HAving seen and consider'd this Al­phabetical Dictionary of the Greek and Latin Antiquities, we cannot but approve of the same, and recommend it to all those who desire perfectly to under­stand the Classic Authors, and the An­cient Historians.

  • Matt. Shortyng, D. D. Master of Merchant-Taylors-School, London.
  • Rob. Uvedale, L. L. D.
  • Tho. Walker, L. L. D. Master of the Charter-House-School, London.
  • Sam. Mountfort, A. M. Master of the Grammar-School, in Christ-Hospital, Lond.

A COMPLETE DICTIONARY OF THE Greek and Roman Antiquities; Explaining the Obscure PLACES in Classic Authors, and Ancient Historians, Relating to the Religion, Mythology, History, Geography and Chronology OF THE Ancient GREEKS and ROMANS; Their SACRED and PROPHANE Rites and Customs; Laws, Polity, Arts and Engines of WAR: Also an ACCOUNT of Their Navigations, Arts and Sciences, AND The INVENTORS of them; WITH THE Lives and Opinions of their Philosophers.

Compiled Originally in FRENCH, at the Command of the French KING, for the Ʋse of the DAUPHIN, the Dukes of BURGUNDY, ANJOU and BERRY: By Monsieur DANET.

Made ENGLISH, with the Addition of very Ʋseful MAPPS.

LONDON: Printed for John Nicholson, at the King's-Arms, in Little-Britain; Tho. Newborough, at the Golden-Ball, in St. Paul's Church-yard; and John Bullord: And Sold by R. Parker, under the Royal-Exchange; and B. Tooke, at the Temple-Gate, in Fleet-street: MD CC.

THE PREFACE.

THE Greek and Roman ANTIQUITIES lying dispersed in so many large and chargeable Volumes, are almost lost to those who have not either Money to procure, or Leisure to peruse them; and the few Compendium's which have been made, being either very imperfect, or so immethodical, that it requir'd a great deal of Time to be tolerably inform'd concerning any particular Antiquity: Our AUTHOR thought it very necessary to digest that sort of Learning Alphabetically, that by that means it might be more readily consulted, and the Authors in both Languages better understood.

His Design is very extensive, and comprehends both the Ancient Greek and Roman Religion, Mythology, History, Chronology and Geography; Sa­cred and Prophane Rites and Customs; their Laws, the Opinions of their most famous Philosophers; their Polity, Architecture, Art of War, Warlike Engines and Navigation; the Lives of Men Illustrious for Arms and Arts, &c. All which, with vast Industry and Judgment, he has collected from the Anci­ents themselves, and the best of the Moderns, well attested Medals, Inscrip­tions, Statues, Relievo's and Basso-Relievo's.

The Necessity of a Work of this Nature will be very evident to those who please to consider a few Instances, of a great many which might be produced. Every Scholar knows that Volumen is derived from volvo, to roll up, and that Volumen it self signifies a Book; but, perhaps, does not know, that before the Ʋse of Paper, Men wrote on the Skins of Beasts, or Bark of Trees lengthwise, which they rolled up as fast as they finish'd their Lines; whence evolvere Librum signified, to read a Book, because the Manuscript being rolled up, it was impossible to read it without unrolling it.

Likewise how could that Expression of Horace, ad Umbilicum ducere Opus, be understood to finish a Work, if we did not know that the Romans used to roll up these Skins or Bark when written upon, and join them together at both Ends with Two Bosses of Horn or Ivory, each like a Navel, which oc­casion'd that of Statius?

Binis umbilicis decoratus Liber.

[Page] Also another of the same Author;

Multaque pars mei,
Vitabit Libitinam.

is very much illucidated, when we know that Libitina was the Goddess which presided over Funerals.

Who again can well apprehend that other of Horace, Sat. IX. Lib. I.

Divina mota anus Urna.

without being inform'd, that in this place Horace speaks of Divination, by the Ʋrn and Lots, which was perform'd by throwing several Letters and en­tire Words into the Ʋrn, which being well mix'd, what Chance produc'd by the Ranging of the Balots, compos'd the Divination and Answer?

Cicero calls the Letter A, litera salutaris, because the Judges used it in publick Sentences, causing it to be inscrib'd on the Balots, which they thren into the Ʋrn, to express their Absolving the Person accus'd, for the single Letter A signify'd Absolvo.

Thus it appears, of what Importance it is to be acquainted with the Mytho­logy and Antiquities of the Greeks and Romans, considering there are in­numerable Difficulties which cannot be conquer'd, and Beauties which may be pass'd over and lost, without a competent Knowledge of them.

Our AUTHOR having gain'd a sufficient Reputation by his former Dictionary, and being by the Illustrious Duke of Montausier, Governour to the Dauphin, thought very capable of Compiling this WORK, for the Ʋse of his Royal Pupil, and his Sons the Dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berry: The TRANSLATOR had rather leave his Performance to the Judgment of the Learned, than anticipate the Reader by saying any thing in its Praise. He cou'd have wish'd he had found the Original illustrated with those Mapps, which were absolutely necessary to be added, and has only this to say, that Care has been taken to have them perform'd after the best Originals, and improv'd by the best Information that cou'd be procur'd.

The TRANSLATOR is sensible, that some Faults have escap'd Correction, but since they are merely Typographical, 'tis hoped, they won't injure the Sence of the AUTHOR.

Effigies ANTIQUAE ROMAE, ex vetustis Aedificiorum Ruinis, testi monio veterum Authorum, Monumentis Aeneis, Plumbeis, Saxeis, Ligneisque collecta atque in hanc Tabellam redacta et descripta secundum XIV Regiones in quas Urbem divisit Imp. Caesar August.

Printed for Ino. Nicholson Tho: Newborough and Iohn Bullord.

[Page]

IMPERIUM ROMANUM

Printed for Ino. Nicholson. Tho Newborough and Iohn Bullord.

[Page]

GRAECIA ANTIQUA Sophiani.

Printed for Ino. Nicholson. Tho. Newborough & Iohn Bullord.

[Page] [Page] A DICTIONARY OF THE Greek and Roman ANTIQUITIES.

A,

Is the first Letter of the Alphabet in all Langua­ges. The Hebrews call it Aleph, and the Greeks Al­pha, but our Nation as the Latins, call it simply A. Of all the Vowels it is the most open and simple, and that which is most easily pronounced, being the first articu­late Sound which Nature puts forth at the cry­ing or smiling of Infants. It is often used to express the Passions of our Mind, as in case of Admiration, Joy or Grief, and to render the Expression more vehement, we sometimes pre­fix or subjoin the Letter h to it, and say ha or ah. When this Letter makes a whole Syllable the Children call it A by it self A.

The Antients distinguished exactly in their Pronunciation when this Syllable or Letter A was long, and in their Writing they did often repeat this Vowel, to signifie that it was a long Syllable; which Usage, as Quintilian testifies, continued till the time of Attius: sometimes they inserted the Letter h between the double a, to render the Pronunciation more vehement, as in Ahala for Ala, or Aala, and sometimes by striking out the first a, they made it Hala: But afterwards, for shortness sake, they only drew a small Line at the top of the Vowel, to shew that it was long, thus ā.

This Letter A does often signifie an intire Word in the ancient Marbles, A. Aulus, A. Augustus, A. Ager, A. Aiunt, &c. When it is doubled it denotes Augusti: and when it is tripled it signifies Auro, Argento, Aere. When it occurs after the word Miles, it denotes that he was Young, as Isidore affirms.

This Letter A was also used by the Ancients as a numeral Letter which signified 500, as may be seen in Valerius Probus. There are some ancient Verses related by Baronius and others, which describe the Letters signifying Numbers, whereof this is the first,

Possidet A numeros quingentos ordine recto.

When a streight Line was drawn above the A, it signified 5000.

In the Tryal of Criminal Causes at Rome, an A drawn upon the Balots which were given to the Judges, and thrown into an Urn, signi­fied the whole Word Absolve, or, I absolve the Person accused; whence Cicero calls A a saving Letter, Litera salutaris, because it was the sign of dismissing the Accused with Absolution. This we learn from Asconius Pedianus in his Commentary upon Cicero's Orations. The Judges (says that learned Interpreter) cast one Balot into the Urn, upon which was engraven or drawn the Letter A, to signifie, I absolve the Person accused; another upon which was the Letter C, to denote Condemne; and a third marked with the Letters N and L, Non Liquet, to order. That the Matter should be further en­quired into; for the Judges hereby testified that the Cause was not sufficiently plain, and that they could not decide it while it remain'd so; which they sometimes expressed, vivâ voce, by this word Amplius, as we may plainly see from this Passage of Cicero, Causam pro Pub­licanis dixit Caelius; Consules, re auditâ, amplius de Consilii sententiâ pronunciarunt; Caelius pleaded for the Publicans, the Consuls, after they had heard him, by the Advice of the Senate, pro­nounc'd, Let this Matter be further inquir'd into.

In the Assemblies of the Romans, where the People gave Suffrage upon Scrutiny, by Balots mark'd with the Letter A, it signified Antique, and Abrogo, or I reject the Law proposed, I abro­gate that which is now in force.

ALPHA

is likewise the first Letter of the Greek Alphabet, which in Composition denotes sometimes Privation, and comes from [...] without; sometimes Augmentation, from [...], [Page] much; and sometimes Union, from [...], to­gether. It was used for the most part for a Let­ter of Order to denote the First, and of Num­ber to signifie One; but when it was a Nume­ral Letter, a little Stroke or an Acute Accent was drawn above it thus 'A, to distinguish it from the A which was a Letter of Order.

Alpha and Omega in the Divine Writings sig­nifie the Beginning and the End, and therefore the Hi [...]oglyphic of God is marked with these two Letters, A and Ω, as if you should say, that God is the Beginning and End of all things; and so God himself says in the Revelations, I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End. Thus Virgil having a mind to bestow a singular Encomium upon Augustus, by an Excess of Flat­tery, tells him,

A te principium, tibi definet.

☧ These three Characters were anciently en­graven upon the Tombs of the Catholicks, to distinguish them from the Arrians: for the Name of JESUS CHRIST was signified, as he himself says in the Gospel, by these two Letters, A which is the first of the Greek Al­phabet, and Ω which is the last of it; Ege sum Alpha & Omega, principium & finis: and from hence he proves that he was truly God as well as his Father, which the Arrians deny'd. They are also to be met with in the Letters Patents of Christian Princes, and on the Collars of Slaves.

Alpha mark'd with a spiritus asper, and an acute Accent A, is also used for the Pro­nouns ea and sua, in Homer and others: but with a spiritus asper and a circumflex Accent [...], it signifies the same with [...], ubi, as may be seen in the Poet Theocritus. Alpha with a spiritus lenis and a circumflex Accent A, is an Interjection of one who is in some trouble, which moves him to complain or admire; but when it is doubled with a spiritus lenis and a circumflex Ac­cent, it is an Interjection of one who is in a mighty Consternation, being under some great Affliction; if it be doubled and mark'd with a spiritus lenis and a grave Accent A, it is an Inter­jection of one who is transported with Joy, or the agreeable Surprise of something very plea­sant.

ABA [...], is a Greek Word, from whose Ge­nitive [...], the Latins have formed their Word Abacus, which has many Significations: for it signifies sometimes an ABC, sometimes a Table of Numbers for casting up Accompts, which was of Brass, and called by the Ancients The Table of Pythagoras. It signified also the Fi­gures of Numbers, and the Arithmetical Cha­racters, which were drawn upon a Table co­ver'd with Dust or small Sand, according to the Testimony of Martianus Capella, and of Per­sius in Sat. 1. ver. 131.

Nec qui Abac [...] numeros & secto in pulvere mot [...].
Scit resesse vnfer.—

It signifies also a Cupboard, which the Italians call Credenza, upon which were plac'd in order the Pots, Glasses, and the Dessert of a Feast, viz. the Salads and Sweet-meats, and on which the Carver cut out the several sorts of Meat, and serv'd up some part of them in Plates to each of the Guests. In Vitruvius, and all those who have treated of Architecture, Abacus is nothing else but the four-squar'd Table which makes the Capital at the top of a Column, and which, in the Corinthian Order of work, repre­sents that kind of Square Tile which covers a Basket or Pannier when it seems encompass'd with Leaves, but in the Corinthian Composite, or the Modern Ionick Order, which was taken from the Temple of Concord, and other anci­ent Temples, it was dug and cut inwards.

AB-ADDIR (a Term of Mythology) is the Name of a Stone which Saturn swallow'd, according to the Fable, instead of Jupiter: for he knowing that the Fates had decreed he should be dethroned by one of his Children, eat them all up to preserve himself from them, till such time as Ops his Wife put a trick upon him, and made him swallow this Stone instead of Jupiter whom she had a mind to save. Pris­cian and Isidore in their Glosses make mention of it, and Papias testifies that this word does some­times signifie a God. And indeed, since that Ab-addir is as much as to say Pater magnificas, Therefore,

AB-ADDIRES is the Name of certain Gods. St. Austin, writing to Maximas of Me­daura, says, that the Carthaginians had some Gods call'd Ab-addires, whose Priests were na­med' E [...]ccaddires: In Sacerdotibus E [...]ccaddires, & in Numinibus Ab-addires. Thus the Gods Ab-addires of the Carthaginians, were without doubt those whom the Greeks and Latins sometimes called, Magnos, petentes, selectos Deos.

ABALIENARE,

(a Term of Roman Law,) to make a pure and simple Sale to a Ro­man Citizen of the Goods which were called Res mancupii or mancipli, which were Estates si­tuate in Rome or some place of Italy, and con­sisted in Lands of Inheritance, in Slaves and Cattel. This Sale or Allenation was not valid but between Roman Citizens, and for the Payment a certain Ceremony was observed, with a Balance and Money in hand, or else the Seller was to transfer and renounce his Right before a Judge, as we learn from Cicero in his Topicks, Abalienatio ejus rei quae mancipii erat, aut traditio alteri nexu, aut in jure cessis.

ABATON,

a Greek word which signifies a Building so very high that no Man can come at it, and which is inaccessible. We have a fine piece of Antiquity concerning this sort of [Page] Building in Vitruvlus l. 8. c. 2. The Rhodians being vanquish'd by Queen Artemisia the Wife of Mausolus, the Story says, that she erected a Trophy in the City of Rhodes with two Statues of Brass, whereof one represented Rhodes, and the other was her own Image, which imprin­ted on the Front of that which represented the City the Marks of Slavery. A long time after the Rhodians, who scrupled the demolish­ing of these Statues, because it was not lawful to destroy such Statues as were dedicated in any place, consulted how they might hinder the View of them, by raising a very high Buil­ding round about them, after the manner of the Greeks, who call'd it [...].

ABAZEA or ABAZEIA,

ancient Ce­remonies instituted by Dionysius the Son of Ca­prius King of Asia; so called from the Greek word [...], which signifies silent, because these Feasts were observ'd with a profound Si­lence. Cicero speaks of them in his third Book Of the Nature of the Gods.

ABDERA,

a City of Thrace, so called from one Abderus a Favorite of Hercules, who was torn in pieces by the Horses of Diomedes. Hercules reveng'd the Death of his Friend, causing his own Horses to eat him up, and then beating out their Brains with his Club; he built also this City in his honour, which he called from his Name. It was afterwards cal­led Claxomena, because the Claxomenians who came from Asia into Thrace, enlaarged it very much. It is now called Pelistylo, according to Sophian, and was the place where Pretageras the Sophist, and Democritus the great Laugher were born. Near to this Place is a Lake called Bisto­nis, in which nothing will swim, and the Pa­stures round about it, make the Horses mad that feed in them.

ABDERITAE or ABDERITANI.

The Inhabitants of Abdera in Thrace, who were e­steemed stupid and dull because of the Gross­ness of the Air in which they breath'd, from whence comes that Expression of Martial, Ab­deritanae pectora plebis haber, i. e. You are a stupid Fool: in which place he speaks to a certain Cri­minal, who was pardoned upon condition, that in a full Theatre he would represent upon him­self the Action of Mutius Scavola, who burn'd his Hand, with a Stoical Constancy, in the presence of King Porsenua, to punish himself because he had not kill'd him, but miss'd his Aim by striking one of his Courtiers in­stead of him. The Natives of Abdera, says Lucian, were formerly tormented with a burn­ing Fever, which ceased on the seventh day, either by a Sweat or by Loss of Blood; and, which is very strange, all that were seiz'd with it repeated Tragedies, and particularly the Andro [...]eda of Euripid [...], with a grave Air and a mournful Tone, and the whole City was full of these Tragedians, who started up on a fudden, and running to and fro in frightful and horrid Disguises, cry'd out, O Love, the Ty­rant of the Gods and Men, and in this mad Frolick acted the rest of Perseus's Part in a very me­lancholy manner. The Original of this Mis­chief was the Actor Archelaus, who being in mighty Vogue, had acted this Tragedy with much Applause in the hottest time of Summer; for by this means it came to pass, that many upon their return from the Theatre went to bed, and the next day fell to imitating him, having their Heads still full of those tragical and bombast Terms they had heard the day be­fore.

ABDICARE,

(a Term of the Roman Law) to Abdicate a Son is to abandon him, to turn him out of your House, to refuse to own him for your Son; it is also a common Phrase, abdicare Magistratum, or se Magistratu, to re­nounce the Office of a Magistrate, to lay it down, to abandon it, either before the time prescribed, for some private Reason, or for some Defect that happened in the Election, or at last after the time is expir'd for the discharge of that Office. We read also in the Law, Abdi­dicare se statu suo, to renounce his Condition, to become a Slave, and be degraded from the Privileges of a Roman Citizen, when any one was abandon'd to his Creditors, not being able to make them Satisfaction.

ABDICERE,

(a Term of Roman Law) which signifies to debar any one of his Demands and Pretensions, or not to allow them. And in this Sense 'tis said, Abdicere vindiciam or vindi­cias, i. e. Not to allow one the possession of the thing which is controverted; on the con­trary, dicere & addicere vindicias, is to grant and allow them the Possession of that which is con­tested.

Abdicere is also an Augural Term, and sig­nifies to disapprove, to reject a Design or En­terprise, not to favour it. For understanding this piece of Antiquity, we must know, that the Romans never undertook any thing of con­sequence, till they had first consulted the Will of the Gods by the mediation of the Augurs; who, for this end, consider'd the flying and singing of the Birds, their manner of eating and drinking, and according to the Rules and Observations of this Augural Science they ap­prov'd or disapprov'd of any Design; and an­swer'd those who consulted them, Id aves abdi­cunt, the Gods disapprove this Design, whose Will has been manifested to us by the Birds which we have observed.

ABIGEI and ABACTORES,

(in the Law) are the Stealers of Cattle, who carry away whole Flocks, or at least a great part of [Page] them. The Lawyers do put a great difference between the words Fures and Abactores; for the former, say they, are those who steal only a Sheep or two, whereas the Abactores are those who carry off a whole Flock, or the greatest part of it.

ABIRE.

This Word, besides the Signifi­cations I have already given of it in my Latin and French Dictionary, has also some other re­lating to the Roman Law, as Abire ab emptione, to fall off from a Bargain, to break it, to refuse to hold it: so in Cicero we find, Res abiit à Sempronio, Sempronius fail'd in this Affair, it slipt out of his hands.

Abire, a Term of Imprecation, as may appear from these Passages of the Comic Poets, Abi in malam rem, Abi in crucem, or in maximum magnum malum, Go in an ill hour, Go hang your self, Go to the Devil. The Word Abire is also us'd in the Form of granting Liberty to Slaves, as Abito quo voles, quo lubet, nihil te moror, or, Liber esto atque abito quo voles, or, Tu vero abeas, neque te quisquam moratur: I make you free, go now whither you will, no body detains you, you may go where you please. It is also used in the Law after this manner, Abiit dies actionis, the Time of Prosecution in this Cause is over, or, according to the common Phrase of the Court, There's an end of this Suit, it is quite out of doors, and cannot be brought on a­gain.

ABJUDICARE,

(a Term of Law) to take away something from a Person by a Sen­tence, to declare that it does not belong to him.

ABJURARE

Creditum, or, Si quid cre­ditum est, to deny a Depositum or Pledge in a Court of Justice, to make oath that there was no such thing left with me. Plautus says, Quique in jure abjurant pecuniam, who deny in Court that the Money was left in their hands.

ABLUERE

se, (a Term of Religion us'd in the ancient Sacrifices) to wash and purifie our selves before we offer Sacrifice. The Ro­mans look'd upon it as a part of Religious Wor­ship, to wash their Hands and Feet, sometimes the Head, and oftentimes the whole Body, when they were to sacrifice to their Gods. And therefore Virgil brings in Aeneas telling Anchi­ses, that he could not discharge his Duty to his Houshold-Gods, till he was purified in some running Water, because he was defiled with Blood and Slaughter, at the Sacking of Troy, Donec me flumine vivo abluero. We read also in the same Poet, that Dido, having a mind to sacrifice to the Infernal-Gods, told her Sister, that she must first wash and purifie her self in running Water,

Dic corpus properet fluviali spargere lympha.

The People and Assistants were also purified with a Water which was called Lustral, accor­ding to the Practice of Aeneas at the Funerals of Misenus in Virgil, for he tells us that he sprinkl'd Lustral Water three times upon his Compani­ons with an Olive-branch,

Idem ter socios pura circumtulit unda
Spargens rore levi & ramo felicis oliva.

They us'd sometimes a sprinkling Instru­ment to throw that Lustral Water, which they esteemed holy, because the Link or Torch which had been used at a Sacrifice was extin­guished in it. It was their Custom also to place, at the Entrance into their Temples, Ves­sels made of Marble triumphant (as Du Choul calls it) fill'd with Water, wherewith they wash'd themselves. A Custom which, with­out doubt, they learn'd from the Jews, since we read in Scripture, that Solomon plac'd at the Entry into the Temple, which he erected to the true God, a great Laver, which the Holy Text calls a Sea of Brass, where the Priests wash'd themselves before they offer'd Sacrifice, having before-hand sanctified the Water by throwing into it the Ashes of the Victim that was slain in Sacrifice.

ABOLERE,

(a Term of the Roman Law) to abolish, to annihilate, to reduce to nothing, to destroy a thing after such a manner that nothing remains, not so much as the Remem­brance of it. And according to this Notion of the Word is the Phrase Abolere crimen, to abo­lish a Crime, and Abolere nomina reorum, to rase or expunge the Names of the accused out of the Table or Register, to strike them out of the List of the Prisoners.

ABOLITIO,

Abolition, the Remission of a Crime. Amnesty is a general Abolition of all that has been committed during a Civil War, or in any popular Commotion. This Abo­lition was granted after three different manners: Either by the Prince on a day of Triumph, and for some remarkable Victory obtained by the Commonwealth; or else it was granted by the Magistrate, when the Accuser desisted from his Prosecution before him; or lastly, it was granted to the Accused after the Death of the Accuser.

ABOLLA,

a kind of Purple Garment doubled, which was very large, had many Plaits, and was adorned with great Buttons, which the Romans wore to defend themselves from Cold and the Injuries of the Weather. This Garment was used by Military Men, Per­sons of Quality, and even by Philosophers, as the Verses of Martial and Juvenal do plainly prove. We read in Suetonius, That the Empe­rour Caligula was much offended with King Ptolomy for appearing at the Theatre with this double Garment of Purple, which attracted the Eyes of all the Spectators towards him.

ABOMINANTES,

(a Term of Exe­cration) Those who abhor any bad Presage, and pray the Gods to prevent its falling upon their Heads. They made use of certain Latin Ex­pressions frequent in the Comic-Poets and o­thers, Quod Dii omen avertant; quod ego abomi­nor; procul omen abesto; procul sit omen; procul haec avertant fata. Quod Dii prohibeant; Dii me­liora; Dii melius: & Dii melius duint, for dent. Which God forbid, which I pray the Gods to remove far from us, and to turn away from falling upon our Heads; which Mischief may it never come upon us; which may the Gods preserve us from.

ABORIGINES,

a very antient People of Italy, about whose Original there are four prin­cipal Opinions: the first is that of Aurelius Victor who calls them Aborigines, as who should say Ab­errigines, i. e. Vagabonds, wherein he disowns that Division made by Berosus of Janigenes and Abori­gines, and affirms on the contrary, that these Ab­origines were wandring and vagabond Scythians, who came and settled in that part of Italy. Ne­vertheless, against this first Opinion it may be said, that if these Aborigines had been Scythians, they would never have employed the Greeks against the Scythians, but, on the contrary, would have made use of them as safe Auxiliaries to aid them against the Natives of the Country, and against the Greeks, who were lately come thither. S. Jerom and Denis of Halicarnassus think, that they were call'd Aborigines, as who should say absque origine, without beginning; or rather as being the first Natives of the Mountains, from these Tuscan and Armenian words, according to the Talmuds; for Ab signifies a Father, ori a Cavern or hollow place, and [...] signifies a Race or Posterity, as who should say, Men born in Caverns. Some think that Chamasenus, aliàs Cham, the Son of Noah, who was the Saturn of the Egyptians, having gather'd together di­vers wandring and vagabond People, conduct­ed them into that part of Italy which at present is call'd Romania, and at that time was call'd Latium. Titus Livius and Dionysius Halicarnasseus assert, that the first Aborigines came from Arca­dia into Italy, under the conduct of Oenotrus the Son of Lycam, and that they learn'd the Letters of the Alphabet from Evander, who was then King of it. Genebrard, one very well vers'd in Rabbinical Learning, thinks that the Aborigines were a People driven by Joshua out of the Land of Canaan, who cross'd over the Me­diterranean Sea, and came and dwelt in Italy, where they had for King Sabatius or Saturn, who was set over them by Janus, and reign'd there Thirteen Years: They were banish'd beyond the Tyber, on account of the corruption of their Manners: But as to Janus, he settled on this side of the River, upon a Hill which he call'd Janiculum.

ABROGARE,

(in the Roman Law) to Abrogate, make void, annul, to bring into dis­use any Law or Custom. This word has re­ference to these other words, rogare, &c. when they are spoken of Laws whose Confirmation was demanded of the People. First, Rogabatur Lex, a Law was propos'd to the People for their Approbation, which they gave in these Terms; Ʋti rogas, I approve it, Be it so as is requir'd; 2ly, Abrogabatur, it was abrogated. 3ly, Dero­gabatur, something was taken away from it. Sometimes, Subrogabatur, some Clause was ad­ded to it. And lastly, Obrogabatur, some Ex­ception or Limitation was put to it. Lex aut rogatur, i. e. fertur; aut abrogatur, i. e, prior lex tollitur; aut derogatur, i. e. pars prima tollitur; aut subrogatur, i. e. adjicitur aliquid primae legi; aut obrogatur, i. e. mutare aliquid ex prima lege. Ʋlp. in Leg. 1. D. ad Leg. Aquil. And Cicero, l. 3. of Ep. to Atticus: Si quid in hac rogatione scriptum est, quod per legem Claudiam promulgare, abrogare, derogare, obrogare, sine fraude sua non llceat. And again, in lib. 3. of the Republick: Hinc legi nec obrogari fas est, nec derogari ex hac aliquid licet, neque tota abrogari potest, It was not lawful to change this Law, or take any thing from it, neither could it be wholly abrogated.

ABSOLVERE,

(in the Roman Law) to absolve a Person accus'd, to acquit him of a Crime or any Accusation laid against him, to dismiss him with Absolution. The ordinary method in these Cases was this; After the Cause of the accus'd had been pleaded on both sides, the Pretor us'd the word Dixerunt, i. e. the Advocates have said; and then three Balots were distributed to each Judg, one mark'd with the Letter A, to absolve the accus'd, another with the Letter C, to condemn him, and a third with the Letters N and L, to respite Judg­ment till further information. There was of­ten also a fourth, which Suetonius calls Tabula remissionis, which was a pardon for a Crime whereof the accus'd was found guilty. In a Suit concerning a forg'd Will (says the same Historian) all the Witnesses who had sign'd it, being declar'd guilty by the Lex Cornelia, not only two Balots were given to the Judges for absolving or condemning the accus'd, but a third also for pardoning the Crime in those who had been surpriz'd or drawn in to sign it by fraud or mistake. Cum de testamento falsi age­retur, omnesque signatores Lege Cornelia tenerentur, non tantùm duas tabellas absolutoriam & condem­natoriam simul cognoscentibus dedit, sed tertiam quoque qua ignosceretur iis, quosfraude ad signan­dum vel errore inductos constitisset. The Judges having receiv'd these Balots, took an Oath, that they would judg according to their Conscience, without Partiality to either side, either for Love or Hatred: After which Oath, they threw one [Page] of the Balots into the Urn, according as their Judgment was, either for absolving or condem­ning the Party accus'd. If the accus'd was condemn'd, the Judg gave his sentence in these words, Videtur facisse: The Crime is proved, he is attainted and convicted of it; and con­cluded his Sentence in these Words, I lict [...], liga ad palu [...], expedi virgas, when the Criminal was not condemn'd to death; But if the Crime was capital, then he used these words, I Lictor, colliga manus, capus [...]b [...]bito, inselici arbari sus­pendito, lege age. Go Lis [...]r, seize the Criminal, cover his Face, and hang him up, by vertue of the Sentence now pronounc'd against him: But if the Person accus'd happen'd to be Ab­solv'd, the Judg pronounc'd Sentence upon him thus, Videtur [...] facisse, or Nihil in [...] dam­nationis dignum invenio, or, Non invenio in eo cau­sam; which Expression was us'd by Pilate, be­ing a Roman, in his Answer to the Jews, who had a mind to force him to put Jesus to death, whom he had declar'd to be innocent.

ABSYRTUS,

otherwise call'd Egia­lus, (according to Pac [...]s,) the Son of Ete­s [...]s King of Go [...]a [...]os. 'Tis said, that his Sister Mad [...], when she fled from her Father's House with Jason, whom she lov'd, tore the Body of her Brother Absyrtus in pieces, and scatter'd them up and down in the way, on purpose to hinder her Father from pursuing after her, by meeting with those sad Remains of his Son, which he was oblig'd to gather up, as Cicero tells us in his Oration pro Lege Manilia, Ut Medea illa ex p [...]to prof [...]gisse dicitur, quam prae­dicant in fuga fratris sui membra, in iis locis quà se par [...]s persequeretur diss [...]isse, ut eorum colle­ctia dispersa, marorque patrius celeritat [...] perse­quendi retardaret. Valerius Flaccus, Lib. VIII. A [...]gona [...]. says, That it was not her Father Etesius who went after her, but that he sent his Son A [...]syrtus with a Naval Force to pursue her, and that coming up with her at the mouth of the Danube, when Jason and she were upon the point of Marriage, he broke off the Match by threatning to burn them both, together with their Ship,

Qui novus incaeptos impediit hymenaeos,
Turbavitque toros, & sacra calentia rupit.

Orpheus thinks that Etesius commanded Absyrtus to go after his Sister and fetch her back again; but that he following after her, by a mischance fell into the River Phasis, and was drowned, and that his Body was afterwards cast by the Waves upon the little Islands which are call'd from his Name Absyrtides: But Pliny on the contrary tells us, that he was kill'd on the Coasts of Dalmatia, where these little Islands are situate, which from his Name are call'd Absyrtides. Ab­syrtides Graiis dicta à fratre Medeae ibi interfecto, [...] Absyrto: lib. 3. cap. 2. Let us see how Myginus relates this Story: Etesius, says he, being inform'd that his Daughter Medea and Jason had fled away from him, he sent his Son Ab­syrtus in a Ship after them, who pursu'd them as far as the Adriatic Sea along the Coasts of Se [...]vonia, and found them out at the House of King Alcinous. At their first meeting they were ready to go to blows, but the King in­terpos'd his Authority, and offer'd them his Mediation, which they accepted of. The King resolv'd to restore Medea to her Father, provided that Jason had not yet enjoy'd her: But Jason being inform'd of this by the Queen, to whom the King had entrusted this Secret, enjoy'd her that night, and by this means ob­tain'd Medea for his Wife. Absyrtus fearing the Anger of his Father, continu'd still to pursue after them, when they retir'd into the Coun­try of Argos; but Jason at last, by killing him, was deliver'd from any further pursuit. There are some Authors who say, that it was his own Sister who cruelly tore him in pieces.

ACADEMIA,

the Academy, a place built near to Athens, and planted with Trees by one Academus, according to Diogenes Laertius, or according to others, by Cadmus a Phoenitian, and the Restorer of Polite Learning among the Greeks. In this place Plato taught his Disciples Philosophy, who from thence were call'd Aca­demics,

Atque inter silvas Academi quarere verum.

id est, To enquire after Truth in the Academy, at the School of the Divine Plato. Cicero call'd one of his Country-Houses by this Name, where he planted Groves, and made very pleasant Walks, for entertainment of his Friends with Discourses upon Philosophical Subjects, such as these, Concerning the Nature of the Gods; Of Friendship; and the Offices of a civil Life, and particularly his Academical Treatises, so call'd from the place where they were compos'd. In process of time all places, where Youth were taught the Liberal Arts and Sciences, or other Exercises, were call'd by this Name.

ACADINA,

a Fountain in Cilicia near the Lake of Delos consecrated to Castor and Pol­lux. The truth and sincerity of an Oath was prov'd by the Water of this Fountain; for the Oath was written upon a Table and cast into this Fountain, and if the Table did swim above the Water, it was a sign that the Oath was true; but if it sunk to the bottom, the Oath was judg'd false.

ACANTHUS,

[...], Bearsfoot, in Latin Brancha-ursina, so call'd, because its Leaves resemble Bears Feet; and in Greek [...], because one kind of it is prickly like a Thistle. There are two kinds of Acanthus, one which grows wild, and is full of Prickles, and another which grows in Gardens, which [Page] Virgil calls mollis, because it is soft, and with­out Prickles. The Greek Sculptors adorn'd their Works with the Figure of the latter, as the Gothic did with that of the former, which bears Prickles; which they represented not on­ly in their Capitals, but also in their other Or­naments. The occasion of their so doing, ac­cording to the relation of Vitravins, was this, A young Woman in Corinth happening to dye when she was just upon the point of Marriage, her Nurse laid upon her Tomb, in a Casket, some Vessels which she had priz'd in her life-time; and because they lay open to the Wea­ther, to preserve them from wasting too fast, she cover'd the Casket with a Tile: But this happening by chance to lye upon the root of an Acanthus, it so happen'd that in the Spring-time, when the Leaves began to shoot forth, the Casket which lay upon the mid­dle of the root, was encompass'd with the Leaves of the Plant growing up about the sides of it, till meeting with the Tile that cover'd it at top, their extremities were forci­bly bent into spiral Lines, like a Skrew. Cal­limachus, the Sculptor, passing by this Tomb, observ'd how the growing Leaves encompass'd this Casket, and represented the manner of it in those Pillars which he afterwards made at Corinth.

ACARON,

the God of Flies. See Acca­ron and Achor.

ACCA LAURENTIA,

the Wife of Faustulus, who was Shepherd to Numitor, and the Nurse of Remus and Romulus: This latter in gratitude erected an Altar to her after her death, and appointed a Feast, which he call'd Laurentalia, which was celebrated in the Month of April, according to Varro, or in the Month of December, according to Ovid, Lib. III. Fast. Plutarch attributes this Festival in the Month of December to another Acca, who was a fa­mous Courtezan, and had amass'd great Riches by her lewd Practices; for she at her death left the People of Rome her Heirs, who in grateful acknowledgment of the Favour, consecrated Plays and a Festival to her Memory. Macro­bius tells us, that Acca Laurentia, who serv'd as Nurse to Romulus and Romus, was this same pro­stitute Whore, which gave occasion to the Fa­ble, That a Wolf nurs'd them the Latins using the word Lupa for a debauch'd Woman. She married afterwards a very rich Man, who gave her vast heaps of Wealth, all which she left to the People of Rome, who therefore be­stow'd great Honours upon her. This Rela­tion appears to be true, which Macrobius had ex­tracted from some antient Authors.

ACCARON,

the God of Flies, accor­ding to Pliny l: 10. c. 28. Pausanias relates in his Elegiacks, That Hercules sacrificing one day to Olympius, was much annoy'd with Flies, but that having invok'd Jupiter, [...], or the Fly-Chaser, he was deliver'd from them, these Insects flying all away to the other side of the River Alpheus. From that time the Eleuns con­tinually offer'd the same Sacrifice to Jupiter the Fly-Driver, to obtain of him the same Favou [...]. See Achor.

ACCEDERE and ACCESSIO,

(in the Roman Law) regard a thing which tho separated from the Bulk or Gross of any Estate, Commodity, &c. yet of right be­longs to it. The Tyles, for instance, which are taken off a House to be laid on again, are an Accessory when the House is to be sold. Tegulae quae detracta sunt ut reponerentur, aedibus accedunt, Leg. 18. de Action. Empti & Venditi. The Cask which contains the Wine that is left for a Legacy, is an Accessory to a Legacy, and not a Legacy. Vasa, accessio legatae penus, non le­gata sunt, Leg. 4. de Pen. Leg.

ACCENSUS,

an Officer of the Roman Magistrates, and of the Military Men.

ACCENSI

Formses, Officers of the Roman Magistrates, viz. of the Consuls, De­cemvirs, Praetors, or Proconsuls and Gover­nours of the Provinces of the Republick, They were taken out of the number of the Enfranchis'd, and their Function was rather laborious than honourable, as Cicero testifies in a Letter to his Brother Quintus, Proconsul of Asia, Accensus eo etium numero, quo eum Ma­jores nostri esse volaerunt, quod hoc non in beneficii loco, sed in laboris aut muneris, non temere nisi libertis desereb [...]nt, quibus non multo secus quam ser­vis imperab [...]nt. They walk'd before the Ma­gistrates, and received their Orders, which they executed. Their chief Business was to call the People together to Assemblies; and from this part of their Office, says Varro, they were called Accensi ab acciendo. The Form used by the Magistrates for calling any to a Meet­ing, was this, Voca ad concionem omnes Quirites huc ad me, Summon, call an Assembly of the People, cause them to meet together immedi­ately. The Accensus cry'd, Omnes Quirites itc ad concionem, Go to the Assembly, Gentlemen Citizens. Their Office was also to assist the Praetor, when he sat on the Bench, and to give him notice with a loud Voice every three hours what a Clock it was, as, for instance, that it was nine a Clock in the Morning, that it was Noon, and that it was the ninth Hour or three a Clock after Noon. Accensus inc. amabat horam esse ter­tiam, meridiem & nonam. For three a Clock, among the Romans was the ninth hour, as nine a Clock was the third hour; because they did not begin to reckon the first Hour of the day till [...]x a clock in the Morning; so that the third hour was nine a Clock, according to us, [Page] and their ninth hour of the day was our three a Clock in the Afternoon.

ACCENSI,

in the Roman Armies, ac­cording to the opinion of Festus, were the su­pernumerary Souldiers, who serv'd to fill the places of those who died, or were disabled to fight by any Wound they had received. Ac­censi dicebantur, quia in locum mortuorium militum subito subrogantur, ita dicti quia ad censum adjici­ebantur. Asconius Pedianus assigns them a Station in the Roman Militia, like that of our Serjeants, Corporals, or Trumpeters. Accensus nomen est ordinis in militia, ut nunc dicitur Princeps, aut Commentariensis, aut Cornicularius. Titus Livius informs us, that Troops were made of these Accensi, that they were plac'd at the Rear of the Army, because no great matter was expe­cted either from their Experience or their Cou­rage. Tertium vexillum ducebat minimae fiduciae manum.

ACCENTUS,

an Accent, signifies a certain Mark which is set over Syllables, to make them be pronounced with a stronger or weaker Voice. The Greeks were more curious Obser­vers of the Accents than the Mederus. Cardinal Perron says, that the Hebrews call'd the Accents Gustus, which is as much as to say, the Sawce of Pronunciation. There are three sorts of Accents, the Acute ´, the Grave `, and the Cir­cumflex ^. The Jews have Accents of Grammar, Rhetorick and Musick. The Accent of Mu­sick is an Inflexion or Modification of the Voice or Word, to express the Passions or Affections either naturally or artificially. Mr. Christian Hennin, a Hollander, wrote a Dissertati­on to shew, that the Greek Tongue ought not to be pronounced according to the Accents; wherein he says, that they were invented only to make some Distinction of Words; that Books were formerly written without any such Distinction, as if they were only one Word, that no Accents are to be seen in Manuscripts which are above 800 years old; that none are found in the Pandects of Florence, which were written about the time of Justinian; that they were not commonly used till about the tenth Century, or in the time of Barbarism, and then they were taken to be the Rule of Pro­nunciation; that there is no use of Accents in most Nations, neither in Chaldaea nor Syria, nor among the Solavonians, Moscovites, or Bulga­rians, nor was among the antient Danes, Germans or Dutch, and that they were unknown to all Antiquity. He believes that they were an In­vention of the Arabians, which was perfected by Alchalit, about the Death of Mahomet. He adds, that the Massoretes of Tiberias, about the middle of the sixth Century adopted this In­vention, and introduced it into the Bible with the Vowels, in the time of Justinian; and that he who perfected the Accents, was Rabbi Juda Ben David Ching, a Native of Fez, in the ele­venth Century; and that they were first used among the Greeks, only in favour of Strangers, and to facilitate the Pronunciation of Verse.

ACCEPTILATIO,

(a Term of the Roman Law) Acceptilation. A Discharge which is given without receiving of Money: a De­claration which is made in favour of the Deb­tor, that no more shall be demanded of him, that the Debt is satisfied and forgiven, and he is acquitted of it. The manner of doing this was by a certain Form of Words used by both Parties, Quod ego promisi facisne, or habesne acce­ptum? said the Debtor; Do you acknowledg that you have received that which I promis'd you? Are you satisfied, do you acquit me of it? the Creditor answered, habeo or facio, I con­fess I have received it, I discharge you of it. But this was anciently used only in Obligations contracted by word of mouth.

ACCEPTUM,

a Receipt. Tabula acce­pti & expensi, a Book of Receipts and Disburse­ments. Ratio accepti, an Accompt of Re­ceipts.

ACCEPTO

ferre, (in the Law) to hold for received, to write Received upon the Book. Accepto & acceptum ferre, accepto & ac­ceptum facere, to confess that 'tis received. Ex­pensum ferre, to write down what is disbursed, to keep an Accompt of what is laid out and expended.

ACCIA or ATTIA.

Accia the Mo­ther of Caius Octavius Caesar, surnamed Augu­stus. Suetonius relates, in the Life of this Prince, that Accia his Mother having gone one night, with other Roman Dames, to solemnize a Feast of Apollo in his Temple, she fell asleep there, and thought in her sleep, that she saw a Serpent creep under her, which soon after dis­appear'd: when she awoke, having a mind to wash and purifie her self, she perceiv'd upon her Belly the Track of a Serpent, which could never be obliterated, and upon the account of this Mark she was obliged for ever after to for­bear the publick Baths. She became afterwards big with Child, and was brought to bed, at the end of ten Months, of Caesar Augustus, making the World believe, that she had conceived by Apollo. Augustus also gloried in it, that he was his Son; and Torrentius mentions a Silver Me­dal of this Emperour, upon the Reverse where­of was seen the Figure of Apollo holding a Harp in his hand, with these words, Caesar Divi Fili­us, Caesar the Son of the God Apollo.

ACCIPIO,

(being spoken of a Law) to receive, approve and hold fit: as Rogationem accipere, to accept a Law proposed. Accipio O­men, I take or hold this for a good Omen.

ACCIPITER,

any Bird of Prey in ge­neral, as an Hawk, &c. Ovid informs us, that an Hawk was a Bird of ill Omen, because it was very carnivorous,

Odimus accipitrem quia semper vivit in armis.

But the same Bird was a good Omen in Marri­age, according to Pliny, because it never eats the Hearts of other Birds, which gives us to understand, that no Differences, in a married state, between Husband and Wife ought to go so far as the Heart; and Care was also taken, in the Sacrifices for Marriages, that the Gall of the Animals which were slain, should be taken out.

ACCIUS,

a Latin Poet, who wrote Tragedies in a very harsh style, according to Cicero. He was of an illustrious Family, be­ing descended of two Consuls, Macrinus and Soranus. Decius Brutus held him in great e­steem, took great pleasure in adorning the Temples with this Poets Verses, and erected a Statue to him in the Temple of the Muses. Suet. c. 4.

ACCIUS

Navius, one of the most cele­brated Augurs, who liv'd in the time of Tar­quinius Priscus: He opposed the Design which that King had of adding new Centuries of the Roman People, to those which were already established by Romulus, representing to him, that he ought first to consult the Will of the Gods by the Flight of Birds. Tarquin, in rail­lery, bid him consult them, to know whether his present Design was feasible or no: Accius did it, and brought him back word that it was. I would know, replied the King, whether you can cut that Stone with this Razor which was whetted upon it: The Augur immediately took the Stone and cut it in two with the Ra­zor. This wonderful Action gained great Cre­dit and Authority to the Augurs in the follow­ing Times; and the King caused a Statue to be erected to Accius in the place of their Assem­blies, having his Head cover'd, and holding in his Hand the Stone which he had cut, to per­petuate to Posterity the Memory of this A­ction.

ACCLAMATIO,

Acclamation, a loud Expression of Joy, the Applause given to Per­sons and Things, a practice used upon several Occasions. The Romans never failed to use these Acclamations, which included their Pray­ers and Wishes for the Welfare of their Empe­rours, when they bestowed upon them any Largesses for some Victory obtain'd over the Enemies of the Empire.

These Acclamations were often expressed by one word, feliciter; or by many,

Di tibi dent quicquid, Princeps Trajane mereris,
Et rata perpetuò, quae tribuêre, velint.

Or in these words,

Augeat imperium nostri dutis, augeat annos.

Many other Forms to this purpose may be seen in Brissonius de Formulis.

The Senate in like manner made Acclama­tions to the Emperours, either at their accessi­on to the Throne, or in Acknowledgment of some Favours they had received from them, which they very often inserted into their pub­lick Registers, or caused to be engraven on Plates of Brass, or Tables of Marble. They frequently deified their Emperours, and chose their Magistrates by sudden Acclamations, of which I shall relate some Examples.

Aurelius Victor informs us, that Divine Ho­nours were decreed to the Emperour Pertinax, after his Death, and that the whole Senate rais'd great Acclamations in his favour: Acclamatum est, Pertinace imperante, Securi viximus, neminem timuimus, Patri pio, Patri Senatus, Patri bonorum omnium; We liv'd in perfect Security under Pertinax, cry'd the Senate, we fear'd no People, Pertinax was to us a Father full of Tenderness, the Father of the Senate, the Father of all good Men. Trebellius Pollio relates the Acclamations which were made at the Election of Valerianus to the Office of Censor: Acclamatum est, Vale­rianus in tota vita sua fuit Censor, prudens Senator, modestus Senator, amicus bonorum, inimicus tyran­norum, hostis criminum, hostis vitiorum. Hunc Censorem omnes, hunc imitari volumus. Primus genere, nobilis sanguine, emendatus vitâ, doctrinâ clarus, moribus singularis, exemplum antiquitatis; These Acclamations were made, Valerianus was a just Censor during his whole Life, a prudent and a modest Senator, a Friend to good Men, an Enemy to Tyrants, an Enemy to Crimes and Vices. We have all chosen him to be our Censor, he is illustrious for his Nobility, re­gular in his Life and Conversation, commend­able for his Instructions, and an Example of Antiquity. The same thing happened at the Election of Tacitus to the Empire; for after the first, who gave sentence for him, proclaim'd him Emperour, the whole Senate cry'd with a loud Shout, Omnes, Omnes: And this good old Man endeavouring to excuse himself upon the account of his great Age, which render'd him unfit to bear the Weight of the Empire, they shouted again and cry'd, Caput imperare, non pe­des; Animum tuum, non corpus eligimus, Tacite Auguste; Dii te servent; It belongs to the Head to rule and not to the Feet; we chuse your Mind and not your Body, O Tacitus Augustus, the Gods preserve you long. In the Armies the Roman Souldiers did often chuse the Empe­rours and their Generals by sudden Acclama­tions, without waiting either for the Order of the Senate or the Consent of the People; as happen'd at the Election of the Emperour Pro­bus: For the Colonels having exhorted the [Page] Souldiers to chuse for Emperour a Man of Pro­bity, probum; all on a sudden they made a great Noise with confus'd Voices, which pro­claimed Probus to be Emperour, Probe Impera­tor, Dii te servent. These Acclamations were also us'd at Shows in the Theatres when they pleased the People's Humour, as it happen'd at the new Comedy of Pacuvius, Qui clamores saepè totâ caveâ exauditi sunt in M. Pacuvii nova fabu a; The like Acclamations were often heard over all the Pit, when the new Play of Pacuvius was acted.

As the Romans were accustom'd to make these Acclamations to testifie their Joy and signifie their Satisfaction, so they were also sometimes us'd in Imprecations, to express their Indigna­tion, as they did after the Death of the Empe­rour Commodus; Let this Enemy of his Coun­try, cry'd they, be despoil'd of all Honour, let this Parricide, this Gladiator be cut in pie­ces in the place where Gladiators are laid up, when slain or wounded: Hosti patriae honores de­trahantur, parricida, gladiator in spoliario lanie­tur, &c.

ACCO,

the Name of a foolish and ridi­culous Woman, who pleas'd her self with speaking to her own Image in a Looking-glass, and made a shew of refusing that which she most passionatly desired; from whence [...] is used for Pretending to refuse, for Dis­simulation and Disguise.

ACCUMBERE,

to lie upon Couches for eating, to sit down, to seat your self at Table, as the Greeks did, and in imitation of them the Romans. For at the beginning the Romans did eat sitting at a Table as we do, be­fore the Grecian Luxury and Softness had cor­rupted them, as may appear from this Verse,

Perpotuis soliti patres consistere mensis.

