By GEORGE DOVVNAME, Doctor of Divinity and Bi­shop of DERY.

GEN. 22. 16, 18.

By my self have I sworn, saith the Lord That in thy seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed.

LONDON, Printed by Iohn Macock for Ralph Smith, and are to be sold at the sign of the Bible, near the Royal Exchange. 1647.



In this T [...]eatise upon Luke 1. 73, 74, 75. are handled, the

  • Context or Coherence, with a brief analysis of th [...] Hymn of Zachary called Benedictus, Cap. 2.
  • Text, wherein we consider, the
    • Parties be­tween whō this Cove­nant was made, viz.
      • The God of Israel, Cap. [...].
      • Abraham our Father, Cap. [...].
    • Tenour of the oath it self, cap. 3. containing a two-fold gift, cap. 4. viz.
      • Redemption, cap. 5.
      • The fruit of our Redemption, which is our new o­bedience, whereof are set down the
        • Parts, viz.
          • Holines, Cap. 6.
          • Righ­teous­ness. Cap. 6.
        • Properties,
          • Spiritual security, Cap. 7, 8, 9.
          • Vpright­ness, Cap. 10, 11.
          • Perseve­rance, Cap. 12.

THE COVENANT of GRACE: OR AN EXPOSITION upon Luk. 1. 73, 74, 75.
The Context or coherence of the Text.

The Text. LUKE 1. 73, 74, 75.‘The Oath, which he sware to our Father Abraham, that he would give us; that we being delivered from the hand of our ene­mies, should worship him without fear, in holiness, and righteousness, before him all the dayes of our life.’

THese words are the sum and sub­stance of the Covenant of grace, which the Lord made with A­braham the Father of the faith­full, and the very abridgement of the Gospel (for God, when he made this Covenant with Abraham, [...] [Page 10] he preached before-hand the Gospel unto him▪ Gal. 3. 8.) and therefore are most worthy both to be handled with much diligence, and to be heard with great attention and reve­rence. They are part of that heavenly Hymn, which Zacharias the Father of Iohn Baptist pronounced at the circumcision of his Son; for such was both the goodness of God towards him, that he did not only restore unto him his speech and hearing, the use whereof for a time he had lost through his incredulity, but also bestowed upon him the Spirit of Prophesie: And such also was his thankfulness to God, that no sooner had he recovered his speech, but he imployed it to the glory of God.

Now both these, I mean the miraculous both loss and recovery of his speech, hap­pened a [...], as Theophylact hath well observed, that it might win credit to the extraordinary Ministry of Iohn the Bap­tist, who was to be the forerunner ofb Christ, that he being to bear witness of Christ might be worthy of all credit.

In this Psalm Zachary Prophesieth, first, of the Son of God our Savior Christ, to the end of the 75 Verse, and after of his [Page 11] own Son, at the 76 Verse to the end of the Psalm.

His Prophesie concerning Christ is a Pro­phetical thanksgiving, wherein he blesseth God for his unspeakable Mercy to the Israel of God, in sending his own, and his only begotten Son to work our Redemption and Salvation. For although our Savior was not as yet born, and much less had payd the price of our Redemption; yet he knew him to be incarnate, and conceived in the womb of the blessed Virgin: Wherefore knowing, that now the work of Redemption was al­ready begun by the incarnation of Christ▪ he speaketh of our Redemption, after the māner of other Prophets, as of a thing already, done, and praiseth God therefore.

His Prophesie concerning his own Son, is a Prophetical gratulation, congratulating the great favor of God vouchsafed unto him, whom the Lord had ordained to be the Pro­phet of the most high and the [...] or forerunner of our blessed Savior, and conse­quently to be more then a Prophet, then whom there had not risen a greater among the sons of women, Math. 11. 11.

But to return to the former Prophesie (which I called a Prophetical thanksgiving) out of which my Text is taken. The benefit or blessing for which Zachary blesseth [Page 12] God, is first propounded in these words vers. 68. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath visited his people; and afterwards twice expounded. First, more briefly in the end of v. 68. and the two verses following; and then more largely at the 71. v. to the end of my Text. The [...] or more brief Exposition in these words, hath visited, that is, hath redeemed his people, by raising up a horn of Salvation for us, (that is a mighty Saviour, as Psalm 18. 3.) in the house and linage of his servant David (whose son ac­cording to the flesh the Messias was to be) as he spake by the mouth of his holy Prophets, which have been of old. For God is said to visit men, when he doth to them, as he had foretold, whether in the better part, by way of promise; or in the worse, by way of threatning. And thus, in the better part, Mo­ses teacheth us to expound this phrase, Gen. 21. 1. The Lord visited Sarah, that is, he did to Sarah as he had promised. Upon which words Fremelius and Iunius have this note: hence are we to take the Explication of this usuall phrase; for to visit is to put in execu­tion the good promised, or the evill denounced. So Gen. 50. 24. God (saith Ioseph) will sure­ly visit you, Exod. 13. 19. that is, will bring you out of this land, unto the land of pro­mise, as he sware to Abraham, Isaak, and [Page 13] Iacob. And accordingly when God did send Moses to deliver his people out of Egypt, as he had promised, he is said to have visited them, Exod. 3. 16. & 4. 31. In like manner, when God sent his own Son to redeem us, as he had formerly pro­mised. he is said to have visited, that is, to have redeemed his people, as he had spo­ken by all his holy Prophets in former times.

The latter and more large Exposition, or [...] beginning at ver. 71. for the man of God being ravished with the consi­deration of this unestimable benefit, doth as it were dwell [...] upon it, being not content to have propounded it, and once to have expounded the same, but again, by way of exultation, he amplifieth it in other words, after the manner of the godly in their songs of deliverance; as you may see in that song of Moses Exod. 15. which was his [...] or song of victory, which the Israelites had over Pharaoh and the Egyptians; as this is Zacharies [...] or song of victory, which the Israel of God hath over the spirituall Pharaoh, and all the enemies of our Salvation.

But I come to the words of the Expositi­on. Salvation, where we may out of the words going before, repeat the Verb [...] [Page 14] or [...], as if he had said, Who, I say, hath wrought or raised Salvation, that is, saved us from our enemies, and from the hand, that is, the power of all that hate us: Verse 72. That he might work mercy with our Forefathers, that is, that he might perform his merciful promises made to our Fathers, and remem­ber, that is, shew himself mindful of his holy Covenant: Then Verse 73. The Oath, which is either to be read by apposition, if with Theophylact we read [...], to wit, The Oath, or to be referred to the Verb [...] or [...], that he might perform or remem­ber the Oath which he sware to our Father Abraham. In this latter Exposition, as the words are multiplied, and the phrases varied, so the affection of the argument is also changed: for whereas in the former Expo­sition it was said, He visited, that is, Re­deemed his people, as he had graciously pro­mised; here it is said, He visited, that is, Redeemed or saved us, that he might per­form his promise: Where the keeping of his promise is made the end of his sending Christ to Redeem us; to let us understand, That as God was most gracious in promising our Redemption, so most faithful and just in the performance. So that the former part of this Psalm, from the beginning thereof to the end of my Text, is but one sentence or [Page 15] Axiome, wherein there is relation of conse­quence; the sum whereof is this, Because the Lord hath visited, that is, hath Redeem­ed his people, according to his promise, and hath saved us, that he might keep his promise, and perform his Oath; he is therefore to be Blessed, that is, magnified and praised.

This Analysis I have the rather propoun­ded, because we repeating this Psalm daily in our Lyturgy, might, as David exhorteth, Psal. 47. 7. Sing with understanding; as also because my Text being but a part of the sen­tence, is not compleat in it self, but must be perfected by repetition of that which goeth before, after this manner, The Lord God of Israel is therefore to be blessed, because he hath visited, that is, hath sent his Son to Re­deem us, as he hath promised; and to save us, that he might keep his promise, and per­form his Oath which he sware to Abraham; the tenor whereof was this, That he would give us, &c. and this is the Coherence of my Text, Out of which we may gather these three Observations:

First, where it is said, That God did there­fore send his Son to Redeem us, that he might keep his promise, and perform his Oath: we observe the immutable truth and fidelity of God in performing his promises; For in Christ all the promises of Godare yea, [Page 16] and amen, 2 Cor. 1. 20. If therefore the truth of God be such, that rather then he would go back from his word, he did send his own Son to suffer death for our redemp­tion: yea, if his fidelity were such, as that therefore he sent his son that he might per­form his promise, then can we not doubt of the performance of any other promise of God; this being the most difficult of all, ei­ther for God to grant, or for us to beleeve. When the world was to be made, the Lord did speak the word, and it was created. But when it was to be redeemed; he gave his Son to be a price or ransome for us. And who would ever have thought (but that the Lord hath revealed this his unspeakable mer­cy in his word:) that God, being of infinite Majesty and Glory, and enjoying all self con­tented happiness, would give his only begot­ten Son to dye for his enemies? If therefore to make good this promise, he gave his Son to dye for us, how shall he not Rom. 8. 32. with him give us all other good things which he hath promised? Such is the truth of God, that every faithful man may say with the A­postle, 2 Tim. 1. 12. I know whom I have beleeved, and I am sure that what he hath promised shall in due time be performed. For as he is omnipotent, and therefore able, so he is the God of truth, Psalm 31. 5. [Page 17] yea truth it self, Deut. 32. 4. and therefore willing; he is Iehovah, Exod. 6. 3. one that giveth being to his word; who though he can do all things, yet he cannot lye, Tit. 1. 2. nor deny himself 2 Tim. 2. 13. Where­fore, as the faithful, who lived before the in­carnation of CHRIST, did faithfully and comfortably wait for the performance of that promise, as being the consolation of Is­rael, Luk. 2. 25. though between the ma­king of it, and the performance, there did in­tercede four thousand years: So whereas the Lord hath promised his second coming for our full redemption; though it may seem to be delayed, we are with comfort to wait for it, with earnestnes to long for it, and with undoubted certainty to expect it.

Secondly, whereas Zachary praiseth the Lord for performing his promise concerning our redemption by CHRIST, we learn, what is our duty; namely to praise and magnifie the name of the Lord, as for all other his mercies, so especially for the work of our redemption; according to that, Psa. 107. 2. Let them praise the Lord, whom he hath redeemed, and delivered from the hand of the enemy. But of this more hereafter.

Thirdly, whereas Zachary giveth thanks to God for a benefit not as yet received; for as yet CHRIST was not born, and much less [Page 18] had he as yet redeemed us; we learn, That we are to give thanks, not only for the benefits al­ready received, but for such also as are pro­mised: for this is a notable fruit of a lively Faith, setting forth also most notably the truth of God in his promises; when a man in the assurance of Faith, which is the sub­stance of things hoped for, Heb. 11. 1. giveth thanks for those benefits and blessings which as yet he hath not, as though he had already received them. It is the commen­dation of the faithful, Hebr. 11. 13. who having not received the promises, but having seen them afar off (as Abraham, Joh. 8. 56. saw the day of Christ) beleeved them, em­braced them, and rejoyced in them: For, if he who praiseth God for benefits received, doth glorifie God, Psal. 50. 23. then much more doth he glorifie him, and magnifie his Truth, who praiseth him for benefits which he hath only promised, because this is a fruit of a greater Faith. Thus David shewed himself thankful to God for the favors which he had promised by Nathan, 2 Sam. 7. and thus ought we to be thankful for the promises of a better life. So much of the Context.

The Text resolved into his parts; the first whereof are the parties between whom this Covenant was made.

NOw I come to the Text it self; the contents whereof, as you see, is an Oath, wherein we are to consider both the parties between whom it was made, and also the tenor of the Oath it self. The par­ties, as well him that sweareth, viz. The Lord God of Israel, as he to whom the Oath was made, viz. Abraham our Fa­ther. Concerning the tenor, we are to know, That whereas some Oaths are assertory, wherein some truth is avouched; others pro­missory, wherein some promise is made: this is of the latter sort, containing the pro­mise of a gift; for so he saith, That he would give us. This gifs is twofold, viz. Re­demption, in those words, That we should be delivered from the hand of our enemies; and the fruit and end of our Redemption, which is the true worship of God, in those words, That we should worship him, &c. which wor­ship of God is set forth both by the parts and properties thereof. The parts are two, Holiness, and Righteousness; for by Holiness we are to understand the duties of the first [Page 20] Table, which we owe unto God: and by Righteousnesse, the duties of the second Ta­ble, which we owe unto man. The proper­ties are three; The first, respecting our ene­mies, from whom wee are delive [...]ed, in the word [...] without fear of them; the se­cond, respecting God, in the words before him, the third, respecting the continuance, all the dayes of our life. The first of these is [...] or▪ spirituall security; the second, is uprightnesse and sincerity: the third, is con­stancie or perseverance. Of these in order.

Concerning the party which did swear, we are to consider these three things. 1. By whom hee sware. 2. How, or after what manner. 3. To what end. For the first; it is the manner of men in their oathes to swear by a greater. But the Lord; when he made this Covenant with Abraham, because he could not swear by a greater, he sware by himself, Heb. 6. 13. By my self have I sworn, saith the Lord, &c. Gen. 22. 16.

Concerning the manner: we may gather by that, which the Lord requireth in our oathes, what he performed in his own, Ier. 4. 2. There are three properties required in an Oath, Truth, Iudgement, and Righteousnes. Truth, opposed to falshood o [...] perjury: Iudgement, to rash and common swearing; Righteousnesse, to unjust and unlawful oaths.

[Page 21] For the first: that the Lord did swear in Truth, it is most certain, because it is im­possible, that the Lord in his promise, and in his oath should lye, Hebr. 6. 18. and there­fore we may be assured of that, wherewith Micah concludeth his prophecy, Mic. 7. 20. that the Lord will undoubtedly performe his mercy, which by oath he promised to Abra­ham. From whence we may learn this most profitable instruction. That seeing the oath of the Lord, whereby he promiseth to give to all them that are delivered from the hand of their spirituall enemies (that is, to all that are redeemed by CHRIST) grace to worship him in holinesse and righteousnesse, is infalli­ble, we should therefore be carefull to bring forth these fruits of our redemption; other­wise, we can have no assurance, that we are the redeemed of the LORD. Yea, on the contrary, it may be verified of us; that if we do live in sin, and do not, at the least desire and endevour to serve God in the duties of holinesse and righteousnesse: it is as certain as the Oath of God is true, that as yet we have no part in the redemption wrought by CHRIST. And the reason hereof is evi­dent; for to be a servant of sinne, and to be redeemed from the bondage of sinne; are things repugnant, and imply a contradi­ction. For whom Christ the Sonne of God [Page 22] maketh free, they are free indeed, Joh. 8. 36. but he that is a servant of sin is not freed in­deed. Now every one that committeth sin, as habituated in sin, that is in whom sin raig­neth, he is the servant both of sin, Ioh. 8. 34. and of Satan, 1 Ioh. 3. 8.

Secondly, in Iudgment, a man is said to swear in judgment when he sweareth ad­visedly upon just and necessary occasion; for Oaths are then only good, when they are necessary. This necessity of the Lords Oath ariseth from our weakness and infidelity, who will not beleeve the Lord without an Oath: and therefore the Lord, in great mercy to relieve our infirmities, hath con­firmed his Promise, which in it self needeth no confirmation, as being truth it self [...], Heb. 6. 16. more abundantly then otherwise needed, by Oath, which as it ar­gueth our great corruption, so it ought to be a remedy for the same. It is great infidelity not to beleeve the Word and Promise of God, but greater not to beleeve his Oath: In not beleeving his Promise, thou makest him a lyar, 1 Iohn 5. 10. In denying credit to his Oath, dost thou make him any better then a perjured person? And yet this is the estate and condition of many professing the Name of Christ. God hath swo [...]n, and will not repent, That to those whom he Re­deemeth, [Page 23] grace shall be given to worship him in holiness and righteousness. These men do not so much as desire, care or en­deavor to worship God in holiness and righ­teousness, but live in sin, and go on in sin, without repentance; and yet for all this, they will needs perswade themselves that they are the Redeemed of the Lord, con­trary to the express Oath of God.

Thirdly, in Righteousness; men are said to swear in righteousness, when that which they promise by Oath is lawful and good: and this goodness is mea­sured by the reference which it hath to the glory of God, and good of man. Neither doth the Lords Oath want this property; for what could be either more glorious to himself, or more profitable unto us, then that which by this Oath is promised? For as touching the glory of God, among all the works which God ever wrought, there is not any that setteth forth more the glory both of his Mercy and of his Justice, then the work of our Redemption, with the fruits thereof: For hereby appeareth his mercy to be such, as that, rather then he would suffer us most miserable sinners to pe­rish in our sins, he gave his own, and his only begotten Son to die for us. His justice such, that rather then he would suffer the sins of [Page 24] his own elect children to go unpunished, he hath punished them in the death and suffer­ings of his only begotten Son.

And if you consider our profit, it is evident that (as hereafter you shal hear) in the things promised by this Oath, our happiness doth consist. Neither doubt I to affirm, that by the things promised in this Oath, our estate becometh better, then that which we lost in Adam. Adam, though he were just, stood righteous before God, but in his own righte­ousness; but we being redeemed by Christ, stand righteous before God in the righteous­ness of Christ, which far surpasseth the righ­teousness both of men and Angels. Adam was created good, but changeable, and there­fore, being tempted, he fell; but we, being once redeemed by Christ and sanctified by his spirit, shall never fall away; but by the power of God through faith we are kept safe unto salvation, 1 Pet. 1. 5. The happiness, which Adam enjoyed, was in an earthly pa­radise, but the happiness, which Christ hath purchased for us, is in Heaven. Thus much of the manner.

Now are we to consider the end for which the Lord did swear: which is plainly and fully set down Hob. 6. 17, 18. that he might more abundantly shew unto the heirs of promise, the stableness of his counsel: [Page 25] that by two immutable things (that is his word, and his Oath) they might have strong consolation. For howsoever they might doubt [...] their p [...]rseverance unto salvation, in regard both of their owne frailty, and also of the strength of their enemies: yet they know▪ that the foundation of God abideth sure, 2 Tim. 2. 19. and that the Word and Oath of the Lord is immutable; and that, howsoever heaven and earth shall passe away, yet not one jot, or title of the Oath of God shall fall to the ground. And therefore have just cause with David, Psalm. 40. 2. to professe them confidence, and with Paul, Rom. 8. 38. 39. to rest assured, that nothing shall be able to separate them from Gods love in Christ Je­sus our Lord. For the Lord hath sworne, and will not repent, That he will give us, be­ing delivered from the hand of our enemies, to worship him without fear, in holinesse and righteousnesse, before him, all the dayes of our life. If therefore the oath of an honest man be, or ought to be, [...] the end of controversie, Hebr. 6. 16. how much more-ought the Oath of the Lord to be an end unto us of doubting and distrust?

The use, which we are to make of that, which hath been said, concerning the Lord his taking of an Oath, is that, whereunto we are so often exhorted in the Scriptures, Be [Page 26] you holy. as I am holy, saith the Lord, that is, in this particular duty of holinesse (for swearing is required in the first Table) We are to imitate the Lord, both in respect [...] the action it self, and also in regard of the ob­ject, the manner, and the end.

As touching the action it self, where the Lord is said to have sworne, we are taught, that to sweare, is in it self a thing lawfull and good, though the Anabaptists deny it in all Christians, and the Papists in them, who in their conceipts, are perfect; and yet in the Scriptures wee see it practised by the holy Angels, by the blessed Apostle in diverse pla­ces of his Epistles, in the penning whereof he was free, as from erring, so also from sin­ning, and lastly by God himselfe, in this, and many other places. Neither is it only com­mended as lawfull, and good, as Psal. 63. 11. but also commanded as necessary, and as a thing which not only may be done, but also which must be done, Deut. 6. 13. 10. 20. as being a d [...]ty both of holinesse to God, and of righteousnesse and charity to man. For being rightly performed, it serveth greatly to set forth the glory of God, by ascribing un­to him Omniscience and Omnipresence, the knowledge of secrets, justice, the patronage of truth, the punishing of Falshood. Of cha­rity and righteousnesse to men, as being profi­table [Page 27] and necessary for the [...] of a necessary truth, for [...] among men, for the discharge of our duty, and sometimes for [...]. And therefore being a [...] so neces­sary in respect both of God and man; God himself hath sworn it should be practised in the new Testament, Esay 45. 23. But I shall not need to prove the lawfulness of swea­ring in these times, when there are m [...]e that swear, then that do fear an [...], Eccles. 9. 2. Let us rather consider, how we are to imitate the Lord in swearing, in respect of the object, the manner and the end.

First therefore, as the Lord did swear by the true God onely, that is, himself: so we are to swear by no other, for what we swear by, that we Deifie; and therefore to swear by any other, is to forsake God, I [...]r. 5. 7.

And as touching the manner, we are to swear in truth, in [...]udgement, and in righteous­ness, Ier. 4. 2. for not to swear in truth is perjury; which is forbidden, condemn'd, and punished as a detestable sin, and as an horrible profanation of the Name of God, Lev. 19. 12, Ier. 5. 2. Zae. 5. 4. wherein besides falshood and lying, which destroy the soul, and [...]clude out of heaven, Apoc. 22. 15. and besides deceipt, (and that under the religion of an [...] whereof God is the [Page 28] [...]venger, 1 Thes. 4. 6. Psal. 5. 7. there do also concur two other abominations. The one an horrible indignity offered to the Ma­jesty of God, whereby as if he were a pa­tron of falshood, they call upon him, as a witness, to second their untruth. The other in that they tempt God, and dare him, as it were, to his face, to execute his vengeance upon them, if they avouch an untruth; when they themselves know, that they swear falsly.

Secondly, in judgement: for to swear rashly and commonly in our ordinary talk, is to make common, that is, to pollute the ho­ly name of God; and to turn the Sanctuary of verity, into a common house of vanity. As the Name of God is holy and reverend▪ [...] ought it to be used holily, and reverendly; And as an oath is not simply good, but upon necessity, so ought it not to be used, but when it is necessary. For, bonum necessarium extra terminos necessitatis non est bonum. Our Saviour therefore forbiddeth us to swear at all in our ordinary talk, Mat. 5. 34. 37. and S. Iames wisheth us above all things to take heed, that we swear not, [...]left we fall into condemnation, Iam. 5. 12. and wholsome to this purpose is the councell of the son of Syrach, Eccl. 23. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.

Thirdly, in Righteousness▪ for by oath [Page 29] to promise that, which is unlawfull, besides that it argueth a full purpose, and resolution to do evill, which is to sin with a high hand: i [...] doth also offer an horrible indignity unto God, when a man calleth upon him to be, as it were his surety for the doing of that evill, which he promiseth.

There rem [...]ineth the end: for so we are to swear, that by testifying a necessary truth, which cannot by other means be manifested▪ God may be glorified (according to that form of adjuration, Give glory to God, Ios. 7. 19.) our brethren satisfied, controversies ended, our duty discharged, our own inno­cencie cleared. Vaine are the o [...]thes, which are not referred to these, or such like ends; and by them also the holy Name of God is taken in vain. So usually do they swear, that swear usually; having no respect, either to the glory of God, the good of their brethren, or discharge of their duty; but rap out Oathes, sometimes in choler, sometimes in pride and vain glory, sometimes in deceipt, to colour their falshood: sometimes in a vain conceipt to win credit to their speeches wherein notwithstanding they are misera­bly deceived, for he that sweareth much, sometimes for sweareth: and he that maketh no conscience of polluting the holy and dread­full Name of God by common swearing; [Page 30] will learn to make no conscience of swearing [...]. So much of the party that did swear.

Now we are [...]o speak of the party to whom this Oath was made; who is here described by his name Abraham, and by his re [...]tion to us, Our Father. Abraham was so called by God himself, Gen. 17. because he [...]ade him Ab-hans [...], the Father of ma­ny nations, that is to say, of the faithful in all Nations. Now, whereas I shewed before, That the Lord would not have taken an Oath, unless it had been necessary, in respect of our weakness and incredulity, who will not beleeve him without an Oath: It ap­peareth, That Abraham himself needed to have the Promises of God confirmed to him by Oath: From whence we learn this pro­fitable lesson, That the Faith of the best of as hath its imperfections, and is mingled with Unbelief. For if Abraham, the Father of the faithful, the most worthy pattern of a lively and a strong Faith, had need to have his infirmities relieved, as it is plain that he had; not only (as in this place) by Oath; but also Gen. 15. by a sign; Gen. 17. by the Sacrament of Circumcision, which was unto him a Seal of that Righteousness which is by Faith, Rom. 4. 11. and almost in every Chap­ter of his story, by the often repeating and renewing of the promises unto him: What [Page 31] are we to think of our selves, who are by many degrees inferiour to Abraham? Sure­ly we are to beware, both of the proud phantasie of those, who dream of perfection in this life; and also of the c [...]reless practise of others, who thinking they have proceeded far enough, sit still, not seeking to go for­ward in the way of Christianity; and there­fore are not likely to come to the end of their way, which is the salvation of their souls. But we, in the humble acknowledgement of our imperfections, must with the Apostles, Luk. 17. 5. pray unto the Lord to increase our faith, and using all good means to pro­ceede from faith to faith, untill we come to a perfect man in Christ, we must with the Apostle, as not having attained, Phil. 3. 12 [...] 13. forget those things which are behind, and reach forth to those things which are be­fore, pressing forward towards the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ▪ Phil. 3. 14. and if the Apostle, and those who are perfect, that is, adulti, grown men in Christ, are to be of this [...], is the Apo­stle saith in the next verse: much more thoft, which are not so good [...], ought to be so minded, remembring, that Religi [...] [...]s compared to a way, wherein we are still to go on, untill we come to the end of our way▪ which will not be before the end of our life.

[Page 32] And whereas Zachary calleth Abraham our Father, this is not to be understood, ei­ther of all the Iewes, or of the Iewes alone; [...]ut of all the faithfull, whether they be Iews or Gentiles. For Abraham is the Father of all the faithfull, Rom. 4. 11. and all, which are of the faith, are the children of Abraham, Gal. 3. 7. In this sense, Zacheus the Publican receiving our Saviour by faith, became the son of Abraham, Luke 19. 9. As for those, who were of Abrahams seed, according to the flesh, and not according to his faith, they are not accompted the seed of Abraham. For [...]s the Apostle saith, Rom▪ 9. 6, 7. All they are not Israel, which are of Israel, neither are they all children, because they are the seed of Abraham, but in Isaak shall thy seed be [...]al­l [...]d, that is, saith the Apostle, vers. [...]. They, which are the children of the flesh, are not the children of God, but the children of the Pro­mise are accompted for the seed. So our Sa­viour, Iohn 8. although he grant, that the Iewes, to whom he spake, were, according to the flesh, the seed of Abraham, vers. 37. Yet he concludeth against them, that they were not Abrahams sons indeed, because they did not the works of Abraham, vers. 39, 40. This must teach those, who come of faithfull pa­rents, or are nobly descended from famous and worthy ancestors, not to rely too much [Page 33] upon their parentage, but to shew themselves to be their children by imitating their faith, and their godly conversation. For otherwise, though their parents were the children of God, they may notwithstanding be the chil­dren of the Devill, as our Saviour telleth the unbeleeving Iewes, Ioh. 8. 44. And therefore Iohn the Baptist warneth the Iewes, not to stand so much upon this, that they had Abra­ham to their father; but willeth them to bring forth fruits worthy of repentance, Mat. 3. 9. If therefore we would be able, with Zacha­ry, to call Abraham our father, we must fol­low the faith of Abraham, Galath. 3. 7. and imitate his works, Ioh. 8. 39.

Again, from hence we observe; that, what is spoken in this Oath concerning us, as that he would give us, that we being delivered, &c. is not to be understood of all men, but of us, who have Abraham to our Father, that is to say, of the faithfull, who only are the sons of Abraham, the heires of the Promise.

The Tenour of the Oath.

NOw I come to the Tenour of the Oath it self, in these words: That he would give us, that we being delivered, &c. But [Page 34] here some m [...]n will say, there is no such Oath as this, recorded in the Scriptures of the old Testament, which God did sweare to Abraham.

Whereunto I answer: that it is not always the custome of the holy Ghost, in the New Testament, when he alleadgeth Testi­monies out of the old, to recite the very same words, and syllables, but sometimes, as being the best interpreter of himself, in stead of words, he setteth down the true sence and meaning thereof: so in this place. For whereas Moses Gen. 22. 16. 18. recor­deth this Oath in these words, by my selfe have I sworn, saith the Lord, that in thy seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed: Zachary verse 67. here being filled with the holy Ghost, expoundeth what this blessedness is, which was promised in Christ the promised seed, viz. that the Lord, would give us, that we being delivered from the hands of our enemies, should worship him without fear, &c. That this is the oath, which Zachary meaneth, it is most certain: because he giveth thanks to God, for the per­formance of his oath, which he sware to Abraham, concerning the Redemption of his people the Israel of God, by the Messias or promised feed: which can be no other [...] that which I named, In thy seed all [Page 35] [...]

And surely great cause there was, that in the beginning of the prom [...]gation of the Gospel, it should be explained, what this blessedness is, which was promised by the Messias. 1. First, for confutation of the er­roneous and pernicious conceipt of the Iews, who thinking that the Messias should be [...] temporal Monarch, expected only tempora [...] blessings from him: But if our hope in Christ were only in respect of this life, then were we of all men most miserable. 1 Cor. 15. 19.

Secondly, For prevention of a most dange­rous scandal, which otherwise would have ensued upon that erroneous conceipt. For it being [...] received opiniō among the Iews, from which the Disciples of Christ were not free, Mat. 20. [...]1. Act. 1. 6. that the Messias should be a te [...]poral Monarch, who should restore the Kingdom unto Israel, and make his followers happy with external and [...]em­por [...] blessings: If this opinion had been nourish [...]d in them, it could not have been a­voided, but that they would have taken of­fence at Christs [...] and poor estate, when [Page 36] in stead of honours, riches, greatness and g [...] ­ry in this world, which they expected from the Messias, all things should happen con­trary to their expectation. Our Saviour therefore pronounceth them blessed, who were not offended at him in respect of his mean condition, and poor estate. Mat. 11. 6.

Thirdly, For rectifying our judgment in that most weighty point concerning our hap­piness. For the very foundation of a Christi­an conversation, is the right belief concer­ning happiness. For all men desire happiness, as the supream end. And such as is the end, or happiness which they propound unto themselves: such are the means which they use, such are their studies and endeavours. As for example, if men place their happiness in pleasure, their whole course of life is vo­lumptuous; if in riches, covetous; if in honour, ambitious, &c.

For these causes, as I said, it was necessary that it should be declared, what this blessed­ness is. Our Saviour therefore in the begin­ning of his gracious Sermon upon the Mount sheweth, that the happiness, which by him they were to expect, did consist in spiritual grace, and eternal glory. Mat. 5. 3. Blessed are the poor or beggers in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven. and so in the rest, in every whereof two degrees of happiness [Page 37] are noted: [...] the one set down, as the School­men speak, per modum meriti, which I called grace: the other, per modum praemij, which Lealled glory: the one being, be [...], via, or our happiness n [...]this life: the other, beati­tudo patriae, or our happiness in the life to come. S. Paul likewise expoundeth the hap­piness, which we have by Christ, to be spi­ritual. Ephes. 1. 3. Blessed be God (saith he) who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessing [...] in heavenly things in Christ. Thus S. Peter, speaking of this Covenant, which God made with. Abraham. and applying it to the Iew [...], expoundeth this blessedness to be their turning, and consequently their free­dom from sin. Ye [...]e (saith he) Act. 3. 25, 26. the children of the Covenant, which God made with our fathers, saying unto A­braham, and in thy seed shal all the families of the earth be blessed; unto you first, G [...]d having raised up his Son Iesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from your iniquities. In like manner▪ the Apostle Paul, Galat. 3. expoundeth this blessedness of justification by faith, redemp­tion from the curse of the Law, and recei­ving the promise of the spirit. Those which are of faith saith he, vers. 7. 8. 9. are the sons of Abraham, and the Scripture (that is the holy Ghost who speaketh in the Scripture) [Page 38] foreseeing, that God would justifie the [...] through faith, preached the Gospell be­fore to Abraham, saying: in thee, that is, in thy seed shall all nations be blessed, Gen. 12. 2, 3. chap. 13. 15. 17. chap. 15. 18. So then▪ they which be of faith, are blessed with faith­full Abraham. Again, vers. 13, 14. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the Law, be­ing made a curse for us, that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Iesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit. But most chiefly in this place, where the Holy Ghost doth, as it were, ex professe, expound, what this blessed­nesse is, viz. That he would give us, that we being deliver [...] from the hand of our enemies should worship him without feare in holinesse and righteousnesse before him al the dayes of our life.

Now, that this is a most true & perfect ex­position, I will prove by these two reason [...]. And first, for the truth of it. For whera [...] there [...] [Page 39] called, obtain in this life, [...] and sanctification, justification, by [...] to the Kingdome of [...] with it concur redemption, [...] adoption, being all in substance the [...] only in some relation or respect. For when God doth forgive our [...] of Christs righteousnes, he doth both re­deem and recon [...]e, and justifie, and adopt [...] but with this distinction. First, that when f [...]r­giving our sins, by which we are bound over to death and damnation, and held [...] sunne and Satan, he fi [...]eth us from this bon­dage, he is said to redeeme us, Eph [...]s. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14.. Secondly, when forgiving [...] whereby we are the children of wr [...]th, and enemies against God, he receiveth us [...]nto his love, and favour in Christ, he is said to re­concile us, 2 Cor. 5. 19. Thirdly, when for­giving our sins, which exclude us from he [...] ­ven, and make us guilty of [...] absolve and [...] us from the [...], and doth accept of us in Christ [...], and as heires of salvation, he is said to just [...], Rom. 3. 24. 25. 4. 6, 7, 8. Fourthly, w [...]en forgiving our [...] of the Devill, he doth in Christ [...] to be his children, he is said to adopt us. The second degree is Sanctification, by which we are prepared and made fit for Gods Ki [...] ­dome. [Page 40] Now these two are the two parts of the gift, which God by oath in this place promised to give to the faithful the sons of Abraham: viz. deliverance from the hand of our spiritual enemies, namely the law, sin, death, and the devil, which is our redemption or justification: and grace to worship God without fear in holyness and righteousness before him all the days of our life, which is our sanctification.

2. And that it is a ful and perfect exposi­tion, it is easily proved: because not only to the whole gift here promised, but to every part and parcel thereof, happyness is ascribed in the word of God. As first, to redemption; for what is it to be redeemed by Christ, but to have remission of sins by him? Ephes. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14. By him we have redemption, even the remission of our sins. But to the remis­sion of sins, the holy Ghost ascribeth blessed­ness, Psal. 32. 1, 2. Rom. 4. 6, 7. Blessed is the man whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity.

2. Secondly to a godly life: which is here termed the worship of God in holiness and righteousness, in which the keeping of the law doth consist. For when a woman out of the crowd cryed unto our Saviour, blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the papes that [Page 41] gave thee suck: Our Saviour returned this answer, Luke 11. 28. Yea rather blessed are they that heare the word of God and keepe it. The same hath Salomon, Pr [...]v. 29. 18. and who knoweth not that, which the Apostle teach, 1 Tim. 4. 8. Godlinesse hath the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come, and consequently of the happinesse both of this life, and of the other life.

3 To the parts of Gods worship; as namely to holiness. Apoc. 20. 6. Blessed and holy is the man, who hath his part in the first resurrecti­on. Which testimony yeeldeth unto us a dou­ble proof. First, because he useth the terms of [...] of life. And not only to holiness in gene­rall, but to the severall branches thereof is blessedness ascribed; as to saving knowledge, Prov. 3. 13. Ioh. 17. 3. to faith, Luke 1. 45. Ioh. 20. 29. to assiance, Psal. 2. 12. 34. 8. 40. 4. 84. 12. to hope, Psal. 146. 5. Esay [...]0. 18. Ier. 17. 7. to obedience, Apo [...]. 22. 14. to the feare of God, Psal. 112. 1. 128. 1. 4. to humilitie, Mar. 5. 3. Ioh. 13. 17. to patience, Iam. 1. 12. 5. 11.

4 To righteousness, Ps. 106. 3. Es. 56. 1, 2. and [Page 42] not only to righteousness it self, but also to the true desire of it,. Mat. 5. 6. Ye [...], and to the several branches of it, as to mercifulness, Mat. 57. Psal. 40. 1. 2. Prov. 14. 21. to meek­ness, Mat. 5. 4. to peace-making, Mat. 5. 9.

And not only to the parts of Gods wor­ship, but also to the properties. Fiftly, there­fore to the worship of God without fear of our enemies, that is in confidence, Psal. 146. 5. Whether you understand it without cause of fear, because there is no condemnation to the [...] that are in Christ Jesus, Rom. 8. 1. or without servile fe [...]r, in expectation of eter­ [...]al happiness, Ti [...]. 2. [...]3. for this indeed is the top of our happiness in this life, to worship God, as without fear of damnation; so in a found expectation of eternal life. And this seemeth to be implyed in the Hebrew word Hithbaracu, which being of a reciprocal sig­nification, signifieth, that in Abrahams seed all Nations should not only be blessed, but al­so should bless themselves, that is esteem and accompt themselves blessed.

Sixtly, To uprightness and integrity, or to the worshipping of God in holiness and righ­teousness as before him, Psal. 1 19. 1. Blessed are the upright in the way, that is, who walk uprightly; So Psal. 84. 11. and not only the upright themselves, but their children also after them are pronounced blessed, Prov. [...]0. 7.

[Page 43] [...]

If therefore blessedness be ascribed, first of all to redemption [...] secondly, to the true worship of God in general; thirdly, to holiness: fourthly, to righ­teousness: fiftly, to the worship of God with­out fear: sixthly, to integrity, or to the wor­ship of God as before him: seventhly, to per­severance, or to the worship of God [...] days of our life: Then seven times happy is that man, who being delivered from the hand of his enemies, hath grace given unto him to worship God without fear, in holy­ness and righteousness before him all the days of his life.

By this conference of places we learn, what the happiness of a Christian is in this life; not to abound in wealth, not to attain to great honours, not to wallow in pleasures, [...] [Page 44] graces above all the things in this world (for what is our happiness, that is our chief good) esteeming all wordly things as dross and d [...]ng, yea as loss in comparison thereof, Phil. [...]. 8. 9, For as without these spiritual graces all wordly things are [...]ain and unpro­fitable: yea, to them that set their hearts on them, hurtful and pe [...]icious; So having fought and obtained these graces, all tempo­ral blessings shal be added unto us: or if we seem to want any of them, our seeming want thereof shall not hinder our happyness. And therefore our Saviour pronounceth the faith­ful, though living in poverty, hunger, sorrow, and persecution, happy and blessed, Luke 6. 20. 21. 22.

Of the gift promised by this Oath in general, and of the two parts thereof joyntly.

THus much of Zacharies exposition of Gods Oath, now we come to the words thereof, that he would give us, &c. The thing then promised in this Oath is a gift: Of this gift we are to speak; first in ge­neral, and then in particular. In general, we may observe, first, the main difference between the Covenant of works, made with [Page 45] all mankind: and the Covenant of Grace▪ made with Abraham and his seed, the heires of promise, In the former, the Lord [...] perfect obedience to the performed by our selves to our justification, and salvation and denounceth his fearful c [...]rse against those, that do not continue in a total and perfect obedience. In the latter, the Lord, i [...] in stead of requiring perfect obedience to be performed of us to our justification and salva­tion; promiseth to those, which believe, re­demption and justification without works: and being redeemed and justified by faith, he promiseth to give them grace to walk in new obedience, as being an unseparable fruit of our redemption and justification, and as the high-way wherein we are to walk to­wards our glorification. Of this new Co­venant the holy Ghost prophesieth by Iere­my, Chap. 31. vers. 31. 32, 33. Behold the days come saith the Lord, that I wil make a new Covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah, not according to the Covenant which I made with their fathers, when I brought them out of Aegypt (which was the covenant of works:) but this shal be the Covenant that I wil make with them, I wil put my law in their inward parts, & write it in their hearts, &c. Wch is the covenant of grace recited by the Apostle, Heb. 8. v. 8. 9. 10 [Page 46] of which, being a better Covenant, Christ is the mediator, v. 6. according to that Iohn 1. 17. This Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Iesus Christ. The same Coven [...]nt repeated by Ezekiel, Chap. 36. 26. 27. The Gospel therefore or Covenant of Grace is not a new law, nor Christ a new law-giver (as the Papists absurdly teach, con­founding the Law and the Gospel; saving that they teach, that the Gospel requireth more perfect obedience to be performed by our selves, then the Law it self doth prescribe unto justification) but to them that are re­deemed and justified by faith, it promiseth grace to walk in new obedience. Howbeit this is true, that as men deprived themselves of what was promised in the Old Covenant, by disobedience: So if men do live in sin without faith, and without repentance, not so much as desiring, caring, and endeavouring to worship God in holyness and righteous­ness: they can have no assurance that they are within the Covenant of grace, made only with those that truly beleeve: God having promised to those, which are redeemed and justified by faith, to give them grace to wor­ship him, in holyness and righteousness.

Secondly, we note, that our justification and sanctification are both the free gifts of God, for it is he that redeemeth and justifi­eth, [Page 47] and it is he also that sanctifieth, which point needeth no proof, seeing God [...] swear they are both his gifts. The use where of in a word is, that both they, which want these benefits, being neither freed from the guilt of their sins, nor purged from their corruptions, may know where to seek them [...] & also those that have them maybe thankful to God the giver of them: which is the thing, whereunto the holy Ghost by Zachary ex­citeth us in this Psalm.

Now this gift promised by Oath (that I may come to the parts thereof) is twofold; our redemption or justification (for to be redeemed is to have our sins remitted, Ephes. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14. and to have our sins remitted is to be justified) and the fruit or end of our re­demption, which is our sanctification, con­sisting in the faithful, sincere, and constant service of God in holyness and righteous­ness.

Of these I am to speak, First, joyntly of both together; and then of either of them severally. In the ioynt consideration, we are to observe both the order and coniunction of them. The order is plainly expressed by the Participle [...] that being delivered from the hand of our enemies we should wor­ship him &c. For the meaning of the holy Ghost is, that God would give us, both that [Page 48] we should be redeemed and delivered from the hand of our enemies; and also that we should worship him; But to note the order, he hath expressed the former part, which is the benefit of redemption, by the Participle, that being delivered from the hand of our e­nemies we should worship him, &c. which teacheth us, that before we can worship God aright, we must be delivered from the bondage of our spiritual enemies, and that for two reasons. For first, naturally we are the servants of sin, and of Sathan. Being servants of sin, we are in two respects utter­ly disabied from serving God, until we be delivered out of this bondage, for first, being servants of sin, we are fr [...]e from righteous­ness, Rom. 6. 20. in respect of that priva­tive corruption, which is in us all derived from our first parents; being a privation of all spiritual goodness, Rom. 7. 18. not only in respect of the act, but also in respect of the habite and power (as blindness is of sight) being a meer impotency to that which is spiritually good, in so much that not only we do not think, nor wil, nor do that which is good; but also we are not able thereunto, Of our selves we cannot so much as think a good thought, 2 Cor. 3. 5. The natural man doth not understand spiritual things, neither can he understand them, 1. Cor. 2. 14. Ful­gentius, [Page 49] De incarnat, & gratia, [...] wel, that Adam by his sin wholy lost the fa­culty of thinking those things which apper­tain to God, and also of willing that which is good, and much more of doing that which is good: for wil may be present when per­formance is wanting, Rom. 7. 18. But it is God that worketh in us both to wil, and to do, Phil 2. 13. Insomuch that the faithfull themselves, if they think, or [...] or do any thing that is good, may truly say every of them, 1 Cor. 15. 10. not I, but the grace of God which is with me. For the carnal mind, or the disposition of our corrupt nature is not subject to the Law of God, neither can it be, Rom. 8. 7. Augustine truly faith, that man by his fall lost bonum passibilitatis, and our Saviour professeth, that without him, or not being in him, we can do nothing. John 15. 5. Doth not the holy Ghost elsewhere teach the same, when he affirmeth tha [...] we are na­turally dead in fin, Ephes. 2. 1. 5? And there­fore, as a dead man cannot perform the acti­ons of the natural life; no more can he▪ that is dead in sin, perform the actions of the life spi­ritual: likewise, when he calleth our recovery from sin, sometimes, the first resurrection, whereby the soul, which before was dead, is

Homo per peccatum facultatem [...] per­didit & bona voluntatis.

