sins of Omissi­on and Comissi­on.A Third Fundamental Mistake is his presumptuous asserting all along, That Ignorance doth absolve both from the Sin of Omission and Commission, and which not only justifies the neglect of the true, but the Exercise of false Worship; and not only bears out in rejecting of Christs, but the embracing of Antichrists appointments; and that not only to give a Dispensation to the parties themselves thus transgressing, but to the Congregation also that shall Receive and bear with them. A Rule, if observed, what corrupt Doctrine or Practice might not be introduced there­by? And which may pass for as good Doctrine, as theirs of old, if they could but say Corbon, they might be set free from their dutiful Obligation to their Parents, 4 By de­crying In­stitutions, by crying up Moral Precepts. Mark 7.11.

A Fourth is, That under pretence of crying up Obedience to the X. Com­mandments, or moral Precepts, he takes [Page 49] the boldness to decry and trample un­der foot Christ's instituted Worship, as though it were possible to be guilty of false Worship and Idolatry, and not violate the first and second Command­ment. Did not such daring Presum­ption cost Israel dear, in their follow­ing the Rebellions Inventions of Je­roboam the Son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin? and what was that hel­nous provetation, but the perverting the right way of the Lord, by changing part of his Instituted Worship.

A Fifth is,5. That the Chur­ches to whom the Epistles were written, were not all bapti­sed His asserting that the Churches in the New Testament, to whom the Epistles were written, were not all Baptized; to the vacating all the holy Exhortations and spiritual Obli­gations inferred and inforced from the same, almost in every Epistle: and which he grounds upon his vain Imagi­nation, That because it is said, Gal. 3.27. As many of you as have been bapti­sed into Christ, have put on Christ. And Rom. 6.3. Know you not, that so many of you as have been baptised into Christ, were baptised into his Death; implying that the words so many, import that some were not.

Not considering that the S [...]p [...] and [Page 50] the Argument from the words, which do necessarily enforce another sense; and that such a sense, as he would put upon them, is altogether groundless and un­reasonable: as for instance, in Gal. 3.27. He tells them that they are all the Chil­dren of God, baptised into Christ. For the Apostle having said vers. 26. That they were all the Children of God, he in the next words gives the reason of what he had said; for they had put on Christ by Baptisme.

But now if their putting on of Christ in Baptisme was to be esteemed as a proof of their Relation to God as Chil­dren, as the Apostle, you see, makes it to be, Then that which he gives in by way of Reason and proof that they were all the Children of God by Faith, would fall shor [...] of [...]his end, if only a part of the Members of their Churches had been Baptised, and not all.

And so in like manner in that other Text, he presseth a general Duty, viz. Mortification and Vivification, from a general and universal Practice, other­wise those Duties would not in this Am [...]ent concern the Unbaptised. And by as good Argument may we conclude, that because the Apostle [Page 51] commands, that as many Servants a [...] are under the yoke, should count their own Masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God be not blasphemed; That some Servants, by the same inference might be under the yoke, and some not, and that some must honour their Ma­sters, and some might choose.

Sixthly, By his declaring so often,6. That Baptism is no Church-Ordi­nance. and so positively, That Baptisme is not a Church-Ordinance, whereby he bears up himself exceedingly in his Notion: To which I would say, It must either be an Ordinance lest by Christ for the Church to manage and order, or to the World, for I know no medium: But that he left no such holy Appointment to be managed by the ignorant prophane World, but to the Church only, I thus prove. 1. Because he hath committed the Ministry to them to Teach and Convert, which must precede Baptisme, and qualifie for it. 2. That to the Church belongs ordinarily to receive the account of such Conversion, that it may be better understood, whether the Party desiring Baptisme, doth be­lieve with all the heart; and that he hath brought forth fruits meet for Repentance, before he be baptised with [Page 52] the Baptisme of it. 3. That to them belongs the appointing of the Admini­strators and faithful Witnesses to see it orderly performed; otherwise Women, Apostates, or any, as some hold, may do it: God is a God of Order, and not of Confusion. And all things are to be done to Edification. 4. Because it is an entrance and door into the Visible Church, as hath been amply in the foregoing Treatise proved, and the foregoing Scriptures evidence, and which is so clear, saith Mr. Baxter, that they must deny Scripture that deny it. It is true (as Mr. Paul af­firms) that Persons entered into the Visible Church hereby, are by consent admitted into particular Congregations, where they may claim their Priviledges due to Baptized Believers, being or­derly put into the Body, and put on Christ by their Baptismal Vow and Co­venant, for by that publick Declarati­on of consent is the Marriage and so­lemn Contract made betwixt Christ and the Believer in Baptisme, as before at large. And if it be propostrous and wicked for a Man and Woman to co­habite together, and to enjoy the Pri­viledges [Page 53] of a Marriage-state, without the passing of that publick Solemnity; So it is no less disorderly upon a Spiri­tual account, for any to claim the Pri­viledges of a Church, or be admitted to the same till the passing of this So­lemnity by them.

But 'tis not done in the Church? No more is Visiting the Sick, or anoin­ting with Oyl, are they not therefore Church-Ordinances?

If any desire further Satisfaction upon this Argument, they may peruse two Treatises, one written by Mr. Al­len, called, Baptismal Abuses discove­red, Disproving the Lawfulness of In­fants, and verity of Believers Baptism, with the irregularity of mixt Commu­nion, Baptised and Unbaptised, written 1653. The other by Mr. Lamb, cal­led Truth prevailing against the fiercest opposition, upon the same subject, the same Year, both answering Mr. John Goodwin opposing the same. And which are done with that Judgment, strength of Argument, and Authority of Scripture, that notwithstanding they have both of them personally declined those Truths, so zealously and under­standingly pleaded for by them, and [Page] gone back to that they therein call Hu­mane Tradition, Will-Worship, and Ido­latry, fulfilling Dan. 11.35. Pro. 28.4 [...] Gal. 2.18. 1 Pet. 2.21, 22. Yet will their Books, not only live as a Witness for God, and his reproached Truths, but as a living Testimony against them­selves, in their unreasonable and un­righteous Departure from the same, (without Repentance) to all Genera­tions.


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