But afterwards they were wont to eat after the fashion of the Greeks. For this end, in a lofty Hall a Table was fix'd, of a round or oval Fi­gure, which the richer sort made of some pre­cious Wood, adorn'd with Plates of Gold and Silver, or rather inlaid with some pieces re­sembling Mother of Pearl: this Table was supported with Feet of Ivory, or some other matter, which represented the figures of divers Animals: round about it were plac'd two or three Couches, from whence it was call'd Biclini­um and Triclinium: these Conveniencies for lean­ing at Table were cover'd with richer or mean­er Stuffs, according to the Quality of the Per­sons, and adorn'd with Quilts and Pillows that they might lye more soft and easily upon them. They did commonly place no more than three upon a Couch, and to lay a greater number upon it, was accounted a sign of sordid Ava­rice, as Horace tells us,

Saepè tribus lectis, videas canare quaternos.

In eating they lay along on their sides, having their Heads rais'd up with Pillows: He who fill'd the middle place was in that which is most honourable, as we learn from Virgil,

—Aulaeis jam se regina superbis
Aurea composuit spondâ, mediamque locavit.

He who was at the head held the second place, and the third was at the lower end, or in the last place. They went into a Bath before they plac'd themselves at Table, and chang'd their Cloths, putting on a Garment which they cal­led Vestis coenatoria, and putting off their Shoes that they might not dirty the Beds. They bound about their Heads Fillets of Wool, to prevent the Distempers of the Head, which the Fumes of Meat and Wine might cause; for which reason they used afterwards Garlands of Flowers. Their Women did not eat lying after this manner, such a Posture being esteem'd indecent and immodest in them, except at a Debauch, where they appear'd without any Shame or Modesty; yet in an antient Marble which is at Rome, we find the figure of a Wo­man lying at a Table upon a Bed as her Hus­band does; and Virgil also seems to attest this, when he represents Dido lying at Table at a Feast which she made upon the Arrival of Ae­neas, unless he means that she was already smitten with Love with her new Guest.

ACCUSARE,

(in the Law) to Accuse, to draw up or lay an Accusation, or Process. The antient Lawyers put a difference between these three words Postulare, Deserre and Accusare: for first leave was desired to lay an Action against one, and this was called Postulare and Postulatio; after this he against whom the Action was laid was brought before the Judg, which was call'd Deserre and nominis Delatio; and lastly the Ac­cusation was drawn up, accusabatur.

The Accuser was obliged by the Law to sign his Accusation, at the head of which he plac'd the Name of the Consul, which signified the Year, when the Romans reckon'd Years by their Consuls; he set down also the Day, the Hour, and the Judg before whom he intended to pro­secute his Accusation. We learn from Tacitus that the Accusers had two days given them to make their Complaint in, and the Accused three days to make his Defence; and that six days were allow'd between them both to pre­pare themselves. From the very moment that any Person was accused of a Capital Crime that deserved Death he was stript of all his Marks of Honour, and appear'd in a careless Habit: he was obliged to give Sureties that he would ap­pear in Court when there was occasion, which if he did not, he was laid up in Prison to se­cure his Person. The Libel being drawn, the Accused was summoned to appear at three Market-days, in trinundinum; and he always [Page] came attended with his Neighbours and Friends who were concerned for him, and threw them­selves at the feet of the Magistrates and People to beg favour for him in case he were found guilty. If the Accused refus'd to appear, he was summoned with the Sound of a Trumpet before his House or Castle, and after the time allow'd was expir'd, he was condemn'd for Con­tumacy. The Accuser had two hours wherein to speak against the Accused, and three hours were granted to the Accused to make his De­fence, which was measured by an Hour-glass of Water, called Clepsydra, of which I shall give an account in its proper place; which made a Greek Orator say to the Judg, when he had a mind to signifie to him the Goodness of his Cause, That he would bestow part of his Water on his Adversary, i. e. of his Time, which the Lex Pompeia, made by Pompey in his third Consul­ship, allowed him for his Defence. If the Ac­cused was found guilty, Sentence was pro­nounced against him in these words, Videtur fecisse, i. e. he is attainted and convicted of having committed the Crime: If, on the contrary, he was found not guilty, he was then declared in­nocent in these terms, Videtur non fecisse, i. e. he is cleared from all Suspicion of Guilt. All these Circumstances which were observed in Accu­sations, are related by Cicero and Tacitus. But if it appeared by the Event, that the Accuser was a Calumniator, i. e. that he had falsly ac­cused the other Party; or that he was a Pre­varicator, i. e. that he had betray'd his Cause, to make way for the Criminal to escape and ob­tain Absolution; or at least, that he had de­sisted from and given over Prosecution with­out the Leave of the Magistrate or the Prince, and without a lawful Cause, then he was sen­tenced by the Magistrate to suffer the same Pu­nishment which the guilty Person deserv'd.

ACERRA,

a little Pot which held the Incense and Perfumes for Sacrifices, such as are now made in the form of a small Boat, and are used in the Church of Rome at this day. An Incense-Box for burning Perfumes upon the Al­tars of the Gods, and before the dead Bodies. The Rich, says Horace, offer'd Boxes full of the finest Perfumes to their false Deities,

Et plenâ supplex veneratur Acerrâ.

And the Poor, according to Lucian, were ex­cused for making a Bow, and throwing some grains of Incense into the Fire that burnt upon the Altars.

ACESSEUS,

the Name of a certain Seaman who was very careless, and always at­tributed the bad Success of his Voyages to the Moon; from whence comes the Latin Proverb, Accessei Luna, to signifie a lazy and negligent sort of People, who always throw off the Blame from themselves, in case of any bad Success, tho their own Negligence was the only Cause of it.

ACETABULUM,

a small antient Measure, which contained about the fourth part of an Hemine, being about two ounces and an half of either liquid or dry things, as Pliny explains it towards the end of his twelfth book. This Measure held a Cup and an half, and an­swers to our Quartern; but is now more in use among Druggists and Apothecaries than Victu­allers, both for Liquids and Solids.

It was also a kind of Spice-Box, which con­tained all sorts of Spices, whereof the Ancients used to make their Sauces, to season their Vi­ctuals together with Vinegar and Verjuice: It was made in the form of a Pyramid, and had several Drawers, wherein were put different sorts of Spices, as Pepper, Nutmegs, &c.

ACHELOUS,

a River whose Spring-head rises on Mount Pindus in Thessaly, and from thence crosses over Acarnania, which it separates from Etolia, and then dividing it self into two Streams, it runs into the Gulph of Corinth. This River was called Thoas, accor­ding to Stephanus, and afterwards Achelous, from one Achelous who came from Thessaly to inhabit in these parts, with Alcmeon the Son of Amphia­raus, who kill'd his Mother Eryphile: (he is commonly called Aspri, and according to others Catochi.) He was, according to the Poets, the Son of the Ocean and the Earth, or of Thetis, as Servius would have it, who makes him the Father of the Syrens. He wrestled with Hercu­les for the fair Deïanira, whom her Father OEnus King of Calydon would not bestow in marriage upon any Man but him who was victorious in this kind of Exercise: Achelous, finding himself too weak, was put to his shifts, and changed himself sometimes into a Serpent, and some­times into a Bull; but this avail'd him nothing, for Hercules overcame him and pluck'd off one of his Horns, which the Naiades took up, and having fill'd it with Fruits and Flowers they call'd it Cornutopia; the Horn of Plenty. He therefore being confounded with this Defeat, for shame hid his Head, that had lost a Horn, under the Waters of the River Thoas, which ever since bear his Name.

Strabo, lib. 10. interprets this Fable allegori­cally, and says, That Achclous is said to be changed into a Serpent, upon the account of the Course of that River, which is winding like a Serpent; and into a Bull, because the Noise which the Waters make resembles the Bellowing of a Bull. And because this River destroy'd all the Country round about by its frequent Inundations, Hercules confin'd it with­in its Channel by cutting a Stream from it, which is the Horn that he pluck'd off, and that became the Horn of Plenty, by reason of [Page] the Fertility of that Earth which was enrich'd for a long time after by the fat slime it left be­hind.

Virgil takes the Waters of the River Achelous for Water in general, in this Verse in the first Book of his Georgicks,

Poculaque inventis Acheloia miscuit uvis.

Which gives sufficient ground to suppose, that Scaliger did not without reason affirm, That the Latin word Aqua came from a word like it in the antient Greek Language, from which the River Achelous took its name, viz. Aqua and [...], lavare. Maximus Tyrius the Philosopher mentions also a Contest between this River and Hercules, who pluck'd off from it one Horn, whereof the Nymphs made the Horn of Plenty, having fill'd it with Fruits and Flowers. Ser­vius explaining this Verse of Virgil,

Corniger Hesperidum fluvius regnator aquarum.

says, That the Floods were painted with Horns because of their winding Course, which twines about the Land like a Serpent. Thus the Ri­ver Achelous was represented with Horns as well as the Po, whereof Virgil speaks. Diodorus Siculus gives an account how this River falling down at first from Mount Pindus, ran over the Rocks and made a great Devastation in the Country, whereupon Hercules opened a more large and united Channel, and so well water'd one Field with it that it became very fruitful. This is the Meaning of the Fable, and what Ovid has express'd in describing the Horn of Plenty,

Dum tenet, infregit: truncâque à fronte revellit.
Naïades hoc pomis & odore flore repletum
Sacrarunt, divesque meo bona copia cornu est.
Metamorph. lib. 9.

ACHERON or ACHERUNS,

accor­ding to Plautus, a River of Hell, which Homer places in the Country of the Cimmerians, think­ing that Country to be Hell; being a day's Journey from Circe, which is a Mountain in the Country of the Latins. Circe speaking to Ulysses when he embark'd in the Country of the Cimmerians, Navem quidem illic sistito in Oceano pro­fundorum vorticum. Ipse autem in Plutonis eas do­mum obscuram, ubi in Acherontem fluunt, & Cocy­tus qui Stygiae aquae est emanatio. Servius ex­plaining these words of Virgil,

Tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuso,

seems to confirm what Homer says, and to place these dark Cavities and Rivers of Hell in the Country of Italy. All Geographers place the River Acheron in Epirus, which joins to Arcadia. Diodorus Siculus shews, that the Hell of the Greeks was nothing but an Imitation of the Fu­nerals of the Egyptians: For thus he discourses about them, Pratum verò & habitationem Defun­ctorum confictam, esse locum juxta paludem Acheru­siam: Plcrasque enim & maximas Aegyptiorum fu­nerationes istic peragi, dum cadavera per amnem Acherusiam paludem deportata in cryptis illic siti [...] deponunt; The Field which the Souls of the dead inhabit, is a place joining to the Morass of Acherusa near the City of Memphis, whither the Egyptians carry the Bodies of the dead to inter them. Which gave occasion to the Fa­ble, that the Souls of the dead pass'd the River Acheron in a Boat. This River is encompass'd on all sides with high Mountains, so that the Sun never shines upon it; and this gave occa­sion to the Name of Acheron, which is deriv'd from the Greek words, [...], or from [...], i. e. the River of Auguish and Pain, or at least [...], to be deprived to Joy and Pleasure, for asmuch as the Sun, which is the Father of Nature, never shines there. The Poets make this River the Son of Titan and the Earth, and say that he was banished to Hell by Jupiter for furnishing the Titans with Water in the War against the Gods.

ACHILLES

the Son of Peleus and The­tis: he was a very magnanimous Grecian Prince, whom his Mother dipt in the Waters of Styx while he was very young, and by this means made him invulnerable in all parts of his Body but his Heel, by which she held him when she dipt him. She caused him to be educated by Chiron the Centaur, a Man very skilful in the Noble Arts, as in Medicine, Musick and Draw­ing the Bow, who instructed him in these Sci­ences and Exercises with great Care, and fed him only with Honey and the Marrow of Ly­ons and Boats, to make him the more stout and formidable. Themis, whom his Mother consul­ted about the Destiny of young Achilles, having foretold that he should be kill'd in the War which the Greeks were to undertake against the Trojans, to revenge the Rape of Helen by Paris the Son of King Priam, she address'd her self to Neptune, conjuring him to sink the Boat that carried that Princess; but this being deny'd, because the Decree of Destiny was inviolable, she resolv'd to send him, under the Disguise of a Girl, into the Isle of Scyro, to the Court of King Lycomedes, that he might there be educa­ted with his Daughters, and by this means be stoln away from the Greeks, and hindred from going to that Fatal War. While he sojourn'd there he became very intimate with the young Deidama, the King's Daughter, insomuch that she became big with child, and was brought to bed of a Son, who was call'd Pyrrhus, from the disguised Name of Achilles who was called Pyrrha by reason of his Hair, which was of a shining red colour. Nevertheless he was dis­cover'd by Ulysses and Diomedes, who landed on the Isle of Scyro in the habit of Merchants, and having exposed the Merchandize they had brought with them to Sale at the King's Court, which were nothing but Trinkets for Women [Page] with some Arms; Achilles, tho under his Dis­guise, never concern'd himself about the Trin­kets, but presently seized upon the Arms, and thereby discover'd himself, and follow'd Ulysses to the War of Troy. Thetis his Mother seeing this fatal Necessity, obtain'd of Vulcan a Suit of Armour for him, so excellently temper'd that it was impenetrable. He signalized himself at the Siege of Troy by many brave Exploits; but out of indignation against Agamemnon for rob­bing him of his Mistress Briseis, he retir'd from the Grecian Camp, and laid down his Arms, which he would never take up again till the Death of his Friend Patroclus, who was kill'd by Hector, which did so sensibly touch him, that he return'd to the Camp, and reveng'd the death of his Friend upon Hector, by killing him and dragging his dead Body about the Walls of Troy; but he, falling in love with Polixine the Daughter of Priam, and having demanded her for his Wife, was treacherously slain by Paris with an Arrow shot at his Heel, which was the only place of his Body wherein he was mortal. Divine Honours were decreed to him after his Death to be performed upon his Tomb, and in obedience to the Oracle of Dodona, the Thes­salians offer'd there every year a Sacrifice of two Bulls, one white and the other black, which they brought from their own Country, whither also they took care to bring Wood from Mount Pelion, and Water from the River Specchius, to­gether with Garlands made of Flowers, which were called immortal because they never faded. Philostratus on the Picture of Achilles, and Quin­tus Calaber in lib. 3 of his Paralipomena, do not agree to all the Circumstances in the History of Achilles here related. The common Opinion is, That he was educated in the Island of Scyro with the Daughters of King Lycomedes, which is the Sentiment of Hyginus. But Philostratus thinks that he was sent by his Father against the Island of Scyro, to revenge the Death of Theseus, whom Lycomedes had cruelly put to death. Pausanias in his Attica is of the same Opinion, for he tells us, That Scyro was taken by Achilles, as well as the King Lycomedes. Quin­tus Calaber maintains that Apollo kill'd Achilles with an Arrow; Apollo, says he, being angry at the insolent Answer which Achilles gave him, drew a Bow and shot him in the Heel with an Arrow, of which Wound he died: And Hyginus tells us, that Apollo, to give him this Wound, assumed the shape of Paris.

ACHOR,

otherwise call'd Myagris or Myodes, the God of Flies, to whom the Greeks and Cyre­nians sacrific'd, to drive away the Flies which annoy'd them, and infected their Country. S. Gregory Nazianzen in his first Invective against Julian, calls him Accaron, because the Accaro­nites, a People of Judea, made an Idol of him, whom they call'd Beelzebuth, i. e. the God of Flies. Pliny relates, that Hercules had been ve­ry much annoy'd by these Insects at Olympia, but after he had sacrific'd to Jupiter, under the Name of [...], or, the Fly-chasing God, they flew all away over the River Alphaeus, and ne­ver annoy'd him more, nor any of those who sacrific'd to him in the Temples built for him after he was plac'd among the number of the Gods: For Solinus tells us, that no Flies nor Dogs could ever enter into a Chappel built to Hercules at Rome by Octavius Herennius.

ACIDALIA,

an Epithet given to Venus, the Goddess of Love, because she was the cause of great Uneasiness and Vexation to those who were in Love. Some think that she was also so call'd from a Fountain of that Name, where­in the Three Graces, which always attended her, us'd to bath themselves.

ACILIA,

the Name of a very illustrious Roman Family, from which was descended the generous Consul Acilius Glabrio, to whom the People of Rome erected a Statue cover'd with Leaves of Gold, for having defeated the Army of Antiochus in the narrow passage of Tempe, and made a great slaughter of the Asiaticks. This Consul erected a Statue on horseback of pure Gold, which he plac'd in the Temple of Piety, and consecrated to the Memory of his Father, whose Effigies it was. This was the first Sta­tue of that precious Metal that was ever seen at Rome, from the time of its first foundation.

ACINACES,

a kind of Cutlass or Scimetre us'd among the Persians.

ACNUA,

a sort of Measure for Land, among the antient Measures call'd otherwise Actus qua­dratus, which was a Square, whereof each side was 26 foot long, which contain'd, as Authors tell us, the moiety of a Jugerum, or, of the Acre of the Latines. Vossius says, that it is plainly read Acnua in the Manuscripts, yet he would have it read Acna, to give credit to his own Etymology, which derives it from the word [...] or [...], which is a Measure of twelve feet, as he himself tells us; he adds afterwards, that [...] signifi'd also a Measure of 26 feet, but this he does not prove.

ACONITUM,

Wolvesbane, an Herb very venomous, whereof there are many kinds; 'tis said that its Name comes from Acona, a City of Bithynia, round about which it grows in great abundance. The Poets feign, that this Herb sprung up from the Froth which the Dog Cerberus cast forth when Hercules drag'd him by force out of Hell; for which reason, great quan­tities of it are found near to Heraclea of Pontus, where is the Cavern by which Hercules descend­ed thither. 'Tis said, that all its Venom is in its Root; for there is no hurt in its Leaves or Fruit. The Symptoms of this Poyson are these, [Page] It makes the Eyes water very much, oppresses the Stomach, causes frequent breaking of wind backwards. Nevertheless the Antients us'd it as a Medicin against the biting of a Scorpion, the burning heat whereof, the bare touch of Wolvesbane did presently extinguish.

ACONTIUS,

a young Man of the Isle of Cea, who coming one day to Delos to the Sacri­fice of Diana, fell in love with the fair Cydippe; but fearing a Denyal, if he should desire her in Marriage, upon the account of the inequali­ty of his Birth and Fortune, he contriv'd this Stratagem to win her; he wrote these two Versues upon an Apple,

Juro tibi sanè per mystica sacra Dianae,
Me tibi venturam comitem sponsamque futuram.

and then threw the Apple at the Feet of Cydippe, who taking it up, read these Verses, and bound herself to the Oath which was upon it. Where­upon every time she had a mind to marry, she was presently taken dangerously sick, which she interpreted to be a just Punishment for the Violation of her Faith, and therefore to appease Diana, she married Acontius.

ACRATES,

the Genius or Demon of the Bacchantes, whose Mouth only was represented in Figures, as Pausanias tell us.

ACRISIUS,

the last King of the Argives, and the Brother of Praetus, to whom he succeed­ed, according to Eusebius. He understanding by the Oracle that he was to be kill'd by a Son of his Daughter Danae, shut her up in a Tower of Brass, to preserve himself from this Mischief. But Jupiter falling in love with this unfortunate Princess, found a way to come at her; for he changing himself into a shower of Gold, unaccountably pass'd through the Tiles of the House, and she was found with child of a Son, who was call'd Perseus. Acri­sius being inform'd of this, caus'd his Daughter, with her Child, to be shut up in a Chest, and commanded them both to be cast into the Sea: The Chest swimming for some time upon the Water, was at last thrown up upon the Isle of S [...]riphe, where Polydectes reign'd, who receiv'd them graciously, and fell in love with Danae: But she refusing to agree to his love, and yield herself up to his passion, he resolv'd at last to force her; and the better to cover his Design, he remov'd her Son Perseus a great way off, and sent him to the Garganes, with an Order to bring back to him the Head of Medusa, that he might make a Present of it to his Mistress Hip­podamia, hoping that Perseus would be kill'd in this Enterprize, and then he should be in a con­dition to prevail with his Mother to condescend to his Desires. But things fell out quite other­wise than he imagin'd; for Perseus by good luck return'd safe from this Expedition, brought back the Head of Medusa, and was married in his Voyage to Andromeda, whom he deliver'd from the Sea-Monster, which was just ready to devour her. He returning to Argos with his new-married Spouse, to present her before Acri­sius, his Grandfather, found him celebrating Funeral-Games; whereupon he having a mind to exercise himself with throwing a Bar of Iron, it happen'd unluckily that the Bar hit against Acrisius's his Leg, and gave him a Wound, whereof he died in some days after; and thus the Oracle was fulfill'd.

ACROBATES,

a sort of Dancers upon the Rope. We learn from Boulanger, in his Trea­tise of Dancers on the Rope, that there were Four sorts of 'em: The First were those who vaulted about a Rope, as a Wheel turns about its Axeltree, and hang'd upon it by the Feet or the Neck. Nicephorus Gregora says, that in his time these Dancers vaulting about a Rope were to be seen at Constantinople. The Second sort of them were those who flew from a high place down to the ground upon a Rope, which sup­ported their Breast, their Arms and Legs be­ing extended. Of these Manilius Nicetas, and Vopiscus speak in the Life of Carinus. The Third sort were those who are mention'd by the same Manilius, who run upon a sloping Rope, or came down it, from a higher to a lower place. The Fourth sort were those who not only walk'd upon a distended Rope, but jump'd high, and cut Capers upon it as a Dancer would do upon the ground at the sound of a Flute: And of this kind Symposius is to be understood.

ACROSTOLIUM,

a kind of Ornament for a Ship, made in the form of a Hook, which was plac'd at the end of the Stem or Stern: To these may be compar'd those polish'd and sharp pieces of Iron resembling the Neck of a Duck, which the Venetians use at the Stem of their Gondoles. It may also be that Ornament of a Stern, which they call'd Anserculus, a little Goose, whereof Bayfius gives us the Figure like the Head of a Goose.

ACROTERIA,

[...], the extremities of any thing: This word in Greek signifies generally any extreme part; such as are in Ani­mals, the Nose, the Ears, and the Fingers; and in Buildings, the Turrets or Battlements of Houses, and the little Pedestals on which Statues were plac'd, and which were scituate at the middle, and the two Extremities of a Frontispiece, or the Statues of Earth or Copper, which were plac'd on the top of Temples to adorn 'em; in Ships, this word signifies the Beaks, which are call'd Rostra; they are also Promontories, or high places which are seen afar off at Sea.

ACTA,

which has in the Genitive Actae. Cicero and Virgil use this word, speaking of a Meadow pleasant for its greenness; and Vossius [Page] thinks that it must only be us'd in speaking of Sicily, as these two Authors did.

ACTA PUBLICA,

the Records or publick Registers, wherein were written what concern'd publick Affairs, to preserve the Memory of 'em.

ACTA DIURNA,

a Diurnal, wherein is set down what passes every day.

ACTA CONSISTORII,

the Edicts, the De­clarations of the Council of State of the Empe­rors, which were express'd in these Terms;

IMPERAT. DIOCLESIANUS ET MAXI­MIANUS A. A. IN CONSISTORIO DIXERUNT; DECURIONUM FILII NON DEBENT BESTIIS OBJICI.

The August Emperors Dioclesian and Maximian, in Council declar'd; That the Children of the Decurions ought not to be expos'd to wild Beasts in the Amphitheatre.

The Senate and Soldiers swore often, either through Flattery or by Compulsion upon the Edicts of the Emperors. Tacitus tells us, that Nero raz'd the Name of Apidius Meru'a out of the Register of the Senators, because he would not swear upon the Acts of the Emperor Au­gustus.

ACTEIUS,

one of the six envious and ma­lign Demons, whom the Greeks call Telchines, who bewitch Men out of their sense, and of whom fabulous Antiquity would make us be­lieve, that they sprinkle the Earth with the in­fernal Stygian Water, from whence arose Pe­stilence, Famin, and other publick Calamities.

ACTAEON,

the Son of Aristeus, and Autonoe, the Daughter of Cadmus, who was brought up in the School of Chiron the Centaur. He was a great lover of Hunting, and continually fol­low'd this Sport One day as he was pursuing a Hart, he spy'd Diana bathing her self with her Nymphs: But the Goddess enrag'd to be seen in that condition, threw Water upon him, which chang'd him into a Hart, and afterwards he was torn in pieces by his own Dogs. Pausanias mentions a Fountain of Acteon near Megara, on the side whereof the Hunter was wont often to repose himself when he was tyred with the Chase; and there it was that he saw Diana ba­thing her self.

Plutarch mentions another Acteon, the Son of Mclistus, a Corinthian, who was carryed away by force, and whom his Friends tore in pieces while they endeavour'd to recover him out of the hands of his Kidnappers.

ACTIACA VICTORIA,

the Actiat Victory which Augustus obtain'd over Mark Antony near the Promontory and City of Actium. This Prince to perpetuate the Memory of that Vi­ctory to Posterity, built the City Nicopolis, i. e. the City of Victory; he adorn'd with great Magnificence the old Temple of Apollo, where­in he dedicated the Beaks or Rostra of the Ene­mies Ships; he increas'd also the Pomp of the solemn Games, call'd Ludi Actiaci, which were celebrated every fifth Year in Honor of this God, after the manner of the Olympic Games: Stephans would have 'em observ'd every Third Year, and thinks they consisted of a Race by Sea and Land, and Wrestling.

ACTIUM,

a City and Promontory of Epirus, a place famous for the Defeat of Antony and all the Forces of the East, by Caesar-Augustus, who built there a new City, call'd Nicopolis, i. e. the City of Victory.

ACTIO,

(in the Law) an Action in a Court of Justice, a Process entred either by the Prosecutor or the Defendant. There were many Formali­ties observ'd in judicial Actions that were com­menc'd against any Person: First, A Petition must be presented to the Judg, to have leave to bring the Person before him: The Judg an­swer'd this Petition by writing at the bottom of it, Actionem do, I give leave to bring him: On the contrary, he wrote Actionem non do, when he deny'd the Petition. All Actions, especially Civil and Pecuniary, commenc'd af­ter the Petition was presented, by a Citation or summoning the Party, which is call'd in Law Vocatio in jus, and in jus vocare. This was an­tiently done vivâ vote by the Party himself, who meeting him against whom he intended to bring his Action, declared his Intention to him, and commanded him immediately to go before a Magistrate and make his Defence: if he would not go willingly, he might force and drag him along against his will, unless he gave Security to appear at a day agreed upon: but if he fail'd to appear at the day appointed, then the Plaintiff, whensoever he met him, might take him along with him by force, calling any By-standers to bear witness, by asking them, Vis antestari, who presently turn'd their Ear towards him, in token of their Consent to do it. This Horace expresses in these Verses in his Satyr against the Impertinent, lib. 1. Sa­tyr. 9.

—Casu venit obvius illi
Adversarius. Et quò tu, turpissimè? magnâ
Exclamat voce: Et licet antestari. Ego verò
Oppone auriculam: rapit in jus; clamer utrin (que).

By chance, says Horace, he meets his Adversary, and crys to him with a loud voice, Whither art thou flying, thou infamous Fellow? and then addressing himself to me, he prays me to bear witness, where­upon I turn my Ear to him; and then he seizes upon the Party, and drags him before a Court of Justice, with a great Noise on both sides. The Verses pre­ceding these discover that he had fail'd to ap­pear at the day and hour appointed by the Ci­tation. But because this kind of Proceeding was attended with some sort of Outrage and Violence, therefore Persons of Honour who [Page] were advanced to any Dignity, were not thus to be summoned into Court without desiring express leave of the Magistrate by a Petition, as we have remarked before. Afterwards this manner of proceeding was changed, and that other introduced of summoning the Party by a Sergeant and a Writ, per Libellum, which they call in Law Libellum Conventionis, a Writ of Sum­mons. This Writ was to contain the Preten­sions of the Prosecutor, that the other Party being made acquainted with them, might ei­ther resolve to satisfie them, or else come pre­par'd to defend himself. And so the Summons was to express the Cause of Action, i. e. to contain the Complaint of the Prosecutor, which they called edere Actionem.

ACTOR

(upon the Theatre) an Actor; one who acts a Part, and represents some Per­son in a Tragedy or Comedy. In former times many Regulations were made about their Salary, and for punishing those who indulg'd themselves in too great a Liberty. The chief of them, as Tacitus says, were these, That a Senator could not visit them at their Houses, nor a Roman Knight walk with them in the Street; That they could not act but upon a publick Theatre. The Senate had a mind to give the Praetor a Power of chastising the Actors with Rods: But Haterius Agrippa, the Tribune of the People, oppos'd it, and by his Opposition gain'd the point; because Augustus had declar'd the Actors exempt from whipping, and Tibarius would not violate his Orders.

ACTOR,

(in the Law) He who has an Action against another, he who prosecutes an­other in a Court of Judicature.

ACTOR,

the Name of one of Hercules's Companions in the War against the Amazons. He was married to the Nymph Aegina, the Mistress of Jupiter, by whom he had Menetius, who was the Father of Patroclus, who from thence was call'd Actorides.

ACTUARIOLUM and ACTUARIUM NAVIGIUM,

a Brigantine, a little Vessel at Sea, very light for sailing or rowing.

ACTUARIUS,

a Notary or Scribe, who in former times wrote very swiftly at the Bar the Pleadings of the Advocates, and for that end used Cyphers, or single Letters, or certain Abbreviations to signifie a whole word.

ACTUARII PALI,

Stakes, which were set up in a piece of Ground of twenty six feet, which was the Length of one of the sides of the Measure for Land, which the Latins call'd Actus quadratus.

ACTUMEST

(a Phrase antiently used in the Comick Poets) 'Tis done, there is no Re­medy.

ACTUMNE AGAS,

'Tis done withal, it cannot be helpt.

ACTUM AGIS,

'Tis lost labour, this is to begin a thing after 'tis done withal.

ACTUS,

a piece of Ground of 120 feet. There were three sorts of this Measure; Actus minimus, the least, which contained 120 feet in Length, and four only in Breadth; the se­cond which they call Actus quadratus, a Square, had 120 feet every way; and the third was a double Square, being 240 feet long, and 120 broad, which made an Acre of Ground, or as much as a Yoke of Oxen could plough in a day.

ACTUS,

an Act; the name of certain Divisions which are made in Dramatic Poems, to give some Respite to the Actors and Specta­tors. Comedies sometimes consisted of three Acts, but generally of five.

ADAD,

the Worship which was given to Adad, i. e. to the Sun, was easily transfer'd to Adad the King of Syria, and the Founder of many Temples dedicated to the Sun in the City of Damas, as Josephus tells us. Some think that the Prophet Isaiah speaks of this Worship of the Sun under the name of Achad: for the Hebrew word Achad is the same with the Chaldee Adad, and it signifies unicus, i. e. One only, which agrees to the Sun.

ADDICERE,

(a Term of the Roman Law) to adjudge a piece of Land, or an Inhe­ritance to any person. Licetur Aebutius, deter­rentur emptores partim gratiâ, partim pretio, fun­dus addicitur Aebutio; Aebutius bid money, the Buyers were hindred by Favour and Money, where­upon the Land was adjudg'd to Aebutius for the Price he had offer'd. The Custom was then, as it is at this day, not to adjudge a piece of Land to any Person upon the first Offers that are made, but to prescribe a certain time for ad­mitting Buyers to come in, which being ex­pir'd, the thing was adjudg'd for the Price that was offer'd. And upon this account 'tis com­monly said at this day, Tis adjudg'd, saving the eighth or fifteenth day, i. e. provided that in eight or fifteen days no more is offer'd. Ille fundus centum (que) esto tibi emptus, si quis intra Calendas Janu­arias proximas meliorem conditionem non fecerit, quo res à domino abeat; This Land shall be yours for an hundred Crowns, provided another do not give more for it before the first day of January.

ADDICERE,

(an Augural Term) to approve, to authorize an Enterprize. After the Augurs had consulted the Will of the Gods by the Flying of Birds, if the Signs were fa­vourable, they answer'd thus, Id addicunt aves, the Gods favour this Enterprize. Cùm omnium Sacellorum exaugurationes admitterent aves, in Ter­mini fano non addixere; The Birds having approv'd the Prophanation of all the other Temples, did not approve of this Prophanation in the Chappel of the God Terminus.

ADDICTIO,

a Judgment for deliver­ing the Goods of the Debtor into the hands of his Creditor, when he had not satisfied him according to the Sentence of the Praetor, who condemn'd him to pay the Debt: for then the Judg, by a second Sentence, deliver'd over him and all his Family into the hands of his Creditor.

ADEONA,

an antient Deity, worship'd by the Romans, as St. Austin tells us, she enabled People to walk.

ADIGERE ARBITRUM,

or Arbitrium, or ad Arbitrum, and ad Arbitrium, (Forms of Speech which were used by the antient Lawyers) to constrain, to force, to oblige one to submit to Arbitrators. They used also to say, Adigere aliquem in sua verba per jusjurandum, to oblige a Person to take his Oath.

ADJICIALIS COENA and ADJICIALES EPULAE,

a solemn Banquet or Feast which the Romans made at the Consecration of their Pontifices, or on a Day of Publick Rejoicing.

ADDIR,

Pater Magnificus, this Word is often attributed to God: even the Philistines themselves gave him this Name for smiting Egypt with many Plagues.

ADMETUS,

a King of Thessaly, who en­tertain'd Apollo, when he was driven out of Heaven by Jupiter, to take care of his Flocks. In acknowledgment of this Favour, he assisted Admetus in his Amours with Alcestis, Daughter to King Pelias, who resolv'd never to bestow her in marriage but to one who should have a Chariot drawn by two disproportion'd Animals. Apollo therefore furnish'd him with a Lyon and a Bear to draw the Chariot wherein he was to carry off Alcestis. This God obtained also of the Parcae, or three fatal Sisters, that he should die by Proxy, and so, when he fell dange­rously ill, his Wife died in his stead. But Hercules, going down to Hell, brought her back again, and restor'd her to her Husband: or Proserpina her self restor'd her to Life again, being mov'd by the Complaints of Admetus for losing her.

ADMISSIVAE AVES,

Birds of a happy Omen, which approv'd of an Enterprize: on the contrary, they were called Arculae Aves, when they discouraged and disapprov'd it.

ADOD,

Philo Biblos, explaining the Theo­logy of Sanchoniathin, says, that Adod is the King of Gods, [...]. The Kings of Syria assum'd this Name: for Josephus recites the words of Nicolas of Damascus the Hi­storian, when he mentions Adad King of Syria and Damascus. Josephus also says, that Adad King of Syria, and Hazael his Son, received Divine Honours for adorning the City of Da­mascus with magnificent Temples. See Adad.

ADOLERE and ADOLERE THURA

(a Term belonging to Sacrifices) to burn In­cense upon the Altars of the Gods, to pay them Divine Honours.

ADOLESCENS, and ADULESCENS,

a young Man, who is not yet past the age of grow­ing. They commonly reckon'd this Age from twelve years to twenty five for Boys, and to twenty one for Girls. But if we consider the Use of this word among the Antients, we shall find that they used indifferently the word Ado­lescens and Juvenis, for such as were not yet forty five years old. Cicero lib. 2. ep. 2. calls Curio adolescens, who was more than thirty years old. In lib. 2. de Oratore, he says, that there were some Works of Lucius Crassus which he wrote in his Youth, & ea ipsa adolescentem scri­pta reliquisse. Sallust calls Caesar adolescentulum, when he obtained the Pontificate, and he was then at least thirty five years of age. Valerius Maximums calls Scipio Aemilianus admodum adolescen­tem, who was more than thirty four years old. And lastly, Cicero calls Brutus and Cassius ado­lescentes, in the year of their Praetorship, i. e. in the fortieth year of their age. All which Pas­sages plainly prove, that it was not only in Writing that this word was used for one so far advanced in years.

ADONIS,

the Fair Adonis, born of the in­cestuous Conjunction of Cinarus King of Cyprus and his own Daughter Myrrha. Venus and Pro­serpina fell both in love with Adonis, and the former descended often upon Mount Libanus to see him, but Proserpina transported him into Hell: but afterwards, being mov'd by the Tears of Venus, she gave him to her for one half of the Year, and the other half he remain'd in Hell. The Worship of Adonis and Venus his Mother, says Macrobius, was very antient and famous among the Assyrians or Caldeans, who were the first Astrologers in the World, and from them it passed to the Phaenicians. Adonis is the Sun, who during the six superiour Signs of the Summer is with Venus, i. e. in that Hemi­sphere of the Earth which we inhabit; and, during the other six inferiour Signs of the Winter, is with Proserpina, i. e. in the inferi­our Hemisphere of the Earth which is inhabi­ted by our Antipodes. These are the Physical Reasons of the Earth's alternative Sadness and Joy, according as the Sun retires from it in Winter, as if it fell into the hands of Death or Proserpina; or approaches nearer to it during the Summer, as if Proserpina had restored it to Venus. When the Poets feign'd that a wild Boar gave Adonis his Deaths-wound, they design'd by that to represent the Rigor of the Winter. Ammianus Marcellinus says, that the Mysteries of Adonis represented the Corn, which is hid six months under ground, before the time of Harvest approaches; wherein he [Page] does only transfer the Mysteries of the Sun to the Corn, which is a Symbol of it. St. Cyril, Archbishop of Alexandria, relates at large, in his Commentaries upon Isaiah, the History or Fable of the Greek Poets about Adonis; That Ginarus being passionately enamour'd with the Charms of his Daughter Myrrha, had a Son by her of ex­traordinary Beauty, called Adonis, with whom the lascivious Venus fell in love; but Mars, being jealous of her, transformed himself into a Boar, and kill'd Adonis at a Hunting Chaco. Whereupon Ve­nus descended into Hell to fetch him back again, but Proserpina would not release him: Yet at last, being mov'd with Compassion for her Tears, they a­greed together, that each of them should enjoy him alternatively for one half of the Year. This is the occasion of the Grief and Joy that appear at the Fe­stivals of Adonis. This Father adds, That it was this sort of Uncleanness which the Jews imita­ted, of which Ezekiel speaks when he says, the Women lamented Thammus, which is Adonis, Expouitur autem Thammus, Adonis; And that the Letters and Messengers mentioned by Isaiah, are nothing else but the Letters and Messengers which the Cities of Egypt sent interchangeably to one another, to give notice that Adonis was found again: Quòd ubi illae faminae Veneris amicae, una cum Epistols vaganisse [...], perinde ac si repertus fuisset à Venere Adonis, luctum ponebant.

ADONIA SACRA,

the Mysteries and Sacrifices of Adonis, which were celebrated every year at Byblis, in the great Temple of Venus: for in this Country, says Lucian, in his Dea Syria, he was kill'd by a Boar, and in me­mory of this Misfortune every year a publick Mourning was observed, at which the People beat themselves, and lamented, (and celebrate his Funerals as if he had been dead, tho on the next day his Resurrection was solemnized, because, they say he flew into Heaven,) they shave their Heads as the Egyptians do at the death of their Ox Apis. The Women, who will not be shav'd, are forc'd to prostitute themselves a whole day to Strangers, and the Money they get by that Debauch is consecrated to the Goddess. There is also another won­derful thing in this Country, a River, which goes by the Name of Adonis and descends from Libanus into the Sea, changes its colour at cer­tain times, and dyes the Sea as red as Blood; which is look'd upon as a Miracle, this being the time which is dedicated to the Celebration of the Mysteries of Adonis, because 'tis believ'd that then he was wounded in the Forest of Li­bamus.

ADOPTARE,

to Adopt, to take a Stran­ger, and incorporate him into your Family, to take him for your Son, to design him for your Heir. He who was adopted was enter'd under the Paternal Power of the Adopter, and was taken from that of his own Father. 'Twas a Custom to put the Children who were adopted under a Mantle or Gown, says Furetiere in his Dictionary, as if they would thereby represent that they were the proper Children of those who had adopted them. And from thence came the Custom of putting Natural Children under an Umbrella when they are legitimated at a Marriage.

ADOPTIO,

Adoption, an act by which any one is adopted. The Custom of Adopting was very common among the Romans, yet it was not practis'd, but for certain Causes express'd in the Laws, and with certain Formalities usual in such Cases. He that would adopt any Per­son, was to have no Children of his own, or to be past the Age of getting any. In the Infan­cy of the Republick he was to address himself to the Pontifices, that he might have leave ac­cording to Law. This Right of the High-Priests lasted but a little while, and after that application made to the People to obtain it, in the presence of his Father who was to be adopt­ed, to whom the Question was put, Whether he would abandon his Son, together with the full extent of his paternal Authority, and sur­render up the power of Life and Death over him, which Question was call'd Adrogatio. The usual Form upon such occasions was this; Veli­tis jubeatis, uti L. Valerius Licio Titio tam lege ju­reque filius sibi siet, quam si ex eo patre matreque familiar ejus natus esset, utique ei vitae necisque in eum potestas siet uti pariundo filio est. Hoc ita, ut dixi, ita vos, quirites rego. In the last Age of the Republick, when it was just expiring, A­doptions were made by the Sovereign Autho­rity of the Emperors, who granted that Privi­lege even to Women who had no Children, by their Letters of Concession, the words where­of were these; Quoniam in solatium amissorum tuo­rum filiorum cupis privignum tuum vicem legitimae so­bolis obtiuere, annuimus votis tuis, & eum perinde atque ex te progenitum ad vicem naturalis legitimi­que filii habere permittimus, Imper. Dioclesianus & Maximianus A. A. Since, for your comfort, under the Loss of your Children, you desire to adopt your Son-in-Law, we grant your Request, and permit you to take him for your natural and lawful Son. Adoptions also were practis'd in their last Wills, either as for Name or Goods; In imâ cerâ C. Octavium etiam in fa­miliam nomenque adoptavit; He adopted into his Family, and to bear his Name C. Octavius in the last page of his Will. Titus Livius, tells us, that Caecilius adopted Atticus when he was dying by his last Will, Gaecilius moriens testamento Atticum adoptavit. Those who were adopted assum'd the Name and Sir-Name of him who adopted them, and to de­note their Family and Birth, they added only [Page] at the end the Name of the Family from which they were descended; or the Sirname of their private Family, with this difference nevertheless, says Lipsius, that if they us'd this Sirname, they made an Adjective of it: As for instance, M. Junius Brutus being adopted by Q. Servilius Caepio Agalo, he assum'd all these Names, and retain'd only the Sirname of his own Family, calling himself Q. Servilius Caepio Agalo Brutus. Octavius, on the contrary, retain'd the Name of his House, and chang'd it into an Adjective, calling himself C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, which yet did not hinder but they might retain the Sirname which they had assum'd, as Atticus did, who being adopted by Q. Caecilius, was Sir­nam'd Q. Caecilius Pomponianus Atticus, or acquire a new one by their brave Exploits, as Octavius did, who was afterwards sirnam'd Augustus. 'Tis with reference to this Rule of Adoption, that we must understand what Suetonius says of Tiberius, That be being adopted by M. Gallius, a Senator, took possession of his Goods, but would not assume his Name, because he was a contrary Party to Augustus. Tacitus, Lib. XV. Cap. 8. of his Annals, tells us of the feign'd Adoptions which were condemn'd by the Se­nate: A pernicious Custom, says he, was intro­duc'd, of making many feign'd Adoptions, when the time drew near of chusing Magistrates, and dividing the Provinces among them by Lot; for when they had obtain'd their Offices and Employments, they emanci­pated those whom they had adopted: Whereupon the Persons aggriev'd came and made their complaint to the Senate, alledging the Law of Nature, and the trouble of Education against these short and fraudu­lent Adoptions: And therefore it was ordain'd, That for the future no regard should be had to these Adop­tions, either in Offices or in Successions to an Inheritance.

ADOR, or ADUS,

a kind of Corn which was usually offer'd to the Gods at their Sacrifi­ces. The word comes from [...], arista, chang­ing the [...] into [...], as from [...], comes Deus; or from the word edo, whence it came to pass, that they said formerly Edor for Ador, according to Festus, or lastly from aduro, because it was roasted.

ADOREA,

the Goods of this World, in Plau­tus and Varro; Glory, Honour, and Riches, in So­linus and Apuleius; a Present which was made to Soldiers when they were victorious, according to Pliny; and Victory it self and Triumph, ac­cording to this Verse of Horace, Lib. 4. Od. 4.

Ille dies qui primus alma risit Adorea.

a Day celebrated upon the account of the first Victory obtain'd by the Romans over Hannibal.

ADORARE,

to adore; a kind of Wor­ship which the Romans gave to their Deities, by putting their Hand to their Mouth and kis­sing it, as we learn from Pliny, Adorare, manum ad os admovere. The Romans ador'd their Gods both standing and kneeling, with their Heads cover'd; and after they had turn'd to the right hand and gone round about their Statues and Altars, they prostrated themselves before them, and lifted up their Hand to their Mouth and kiss'd it. Saturn was the only God whom they ador'd with an uncover'd Head, that being a Custom which they learned from the Greeks; which gave occasion to Festus to say, Lucem fa­cere Saturno sacrificantes, i. e. capita detegere, to uncover the Head when they sacrifice to him. And we are inform'd by Apuleius, in his Saturna­lia, that it was accounted a strange Custom to sacrifice to this God with a bare Head, Hinc est quod ex instituto peregrino, huic deo sacrum aperto capite faciunt: For 'tis certain that the Romans did never sacrifice to their Gods, but with their Head cover'd, and their Face veil'd, for fear lest in this principal Action of Religion, they should either be diverted by the sight of an E­nemy, or distracted by some Objects, or inter­rupted by some sinister Omen. This we learn from Virgil, Lib. 3. Aeneid. V. 403. For when your Ships are come into the Harbour, says the Sibyl to him, and you have erected Altars by the River side to sacrifice to the Gods, cover your Head and your Face with a purple Veil, for fear lest in the time of sa­crificing, you should be interrupted by the the presence of some Enemy: Remember al­ways to adore the Gods after this manner, and command your Posterity to observe the same way.

Quin ubi transmissae steterint trans aequora classes,
Et positis aris jam vota in littore solves;
Purpureo velare comas adopertus amictu;
Ne qua inter sanctos ignes in honore Deorum.
Hostilis facies occurrat, & omnia turbet.
Hunc socii morem sacrorum, hunc ipse teneto,
Hac vestri maneant in religione nepotes.

Aurelius Victor also tells us the same in his A­bridgment of the Roman History, where speak­ing of Aeneas, he relates, That this Trojan Prince sacrificing by the Sea-side, perceiv'd the Navy of the Grecians approaching, wherein was Ulysses, and fearing lest the sight of his Enemy should disturb him in this Action, he cover'd his Face, and so ended his Sacrifice, without one minutes interruption.

In the Second place, The Romans turn'd to the Right Hand round about the Statues of their Gods, and their Altars. Plautus, in his Curculio, makes Phoedromus say, Quo me vertam nescio? I know not to which side to turn me. Palimirus answer'd him, playing upon the word, Si deos salutas, dextro versum censeo, If you mean to adore the Gods, I advise you to turn to the Right;alluding to the Custom of the Romans, of turning to the Right when they worship their Gods. Pliny confirms the [Page] same thing; When we adore the Gods, says he, we carry our Hand to our Mouth, and we turn round about the Altar, ‘In adorando dextram ad osculum referimus, totumque corpus cir­cumagimus.’ In the following Times they pro­strated themselves before their Gods, which is the most humble manner of adoring them. Titus Livius, speaking of the Carthaginian Am­bassadors, tells us, That when they arriv'd at the Roman Camp, and came into the General's Tent, they prostrated themselves at his Feet, in the posture of those who adore the Gods, More adorantium procubuerunt; from whence come these Latin Phrases, Advolvi aris, Pro­cumbere ad aras, ‘To prostrate themselves at the feet of the Altars.’The proud and haughty Emperors exacted the like Adorations from those who came to make their Reve­rence to them; but the wise and modest Em­perors rejected this kind of Adoration, as did the Emperor Alexander, by the relation of Lampridius as well as Maximianus, who said, God forbid that any one should adore me, by prostrating himself before me; ‘Dii pro­hibeant ut quisquam ingenuorum pedibus meis oscu­lum figat.’

ADORATI IMBRES,

Sen. Distribu­tions, The Largesses which the Emperor gave to the People of Rome, which descended like a Shower of Gold, for which they returned Thanks, by Adoration and very submissive bowing before them.