[Page 50] it raysed as it were from the grave of sinne▪ sometimes, regeneration, whereby, we being before dead, are quickened, and begotten a new unto God. Sometimes new creation, by which we are made new creatures created unto good works. For as the first creation was a motion from nothing to those things which are; so the new (x) creation is a mo­tion from our not being of grace, and spiritu­al goodness, to a being thereof; which serveth notably to confu [...]e the erroneous conceipts of the patrons of freewil, the Pelagians, Pa­pists, Arminians, and our new Anabaptists.

Secondly, being servants of sin, sin raigneth in us, as a Iyrant, without resistance, impo­sing upon us a necessity of sinning. In respect whereof it may truly be said, that naturally we do nothing but sin, neither can we do o­therwise but sin. Our free-wil by nature having (as Augustine saith)y no hability but to sin. For as the same Augustine saith, z [...] The frame of a mans thoughts and imaginations which the Apostle calleth [...], [Page 51] is evil, and only evil, and that [...], Gen. 6. 5. 8. 21. and therefore of the [...] Apostle affirmeth, Rom. 8. 7. [...] [...] but [...] not an [...] also enmity against God. And for the [...] cause our Saviour, when Peter [...] counsel, called him Sathan; [...] why he so called him, was, [...] [...] that is mind and affect, the things which are of men, Mat. 16. 23. And S▪ [...] affirmeth, that that wisdom which is [...] ▪ and carnal, is also [...] [...]Iam. 3. 15. As therefore it was wel said of Augustine, De natura & gratiae contra Pe­lag. that man by his fall did lose [...] pos­sibilitatis; so as truly he did deny that he re­taineth possibilitatem non peccandi. And this [...] the estate of all men in their pure [...] ▪ which the Philosophers do magnifie as good▪ and the Papists qualifie as not evil. In regard whereof notwithstanding, we may truly be said, besides the guiltiness of Adams hey­nous transgression, to have but two faults; the one, that there is in us no goodness spirituall, nor possibility of our selves, but a meer impotency to that which is good. The other, that there is us naturally an evill disposition, and [...] into all m [...]er of s [...], which doth so dom [...]r in us, that [Page 52] it imposeth a necessity of sinning, so that by nature, as we do no good, neither can we think, or wil, or do that which is good; so do we nothing but sin, neither can we do any thing but sin. And as we are naturally the servants of sin; so by sin we are also the ser­of the devil, who is the Prince, Ioh. 12. 31 and God of this world 2 Cor. 4. 4. under whose subjection the whole world of the wicked lyeth, 1 Ioh. 5. 19. who is the power­ful Prince of the aire, working effectually in the children of disobedience, Ephes. 2. 2. carrying them away captive to do his wil. 2 Tim. 2. 26.

This servitude to sin and Sathan, the mystery of our redemption doth presup­pose. For if we were not captives, we needed not to be redeemed. And he doth therefore redeem us, that we might serve him; and therefore before he doth actually redeem us, we cannot serve him in holyness and righteousness.

Socondly, we are by nature the children of wrath, Ephes. 2. 3. and enemies, yea rebels against GOD. And therefore until we be reconciled unto him by the death of Christ, and justified by faith through redemption wrought by Christ; we cannot do any thing which may be acceptable to God. for they that are in the flesh cannot please [Page 53] God. Rom. 8. 8. The person must be ac­cepted, before his actions can be accepted▪ And without faith it is impossible to please God. Heb. 11. 6.

Now if this be so, that we cannot serve God, or do any thing that shal be accepted of him, unle [...]s we be first redeemed, justified, and reconciled to him: how doth it beho [...]e every one, that hath not yet obtained these graces, to labour for them above all th [...] things in this world? For until then, he doth nothing but sinn, and by multiplying sinns he doth hoard up wrath against the day of wrath.

The means of Gods part, is the preaching of the Gospel, which is therefore called the ministry of reconciliation, which God hath committed to the Preachers thereof, by whom, as his Embassadors in Christs steed▪ he intreateth you to be reconciled unto God▪ 2 Cor. 5. 18, 20.

The means on our part, are faith, praye [...], and repentance. For if thou dost truly, and by a lively faith effectually believe, that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and Saviour of all that believe in him; thou art bound to be­lieve also (or else thou makest God a lyar) that he is thy Saviour, and so believing thou art justified, and being justified by faith, thou shalt have peace with God.

[Page 54] Secondly, if the Lord who is the party of­fended, and needeth not thy friendship, desi­ [...]eth thee to be reconciled unto him; wilt not thou, who art the offendor, who also with­out his favour, shalt perish eternally; wilt not thou (I say) by hearty and earnest prayer de­ [...]i [...]e him to be reconciled unto thee? Now if [...] dost by the prayer of faith desire God to be reconciled unto thee; what should hin­d [...] thy reconciliation, when thou destrest [...] of God, which God by his Ministers de­sireth of thee?

But unto these two we must add the du­ty of repentance. For if we continue in sinn without repentance, and please our selves in [...]pleasing God; how can we perswade our s [...]lv [...]s, that we desire to be reconciled unto him? And if we do not desire to be reconci­led, then are we the professed enemies of God, for whom remaineth the fearful expectation of that judgment wch shaldestroy the adversa­ [...] of God. Heb. 10. 27. So much of the order.

Now we are to speak of the concur­ [...]nce of these two graces. For when the Lord sweareth, that to those whom he redeemeth and justifieth, he wil give grace to worship him in holyness and righteousness; from hence we do necessarily collect, that sanctification is an unsepara­ble companion of justification; and that no [Page 55] man can have assurance, that he is justifi­ed, unless he be in some measure sanctified. Let no man therefore deceive himself with a vain profession of an idle and dead faith, [...]. 2. 14. for unlesse thou doest, at the least, desire and endevour to worship God in holnesse and righteousnesse; it is as certain, as the oath of the Lord is true, that as yet thou art not justified, nor actually made partaker of the redemption wrought by Christ. It is true that our Saviour Christ in the dayes of his flesh, did redeem us meritoriously, paying a ran­some sufficient for all that should beleeve in him: but none are actually made partakers of this Redemption, but they to whom it is ap­plyed; and it is applyed only to those that truly believe, and true faith▪ purifieth the heart, Act. 15. 9. and worketh by love▪ Gal. 5, 6. and is to be demonstrated by good works, [...] [Page 56] faith, as all those are which truly believe in him, in them Christ dwelleth by his Spirit (for, Rom. 8. 9. they are not his, who have not his Spirit) applying unto them not only the merit of his death, to their redemption, and the benefit of his resurrection to their justifi­cation, Rom. 4. 25. but also the vertue and efficacie of his death to mortifie their sinnes, Phil. 3. 8, 9. and of his resurrection to raise them to newnesse of life; so that for whose sinnes Christ died, they die to their sinne; and for whose justification he arose, they al­so rise to newnesse of life. The Apostle, Rom. 6. 3. 4. affirmeth, that those who have been bapt [...]zed into CHRIST, were bap­tized into his death, and resurrection; that as CHRIST did die and rise againe; so they also die to sinne, and rise to a newnesse of life.

2. CHRIST was given unto us by his Father, not only to be our justification, and redemption; but also our Sanctifica­tion, 1 Cor. 1. 30. Neither did hee come with blood alone, or with water alone; 1 Iohn 5. 6. But as Saint Iohn in his Gospell carefully observeth, as a thing most remark­able. Iohn 19. 34, 35. He came both with water and with blood, with the blood of redemption, to expiate the guilt of our sins, and with the water of ablution, or sanctifi­cation, [Page 57] to cleanse us from the corruption▪ 1 Iohn 5. 6. And in respect of both, his blood doth cleanse us from all our sins, 1 Ioh. 1. 7. from the guilt, perfectly, in our justifi­cation, from the corruption, in part, and by degrees in our sanctification. See Hebr. 9. 14.

3. Whosoever are the sons of God by a­doption, as all those are, Io. 1. 12, 13. that truly believe, they also are his sons by regeneration.

4. The same is implied in the benefit of Redemption, whereby Christ our blessed Sa­viour doth not only redeem us from the guilt of sin, which bindeth men over to damna­tion, but also from the bondage of sinne, that howsoever sinne doth remaine in the faith­full, yet it shall not reigne in them, Rom. 6. 14. nor have dominion over them. For they that practise sinne, are the servants of sinne, Iohn 8. 34. and of Satan, 1 Ioh. 3. 8. in them sin reigneth; and therefore they are not by Christ redeemed from the bondage of sinn [...]For whom the Sonne maketh free, they are free indeed, Ioh. 8. 36.

5. The same is proved by the nature and property of a true faith. For faith is a grace of regeneration, which the Spirit of God, when he doth regenerate us, ingenerateth in us: wherby, as we are justified alone, because no other grace doth concurre with it to the act [Page 58] of justification: So are we sanctified in part, [...]gether with other graces; and therefore is never severed from the grace of regenerati­on, or from other sanctifying and saving gra­ [...], and further it is the property of faith, ha­ving justified us, inwardly to purifie the heart Act. 15. 9. and outwardly to work by love, Gal. 5. 6. Therfore, though to the act of justi­fication, neither outward obedience, nor in­ward graces do concur with faith, as any cause thereof: Yet in the subject, that is, in the party justified; they must, and do concur, as necessary fruits of a true and lively faith, without which it is dead, Iam. 2. 20. And therefore a true, lively, justifying faith, is also a sanctifying faith.

Now, both from the order, and conjuncti­on of these graces, we may infer a singular consolation to all the true [...] Children of God. For if there be such a conjunction between these two graces of justification and sanctifi­cation, that whosoever hath the one, hath al­so the other, and who hath not both hath neither: then it followeth necessarily, that, as he that is justified, is also sanctified; So he that is sanctified, is also justified; and if the order between them be such, that a man can­not serve God in the duties of sanctification, untill he be justified, nor cannot worship God aright, untill he be redeemed from his [Page 59] spirit [...]all enemies▪ then it followeth [...], that they who are in any true measure sanctified, are also justified; that they who sincerely desire, and endevour to walk in the obedience of Gods holy will, making con­science of their wayes, are redeemed from the hand of their spirituall enemies. And not only may we from our sanctification come to the certain knowledge of our justificati­on: but also we may thereby make our cal­ling and our election sure. For dost thou, professing the true faith, endevour to keep a good conscience, and to walk uprightly be­fore God; then it is certain, that thou art justi­fied by a true faith; art thou justified? then [...] is certain, that thou art effectually called: art thou called according to Gods purpose? then without doubt thou art elected: art thou elected? then undoubtedly thou shalt be sa­ved. Seeing then such singular comfort [...] ­set [...] from the leading of a godly and upright [...], as that thereby we may make our cal­ling and election sure, hereby we should all of us be excited to the study of godlinesse, and practise of piety: for the greatest com­fort that we can have in this life, is to be [...] of our election and salvation. But to the knowledge of our election, we cannot come [...], by any thing going before, as the cause thereof, but à posteriori by the [Page 60] effects. The s [...]ries or chaine of the degrees of salvation, may not unfitly be compared to Iacobs ladder, which reached from the earth to heaven, the lowest step whereof in this life is our sanctification, whereon, if we can set our foot, we may from thence arise to our justification, and from thence to our effectuall calling, and from thence to our ele­ction. But if we will without ascending by these degrees, take upon us to conclude the certainty of our election, we shall be like him, that being to go up a ladder, would strive at the first, to set his foot on the highest step of the ladder, neglecting the lower de­grees.

Of the parts of the gift se­verally, and first of Re­demption.

NOw we are to speak of the parts seve­rally; and first, of redemption, in these words, That we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies. Where wee are to note.

[Page 61] Three things.

  • 1. The parties that are rede [...] ­med.
  • 2. The party, by whom, and af­ter what manner.
  • 3. The parties from whom, our enemies.

1. The parties redeemed are We, who have Abraham to our Father; that is to say, the faithfull: not all men, but those only that believe. For, so God loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Sonne, that whos [...] ­ever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life, Ioh. 3. 16. Thus he is said to have saved his people from their sins, Matth. 1. 21. to lay down his life for his sheep, Iohn 10. 15. to have given himself for his Church, Ephes. 5. 25. that he might re­deem us from all iniquity, and might purifie to himself a peculiar people, Titus 2. 14. The Prophet Esay te [...]tifieth that Christ by his knowledge (that is, by the knowledge­ment of him, which is faith) shall justifie many, Esay 53. 11, 12. for he shall bear their iniquities; and that he bare the sin of many: and our Saviour himselfe, Matth. 26. 18. that his blood was shed for many for remission of sins. It is true, that Christ his death is a s [...]ffi­cient price of ransome for the sinnes of the whole world: Yea, of more worlds, if there were more then one, for his blood and his [Page 62] sufferings, whereby he redeemed us, were the blood and sufferings of him that was and is God: Act, 20. 28. but yet they are effectual only to those that do believe.

Arg. 1. For if Christ had redeemed all men, then all should be saved. 1. For all that are redeemed are also justified and all that are justified shal be glorified. 2. For, for whom Christ died, for them he hath satisfied the ju­stice of his father, so that there is no condem­nation to them, whom Christ hath redeemed. 3. For whom Christ dyed, them by his death he reconciled to God; now they, who when they were enemies were reconciled to God by the death of his Son; much more being reconciled [...] be saved by his life.

Arg. 2. Neither may we think, that Christ would die for them, for whom he would not pray. But for the world, faith he, Iohn 17. 9. that is for the company of the [...] and repro [...]at [...]s I pray not: but for them whom thou hast given me out of the world.

Arg. 3. But if the Oath of an honest man, ought to be the end of controversie, much more ought the Oath of God in this place end this controversie concerning universall redemption. For God hath sworn, that to so many as he redeemeth, he wil give them to worship him in holsness and righteousness, [Page 63] But the greater part of mankind have never the grace to worship God in holyness and righteousness, and therefore to them the be­nefit of redemption doth not belong.

Now, when we do profess our selves to be the redeemed of the Lord, we do withall confess, that in our selves we are bondmen, and servants, whom Christ came to redeem out of this bondage. But howsoever all will challenge to themselves the benefit of Re­demption, yet how few, in comparison, do acknowledg their bondage? But like the un­believing Iews, when our Saviour promised them liberty, profess, that they never were in servitude, Iohn 8. 33. and so bewray themselves not to be redeemed. But this hum­ble conceipt of our selves before our Justifi­cation is necessary for us, if either we would seek to Christ, or have him to respect us. For if by nature we be not in bondage, what need we a redeemer? If not lost, what need we a Saviour? Mat. 9. 12. The whole need not the Physitian, but they that are sick, Christ came not to call the righteous but sinners to repentauce, Mat. 9. 13. to preach redemption to the Captives, Luke 4. 1 [...]. and to save that which was lost. He was gi­ven unto us of his Father, to be our wisdom, our lustification, our redemption, our sancti­fication, our life our salvation, 1 Cor. 1. 30. If [Page 64] therefore we would be made partakers of these benefits, we must acknowledg our selves to be fools in spiritual things, that in him we may become wise; guilty of. death & damnation, that in and by him we may be absolved and justified: defiled and polluted with sin, that by him we may be sanctified: dead in sin, that in him we may be quickned and revived: lost, that in him we may be sa­ved: captives and bondmen, that by him we may be redeemed.

2. As touching the party by whom we are redeemed; the text saith; he would give us that we should be redeemed: which, in the beginning of this Psalm is more plainly ex­pressed: Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath visited and redeemed his people, or as the words are, hath wrought redempti­on to his people. How? By raising an horn of salvation, that is, a mighty saviour For us, who according to the flesh was the Son of David. The father therefore redeemeth us by giving his son for us: the son redeemeth us, by giving himself to be a price of redemp­tion for us. 1 Tim. 2. 6. The holy Ghost also re­deemeth us, when working in us the grace of [...]aith, he applieth unto us the benefit of re­demption. The father redeemeth, as the graci­ous Author and Donor; the Son, as the meri­torious worker, the holy Ghost, as the effe­ctual [Page 65] applier. The good wil and love of God the Father is the [...] or antecedent moving cause, the death and obedience of Christ is the [...] or meritorious cause; the application of the holy Ghost is the [...] or effectual cause, by which we are made actually partakers of redemption, which is the grace wrought by Christ, procee­ding from the love of the father, 2 Cor. 13. 14. applied unto us by the communion of the holy Ghost.

Now here are divers things to be obser­ved. 1. The infinite and unspeakable love of God the father, in giving his only begotten Son, and of God the Son in giving himself for us; and of God the holy Ghost the spirit of grace, in communicating unto us the mercy and love of God, and the merit and vertue of all that Christ did or su [...]ered for us.

For the first, herein is love, saith the beloved Apostle, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Sonne to be the propitiation for our sinnes. 1 John 4. 10. So God loved the world, so infinitely, so un­speakably, so beyond all comparison, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoe­ver believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. Ioh. 3. 16. And again, Ro. 8. 32. that he spared not his own son, but de­livered him up for us al. But her in especialy god [Page 66] mendeth his love towards us, that whilest we were sinners, and by sin enemies, Christ died for us, Rom. 5. 8. 10.

If this love of God be shed abroad in our hearts by his holy spirit, Rom. 5. 5. that is, if by the Holy Ghost working in us faith, we are truly perswaded and assured of it, these effects wil follow, 1. that we shal love God again, the beams of his love inflaming our hearts, and reflecting back some heat of love. For therefore do we love God, be­cause he loved us first, 1 Joh. 4. 19. Magnes amor is amor: Love is the loadstone of love. The woman in the Gospel, who had many sins remitted, did therefore love much. Luk. 7. 47. If it be demanded, why, and how we should love God, I answer with Bernard, Lib [...]de dilig. Deum, initio. Causa diligen­di Deum Deus est; modus, sine modo diligere. God is good without measure, and without measure he hath loved us, therefore without measure, if it were possible, we ought to love him. But though we cannot do so, yet we ought to love him with all our heart, with all our soul, and with all our might. Lev. 6. 5. Mat. 22. 37. Or if we cannot do so by reason of the flesh, yet at the least with an upright soul, and a sincere heart, to the utter­most of our power. And this our love we must express by keeping his commandements, [Page 67] Ioh. 14. 15. Exod. 20. 6. and that willingly. For this, saith Saint John, is the love of God, 1 Ioh. chap. 5. ver. 3. that we keep his Commandments, and his Commandements are not grievous.

2. We shal love our neighbour for the Lords sake, it is the use which S. Iohn make [...]h in the place even now cited, 1 Ioh. 4. 10. 11. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his son to be the pr [...]pitiation for our sins. Beloved (saith he) if God so loved us, we ought also to love [...] another.

3. The perswasion of this love of God affordeth unto us singular comfort, in divers respects. As first in afflictions. For therefore do we glory in afflictions, Rom. 5. 3, 4, 5. knowing that tribulation worketh patience, and patience experience, and experience hope, and hope maketh not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the holy Ghost which is given [...] us: that is, because by faith wrought in us by the holy Ghost, we are per­swaded of the love of God in Christ, which love God commendeth towards us, in that, when we were sinners, Christ died for us.

The second comfort. If God did so love us, when we were his enemies; much more [Page 68] when by Christ we are become his friends. For if when we were enemies, we were reconciled unto God by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled we shal be saved by his life.

The third comfort. If God so loved us, that he spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shal he not then with him also freely give us all things, Rom. 8. 32. all things that be expedient for us.

2. The love also of God the Son exceed­eth all knowledg, Ephes. 3. 19. who so lo [...]ed the Church, that he gave himself for it, Eph. 5. 25. who so loved us, that he washed us from our sins in his own blood, Apoc. 1. 5. Greater love hath no man then this, that a man lay down his life for. his friends. Iohn 15. 13. But Christ our sweet Saviour, being not only man, but God also, gave himself not for his friends but for his enemies; and that, not to a commo [...]and ordinary death, but to the most painful, most shameful, and most accursed death of the Cross; and not only to fuffer a corporall death, but also in his soul, to undergo the wrath of God in our steed; the fear whereof, when he was in that grievous agony, caused him to sweat great dropps of blood, Luke 22. 44. and the sence thereof on the Cross, being in his own sence as a man forsaken of God, made him cry out. My God, my God, [Page 69] why hast thou for saken me? Mat. 27. 46.

The acknowledgment of this wonderful love of Christ, ought first to work in us a love in some measure answerable to his; that as he gave himself for us an offering and sa­crifice to God for a sweet smelling savour, Eph. 5. 2. so we should present our bodies a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable unto him, which is our reasonable service, Rom. 12. 1. And as he gave himself for us, so should we b [...]willing and ready, if occasion serve, to lay down our lives for him, the rather because he hath promised, that whosoever shal lose his life for his sake and the Gospels, shal save it, Mar. 8. 35. We owe our selves unto Christ in a double or treble respect: first, for that in our creation he gave us to our selves: second­ly, because in our redemption, when we were lost, he restored us to our selves: thirdly, when in restoring us, he gave himself for us. For our selves given and restored, we may and ought to give and render our selves; but what retribution shal we make him for him­self? For though we should give and render our selves to him, or for him a thousand times yet what are we to him? As Bernard sweetly argueth. Lib. de delig. Deo.

Secondly, we are to imitate our blessed Sa­viour, as the Apostle exhorteth us in re­spect of his love, shewing it self in his [Page 68] [...] [Page 69] [...] [Page 70] wonderful humiliation and obedience for us. Phil. 2. 5. Let the same mind be in you, which was in Christ Iesus, who being God coe­quall with his Father, for our sakes abased himselfe to become man: and being man, humbled himself, not only to all active obe­dience, performing all righteousness, as being made subject to the Law for us; but also to the passive obedience, being obedient to death, even the death of the Crosse; and all this for us men, and for our salvation.

Thus you have heard the love of the Father, in giving his Son, and the love of the Son in giving himself for us; whereunto we may add the love both of the Father and the Son, in sending the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of love to accompl [...]sh our redemption, and also of the Holy Ghost, who furnisheth with his graces, and furnished, sendeth forth the Em­bassadours and Ministers of God, commit­ting unto them the meanes of our salvation; in and by which, hee having united us to Christ, and made us partakers of him, he wor­keth effectually in the hearts of Gods chosen, all those saving and sanctifying graces, wher­by they are not only enti [...]led unto Gods Kingdome, but also fitted and prepared for the same.

But as in the work of our Redemption we have observ [...] the [...] love of [Page 71] God: so in the second place we are to ob­serve his infinite justice manifested in the same. For such is the justice of God, that ra­ther then he would suffer the sins of his own elect children to go unpunished, he hath pu­nished them in the death of his only begot­ten Son. The consideration whereof ought to strike a terror in them that do not be­lieve, nor repent. For if God punished the sins of the faithful in Christ, what shal be­come of them, who have no part in Christ? Undoubtedly every sin, as it deserveth death, so is it punished with death; either with the death of Christ in the behalf of them that believe, or with the death of the parties themselves, who are not in Christ. And as it ministreth terror to the wicked; so it affor­deth singular comfort to the faithful, who are in Christ. For they may from the consi­deration of this justice of God, safely con­clude; that to them, being in Christ, there is not only no condemnation, but not so much as any punishments so properly called, which in order of justice is inflicted by way of vengeance to satisfie the justice of God. For Christ having fully satisfied the justice of his Father in the behalf of all them that believe; it cannot stand with the justice of God to punish the same sins in the party, which he hath already punished in Christ. The [Page 72] children of God are indeed subject to mani­fold afflictions, which are mala poenae, but unto them the nature of them is changed, so that they be not punishments to them, but either fatherly chastisements, (for when we are judged, 1 Cor. 11. 32. that is, afflicted for our sins, we are chastised of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world) or else trials for their good.

Thirdly, we observe how heynous, and how detestable our sins are in the sight of God: the guilt whereof could not be expia­ted, nor the justice of God satisfied, nor his wrath for them appeased, by any other means, but by the most precious blood of the eternal Son of God. That both in respect of our sins past we should be touched with remorse, when we consider that by our sins we nayled our Saviour to the Cross, (to which end we are to pray, that the Lord would pour upon us the spirit of grace and supplication, that when we look upon him, whom we have pierced, we might lament and mourn, as a father mourneth for his only son:) and also in respect of the time to come, we should not be animated to commit any sin, as being smal; seeing there is none so smal, but the price of it was the precious blood of Christ: none so light, but that if we be not eased from the burthen of it, by the [Page 73] merits of Christ, it is of sufficient weight to presse us down to hell.

The third thing to be considered in the do­ctrine of Redemption, are the enemies from whom we are delivered; which are not car­nall, as the Jews imagine, dreaming that their Messias should be a temporal Monarch, who having subdued their enemies, which held them in subjection, should restore the King­dom to Israel, but spirituall. And these are the Law, sin, death, and the devill; the La [...] being the strength of sinne, sinne the sting of death, and death the power of the devil; from the hand, that is, from the power of all which our Saviour Christ hath delivered us.

If it be demanded, why among the ene­mies, I do not reckon the world. I answer, if by World, be meant worldly desires, as 1 Ioh. 2. 15, 16. they are comprehended under the title of sin: if wicked worldlings, they are but the feed of the Serpent, and the instruments of the Devill. And in both senses, not only our Saviour hath overcome the world for us, Ioh. 16. 33. but the faithfull also in and by him, 1 Ioh. 4. 4. and 5. 4, 5.

The Law by reason of our transgression is an enemy unto us; whether we consider the yoke of the Ceremonial Law, or the bondage wherein the Morall Law did hold us, From the yoke of the Ceremonial Law, Act. 16. 10▪ [Page 74] which neither we nor our Fathers were able to bear, our Saviour Christ delivered us, blot­ting out, or cancelling the hand-writing of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nayling it to his Crosse, Col. 2. 14. and abolis [...] ­ing in his flesh the enmity, even the law of the Commandements consisting in ordinan­ces, Ephe [...]. [...]. 15.

And as touching the morall law, our Savi­our hath delivered us, first from the curse of the law, and consequently from all punish­ments of sin, whether temporall or eternall, himself being made a curse for us, Gal. 3. 13▪ & not only so, but hath also made us [...] of the blessednesse promised in him to Abra­ham, and to his feed, that is, to all the faith­full, who are the [...] of promise.

2. From the rigour and [...] of the law, e [...]acting of us perfect righteousnesse, inherent in us, and perfect obedience to be performed by us to our justification, by per­forming perfect righteousnesse in his owne person for us, by which righteousnesse being apprehended by faith, we are justified be one God, without the works of the Law, that is, without respect of any righteousnesse inhe­rent [...]n us, or obedience performed by us, Rom. 3. 28. Now this two-fold bondage was most miserable, to be subject to the fearfull [Page 75] curse of God, if we did break the law, when we could do nothing els but break it: & to be excluded frō justification & salvation, if we did not perfectly fulfil the law, which by rea­son of the flesh is impossible unto us, [...]. 8. 3.

3. From the terrour, and coaction of the law working servile feare in those who are under the Law, forcing them by fear of pu­nishment, as bondslaves by the whip, to the outward, though unwilling performance of it. From this spirit of fearfulnesse, [...] Tim. 1. 7. which is also called the spirit of bondage, Rom. [...]. 15. Christ hath freed us, that as a vo­luntary people. Psal. 110. 3. Zealous of good works [...]. 2. 14. we may worship God [...] as it [...]o [...]oweth in my text, without servile fear, with upright hearts and willing minds, 1 Chron. [...]8. 9. as not being under the Law, but under Grace.

4. From the irritation of the Law, in re­gard wherof especially it is called the strength of sin, 1 Cor. 15. 56. whereunto our own cor­ruptions did make us subject, as unto an hus­band, Rom. 7. 15. begetting foule issue by us tending to death. For such is the corruption of our untamed nature, until we be renewed by the Spirit of God that when the Law which is holy and good, forbiddeth sin, and seeketh to b [...]idle our sinful affections▪ like an untamed [...] rebelleth so much the more; and that [Page 76] it might appear exceedingly sinfull, taketh occasion by the Law forbidding sinne, to work in us al manner of concupiscence, Rom. 7. 8. 13. But when we being adopted in Christ, are also regenerated by the Spirit, and so made dead to sinne; we are morti­fied to the Law, and the Law to us, in re­spect of this irritation accidentally caused by our corruption, alwayes prone to that which is forbidden: and consequently are delivered from the bondage of the Law, as of a for­mer husband being dead, Rom. 7. 2, &c.

Secondly, we are by Christ freed from death, both from the first death, as it is a pu­nishment, and from the second. For as of all other afflictions, so of death the nature is changed in respect of the faithfull, to whom it is not a punishment or curse, the sting of it (which is sin) being taken away; but rather a blessing; no losse, but advantage, because to them it is the end of sin, and consequently of all misery, the beginning of happiness, a pas­sage from the vale of tears to the kingdom of glory, the end of a mortall life, and the be­ginning of a life immortall.

Likewise from the second death, for he hath delivered us from the wrath that is to come, 1 Thes. 1. 10. so that to them that are in Christ, there is no condemnation, Rom. 8. 1. this being the main promise of the Gospel, that whoso­ever [Page 77] beleeveth in him shall not pe [...]ish, but have everlasting life, Ioh. 3. 1 [...], 16, 18.

Thirdly, from the power of the d [...]vil: that howsoever he may assault us, yet he shall not hurt us. Because he that is in us, being greater then he that is in the world, 1 Ioh. 5. 18. hath overcome this strong man, Luk. 11. 22. & hath bound him, as being stronger then he. For by his death he hath overthrown him that had the power of death, that is the devil, delivering them who through fear of death were all their life-time subject to bondage, Heb. 2. 14, 15. & having spoiled principaliti [...]s and powers (meaning the devill and his an­g [...]ls) he hath made a shew of them openly, and triumphed over them on the crosse, Col. 2. 15.

Fourthly, But the most pernic [...]ous enemy is that which we carry in our own bosom, and that is sin, from which if we be freed, we are delivered from all the rest. For if we be d [...]li­vered from sin, then are we freed from the curse of the Law, from the evill of death ha­ving lost his sting, from the danger of dam­nati [...]n being absolved from the guils of sin, from the malice of Satan, who, if we be freed from sinne, hath nothing to object a­gainst us. For who shall lay any thing to the charge of Gods elect? It is God that doth justifie, who shall condemn? Christ having died and being risen again sitteth at the right [Page 78] hand of his Father making intercession for us, Rom. 8. 33, 34 Therefore in the Scriptures the whole benefit of our Redemption is ex­pressed sometimes by deliverance from sin, as Eph. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14. By Christ we have re­d [...]mption, viz. [...]re [...]ssion of sins. For therefore Christ gave himself for us, that he might re­de [...]m us from all iniquity, Tit. 2. 14. 1 Pet. 1. 18. Act. [...]3. 25, 26. Now, from sin he doth deli­ver us; first, in respect of the guilt thereof, by [...] us, and reconciling us unto God, Act. [...]3. 38, 39. 2 Cor. 5. 19.

Secondly, in respect of the corruption of sin, (which he [...] in us by degrees,) he [...] us from the bondage and dominion of [...]in; that howsoever it remaineth in the chil­dren of God, yet it shall no more reigne in them, Rom. 6. 14.

The use of this doctrine concerning our redemption, is:

First, seeing Christ our Saviour hath re­deemed us from our enemies, that therefore we should not stand in fear of them, accord­ing to that, Esay 43. 1. Fear not, for I have redeemed thee. But as we are taught in the next words, we should all the dayes of our life worship him [...] fear: and in the end of our dayes commend our soules into the hand of God, saying with David, Psal. 31. 6. Into thy hands I commend my [...], for thou [Page 79] hast redeemed me Lord God of truth.

2. When we have sinned against God, the remembrance of our redemption should en­courage us to return unto him by unfained repentance, as himself exhorteth, Esay 44 22. These things, saith Saint Iohn, I write unto you, that you sin not; but if any man do sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the propitiati­on for our sins, 1 Ioh. 2. 1, 2.

3. Seeing our Saviour hath redeemed and bought us with so great a price, therefore we ought to acknowledg him to be our Lord in the right of Redemption, and our selves not to be our own men, but his servants. For therefore Christ died and rose again to life, that he might be the Lord both of the quick and of the dead, Rom. 14. 9. And if we ac­knowledg him to be our Lord, we must be carefull to do his will, otherwise in vaine do we call him so: Why do you call me Lord, and do not the things that I command you? Luke 6. 46. Not every one that saith Lord, Lord, shal enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Mat. 7. 22. Again, being bought with a price, we are not our own men, but his that bought us: and therefore ought not to seek our selves, or the satisfying of our own lusts; but to glorifie God both in our bodies and in [Page 80] our spirit, which are not ours but Gods, 1 Cor. 6. 19, 20. That body is not thine to spend in sin, but is to be offered unto God, as an holy and acceptable sacrifice. That tongue is not thine own, as the wicked say of theirs, Psal. 12. 4. to use, or rather abuse at thy plea­sure, but to be used to the glory of God. That heart is not thine to be addicted to worldly vanities, but to be given to God. In a word. Christ died for al, that they which live should not henceforth live to themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again, 2 Cor. 4. 15.

4. Seeing Christ hath given himself for us to f [...]ee us from our enemies, let us stand fast in that liberty which Christ, at so de [...]r a price, purchased for us; and not suffer our selves to be entangled again with the yoke of bondage, Gal. 5. 1. For what can be, either more disho­norable to out Redeemer, then that we should revolt frō him to serve sin & Satan, or more pernicious to our selves; for then our latter end should be worse then our beginning, 2 Pet. 2. 20. Remember the Israelites, who be­ing redeemed out of Aegypt, for desiring to return, perished in the wilderness. Remember Lots wife, Luk. 17. 32. who, being delivered out of Sodom, for looking back, was turned into a pillar of salt. The which I speak not as though I thought, that a man who is once [Page 81] truly justified & redeemed, can either totally or finally fall away from saving grace▪ but to admonish those, who think they stand, to take heed they do not fall, 1 Cor. 10. 12. For if any professing himself to be redeemed, shall fall a­way, his example will not prove, that a man may fall from saving grace: but his falling a­way will evidently prove, that he was never in the state of grace, 1 Ioh. 2. 19. [...]

5. For as much as Christ our [...] is sacrificed for us, 1 Cor. 5. 8. we should purge out the old leaven, and keep a perp [...]all feast of unleavened bread (signified by the [...] days of that feast,) not with the [...] hy­pocrisie, nor with the old leaven of naughti­nesse, but with the unle [...]vened graces of sin­cerity and truth: but especially when we ce­lebrate the memory of our redemption [...] the Lords day, or in any of our Lords Feasts, or at the celebrating of the holy [...], which is the antitype to the Passeover.

6. Lastly, we are to be hear [...]dy thankfull unto God for this [...] benefit, wher­by we, being [...] lost by sin, and therefore in our selves worse then nothing (for better were it not to be, then being lost, not to be redeemed) are restored to a betten estate then we lost in Adam, And this our thankfulness we are to expresse, partly by thanksgiving, whereunto we are excited in this Psalme, [Page 82] [...]

The fruits and end of our redemption, viz. the true worship of God in holinesse and righ­teousnesse.

[...] [Page 83] we shall abuse this great benefit of Redemp­tion, if we have not respect to the end there­of; which is our sanctification. For else what can be the cause of such dissolute living, as is every where to be seen among those who professe themselves redeemed by Christ, but a foolish opinion, that Christ having freed them from their sins, they may sin the more freely, and that he having dyed for their sins, they need not to die to them, and so abuse the grace of God unto wantonnesse, Iude 4.

For if our sanctification be the end of our redemption, then do we abuse this great be­nefit of God, if we do not refer it to this end: yea rather, we deceive and abuse our selves with a vain opinion of our redemption. For if this be the end of our redemption, then those that live in sin, as the servants of sin, either are not redeemed (for whom Christ the Son ma­keth free, they are free indeed) or else they are redeemed in vain, for that is in vain which is frustrate of the end.

Now that sanctification is the end of our redemption, it may be proved by the testimo­nies of holy Scripture, and also by sound rea­sons drawn from thence. Tit. 2. 14. Christ hath given himself for us, that he might re­deem us from all iniquity, and that he might purifie or sanctifie to himself a peculiar peo­ple, zealous of good works, Eph. 5. 25, 26, 27. [Page 84] Christ loved his Church, and gave himself for it, that he might sanctifie and cleanse in with the washing of water by th [...] Word, that he might present it to himself a glorious▪ Church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any­s [...]ch th [...]ng, but that it should be h [...]ly and without blemish. Col. 1. 21, 22. You that were enemies Christ hath reconciled in the body of his flesh, through death, to present you holy and unblameable in his sight, 1 Pet. 2. 24. Christ himself bare out sins in his own body, on the tree, that we, being dead to sin, should live unto righteousness.

The reason is evident. For that which is the end of all Gods blessings in this life, both spiritual and temporal, must needs be the end of our Redemption. But our sanctification is the end of all Gods blessings in this life, 1 Thes. 4. 3. This is the will of God even your sanctification; this is that which God wil­leth, and intendeth in bestowing his benefits upon us. He hath elected us, that we might be holy, Ephes. 1. 4. he created us after his own Image, that we might worship him in holi­nesse and righteousnesse, Eph. 4. 24. he hath called us to holinesse, 1 Thess. 4. 7. and we are called to be Saints, or Saints by calling, Rom. 1. 7. 1 Cor. 1. 2. he doth regenerate us to the same end. For we are the workmanship of God creat [...]d in Iesus Christ unto good works, [Page 85] which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them Eph. 2. 10. To the same end he hath planted us in his Church, that we might be called, trees of righteousness, bring­ing forth fruit to his glory E [...]ay 61. 3. and fi­nally, to the same end he bestoweth his tem­porall benefits upon us: T [...]e Psalmist having in the 105. P [...]alme. recounted the manifold blessings of God bestowed upon the Israe­lites in the last verse he concludeth this to be the end of all, that they might observe hi [...] ▪ statutes, and [...] Lawes.

And as it is the end, so also the fruit of our redemption; as it is plainly delivered in thi [...] text, that he would give us, that we being de­livered from the hand of our enemies, sho [...]ld worship him withou [...] fear in holiness [...] and, righteousnesse. More plainly, Rom. 6. 22. B [...]ng made free from sin, and become servants to▪ God, we have our fruit [...] holinesse, [...] the end everlasting life▪ And to the [...]e w [...] may add Hebr. 9. 13, 14. For if th [...] blood of buls and goats, and the ashes of an bey [...]er sprinckling the unclean, sanctifieth to the p [...] ­rifying of the fles [...] ▪ how much more shall the blood of Christ▪ who through the eternal S [...] ­rit offred himself without sp [...]t to God, [...] our consciences from dead works to serve the living God. And Tit. 2. 11, 12. The saving grace of G [...]d hath appeared to all (namely, both by [Page 86] deed [...]nd word: in deed by sending Christ to redeem us, 2 Tim. 1. 9, 10. 1 Ioh. 4. 9, IC. by word in publ [...]shing this benefit of redēption by preaching of the Gospel) the fruit wher­of is this Teaching us, that we renouncing al ungodlinesse, and worl [...]ly lusts, should liv [...] s [...]orly and justly, and holily in this present world, expecting the h [...]ppy hope, that is, the happinesse hoped for &c.

Seeing then that holinesse of life is both the▪ end and fruit of our Redemption, and of all other the gifts of God, let us labor to attain to this end, and to bring forth this fruit: so s [...]all we shew our selves thankfull unto God for this and all other his benefits, and shall also [...]a [...]e, not only our justification and redemp­tion, but also our calling and election sure.

But on the contrary, if professing our selves redeemed by Christ, we live in sin, as the ser­ [...]s of sinne, then are we most unthankfull unto God, this being the end of our Re­demption, and the only fruit which he e [...] ­pecteth in lie [...] of this and all other his bene­fits; and most injurious to our selves, not on­ly depriving our selves of al [...] assuran [...]e of our salvation, but also drawi [...]g upon our selve [...] most deserved damnation. And let us know, that the foundation of God which is sure, hath this seale: Let every one that nameth the Name of Christ, depart from iniquity. [...] T [...]m. 2. 19.

[Page 87] [...] [Page 88] fruit and [...] of our redemption, is here [...] [...]ably described, by the parts and properties thereof. The parts are Hol [...]ness and Righte­ [...]usness. For by holiness, you are to under­stand the duties of the first Table, Viz. of piety and religion towards God: by righte­ousness, the duties of the second Table, which we owe unto men: And of these we are to speak, first, joyntly, of them both together, and then of either of them severally.

Holiness and righteousness as they are here joyned together by the Holy Ghost, so in pra­ctise they may not be severed. Those that are in Christ are new creatures, 2 Cor, 5. 17. re­newed according to the Image of God in [...] holiness and righteousness, Ephes. 4. 74. And in this place the Lord hath promised to give to those that are redeemed, to worship him, not in holiness alone, nor in righteous­ness alone, but [...] holiness and righteousness. And therefore those things, which God hath [...]njoyned, let no man sever, for these two are so [...]onjoyned by God, that whosoever hath the one, hath the other; and whosoever hath not both, hath [...]ither of them in deed and in truth. He that loveth God, loveth his neighbour also, 1 Joh. 4. 21. neither can a man love God in truth, that loveth not his brother also, as S. Iohn argueth; If any man say I love God, & hateth [...] brother, [...]e is a lyar, for he [Page 89] that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God, whom he hath not seen? [...] Io [...]. 4. 20. for true is the old saying, in [...], of seeing comes loving.

Neither can a man love his neighbour as he ought, but he wil love God much more; For our brother is to be loved in the Lord; and se [...] the Lord. And it was wel said of Bernard, Licet aliquid diligere preter Deum, [...]od [...] id diligamus propter Deum. Now it is a rule in Ph [...]losophy, [...], for what any thing is, that is much more. Therefore if we love our brother for Gods sake, then do we love God much more.

Here therefore two sorts of men are to be reproved. The former is of those, who would seem to be forward professors of religion and piety towards God, that are very backward in the duties of charity and righteousness to their brethren: Such were the Pharisies, whom our Saviour called hypocrites, bidding us to beware of the leaven of the Pharisies, which is hypocrisie; For, saith he, unless your righ­teousnesse exceed the righteousness [...] of the Scribes and Pharisies, you shal [...] not enter in­to the kingdom of heaven, Mat. 5. 20.

These man are wont to discover their hy­pocrisie, partly by their words, and partly by their works. By their words, being evil speak­ers, detracters & depravers of their brethren: [Page 90] who with the same tongue blesse God, and curse man, who is made after the similitude of God, Iam. 3. 9. But the said S. Iames, Ch. 1. 26. hath given his censure of these men.

For, saith he, If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tong [...], [...]ut de [...]veth his own heart, this mans reli­gion is vain: By their works, cloaking un­der the shew of religion, hard dealing and de­ceipt; having Iacobs voice and Esau's stands, scandalizing the profession of r [...]ligion by their hypocrisie. The Holy Ghost therfore▪ to discover such hypocrites, when he would set down the marks and notes of men truly religious, describeth them commonly by the duties which they perform to their brethrens [...]aking them the touchstone, as it were, of their piety and religion towards God, R [...]al [...]5. and 24. Iam. 1. 27.

The other sort is of those, who pro [...]essing themselves to be Christians, are but [...] ho­nest men, void of piety and religion towards God, I speak not against civ [...]ll honesty, which is very commendable and necessary; in so much as they who w [...]nt it, are worse then some of the heathen that know not God. For many of the Hea [...]hen were of a civill and honest conversation, yea, some of them ex­celled in morall vertues. But I would not have a Christian to rest, in a faire, outward, [Page 91] civill [...]onversation among men, as though [...] more were required of him. For if a men, professing himself a Christian, s [...]ll have [...] more in him then the Pagans who knew not God: can such a one be esteemed a sou [...]d Christian? Our love of men [...]st procee [...] from the love of God; the streames of ou [...] justice and charity towards men, must be de­rived from the fountain of piety toward [...] God, with [...] faith i [...] is impossible to please God. Hebr. 11. [...]. Without Faith, without piety, without the [...]ear of God, without r [...] ­pentance, the best actions of civil honest men, are but splendid [...] p [...]ccata. The chiefest care of a Christan must be to worship God, [...] [...]harity towards men.