ADRIANUS,

surnam'd Elius. Adrian whom Trajan adopted, and who was the Son of Elius Adrian his Cousin-German. At his ac­cession to the Empire, being willing to gain the good Will of the Senate, took a solemn Oath, That he would not punish any of that Body, but by a Sentence of their own. He re­mieted all the Arrears of Taxes and Revenues which were due from private Persons either to himself or the publick Treasury of the Empire. He burnt publickly the Bonds of some private Men to the value of Two Millions of Gold. He persecuted the Christians outragiously, un­til Quadratus and Aristides, two Christian Phi­losophers, allay'd the Fierceness of his Rage, by their Apologies written in Favour of the Christians, which prevail'd so far with him, that he wrote to the Governours, forbidding them to punish the Christians for their Reli­gion. The Jews, in his time, shook off the Yoak of the Romans, under the Conduct of a notable Impostor, call'd Barchochebas, i. e. the Son of a Star, who call'd himself the Star of Jacob, foretold in the Scriptures, who was to deliver their Nation. The Cause of this Re­volt was the Temple of Jupiter, which Adrian had caus'd to be built overagainst the Ruins of the Temple of Jerusalem. Adrian having no­tice of it, sent some Troops to Rufus the Go­vernour of Syria, where with he defeated the Rebels in many Battels: Those who remain'd after the Defeat, were sold as Slaves at a very mean rate, and were never suffer'd to return again to Jerusalem, whose Name Adrian chang'd, and call'd it Aelia Capitolina. He caus'd also, says Eusebius, to be plac'd in bas relief, upon the Gate of Bethlehem, the Figure of a Swine, which was an Animal that was most abhorr'd by that Nation, either to signifie the Impurity of this People, or to denote that they were now subject to the Yoak of the Romans, who had a Swine for one of their military Signs; or lastly, to shew the Contempt he had for their Religion. The Emperor being not yet satisfied with this mark of Slavery, built also a Temple in Honour of Venus on Mount Calvary, and another to Jupiter in the place from whence our Saviour ascended, and a Third to Adonis in Bethlehem, where the Son of God was born, which continu'd there until the time of the Emperor Constantine. Adrian was seiz'd with a Bloody-Flux, whereof he dyed with intolera­ble Pain, after he had reign'd Twenty Years and Eleven Months. He was a Prince endow'd with excellent Qualities both of Mind and Bo­dy; he affected much the Reputation of being learned, and Writing well. The Books of his Life which he publish'd under the Name of Phlegon his freed Man, do plainly prove this. Photius says, that he had seen Declamations of his making, whose style was easie and agreea­ble. A little before he gave up the Ghost, he compos'd some Verses, wherein he address'd himself to his Soul, and speaks of its Departure: He wrote also a long Letter against the Physi­cians, whom he accuses of having hasten'd his Death. By the knowledg he had of Astrology, he has left us a Journal of all things which were to happen unto him, being besides mightily ad­dicted to the Superstitions of Magick. The Se­nate were upon the point of abrogating all that he had done, and hindering him to be rank'd among the Gods; but Antoninus, his Successor, prevented it, and built him a Temple at Puteoli, founded a College of Priests to sacrifice to him, and appointed Games to be observ'd every Fifth Year in Honour of him.

ADROGATIO, and ADROGARE,

(Terms of the Roman Law) Interrogation, a De­mand made in the presence of the People for Adoptions. It was ask'd of the Father of him who was to be adopted, Whether he consented that his Son should pass under the Power of another to be his Son, and of him who was to adopt him? Whether he consented to do it? An vellet eum quem adoptaturus esset, justum sibi fi­lium esse? And of the Son, An id fieri pateretur? Whether he would submit to it? See Arroga­tio and Arregare.

ADSERERE

aliquem manu, To set one at liberty, To give him his liberty. It was one of the antient ways of granting liberty to Slaves, To take him by the hand and say, Hunc manu assero, or Liberali causâ manu assere, & as­sero manu in libertatem, I declare him free.

ADTESTATA

fulgura, Redoubled Thunder, which seems by the redoubling of the noise, to confirm the good or bad Presages that were made from it.

ADVELITATIO,

(in a Fight) a Skir­mish, the action of shooting off an Arrow, or throwing a Javelin to begin a Battel.

ADVENTITIA

bona, Windfals, Goods that come to us besides our expectation, Fructus praediorum adventitii, Fines, Leases, or two Fifths of an Estate paid by the Tenants.

ADVERSARIA,

Papers, or Table-Books, in which a thing was hastily set down for a help to the Memory, which was afterwards to be written fairly. A Memorandum, or Stone-Book, a Paper-Journal. This word was deriv'd from adverto, because things are noted down in it, to put us in mind of 'em; or rather, ab adversa pagina, wherein were written the Dis­bursments, as the Receipts were written on the backside. But if the Disbursments and Re­ceipts were found to be equal, this was call'd Utramque paginam facere, or perjure among the Romans; the contrary was call'd Reliquari, to be behind-hand.

ADULTERIUM,

the Crime of Adul­tery, which was always detested by the gene­rality of Mankind, and even by those People that were most barbarous. The Greeks, as well as the Romans, enacted severe Penalties against those who were guilty of it, as Horace informs us in his Book De Arte Poetica, v. 400.

—fuit haec sapientia quondam
Concubitu prohibere vago, dare jura maritis,
Oppida moliri, leges incidere ligno,
Ne quis fur esset, neu latro, ne quis adulter.

Solon, the wise Law-giver of the Lacedemonians, would have a Woman taken in Adultery to be punish'd, by stripping her of all the Ornaments that belong to her Quality, by banishing her from all religious Assemblies, and from the So­ciety of Ladies of Honour. The Thurians or­dain'd, by an express Law, That the Persons who should be found guilty of this Vice, shou'd be personated upon the Theatre, that so they might be expos'd to publick Infamy.

We have a famous Law among the Roman Laws, call'd the Lex Julia, which was made by Augustus, and not by Julius Caesar, as some have imagin'd, being deceiv'd by the word Julia; since 'tis evident, that Octavius, who was sur­nam'd Augustus, having been adopted by the testament of his Great Uncle, was afterwards call'd Julius Caesar, according to the custom of Adoptions, to assume the Name of the Fami­lies of the adoptive Fathers. This Law ena­cted very severe Penalties against Adulterers, condemning 'em to be fin'd, and to be banish'd into some desart Island; to be scourg'd, and to be made Eunuchs, as we may perceive by these Verses of Horace, Sat. 2. lib. 1.

His se praecipitem tecto dedit: ille flagellis
Ad mortem caesus; fugiens hic decidit acrem
Praedonum in turbam: dedit hic pro corpore num­mos;
Hunc perminxerunt Calenes: quin etiam illud
Accidit, ut cuidam testes, caudamque salacem
Demeteret ferrum.—

One, finding himself surpriz'd in the Act of Adul­tery, threw himself headlong from the House-top; another was whipt to death; another bought his Par­don; the other was piss'd upon by the most [...]bject Slaves; and lastly one was made an Eunuch.

Lucian, in the Death of Peregrinus, tells us, That this Philosopher, being taken in Adulte­ry, was forc'd to throw himself from the Top of a House down to the Ground, with a Ra­dish at his back, after he had been severely beaten. The Laws declare Adulterers infa­mous, and incapable of giving any Testimony in a Court of Judicature. The Athenian Laws allow'd the Father of the Woman, the Hus­band, and even the Brother, to kill a Man ta­ken in Adultery, with Impunity. Upon this Subject we have a very eloquent Discourse of Lysias, which is extant. Tacitus gives us an Ac­count, that Aemilia Lepida, being accus'd of Adultery, was condemned to the Punishment of being interdicted Fire and Water, which was a kind of Banishment. The same Author informs us also, that Augustus called the Adul­teries of Princesses trayterous and sacrilegious Crimes. Tacitus further tells us, that Adultery was very rare among the Germans, and when it was discover'd, it wasimmediately punish'd: The Husband shav'd his Wife, and having stript her in presence of his Neighbours, he drove her out of his House, beating her with a Stick, and thus led her about in Disgrace through the whole City. By the Law of God, a Woman taken in Adultery was to be ston'd to death, as we learn from holy Writ. The Roman Laws did not grant any one Liberty to kill an Adulterer, but only the Father of the Woman: But if the Husband was so far transpor­ted by his just Resentment to revenge the Disgrace by killing him who had debauch'd his Wife, or even his Wife her self, the Fault was pardon'd, and neither he nor his Slaves were punish'd as Murtherers: Si Maritus in adulterio deprehensam uxorem ocidat, quia ignoscitur ei, non tantum mariti, sed etiam uxoris servos poena liberari, si justum dolorem exe­quenti domino non resisterunt.

ADVOCATI,

those who in antient times petitioned at Rome, that they might assist at Trials with their Presence and Authority, and provide the Expences of the Law for those who were to plead a Cause, which were called Ora­tores.

ADVOCATI,

are also the Witnesses which are fetch'd to be Spectators of a thing. Ebutium cum armatis fuisse pluribus, cum Advoca­tis perpaucis eo venisse Caecinnam, says Cicero, E­butius came thither with many armed Men, and Caecinna appear'd with a small number of Wit­nesses.

ADVOCATUS,

in Quintilian and Tacitus is an Advocate who pleads Causes, and defends the Widow and Fatherless. Let us see what Tacitus says of Advocates, in the eleventh Book of his Annals, Of all the Villanies which were committed with Impunity, there was none more common than that of Advocates, who betray their Clients for Money: for an illustrious Roman Knight named Samius, after he had given ten thousand Crowns to Suillius to undertake his Defence, run himself through the Body with a Sword, in his pre­sence and at his House, after he understood that he had betray'd him: which occasioned all the Senators unanimously to demand, That the Lex Cynica might be restor'd, and that the Advocates for the future should be forbidden to take Presents or Money. But Suillius and others being concern'd in point of Interest, oppos'd this Advice; against whom Silius main­tain'd it, and shew'd, by the Example of antient Orators, that they propos'd to themselves no other end of their Labour and Study but Honour and Reputation: He alleg'd, that we must not defile the most noble of all Professions with filthy Lucre, nor make a Trade of Eloquence; that, Fidelity was always to be suspected when it was bought; and that this would foment Discord and prolong Suits, if they were made gainful to Advocates, as Diseases are to Physicians; that they should set before themselves, for a Pattern, Asinius and Messala, and these later Orators Arruntius and Eseruinus, who arriv'd at the greatest Dignities without takiag any Fee for their Eloquence. This Advice was unanimously received, and the Senators were just ready to condemn all those of Bribery, who should be convicted of taking any Money, when Suil­lius, Cossutianus, and others encompass'd the Em­perour to bag his Pardon; and after he had signify'd the Grant of it, they prosecuted their Defence after this manner; They represented, that there was no Advocate so vain as to promise himself eternal Fame, as the Reward of his Labours; that they sought by this means only to maintain their Credit and their Family; and that it was the Interest of the Publick, that Men should have some to defend them; that, after all, their Eloquence had cost them something, and while they took pains about the Affairs of ano­ther they could not mind their own; that no body proposed to himself an unprofitable Employment, and a fruitless Profession; that it was easy for Asinius and Messala, being enrich'd with the Spoils of the Civil Wars, and for Eseruinus and Arruntius, being Heirs to great Families, to make Honour and Glory the end of all their Pains and Study; but withal, there wanted not Examples of Orators who had received Benefit by their Studies, and that all the World knew that Curio and Claudius took great Sums for pleading; that, after all, there was no other Gate but this by which the People could enter into Dignities, and that by taking away the Reward of Learning, it would in time be wholly neglected. The Emperour being moved by these Reasons, altho they were rather profitable than honourable, permit­ted Advocates to take Money in a Cause, as far as the Sum of two hundred and fifty Crowns; and or­der'd that those who took more should be punish'd as guilty of Bribery.

ADVOCARE,

(in the Law) to pray any one of his Kinfolks and Friends to assist him in his Affairs with their Presence, Advice and Credit, and to furnish him with means to de­fend himself. The Person thus requested waited upon the Judges at their Houses, to so­licite them, and was present at the Tryal.

ADYTUM,

[...], a Secret Place, a Re­tirement in the Temples of the Pagans, where Oracles were given, into which none but the Priests were admitted. It was the Sanctuary of the Temples,

Isque adytis haec Tristia dicta reportat.
Virgil. Aeneid. 11. v. 115.

Ae, was in old times written and pronounc'd as A and E separately, and sometimes as A and D, and at this day is pronounc'd as a single E. It was also written AI, and afterwards Ae; Musai for Musae, Kaisar for Casar, Juliai for Julia, and in other the like Instances: from whence it came to pass that in some words the A re­main'd alone; as Aqua ab Aequando, says St. Isi­dore. It cannot be deny'd but upon the Cor­ruption of the Language Ae was pronounced as a single E, whence an E was often put for an Ae, as Eger for Aeger, Etas for Aetas, Es alienum for Aes alienum: and sometimes, on the con­trary, an Ae was put for a single E, as Aevoca­tus for Evocatus, and the like, whereof the old Glosses are full: and for this Reason Bede in his Orthography puts Aequor among the Words that were written with a single E.

AEACUS,

the Son of Jupiter and Egina, the Daughter of the River Asopus. Jupiter fearing lest Juno should discover his Passion for Egina, transported her into the Isle of Delos, and had by her this Son called Aeacus: But Juno having discover'd the Intrigue, convey'd a Serpent into a Fountain of which the People drank, which so poisoned it, that all who drank of it died instantly. Aeacus seeing him­self [Page] depriv'd of Inhabitants, pray'd to Jupiter, that he would turn an heap of Ants into so many Men; which Jupiter granted him, and these Men were called Myrmidons, because [...] signifies an Ant; and the Isle was call'd Egina, as we learn from Pausanias in his Corin­thiaca. Aeacus had for his Sons Peleus who was the Father of Achilles, and Telamon the Father of Ajax. Lucian, in his Dialogue Of Mourning, speaking of Hell, At first after your Descent, you meet with a Gate of Adamant, which is kept by Aeacus, the Cousin-german' of Pluto. And in an­other place he brings him in saying, That he return'd from thence for fear lest some Death should escape him. This is certain, that he makes him one of the Porters of Hell, in company with Cerberus, who was a Dog with three Heads. Yet Ovid, lib. 13. Metamorph. makes him one of the Judges of Hell, together with Minos and Rha­damanthus, upon the account of his Wisdom and Integrity,

Aeacus huic pater est, qui Jura silentibus illic
Reddit.

AEDEPOL,

See Aedes.

AEDES

in the singular, or AEDES in the plural number. Varro thinks that it was used for Ades, quòd eas plano pede adirent; but since it was formerly written Aides, it seems rather to come from the Greek [...], an old Word, which is to be met with in Pindar and Eustathi­us, and signifies the same with Aedes.

AEDES,

in the singular number, is com­monly taken for an Holy Place, a Temple; and Aedes, in the plural number, for an House, al­tho this Rule is not without Exception. When the word is used for an Holy Place, 'tis com­monly join'd with some other word which determines it to that Sense, as Aedes Sacra, Ae­des Sacrae, Aedes Jovis, Aedes Pacis, Aedes Deo­rum, the Temple of Jupiter, the Temple of Peace, the Temple of the Gods. If no such word be join'd to it, 'tis commonly to be understood of a Prophane Place, altho in strictness of Language, Aedes Sacra and Templum were two different things, for Templum was a place dedicated by the Augurs, and designed by them for some private Use, but not consecrated; whereas Aedes Sacra was an Holy Place, and consecrated to some Deity, but not founded by the Au­gurs. But if this Place was dedicated by the Augurs, and consecrated to some Deity, it was called Templum and Aedes Sacra. And for this Reason doubtless we find these words con­founded by Cicero and others, and used one for the other: for the Temple of Vertue and Ho­nour, which Cicero called Templum, was called by Aurelius Victor Aedicula, by Titus Livius Aedes and Cella, and Pliny only Aedes; unless they meant hereby to shew that the Romans us'd these words indifferently. Another remarkable Dif­ference betwixt Aedes and Templum is this, that Templum was built upon an high Place to which Men ascended by many Steps, having a large compass of Ground about it, which afforded an unbounded Prospect; Aedes, on the contrary, was built in a low Place, the Entrance was without any Ascent, and it was encompassed with Houses.

AEDES,

in the singular number, is a House in general, whether publick or private, in the City or the Country: yet according to exact Propriety of Speech, Aedes was used for Houses in the City, and Villa for those in the Coun­try. Nevertheless, in the Numbring of the People made by the Censors, Villae were called Aedes.

The Romans, till the time of Pyrrhus, i. e. for more than four hundred Years, had their Houses built after a very plain fashion. They were made like a Terras, cover'd with Slates and Straw, according to the Testimony of Varro, scandulis robusteis & stramento tectae. But in af­ter-ages the Magnificence of their Buildings grew to such an Excess, that the Author of the Preface to Vitruvius says, the House of a private Person was found to amount to near fifty Millions; and an Aedile caused to be built, in less than a year's time, a Theatre, which had three hundred and sixty-Pillars, whereof the lowermost, which were of Mar­ble, were forty feet high; those in the middle were of Brass, and those in the third rank were of Crystal: 'tis said also that this Theatre was adorn'd with three thousand Statues of Brass; and, after all, that this so magnificent Building was to serve only for six Weeks.

We shall elsewhere give an account of the Magnificence of their publick Building.

The Pomp and Accommodations of the Ro­man Houses were remarkable for their Height, the great number of Apartments they had for Summer and Winter, for divers Ornaments of Atchitecture used about them, as well as for the Beauty and scarceness of the Materials of which the Bulk of the Building consisted. They raised their Houses to such a monstrous Height, that to prevent the Ruine of many Houses, Augustus confin'd their Height to se­venty feet, and Nero to sixty only. The Ora­tor Aristides considering this excessive Height, says, That if one should take asunder all the Raf­ters of their Houses, and range them in order one beside another, they would cover all Italy from Ti­ber as far as the Ionian Sea. These Houses had many Partitions consisting of several Apart­ments, which made them to be taken for so many Towns. 'Tis a strange thing, says Valerius Maximus upon this occasion, that the Grandees of Rome thought their Houses were confin'd within too narrow bounds, tho they were of as large extent as the Inheritance of Cincinnatus; Angustè se habi­tare [Page] credunt, quorum domus tantum patet, quantum Cincinnati rura patuerunt. Seneca adds, That they built Courts as large as Towns, and Houses as high as Mountains. Ovid informs us, That Vedeius Pollio having left, as a Legacy by his Last Will, to Augustus, a very magnificent and sumptuous House; this wise Prince, who then discharg'd the Office of Censor, thought that the excessive Magnifi­cence of this stately House was a bad Example, and therefore caus'd it to be demolished. After this Livia built in the same place a Temple, which she dedicated to Conjugal Concord. We scarce read any thing else in the Historians and Poets but Invectives against the Houses of the Grandees of Rome, which had coop'd up the Country Farmers within a very narrow com­pass, which took up whole Countries, and en­closed Canals of Water, round and four-squa­red, of very large extent upon the great Lakes of Italy; whereas in former times, the Houses of private Men were small, and the Republick great, all sumptuous Buildings were reserv'd for the publick Conveniencies of Cities, or the Adorning of Temples. This is what Horace tells us in these Verses,

Iam pauca aratro jugera regia
Males relinquunt: undique latins
Extenta visentur Lucrino
Stagna lacu, platanusque coelebs
Evincet ulmos.—Non it a Romuli
Praescriptum, & intensi Catonis
Auspiciis, veterumque norma.
Privatus illis census erat brevis:
Commune magnum—oppida publico
Sumtu jubentes, & Deorum
Templa nove decorare saxo.
Od. 15. lib. 11.

This Poet elsewhere blames one of his Friends, who had reason to apprehend the approach of Death, and yet was still projecting to build Works of Marble; The his whole Thoughts ought to be employ'd upon Death and the Grave, yet the Earth was not large enough for his Designs, and he undertook to turn back the Sea, to make may for his Buildings; he drove away his Neighbours, whose Lands were added to his own, instead of thinking in how few days he himself should be laid in a Grave, which would take up no more room than those he had driven away from their Possessions. The same Com­plaints we may make at this day, of the great­est part of the Grandees, who enlarge their own Lands at the expence of private Men:

Non ebur, neque aureum
Meâ renides in domo lacunar—
Tu secanda marmora
Lacas sub ipsum funus: & sepulcri
Immemor struis domos:
Marisque Baiis obstrepentis urges
Summovere littora,
Parúen locuples centinente ripa.
Quid quod usque proximos
Revellis agri terminos? & ultra
Limites clientium
Salis avarus?—
—Quid ultrà tendis? Aequa tellas
Pauperi recluditur,
Regumque pueris, &c.
Od. 18. lib. 11.

AEDEPOL,

as if one should say, per Ae­dem Pollucis, By the Temple and Deity of Pollux: an Oath of the antient Romans, common both to Men and Women. This God was the Pro­tector of the Romans, who built him a Temple at Rome.

AEDICULA RIDICULI,

the Chap­pel of the God of Joy and Laughter, built at two miles distance from Rome, without the Gate Capena. The Occasion of the Building of it was this; Hannibal, after the Battel of Canna, came and besieged Rome, on that side where was the Gate Capena; but being forced to raise the Siege with great Disgrace, because of the Inundations and Storms which happen'd at that time; the Romans, upon this Occasion, rais'd a very loud Laughter, and therefore they built a little Oratory, under the Name of the God of Joy and Laughter. 'Tis true they were not the first who built a Temple to him: for Plutarch tells us, in the Life of Lycurgus, the Lacedemonians rear'd up a Statue to this Deity, and the Inhabitants of Hypata in Thessaly sacri­ficed to him every year. Pansanias also makes mention of a God called [...], the God of Laughter. The Romans kept a Feast to him every year, during which they did no­thing but laugh and play childish Tricks.

AEDILES,

Roman Magistrates, who had the over-seeing of Buildings, both holy and prophane, and of Baths and Aquaeducts. There were three sorts of Aediles; the Aediles of the People, who were called Aediles Plebeii, or Mi­nores Aediles; the Aediles Curules, or Majores Ae­diles; and the Aediles of the Corn, call'd Aedi­les Cereales.

The Aediles of the Commonalty, or such as were taken from among the People, were two in number, and officiated the same time with the Tribunes of the People: for these latter Ma­gistrates foreseeing that they should be embar­rass'd with the multitude of Affairs, desired of the Senate that they would allow them some Officers, with whom they might intrust mat­ters of lesser moment, for which they should be accountable to them. This the Senate was forc'd to grant them, and they were chosen every year, in the same Assembly, with the Tribunes. This Office of the Aediles included several Functions, which render'd it conside­rable in process of time. Besides the Care of Buildings, both publick and private, sacred and prophane, they took care also that they [Page] should be built in due proportion, and in a streight Line, without suffering any of them to jet forth beyond the work, into the Streets and publick Places. And it was chiefly upon the account of this part of their Office that they were called Aediles, according to the Opi­nion of Varro, Aedilis qui sacras Aedes & priva­tas procuraret, dictus. In the second place, they took care of the Streets, the High-ways and publick places, of keeping up the Bridges and Banks, of cleansing the Streets and Sinks, and lastly, of providing for Aquaeducts and publick Works, about which they made Edicts called Aeditiones, Aedilitia. Thirdly, the taking care of Weights and Measures was part also of their Duty; they destroy'd false Weights and Mea­sures, and laid great Fines on those that used them; they confiscated Commodities which were found to be decay'd, and threw such as were naught into the River Tiber: which made Plautus say in his Rudens,

It's solet Neptunus, quamvis fastidiosus Aedi­lis est,
Si quae improbae sunt merces, jactat omens.

Alluding, without doubt, to this part of the Aediles Office. In the fourth place, they had the Oversight of the Victuals for the City and Provisions for the Army: they set a price up­on them, and took care that no Monopoly should be made to burden the Publick: they permitted no Usury in Commerce, and when they discover'd any Usurers, they summoned them to appear before the Tribunes, that they might be punished, as Titus Livius informs us, They took cognizance of Debauches that were usual in Taverns, and forbad the selling of any extravagant Delicacies, according to the Testi­mony of Suetonius, in the Life of Tiberius, l. 34. They punish'd debaucht Women, and such as play'd in Gaming Houses. They kept the Orders of the People, which were lock'd up in the Temple of Ceres. And Polybius relates, that the Treaty of Peace between the Carthagi­nias and the Romans was intrusted with the Aediles, who plac'd it in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Twas one part of their Office to review Comedies and other pieces of Wit, they also were obliged to grant to the Peo­ple, at their own Expence, magnificent Sports, such as those of the Circus, and of the Goddess Flora; and because they were once excused from doing it, this gave occasion to the Crea­tion of the Aediles Curules, of whom I shall next speak.

The Aediles of the People being arrived to so high a pitch of Honour, by so many consi­derable Offices; the Patricians or Sons of the Senators, had a mind to have a share in them, and to this purpose a favourable Occasion pre­sented it self: for the Tribunes having obtain'd a Consulship for the People, and the Patricians a Praetor of their own Order, the Senate thought fit, for appeasing all Differences on both sides, that publick Thanks should be given to the Gods by Sacrifices and magnifi­cent Games, which they order'd the Aediles to grant: But they excusing themselves upon the account of the great Expence they were forced to be at; the Patricians said, they were ready, for the Honour and Service of the Gods, to be at the Expence, if they would admit them to the Office of the Aediles. Whereupon their Offers were received, and M. Furius Camillus, being then Dictator, nam'd to the People, by order of the Senate, two Patricians who were created Aediles Curules, in the year 385, or 388 from the Building of Rome. The two first Patrician Aediles were Cornelius Quintus Capitolinus and P. Cornelius Scipio, according to the relation of Titus Livius, in the beginning of his seventh Book. These Aediles were called Majores and Curules, because they had the Privelege to be carried in a Chair of State which was adorn'd with Ivory, and to sit upon it in a Chariot, when they gave Audience; whereas the other Aediles sat only upon Benches, as the Tribunes and Questors did. They had also the Privilege, according to Asconius Pediaenus, of wearing the Garment called Praetexta adorn'd with Purple, and of having Lictors walk before them with Bundles of Rods, as Apuleius says; but Aulus Gellius seems to contradict him, when he re­marks, that the Aediles never punish'd any Person, nor beat him with Rods; which may be understood of the Aediles of the People and not of these superiour ones. The chief Office of the Aediles Curules was to look after the Ce­lebration of the great Roman Sports, to be at the charge of Plays, and the Shows of Gladia­tors to the People; the publick Farms and Fines, which were allow'd to defray the Ex­pence of them, being but a small matter, they chose many times to make no use of them, to the end they might the more insinuate them­selves into the Favour of the People by this Disinterestedness and Liberality, and by that means be the more easily promoted to other Offices of the Republick. They had a share in all the other Offices of the Plebeian Aediles, whereof we have already spoken. Above all, they took care that no new Religious Worship should be introduc'd either into publick or pri­vate Assemblies, nor any new Doctrine taught without the Order of the Pontifices, and of this they were bound to inform the Senate. They were careful also, at least under the Emperors, to prevent the publishing of any ill Book, and when any such appear'd, they order'd it to be burnt, after they had examin'd it, and con­demn'd it as pernicious to the State. Labienus [Page] publish'd some Books of this sort, according to the Relation of Seneca, Libros Labieni per Ae­diles cremandos censuere Patres.

Aediles Cereales, the Aediles that presided over the Corn, were also appointed and taken out of the Order of the Patricions by Julius Caesar, to supervise the Corn. 'Tis probable that these two last were created only to ease the four former, who were oppress'd with a multitude of Business. There were also Aediles in muni­cipal Cities, like those at Rome.

AEDILITAS,

Aedility, the Magistracy of the Aediles, which lasted a year. It included many Magistrates and their different Offices, such as these, of the Consul, the Chief Justice, Surveyor of the High-ways, and the High Treasurer. This Office continued in the Empire, accor­ding to Justus Lipsius, till Constantines's time, who suppress'd it, together with other Ma­gistracies of the Empire.

AEDITUUS or AEDITIMUS,

a Sa­crist, or Sexton, a Treasurer to the Temples of the False Gods, who took care of the Offer­ings and other Ornaments of the Gods.

AEDITUA,

a Sucrist of the Female Deities. with whom was intrusted the keeping of the Treasures of the Temple.

AEDON,

the Wife of King Zethus, the Brother of Amphiron; she by mistake kill'd her own Son Itylus, instead of the Son of her Bro­ther-in-law, whom she hated. She designed to have kill'd her self when she found her mi­stake; but the Gods in compassion chang'd her into a Linnet, who is always complaining of this Misfortune in her Song.

AEGEON,

a Giant. See Briarens.

AEGEUS,

the Son of Pandion King of A­thens, who begot Theseus upon the Nymph Ae­thra. Minos King of Candia declar'd War a­gainst him, to revenge the Death of his Son Androgeus, whom some of the Athenians had kill'd. In this War the Athenians had conside­rable Losses, which forc'd them to desire a Peace, and it was granted them, on condition that they should send every year six young Men, of the better sort of Families, to be ex­pos'd to the Minotaure, for appeasing the Ghost of his Son. The Lot fell upon Theseus, the Son of King Aegeus, who escap'd the Fury of this Monster: But Aegeus seeing the Ship re­turn, which had carry'd this cruel Oblation, and not percieving the white Flag set up, (as had been agreed between them) he suppos'd his Son was dead, which put him into such a Fit of Despair, that he threw himself head-long into the Sea. The Athenians institu­ted Feasts to his Honour, and sacrific'd to him as a Sea-God, and an Adopted Son of Ne­ptune.

AEGEUM MARE,

the Aegean Sea, o­therwise call'd Archipelago, or the White-Sea. 'Tis a part of the Gulph of the Mediterranean Sea, which begins at the Eastern part of the Isthmus of Corinth, or the Promontory Suniam, and reaches as far as the Hellespont, dividing Greece and Europe from Asia. Suidas would have this Sea call'd the Aegean, upon account of Aegeus, who threw himself headlong into it, supposing his Son Theseus, who went to fight the Minotaure, had been slain. Others give it this Name upon the account of a Rock, which lies between the two Isles of Tenedos and Chio, having the shape of a Goat. The Isles of this Sea were divided by the Antients into Cyclades and Sporades: they reckon'd fifty of the Cyclades, which encompass'd the Isle of Delos like a Circle; but the Sporades were scatter'd here and there towards the Isle of Crete or Candia.

AEGERIA,

a Nymph, or Deity that was worship'd in the Forest Aricina, which Titus Livius places seven miles from Rome, but Festus says it lay only a little way without the Gate Collina. Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, feign'd that he had frequent Conversa­tion with this Deity, that he might add greater Weight and Authority to his Laws and Ordi­nances, and root them deeper in the Minds of the Romans, making them believe that this Nymph Aegeria dictated them to him. Ovid makes her the Wife of Numa, who was chan­ged into a Fountain by Diana. Fast. lib. 3. ver. 275.

Aegeria est quae praebet aquas, Dea grata Ca­moenis:
Illa Numae conjux, consiliumque fuit.

She was reverenc'd by the Romans as a Deity; and the Women with child pray'd to her, in the time of their Travel, that by her Aid they might be safely deliver'd of their Children, as we learn from Festus: Aegeria nymphae sacrifica­bant praegnantes, quod eam putabant facile concep­tum alvo egerere. She was also call'd Fluonia, because she stop'd the Bloody-flux in Wo­men.

AEGIALA,

the Wife of Diomedes, whom Venus inspir'd with so brutish a Passion, that she prostituted her self to all Commers, in re­venge for the Wound she had receiv'd from her Husband at the War of Troy. Diomedes not being able to endure the Whoredoms of his Wife, abandon'd her, and retir'd into Italy, where he agreed with Danaus for one part of his Kingdom, which was call'd Graecia Magna: He built there a City call'd Argos Hippium, and in after times Argyrippa, as Servius says upon the eleventh of the Aeneids.

AEGINA,

an Island with a City of the same Name, near to Peloponnesus and Attica, which was distant only four Leagues from the famous Port Pynaeum, in the lower part of Athens. [Page] It was also so call'd from Aegina the Daughter of Asopus, King of Baeotia, by whom Jupiter, in a Disguise of Fire, had two Sons call'd Aeacus and Rhadamanthus.

AEGIOCHUS,

a Surname given to Jupi­ter, from a Goat, which the Greeks call [...], Gen. [...], upon the account of the Milk with which he was nourish'd in his Infancy, by the Nymphs Amalthaea and Melissa. The Poets tell us, that when this Goat died Jupiter cover'd his Shield with its Skin; but afterwards he brought it to life again, and plac'd it among the Celestial Signs.

AEGIS,

the Goat-skin of Jupiter; a Buckler cover'd with the Skin of the Goat of Amalthaea the Nurse of Jupiter. This Buckler he gave to Pallas, who painted the Head of Medusa upon it, the bare Sight whereof petrifi'd both Men and Beasts. Jupiter took upon him the Name of Aegiochus, i. e. the Goat-skin-Bearer.

AEGIS,

a frightful Monster, born of the Earth, which vomited Fire, wherewith all the Forests of Phrygia were consum'd, from Mount Taurus as far as the Indies. This forc'd the In­habitants to abandon the Country: But Miner­va kill'd this Monster and cover'd her Buckler with its Skin, that it might serve not only for Defence, but also for a Mark of her Victory. Thus Natalis Comes relates the Fable, lib. 4. cap. 5. & Aegidem feram vocam monstrum prope inex­pugnahile obtrunc [...]it, &c.

AEGISTHUS,

born of the incestuous mix­ture of Thyestes with his own Daughter Pelopia. He was expos'd to Beasts by his Father, in order to conceal his Crime; but the Shep­herds sav'd him, and fed him with the Milk of a Goat, from whence he was call'd Aegysthus. When he came to age, he kill'd his Uncle A­treus, the Father of Agamemnon, and afterwards Agamemnon also at a Feast, by the help of his own Wife Clytemnestra whom he had abus'd. But Orestes the Son of Agamemnon reveng'd the Death of his Father, by killing Aegysthus and the faithless Clytemnestra.

AEGIOCHUS,

[...], the Surname of Jupiter, the same with Aegiochus. There are several Medals of the Emperours Philip and Valerian, upon the Reverse whereof is repre­sented a Goat, with this Inscription, Jovi Con­servatori Augusti, and on the other side a Goat carrying Jupiter an Infant on his back, with these Words, Jovi crescenti.

AEGLE,

the Daughter of Hesporus King of Italy, and one of the Hasperides, who had a Gar­den near to Lixa, a City of Mauritania towards the Frontiers of Aethiopia, where there were Trees laden with Apples of Gold, which were guarded by a Dragon; but Hercules kill'd it and carry'd off the Fruit. There is also ano­ther Aegle, the Daughter of the Sun and Near [...], mention'd by Virgil in his sixth Eclogue. This is a Greek word, which signifieth Light or Splen­dor.

AEGOBOLUS,

an Epither given to Bac­chus, upon the account of a Goat which the Potnians sacrific'd to him instead of an Infant, to expiate the Murder they had committed on one of the Priests of his Temple. For Pauso­nias relates, That one day when the Potnians were sacrificing to him in his Temple, they got drunk, and in that drunken Fit kill'd one of his Priests, who in revenge sent a Plague among 'em, which made their Country desolate: To put a stop to this Mischief, they had recourse to the Oracle, who order'd to sacrifice to him every year a young Boy, to appease him; but some time after the God was contented with the Sacri­fice of a Goat instead of a Boy.

AEGYPTUS,

the Son of the antient Belus. He had fifty Sons which he marry'd to the fifty Daughters of his Brother Danous, who all cut their Husbands Throats the first Night of their Marriage, Hypermnestra only excepted, who follow'd not this cruel and barbarous Direction, but preserv'd her Husband Lynceus alive, who drove Danous away from the Kingdom of the Argives. Aegyptus, according to Ensebius, gave name to Egypt, which was formerly call'd Oce­ana, Aerea and Osirina.

AEGYPTUS,

Egypt, a large Country of Africa, water'd by the River Nile, which ren­ders it very fruitful. It was at first inhabited by Misraim, the second Son of Cham, which signifies Egypt. 'Tis divided into two parts, the Upper and the Lower. The Upper con­tains Thebais, which the Prophets Esay and Je­remy call Phetros: The Greeks call the Lower Egypt, Delta, upon the account of the linkeness of its figure to that of their Letter Δ. The Original of the founding a Kingdom in this vast Country is uncertain and fabulous: only we know that it had Kings from Abraham's time. Misraim was the Father of Ludim, from whom the Ethiopians are descended, who dis­pute the Antiquity of their Original with the Egyptians; but this they did out of vanity only, and upon very bad grounds. The first Kings were called Pharaohs, and the latter Ptolemy's-Egypt was represented in the antient Medals by the Goddess Isis, the great Deity of the Egypti­ans; she held in one hand a Sphere, as being the Mother of Arts and Sciences, and in the other a Vessel or Amphora fill'd with Ears of Corn, to shew its Fertility, which proceeds from the Overflowing of the Nile [...]hat waters it, and fattens it with the slim [...] [...] be­hind when it retires into its [...] Egypt was reduc'd into a Province by Aug [...] Caesar, after the Defeat of Cleopatra, who was the last Queen of it, in the year of the World 4015, according to Petavius, or in 3915, acccording [Page] to Calvisius, and in the year 717. from the Building of Rome.

AEGYPTII,

the Egyptians. Who were the first of all the Nations that we know of (says Lucian in his Syrian Goddess) that had any knowledge in Divine matters, and who founded Temples, and in­stituted Mysteries and Ceremonies; for the Assyrians learn'd these things of them some time after, and added to the Worship of the Gods, the Adoration of Idols, because there was none of them at first amongst the Egyptians. These are they (says the same Lu­cian in his Judicial Astrology) who have cultivated Astrology, measur'd the Course of each Star, and distinguish'd the Year into Months and Seasons, regu­lating the Year by the Course of the Sun, and the Months by that of the Moon: They divided then Hea­vens into twelve parts, and represented each Constel­lation by the Figure of some Animal, from whence comes the Diversity in their Religion; for all the Egy­ptians did not make use of all the parts of the Hea­vens for their Gods: Those who observ'd the Proper­ties of Aries ador'd a Ram, and so of the rest. 'Tis said also that they worship'd the Ox Apis, in memory of the celestial Bull; and in the Oracle, which is consecrated to him, Predictions are taken from the nature of this Sign; as the Africans do from Aries in memory of Jupiter Hammon, whom they ador'd under that figure. The Egyptians worship'd Water in publick, but they had other Gods whom they ador'd in private: Some worship'd a Bull or an Ape; others a Stork or a Crocodile; some worship'd Onions, others a Cat, or a Monster with a Dog's Head; some ador'd the Right Shoulder, others the Left, or half of the Head; and some an Earthen Platter or a Cup. Last­ly, Diodorus tells us, That they ador'd the Privy Parts; and even the very Excrements, according to Clement, in his fifth Book of Recognitions. Their Custom was to salute their Gods in the Morning, which they call'd Adoration. They sang Hymns to their honour, which were describ'd in Hieroglyphic Cha­racters upon sacred Parchments, and none but those who were initiated into their Mysteries could read or decy­pher'em, as being Figures of different Animals, whereof each had its proper Signification, which none else could penetrate into, at least not till they were explain'd.

AELIUS,

a Name common to many il­lustrious Romans of the Aelian Family; as to Aelius Gallus, a Roman Knight, who carryed the Roman Arms into Arabia; to Aelius Paetus, a Consul, who having a mind to raise the siege before Aretium in Tuscany, lost there his Army and his Life in the view of the besieged; to Aelius Pertinax, who succeeded the Emperor Commodus, and enjoy'd the Empire only Three Months, to Aelius Adrianus and Aelius Verus, who were likewise Emperors. See Adrianus and Verus.

AELIA CAPITOLINA,

the City of Jerusalem was thus call'd by Aelius Adrianus, who caus'd it to be rebuilt, after he drove all the Jews from thence who had rebell'd against the Romans.

AELIANUM JUS,

the Aelian Code, which contain'd a Treatise of Personal Actions: It was compos'd by Sextus Aelius, a Lawyer and Philosopher.

AELLO,

one of the Harpies to whom this Name agrees, because it signifies One that carries all away by force.

AEMILIUS,

the Name of a Roman Fa­mily, from which many great Men were de­scended, and among the rest Paulus Aemilius the Consul. Tacitus relates of him this piece of History; The dissolute Life of the Priests of Isis, who were call'd Galli, oblig'd the Senate to order, That the Temple of this Goddess, and of Serapis, should be raz'd to the ground. There was no person found so bold as to execute this Order, because every one scrupled its Lawfulness in point of Religion. Paulus Aemilius seeing this, put off his magistratical Robe, and was the first who, with an Ax, begun to demo­lish this Temple, which had serv'd for a Retreat to the most infamous People, and by his own Example he encourag'd the Workmen. When he was Pro-Consul, finding himself besieg'd in his Camp by the Ligurians, who had amus'd him in vain, he try'd all ways possible to disintangle him­self; but being very much press'd, without any hopes of receiving Succours, he forc'd his way through the Enemies, and then defeated 'em, reduc'd 'em to beg a Peace, and to deli­ver him Hostages. Perseus, King of the Mace­donians, having pitch'd his Camp advantagious­ly upon Mount Olympus, Paul Aemilius endea­vour'd by all means to dislodg him from thence, and having discover'd a Path which led to a Hill, whereon was built the Temple of Apollo Pythius, he sent his Two adopted Sons, Scipio Africanus, and Fabius Maximus, to seize upon it. Perseus having notice of it, stopt up their Pas­sage, but was forc'd to decamp, and give him battel, which Paul Aemilius joyfully accepted: The Fight was well maintain'd on both sides, but at last the Victory fell to the Romans, who left 20000 Macedonians dead upon the place. Perseus escap'd with the Cavalry, but distrust­ing their Fidelity, he came and surrender'd himself to the Proconsul, who led him in tri­umph to Rome, with Three of his Children; The youngest, call'd Alexander, became very skilful in the Art of Turning, and Joyners Work. Such was the Fate of the last Succes­sor to Alexander the Great, and by his Defeat, Macedonia was reduc'd into a Province, and made tributary to the Romans, after it had been govern'd by Thirty Kings, during the space of 923 Years.

AENEAS,

a Phrygian by Nation, descend­from the Kings of Troy in this order: Dardanus was the Father of Erichtonius, and he was the Father of Tros, who had Three Children, Ilus, Assaracus and Ganimedes. From Ilus descended [Page] Laomedon, and from Laomedon, Priam, the last King of Troy. Assaracus married his Grand-Daughter Clytidora, the Daughter of Laomedon, by whom he had Capys, and Capys had Anchises, the Father of Aeneas by the Nymph Nais; and Anchises had Aeneas by the Goddess Venus. Whe­ther it were that the Perfections of the Mother of Aeneas caus'd the Name of the Goddess of the Graces to be given unto her, or that Anchises had a mind to conceal her true Name, and in­vented this Fable to render his Son the more venerable, or that he thought thereby to raise the Value of his own Merits; I say, whatever was the cause of it, this is certain, that no o­ther Name of the Mother of Aeneas is to be met with, but that of Venus. From hence it appears, that Virgil had reason to call Aeneas a Dardanian; for besides that he descended from Dardanus, there was also occasion to call him so, because his Fathers ordinary abode was in Dardania. Upon the first noise of the Descent upon the Greeks, Aeneas threw himself into Troy to defend it. Dyctis Cretensis expresly accuses him of giving the Palladium to Diomedes, and betraying the City. Titus Livius does not accūse him of Treachery, but he is of opinion, that the Greeks treated him favourably, as well as Ante­nor, because these two Princes were for Peace, and for restoring Helena, who was the cause of that War to her Husband Menelaus. Sabellicus having re­jected the Opinion of Dio, advances another of his own: Aeneas, says he, not being able to perswade the Trojans to Peace, and being otherwise discontented, treated secretly with the Greeks, and let them in by one of the Gates of the City, upon which was the figure of a Horse. This gave occa­sion to the Fiction of a Wooden Horse, which is mention'd by Homer, and after him by Virgil. Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, on the contrary, af­firms, That Aeneas made extraordinary Efforts to defend Troy and the Palace of King Priam; that he seeing himself abandon'd, the Citadel forc'd, and Priam kill'd, retir'd, with all his Family, and those who escap'd death at the sacking of the City, to Mount Ida, by the favour of the Night, while the Enemy was busie in taking the Spoil; that then he built many Ships with the Trees he found upon that Mountain, and after he had equip'd 'em with Ne­cessaries, he embarqu'd with the rest of the Trojans upon the Hellespont, and made his first Descent into a Peninsula of Thracia, call'd Pellena, where he built a City of his own Name. From thence he sail'd to Delos, and from Delos to Cythera, from Cy­thera to Zacintha, from Zacintha to Leucada, from Leucada to Ictium, from Ictium to Ambra­cia. After this he coasted along the Sea-side, and cast Anchor at Buthrota, from whence he transported himself to Dodona, and there having consulted the Oracle, he was confirm'd in his design of going into Italy; whereupon he reimbarqu'd, and steer'd his course towards Sicily, and made a Descent upon Laurentum, after he had pass'd through many Dangers at Sea, which proceeded from the Hatred of the implacable Juno. After he landed in the Coun­try, he discover'd in it many Springs of Water, and perceiv'd a Sow in a Wood, with Thirty small Boar-Pigs, as the Oracle of Dodona had foretold to him:

Littoreis ingens inventa sub Ilicibus sus
Triginta capitum foetus enixa jacebit,
Alba solo recubant, albi circum ubera nati:
Is locus urbis erit.—
Aen. l. 3. v. 390. & seq.

King Latinus and the Rutuli being alarm'd at the arrival of these new Guests, came forth to fight 'em, and drive 'em out of their Country: But the Latines having suffer'd many Losses, and Turnus being overcome by Aeneas in a Duel, at last a Peace was concluded, by the Marriage of Lavinia to Aeneas, who built a City call'd Lavinium, from the Name of his Wife. This for the present united the Aborigines and Trojans under the common Name of Latines, in Ho­nour of his Father-in-Law Latinus. (This has no relation at all to the Etymology of Latium, à latendo, in which there is some reference to the Prophecies of Numbers of Daniel, which are justifi'd by the Event.) Aeneas was kill'd in a Battel against the Rutuli, on the Banks of the River Numicus; and because he did not ap­pear again after this Fight, this gave occasion to the common Report that he was carried up into Heaven, tho' 'tis much more probable, that he fell into the River when he was fighting, and was detain'd at the bottom by the weight of his Armour: Nevertheless, a little Temple was built to him with this Inscription, Patri Dei indigeti, qui; Numici amnis undas temperat. And here it may be observ'd, that the King­dom of Latium seems rather to have given Name to Latinus, than that this King should give his Name to this Kingdom; for Latium was before Latinus, who reign'd 43 Years over the Latines. S. Austin has abridg'd the History of Aeneas, Lib. 8. De Civ. Dei, cap. 19. After the sacking of Troy, Aeneas came into Italy with Twenty Ships, which carried thither the surviving Trojans. Latinus was then King of it, but after his death Aeneas reign'd Three Years in Italy: Because his Body did not appear after his death, the Latins made a God of him. Homer makes Aeneas appear very glorious among the great Heroes of his Iliads, and says, That the Trojans reverenc'd him as a God. The younger Philostratus, in his Heroicks, equals him with Hector for his size and Mien, but says, that he surpass'd him in Virtue and good Sense; and that the Trojans call'd Hector their Arm, and Aeneas their Head. 'Tis agreed among all these Authors, that Ae­neas came into Italy under the Reign of Latinus [Page] the Son of Faunus; but the difficulty is, to know what Year he came, of which Titus Li­vius, and many others say nothing. Dionysius Halicarnassaus thinks, that it was in the Forty Fifth Olympaid; Cassiodorus in the Twenty Fifth; and Vigenere in the Twentieth; inso­much that 'tis difficult to determin in a matter so much contested; yet there is some reason to believe, that Aeneas landed in Italy in the Thirty Fourth Year of the Reign of Latinus.

AENEAS

Secundus, or Latinus Sylvius, as Sextus Victor calls him, or Silius and Posthumius, as Messala calls him, was the posthumous Son of Aeneas and Lavinia. The Name of Silvius was given him because he was brought up in the Woods, whither his Mother retired for fear of Ascanius her Son-in-Law. He had a great Contest with Julus, his Nephew, the Son of Ascanius; but the Aborigines favour'd in his Per­son the Blood of their antient Kings, and ad­vanc'd him to the Throne, and pacifi'd Julus by promoting him to the chief Honours and Employments of the State. The Caesars glory in their descent from him. Silvius reign'd 29 Years.

AENEAS

Tertius Silvius reign'd 31 Years.

AEOLUS,

the Son of Jupiter and Acesta, or Sergesta, the Daughter of Hippotas, a Trajan, who is thought to have liv'd at the time of the Trajan War. He commanded the little Isles, call'd Aeolionae, and was by the Poets made King of the Winds. Virgil speaks of him as such, Aeneid. Lib. 1. v. 6.

—Hic vasto rex Aeolus antro
Luctantes ventos, tempestotesque soner as
Imperio premit, ac vinclis & carere frenat.

But the Worship of the Winds was more an­tient than the Reign of Aealus. The Persians and Scythians ador'd them, according to Strabo and Lucian, and yet they never heard a word of the King of these little [...]sles. All the Eastern Idolaters gave Honour to the Winds, before ever the Fable of Aeolus was forg'd. 'Tis pro­bable that the Sicilians and Italians took occa­sion, from the nature of these Isles, to make them the Dominion of the Winds, because they frequently saw storms of Smoke, Wind, and Fire issued out of them. Diodorus Sicedus, and Varro, suppos'd that the Poets attributed the Government of the Winds to Aeolus, be­cause he perfectly understood the Nature of them, and was the first that invented Sails for Ships. Velorum usum docuit, nauticae rai studiosus: [...] ignis quoque prodigiis diligenter observatis, qui [...]anti ingruituri essent indigenis certo praedixit. Un­de ventorum praeses & disponsater à fabula declara­tus est. Servius said that there are Nine Isles in the Sicilian-Sea, whereof Varro tells us Aeolus was King: And from hence came the Fiction, That the Winds were under his Government, because he foretold Storms that should happen, by observing the Vapors and Smoke which proceeded from these Isles, and ehiefly from that which takes its Name from Vulcan. But this learned Grammarian, after he has related this Fable, confesses it was founded upon Rea­son. Pliny says, That the Isle Strongyle was one of these burning and smoking Isles; that the Inhabitants, by its Smoke, foretold the Winds Three Days before, and that upon this account it was feign'd, that Aeolus was Lord of the Winds. Btrabo remarks out of Polybius, con­cerning the Isle of Lippara, which is the great­est of the Seven Aeolian Isles, that before the South-Wind blew, it was cover'd with so thick a Cloud, that it hindred the near Neighbours of the sight of Sicily; but before the North-Wind blew, that then this great Isle vomited up clear Flame, and made an exceeding great noise and roaring; upon which account, the King of these Isles was called the King of the Winds.

AEOLIAE INSULAE,

the Aeolian or Vulcanian Isles, near the Promontory of Pelorus in Sicily, where Aeolus reigns. They are Seven, of which, the most considerable is that of Li­para, from whence proceed Winds, and storms of Fire and Flames, together with terrible Earthquakes, which occasioned the Poets to say, That it was the Habitation of the Winds, and the Forge of Vulcans, who, with his Cyclops, were the Smiths of the Gods.

AEQUIMELIUM,

a great place in Rome before the Temple of the Goddess Tellus, at one end of the Street call'd Execrable. This place was so call'd from Saptimus Melius, a Ro­man Knight, who had a House there which was raz'd to the ground by the Sentence of the Dictator L. Quintius Cincinnatus, because he aim'd at usurping the Sovereign Power, by be­stowing Largesses on the People. L. Minutius, Commissary General of the Provisions, disco­vering the secret Intrigues of Melius, gave no­tice of 'em to the Senate, who judg'd it an Af­fair of so great consequence, that immediately they created a Dictator, call'd Cincinnatus. The next day after Melius was cited to answer the Accusation, but he refus'd to appear, and endeavour'd to make his escape, but was pur­su'd and kill'd by Servi [...]ius. The Dictator or­der'd that his House should be raz'd to the ground, and that no person for the future should build-upon the place where it stood: And to perpetuate the memory of this Perfi­diousness of Melius and of his Punishment, the place was call'd ever after Aequimelium, quasi ab aquata domo Malii, pro domo sua. Cicero, in his Oration, relates the Story thus; Melii regnu [...] appetentis domus est complanata, & quid aliud aquum accidisse Meli [...] P. R. judicaret? Nomine ipso [Page] Aequtmelil stultitiae pirna comprobata est. Titus Livius relates the Story at large, Book IV. Dec. 1.

AER,

See it after Aerarius.

AERA,

a Number stampt upon Money, to signifie the current Value of it, according to Lutilius; it signifies also the same with Epoch, i. e. A certain Time from whence to compute or begin the new Year, or some particular way of reckoning Time and Years. And in this last sense the word is thought to be corrupted, and to come from the custom of the Spaniards, who reckon'd their Years by the Reign of Augustus, who, for shortness sake, they commonly set down thus, A. E. R. A. to signi­fie Annus erat regni Augusti. The Transcriber not understanding this sufficiently, in process of time, made of these Letters the word Aera; in the first sense the word comes from Aes, and Aera in the Plural Number, from whence was made the Aera of the Feminine Gender, either because in their Accompts to every par­ticular Sum, they prefix'd the Word Aera, as we do now Item, or because the Number of Years was mark'd down in Tables with little Brass Nails.

AERA MILITUM,

in Suetonius, the Soldiers Pay, because that Money was antiently made of Brass.

AERARIUM,

the publick Treasury, the Revenues of the Roman Common-wealth, for defraying their necessary Expences both in time of Peace and War.

AERARIUM MILITARE,

the Funds settled by Caesar-Augustus, for maintain­ing the Roman Armies, which were manag'd by Three Treasurers.

AERARIUM VICESIMARUM,

a Treasury or Fund which arose from the Twentieth part, and was kept as a Reserve for the extreme Necessities of the Common-wealth. As soon as the People of Rome became power­ful enough to enlarge the Bounds of their Em­pire, and conquer almost all the World, they held it their utmost Policy to make themselves absolute Masters of the Conquer'd and their Possessions; and therefore all the Gold and Silver, and even the precious Moveables which could be carried away, after some part of 'em had been distributed among the Soldiers, were carried away to Rome, where they serv'd, first to make up the Pomp of their Triumph, and then were lock'd up in the publick Treasury, to be kept as an eternal Monument to Posteri­ty of the Glory of the Conquerors, and the Shame of the Conquered. The Victors re­serv'd to themselves the entire Propriety of the Lands and Immoveables, permitting the Van­quish'd to be Usu fructuarii, which was only to enjoy the Products of the Earth, on condi­tion that they cultivated it, and paid them an­nually a part of the Produce. These Lands were call'd Agri vectigales, or Praedia tributaria & stipendiaria, because they paid a sort of Tri­bute or annual Acknowledgment. The Inha­bitants, but especially those who refus'd to ca­pitulate or surrender themselves, were made Slaves, and sold; but because there was not always a quick Market for them, and it was thought disadvantagious to the Republick to depopulate whole Countries, they often left a part of them free in the enjoyment of their Estates, charging them with a Tax and annual Acknowledgment, besides a Poll, and Service and Homages, which they were obliged to ren­der to the Romans as their Masters: This Capi­tation was indifferently levyed upon all sorts of persons, without respect to Sex or Condition, the Males from Fourteen, the Females from Twelve to Sixty Five Years; the Fathers were oblig'd to pay for all their Children. The Peo­ple of Rome, as Pliny informs us, were not de­liver'd from this Tribute till after Paulus Aemi­lius had conquer'd Macedonia, and led Persius, its King, Captive to Rome, Ann. Rom. 586. Paulus Aemilius Perseo rege Macedonico devicto, &c.—à quo tempore Pepulus Romanus tributum pen­dere defiit. This Poll-Tax was only paid upon account of each particular Persons Estate, and therefore, every Fourth Year, a strict account was taken of all the Subjects of the Empire, and their Estate, by certain Officers, who were call'd at first Censores, and afterwards, under the change of the Government, Censitores, Per­aequitores, & Inspectores, because they numbred the Citizens, and valu'd their Estates, in order to tax 'em the Hundreth part annually. Hence it was, in the Roman Common-wealth, there were Two sorts of Taxes, one that was paid for their Goods or Lands: Census five tributum aliud praedii, aliud capitis. There was also ano­ther Tax paid for every Head of Cattel. 'Tis not easie to tell exactly what these Five sorts of settled Taxes amounted to yearly, which made up the Revenue of the Common-wealth; but we may easily judg, that these Taxes amount­ed to vast Sums, since they contain'd the Eighth or Tenth part of the whole Revenue of those vast Provinces, which reach'd from Hercules Pil­lars as far as the River Euphrates, without rec­koning the Money they made of their Pastures. Many have endeavour'd to make a Calculation of it, but they have not done it with any Exactness. To this common Revenue a Fourth was added, which accru'd by the Impositions on the importing and exporting of Commodi­ties, not only on the Frontiers of the Empire, but at Havens, Sea-Ports, Gates of Cities, Bridges, High-ways, and Rivers; but this was not so certain as the former, being very uncertain [Page] on the account of the Diversity of places and Alteration of Trade: Yet the most common way was to pay the Twentieth, sometimes the Fortieth or the Fiftieth part, the least that ever was paid was the Hundreth, and the highest was the Eighth part. Foreign Commodities, which serv'd only for Luxury and Delicacy, paid the greatest Tax: But we must distinguish betwixt this Duty and what was paid as Tol-Money at Bridges and Gates, since they were Two different things. The Officers and Ma­gistrates of the Common-wealth paid nothing for the Carriage of Goods which were for their own use. There was also, another Revenue, which was no less considerable than the former, which was rais'd from Mines of Gold and Sil­ver, and other Metals, as also from Marshes and Salt-pits.

All this may give us a general view, wherein the Revenues of the Roman Common-wealth con­sisted, which serv'd to maintain all publick Of­fices and Expences under the popular State, and whereof a great part was return'd into the pub­lick Treasury: But when the Government was chang'd by Civil Wars, which consum'd the Revenues and exhausted the Treasury, and the Supreme Power was vested in the Caesars, this was the occasion of a new Expence for main­taining the Princes Family and his Officers; and therefore Augustus made a Partition of all the Revenues we have now mention'd, allow­ing one part of it to the People, and reserving the other to himself: From whence there arose Two sorts of Treasuries, one for the People, which was call'd Aerarium publicum, and ano­ther for the Prince, which was call'd Fiscus, the Exchequer, whereof we shall speak in its proper place. And so Authors do commonly put a difference between Aerarium and Fiscus; as Suetonius, who in the Life of Vespasian, says of that Prince, Necessitate compulsus, summâ aera­rii fiscique inopiâ: Yet there are some who con­found these two words, because the Prince did equally dispose of 'em both, although they were divided for preserving some Memory of their antient Liberty.

At the beginning of their Conquests under a popular State, there was no other Method for raising them but this; the People of Rome ha­ving made both the Persons and Estates of the Conquer'd tributary to 'em, after the manner we have already declar'd, sent into each Pro­vince a Governour, who was call'd Proconsul, Praetor, or Pro-Praetor, because he exercis'd in that Province the Office und Authority of a Roman Consul and Praetor, with whom was joyn'd another Magistrate, who was a kind of Treasurer, whom they call'd Quaestor, who levy'd the publick Revenues: These Two Magistrates having under 'em a Company of Archers and Guards, made use of 'em as Mi­nisters for executing Justice and levying of Taxes, which were laid up in a Chest, out of which they took what was necessary for the Governors and military Men, and for all pub­lick Affairs, and then sent the remainder to Rome, to be kept in the publick Treasury, which was in the Temple of Saturn under the Care of a Quaestor, whom they call'd Praefectus aerarii, the Treasurer; and out of this Treasury was taken whatever was necessary for the publick Buildings, for Games and Shows, for the Maintenance of their Armies by Sea and Land, and for the Reception of Ambassadors from foreign Nations.

This first Custom of gathering Taxes by the Quaestors did not last always: for a new way was introduc'd of Letting out all the publick Revenues in each Province to private Men, who farm'd them commonly for five years at a certain Sum, payable every four Months, for which they gave good and sufficient Security. Nevertheless the Governors and Quaestors of Pro­vinces were not changed; they still gave Au­thority to these Farmers, had the Oversight of them in levying the Taxes, and determin'd all Differences that arose about them; they took care also that the Farmers should pay the full Value of their Leases, notwithstanding any Deficiencies that might happen, which they run the risque of. Of these Farmers Compa­nies were made, whereof some were Farmers for one kind of Tribute; and others for ano­ther; some were Farmers of the twentieth, the tenth, the eighth, some of the hundredth part, and of the other Taxes before-mention'd, and were therefore call'd Octavarii, Decimarii, Vigesimarii, &c. Those who farm'd the Ga­thering of the Tribute were call'd Manicipes, Redemptores vectigalium, and Publicani; this last Name, which at first was honourable, accor­ding to the testimony of Cicero, in his Oration for Manlius, became afterwards very odious, for their Harshness and Injustice in exacting upon the People; insomuch that Nero was ful­ly resolv'd to abolish them, and had done it, if he had not been hindred by the Remon­strances of the Senate; but he oblig'd them to set up Writing-Tables in their Places of meet­ing, to specifie what Tribute was to be paid for each thing.

This way of Farming the Publick Revenues lasted a long while under the Emperours, and from hence it comes to pass, that in the Law-Books and chiefly in Pandects, there is a Title De Publicanis, or Of Men of Business. But after the Seat of the Empire was translated to Constan­tinople, this Method of collecting the Tribute was wholly chang'd for that which follows, viz. Every year towards the End of Summer, [Page] those who had the supreme Administration of Affairs under the Prince, drew up a general Accompt of all that was to be impos'd and le­vy'd upon the People, and after they had sha­red this among the Praefectures or Provinces, and stated the particular Sum which each Pro­vince was to pay, they sent Commissions, which they call'd Delegationes, to the four Lieu­tenant-Generals of the Empire, who were cal­led Praefecti Praetorio, among whom it was di­vided; but they had under them many Pro­vinces, and each Province had its own peculiar Governour. These Lieutenant-Generals ha­ving received that Accompt which belonged to their share of the Empire, sent particular Commissions to each Governour of a Province, and he sent them to the Municipal Magistrates in each City, call'd Decuriones, who in each City made a kind of Corporation, or Municipal Senate, and took care of the Affairs of that City. These Magistrates, whom we may after a sort compare to our Mayors, Sheriffs, Aldermen, Common-councilmen and Judges of the City, were bound, upon receiving the Tax which was to be imposed, to name some Persons of their Corporation, who were to lay it equally upon each particular Person, upon which ac­count they were call'd Peraequatores or Discus­sores; and after this was done, the Publick No­tary or Town-Clerk enter'd down every Man's Name in a Roll, and the particular Sum he was to pay; which was afterward's publish'd, that every one might know what he was rated at, and what he must pay to the Collectors, who were call'd Susceptores. The Sums of Money which were rais'd by these Taxes, were first employ'd to pay off those who bore any Office in the Province, and the Remainder was sent to Rome, to be kept in the publick Treasury, which was under the Care of a Treasurer, who in the times of the first Emperours was call'd Praefectus Aerarii, and after Constantine's time, Comes sacrarum largitionum; or else it was put into the Prince's Privy-Purse, and intrusted in his hands, who took care of it, and was call'd Comes Rei Privatae. The Treasurer sent into the Provinces one of his Officers, who was to press the sending of the Money, and a month after another Officer, who was call'd Compulsor; and both of these were maintain'd at the Expence of the Governour.

These were the ordinary ways that were us'd in the Roman Empire for leavying the Taxes which were laid upon Persons and Lands into conquer'd Provinces: But as for the Customs upom Goods imported or exported, these were collected, by those that farm'd them, at the Sea Ports, or the Gates by which they enter'd into or went out of a City, according to the Tax which was laid on them.

AERARIUS,

he who was liable to be tax'd, from whence comes the Phrase Aerarium fieri, to be made subject to Taxes, to want the Right of voting in his Tribe, to be depriv'd of the Privileges and Immunities of a City, and forc'd to be oblig'd to contribute to the publick Expences. Ex aerariis aliquem eximere, to restore one to his Rights and the Privileges of a Citi­zen, to exempt one from Taxes.

AER,

the Air, which by the Antients was taken for a Diety. Anaximenes the Milesian, and Diogenes Apolloniates affirm'd the Air to be their God; but Cicero and St. Austin confute them by very strong Arguments. This Holy Doctor informs us, that these two Philosophers did no otherwise attribute Divinity to the Air, but as they believ'd it was fill'd with an Infinite In­telligence, and an infinite number of particular Spirits who made their abode in it; and so their Opinion is co-incident with that Idea of the Platonists, who thought that God was the Soul of the World, and that all the Parts of the World were full of Spirits and living Substances. The Assyrians and Africans gave the Air the Name of Juno, or Venus Urania and Virgo, as we learn from Julius Firmicus, de Err. Prof. Rel. The E­gyptians gave the Air the Name and Worship of Minerva, as Eusebius testifies, Aera verò aiunt ab iis Minervam vocari. But Diodorus Sieulus has better unveil'd the Mystery of this Doctrine, speaking of the Egyptians, he says, Aeri porrò A­thenae, seu Minervae nomen quadam voics interpre­tatione tribuisse, Jovisque filiam hanc & virginem putari; eo quòd Aer naturâ corruptioni non obnoxius sit, & summum mundi locum obtineat. Unde etiam fabula è Jovis vertice illam enatam. Vocari autem tritogeniam, quòd ter in anno naturam mutet, vere, aestate, hieme; & glaucam dici, non quòd glaucos, id est, caesios habet oculos, insulsum enim hoc esset; sed quòd Aer glauco sit colore: To the Air was given the Name of Athena or Minerva, who was thought to be the Daughter of Jupiter, and a Virgin, be­cause the Air by its nature is not liable to corruption, and it possesses the highest place of the World: from whence arose the Fable, that Minerva came out of Jupiter's Brain; and she is said to be begotten thrice, because the Air changes three times in a year, viz. at Spring, Summer and Winter; her Eyes were said to be blue, because the Air appears to be of that colour.

The Greeks and Romans did most readily call the Air by the Names of Jupiter and Juno; and thus they distinguish'd two Vertues in the Air, the one Active and Masculine, the other Pas­sive and Feminine, as we learn from Seneca in his Natural Questions; Aera marem judicant, qud ventus est: feminam, quâ nebulosus & iners. Yet it must be confess'd, that Juno was most com­monly taken for the Air; and so the Greek Name of Juno [...], is said to be nothing else but a [Page] transposition of [...]. After this manner Cicero explains the Fable of Juno; Aer, ut Stoici dispu­tant, interjectus inter mare & caelum, Junonis no­mine consecratur, quae est soror & conjux Jovis, quod ei similitudo est aetheris, & cum eo summa con­junctio. From whence we may see the reason of the Affinity and Marriage between Jupiter and Juno, i. e. between the Heaven and the Air, and also plainly understand that other Fa­ble of Homer, That Jupiter hang'd Juno in a Chain, having Two-Anvils which were fa­sten'd to his Feet, which signifies nothing but the dependance that the Air has upon the Hea­ven, and which the Sea and Land have upon the Air.

AES.

See after Aesculapius.

AESCULANUS,

the Aesculan God, who was the God of Riches, according to S. Austin in the City of God, because Brass in former times was us'd for Money.

AESCULAPIUS,

the God of Physick, whom Sanchoniathon makes the Son of Jupiter, and Brother of Mercury; and Clemens Alexan­drinus affirms to have reign'd at Memphis. La­ctantius, in his short History of the Greek Aescu­lapius, affirms, that he was born at Messina of uncertain Parents, and nurs'd at Epidaurus by a Bitch, and educated by Chiro, of whom he learned Medicine. Pausanius, upon the Pi­cture of the Phlegyans, relates, that a Shepherd having found the Infant Aesculapius, when he was just born, nurs'd him by a Goat of his Flock, and guarded him by his Dog. Festus con­tradicts him, and says that Aesculapius was nurs'd by a Bitch, and that in Memory thereof, Dogs were kept in the Temple of Aesculapius. Ho­mer and Ovid following him, say, Apollo was his Father, and Coronis the Daughter of King Phlegyas, his Mother, who, when she was big with Child with this Aesculapius, of whom Apollo was Father, prostituted herself to a Fel­low call'd Ilchys, the Son of Elatus. But Diana, Apollo's Sister, resenting the Affront put upon her Brother, kill'd Ceronis with an Arrow she shot at her; and as she was ready to be laid upon the Funeral-Pile, Mercury came and took the Child out of her Womb, who was call'd Aesculapius from the Egyptian word Esch, which signifies a Goat, and Cheleph, which signifies a Dog, because he was nurs'd by a Goat and guarded by a Dog. Pindar, in his Third Ode of his Pythiae, says, That Apollo himself took the Child out of its Mothers Womb. There are some Authors would have him to be the Son of Arsinoe, the Daughter of Leucippa the Messinian: But that was contradicted by the Oracle of Delphos, which Apollophanes of Arca­dia consulted; for that Oracle answer'd him, That Aesculapius was born at Epidaurus of the Nymph Coronis, the Daughter of Phlegyas. In­deed the Epidaurians were the first who ap­pointed a Festival to be kept in Honour of him, wherein they were follow'd by the Athe­nians, who call'd these Festivals Epidaureanae, and plac'd Aesculapius among the number of their Gods, as did likewise the Inhabitants of Pergamus and Smyrna, who built him a Temple by the Sea-side. He had also a Temple at Cy­rene, under the Name of the Physician, by way of Excellency; and the same Worship was paid, and the same Sacrifices offer'd to him there as at Epidaurus, except that Goats were offer'd to him only in the Temple at Cyrene. The Statue of this God, which was plac'd in the Temple of Epidaurus, was of Gold and Ivo­ry, made by Thrasymedes the Son of Arignotus of the Isle of Paros; it was seated upon a Throne of the same matter, holding in one hand a knotted Battoon, and the other leaning on the Head of a Serpent, with a Dog at his feet. There were many Pictures to be seen in that Temple, on the Walls and Pillars of it, wherein divers Diseases that had been cur'd, were represented, and the Medicines that had been us'd for that end.

Sanchoniathon asserts, that the first who was nam'd Aesculapius was an Egyptian, and he ranks him among the Gods, call'd Cabires, or The potent Gods, together with Mercury; and therefore Pliny had reason to say, That the Egyptians boasted themselves to be the first In­ventors of Physick. There is no doubt but there were many of that Name, and that the most antient was he who was the Egyptian; whence it came to pass, that Antoninus the Se­nator, built a Temple at Epidaurus to Health, Apollo, and Aesculapius, Surnam'd Egyptian. But Aesculapius of Epidaurus was the most famous in all Greece. Cicero reckons up Three Aesculapius's in Greece; the First was the Son of Apollo, wor­ship'd by the Arcadians, who first found out the Ligatures and Bandages of Wounds; the Second was the Brother of the second Mercury, who was kill'd by Thunder, and interr'd at Cynosura; the Third was the Son of Arsippus and Arsinoe, who taught first how to purge and draw Teeth, whose Sepulchre is to be seen, with a little Grove which was consecrated to him in Arcadia. Aesculapiorum primus, Apollinis, quem Arcades colunt, qui specillum invenisse, pri­musque vulnus obligavisse dicitur. Secundus, se­cundi Mercurii frater; is fu [...]ine percussus, dicitur humatus esse Cynosuris. Tertius, Arsippi & Arsi­noae, qui primus purgationem alvi, dentisque evul­sionem, ut ferunt invenit; cujus in Arcadia sepul­chrum & lucus ostenditur. By which we may plainly observe, that when once the Name of Aesculapius was brought from Egypt into Greece, it was given to many others who invented any new way of Dressing Wounds or Curing [Page] Diseases. The most antient Aesculapius a­mongst the Greeks was not born till a thousand Years after him of the Egyptians. S. Clemens Alexandrinus reckons his Apotheosis, as well as Hercules's to be Fifty Three Years after the ta­king of Troy, which agrees very well with Homer, who speaks of Machaon, the Son of Aesculapius, among those who were at the Siege of Troy: And to him Diodorus Siculus refers what Cicero said, That he was Thunder-struck. This Historian, to set forth the admirable Knowledg of this excellent Physician, relates, as History what probably is nothing but an ingenious Fable, viz. That he rais'd Hippolytus from the dead by his Medicines. Pluto com­plain'd of this to Jupiter, who struck Aescula­pius with a Thunder-bolt: Apollo reveng'd his Death upon the Cyclopes, who made his Thunder-bolts, and kill'd them with his Arrows: Jupi­ter punish'd Apollo by condemning him to feed Admetus's Flocks. Pliny affirms, that there was no other knowledg of Physick at the Siege of Troy, but only to cure Wounds, and after that; it was neglected until the Peloponnesian War; for then it was that Hippocrates, as 'tis said, compos'd his Treatises of Physick from the In­scriptions in the Temple of Aesculapius, where Persons were oblig'd by a Law to set down all the Remedies which the sick had us'd with suc­cess for their Cure. He adds, That the an­tient Romans rejected all Physicians, and there­fore the Temple of Aesculapius was plac'd with­out the City; tho 'tis more probable to think, that it was rather done to signifie, that the Country-Air is purer and better for recovery of Health.

The reason why the Romans built a Temple to Aesculapius, in an Island of the Tiber, near to Rome, as it is related by Aurelius Victor, in his Book of Illustrious Men, was, The Romans, says he, at a time when the Plague rag'd at Rome, and the places round about it, consulted the Oracle, which gave them this Answer, That if they would be freed from it, they should fetch the God Aes­culapius from Epidaurus: Whereupon they sent thi­ther Ten Deputies, the chief whereof was Quintus Ogulnius, who arriving at the City, went imme­diately to pay their Respects and Adorations to Aes­culapius; but at the same time, while they were admiring his Statue, which was of extraordinary bigness, they saw a great Serpent come out of a Vault near the Idol, which imprinted upon the minds of all Men a profound Veneration, rather than any Terror: It pass'd through the midst of the City across the Streets, and went directly to the Ship that waited for the Romans, where it posted it self in the Cabin of Ogulnius. The Romans being astonish'd at this sudden and happy success of their Voyage, sail'd away presently to carry off the God, and arriv'd safe at the Port of Antium, where they made some stay, during which time the Serpent crawl'd a-shoar, and went into a neighbouring Temple dedicated to Aesculapius: Some days after it return'd to the Ship again, and continu'd there till the Ship in its course arriv'd at the Tiber: But when they were come overagainst Rome, this sacred Serpent quitted the Ship, and retir'd into a neighbouring Island, where the Romans took care to build a Temple for it; and then immediately the Plague ceased.

Pausanias relates a Story something like this in his Corinthiaca, where he tells us, That Ni­cagora the Mother of Agasicles, and Wife of Echetion, brought along with her from Epidau­rus Aesculapius, under the figure of a living Ser­pent, in a Litter drawn with two Mules, as far as the City of Sicyona, where she was born. Philostratus adds, That he had read somewhere, that this Serpent was formerly kept by Aescu­lapius, under Mount Pelion, when he was a young Man.

Lucian, in his Dialogue, entituled Alexander, or The false Prophet, discovers to us what gave occasion to represent Aesculapius under the fi­gure of a Serpent. He says then, That the false Prophet Alexander, having associated himself with a Byzantine Analist, call'd Cocconas, they went together into Bithynia, where they observ'd that great Serpents were kept so tame, that they suck'd the Breasts of Women, and playd with Children without doing them any hurt: (from whence doubtless comes the Fable of Olympius, who is said to lye in Bed with a Serpent.) They bought therefore one of the largest and fairest of 'em, (which is the Source and Original of the Serpent of Aesculapius,) and made choice of Paphlagonia, where the Spirits of Men are more dull and supersti­tious, as a fit place to set up for cheating the People, and venting their Impostures. Alexander there­fore having a long head of Hair well comb'd, and clad in a Cloak of purple strip'd with white, which was couer'd over with a Surplice, holding in his hand a Faulchion, like Perseus, from whom he said he was descended by the Mothers side, hid some Plates of Brass in an old Temple of Apollo, which is at Calcedonia, and wrote upon them, That Aes­culapius would quickly come with his Father Apollo, to settle his abode in this place: But withal, he so order'd the matter by his Tricks, that these Plates should be found out, and presently the News of them was spread over all Pontus and Bi­thynia; insomuch, that the Inhabitants decreed a Temple to be built for these Gods, and begun to dig the Foundations of it. Our Prophet transported him­self in the Night-time to the place where they were digging the Foundations of the Temple, and having found there some Spring, or at least some Rain-water, he hid in it a Birds Egg, wherein he had inclos'd a very little Serpent which was newly hatch'd: The next day, very early in the morning, he came into the Market-place stark naked, having only a gilded [Page] Girdle about him to cover his Nakedness; and hold­ing his Faulchion in his hand, he mounted upon an Altar, and began to hold forth to the People, saying, That this place was happy, for being honour'd with the Birth of a God: At these words the whole City, which had flock'd together to see this Sight, became very attentive, and fell a-making Vows, and saying Prayers, while he was pronouncing some barbarous words in the Jewish or Phoenitian Language. After this, he ran to the place where he had hid his Birds Egg, and going into the Water, he fell a-singing the Praises of Apollo and Aesculapius, and invited the latter to descend, and shew himself visibly among Men: At the speaking of these words he dip'd a Cup into the Water, and drew out of it that mysterious Egg which held a God in­closed in it, and while he had it in his hand, he told the People, That it contain'd Aesculapius: The People being very attentive to behold this won­derful Mystery, he broke the Egg, and out came the little Serpent that was lodg'd in it, which twin'd round about his Fingers: And immediately the Air was fill'd with Shouts of Joy, which were intermix'd with Blessings and Praises; one desired Health of the God, and another Honour and Riches. In the mean time our Impostor return'd to his Lodging very joyful, holding in his hand Aesculapius born of an Egg, and not of a Crow, (as was said of him in former times, who was the Son of Coronis, which signi­fies a Crow) and he shut himself up in the House with him, until the God was become a great one; and one day when all Paphlagonia came flocking about him, he sate upon a Bed in his Prophetick Habit, and holding that Serpent in his Bosom which he had brought from Macedonia, he shew'd him to the People folding about his Neck, and drawing af­ter him a long Tail, so prodigious was his bigness.

This Truth is also confirm'd by many Me­dals coin'd by the Emperors and the People, upon which Aesculapius is represented like a great Serpent. The First is the Reverse of a Brass Medal of Antoninus Pius, coin'd by the Inhabitants of Aboniteichos, whose Tail made many Foldings, and which without doubt was the Figure of that of Alexander the Impostor, since these two words are added to it, [...], the Glycon of the Aboniteichites, i. e. the Inhabitants of that City of Paphlagonia which is call'd Aboniteichos, or the Castle of Abonus. By this Medal we learn, that the true Name which Alexander gave to Aesculapius, when he return'd to the World under the form of a Serpent, was Glycon, which comes from the Greek word [...] which is as much as to say, Sweet and beneficial to Man­kind.

We have seen also this God represented in the Medals of the Nicomedians, having the Bo­dy of a Serpent and the Head of a Man, with this Inscription upon a Marble CNEUS GNAVIUS. Philonimus consecrated this Marble in testimony of his Thankfulness to Aesculapius the Conserver and Preserver of Man­kind, and to Health, which the Greeks call Hygia, and the Latines, Salus, which they say was the Daughter of Aesculapius: She is there represent­ed as giving him something to eat or drink, and holding in her Left-hand a lighted Torch.

We have also a Medal of Antoninus Pius, whereon is engraven Two Serpents, with the Name of Aboniteichites, whereof the one is bi­ting the Head of the other, to signifie that Apollo, the God of Physick, communicated his Knowledg to his Son Aesculapius; and also a Medal of the same Emperor, which represents the Arrival of Aesculapius at Rome in an Island of the Tiber, under the shape of a Serpent, as Aurelius Victor has inform'd us.

The first Inventer of Physick, according to the opinion of the Greeks and Romans, was Apollo, the Father of Aesculapius, as we learn from Ovid, in these Verses, wherein he brings in Apollo thus speaking,

Inventum Medicina meum est, opiferque per orbem.
Dicor, & herbarum est subjecta potentia nobis.
Metam. l. 1. v. 521.

And thus the first God which Hippocrates taught his Scholars to swear by, was Apollo the Physi­cian; and then after that they swore by Aescu­lapius, Hygia, and Panacaea. Yet Hyginus, the enfranchis'd Slave says, that Apollo was only the Inventer of Medicines for the Eyes, and that Chiron was the Author of Chirurgery, and Aesculapius of that sort of Physick which is call'd the Clinica, i. e. which teaches how to visit and treat the sick which are confin'd to their Bed; tho Lucian tells us, that he set up an Apothecaries Shop at Pergamus; but this looks like a piece of Railery of this Satyrist.

There are also antient Medals of Brass and Silver, done by the Family of the Acilii, with the Head of Aesculapius crown'd with a Laurel on one side, either because he was the Son of Apollo, to whom that Tree was consecrated, or because it supplies Medicines for the Cure of Wounds.

Albricius describes Aesculapius in the habit of a Physician, with a long Beard of massy Gold, which Dionysius, the Tyrant of Syracuse, took away from him, alledging in Railery, that it did not become the Son to be represented with a Beard, since his Father Apollo, who was much older than he, had none. In this figure Aescu­lapius holds his Beard with his right-hand, as if he were in a profound study, and in his left-hand a Staff, about which a Serpent is twi­ning; the Serpent intimates to us that Diseases with respect to Physicians, are like a Serpent which casts off its old Skin, because Physicians are to free the Sick from Diseases and Infirm­ties, [Page] and make them healthful and vigorous: another reason why this Animal is consecrated to the God of Physick, is, because the Serpent being the Emblem of Prudence, it signifies, that this Virtue is more especially requisite for a Physician. Pliny thinks that the Serpent was dedicated to Aesculapius, because there are some Salts extracted from this Animal, which are Ingredients in many Medicines that are neces­sary for the Preservation of Life: the Staff was likewise given to him to signifie that those persons who are raised up from a sick Bed, had need manage themselves well to prevent a Re­lapse, or rather because Physick is the Comfort and Staff of Life; this Staff had Knots in it, to signifie the Difficulty of this Art, and that it was not easie to cure Diseases.

AES,

a Metal which was found in the Bow­els of the Earth, whereof Money was antiently made: which gives me occasion to speak of se­veral kinds of Money and their use.

'Tis certain that at first People traffick'd one with another, by Exchanges of Commodities which their own Country produc'd, for those of Forein Countries: But the Difficulty they found in ballancing these Exchange, put them upon the Invention of Money, made of Metal or other Materials, according to the Diversity of Countries. The Lacedemonians had no other Mony but little round pieces or Ingots of red Iron, which had been quench'd in Vinegar. Caesar, in his Commentaries, lib. 7. says, that in England there was no other Money but what was made of Copper and Lead, together with some Buttons and Rings of Iron, which they weigh'd.

Authors are very much divided about the Invention and antient Use of Money: Some think that it is not very antient; and these ground their Opinion upon the Authority of Homer, who says, Iliad. lib. 7. the Greeks bought the Wine which was brought to them in Ships from Lemnos, by giving in exchange for it Copper, Iron, Skins of Beasts, Cattel, and sometimes Slaves. This Opinion is also con­firm'd by another Passage in Iliad. lib. 6. where the Poet relates that Glaucus exchang'd his Ar­mour of Gold, which was reckon'd to be worth an hundred Oxen, for that of Diomedes, which was only of Brass. But Pollux lib. 9. c. 7. un­derstands by these Oxen, not any living Ani­mals, but pieces of Money on which was stampt the figure of an Ox.; which is justify'd by the Authority of Plutarch, in the Apo­thegms of Agesilus, who complains that he was driven out of Asia by thirty thousand Men of the King of Persia's, which were arm'd with Bows and Arrows; by which he meant so ma­ny pieces of Gold, call'd Daricks, which were stampt with an Archer.

Others, on the contrary, will have it that Money made of Metal has been used in all times, from the beginning of Mankind. This Opinion they build on a passage in Josephus, in his tenth Book Of the Jewish Antiquities, where he makes Cain the Inventor of it, and says that he increas'd his Riches by the Mony which he amass'd from all parts. In the twentieth Chap­ter of Genesis, 'tis observ'd, that Abimelech made a Present to Abraham of a thousand pieces of Silver, Ecce mille argenteos dedi fratri tuo. And the Sons of Jacob carried pieces of Silver into Egypt to buy Corn with during the Famine, for the Scripture tells us that Joseph their Bro­ther order'd the Silver to be put into their Sacks together with the Corn.

We cannot therefore clearly discover, in these dark times of Antiquity, who was the first Inventer or Coiner of Money. We read indeed in Genesis ch. 4. v. 22. that Tubal-Cain, the Son of Lamech and Sella, was a Worker in Brass and Iron; but 'tis not said that he coin'd any Money: All the Certainty we can find in this matter, is only the use of pieces of Gold and Silver in Commerce from the beginning of the World, which may be prov'd by many places of Genesis and Exodus, and by the 43 ch. of the Prophet Exekiel.

The Hebrews or Israelites us'd many pieces of money in their Traffick.

The Great Cicar, or the Talent of the Sanctu­ary, which weigh'd 100 Minae, or 250 Roman pounds.

The Manch or Mine, which weigh'd two pounds and a half, or 30 ounces.

The Shekel of the Sanctuary, which weigh'd half an ounce or 20 Oboli.

The Drachma, which had an Harp on one side, and on the other a Bunch of Grapes.

The Little Shekel which weigh'd two drams.

The Gera or Obolus, which weigh'd from 14 to 15 grains

Herodotus says, that the Lydians were the first who coin'd pieces of Gold and Silver: But there are some Authors who attribute the first Coining of Money to Erichthonus the fourth King of Athens; and others who ascribe it to Jonos King of Thessaly, of whom Lucan is one, in lib. 7. of his Pharsalia.

Plutarch, in the Life of Theseus the tenth King of Athens, says, He caus'd pieces of Silver to be coin'd of the value of two drachma's, ha­ving on one side an Ox, in favour of the Ma­rathonian Bull, or the Captain Minotaurus; and on the other Jupiter with an Owl. He caus'd also another piece to be coin'd, which was stampt on one side with a Minerva, and on the other with two Owls, to shew that it was of double the value: they were call'd Staterae, (being worth two shillings and four pence) and weigh'd four drams.

[Page] The Money of the Pelopounesians was stampt with a Snail, which gave occasion to that Pro­verb, [...] The Snail surpasses Wisdom and Vertue, which is as much as to say, All things are procur'd by Money.

Philip, the Father of Alexander the Great, caus'd pieces of Gold to be made, which bore his own Image and Name. Plautus mentions them in his Bacchides; Ducentos nummos auros Philippeos probos dabin'?

The Cyzicenians who liv'd in Bithynia caus'd pieces of Silver to be coin'd of a very fine Metal, wheron was engraven the Goddess Cy­bele on one side, and on the Reverse was a Lion.

But it does most clearly appear, That among the Romans, Servius Tullus their King was the first who caus'd Brass-Money to be coin'd, for in former times they used Brass in the Lump of a Pound-weight, which was call'd Aes grave, as Pliny assures us, Servius rex primus signavit as, antea rudi uses Romae Timaeus tradit. The first Money therefore that the Romans us'd was made of Brass, about the year 180 from the Building of Rome: It was stampt with a Sheep, or, according to Varro, with an Ox; from whence comes the word Pecunia to signifie Sil­ver: tho some think that the word comes from the Leather-Money which Numa caus'd to be made, ex assibus scorteis.

Nevertheless Plutarch mentions a Money more antient, which Saturn caus'd to be stampt, having on one side his own figure, and on the other a Ship; that he might leave to Posterity a Monument of his Flight, and Arrival in Italy on Ship-board.

Macrobius says, It was Janus who caus'd this Money to be stampt in honour of Saturn, which Ovid confirms in these Verses,

At bona posteritus puppim formavit in aere
Hospitis adventum testificata Dei.

Whether it were Saturn or Janus that coin'd this Money signifies little; nevertheless it makes it evident that Servius Tullus was not the first who coined Brass-Money, unless they mean that he was the first who stamp'd Figures of Animals on it, and gave it a Currency throughout Italy.

Aurelius Victor mentions a certain Game a­mongst the Romans, by tossing up a piece of Janus's Money, saying Navi an Dii? which will you have, a God or a Ship? because it had the Head of a God represented on one side, and a Ship on the other, (like our Cross or Pile.)

Yet the pieces of Copper-Money, which were made in a Mass of a pound-weight, were not used of a long time: for the first Pay that the Roman Legions received, was of this Mo­ney, according to Titus Livius; also Pecuniary Mulcts were paid in this sort of Coin.

But, according to the Fasti Capitolini, in the year 485, and five years before the first Punick War, under the Consulship of Q. Fabius Maxi­mus Pictor and L. Quintius Gulo, certain Silver pieces were coin'd which were called Denarii, because they were of the value of ten Asses; Argentum signatum, says Pliny, anno Urbis qua­dringentesimo octogesimo qainto, quinque annis ante primum bellum Panicum.

This is the Sum of what hath been hitherto said of the Roman Money. In the time of Nu­ma the Romans used Leather-Money, Nummis scorteis; and for two hundred years after, Copper always in a Mass of a pound-weight. Servius Tullus, their sixth King coined pieces of a less value, which he call'd Trientes and Qua­drantes, these had the Figure of a Ship stampt upon them: He also coin'd other kinds, which he called Sextantes, and Ʋnciales, or Ʋnciaria Stips. These are all the sorts which were cur­rant among the Romans all this time.

There were also several small sorts of Leaden Money, according to Martial, lib. 10. epigr. 74.

Centum merebor plumbeos die teto.

Silver pieces were not coined till the year 485. viz. the Denarius, which was ten Asses in value; the Semidenarius, call'd Quinarius, or five Asses; the fourth part of the Denarius, call'd Sesterti­um; and lastly, the Teruncius. All these sorts of Money were Silver, stampt on one side with a Woman's Head, which represented Rome, and on the other with a X, or a V, or some other Letter to signifie the Value. Upon some of them was stampt the Images of Caster and Pollux, two Roman Gods. There were other kinds also, on which was represented Victory on foot crowning a Trophy with Garlands, seated on a Triumphal Chariot, holding out Garlands, ready to crown the Victorious. Fe­stus and Titus Livius call them, Nummi Victorati, Bigati, Quadrigati.

In the latter Ages of the Commonwealth, the Masters of the Mint caus'd the Heads of such Persons as were famous either in War or Peace, with a Representation of their great Actions to be stampt on pieces of Money.

Pieces of Gold called Nummi aurei, were not used in Commerce, till the Consulship of Clau­dius Nero and Livius Salinator, which was in the year 546, after the Building of Rome, and sixty two years after these pieces of Silver began to be currant: they weighed two drams and an half.

Per as & libram, or Aere & librâ, were Phra­ses used among the Romans in selling by weight and ballance.

Their Adoptions, Obligations, Exportations, Pay­ments, Sales, and Purchases, were made in Cop­per, by guess and weight, as we shall shew un­der Denarii aperti.

AES,

this Word also signifies a Bell, with which the Romans us'd to give notice that the Publick Baths were open, or going to be shut; as we may learn from that of Martial, lib. 14. epigr. 163.

Redde pilam, sonat ae [...] thermarum.

AESO,

Aeson, the Father of Jason, whom Medea restor'd to his Youth again, by the pow­er of her Magick.

AESOPUS,

Aesop, who compos'd the Fa­bles, so ingenious, and full of good Instru­ctions, there being not any one of them but contains excellent moral Advice, which may make us just and prudent in the conduct of our Lives. We may with pleasure see there most natural Representations of all mundane Transactions. The Pictures are not drawn with dead Colours, but with living and sensi­tive Creatures, which do not only represent to us the Faces and outward Shapes of Men, but also the Dispositions of their Mind. Aesop was a Phrygian Slave, of small stature, very deform'd, being bunch'd behind and before. He obtained the Gift of making Fables of Mercury, as we learn from Philostratus in his Description of Fables; When I was a Child (says he) my Mother told me a story of Fables. Aesop (continues he) being a Shepherd, commonly sed his Flock near a Temple belonging to Mercury, into which he often went to pray that God to inspire him with Knowledge, to which he had a great Inclinati­on. Several Persons frequented the Temple upon the same account; but the Offerings they made to that God were much more valuable than Aesop's, who had nothing to give him but a few Honey-combs, and the Stroakings of the Milk of his Sheep, with a few Flowers with which he cover'd his Altars. Mercury, as a bountiful and generous Deity, was willing to reward their Devotions, and answer'd their Prayers; to some he gave Wisdom, to others Eloquence; to some Astrology, and others Poetry: Aesop only was forgot in the Distribution, and com­plain'd of it; Mercury not knowing what remain'd to give him, call'd to mind a Fable which the Hours, his Nurses, had taught him in his Child-hood, of a Cow that spake to a Man, and had made him desire the Oxen of the Sun, whereupon he re­solv'd to give Aesop a Faculty of making Fables, in which he became very excellent.

There was another of that Name, who was a Comedian, and Cicero's intimate Friend. Pliny says of him, That one day he made a Banquet of such an excessive Expence, that one Ragou, made of the Tongues of those Birds that imitate Man's voice, which thought to cost six hundred Sesterces, or fif­teen thousand Crowns. He had a Son as ex­travagant as himself, who at a Feast drank several Pearls of extraordinary Value, beat to powder.

AESTAS,

Summer, the hottest Season of the Year, which is between Spring and Au­tumn. The Summer heretofore contained six months, the Year being then divided into two parts only, Winter and Summer: for the Sum­mer was reckon'd from the Equinox of March to the Equinox of September, and the Winter from the Equinox of September to the Equinox of March.

But the Astronomers have now divided the Year into four equal parts, or Seasons, Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter: the Summer Solstice begins in the Sign Cancer, June 12. when the Sun is nearest us, and makes the longest day in the Year. Poets represent the Summer in the Form of a Goddess crowned with Ears of Corn, holding a Sickle in one hand, and a Sheaf of Corn in the other.

AESTIMATIO,

Estimation, or Valuation, a Term of the Roman Law, used in buying and selling, and is taken not only for an Apprais­ment, Value or Price, but also for the things appraised. They say, aestimare litem, to signi­fie, to tax the Costs of a Suit.

AETAS,

an Age in general, contained no more at first than twenty five or thirty years; but afterwards it was counted an hundred years. Servius observes, that an Age is taken sometimes for the space of thirty years, for an hundred and ten years, and sometimes for a thousand.

'Tis necessary to say something here of the four Ages of the World, according to the Poets, both Greek and Latin, who have reduc'd them to two, the Golden Age, or as we Chri­stians speak, the State of Innocence and Hap­piness before the Fall of Man; and the Iron Age, or that of Sins and Miseries, after the Fall.

What the Scripture informs us concerning that Innocence and Happiness in which God created the first Man, seems to have given oc­casion for what the Poets have said of the four Ages of the World, viz. the Golden, Silver, Brass, and Iron Ages. Ovid in his Metamorph. lib. 1. ver. 80. has described the Golden Age, which is the State of Innocence, thus,

Aurea prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo.
Sponte suâ sine lege fidem rectumque colebat.

That is called the Silver-Age, in which the Spring was no longer the only Season of the Year, but the Earth refused to produce its Fruits, unless forc'd by the long Labour of Tillage. In fine, when Men had need of Cloths to defend them from the Sharpness and Injuries of the Weather, and to apply them­selves to Arts and Sciences, to supply the Ne­cessities of Life.

—Subiit argentea prolis
Auro deterior.

[Page] The two following Ages, viz. the Brass and Iron, degenerated yet more, and run into all sorts of Crimes and Vices.

Tertia post illas successit ahenea proles
Saevior ingeniis, &c,
Victa jacet pietas, terras Astraea reliquit.

The Golden Age, or Age of Innocence, if we may believe the Poets, was common to many Nations; for Ovid saith, that in the times of Janus and Saturn the Italians enjoy'd the Company of the Gods, and liv'd in Inno­cence, Justice, Peace, and all other Advanta­ges of the Golden Age; this he speaks in lib. 1. Fastorum. The Golden Age was then in Italy, when Saturn and Janus reigned there.

Virgil has taken notice but of two Ages, one before the Reign of Jupiter, the other after: for it was in the Reign of Jupiter that Men be­gan to divide and till the ground. 'Twas then that Jupiter condemn'd Men to a hard and la­borious Life, and forc'd them to invent Arts.

Seneca follows the same Method, distin­guishing the two Ages of Men into just and happy, and unjust and unhappy, viz. the Gol­den and the Iron Age.

Hesiod lived many Ages before these Latin Poets, and made this Distinction of Ages before them. He describes the three first much like those of Ovid. He also calls them the Golden, Silver and Steel Ages; the fourth he makes an Age of Justice and Valour. This fourth Age of Hesiod may be computed about the time of Noah, when there was a Restauration of Ju­stice. This is not the only Point in which Hesiod hits upon the Truth; for he has plainly discover'd that it was Woman by whom all E­vil entred into the World: Sed Mulier manibus magnum operculum cum dimovisset, dispersit, homi­nibus autem immisit curas, v. 92. This is the Description he gives of Pandora, who was the first Woman made by the hand of God. This was that Pandora who open'd the Fatal Box of Evils which over-spread the Earth, in which Hesiod is follow'd by the other Poets; as Pau­sanias observes.

The Life of every Man is likewise divided into Four Ages, or Four different Times of which 'tis made up, viz. Infancy, which con­tinues till the Fourteenth Year; Youth, to Twenty Four; Manhood, to Sixty; and Old Age, to the end of our Life.

The Age or Term of Life at which a Man was qualified for Offices, war differently ap­pointed in the Common-wealth of Rome, and under the Emperors. A Man ought to be at least Seventeen years old to be Soldier. None could obtain a Quaestorship till the Age of Twenty Seven. They would not allow any to be Tribunur Plebis till Thirty Years old. None could be an Aedile before he was Thirty seven Years old. Nor a Praetor or Consul till Forty. These fix'd Times could not be dispens'd with, especially under the Emperors.

Tacitus teaches us, that at first they had no respect to Age, even in bestowing their great­est Dignities, and he mentions young Men who were Dictators and Consuls. It does not appear that those Ages were settled till the Year 373. under the Consulship of Posthumius Albinus and C. Calpurnius Piso, when Julius the Tribune made a Law, as Titus Livius relates, which ascertain'd the Age for all Offices.

AETERNITAS,

Eternity, was reckon­ed among the Gods worshiped at Rome. It is differently represented to us upon Medals; her Statue was sometimes drawn in the Habit of a Roman Lady, holding a Javelin in her Right-hand, and a Cornu-copia in her Left, set­ting her Left-foot upon a Globe. The Empe­ror Adrian caus'd her to be graven holding two Heads in her Hands. Upon some Medals of Philip, Eternity is also represented sitting upon an Elephant; on a Chariot drawn by two Elephants or two Lyons, with this Motto, ETERNITAS.

AETHER,

Jupiter, or the more fine part of the Air, which is easily inflam'd, and where the Thunder and Lightning is formed out of the subtle Matter, which is set on fire there: Hence it is that the Poets say, that Jupiter cau­ses the Thunder, and darts Lightning upon the Earth. This word comes from [...], to burn; and 'tis likely that Jupiter is also nam'd [...], because [...] comes from [...], ferveo, to be hot.

AETHIOPIA,

a very large Country of Africk. It was first call'd Aetheria, after that Atlantia, and since Aethiopia, from Ae­thiops the Son of Vulcan, according to Pliny; or rather from the word [...], uro, to burn. The Hebrews call it Chus, that is to say, Black. Geographers place Ethiopia under the Torrid Zone, between Arabia and Egypt. The exces­sive Heat of that Climate hath given Birth to many monstrous Men and Beasts, of which the Historians Pliny, Strabo, and others speak.