But the meer civill honest man neith [...] worshipeth God in the duties of piety, [...] yet in the duties of righteousness [...]; which he perf [...]m [...]th as a meer natu [...]all ma [...], without any respect or relation had [...] God: And therefore cannot be said in doing those [...] ties to serve God in righteousnesse, as no [...] [...] [...]bedience to God, or for Gods [...]

Now if they which w [...]nt either of thes [...] are not to be deemed sound Christians, what [...]hall we say of tho [...] which h [...]ve neither▪ [Page 92] yea, that not so much as seem to have either? prophane and wicked men, who professing themselves Christians, that is to say, men re­deemed by Christ, turn the grace of God into [...]antonnesse, Jude 4. being in name Christi­ans, in deed Atheists; professing themselves to know God, but in deed denying him, being abominable and disobedient, and to every good work reprobate.

Now we are to speak of either of them severally, but briefly, and in a word. For if I should treat of them at large; under the ti­tle of Holinesse, I should discourse of all the duties required in the first Table of the De­calogue; in all which we must think our selve [...] bound to worship God, if we wil worship [...]im in Holinesse. And under the name of Righteousness [...], I should treat of all the duties of the second Table, all which we must en­devour to perform to our neighbor in obedi­ence to God, if we would be thought to worship or toserve him in righteousnesse.

But first, we are to speak of Holiness; be­cause that is the first and the gre [...]test Com­mandement, Mat. 22. 38.

That holiness is a f [...]it of our redemption, the Holy Ghost doth plainly testifie, Rom. 6. [...]2. Being freed from sin, and made serv [...]nts to God, you hav [...] your fruit unt [...] holinesse, and the end everlasting life. And that [...] [Page 93] also the end of our redemption. S. Paul wit­nesseth, Ephes. 5. 27. Col. 1. 22. And as it is the fruit and end of our redemption and ju­stification in part; so is it also a necess [...]ry forerunner of glorification. And therefore if we shall truly worship the Lord in holiness▪ we may be assured, that the Lord hath re­dee [...]d us; and consequently, as we have the fruit of our redemption in holiness; so shall we h [...]ve the end thereof, which is the salva­tion of our soules, R [...]m. 6. 22. Apoc. [...]0. 6. But contratiwise, if our conversation be unholy and unp [...]re, as we want the fruit of our re­demption, so shall we never attain to the end thereof, which is everlasting life. For as the Holy Ghost witnesseth, Heb. 12. 14. [...] holinesse no [...] shall s [...]e God.

Righteousnesse also, as hath been said, is in part the fruit and end of our redemp­tion, for being fr [...]d from sin, we become the se [...]vant [...] of righteousnesse, Rom. 6. 18. And therefore did our Savlour in his body on the tree bear our sinnes, that we dying to sinne, might live unt [...] righteousnesse, 1 Pet. 2. 34.

But h [...]re some may object, if righteousnes [...] contain the duties Wth we owe to man, whe­ther our brethren or our selves; how is it here said, that we are to worship or serve God in righteousnesse? Answ. This teacheth us that [Page 94] [...] [Page 95] [...] [Page 96] must also, and that principally be carefull to worship him in holinesse. And this is to be understood of civill callings. But as touching the Ministers of Gods word, this may fur­ther be added for their comfort, that so ma­ny of them as with good conscience take pains in their function, whether in their pri­vate studies, or in their publique ministery, seeking to glorifie God in the edification of the Church, or the members thereof; they do worship God both in holinesse and in righ­teousnesse.

By this which hath been said it plainly ap­peareth, that howsoever we are freed from the curse, the rigor, the terror, & irritation of the Law; yet we are not freed from the obe­dience of the Law Morall. For freedom from obedience and righteousnesse, is the servitude of sin. But we are freed from the bondage of sin, that we may be enabled with upright hearts & willing minds to worship the Lord in holiness and rigteousness. And therefore, howsoever carnall gospellers and Libertines, [...]buse the liberty which Christ hath purcha­sed, as an occasion to the flesh, turning the grace of God into wantonness, to their own perdition: Yet devillish is the slander of the Papists, who calumniate the doctrine of the Gospell, as if we taught thereby that* men [Page 97] are freed from obedience to all Lawes wha [...] ­soever, of God and man, yea, from the D [...] ­calogue it self. But this needeth no answer▪ it being evident to all the world, that we do urge the obedience of the Law Morall as w [...] as they do, and by better arguments and rea­sons, then they do. For their chief reasons are taken from the fals [...]ly supposed benefits of good works, that they satisfie for sin, justifie before God, and merit eternall life. But by these reasons they teach men to marre good works, and not to do them; for a good work done with the opinion of satisfaction, justifi­cation, or merit, is so far from being a good work, that it is odious and abominable in the fight of God; as being derogatory to the most perfect satisfaction, and all-sufficient merit of Christ our Saviour.

But we among other arguments, take some from this text: Because our new obedience or practise of good workes is the fruit and end of our redemption. 2. Because it is an un­separable companion of our redemption and justification. 3. Because God hath sworn that he will give to them that are redeemed, grace to worship him in holiness and righte­ousness, and therfore, that works in them that are redeemed or justified, do follow nec [...]ssa­rily by necessity of infallibility. And therfore it is impossible, the oath of the Lord being [Page 98] [...]ue (which cannot possibly be untrue) that a man should be actually redeemed or justifi­ed, and yet have no care to practise good works, that is to say, to perform the duties of holiness and righteousness. But in other re­spects also, we do urge the necessity of good works, which we prove to be necessary also, necessitate pr [...]cepti, and so by nec [...]ssity of Duty, which we owe, 1. unto God, to shew our selves obedient and thankfull unto him, and studious of his glory; 2. to our neigh­bour, and 3. to our selves: likewise necessita­t [...] signi, not only as they are the testimonies and tokens whereby we are to make our cal­lings and election sure: But also, as they are the evidence according to which our Savi­our will judge us at the last day. And lastly, necessitate m [...]di [...]: for although we are not ju­stified by them, nor saved for them, yet they are the way wherein we are to walk toward our heavenly country; as Bernard w [...]ll said, that they be, via regni the way to the king­dom, though not causaregnandi, the cause of obtaining the kingdom. For as the A­postle saith, Ephel. 2. 10. we are the work­manship of God, created in Christ Iesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them, as in the way which leadeth to eternal life. This is the way, let us walk in it, Esay 30. 21.

The properties of Gods worship, and first of the worshipping of God without fear

THus much of the par [...] of Gods wor­ship: now follow the propertie [...]. For it is not sufficient to do that which is good▪ [...] we must be careful of the manner also, that it be well done. It is not sufficient to wor [...]hip God in the parts of his worship; unlesse they be performed in that manner, which God hath prescribed.

Our new obedience hath three properties: for therein we are to worship and serve God

  • without fear.
  • before him.
  • al the dayes of our life.
  • The first respe­cting our enemies, [...] without fear of them.
  • The second respe­cting God. [...] be­fore him.
  • The third respe­cting the time, all the dayes of our life.

The first is [...] or spiritual security no­ted in the word [...] without fear. For without doubt this adverb is to be adjoyned in constru [...]tion to the verb [...] and not to the participle [...] ▪ For neither was the deliverer without fear, Heb. 5. 7. Mar. 14. 33. Luk. 22. [...]3 44. nor the delivered, Heb. 2. 15.

[Page 100] The second, uprightness▪ or integrity noted in the words, before him.

The third, constancy or perseverance, noted in these words, all the dayes of our life.

As touching the 1. we must in the 1. place endevor to explain the true sense & meaning of the words. For at the first sight it may seem not well to agree with other places of the Scripture, wherin fear is highly commended.

For first, the fear of God is the b [...]ginning, or chief point of wisdom, that is, of true piety, Psal. a II. 10. Pro. [...]: 10. Iob. 28. 28. By it, as a bridle, men are restrained from evill, (for the fear of God is to depart from evill, Bro. 8. 13.) which bridle being cast off, men run head­long into sin; see Gen. 20. 11. how then can this be promised as an especiall blessing to worship God without fear?

2. S. Pet. 1. Epist. 1. 17. 18. saith, We are therefore to passe the time of our pilgrimage in fear, because we know that we are rede [...] ­med by the blood of Christ. Here the Lord promiseth, that he will give us, that we being redeemed by the blood of Christ, shall wor­ship him without fear; so Esay 43. 1. Fear not, for I have redeemed thee.

3. Solomon, Pro. 28. 14. pronounceth him blessed who feareth alwaies: here Za [...]hary expounding the blessedness, w [...] was promi­sed in Abrahams, seed, saith, it is to worship God without fear.

[Page 101] 4. S. Paul exhorteth us, because we have such promises, that to us being redeemed by Christ, God will be our Father, &c. to perfect our sanctifie ation in the fear of God, 2 Cor 7. 1. and else-where he admonisheth the redee­med, whose salvation was already begun, to work out their salvation with fear and trem­bling, Phil. 3. 12. here the Lord promiseth the redeemed, that they shal worship him with­out fear.

5. Psal. 2. 11. and 5. 7. God is to be wor­shipped with fear.

6. Carnall security, which is the want of f [...]r, is, as it were, the cradle of the Devill, wherein he [...] men asleep to their per­dition; and it, is a brand or mark of the wic­ked, n [...]t to have the fear of God before their eyes, Rom. 3. 18. how then can the want of fear be promised [...] a [...] a blessing?

[...]or an [...]wer to this objection, we are to [...] fear or [...]. Fear is to be distinguished? both in respect of the object, and of the sub­j [...]t. [...] object, that is, the party or the [...]: The subject, that is the person w [...]o feare [...]h.

1. First i [...] respect of the party feared. For there is a fear of God, & there is a fear of our enemies. God hath delivered us from the hand of our enemies, that we should worsh [...]p [Page 102] him without fear, not of Him, but of them. For as he hath redeemed us from the service of our enemies, that we might se [...]ve him, so he hath freed us from the fear of them, that we may fear him alone, and hereu [...]to apper­taineth that place of Esay, Chap. 43. 1. Fear n [...]t (to wit, thine enemies) for I have re­deemed thee.

But this [...] or want of fear in respect of our enemies, which is a doubtfull fear, may be understood, either metonymically, without cause of fear, or properly, without fear it self. And so there are two degrees of this [...] or want of fear; the former, im­plying the certainty of the object; the latter, of the subject: the former pertaining to all true beleevers, though but Incipient [...], whose salv [...]tion is certain and sure (which I call the certainty of the object) though they perhaps be not as yet, nor at all time [...] [...]ertain, nor sure of it. The other belonging to profi­cients, or grown Christians. Of the former, you may with Theophylact understand the word [...] without fear, as signifying [...] without danger, or cause of fear: So are they said to be secure, or without fear, who are in safety and out of danger, as all the faithfull are, being kept safe by the power of God through faith unto salvation, 1 Pet. 1. 5. Of the latter, Beza understandeth the [Page 103] word [...] as signifying [...] in confidence or assurance, Ephes. 3. 12. Or as the Apostle speaketh. Titus 2. 13. in assured expectation of salvation; which [...] or [...]earlesness, is a cōsequent of the former, That being the foundation of This, whē we know our selves to believe. For if we believe that we are out of danger, we will also be with­out fear, and according to the measure of this beliefe, is the measure of this [...]ecurity, or want of fear, and this degree seemeth to be implyed in the Hebrew verb hithbarac [...], Gen, 22. 18. as I noted before.

And this I called the certainty of the subject.

This place therefore is to be understood of the fear of our enemies, that we are to wor­ship God without fear of them; and not of the true fear of God: which all those pla­ces, which were objected, as commending fear, did speak of which true fear of God th [...] [...] in not fearing our enemies, is a fruit and effect. For he that feareth God truly▪ needeth not to fear any thing else, according to that, Prov. 14. 26. In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence.

2. In respect of the thing feared: fear i [...] either of the evill of punishment, or of the evill of sinne. But this distinction is the same in effect, with that distinction of fear in re­spect [Page 104] of the subject, whereof I am now to speak.

3. In respect of the subject, that is, the persons fear­ing. Fear is either of

  • Bond-servants who are under the Law, which is a servile or slavish fear.
  • Sons, who are not un­der the Law, butunder grace, which is a son-like or shall fear.

The former is properly called metus, whose effect is metuere ab aliquo, to be afraid of the object, that is, feared. The other is timor (of [...] whose effect is to fear or to reverence the object feared. The former is a fearfull ex­pectation of some evill from the party feared: the other is an awfull reverence of the party feared, not to offend him by doing evil: so that the formall object of the former, is malū poe­na, the evil of punishment, in regard whereof they are afraid of God: of the other, malum culpae, the evil of sin, in regard whereof they fear to offe [...]d or displease God. The former is rather metus poena, then timor Dei, fear of punishment, rather then of God, For if there were no punishment, they that have but this fear, would not fear to offend God. ‘Oderunt peccare mali formidine pocnae.’

The other out of the love of God & of good­ness, though there were no punishment to be fear [...]d feareth to offend. [Page 105] Oderunt peccare boni virtutis dmore.’

The former being [...] the spi­rit of bondage, Rom. 8. 15. and [...] the spirit of fearfulness, 2 Tim. 1. 7. is a fruit and effect of the Law, forcing and compelling those that are under it to yeeld some out­ward obedience for fear of punishment. The other is a fruit of the Gospell, and of faith; when a man being perswaded of Gods mer­cy and goodness towards him in Christ, fear­eth to offend so gracious a God, and merci­full Father, according to that, Psalm. 130. 4. There is mercy with thee that thou [...] be f [...]ared.

Of this son-like fear, there is no question, but that we are to worship God therewith, Psal. 2. 11. 5. 7. Nay, we cannot worship God arigh without it, Den. 6. 13. Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and serve him: this being one of the chiefest things required in his service, Deut. 10. 12. Eccles. 12. 13. and is therfore called caput sapientiae, the very chief point of wisdom, that is, of true piety and godliness, Psa. 111. 10. Pro. 9. 10. Of the other, there may be a question; whether God hath promised to those that are redeemed; that they shall worship him without all servi [...]e fear; seeing that it is profitable, that men should be restrained from sinne by feare of punishment. And to that end doth [Page 106] the Lord threaten judgements and punish­ments to terrifie and to deterre men from sinne.

To this I answer, as I delivered before in the doctrine of redemption, that our Saviour in delivering us from the terrour and coacti­on of the Law, doth free us also from ser­vile fear, but we are to consider quatenus, how far forth. For such as is our redemption (I speak of it passively, as it is in the redee­med) such is our freedom from servile fear; to wit, inchoated or begun in this life, and in­creasing by degrees; compleat, and perfect in the life to come, which is called our full re­demption; which being not totall in this life, doth not free us totally from this servile fear. Full and perfect charity indeed casteth out this fear, and he that thus feareth, is not per­fected in charity, 1 Ioh. 4. 18. But whiles the reliques of sin, or rather the body of sin re­maineth in us, whiles we are in part flesh, as well as spirit, we have not perfect charity.

And therefore so far forth, as we are flesh, we are subject to servile fear: yea, so far as we are carnall, we are servants, Rom. 7. 14. 23. but so far forth as we are spirit, we are freed from that fear, as not being under the Law, but under grace: Yet because concupiscence and the corruptions of the flesh, still abide in us; it was expedient for the subduing and [Page 107] mortifying of the fl [...]sh, that we should in some part be obnoxious to this fear. To which end the rest also of our spirituall ene­mies, though they be overcome, and we de­livered out of their power, are still [...] to [...] ­counter us: that we standing upon our guard, and exercising and maintaining a spiritual [...] warfare against them, may at length triump [...] over them, and receive the crown promised to those that overcome.

In the mean time we are freed from this servile fear by degrees, from the time of [...]ur justification to our glorification, as our faith, hope and charity do encrease, by encrease whereof we are more and more enabled to worship God, as without fear, so also with willing and cheerfull minds. And therefore we are to be stirred up to labour for the en­crease of these graces in us, that our fear may be diminished, and our assurance encreased; wherein our happiness in this life doth con­sist.

Security likewise is two-fold,

  • Carnall.
  • Spirituall.

The carnall security is, when a man being void of grace, and of the true fear of God, and destitute of faith, hope and charity, go­eth on carelesly in his sinnes without repen­tance, presuming of Gods favour, and [...]is own salvation.

[Page 108] The spirituall security, as I distinguished before, is either of the object, signifying the spiritual safety of the faithful, because there is no condemnation to them that be in Christ. In regard wherof, they worship God secure­ly, or without fear, that [...] or [...] without danger, or cause of fear. The spirituall security, in respect of the subject, is, when a man being justified before God by faith, and assured in some measure of [...] is fa­vour, as knowing himself to have received grace to believe, and having peace of consci­ence, worshippeth God in assured expecta­tion of everlasting life. And of this [...] or spirituall security, the Holy Ghost speak­eth in this place.

The summe of that which hath been said by way of exposition, is this [...] that God hath promised to give the faithful, being redeemed by Christ, to worship him without fear, not without the true fear of God (for that is a chief part of his worship) but without fear of their spiritual enemies; and namely, with­out fear of damnation: and that in two de­grees, so that they may worship him with­out fear, that is, without cause of fear, secure­ly▪ and safely without danger, because their salvation is certain and sure, there being no cond [...]mnation to them that are in [...]

[Page 109] Secondly, without fear it self, namely, of their enemies, from whose power they be­lieve themselves to be redeemed, and conse­quently, from the servile fear of God, per­forming a worship unto him, not of bond­slaves (who are under the dominion of the Law) forced and extorted from them by ser­vile fear, but the service of sons yeelding vo­luntary obedience. Not that we are delivered, from servile fear altogether, and at once, in this life, but by degrees, according to the measure of our faith, hope, and charity, wher­with we being indued in some good mea­sure, shall worship the Lord securely, or in se­curity, not carnall, but spirituall, and conse­quently not in fear of damnation, but in ex­pectation of everlasting happiness.

Now this being the principall point in this whole text, and the chief thing wherein the happiness promised in Christ, the promised seed, doth consist in this life; viz. to worship the Lord without fear: Therefore as I have stood the longer in explaining the words; so I will endevour to set down the doctrines and uses, which are to be made of this point.

The first doctrine concerning the certainty of salvation.

THe first doctrine: that there is a two­fold certainty of salvation of all those that truly believe in Christ. The former is called the certainty of the object, in regard whereof, the salvation of al that truly believe, is sure and certain, though they perhaps be not assured thereof. For this is the main pro­mise of the Gospel, that who soever doth tra­ly believe in Christ shall not perish, but have life everlasting, Joh. 3. 16. To my sheep (saith our Saviour) that is, to all the faithfull, I will give eternall life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any be able to pluck them out of my hands, Joh. 10. 28. Saint Peter testifieth, I Epist. 5. that the faithfull are kept safe by the power of God through faith unto salva­tion. And the Apostle Paul, Rom. 8. I. That there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ Iesus.

And in this place the Lord by oath assureth them, that they shall worship him without fear, that is, without cause of fear at the least, all the d [...]yes of their life; yea, such is the cer­tainty of their salvation, who truly believe, that the Holy Ghost doubteth not to affirm, [Page 111] that the [...] hav [...] [...]ernall, life, Ioh. 6, 47. 54. [...] Ioh. 5. 11, 12. and tha [...] they are pass [...]d from death to life, Ioh. 5. 2 [...]. and th [...]t, whom the Lord hath justified, [...]e hath also glorifi [...]d, Rom. 8. 30.

The latter i [...] the certainty of the subject, when a faithfull man, soundly applying the promises of the Gospel to himself is perswa­ded, and in some me [...]sure assured of his salva­tion, for he that knoweth hims [...]lf to believe, may apply the promise to himself, and by ap­pliration be assured of that which is pro­mised.

This certain [...]y of perswasion, or assurance, some call special faith▪ special I say, first in re­spect of the object, which is Christ, and is therefore called sometimes the faith of Iesus Christ, Rom. 3. 22. 26. [...] 2. 16. 2. 3. 22. Phil. 3. 9. sometimes faith in Christ, Act. 20. 21. 24. 24. 26. 18. Gal. 3. 26. faith in his blood, R [...]. 3. 25. For although by that faith, which doth justifie, we do believe al the Articles of faith, and the whole word of God, and every part and parcell thereof, containing threatnings as well as promises; yet the ob [...]ect of it, [...]ua­tenus justificat, is Christ. For it justifieth, as it is the instrument to receive Christ, who is our righteousnesse. Secondly, and more espe­cially it is called speciall, in regard of the ef­fect, which is, specially to apply Christ unto [Page 112] our selves. And this speciall Faith is a degree o [...] that assurance, which the Grecians call [...] in some more, in som [...] lesse, which some Divines, both Prote­stants and Papists, not curious to speak so di­s [...]inctly and properly as they might, have cal­led [...] this special Faith to be affrance: when in­deed fiducia is not Faith, but a necessary and unseparable fruit thereof. So unseparable, that sometimes it seemeth to be implyed in the phrase of believing in Christ. For to believe in Christ implieth three things: First, to believe that Christ is the Saviour of all that believe in him; secondly, to believe that he is my Sa­viour, which is the special faith; and from this followeth the third, as a necessary fruit and effect; that because I believe he is my Saviour, therefore I put my trust and affiance in him for my salvation. But though it be an un [...]epa­rable fruit of faith, yet it is not to be con­founded with it. For faith is the cause, affi­ance the effect. For by faith we have affiance, Eph. 3. 12. upon which place Bez [...] no [...]eth, that they are deceived, who confound faith and affiance. Faith, is a perswasion or assu­rance of the mind, though working upon the heart: Affiance, is an affection of the heart, though proceeding from the assurance of the mind. The fear therefore of faith is the mind, [Page 113] or intellectuall part; of affiance, the heart, which is the seat of the affections. And as it [...] subject they differ, so also in the object; the object of faith, being verum: of affiance, be­num: there being little difference betwixt it & hope in respect of the time to come, which are oft in the Scriptures confounded, the same word Batach being translated sometimes to trust, and sometimes to hope▪ Notwithstand­ing in the behalf of some of our Divines, it may be said, that when they call this special faith▪ fiduciam, or fiduciall assent; they mean no­thing else but a certain perswasion or assu­rance of that which is believed.

This speciall faith the Pap [...]ts abhor and scorne; and yet cannot deny, but that true Christians ought to labor for assurance, name­ly the assurance, not of faith, but of hope. They must have a kind of hope, that their [...] be remitted, and that they shal be saved; but they may not believe the remission of their sins, or eternall life, as belonging to them­selves. Howbeit all their assurance is meerly conjecturall and uncertain: Neither can they have any sound assurance of hope unlesse first they had assurance of Faith, for Faith is the foundation of hope, and the [...] the subs [...]ance of things hoped for, Heb. 11. 1. But howsoever the Papists do scorn the speciall Faith; yet▪ it is a certain truth, that there is [...] [Page 114] not any grace, either more profitable to the faithfull, or more necessary. For as all other s [...]ving graces in the faithfull, proceed from Faith, first apprehending, and after applying Christ unto themselves, in so much, that with­out it there is no other saving grace; so ac­cording to the measure of it, such is the mea­sure of all other saving graces.

That peciall Faith, which the Holy Ghost worketh in us, by shedding abroad the love of God in our hearts, (that is by perswading our soules of the love of God towards us in Christ) produceth the love of God, (for therefore do we love God, because we are by Faith perswaded that God loveth us first) and consequently, the love of our brother for Gods sake. Charity, which is the [...]nd of the C [...]mmandement, proceeding from faith unfained: It worketh in us affiance. Fo [...] when we believe that Christ is our Saviour, we rest upon him for salvation. It worketh in us hope; for when we believe, that the promises belong unto us, we expect the per­formance. Faith having begotten affiance and hope, and working by love, begetteth zeale, peace of conscience, Rom. 5. 1. rejoycing in God, and joy in the Holy Ghost, thankful­nes [...], voluntary and cheerfull obedience, pati­ence, and comfort in afflictions, &c. And in­deed, how can a man love his neighbour for [Page 115] Gods sake, who lov [...]th not God much more? how can a man love God as he ought, who is not perswaded of Gods love towards him in Christ? which perswasion is this special Faith. And if he cannot love God without Faith, much lesse can he have the z [...]al [...] of God: fo [...] zeale is the servency of love. How can a man have affiance in Christ, and rest upon him for salvation, who is not by Faith perswaded, and in some measure assured, that he is his Sa­viour? How can he hope and wait for th [...] performance of the promises, that doth not believe that they belong unto him? F [...]ith be­ing the substance of things ho [...]ed for. How can a man have true peace of conscience, who is not perswaded, that God is reconcled t [...] him? How can a man rejoyce in God, wh [...] is not assured of Gods favour towards him? How can a man trust in God, that is not per­swaded of Gods goodness towards him? How can a man be thankfull unto God, wh [...] is not perswaded of Gods love and [...] towards him? How shall th [...]y fear God [...] as sons, that is, fearing to offend so mercifull a Father, who are not perswaded that he i [...] their Father in Christ? Or when they have sinned, how shall they be encouraged to re­turn unto him, if they be not perswaded of his fatherly respect to t [...]em? How shall they perform vo [...]ntary and che [...]rful [...]b [...]dienc [...]. [Page 116] who are not perswaded that their endevours are accepted of him? How shall they pray, who do not believe they shall be heard? Or as the Apostle speaketh, How shall they call [...]pon him in whom they have not believed. Rom. 10. 14. How shall they patiently and comfortably bear afflictions, who are not perswaded they be fatherly chastisements, or trials proceeding from Gods love, and tend­ing to their good [...]. Finally, with what heart [...] worship God, who are not perswa­ded, that their service is accepted of him.

And as it worketh all other graces in us; so according to the measure of our Faith, such (as I said) is the measure of all other graces. For the more a man is perswaded of Gods love and favour towards him in Christ, (that is▪ by how much the greater is a mans speci­all Faith) so much the more he loveth God, and his neig [...]bour for Gods sake; so much the more is he inflamed, with the [...] of God: so much the more confidently doth he rest upon Christ for salvation: so much the more he hopet [...] for, and expecteth the good things promised: so muc [...] [...]he more he re­joyceth, and glo [...]ieth in God: so much the more he is thankfull, to God for his good­nesse: so much the more he trusteth in God, so much the more the feareth to offend so gracious a God, and so [...] a Father: [Page 117] [...] offended, he will [...] return▪ unto God: so much the more [...] & comfortably he beareth afflictions, saying with Iob, Though he kill me, [...] will I p [...]t my trust in him [...] Iob. 13. 15. So much the more willingly and che [...]rfully will he o­bey and serve the Lord.

Wherfore it is evident, that they which re­nounce this Faith, as the Papists do, discover themselves to be void of all saving grace [...], and to have no truth nor power of religion in them. But whatsoever they think or speak of speciall Faith, let us know and acknowledge these three things: First, that it is the duty of every true Christian, that doth truly assent to the doctrine of the Gospell, to apply also by special Faith [...] the promises of the Gospell un­to himself. For this is most profitable, most comfortable, most necessary. Profitable, be­cause from this application of Faith, all oth [...] graces do proceed, as hath been said. Com­fortable, because by this application, we grow to assurance, as shall be shewed. Ne­cessary; first, because That beliefe or as­sent is not lively and effectuall (as you shall heare) which is not joyned with [...] desire to apply CHRIST to thy self and with a resolution to acknowledge him to be thy SAVIOVR, and to rest upon him for salvation: For although he, [Page 118] which at the [...]rst believ [...]th only by a [...]ent, [...]oth not yet actually apply the promises of the Gosp [...]ll to himself; yet that assent, if it b [...]liv [...]ly and [...]ffectuall, worketh both an ear­nest desire, and setled resolution of [...]pplica­tion. 2. He [...]ha [...] knoweth himself to believ [...] by a true assent, and refuseth to apply the pro­mises to himself, he maketh God a lyar, as shall b [...] shewed. 3. Where this application is not at least in desire, resolution, and ende­vour, there is no other saving grace, as I have proved.

The second thing, which we are to take notice of, is that it is the chiefest comfort, and indeed happinesse of a Christian in this life, by speciall faith to be assured of the [...]ter­nall love and favour of God in Christ. For so Za [...]hary in this place expoundeth our bles­sedn [...]ss [...] to be this being redeemed by Christ to worship God without f [...]ar, &c.

The third, that seeing it is a thi [...]g so pro­fitable, so [...]cessary, and so comfortable that our happiness is to be repo [...]ed therein: it is therefore our duty to do our best endevour, to attain unto the assurance of salvation, and to this speciall faith: or as the Apostle P [...]ter [...]xhorteth in other words, to give di­lig [...]nce to make our calling and election sure. 2 P [...]t. 1. 10. or as the Apostle Paul speaketh, 1 [...]. 6. 1 [...]. to lay up i [...] st [...]re, a good foun­dation [Page 119] against the time to come, that we [...] lay hold upon et [...]rnall lif [...]. For though the Apostle in that place doth by this argument exhort them that be rich to works of chari­ty: yet his meaning is not, that those works are the foundation; but that we by doing of them, may gather assurance to our selves of our justification and salvation, as by t [...]stimo­nies and evidences of our faith: which assu­rance of speciall faith is so sure a foundation against the day of triall, as they who h [...]ve built thereon, cannot by any temptation b [...] removed▪ but like mount Sion stand fast for ever, or like to three-square or triangular bo­dies, which, howsoever they be tossed and turned, keep alwayes their positure, which [...] undique sursum.

Now you must not think, that full assu­rance is obtained at the first, or at onc [...] ▪ but we must attain unto it by divers degrees.

And first we are to know, that the ordina­ry way to exaltation by sound comfort and assurance, is Humil [...]tion: according to that generall rule given by our Saviour, after [...] had reported the notable humiliation of th [...] penitent Publican (which rule is also deliver­ed in divers other plac [...]s of Scripture) that, whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased: but he that humbleth himself shal be exalted, [...] 18. 14. S. Peter therefore having sig­nified, [Page 120] that the Lord resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble, inferreth this exhortation: humble your selves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time, 1 Pet. 5. 5, 6.

This work of humiliation, the Holy Ghost ordinarily worketh in Gods children by the ministery of the Law, whereby he revealeth unto us our miserable estate in our selves, in respect both of our sinnes, (for by the Law commeth the kno [...]ledge of sinne. Rom. 3. 20.) and also of the punishment, denouncing the fearfull plagues of God for sinne, both in this life, and in the world to come. Thus when Peter had declared to the Jews their hainous sin in crucifying Christ; they were pricked in their hearts, and said to the Apostles, Men and brethren what shall we do? Act. 2. 23. 36. 37. When the Prophet Nathan had by a Parable, which he applied to David the King, aggravated his sin, saying, thou art the man: David both privately testified his hu­miliation to the Prophet, saying, I have sin­ned against the Lord; 2 Sam. 12. 7. 13. and also publiquely professed the same, Psal. 51. But of humiliation for sinne, the Publican is propounded as a notable pattern for imitati­on, Luke 18. 13. And as for humiliation wrought by denunciation of judgments, con­sider the example of Iosias, 2 King. 22. 11. 13. 19. [Page 121] Of the Ninivites, Ion. 3. 5, 6. In like manner ought we to be humbled before God, when we consider that our sins are so hainous and detestable in the sight of God, that nothing could satisfie the justice of God, or appease his wrath for them, or expiate the guilt of them, but the death and sufferings of the E­ternall and only begotten Son of God. Of which death of Christ the blame is to be laid upon our sins, as the meritorious cause, rather then upon those, who were but the instru­ments of his death. For by our sins we nayled. Christ upon the Crosse; by our sins we pier­ced the precious body of Jesus Christ: we are the men that crucified our blessed Saviour Let us therefore pray to God, that he would poure upon us the spirit of grace and suppli­cation, that looking upon him whom we have pierced, we may mourn for him (being put to death for our sins) as a man mourneth for his only son, Zach. 12. 10. And if the denun­ciation of Gods temporall judgements ought to humble us before God; how much more ought we to be humbled at the considerati­on, both of the temporall plagues denounced in this world, and also of eternall torments in hell?

But when these ordinary means of humi­liation, by the ministery of the Law, will not prevaile; it pleaseth God sometimes, by means [Page 122] extraordinary, or at the least, not so ordina­ry, to draw men unto him, as it were, by a strong hand, adding to the Ministery of the Word, sometimes afflictions and crosses, and, sometimes terrors and anguish of conscience. By afflictions I▪ sophs brethren were brought to acknowledge their sinne, Gen. 42. 21. Ma­nasses when he was in affliction, greatly hum­bled himself before God, 2 Chron. 33. 12. So did the prodigall son, Luk. 15. 18. according to that, Esay 26. 16. Hos. 5. 15.

By terrors also sometimes men are hum­bled, as Peter, Luk. 5. 8, 9. being affrighted, when by the miraculous draught of fishes he was brought to acknowledge the Divinity of our Saviour Christ: much more the Gao­lour, Act. 16. 27. 29. And most of all S. Paul, Act. 9. 6. 9.

But here we must beware of an erroneous and dangerous conceipt of some, who run into contrary extreams. For as they imagine none to believe, who have not full assurance; so they think none to be humbled as they ought, or effectually called, who are not drawn, either by grievous afflictions, or by the terrours of their conscience, to the brink of despaire, as though there were no hope of salvation for them. Indeed it is good for a man to be much humbled in himself, and as Iob speaketh, to abhor himself, repenting in [Page 123] dust and ashes, and to acknowledge that i [...] himself, or by his own means, there is n [...] hope of salvation. But it is either great igno­rance, or forgetfulnesse of Christ, to acknow­ledge no means whereby to be saved, or if a man acknowledge Christ, it is great infideli­ty to think that his sins, which are but [...]inite, (though many and great) a [...] more and grea­ter then the mercies of God, and merits o [...] Christ, which are infinite. Therefore so to be humbled is a fearfull sin, and perhaps a grea­ter sinne, then any for which he is humbled. Notwiths [...]nding this may be said for the comfort and profit of those whom [...]od doth draw by a strong hand, that is, by grievous afflictions, either outward, or inward (which are indeed the most grievous; for a wounded * conscience who shall bear) I say, first, for their comfort, that the Lord doth sometimes so cast down those whom he purposeth most of all to exalt; and that they sometimes do prove the most zealous Professours of Religi­on, and the worthiest instruments of Gods glory; as you see in the example of Paul.

For their profit they are to be advised, that when they are afflicted either out­wardly or inwardly, they would first ac­knowledge the hand of God, by what [Page 124] means soever the affliction doth happen un­to them, and not to seek to remove the hand of God afflicting them; if outwardly, by indirect or unlawfull means; if inwardly, by worldly and carnal delights; but to labour, that the end which God propoundeth in af­flicting them, may be atchieved. 2. That they would humble themselves under the mighty hand of God, whom they have provoked to anger against them; labouring to call to mind their sins, whereby they have offended God; to confess them particularly, to bewaile them, and to be sorry for them, because by them they have displeased God, and pierced our Saviour: earnestly and heartily to pray to God for the remission of their sins, for Christ his sake; to promise, purpose, and vow amend­ment for the time to come. Thus confessing their sins, and forsaking them, they shall be sure to find mercy; and humbling themselves, they shall be exalted, Prov. 28. 13.

But as I said, ordinarily, the Lord worketh humiliation by the ministery of the Law. Now, that we may be humbled thereby, we are not only to believe the sentence of the Law, denouncing the terrible curse of God, against every one that doth not continue in all the things which are written in the Book of the Law, to do them, Gal. 3. 10. to be true, but also to apply it to our selves, after this [Page 125] manner; seeing this is most true, as being the undoubted Word of God, that every man in himself is subject to the fearful curse of God, both in this life, and in the world to come, who doth not perform the three degrees of obedience contained in this sentence, that is, to Do the things commanded, to do them all, and to continue in doing all; therefore it can­not be denied, but that in my self, I am most accursed; who, to the not performing of these three degrees of obedience, have added the three contrary degrees of disobedience. For I have not only nor done the things com­manded, but also I have done the things for­bidden: I have not only not kept all Gods Commandements, but also I have broken them all: I have not only not continued in perpetuall obedience, but I have also conti­nued in a perpetual course of disobedience. O therefore wretched man that I am, and in my self thrice accursed! O that I were de­livered from the fearfull curse! O that I were freed from this wofull state of dam­nation!

Thus by applying the sentence of the Law to themselves, men come to see and acknow­ledge their own damnable estate in them­selves; whereby they are forced to seek for salvation out of themselves, in Christ; especi­ally, if to the application of the sentence of the [Page 126] Law, they adjoyn a serious consideration of the day of judgement (which the Apostle calleth the terrour of the Lord.) at which time all of us shall appear before the judge­ment seat of God, to receive according to those things which we have done in the flesh, 2 Cor. 5. 10, 11. But without this application, men not seeing nor feeling their own misery, neglect the promises of the Gospell, not ca­ring to apply them to themselves: but most ungraciously suffring the most precious blood of Christ, as much as in them lyeth, to be spilt in vain; as it is in vain to them, unto whom it is not applied. But when by the paedagogie of the Law, which is a School-master unto Christ, Gal. 3. 24. men are brought to see and to feel their misery: O then how beautiful are the feet of those who bring glad tidings of salvation! How acceptable is the promise of deliverance to them that are captives; of ju­stification, to them that in themselves are ac­cursed! Of salvation, to them that are lost! In respect of these, the Kingdom of God is said to suffer violence, and these are they which with violence take it to themselves, Mat. 11. 12.

Thus then being schooled by the Law, by which the Holy Ghost worketh in us the Le­gall faith, which is a preparative to the Evan­gelical, we become fit auditors of the Gosp [...]l, [Page 127] by which the Holy Spirit worketh in us the grace of justifying faith. And therefore in the next place we must be diligent and atten­tive hearers of the Gospell, by the hearing whereof* commeth faith. In which regard, as the Gospell is called the Word of faith: So also the Preachers of it are not only termed Ministers, by whom you believe, 1 Cor. 3. 5. but also are said to justifie men, Dan. 12. 3. and to save them, 1 Tim. 4. 16. 1 Cor. 9. 23. as being the instruments of the Holy Ghost, working in us the grace of faith, by which we are justified and saved.

By the* Ministery of the Gospel, the Holy Ghost worketh in us the grace of faith in two degrees; The former is of assent, the o­ther of application. As touching the former: the Holy Ghost having prepared us by the Law, doth in the ministery of the Gospell, first, reveale unto us the mercies of God in Christ. Secondly, he stirreth us up by the Mi­nisters of reconciliation to embrace Gods mercies, 2 Cor. 5. 18. 20. and to be reconciled to him: And thirdly, having thus knocked, as it were, at the door of our hearts, he himself doth open out hearts, Apoc. 3. 20. as he did [Page 128] the heart of Lydia, Act. 16. 14. not only to at­tend, but as the word [...] also signifieth to assent unto, or to believe the Gospel. Nei­ther is it to be doubted, but that by that phrase is meant, that the Holy Ghost did work in her the grace of faith.

And as touching the latter; the Holy Ghost having opened our hearts to receive Christ, by a true, willing, and lively assent (which is the condition of the promise:) he teacheth us to apply the promise unto our selves, as belonging to us.

Here therefore three things are to be done: 1. We are to believe in Christ by a lively as­sent to the promise of the Gospell. 2. So be­lieving in Christ, we are to apply the promi­ses of the Gospell to our selves. 3. Having by application attained to some assurance, we must give all diligence, that this assurance may more and more be encreased.

As touching the first: we must be very care­full, that our assent to the doctrine of the Gospell, promising salvation to all that be­lieve in Christ, be willing, true, lively, and effectuall: otherwise, though we may believe that Jesus the Son of the blessed Virgin Ma­ry, is the Son of God, and Saviour of all that shall be saved (which not only hypocrites, and wicked men, but the Devils themselves after a sort believe) yet we cannot truly be [Page 129] said to believe in Christ. First therefore it must be a willing assent, and therefore appro­ving what we believe; not forced, as that of the devils, and of some wicked men; who being convicted with the evidence of the truth, do, whether they will or no, know and believe the truth of the Gospell, and with horrour acknowledge it, Iam. 2. 19. Mat. 8. 29. Secondly, it must be true, lively, and effectuall. For as there is a two-fold knowledge, the one literall, swimming in the brain, informing the judgment, but not refor­ming the heart and the conversation, serving only to purchase the more stripes: Luk. 12. 47. the other spirituall, not only informing the judgment, but also reforming the heart, and conforming our lives to the practise of that which we know (which in Divinity is ac­compted the only true knowledge, I Ioh. 2. 3, 4. for the other, though in regard of the ob­ject it is true, because it is the knowledge of the truth; yet it is not true formally, and in re­spect of the efficacy, or of the effect:) so faith, which sometimes goeth under the name of knowledge or acknowledgment, may be distin­guished. For there is a counterfeit, idle, & dead faith; which, having neither root, nor fruit, is uneffectuall, either to justification, or to san­ctification; which is the faith of hypocrites, and of all carnall and worldly Professours, [Page 130] which the Papists themselves [...] fidem in­formem. And there is a true, lively, and effe­ctuall faith, (which the School-men call for­matam, and not amisse, saving that they hold Charity, which, as I have showed, is a fruit and [...]ffect of faith, 1 Tim. 1. 5. to be the form thereof,) by which we receiving Christ, and being rooted in him, or engraffed into him, do receive from him spirituall life, Gal. 2. 20. For having, by faith, union with Christ, we have also communion with him, both in his merits to our justification, and in the vertue of his death and resurrection, to our fanctifi­cation, Rom. 6. 3, 4, &c. Phil. 3. 9, 10. Now this Assent is effectuall to justification, when by it we receive Christ, who is our righte­ousnesse▪ For when this beliefe is willing, lively, and effectuall, we do receive Christ not only in our judgements, by this true and lively assent; but also this lively assent wor­king both on the heart and the will, we re­ceive him in our hearts by an earnest desire, that he may be applied unto us, and we made partakers of him, (which desire we expresse in hearty prayer) and in our will, by resol­ving to acknowledge him, to be our Saviour, and to rest upon him for our salvation. For [...] a man truly and effectually believe, that in himself, and without Christ he is accur­sed, according to the sentence of the Law, [Page 131] and that in Christ, if he believe in him, he shall be happy and blessed, according to the doctrine of the Gospell: and not desire both to be freed from that damnable estate, and to be made partaker of happiness in and through Christ? can a man truly and effectually be­lieve, that being in himself accursed, he shall, notwithstanding the curse of the Law, not­withstanding the testimony of his own accu­sing conscience, notwithstanding the accusa­tions of Satan, become happy and blessed in Christ, if he shall believe in him; and not re­solve with himself, that, whatsoever the Law, his own conscience, or the Devill can object to the contrary, he will acknowledge Christ to be his Saviour, and rest upon him for sal­vation? For as the understanding, when it conceiveth any thing to be true, not by evi­dence of reason, but by the authority of God speaking in his Word, as in matters of faith, hath the concurrence of the will, acted by the Spirit of God, willingly to assent there­unto: So when the understanding, enlight­ned by the Holy Ghost, conceiveth and judg­eth any thing to be good, it commandeth the will to embrace it, the will ordinarily following the judgement of the practi [...] un­derstanding.

To sanctification it is effectuall, as it is a grace of regeneration, 1 Ioh, 5. [...]. pur [...]fying [Page 132] the heart, and working by love, and trans­forming a man into a conversation answer­able to that which he doth believe, and ther­fore is ever joyned with repentance, which the Holy Ghost regenerating us, with it, and by it worketh in us: and therefore a lively faith is never severed from repentance, nor repentance from it; for as we cannot tru­ly repent, unlesse we believe; so we cannot truly know that we believe, unlesse we re­pent.

This assent being true, willing, lively and effectuall, as I have said, is the very condi­tion required in the promise of the Gospell, and the first degree of justifying faith; which if we have obtained, we may and ought to apply the promise of the Gospel to our selvs. This being a matter of excellent comfort, and of singular use, I will prove by plain testimo­nies of Scripture, and by evident reasons: the rather, because I know, to some it will seem a paradox.