AETHIOPES,

The Ethiopians, or People of Ethiopia. Hesiod calls them [...], Black Men. Homer gives 'em the Epithet of Blameless. They go to fight dancing, as Lucian says, and before they draw out their Arrows, which are set round their Heads in form of Rays, they leap and dance to affright their Enemies. They were the first who found out Astrology; for 'tis a subtile Nation, which excels all others in Ingenuity and Knowledg. Homer calls them Thrice happy. They treated Jupiter, with all his Train of Gods, Twelve whole Days at their Sacrifices, as we learn from the same Lucian.

AETHON,

the Name of one of the Four Horses of the Sun; the First is call'd Pyrois, i. e. Red, because the Sun, when it ascends above our Horizon, being overspread with Vapors from the Earth, appears red; the Second is Eous, i. e. Shining or Bright, because the Sun being mounted up, and having dispers'd the Vapors, appears clear and bright; Aethon is the Third, which signifies Burning, as the Sun is at Noon, when it is in the middle of its course, and when it scorches us with its Heat and Fire; the Fourth is call'd Phlegon, Russet­colour'd, as the Sun is when it sets.

AETHRA,

the Daughter of Oceanus and Thetis, and Wife of Atlas, by whom she had a Son named Hyas, and Seven Daughters, who so lamented the Death of their Brother Hyas, who was torn in pieces by a Lyon, that they dyed of Grief: Jupiter chang'd 'em into so ma­ny Stars, which the Astronomers called Hyades, or Rainy.

AETION,

the Father of Andromache the Wife of Hector, who was slain at Thebes by the Greeks, with his Seven Sons. He was particu­larly honoured at the Olympick-Games, says Lucian.

AETION,

Aetion, a famous antient Pain­ter, who has left us a famous Piece of the Ameurs of Roxana and Alexander, which he shewed to the Publick at the Olympick-Games; he drew a magnificent Chamber, where Roxana sate upon her Bed shining in glorious Apparel, but more glorious yet by her Beauty, although she lookt down for shame at the presence of Alexander, who stood before her: A Thousand little Cupids flew about her, of whom some lifted up her Veil behind, to shew her to the Prince, others undrest her, others pull'd Alex­ander by the Robe, as a young Bridegroom full of Modesty, and presented him to his Mistris: He throws his Crown at her Feet, accompa­nied by Ephestion, who holds a Torch in his Hand, and learning upon a beautiful Boy, which represents Hymenaeus. On his side are other little Cupids which wantonly play with his Arms. Some carry his Lance bowing un­der so heavy a burden, others his Buckler, up­on which there is one sitting whom they carry in Triumph, while another lies in ambush in his Breast-plate, who attends 'em in the passage to affright 'em. This Piece gain'd Aetion so great Reputation, that he who presided over the Games, gave him his Daughter in Marriage.

AETNA,

Aetna, a burning Mountain in Sicily, which was also call'd by some Mount Gibel, which sends forth from time to time Whirlwinds of Fire and Smoke, and Clouds of Ashes. This Fire is fed by Veins of Brim­stone and Bitumen kindled by the Winds, which are inclosed in these subterraneous Ca­verns. Fabulous Antiquity would make us be­lieve, that Jupiter having slain the rebellious Gyants with Thunder, shut them up in this Mountain; that the Bellowings, which are heard to come out of it, are the Groans of those Gyants, who are overwhelm'd with the excessive weight of that Mountain, and that these Fires that issue out of it, are the Breath and Wind of these miserable Creatures: This Virgil describes in these Verses of Lib. 3. of his Aeneids, v. 578. & seq.

Fama est Enceladi semustum fulmine corpus
Urgeri mole hâc, ingentemque insuper Aetnam
Impositam, ruptis flammam expirare caminis;
Et fessum quoties motat latus, intremere [...]
Murmure Trinacriam.—

AFFIXUM, or AFFIXA,

that which is fixed or joyned to a Building. The things which are added to an House, and are over and above the Building.

AGAMEMNON,

the Son of Atreus and Europa, and Brother of Menelaus, was King of Myeenae, one of the Kingdoms of Peloponnesus. Going to the Siege of Troy to revenge the Rape of his Sister-in-law Helena, he left with his Wife Clytemnestra, a musical Poet who was faithful to him, to divert her in his absence, and so hinder her from acting any thing contrary to the Fidelity she ow'd him. Aegistheus the Son of Thyestes, who endeavour'd to debauch her, seeing that this Poet broke all his Measures, and obstructed his Designs, carry'd him away into a desart Isle, and left him there to die of Hunger, and returning to Mycaenae, debauch'd Clytemnestra, and got possession of the King­dom. Agamemneo, at his return from the Tre­jan War, was slain by his own Wife at a Ban­quet which she had prepared for him, having inclos'd him in a Garment without a Bosom when he came out of the Bath. Orestes re­veng'd the Death of his Father upon his Mo­ther, and Aegistheus, who debauch'd her, for he kill'd 'em both. Agamemnon was chang'd in­to an Eagle after his Death.

AGANIPPIDES,

an Epithete which the Poets give the Muses, from the Fountain Aga­nippe, or Hippocrene, which was consecrated to them.

AGAVE,

the Daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, who in the shape of a Boar tore in pieces her Son Pantheus, King of Thebes, because he abolish'd the Orgia or Feasts of Bacchus in his Realm, upon account of Debauches com­mitted in them.

AGE,

Quodagis, a Form of Speech us'd in the antient Sacrifices, which was often repeated to the Person that offer'd, to make him more careful and attentive; as if it were said to him, Mind what you are about; Let not your Thoughts ramble.

AGENORA,

the Goddess Agenora, who makes us active, and to whom the Romans built a Temple upon Mount Aventine.

AGGERES,

Heaps of Earth which were rais'd upon the Tombs of the Antients; Virgil makes mention of them in his Aeneids, Lib. XI. v. 850.

—Terrino ex aggere bustum.

as also in v. 6. of Lib. VII.

Aggere composito tumuli.—

Sidonius writes to one of his Relations named Secundus, that coming from Lyons to Clermont in Auvergne, he observ'd that Time and Water had almost laid plain an Heap or Bank of Earth, which cover'd the Tomb of Apollinaris his Kins­man, who was Praefectus Praeterio, A. C. 409. Catulus speaks also of these Tombs, and calls them, Coacervatum bustum excelso aggere.

Aggere Tarquinii, the Ramparts of Earth which Tarquinius rais'd between the Mountains, Vimi­nalis, & Esquilinus, from whence Suetonius says, they cast down Criminals head-long: Verbera­tum per vicos agerent, qu [...]d praecipitaretur ex aggere.

AGLAIS,

One of the Three Graces, which the Greeks call'd Charites, the Compa­nions of Venus the Goddess of Beauty. They were the Daughterr of Jupiter and Eurynome.

AGLAURA,

the Daughter of Cecrops, and Sister of Hirsa, with whom Mercury fell in love: This Messenger of the Gods, to gain the Favour of his Mistris, engag'd her Sister Aglaura, who promis'd to serve him, by giving her a Sum of Money. This provok'd Minerva so much, who could not endure such fordid Avarice, that she commanded Envy to make her jealous of her Sister Hirsa; while she was contriving to cross Mercury's Designs, he turn'd her into a Statue of Salt.

AGLIBOLUS,

some learned Men guess, that this word comes from [...] and [...], to cast a light, to shine. Hesychius says, that Aiglitis, which signifies Shining, is a Name of the Sun; and so Aglibolus is the Sun. Mr. Spon, in his CURIOUS ENQUIRIES after Antiquities, says, that there was an antient Mar­ble at Rome, in the Vineyard of Cardinal Car­pegna, on which was the Portrait of two Syrian Deities, with an Inscription in Greek thus englished,

To the Honour of Aglibolus and Malak-belus. The Gods of the Country, and he affirms, that Aglibolus is the Sun, and Malak-belus the Moon. He says, that the Habit of Aglibolus is not after the Roman Fashion, but, like the Syrians, short, with a sort of Cloak uppermost, which ought not to seem strange, since these Figures were drawn in Syria, and every Nation is clothed af­ter their own Fashion, as Theodoret says. The Habit of Malak-belus is something like that which the Romans wore in their Wars, which they call'd Paludamentum, with a Cloak over it. But the Crown is not like the Roman, no more than the Hair which the Romans usually shav'd; and this gave occasion to Vespasian, as Suetonius relates, to tell the Romans, when they were frighted at the sight of a Comet with a long Tail above their Horizon, that that Comet did not belong to their Country, but the Kingdom of Persia, who wore long Hair, and had most reason to fear the effects of it. Salmasius is of another opinion in his Commentaries upon the Historia Augusta, for he will have Malak-belus to be the Sun, and Aglibolus the Moon, but he gives no reason for the Conjecture, and 'tis likely he never saw the Marble, which I have spoken of.

AGNATI,

are the Relations on the Fa­thers side, and who are of the same Race. In the Civil-Law 'tis said, Ad agnatos deducere ali­quem, To put any one under a Guardian, To forbid him the Administration of his Goods, by the advice of his Relations.

AGNO,

a Fountain of Arcadia, so call'd from a Nymph so nam'd, the Nurse of Jupiter. When the Water of it was us'd in sacred mat­ters, it ascended in the form of a Cloud, which after fell down in Rain.

AGNODICE,

a young Maid, who being desirous to learn Physick, conceal'd her Sex, and went to be instructed by Herophy [...]us a Physician, she particularly acquir'd the Skill of Midwisery. The Physicians much envy'd her, because she was preferr'd before 'em, sum­mon'd her before the Judges of the Arcopa­gus, accusing her of debouching the Women she deliver'd. But having discover'd her Sex, she convicted them of a Calumny, which oc­casion'd the Judges to make a Law, allowing free-born Women to profess Midwisery.

AGNOMEN,

is a Name added to the Sur-name which was given from some particu­lar Action; as one of the Sciplo's was named Africanus, and the other Asiaticus, from the brave Achievments which the one did in Africa, and the other in Asia. Without all doubt some Persons had heretofore a particular Sur-name, which was as it were a Fourth Name. The Author to Herennius makes mention of this Agnemen, when he says, Nomen autem cum dici­mus, cognomen & agnomen intelligatur oportet.

AGONALIA,

was an immoveable Feast appointed by King Numa, which was celebrated every Year, on January 9. in Honour of the God Janus, as we learn from Ovid, Lib. I. Fa­storum, v. 317.

Quatuor adde dies ductis ex-ordine nonis
Janus agonali Lucepiandus erit,

The Rex Sacrorum at this Feast sacrific'd a We­ther to the God Janus. Authors differ in their [Page] opinions about the Occasion of this Feast. Varro will have it so call'd from a Ceremony used in all Sacrifices, where the Priest being ready to offer Sacrifice, asks the Sacrificer, Agon' which was used then for Agamne? Shall I strike? Festus derives this Word ei­ther from Agonia, which signifies a Sacrifice, which they led to the Altar, ab agendo, from whence these sorts of Ministers were call'd Agones; or from the God Agonius, the God of Action; or from Agones, which signifie Moun­tains, and so the Agonalia were Sacrifices which were offer'd upon a Mountain. Indeed the Mount Quirinalis was called Agonus, and the Colline-Gate which led thither Porta Agonensis, which the same Festus will have so call'd from the Games which were celebrated without that Gate in Honour of Apollo, near the Temple of Venus Erycina; where the Cirque of Flaminius was overflow'd by the Tiber.

But it is more probable, that this Feast was called Agonalia, from the Greek word [...], which signifies Sports and Combats which were us'd in Greece, in imitation of those which Her­cules appointed at Elis first, and consecrated to Jupiter, as these Verses of Ovid shew, Lib. I. Fastorum, v. 359.

Fas etiam fieri selitis aetate priorum
Nomina de Ludis Graeca tulisse diem,
Et prius antiquus dicebat, Agonia, sermo
Veraque judicio est ultima causa meo.

There are Two Feasts celebrated at Rome of the same Name, one upon April 21. which falls on the day of the Palilia, on which the Buil­ding of Rome is commemorated; and the other on December 11. according to Festus.

AGONES,

the Salii, of whom Varro speaks, in his Fifth Book of the Latin Tongue. See Salii.

AGONES CAPITOLINI,

Games which were celebrated every Five Years in the Capitol, instituted by the Emperor Domitian in his Consulship, and that of Corn. Dolabella Ser­gius. All sorts of Exercises both of Body and Mind were represented there, as at the Olym­pick-Games, as Players on Instruments, Poets, Jack-Puddings and Mimics, which strove, every one in his own Profession, who should gain the Prize.

The Poet Statius recited his Thebais there, which was not well lik'd, as he complains in several places of his Silvae. This serves to ex­plain a place in Juvenal not well understood,

—Sed cum fregit subsellia versu
Esurit intactam Paridi nisi vendat Agaven.
Sat. VII. v. 86.

But his Thebais not having the Success he expe­cted, and he having procured no Patron by it, dyed of Hunger, and after being to subsist himself by selling the Tragedy of Agave, the Mother of Pentheus, which was never acted by Paris the Stage-Player.

Some Commentators explain this place of Juvenal otherwise, and think the Poet meant the contrary, that his Work was well receiv'd and universally applauded. Altho this Expli­cation be allowable enough, yet 'tis evidently contrary to the Complaints which Statius makes in several places of his Poems, unless we think it better to say that Statius complains that after he had receiv'd Applause for his Thebais, he was nevertheless ill requited for it afterwards.

In these Exercises the chief Conqueror re­ceiv'd a Laurel Crown adorn'd with Ribbands, but the others receiv'd a plain One without any Ornament, as we may see by these Verses of Ausonius,

Et quae jamdudum tibi palma Poetica pollet
Lemnisco ornata est, quo mea palma caret.

Poets thus crowned were call'd Laureati.

These Sports were so much esteem'd by Do­mitian, that he changed the Account of Years, and instead of reckoning by Lustra, which is the space of five years, they counted by Ago­nalia and Agones Capitolini, from their Instituti­on to the time of Censorinus.

AGRARIA LEX,

the Agrarian Law, was made for the dividing Lands got by Conquest, which the Tribuni Plebis would have to be sha­red among the People by Poll. Spurius Cassius Vicellinus being Consul first propounded this A­grarian Law, Anno U. C. 267, which was the cause of a very great Quarrel betwixt the Se­nate and the People; but it was rejected the first time. There are two Agragrian Laws men­tioned in the Digests, one made by Julius Caesar and the other by the Emperour Nerva, but they had respect only to the Bounds of Lands, and had no relation to that we now speak of.

Cassius perceiving the strong Opposition which some made that this Agrarian Law might not be received, proposed to distribute among the People the Money which arose from the Sale of the Corn brought from Sicily, but the People refused it.

After this first Attempt, a peace was settled in Rome for some years; but in the Consulship of Caeso Fabius and Aemilius Mamercus, Licinius Stolo Tribune of the People proposed the Agra­rian Law a second time in the year 269 from the Building of Rome. This second Attempt had no better Success than the former, tho it was pass'd over calmly enough. Nevertheless the Consul Caeso seeing the People fond of this Law, and that the Senate was positive it ought not to be received, contriv'd a way to satisfie both Parties, as he thought, by proposing, that only the Lands of the Vejentes, conquer'd under his Consulship, should be divided among the People, but this met withno better Success than the other.

[Page] The Tribunes of the People, being angry at the Opposition of the Senate drew up many Accusations against the Patricians and Noble­men before the People, and caused many of them to be fined and banish'd, which so much provok'd the Cousuls, that they caused Genutius the Tribune to be stab'd: this Assassination raised a great Tumult in Rome, and stir'd up the People to revenge, till the Consul Sempro­nius was condemned to pay a large Fine.

Lastly, In the year 320 from the Building of Rome, Mutius Scaevola put Tiberius Gracchus, the Tribune of the People, in mind to have the Agrarian Law established against the Will of the Senate, Nobles and Rich Commons. Octa­vius, his Partner, being rich, was not of the same mind, and opposed the Law. Grac­chus, seeing that, accused him before the Peo­ple of Prevarication and Unfaithfulness in his Office, and caused him to be depos'd with Dis­grace. This Obstacle being remov'd, the A­grarian Law passed, and Commissioners were appointed to divide the Lands.

AGRIPPA,

several Persons among the Antients bore this Name, which was usually given to such as came into the World with Difficulty, or which were born with their Feet forward, as Aulus Gellius affirms. The most eminent of this Name were,

AGRIPPA SYLVIUS,

the twelfth King of the Latins, the Son of Tyberinus Sylvius, whom he succeeded; he reigned thirty or forty years, and Aremulus succeeded him in the year of the World 3281.

AGRIPPA MENENIUS,

surnamed Lanatus; he was chosen General of the Romans against the Sabins, whom he conquer'd, and obtain'd the lesser Triumph called Ovation: he was endow'd with admirable Eloquence, which made him undertake with Success to reconcile the Senate and the People of Rome; to this end he went to the Aventine Mount, where he pathetically represented to the People, that all the Commonwealth was but one great Body, of which the Senate is the Head and Stomach; which seems alone to devour all that the La­bour and Industry of the other Parts can get, but in Reality 'tis only to distribute it to the rest of the Body to nourish and strengthen it; and if the Members do not daily supply them with the usual Nourishment, they themselves would soon be found to be without Vigour, Heat or Life. This excellent Comparison was so aptly apply'd, and so zealously explained by Agrippa, that the People were reconciled to the Senate, who consented to the Election of a Tribune, chosen out of the People, to pro­tect them against the Authority of the great Ones. This Magistrate had a right to oppose the Consultations of the Senate, by saying this Word, Veto, i. e. I oppose it, and forbid you to proceed further.

AGRIPPA,

named Marcus, a Man of a mean Original, a Favourite of Augustus, Ad­miral of the Empire, a great Captain, and a Companion of that Prince in his Victories. He assisted him much in obtaining that Victory which he had in the Sea-fight against Sextus Pom­peius, of which Virgil speaks. Augustus bestow'd the Consulship upon him twice together, and, as a Surplus of his Favour, he made him his Son-in-Law, by marrying his Daughter Julia to him, who had been first married to Marcellus his Nephew, who died without Children. This Agrippa had two Daughters and three Sons, viz. Calus, Lucius, and Agrippa, who was a Posthumous Child, i. e. born after his Father's Death.

Augustus adopted Caius and Lucius before they were seventeen years of Age; he had them proclaimed Princes of the Youth, and earnest­ly desired that they might be chosen Consuls. The first married Livia the Sister of Germanicus. These two Princes were soon taken from him, by the Wickedness of another Livia their Mo­ther-in-Law, or by their own Misfortunes; one in a Voyage to Spain, whither he went to command the Armies, and the other in his Return from Armenia, from whence he came ill of a Wound. As for Agrippa the posthu­mous Child, Augustus complain'd of him, and caused him to be banish'd by a Decree of the Senate, into the Isle Planasia. He was indeed a stupid and brutish Prince, and withal a sim­ple Man. Tiberius, who succeeded Augustus, made his Access to the Empire remarkable by the Death of Agrippa, who being surpriz'd was slain by a Centurion, whom he sent on pur­pose, without making any Defence. Tacit. An­nal. lib. 1.

AGRIPPA,

Herod, the Son of Aristobu­lus, whom Herod the Elder put to Death. He was King of the Jews, and had the Favour of the Emperour Caligula, who at his coming to the Crown released him from Prison, where Tiberius had shut him up, for wishing Caligula had his place. This Emperour, besides his Li­berty, gave him a Chain of Gold, of the same weight with that which he had worn out of Love to him while he was in Prison, and gave him the Tetrarchy of his Uncle Philip, who died without Children, and allow'd him to take upon him the Title of The King of the Jews. He made himself infamous at his Arrival at Jerusalem, by the Death of St. James the Great, and the Imprisonment of St. Peter. But his Cruelty was not long unpunish'd, for as he was in Caesarea Palaestine, busied in the Celebra­tion of the Publick Plays for the Health of the Emperour, he was struck on a sudden, as he [Page] was making a Speech to the People, with a surprising terrible Pain, of which soon after he died.

AGRIPPINA,

the Grand-daughter of Augustus, and Daughter of Marcus Agrippa, was the Wife of Germanicus the Son of Drusus the Brother of Tiberius. Some believe that her Hus­band was poisoned by Cn. Piso, tho this Crime was but weakly proved at the Condemnation of Piso. She carried her Husband's Ashes to Rome, and laid them in the Tomb of the Cae­sors. Tacitus says, she was a Woman of an haughty and untameable Spirit, but she aton'd for her Passions by her Chastity, and the Love she bare to her Husband.

AGRIPPINA,

named Julia, who mar­ried, at her second Marriage, the Emperour Claudius, who was her Uncle; but she soon after poison'd him with what she put into Mushrooms, which afterwards at Rome were called The Food of the Gods. Britannicus, who was Claudius's Son by his first Marriage, ought to have succeeded him in the Empire; but Agrippina advanc'd her Son Nero to it, contrary to his Right, that she herself might reign un­der the Name of her Son. She had him by Domitius Aeneobarbus her first Husband, and Claudius adopted him into his Family, which opened a way for his Accession to the Sove­reign Dignity. But this ambitious Princess was well rewarded for it, for Nero caused her to be slain by Anicetus, and, for compleating her Infamy, order'd that the Day of her Nati­vity, should be reckon'd among the unfortu­nate Days.

AJAX,

the Locrian, the Son of Oileus, so named from the City and Country of Locris, near Mount Parnassus. He signaliz'd himself at the Siege of Troy by many notable Exploits. After the taking of the City, he pluck'd Cassan­dra, the Daughter of King Priam, from the Altar of Minerva, to which she was fled as an Asylum. Some say, he ravish'd her, and that Minerva, being provok'd, reveng'd the Fact by slaying him with a Thunderbolt, which sir'd his Ship, and so drowned him in the Sea. But Philostratus says the contrary, that Ajax offer'd no Force to Cassandra, but that Agamem­non took her away from him, having seen her in his Tent, and to avoid the Mischief he might design against him, fled by Sea in the night, and suffer'd Shipwrack by a Tempest that overtook him. The Greeks much lamen­ted him, and made an extraordinary Funeral for him, for they fill'd a Ship with Wood, as if they would make a Funeral-Pile for him, slew several black Beasts in honour of him, and having also set up black Sails in the Ship, they set it on fire about break of day, and left it to run into the Main Sea all in a flame, till it was consum'd to Ashes.

AJAX TELAMONIUS,

the Son of Telamon, King of Salamis, and the fair Eriboea, according to Pindar. He was one of the most valiant Greeks that was at the Siege of Troy. After the Death of Achilles, he pretended that his Armour belonged to him as the next of kin; but Thetis exposing them to the Publick, that every one that pretended a Right to them might claim them, V;lysses disputed it with him and gained them. Ajax was thereupon so much enraged, that he fell upon a Flock of Sheep, with his Sword drawn and brandished, and slew them, supposing them to be Grecians, and then he thrust himself through with his own Sword and died.

AIUS LOCUTIUS,

a Speaking Voice, to which the Romans erected an Altar, accor­ding to Cicero and Aulus Gellius, or a small Temple, according to P. Victor, in the New-street. The occasion of it, as Cicero and Livy relate, was thus; One named M. Ceditius, a Plebeian, went and acquainted the Tribunes, that passing through the New-street in the night, he heard a Voice more than human over the Temple of Vesta, which gave the Romans no­tice that the Gauls were coming against Rome. This Information was neglected upon account of the Person who gave it; but the Event prov'd the Truth of it. Hereupon Camillus thought, that, to appease the angry Gods, he ought to ac­knowledge this Voice as a new Deity, under the Title of The Speaking God, and to build an Altar to offer Sacrifice to him.

ALA,

a Wing, in the Roman Armies, was made up of the Cavalry and Infantry of the Confederates, and which cover'd the Body of the Roman Army, as the Wings cover the Bo­dies of Birds. There was a Right and a Left Wing, both mix'd with the Cavalry and In­fantry, which they called Alares, or Alares Co­piae. They were made up each of four hun­dred Horsemen divided into ten Squadrons, and 4200 Foot. Some say that Pan the Indian, a Captain of Bacchus, was the first Inventor of this way of drawing up an Army in Battle. whence it comes to pass that the Antients have painted him with Horns on his Head, because what we call Wings they called Horns.

ALADUS or ALADINUS SYLVIUS,

Eutropius calls him Romus Cassiodorus, and Sextus Victor names him Aremulus. Titus Livius, Messala, and Sabellicus call him Romulus. But tho there are different Opinions about the Name of this Prince, there is an universal Consent in the Ab­horrence of his Tyranny, and a general Agree­ment about his exttaordinary Death. His Pride transported him so far as to equal himself with Jupiter the King of the Gods in his Age. He counterfeited the Noise of his Thunder by certain Engines, but at last he perished by a [Page] Tempest and Thunder as real as his own were vain. Fire from Heaven consum'd his Palace; the Lake, in the middle of which it was built, flowed extraordinarily, and contributed to the Destruction of his Family. He reigned nine­teen years.

ALAPA,

a Box on the Ear. Majoris Alapae mecum veneunt. Phaed. I do not grant them Liberty so easily. (Boxes on the Ear were usually given to Slaves when they were set at Liberty.)

ALAUDA,

a Lark. The Poets say it was Scylla the Daughter of Nisus King of Megara, whom she deliver'd into the hands of Minos King of Crete, having cut off his fatal Hair, which was of a purple Colour. The Gods changed her into a Lark, and her Father into a Hawk, which continually pursues her, says the Fable to punish her horrible Treason.

ALAUDA,

the Name of a Roman Legion, of a French one, according to Bochart; the Sol­diers of which carried a Lark's Tuft upon the top of their Helmets.

ALBA,

a Name given to three or four Ci­ties, of which the principal was Alba Longa, so called by the Antients because it extended to a great Length in the Territory of Rome, it was built by Ascanius the Son of Aeneas, from whence the Inhabitants are called Albini. As­canius built it in a place where he had observ'd a white Sow, thirty years after the Foundation of Lavinium, which his Father had built. This number of Years was signified to him by the thirty Pigs which that Sow then suckled. He would have transported the Gods of Troy, which Aeneas had brought with him, into this new City; but he found the next day they were carried to Lavinium: whereupon Ascani­us left them there, and contented himself with settling a College of six hundred Trojans, to serve them according to the Worship used in Phrygia. Aegistheus was chosen to be the Chief of those Priests. This City had several Kings, and maintained fierce Wars against the Romans; which did not cease till the famous Combat between the three Curatii on the Albins parts, and the three Horatii on the Ro­mans side. The three Curatii were slain, and and by their Death their Country became sub­ject to the Romans, as both Parties had agreed before the Combat, Metius Suffetius was made the first Governour of it.

ALBINUS,

a Native of Adrumetum in A­frick: He was descended of a Noble Family which came from Rome, having the Whiteness of the Europeans, but a frizled Beard like those of that Country; his Stature was tall and pro­portionably thick, he was of a melancholy Temper, and had a wide Mouth; he was also a great Eater. A certain Writer, named Co­drus, has told incredible things of him, saying, That he eat at one Breakfast five hundred Figs, one hundred Peaches, ten Melons, twenty pounds of Raisins, one hundred Wood-peckers, and four hundred Oysters; which without doubt is rather an Hy­perbole than a Truth. After the Death of the Emperour Pertinax, Albinus was chosen Empe­rour by the Troops which he commanded in Great-Britain; and at the same time Severus, who had just defeated Pescennius Niger, was likewise chosen Emperour by the Eastern Troops. Albinus, fearing least he should be seiz'd in England, went into France with fifty thousand Men, and Severus had about as many. Albinus being secure, because the City of Lyons took his part, gave Severus battel. He had an Advantage at the first Onset, and Severus him­self, being faln from his Horse, had thoughts of giving over the Battel; but at last Albinus was conquer'd, and the Conquerour caus'd his Head to be cut off and sent to Rome, and cast his Body into the River Rhosne.

ALBION or BRITANNIA,

England. Caesar, l. 5. c. 3. of the War with the Gauls, gives this De­scription of it; the interiour part of Britannia is in­habited by the Natives of the Country, but on the Coasts by the Gauls, which, for the most part, keep still their Names: the Island is well peopled, and their Houses much like the Gauls: they have much Cattel: they use Copper Money, or Iron Rings by weight, for want of Silver: they have Mines of Tin in the mid­dle of the Country, and of Iron on the Coasts, which yield no great Revenue, but the Copper which they use is brought them from abroad: all sorts of Wood grow there as in France, except Beach and Firr: the People scruple to eat Hares, Geese and Hens, altho they breed them up for Pleasure: the Air is more temperate than in Gallia, and the Cold less violent: the Isle is triangular, the side which is op­posite to Gallia is above an hundred and twenty Leagues in length, from the County of Kent, which is the furthest end towards the East, and where al­most all the Ships from Gallia do land, to the other which is Southward: the Western Coast, which lies overagainst Spain and Ireland, contains near 180 Leagues in length. Ireland is not half so big as England: between them lies the Isle of Mon, or Anglesea, where some say there are thirty Days all Night in Winter; but I found no such thing, only I have observ'd by Water-Clocks, that the Nights are shorter in those Parts than they are in Gallia.

The most civiliz'd People of England are those of the County of Kent, which lies along the Coasts. The inward parts of the Countrey are not till'd in all places, and most of the Inhabitants live upon Milk and the Flesh of their Flocks, and wear their Skins for Clothing.

All the English paint their Bodies with Woad, which makes them of a blewish Colour, and renders them more formidable in Battel. They shave off all their Hair except that of their Head and Whiskers. [Page] Their Women are common to ten or twelve, but their Children belong to those who married them.

Tacitus, in the Life of Agricola, gives us this Character of England; It is the biggest Isle which is yet known: it has Germany on the East, Spain on the West, Gallia on the South, and the Main O­cean, which has no Bounds, on the North. Fabius and Titus Livius, the two most eloquent of our Hi­storians, as well antient as modern, have compared it to a long Buckler, or the Head of an Ax, because the hither side is of that figure. It was not known till our time that 'twas an Isle, after a Tour was made about the Northern Coast of it, where there are discover'd other Isles at a further distance called the Orcades, and Island it self, which a perpetual Winter keeps from our View. The Original of the Inhabitants is not known, whether they are Indige­nae or Strangers. The Scots have Hair and a Sta­ture like the Germans. Those who dwell on the side next Spain, have frizled Hair, and are of a Tawny Colour. The rest are like the Gauls, to whom they are Neighbours.

The Sky is always thick and cloudy, but the Cold is never very fierce: the Days are longer than in France, but the Night is very clear, especially about the extreme parts of the Isle, where there is but little distance between the End of one day and the Begin­ning of the next; some say, that in a clear and se­rene Sky, they do not wholly lose their Light, but it seems to turn about above the Horizon; so that, properly speaking, they never see the Sun either rise or set. They have neither Vines nor Olive-teees, nor other Fruit-trees which grow in hot Countries, altho otherwise it is very Fruitful: their Fruits come out early, but are a long time in ripening, for want of Heat, and by reason of the abundance of their Moi­sture.

ALBO-GALERUS,

a sort of Cap made of white Wool, which had a Tuft on the Top, and upon which they wore Branches of Olives embroider'd. The Flamen Dialis, or Priest of Jupiter only had a Right to wear it.

ALBULA,

a River where Tiberius Sylvius was drown'd, who was King of the Albini, from whom it was immediately named Tiber.

ALBUNA,

a Goddess worshipped in the Country of Tibur [now Tivoli.] Some think she was Ino the Daughter of Athamas, who fearing her Husband, cast her self headlong into the Sea with her Son Melicerta. Other Authors confound her with the tenth Sibyl, call'd Tiburtina, because she was born at Tibur.

ALBUTIUS,

the Father of the Sorcerer Canidius. He was extraordinarily nice in his Victuals, and in the Cookery of it, insomuch that he beat his Servants before they offended. Horace speaks thus of him, lib. 2. Sat. 2. v. 66.

—Hic neque Servus,
Albutî senis exemplo, dum munia didit,
Savus erit.—

He will not follow the Example of Old Albutius, when he commands his Slaves any thing.

ALCESTIS,

the Daughter of Pelias and Wife of Admetus King of Thessaly. Apollo ob­tained of the Destinies, that if Admetus could procure any Person to die in his stead, he should live as many years as he had done alrea­dy. The Father and Mother of Admetus ha­ving refus'd him that Favour, his Wife Alcestis offer'd to die for him. Hercules came unexpect­edly, and, having heard what had pass'd, went to the Tomb of Alcestis, and rescu'd her from the Jaws of Death, and restored her to her Husband. Others say, he went down into Hell, and took her from Proserpina.

Euripides, in his Alcestis, relates, That Hercu­les was entertained by Admetus the day that Al­cestis his Wife died, and all his House was in Mourning. Admetus lodg'd him in an Apartment by himself, that he might not disturb his Guest by so doleful an Object. Hercules requited his Host well, for he undertook to encounter Death, who had taken away the Soul of Alcestis; he chas'd Death away, brought back her Soul to her Body, and restor'd his Wife alive to Admetus. This seems to be the History of Elisha counterfeited, who rais'd the Son of the Shunamite from the dead.

ALCIBIADES,

the Son of Clinias and Dinomache, he was the most beautiful Man in the World, and of the neatest shape that ever was seen. The Grandees of his Family gave him as great preheminence above all the Athe­nians, as Athens had above the rest of the Cities of Greece. His Courage and Conduct were shewn in the Wars against the Lacedaemonians and Persians. But this Great Man had so great a Mixture of Vices and Corruptions, with these rare Endowments of Mind and Body, that he was condemn'd to Death, and his Goods to be confiscated, because he blasphemed the Gods. When he repented of his Extravagances, after this Disgrace, he banish'd those that had de­bauch'd him, and put himself under the In­struction of Socrates, who made him a good Man. Afterwards flying to King Artaxerxes, he was basely slain by the Lacedaemonians, who bore him a mortal Hatred, and had made them­selves Masters of Athens and all Greece. His Statue, because he was one of the most Vali­ant Grecians, was set up, by a Decree of the Se­nate, in a publick Place at Rome, according to the Pythian Oracle.

ALCIDES,

an Epithet given to Hercules, from the Word [...], which signifies Strength and Virtue; or from Alcaeus his Grand-father by the Father's side.

ALCITHOE,

a Theban Woman, who despising the Orgiae, or Festivals of Bacchus, and beginning a Journey whilst they were celebra­ting, was changed into a Screech-Owl, and her Sisters into Batts.

ALCMENA,

the Daughter of Electryo, and Lysidicae, whose Father was Pelops, and Mo­ther Hippodamia, she married Amphitryo her Co­sin-German, upon condition that he should re­venge the Death of her Brother, which the Theleboans, a People of Aetolia had kill'd. While Amphitryo was employ'd against them, Jupiter, who was in Love with Alcmena, took the shape of Amphitryo, and lay with her a whole Night, which he made as long as Three, having com­manded the Night and Sleep, by the Media­tion of Mercury, not to leave Men for that time, and by this Conjunction Alcmena became the Mother of Hercules. Lucian has related this Fable in his Dialogue between Mercury and the Sun, which we shall set down here entire:

Phoebus. Jupiter says you must not drive to day to morrow, nor the next day, but keep with­in; that during that time there may be one en­tire Night; bid the Hours unharness their Hor­ses, and do you put out your Light, and repose your self a while.

Sun.

You bring me very strange News, Mercury; I do not know that I have in the least drove beyond my just limits, or disturb'd the Mountains; why then is he so angry with me, to make the Night thrice as long as the day?

Mercury.

Not in the least, this is not to be for a continuance, he only now desires that this Night may be long on his own account.

Sun.

Pray, where is he? From whence sent he you on this Errand?

Mercury.

From Beotia Phaebus, he is with Amphitryo's Wife, whom he is enamour'd with, and now enjoys.

Sun.

And will not one Night be suf­ficient?

Mercury.

No, for he intends to get a great and warlike Hero, and this is impossi­ble to be done in one Night.

Sun.

Let him go on with success; but we had no such do­ings in Saturu's time; he never defil'd Rhea's Bed, nor left Heaven to fleep at Thebes, but Day was then Day, and Night had only its proportion of hours, and nothing was strange and out of due course, nor did he ever med­dle with mortal Woman; but now for the sake of this Wretch, all things must be in­verted; my Horses will grow unmanageable for want of working, the way will become difficult to travel in, and Men must live in dismal Darkness; thus must they sleep for the Amours of Jove, till he perfect this mighty Champion you talk of.

Mercury.

No more words, Phaebus, lest it prove prejudicial to you. I must make haste to Luna and Somnus, and tell 'em what Jupiter's Orders are, that she may re­tard her Motion; and that he do not leave Men, that they may not perceive that the Night was so long.

This is the reason why Lycophron calls. Hercu­les the Lyon of Three Nights. Alcmena having gone her time, first brought forth Iphyclus, which she had conceived by her Husband Am­phitryo. But jeajous Juno hindred her when she was about to bring forth Hercules, which she had conceiv'd by Jupiter; for she birb'd Lucina, the Goddess of Child-bearing, that instead of assisting her, she, on the contrary should ob­struct her, by making certain Figures with her Fingers. Pansanias, in his Baeotrice, says, That Juno sent the Pharmacides or Sorcereresses into the Chamber of Alcmena in the time of her Travail, to hinder her by their Enchant­ments: But Jupiter dispell'd all their Charms, by declaring himself from Heaven by Thun­der, in favour of his Son, and reconcil'd Am­phitryon and Alcmena, who were fall'n out.

Alcmena dyed in her return from Argos to Thebes, as Pausanius says, on the Confines of Megara. There was a Dispute between the the Heraclites about her Burial, some desiring that her Body should be carryed to Argos, and others to Thebes; but the Oracle of Apollo at Delphos ordered, that her Tomb should be made in Megora.

ALCMON and PASSALUS,

rather Achaemon, or Achmon and Passalus, Two Bro­thers who were of very wicked and debauch'd Inclinations; they were the Sons of a Woman called Sexmonis, who us'd to tell Fortunes: She had them beware of a Melampygus, i. e. a Crea­ture whose back-parts were black and hairy, Wherefore meeting one day with Hercules, who was asleep leaning against a Tree, they took up a resolution to kill him; but Hercules awaking, and perceiving their design, seiz'd on 'em, and hang'd 'em by the heels on his Club, and as he march'd with 'em in this po­sture, they perceiv'd his back-parts, and remem­bring the Prediction of their Mother, they look'd upon themselves as undone: But Her­cules having learn'd of 'em the cause of their fear, let 'em go.

ALCYON,

The Kings Fisher, a Bird much extoll'd, of whom this Fable is told; That Alcynoe the Daughter of Aeolus, having lost the beautiful Cey [...], her Husband, in the Sea, who was the Son of the Day-Star, tormented her­self with vain Grief; till the Gods, mov'd with Compassion, chang'd her into a Bird, which still searches about the Water for him she lost there. It is a small Bird, and its Note is very mournful. To requite her Love, when she makes her Nest, and sits on her young ones, the Winds are still, and the Sea calm in the sharpest time of Winter: These serene Days are call'd Halcyonian from the Alcyon, and du­ring them, the Sky is calm, and the surface of the Sea as smooth as a Looking-Glass.

Pliny gives this Description of this Bird, Lib. X. cap. 32. It is, says he, a little bigger than a Sparrow, and of a blue colour, but hath some red [Page] and white Feathers. The smallest of them sing com­monly among the Reeds. They breed about the mid­dle of December. Their Nests are round, in the form of a large Bowl, having only a little Hole to go in at.

ALCYONEUS,

a Gyant, who had many Daughters, which after his Death cast themselves head-long from the Cape of Pillena into the Sea: Amphurite mov'd with Compas­sion for 'em, chang'd 'em into Birds.

ALECTO,

One of the Three Furies of Hell, according to the Poets, the Daughters of Acheron and Nox, or of Pluto and Proserpina. They are reverenc'd by the Antients, as the Goddesses, by whom Crimes were punished. they are painted with a furious Aspect, and wearing a Cap of Serpents, holding Whips and lighted Torches in their Hands.

ALECTRYO,

a young Man, a Con­fident of Mars in his Amours. One Day when Mars was gone to see Venus, and lye with her in the absence of her Husband Vulcan, he left him at the Gate to watch when the Day ap­pear'd, but this pretty Youth falling asleep, the Sun discover'd the whole Intrigue, so that Vulcan caught both the Lovers in his Nets. Mars, angry at this, chang'd this young Man into a Cock, who still keeps the Crest of the Helmet which he had before he was chang'd; and all his Generation ever since, to retrieve his Honour, give notice of the approach of the Day.

ALEMANNI,

the Germans: These People, says Tacitus, were never debauch'd by Commerce or Alliance with other People, which is the reason that they are all alike; for they have yellow Hair, blue Eyes, a fierce Aspect, and an advantagious Stature, yet they cannot bear long Fatigues, and are only brisk at the first; Heat and Thirst are very unsupport­able to 'em, but they endure Cold and Hunger very well, by reason of the Constitution of their Country. Those that inhabit our Fron­tiers value Money upon the account of Com­merce, and know some antient Pieces of our Coin, which they value more than others, as those that have a Saw or a Chariot on them. The rest traffick by exchange of Goods still, as the first Men did. Their Cavalry carry on­ly a Lance and a Buckler: Their Infantry car­ry also Darts, of which every Soldier has se­veral, which he knows how to cast with great Force and Dexterity, being not at all hindred by his Clothes or Arms; for their only Gar­ment is a long Coat. If we consider their Troops in general, their Infantry is the best, which is the reason that they mix it with their Cavalry. 'Tis such a Disgrace among 'em to quit their Buckler, that they who have done is, never dare come to their Assemblies or Sa­crifices. In choosing their Kings they much respect their Birth, and in their Governours their Vertue. None but the Priests among 'em have right to imprison and punish. Of all the Gods, they chiefly worship Mercury, and sacrifice even Men to him at certain Solemni­ties. They think it not agreeable to the Gran­dieur of the Gods, to paint them as Men, or shut them up in Temples, but they only con­secrate Groves to 'em, and adore such as are most solitary. They are much given to Augu­ries and Lots, which they perform with lit­tle Ceremony. They cut a Branch of a cer­tain Fruit-Tree in several pieces, and having mark'd them with certain Characters, cast 'em carelesly upon a white Cloth; then the Priest, or Master of the Family, if it be a private House, after he has made a Prayer to the Gods, lifts up each piece three times, and interprets them according to the Marks on 'em. They also consult the flying and chirping of Birds, and the neighing of Horses is with them a certain Presage: To this end they feed white Horses in their dedicated Groves, and will not suffer them to be prophan'd by the service of Men; and when they have a mind to consult 'em, they yoke 'em in a Chariot of their Gods, and the Priest or King follows them to observe their Neighing; there is no Augury to which they give more Credit. They make use also of another Invention to know the Event of their Wars; They take a Captive of their Ene­mies, and match him with one of their own Party, and judg of the issue of the War by the success of their Combat. They count by Nights and not by Days, as we do; and in their Orders of State, they set down on such a Night, and not on such a Day; because, as they think, the Night was first. They meet in Council armed, and the Priests alone have power to en­joyn silence, as they have also to punish: Their Punishments are different, according to their Crimes; they hang Traytors and Deserters on Trees; the cowardly, the base, and the infa­mous they smoother in Puddles, and then throw an Hurdle upon 'em. Their Coat, which is all the Garment they wear, as I have above observed, is fasten'd with a Button or Clasp, the rest of their Body is naked: The richest of them have their Garments not large and full, as the Parthians and Sarmatians, but close, according to the shape of their Bodies: They also clothe themselves with Furs. The Womens Garments are much like the Mens, save that they wear a kind of Linnen Shift with out Sleeves, border'd with Crimson-Silk, which leaves their Arms and Bosom naked. Their Marriages nevertheless are untainted, and their Chastity is not blemished by their Meetings, Festivals, and publick Shews. They neither [Page] send nor receive Love-Letters or Billet-Douxes, insomuch that Adultery is seldom found among so great a People: they allow not second Marri­age, and a Woman takes an Husband to be uni­ted to her, as one Body and one Soul. 'Tis an odious thing among 'em to destroy a Child in the Womb or hinder Conception; every one is brought up in his own Family, without any o­ther Nurse than his own Mother. There are few People that take more pleasure in entertaining Strangers; 'tis a Crime for any Man to shut his House against them, whosoever they be: When any one comes to their Houses, the Ma­ster of it gives him whatever he has, and when he has nothing left, he will carry him to his Neighbour, who receives him with the same Respect and Freedom. They drink Beer, for no Vines grow in their Country. Their Food is very plain, wild Fruits, Milk curdled, and Venison, and they live without Dainties and Expence. They have but one sort of pub­lick Show, their young Men dance naked on the points of Spears and Javelins. They do not divide the Year into Four parts, as other Nations. The Autumn is as little known as the Fruits of it. Their Funerals are without any Pomp or Magnificence, they only burn the Bodies of some Persons of Quality with a particular sort of Wood, putting nothing upon the Pile but their Arms, and sometimes the Horse of the deceas'd without Perfumes or Garments; their Graves are made of Turfs, and they contemn the Costliness of our Tombs. In fine, they are great Drinkers, and very great Gamesters, insomuch that they will play away themselves after they have lost all their Goods.

They celebrate in old Verses, of which all their History is compos'd, a God born in their Land, called Tuisco, and his Son, Man, who were the first Inhabitants of the Country. Caesar speaking of the Germans in his Sixth Book, De Bello Gallico, tells us, That they have nei­ther Priests nor Sacrifices, and own no Deity but such as they see and feel the Effects of, as the Sun, the Moon, and the Fire; and that War and Hunting were their only Exercises.

ALEMANNIA,

Germany. This Coun­try, says Tacitus, is bounded with the Rhine, Danube, and Ocean, except on the part next Sarmatia and Dacia, where it is bounded with the Mountains, on which a very warlike Peo­ple inhabit. The Ocean there makes great Bays and large Isles. The Rhine takes it rise in the Country of the Grisons, and falling from the top of the Alps, discharges it self, after a long course, into the North-Sea, inclining a little toward the West. The Danube falls from Mount Abnoba, and empties it self into the Euxine-Sea at six Months, for the seventh is lost in the Marshes. Hercules is said to have been in this Country; and Ulysses himself, in his long and fabulous Travels, was carried by a Tempest into Germany, where he built a City upon the Banks of the Rhine, which is still cal­led Aschelburg, from the Greek Name which he gave it: Some add, that he had an Altar con­secrated to him there, under the Title of the Son of Laertes, and that there remain to this day some Monuments of him with Greek In­scriptions in the Borders of the Grisons and Ger­many, which I neither assert, or call in question the Truth of:

ALETIDES,

antient Sacrifices which the Athenians offer'd to Icarus and Erigone, in which they danced Puppets. Icarus was the Son of Aebalus, and Father of Erigone, who having re­ceiv'd of Bacchus a Bottle full of Wine, gave it the Shepherds of Attica to drink, who were very thirsty, because of the Heat of their Coun­trey; they drank of it till they lost the use of their Reason, and supposing themselves to be poyson'd by that Liquor, they fell upon him, and killing him, cast his Body into a Pit: He had a little Bitch named Mara, who went, and pulling his Daughter Erigone by the lower part of her Garment, brought her to the place where the Body of her Father was; she seeing him in this condition, hang'd herself for grief, and many Athenian Virgins, who lov'd her ex­traordinarily, follow'd her Example. The Bitch also pin'd away with Grief, and Jupiter translated her to Haven under the Name of Canicula, i. e. the Dog-Star. Icarus was chang'd into that Sign of the Zodiac which is called Charles's Wain, and Erigone into another Sign call'd Virgo. The Oracle of Apollo being con­sulted, order'd that a solemn Sacrifice should be offer'd to the Ghosts of Erigone and her Com­panions, in which the Images of the Virgins hanged were represented; and 'twas in this Solemnity that some Virgins swung themselves about in the Air.

ALEXANDER,

surnamed the GREAT, was of a middling stature, and rather small than great, as his Medal represents him on the Reverse, and as Historians speak of him, which has given occasion for this Verse,

Magnus Alexander corpore parvus erat.

He had a very lofty Countenance, and his Eyes placed very high in his Head, well-shap'd, and generally looking upward. He was the Son of Philip, King of Macedon, and Olympias; he succeeded his Father in his Kingdom, which he found full of Tumults, and wavering after his Death; but he soon settled it by the Pu­nishment of his Murtherers, and made Greece tremble by the Destruction of Thebes. He ad­vanc'd his Arms farther than any King before him, and passing the Hellespont, defeated the Captains of Darius in a pitch'd Battel, and [Page] conquer'd all the Provinces as far as Cilicia, and vanquisht Darius, King of Persia. Lastly, not to mention Tyre or Arbella, he subdu'd Asia, as far as the Indies, and then the Indies themselves, making the Ocean the Bounds of his Empire. He dyed at Babylon of Poyson, or a Feaver, be­ing 32 years of Age, having reign'd Twelve Years. He was liberal and magnificent, and lov'd Glory and Learning. He is accus'd of Cruelty to his Friends who had not Complai­sance enough to flatter him, and believe him the Son of Jupiter. He kill'd Clitus because he would not approve that he should use the Customs of those he had conquer'd, nor that he should be ador'd as a God: Yet 'tis said, that Aristobulus, one of his Captains, reading to him, as he was sailing upon Hydaspes, a Relation he had written of his Battel with Porus, in which he flatter'd him very much; Alexander threw the Book into the Water, and told him, that he ought to do so, because he was so base-spirited to attribute false Actions to Alexander, as if he had done no real ones. In like manner he re­primanded an Architect, who would have cut Mount Athos after his likeness, and make him to hold a City in one Hand, and pour a River out with the other. He would not meddle with Darius's Wife, and took care of his Mo­ther and Children.