1. The testimonies of the Scripture are these. For first, This is the saith for which our Saviour pronunoceth Simon Peter blessed, Thou art Christ the Son of the living God, Mat. 16. 16, 17. The like profession is made by the Apostles, Ioh. 6. 69. and by Martha, Ioh. 11. 27.

2. Joh. 20. 31. These are written, that you [Page 133] might believe, that Iesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing, you may have l [...]fe through his Name.

3. Act. 8. 37. 38. Here is water, saith the Eunuch, what doth hinder me to be bap­tized? Philip said, If thou believe with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Iesus Christ is the Son of God.

4. Rom. 10. 9, 10. If thou shalt confesse with thy mouth the Lord Iesus, and shalt be­lieve in thine heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the [...] man believeth unto righte­ousnesse, and with the mouth confession is made to salvation.

5. This is the Faith, without which it is impossible to please God. For he that com­meth to God, must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that seek him, Hebr. 11. 6.

6. 1 Joh. 5. 1. Whosoever believeth that Iesus is the Christ, is born of God.

7. 1 Joh. 5. 5. Who is he that overcom­meth the world, but he that believeth that Iesus is the Son of God?

1. The reasons. 1. The justifying and sa­ving Faith many times goeth under the name of [...] acknowledgement, which is all one with assent, 1 Tim. 2. 4. 2 Pet. 1. 2, 3. or of [Page 134] knowledge, meaning acknowledgement, as Ioh. 17. 3. Esay 53. 11. My righteous servant (meaning Christ) agnitione sui, by the ac­knowledgement of himself, that is, by faith in him, shall justifie many.

2. To receive Christ, is to believe in him, Ioh. 1. 12. By this lively assent, we receive Christ, as hath been said, in our minds, in our hearts, in our wils.

If any man therefore object, that justifying faith consisteth not in assent, but in applica­tion of the promises.

3. I answer, that there are two degrees of justifying faith, the one, being [...] assent to the promise of the Gospell; the other a sound application therof to our selves. By the former, as being the condition of the pro­mise, we are justified in foro coelesti, in the court of heaven: by the latter, in the court of our own conscience. By the former, we are justified before God; by the latter, we are perswaded in our conscience, and in some measure assured of our justification.

4. By the second degree of faith, which some call speciall faith, the promises of the Gosp [...]ll are to be applied. But they cannot be applied to any aright, but only to those, who have the condition of the promise, which is the justifying faith.

For the Gospell doth not promise justifi­cation [Page 135] and salvation to all, but to those only who have a justifying faith.

Therefore a man must be endued with ju­stifying faith, before he can or ought to ap­ply the promises of the Gospell to himself. For as salvation is promised to them that be­lieve, so damnation is denounced to them that believe not, Mar. 16. 16. Ioh. 5. 16. 18.

5. It is a very erroneous opinion to think, that we are justified, or do obtain remission of sins, by being assured, and much more by being fully assured of the forgiveness of our sins: or that we are to believe, that they are forgiven, to the end that they may be forgi­ven: For justification and remission of sins is promised only to those that believe by a ju­stifying faith; (I speak of those who are adul­ti, and are come to the years of discretion, not of infants, who are justified sometimes, before they actually believe) therefore a man must have justifying faith before he hath re­mission of sins, for by faith we obtain re­mission of sins, and by faith we are justified: and therefore have we believed in Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ) A mans sins must be forgiven, before he can be assured that they be forgiven; and it is absurd to imagine that the assurance that our sinnes be forgiven, goeth before the for­givenesse of them.

[Page 136] For if a man must believe or be assured of the forgivenesse of sins before they be forgi­ven, then he is bound to believe that which is false. And lastly, a man must ascend by di­vers degrees of assurance, growing or procee­ding from faith to faith, before he can attain to ful assurance. And here I hold it expedient, briefly to touch a certain discourse of the learned Chamiers: that it may evidently ap­pear, that they who do not acknowledge this distinction of justifying faith, must of necessi­ty be forced to it. For, whereas Vasques obje­cteth against us, that we teach, that we ought to believe that our sins are remitted, to the end that we may be justified, and may obtain remission of sins: he answereth, that it is a meer slander: For, saith he, Quid monstri est, credere sibi remissa peccata ut remittan­tur? Sic enim constituitur fides remissionis prior reipsa ipsa remissione; quod omnem ab­surditatent superat: Enimveroè si prius re­missa credimus, quam sint remissa, falsum nos oportet credene. Quid plura? Nobis po­tius est p [...]rsuasissimum, remissa esse peccata antequam credimus, &c. It is a monster, that a man should believe, that his sins be forgi­ven, to the end that they may be forgiven, for so the faith that our sins be forgiven, should go before the forgivenesse it self, which sur­passeth all absurdity: Surely, if we are to be­lieve [Page 137] that our sins be forgiven before they be remitted, then must we believe, that which is false. What should I say more? We rather are fully perswaded, that our sins be forgiven before we do believe, &c.

But say I, if no other justifying faith be ac­knowledged, but the speciall faith whereby we are assured of the remission of our sins: and if this also be true (which the Scripture teacheth) that by faith we are to obtain re­mission of sins, that absurdity will necessari­ly follow, which he so much di [...]claimeth. For to hold that the sins of those who are a­dulti, or come to years of discretion, be for­given before they do believe, is as great an absurdity as the other; because by faith we obtain remission of sins; neither is remission promised to any, who are of years, but only to those that believe.

Of necessity therefore we must hold this distinction of faith, viz. that there is one de­gree of justifying faith, which in order of na­ture, goeth before remission of sins, by which we obtain forgivenesse of sins, and by which we are justified before God: and that there is another degree of justifying faith, which followeth after justification and remission of sins: whereby we being perswaded, and in some measure assured of the remission of our sinnes, are justified in the court of our [Page 138] own conscience. And of this indeed it is true, that our sins be forgiven, before we believe, or be assured that they be forgiven.

6. For the further clearing of this distincti­on of Faith, let us distinctly consider the diffe­rences between the two degrees: for 1. By the former, as I have said, we are justified be­fore God in the Court of Heaven, by the lat­ter, we are justified in the court of our own conscience: by the former, we are justified properly; by the latter we are assured of our justification. 2. Of the justification, which we have by the first degree, (which properly is called justification) there are no degrees; but of that which we have by the second degree, which properly is not justification before God, but the assurance of it in our own con­sciences, there are degrees according to the measure of our faith.

3. The first degree goeth before the remis­sion of sins, the second followeth after.

4. Every man is bound upon pain of dam­nation to have the first degree of faith, which is truly, and firmly to believe, that JESUS the Son of the blessed Virgin, is the Eternall Son of God, and Saviour of all that truly believe in him; but no man ought to have the second, who hath not the first; for a man must first have [...]ustifying Faith, which is the condition of the promise, before he ought to believe, [Page 139] that the promise of remission of sins, or of salvation belongeth to him.

5. The former degree seemeth more pro­perly to be the work of the Spirit regenera­ting us, 1 Ioh. 5. 1. the latter of the same Spi­rit, as it is the Spirit of adoption, sealing us after we have believed, Ephes, 1. 13. 4. 30. Rom. 8. 15, 16, 17.

6. The former is begotten ordinarily by the ministry of the Gospell, and not by the ministry of the Sacraments, which notwith­standing were ordained of purpose, as I shall shew hereafter, that they who have the first degree, might attain to the second. For to him that believeth truly, according to the first de­gree, the Sacrament is a seal of the righteous­ness which is by faith, and a pledge to assure him, that so certainly as the sign, so also the thing signified, which is Christ with all his merits, are communicated to him.

7. The former, as hereafter I wil make plain, is fides principiorum; the latter, of conclusions deduced from thence by application, and by necessary consequence.

8. Of the former, the four first notes of hap­piness, Mat. 5. are the signs and fruits: of the second, the four latter. For though the Papists make of them eight Beatitudes; yet there is but one Beatitude in this life, whereof Christ is the foundation, and Faith is the instrument, [Page 140] whereby we receive and apply Christ unto our selves; of which those eight are so ma­ny notes. For these [...] or pronuncia­tions of blessednesse, the Lord Jesus directeth to his Disciples, and in them to all the faith­full, saying, Blessed are you poor, &c. Luk. 6. 20. The foure first Beatitudes, as I said, are the Notes of the former degree. for those that have the first, are not at the first happy in their own sense and apprehension, but ra­ther the contrary; being poor beggars in spirit, mourning for their wants, subdued by the sense thereof unto meeknesse; hun­gring and thirsting after righteousness, which they find themselves to want: and yet our Saviour pronounceth them bl [...]ssed, which proveth that they are justified before God, though not assured thereof in their own con­science. The foure latter are markes of the second degree. For when we are in some measure assured of Gods mercy towards us we become mercifull to others for Gods sake; when we have assurance of salvation, we endevour to purifie our selves, as he is pure; when being justified by faith we have peace with God; we become peace-makers among men. When men have obtained the assurance of Faith, to them it is given not only to believe in Christ, but also to suffer for him.

[Page 141] 2. Thus much of assent, which being live­ly and effectuall, is the very condition of the Evangelicall promise. Now I come to ap­plication, whereby we do attain to assu­rance. And that we may soundly apply the promise to our selves, we must first be assu­red, that we have the condition of the pro­mise, which is the first degree of justifying Faith, whereof I have spoken, that is, a true, lively, and effectuall assent; which we may know our selves to have, if our belief be effe­ctuall, as before I said, both to justification, as it is when by it we receive CHRIST, who is our Righteousnesse, not only in our judgements, but also in our hearts, and in our willes: and also to sanctification, as it is, when it produceth the duties of re­pentance.

Having therefore the condition of the promise, and knowing that thou hast it, thou art bound in conscience, whatsoever the Papist faith to the contrary, to apply the promise to thy self as belongeth to thee. Doest thou therfore truly believe that Christ is the Saviour of all those that truly believe in him; then thou art bound to believe that he is thy Saviour, that he died for thy sins▪ and rose againe for thy justification, that by him thou hast remission of sins, and that by him thou shalt be saved. Other­wise, [Page 142] if thou knowest thy self to have the condition of the promise, and wilt not apply it to thy self; that is, if knowing thy self tru­ly to believe, that Christ is the Saviour, thou wilt not believe that he is thy Saviour, thou makest God a lyar, saith S. Iohn, in not belie­ving the record which God gave of his Son. And this is the record that God hath given to us (that believe in Christ) eternall life, and that this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son (as every true believer hath) hath life; and he that hath not the Son, hath not lif [...]. These things (saith he) I have written to you that believe on the Name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternall life, and that you may believe on the Name of the Son of God. The meaning of which last words seemeth to be this: I have writ­ten to you that believe on the Name of Christ, by a true and lively assent, but have not perhaps as yet attained to any sound as­surance; that you applying the promises of the Gospell to your selves, and gathering te­stimonies to your selves, that they belong to you by such markes, as I in this Epistle have set down; may attain to assurance, and so proceed from Faith to Faith. For without absurdity, the Words cannot be understood of the same degree of Faith. I have written to you that already believe in Christ, that you [Page 143] may believe in him. What? No otherwise then already they do believe? Yes, no doubt, that they which believed in a lower degree without assurance, might know that they have eternall life; and that so attaining to a higher degree of faith, might thereby be as­sured of salvation by Christ.

Now, this application is made by a pra­cticall Syllogisme, the proposition whereof, (which some cal [...]) is the undoubt­ed Word of God.

Whosoever truly beleeveth in Christ, he shall be saved.

The assumption is the testimony of our own spirit, which is therefore called [...].

But I through Gods mercy do truly be­lieve in Christ.

For the Holy Ghost having opened my heart, as he did the heart of Lydia, Act. 16. 14. to assent unto, or to believe the Gospel, I do receive Christ, not only in my judge­ment, by a firme, willing, and unfaned assent, but also in mine heart by an earnest desire to be made partaker of him, which is the desire of application) and in my will by a setled resolution (whatsoever the Law, mine own conscience, or the Devill, can ob­ject to the contrary) to acknowledge him to be my Saviour, and to rest upon him for sal­vation, [Page 144] which is the resolved purpose of ap­plication.

The conclusion which is called [...] is the verdict or testimony of the Holy Spirit, testifying with our spirits in the assumption, according to the word in the proposition.

Therefore I through Gods mercy shall be saved, which is the voice of speciall Faith.

The consequence of this, and all other for­mall Syllogismes, is such, that the conclusion cannot be false, if the premisses be true. O­therwise a contradiction would be implied, that is, contradictories would be true toge­ther, which is impossible: For if this conclu­sion should be false, then either the Proposi­tion is not true; that whosoever truly belie­veth in Christ, shall be saved: or the assump­tion, that I truly believe in Christ.

Of the proposition of this Syllogisme, there can be no doubt, it being the undoubted word of God, and the main promise of the Gospel.

Against the assumption, two things may be objected: the one, out of the doctrine of our Divines: the other, out of the doctrine of the Papists. For some of our Divines, define faith to be a full assurance of the love of God con­cerning the remission of our sins, and eternall salvation by Christ, or in other words to the like effect. But the faith mentioned in the assumption is no such assurance.

[Page 145] I answer, that our Divines, defining the speciall Faith, are not to be blamed for defining it according to the perfection thereof; for so every vertue and grace ought to be defined; that so we may learne not to content our selves with that imper­fect measure whereunto we have already attayned, but may aspire towards perfecti­on But if any shall hereupon inferre, that no man doth truly believe, who hath not that full assurance (as some vnadvisedly have done) he shall give occasion to the greatest part of believers, either to dispair, that they have not Faith, because they have not ful assurance, or because they woul not be thought without Faith to presume that they have a full assurance which notwith­standing men doe not attayne unto at the first, nor at once, but by divers degrees, after much practice of piety, and long experience of Gods goodnes towards them; and never is so fully obtained before the end of this life, but that somewhat still may, and ought to be added to it.

The objection of the Papists against the assumption is, that a man doth not know, that he doth believe; and therefore not being ass [...]red, that he doth believe, he can have no assurance of salvation. This is in deed the thing which they must stand unto, [Page 146] if they will deny, as they doe, the certain­ty of salvation. For if a man may be assu­red that he doth truly believe, he may also be assured that he shall be saved.

But that the faithfull may know, that they believe, I prove.

1. Because every beleever is taught to say, I beleeve in God the Father, I be­lieve in God the Sonne, I believe in God the Holy Ghost. This profession of Faith every true Christian is bound to make with confidence; therefore every true Christian is bound to know that he doth believe. The father of the demoniack, though indued but with a weake faith, when our Saviour told him, that the cure of his Sonne was possible, if he could believe, returned this present answer, Lord I believe, help thou my unbeliefe. Mark. 9 23. 24. The Eunuch, though a new convert, when Philip told him he might be baptized if he did believe with all his heart, answered I believe that Iesus Christ is the Sonne of God. Act. 8. 37. We believe and know that thou art that Christ the Sonne of the living God. John 6. 69. so John 11. 26, 27. This is that which Augustine affirmeth. Videt (fidelis) ipsam sidem suam, quase credere sine cunctatione respondet The faithfull man feeth his owne faith, whereby that he doth [Page 147] believe, he answereth without delay.

Object. Yea, but many recite the Creed, saying, I believe, &c. who notwithstanding doe not believe, and much lesse know it.

Ans. The question is not, what hypo­crites and unsound Christians do, or can do, of whom there is no question, but that see­ing they doe not believe, they cannot know themselves to believe. But every faithfull and sound Christian, whom the Seriptures call [...], when he professeth, that he doth believe, doth not onely believe, in deed, but also knoweth that he doth believe, and he which doth not know that he doth believe, hath just cause to suspect himselfe that he is not [...], a sound and approved Christian. But for this there is an evident proofe. 2 Cor. 13. 5. Examine your selves, whether you be in the faith [...], try your selves whether you be [...], or not. Know you not your owne selves, how that Iesus Christ is in you except you be [...], that is, not sound, nor approved Christians.

Those that are commanded to try them­selves, whether they be in the Faith, may upon triall know it. Those that may know that CHRIST is in them, may know they do believe, because CHRIST is in us by faith, and if they be [...], unsound, [Page 148] who doe not know that CHRIST is in them, then all that are [...], that is, sound, approved Christians doe know it. And wehereas some Papists take acception, that the Apostle speaketh of the true doctrine, which is called the Catholike faith; I an­swer, first, that a man cānot know that he is in the catho like faith, unlesse he also know that he doth believe it. 2. The Apostle speaketh of that faith, whereby Christ dwelleth in us, which is not the doctrine, but the grace of Faith. 3. The Apostle vindicateth and proveth his calling by theirs: as we prove the truth of our Church, and of our Ministery against our Separa­tists, who before their separation, seemed very forward Christians. Try, whether you have a true Faith, and if you have, acknow­ledge that to have beene a true Ministery, by which it was wrought For how can they believe in him, of whom they have not heard, and how can they heare without a Preacher, and how can they preach, unlesse they be sent? Rom. 10. 14.

3. These things saith Saint Iohn, have I written to you, that believe on the Name of the Sonne of GOD, (1 Iohn 5. 13.) that you may know that you have eternall life: which they could not know, unlesse they knew themselves to believe.

[Page 149] 4. At that day, viz. after the sending of the Holy Ghost, you shall know that I am in the Father, and you in me, and I in you, saith our Saviour, Iohn 14. 20.

5. The minde is not ignorant of its owne a'tionsA g [...]pi. 112. ad Paulin [...]. c. 2. Ment [...] vides, vi­t [...]m, v [...]l [...]nta­te [...], cogi [...]atem, cogitationem, memoriam, co­gitationem, in­telligentiam, sientiam, fi­dentuam. when it un­derstandeth, it knoweth it selfe to understand, when it discourseth, it knoweth it selfe to discourse; so when it a [...]enteth, it know­eth it self to assent; when it desireth any thing, it know­eth that it doth desire it; when it purposeth, or resol­veth, it knoweth that it doth purpose, or resolve, much more being holpen by the Spirit of God, whom we have received from God, that we might know the things which are given unto us of God. 1 Cor. [...]. 12.

6. How should any man glory in the testimony of his owne conscience, that he doth believe, or that he doth walk up­rightly before God (which is the chiefest (2 Cor. 1. 12. Esay 38. 3.) comfort of all sound Christians) who is not conscious to himself, that he doth believe, and walk uprightly before God, Est ergo quidam modus in conscientis glor [...]andi, ut noveris si­dem [Page 150] tuam esse sinceram, noveris esse spem tuam certam, noveris charitatem tuam esse sine simulatione (In Psal. 149.) saith, Augu­stine And againe, suam (de Trinit. li. 13. c. 2.) quisque fidem apud seipsum videt C. I. fidem videt quisque in corde suo esse, si credit —non sicut corpora.—Non sic vide­tur fides in corde in quo est, ab eo cujus est, sed eam tenet certisima scientia, clamatque conscientia. And againe, though we see not the things which we doe believe, ipsam tamen fidem quando inest in nobis videmus in nobis. Epist. 112. c. 4. Menti nostrae fides nostra conspicua est.

So much of the assumption.

Upon these premisses necessarily follow­eth the conclusion, which is the [...], or verdict of speciall Faith, concluding the certainty of salvation, by application of the promises to him that hath the first degree of faith. Which in my poore opini­on is a most comfortable doctrine.

But against speciall Faith so proved, the Papists still object divers things.

1. That it cannot be truly termed faith, and that for three reasons. For, 1. vere fidei falsum sub esse non potest, the object of true faith cannot be that which is false, but of this, the object may be false, because a man may be deceived in the application.

[Page 151] I answer: as there is a double know­ledge, the on of principles manifest in themselves, called [...] the other, of con­clusions (not manifest in themselves, but manifested by discourse) called [...], so there is a twofold Faith, the one of princi­ples contained in the word of God; the other, of conclusions deduced from thence: which conclusions though they are not absolutely necessary, yet the premisses be­ing true, they cannot be false. But the premisses of this practicall syllogisme made by a faithfull man, are true; therefore the conclusion cannot be false. Indeed if the syllogisme be made by an hypocrite, or un­grounded Christian, the conclusion is not necessary; because the assumption is false, or at the least, uncertaine: false, if he doe not believe; uncertaine, if he doe not know himselfe to believe; and then the assumption at the most, is but this; but I doe suppose that I doe believe; and the conclusion must be answerable, therefore I suppose that I shal be saved. But the [...], the faithfull and sound Christian, who doth not onely believe. But know­eth himselfe to believe; as he assumeth, I doe know, and I am sure that I doe believe; so he concludeth, therefore I know and am sure that I shal be saved.

[Page 152] 2. True Faith is grounded upon the Word, the speciall Faith that this man or that man shall be saved, is not grounded on the Word. ergo, it is not a true Faith.

Resp. Particulars are included in the generall, & quod omnibus promittitur, singulis promittitur; therefore if it be true, that all believers shall be saved, then it is as true, that this or that believer shall be saved; and this the Apostle teacheth, Rom. 10. 9. if thou &c.

3. Because Faith mentioned in the Scrip­ture, is the Faith of assent, and not of ap­plication.

I answer, that as there are many places which speak properly of assent, some wher­of I before cited; so there are many which mention or meane the speciall Faith. As namely all those places, which are very many, and almost innumerable, wherein the faithfull doe apply, and as it were ap­propriate those things which are spoken of God * to themselves. As my God, my Lord, my Saviour, the God of my salvati­on, &c. (* Psal. 3. 7. 4. 1. 5. 2. 7. 1. 5. 13. 3. 16. 2. 18 1, 2. 46. 19. 4. 22. 1, 8. 27. 1. 9. 38. 41. 22. 43. 4, 5. 51. 14. &c. Hab. 3. 18. Luke 1. 47. John 20. 28. &c.

So Gal. 2, 20. Christ liveth in me, and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live [Page 153] by the Faith of the Sonne of God, who loved me, and gave himselfe for me,

Likewise in those places where the faith­full professe their assurance of justifica­tion and salvation, as Iob. 13. 18, 19. 25, 26, 27. Psal. 103. 3. who forgiveth all thine iniquities, Psalm. 32. 5. Rom 8. 35. 38. 2 Tim. 1. 12.

Secondly, upon the Patrons of speciall Faith, the Papists doe presle divers incon­veniences and absurdities.

As 1. If every man be bound to believe in particular his owne salvation, then it would follow that every man shal be saved; because no man is bound to believe an un­truth: but the consequent is false, there­for the antecedent.

Answ. I have shewed before, that eve­ry man is bound upon paine of damnation to have the first degree of Faith, which is to give a firme assent to the promise of the Gospell, assuring salvation to all those that believe in CHRIST; but the second degree none ought to have, but they only who have the first; no man ought to apply the promise of the Gospell to himselfe, who hath not the condition of the pro­mise, unlesse he will pernieiously deceive himselfe. For, as hee that believeth shall be saved: so he that believeth not, shal be con­demned. [Page 154] Mark. 16. 16. If thou dost truly believe that CHRIST is the Saviour, thou art bound to believe, that he is thy Savi­our: And so believing in CHRIST, and receiving him both by assent, and applyca­tion, thou shalt undoubtedly be saved.

The second absurdity] 2. Those that have this speciall Faith ought not to aske the forgivenes of sinnes, which notwith­standing our Saviour teacheth his owne Apostles to aske. For they that have full assurance of the forgivenes of all their sinnes, ought not to aske forgivenes, un­lesse they will dally with God, for nothing desireth that which it hath.

I answer. 1. that not all believers have full assurance; some are incipients, some proficients, some perfect or growne men in CHRIST. Those that are incipients, pray both that their sinnes may bee for­given, and that they may have some assu­rance there of: proficients, and those that bee growne men, pray both that their sinnes may bee remitted; and their assu­rance augmented, for none are so perfect, but that their assurance may be increased.

2. As wee dayly sinne, so wee must day­ly ask forgivenes, prayer being the meanes that GOD hath ordayned to that end.

Ob. Yea but saith the Papist; yee for­sooth [Page 155] have already full assurance of the remission of all your sinnes, not only past, but also to come.

Answ. It is absurd to imagine, that sinnes be remitted before they be commit­ed, and much more that we be assured they are remitted, before they be either remit­ted or committed; that indeed were a do­ctrine to animate, and to encourage men to sinne.

But howsoever the Pope somtimes for­giveth sinnes to come, yet God doth not; when God justifieth a man, he giveth him remission of sinnes past. Rom. 3. 25. As for time to come, we teach, that although Christ hath merited, and God hath pro­mised remission of sinnes of all the faithfull unto the end of the world: Notwithstand­ing, remission of sinnes is not actually ob­tayned, and much-lesse by speciall faith believed, untill men doe actually believe and repent, and by humble and faithfull prayer renew their faith & repentance. For as God hath promised to the faithfull all good things; but how? Mark. 7. 7, 8. [...] them that ask that seek that knock: so also re­mission of sins. Neither is it to be doubted, but that remission of sin, though merited by CHRIST, though promised by GOD, though sealed unto us in the Sacrament of [Page 156] Baptisme, is obtayned by the effectuall prayer of those that believe and repent, for whom CHRIST hath merited it, and to whom GOD hath promised it in his Word, and sealed it by the Sacrament; even as the obtayning of the raine, which GOD hath promised, (1 Kings 18. 1. 41.) and the Prophet Elias had fore-told, is ascribed (Iam. 5. 16. 18.) to the effectuall prayer of Elias.

3. The third absurdity which the Papists put upon the doctrine of speciall Faith, is, that by it men are animated to commit all manner of sinne. As if it were no matter, how many, or how great sinnes a man doth commit, so long as he is assu­red by speciall Faith, that all his sinnes past, present▪ and to come, are remitted.

Answ. That which they say of sinne to come, is a malicious slander, as I noted before; but I answere: the practice of sinne (especially of any crime) and going on in the same without repentance, cannot possibly stand with the assurance of Faith. Neither can a man be assured of the for­givenes of any sinne, whereof he doth not repent: and much lesse can he be assured before hand of the forgivenes of that sinne which presumptaously he doth purpose to commit.

[Page 157] As for the doctrine of speciall Faith, I doe confidently professe, that there is scarce any one doctrine in all Divinity, of greater force and efficacy, either to en­courage men to well-doing, or to preserve them from evill. For as I have shewed be­fore, the more a man is assured of GODS love towards him in CHRIST, in for­giving his sinnes, and giving unto him eternall life; the more will his heart be in­flamed with love towards GOD, and towards his neighbour for GODS sake; the more zealous will he be of GODS glory, the more thankfull for his mercies, the more desirous to please, the more fearefull to displease, the more carefull to obey him, the more ready when he hath offended to returne unto him &c. and therefore not without cause, chasidim. the favourites of GOD, who have experience and assurance of GODS speciall favour towards them, are every, where almost translated [...], that is, godly.

3. Having thus by application of the promises to our selves (as having the con­dition thereof) attained to some measure of assurance, we are to be carefull to use all other meanes which GOD hath or­dained, for the confirming of this assu­rance.

[Page 158] The first meanes is Prayer, both for the spirit of adoption, and for the en­crease of our Faith.

As touching the former: forasmuch as speciall Faith is the work of the Holy Ghost, shedding abroad the love of God in our hearts; we are therefore to en­treat the Lord that he would give us his Spirit (which he hath promised to give to those that aske him (Luke 11. 13.) the spi­rit of adoption, crying, that is, by whom we cry in our hearts Abba Father, Gal. 4. 6. Rom. 8. 15. testifying with our spirits that we are the sonnes of GOD; and if sons, then also heyers, heyers of God, and co­heyers with Christ, Rom. 8. 16. 17. by whom we are sealed to the day of our full re­demption, who also is the earnest of our in­heritance, 2 Cor. 1. 22. Ephesians 13, 14. 4. 30.

And as for the other: because full assu­rance is the highest degree of speciall faith, unto which we do never so fully attaine, but that still more and more may and ought to be added; therefore we are to pray continually for the increase thereof, saying with the father of the Damoniack, Mark. 9. 24. I believe Lord, but help thou my unbelief and with the Apostles, Luke 17. 5. O Lord increase our faith. For as Augu­stine [Page 159] saith, fides fundit orationem, fusa ora­tio fidei impetrat firmitatem. (De verbis Do. serm. 36.)

2 Unto prayer we are to adjoyne re­pentance, for our sinnes; without which neither is our faith lively nor our prayers effectuall, the rather, because to it, and to the severall duties of it, as proper notes and evidences of a true faith, the promise of forgiveness is made; as namely to con­fession of our sinnes, to contrition in be­ing displeased with our selves, and grieved for them, to deprecation in craving par­don for them, to an unfained desire and purpose to forsake them, and to practise the contrary duties. Yea if a man shall as truly desire to confesse his sinnes, to be­waile them, and to forsake them, as hee doth desire the forgiveness of them; such an one may undoubtedly be assured of the remission of them. For most gracious are the promises of God made unto penitent sinners, as Prov. 28. 13. Whosoever confes­seth and forsaketh his sinnes shall have mer­cy, so Jerem. 3. 12, 13. Levit. 26. 40, 41. Hos. 14. 1, 2, 3, 4. 2 Chron. 7. 14.

More particularly, as I said, to confessi­on, 1 John 1. 9. Job 33. 27, 28. Psal. 32. 5. Luke 15. 21.

To contrition. Mat. 5. 4. Psal. 34. 18. 51. [Page 160] 17. Esay 57. 15. 61. 1, 2, 3. 66. 2.

To humble deprecation. Zach. 12. 10. Luke 18. 13. Hos. 4. 2.

To conversion unto God, and forsaking of sinne, Deut. 4. 30, 31. 30. 2. 10. Es. 1. 16, 17, 18. Jerem. 3. 1. 22. 18. 8. Ezech. 18. 27, 28. 30, 31, 32, 33. 11. Joel. 2. 12. Zach. 1. 3. Mal. 3. 7.

3. To prayer and repentance we must adde the diligent and conscionable hear­ing of the Word, by which Faith (Rom. 10. 17.) as it is at the first begotten, so it is nourished and encreased. 1 Pet. 2. 2.

4. Because Faith begotten by the Word, consisteth at the first in assent, without actuall application, therefore to the hear­ing of the Word is to be adjoyned the worthy receiving of the Sacraments, which were ordained to this very end, that those who have the [...]irst degree of Faith, may proceed to the second, and go on therein. Dost thou therefore truly believe, that Christ is the Saviour of all those that believe in him? the Sacrament, which thou receivest, is a pledge unto thee, and an as­surance that he is thy Saviour; a pledge I say, communicated to the receivers se­verally, to assure every one that believeth truly according to the first degree of faith, that as certainly as he receiveth the Sacra­ment; [Page 161] so he is made partaker also of the thing signified, which is the participation of Christ, and all his merits to his justifi­cation and salvation.

5. To these we are to adde reading, meditation, conference, &c.

6. The practice of piety, or leading of a godly life making conscience of all our wayes, and walking upright before God. For hereby especially we are to make our calling and our election sure, 2 Pet. 1. 10. for hee that doth these things shall never be removed, Ps. 15. 5. And this is confirmed by the order and conjunction of justification and sanctification mentioned before (pag. 37.) More specially by brotherly love, 1 Iohn 3. 14. and the fruits thereof in give­ing almes, Mat. 25. 35. 1 Tim. 6. 18. 19. and forgiving the offence of others, Mat. 6. 14. and therefore our Saviour teach­eth us to use this argument in our prayer for the confirmation of our faith, Mat 6. 12. but more plainly, Luke 11. 4.

So much of the first doctrine.

Two other uses of this property.

NOw followeth the second doctrine. For if we be enabled to worship the Lord without servile feare, as being freed from the terrour and coaction of the law; then it followeth, that we are to worship the Lord with willing mindes, as David exhorteth his son Solomon. 1 Chron. 28. 9. and promiseth for himselfe, Ps. 119. 32. I will runne the way of thy command­ments when my heart is set at liberty. For therefore hath the Lord freed us from the servitude of sinne, and bondage of the law, that we might serve him with free and willing minds. The people redeemed by CHRIST, become a voluntary people, psalm. 110 3. or, as Paul speaketh, his peculiar people, zelous, or studious of good workes. Tit. 2. 14.

Thus the duties both of piety towards GOD, and charity to our brethren, are to be performed with willing mindes and cheerfull hearts. In the duties of piety we are to serve the Lord with gladnes. Ps. 100 2. I rejoyced (saith David Ps. 12. 21.) when they said unto me, let us goe into [Page 163] the house of the Lord. More particularly,

The Word of God is to be preached [...], willingly, 1. Pet. 5. 2. that we may say with the Apostle, Rom. 1. 15. [...], as much as lyeth in me I am willing to preach the Gospel, for it must be done in love to CHRIST, and zeale to GODS glory, Iohn 21, 15, 16, 17. Act. 20, 28. in love and zeale of our brethrens salvation. 2 Cor. 11. 2. It is to be heard with willingnes, after the example of the Beraeans, Act. 17. 11 who received the Word [...] with all readines of minde, desiring 1 Pet. 2. 2. and longing after it, Ps. 119. 131. To be conversant therin. should be our delight Ps. 1. 2. the Word ought to be sweet unto us, even as the hony, and the hony combe, Psal. 19. 11. 109. 103. and we should re­joyce in it as in all manner of riches. This affection towards Gods Word David ex­presseth, psal. 119. 14, 15, 16, 24. 47. 72. 111. 127. 143. 162.

We must give our selves to prayer, as devoted thereunto, Psal. 109. 4. taking de­light to conferre with God in prayer; and offering up our prayers and thanksgivings, as a willing sacrifice, Psal. 119. 108.

We must praise God with joyfulness, and give thanks with chearfulness, Psal. 9. 2. 95 [Page 164] 2. 95. 1. 2. 63. 5. for as [...], which is thanks, cometh of [...]. to re [...]oyce; so it must be [...], that is, with joy, Phil. 1. 3. 4. we must esteeme it a blessed thing, wherein we resemble the blessed Saints and Angels in heaven, Psal 84 4.

We must call the Sabbath our delight, Esay 58. 13: And we must esteeme one day spent in the house of God as better then a thousand, Psal. 84. 10. Psal. 26. 8. 27. 4. 84. 1, 2, 3, 4. 10.

The duties of charity are also cheerful­ly to be performed, Rom. 12 8. he that sheweth mercy let him doe it with cheerful­nesse, drawing forth his soule to the hun­gry and afflicted▪ Esay 58▪ 10. id est, ex a­nimo liberaliter hilariterque communicans ejus necessitatibus. For the Lord loveth a cheerfull giver, 2 Cor. 9. 7.

Finally in doing the will of God, wee are to imitate the holy Angels, according to our daily prayer, that we may doe the will of God upon earth, as it is done in heaven, that is willingly, readily, cheer­fully; following also the example of all examples, our blessed Saviour, whose de­light it was, Psal. 40. 8. and whose meat it was to doe the will of his heavenly father, John 4. 34.

As for that obedience, or service, which [Page 165] is extorted from men by servile feare, be­cause it is forced, it is but momentany; For no violent thing is of continuance, and be­ing mome [...]tany, it is but counterfeit, whereas true piety is constant and perma­nent, Such is the obedience and repen­tance of hypocrites: who when they are affrighted with Gods judgements, or afflicted with his heavie hand pretend re­pentance, and promise amendment: but when the hand of God is removed from them, they returne to their former cour­ses, and are so farre from learning obedi­ence by that which they have suffered, or feared, that like anviles with often strik­ing they are more and more hardned; according to that, Esay 1. 5. why should you be shricken any more you will adde re­volt. A notable example hereof we have in Pharaoh, who, as upon the inflicting of the severall judgements, promised obedi­ence, Exod. 8. 8. 25. 9. 27. 10. 16. 12. 31. so upon the removing of the plagues, he re­turned to his former obstinacy, Exod. 8. 15. 32. 9. 34. 10. 20. 14. 5. Yea in the Israe­lites themselves; who, when God slew some of them, they sought him, and they return­ed, and enquired early after GOD, &c. Ne­vertheles they did but flatter him with their mouth, and with their tongues they lied unto [Page 166] him, for their heart was not right with him, neither were they stedfast in his covenant, Psal. 78, 34, 36, 37. This therefore ought to teach men not to put off their repen­tance to the time of sicknesse or old age, or to the houre of death; lest the repen­tance which then they hope to performe, prove counterfeit. Now, that our obedi­ence may be voluntary and cheerfull, and our service of God without servile feare, we are to be adorned with the three Theo­logicall Vertues, Faith, Hope, and Chari­ty: for according to the measure of these three graces, in the measure of our spiritu­all security and assurance, which is the ground of our cheerfulness. Faith; for no man can worship the Lord with a wil­ling mind, and cheerfull heart, that is not by Faith perswaded, that his service is accept­ed of him. The perswasion of Gods love shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spi­rit, that is to say, Faith, maketh us to love him againe, and in love to serve him wil­lingly; to whom much is forgiven, they love much, Luke 7. 47. That charity wher­by the whole law is fulfilled, proceedeth from Faith unfained, 2 Tim. 1. 5. and with­out Faith it is impossible to please God, Heb. 11. 6. Hope, for they that have faste­ned their anchor of hope in Heaven, per­forme [Page 167] the duties of piety and righteous­ness with a comfortable expectation of e­verlasting happiness. The hope whereof maketh them easily to swallow all the diffi­culties and troubles of this life, for the joy that is set before them, and with cheer­fulnes to serve the Lord, and to finish their course with joy, Act. 20. 24. whiles we hold fast this hope, nothing shalbe able to dis­courage, or to with-draw us from the vo­luntary worshippe of GOD. Not the desires of this world, which to him that hath this hope seeme meer vanities in com­parison of the happines hoped for. Not the terrours or bugg-beares of this world, which are not worthy of the glory expect­ed. (see Rom. 5. 2. 3.) Consider the exam­ple of Moses, who, when hee was come to yeares, refused to be called the sonne of Pha­raohs daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of GOD, then to enioy the pleasures of sinne for a season, esteeming the reproach of Christ (in his members) greater riches then the treasures of Egypt: the reason of all which is this, for he had respect to the recompence of reward Heb. 11. 24, 25, 26.

Charity, (1 John 4. 18.) which expel­ling fearfulness, causeth cheerfulness. To him that loveth, the commandments of [Page 168] God are not grievous, 1 Iohn. 5. 3. nor the yoake of CHRIST tedious. Nothing is hard to him that loveth Iacobs 7 years of hard service for the love of Rachel seemed to him but a few dayes, Gen. 29. 20.

The third use, is a singular comfort, which from hence ariseth to the Faithfull. For whereas the Lord in other places, when he would comfort his servants, bid­eth them not to feare, as Esay 43. 1. feare not, for I have redeemed thee, Luke. 12. 32. feare not little flocke, for it is your Fathers pleasure to give you a Kingdome: Here in this covenant of grace, he promiseth, and that by oath, that hee will give us to wor­ship him without feare, or at least without cause of feare, so Esay 54. 4. which must needes be a singular consolation unto us, whether we respect our condition by nature or by grace. For by Nature we are obnoxious to our enemies, subject to the terrour of the law, and to the feare (Heb. 2. 15.) of death and damnation; And though we be in the state▪ of grace, yet are we infirme and weake, not able by our owne strength to resist our enemies; The ground therefore of this our being without feare, is not any confidence of our owne strength: but first of all, the truth of God, (Heb. 6. 17, 18.) who by [Page 169] oath hath promised that wee shall worship him without feare.

2. Secondly, the power of God, where­by he is able to make good his promise 2 Tim. 1. 12. 1 Pet. 1. 5.

3. Thirdly, his fidelity, in regard where­of he is also willing to performe his oath, 1 Cor. 10. 13. 1 Thess. 5. 23, 24.

4. Fourthly, his Fatherly providence▪ Esay 54. 17. Rom. 8. 28. and protection, Psal. 91.

5. Fiftly, CHRISTS protection of us as our King, who having vanquished all the enemies of our salvation, and deliveder us out of their hand, none shalbe able to hurt us, Esay 54. 14. 17. and much lesse to pluck us out of his hand, Iohn 10. 28.

6. Sixtly, his intercession for us, as our Priest, Rom. 8. 34. 1 Iohn 2. 2.

7. Seventhly, his union with us as our Head, with whom our life is hid in God, Col. 3. 3. Now as whiles the head (as they say) is above the water, the members can­not be drowned, so whiles our Head is in glory, sitting at the right hand of his Fa­ther, none of his members can perish; but as himselfe hath promised, because I live, you shall live also, Ioh. 14. 19. wherefore we are to thinke of our selves, as of the members of CHRIST, whom the Lord [Page 170] hath quickened together with CHRIST, and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in CHRIST JESUS. Eph. 2. 5, 6.

8. Eightly, the testimony of the Holy Ghost the Comfortor, who shedding (Rom. 5. 5.) abroad the love of God in our hearts, & testifying with (Rom. 8. 16.) our spirits, that we are the sonnes of God, be­cometh the earnest (1 Cor. 21. 5. 5.) of sal­vation, sealing us (Eph. 1. 13. 14.) untill the day of our full redemption, and not only freeth us from the spirit of bondage and of feare, as being the spirit of adoption, by whom we cry (Gal, 4. 6.) in our hearts Abba father; but▪ also worketh in us peace of conscience, (Gal. 4. 6. Rom. 8. 15. Rom. 5. 1. 5. 14. 17.) and joy in the Holy Ghost. which St. Peter calleth unspeakable and glorious. 1 Pet. 1. 8.

Of uprightnesse and of the worshipping of God in holinesse before him.

THe second property of our new obe­dience is uprightnes, signified in these words [...] before him. Whereby is [Page 171] meant, that we are to serve God in holi­nes and righteousnes, not as before men in eye-services as men-pleasers; but as before God, in sincerity and truth. And so the Lord himselfe seemeth to expound this phrase Gen. 17. 1. I am God all-sufficient, walke before me, and be upright. For to walke before God, or to walke with God (both which phrases are used in the Scrip­tures, sometimes joyntly, as 1 Kings 3. 6. somtimes severally with God, as did He­noch, Gen. 5. 22. 24. and Noah, Gen. 6. 9. and as we are required to doe, Mich. 6. 8. before God, Es. 57. 2. as did Abraham, Gen. 24. 40. and Isaa [...] Gen, 48. 15. David▪ Ps. 116. 9. Iotham, who prepared his wayes before the Lord, 2 Chro. 27. 6.) it is to be­have our selves as in the sight and presence of God, setting God before our eyes, ad­mitting him to be the beholder, witnes, and judge of our actions; that is, to de­meane our selves uprightly. And this pro­perty is required, not onely in the duties of piety, which we performe directly to God; but also in the duties of righteous­nes, which we owe unto men: for so it is here said, that we should worship him in holines and righteousnes before him; in which two, being sincere and upright, the image of God renewed in us doth consist, [Page 172] Eph. 4. 24. in righteousnesse and holinesse of truth, that is in true, sincere, upright, and unfained righteousnesse and holinesse. But first we are to speak of worshipping GOD in holinesse before him, or of uprightnesse, as it hath relation to GOD. In which sence it is opposed to hypocrisie, and so what is upright, is said to be [...], without hypocrisie, or unfained.

What uprightnesse is] Now what this up­rightnes is, we may gather by those divers words and phrases, whereby it is expressed, both in the Old Test. and in the New.

As first, by the word josher (Psal. 25. 21.) which signifieth uprightnesse, and jashar, which signifieth right or upright, as Psal. 37. 37. Iob. 1. 1, 8. 2, 3. but more plainly and fully, when it is joyned with some other word, as right in heart, signifying the inward disposition; or right in the way, signifying the conversation. For so the upright are called recti [...]orde, right or up­right in heart, as Psal. 7. 10. 32. 14. 36. 10. 64. 10. 94. 15. 94. 15. 125. 4. and uprightnesse rectitudo cordis, 1 King. 3. 6. Psal. 119. 7. they are also called recti via Psal. 37. 14. upright of way, Psal. 119. 1. or perfecti via, ambu­lans integer. [Integer vitae Horat.] Psal. 15. 2. whose way is uprightnesse. Es. 26. 7. their way being made straighy by God. Both [Page 173] which do concurre in the upright, for he is properly integer, who is both outwardly straight, that is rectus via and inwardly sound, that is rectus corde. Both must con­ [...]urre, 2 Chron. 25. 2.