ALEXANDER SEVERUS,

the Son of Varus and Mammaea. He was made Emperor of Rome before he was 16 years of Age, and was one of the wisest and most learned of the Emperors. He would not suf­fer any Offices to be sold, but gave them, to Persons of Merit. His Council was made up of the most virtuous and able Lawyers of the Empire, viz. Ulpian, Callistratus, and Modestinus. He was a great Lover of Arts and Sciences. He was liberal without Profuseness, valiant without Cruelty, a severe Judg, yet was eve­ry way just and equitable.

He discover'd a great Inclination to the Christian Religion; for he set up in his Chap­pel the Image of Jesus Christ, together with Abrahams: And some likewise conjecture, that he intended to build him a Temple at Rome. His Severity, tho' just, yet was fatal to him, and provoked the Soldiers of the German Le­gion to slay him near Mens, after he had reign'd Thirteen years.

He retain'd so great a Modesty in his highest pitch of Honour, that he never would suffer himself to be call'd Lord; for he order'd that all Salutations to him should be utter'd in these words, Ave Alexander, and condemn'd by his Modesty his Predecessors, and chiefly Helioga­balus, who would be saluted thus, Dominus, ac Deus noster sic fieri jubet, Our Lord and God will have it so: As Suetonius saith.

ALIMENTA,

an Allowance of Meat given to a single person to live on for a Year or a Month. The Romans did often in their Wills, give a certain Sum to serve for an Al­lowance of Meat to their Children. In pueros, puellasque singulas damnas esto dare cibarii nomine aureos decem. They also extended this Libe­rality to their Free-Men, as we learn from the Lawyer Scavola: Quisquis mihi haeres erit, omni­bus libertis meis, quos hoc testamento manu misi, alimentorum nomine in menses singulos certam pecu­niam dato. i. e. I charge him that is mine Heir, to give monthly a certain Sum for an Allow­ance of Meat, to all my Free-Men, to whom I have given Liberty by this my Will.

They practis'd also the same thing towards those whom they called Alumnos and Alumnas, as these words in the Law do testifie; Mevio infanti alumno meo quadringinta dari volo, quae pe­to à te suscipias, & usuras ei quincunces in annum usque vicesimum aetatis praestes, eumque suscipias, ac tuearis.

ALIMENTARII

pueri, & ALI­MENTARIAE puellae, is spoken of young Boys and Girls, which were brought up in publick places, as in our Hospital of Christ-Church: For the Romans had certain publick places where they brought up and maintain'd poor Children and Orphans of both Sexes, at the Expence of the Treasury, or of such Banks of Money as the Emperors, and private Persons had made, and given by their Will for the Maintenance of these Hospitals. These Chil­dren were call'd, if Boys, Alimentarii pueri; if Girls, Alimentariae puellae: They were also of­ten call'd by the Names of their Founders. Julius Capitolinus, in his Life of Antoninus, sur­named Pius, says, That this Prince founded an Hospital for Girls, which were call'd Faustinae, Faustines, from the Name of his Wife, Puellas alimentarias in honorum Faustinae Faustinianas con­stituit. The same Author, speaking of the Em­peror Alexander Severus, tells us, that he fol­low'd the Example of Antoninus, in erecting an Hospital for Boys and Girls, and gave them his own Name, calling 'em Mammaeani and Mam­maeans. Puellas & pueros, quemadmodum Anto­ninus Faustinianas instituerat Mammaeanas & Mam­maeanos instituit.

ALLIENSIS PUGNA,

a Fight near the River Allier. The Tribunes going against the Gauls, with a more numerous Army than the Romans had ever sent out before on foot, gave them battel having the River Allier on their backs. The Fight was fierce and obsti­nate on both sides, but at length the Gauls were Victors, and slew many of the Romans, because the River hindred their Flight. This day, being the first of August, was mark'd in the Ro­man Kalendar, as a fatal and unfortunate day, [Page] in the year from the Building of Rome 365. This Loss was more felt, and prejudicial to the Romans, as Cicero says, than the sacking of Rome by the same Gauls; Majores nostri funestio­rem diem esse voluerunt Alliensis pugna, quàm urbis captae.

ALLOCUTIO,

an Oration or Speech of a General of an Army to his Soldiers, either to animate them to fight, or to appease Sedition, and keep them to their Duty. To this end they raised a little Hill of Earth, as it were a kind of Tribunal of Turf, upon which the General mounted and spoke to his Soldiers, who were drawn up in their several Squadrons round about the Tribunal, and having their Captains at the Head of them. If the General's Speech pleased them, they shew'd their Appro­bations by lifting up their Right-hands, and clashing their Bucklers one against another; but if they dislik'd it, a humming Murmur ran thro their Ranks, or else they discover'd, by a sullen Silence, that they were not pleased.

If the Enemy push'd on the Battel, the Ge­neral thought it sufficient to go through the Ranks to encourage the Soldiers, calling them every one by their Names, putting them in mind of their Courage, and the Victories they had gain'd, and promising them the Plunder, or some other Largess, if they obtain'd the Victory.

ALOIDES,

two Giants, the Sons of Alo­eus, who in their infancy attempted to pull up Mount Ossa by the roots, and to set it upon Olympus, and Pelion upon that, that they might make use of them as a Ladder to climb up into Heaven, and make War with Jupiter; but these young and rash Fools were punish'd for their Madness, and shot to death by the Ar­rows of Apollo and his Sister Diana. Virgil brings in Aeneas relating that he saw these two Giants in Hell:

Hic & Aloidat geminos, immantia vid [...]
Corpora, qui manibus magnum rescindere coelum
Aggressi.
Virg. Aeneid. lib. 6. v. 582.

Homer assures us, That they formerly bound the God Mars, and shut him up in Prison for thirteen Mouths, from whence he could not be releas'd but by the medi­ation of Mercury.

ALPHABETUM,

an Alphabet; the orderly Disposition of the Letters of any Language. This Word comes from the initial Letters of the Greek Tongue, Alpha, Beta.

ALPHEUS,

a River of Areadia. Pausa­nias, in his Eliaca, tells us, That Alpheus was an antient Hunter, who lov'd Arethusa, and also delighted much in Hunting. He sought her in Mar­riage, but she deny'd him, and flying into an Isle near Syracuse, she was turn'd into a Fountain, and Alpheus into a River; which, as thrd an amorous Impatience, forces its course through the Sea, and mixes its Waters with Arethuss.

Lucian, in a Dialogue between Neptune and Alpheus, introduces them speaking thus: Nept. Whence comes it that such a fine River as you, pass through the Sea without mixing with its Water any more than if you were Ice, like those Fowls who dive in one place and rise in another? Alph. It is an amorous Mystery which you ought not to condemn, because you have been in love your self. Nept. Who are you in love with, is it with a Woman, a Nymph, or any one of the Nereides? Alph. No, no, it is with a Fountain. Nept. With what Fountain pray? Alph. With Arethusa. Nept. 'Tis a fine clear Spring, which rolls its Silver Streams through the Stones with an agreeable Murmur. Alph. Ah! how well you describe her, 'tis she that I pursue. Nept. Ga, and be happy in thy Amour; but tell me when hast thou seen her, thou being in Arcadia, and she in Sicily? Alph. You are too curious, and press too far for me to answer you. Nept. You are in the right of it, and I to blame, to retard a Lover in the pursuit of his Mistress; and when you have met with her, join your self so close to her that you two may have but one Bed hereafter.

Pansanias enlarges this Fable a little more in his Arcadica; Alpheus, says he, parts the Lace­daemonians from the Tageates, and bounds them both: its Source is from Phylace. At some distance from hence he receives the Waters of several small Springs called Symboles, or A Concouse of Wa­ters. This River has this particular Quality, that it loses its Waters under the Earth, and they rise again in other places; it goes into the River Euro­tas, and then loses it self, and rises again in a place which the Arcadians call The Sources. It runs into the Territories of Pisa and Olympia, and dis­charges it self in the Adriatick Gulph; from whence it passes, without mixing its Waters with the Sea, and rises in Ortygia in the Fountain of Are­thusa, with which it mixes.

Hercules cut a Canal from this River, to cleanse the Stable of Augens, which was fill'd, with the Dung of three thousand Oxen for thirty years.

ALTARE,

an Altar, upon which Sacrifi­ces were offer'd to the Gods of Heaven. This Word comes from Altus, high, because, accor­ding to Servius, they sacrificed on them to the Gods on high, or in Heaven. This is the Dif­ference he makes betwixt these Words Ara and Altare; Novimus, says he, aras Diis esse superis & inferis consecratas, altaria verò esse superiorum tantùm Deorum; quae ab altitudine constat esse nomi­nata. We find also another Difference of these Words, which is this, Altare was built in an high place to which they went up by Stais, as the great Altars in the Romish Churches; whereas Ara is a low Altar, like their little; ones.

ALTHAEA,

the Wife of Aeneas King of Calydonia. She reveng'd the Death of her Bre­thren by the Death of her own Son Meleager, burning the Log of Wood which was to pro­long his Life, as long as it lasted and was not consum'd by Fire.

AMALTHAEA,

a Sybil surnamed Cumaea, famous in Antiquity for her Prophesies and Predictions of the coming of the Messias, who was to be born of a Virgin. We learn of Servius, that she wrote nine Books of Prophe­sies foretelling what should befal the Empire of Rome, addressing her self to Tarquinius Pris­cus, she presented them to him, demanding three thousand Crowns in Gold of Philippick Money; but the King rejected her Present: whereupon she burn'd three of them in the presence of that Prince. Returning within a few days, she demanded the same Price for the remaining six, and being again deny'd, she burn'd three more. This astonish'd the King so much that he bought the three which were left, at the same Price she had requir'd for all the nine. They were kept with great care, and certain Persons appointed to look after them. These Books contained the Fate of the Empire, and were never consulted but in the time of some publick Calamities.

AMALTHAEA,

the Daughter of Melissus King of Candia, who nurs'd Jupiter with Goats Milk and Honey. Some Authors will have it that this Goat was called Amalthaea, and that Jupiter in gratitude placed it among the Stars; giving to the Nymphs one of her Horns, which had this Vertue, to furnish them with whatever they desired; from whence it was called Cornucopia, or the Horn of Plenty.

'Twas also the Name of Atticus's Country-House in Greece, which he called so to intimate, that all things abounded there: for it is very well known that this Word signifies Plenty. Gic. l. 1. ep. 2. ad Attic.

AMATHUS,

a City in the Isle of Cyprus, consecrated to Venus, whose Inhabitants built a stately Temple to her and her Minion Adonis. They sacrificed at first Strangers upon her Al­tars; but the Goddess abhorring such cruel Sacrifices, chang'd these Inhabitants into Bulls, and depriving their Wives of all Modesty, because they had contemned her Worship, made them to prostitute themselves to all Comers.

AMAZONIUS,

the Month of December was so called in the Reign of the Emperour Commodus by his Flatterers, in honour of a Con­cubine which he loved extreamly, and whom he had caused to be painted like an Amaxon, as Lampridius assures us.

AMAZONES,

the Amazons, Women-Warriours of great Courage. They were heretofore Women of Scythia, who dwelt near Tanais and Thermodn, which conquer'd great part of Asia. They liv'd without Men, and prostituted their Bodies to Strangers, but kill'd all their Male Children, and burn'd off the left Pap of their Daughters, to make them fit for fighting. From whence some say their Name is derived from [...], non mamma, which signifies Without Paps.

Strabo denies that there ever were any Ama­zons. Pliny and Mela make mention of those of Scythia. Hippocrates says, that there was a Law among them, which condemn'd their Daugh­ters to remain Virgins till they had slain three Men of their Enemies. He also says that the Cause why they cut off the Right-pap, was, that their Right-arm might become the stron­ger, because it gain'd the Nourishment of the Breast; and they distorted the Legs of their Male Children, that they might always be Mi­stresses over them.

Some affirm, that in Africk there was a Realm of Women only, who slew all the Boys that they brought forth by their Copulation with the Neighbouring Nations, as we learn from Juan de los Sanctos, a Grey-Fryar of Portu­gal, in his Description of the Eastern Aethiopa. Aeneas Sylvius relates, that he saw in Bohemia, for seven years, a Common-wealth exactly like that of the Amazons, establish'd by the Valour of a Woman called Valasca.

The Names of the most famous Amazons were, Marthesia, Orythea, and Penthesilea, whom Virgil, in his Aeneids, supposes to be slain by Achilles.

Herodotus, speaking of the Amazons, says, that the Greeks having defeated them near the River Thermodon, carried away those that re­main'd Captives in their Ships, who after the Defeat watch'd their opportunity so well that they seiz'd the Arms of the Greeks and made a great Slaughter of them; but because they un­derstood nothing of Navigation, they were cast by the Winds upon the Coasts of Scythia; where mounting upon the Horses that came in their way, they fought with the Scythians; who being desirous to make an amicable end of the War which they had begun, endea­voured to persuade them to surrender them­selves, and hoping to gain them by their weak side, told them, that in case they would do so, they should not be enjoy'd by their Lame, but by the handsomest Men. They stopt their mouths with this Answer, That their Lame were their best Men; which is since passed into a Pro­verb among the Greeks, [...]. Ne­vertheless a Peace was made, and the Scythians gave them a part of their Country, where they settled themselves on the Southside of Tanais. This is what Herodotus says of the Amazons of Asia.

[Page] Philostratus, in his Picture of Neoptolemus, re­lates, that they which sail upon the Euxine Sea do affirm, That along that Coast, between the Rivers Thermodon and Phasis, there are Amazons, which say, they are descended of Mars, who busie themselves wholly in Warlike matters, as to draw a Bow, and ride on Horses; they will not permit a Man to live among them, but when they desire to have any Children, they go to seek out Men among their Neigh­bours, and when they bring forth Boys, they cause them to be gelt, but their Daughters they bring up to warlike Affairs, feeding them with the Milk of Cattle, and Dew which falls in the form of Honey upon the Reeds in their Marshes.

The chief Expeditions of the Amazons were the War which they made against King Priamus, the Assistance they brought him at the Siege of Troy, and their Invasion of Attica, to re­venge themselves of Theseus who had taken a­way Antiope. As for their Expedition into the Isle of Achilles, at the mouth of the Danube, it is a Fiction of Philostratus, which no ways re­dounds to their Honour, because they shew'd themselves very cruel there. 'Tis true Philo­stratus is not the only Man that has represented the Amazons as wicked, for Apollonius describes them as Salvages, that have neither Faith nor Law.

The Monuments which preserve the Memo­ry of these Warlike Women are, the City of Thermiscira, the Metropolis of their State, situ­ate in Cappadocia, near a River well known by the Name of Thermodon: the City of Ephesus and Temple of Diana are two Works of their hands. Dionysius Afer says, that they built another Temple to Diana upon the Stump of a young Elm. The Cities of Smyrna, Thyatira, Cuma and Magnesia are commonly thought to be founded by them. Apollonius will have it, that they consecrated the Temples even in the A­reopagus, and in the Territories of Lacedaemo­nia.

The Statue of Diana at Ephesus was adorned with Paps, because the Amazons consecrated those to her which they cut off.

It appears, by some Medals, that the Ama­zons wore Garments like Men, but by others they seem cloth'd after the usual manner of their Sex.

The ingenious Mr. Pet [...] has written a Trea­tise which contains things very learned and cu­rious about these Heroines, as about their Se­pulchres, the Reasons why the Names which they bear are all Greek, and the Chronology of their History, which may be consulted.

AMBARVALE or AMBARVALIA,

The Feast of Perambulation. The Procession they made about the plow'd and sown Fields in ho­nour of the Goddess Ceres; like the Processions of the Papists at this day, celebrated upon the Feasts of St. Mark and Rogation-days, with larger or shorter Litanies. There were two Feasts at Rome of that Name, one in April, or according to other Authors, in the End of Ja­nuary; and the other in July.

Twelve Arval Brothers, or Priests, of which I shall speak in their place, went before a pub­lick Procession of the Citizens who had Lands and Vineyards without the City. The same Ce­remony was practised in the Country by other Priests among the Inhabitants of the Villages. They went three times round the Ground, e­very one being crowned with Leaves of Oak, and singing Hymns in honour of Ceres, the Goddess of Corn. This Ceremony was called Ambarvalia, ab ambiendis arvis; the Sacrifices which they offer'd after this Procession, they call'd Ambarvales Hostiae.

There were three sorts of them, viz. a Sow, a Sheep and a Bull, which is the Reason that this threefold Sacrifice was called Suovitaurilia, which is a Word compounded of Sus, Ovis and Taurus. In the first Sacrifice they pray'd to the Goddess Ceres and the God Mars, that they would preserve their Corn from Mildew and Hail, and bring it to perfect Ripeness; and in that of the month of July, they pray'd to them to bless their Harvest.

Cato has left us the Form of Prayer used on this occasion, in cap. 141. De Re Rustica, but this Prayer was made to Mars only.

Mars Pater, te precor quaesoque uti sies volens propitiusque mihi, domo, familiaeque nostrae: quo jus rei ergo, agrum terram, fundumque meum suo­vitaurilia circumagi jussi, uti tu morbos vilos invi­sosque, viduertatem vastitudinemque, calamitates, intempestasque prohibessis, defendas, averruncesque: uti tu fruges, vineta, frumenta, virgultaque gran­dire, beneque evenire sinas: pastores, pascuaque salva servassis, dicisque bonam salutem, valetudi­nemque mihi, domo, familiaeque nostrae. Harumce rerum ergo, fundi, terrae, agrique mei lustrandi, lustrique faciendi ergo, sicut dixi, macte hisce suo­vitaurilibus lactantibus immolandis esto. Mars Pater, ejusdem rei ergo, macte hisce suovitaurililibus lactentibus esto. Item, Cultro facito struem & fer­ctum uti adsiet.

The same Author hath left us also another Form of Prayer, which was made in the second Feast of Perambulation, in the month of July, in which they sacrific'd a Sow before they be­gan their Harvest, which they call'd Porca prae­cedanea. This Prayer was put up to Janus, Ju­piter and Juno, and not to Ceres any more than the former. Priusquam porcam foeminam immola­bis, saith Cato, Jane struem commoveto sic: Jane Pater, te hac strue commovendâ bonas preces, precor uti sies volens, propitius mihi liberisque meis, [Page] domo, familiaeque meae, mactus hoc fercto.

Ferctum Jovi moveto & mactato sic: Jupiter, te hoc fercto obmovendo bonas preces precor uti sies vo­lens propitius mihi, &c.

Postea Jano vinum dato sic: Jane Pater, uti te struem commovendo bonat preces benè precatus sum, ejusdem rei ergo, macte vino inferio esto.

Postea Jovi sit: Jupiter, macte sercto esto: ma­cte vino inferio esto.

We find likewise that this Ceremony was perform'd by the Master of the Family, ac­company'd with his Children and Servants, every one of them being crowned with Oaken Leaves, as well as the Sacrifice, which they led three times round the Lands and Vineyards, singing Hymns to his honour: after which they sacrific'd to him sweet Wine with Honey and Milk; as we may see by the Verses of Vir­gil, Georg. lib. 1.

This manner of Procession was always us'd in the Country, were they had no Arval Priests as at Rome.

AMBEGNAE or AMBIGNAE,

Victims, which were accompany'd and encompass'd with other Victims, says Varro.

AMBITUS,

signifies in the Law of the XII. Tables, Aspace of Ground of two feet and an half, which was left to go about an House, for the Houses of old were not contiguous for fear of Fire.

AMBITUS,

an earnest Solicitation to get into publick Offices. Properly, 'tis the sur­rounding a Person to have his Vote in Elections, being always busie about him, embracing and caressing him for that end. The Romans made it a Crime to solicite Offices by too eager Applications, as by extraordinary Gifts, Threatnings or open Force: they made seve­ral Laws to hinder this soliciting, and punish those that were found guilty of it. The most considerable of them was that which was made in the Consulship of Cieero, called from his Name Lex Tullia. By that Law, the Candidates were forbidden to bestow any Combats of the Gladiators on the People, to make any pub­lick Feast, or to cause themselves to be fol­low'd by a Crowd of Clients, for two years before they put in for any place.

A Senator, who was guilty of a Breach of this Law, was punish'd with ten years Banish­ment; others were find and render'd incapa­ble of any Dignity for ever; as may be seen in Cicero's Oration against Vatinius and Sextius. Nevertheless, these things had gone so far in the corrupt times of the Commonwealth, that some would publickly tell the Tribes what Sums of Money they would give them for their Votes, which was call'd Pronuntiare in tri­bus, says Cicero. They made use of three sorts of Persons for this purpose, which they call'd Interpretes, Mediators, who assisted in making the Bargain, per quos pactio inducebatur, says A­sconius Pedianus: Sequestres, who are the Tru­stees, in whose hands the Money agreed for is deposited: and lastly Divisores, Dividers, who were to distribute the Money to every particu­lar person in the Tribe.

AMBROSIA,

the Food of the Gods, ac­cording to the Poets. Lucian, rallying these Poetical Gods, tells us, that Ambrosia and Ne­ctar, of which one is the Meat and the other the Drink of the Gods, were not so excellent as the Poets describe them, since they will leave them for the Blood and Fat which they come to suck from the the Altars like Flies.

Ambrosia, was also a certain Feast which the Romans celebrated on the 24th. of November, instituted in honour of Bacchus by Romulus, which the Romans call'd Brumalia, but the Greeks Ambrosia.

AMBUBAIAE,

Syrian Women, which dwelt at Rome, and play'd on a Pipe in the Cirque and other Places of Sports, like our Gipsies, who play upon the Tabor, and pre­tend to tell Fortunes, and do a thousand other cheating Tricks, to sharp People of their Mo­ney. Turnebus assures us, that they liv'd after this tricking manner, near the Hot Baths at Baiae. Cruquius is of another opinion, and says, they were a sort of Women who sold Cosme­ticks and Drugs for painting the Skin. Horace speaks thus of them,

Ambabaiarum collegia, pharmacopolae.
Sat. 2. lib. 1.

AMBURBALIA and AMBURBALES,

Hostiae. See Ambarvalia, which is the same thing.

AMBUSTA,

the Marks of Burning which remain'd upon the Skin. It is a Title in Vale­rius Maximus, Ambustarum lib. 8. cap. 1. speak­ing of two Women whose Reputation was only blemish'd, as a Body scarr'd with Burn­ing, tho they were not condemn'd by any pub­lick Sentence.

So, among the Antients, those who were kill'd by Thunder were call'd Consumpti, whereas those were termed Ambusti who were only Thunder-struck. For which reason it was that [...]ius was surnamed Ambustus, as was also his whole Family, because he was smitten with Thunder in the hinder-parts: Ʋt Jovis dicatur fi [...]ius, in partibus Fabius adurtiur mollibus, obsignaturque posticis.

AMILCAR,

the Admiral of Carthage, who raised the Honour of his Nation by many brave Actions, which he did against the Ro­mans. He ordinarily said of his three Sons, that he nourish'd three Lions, which would one day tear Rome in pieces, and he made his eldest Son, the Great Hannibal, to swear upon [Page] the Altars of the Gods, that he would never be at peace with Rome.

AMISSA,

Things lost. These were the ways which the Antients made use of to find the things they had lost. Marsus teaches us, that they fix'd Papers upon some Post or Pillar in publick places, declaring what was lost, the Name of the Person who lost it, and the place of his Dwelling, promising a Reward to him that should bring it, as it is practised at this day.

Quas siquis mihi retuleris, donabitur anro.
I puer, & eitas haec-aliqud propone columnd:
Et dominum Exquiliis scribe habitare tuuns.

Apuleius tells us, that they caus'd the thing to be cry'd in the Cross-streets, promising like­wise a Reward to him that should restore it:

Si quis à fugâ retrahere, vel occultam demon­strare potuerit regis filiam, Veneris ancillam, nomine Psychen, conveniat retro metas Marcias mercurium praedicatorum.

They went also to the Prater, and ask'd of him some Persons to make search for the thing lost, as we learn out of Plautus;

—Ad Praetorem illicò
Ibo, erabo, ut conquisiteres det mihi in vicis omnibus,
Qui illam ivestigent, qui invenieniant.

AMMONIUS or HAMMONIUS,

Jupiter Ammon, worship'd in Libya under the figure of a Ram, of which some say this was the Reason; Bacchus having subdu'd Asia, and passing with his Army through the Desarts of Africa, was in great Want of Water, and rea­dy to perish with Thirst; but Jupiter his Fa­ther assuming the shape of a Ram, led him to a Fountain where he refresh'd his Army, and in requital of so great a Benefit. Bacchus built him a Temple there, under the Title of Jupiter [...], i. e. Sandy, because of the Sands of Africa. Others say he was call'd Ammon from a Shepherd of that Name, who built an Altas to him there.

The Latin Interpreter of Arutus, who is cal­led Bossus or Germanicus Caesar, writes, That the Rom which shew'd the Fountain to Bacchus, when he conducted his Army thro the Desarts of Li­bys, was plac'd among the Celestial [...]; and Bacchus erected a magnificent Temple to Jupiter in the place where he found the Fountain, about nine days Journey from Alexandria, who, from the Sand that was there, was call'd Jupiter Ammon. You may consult upon this Subject Quintus Curtius, lib. 4. Diodorus Siculus, lib. 17. or Arrian, lib. 4. de Expedit. Alenand,

Jupiter was figur'd with a Ram's Head be­cause his Oracles were always very intricate, if we may credit Servius. But Herodotus gives a better Reason, when he tells us that the Am­monians borrow'd this Worship of the Egyptians of the City of Thebes, where Jupiter had a Ram's Head.

Strabe relates, with some appearance of Rea­son, that the Place where Jupiter Ammon's Temple stood, was formerly near the Sea, and that the great Concourse of People, which came to consult this Oracle, is an evident Proof of it; for a place so far distant from the Sea, and standing in such vast Desarts of Sand, could never be so frequented. He speaks else­where of the Travels of Hercules, Perseus and Alexander to consult this Oracle.

This Relation supposes always, that Jupiter Ammon was King of Aegypt, whose Worship, after his Apotheosis or Deification in Egypt, pass'd into the distant Provinces. Diodorus Si­culus, describing a Tradition of the Libyans, gives us a Relation that proves the thing, viz. That Jupiter Ammon was a great King, of whom was made a fabulous God, and a fictitious Ora­cle after his death. This Historian cites ano­ther more ancient Writer, who says, That Ammon reign'd in Libya, and marryed Rhea the Daughter of Caelus, and Sister of Saturn and the other Titans; that Rhea divorcing herself from Ammon, marryed Saturn, and put him upon mak­ing War with Ammon, in which he was victo­rious, and forced Ammon to save himself by Sea, and fly into Crete, where he made himself King.

Arrian says, That Perseus and Hercules ac­counted themselves the Posterity of Jupiter; and that Alexander being envious of their Glo­ry, call'd himself also the Son of Ammon, who was the Jupiter of Libya.

AMOR,

Love, according to Plato, is a God more beautiful, antient, and better than all the fabulous Deities of Antiquity. Simmi­des makes him the Son of Mars, and Venus the Goddess of Beauty; as also doth Lucian in his Dialogues. Acasilaus will have him the Son of the Air and Night; Sapho of the God Ca­lus and Venus. Hesiad, in his Theogonia, says, that he was born of Chaos and the Earth; and that before the Creation of the World, he was in the Divine Essence, because it lov'd its Crea­tures from all Eternity, before they were created.

He hath also diffused the same Spirit of Love among them all, which is nothing else, accor­ding to Empedocles, but that Divine Vertue which inclines the Creatures to desire an Union one with another; or to speak more properly, a Divine Intelligence, which hath imprinted that Spirit in Nature it self: From whence arises the Harmony of the Elements, and the Copulation of Animals.

The heavenly Souls, and Spirits themselves, according to the Platonists, descend by the means of Love into the Body: For which rea­son [Page] it is, that Orpheus will have it, that Love has the Keys of Heaven Gates, and so he represents him, as holding them in his Hands. 'Tis Love or Cupid, says Lucian, that conquers all the Gods, and Venus herself, who is his Mother. He can do nothing with Pallas, nor the Muses, nor dares to attack Diana, but he fears not Jupiter or his Thunderbolts. He is painted in the form of a beautiful Child with Wings, and a Fillet over his Eyes, who carries a Quiver upon his Shoul­ders, holding a Bow and Arrows in one hand, and in the other a lighted Torch.

The Wings which are given to Cupid denote his Levity and Inconstancy: A Bow and Qui­ver full of Arrows are attributed to him, be­cause he wounds the Hearts of Lovers: He is painted blind, because nothing is more blind than Love.

Love is call'd by the Greeks [...], from the earnest solicitation which Lovers make one to the other. They also call [...], Mutual Love, which they make a God, and affirm him to be the Son of Mars and Venus, as Cicero tells us, Lib. 3. De Nat. Deor. whom they my­stically represent with two Torches lighted, joyned and tyed together. Pausanias, in his Eliaca, makes mention of a Statue of Cupid and Anteros, who strives to snatch a Palm-Branch which the other holds in his hand. And Por­phyrius, the Philosopher, has left us a Fable up­on this Subject; That Venus perceiving that lit­tle Cupid did not thrive, and that he fell into a languishing condition, went to ask Advice about it of the Goddess Themis, who answerd her, That he had need of an Anteros, or mutual Love to relieve him; whereupon, a little time after, Venus conceived Anteros, and he was scarce born, but Cupid ap­parently grew, and became more beautiful every day. The Athenians, says Pausanias, erected an Altar to the God Anteros, upon the account of a cer­tain Milesian, who was much lov'd by Timago­ras. This last being desirous to give some proofs of his Love, cast himself headlong from a Rock, and kill'd himself; at which the Milesian was so troubled, that he also cast himself down after him, which made the A­thenians worship the Ghost of Timagoras, under the Name of Anteros, as a Revenger of the too great Rigour of the person lov'd toward the Lover. Some also call him Anteros, who dis­engages unhappy Lovers from that Love which cannot find a sutable return. Dido seems to allude to this in Aeneid. Lib. IV. v. 478.

Invent, Germana, viam, gratare sorori
Quae mihi reddat cum, vel eo me solvat a­mantem.

Ovid, in like manner says, that they call'd him Forgetful Love, Lethaeus Amor, who had a Tem­ple at Rome near the Colline-Gate:

Est propè Collinam templum venerabile portam
Est illic Lethaus Amor qui pectora sanat.
Inque suas gelidam lampadas addit aquam.
In Remed. Amoris.

Some have had recourse to Magicians and Charms, to make 'em love. Lucian brings in an Harlot named Melissa, who desired Bacchis to bring some Magician to her, who gave Phil­tres to cause Love, and allure Lovers. She tells her, That she knew a Syrian Woman, who made a Lover return to her again, after Four Months absence, by an Enchantment which she then declar'd to her. She shall hang, says she, the Calces or Sandals of the Lover upon a Peg, and shall put upon them some Perfumes, then she shall cast some Salt into the Fire, pronouncing thy Name and his; then drawing a Magical Look­ing Glass out of her Bosom, she shall turn every way, muttering several words with a low voice.

We meet also with other Enchantments set down in Theocritus's Pharmaceutria, in Virgil and Juvenal. Josephus also, the Jewish Historian, testifies, that Moses having learn'd the Aegyptian Philosophy, made Rings for Lovers and For­getfulness, as also did King Solomon against Witchcraft.

Whatever Effects these Love-Potions might have, what Ovid tells us is more probable, That Beauty, and something else, not to be men­tion'd, are the only Philtres, which engage any Man to love.

Fallitur Aemonias siquis decurrit ad artes;
Datque quod à teneri fronte revellit equi.
Non facient, ut vivat amor, Medeides herbae,
Mixtaque cum magicis Marsa venena sonis.
Phasias Aesonidem, Circe tenuisset Ulyssem.
Si modò servari carmine posset amor.
Nec data profuerint pallentia philtra puellis
Philtra nocent animis, vimque furoris habent.
Sit procul omne nefas: Ut ameris, amabilis esto;
Quod tibi non facies, solave forma dabit.
Art. Amand. Lib. II. v. 99.

AMPHIARAUS,

the Son of Oecleus, or according to some, of Apollo and Hypermne­stra; being unwilling to go with Adrastus, King of Argos, to war against Etheocles, King of The­bes, hid himself, to avoid the Death which he knew would happen to him in that Expedi­tion; but Eriphyle, his Wife, being gain'd by Adrastus with the promise of a rich Chain, be­tray'd him, and discover'd the place where he was hid. Amphiaraus, enrag'd that he was so basely betray'd by the Treachery of his own Wife, commanded his Son Alcmeon, before his departure, That as soon as he heard of his death, he should revenge it upon his Mother Eriphyle, as the only cause of his Misfortune. The Enterprize against Thebes prov'd very un­succesful; for of the Seven chief Comman­ders, Five of them were slain at the first On-set, and Amphiaraus was swallow'd up [Page] alive in the Earth, with his Chariot, as he was retreating.

Philostratus gives this account of Amphiaraus, in his Second Book of the Life of Apollonius; Amphiaraus, the Son of Oecleus, at his return from Thebes, was swallow'd up in the Earth. He had an Oracle in Attica, whither he sent the Dreams of those who came to consult him about their Affairs; but above all things they must be 24 hours without Meat or Drink and Three days entire without the use of Wine.

Pausanias, in his Attica, speaks of a Temple consecrated to him; At the going out of the City Oropus, upon the Sea-Coasts, about 12 Furlongs from thence, there stands the Temple of Amphia­raus, who flying from Thebes, was swallowed up with his Chariot. Others say, that it was not in that place, but in the way that leads from Thebes to Chalcis. Nevertheless, 'tis evident that Amphiaraus was first deifi'd by the Oropians, and afterwards the Greeks decreed him divine Ho­nours. His Statue was made of white Marble, with an Altar, of which only the third part is dedicated to him, and the rest to other Gods. Near to this Temple there is a Fountain call'd the Temple of Amphiaraus, out of which 'tis said he came when he was plac'd among the number of the Gods. None were permitted to wash or purify in that Fountain, but when they had an Answer from the Oracle, or found their trouble remov'd; then they cast some pieces of Silver or Gold into the Fountain. Jopho of Gnossus, one of the Interpreters of Am­phiaraus's Oracles, publish'd them in Hexame­ter Verse, which brought the People to his Temple.

Amphiaraus, after he was deifi'd, instituted the way of fore-telling things to come, by Dreams; and they that came to consult his Oracle, must first sacrifice to him, as to a God, and then observe the other Ceremonies pre­scribed. They sacrificed a Sheep, and after they have flead it, they spread the Skin upon the ground, and slept upon it, expecting a Re­solution of what they asked, which he gave them in a Dream.

The same Author, in his Corinthiaca, tells us also, That in the City of the Phliasium, behind the great Market, there is an House which is called the Prophecying or Divining-place, where Amphiaraus having watch'd one Night, began to fore-tell things to come.

Plutarch, speaking of the Oracle of Amphia­rans, says, That in the time of Xerxes, a Servant was sent to consult it concerning Mardonius. This Servant being asleep in the Temple, dreamt that an Officer of the Temple chid him much, and beat him, and at last flung a great Stone at his head, because he would not go out. This Dream prov'd true; for Mardonius was slain by the Lieutenant of the King of Lacedaemon, having receiv'd a Blow with a Stone upon his head, of which he dyed. This is al­most all that Antiquity has left us about Am­phiaraus and his Oracles.

AMPHICTYON,

the Son of Helenus; This was he, says Strabo, who appointed that famous Assembly of Greece, made up of the most vertuous and wise of Seven Cities, who were called after his Name, as were also the Laws which they made.

Caelius would have us believe, that he was the first that taught Men to mingle Wine with Water. There was another of that Name, the Son of Deucalion, Governour of Attica af­ter Cranaus, who is said to be an Interpreter of Prodigies and Dreams.

AMPHILOCHUS.

Lucian, in one of his Dialogues, entituled The Assembly of the Gods, tells us, That he was the Son of a Vil­lain that slew his Mother, and that had the confidence to prophecy in Cilicia, where he foretold all that Men desired for about Two pence; so that he took away Apollo's Trade. And the same Lucian, in his Lyar, brings in Eucrates speaking thus about Amphilochus; As I return'd, says he, from Egypt, having heard of the Fame of the Oracle of Amphilochus, which answer'd clearly and punctually to every thing any person desired to know, provided they gave it in writing to his Prophet, I had the curiosity to consult him as I passed.

AMPHINOMUS,and ANAPIUS,

two Brothers who were eminent for their Pie­ty, having saved their Parents, by carrying them upon their Shoulders, with the peril of their own Lives, out of the City of Catanca, which was set on fire by the Flames of Aetna.

AMPHION,

the Son of Jupiter and Antiope, the Daughter of Nycetus King of Baeo­tia. Antiope was first marryed to Lycus King of Thebes; but he divorc'd her, because she had postituted herself to Enaphus, King of Sicyon. Jupiter, who was in love with her, enjoy'd her under the form of a Satyr. Derce, the Second Wife of Lycus, caus'd her to be imprison'd, out of Jealousie; but she having escaped, and seeing herself pursu'd, hid herself in Mount Citheron, where she brought forth Twins, Zethus and Amphion, who were brought up by Shepherds, and being grown up, reveng'd the Wrongs done to their Mother by Lycus and Derce, whom they caus'd to be pull'd in pieces, having ty'd them to the Tail of a mad Bull.

Amphyon was very excellent at Musick, and learn'd of Mercury to play upon stringed Instru­ments, in which he grew so great a Profi­cient, as the Poets say, That he built the Walls of Thebes by the sound of his Harp, and that the Stones put themselves in order to make that Building. Having married Niobe, [Page] the Daughter of Tantalus, he had by her Seven Sons, and Seven Daughters, of which their Mother was so proud, that she preferred her­self before Latona, the Mother of Apollo and Diana, for which she lost all her Children, ex­cept Cloris, they being slain by Apollo's and Diana's Darts. Amphion, to revenge himself, attemp­ted to destroy Apollo's Temple; but that God slew him, and punish'd him in Hell with the loss of his Sight and Harp.

Amphion receiv'd his Harp of Mercury, who was the Inventer of it, as Apollo speaks in Lu­cian; He made (says that God to Vulcan) an In­strument of a Tortoise-Shell, on which he play'd so excellently, so that he made me jealous, who am the God of Harmony.

And after he had shewn it to Apollo, and the Muses, as Pausanias says, he made a Present of it to Amphion: [...].

AMPHITHEATRUM,

the Amphi­theatre, a place built round or oval, which en­compassed the Roman-Theatre, and was fur­nish'd with Seats, on which the People sitting. saw divers Shows and Sports which were ex­pos'd to view. It is evident, that in Vitruvius's time the true Amphitheatres were not built at Rome; and therefore 'tis a mistake in Pliny, when he speaks of Pempeii Amphitheatri, in­stead of Pompeiani Theatri, as Lipsius observes. There were afterwards several Amphitheatres built at Rome, in imitation of the Greeks, of which the most famous was Nero's, which was built all of Tybertine-Stone, which is as hard and beautiful as Marble. It was call'd the Amphi­theatre of Nero's Colossus or Statue. It was 135 feet broad, and 525 long, large enough to contain 87000 persons sitting at their ease; and the height of it was 165 feet. Amphi­theatres and Theatres at first were not built for continuance, being only of Boards, which they pull'd down after the Plays were ended. Dion Cassius says, That one of these Amphitheatres fell down, and crush'd a great number of People under the Ruines of it. Augustus was the first that built one of Stone in the Campus Martius, at the Ex­pence of StatiliusTaurus, A. U. 725. and this Am­phitheatre remained till the time of the Empe­ror Vespasian; for the first being burnt in Nero's time, Vespasian began a new one, in his Eighth Consulship, two Years before his Death, but Titus finish'd it.

Pliny relates, that Curio made an Amphithea­tre that turned upon huge Iron-Hinges, so that two Theatres might be made of that Amphi­theatre at pleasure, on which different Plays might be represented at the same time.

The Amphitheatres were consecrated to Diana Taurica, or Scythica, Jove Latino, or Sty­gio, as Martial will have it, and at last to Sa­turn. Minutius Felix tells us, That there was an Altar, upon which they sacrificed Men before they began their Sports.

The Amphitheatre was divided into Three principal parts; the First, which was the Thea­tre, was the lowest, and made as it were a plain of Sand, which was call'd the Cavea, that is to say, the Cave; because it was full of ar­tificial subterraneous Caverns, of which some were used to shut up Beasts in, and others ser­ved to hold Water for the imittaing of Sea-Fights, and for the conveniency of the Specta­tors. This place was plain, even and sandy, whence it was call'd Arena, or the Sand, and from it proceeded that Latin figurative Phrase, In arenam descendere, which is as much as to say To enter the Combat, because the Gladiators fought upon that Sand, or on that Sandy Place.

The second part was the Circle about the Arena, which contain'd a great number of Seats, with divers Ascents one above another, that the Spectators who sat nearest might not hinder those that sat further off from seeing.

The third part was us'd for the keeping of divers kinds of Beasts, as Horses for Races and Hunting of Wild-Beasts, for Criminals, and for keeping the Athletae, i. e. Wrestlers.

It is very hard, says Justus Lipsius, to set down the precise time when Amphitheatres were first built; yet that Author does not doubt to fix the Invention of them about the Declen­sion of the Commonwealth, and believes that Curio's Theatre was an Amphitheatre, because when they pleas'd they could divide it into two parts, and when they chang'd its Form, and us'd it in its full Extent it was a true Am­phiteatre. These Words are almost the same with Pliny's, and seem to make that Tribune of the People the first Inventor of Amphithea­tres; for in the same place 'tis expresly ob­serv'd, that the Diversions of the Scene were so artificially dispos'd, that altho there were, as it were, two Theatres, yet the Contrivance of the Machine-maker did order things so well, that when they pleas'd there appear'd but one Inclosure or Amphitheatre.

Nevertheless Statilius Scaurus, that famous Aedile, may be thought to have preceded Curio in that Design: for, as Pliny says, Scaurus was the first who expos'd to the People an hundred and fifty Panthers: and Bullenger adds, that he us'd his Theatre as an Amphitheatre.

However 'tis most evident that Julius Caesar, was the first Inventor of Amphitheatres; and Bullenger assures us, That after he had subdu'd Asia and Africa, he built a Theatre of Wood in the Campus Martius, which was called an Amphi­theatre, because of the Ascents that were round it, and upon which the Spectators might see the Plays, sitting at their ease.

AMPHITRYO,

a Theban Prince, the Son of Alcaeus and Laonoma, the Daughter of Gunaeus, according to Pausanias in his Arcadica. He marry'd Alcmena of whom the Story is famous for the Birth of Twins, whereof one was nam'd Hercules, who was the Son of Jupiter, and was surnamed Alcides, either from his Grand-father Alcaeus, or else from the Greek Word [...], which signifies Strength or Valour, because of his extraordinary Strength, by which he subdu'd so many huge Monsters, and clear'd the Earth of them. See Alcmena.

AMPHITRITE,

a Greek Word which signifies encompassing. The Poets make her a Goddess, the Daughter of Oceanus and Doris, and Wife to Neptune the God of the Sea.

AMPHORA,

an Earthen Vessel with two handles, wherein were put things dry and li­quid, as Horace says in his de Arte Poetica, v. 21.

—Amphora cepit
Institui, currente rotâ cur urceus exit?

The Potter had a Design in turning the Wheel to make an Amphora, and nevertheless he made a Pitcher only.

This Vessel contain'd four Sextaries and an half of Wine, which is about nine Gallons. Suetonius tell us a Story of a Man who stood for the Quaestorship, and who drank an Ansphora of Wine at one Meal with the Emperour Tibe­rius, Ob Epotam in Convivio propinante se vini am­phoram.

This Measure contains also three Bushels of dry Measure, the Standard of it was kept at Rome in the Capitol, to prevent false Measures, as Rhemnius Fannius Polemon, who was Lucan's Master, testifies; from whence it was called Amphora Capitolina. It was a foot square in all its Dimensions, as Length, Breadth and Depth, and consequently it was Cubical.

AMPLIARE and AMPLIATIO,

[Terms of the Roman Law,] to delay the Judg­ment of any matter for better Information, to declare that we must proceed in Law by Wri­ting and Allegations, when a matter is not suf­ficiently discover'd or prov'd; for when such a thing happen'd in Suits, the Judg pronounc'd with a loud Voice Amplius; or he cast into a Pot a Ballot mark'd with an N and an L, which is as much as to say, Non Liquet, that is, The Matter cannot be determin'd as it stands.

M. Acilius Glabrio and Calpurnius Piso forbad Ampliation or Pleadings by Writing in Law­suits, as Cicero testifies in his first Oration against Verres.

AMULA,

a sort of Vessel, wherein the Lustral Water, in the Roman Sacrifices, was put.

AMULIUS SYLVIUS,

King of Alba, the Son of Procas, and Brother of Numiter. The Kingdom of right belonged to Numitor, and his Father gave it him at his death; but Amulius invaded it, and to secure his Usurpa­pation he caus'd Egestus the Son of Numitor to be slain in hunting, and forc'd his Daughter, whom some name Ilia and other Rhaea and Syl­via, to become a Vestal Virgin. She grew big as she was sacrificing to Mars in a Wood, and was after deliver'd of Twins, Rhemus and Romulus, who reveng'd their Uncle's Death by slaying Amulius the Usurper, and restoring Nu­mitor to the Throne.

AMYMONE,

one of the fifty Daughters of Danaus, whom her Father forced every day to go and draw Water in the Lake of Lerna, a City of Argos, and who had her Water-pot in her hand, says Lucian, because the City was very dry. But Neptune having seen her fell in love with her and took her away, and striking a Rock with his Trident he rais'd up a Foun­tain in her stead. She was the only one of all her Sisters who, after her Death, was not con­demn'd to fill a Tub, full of holes, with Wa­ter.

ANALEMMA,

a Greek Word, that sig­nifies those sorts of Sun-Dials, which shew on­ly the Height of the Sun at Noon every day, by the Largeness of the shadow of the Gnomon. 'Tis not properly a Dyal, because it does not shew the Hours, but the Signs and Months only. Of late Analemma's and Dials are joined together, which shew the Month by the length of the shadow, and the Hours by the Declina­tion.

ANCAEUS,

the Son of Neptune and Astypa­laea, who much delighted in tilling the ground and planting Vines; when he had spent seve­ral Nights in planting a Vineyard, one of his Servants told him that he should never drink of the Wine of that Vineyard; but when he had gather'd his Vintage, and caused some of the New Wine to be brought him to drink, he call'd that Servant to convict him of a Lye; he nevertheless held firm to his Prediction, re­peating the Proverb,

Multa cadunt inter calicem supremaque labra.

Or this,

Inter os & offam multa cadunt.

While these things pass'd, News came to Ancaeus, that a Boar was got into his Vineyard, and had made much waste in it: he thereupon let fall his Cup, and went to hunt the Boar, which run at him and slew him. Pausanias, in his Arcadica, makes mention of another Ancae­us, the Son of Lycurgus, who went in an Expe­dition to Cholchos, and was slain by the Calydo­nian Boar, hunting with Meleager.

ANCHISES,

the Son of Capys, lived in the Desarts of Phrygia, where he spent his days in keeping his Flocks. The Fable says, that Venus often came down upon Mount Ida to en­joy [Page] his Love; and of her Aeneas, the Trojan Prince, was born, who in the Destruction of Troy sav'd him from the flames, carrying him upon his shoulders. He dy'd at Drepanum, and his Son celebrated anniversary Games in ho­nour of him, of which Virgil speaks in his fifth Book.

ANCILE,

see ANCYLE.

ANCULI and ANCULAE,

the Gods and Goddesses of Slaves, whom they honour'd and pray'd to in the Miseries of their Bon­dage.

ANCUS MARTIUS,

the Grandson of Numa, and fourth King of the Romans. He succeeded Tullus Hostilius, and was valiant con­trary to the Hopes of his Neighbours. He sub­du'd the Vejentes in two several Fights, and took some of their Towns. He enlarg'd Rome, and fortifi'd Janiculum. He built the City Ostia, at the mouth of Tiber, to facilitate and secure Navigation. He reign'd 24 years.

ANCYLE,

or rather ANCILIA, a sort of Buckler so call'd from the Greek Word [...] or [...], which signifies an Elbow. The Bucklers were cut and hollow'd into a Semi­circle in the middle, and larger at the two ends.

There was a Festival kept at Rome in March, called The Feast of the Holy Bucklers. The Occa­sion of its Institution was thus; In the Reign of Numa, Rome was afflicted with so great a Plague, that all seiz'd with it dy'd without any Pos­sibility of Cure. One day as Numa was going in one of the Streets of the City, there fell down from Heaven upon him, an Holy Buckler, or Ancyle, which he took as a Token of the Divine Protection; for the Plague began to decrease, and the Nymph Ae­geria told him, that the Fate and Happiness of his City were annexed to it, as heretofore those of Troy were to the Palladium of Minerva. He found no great Difficulty to persuade the People to these things, and, that their Enemies might not take away this Fatal Buckler, he caus'd Veturius Mamurius to make Eleven others, so exactly like it, that the Holy Buckler could never be distinguished from the others.

He put them into the Temple of Mars, under the Conduct of twelve Priests call'd Salii; of whom I shall speak in their place.

Mamurius received this Reward, to be celebra­ted in the Hymns compos'd in honour of the God Mars, as Ovid tells us in these Verses, lib. 3. Fastorum v. 391.