2. By the word Emeth which signifieth truth, for as there is truth in words, oppo­sed to lying, so also in deeds, opposed to dissembling and hypocrsie, which is up­rightnesse, as Io [...]. 24. 14. Psal. 51. 6. Es. 8. 3. Psal. 145. 18. and as there is a saying, [...]2 Chron. 31. 20.) so also a doing of the ruth. Ioh. 3. 21. 1 Ioh. 1. 6. and walking [...] truth, 2 Joh. 4. and 3 John 3. hence to walk uprightly, is to walk before God in [...]ruth. 1 King. 2. 4. and 1 King. 3. 6. in [...]ruth and righteousnesse and uprightnesse of heart, 2 King. 20. 3. in truth with a per­fect heart, and to worship God uprightly, is to worship him in Spirit and in truth, Joh. 4. 23, 24. or as Samuel exhorteth, in truth with all our hearts, 1 Sam. 12. 24.

3. The most usuall word to signifie, ei­ther the upright is Tham or Thamim, which commonly is translated perfect, as Gen. 17. 1. Deut. 18. 13. Psal. 15. 2. 37. 37. 119. 1. [...] uprightnesse, is Thom or thamim, which [...]sually is translated perfection, whereby [...]ot legall perfection is meant (which is [...]bsolute and compleat, not only in respect [Page 174] of the parts, but also of degrees) but evan­gelicall, according to the covenant of grace; which is nothing else) the Lord (2 Cor. 8. 18. Gen. 22. 16. 2 Sam. 7. 2. &c.) accepting in his children the will for the deed) but integrity or uprightnesse; and is so expounded Psal. 25. 21. Ios. 24. 14. Iob. 1. 1. 8. 2, 3. Psal. 37. 37. For very ma­ny in the Scriptures have this perfection attributed to them, who notwithstanding had their imperfections, as Noah, Gen. 6. 9. Job. 1. 1. 8. 2, 3. Iacob, Gen. 25, 27. &c. Of Asa it is said 2 Chron. 15. 17. that his heart was perfect all his dayes: and yet in the next Chapter there are recorded three foul sinnes which he committed, 2 Chron. 16. 7. 10. 12.

4. By the word Shalem, which is the Greek is translaned, sometimes [...] per­fect, sometimes [...], and some­times [...] ful or compleat exampls of the first, 1 King. 8. 61. 11. 4. 15. 3. 14. 2 King. 20. 3. 1 Chron. 28. 9. 2. Chro. 15 12. of the second Es. 38. 3.

Of the last 1 Chron. 29 9. 16. 9. 19. 9. 25. 2. And in this sence, they that are up­right are said to have fulfilled after the Lord, that is fully or entirely to have fol­lowed him, Num. 14. 24. 32. 11. 12. Deut. 1 36. Ios. 14. 8. 9. 14. as contrariwise of [Page 175] those who are not upright, but have a name that they live, and yet are dead; it is said that their works are not [...] full or perfec before God. Apoc. 3. 2, 3. but dimidiata, worshipping and obeying God by the halfes not fulfilling after him, Num. 3 [...]. 11.

5. By the whole heart, being not legally, but evangel cally understood, as when du­ties are to be performed with the whole heart, or with all the heart, and with all the soule, as Deut. 4. 29. 26 6 30 2. 1 Sam. 12 24 2 Kings 23 3 Psal 1 9 2. 10. 34. (9. I [...]el 2 12 which being legally under­stood, import a greater perfection, then is incident to any man since the fall: but be­ing evangeli [...]ally understood according to the covenant of grace, nothing else is meant thereby, but that they are to be per­formed with an entire or upright heart, or as David speaketh, Psal. 119. 7. with up­rightnesse of heart.

6. Not with an heart, and an heart (af­ter the manner of hypocrites, who are [...] Iam. 1. 8. 4. 8) Psal. 12. 2. 1 Chro. 12. 33. 38.

7. Without guile, that is hypocrisie, Psal. 17. 1. 32. 2.

8. As the upright are called recti corde, so also puri corde, pure in heart, Psal. 24. 4. 73. 1.

[Page 176]Whereby is not meant, that they are wholly pure of free from sinne: for who can say I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sinne? Prov. 20. 9. or if an [...] shall say so, in him there is no truth, [...] Ioh. 1. 8. But they are pure in heart, who are sincere and upright, purified from the lea­ven of hypocrisie, Iam. 4. 8. in whose heart there is no guile, Psal. 32. 2. who being indued with faith unfained, which purifieth their hearts, Act. 15. 9. as the instrument apprehending the blood of CHRIST, which doth purge our hearts from sinne, 1 Ioh. 1. 7. and purifieth our conciences from dead works to serve the li­ving God, Heb. 9. 14. and being also in­dued with this hope, that they shall be like unto Christ in glory, will (1 Ioh. 3. 3,) puri­fie themselves even as he is pure. But this is puritas inchoata, not perfecta.

In the new Testament uprightnesse is expressed sometimes by this phrase [...] before God, as not only in this, but also in other places, where we are taught to speak, as before God in Christ, 2 Cor. 12. 19. to preach, as before God in Christ, 2 Cor. 2. 17. commending our selves to every mans conscience in the sight of God, 2 Cor. 4. 2. and to take care for the people of God, as in his sight, 2 Cor. [Page 177] 7. 12. to heare as before God, Act. 10. 33. Thus▪ both those persons which be upright, are siad to be righteous before God, Luke 1. 6. and those hypocrites, whose heart is not right before God, Act. 8. 21. and those actions and duties, which are upright, are said to be acceptable, pleasing and un­proveable before God, 1 Tim 2. 3. 5. 4. Heb. 13. 21. 1 Ioh. 3. 22. Col. 1. 22.

2. Sometimes by the word truth, Iohn 4. [...]3. 4. 1 Cor. 5. 8. 1 Iohn, 3. 18. Phil. 1. 18. [...]ph. 4. 24. hence an upright heart is called [...] a true heart. Heb. 10. 22.

3. Sometimes by the word [...] that is sincerity as 1 Cor. 5. 8. 2 Cor. 2. 17. and 2 Cor. 1. 12. where it is called the sin­cerity of God, that is, godly sincerity▪ for that is [...] which is sincere, or without mixture, as bread without leaven, 1 Cor. 5. 8. without the leaven of the Pha­risies, which is hypocrisie, Luk. 12. [...]. or as ho­ny without wax (as the word sincere doth signify) or as Hesychius expoundeth it [...], pare, sincere, or without deceipt, land true. This sincerity the Lord required of the Israelites, by for­bidding divers sorts of mixture: as to plant their vineyards, or to [...]ow their fields with divers sorts, to plowe with an oxe and an asse together, to wear a garment of divers [Page 178] stuffes, as of woollen and linnen together, Deut. 22. 9. 10. 1 [...]. Levit. 19. 19.

4. Sometimes the upright man is signi­fied by the word [...], which signifieth a sound, or an approved Christian; such as are not only hearers, but doers also of Gods word▪ who are not only in the Church visi­ble, but also of the Church invisible, who are sheep in Christs flock [...], and not goates; wheat in Gods floore, and not chaffe, corne in Gods field, and not tares; children in Gods family, and not bond-servants, Ioh. 8. 34, 35. and contrarywise, those who are hypocrits or vnsound Christians are called [...] (1 Cor. 9. 27. 2 Cor. 13. 5. 2 Tim. 3. 8.) which doth not signify reprobate, as opposed to the elect; but reprovable, as opposite to [...] ▪ that is, approved. 1 Cor. 11. 19. there must be heresies, that those who are [...] sound and approved may be knowne, Iam. 1. 12. Blessed is the man who endureth temptation; for when by triall he shall be found [...] that is, a sound and approved Christian, he shall re­ceive the crown of life. For temptations and trials, are [...] probations, by en­during and overcomming whereof the upright, or [...] (who have the privi­ledge of perseverance) are discerned and known▪ Sometimes the word is used with [Page 179] some addition, as [...] appro­ved in CHRIST, that is an approved Chri­stian, Rom. 16. [...]0. [...] ap­proved of GOD, a Tim. 2. 15. for not he who commendeth himself is [...], but he whom God commendeth 2 Cor. 10. 18. [...], acceptable or well-pleasing to GOD, and approved of men, Rom. 14. 18.

5. [...]hat which is upright and sincere is somtimes signified by the word [...], (for to be upright, is not to be an hypo­crite) as Rom. [...]2. 9. 2 Cor. 6 6. 1 Pet. 1. 22 1 Tim 1. 5. 2 Tim. 1. 5. Iam. 3. 17. and somtimes by the word [...], 1 Pet. 2. [...]. sincere or without guil [...], And they are said to be upright, in whose spirit there is n [...] guile, that is hypocrisie, Psal. 32. 2. true Israelites, in whom there is no guile, Ioh. 1. 48. for such fooles are hypocrite [...], as that they (dancing, as it were, in a net) go a­bout with their flattering words, and faire pretences to deceive [...]od Psal. 78. 36.

6 As in the old t [...]stament, so al [...]o in the new, the upright are called pure in heart, as Mat. 5. 8 and the upright heart is called a pure heart [...] Tim 1 5, [...]im 2. 2 [...] 1 Pet 1. 22.

7. Lastly, to walk uprightly is [...] to go with a right foot Gal 2. 14. neither treading awry [...]y dissimul [...]tion n [...]r halting [Page 180] as the Israelites did betwixt God and Baal, 1. King. 18, nor declining to the right hand or to the left, Deut. 5. 32. 28. 14. 2 Chro. 34. 2. or as the Apostle speaketh Heb. 12. 13. to make steight or right pathes to our feet, according to the exhortation of Solo­mon, Prov. 4. [...]6. as it is rendred by the 72. [...], make right pathes to thy feet, and order right thy wayes, decline (v. 27.) not to the right hand nor to the left, and as he ex­horteth, v. 25. let thine eyes look right on, and let thine eye-liddes look straight before thee, would you know then what it is to wor­ship God in holinesse before him? it is to walk with God, or before God without hy­pocrisie, in sincerity and truth, with perfect, with pure, with our whole hearts, that is to say, with entire or upright hearts, walking in the way of religion and godlines with a right foot, looking right before us, declin­ing neither to the right hand, nor to the left neither treading awry by dissimulation, nor halting down-right, either as neuters in religion, betwixt CHRIST and Anti-Christ, or as worldlings between GOD and Mammon; nor worshipping or obey­ing GOD by halves, but approving our selves to be [...] entire and sound Chri­stians, [Page 181] to him that tryeth and searcheth the heart and the reynes, setting God al­wayes before our eyes, and behaving our selves as in his sight and presence, doing that which is right in his sight.

Arguments to move us to integrity] Now that we may be moved to labour for this integrity and uprightnesse of heart, I will use the 3. usual arguments of commen­dation, viz. the excellency, the profit, and the necessity of it as it were a triple chaine.

1. The excellency of ir is such, that first it goeth under the name of perfection: and those thing, which are done (though with great weaknesse and much imperfe­ction) with an upright hea [...]t, that is to say with a sincere desire, unfained purpose, and upright endeavour to please God, are ac­cepted of God as done with a perfect heart.

2. Uprightnesse is the inward beauty of Christs spouse, in regard whereof, though she be outwardly despicable in the eyes of the world; yet she is glorious within, Psal. 45. 13. like to the Tabemacle, which was a type of the Church, which though out­wardly covered with Rammes skinnes and Badgers skinnes Ex. 36. 19. which made but a homely shew; was neverthelesse [Page 182] most beautifull and glorious within Or as the spouse in the Canticles c. 1. 5. saith, I am black but comely; black without, as the tents of Kedar, who were scenitae ha­ving tents of sackcloth; comely within, as the hangings of Solomon within his house, as the lining thereof.

3. Integrity is of all things most plea­sing to God, Psal. 51. 6. Behold, thou art delighted with truth in the inward parts, I know also my God, that thou triest the heart, and hast pleasure in uprightnesse, 1 Chron. 29. 17. Yea, I may say more, that to be upright, is not only pleasing to God, but also the pleasing of him, Prov 11. 20. the up­right in the way are Gods delight. The He­brew word▪ jashar which signifieth right, is translated [...] pleasing, and the verbe w [...]i [...]h signifieth to be right, signifieth also to please [...] & is often times so tran­slated, as the noue, Exo 15. 6. Deut. 6. 18. 12 25. 13 18 21. 9. the verbe Iud. 14. 3. 7. the young woman of Timnah was right in Samsons eyes; that is, she pleased him well, so, 1 King 9. 12. 2 Chro. 30. 4 Ier. 18 4 Dan 4 24 but most plainly Num. 23. 27. perhaps it will seeme right in the eyes of God; that is, as we also translate it, peradventure it will p [...]ease God.

[Page 183]In like manner the phrase of walking with God or before God is every where by the 72. translated by the verbe [...], that is, to please God. As Gen. 5. 2 [...]. 24. where it is said, that Henock walked with God, they read, [...], he plea­sed God: so Gen. 6. 9. 17. 1. 24. 40. 48. 15. Psal. 116. 9. the sonne of Syrach speaking of Henoch▪ observeth the same translation, Eccles. 44. 16. so doth the Author of the book of Wisedome. ch. 4. 10. and so doth the Apostle himself, Heb. 11. 5. He­noch before his translation had this testim [...] ­ny, [...] that he pleased God.

4. The excellency of uprightnesse is such, as that it is that vertue which God cheifly re [...]uireth, Gen. 17. 1. Mich [...] 6. 8▪ 1 Sam. 12 24. which he most highly esteemeth Gen. 5. 22. [...]4. which hath al­wayes been the chief commendation of the faithfull, as of E [...]och, Noah, Iob, &c. 1 King. 3. 6. The chief thing wherein the faithfull are to rejoyce in time of prospe­rity, 2 Cor. [...]. 2▪ and their chiefest stay and comfort in d [...]stresse, Esaiah▪ 38. 3. Act. 23. 1.

The profit.] 2. Put come we to the pro­fit, by which most men (Psal, 4. 6.) are drawn. In generall it is said, that God is good to those that are of a clean heart, Psal. [Page 184] 73. 1. according to Davids prayer, Psal. 125. 4. more particularly, Psal. 84. 11. the Lord is a sun and shield, the Lord will give grace and glory, and no good thing will [...] withhold from them that walke in upright­ [...]esse. He is a sun, that is, the Author of all [...]omfortable blessings, which are signified [...]y light, according to that Psal. 112. 4. to the upright there ariseth light in dark­nesse, that is to say, comfort in afflictions; yea, to them that are upright, the consci­ence of their own integrity doth minister singular comfort. It was Ezechias his stay and comfort, when he had received the sentence of death, Es. 38. 3. and this was Paul his rejoycing, the testimony of his conscience, that in simplicity and godly sin­cerity he had his conversation here in the world, 2 Cor. 1. 12. Act. 23. 1. For God to him that is good before him, that is upright, [...]iveth joy, Eccles. 2. 26. yea to them▪ all [...] joy, and praising of God with joy and [...]ladnesse is appropriated, Psal. 32. 11. 33.

64. 10. For lighs is sowen for the righte­ [...]us, and gladnesse for the upright in [...]heart, Psal. 97. 11.

And as the life of the upright is com­portable, is upright conscience being unto [...]im as a continuall (Prov. 1. 15.) feast; [...]his end is happy, Psal. 37. 37. Observe the [Page 185] perfect man, and behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace. So Esay 57. 2. which is further proved, because upright­nesse is evermore attended with perseve­rance to the end, as hereafter shall fully be proved in the Treatise of perseverance. For the integrity of the upright doth guide and preserve them, Prov. 11. 3 Psal. 25. 21. the upright man who is not only a hearer, but also a doer of Gods word, is like the wise man, which built his house upon the rock, which could not be overthrowne, Mat. 7. 24, 25. wherefore the upright shall never be moved, but his righteousnesse endu­reth for ever, Psal. 112. 3. 6.

The Lord is also a shield to them that walke uprightly, Prov. 2. 7. For the eyes of the Lord perlustrate the whole earth, to shew himselfe strong in their behalfe, whose heart is perfect or upright towards him, 2 Chro. 16. 9. which David applying to himselfe, saith Psal. 7. 10 God is my shield, who saveth the upright in heant.

He giveth also grace and glory; grace in this life, and glory in the life to come, Grace: for uprightnes being the soundnes of all graces, God hath therefore layed up in store for the upright Tushijah, whatso­ever is sound and truly good, as Solomon saith, Pro. 2. 7. And such is the concatena­tion [Page 186] of all saving graces, that where any of them in truth, (as they are in the up­right) there is a concurrence of them all in some measure: some going before, as [...]auses producing the rest, others follow­ing and presupposing the former. As for example, where is faith unfained, there is also hope and charity; and where these are in truth, no other saving grace can be wanting, and therefore [...]od may truly be said to give al manner of graces to the up­right, as saving knowledge, and true wise­dome, Eccles 2 26. which David found by his owne experience Psal 119. 98. 99 100. and so of the rest. And upon this found­nesse of grace followeth the increase of grace, peace of conscience, and joy in the Holy Ghost. 2 Cor. 1. 12. Eccles. 2. 26. assi­ance and confidence Pro. 28. [...]. when feare surpriseth the hypocrites, Es 33. 14. pati­ence, constancy, and perseverance, Luke 8. 15, by which the upright and sound Christi­ans are knowne, when contrarywise the double-minded man (that is the hypocrite) is inconstant in all his wayes. I am. 1. 8. and his heart being not right with God, neither is he stedfast in his covenant. Ps. 78 37. but is subject to defection, [...] Iohn 2. 19. as ha­ving built upon the sand, Mat. 7. 26.

The Lord also giveth glory to the up­right; [Page 187] for whosoever walketh [...]orightly shall be saved, Pro. 28. 18 they shall dwell in the presence of God, Ps 40 13 in the mountaine of his holynes, Ps 15 12. Ps. 24. 3, 4. the pure in heart shall see God (in which vision of God our eternall happines doth consist:) and therefore they are bles­sed▪ Mat 5 8 Ps 119 1. and not onely them­selves are blessed, but their children also after them, Pro. 20. 7. Ps 112▪ 2. Of this happines we have a notable example in Henoch; whom, because he walked with God, the Lord translated into the king­dome of glory. Gen. 5. 24. Heb. 1 [...] ▪ 5. to let us understand by this precedent, as being the first mentioned in this kinde, what accompt he maketh of uprightnes. Now, if the Lord doe graunt them glory in his owne kingdome, it may not be thought, that hee will (Ps. 84. 11.) with­hold any thing from them that is good, Luk. 12. 32. any good thing, I say, which they shall aske at his hands: for the prayers of the upright are accepted of God, Pro. 15. 8. and he is neere to all that call upon him in truth. Ps. 145. 18. insomuch that whatso­ever they doe aske they doe receive, be­cause they doe those things which are pleasing in his sight. 1 Iohn 3. [...].

3. But if neither the golden chaine of [Page 188] excellency will allure, nor the silver chaine of profit draw us; then must the iron chaine of necessity compell us to upright­nesse. The necessity may be shewed by these considerations.

1. As with uprightnesse the smallest graces, and the weakest meakest measure of obedi­ence are accepted with God: so without it, the best graces which we may seeme to have, are but counterfeit; and the best worship that we performe without it, is but hypocrisie. For the soundnesse of all grace, and of all worship standeth in up­rightnesse. Our faith therefore must be [...] unfained. 1 Tim. 1. 5. 2 Tim. 1 [...]5. or [...] els it is no true faith; our charity also must be unfained, Rom. 12. 9. 2 Cor. 6. 6. 1 Pet. 1. 22. that is, we must love in deed, and in truth, and not in word only, and from the teeth outward, 1 Ioh. 3. 18. Iam. 2. 15, 16. Our wisdome likewise must be [...] Iam. 3. 17. not that mixt [...] prudenti [...] of our Polititians, which is mingled with disguising and deceipt, for such is earth­ly, carnall and devilli [...]h, Iam 3. 15. Our repentance also must be unfained, and from the bottome of our hearts, Ioel. 2. 12, 13, not like that of the Israelites, when the hand of God was upon them, who made shew of repentance, but their heart was not [Page 189] upright with God, Psal. 78. 34, 36, 37.

Likewise our obedience must be from the heart, Rom. 6. 17 Yea it must be perfor­med with our whole heart. Deut. 26. 16. 30. 2. 2 King. 23. 3. Psal. 119. 34. 69. If with Amasiah we do that which is right before God, but not with a perfect, that is, upright heart; we may fall away from God, as he did 2 Chro. 25. 2. 14. for when mens hearts are not upright with God, neither are they stedfast in his covenant, Psal. 78. 37. If therefore without upright­nesse our faith be dead, our love fained, our wisedome divelish, our repentance unfound, our obedience counterfeit, and so of all o­ther graces, then is uprightnesse as necessa­ry, I say not, as any one grace, but as all of them put together: uprightnesse being the truth and foundnesse of them all, without which they are not [...] indeed and in truth; for ens & verum convertuntur. And therefore that which is not a true faith is not faith indeed, and so of the rest, And as the graces, which we seem to have with­out uprightnesse are but counterfeit; so all our worship and service of God, without it is meer hypocrisie. Our worship there­fore of God must be in spirit and in truth, Ioh. 4. 23, 24. we must seek the Lord with our whole heart, (whereby seeking, we are [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page] [...] [Page 190] to understand the whole worship and ser­vice of God) Deut. 4. 29. Psal. 119. 2. Thus David sought the Lord Psal. 119. [...]0. Thus Asa and his subjects did make a co­venant to seek the Lord with all their hearts, 2 Chro 15. 2. Thus Iehosaphat 2 Chro 22. 9.

It is not our bodily exercise 1 Tim 4. 8 but our reasonable and spirituall service that is acceptable to God R [...]m. 12. 1. It is the heart that the Lord requireth Prov. 23 26 and that he respecteth, 1 Sam. 16 7. If therefore we draw neer to God with our mouthes, and honour him with our lippes, but remove our hearts farre from him. Es 29 13. we must expect the reward of hypocrites.

[Necessary to Invocation.] But let us descend to the parts of Gods worship, and first, (To prayer.) to prayer and thanks­giving, which are the two sorts of invocati­on. If we would have our prayer accep­ted of God, both we our selves must be upright, and our prayers also, we; for the Lord delighte [...]h in the prayer of the upright. Prov. 15. 8. but abhorreth the prayer of the hypocrites, Prov. 28. 9. Es. 29. 13. If there­fore we regard wickednesse in our hearts (as hypocrites use to do) we must make our accompt with David, that the Lord will [Page 191] not heare us; Psal. 66. 18. Our prayer must also be upright, when we are to pray, we must prepare our hearts to seek the Lord; 2 Chro. 30. 19. we must pray in spirit. Eph 6. 18. in truth, Ps. 145. 18 Our prayer must be the lifting up of our soules to God, Psal. 5. 1. 86. 4. a lifting up of our hearts with our hands unto God in the heavens Lam. 3. 41 powring forth of our soules before the Lord, Psal 6 [...]. 8. we must pray out of a pure and upright heart. 2 Tim. 2. 22 with our whole heart, Psal. 119. 145. with lippes unfained, Psal 17. 1. And to this manner of praying is the promise of hearing our prayers restrained, Psal. 145. 18.

But if we pray with fained lippes, if in our prayers we speak with an heart, and an heart, Psal. 12. 2. if we ask with our mouth that which we do not desire in our hearts; if in our prayers we pretend that which we do not intend; if we promise that which we do not mean to performe; if we draw neare unto GOD with our mouthes, and remove our hearts from him, as hypocrites use to do, we shall offer a great abuse to the the Majesty of GOD. For fained lips are as the Psalmist calleth them, Psal. 17. [...]: lips of deceipt, whereby hypocrites in their prayers lying unto GOD, Hos. 7. 13, 14. go about to deceive him.

[Page 192] The like is to be said of praise and thanksgiving, which if we would have ac­cepted of GOD, both we our selves must be upright, (for praise is comely for the up­right, Ps. 33. 1. for they only can rejoyce in GOD: and therefore they alone can praise him aright, Psal. 32. 11. 145. 10.) and our prayses also and thanksgiving must be uprightly performed. First, there­fore we must prepare our hearts, Psal. 5. 77. 108. 1. and stir up our soules to praise God, Psal. 103. 1, 2. 104. 1. 146. 1. Blesse the Lord O my soul, and all that is within me praise his holy Name, then must we sing and praise him with grace Col. 3. 16. that is, with thankfulnesse, and with gladnesse in our hearts, with our whole hearts, Psal. 91. 86. 12. 111. 1. 138. 1. that is with up­rightnesse of heart, Psal. 119. 7. Other­wise we shall make but bad musick in the eares of the Lord, if there be a discord be­tween our hearts and our tongues.

Let us come to the ministery of the word, which must uprightly be both prea­ched and heard. The Preacher must not adulterate the Word of God, but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God he must speak in CHRIST, 2 Cor. 2. 17. 4. 2. not seeking to please men, Gal. 1. 10. but studying to shew himselfe approved to [Page 193] God who tryeth our hearts, 1 Thes. 2. 4. 2 Tim. 2. 15. neither seeking his owne praise or profit; but seeking only the glory of God in the salvation of the hearers.

And as the word is to be preached with integrity, so is it also to be heard with up­rightnesse, and to that end, before we come into the house of God, we ought to l [...]ok to our feet, that is, to our affections, Eccles. 5. 1. and to put off the foule shooes (Exod. 3. 5. Jos. 5. 15.) of our feet that is, our corrupt affections, Iam. 1. 21. 1 Pet. 2. 1. that we may receive the word into honest and good, that is, upright hearts, Luk. 8. 15. And when we are come into the assembly, the place of Gods presence, we are to set our selves in the presence of God, that we may say with Cornclius, Act. 10. 33. we are here present before God, to heare what shall be delivered out of his word, And as the Minister must preach, as he that delviereth the oracles of God, 1 Pet. 4. 11. so we must hear [...] the word preached [...]ot as the word of man, [...]ut as it is indeed the word of God, 1 Thess. 2. 13. with earnest attention hanging as it were upon the mouth of the preacher, Luk. 19. 48. and so desiring to hear God▪ as we de­sire to be heard of God, (for withou [...] at­tention being present in body, we are ab­sent [Page 194] in minde,) with a sincere desire (1 Pet. 2. 2. to profit by it, and an unfained pur­pose to practise it For if we be hearers, and not doers of the word, like Ezekiels hearers, Ezech 33. 31. 32. as we shall play the hypocrites to deceive others, so we shall prove Sophisters to beguile our selves, [...]Iam. 1. 22. ( [...])

To the Sacraments] There remain the Sacraments For as in the old Testament the Circumcision of the flesh was of no va­lue, (Rom. 2. 8. 29 without the circumci­sion of the heart; so is it to little purpose to have the body washed 1 Pet. 3. 21. with outward Baptisme, unlesse our heart be clensed with the bloud of CHRIST ap­prehended by fiath unfained. For what will it availe us, if without uprightnesse, of heart we do with Simon Magus professe our selves to believe, and to be baptized? For if our heart be not right before God, we have, for all our baptisme and professi­on, no part in CHRIST: but do remaine as he did, in the gall of bitternesse and in the bond of iniquity, Act. 8. 21.

And as in celebrating the Passeover, the Iewes were to use unleavened bread: so must we receive the Sacrament of the Lords Supper, (which is the antitype to the Passeover) not with the leaven of hy­pocrisy, [Page 195] but with the dzymes or unleavened graces of sincerity and truth, 1 Cor. 5. 8. For what will it availe us, if with Iudas Is­cariot, we shall receive the Sacrament, and carry our selves so smoothly, as he did, that when our Saviour told his Apostles, that one of them should betray him; all of them were as ready to suspect themselves, as him? for if our hearts be not upright, but false, as his was, well may we receive, as Augustine sayth of him, pan [...]m Domini, the sacramentall bread, but we shall not receive pan [...]m Dominum, the Lord, who is the bread of GOD which came downe from heaven, Iohn 6. 33.

But if when we are to receive the Sacra­m [...]nt, we pr [...]pare our hearts to seeke the Lord, (2 Chron. 30. 1.) and come with upright hearts void of hypocrisie; though we have many imperfections and wants, and though the graces req [...]ired in a wor­thy receiver be very small and weak in us; yet if they be in truth, we shall in Christ be accepted, as worthy receivers. But without uprightnesse of heart, the most glorious shew that can be made, either in our preparation, or in the receiving of the Sacrament, is but hypocrisie.

2. Secondly, the necessity of uprightnes is proved by the a [...]thority of God speaking [Page 196] in the scriptures, as 1. By the commande­ment of God imposing a necessity of due­ty, Deut. 18. [...]3. Ios. 24. 14. who so requi­reth it as a maine and principall duety, Gen. 17. 1. 1 Sam. 12. 24. Mich. 6. 8. which in all dueties is, as it were, all in all and without which all is nothing Act▪ 24 16. For this cause Israel was called Ieshurun. Deut. 32. 15. 33. 5. 26. Es. 14, 2 because this was the thing which the Lord required cheifely in every Israelite, this is the true Israelite, Iohn, 1. 47. Rom. 2. 29. This is Iacob, Ps. 24. 6. or this is the generation of Iacob (who was ish T am, perfectus or in­teger Gen. 25. 27) this, the Israel of God. Gal. 6. 16. Secondly▪ by the testimony of our Saviour, Mat. 5. 20. except your righte­ousnesse exceed the righteousnesse of the scribes and Pharisies (whose righteousnesse consisted in outward appearance, not in in­ward truth, they being soured with the leaven of hypoc [...]sy) you shall not enter into the kingdome of heaven. If therefore we have a forme [...] of godlynesse, but deny the power thereof, 2 Tim. 3. 5. if we have lampes without oile Mat. 25. 3. greene blades without root. Luke 8. 13. greene leaves without fruit, Matth. 21. 19. we cannot please God. And thirdly, by the oath of God in this place inferring a [Page 197] necessity of [...]; that those, who are the redeemed of the Lord shall wor­ship him in holinesse and righteousnesse be­fore him.

3. Thirdly if we be not upright, then are we hypocrites, for not to be upright is to be an hypocrite. But pocrisy is a sinne most odious into God; and most pernicious to the hypocrite. For as the upright are the Lords delight, so they that be of a perverse heart, that is to say the hypocrites, are an abominat [...]on to him, Pro. 11. 20.

And so pernicious it is to him that is in­fected therewith, that as there is no assu­rance of his salvation, (for what hope hath they hypocrite, when GOD shall take his soule Iob 27. 8▪) so there is great cer­tainly of their damnation, unlesse they re­pent: wherof there is less hope: in an hy­pocrite, then in an open sinner. For which cause our Savio [...]r CHRIST telleth the (M [...]t, 21. 32.) pharisaicall hypocrites, that publicanes and h [...]r [...]o [...]s enter into the King­dome of heaven before them. And such is the certainty of their damnation, that our Sa­viour Christ, when he would signify, that the wicked servant of whom he speaketh Mat. 24 48. should certainly be damned: he saith, he should have his portion with hy­pocrites, where shalbe weeping and g [...]ash­ng of teeth. v. 51.

[Page 198] Seeing therfore uprightnesse is a grace so excellent, that it goeth under the name of perfection, that it is the inward bewty of the spouse of Christ, wherein especially he is delighted, that it is not onely pleasing to GOD, but also the pleasing of him: so profitable, that all good things are promi­sed to the up [...]ight, and no good thing kept back from them; so necessary, that in it consisteth the soundness [...] of all saving gra­ces, and of all religious worship, in so much that without it the best graces are counterfeit, and all our best worship but hypocrisie; so necessary as that with­out it men can have no assurance that they are redeemed of the Lord, or that they shall bee saved: but that as without it they being no better then hy­pocrites; have no sound hope that they shalbe saved, so there is a certainty and assurance that they shalbe condemned: it behooveth us by all meanes to labour for this vertue, which is so excellent in it selfe, so pleasing to God, so profitable, and so necessary to us.

Other meanes to uprightnesse.

And first, for asmuch as it is the gift of God from whom every good and perfect gift doth come, Iam. 1. 17. for it is he that maketh our way perfect. Ps. 18. 3 [...]. it is he [Page 199] that sweareth in this place, that he will give those that are redeemed to worship him in holynesse and righteousnesse before him we are therefore to begge this grace at the hands of God by hearty and faith­ful prayer, after the exampl [...] of David. Ps. 51 10. Create in me a cleane heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me; and Ps. 119. 80. let my heart be sound or thamim upright in thy statutes, that I be not ash. med.

2. To our p [...]ayer let us joyne ou [...] en­devour to keepe a watch over our heart, and as Solomon exhorteth Pro. 4. 23. above all k [...]eping to [...]epe our hearts, fo [...] out of [...]t are the issues of l [...]e, that is, as it is the [...]ountaine of life, so of living well or ill from whence all our saying and doing doe streame: The good man out of the good treasure of his heart, bringeth forth good things, and the evill man out of the evill treasure of his heart, bringeth forth evill things, for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. Luk. 6. 45 and accord­ingly the hand worketh, wherefore in re­forming our lives, our first and c [...]eife care must be of purging the heart; for that is the foundation of a godly life, without which there is no sound reformation.

[...]irst, (saith our Saviour CHRIST) [Page 200] Mat. 23. 26. clense the inside of the cuppe and platter, that the outside may [...]e cleane also, In vaine do we goe about to cleare the streames, whilst the fountaine is cor­rupt: In vain do we go about to stop the streams, whiles the well-spring floweth in his full course, In vaine shall we like the summer fruit be faire and mellow on the outside if we be rotten at the core: In vain have men a name that they live, when they are dead. Apoc. 3. 1.

And the rather we are to tak care of our hearts, because GOD himselfe doth especially looke unto the heart, 1 Sam. 16. 7. and according to the quality and dispo­sition of the heart, he judgeth of the man. If the heart burne with lust, the man is an [...]dulterer before GOD; if the heart be fraught with coveteousnesse, the man is a thiefe before GOD, as Iudas was. Ioh. 2. 6. If the heart boyle with hatred and ma­lice, the man is a murtherer before GOD, 1 Iohn 3. 15. If the heart be removed from GOD, and set upon the world, and the things that are therein, then is the man a spirituall adulterer, that is, an idolater be­fore GOD, Iam. 4. 4.

And finally, the heart is to be kept above all keepings, because it is deceiptfull above all things, Ier. 17. 9.

[Page 201] 3. Thirdly, that we may learne to walk with God, and to behave our selves as in his [...]ight, and in his presence, it is ne­cessary, that we sho [...]ld effectually acknow­ledge, believe and remember, and upon all occasions meditate of the om [...]science and omnipresence of God, after the example of David, who was in respect of his integrity and uprightnes, a man according to Gods owne heart Ps. 139 the first 12. verses. [...]or if we doe powerfully, acknowledge, and effectually believe and remember, 1. that the eye of the Lord is in every place, behold­ing the just and unjust, Pro. 15. 3. 11. and that he knoweth all things, even those which are most hidden and secret, and namely that he knoweth the [...]eart, and scarcheth the reynes, that he knoweth our thoughts before we think them, Ps. 139. 3. and that no thoughts can be hidden from him: Iob 42. 3. we thereby be moved to behave our selves as in the sight of God, labouring to approve, not onely our words and deeds, but also our inward thoughts and affections to God, who not onely know­eth the heart, but especially looketh to the heart. It is the argument, which David useth to move Sol [...]mon to upright­nesse. 1 Cor. 28. 9. And thou my son Solomon (saith he) Know thou the God of [Page 202] thy father, and serve him with an upright heart, and willing minde, for the Lord searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all imaginations of the thoughts.

2. If we would meditate of the om­nipresence of God, that God is at all times, in all places present with us, and that we cannot (Psal. 139. 7.) possibly avoid ou [...] of his presence, that would make us be­have our selves as in the presence of God. Inferiours when they are in the sight and presence of their Superiours, are very care­full of their behaviour. He were an un­gracious sonne, or a lewd servant, that would misdemeane himselfe in the sight and presence of his father, and of his Lord, She were a very lewd and impudent wife, that in the sight and presence of her hus­band would prostitute her selfe to another man. This is our case: God is our fa­ther, we are his children, he is our Lord, and we are his servants; he is our husband, we are his spouse, and we alwayes are in his sight and presence. If therefore we could truly and effectually believe, and re­member this, (which is a most certain and undoubted truth, and no lesse certain then that there is a God, which of all truths is the most certaine truth) we would abstain from sinne, neither would we be so shame­lesse, [Page 203] as in his sight; and in his presence to sinne against him, see Job 31. 4. 34. 21. Psal. 119. 168. Prov. 5. 21. To this pur­pose, Seneca (Epist. 11.) admonisheth his friend Lucilius, that he would set before him Cato or Laelius, or som [...] other grave and reverend person, that so he might be­have himselfe as in their presence: for magna pars saith he) peceatorum tollitur, s [...] peccaturis testis assistat, a great part of sins would be prevented, if when we are a­bout to sinne there were some witnesse present with us. How much more would the presence of almighty God restraine us from sinne, if we had the eye of Moyses, the eye of faith, to see him who is invisibly present with us alwayes, and in all places, Heb. 11. 27.

4. To the meditation of Gods omni­science and omnipresence, let us joyne the consideration of his all-sufficiency. For this is the argument, which not on [...]ly the Pro­phet Hanani used to Asa, 2 Chron. 16. 9. the eyes of the Lord perlustrate the whole [...]arth, to sh [...]w himselfe strong in their be­halfe, whose heart is upright towards him; but also which God himselfe used to Abra­ [...]am, Gen. 17. 1. I [...] God all-sufficient, walke before me, and [...]e upright. For what is the reason, why men doe play the hypo­crites? [Page 204] Is it not because they desire to please men, and to approve themselvs to them ra­ther then to God? And why doe they seek to please men, rather then God, is it not be­cause they feare men, more then God? or trust in men more then in God? But if we did effectually acknowledge Gods all-suf­ficiency, we would learne to feare him, and to trust in him above all; knowing that no creature is able, either to doe us good, unlesse God use him as his instru­ment for our good, or to hurt us, unlesse God use him as his rodde to scourge us, and therefore as we would feare him, and trust in him rather then in his instruments; so would we labour to please him above al.

5. Let us meditate of Gods bounty to­wards us, whereby he hath shewed himselfe all-sufficient to us, (Deut. 33. 16.) and for our good; which argument is [...]sed both by Samuel, 1 Sam. 12 24. and by Iosua c. 24. 14. where having recounted Gods bleffings towards them, even from Terah Abra­hams father, he inferreth this use, Now therefore feare the Lord and serve him in uprightnesse and in truth. But cheifly we are to meditate of his spirituall blessings and of the end for which he hath bestowed them. For why did he elect us? was it not that we should be [...]oly and blameles [...]e [Page 205] before him? Eph. 1. 4. that is to say, up­right? why did he redeeme us? was it not that we should serve him in holinesse and righteousnesse before him? hath he not re­conciled us unto God, that we should be holy and blamelesse before him? Col. 1. 22. hath he not regenerated us according to Gods image, that we should worship him in holinesse and righteousnesse of truth, that is true and upright holinesse and righ­teousnesse, Ephes. 4. 24. In vaine therefore do men professe themselves to be elected in Christ, redeemed by him, reconciled unto God, regenerated by his Spirit, if they be not upright. For the end which God propoundeth to himself cannot be frustra­ted.

6. Finally, if the consideration of Gods benefits will not move us, let us consider the terrour of the Lord, as the Apostle cal­leth it, 2 Cor. 5. 11. Let us set before our eyes our Saviour Christ, sitting in judge­ment at the last day, at which time he shall judge the secrets of men, Rom. 2. 16. Eccl. 12. 14. that so we may endeavour in the meane time to walk uprightly before him, and approve our selves to him, that judg­eth secrets; that when he shall appeare, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed (John 2. 28.) [...] that is, not de­part [Page 206] from him, as hypocrites shall, fly­ing from the face of the lambe, and de­siring that the hilles would fall upon them, and hide them from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the lambe, (Apoc. 6. 16.) For horrible will thy shame and confusion be, if having prof [...]s [...]ed religion, and made shew of chri­stianity before men, thou shalt then before all the world, not onely be discovered and convicted to have been an egregious hypo­crite, but also be condemned to have thy portion with hypocrites, where shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. But on the other side, if we shall walk uprightly in GODS Tabernacle, we shall rest in the mountaine of his holinesse; if we bee sound and upright members of the Church militant, we shall be inheritors of glory in the Church triumphant; if we be sheepe in CHRISTS flock and not goates, we shall be set at his right hand, and receive that blessed sentence; Come ye blessed of my Father, inherite the kingdome prepared for you from the beginning of the world, Matth. 25. 34.

The signes of uprightnesse.

Now, forasmuch as the Lord hath pro­mised to all the sonnes of Abraham, the heyres of promise, that is to say, to all the [Page 207] faithfull, that being redeemed from the hand of our spirituall enemies, he will give us to worship him in holiness before him; it be [...]veth us seriously to try and examine our selves, whether we be upright with the Lord our God or not▪ (Deut▪ 18. 13.) For if we be hypocrites and unsound Christians, we can have no assu [...]ance that we are the redeemed of the Lord. God having sworn, that to those whom he redeemeth, he will give grace to worship him in holinesse and righteousnesse before him. And to the same purpose, and with the same labour, we are also to try our selves whether we be hypocrites or not. For such is the imme [...] diate opposition betweene uprightnesse and hypocrisie; that if we be not hypo­crites, then are we upright, and contrari­wise.

But here it will be said, that hypocrisie is in all men, either more or lesse, and that as all men are subject to lying, so also to hypocrisie. This, the Papists whose pro­fession notwithstanding of Christianity (being for the most part a meere formali­ty of religion denying the power thereo [...]) is meere hypocrisie▪ will hardly grant▪ namely, that the sinne of hypocrisie is in all. For they teach, that a man who is ju­stified, as every one of them is, who either [Page 208] in his infansie is baptized, or absolved preist, when he is come to yeeres, is with­without sinne; and that there is nothing in him that God hateth, nothing that pro­perly can be called sinne, untill he draw upon him the guilt of some mortall sinne. Thus, saying that they have no sinne, they are convinced to have no truth in them, 1 Iohn 1. 8. But we confess▪ that originall sinne, which is equally in all men by nature, is not onely a privation of all spirituall goodness, but also an evill disposition and proneness to all manner of sinne; as to in­fidelity, pride, self-love, hardness of heart, carnall security, hatred, uncleanness, co­tousness, ambition, lying, and hypo­crisie, &c. and that these sinfull corrupti­ons, being so many habituall sinnes, re­main in all men both regenerate and unre­generate; but with this difference, that in the unregenerate they remaine in their full strength, and for the most part with in­crease, as the incrementa of originall sin, unless perhaps abated or restrained by the contrary sinnes, which contrary vices being from evill dispositions, grown to wicked hab [...]ts, are said to reigne in carnall men. But in the regenerate, these corruptions remaine onely as the reliques of originall sinne, in some measure mortified in them, [Page 209] some more, some less. All which are the infirmities of the fai [...]hfull but especially those which are less mortified.

All which, like the scattered fo [...]ces of rebels vanquished, but not utterly destroy­ed, still remaine ad agonem, to encounter with us upon all advantages. So that in the best of us there remaineth a spice, as of infidelity, pride, selfe-love, hardnesse of heart, carnall security, hatred, uncleane­nesse, covetousnesse, ambition, lying, so also of hypocrisy. But so long as a man seeth, and detesteth this corruption, and laboureth to mortify it, so long as he is carefull to a voide it, and jelous over him­selfe, lest his profession or other his good endevours bee contaminated or taynted therewith; though there be some matter of hypocrisie remayning in hin, yet he is not formally an hypocrite, but is reputed up­right. For as it is said both of the faith­full themselves in generall, though partly spirit, and partly flesh, that they are men spirituall and regenerate, having their denomination from the better part; and also of their actions performed in odedi­ence, though taynted with the flesh, that they are good workes; so is it in this parti­cular, even as a wedge of gold, in which there is much drosse, is notwithstanding a [Page 210] wedge of gold, though not of pure gold; and as an heape of corne, wherein is store of chaffe, is called an heape of corne, though not of pure grayne: so the faith­full though some drosse of hypocrisie and as the Prophet called it tinne, Es. 1. 25. re­mayne in them, are notwithstanding up­right.

Therefore though hypocrisie be in all men, yet all are not hypocrites; but they in whom this corruption reigneth without resistance. Yea but in baptisme originall sinne withall his branches is taken away, I answear with Augustine: (De N [...]ptiis & Concup. 1. [...]. c. 25.) it is taken away, first, in respect of the guilt, non ut peccatum non sit, sed ut in peccatum non imputetur, not that it should not be at all, but that it should not be imputed to them that be­lieve, Secondly in respect of the domini­on; for it is taken away, not that it should not remayne at all but that it should not reyg [...]e in the faithfull. Rom. 6. 14. where­fore as I said, though hypocrisie be in all men, yet none of the faithfull are hypo­crites.

Who is an Hypocrite.

For an hypocrite is he, who being in­wardly void of grace, and full of wicked­nesse, maketh an outward shewe of [Page 211] Christianity, and piety, dissembing that, evill which is in him, and making sem­blance of that goodnes which he hath not: having as even now with the Apostle I said of the Papists, [...] an outw [...]rd for­mality of religion, but denying the power thereof: Being, as our Saviour saith, like to whited sepulchers which in deed appeare beautifull outward, but are within full of dead mens bones, and of all uncleannesse. Mat. 23. 27: like to those summer peares, which being faire and mellow without, are rotten at the core.

Now, hypocrites are of two sorts, for as of not speaking the truth, that is lying, there are two degrees the one is me [...]tiri (which is co [...]tra mentem ire, wittingly to lye, and to avouch for a truth that which himself knoweth, or at least thinketh to be an untruth,) the other mendatium dicere, to tell an untruth, unwittingly, supposing it to be a truth: so of not walking in the truth that is, of hypocrisie there are two degrees. viz. of such as be hypocrites, either wittingly or unwittingly. Both are deceivers; the former, knowing himselfe to be an hypocrite, goeth about to deceive others, yea God himselfe with his faire, shewes; the other, not knowing himselfe to be an hypocrite, but being deceived by [Page 212] the devill, and his owne deceiptfull heart Jer. 17. 10. deceiveth himselfe, as St. Iames saith ch. 1. 22. Be yee doers of the word, and not hearers onely, deceiving your owne selves, and v. 26. If any among you seeme to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his owne heart, this mans re­ligion is in vaine, and likewise S. Paul Gal. 6. 3. If a man think himselfe to be something when he is nothing, he deceiveth himselfe. Both of them are [...], that is unsound, being not inwardly and in truth, that which in profession and outward shew they would seeme to be, to both of them the description of an hypocrite doth agree, they have a formality of religion, but deny the power thereof 2. Tim. 3. 5.

The former, is the grosse and notorious hypocrite, who doth best deserve the name; for [...] an hypocrite, in the greeke tongue, signifieth a stage-player. whose profession it is to take upon him the person of another man, the other, is the close and the most ordinary hypocrite, who being not the man; which he profes­seth or taketh himselfe to be, acteth also another person, as well as the other, though not so grossely and as it were upon the stage seeming to himselfe, and desirous to be reputed of others, that which in deed [Page 213] he is not a good Christian, having a name that he liveth, but is dead. Apoc. 3. 1.

The former is a damned hypocrite dam­ned in his owne conscience, the other is a s [...]lfe-pleasing and a selfe-deceiving hypo­crite, pleasing himselfe, by reason of his profession in his pride and selfe-love, in his vaine presumption and carnall security, in his infidelity and impe [...]itency, profes­sing himselfe to be a true Christian, and yet being a meere worldling, a carnall Gospeller, a temporizing and temporary professour. Of which sort, by how much the greater is the number, for the world is full of such; by so much the greater must our desire and care be, that we may be cryed, and proved, and vpon tryall found to be sound and upright Christians. Our desire we must expresse in prayer to God, that we may be proved and vpon tryall approved (for untill we be tryed we know not our selves) saying with David. Ps. 139. 23, 24. Ps. 26. 2. search me O LORD and know my heart, that is, make it know [...] vn­to me, try me and know my thoughts, and see if there be any way of wickednesse in me, and lead me in the way everlasting, that is, in the way which leadeth to everlasting life. Now GOD doth try both the upright and the hypocrite, though in a d [...]fferent [Page 214] manner. The upright he tryeth, both by proving them himselfe, and that for their good. Deut. 8. 16. and by suffering them to be tempted by others; and that, either to manifest his graces in them, to his owne glory, their comfort, and good example of others: (thus he tryed Abraham Gen. 22. 12. Iob and all the martyres:) or to dis­cover unto them their owne weaknesse, that they may be humbled, and be made the more circumspect for the time to come: And to that end, he doth not only suffer them to be tempted unto evill, but also sometimes (when he leaveth them for a time unto themselves) to take a foyle. Thus God for a time left Ezechias, to try him, that he might know all that was in his heart, 2 Chron. 32 31. and therefore those who come to serve the Lord, must prepare their soules for temptation, (Eccles. 2. 1.) But howsoever the Lord suffereth them to be tempted, yet he doth not lead them into temptation; and though he permitteth them sometimes to fall, yet he doth not suffer them to fall away from him.

The Lord also trieth the hypocrites, that their hypocrisie may be discovered. Therefore our Saviour adviseth his disci­ples, Luke 12. [...], 2. to beware of the [...]ea­ven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisie; [Page 215] and his reason is, because nothing is covered, which shall not be discovered. And thus he doth, not onely by suffering them to be tempted, & leaving them to themselves; but also sometimes for a punishment of their former wickednesse and hypocrisie, he leadeth them into temptation, giving them over to their own lusts, and to the tempta­tions of Satan, not only to fall into sinne, but also to fall away from God; which falling away is an evident signe of hypo­crisie, 1 Ioh. 2. 19. wherefore as the sonne of Syrach well admonisheth, c. 1. 28. 29, 30. Come not to the Lord with a double heart, be not an hypocrite in the sight of men, and take good heed, what thou speakest. Ex­alt not thy selfe, lest thou fall, and bring dis­honour upon thy soule, and so God discover thy secrets, and cast thee down in the midst of the congregation; because thou camest not in truth to the feare of the LORD, but thy heart is full of deceipt.

Our care we must shew by trying our selves, as the Apostle exhorteth, 2 Cor. 13. 5. Examine your selves whether that you be in the faith, [...], that is, prove your selves whether you be [...] sound and upright.

Here therefore we are to set down the notes both of the u [...]r [...]ght, and also [Page 216] of the hypocrites. The knowledge where­of, as it will be comfortable to so many as are true Christians; so it will be profit­able to the rest.

These notes are either more

  • generall
  • speciall

Generall notes of uprightnesse.

The urst generall note is set downe in the place even now cited, 2 Cor. 13. 5. Prove your selves, know ye not your owne selves, how that Iesus Christ is in you unlesse you be [...] that is, not [...]ound or ap­proved Christians, but hypocrites, for the word [...] (which commonly is tran­slated reprobate) doth not signifie a re­probate opposed to elect, but to [...] to him that is approved. See vers. 6, 7.

But how shall we know that CHRIST is in us, seeing he is in Heaven, and we up­on earth? we may k [...]ow it by his spirit, 1 Joh. 3. 24. which dwelleth in us, Rom. 8. 9. 11. and in all his members, which by reason of the union, which is betwixt them and their Head are said to be in Christ, and Christ in them, for even as in the naturall body, the feet are united to the head by the same soule, which being principally seated in the Head, is also in all the mem­bers: so in the mysticall body of CHRIST the lowest members which are upon earth, [Page 217] are united to their Head by the same spi­rit, which being pr [...]ncipally in the head, is also in all the members. But how shall we know that the spirit of Christ is in us? if we be led by the spirit (Rom. 8 14. Gal. 5 18) that is, if we live not after the flesh, but after the spirit And how shall we know that? by the fruits of the spirit and of the flesh, which the Apostle hath set downe, Gal. 5. 19 22. The works of the flesh, saith he, are manifest, which are these adultery, fornica­tion, [...]ucleannesse, lasciviousnesse, idolatry, witcherast, hatred or [...]mni [...]yes, c [...]ntentions, [...]mulations, indignations, strife, seditions or divisions, heresies or sects, envyings, mur­thers, drunkennesse, revellings: [...], comessationes, expressed elswhere by the word [...] carpula, which is translat­ed surfettings, Luke. 21 34 both of them having their name from their effects; for [...] dicitur [...] because it troubleth the head by excesse of rating and drinking; so [...] because it causeth [...] that is, drowsinesse, or the drowsie evill, or rather ryotings, as it is translated, Rom 13. 13. and so ought to be, when it is joyned with drunkennesse; the French fitly translate it, g [...]rmandise, and it signifieth excess of be [...]l chreere in ry­otous, feasts and compotations, and such [Page 218] like) of the which I foretell you, as I have foretold you heretofore, that they which doe such things shall not inherite the Kingdome of God. Now as in setting forth the workes of the flesh, the Apostle mentioneth chief­ly the offences of the second table; so in setting downe the fruits of the spirit, he reckoneth up the dueties of the second table opposed to the offences thereof for­merly mentioned; and not the vertues of the first table wherein our piety, which is to be tryed, doth consist. For this cause the Apostle mentioneth, not either faith in CHRIST, or love of GOD, or hope of salvation, or assiance in GOD or the feare of GOD, and such like, which are the prin­cipall fruits of the spirit; because these are not the notes of tryall, but the things to be tryed; for the tryall whereof, as namely whether we have true faith, the true love and feare of God, &c. The Holy Ghost commonly propoundeth such notes, as ex­presse those dueties which we owe to men, as Ps. 15. & 24. Esay 33. 14, 15.

1 The fruit therefore of the spirit, is charity, saith the Apostle, that is, the love of our neighbour, opposed to hatred, with the fruits thereof, 1 Iohn 3. 14.

2. Ioy, opposed to envy and emulation, whereby the carnall man repineth at the [Page 219] welfare of his neighbour, in which the spi­rituall man rejoyceth.

3. Peace, opposed to contentions, strife, divisions and factions.

4. Long-suffering and patience, oppos­ed to wrath and indignation.

5. Gentlenesse or kindnesse [...] a fruit of charity, 1 Cor. 13 4. [...] which the Apostle hath fully ex­pressed, Eph. 4. 31. 32. Let all bitternesse and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil-speaking be put away from you, with all malice, and be you [...] kinde one to an­other, forgiving one another, even as God for Christs sake hath forgiven you, Col 3. 12, 13.

6. Goodnesse, whereby we are free from desire to hurt any body and are ready to doe good to all, Gal. 6. 10. even to those that deserve ill of us, ov [...]rcoming ill with goodnesse, Rom. 12. 21. opposed to hatred and murther.

7. Fuith, that is, fidelity or faithful­nesse, as the word elswhere is used, Tit. 2. 10. and is one of the weighty points of the law, Mat. 23. 23. A faithfull man is he, who is both true in his words, and firme in his promises, both which are tokens of the upright. Ps. 15. 24.

8. Meeknesse, or the spirit of meeknes, [Page 220] so called 1 Cor. 4. 23. Gal. 6. 1. because in the faithfull it is a fruit of the spirit, called also mildnesse and lenity. (1 Pet. 3. 4. 2 Tim. 2 24, 25. Tit. 3 1) Which being a morall vertue proceeding from humility, charity, patience or long suffering, with which it is joyned in the Scriptures (with love 1 Cor. 4, 21. 13. 4. 5. 7. with humility Eph. 4. 2. Mat. 5. 3. 5. 11. 29. Pro. 16 19. with long-suffering and patience, Col. 3. 12. 1 Tim 6. 11.) moderateth and [...]estrayneth anger and griefe, with all the fruits there­of, which are called the irascible passions and perturbations of the soule, such as be impatience, desire of revenge, and all inso­lent cruell, bitter, sierce, harsh, contenti­ous, clamorous, and turbulent disposition towards our nighbour: with which vertue whosoever is indued, is by Solomon prefer­ed before the men of might, Pro 16. 32. for howsoever it be despised in the world, as a signe of fooles and mecockes; yet it is of especiall accompt with God, 1. Pet. 3 4. as being the most proper, and if I am so speake characteristicall marke of Christs [...]eepe. Whereby as they best resemble the Lambe of God, Esay 53. 7. who was meeke in spirit, and humble in heart, Mat. 11. 29. so are they best discerned from those, who being of an insolent, a [...]ierce, [Page 221] an harsh, a cruell and turbulent behaviour; are to bee accompted wolves, rather then the sheepe of Christ. And therefore it is reckoned by our Saviour among the 8. notes of [...]eatitude Mat 5 5. Blessed are the meeke▪ for they shall inhe [...]ite the land, meaning the celestiall Canaan, the land of the living [...] Hebrewes 2. 5. as being in Christ the heires of the world whom the Lord will beaut [...]fie with salvation. Ps. 149. 4. 76 9.

9. The last is temperance, which is also a morall vertue moderating the other sort of affections▪ which are called desires and concupiseences [...] referred na­turally either to the preservation of the individuum, in the nourishing and cherish­ing of the body; or to the propagation of mankinde by generation, and restraying the abuses and disorders thereof. This ver­tue, as it respecteth the former, is Sobriety in meat, drink, apparell, opposed to drunk­ennes and bellicheere before mentioned, and vanity in apparell, as it respecteth the latter, it i [...] called Chastity, opposed to adultery, fornication, lasciviousnesse and all uncleannesse.

And this was the first generall note of difference, that the upright Christian doth know, or may know, that Christ is in him, [Page 222] by the fruite of the spirit: but the hypo­crite though he professeth himselfe a Christian and consequently a member of Christ; yet neither doth nor can knowe it, seeing that neither he is in CHRIST by faith, nor CHRIST in him by his spirit.

2. The second is this; The upright man walking with God, and before God, is desirous chiefly to approve himselfe to God who seeth the heart, (1 Thess. 2. 4.) and therefore is as religious (if not more) alone and in secret, as before others, yea, chooseth rather, according to the advise of our Saviour, (Mat, 6. 46. 18.) to do private duetyes in secret, rather then before others. The hypocrite, walking as before men, who see the outward man onely, seeketh chiefly to approve himselfe to men; and therefore is more religious be­fore others, then alone; and those good things, which he performeth he doth them to be seene of men, Mat. 23. 5. as our Saviour sheweth in the duties of almes prayer and fasting, Mat. 6. 2. 5. 16. And one the other side, those sinnes which he for­beareth, or feareth to commit before men, he feareth not in private to commit before God. And in a word, if men be not acquainted with his actions, hee nei­ther [Page 223] carech to doe good, nor feareth to doe evill.

3. The upright man preferreth the testi­mony of his owne conscience concerning himself, (2 Cor. 1. 2 [...]. 1 Cor 4. 3. Iob 31. 36) before the opinions of other men, and therefore laboureth to keepe his conscience cleare towards God and towards men. The hypocrite preferreth the opinion of others concerning himselfe before the testimony of his owne conscience not regarding the verdict of his owne conscience condēm­ning him; so he may have a good reputa­tion among men commending him; not caring though he be dead, so he may have a name that he liveth: desiring to seeme to be good, rather then to be so; and to be evill rather then to seeme so; which is extreame madnesse, seeing it is better to be good then to seeme good; and worse to be evill, then to seem evill.

The speciall notes respecting.

The spiciall notes respect either good things intended by the upright and pre­tended by the hypocrite; or evil things, whether of sinne, or of punishment.

Good things, as their

  • Profession of Religion,
  • Worship of God,
  • Obedience,
  • Graces.

[Page 218] [...] [Page 219] [...] [Page 220] [...] [Page 221] [...] [Page 222] [...] [Page 223] [...] [Page 224] The profession of the upright is i [...] truth,

Both in re­spect of the

  • Purpose and desire of his heart.
  • Practice of his life.

The purpose of his heart is sincere, with­out any sinister, sinnefull, or worldly re [...]spects; or if any worldly respects may seeme to concurre, yet they are not the chiefe, or those for which he professeth re­ligion, but secondary respects, which he subordinateth to his profession, and to his care of keeping a good conscience, being resol [...]ed (Luke 14. 28. 13.) not to forsake his profession for a world, nor willingly and wittingly to violate his conscience, though he might gaine never so much, for what would it profit a man to gaine the whole world and to loose his owne soul [...]? Mark 8. 36. The hypocrite maketh his profession in pretence Phil. 1. 18. pretend­ing religion to his worldly, and sometimes to his wicked respect; and first, for his worldly respects, whereunto he subordina­teth his profession, and his seeming ca [...]e of keeping a good conscience, careing indeed for neither, [...]urther then they may stand with the fruition of his worldly desires; halting betwixt God and Mammon, and [Page 225] dividing himselfe between them; but so, as to God he giveth the outward, shewe, and to Mammon his heart, of such Mam­monists the Apostle speaketh, Phil. 3. 18, 19.

There be many (saith he) that walk o [...] whom I have told you often, and now tell you weeping, that they are the enimies of the crosse of Christ, whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, and whose glory is their shame, and who are these of whom all this evil is spoken? viz. such as walk, that is make profession of christian religion; and yet minde and affect principall earthly things: These men, when they are brought to this exigent, that either they must make ship-wrack of a good conscience, and per­haps forsake their profession, or forgoe their worldly desires; they will readily violate their conscience, and renounce their profession, rath [...]r then they will be disappointed of that worldly thing, which they princip [...]lly affect, and which is in deed their God.

Such a profession made Saul 1 Sam. 18. of providing [...], when in his cove­tousnesse he spar [...]d all the best of the cat­tell which he ought to have destroyed. Iudas (Iohn 6. 71. [...]2. 6.) who for his gayne followed Christ, being a those, and for all [Page 226] his faire shewes, a Devill. The people that followed our Saviour, that they might be filled. (Iohn 6. 26.) Ananias and Sapph [...]ra, who seemed [...]orward professors, but were worldlings, Act. 5. and in a word all such, to whom not godlinesse is gaine, but gaine is godlinesse. (1 Tim 6 5, 6.) These men professing themselves Christians, doe withall professe themselves to be pilgrimes on earth, (Heb. 11. 13.) citizens of hea­ven, whose [...] and countrey is above, (Phil. 3. 20) but in deed behave themselves like earth-wormes, being whol­ly addicted, and as it were glewed to the earth, and worldly desires, not desiring nor expecting a better countrey, (Heb. [...]. 14. 1 [...].) but placing their Paradise upon earth.

Sometimes also they pretend religion to their wicked designes as the Scribes and Pharisees, (Mat. 23. 14.) who devoured widowes houses, and for a pretence made long prayers; even as the Priests and Je­suits at this day do prey upon their devout Proselites. Absolom when he intended rebellion, pretended the performance of a vow, 2 Sam. 15. 7. Iezabel, when shee meant to have Naboth unjustly condemn­ed; appointed a fast to be proclaimed, as a preparative to that judgement, 1 King. [Page 227] 21. 9. Herod maketh a shew to the Wise­man, that he would come and worship CHRIST, when he meant to kill him, Matth. 2. 8. Thus men many times pre­tend conscience, either to the not doing of their duties: as they will lend no more, because they have vowed the contrary; or to the committing of sinne, because they think they are bound thereto by oath: as Herod, rather then he would break his oath, beheaded Iohn Baptist: so they sinne double, first in their promise, but much more in the performance. The high priest Caiphas (Matth. 16. 25.) when he sought most unjustly to condemne our Saviour un­to death, in an hypocriticall zeale rent his clothes, pretending that he had spoken blasphemy. And what zeale soever those Priests and Pharisees, which most hotly p [...]r­secuted our Saviour, pretended towards God and his Law yet their true intent was This is the heire, come let us kill him, and let us seize upon his inheritance, Mat. 21. 38. In respect of the desire of his heart, the upright is a forward professour, and i [...] some measure (Tit. 2. 24. zealous of re­ligion, The hypocrite is backward, care­lesse and luke warme, Apoc. 3. 17.

So much of the intent, purpose, and de­sire of the heart; now followeth the pra­ctise.

[Page 228] The upright, being Christians within, (Rom. 2. 10) and not without onely, doe Walk in the truth 2 John 4. 3 John 3. endea­vouring to frame their lives according to their profession and as the truth is in Iesus, Ephel. 4. 21, 22, 23, 24. joyning workes with faith, (Iam 2. 24) and doing with hearing, (Iam 1. 2.) and well-doing with saying well, sanctification with justificati­on, (2 Cor. 17.) living not after the [...]lesh, but after the spirit, which by the Apostle is propounded as the proper signe of those who be in CHRIST, Rom 8. 1.

The hypocrites, being Ch [...]istians with­out, (Rom. 2. 28) and not within▪ professe the truth, but doe not walk in the truth: not framing, nor desirous to frame their lives according to their profession, but live after the flesh, and not after the spi­rit, professing [...]aith (Iam. 2. 14) without works, justifi [...]ation without sanctification; saying well, but doing ill, being hearers of the word, but not doers; being fruitlesse branches in the vine, John 15. 2. 6. sigge­trees in Gods vineyard bearing no sigges, Luke 13. 6. having leaves but no fruit; like the fig-tree which Christ cursed, Matth, 2 [...]. having lamps, but no oyle, like the foolish virgins, Mat. 25. Of such our Saviour speak­eth, Mat. 7. 21, 22, Luke 13. 25, 26, that [Page 229] notwithstanding their profession, they shall at the last day be excluded from the kingdome of heaven.

Gods worship.] Now I come to the worship of God; first, in generall: The up [...]ight worship the Lord in spirit and in truth, 1 King. 3. 6. the hypocrites draw neere the Lord with their mouthes, but re­move their hearts farre from him, Es. 29 13. Mat. 15. 7, 8.

In speciall the upright pray in truth, Ps. 145. 18. with lips unfained, Ps. 17. 1. lift­ing up their hearts, Psal. 25. 1. (Lam 3. 41.) and powring forth their soules (L [...]m. 1. 15.) before the Lord. The hypocrites in their prayer cry, but not with their heart, Hos. 7. 14. They lift up their eyes and their hands, but not their hearts; they poure forth their voice, but not their souls. Their prayer is but a lip-labour, for both their mouth speaketh what their heart doth not think, making a common and perpetuall trade of praying with wandring thoughts, (which I deny not sometime to be incident to the upright) and also asking with their mouth that which they doe not desire in their heart, promising (especially in time of af [...]liction) (Ex. 10. 17. Ps. 78 34) what they doe not truly meane to per­forme, pretending what they doe not in­tend, [Page 230] making shew of that which they are not (as in the Lords prayer throughout) craving that in prayer, which they doe not seeke by any indevour of their owne, or by use of other meanes ordained of God.

Thanksgiving] The upright praise God with grace, (Col. 5. 16.) that is thankfull­nesse in their heart, and with humility ac­knowledging their owne unworthinesse, (Gen 32. 10. 1 Chron 29. 14.) and Gods undeserved favour towards them. The hy­pocrites give thanks without thankfull­nesse, without humility; praysing them­selves, (Luk 18. 11.) when they should praise God, or if they doe praise him, they doe it to this end, to praise themselves.

But here it may be demanded; may not a man praise God for his grace and bles­sings bestowed upon him, unlesse withal he shall seeme with the Pharisey, Luk 18. to praise himselfe.

Whereunto I answer; first, the Pha­risaicall hypocrite thanketh Go [...] for that which he neither hath received, nor yet ex­pecteth from God: which is both falshood and arrogancy. But the upright man thanketh God for that which he hath re­ceived, or assuredly hopeth to receive, (as Zachary in this hymne praiseth God for our redemption by the promised Messias, [Page 231] before CHRIST was borne,) which to doe is not arrogancy, but thunkfullnesse; not falshood, but truth.

2 The hypocrite thanketh God to that end and purpose, not so much to praise God, (to whom he is a false witnesse,) 1 Cor. 15. 15. as to praise himselfe. The upright man in thanking God seeketh not his owne praise, but the glory of God, stripping himselfe of all praise, that God alone may have all the glory. For he thanketh God, as I said, in humility, ac­knowledging his owne unworthinesse, and the more, he extolleth the undeserved bounty and favour of God towards him, the more he depriveth himselfe of praise: and on the other side, the more he acknow­ledgeth his owne unworthinesse, the more he magnifieth Gods goodnesse towards him. Thus Iacob, Gen. 32. 10. O Lord (saith he) I am lesse then the least of thy mercies: and David, 2 Sam. 7. 18. Who am I O Lord God, and what is my house, that thou hast brought me hitherto? and [...] Chro. 29. 14. but who am I, and what is my people? &c.

Preaching] The upright Preacher en­deavoureth to approve himselfe to God, 2 Tim. 2. 15. 1 Thess. 2. 4. seeking sincere­ly the glory of God in the salvation of the [Page 232] The hypocrites preach themselves, and not the Lord Jesus; not seeking Gods glory in the edi [...]ication of the people, but their owne praise, or profit; not striving to ap­prove themselves unto God, but to please carnall men, which whosoever doth, he is not the servant of Christ, Gal. 1. 10, Herein, they grievously offend, who affect­ing the praise of humane eloquence, feed the people as Heliogabalus did his para­sites, with painted dishes; and in steed of drawing forth the two edged sword of the spirit, bring forth an embroidered sheath; professing themselves embassadours from God, but bringing no message from God, which concernes the people to heare, either for the informing of their judg­ments, or reformation of their lives, whose preaching serves for no other use, but to please the itching eares of carnall men, and to work in them a loathing of the sincere food of Gods word.

The upright preacher is carefull to pra­ctise that which he preacheth unto others, and to avoid that in his owne preson, which he reproveth in others.

The hypocrite say, (Mat. 23. 8.) but doe not, commending that to others which themselves have no desire nor care to practise; and reproving that in others [Page 233] whereof themselves are no lesse guilty, Rom 2 21, 22. Ps. 50. 16. who therefore may expect both from the hearers this censure, Medicecura toipsum; and from God this sentence, out of thine owne mouth will I con­demne thee thou unsaithfull servant, Luk. 19. 22.

Hearing] The upright hearers take heed how they heare. Luk. 8 18. hearing the word of God preached, as the word of God, (1 Thess. 2. 13.) (acknowledging Gods ordinance,) as in the sight of God, (Act 10. 33.) with humility and submission, with re­verence and attention receiving the seed into upright hearts, (Luk. 8. 15.) as it were into good ground, with desire to profit by it, (1 Pet. 2. 1.) and care to practise it, be­ing doers of the word, and not hearers on­ly, (Iam. 1. 22.)

The hypocrite heare, not regarding, so they doe heare, how they heare, not look­ing to their feet, who they are affected, but come so disposed as to a stage-play, de­siring that their itching eares may be de­lighted with vaniloquence, rather then their hearts to be edi [...]ed with sound and profitable doctrine, not acknowledging Gods ordinance, nor behaving themselves as before him, hearing without submission as to Gods word, hearing not as learners, [Page 234] but as censurers, without reverence, with­out attention, being present in body, and absent in soule, without desire to profit by it, without any purpose or care to practise it, receiving the seed into stony ground, or els among thornes, like to Ezechiels hear­ers, c. 33. 31. 32. they come unto thee (saith the Lord) as the people of God doe use to come, and they sit before thee as my people, and they heare thy words, but they will not doe them, for though with their mouths they make shew of much love and delight, yet their heart goeth after their covetousnesse; And loe thou art unto them as a very pleasing song of one that bath a pleasent voice, and can play well on an instrument, for they heare thy words, but they doe them not.

Sacraments, Baptisme] The upright are carefull in some measure to performe their vow made in Baptisme, and to find the effect and fruit thereof: which is to seale and assure to them that belive and repent, their union and communion with Christ, for they receive Christ by a true faith are baptized into Christ, Gal. 3. 27. and conse­quently put on Christ.

The hypocrite resteth in the outward baptisme, as if the washing of the flesh did save, (1 Pet. 3. 11.) taking no care to per­forme his vow made in baptisme; who [Page 235] therefore though baptized, hath no part in Christ, because his heart is not upright in him, Act. 8. 21.

The Eucharist] The Upright are care­full, not onely to receive the sacrament, but also to receive it worthily; and are therefore earefull (1 Cor. 11. 28.)

to prove and approve themselves, be­fore they come to the Lords table pre­paring their hearts (2 Chron. 30. 19) to seeke the Lord and so receiving the sacra­ment with the unleavened graces of sincerity and truth (1 Cor. 5. 8.) doe eat the body of Christ and drink his blood.

The hypocrites not greatly caring how they receive, so they doe receive, not pre­paring their hearts to seeke the Lord, not caring to prove, and much lesse to approve themselves unto him, comming to the Lords table as the guest without the wed­ding garment, indued neither with saving knowledge, nor true faith, nor unfained repentance, nor sincere love, with which graces every worthy receiver is in some measure qualified: but being sowred with the leaven of hypocrisy doe eat the bread of the Lord, as Iudas did, but not panem dominum that is the Lord who is the bread of life which came downe from heaven.

[Page 236] Obedience] Thus much of the worship of God, now we are to speak of obedi­ence. For, 1. the upright yeeldeth simple obedience to the commandements of God, (Heb 11. 8.) not consulting with flesh and blood, as for the commandements of men, he observeth them no further then in obaying them he may obay God, Ex 1. 17. Act. 4 19. 5. 29. Dan 3. 18. 6. 10.

The hypocrite is more carefull to ob­serve the commandments of men, Mat. 15 9. 6. then the commandements of God; insomuch that for the commandements of men he maketh the commandements of God of none effect, yea he scarcely obey­eth the commandements of God any fur­ther, then as they are commanded by men, insomuch that he embraceth Religion it selfe, as commanded by the Soveraigne Prince, being ready to change his Religion, as the Prince changeth. So that their feare towards God is taught by the precepts of men, Es. 29. 13.

To this purpose consider these instan­ces. The Lord commandeth us to receive the holy communion, when it is admini­stred: and the upright man maketh con­science so oft to receive it as it is admini­stred, unlesse he be hindred by sufficient occasion. But forasmuch as the law of man [Page 237] in some places doth require the receipt of the Sacraments once a yeare at the least; and namely at Easter, hence it is that many will receive but once a yeare at the most.

The upright man maketh conscience of his thoughts, because the law of God is spiritual, restraining the thoughts as well as the hands. The hypocrite taketh no care of his thoughts, which he thinketh to be free because the law of man doth not reach to them

The Lord forbiddeth all rayling, and cursed speaking all stealing: and the up­right man maketh conscience to abstaine from all: but forasmuch as the law of man doth not take hold of all evill speaking, nor of all stealing, therefore the hypocrite fear­eth not to practise such evil-speaking, and such stealing as is not punishable by the law of men, though perhaps the neighbour be more wronged by that ill speaking, or damnified by that stealing, then by that rayling against which lyeth an action of the case, or by that stealing against which an action of [...]elony lyeth.

2. The obedience of the upright is vo­luntary, and from the heart, Rom. 6. 17. proceeding from his will renewed, which appeareth not onely in his good actions, but also in his sinnes, whether of omissio [...]or [Page 238] of commission, for the good which he doth not, he would doe: and the evill which he doth, he would not doe, Rom. 7. 19. But the obedience of the hypocrite is forced from him, because be dareth do no other; for that good which he doth, he would not do it; and that evill which he doth not, he would faine do; so that in respect of the inclination of the will, which God chie [...]ly regardeth▪ the disobedience of the upright is better then the obedience of the hypocrite.

3. The obedience of the upright is or­dinata, well ordered, For he preferr [...]th the greater duties before the lesse, morall du­ties before ceremoniall, and the substance before circumstances, Matth. 1 [...]. 7. [...] Sam. 15. 22. But it hath alwayes beene the hy­pocrites guise, to preferre the lesse duties before the greater; as to tythe mint and cumin, and to neglect the weighty points of the law, Matthew 23. 23. Luk. 11. 42. to straine at a gnat and to swallow a camell, Mat 23. 24. to stumble at a straw, and to lea [...]e over a block (Mat. 12. 17. Luk 15. 13.) to preferre cere­monies before moral duties, yea som­times to place the height of their Religion, either in the boistero [...]s urging, or in the strict refusing of ceremonies. Thus the [Page 239] Priests and Phariseyes who made no con­science of delivering our Saviour through envy unto death, yet at the same time made conscience to goe into the judgment hall, lest forsooth they should be defiled, Iohn 18. 28.

They made no conscience to hire Iud [...]s with 30 pieces of silver to betray his Lord: but when the pieces were brought them back againe, their conscience would not serve them to put the money into the treasury, because it was the price of bood, Mat. 27. 6.

4. The obedience of the upright is to­tall, not in respect of the performance, but in regard of the upright desire, unfain­ed purpose, and sincere endevour, accord­ing to the measure of grace received, to walk in the obedience of all Gods com­mandements; to lye in no knowne sinne, but to make conscience of all his wayes. Not, but that the upright contrary to their desire and purpose do oftentimes fall; but that the Lord accepting of the will for the deed, esteemeth the upright and entire obedience of his servants, (who are freed from the rigour of the law) as totall and perfect. Abraham hath this testimony in the Scripture, (Gen. 26. 5.) that he obeyed the voice of God, and kept his [...]mishme­reth, [Page 240] his whole charge, that is, whatsoever God requireth to be observed. viz [...]his commandements, his [...], and his lawes. Zacharias likewise, and Elizabeth, Luk. 1. 6. and many others are said to have been per­fect, and to have fulfilled after God. that is, fully to have obeyed him, who had not­withstanding their slips and their falls, as before I noted of Asa in the same chap­ter, where it is reported of Zacharias, that he walked in all the commandements of God blameles, we read that for his incre­dulity in not believing the word of the Angell, he was stricken with dumbnesse, and as it may seeme with deafnesse also, (Luk 16. 20 61.) for the space of ten moneths. In this evangelicall sense the obe­dience of the upright is totall, in 3. re­spects; [totius legis, hominis, vit [...], as be­ing the obedience of the Whole law, of the whole man, and of the whole life, after our justification and reconciliation with God, obeying the law in respect of thei [...] desire and purpose [totam, toti, tota vitae.

The whole law they obey both in respect of the two tables of the law, and in respect of all the severall commandements.

As for the two tables, the upright man joyneth the obedience of them both toge­ther, as here the Lord hath promised to all [Page 241] true Christians, that they shall worship him, not in holines alone, not in righteousnes a­lone, but both in holines & righteousnes b [...] fore him. Neither can these two, if they be [...] in truth (as they are in the upright) be severed. For a man cannot truly love God, (Iohn 4. 20.) unlesse he love his neighbour also; neither can a man love his neighbour as he ought, that is, in and for the Lord, unlesse he love the Lord much more, as I have shewed heretofore. And this we see veri [...]ied in the examples of those, who have been upright; who have this testimony in the Scriptures, that they were holy and righteous, as our Saviour himselfe (whom we are to imitate) Act. 3. 14. and all his upright servants as Noah Gen 6. 9. David, 1 King. 3. 6. Iohn Baptist. Mark 6. 2 Sy­meon, Luk 2. 25. Cornelius, Act. 10. 22. &c.

But it is the fashion of hypocrits to se­ver these two, which God hath so unsepa­rably linked together, that whosoever hath the one in truth, hath also the other; and whosoever hath not both, hath neither. For some content themselves altogether with a profession of holinesse and religion towards God, not caring or desiring to performe the duties of charity and righte­ousnesse towards men, whereby notwith­standing, as it were by a touch-stone, God [Page 242] would have the uprightnesse of our piety tried. Others wholly content themselves with a faire civil conversation before men, having neither true faith in Christ, nor re­pentance towards God, nor the feare of the Lord, nor any sanctifying o [...] saving g [...]ace, living in ignorance, infidelity, im­penitency, &c.

Farre be it from me to speak, either against the profession of piety, or the pra­ctise of civill honesty; but I speak against the severing of them and the resting in either of them alone being severed from the other. For so necessary is civill hone­sty, as those who have it not, are worse then many among the heathen that know not God, who were commended [...] for mo­rall vertues: against whom notwithstand­ing the Holy Ghost denounceth that fear­full curse, po [...]re out thine indignation upon the heathen that doe not know thee, and upon the nations that have not called upon thy name, P [...]. 79. 6. And so necessary is the pro­fession of piety, as that those who professe not religion and piety towards God, are worse then the Pharisees themselves; against whom notwithstanding our Savi­our denounceth so many woes, Mat 23. Wherefore those that content themselves with a bare profession of religion, without [Page 243] any desire or care to practise the duties of charity and righteousnesse among men, are no better then the hypocriticall phar [...] ­ [...]ees, concerning whose obedience our Sa­viour hath given us this caveat, Mat. 5 20. except your righteousnesse exceed the righte­ousnesse of the Scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdome of God: and on the otherside, those, who professing themselves Christians content themselves with the practise of civill honesty, without any desire or care of religion, being not onely void of all spirituall graces, but also guilty of much outward profanenesse, as inordinary swearing, and profaning the Sabbath, in neglect of hearing the word, and of prayer, &c. are no better then some of the heathen, who were alienated from the life of God, strangers from the covenant of promise, having no hope, and being without God in this World, Eph 2. 12. 4 18.

Be not deceived, true piety towards God is alwayes fruitfull in the dutyes of charity towards men. And on the other­side, the streames of charity and true righteousnesse are ever derived from the fountaine of piety.

In respect of the severall commande­ments; the obedience of the upright is universall, in the evangelica. I sense, that is, [Page 244] in respect of his entire desire, and unfained purpose (though contrary thereunto he faile, as wee doe in many particulars) (Iam. 3 2.) having respect to all the precepts of God. Psal. 119. 6. and walking in all his commandments Luk. 1. 6. making conscience of all his wayes, both in performing all knowne dutyes, and avoiding all knowne sinne; not willingly retayning any one, but repenting of all, in respect whereof he is said, to fulfill after God, Num. 32. 12. that is wholly and universally to follow him.

The hypocrite fulfilleth not after God. Num 32 11. neither are his works full, Apoc. 3. 2. he obayeth God by the halves, or not so much: he can be content to avoid some sinnes, unto which he is not so much addicted, but his darling sinnes, perhaps his usury, or other gainfull sinnes, perhaps whordome, perhaps drunkennesse, &c. he will not leave. Herod reverenced Iohn the Bap [...]ist, and observed him, and when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him [...] with delight, but for all that he would not leave his Herodias, Mark 6. 20. The ship of a mans soule may be sunk with one leake, if it be not stopped; and one breach in the fort of a mans soule, if it be not made up, is sufficient to let in the enemy to the utter overthrow therof. The continuance in any one crime unrepent­ed [Page 245] of is sufficient to drowne the soule in perdition▪ He repenteth of no sinne, who is not willing to repen [...] of all; and he that willingly persi [...]teth in the br [...]ach of any one commandement is guilty of the breach of the whole law, (sa [...]. 8. 10.) for the law of God is [...], and copolatively to be understood, both in re­spect of the affirmative, and of the nega­tive. For he that is a keeper of the law [...] keepeth both the first and the second and the third commandement, &c. and he transgresseth neither the first, nor the se­cond, not the third, &c. as therefore in [...] true; and as in a chaine consisting of many links coupled together, if any one linke be broken in the draught, the whole chaine is dissolved; so the transgression of any one [...]

[Page 246] [...] [Page 247] to the quality and disposition of the heart; so that he whose heart doth burne with lust is an adulterer in the sight of God; (Mat. 5. 28.) and he whose heart doth boyle with malice, (1 Iohn 3. [...]5.) he is a murtherer before God.

And as ther is great discord between the heart of the hypocrite, and his outward appearance; so in the outward man also his workes many times agree not with his wordes, nor his wordes with his workes. His workes, I say, agree not with his words when he saith well, and doth ill, having Iacobs voice, and Esaus hands. Neither due their words agree with their deeds when s [...]eming [...] to wrong any man by thei [...] deeds make no conscience of speaking evill, thinking that their words are but winde, and lightly to be regarded. But they should remember him who sayeth, that of every idle, and much more of every malicious word, men shall give an accompt at the day of judgment. For by thy words▪ saith he, thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. If therefore any among you, saith St. Iames, (I am 1. 26.) seeme to be religions, and hath not learned [...] as it were with a bitte or a brible to refraine his tongue; that man deceiveth himselfe, and his religion is [Page 248] vaine, that is to say, he is an hypocrite, having a shew of religion, but denying the power thereof For in whom there is any power of religion, they have learned to bridle their tongues.

Yea in their words i [...] a dis [...]ord, not only between them and their hearts and between their words and their works, but also between their words and their words. For as they spea [...]e with an heart and an heart, that is a double hart, whence they are called [...] so also with a tongue and a tongue, that is a double tongue; whence they are called [...] (1 Tim. 3. 8.) and [...] bilingues. (Eccles. 28. 13.) Out of the same mouth they breath hot and cold, which the Satyre liked not, out of the same fountaine issueth both bit­ter and sweete, both salt water and fresh; with the same tongue blesse God and curse men, (Iam. 3. 9. 16. 11. 12.) out of the same mouth procedeth blessing and cursing. It is strange to see, and lamentable to consider, how some men and women, who would seeme religious, are given to ill speaking, being not onely [...]ar [...]e cen [...]rers and de­pravers of their brethern, but also detract­ers, back-biters, and slanderers, and (which is an evident signe of an hypocrite) think­ing, that the dispraise of other men [...]endeth [Page 249] to their [...], and the praise of others to their disgrace.

3. The obedience of the upright is [...]o tall in respect of his whole [...], after the time of his justification and reconcilation with God, as it is here said, all the dayes of our life. Not, but that sometimes he stum­bleth in the way of Christianity, and sometime falleth: but yet notwithstand­ing in respect of his desire, purpose and endevour, his obedie [...]ce is constant and permanent. For he keepeth a constant course in well-doing; as namly, in the practise of piety, wherein by continual pra­ctise he is habituated. He so giverth him­selfe to prayer, as that in the scriptures he is said to pray alwayes; (Acts▪ 10. 22.) not, that he doth nothing els but pray, but that he prayeth both ordinarily at see times every day perhaps thrice a day as Da­niel did (D [...]. 6. 10.) and also extraor­dinarily, a [...] oc [...]asion is offered. Likewise he keepeth a constant course, in reading, me­ditating, and hearing Gods word, and in o­ther Christian duties wherein he sted fastly goeth on, with desire to increase in good­nesse.

And as his obedience is constant so [...] it is permanent. For uprightnesse is ever­more accompanyed with perseverance to [Page 250] the [...] [...] as [...] I shall shew.

But the obedience of the hypocrite is neither constant, but as it were by fits, for the double minded man is inconstant in all his wayes, Iam. 1. 8. neither permanent, but mom [...]ntany, o [...] temporary, like the morning [...]ist or the early dew. Hos. 6. 4. like the seed sowne upon the roc [...]ie ground, which in time of heat withereth, Luk. 8. 13. like the building of the foolish man, which in [...]ime of temptation is overthrowne, Mat. 7. 26.

Graces] Now I come to the graces; every one whereof in the upright is [...], that is unfained, and as Salomon speaketh, Pro. 3. 12. tus [...]jak that which tru­ly is; but in the hypocrite, counterfeit. In these, the generall note of uprightnesse is desire of increase, and striving forward towards perfections (Phil. 3. 14) (for in this life we are in [...]) in our grow­ing age) and God doth orowne their righteousnesse with incr [...]ase, for to him that hath it shall be given. The hypocrite [...] are non-proficien [...]s, contenting themselves with that measure of gra [...]e which they seeme to have, and have not, and having not, they are so farre from increasing in grace, that, that which they seeme to have, (Luk 8. 8) is taken from them.

[Page 251] And first, the faith of the upright is live­ly and effectuall, both to justification ap­prehending and applying Christ who is our righteousnesse; and also to sanctification, because it doth purify the heart, (Acts 15. 9.) and worke by love. (Gal. 5. 6.) Againe the faith of the upright is permanent, by it he standeth, (Rom. 5. 2.) and by it he shall live, Heb. 2. 4. by the power of God through faith he is preserved unto eternall life (1 Pet. 1. 5.) And therefore those who are of the defection, are not of faith. And contrarywise, Heb. 0. 39.