Inde Sacerdotes operi promissa vetusto
Praemia persolvunt, Mamuriumque vocant.

Plutarch, explains this otherwise, for he says, That when the Salii made mention of Veturius Ma­murius in the Hymns of Mars, it was only through a Corruption of their Language, and that they ought to have said, ob veterem memoriam.

Varro is of the same Opinion, lib. 5. Itaque Salii qui cantant Veturium Mamurium, significant veterem memoriam. But the greatest number of Authors are for the former Opinion, which seems the most natural and least strained.

The Feast of Holy Bucklers began the first of March, and lasted three days. It had several Names, some call'd it Saliorum Festum Saliares or Martiales Ludi, Ancyliorum festum, Mamuralia. The Salii carry'd the Bucklers through the City dancing, and the Festival was ended with a sumptuous Feast, which was by way of Emi­nency call'd Saliaris Coena. Horace describes this Feast, and what pass'd in it lib. 1. Od. 37.

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero
Pulsanda tellus: nunc Saliaribus
Ornare pulvinar deorum
Tempus erat dapibus, sodales.

None could marry, nor go about any Busi­ness when these Bucklers were carry'd, because as Ovid says, Arms denote Discord, which ought not to be found in Marriages.

Arma movent pugnam, pugna est aliena maritis:
Condita cum fuerint, aptius omen erit.
Fast. lib. 3. v. 395.

Tacitus, in the first Book of his History, at­tributes the ill Success of the Emperour Otho against Vitellius, to his Departure from Rome, while these Holy Bucklers were carrying.

ANDROMEDA,

the Daughter of Ce­pheus, King of Aethiopia, and Cassiope, who was so rash and presumptuous to dispute with Juno and the Nereides for Beauty; to punish this Sauciness, her Daughter was condemn'd to be expos'd naked upon a Rock to be devour'd by a Sea-monster, but she was rescu'd by Perseus, (who flew through the Air with the Wings which Mi­nerva lent him to fight against the Gorgons, and who, by the help of the Buckler of that God­dess, wherein he saw the Image of Medusa as in a Looking-glass, had taken her by the Hair and cut off her Head, and then escap'd, while her Sisters were asleep,) for as he was on his Return on the Coasts of Aethiopia, he saw An­dromeda just ready to be devour'd by the Mon­ster, and being mov'd with Love as well as Pity for the Misfortune of such a fair Unfor­tunate, turn'd the Monster into stone by shew­ing it the Head of Medusa, after he had stun'd it with a Blow of his Sword; then loosing the Virgin, who was ty'd half naked to the Rock, he help'd her to get down the steep Precipice, and carry'd her back to her Father, who, to reward him, gave her to him in Marriage.

Lucian gives us a further Description of this History, in his Commendation of an House; Behold, says he, Perseus, who slew a Sea-monster and rescu'd Andromeda: Consider how in a small space the Painter has well express'd the Fear and Modesty of this young Fair one, who all naked view'd the Combat from an high Rock. Consider the terrible [Page] Looks of the Monster, who come to devour her, and the amorous Courage of the Hero. See how he held up his Buckler against the Monster, which turned him into stone by the force of Medusa's Look, whilst he gave him a full Blow upon his Head with a Back­sword.

The History of Andromeda may be compar'd to that of Iphigenia. Andromeda being expos'd to a Sea-monster, to expiate for the Pride of her Mo­ther, who prefer'd her own Beauty before that of the Nymphs, she was deliver'd from it by Perseus, who marry'd her after he had slain the Monster. This Perseus is nothing else but an Horseman, accor­ding to the signification of the Hebrew word Pha­ras, Equus. The place where Andromeda was ex­pos'd is Joppa, or Japha, upon the Coasts of Phoenicia, as Pliny says, In quo vinculorum Andro­medae vestigia ostendunt.

The same Author assures us, that the prodi­gious Bones of this Fish to which Andromeda was expos'd, were carry'd by Scaurus of Joppa to Rome; Belluae, cui dicebatur fuisse exposita Andro­mede, ossae Romae apportata ex oppido Judaeae Joppe, ostendit inter reliqua miracula in aedilitate suâ M. Scanrus. 'Tis evident that it was some Whale, taken at Joppa, whose Skeleton Scaurus shew'd at Rome; and that he might make his new Story more plausible, he set it off with the old Fable of Andromeda. Vossius is of opinion that this Sea-monster to whom Andromeda was ex­pos'd, and from whom Perseus deliver'd her, was nothing else but a Ship, or the Captain of a Ship, who had such a Monster for his Flag, and courted Andromeda, to marry her.

ANDRONES,

a Greek Word which sig­nifies, The Apartment of Men, where they were accustom'd to make their Feasts, into which Women were not allow'd to come.

ANGELI,

Angels, These are spiritual In­telligences, which God makes use of, as his Ministers, to do Men Good or Evil, and to execute the Commands of his Divine Provi­dence upon them. The Greeks and Latins ac­knowledg'd Angels under the Name of Good or Evil Genii or Daemons. It is a Truth which Homer was well satisfi'd in, that Angels or Dae­mons do stir up many Motions and divers Pas­sions in the Mind and Heart of Man.

Hesiod tells us, that there are thirty thousand Gods or Angels dispers'd over all the Earth, to observe the Conduct of Men; Ter enim decies mille sunt in terra Dii Jovis, custodes mortalium hominum, qui judicia observant & prava opera, aere induti, passim oberrantes per terram: these Words Dii Jovis signifie Angels. 'Tis the Do­ctrine of the Church, which even the Poets acknowledg'd with Hesiod, That the Provi­dence of God watches over the Universe, and that he hath thirty thousand, i. e. an infinite number of Angels, the Ministers of his wrath. In fine, These Divine Guardians and Obser­vers of our Actions are invisibly, yet most cer­tainly in the midst of us, and encompass us on all sides.

Euripides, in Cicero, makes the unfortunate OEdipus say, that he withdrew himself for fear lest the Evil Genii should hurt the City upon his account, [...], &c. That's the Name he gives those Genii or Daemons which he believ'd were appointed to every particular Person, and were dispos'd to hurt them, as there were others who delighted to help and benefit them.

This Opinion of Hesiod, agrees with Varro's and Plato's, who also assign several Orders of Daemons or Intelligences in the Heavens, the Air, the Earth, and the subterraneous parts, that all the Universe might be fill'd with Life, Reason and Understanding, and consequently have a perfect Beauty. Nevertheless this Dif­ference is remarkable, that Plato will have those Intelligences, which people and fill the whole Universe, to be created and appointed to their Offices from the beginning of the World; whereas Hesiod supposes them to be partly the Souls of the deceas'd.

ANGERONA,

a Goddess, who is pray'd to against a certain Distemper call'd a Quinsie, in Latin Angina. Pliny will have her the God­dess of Silence, and Calmness of Mind, who banishes all Disturbances, and heals all sorts of Melancholy. The Romans instituted a Feast to her, which they call'd Angeronalia, because she cur'd their Flocks, which were troubled with the Quinsie. She is painted with her Mouth cover'd, to shew us that Pains and Griefs should be born without impatient Complaints. They sacrifi'd to her in the Temple of the Goddess Volnpia, where her Statue was set up.

ANGIBATA,

a Greek Word that comes from [...], and signifies a Transparent Vessel, in which little Images seem to move up and down in the Water, which are inclos'd in it and seal'd up hermetically. This wonderful Effect, which makes a kind of Enamell'd Fi­gures to swim in the Water, is seen in an An­gibata, which has lately been found out, in which a small Image rises and falls, turns about and stands still as you please. This is done by straitning and compressing the Water more or less with the Thumb, which stops the end of a long Glass Pipe or Tube fill'd with Water. The Contrivance is, The little enamell'd Image, which is hollow and has a Weight so proportion'd to its Largeness, that it will swim upon the, Water, yet so, that by the Ad­dition of a small Weight it will rise and sink to the bottom.

ANGLIA,

England, see Albion.

ANGUIS,

a Serpent, which was an ill Omen in Marriages, as we may see by those Verses of Terence in his Phormio, He will say that lately there happen'd to him ill Omens, a Serpent fell from the Tiles through a Gutter. The God Aesculapius is ordinarily represented under the figure of a Serpent, because he came from Epidaurus to Rome in that shape.

ANGUSTUS CLAVUS,

a small But­ton in the shape of the Head of a Nail, which the Roman Knights did wear upon their Gar­ments, call'd from thence Tunica Angusti Clavi, whereas the Senators wore them larger, and their Coat was therefore call'd Tunica Lati Cla­vi. From hence it comes that these Words are often in Latin Authors, and chiefly in Sue­tonius, taken for the Dignity of Knights and Senators.

ANIENSIS TRIBUS,

the Tribe of A­nio, or the Inhabitants near the River Anio. In the Consulship of M. Fulvius and F. Manlius, the Censors P. Sempronius Sopho and P. Sulpitius Severa; made a Census, i. e. took an Account of the number of the People, to which they ad­ded a new Tribe call'd Aniensis.

ANIGER or ANIGRUS,

a River of Thessaly, whose Waters were sweet and plea­sant, but afterwards turn'd bitter and stinking, because the Centaurs wash'd their Wounds in it, which they had receiv'd from Hercules, as the Fable says.

ANIMA,

the Soul, which animates all living Creatures in general. This Word comes from [...], which signifies Wind or Breath; the Latins say, Animam efflare, to express the yielding up the last Breath, or at the last Gasp.

The Antients were several ways mistaken about the Nature of the Soul. Some, as Lac­tantius says, believ'd that the Soul was Air. Varro, following this Opinion, says, The Soul is Air receiv'd in at the Mouth, purified by the Lungs, warmed by the Heart, and from thence dispersed through the whole Body. Some have form'd to themselves an Idaea of Souls, as certain thin Substances like Shadows, yet visible, perform­ing the same Functions and having the same Organs with the Bodies which they animate, since they see, speak, understand, and have need of Boats to carry them over the Rivers of Hell; so that according to their Argument they are only more subtil Bodies. This Error pass'd among the Primitive Christians, not­withstanding the clear Light of the Gospel; and so the Antients in their Emblems have re­presented the Soul by a Butterfly flying from the Body, which may be observed from a Basso Relievo of Marble, which represents a young Man lying upon a Bed, with a Deaths-head at his Feet, and a Butter-fly flying over him, which signifies his Soul, and by its flying away it shews us, that the Soul had forsaken the Bo­dy, to which it was united.

The Butter-fly seems to have come out of the Mouth of the deceas'd, because the An­tients thought, as the Vulgar still do, that the Soul took its flight from the Body at the Mouth, which made Homer say, in his Iliads lib. 9. That when the Soul has once pass'd the Fence of the Teeth, it can never return again.

They have exprest the Soul by a Butter-fly, which perpetuates its Being by changing its shape several times. For after this manner the Pythagorcans believe that we change our Genus or Species by the Transmigration of our Souls. Moralis tells us of an Epitaph, by which it ap­pears, that a dead Man order'd his Heirs to make a Butter-fly over his Ashes;

Haeredibus meis mando etiam cineri ut meo
Volitet ebrius Papilio.

There is yet extant a Representation of a Cupid endeavouring to fix an unsteady Soul, by fastening it to a Tree, for a punishment of its Inconstancy, nailing it to a dry stump, and by that means hindring it from entring into the Body it desir'd.

Nicetas Choniates says, That some were of opinion that there are two Natures in the Soul, one luminous and the other dark. This last has its Original from below, and comes through some subterraneous Ca­verns; the other descends from the Height of Hea­ven all inflamed to adorn the Body; but in its De­scent it is especially caution'd to take care, that while it endeavours to adorn its earthly Habitation by its Light, it doth not obscure it self by the others Darkness.

The Soul is more particularly said to be that which gives Life to Animals and Vegetables. The Vegetative Soul is in Plants and Trees, the Animal in Beasts, and the Rational and Spiritual in Man. The Cartesians define the Soul of Man a thinking Substance, and by this Quality alone they think they can prove its spiritual and immortal Nature. As to the Soul of Beasts they say 'tis an Automaton, or a Machine that moves of it self and by natu­ral Springs, that their Soul is a thin an active Substance, which participates of the Nature of Fire, and is the Source of the Vegetative Spirits.

The Immortality of our Soul was not only the Opinion of the Poets, but of all Mankind. The first Idolatry was either the Worship of the Stars, or of Kings, which were Deities af­ter their Deaths. Now this presupposes that they believed that the Souls of Kings were much of the same Nature with the Intelligen­ces which govern the Stars. Thus the Apo­theosis or Deification of the deceased, was an evident proof of the common belief of the Immortality of Soul.

[Page] The earnest desire of Fame is a secret proof of the inward belief of the Souls Immortality; for Men would never have taken so much pains to have eterniz'd their Name and Memo­ry, if the Soul had been mortal: So Horace tells us, That he should not dye entirely, but that the greatest part of himself would survive af­ter death.

Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei
Vitabit Libitinam.—

And Ovid says the same in these Verses;

Parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis
Astra ferar.

Cicero, in his Oration for the Poet Archias, explains the Immortality, so much celebrated by the Poets; he assures us, that it was the Opinion of wise Men, That immortal Glory, the love of which was so ardent in Man, sup­poses immortal Life, which could tast the Sweetness of that Glory. This learned Man treats upon this Subject in his Tusculan Questions, and observes there, that their very Burials, Funeral-Elegies, the Examples of those who have devoted themselves to Death for the Good of their Country, the Love of Glory, wherewith Men are so inspir'd, and lastly, all that is said or believed of Hell, and all that is read concerning it in the Poets, are evident Proofs of the Immortality of Souls, and of the Belief that all Men have of it, and explaining the reason which induc'd Men to describe Hell after the manner that the Poets had re­presented it; he says, 'twas because they thought Souls immortal, and not being able to apprehend any thing but what is material; they had describ'd Souls, and the Punishment of Hell, by corporial Representations; as we may learn by Homer, and other Poets.

Euripides, in his Deification of Castor, Pollux, and Helena, tells us, That the Soul of Man, after Death, hath no Enjoyment of this sensitive Life, but hath always the same Understanding, and goes to take up its abode in Heaven, [...].

Herodotus assures us, That the Egyptians were the first who deliver'd the Doctrine of the Souls Immortality.

Plato tells us, That after Death, our Souls are conducted by a Genius, who the Poets say is Mercury, to the place where they shall be judged; and that they receive Punishments or Rewards proportionably to the good or evil they have done in their Lives. Quemlibet mo­rientem cujusque Genius [...], quem vivens sortitus fuerat, in locum quendam ducit, ubi omnes judicari oportet. Judicantar & qui honestè, justè & sanctè vixerunt; & qui non, & qui mediocriter.

ANIMALIA,

Animals, which are di­vided into Terrestrial, Aquatic, Birds, amphi­bious Creatures, and Insects. The Pagans ado­red Beasts, and creeping things, as Deities; and the most superstitious, as well as the most an­tient Worshippers of this kind, were the Egyp­tians. Thus, when Caesar made himself Ma­ster of Egypt, Lucian tellus us, That he made a magnificent Treat of many of the Egyptian Deities;

Non mandante fame, multas volucresque fe­rasque
Aegipti posuere Deos.

Ovid, Lib. V. of his Metamorphos. relates the Flight of the Gods into Egypt from the War of the Gyants, and when Typhoeus pursu'd them, they concealed themselves under the shape of divers Animals, to avoid his Fury.

Herodotus assures us, that the Egyptians were the first that made Statues, and engraved Ani­mals in Stone: They represented Jupiter with a Rams Head, because Heracles being earnestly de­sirous to see him, Jupiter appeared to him with a Ram's head. He says also, That Pan was one of their greatest Gods, and they represen­ted him as a Goat, tho' they knew very well, that he was like the other Gods. Lucian declares, that the Signs of the Zodiack, and the other Constellations, were first painted by the Egyptians in the Heavens, or in the Coelestial Spheres, whose Images they would have afterwards to be upon the Earth in the same Animals, whose Nature, they affirmed, depended upon the Nature of those Constellations, and upon their Impressions on sublunary beings. It is also probable, that this Fable of the Flight of the Gods into Egypt, and their Transformation in­to Animals, was taken from the Opinion of the Astronomers, who attributed the shape of these Creatures to the Constellations, and of the Constellations to the Gods, that is to say, to the Coelestial Intelligences.

'Tis certain that they distinguish'd the Gods from the Animals that were consecrated to 'em, and that they did not give any Honour to those Beasts, but with relation to those Gods to whom they put up their Prayers, and not to Animals. Herodotus has given us the reason, why the Egyptians gave so much Honour to the Ibis, or the Hawk; 'twas because, in the Spring, a vast number of flying Serpents came out of Arabia, to build Nests in Egypt, but were dri­ven back by these Birds. 'Twas without doubt to the God, who had sent them these Helps, that the Egyptians intended to give Honour, by worshiping the Animals which was consecrated to him. Diodorus Siculus afferts, after Herodotus, That the Egyptians affirm'd, That they wor­shiped those Animal which were consecrated to the Gods, in Honour to those Gods; and he assures us, that the Egyption Priests had se­cret and mysterious Reasons for their Worship; but the People had only three Reasons for it, [Page] of which the two former seem to be something fabulous, viz. That the Gods, at the beginning, being assaulted by a rout of wicked Men, con­ceal'd themselves under the Form of these Ani­mals, and ever since they had honour'd them. Secondly, That the Egyptians having been often vanquish'd by their Enemies, at length became victorious, after they set up the Figures of these Animals for their Standards. Thirdly, That all these Animals were extremely useful for the preservation of their Goods and Lives.

Plutarch tells us, That we ought to interpret all these Fables in a pious and philosophical sense, piè & philosophicè: That if the Egyptians did honour Mercury under the Name of a Dog, 'twas because of the Watchfulness of that Creature.

There was nothing so lewd as the Worship of the Goat, which they call'd Mendes; the Greeks, Pan; and the Latines, Faunus and Silva­nus. The Sileni and Satyrs related to this. The Figures of these Deities were yet more immodest and impure than the Animals them­selves; for they were the original, as I may say, of the Priapus of the Greeks. All these Idolaters protested nevertheless, That their in­tention was by these Symbols, to honour the Fruitfulness of Nature, that continually pro­duced an infinite number of Beasts, many of which are Masterpieces of the Fecundity of the divine Power.

Some think that the greatest part of these Transformations of the Egyptian Gods into A­nimals, or the divers ways of representing 'em under the Figures of these several Animals, arose from nothing else but some Allusions of the Names to a more antient Language; for Bochartus observes, that if Isis were changed into a Swallow, as Plutarch says, 'twas because that Sis in the Hebrew. Tongue signifies a Swal­low: If Anubis were painted with a Dog's Head, 'twas because Nobach signifies to bark: If Apis was worshipped in the shape of an Ox, 'twas because Abbir signifies an Ox: If Jupiter chang'd himself into a Ram, 'twas because El, which is the Name of God, signifies also a Ram: If Osiris, or Bacchus be changed into a Goat, 'tis because Seir signifies a Goat: If Diana be changed into a Cat, 'tis because, in the Egyp­tian Language, Bubastis signifies a Cat, and that's the Name of Diana: Venus is chang'd in­to a Fish, because Atergatis come near to Dag, a Fish: Lastly, Juno, or Astarte, takes the figure of a Cow, because Hastaroth signifies Herds of Oxen.

'Tis not to be doubted, but from the time of Moses, the Egyptians worshipped their Gods under the figure of Animals, since Moses him­self answers, That the Israelites could not of­fer a solemn Sacrifice in Egypt, lest they should expose themselves to be stoned by the Egyptians, whose Gods they must sacrifice to the true God.

ANNA PERENNA.

This fabulous Story is told of her:

This Anna, according to some Authors, was the Daughter of Belus, and Sister of Dido, who fled to Battus, King of the Isle of Malta, after the death of her Sister, when Hierbas, the King of the Getuli, attempted to take Carthage. When she perceiv'd herself not safe with Battus, be­cause of the Threats of Hierbas, she fled into Italy to Laurentum, where Aeneas was settled; and as he walked one day along the Bank of the Ri­ver Numicius, he met Anna, and presently knew her, and conducting her to his Palace, he trea­ted her according to her Quality. Lavinia was troubled at it, and sought her Destruction, as being her Rival; but she being admonished of it in a Dream, escaped to the River Numi­cius, whereof she was made a Nymph, as she told them that searched for her, and ordered them to call her for the future Anna Perenna, because she should be for ever under these Waters:

—Placidi sum Nympha Numici
Amne perenne latens, Anna Perenna vocor.
Ovid. Fast. Lib. III. v. 653.

This News oblig'd the Albans to make great Rejoycings along the Banks of the River in Dances, and Feasting; and in imitation of them, the Romans did the same on the Banks of Tiber. The Virgins took very undecent Liber­ties, dancing and Iasciviously sporting without any Modesty: Ovid has describ'd these Feasts, which were made on the 15th. of March. They sacrific'd to her to obtain a long Life, Annare, & Perennare. Some have thought that she was an old Woman of Bovillae, who brought Meat to the People of Rome of old, and then fled into the holy Aventine-Mount, and in Grati­tude this Feast was appointed in Honour of her by the Romans:

Pace domi fact â signum posuêre perenne,
Quod sibi defectis illa ferebat opem.
Ovid. Fast. Lib. III. v. 673.

ANNALES,

Annals, a chronological History, which describes the remarkable Events of a State yearly, as the Annals of Cornellus Tacitus: Whereas History, says Aulus Gellius, descants upon those Events, and upon the Cau­ses which produc'd 'em. It was allow'd at first to the Chief-Priests only to write the An­nals of the People of Rome; that is to say, the considerable things that happen'd every year; and from thence they were called Anna­ies Maximi, non à magnitudine, sed quòd eos Ponti­fex consecrasset; says Festus.

ANNALIS LEX,

The Law which appoint­ed the Age at which any Person was promoted to [Page] Offices of State. Eighteen Years was required for one to be made a Roman Knight; and Twenty five to obtain a Consulship; and so for other Offices. The Romans took this Law from the Athenians.

ANNALIS CLAVUS,

The Nail which the Praetor, Consul, or Dictator fix'd eve­ry Year in the Wall of Jupiter's Temple, upon the Ides of September, to shew the Number of Years. But this Custom was after changed, and the Years were reckon'd by the Consuls.

ANNIBAL,

an African, the Son of Amilcar, and General of the Carthaginians in the Wars against the Romans, whom he beat and defeated in several Battels. He pass'd from Spain to the foot of the Alps, in his way to Italy, and went up to the top of those Moun­tains in Nine days time, notwihstanding the Snow with which they were covered, and in spight of the Resistance of the Mountaineers which inhabit there, whom he shut up in a Rock, which they used for a Retreat; and by an unheard of Invention, he cut a way through that part of this Mountain which most obstru­cted his passage, with Fire and Vinegar. After this, he over-run all Italy, and brought Ter­rour and Dread with him into all Parts, and chiefly after the Battel of Cannae, which is a small Village of Apulia, in which the Romans lost Forty Thousand Men, together with the Consul Aemilius. Annibal sent Three Bushels of Gold Rings to Carthage, and made himself a Bridg of dead Bodies. 'Twas at this Battel that he shew'd, that the greatest Men commit the greatest Faults; for he forgot himself, and lost by his own Carelesness a complete Vi­ctory; for instead of attacking Rome, he went and drown'd all his Glory and Hopes in the Pleasures of Capua. He dyed at the Palace of Prusias, King of Bithynia, having poyson'd him­self, because he apprehended, that this barba­rous King would deliver him into the hands of the Romans. Thus dyed this great General, after he had made War Sixteen Years in Italy, won several Battels, brought several Nations to a Submission, either by Force or Agree­ment, besieg'd Rome, and made himself Master of divers Cities.

Juvenal having briefly run over the great Exploits of Annibal, concludes, that all this Glory ended at last with being conquer'd, ba­nish'd, and living as a Fugitive; reduc'd to so mean a condition, as to court a petty King of Asia; and lastly with killing himself by a Ring, which was a sort of Revenge on him for that incredible multitude of Rings which he had taken from the Roman Nobles slain in the Battel of Cannae.

Lucian makes him speak thus of himself in one of his Dialogues of the Dead: Having pass'd out of Africk into Spain with an handful of Men, I first made my self famous by my Valour, and after the death of my Wives Brother, having the com­mand of the Armies, I subdu'd the Spaniards and Western Gauls; then marching over the Alps, I conquer'd all Italy, as far as Rome; after I had gain'd Three great Battels, and slain in one day so many Enemies, that I measured the Gold Rings which the Knights were, by the Bushel, and marched upon a Bridg of dead Bodies. Being recall'd into Africa, to oppose Scipio, I obey'd, as if I had been one of the meanest of the Citizens; and after being un­justly condemn'd, I bore my Banishment patiently.

ANNONA,

the Victuals, or the provision of Corn for a Year.

Annona Civilis, the Corn with which the Granaries of Cities were fill'd every Year, for the Subsistance of the Citizens.

Annona Militaris, the Corn which was laid up in the Magazines for the Subsistance of an Ar­my during the Campaign.

ANNULUS,

a Ring which the Antients wore on their Fingers. There are Three sorts of 'em; one sort was call'd Annuli Sponsalitii, Pronubi, or Geniales, Rings of Espousals, or Marriage-Rings, which the Bride-groom gives his Bride at their Marriage; others were call'd Annuli Honorarii, Rings of Honour, which were us'd as Marks of Honour, and distinction between the different Orders of Men, and with which those also were rewarded, who had done some signal Service to the Common-wealth; the Third sort were call'd Annuli Signa­torii, or Sigillatorii, which they used to seal their Letters with.

The Rings which the Romans used to give the Women betrothed to them, were ordina­rily of Iron, and they put them upon the 4th Finger of the hand. I have seen some also of Copper and Brass, with little Knobs in the fa­shion of a Key, to signifie, that the Husband, by giving this Nuptial-Ring to his Wife, puts her in possession of the Keys of his House, of which she ought to have the care. Some of them are found with these Inscriptions, Bonam Vitam. Amo te, [...]na me.

Rings of Honour, were Marks of Merit in the Persons who wore them. The first Romans wore only Rings of Iron, as fittest for a war­like Nation, and they prefer'd 'em before Rings of value. Tarquinius Priscus was the first that wore one of Gold; but for a long time the Senators durst not wear 'em. Afterwards a Custom prevail'd of giving Gold Rings to them that went on an Embassy into strange Countries about the Affairs of the Common-wealth; but yet they wore them only upon the days of their Entries, or Audiences, as a Badg of their Dignity.

[Page] But afterwards the Senators wore them of Gold, as also the Knights, to distinguish them­selves from the common People; as they were known from Senators by a Robe woven with Gold, and by their large Buttons. This hap­pen'd about the Second Punick or Carthaginian-War.

We read in Appian of Alexandria, that only Colonels in an Army had a Right to wear Gold Rings, which they used as a Mark of Nobility.

It is true, that in the Disorder and Confusion of Civil-Wars, the People, and Soldiers took the liberty to wear 'em, as also Women-Slaves, and those who were made free, which obliged the Consuls, C. Asinius Pollio and C. Antistius, un­der the Emperor Tiberius, to make an Order for­bidding the Common-People to wear Gold Rings, at least those whose Father, or Grand-father by the Fathers side, had not a Revenue of 400 great Sesterces with a right to take place in the Fourteenth Ascent of the Theatre, which was granted to the Roman Knights when they were present at those Shows.

It is also true, that from the time of the Em­peror Commodus, the Slaves made free were ho­noured with a Gold Ring.

Aurelius Victor says, That the infamous Ma­crinus, the Son of an enfranchis'd Slave, re­ceiv'd a Gold Ring, and was thereby equall'd to the Knights, as these Verses of the Poet Statius shew:

Mutavitque genus, laevâque ignobile ferrum
Exuit, & celso natorum aequavit honori.

They affected to wear 'em of an extraordi­nary weight; I have seen some that weighed Four Pistoles and a half of Gold; which puts me in mind of what Juvenal says wittily in his Seventh Satyr, That no body will give 200 Pieces to an Orator to plead his Cause, although he be as eloquent as Cicero, unless they see an extraordinary great Ring shining on his Finger:

—Ciceroni nemo ducentos
Nunc dederit nummos, nisi fulserit annulus ingens.
Satyr. VII. v. 139.

Pliny tells us, That in his time the Excess was so great, that it seem'd to him, as though every one would be valu'd only by the Number and Weight of his Gold Rings, with which they loaded rather than adorned their Fingers. This is the same that Se­neca, the Philosopher, says, Oneramus annulis di­gitos, & m omni articulo gemma disponitur.

These Rings were often adorned with Bea­zels made of the same Matter, or precious Stones graved several ways.

Under the Emperor Claudius, Seals were or­dered to be made of the same Metals, and not of precious Stones. The several sorts of Engravings which were set in the Beazels of Rings made the Seals, which we name Annuli Signatorii, or Sigillatorii, with which they seal'd their Letters, which they impress'd upon their Records; as also in their Houses upon their Cellars, where they kept their Provisions.

They seal'd their Letters, as we do at this day, saving, that instead of Silk they used Thread or Flax, with which they wrapt about the Letter on the outside, and then laying upon it a sort of soft Clay or Wax, they stampt the figure of their Seal upon it, after they had a little softened it with Spittle. Cicero has de­scrib'd the manner of it to us in his Third Ora­tion against Catiline; Tabellas proferri jussimus, quae à quoque dicebantur datae; primùm oftendimus Cethege, signum cognovit, nos linum incidimus, legi­mus: We caused the Letters to be brough:, shew'd 'em to Cethegus, who acknowledg'd the Seal, we cut the Thread, and read them.

Plautus has describ'd the same thing to us more elegantly in his Bacchides: Cedo tu ceram, & linum, actutum age, obliga ob signa citò: Give me the Wax, and Thred, quickly; bind up the Let­ter, and seal it: This Flax was call'd Vinculum Epistolae; and Juvenal calls the Impression of the Seal upon the Wax, that was softened with Spittle, Gemma Uda.

They seal'd their Contracts in the same man­ner, as also their Wills; for as soon as the Witnesses had heard the Will read, it was seal'd in their presence, and they fix'd Three Labels to it, upon which they put Wax, and set their Seals. This was decreed by the Se­nate, in the time of Nero, as Suetonius relates. It was likewise necessary, when a Will was opened, that either all the Witnesses, or at least most of 'em, should be present, to own their Seals: Tabellae testamenti aperiuntur hoc mo­do, ut testes vel maxima pars eorum adhibeantur, qui signaverint testamentum, ut ita agnitis signis, rupto lino, aperiatur & recitetur. Jul. Paul.

These Seals were also made use of to seal their Cellars and Pantries, where they kept Provisions for their Families; for Plautus brings in a Mistris of a House, who was going to visit her Neighbour, thus speaking in his Comedy, entituled Casina, Obsignate cellas, referte annulum ad me; And the same Poet brings in a Slave complaining of his Master for sealing the Salt-Box, for fear he should take any Salt; Isti parci promi qui salinum servis ob­signant cum sale.

ANNULI

Samothracii ferrei, Rings call'd Samothracian. They had something in them which secured from Envy, and from other Evils, as Varro says. These Rings, as Artemido­rus says, which were Iron on the out-side, and to which Art had imparted some salutary Virtue, were fortunate in Dreams. Petronius, speaking of the Rings which Tremalcion wore, tells us, That that which was upon his Little Finger [Page] was of Gold, set thick with small Stars of Iron. Isidore, after Pliny, teaches, That the Slaves co­ver'd their Iron Rings with Gold. These Samo­thracian Rings may be said to be Talismans, of which the Iron was wrought under some Con­stellation. Such also were those Rings which Solomon taught Men to make, as Josephus says, which would drive away Devils: and those hollow Rings of Artemidorus, which inclos'd in 'em some supernatural and divine Virtue. The People of the Isle of Samothrace much addicted themselves to the study of the Secrets of Nature, and Pythagoras taught them a sort of Philoso­phy which he call'd Divine, and is the same with the Talismans, or Rings made under a certain Constellation. The Gods of Samothrace were those who presided over the Talismans. Tertul­lian mentions three Altars, dedicated to three sorts of Deities, Magnis, Potentibus, Valentibus; and adds, 'Tis credible that these were the Gods of Samo­thrace, who were potent for the Execution of difficult Designs, and who presided over great Undertakings. Varro calls them Divi Potentes, and supposes 'em to be Heaven and Earth.

ANNUS,

the Year. 'Tis, properly speak­ing, that Time which the Sun takes in passing through the 12 Signs of the Zodiack. After several Observations, Astronomers having deter­min'd, That the several Recesses of the Sun have certain Periods, after which that Planet seems to return to the same Points, in respect to us, and much about the same time makes the same Alteratoins of Seasons, and Temperature of the Air; call'd the Year that Number of Days which the Sun is passing through those several differences of Di­stances and Recesses.

Those who observ'd these things with grea­ter Exactness, did first acknowledge, That the Sun did run from East to West, round the Earth in twenty four Hours, by the swift Motion of the Pri­mum Mobile, or Highest Orb. Then they ob­serv'd, That the Sun, besides this Motion which is common to all the Planets, had another also proper to it self, which was from West to East, round the same Globe of Earth, in the Ecliptick, which cut­ting the Aequator obliquely, rises on both sides to­wards the Poles, as far as the Tropicks. And lastly, That the Sun running, in one Year. through the full Extent of this great Circle of the Ecliptick, which they have divided into twelve Parts or Signs, by its Motion causes two very different Seasons, viz. Summer and Winter, when it arrives at the Tropicks, that is to say, at the two Points of the Solstices; and two other more temperate, viz. Spring and Autumn, when the Sun cuts the Ae­quator, or the Aequinoctial.

The Year is call'd in Greek [...] and [...], that is to say, Returning into it self; whence it is, that the Egyptians have represented the Year by a Serpent turning round and biting its Tail: which made Virgil say in his Georgicks, lib. 2. v. 402.

Atque in se sua pervestigia volvitur annus.

The Year is either Natural, which is other­wise call'd Tropical, or Civil. The Natural or Tropick Year is that exact Space of Time which the Sun takes in passing through the Ecliptick, which is not always the same, be­cause of the Inequality of the Sun's Motion; which seems to have been observ'd in the most antient Times by the Aegyptian Priests, and Sacrificers to Jupiter Ammon, by means of the different Quantity of Oyl which was burnt continually before the Statue of that God; for measuring with all the exactness possible what they spent in the whole year, they found that there was a considerable Difference between one Year and another, and from thence infer'd that the Years were not exactly equal.

Astronomers have since by the Exactness of their Calculations and Observations, proved that the Mechanical Conjecture of the Aegypti­ans for the Term of the Solar Year, observ'd in the time of Hipparchus and Piolemy, and a­bout 750 years after by Albategnius, was still found very different in the time of Alphonsus King of Castile, which was about 400 years af­ter, and the Modern Discoveries that have been made from the most curious and diligent Observations have no Agreement with the Antients.

And as the Duration of the Solar Year, which we have from Ptolemy's Observations, is the greatest of all, that in Albategnius the least, so that in Alphonsus's time is in some sort a Mean between both, but that of our time seems to come near the greatest. Copernicus, who liv'd about the end of the last Age but one, took occasion to conjecture that these, tho different Inequalities, had their deter­min'd Periods; and that, in a certain Revo­lution of time, they pass'd through all these Differences, and then return'd to the same Posture they were in before.

He has found out, by a laborious Computa­tion, that the Term of this Period is about 1716 years, in which time the Solar year runs through all these several Changes.

But because it would be very hard to fix up­on a Computation of Years, according to such nice Differences, which consist in some few Minutes for each year, the Astronomers have, for that reason, made use of a mean Duration between the greater and the less, which con­tains 365 days, 15 hours, and about 49 mi­nutes.

The Civil Year, which is commonly us'd by all Nations is very different, both as to its Beginning and Duration; which nevertheless may be refer'd to three different Heads, for [Page] they either follow the Course of the Sun, or of the Moon, or of both.

The Hebrews had two sorts of Years, the Secular or Natural Year, and the Sacred or Ec­clesiastical.

The Secular had respect to the Civil Go­vernment for buying and selling, and began at the Autumnal Aequinox, in the month called Tisri, which answers to our September, because they believed that God created the World at that time.

The Sacred Year had reference to their Reli­gion, and began at the Vernal Aequinox, in the month called Nisan, which answers to our A­pril, at which time they kept their Passover.

The Aegyptians, Chaldaeans and Assyrians were the first that measur'd their Year by the Course of the Sun, and they thought at first, that the Solar Year had 360 days only, which they di­vided into twelve months containing thirty days each; at the end of which, as we may conjecture by the Story which Plutarch relates concerning Rhea and Saturn, Mercury added five days, which he called [...], i. e. Added, by which means the year became 365 days long, without counting the six hours or there­abouts, by which the Solar Year exceeds that number of days, and which, making one day in four years, is the cause that Thot, i. e. the Aegyptian year has no determin'd and fix'd place in any part of the Solar Year, which it anticipates one day every four years, and one month in 120 years, running through its whole Course in the space of 1440 years; after which it returns to the same point from which it first began.

This way of reckoning the Years has been a long time in use among the Aegyptians, till, af­ter the defeat of Mark Anthony by Augustus at the Battel of Actium, their Country was made a Province of the Roman Empire, and they were forced to submit to the Laws of the Conque­rours and their Computation of years, which was the Julian, keeping only the Names of the months, which answer'd after such a manner to the Roman Months, that their Thot, the first day of the Year, always happen'd upon the 29th. of August; whence it comes to pass that the first day of the Aegyptian Year, which is al­so call'd the Coptick Year, is four whole months and three days before the Kalends of January, which is the first day of the Roman Year.

The Persians count their Years as the Aegyp­tians do, ever since Cambyses became Master of Aegypt. For having ransack'd the Sepulchre of Simandius, he found a Circle of 365 Cubits round, every Cubit representing a day of the year, which was graven and mark'd by the rising and setting of the fix'd Stars, which made them fix their year to 365 days, without mentioning the hours. Quintus Curtius tells us, that the Persians adore the Sun, and have an holy Fire, kindled by its Rays, to be carry'd before their King, who is follow'd by 365 young Lords, cloath'd with yellow Robes, to represent the 365 days of the Year.

The Arabians, Saracens, and Turks, at this day reckon their Year by the Course of the Moon, making it to consist of twelve Moons, whereof some have thirty, and some twenty nine days, alternatively one after the other, which make all together but 354 days; so that the Duration of time being less than the Solar Year by about eleven days, it follows, that their Month Muharran, which they count for their first place in the whole Course of the Solar Year, which it precedes 11 days every year, and more than a month in 3 years; so that in less than thirty four years it runs through all the season of the Solar Year, and returns to the Point from which it first be­gan.

And since the exact time of the 12 Moons, besides the 354 whole days, is about 8 hours and 48 minutes, which make 11 days in 30 years, they are forc'd to add 11 days extraor­dinary in 30 years; which they do by means of a Cycle of 30 years invented by the Arabi­ans, in which there are 19 years with 354 days only, and 11 intercalary, or Embolismical, which have every one 355 days; and these are they wherein the number of hours and mi­nutes, which are Surplus to the whole days in every year, is found to be more than half a day, such as 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, and 29, by which means they fill up all the Inequalities that can happen.

The Greeks consider the Motions of the Sun and Moon in their Year, and as they suppos'd in antient times, that the Moons Course was exactly 30 days, they made their Year to con­sist of 12 Moons, and by consequence of 360 days; but quickly perceiving their error, they took out 6 days, to bring it to the Lunar Year of 354 days, which being less than the Solar Year by 11 days, they found it convenient, for reconciling the Inequalities in the Motions of these two Luminaries, to insert at the end of every second year an intercalary month of 22 days, which they call'd, upon that account, [...], id est, a Month added, or inser­ted.

They understood afterwards, that the 6 hours they had omitted, which yet are a part of the time of the Solar Year above the 365 days, and make one whole day in four years, were the cause that their Year anticipated the true Solar Year one day at the end of four years; which oblig'd them to change their In­tercalation, and put it off to the fourth year: [Page] and then leaving only 354 days to the 3 first, under the name of the Common Year, they reckon'd 399 days to the fourth, by the addi­tion or intercalation of one month and an half, consisting of 40 days, arising from the 11 days by which every Solar Year exceeds the Lunar, being four times counted, and the day which arises from the adding of the six hours in four years.

And to render the Intercalation more re­markable, they made a noble Consecration of it by instituting the Olympick Games, in the time of Iphitas, at which all Greece met toge­ther every fourth year, and hence came the Computation of time by Olympiads, every one of which consisted of four years, and are so fa­mous in History.

Nevertheless they found at last, that this space of four years did not rectifie all the Irre­gularities that happen'd in the Courses of the Sun and Moon, which oblig'd them to double 'em, and make a Revolution of 8 years, and because they were not hereby yet fully satis­fy'd, they introduc'd another of 11 years.

Notwithstanding this, the Athenians did not receive such satisfaction as they hop'd for by this last Period of 11 years, but they had still remain'd in a perpetual Confusion, had not one of their Citizens, nam'd Meto, an Astro­nomer of very profound Judgment, at last dis­cover'd, that all these different Changes which happen'd betwixt the two Motions of the Sun and Moon would be accommodated by a Pe­riod made up of the two former of 8 and 11 years, i. e. in the space of 19 years, after which those Stars return again to the same place where they were at first.

This Period of XIX. Years of Meto, was ordinarily call'd The Enneadecas eterais, and was receiv'd with so great Applause among the A­thenians, that they would have it written in large Characters of Gold, and set up in a pub­lick Place, which gave it the Name of the Gol­den Number, and the use of it became common not only in Greece but also among the Jews, who made use of it to regulate their years, afterwards among the Romans, and lastly, a­mong the Christians.

The Athenians began their Year at the New-Moon after the Summer Solstice, in the Month call'd [...], i. e. between the months of June and July. All the Magistrates, says Plu­to, must meet in the same Temple the day before the Kalends of the Summer Solstice, when the New-year begins.

Some made their Year to consist only of three Months, others of four, as we read in Macrobius his first Book of his Saturnalia, Chap. 12.

The Carians and Acharnanians made their Year to consist of six months, and Justin tells us, That they reckon'd but fifteen days to their Month.

The Romans had three sorts of Years; 1. That of Romulus, which contain'd but ten months, beginning with March, whence it comes that December is call'd the last Month. 2. Of Numa, which corrected the gross Mi­stake of Romulus, and added two months to the year, viz. January and February, making it to consist of 355 days only, which makes 12 Lunar months. 3. Of Julius Caesar, who dis­covering a further Error in the Calculation, viz. That there were ten days more than Numa reckon'd, made a Year of 365 compleat days, and reserving the six hours to the end of four years, made a whole day of 'em, which he inserted before the 6th of the Calends of March; so that in that year they counted the 6th of the Calends twice, Bis sexto Calendas, whence came the word Bissextile; and the year had 366 days, and was call'd Bissextile. And this way of com­putation has continued to our time, and from its Author is named the Julian Year.

Now the 10 days which Caesar added to the year were thus distributed, to January, August, and December, each of 'em two; to April, June, September, and November, each of 'em one.

But because in these latter times there is still an Errour found in this Calculation, and the Equinoxes insensibly go back from the point where Julius Caesar had fix'd them, they have found out, that the year had not just 365 days and six hours, but wanted about 11 minutes, which in 131 years, make the Aequioxes go back about a day; for an hour having 60 such minutes, a day must have 1440, which being divided by 11 make 130 and 10 over, so that the Aequinoxes were come back to the tenth of March. For which reason in the year 1582 Pope Gregory XIII, to reform this Error, caus'd 10 days to be taken from the Year, to bring the Aequinoxes to the 21 of March, and the 22, and 23 of September, and to prevent the like for the future, he order'd, that since 131 thrice counted make 393, i. e. almost 400 years, this matter should be regulated by Centuries, to make the account more easie and compleat, so that in 400 years, the Bissextile of 3 years should come to 100 Bissextiles. And this is that which is call'd The Gregorian Year.

The Jews count their years by weeks, and call the seventh Sabbatical, in which they were not allow'd to plow their Ground, and were oblig'd to set all their Bond-Servants at liberty. They had also their Year of Jubilee and Release, which was every 50 years, or according to o­thers every 49 years, so that every year of Ju­bilee was also Subbatical, but yet more famous than others, and then all Possessions, and what­ever [Page] else had been alienated, return'd to its first Owner.

The Greeks counted their years by Olympiads, of which every one contain'd the space of four whole and compleat years. These Olympiads took their Names from the Olympick Games, which were celebrated near the City of Pisa, otherwise call'd Olympia in Peloponnesus, from whence they were call'd Olympicks. These years were also called Iphitus's, because Iphitus first appointed them, or' at least reviv'd that Solemnity.

The Romans counted by Lustra, of which every one is 4 compleat years, or the beginning of the fifth. This word comes from Luo, which sig­nifies to pay, because at the beginning of every fifth year they paid the Tribute impos'd on them by the Censors. They also counted their Year by a Nail, which they fix'd in a Wall of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

The Year is divided into four Parts or Sea­sons, viz. Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. The Aegyptians divided it but into three Parts, Spring, Summer, and Autumn, allotting to each Season four months. They represented the Spring by a Rose, the Summer by an Ear of Corn, and the Autumn by Grapes and other Fruits. Nonnius, at the end of his Lib. 11. of his Dionysinca, describes the four Seasons of the year thus, The Seasons, saith he, appear to the Eye of the Colour of a Rose; the Daugh­ters of the inconstent Year come into the House of their Father. The Winter casts a seeble Ray, hav­ing her Face and Hair cover'd with Snow, and her Breast with Hoar-Frost, her Teeth chatter and all her Body is rough-coated with Cold. The Spring, crowned with Roses, sends forth a sweet Smell, and makes Garlands of Flowers for Venus and Adonis. The Summer holds in one hand a Sickle, and in the other Ears of Corn. And lastly, the Autumn ap­pears crowned with Vine Branches, loaden with Grapes, and carrying in her hands a Basket of Fruits.

The Greeks begin to count the Years from the Creation of the World, on the first of Sep­tember.

At Rome there are two ways of reckoning the Year; one begins at Christmass, because of the Nativity of our Saviour, and the No­taries of Rome use this Date, setting to their Deeds à Nativitate: and the other at March, because of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, this is the Reason that the Popes Bulls are thus da­ted, Anno Incarnationis.

The antient French Historians began the year at the Death of St. Martin, who dy'd in the year of Christ 401, or 402. They began not in France to reckon the year from January till 1564, by virtue of an Ordinance of Charles IX, King of France, for before they began the day next after Easter, about the twenty fifth of March.

ANQUIRERE

capite, or pecuniâ (in the Roman Law) to require that a Person be condemn'd to Death or fined.

ANSER,

a Goose. This Domestick Fowl was in great Esteem among the Romans, for having sav'd the Capitol from the Invasion of the Gauls, by her Cackling and clapping of her Wings. They were kept in the Temple of Juno, and the Censors, at their entrance into their Office, provided Meat for them. There was also every year a Feast kept at Rome, at which they carry'd a Silver Image of a Goose in state upon a Pageant adorn'd with rich Tap­stry, with a Dog which was hang'd, to punish that Creature because he did not bark at the arrival of the Gauls.

ANTAEUS,

the Son of Neptune and Terra, and one of the Giants which dwelt in the De­sarts of Libya. He forc'd all Travellers to wrestle with him, and kill'd them. He made a Vow to build Neptune a Temple of the Sculls of those he kill'd. He attack'd Hercules, who taking him by the middle of his Body, choak'd him in the Air, it being impossible to kill him otherwise, for as often as he threw him upon the ground, that Giant recover'd new Strength. which the Earth, his Mother, supply'd him with.

ANTECESSORES,

this Word proper­ly signifies those who excel in any Art or Sci­ence. Justinian has honour'd those Doctors of Law who taught publickly with this Title; there were four of them in every College, and they made up the Council of State.

ANTECOENA,

the First Course, the first Dish set upon the Table; it was either Fruits, or Sweet Wine, or some part of the Entertain­ment.

ANTENOR,

a Trojan Prince, who is said to have deliver'd the Palladium of Troy to the Greeks, which was the cause that the City was taken. After the City was taken and de­stroy'd, he came into Sclavonia, about the Streights of the Adriatick Sea, where he built a City of his own Name, which is since call'd Padua.

ANTEROS,

the Son of Mars and Venus, and Brother of Cupid. See Amor.

ANTESTARI,

in the Law, signifies to bear Witness against any one; whence it is that Horace says in his Sat. 9. lib. 1. v. 76. Vis ante­stari? Will you bear Witness? And he that would, did only offers the Tip of his Ear, Ego verò op­pono auriculam: I offer my Ear immediately to shew that I consent.

ANTEVORTA and POSTVORTA

Deities honour'd by the Romans, who took care of what is past and what is future, and whom [Page] they made the Companions of Providence.

ANTICYRA,

an Island lying between the Streights of Meliacum, and Mount Oeta. There grew, says Pliny, the best Hellebore, which is an excellent Herb to purge the Brain; from whence comes the Proverb, Naviget Anticyram, as much as to say, That a Man that has a distem­per'd Head, or a crackt Brain, should go to Anti­cyra to cure it with Hellebore.

ANTIGONE,

the Daughter of OEdipus King of Thebes, she serv'd as an Eye to her Fa­ther, after he had lost his Sight in his Banish­ment. Going to pay her last respects to her Brother Polynices at his Funeral, against the ex­press Command of Creon, she was condemn'd by him to be starv'd to Death in Prison; but she prevented her Death by hanging herself. Prince Haemon, Creon's Son, who was about to marry her, slew himself also upon her Body in a Fit of amorous Despair. The Poet Sopho­cles handles this Tragical Subject in his Trage­dy of that Name so nobly, that the Athenians gave him for his reward the Government of the Isle of Samos.