The seeming faith to the hypocrite is dead▪ being nether effectual to justification as being without roote, Luk. 8. 13. nor to sanctification; as being without [...]uit. For as the body without breath is dead, (Iam 2. 26.) so is faith without works.

Neither is the faith of hypocrites per­manent, but temporary, which in time of tryall faileth, Luk. 8. 13.

Love] The love also of the upright is unfained, whether we speake of his love to God, which appeareth by obedience, both active, which is obedients legis, (for this is the love of God, that he keepe his com­mandements, 1 Iohn 5. 3. Exod 20. 6.) and passive, which is obedientia crucis. that is to say, patience, for love suffereth all [Page 252] things, 1 Cor. 3. 7. or of his love to man, which appeareth in giving and forgiving. But more specially an undoubted sigue of uprightnesse is to love and respect the godly, though of mean accompt in the world for their godlinesse sake; (Iam. 2. 24.) and to disrespect the wicked, though great in the world, for their wickednesse. Ps. 15. 4. following therein the disposition of God himselfe. 1 Sam. 2. 30. and the example of Elisha 2 King. 3. 13, 14. for in the eyes of the upright prety maketh men honorable, but wickednesse maketh them vile and despicable, Dan. 11. 21. And as the upright are an abomination to the wicked, so contrarywise. Pro. 29. 27. The world loveth her owne, but those, that be not of the world, the world hateth, it is there­fore a good signe that we are not of th [...] world, if we love and affect those whom the world hateth.

The love of hypocrites is not true, nei­ther towards God, For they be haters of God, (Exod 20. 5. 6.) that will not keepe his commandements; nor towards men, being in word and tongue onely, (1 Iohn. 3. 18.) or (as we use to speake) from the teeth outward. But especially their hypo­crisy is discovered, as by hating or envy­ing the godly, even for his godlinesse sake, [Page 253] because they cannot endure that any should be esteemed better then themselves: (Thus Cain hated Abel, (1 Iohn 3. 12.) and Saul David, (1 Sam. 18. 9.) and the Phari­sees Christ,) so by favouring and affecting the wicked. For liking is a signe of like­nesse.

Hope] The hope of the upright man con­ceived of a better life doth in some mea­sure weane him from the world; neither will it suffer him ordinarily, cuter to be drawne away in sinne, by the desires of the world, which are but vanities in compari­son of that heavenly happinesse, which he [...]xspecteth. (Heb. 11. 24. 26.) no [...] to be driven from goodnesse by the terrors of the world, which he contemneth in respect of the joy that is set before him: but causeth him to purifie himselfe in some measure, even as Christ is pure. 1 Iohn. 3. 3.

The hypocrite, for all his pretended hope, is either so addicted to the desires of this world, as if he did not expect an other world: or is so daunted with the afflictions of this life, as a man without hope, and as he liveth without the feare of God; so he dyeth without hope. For what hope hath the hypocrite, when God taketh away his soule? Iob. 27. 8.

Feare] The upright man is indu [...]d with [Page 254] a sonne-like feare of God, which is a feare to offend him. For such feare and upright­nesse alwaye; goe together. Iob 1. 1. 8. Deut. 10. 12. 1 Sam. 12. 24. The hypocrite either hath no feare of God at all, Ps. 39. 1, 2. but is overgrowne with carnall security: or but a servile feare, which is the feare of bondslaves, who are under the law, where­by he doth not indeed feare sinne, or the offence of God, but the punishment onely which sinne deserveth.

Humility] The upright man is indued with humility. For he that walketh with God, setting God before his eyes, and therefore behaving himselfe as in the sight and presence of God, cannot but humble himselfe to walk with his God. (Mich. 6. 8.) Abraham when he stood before the Lord, acknowledged himselfe to be but dust and ashes, Gen. 18. 27. The holy Prophet Esay, when in a vision he beheld the Majesty of God, [...]ryed but Woe is [...] because I am a man of polluted lippes Es 6. 5. The Apostle Peter, when by the miraculous draught of fishes he perceived CHRIST, then pre­sent with him, to be the Sonne of God, [...]ell downe at his feet, and said depart from me, for I am a sinfull man, O-Lord. Luk. 5. 8. And no doubt, but so many of us, as have that eye of faith, which Moses had, (Heb. [Page 255] 11. 27.) to see him that is invisible presen [...] with them, are in some measure affected with his presence, as these men were. But pride is an evident signe of an hypocrite, who setteth not God before their eyes. Behold (saith the Prophet Habakuk) his soule that is lifted up in not upright within him▪ Hab. 2. 4. we see it in the example of the Pha [...]see, Luk 18. 11. who comming to­pray, in stead of humbling himselfe before GOD▪ [...]olleth himselfe above other men, and for that thanketh GOD: but to this end to praise himselfe.

Confidence] The upright are confident▪ For he that walketh in integrity, walketh con­fidently, Pro. 10 9. for confidence is a conse­quent of integrity, or that which truly is ( [...]) Pro. 3. 21. 23, 24, 25. Keep th [...]t which truly is, that is sound wisdom & discretion, then shalt thou walke in thy way safely; when thou lyest down thou shall not be afraid, thou shall not be afraid of lud [...]en feare, for the Lord shalbe thy confidence, A consequent of truefaith, Rom. 5. 2. Eph 3. 12 of the spi­rit of adoption, which expelleth the spirit of fretfulnesse, Rom. 8. 15. Gal. 4. 6. of the true feare of God. For, in the feare of the Lord there is strong confidence, Pro. 14, 26. of a good and upright conscience, which fear­eth no evill, Ps 112. 7, 8. The upright [...] [Page 256] shall not be afraid of evill tydings, his heart is stood tursting in the Lord his her at is establi­shed, he shall not be afraid, but is as bold as a lyon. Pro. 28. [...]. Neither doth he feare the censures or ill reports of men, 1 Cor. 4. 3. but as Iob, in the integrity of his conscience desireth that his cause may [...] tryed; pro­fessing, that if his adversary would write a bill or libell against him, he would be so far from being daunted there with, that it should redound to his credit, and he would bind it as a crowne unto him. Iob 31. 35, 36. Of affiance in Gods al-sufficiency, provi­dence, and protection. For setting God be­fore his eyes, and knowing, that the Lord is at his right hand, he is confident, that he shall not be moved. Ps. 1. 6. 8. for he believ­eth, that God is his buckler, and his ex­ceeding great reward. Gen. 15. 1. a sun and a shield to them that walk uprightly, Ps. 84. 11. Pro. 27. that the eyes of the Lord per­lustrate the whole earth to show himselfe strong in the behalfe of them, whose heart is upright towards him, 2 Chron. 16. 9. that God by his fatherly providence causeth all things to work together for the good of those that love him, Rom 8. 28. therefore with David he professeth, my defence is of God, who saveth the upright in heart, Ps 7. 10. and therefore resolveth not to feare, Ps 3. [Page 257] 5. 6. 4. 8. 23. 4 27. 1. 3. 46. 1. 2. 3. 56. 4. 1 [...] 8. 6. For what should hee feare that needeth not to feare death it selfe, which of all things in this world it most feared, seeing as it freeth him from all other evill and danger; so i [...] is an entrance unto him, and an intro [...]ion into happinesse.

Thus is the upright confident. But fears surpriseth the hypocrites, Es. 33. 14 fearing not onely where is occasion of feare, but also where there is no cause of feare, Ps. 14. 5. 53. 5. They will be afraid at the wagging of a leafe. Levit. 26. 36. and they will [...] where no mean pursueth them. Pro. 28. [...]. And this feare happeneth unto them for wane of true faith, Mat. 8. 26. for want of the spirit of adoption, instead where of they are possessed with the spirit of bondage, and of feare, Rom. 8. 15. 2 Tim. 1. 7. For want of the true feare of God. For they that feare not God, feare all things [...] For want of a good conscience, for a bad and guilty conscience, conscious to it selfe of evill, feareth evill. For want of affiance in God, with whom they have no peace. The conscience of the wicked is like the troubled sea when it cannot rest, whose [...] cast up mire and dart, there is no peace to the wicked, saith my God, Es 57. 20, 21.

The repentance of the upright is entire, [...] a turning unto God with all his heart [Page 258] heart from all his sins (Deut. 4. 29. Ezra [...]8. 2 [...]. 28.) The repentance of the hypocrite is neither from the heart, but in outward showes, (Kings 21. 7.) as of hanging downe the head like a [...] ▪ Es 58. 5. of putting on sackcloth, and going softly, of rending the clothes, (Ioel l. 13) but not the heart▪ Neither is it from all his sinnes; for he will be sure to retaine some darling sinne from which he will not be reclaimed▪ But as he who truly repenteth of any one sin, repenteth of all, in respect of the desire and purpose of his heart, being not willing to retaine any) so he that repenteth not of all, repenteth of none at all in deed and in truth.

Simplicity] He that walketh in upright­nesse towards God, without hypocrisy, walketh also before men in simplicity and [...]inglenesse of heart, without guile. Both implied in the word: for [...] as Basil saith or [...] as Chrysoft speak­eth, [...] simplicity of maners, and of speech, the character of an harmlesse or upright man. But he that useth dissimulati­on and guile towards men, is an hypocrite, and so is called, Mat. 22. 18 Mark. 12. 15.

So much of the notes that respect good things; now follow those which respect evill. And that either of sin, or of punish­ment

[Page 259] The [...] man hateth sinne as well in himselfe as in others, or rather more, and more severely censureth it in himselfe, then in others: not excusing nor extenua­ting, but rather amplifying and aggravat­ing the same. The hypocrite hateth sinne in others, but not in himselfe, and to that end he is curious to pry into other mens behaviour and neglecteth his owne. He can see a mote in an other mans eye, but cannot discerne a blame in his owne, Mit) 7. 3. 4. he is a sharpe censure [...] of other mens faults, but fla [...]tereth and blesseth himselfe in his owne sinnes, Ps 36. 2. Deut. 29. 19. examples hereof in Saul. 1 Sam. 14. 44. in Iud [...] Gen. 85. 24. yea in Da [...]id. whiles [...] conce [...]led his sinne, 2 Sa [...]. 1. 2. 5.

Affliction [...]] The evill of punishment [...] afflictions, which God hath ordayned as tryalls to discerne the sound and upright, from the unsound and hypocrite▪ by the patient bearing whereof the faithfull are found to be [...] that is, found and ap­proved, Iam. [...]12. For tribulation being [...] (1 Pet. 1. 7. Iam. 1. 3) the trial of our faith worketh patience; and patience, [...], (Rom. 5. 3. 4. that is, as Chrysostome (with whom others agree) expoundeth [...], it maketh him approved that is tryed, as we see [Page 260] in Iob, and in the three children, Dan. 3. in the faithfull Iewes Ps. 44. 7 and in all the faithfull, but chiefly in all that are martyrs. By afflictions likwise the hypocrite being tryed is discovered, and as it were unmas [...] ­ed, by the not patient bearing and enduring thereof. For either he doth [...], set light by the affliction, and not take it to heart; or else [...], he f [...]inteth under it, contrary to the counsell of the Holy Ghost, Heb 12. 5 cited out of Pro 3. 11.

He that taketh not to heart an affliction, cannot be said patiently to beare it; for in patiendo est patientia, in suffering is pati­ence, and not [...], in not suffering, as [...]ppeareth in the examples of Iob, (Iob. 1. 20.) and David. (P [...]. 6. 38. 6.) And this is the cause many times, why the hypo­crite doth not profit by aff [...]ctions, because he is not sensible thereof, Ier. 5. 3. and be­ing unsensible, becommeth incorrigible, [...]. 2 30. And the cause hereof is, because hypocrites not walking with God; doe not acknowledge his hand; but ascribe their affliction, either to misfortune, or to secondary causes, which are but the instru­ments of God, Or if they doe acknow­ledge the hand of God; yet they are not humbled under it, neither doe they be­wayle their sinnes, nor crave pardon of [Page 261] them, nor turne to him that smiteth them, (Es. 9. 18.) nor promise amendment; or if they doe, they meane not, or at least afterwards they doe not performe, nor submit themselves meekly to beare their affliction, nor learne obedience by that which they suffer, neither are they bettered by them, but become worse, Es. 1. 5. If they take it too much to heart, then either they impatienly beare it, murmuring against God, and fainting in themselves, or they seeke an evasion out of it by some sinne, and so fall away from God; by which their defection, their hypocrisie is discovered.

To these tryals by affliction, we may adde other temptations, as by the doctrine of false teachers, either a [...]uring to idola­try, which the Lord sometimes permitteth to prove us, whether we love him intirely or not, Deut. 13. 3. or to heresies, which the Lord also suffereth, that those which are ap­proved, may be knowne 1 Cor. 11. 19.

Of uprightnesse towards men.

NOw we are to speak briefly of inte­grity, as it hath reference to man. [Page 262] For as we are to serve God in holinesse before him, that is in uprightnesse of heart, without hypocrisie; so also in righteous­nesse before him, that is in simplisity and singlenesse of heart, without guile. For this simplicity whereof we are now to speak, is not that which is opposed to dis­cretion, as being want of wit, (for the simplicity of doves must be tempered with the prudence of serpents; we must be with­out guile as doves without gall, but we must not be like Ephraim Hos. 7. 11. as sil­ly doves without heart) but is opposed to dissimulation, disguising, doubling, deceipt and guile. From which the redeemed of the Lord are free, according to the testi­mony of the Prophet Zephany c. 3. 13. and according to the oath of God in this place, worshipping the Lord in righteousnesse be­fore him; That is, performing the duties which they owe unto men, as in the sight and presence of God.

Now this simplicity is expressed by the same [...]ermes which signified uprightnesse, being referred to men, and where they are put absolutely, without relation either to God or man, both are, or may bee implyed, as alwayes going toge­ther. Thus the word Thamim may be understood in this larger sence. And [Page 263] therefore where Iacob is called Ish th [...]in [...] Gen. 25. 27. it is to be understood as wel of his simple and sincere dealing, among men, as of his uprightnesse towards God, and so the 72 interpret it by the word [...] free from fayning or dissembliug, and Aqui­la by the word [...] a simple hearted man free from doubling and deceipt, and so the word is used sometimes to signifie simplicity, Gen. 20. 5, 6. 2 Sam. 15 11. The like is to be understood of Iob and other holy men to whom that attribute is given in the scriptures; who are also noted to have performed their duetyes to men in uprightnesse, or integrity as David, Ps. 78. 72. is said to have sed, that is, ruled the people of God according to the integrity of his heart. The want whereof is objected by Iotham to the men of Shechem. Iud. 9. 16. 19. that they had not dealt in truth, and integrity with Gedeon his father. And therefore even [...]uch, as dissemble with men are sometimes called hypocrites, Mat. 2. 18. and their disguising is called hypo­crisie, M [...]rk. 12. 15. or as Luke termeth it [...] c. 20. 23. Deceiptfulnesse, when one by flattering words and faire shews seeketh to intangle another.

The words jashar and shalem, which signifie upright and perfect, have also [Page 264] sometimes relation to men, as 2 Kings 10. 15. 1 Chron. 12. 38. so have the word, which signify sincerity and truth, Iud. 9. 16. 19. 2 Cor 1. 12. The phrase also of doing our dutyes to men from the heart, as Eph. 6. 6. Col. 3. 23. and out of a pure heart 1 Pet. 1. 22. importeth also this simplicity and singlenesse of heart.

But the most proper words wherby this grace is signified in the scriptures of the N. Test. are [...] and somtimes [...] simplicity, or singlenesse of heart, op­posed to dubling, to dissimulation and guil. The man endued with it, is called some­times [...] which in latine is simplex (quasi sine plica) and somtimes [...] which signifieth either harmlesse being as it were without hornes; or rather sincere, as being without mixture of deceipt or guile, Mat. 10. 16. Phil 2. 15. sometimes it is signified by the denyall of the contrary, as 1. [...] Without guile, or sincere, 1 Pet. 2. 2. Blessed is the man in whose heart there is no guile. Iohn 1. 48. 2 Not with an heart and an heart, that is not with a double heart, 1 Chron. 12. 33. but as it is v. 38. with a perfect heart, 3 Not fained [...] as 1 Pet. 1. 22. brotherly love unfained.

To serve God therefore in righteous­nesse before him, is in the dutyes which [Page 265] we performe to men, to behave our selves as in the sight and presence of God; not in dissimulation and guile, not with an heart and an heart, that is a double heart, not with fayning or disguising, but in inte­grity, sincerity and truth, with simplicity and singlenesse of heart; Which you are to understand, not that simple men are to be fooles, but that wise men are to be si [...]ple; or as the Apostle exhorteth, wise to that which is good, and simple concerning evill, Rom. 16. 19. or as he speaketh, 1 Cor. 14. 20. Babes in malice, but in understanding men.

And thus we are to serve God in righte­ousnesse before him. For howsoever word­ly policie, which is mixt with dissimulation and guile, be commonly practised and highly extolled among men, and simplicity contrariwise neglected and contemned, as folly; yet by the testimony of the Holy Ghost, true wisdom which descendeth from above as all good gifts doe is not mixed with dissimulation, Iam. 3. 17. but is tem­pered with simplicity, as our Saviour teacheth his followers, Mat. 10. 16.

Those therefore that wil be wise in Gods accompt, must be content to seeme fooles in the estimation of the world, 1 Cor. 3. 18. As for that wisdome which is mixed with [Page 266] deceipt, the Holy Ghost doth censure it, as earthly carnall, and devilish Iames 3. 15. And although that be accompted the one­ly wisedome among worldly men; yet the wisedome of the world is foolishnesse with God. 1 Cor. 3. 19. for such men are, as we use to say, peni-wise and pound-foo [...]ish who by their policie to gaine their desires in this world doe lose their sou [...]es: which is not onely folly, but madnesse. I say extreame madnesse, for the momentany fruition of worldly desires, which are vain and unprofitable, not onely to deprive themselves of everlasting happinesse in heaven, but also plunge themselves into endlesse woe and misery in hell. Verily, it were easy for any man, that is not a foole, to become worldly wise, if he would be so foolish, as to cast away his soule by making no conscience of dissem­bling and disguising, of lying and deceiv­ing, out-facing, of swearing and for swearing which, because no true Christian w [...]ll doe; therefore as every where in the world true Christians are by the worldings accompt­ed innocents, meaning fooles; so in the parts of Italy about Rome fooles (as I have heard) are termed Christians.

But that we may be moved to imbrace simplicity and singlenesse of heart, and be [Page 267] swaded from all doubling and guile, let us consider, what arguments the Holy Ghost affordeth in this behalfe. And first, as touching dissimulation or guile, it is two-fold either in word, or in deed. In word when there is a divorce between the tongue and the heart; the heart meaning one thing, and the tongue speaking an­other with purpose to deceive. This in the scriptures is called speaking with an heart and an heart. Ps. 12. 2. with flattering lippes and with an heart and an heart, (that is a double heart) do they speake. It is also called, a mouth of deceipt, Ps. 109. 2 a deceiptful tongue. Such as should not be found in the remnant of Israell. Zeph. 3. 13. a tongue of deceipt, when a man speaketh peace [...]bly to his neighbour, but in his heart he layeth wai [...]e for him. Ier 98. Ps. 28. 3. hav­ing peace in their mouthes, but mischeief in their hearts.

This double to [...]gue and double heart, as it is odious to ingenuous men, in so much as some of the heathen have pro­tested, that they bate it as the very gates of hell; (Achilles apud Homerum Iliad. 9.) so and much more it is abominable unto God; who is the Patron of truth, and avenger of falshood, Ps. 50. 19. thou apply­est thy mouth to evill, and thy tongus forgeth [Page 268] deceipt. For these things will I reprove thee, &c. Sh [...]ll not I visit for these things, and shall not my soule be avenged on such a notion as this? Ier. 9. 9. Ps. 12. 3. Therfore if we desire to prosper, and to see good, wee must keepe our tongue from ev [...]ll, and our [...]pp [...]s that they speake no guile. Ps. 34. 12, 13.

Dissimulation or doubling in fact is, when one thing is intended, and another pretended, with purpose to d [...]c [...]ive, which in the Scriptures is forbidden and condemned Forbidden both in expresse terms, Levit 19 11. 1 T [...]ess 4. 6. and by types and shadowes, as Levit. 19. 19. Deut. 22. 9. 10. 11.

Condemned, as a sinne odious to God, (for the Lord abhorreth the de eiptfull man, Ps 5. 7. and accordingly punisheth them, Ps. 55. 23. Men of deceipt shall not live out halfe their dayes. For God is an a [...]enger of deceipt. I Thes [...]. 46. Ier. 9. 4. 5. 6. 9.) and as a marke of the wicked and reprobate, who are the seed of the serpent. Ps. 144. 8. Rom 1. 29.

On the contrary, simplicity and single­nesse of heart is both commanded and com­mended in the Scriptures. Commanded, Rom. 12. 8, 9. he that excerciseth the duty of charity in giving, let him doe it in sim­plicity. Let love be without dissimulation. For seeing the faithfull have purified their [Page 269] souls by the obedience of the truth (that is by faith. Act. 15. 9) through the s [...]irit to the unfained love of the brethren, they a [...]e therefore to l [...]ve 1 another out of a pur [...]seart fervenly, 1 P [...]t. 1. 22. Our Sa­viour CHRIST, as he commandeth his foll [...]wers to be wis [...] a [...] [...]? [...]o also simpl [...] as d [...]ver, Mat. 10. 16. that th [...]y may be blame [...]esse, and simple or sincere, as t [...]e so [...]nes of GOD wi [...]hout re [...]uke P [...]il 2. 5. For that which in this behalfe is required in the dutyes of servan [...]s, is [...]o be observed in a [...]l the duty [...]s of righteousnesse, which we are to performe unto men in singlenesse of heart, as unto Christ not with eye-services, as men pleasers, but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of GOD from the heart. Eph. 6. 5, 6. or as the same Apostle speaketh to the like effect, Col. 3. 22. 23. not with eye-s [...]r­vices as men pleasers, but in singlenesse of heart fearing GOD. And what soever you do, doe it from the heart. As to the Lord, and not to men.

Commended, 1. as an excellent vertue as being that, for which the first Christians are highly commended, Act. 2. 46 that they conversed together in singlenesse of heart. As that, wherein we are to take comfort and to rejoyce: namely when our conscience testifieth unto us, that in simpli­city, [Page 270] and godly sincerity not with fleshly wise­dome, but by the grace of God, we have had out conversation in the world. 2 Cor. 1. 12.

2 As most profitable, as having the re­word, not onely of safety and security (for he that walketh in integrity, walketh safe­ly. But he that perverteth his wayes, as dis­semblers doe, she'be knowne, that is, shalbe made an example of punishment. Pro. 10. 9.) but also of blessednesse, Ps. 32. 2. Bles­sed is the man in whose heart there is no guile.

3. As necessary, as being the proper marke and cognizance of those that shalbe saved. For the Lord being consulted by David, who is a true Christian, and an inhe [...]itour of the kingdome of heaven: returneth this answer; he that walketh before God uprightly without hypocricy, and towards men sincerely, and without guile speaking the truth that is in his heart. Ps. 15. 2. this is Iacob, or this is the gene­ration of Iacob, that is Israell. Ps. 24. 6. who f [...]om his integrity or uprightnesse is called Ieshurun. Deut. 33 5. 26. Es. 44. 2. for he is not a law that is one outwardly, but he that is inwardly? whose praise is not of men, but of God. Rom. 2. 28, 29. And by the testimony of our Saviour he is a true Israelite, in whom there is no guile. Ioh. 1. 48.

[Page 271] For a true Christian doth in some mea­sure resemble the disposition of Christ, who left us an example, that we should follow his steps, who did no sinne, neither in his mouth was found any guile. 1. Pet. 2. 21. 2 [...]. And there [...]ore as he was called a lambe, so his follwers must be, as they are called, not foxes, nor wolves, but sheepe, But if our minde being corrupted with dissimulation and guile, doe degenerate from that simpli­city which becommeth those that are in Christ Iesus. 2. Cor, 11. 3. or if, as Iob speaketh. chap, 31. 5. we have walked in vanity and leasing, or if our feet have hasted to deceipt, we discover our selves to be no true Isra [...]li [...]es, nor sheepe of Christ. For if they be true Christians, in whom there is no guile, what shall we think of them, in whom no simple or plaine dealing is to be found. If true Christians be the sheepe of Christ, imi­tating the simplicity of the lambe of God, in whom was found no guile what may we think of those foxes and wolves, who re­semble the old serpent in guile and deceipt? If those which shall inhabite the mountaine of God, be such as walke uprightly, both towards God, and towards man; where shall all hypocrites and dissemblers have their portion? see Mat. 24. 51. If in the remnaur of Isreall, that shalbe saved, a de­ceiptfull [Page 272] tongue shall not be found, Zeph [...] 3. 13, then doe they not belong to the Israel of God, whose hearts are fraught with [...]uile, and their tongues are full of deceipt.

To conclude, this necessity is proved from this oath of the Lord. Who hath sworne, that he will give to all true Christi­ans, who are the children of Abraham, that they being delivered from the hand of their enimies shall serve him in righteousness be­fore him, that is, with simplicity and sing [...]e­nesse of heart, without doubling, dissimu­lation or guile. They therefore whose conversation is in dissimulation or guile, can have no assurance, that they are the redeemed of the Lord. But of this argu­ment of integrity and uprightnesse, I have now spok [...]n the more briefly in this, and some other poynts, because I have handled the same more largely in my lectures, on Ps. 15. 2, Whereunto I referre the Chri­stian reader, as to the first treatise, that ever I saw, of this most p [...]ofitable, and ne­cessary argument.

Of the certainty of Persev [...]rance, and the ne­cessity of this doctrine.

THe third property of our new obedi­ence is constancy, or perseverance, noted in these words All the dayes of our life.

The meaning of the words.

Sect. 1▪ Of which words the meaning is not, that all those who are in the covenan [...] of grace doe alwayes worship God in ho­linesse and righteousnesse, from their first birth, (for who then could assure himselfe that he is within the covenant of grace) but from their new birth, and from the time of their actuall redemption and reconciliation with God. For so God hath promised to all the heyres of promise, (Luk, 1. 73, 74, 75) that he will give us, that being delivered from the hand of our spirituall enimies, we should worship him all the dayes of our life. But be­fore we be actually redeemed by the me­rits of CHRIST, that is, actually made par­takers of the benefit of redemption, justi­fied by faith, and reconciled unto God? we cannot worship God aright, as before wee have shewed.

Neither are the words to be understood [Page 274] of every day and every moment? as tho the Lord did promise to the faithful, that they shall continue in a perpetuall course of o­bedience without any interruption or inter­mission whatsoever. Indeed every man that is redeemed is bound with his perseve­rance to joyne both assiduity in a continu­all practise of piety every day, and also to increase dayly in godliness, and in the grace of the Spirit, being renewed in the inner man from day to day, 2 Cor. 4. 16. But yet this is not the thing which by oath the Lord hath promised in the covenant of grace to all that are redeemed; for who then might not think himself excluded out of the covenant of grace, seeing in many things we offend all? (Iam. 3. 2.) and there is not a righteous man upon earth that doth good, (Eccles. 7. 20) and sinneth not: But they are to be understood of our whole life, neither do they so much import quan­do, when, as quam diu, how long: as being uttered in the accusative case: ( [...]) For the children of God, howsoever they fall in many particulars besides or contrary to their generall pur­pose, yet for somuch as they alwayes rise againe, and hold out to the end, having a constant purpose to serve God alwayes, they are truly said to worship God all the [Page 275] dayes of their life. As Asa's heart was said to have been perfect, (2 Chron. 16. 17.) that is, upright, all the dayes of his life, (2 Chron. 16. 7. 10. 12.) though failed in many particulars.

The faith of the Elect (that is, of all true children of God, nam qui verê filij sunt. praesciti & praedestinati sunt Aug. de corrupt & gratia c. 9.) Which worketh by love, either faileth not at all, or if there be any in whom it faileth, it is repayred before the end of their [...] lif: & that iniquity which came betweene, being wiped away, it is accompted for per­severance to the end, as Augu­stine saith Aug. de cor­rept & gracia c. 7. Horum sides, quae per dile­ctionemoper [...] ­tur, profect [...] aut omninò n [...] deficit aut si qi sunt quor [...] de­ficit, reparatur antequam vita ista [...]iniatur, & deleta quae in­tercurrerat ini­que itate, us­ (que) in finem per­severantia de­putatur..

The meaning then of the words is, that God by oath doth promise to the faith­full; that he will give them grace to wor­ship him in holinesse and righteousnesse from the time of their actuall redemption and justification, with perseverance to the end of their life.

Sect 2. The certainty of perseverance grounded upon the text] Where-upon we doe ground this most comfortable do­ct [...]ine, [Page 276] that the perseverance of the faithfull. I meane of all those that truly believe, and are sound and upright Christians, is certaine, perseveran [...]e being the perpetuall and pe­culiar previledge of the upright. But when I say it is certain [...], I speak not of the cer­tainty of the subject, as though the faith [...]ull were alwayes certainly assured of their perseverance (though they are alwayes to labour for that assurance) but of the cer­tainty of the object, that is, that the perse­verance of the faithf [...]ll is certaine and sure, whether they be assured of it, or not. Even as the founda [...]on of Gods election abideth sure,) 1. Tim 2. 19. though the elect be not alwayes sure of it, but yet are al­wayes to give diligence to make it sure. (1 Pet. 1. 10.)

Sect. 3. The necessity of this doctrine] Here therefore wee are to refute the Pa­pist, and all others who endevour to be­reave the faithfull and sound Christians of this priviledge. And in this cause we are to labour the more seriously, because those that would deprive us of this priviledge, doe also endevour to robbe us of all true comforts and consolation, For first, this were no sound comfort (wherein not­withstanding our Saviour CHRIST doth bid the Faithfull especially to rejoyce.)

[Page 277] Luk. 10 20.) that our names are written in heaven; if againe they may be blotted out: that we are the sonnes and heires of God, if that notwithstanding we may become the children of the devill: that we are now the elect of God, if hereafter we may be­come reprobates.

2. Againe, the maine comfort of a Chri­stian in this life; is assurance of salvation after this life is ended▪ For the life (as it were) of the life mortall, is the assurance of the life immortall. But how can there be assurance of salvation, if there be no certainty of Perseverance?

3. Those which seeke to undermine the certainty of Perseverance in the children of God, doe also overturne the very ground­worke and foundation of our Faith and hope. For what is Faith (I meane speciall Faith) or hope, but an assurance of salvati­on, and consequently of perseverance un­to salvation by Christ; the one, as an assured persausion, the other as an assured expectation? The ground of which assu­rance is the maine promise of the Gospell, declaring the certainty of their salvation, who doe truly believe in Christ. From whence the Christian conscience gathereth assurance in this manner. The salvation of all those that truly believe is certaine. This [Page 278] being the maine pr [...]mise of the Gospell, (Iohn 3. 16, Mark▪ 16. 16. Act. 16. 31. Rom. 10. 9, 10, 11.) that whosoever believeth in Christ, shall be saved▪ But I (saith the soule of the faithfull man, according to the te­stimony of his conscience, seconded by the testimony of the Holy Ghost, (Rom. 8. 16.) bearing witnesse with our spirit, that we are the children of God) I doe truly believe in Christ, therefore my salvati­on is certaine. But the proposition of this [...]yllogisme with the proofe thereof, which is the ground of our Faith, and the founda­tion of our assurance and consolation, the adversaries of perseverance doe deny: no [...] fearing to contradict the maine promise of the Gospel. For whereas the promise of the Gospel affirmeth, that all which truly believe in Christ, shalbe saved: they are not ashamed to say, that some, which truly believe in Christ, shall not be saved. For they say, that some which truly believe, doe not persevere, and that those which doe not persevere, shall not be saved.

Lastly, the Faithfull in the greatest tem­ptations of Satan and conflicts with de­spaire, do use to raise themselves (Psal. 77. 6.) by calling to minde the tokens of Gods speciall favour vouchsafed unto them in former times, and the undoubt­ed [Page 279] fruits of saving grace, which they have formerly brought forth: Knowing that the Lord (who changeth not) Mal. 3. 6. whom he loveth once, loveth to the end: John 13. 1. and that the saving gifts and graces of God [...]are without repentance. Rom. 11. 29. And hereby as penitent children [...], are encouraged to seek unto their heavenly Father for mercy and par­don: Knowing that howsoever hee is justly angry with them, yet hee doth not hate them, nor utterly cast off them: whom once hee hath received into his love▪ in Christ. But the adversaries of Perseverance by their doctrine discourage men, when they have grievously offend­ed from all exercises of faith and repen­tance, and teach them to runne despe­rate courses. For if a faithfull man up­on a grievous, or as they call it, a mor­tall or deadly sinne committed, bee translated from the state of salvation into the state of condemnation exclu­ded out of▪ Gods favour, and made an object of his [...] hatred, deprived of Faith, Hope, and Charity, and of all saving Grace, and withall ceasing to be the child, or (as some say) elect of God, is become a child of the devill: with what heart can he seeke unto GOD, of [Page 280] whom he is now hated? How can he call upon him, in whom he doth not be­lieve? Or how can he hope to be heard, that hath no hope? or how shall he seek to please God who hath no faith (without which it is impossible to please GOD) nor any desire to please him?

This Doctrine therefore is to be a­voided as a downfall of dispaire: the full confutation whereof I reserve to a peculiar Treatise purposely written of that subject. Onely here, to make better way thereunto, I thought good to adde an Appendix, for the further cleering of the Doctrine delivered in the 8 Chap­ter of this Book, concerning the certainty of Salvation.

An Appendix to the Treatise of the certainty of Salvation.

SInce I wrote this Discourse, there came to my hands a Treatise of the nature and properties of Grace and Faith, written by a learned and godly man▪ as I am per­swaded: wherein many things are deliever­ed, which crosse divers poynts by me pro­pounded in this booke; and more especi­ally in my discourse concerning the certain­ty of salvation. (W. P.) whereat no man is to marvel, and much lesse to take offence. For so long as our knowledge is but in part, it cannot be avoided, but there wilbe diversity of opinions among the Faithfull▪ who notwithstanding hold the maine sub­stance and foundation of Faith and true Religion.

The points of difference are eight.

The first errour. Vocation and sanctifi­cation confounded.

1. The first, that he confoundeth our vocation and sanctification, alleadging that [Page 283] in our vocation and first conversion the uni­versall or generall habite of grace, containing in it all sanctifying graces is infused; whereby all the parts and powers of man, being renew­ed together and at once, and the image of God in them all renewed by the infusion of the habites of all sanctifying graces together, are sanctified throughout.

Res [...]. To omit his acception of the word Grace, even where of purpose he doth at large discourse of Grace, for one supernaturall quality inherent in us, or ha­bite of grace infused into us, according to the use of the school-men (who thereby have overturned the doctrine of justificati­on and salvation by Gods grace, magnify­ing under the name of grace their own righteousnes inherent, which in the question of justification is to be esteemed as dung, (Phil. 3. 8.) and not once mentioning that which is out of us in him, which most properly is the grace of God, for it is one of his attributes) and not according to the scriptures, which never speake of grace in that sense, but alwayes use the word, ei­ther properly for the gracious favour of God in Christ, by which grace we are elect­ed called, justified, sanctified, and shalbe glorified; or metonymically for the Spe­ciall gifts of Grace: To omit this over­sight, [Page 282] I answere, it hath beene the received opinion, and usuall practise of all Orthodox Divines, to hold and set downe in this order the degrees of salvation, which are wrought in this life, viz. Our vocation, justification, sanctification. And that in or­der of nature vocation, (wherin justifying faith is begotten) goeth before justificati­on; and that justification, wherein we are made just before GOD by imputation of CHRISTS righteousnesse, goeth before sanctification: wherein we, being already justified from the guilt of sinne, and re­deemed from the hand of our spirituall enimies, and reconciled unto God, receive grace to worship him in holinesse and righteousnesse before him. Howbeit, we deny not, but that in time our justification doth concurre with our effectuall vocation, (for as soone as a man doth truly believe, so soone is he justified before God) and that in time the first act of sanctification (which is our regeneration) doth con­curre both with our justification and effe­ctuall vocation. Now, of our regenerati­on, which is the beginning of our sanctifi­cation, and of our spirituall life. Which we live by faith, there seeme to be two acts; the one, wherein we are begotten unto God of incorruptible seed by the word [Page 284] of God; the other, wherein the image of God being in some measure renewed in us, and our Saviour Christ formed in us, we are borne anew. The former, is our spiri­tuall conception; the latter, our spirituall or new birth, in the former regeneramur, we are begotten anew, in the latter renas­cimur, we are borne anew. And as in natu­rall generation there is a meane time be­tweene the conception and the birth, in which time that which is begotten is form­ed in the wombe, according to the image of the first Adam; so betweene the first act of regeneration and the new birth, there intercedeth a time, wherein the image of the second Adam is in all parts by degrees renewed, untill Christ b [...] formed in us, (Gal. 4. 19.) The former, which also is the first act of our conversion, is the same with our calling or vocation▪ wherein our Saviour Christ is conceived in our hearts, when we doe receive him by the true and lively assent of faith; which is the seed, the root, the fountaine of all other sancti­fying graces; which whosoever hath, (1 Iohn 5. 1) he is begotten of God.

This act the holy spirit worketh ordina­rily by the ministry of the word. For faith commeth by the hearing of the word. (Rom. 10. 17.) For how should men believe in him, [Page 285] of whom they have not heard, and how should they heare without a preacher, Rom. 10. 14. In this regard preachers, being mi­nisters by whom others believe. 1 Cor. 3. 5. are the instruments of the holy Ghost for our spirituall regeneration; and are therefore called fathers in the faith, who beget men unto God. 1 Cor. 4. 15. Phil. 10. 1 Tim. 1. 2. Now in our vocation, the worke of the holy Ghost is partly prepara­tive, and partly operative. The preparati­on unto faith is 1. the illumination of the minde, partly by the ministery of the law, revealing unto us our miserable estate in our selves; and partly by the ministery of the Gospel, revealing unto us the mystery of our salvation by Christ. 2. the molifying of the heart by the finger of the spirit, humbling us in the consideration both of our damnable estate in our selves, and of the undeserved mercies of God offered in Christ, from which being effectuall ariseth a desire both to be freed from that dam­nable estate, and to be made partakers of that happinesse promised in Christ. 3. The invitation of the hearers, and the stirring of them up, to come out of that wofull estate, and to accept of Gods mercies in Christ, by the Ministers of the word; who being the Embassadours of God in [Page 286] Christs stead, doe beseech you, as if God himself did intreate you by them, that you would be reconciled unto God. (1 Cor. 5. 18. 20.)

The Holy Ghost having thus knocked at the dore of our hearts, doth himselfe in his good time, open our hearts, as he did the heart of Lydia, to assent to, and to believe the Gospel, By which beliefe being lively and effectuall, we receive Christ, not onely in our judgements by assent, but also in our hearts by an [...]arnest desire to be made par­takers of him, and in our wills by an earnest purpose and settled resolution to acknow­ledge and professe him to be our Lord and Saviour, and to rest upon him for salvation. The Holy Ghost having wrought this assent, and by it this desire and purpose of apply­ing Christ unto our selves, and thereby al­so some beginnings of hope, of the hatred of sinne, of the love of God, and of our neigh­bour, and of other graces, by which the I­mage of God beginneth to be renewed, and Christ to be formed in us, being yet as it were Embryones in the womb, he teacheth every one of us, who have through his bles­sed operation the condition of the promise, to apply the promise to our selves, and to believe not onely that Christ is the Saviour of all that do believe, but also that he is my [Page 287] Saviour, that he died for my sins, and rose a­gain for my justification, so that when the Minister, according to the word, pronoun­ceth this generall proposition, whosoever truly believes in Christ hath remission of his sins, and shall be saved, the conscience of eve­ry faithfull man may both safely assume, but I through Gods grace doe truely believe in Christ, and also certainly conclude by the testimony of the holy Ghost, bearing wit­nes with our conscience in the assumption, according to the word in the proposition, therefore I through the grace of God have re­mission of sinnes and shall be saved. When the holy Ghost hath thus taught us to apply the promises unto our selves, and hath sealed us after we have believed, and testified toge­ther with our spirits, that we are the chil­dren of God; then it appeareth, that we are already born of God, and that we are the sons of God, not only by regeneration, but also by adoption (Eph▪ 1. 15. Rom. 8. 15, 16. Joh. 1. 15, 16.) And being sonnes, God sendeth forth the spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying Abba father Gal. 4. 6. By this faith, first apprehending, and then apply­ing Christ unto us, we become not only the sonnes of God, but also members of Christ; and having union with him as our head, we have communion also with him, both in re­spect [Page 288] of his merit unto justification: first be­fore God, and then in the court of our own conscience; and in respect of his graces un­to sanctification, receiving of his fulnes, e­uen grace for grace. (Joh. 1. 16.)

As therefore men are first conceived be­fore they be born, and they are borne be­fore they are said to lead a life in this world: so we must first be begotten and born anew in our vocation and regeneration, before wee can live unto God the spirituall life of sanctification. These two therefore were not to be confounded; sanctification be­ing the end, as of our election, Eph. 1. 4. and of our justification, (Luk. 1. 75. Tit. 2. 14. 1 Pet. 2. 24.) so also of our vocation. 1 Thess 4. 7. By our vocation, we are begotten unto God, by sanctification, we being both begotten and born anew, do live unto GOD. In our vocation, the spirit of God first draweth us unto God: (Joh. 6. 44.) in our sanctifica­tion, we being already drawn, the Spirit of GOD doth lead and guide us in the way which leadeth to life. (Rom. 8. 14. Gal. 5. 18.) Vocation produceth Faith; Faith be­ing begotten, produceth sanctification, both habituall (for the heart is purified by Faith) and actuall, for Faith worketh by love, pro­ducing good workes as the fruit both of Faith and Charity. (Act. 15. 9.) I do not de­ny, [Page 289] but that Faith is a part of our sanctifi­cation, and of our inherent righteousnesse: yet this hindereth not, but that both it self doth sanctify us, and is also the mother of all other inward graces wherein our habitu­all sanctification consisteth, and of all the works of grace wherein our actuall significa­tion is occupied. For when the Holy Ghost doth regenerate us, he doth ingenerate the grace of Faith in us, and by it al other graces▪

The second error, That sanctification goeth before justification.] The second (which is a consequent of the former) that sanctifica­tion goeth before justification. The contra­ry whereof I have proved in the discourse, whereunto I adde. 1. That sanctification is the end and fruit of our justification, the cognizance also and evidence whereby it is known, and therefore a consequent thereof. (Col. 1. 22. Rom. 6. 22.) 2. As we are made siners, first by imputatiō of Adams sin, & then being guilty of his transgression, are made partakers of his corruption▪ so we are made just, first, by imputation of Christs righte­ousnes, and then being justified, we are in some measure made partakers of those gra­ces, which he received without measure. A­gain, the persons of men being sinners in themselves, must be accepted of GOD as righteous in Christ, before either there [...] be [Page 290] qualities or their actions, (which when they are at the best are defiled with sinne) can be acceptable unto GOD. Therefore we must be justified, before either our qualities or actions can be holy and righteous before God, Neither can there be any sanctificati­on, without justification, and reconciliation with God going before in order of nature: as there is no justification without sanctifi­cation accompanying and following the same. For by the same Faith whereby we are justified, we are also sanctified. Christ being apprehended by faith to justification, dwelleth in us by his Spirit to work in us sanctification, and to whom the merits of Christ apprehended by Faith are imputed to their justification; to them the vertue of his death and resurrection is applyed by the ho­ly Ghost to the mortifying of sin, and rai­sing againe to newnes of life, to which pur­pose the Apostle saith, Col. 2. 12. by Faith we are risen with Christ in Baptisme. Again, faith, by which we are justified, in order of nature goeth before repentance, wherein our sanctification consisteth. It is a resolved Case by Calvin, Penitentiam seu rescipiscen­tiam non modò fidem continuò subsequi, sed ex [...]a nasci extra controversiam esse debet. See Calvin▪ Instit. l. 3. c. 3. sect. 1. 2 and by Ful­ [...]entius, quòd vita sancta à fide sumit ini­tium. [Page 291] The same is testified by the ancient Fathers, as Clem. Alexandr. strom. l. 2. Faith is [...], the first inclination to salvation, after which follow feare, hope, and [...], repentance. Am­bros. de sacram l. 1. c. 1. In Christiano prima est fides. Chr. hom. de [...]ide spe, & char. fidem esse originem justitia. August. de predest. SS. c. 7. fides prima datur, ex qua caetera impe­trantur. Prosper ad Dubium, 8. Genev. fides omnium virtutum fundamentum. Greg. Mo­ral. l. 2. 6. c. 13. fidem primam in corde nostr [...] gignit.

If any object that the learned Chamier in his paustrat. l. 10. treateth of sanctification before justification, let him heare his own apology, c 1 n. 2. Debueramus sanctificationi justificationem preponere, si nostri arbitrij me­thodus esset: ut tum re tum ratione priorem; quod ab ea profluat altera, sed quia Papist [...] non distinguunt, cogimur de sanctificatione prius dicere.

The third error, that justification goeth be­fore Faith.] 3. The third, that justificati­on and remission of sins goe before faith, which may seeme a strange assertion to be delivered by him, who holdeth, that sancti­fication; whereof faith, as he confesseth, is a principall part, goeth before justification. But this absurdity he salveth with a distincti­on; [Page 292] that he speaketh of justification, not in foro Dei, but in foro conscientiae: and conse­quently acknowledgeth no justifying faith, but that by which we are in our conscience assured of our justification. But when we speak of justification, as of a degree of our salvation, it is evident, that justification is to be censidered as an action of GOD (for it is God that justifieth, Rom. 8. 30, 33.) wher­by he imputing to a believing sinner the righteousnesse of Christ apprehended by faith, absolveth him from his sins, and ac­cepteth of him as righteous in Christ. As for that justification, which is in foro consci­entiae, it is not justification properly, but the knowledge and assurance of it. Neither is that to be accounted justifying faith proper­ly, by which we are not justified before God, nor obtaine remission of sinnes. But before and without this faith, by which we are ju­stified in our consciences, that is, assured of our justification, we are as he truly saith, ju­stified before God.

The 4th error, that all the elect before their conversion, &c. stand actually reconciled and justified.] The fourth, that all the elect be­fore their conversion, and before they have faith stand actually reconciled unto God, and justified before him, may also seeme a strange assertion to be uttered by a godly [Page 293] man. For if this were true, then every one that will perswade himselfe that he is elect­ed (which most men are ready to do, who will thank GOD for their election before they are called) may cast off all care of con­verting unto God, of repenting for his sins, of suing unto God for the pardon of them, of believing in Christ; because without and before either faith or repentance he hath remission of his sins, and standeth actu­ally justifyed before GOD, and reconciled unto him. And this is the very ground, whereupon carnall Gospellers, who turne the grace of God into wantonnesse, do build all their presumptuous licentiousnesse, that Christ having dyed for their sins, they need not to dye to them, that Christ having freed them from sin and from damnation, they may sinne freely, and without danger; that Christ having reconciled them to God, and purchased Salvation for them, they neither need to sue for reconciliation or pardon, nor take care of their Salvation: that Christ having fully satisfied the justice of God by his obedience and sufferings, they neither are obnoxious to punishment, nor tyed to obedience.

But this assertion is most evidently con­futed by the Scriptures, which do teach, that the elect are by nature the children of [Page 294] wrath, servants to sin and Sathan, enemies against God, obnoxio [...]s in themselves to the fearfull curse of God, as well as others; untill they turne unto God, crave pardon of their sins, and lay hold upon Christ by faith, then indeed, but not till then, they are reconciled unto God, (Col. 1. 11. Rom. 5. 10.) who before were enemies: then, but not untill then, they are actually redeemed, who were before bondslaves; then, but not untill then, they are justified, who before were guilty of sin and damnation: then, and not untill then, their sins are actually par­doned. For actuall pardon is of sins past. (Orig. in Rom. 3. Lib. 3. indulgentia non futu­rorum, sed preteritorum criminum datur.) Rom. 3. 25. and we may not presume that our sins are pardoned, before we repent of them, and much lesse may we dreame, that they are actually remitted, before they be committed. For the better understanding whereof, we are to consider the merits of Christ, and the benefits which we have ther­by, according to his own intention expres­sed in the covenant of grace? the condition whereof is faith,) and are not to extend them to those, to whom they were not in­tended, Christ is the Saviour of the world, yet al are not saved, nor to be saved for ma­ny still remain in the state of damnation, he [Page 295] is the Redeemer of man-kind, yet all are not actually redeemed, for many still re­maine in the servitude of sin and Sathan. For they that commit sin, are the servants of sin. Whereas if the sonne had made them free, they should have been free indeed. (2 Cor. 5. 19) Joh 8. 34, 36. God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himselfe; and yet very ma­ny, as they continue in their rebellion a­gainst God; so the wrath of God abideth upon them. Joh. 3. 36. Neither ought this to seeme strange seeing the covenant of grace promiseth and assureth, neither Salvation, nor remission of sins, nor other benefits of Christ to all, but only to those that believe. So God loved the world that he gave his one­ly begotten sonne, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish but have life everlast­ing▪ John 3. 16. Mark. 16. 16. he that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that believeth not shall be condemned. To this purpose consider the diversifying of the phrase used by the Apostle, in the compari­son betwixt the first and the second Adam. Rom, 5. 19. As by the disobedience of one man [...] the many (that is the multi­titude of them which shall be damned) were made sinners: so by the obedience of on▪ [...] (that is the multitude of them that shall be saved, he doth not say, were made, but) shall [Page 296] be made righteous. The reason of which diversity is this; because the Apostle had respect to all those elect, who as yet have not believed, either because as yet they were not, or as yet are not, or because as yet they were not, or yet are not called. For it is necessary that all men should con­fesse and acknowledge themselves to be sin­ners in Adam ab origine, from their first be­ing. For by generation the sinne of Adam is actually communicated to all his posteri­ty; and no sooner are they partakers of the humane nature, then they do participate in his sinne. But we may not say, that the righteousnes or obedience of Christ is com­municated to all from their beginning, but onely (I speak after the manner of the Scriptures, of those which are adulti) to those that believe. Neither are they in their generation, or before, made partakers of Christs righteousnes, but in their regenerati­on. That no man therefore should neglect the benefit of justification, as though he had already obtayned it, before his conversion or effectuall calling, or regeneration in which faith is ingenerated by the Holy Ghost in the soules of the elect; he speak­eth in the future tense; that men should understand, that they are not borne just or justifyed▪ but that they shall be justified, so [Page 297] soone as they turning unto GOD, shall be­lieve in Christ, and that they are just, nonnat [...]sed renati, not born, but born anew, where­fore before we ought to presume that we are justified, we must be called, converted▪ regenerated. For whom GOD hath elect­ed, them hath he called▪ according to his purpose; and whom he hath so called▪ them, and no other hath he justified, Rom. 8. 30.

Thus then we are to conceive of Christs merits, and the benefits which we have thereby: that howsoever our Saviour Christ did in the dayes of his flesh meritoriously redeeme and save men, paying a price of ransome sufficient for all, and fully satisfy­ing the justice of GOD in the behalfe of al that shall be saved: yet notwithstanding none are actually redeemed, or reconci [...]ed, or justified, but they only to whom the me­rits of Christ are applyed; and they are ap­plyed only to those that believe (I speak of those which are adulti, for to elect infants, dying in their infancy, they are applyed by the Holy Ghost) neither can any be assured that they truely believe, but such as repent of their sinnes▪ and make conscience of their wayes.

This learned man therefore should have distinguished between [...] the mer [...]t of re­demption, [Page 298] and actuall redemption: even as well as between the merit of Salvation, and the actuall possession thereof: Christ me­rited our redemption, and Salvation long since; yea his merit thereof hath ever been in force since the beginning of the world: (Apoc. 13. 8.) but yet none are actually made partakers of redemption, but such as to whom it is appyed, that is to those that truely believe, for they only receive it, and to them onely, according to the Covenant of grace it was intended. Otherwise, he might say, that all the elect are actually saved, for whom Christ purchased eternall life; who notwithstanding are not saved, so much as in hope, untill they do truely be­lieve. And if all the elect be actually ju­stified before God, because Christ did me­rit their justification, why doth he not say in like manner, that all the elect are actual­ly sanctifyed: seeing Christ was made unto us▪ of GOD, not onely righteousnesse, (1 Cor. 1. 30.) and redemption, but also san­ctifycation; and hath as well merited our sanctification for us, as our justification. A­gaine, what benefits we obtaine by Christ we receive them by Faith: and therefore in the Scriptures, the same benefits which we receive from Christ, are ascribed to Faith; by which Christ and his merits are ours; by [Page 299] which also Christ dwelleth in us, Eph. 3 17. we live by Christ, we live by Faith, Gal▪ 2. 20. by Christ we have remission of sinnes▪ by Faith we obtaine remission, Act. 10. 43. 26. 18. we are justified by Christ, we are ju­stified by Faith. Rom. 3. 28. By Christ we are made the sonnes of God; by faith we are made the sonnes of GOD, Joh. 1. 12. and so in the rest, and therefore to imagine that we are justified before GOD without Faith, is a dreame.

Moreover this assertion cannot stand with the perpetuall Doctrine of the Apostle Paul▪ who teacheth that we are justified be­fore GOD by Faith, therefore not before, nor without Faith. By faith, saith he, with­out workes, that is, by the righteousnesse of Christ apprended by Faith, and not by in­herent righteousnesse. Neither doth he in those places speak of justification in the Court of Conscience, whereby we are assu­red of our justification; for as before men we are justified (Jam. 2. [...]4.) that is, decla­red and known to be just by good workes; so much more by our good workes (by which we are to make our election (2 Pet 1. 10.) our calling, our justification sure) we are justified in our own Conscience, that is, assured of our justification▪ And to con­clude, this assertion is such a [...] [Page 300] Protestant nor Papist did ever hold, that a man who is come to yeeres, is actually justified before GOD, before and without faith.

The fifth er [...]our, that Faith is not the mother grace▪

5. The fifth, that faith is not the root nor the mother of other graces, and that the soule is not disposed to believe, sooner then to love GOD, or our neighbour, or to pro­duce the act of any other grace. But this I have sufficiently disproved in the discourse, shewing evidently that as without faith there can be no other grace; so not onely from it all other graces do spring, but also according to the measure and degree of it, is the measure and degree of all other gra­ces. We are not disposed to love GOD as we ought, untill we be by faith perswa­ded of GODS love towards us; we can­not hope for the performance of Gods pro­mises to us, unlesse by faith we are perswa­ded that they belong unto us: we cannot trust in GOD nor rejoyce in him, unlesse by faith we are perswaded of his good­nesse and bounty towards us, and so [...]n the rest, and what is more plaine, then that love, which is the fulfilling in the whole law proceedeth from Faith unfained, as being the fruit thereof. (1 Tim 1. 5.) Chrysostome. [Page 301] and Theophilact call faith [...] seil. [...] the mother and foun­taine of all graces, and Calvin, (Justit. l. 3. c. 2. sect 41. sect. 42. c. 3. sect. 1.) sola est fic'es, quae in nobis charitatem primum generat, it is faith only which first ingendereth charity in us, it begetteth also hope and newnesse of life as he saith.

But to omit other testimonies, St. Peter seemeth to acknowledge this truth, 2 Pet. 1. 2, 3. where he prayeth for them to whom he w [...]iteth, that grace and peace be multi­plyed unto them, by the knowledge of God and Jesus our Lord, according as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertaine to life and godlinesse, [...] by the acknowledgement of him that hath called us, &c. that is by faith.

The sixt error that Faith is assiance.

6. The sixt, that faith is assiance, and so to be defined; and that trusting to the pro­mise is the proper act of faith as it justifi­eth. &c. But I have proved, that faith is not affiance, nor affiance faith But a fruit [...] of faith as well as hope and that by faith we have affiance. Eph. 3. 12. where­unto I adde, that the trust in GODS pro­mises to be in particular performed to us, is not faith, but [...]ope. Yea but promises, faith he, are both true and good, therefore [Page 302] our assent to them is with adherence, affiance and trust. Answ. The promises are true, the things promised are good, we believe the promise, we hope for the thing pro­mised. As contrarywise Gods threatnings are also true, and the things threatned evill. as therefore he that believeth the threat­ning to be true, feareth (if it be applyable to himselfe) the thing threatned, and yet this feare is not of the nature of faith, but a fruit and consequent thereof: so he that believeth a promise to be true, and can ap­ply it to himself, trusteth & hopeth for the thing promised, which trust in respect of the promise, is no more of the nature of faith, then feare in respect of the threat­ning.

But that affiance is of the essence of ju­stifying faith, he will make good by divers reasons; first, from the phrases of believ­ing, (Iohn. 1. 12. Rom. 10. 1 [...]) [...]s (Rom, 4. 5. Act. 16. 31.) [...] or (Eph 1. 12.) [...] that is, in or upon which imply affiance.

A. That as I said in the discourse, affiance is such an unseperable fruite of faith, that, sometimes it is implyed in the phrase of bli [...]ving in Christ. For that phrase may and sometimes doth imply three acts; the first of assent, that he is the Savi [...]r of all that believe in him: which ass [...] it [Page 303] be lively and effectuall is the proper act of that faith whereby we are justified before God, and in this sense the phrase, of beli [...] ­ving in him, is ordinarily used in the Scrip­tures, yea sometimes it is attributed to those, who have assented onely by a bare historicall, and temporary Faith, which is the Faith of hypocrites, and all world­lings, as Iohn, 2. 23. (To believe on him and one his name is all one, Iohn. 3. 8.) and 12. 42. compared with Iohn. 5. 44. Iohn. 4. 39. Many of the Samaritans believed [...] in Christ, upon the report of the wo­man; who, being confirmed in their faith by hearing himselfe, say to the woman, 42. we believe no more because of thy re­port; for we our selves have heard him. Now what was her r [...]port? that he had told her all things that ever she did, and therefore that he was the Christ. This is all that they believed, when they were said to have believed in CHRIST, And what was their Faith, which was confirmed by hearing himselfe? that this is indeed the Christ the Saviour of the world. And this, as I said, is the ordinary signification of the phrase in the New Testament, see Iohn. 7. 31. 8. 30. 31. 33. 11. 26. 27. Act 8. 37. So the Hebrew is joyned with beliefe, not onely in God, but in his Prophets also; [Page 304] not that we are to put assiance in them, but to give credit to them as to the mes­sengers of God, Ex. 14. 31. 2 Chron. 20. 20. The second act is of application, when believing truly that he is the Saviour of all that believe, I therefore believe that he is my Saviour: which is the act of that spe­ciall faith, by which we are justified in our conscience, in which sense the phrase seemes to be used 1 Iohn. 5. 13. in the later clause, but in the first part of that verse in the for­mer sense. so Iohn 20. 28, 29. Gal. 2. 20.

The third act is of affiance, that because I do believe not onely that he is the Savi­our of the world, but also my Saviour, therefore I rest upon him for salvation, and thus it seemeth to be used Iohn 14. 1. But this is not the act of faith, as it justifi­eth us before God, nor yet the proper act of the speciall faith, which doth justifie us in our conscience, but a fruit and conse­quent thereof. For if I truly believe that Christ is the Saviour of all that believe, then must I consequently believe that he is my Saviour, (for the generall alwayes includes the particulars) and if I doe truly believe that he is my Saviour, then shall I consequently put my trust in him for salvation. Or more plainly, to use his owne terms; he saith, that the proper act of [Page 305] faith, as it justifieth, consisteth in trust, or relyance upon the promise for our owne parti­cular, when the soule dependeth wholly, or trusteth perfectly in the promise, for remis­sion of sinnes, and for salvation, But say I, a man cannot at all, and much lesse wholly and perfectly trust in the promise to be performed to himselfe, unlesse he be first perswaded, and in some measure assured, that the promise doth belong unto him­selfe, which perswasion is the act of speciall Faith. A man cannot be assured at all, that the promise belongeth to himselfe, unlesse he have the condition of the promise, which is a true justifying faith, for the promise is not made to all, but to those that truly believe, Therefore I must have a justifying Faith, which is the condition of the promise before I can be as [...]ured that the promise belongeth to me. I must be perswaded that it belongeth to me, be­fore I can confidently trust that it shalbe performed to me.

But let us consider his testimonies. For he alleageth Iohn. 1. 12. Where to believe in CHRIST is the exposition of receiving Christ. Now we receive Christ, first, by assent, and then by application, whereof assiance is a consequent.

2. Rom. 10. 14. How shall they call up­on [Page 306] him in whom they have not believed? where the phrase is used, as vers 11. whoso­ever believeth on him, shall not be ashamed, and that as the proofe of V. 9. 10, If thou shalt with thy mouth confesse the Lord Iesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.: For with the heart man believeth unto righteousnesse &c. for the scripture saith, whosoever believeth on him, &c. For [...] hee citeth, 1 Rom. 4. 5. he that believeth on him that justifieth the ungod­ly (as Abraham did) his Faith is counted righteousnesse. (vers. 5.) Now of Abra­ham it is said, that he believed God, (vers. 3.) [...] and it was counted to him for righteousnesse. 2. Act. 16. 31. Believe on the Lord Iesus, sayeth Paul to the Iaylour which he performed, vers. 34. [...] believing God. for he quoteth Eph. 1. 12. where the word is [...] who have before hoped in Christ, he might more truly have quoted, Mark. 1. 15 though against himselfe, [...], believe the Gospel: and the like he might have alleaged for [...] Luk. 24. 25. slow of heart to believe [...] all that the Prophets have spo­ken.

His second argument is taken from the [Page 307] opposition of Faith to distrust or doubt­ing; where as he confoundeth Faith and affiance so he confoundeth also doubting (which is opposite to Faith) and distrust which is opposed to affiance; betweene which there is a great difference; for doubting is not contrary to as [...]iance, but to assent; for to doubt is to with-hold the assent, the places which he quoteth, doe both concerne doubting Rom. 4. 20. Iam. 1. 6. in which sense the word [...] is often used in the Scriptures, (Matth. 21. [...]1. Mark. 12. 23. Act. 10. 20. 11. 12. Rom. 14. 23.) but never in the signification of distrust.

I deny not, but that distrust, and di­strustfull feare areBoeth. in Top. Ci [...]er. Re P [...]gnantia di­cuntur contra­riorum conse­quentia [...]adal­terum contra­riem relata. vi­gilare & dor­mi [...]e contraria [...] int, stertere a item et vigi­lare sunt re­p [...]gnantia. repugnant to faith: but that proveth not faith to be affiance, but be­cause affiance is a necessary consequent of Faith, hence it is, that distrustfull feare, which is want of affiance pro­ceedeth from doubting, which is want of Faith, Matth. 8. 26. Why are ye fearefull Oye of litle Faith, Mark. 5. 36. feare not, onely believe.

His third argument from 2 Tim 1. 12. I know whom I have believed, &c is to [Page 308] litle purpose; for although in the words fol­lowing the Apostle saith, I am perswaded, that is, I believe, that he is able to keepe [...], my depositum, or that which I have committed to his trust; yet this proveth not, that the verbe [...], I have believed, implieth trust, unlesse he understand the words, as if the Apostle had said [...] I know to whom I have entrusted or con­credited my selfe. But that is another use of the word, much differing from that which is in question, signifying as much as concrediting, or committing to ones trust, and is as wel attributed to God, as to man. Iohn 2. 23. 24. Many believed in Christ, to whom he would not, [...] en­trust himselfe. And in this sense the word is sometimes used, both in the active voice with the dative of the person, and accusa­tive of the thing, (Iohn. 2. 14.) as Luk. 16. 11. and also in the passive, and that also with the accusative of the thing. Rom. 3. 2. 1 Cor. 9. 17. Gal. 2. 7. 1 Tim 1. 11. Tit. 1. 3.

The seventh error, that there is no other justifying faith, but that by which we are justified in our conscience.

7. The seventh, which I take to be the originall of some other of his unsound opi­nions, that he holdeth no other justifying [Page 309] faith, but that whereby we are justified in the court of our conscience. For before God all the elect, as he teacheth, stand actually justi [...]ied before, and without faith; so indeed they doe before this faith, and so it is also true, that sanctification goeth before this justi [...]ication; and remission of sinnes before thi [...] saith▪ for how can a man be assured of that w [...]ich i [...] not?

The proper act of [...] f [...]ith by which we are justified in our Consci [...]nce (that is) as I understand it, assured in some measure of our justification, is, as he teacheth, to trust wholly and perfectly to the promise of forgive­nesse of sinne and eternall life, for remission and Salvation. For by this faith as he tea­cheth, the Lord giveth us assurance of our justification by Christs righteous [...]esse, where­upon followeth peace of conscience, and that kind of [...]iducia, Which we call (saith he) as­surance or full perswasion of the pardon of our sins, this is a fruit of the other [...]iducia or trusting to the promise it selfe, wherein stan­deth the proper act of justifying Faith. And it followes not alwayes presently, but after sometime, haply a long time, which he speak­eth for the comfort of those, who doubt they have no faith, because they have not that full assurance.

Here divers things are to be misliked. 1. [Page 310] That he maketh affiance the proper act of justifying faith, which I have already dis­proved.

2. That he holdeth, that there may be a full affiance, whereby a man may wholly and perfectly trust to the promise, without the like assurance. But this is a manifest errour borrowed from the Papists; who hope well of the remission of sinnes, but dare not believe it. For this full affiance in trusting wholly and perfectly to the promise for the performance of it to a mans selfe, is that which the Apostle calleth [...] the assurance of hope, which ever presupposeth [...] [...] the assurance of faith, where, by the way, you may take notice of a threefold [...] mentioned in the Scriptures: the first is (1 Col. 2. 3.) [...] the assurance or full perswasion of understanding to the acknowledgement of the mystery of GOD, and the Father, and of Christ, this is the plerophory of assent, when a man under­standing the mystery of the Gospel, giveth full assent thereto, that is true, and that Jesus the Sonne of the blessed Virgin, is the eternall Sonne of GOD, and the Saviour of all that truely believe in him. The second is [...] the [Page 311] assurance of faith, when thou applying the promise to they selfe, doest assuredly believe, not onely that Christ is the Saviour of all that believe, but also that he is thy Saviour. The third is [...] the assurance of hope; when thou being fully perswaded, that Christ is not onely the Saviour of the faithfull, but that he is also thy Saviour; doest assured­ly trust and hope to be saved by him. Every one of these plerophories or assu­rances are infallible in their kind, nec fal­sum iis subesse potest: but this is absolutely to be understood of the first, the object whereof is the word of GOD, which is principium [...]idei [...] the second is not absolutely true, as a principle like the former, but as a conclusion is necessarily and infallibly true, concessis praemissis. For if this proposition be true, that Christ is the Saviour of all that truly believe (which is the undoubted word of GOD: and if this assumption be true also, but I through GODS mercy doe truly believe, (which is certainly true in all the faith­full:) then this conclusion cannot be false; therefore Christ is my Saviour; whereupon followeth the plerophory of hope; that seeing he is my Saviour, there­fore I do assuredly hope for salvation by him.

[Page 312] 3 That he maketh the assurance of Faith to be a consequent of that assurance of trust, which is nothing else but [...] the assurance of hope, the contrary whereof is true, for as hope is a con­sequent and fruit of Faith; so from the assurance of faith proceedeth the assurance of affiance and hope; and according to the measure and degree of that, is the measure and degree of this. Neither is it possible, that a man should have a full affiance wholly and perfectly to trust to the promise to [...]e performed to himselfe, who is not first fully assured, that the pro­mise doth belong unto himselfe. And therefore it is but a cold comfort, to be given to a man distressed in Conscience, to tell him, that if he have affiance to trust wholly and perfectly to the promise for remission of sinne, he hath Faith, though he have not full assurance. But misera­ble comforters are they, who teach (as this man doth not) that where is not full assurance, there is no Faith. But if we de­sire, to minister true comfort to the di­stressed Conscience perplexed with doubt­ings concerning Faith; we must unteach these Doctrines, either that justifying Faith is an assurance of remission, and much lesse a full assurance; or that it is [Page 313] affiance, much lesse a full affiance, trusting wholly to the promise for the perfor­mance of it to a mans selfe; which cannot be had, unlesse thou hast the like assurance that the promise doth belong to thee. For indeed that faith, by which we are justified before GOD, is neither assurance properly, nor affi­ance, for assurance is the second degree of Faith, by which we are not justified before GOD, but in the Court of our own Conscience; and affiance is a fruit and consequent of both. Aske then the party distressed this question. Doest thou believe, that the promise of the Gospell concerning remission and salvation doth belong to thee? If thou dost, then thou hast assurance, that Christ is thy Saviour, and that by him thou hast remission, and that by him thou shalt be saved. If he cannot affirme, that he be­lieveth the promise to belong unto him, ne­ver go about to perswade him, that he trust­eth to the performance of the promise [...]n­to himselfe. But aske him againe, dost thou truly believe, that Jesus the sonne of the blessed Virgin is the eternall sonne of GOD and Saviour of all that tr [...]y believe in him? If he say he doth so, [...]ll him then [Page 314] thou hast the condition of the promise, therefore thou maist, and thou must un­doubtedly conclude, that he is thy Saviour, and that thou shalt be saved by him. If h [...] say, [...] doubteth, whether he doth truly believe, that Christ is the Saviour, because many say they believe, who do not truly believe. Aske him again, dost thou be­lieve that in thy selfe and by nature thou art no better then a firebrand of hell, a vas­sall o [...] sinne and Sathan, subject to [...]ternall death and damnation? To this no doubt he will say▪ Yes, say then it seemeth you be­lieve the sentence of the law concluding you under the curse, but do you not also believe the Gospell, that notwithstanding [...] guilt of your own Conscience accusing, and the sentence of the law condemning you, you shall be blessed, if you believe in Christ? This also, if he have any grace, he will confesse, as being the expresse Doc­trine of the Gospell, aske him then, is there any oth [...]r me [...]n [...]s, whereby you may hope to be saved, but by Christ? He will say, he renounceth all other meanes, well then, you acknowledge (you may say) that in your selfe you are a wretched sinner, but yet notwithstanding by Christ you shall be happy▪ if you shall believe in him, tell me [Page 315] then, have not you earnestly desired to come out of that damnable estate, wherein you wer [...] by nature, and to be partaker of that happinesse, purchased by CHRIST for all that believe in him? He will say he hath, and that he hath of­ten expressed this his desire by hearty prayer. But you believing (may you say) and desiring those things, have you not also resolved to acknowledge and professe CHRIST to be the onely Savi­our, and to rest upon him alone for sal­vation, renouncing all other meanes, and to acknowledge him to be your Lord, and therefore to obey him, and serve him, making conscience of all your wayes? All this have I done (will he say) and yet I have not assurance. But say I, if thou hast done all this, then thou hast a true justifying Faith, for to be­lieve in Christ is to receive him: and tho [...] hast received him not onely in thy judge­ment by a firme and lively assent, but also in thy heart and will, by an earnest desire and setled purpose of applycation, by which thou hast received him to be thy Saviour. Hereupon I inferre, that thou hast the condition of the promise, and therefore that the promise doth belong [Page 316] unto thee, and that thou believing tru­ly, that Jesus is the Saviour of all that believe in him, he is thy Saviour, and therefore needest not, yea thou oughtest not to doubt of thy salvation, for by re­fusing to apply the promise to thy selfe, when thou hast the condition thereof, thou makest GOD a lyar. 1 John 5. 10. If thou wilt not believe me, yet believe the Apostle Paul, Rom. 10. 9, 10. If thou shalt confesse with thy mouth, the Lord Je­sus, and shalt believe in thine heart, that GOD raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. For with the heart, man belie­veth unto righteousnesse, and with the mouth, confession is made to Salvation. Believe St. Iohn, whose first Epistle was written to this very purpose, that those who truly believe that Jesus Christ is the Saviour, might have assurance that he is their Saviour. 1 John 5. 13. For so he writeth in the same Chapter, vers. 1. Who­soever believeth that Iesus is the Christ, is borne of GOD, and vers. 5. Whatsoe­ver is borne of GOD overcommeth the world, and this is the victory that over­commeth the World, even our Faith, who is he that overcommeth the World, but he that beli [...]veth that IESUS is the sonne [Page 317] of GOD? Believe our Saviour himself; For, if being asked with the Apostles what you thinke he is, thou shalt answer with St. Peter, Thou art the CHRIST the sonne of the living GOD, he will pronounce thee blessed. Matth. 16. 16. If for all this thou canst not gather assu­rance, know then, that the premises being granted, thou canst not but have assurance; unles [...]e thou wilt deny the conclusion, which cannot possibly be false, the premises being true.

But for thy better assurance, tell me, what you are to thinke of a man believ­ing truly that Jesus is the Christ, yet in re­spect of his spirituall estate is so poore, that he is as it were a meere beggar, who having nothing of his owne, whereby he might hope to be saved, depend­deth wholly upon the mercies of GOD, and merits of Christ? Even as beggers, who having nothing of their owne, depend upon the Almes of well-disposed people, what thinke you of him, who believing that Christ is the Saviour, is not yet as­sured, that he is freed from that dam­nable estate wherein he is by nature, but mourneth in the sense and acknowledge­ment of his wofull condition, desiring [Page 318] to be freed from it? What thinke you of him, who truly believing that Jesus is the Christ, but not yet assured of his justi­fication, doth therefore hunger and thirst after righteousnesse? Whatsoever you thinke of them, or whatsoever they be in their own sence, they are justified before GOD. And that I prove thus. Who­soever are blessed, are justified, and contra­riwise, but all believers though they be beggers in Spirit, though they mourne, though they do but hunger and thirst after righteousnesse, are blessed by the testimo­ny of our Saviour himselfe, Matth. 5. 3, 4. 6. Where directing his speech to them that believe, vers. 1, 2. Compared with Luke 6. 23, 21, 22. He saith, Bless [...]d are [...] the beggers in Spirit, blessed are they that mourn [...], blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousnesse.

2. This assertion cannot stand with the ort [...]odo [...] doctrine of justification by faith. For that teacheth the justification of a sinner, or as the word signifyeth of an un­godly person before God, this justification is neither of an ungodly person, but of a man already justified before God, and also sanctified; neither is it before God, but in the court of conscience, that justification [Page 319] is an action of God, acquitting the sinner, and accepting of him as righteous by im­putation of Christs righteousnesse▪ in this there is no such matter, in that we are taught, that by [...]aith a sinner doth receive remission of sinnes, and that he is to believe to that end, that he may obtaine pardon▪ and to the same end is both to repent of his sinne, and to sue for pardon, by this do­ctrine are taught, that a man hath his sinnes actually forgiven; not onely before he believe or repent, or sue for pardon, but also before he commit them; there we are taught that a man is justified before God by faith; here that a man is justified [...] and without Faith; there we are taught, that faith doth justify, not as it is an habit or qua­lity inherent, or as a part of inherent righte­ousnesse; but onely as the hand receiving Christ; who is our righteousnesse, and is therefore said to justify, because the object which it receiveth, doth justify. But ac­cording to this new doctrine, faith doth neither justify, as the hand to receive Christ unto justification, not in respect of the object, but as a part of the generall habite of grace infused, not justifying a sinner before God by apprehension of Christs righteousnesse, but assuring the [Page 320] party already sanctified and justified of his justification and salvation: in that we are taught, that we are justified by faith alone, but in this, we are justified, that is, assured of justification, not onely by faith, but by good workes, and all other meanes, by which we are to make our calling and election sure.

The eighth error, that assent is not the act of justifying faith.

8. The eighth, that faith, as it is an assent, doth not justifie; the contrary whereof (speaking of a true, lively and effectuall assent) I have fully, and (as I hope) sufficiently proved. But let us ex­amine his proofes the first is this. The Act of justifying faith is supernaturall, Eph, 2. 8, this assent to the truth of the Gospell, con­cerning salvation by Christ, is not super­naturall. ergo. I deny the assumption, and affirme, that the true, lively, and effectu­all assent is supernaturall, and cannot be had without the helpe of the holy Ghost, as being a proper work of the holy Ghost, when he doth regenerate any of us, No man can say, that Iesus is the Lord, (1 Cor. 12. 3.) but by the holy Ghost, And who knowes not, that it is the pro­per [Page 321] work of the holy Ghost in the mini­stery of the Gospell, to open the hearts of the elect, as he did the heart of Lydia. (Act. 16.) to assent unto the word? To use arguments to perswade the hearers to embrace the Gospell, and to receive Christ, may be the worke of the Minister; but to perswade the hearer thereunto, is the worke of the holy Ghost. Againe, that whereby we become the sonnes of God, is not a work of nature, but of the regene­rating spirit, by this lively assent we be­come the sonnes of God. For, By this effectuall assent, as I have shewed, we re­ceive CHRIST, But as many as received him, to them he gave this power to become the sonnes of God, (Iohn. 1. 12. 13.) even to them that believe o [...] his name, which are begotten or borne not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of GOD. Would you therefore know who is borne of GOD? Whosoever believeth that Iesus is the Christ, (Iohn. 5. 1.) is borne of God.

But the assumption he proveth thus: Whatsoever the understanding by the onely light of nature judgeth to be honest and good, that the will can desire or will by the onely strength of Nature, But by the onely light [Page 322] of nature the understanding judgeth that it is an honest thing to believe Gods authority revealing any thing unto us.

Therefore [...] will by th [...] onely strength of nature [...]ay d [...]sir [...] this act of believing; and so cons [...]quently there is no need of grace to m [...]ve the Will [...] command the understand­ing.

If a [...]y man imagine, that this conclusion doth contradict mine assertion, affirming such an assent, as I have spoken of, to be [...]aith, he must understand, that I speake not of a ba [...] assent to whatsoever God revealeth unto us; but the assent must be [...]hus qualified. First it must be a willing or voluntary assent, For the understand­ing whereof, we must know, that what soever the understanding conceiveth and judgeth to be true and good, that the will doth receive as true and good; for the will is intellectus extensus, And such is the naturall harmony betweene the under­standing and the will that as the will fol­loweth the judgment and resolution of the practicke understanding; so the will having received for true and good, that which the understanding hath so conceiv­ed, the minde or the reasonable soule doth both assent to it as true, and approve it [Page 323] as good. So that the assent and approb [...] ­tion of the minde is an act both of the un­derstanding and of the will. But how the will which naturally followeth the di­rection of the understanding, should (as he speaketh) command the understand­ing to assent or approve, I doe not con­ceive. But on the contrary, I suppos [...], that the minde many times doth assen [...], not onely without the command, but also without the consent of the will: as name­ly, when the understanding of a man or devill, doth know a thing to be tru [...], but doth not conceive it to be good, but hurt­full and pernicious to himselfe. That ther [...], is a God who is the Iu [...]ge of the world, that this God is just, that he hath prepa­red hell for the wicked: the divells, and wicked men doe conceive and know to be true and because they cannot d [...]ny [...], they doe acknowledge, and after a sort, assent unto [...]: but yet this truth they doe abhorre, and with horrour they doe be­lieve it, Iam. 2. 19. The legion of [...] did know our Saviour CHRIST, and con­fesse him to [...]ee the Sonne o [...] Go [...] [...] c [...]me to tor­ment them before their time, Mark 8▪ [...]. so that the wicked, bot [...] men and Ang [...]l [...] [Page 324] doe many times believe that, which they doe not willingly assent unto, but abhorre, and wish it were otherwise. But the faith of Gods children is a willing assent.

Secondly, it is a true, lively and effectu­all assent. For in Divinity we are said to believe; and by Faith to know no more then we believe effectually, and know by a lively faith. Now where there is a true, lively, and effectuall faith, it worketh a disposition in us answerable to that which we believe and know. The wicked doe believe after a sort, that there is a God, that he is just, and good, that he is infinite in essence, power and wis­dome, &c. that IESUS the Sonne of the blessed Virgin, is the Saviour of the world, &c. Yet none of all this doe they truely and effectuall believe. For if they did be­lieve inded; that there is a GOD, they would not deny him in their deeds, behave­ing themselves as if there were no God. If they did truly believe that he is good, yea goodnesse it selfe, they would love him; if just, they would feare him; if omnipresent, they would walke be­fore him; if omnipotent or all-sufficient, they would either trust in him, o [...] feare him, if omniscient, they would not play [Page 325] the hypocrites before him. If they did truly believe, that IESUS is the Saviour, they would desire to be made partakers of his merits, they would be carefull to apply them to themselves, they would rest upon him for salvation, they would obey and serve him as their Lord, But he that saith he knoweth him, that is, be­lieveth in him, and hath no desire nor care to keepe his commandements, (John 2. 1.) he is alyar (saith Sant Iohn) and there is no truth in him. That faith therefore, which is not lively and effectuall, but a dead faith, as Saint Iames calleth it, (Jam. 2. 10.) is no more to be accompted a true faith, then the carcase▪ or counterfeit of a man is a true man.

3. The formall object of this assent, as it justifieth, is not every truth reavled of God (though it believeth whatsoever God hath revealed in his word) but that onely which [...] is called truth of God, (John 5. 33. 18 37. 1 Tim. 2. 4.) that is, the Gospell, which is the truth of GOD in CHRIST, or his truth con­cerning salvation by CHRIST. Now to give a willing, lively, and effectuall assent to his truth, farre exceedeth the strength of corrupted nature. John. 6. 44. Matt. 16. 16. 17.

[Page 326] These things thus premised, I come to his argumentation, and first to the propo­sition, which if it were universally true, as it is propounded (whatsoever the under­standing by the onely light of Nature judg­eth to be honest; that the will can desire by the onely strength of Nature) then might I as lawfully assume, and conclude thus, to the great comfont of the Pelagians and Arminians▪ (whom in divers other points he doth worthily,) But by the onely light of nature the understanding judgeth it to be an honest and a good thing to believe in God and to obey him, to believe in him, I say, not onely as true in his word, but also as faithfull in his promises; and consequently to trust in him, for the per­formance thereof; likewise to obey God commanding us any duety, as namely to turne unto him by unfained repentance▪ and to lay holde upon CHRIST by a true faith; therefore by the onely strength of nature, the will may desire or will any of these acts; namely to turne unto God by unfained repentance, to lay hold upon CHRIST by a true faith to [...] unto God for the performance of his promises to us, which in his conceipt [Page 327] is the very act of Faith, as it justifieth.

I come to the assumption: where, I confesse, in a confused generality, the understanding, by the onely light of [...]a­ture, judgeth it an honest and good thing to believe what God revealeth in­definitely, but when you come to the particular object of justifying Faith, viz. that IESUS CHRIST is the So [...]e of GOD, and Saviour of all that be­lieve in him; this either they will deny to be revealed by GOD; as to the Jewes the preaching of CHRIST cru­cified was a stumbling block▪ (1 Cor. 1. 23.)▪ and to the Greekes foolishnesse: or if they doe give a kinde of assent unto it, yet they neither doe or can believe it by a lively and effectuall assent.

His second reason. That is no act of justifying faith which is f [...]nd in devils, hereticks, hypocrites and reprobases.

But this assent to divine revelations; because of GODS authority, is to be found in devils, hereticks, hypocrites, and repr [...] ­b [...]tes.

Therefore this assent is no act of justify­ing faith.

Answ. The proposition is not univ [...] ­sally [Page 328] true; for so much of faith as is found in the wicked, either men or An­gels, is common to them with the faith­full and elect, and without it there can be no faith. If therefore justifying Faith doe assent to divine revelations, because of GODS authority, and there can be no justifying faith without this assent; then it followeth, that to assent is an act of justifying Faith.

But I answer to the assumption, that this assent (meaning a willing, lively, and effectuall assent to the truth of GOD in Christ) is not to be found in divels whose assent is not so much as willing, but with horrour, even to that which they abhor, as himselfe confesseth; not in hereticks, who, as they are hereticks, dissent from the truth. For though that asser­tion of the Papists, that any one act of in­fidelity bereaveth a man of faith, be wic­ked and desperate; yet this is true, that howsoever the proper object of faith, as it justifieth, is Christ: notwithstanding by the same faith by the which we are justi­fied, we believe, not onely all other ar­ticles of the Christian faith, but also what­soever GOD hath revealed in his word: and whosoever doth refuse to believe [Page 329] whatsoever GOD hath revealed in his word, he hath not a true faith. Nor in hy­pocrites and reprobates, whose seeming faith is neither lively, nor true, but dead and counterfeit, not formata, but informis. Indeed this distinction of faith, that it is formata or informis, according to the mea­ning of the schoole-men and Papists is to be rejected, and that in two respects, first, because they propound it as a di­stinction of a true justifying faith, when as it is not possible, that that faith which wanteth his forme, and which is dead, and therefore hath not his true being, should justifie: neither is it possible, that that Faith should be [...] that is, effectuall, by an active efficacy, as namely to justifie, which is called actus secundus, which hath not the formall, [...] which is called actus primus. Secondly, because the Papists in this distinction im­ply, that Charity is the forme of faith, and as it were the soule thereof, which they seeme to ground on Iames 2. 26. For how can one habit be the forme of ano­ther, especially such an habite, as is the fruit and consequent of the other? For Charity which is the end of the law, (1 Tim. 1. 5.) proceedeth from faith un­fayned. [Page 330] For when wee are by faith per­swaded of GODS love towards us in Christ then are we moved to love GOD, and our neighbour for GODS sake, and the more we are assured of GODS love, the more is our heart inflamed with fer­vent love towards GOD, as I have shewed. And if the habit of Charity cannot be the forme of faith, then much lesse can good works, which are the out­ward fruits both of Faith and Charity; or as the Apostle speaketh of faith quae ope­ratur per charitatem, which worketh by love, Gal. 5. 6.

Neither doth the Apostle St. Iames compare workes to the soule, but to the breath, as the word [...] (which is derived from [...] signify­ing to breath) doth properly signify, and so is used in many places, where it is called the Spirit of the mouth, and the Spirit of the nostrils, so that the meaning of St. Iames is, as the body without the breath is dead, even so Faith without good workes (which are as it were the breathing of a lively Faith) is dead. Not that ever it lived, but because it is without life; as many things are said [Page 331] to be blind which never saw, and dumb which never spake.

But howsoever this distinction in the Popish sence is to be rejected: yet it cannot be denyed, but that as knowledge is either literall▪ which is an idle know­ledge swimming in the braine, but not working on the heart and Conscience; or Spirituall, which is a powerfull and operative knowledge: so faith, is [...]ither a true lively and effectuall, or else a counterfeit and a dead Faith, which some call a bare historicall Faith, answer­able to the literall knowledge. The for­mer is called by the Apostle [...] in divers places, and Gal. 5. 6. It is said to bee [...] [...]fficax, effectuall (as that prayer which availeth much, is cal­led [...] Jam. 5. 16.) or effectually working, or active, having in it duplicent [...] a double act, both the first and the second, the first, which is as it were the form, wherby it truly is, and in respect whereof it may be called formata, which as Solomon speaketh of other graces, (Pro. 3. 21.) Tushijah, the very essence and entity, the soundnesse and integrity of it, in respect whereof it is called [...] [Page 332] [...] and this is the inward [...] whereby it liveth and is effectuall, having efficacy in it selfe. The other, which is actus secundus, whereby, it is lively, active, and effectuall, in bringing forth the acts and operations or the fruits and effects of Faith. In respect of the former, it is said to have root; whereby I understand that apprehensive and attractive power of Faith in apprehending and receiving Christ; in respect of the latter, it is said to be fruitfull and working by love; the latter, which is not unfained, is counter­feit, having neither roote, Luke 8. 13. Nor fruit, and therefore is, as St Iames saith, dead, (Jam. 2. 20. 26.) Now as the coun­terfeit of a man is not truely a man, though called by his name; so this coun­terfeit and dead Faith, which is the faith of hypocrites (though it have a name of faith) is not faith [...] indeed and truely, but aequivocè; and being not a true faith; is not Faith, for ens & verum convertuntur, and in this sence it may well be called informis.

That faith therefore which is com­mon to devils, to hereticks, to hypocrites▪ and reprobates, is not true, but counter­feit; [Page 333] not lively, but dead; not formata, but informis.

And thus have I defended that neces­sary, and as I am perswaded most com­fortable truth, which I delivered in the Discourse concerning the certainty of Salvation.


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