There was another Antigone, the Daughter of Laomedon, whom Juno changed into a Stork, because she equall'd her in Beauty.

ANTILOCHUS,

the Son of Nestor, who accompanied him to the Siege of Troy, was slain by Memnon, whilst he endeavoured to ward the blow from his Father Nestor. Xe­nophon tells us, in the beginning of his Treatise of Hunting, That Antilochus having exposed his own Life to save his Fathers, deserv'd so well, that the Greeks gave him the Name of Philopator, a true Lover of his Father. Quintus Calaber relates the matter otherwise, That Antilochus having seen two of his Father Nestor's Captains, Eren­thus and Pheron, stain by Memnon, attempted to revenge their Death upon him; but having pushed him with his Javelin, Memnon run him through with his Lance. Nestor Commanded his other Son Thrasymedes to fetch off the Body of his Brother; but Achilles interposing, slew Memnon. Nevertheless, Ovid. tells us, That Antilochus was slain by Hestor.

ANTINOUS,

of Bithynia, the Empe­ror Adrian's Favourite, who was drowned in the Nile, in a Voyage from Egypt. The Empe­ror was so sensibly touched with his Loss, that to comfort himself, he plac'd him in the rank of the immortal Gods, causing Temples to be built to him, erecting Altars, and appointing Priests and Sacrifices.

He caused several Medals to be stamp'd to perpetuate his Memory, and plac'd his Statues in the Colleges.

We have Three Medals of his: upon the Reverse of the First there is the Figure of a Temple, with the Emperor Adrian built upon the Nile, in Honour of him, with these Greek words, [...], Adria­nus construxit. At the bottom of this Temple there is drawn a Crocodile, a Creature that a­bounds in the Nile, where Antinous dyed.

Leonicus, in his Historia variâ, says, That he saw at Venice a Silver Medal of Antinous, on which were these words, [...], that is to say, Antinous the Here. On the reverse of this Medal is represented a Sheep, with an Inscription quite worn out.

There is yet a Third Medal of Antinous, wherein, on one side is the Portraiture of this young Bithynian Lad of extraordinary Beauty, with these Greek Letters, [...], Hostilius Mar­cellus Sacerdos Antinoi Achaeis dicavit: On the reverse is the Horse Pegasus, with Mercury ha­ving his winged Shooes on, and his Caduceus.

ANTIOPE,

the Daughter of Nycteus, and Wife of Lycus, King of Thebes, whom Ju­piter enjoy'd in the form of a Satyr, which was the cause that her Husband divorc'd her, and marryed Dirce, who imprison'd Antiope; but she escaped and fled to Mount Citheron, where she brought forth Twins, Zethus and Amphion, who being grown up, reveng'd the Wrong done to their Mother upon Lycus and his Wife Dirce.

ANTIUM,

a Sea-Town built by Asca­nius, according to Solinus; or as Dionysius Hali­carnassus will have it, by one of the Children of Ulysses and Circe, upon a Promontory, or the top of a Rock, 32 Miles from Oftia; it was the Metropolis of Volsci, with whom the Ro­mans had War for Two Hundred Years. Ca­millus took it from them, and carryed all the Beaks of their Ships away, and laid 'em up at Rome, in the place of their Comitia, or As­semblies, called from thence Rostra. This Ci­ty was given to the old Praetorian Soldiers; and Nero caused a Port to be built there. Antiun, says Suetonius, coloniam deduxit ascriptis veteranis, è praetorio, ubi & portum operis sumptuosissimi fecit.

ANTONINUS,

the adopted Son of Adrian, to whom he succeeded: He was Sur­named Pius, for his excellent Morals and sweet Temper, to which a reverse of a Medal al­ludes, which represents Aeneas carrying his Fa­ther Anchises upon his Shoulders from Troy. (This was the Badge of Piety and Love to­wards Parents, among the Antients.) Antoni­nus had a long Visage, which the Physiogmo­nists say, is a sign of Good Nature and Kind­ness, to which we may add a sweet, modest, and majestick Air, and a due proportion of all parts of his Face, as in the rest of his Body. He must be acknowledg'd to be a Prince good, merciful, just, liberal, sober, and eloquent, [Page] one that was truly worthy to govern so great an Empire. This Emperor was compard to Numa, and indeed they had a very great resem­blance one to the other, both as to their Minds and the Lineaments of their Face. He caus'd the Temple of Augustus, which was much ruin­ed, to be rebuilt, and rais'd a new one to his Predecessor Adrian, who adopted him. He dyed in the Seventieth Year of his Age, and was as much lamented, as if he had been a very young Man; and 'twas observ'd, that he gave up the Ghost as if he had been in a sleep, Hea­ven recompensing the sweetness of his Life by the easiness of his Death. He govern'd the Em­pire Twenty two Years and Seven Months, or Twenty four Years, according to others.

ANTONINUS.

See Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.

ANTONINUS HELIOGABALUS.

See Heliogabalus.

M. ANTONIUS,

Mark Anthony, a Trium-vir, the Grand-Son of Mark Anthony the Orator, and Brother of Lucius. He took Cae­sar's part, when he was Tribune of the People, and Augur. He went into Gallia, and engag'd him in a Civil-War against Pompey and his Fol­lowers. Attempting to possess himself of Mu­tina, Brutus's Province; he was declar'd an Enemy to the Senate and People of Rome, by the perswasion of Cicero. He establish'd the Triumvirate of Octavius Caesar, Lampidius, and himself, which they all Three manag'd with much Cruelty. Caesar abandon'd Cicero to the Resentments of Anthony, who caus'd his Head to be cut off as he was carryed in his Litter, and set it up in the Rostrum where the Roman Orators us'd to plead. In the beginning of his Triumvirate he divorc'd his Wife Fulvia, to marry Octavia the Sister of Augustus; but he left her a little time after for Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, with whom he was extremely enamour'd, which so enrag'd Augustus, that he rais'd an Army against him, and defeated him at that famous Sea-fight near Actium. The year following he pursu'd him as far as Ale­xandria, whither he fled; but seeing himself deserted by his Friends, he kill'd himself at the Age of 56 years.

ANTRONIUS,

the Croatian, had a Cow of wonderful Beauty, and he had learn'd of a cer­tain Diviner, that he who sacrific'd it to Diana upon Mount Aventine, should make his own City Mistris of the whole World by that Sa­crifice. This Oracle being told to Servius Tul­lus, he commanded Antrimius to wash himself in the Tiber, before he offered his Sacrifice. In the interim Servius prevented him; and sacrific'd the Cow, and fasten'd her Horns to the Tem­ple of the Goddess; whence arose the Custom of fastening the Horns of an Ox to that Tem­ple, whereas a Stag's Head was commonly hang'd up in other Temples belonging to the same Goddess.

ANUBIS,

the God of the Aegyptians, pi­ctur'd with the Face of a Dog, wrapp'd up in Linnen. Diodorus Siculus thought him the Son of Osyris, call'd Jupiter, under whose Name Mercury was worshipped, whom Apuleius de­scribes with a Dogs Head, carrying in his Right Hand the Caduceus, and in his Left a Palm-Branch.

ANXUR, or AXUR,

as it is found on a Medal of Pansa, Jovis Axur, otherwise call'd Terracina, a City situate upon an Hill that rea­ches along the Sea-side from Ostia to Naples, which is Forty Miles from Rome. It was made a Colony in the Year 424. under the Consulship of Aemilius Mamercus and L. Plautus, who sent thither Three Hundred Citizens, to every one of whom they gave a considerable parcel of Land. 'Tis thought by some, that it was call'd Anxur, because Jupiter Anxurus, or Beardless Jupiter was worship'd there; for this word Anxur or Axur, signifies quasi [...], without a Razor.

Circaeum (que) jugum, queis Jupiter Anxuris arvis
Praesidet.—
Aeneid. Lib. VII. v. 799.

APATURIA,

a Surname given Miner­va by Aethra (the Daughter of Oceanus and Thetis) who consecrated a Temple to this God­dess, according to the Admonition she had gi­ven her, and order'd that the Trazomenian Vir­gins should for the future dedicate their Gir­dles to her at their Marriage.

There were also Feasts called Apaturia, ce­lebrated by the Athenians in October, in Honour of Bacchus, Jupiter, and Pallas, where the young Men and Maids spent theri time in Sports and Feasts, which lasted for severaldays.

APELLES,

of the Isle of Coos, one of the most excellent Painters of the Antients: He drew several Pictures, all which were great Master-pieces. He drew the Image of Fortune lying on a Bed, holding upon her Left Arm her Corna-copia, having her Right Hand sup­ported by a Wheel, to shew her Instability and Inconstancy, with this Inscription, Fortu­nae Reduci; and when he was asked, Why he painted Fortune in that posture, he answered, Because she never is at rest. Being on a time ac­cus'd by a Painter who envy'd his Fame, that he had conspir'd against King Ptolomy, and cau­sed Tyre to revolt, and Pelusium to be taken, the Prince was thereupon very angry with him, as a Traytor and Assassine, and had cut off his Head, if one of his Accomplices had not clear'd him when he was upon the Rack. Apelles therefore to revenge himself for this Calumny, which had done him so much mischief, designed this [Page] Picture, He painted a Prince with great Ears, as Midas is only drawn, sitting upon a Throne atten­ded with Suspicion and Ignorance, reaching out his Hand to Calumny, who was coming towards him with a fiery Countenance; she held in her Left Hand a Torch, aad with her other dragg'd a young innocent Child by the Hair; before her went Envy with a pale Face and blear Eyes, accompanyed with Fraud and Deceit, which dressed and adorn'd Ca­lumny, to make her appear more agreeable; after them came Repentance, under the Figure of a Lady clad in Mourning, with her Clothes all torn, who turn'd her Head towards Truth, being full of Sorrow and Shame.

He also drew the Picture of Alexander in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, under the Figure of a Jupiter, holding a Thunderbolt in his Hand, who seems to be issuing out of the Picture, as well as the Thunderbolt. Pliny says, he had Twenty. Talents of Gold for this rare piece.

He has left us the Lines which he drew at Protogenes's House, which are so very fine, that they seem to grow invisible; but this did not gain him so much Reputation and Esteem as his Venus proceeding from the Sea, although that Picture was never finish'd by reason of his Death.

APEX,

a sort of Bonnet, or Cap, very plain and light, which draws to a point on the top; used by the Priests call'd Salii.

Festus and Servius derive the word from the Verb Apere, which is an old Latin word signi­fying to join or bind; because of the two wool­len Strings, which coming from the Bonnet, were used to tye it under the Chin.

APHRODITE,

a Name given to Ve­nus, because she was generated of the Froth of the Sea, and from hence her Feasts were call'd Aphrodisiana.

APIS,

otherwise called Osyris and Serapis, the Son of Jupiter and Niobe, who marryed Io, the Wife of King Inachus, and was named af­terwards Isis. He left his Kingdom to his Bro­ther Aegialeus, and going into Aegypt, he civi­liz'd the Aegyptians, which made Hermes Trisme­gistus think that Apis was a great Philosopher. He was put to death by one named Typho, who cast himself into the Sea: When his Wife Io searched for him, a very handsom Bull ap­peaared to her, which she believed to be her Husband, whom she afterward caus'd to be ho­nour'd in Aegypt, under the figure of that Ani­mal. He was taken out of the midst of the Herd, but then he was to be white-headed, black in the Body, with a white Spot upon his Back, the figure of a Snail upon his Tongue, and the Hairs of his Tail were to be tied dou­ble. When this God happen'd to die, no body valu'd his Hair (tho he had the Periwig of Ni­sus, says Lucian) but he shav'd it all off, in to­ken of his Grief. When he readily took the Meat that was offer'd him, this was look'd upon as a good Omen; but on the contrary, if he refus'd to eat, this was look'd upon as a bad one. Thus Germanicus, in his Voyage from Egypt, drew a Presage of his own Death, from this Animal's refusing to eat Meat out of his Hand. This is the Fable, the History fol­lows;

APIS,

was one of the most antient Gods of Egypt, and as he was honour'd under the fi­gure of an Ox, many have thought that it was Joseph himself, who was represented and ho­nour'd under that mysterious figure. Julius Firmicus Maternus, who liv'd in the time of Con­stantine the Emperour, was of opinion, That the Egyptians ador'd Joseph under the name of Apis or Scrapis, which Name he thought was derived from Sara his Grandmother; and that all this Worship was given to Joseph, as being the Preserver of Egypt, during the great Famine of seven years: Josepho post mortem Aegyptii pa­trio gentis suae instituto templa fecerunt: & quia Sarae pronepos fucrat, Serapis dictus est.

This Historian afterwards relates the opinion of others, who thought that Apis was a King who distributed great Quantities of Corn a­mong the People in a time of Famine, and that after his death a Temple was erected to him, in which an Ox was kept, as the lively Symbol of an Husbandman: Alii repertum in Historiis Graecorum veteribus ferunt Apim quondam patrem-familias, sive regem in Aegypto Memphis po­situm, cum famis tempore frumenta apud Alexan­driam defecissent, ex proprio affatim civibus ali­menta praebuisse: quo defuncto, in honorem ejus in­stituerint apud Memphim templum, in quo bos, quasi indicium optimi agricolae, nutritur.

The Worship of Apis was, without doubt, more antient than the City of Alexandria, which was built by Alexander: but either this was a Mistake in the matter of Fact, which does no ways prejudice the rest of the History, or else under the name of Alexandria we must understand a little City which was formerly in the same place.

See what St. Austin says of Apis, cap. 5. lib. 18. de Civ. Dei. At this time Apis, King of the Argives, having sail'd into Egypt, and dying there, became the famous Serapis, the greatest of all the Egyptian Gods.

Now, the Reason given by Varro, why he was no more called Apis, but Serapis after his death, is very natural and easie, because the Greeks call a Coffin [...], and the Coffin of Apis having been honour'd before any Temple was built to him, from hence he was at first called Sorosapis or Sorapis, and after that by the change of one letter, which often happens, Serapis. [Page] It was also ordained, That whosoever should call him a Man should be punish'd with death; and Varro adds, That all the Statues of Isis and Serapis had a Finger upon their Lips to signifie this Prohibition. As to the Ox which Egypt kept so tenderly in honour of him, out of a strange superstitious Humour, because they worship'd it only while alive, and not when it was in the Coffin, they call'd it Apis and not Serapis. When the Ox died, another was sub­stituted in his room, having the same Marks with the former, which pass'd for a great Mi­racle; but certainly it was not difficult for Evil Spirits, who took pleasure in deceiving this People, to represent to a Cow, when she went to Bull, an Ox having the same Marks with the former; as Jacob made the Goats and Sheep of the same colours, by placing speckled Rods before the Eyes of the Dams, at the time of Conception.

The Author of the Book de Mirabilibus Scri­pturae, which is among the Works of St. Austin, affirms, That the Egyptians erected the figure of an Ox near the Scpulchre of Joseph. Suidas says the same thing, viz. That Apis was the Symbol of Joseph, or of some other rich Person, who had furnished the Egyptians with Corn in the time of a great Famine; and that a Temple was built to him after his death, wherein an Ox was kept, as being the resemblance of an Husbandman, [...]. There is a very great Agreement between Joseph and this Symbol, for 'tis very well known, that Joseph interpreted Pharaoh's Dream by the Power of Divine Wisdom, and that he took the seven fat Kine to be signs of the Fruitfulness of the Land. Now, 'tis hardly to be imagin'd, but this miraclous Prediction of seven Years of Plenty, and seven of Famine, and the Preser­vation of Egypt by laying up great Quantities of Corn, must inspire the Egyptians with a great Veneration for Joseph; and it was impossible but the great Opinion they had of him must, in process of time, degenerate into Superstiti­on, in a People who had so strong an Inclina­tion to it. In fine, Trogus Pompeius, or his E­pitomizer Justin, says, That considering the Vene­ration that Nation had for Joseph, 'twas impossible that they, who made all their Benefactors Gods and Demigods, should not give him Divine Honours.

The Name of Apis agrees very well to Joseph, for since the Egyptian Tongue must needs have a great affinity with that of the Canaanites or He­brews, Apis may be derived from the Hebrew word Ab, which signifies a Father, from whence we have the word Avus. Now, Joseph was truly a Father to Egypt, and therefore Pharaoh caused him to be proclaimed every where with this Epithet Abrec, which signifies Pater Tanet, i. e. a Tender Father.

APIUM,

Smallage, an Aquatick Plant, that grows by the water-side; which, according to Philostratus and Hyginus, was occasioned by the Death of young Archemorus, whom his Nurse Hypsiphile left lying upon Smallage near a Fountain, where a Serpent kill'd him. Gar­lands were made of this Plant, which were given to those who were victorious at the Ne­maean Games, that were instituted in honour of him. Plutarch, in the third Question of his Sym­posiacks, says, that this Plant was used for the same purpose at the Isthmian Games, that were in honour of Palemon. Hence it was that Ti­moleon, in the War of the Sicilians against the Carthaginians, took it for an Omen of assured Victory, that the Souldiers had Bundles of Smallage, since the Victors at the Isthmian Games, that were celebrated near Corinth, were crown­ed with it; and hence also the Admiral Ship of King Antigonus was call'd Isthmion, because a Smallage grew of it self upon the Stern of that Ship.

This Plant was peculiarly consecrated to the dead, according to the Testimony of Pliny, De­functorum epulis dicatum Apium. And Agrippa, in chap. 25. of his first Book of Occult Philosophy, informs us, That the Cypress as well as Smallage was a direful Plant dedicated to Pluto, which it was not lawful for any to crown themselves with on Festival days.

APOLLINARES LUDI,

the Apolli­narian Games, instituted by Augustus in honour of Apollo, as an Acknowledgment for the Vi­ctory he obtain'd, by his means, over Anthony and Cleopatra, near the Promontory of Actium. These Games were celebrated every Year, sometimes on one day and sometimes on ano­ther; but afterwards they were fix'd to the fourth day of July, by Lucius Varus, the Prae­tor.

APOLLO,

a famous God among the Greeks and Romans, to whom they attribute the Invention of many excellent Arts, and to whom they erected many Temples and Statues made by the most skilful Artificers.

Cicero, in lib. 3. de Nat. Deorum, informs us, that the Ancients worship'd four Apollo's: The first and most ancient was the Son of Vulcan, whom the Athenians took for their Tutelary God: The second was the Son of Corybas, born in the Isle of Crete, and who contended with Jupiter for the Goverment of that Isle: The third was esteem'd the Son of Jupiter and Latona, who came from Scy­thia to Delphos: And the fourth was called No­mion, who was born in Arcadia, and to whom the Arcadians gave that Name, because he had been their Legislator; for [...] in Greek signifies a Law: yet 'tis believed that this Name was given for some other reason, which may in­duce us to think that the second and third [Page] Apollo were one and the same Person, accor­ding to the following Fable, 'Tis said therefore that Jupiter having heard the Complaint which the Infernal Spirits made against the Physician Aes­culapius, the Son of Apollo, who cured the Sick with his Medicines, and even raised the Dead to Life again, as he did Hippolytus, (which depopu­lated Pluto's Kingdom) destroy'd him with a Thun­derbolt: Apollo being irritated against Jupiter, reveng'd it upon the Cyclops, who made the Thun­derbolt, and kill'd them with his Arrows: for this Action Apollo was driven out of Heaven, and forced for a Livelyhood, says Lucian, to hire himself out to Admetus in Thessaly, as a Shep­herd to look after his Flocks; and afterwards in Phrygia to Laomedon, in the company of Nep­tune, where they passed their miserable time in making of Bricks, wherewith they built the Walls of Troy, and were so unfortunate as never to be paid for their Labour. From hence it appears that he was call'd Nomion from [...], which signifies a Shepherd. The Fable also relates of him, That Mercury, soon after he was born, stole the Flock of Admetus from him, by playing upon an Instrument made of Tortoise-shell; but when Apollo would have shot an Arrow at him, he found that he had also rob'd him of his Bow and Arrows, at which the God fell a laughing, as Horace tells us in these Verses,

Te, boves olim nisi reddidisses
Per dolum amotas, puerum minaci
Voce dum terret, viduus pharetrâ
Risit Apollo.
Carm. Lib. 1. Od. 10.

I intend not in this place to treat of any other Apollo but him who was the Son of Jupi­ter and Latona, who was brought to bed of him and Diana in the Isle of Delos, according to the most common opinion, tho Tacitus is of another mind, when he tells us, How the Ephe­sians in former times represented to the Senate, that Apollo and Diana were not born in the Isle of De­los, as ignorant People believe, and for proof of this, he says, they shew'd at that time a consecrated River and Forest in their Country, where Latona, being big with these Deities was happily deliver'd; that the Olive-tree on which she lean'd in the pains of her Travail was still remaining after so many A­ges; that the River was called Cenchris, and the Forest Ortygia; and that Apollo retir'd to this place when he fled from the Wrath of Jupiter, after the slaughter of the Cyclopes. Plutarch, in the Life of Pelopidas, thinks that Apollo was born in the City of Tegyra, where there were two Fountains, one of which was called the Palm, and the other the Olive, with a Mountain cal­led Delos. But whatsoever was the place of his Birth, 'tis certain that the Antients believ'd Apollo to be the Inventer and God of Harmony, as he himself boasts to Daphne, who despised his Courtship,

—Per me concordant carmina nervis.

In the second place they made him the God of Physick and Botany, which consist in knowing the Virtue of Plants; and this was the opinion both of the Greeks and Romans, upon which ac­count Ovid brings him in speaking thus,

Inventum medicina meum est, epiferque per orbem
Dicor, & herbarum subject a potentia nobis.
Metam. lib. 1.

Thus Hippocrates order'd his Disciples to swear by Apollo the God of Medicine; yet Hyginus makes Apollo to be only the Inventer of Medi­cines relating to the Eyes, such as our Oculists profess to know. M. Falvius Nebilior being Censor in the year 574, built a Temple to him under the Title of The God of Medicine; and the Falisci instituted Sacrifices for him, and a Soci­ety of Priests upon Mount Soracte, where his Priests have been seen to walk unhurt upon burning Coals, for a proof of their Sanctity, and of the Protection they receive from this God, as Virgil tells us,

Summe Deûm, & sancti custos Seractis Apollo,
Quem primi colimus, cui pineas ardor ace [...]vo
Pascitur, & medium freti pietate per ignem
Cultores mulid premimus vestigia pra [...].
Aeneid. lib. 11. v. 785.

In the third place, the Invention of Bows and Arrows is attributed to him, and therefore he is made the God of Archers who shoot out of the Long-Bow, or the Cross-Bow. He kil­led the Serpent Python with his Arrows, from whence he was surnamed the Pythian: And obliged the Greeks to institute the Pythian Games in honour of him, of which I shall speak here­after.

Instituit sacros celebri certamine ludos,
Pythla de domita serpentis nomine dictos.
Ovid. Metam. lib. 1.

He was accounted the God of Musick, and of Poetry, and was always painted with his Harp when he was in their Company. The Poets commonly invoke him when they begin their Poems, to the end he may inspire them, and enable them to sing the Praises of Gods and Men in suitable Strains.

Antiquity also believ'd him to be a Prophet, who foretold things to come, and deliver'd Oracles to Cities and Private Persons who con­sulted him with Water, Incense and the Tripod, about their Undertaking: And when he was about to deliver his Oracles, says Lucian, the Colour of his Face chang'd, his Hair stood on end, his Throat swell'd, his Eyes roll'd about, and his Body trem­bled; at last he open'd his sacred Mouth and pro­phesied.

The places which were most famous for his Oracles, were Delos, Claros, Tenedos, Cyrtha and [Page] Patara, and from these places he was surnam'd Delian, Clarian, &c. He deliver'd Oracles at Delos during the six Months of Summer, and at Patara in Lycia, during the six Months of Winter: the Delians therefore, fancying that he return'd to Delos at the beginning of Sum­mer, came all to welcom him there with the Sound of Musical Instruments, dancing and playing antick Tricks, as Virgil has observ'd in these Verses,

Qualis ubi hybernam Lyciam, Xanthique flu­enta
Descrit, ac Delum maternam invisit Apollo,
Instauratque cheros, &c.
Aeneid. lib. 4. v. 143.

The Greeks called this Solemnity [...], and the Removing of the God [...].

At Delos there was an Altar in his Temple, which pass'd for an extraordinary piece of Art, it was made of little pieces of Horn, so exactly join'd together, that they seem'd all to be but one entire piece. It was call'd Ara Apollinis, and Ara Cornea. Martial mentions it in his Book of Shows,

Nec Triviae templo molles laudentur honores.
Dissimuletque deum cornibus ara frequens.
Epigr. 1. v. 3.

On this Altar Sacrifices were offer'd to him, not such as were bloody, as Macrobius says, lib. 1. of his Saturnalia, but of the Fruits of the Ground, with the Sound of Trumpets and o­ther Instruments of Musick, while the Altar was crown'd with Vervain. This we learn from a passage of Cato in his Fragments of Hi­story: Nutrix haec omnia saciebat in verbenis ac tubis sinc hostiis Deli ad Apollinis genitoris arom. Nevertheless Victims of Animals, as of Bulls and the like, were also offer'd to him; which may be proved out of Lucian in his Dialogue of Sacrifices, where he introduces Chryses a Priest of Apollo, and perfectly well skill'd in his My­steries, complaining to the God himself, That now his Temple was slighted which had been highly esteem'd in former times, when they burnt upon his Altars the Thighs of Bulls and Goats.

He had also a Temple at Claros, a little City in the Territory of Colophona, where there was also a Mountain and a Grove dedicated to the Clarian Apollo. This is represented to us in a Greek Medal of the Emperour Trebonian, in which there is the Picture of the Emperour on one side, and on the Reverse a Temple stand­ing upon four Pillars; over the fore-part of the Gate Apollo sits holding a Harp in his hand, and under the Stairs of the Temple, these Letters are to be read TO KOINON [...], the Corporation of the Ionians. Under these Let­ters is an Ox to be seen at the foot of an Altar, and round about it there are thirteen Persons placed in a Semicircle who lift up their hands on high, with this Inscription under the sides of the Medal, [...], i. e. Under Claudius Aristion, a Priest of the Ionian Colepho­nians. This last Word discovers to us, that the Colophonians stamp'd this Medal, for their City was one of the most famous in all Ionia; and that which chiefly render'd it famous was the Temple of Clarian Apollo, which, next to that of Ephesus, was the most considerable in all Ionia: altho it was never finished, as we learn from Pausanias in his Achaica, yet it was very famous for the Oracles which Apollo gave there. It was not built in Colophon it self, but in Claros a little City belonging to the Territory of Co­lophon.

The most celebrated and the richest of all the Temples which Greece erected to this God, was that at Delphos: all the Nations of the Earth vy'd with one another in sending rich Presents thither, and People came from all parts to consult this God there. Croesus sent thither Ingots of Gold to build an Altar in that Temple: and Phalaris, the Tyrant of Agrigen­tum, made a Present to it of a brazen Bull, which was a Masterpiece of Art, and a Testi­mony of his Piety.

The Romans likewise made many Altars, and built many Temples to him at Rome, and in other Cities of the Empire; but the most famous of them all was that which Augustus built upon Mount Palatine, after the Victory of Actium which he obtain'd over Anthony and Cleopatra Queen of Egypt; from whence Apollo was called by the Names of Apollo Palatinus, Actiacus, and Navalis: for this Prince could not satisfie himself with building to this God (to whom he had address'd himself before the Fight) a Chappel upon the Promontory of A­ctium, with Games and Sacrifices in honour to him; but he had a mind to give yet more sig­nal and remarkable demonstrations of his Piety, by erecting stately Temples to him in the Capi­tal City of the Empire, whose Structure and Magnificence is almost incredible. It was built of the Marble of Claros, with divers Or­naments within and without of richer Mate­rials: There you might see a spatious Portico for the holding a Library of Greek and Latin Authors: Upon the Walls of this Temple was painted the History of Danaus's fifty Daughters on one side, and on the other Equestrian Sta­tues of the Children of Egypt: In the place be­fore the Temple there were four Cows of Brass, done by the hand of Myron, and there­fore called Armenta Mironis, which represented the Daughters of Pretus the King of Argos, who were chang'd into Cows, because they were counted more beautiful than Juno, or rather [Page] because this Change of 'em was made in their own imagination by a black Melancholy, whereof Melampus cur'd 'em with one Dose of Hellebore, according to the Relation of Pliny. In the same place grew a Laurel-Tree, which was of the same Age with Augustus, and had been planted before the Palace of that Prince. The Gates of this Temple were of Ivory, en­rich'd with many Basso-relievo's, which repre­sented the Gaules when they threw themselves head-long from the top of the Capitol, and the Fourteen Daughters of Niobe the Daughter of Tantalus, who perish'd miserably through the Pride of their Mother, who had provok'd the Wrath of Apollo and Latona against her.

In the Frontispiece there appear'd a Chariot of the Sun of massie Gold, whose Figure was crown'd with Rays, which darted so much Fire, and so vigorous a Light, that they were taken for the true Rays of that Star. Within the Temple was plac'd the Statue of the God made of Marble, done by the hand of Scopas, an excellent Statuary; together with another Giant-like Statue made of Brass, being Fifty foot high. There also was to be seen a Can­dlestick in the shape of a Tree, on whose Bran­ches the Fruit hang'd, which were like so ma­ny sparkling Lamps; and on these Branches the Poets hung their Poems which they of­fer'd up to Apollo, as Horace tells us, Ep. 3. l. 1.

—Et tangere vitet
Scripta, Palatinus quaecunque recepit Apollo.

The same Poet in Compliment to Augustus, in­vites him to examin these Poems, and consider whether they were worthy of Apollo;

—Si minus Apolline dignum
Vis complere libris, & vatibus addere calcar.
Horat. lib. 2. ep. 1.

Augustus caus'd also an Image of the same God to be made of Silver, which wore Sandals up­on its Feet; and for this reason he was call'd Apollo Sandapilarius, or rather because this Sta­tue was plac'd at Rome, in Sandapilario vico.

The Greeks represented Apollo as young and beardless, having Hair dishevel'd, and flying up, as it were, with a blast of Wind, carry­ing upon his Back a Quiver furnish'd with Ar­rows, and holding a Bow in his Hand, as we see in the Medals of Nero, where he is drawn crown'd with Laurel, having his Quiver upon his Shoulder, and the Star of Phoebus by his side, with these Greek words, [...], i. e. Apollo the Saviour.

We have also other Medals whereon he is represented, sometimes holding a Harp in one Hand, and a Branch of Laurel in the other; and sometimes clothed with a long Robe, ha­ving a Harp in one Hand, and in the other a Cup, which is the Emblem of his Divinity. There is yet remaining an antient Figure of Jasper, on which the Tripod of Apollo is to be seen, and the Crow which was consecrated to him, having at his Feet a Harp on one side, and on the other a Branch of Laurel. The Emperor Gallienus, after his Expedition in the East, caus'd him to be represented in the shape of a Centaur, holding in one Hand his Harp, and in the other a Globe, with this Device, Apollini comiti. Probus made him appear like a Charioteer, mounted upon a Chariot crown'd with Rays, who holds the Reins of his Four Horses, with these words, Soli invicto. The other Emperor, as Constantius, Aurelian, and Crispus, stamp'd an Image of him upon their Money, which shew'd the Figure of a clear Sun, crown'd with Rays, holding in the Right Hand a Globe, and in the Left a Whip, with this Device, Soli invicto comiti; which signifies, that they had vanquish'd and subdu'd many Provinces by the Assistance of Apollo, or the Sun.

Lucian in his Dea Syria informs us, that there si a Temple in that Country, where the Statue of Apollo has a Beard, and appears to be of per­fect Age, and not like a young Man, as he is usually represented; because, say they, this is an Imperfection: His statue there has also this peculiar to it, that it is clothed, whereas all the other Statues of this God are not. In this Temple Apollo delivers his Oracles himself, whereas in other places it is done by his Priests. When he has a mind to fore-tell any thing, he shakes himself, then the Priests take him up upon their Shoulders, and if they do not, he moves of himself and sweats: When they hold him, he leads them whither he will, and guides them as a Coachman does his Horses, turning here and there, and going from one place to another: As soon as the High-Priest asks him what he has a mind to know, if the thing dis­pleases him, he goes backward, if not, he goes forward. Thus they divine what his Will is; and they do nothing either in publick or pri­vate until they have first consulted him; and he foretells the Change of Times and Seasons, and even Death it self.

Among Animals, the Wolf, the Raven, the Crow, the Cigale [the Cicada of the Antients, a flying Insect like a Grashopper] the Cock, and the Spar-Hawk; as also the Laurel, and Olive-Tree, among Trees, were consecrated to him by the Antients.

Apollo was esteem'd a God different from the Sun; for the latter was suppos'd to be the Son of Hyperion, one of the Titans, from whence he was call'd Hyperione natus, and Titania proles; whereas Apollo was the Son of Jupiter and Latona; nevertheless they are frequently confounded.

[Page] Vossius thinks that the Jubal mentioned in Holy Scripture was Apollo, to whom the Pagans attributed the Invention and Honour of Vo­cal and Instrumental Musick. Bochart has ob­served that the Isle of Delos, where Apollo was born, takes its name from Dahal, i. e. Terror Deus; that the name of Mount Cynthus, where Latona was brought to bed, is deriv'd from Chanat, i. e. in lucem edere. This Fable then of Apollo comes originally from the East, and Apollo is an Egyptian God, according to Pausa­nias, who relates that a Senator call'd Antoninus built at Epidaurus a Temple to Apollo and Aescu­lapius, Egyptian Gods; for of [the four Apollo's mentioned by Cicero, the three latter were cer­tainly of Greek original, but the most antient was he of Egypt.

Lactantius proves that Apollo was no more than a mere Man; and that he was like other Men, not only in his Birth but in his Crimes, which tho the Fable did not invent, yet could not conceal.

Vossius further tells us, That the Fable of the Raven sent by Apollo, is plainly copied from the History of the Raven sent by Noah; for as the Raven, sent to discover whether the Wa­ters of the Deluge were gone off from the Face of the Earth, did not return again into the Ark; so the Poets feign'd, that Apollo having sent a Raven to fetch Water, this lazy and un­faithful Bird rested on a Fig-tree, and waited till the Figs were ripe, to eat them, as Ovid tells us.

Bochart remarks, with great probability, that the Fable of the Serpent Python kill'd by Apollo, took its original from Phoenicia, because the Name of Python or Pethon in the Hebrew Tongue signifies a Serpent, and from thence Apollo was call'd Pythian.

APOLLONIUS TYANAEUS,

a Phi­losopher and Magician, who was for some time one of the Friends of the Emperour Domitian, but this Happiness lasted not long; for being accused of having foretold his Accession to the Empire, and sacrificing an Infant upon this oc­casion, he was first ignominiously shav'd, and then sentenc'd to die; but when the Sentence was just ready to be put in execution, he made himself invisible, and vanish'd out of their sight who were present, by the Help of a De­mon, who transported him to Pouzol. The Church of Christ never had a greater Enemy than this Magician; for, by the seeming Inno­cence of his Life, and his deceitful Tricks, which were accounted true Miracles, he gave occasion to Hierocles, a Philosopher, to compose a Book, wherein he compares him, with mis­chievous artifice, to JESUS CHRIST. After he had a long time deceiv'd the World by his Prodigies, he died all alone, having no body with him to bear witness of his Death, not so much as Damis his dear Disciple, and the Com­panion of all his Impostures. No doubt he had a mind to make People believe that his Body, which never appear'd any more upon Earth, was carried up into Heaven, and that in this also he resembled JESUS CHRIST, whom he pretended to imitate in his Life-time. Philostratus has given a large account of it; but it is rather a well-contriv'd Fable than a true History.

As he was one day haranguing the People of Ephesus, he stopt all on a sudden, and going back two or three paces, while he look'd down upon the ground with frightful Eyes, he cry'd out, Smite the Tyrant, smite the Tyrant, meaning Domitian; his Auditors were mightily astonisht at this Discourse, and all of them expected he should explain himself, which he did immedi­ately, by telling them, That in that very Hour Domitian was killed; the News of his Death came quickly after, and the Curious finding that his Words did so exactly agree with the Action, which happen'd at so great a distance from him, this wonderfully increas'd his Re­putation to the Prejudice of the Christian Reli­gion. The Emperour Caracalla and the Ephesi­ans erected a Statue to him under the Name of Hercules [...], or He that drives away Evils; and the Emperour Severus had his Image together with that of JESUS CHRIST in his Oratory.

APOPHRAS,

a Greek word, us'd among the Athenians to signifie an Unhappy Day, on which nothing was to be undertaken; or for some great Defeat which happen'd on that day, or for any other publick Calamity.

APOTHEOSIS,

the Consecration or Dei­fication of Great Men after their Death. The Greeks and Romans plac'd the Inventors of Libe­ral and Mechanical Arts amongst the Gods; so they did Ceres, Bacchus, and Vulcan: they deified also the Founders of Cities, great Gene­rals, and, in process of time, their Kings and Emperours. This we learn from Horace lib. 2. Ep. 1. where he writes thus to Caesar Augustus:

Cùm tot sustineas ac tanta negotia solus:
Res Italas armis tuteris, moribus ornes.
. . . . . . . . . . .
Praesenti tibi maturos largimur honores,
Jurandasque tuum per nomen ponimus aras.

The Description which Ovid gives of the Apotheosis of Hercules, made by Jupiter himself, cannot be read without Admiration; and every one must apply it to the Brightness of a pure Soul, when it goes out of the Filthiness of Body and Matter, that then being purified from all the Stains of this Mortal Life, it en­ters upon a Life altogether Divine. These are the words of Jupiter to the other Gods:

[Page]
—Oetaeas spernite stammas.
Omnia qui vicit, vincet, quos cernitis, ignes:
Nec nisi maternâ Volcanum parte potentem
Sentiet. Aeternum est, à me quad traxit, & expers
Atque immune necis, nullû (que) domabile flammâ.
Idque ego defunctum terrâ, coelestibus oris
Accipiam, &c.
Metam. l. 9. v. 250.

In another place of the same Poet, Venus de­sires of Jupiter the Deification of Aeneas:

—Quamvis parvum, des, optime, Numen;
Dummodo des aliquod. Satis est inamabile reg­num
Aspexisse semel, stygios semel isse per amnes.
Assensere Dei.
ibid. l. 14. v. 489.

The Meaning of the Poet is, That Aeneas having made a Descent into Hell, out of Piety and Religion, in his Life-time, it was not just that he should descend thither again after his Death. The Expiation of his Mortality was made, not by Fire, but by Water, and for this end a Com­mission was granted to the River Numicius, which wash'd away the stains of his Mortality:

Hunc jubet Aeneae quaecunque obnoxia morti,
Abluere; & tacito deferre sub aequora cursu.
Corniger exequitur Veneris mandata; suisque
Quicquid in Aenea fuerat mortale, repurgat,
Et respergit aquis; pars optima restitit illi.
Lustratum genitrix divino corpus odore
Unxit, & ambrosiâ cum dulci nectare mixtâ
Contigit os, fecitque Deum.
ibid. v. 500.

The Apotheosis of Romulus is thus describ'd:

—Corpus mortale per auras
Dilapsum tenues; ceu tatâ plumbea fundâ
Missa solet medio glans intabescere coelo.
Pulchra subit facies, & pulvinatibus altis
Dignior est, &c.
ibid. v. 724.

These Deifications were to be authorized in Greece by the Oracle of some God, and at Rome by a Decree of the Senate, which declar'd an Emperour to be of the number of the Gods, and order'd Temples to be built, Sacrifices to be offer'd, and Divine Honours to be paid him.

When Alexander the Great had a mind to a­dore Ephestion as a God; one Philp, who came from Babylon, gave an account that an Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, had commanded Ephestion to be worshipt as a God, and to offer Sacrifice unto him, as Diodorus Siculus tells us in lib. 17. Alexander testified so great Joy at this Deifica­tion, that the Historians say he was the first that offer'd Sacrifice to him, and that he kill'd for that end no less than ten thousand Victims. But the Athenians did not only adore Great Men after their Death, but they worship'd them, and sacrific'd to them even while they were alive. This they did to Demetrius Polyor­cetes, as Demochares testifies in lib. 20. of his History, where he relates, That Demetrius re­turning from Leucada to Athens, the Athenians came out to meet him being crown'd with Garlands of Flowers; that they made Libations of Wine, and were accompanied with Singing-Men and Musicians who sung Hymns to his Honour; that the Common-People prestrated themselves before him, crying with a loud Voice, that Demetrius was the only true God. We salute thee, said they, Son of Venus and of the Almighty Neptune, and we conjure thee to give us Peace, for thou art the Lord, the other Gods are asleep in the time of our Necessity, and are deaf to our Prayers. Upon this Subject you may consult Athenaeus and Duris the Sami­an. Pythagoras, who was the first that assum'd the Name of a Philosopher, i. e. a Lover of Wis­dom, having dwelt twenty years at Crotona, went afterwards to Metapontum and died there. The Metapontines, admiring his profound Do­ctrine, consecrated his House into a Temple, and worship'd him as a God. All Greece de­creed Sacrifices to be offer'd, and Altars to be erected to Lysander after his Death, upon the account of his Vertue; and Duris remarks, That he was the first of the Grecians to whom Di­vine Worship was given, and in honour of whom Hymns were sung; which must be understood during his Life, since there were many others to whom Sacrifices were offer'd and Altars e­rected after their Death, a long time before Lysander.

The Romans follow'd the Example of the Greeks, and made Gods of their Emperours. The Senate decreed to them Divine Honours, Sacrifices and Temples, and instituted Priests, Festivals and Games in honour of them, as the Greeks had done before them. The manner of Deification us'd among the Romans, was, by letting an Eagle fly, which came out of the top of the Funeral-pile on which the Body of the Emperour was burnt; and their Supersti­tion inclin'd them to believe that the Soul of the Emperour by this means flew up into Hea­ven among the Gods. Thus they deified Judius Caesar, Augustus, and other Emperours whether good or bad; the good for the great esteem they had of their Vertues, and the bad out of Flattery, and in compliance with the Torrent of Custom.

APPELLATIO,

an Appeal from any Sentence, when we are not satisfi'd with it. An Appeal, say the Lawyers, is nothing else, but a complaint made by a Person who has lost the Cause to a superiour Judg, against the In­justice of an inferiour and subordinate. In the Roman Law, he who would not abide by a Sen­tence, was oblig'd at the instant it was given, or at least in two or three days after, to declare, either vivâ voco or by writing, that he did ap­peal from it; since that the time was limited to ten days, after which no Appeal was to be admitted. In France any one may appeal within the space of thirty years.

[Page] This Appeal was to be notified to the Judg and the adverse Party. If the Judg consented to the Appeal, he gave the Appellant a Wri­ting containing a Summary of the Cause, and the Reasons of his Sentence, which he carried to the superiour Judg; and if he did not con­sent, nevertheless he gave a Writing contain­ing an account of the whole matter, and the Reasons why he would not consent nor admit the Appeal. But whether the subordinate Judg did consent to the Appeal or not, still the Ap­pellant might always carry the Suit before a superiour Judg. This was a very good Custom tho it is not at present used in France.

In Civil matters none but he who had lost the Cause could appeal; but in criminal Cau­ses, when a Man's Life was concern'd, any Person was admitted to bring an Appeal, tho he who was condemn'd did not desire it.

APPELLATORIUS LIBELLUS,

a Writ of Appeal, a Writ which is obtain'd in Chancery for admitting an Appeal, and for summoning the Adversary before the Judg, when he has obtain'd a Sentence in his favour, to see if it can be set aside.

APPIADES,

are five Pagan Deities which were ador'd under that general Name, viz. Ve­nus, Pallas, Vesta, Concordia and Pax, whose Tem­ples were at Rome near Caesar's Market-place, where were the Fountains of Appius, from whence the name Appiades was given them.

APPIANA FAMILIA,

the Appian Family; most illustrious among the Romans. Its Original was from L. Appius, who obtain'd the Prize at the Nemean Games in Achaia. There were many Consuls of this Name who always maintain'd the Authority of the Se­nate, against the Attempts and Violence of the Tribunes and People.

APPIUS CLAUDIUS,

surnamed the Blind, when he was Censor, caus'd the way to be pav'd, which leads from the Gate Capena to Brundusium, and which from his Name was called Via Appia. He made also an Aquaeduct, which brought the River Anio into Rome, the Water whereof was carried up as high as Mount Aventine. He, understanding that the Senate was just upon the point of concluding a Peace with King Pyrrhus, caused himself to be carried into the Senate, where by several notable Arguments he dissuaded them from it, till he had withdrawn his Troops out of Italy.

APRILIS,

the second Month of Romulus's Year, which consisted only of ten Months, and commenc'd with March; but it is the fourth Month of Numa's Year, which consist­ed of twelve Months, beginning with Janua­ry. Macrobius derives the word Aprilis from the Greek [...], as if one should say Aphrilis, i. e. One descended of Venus, or Born of the Scum of the Se [...], because this Month was dedicated to Ven [...] by Romulus. There are other Authors who think this Word may more probably be deriv'd from the Verb Aperiro, which signifies to open, because in this Month the Flowers be­gin to blow, and the Earth does send forth Seeds and Plants.

These Festivals and Solemnities were obser­ved by the Romans, during this Month.

On the Calends of the Month, which was the first day, there was no pleading of Causes; but the Roman Ladies being crowned with Myrtle, and wash'd under the same Trees, of­fer'd up a Sacrifice to Venus. Ovid relates the Original of this Ceremony: He tells us, That one day as Venus was drying her wet Hair by the Ri­ver-side, the Satyrs perceiv'd her quite naked, which caus'd in her so much Shame and Confusion, that she cover'd her self presently with a Myrtle. And this the Roman Ladies imitate by this Ceremony.

On the same day the Maids, who are fit for Marriage, sacrifice to Fortuna Virilis, praying her to hide the Defects of their Body from those who have a mind to marry them, as Ovid tells us, Fast. lib. 3. v. 150.

Ut tegat hoc, celetque viros, Fortuna Virilis
Praestat: & hoc parvo ture rogata facit.

They sacrific'd also to Venus surnam'd Verti­cordia, to make the new-married Husbands prove faithful to their Conjugal Vow.

On the fifth, which was the day of the Nones, the Festival of Megalesia began to be solemniz'd in honour of the Mother of the Gods, which lasted for eight days together. See Megalesia.

On the sixth, the Commemoration of the Dedication of the Temple of Fortuna Publica was celebrated on the Quirinal Mount, which P. Sempronius vow'd, and Martius Ahala dedica­ted ten years after, appointing the Memorial of it to be observed every year.

On the seventh, the Commemoration of the Birth of Apollo was in like manner observ'd.

On the eighth Games were appointed for the Victory which J. Caesar obtain'd over Juba and Scipio, after the Battel of Pharsalia.

On the ninth and tenth the Games of Ceres were celebrated in the Circus called Cerealia, which were instituted by C. Meunnius, Aedilis Curulis. See Cerealia.

On the twelfth, according to the new Ca­lendar, was observ'd the great Solemnity of the Mother of the Gods, and particularly of her Arrival at Rome, with Processions and ma­ny Games to her Honour.

On the thirteeenth, which was the day of the Ides, a Sacrifice was offer'd to Jupiter Victor and to Liberty, because on that day their two Temples were dedicated at Rome, one by Q. Fabius, in performance of the Vow he had made at the War against the Samnites; and the [Page] other by T. Gracchus, out of the pecuniary Fines of the Commonwealth.

On the fifteenth, was kept the Festival of the Fordicides, at which thirty Cows ready to calve were sacrificed. See Fordicidia.

On the same day the Governess of the Ve­stal Virgins burnt the Calves which were ta­ken out of these Cows, and of the Ashes a Perfume was made, wherewith the Romans perfum'd themselves on the day of the Palilia, or of the Foundation of Rome.

On the sixteenth, Augustus was surnamed Imperator.

On the eighteenth, there was a Horse-race, call'd Equiria, in the Great Circus; where were also to be seen Foxes running cover'd with Straw, which was set on fire to divert the People. The occasion of this Diversion was thus: The Son of a certain Peasant in the little City of Carseoli, walking about his Corn, per­ceiv'd a Fox catch'd in a Snare; he takes him and binds him about with some Straw, and having set it on fire, lets him run among the Corn, which he burnt all up: and the Romans, in revenge for this, burnt the Foxes after this manner, cover'd all over with Straw; as Ovid informs us, Fast. lib. 4. v. 711.

Utque luat poenas, gens hac Cerealibus ardet:
Quoque modò segetes perdidit, ipsa perit.

On the nineteenth, or thirteenth of the Ca­lends of May, the Anniversary of the great So­lemnity of the Feast of Ceres Eleusina was ob­serv'd, at which the Roman Ladies, clad in white Linnen, and holding Lamps in their hands, sacrific'd to her a Sow, with great So­lemnity.

On the twentieth or twenty first was cele­brated the Feast of Palilia, or the Foundation of Rome, dedicated to Pales the Patroness of Shepherds. See Palilia.

On the same day a Sacrifice was offer'd to to the Immortal Gods, for the Victory which Julius Caesar obtain'd in Spain over Pompey's Sons, the News whereof was brought to Rome by a Courier, the Night before the Palilia.

On the twenty first, the Festival was kept which was call'd Vinalia Priora, at which a Sa­crifice of New Wine was offer'd to Venus, and according to some, to Jupiter; of which none were permitted to drink till they had first of­fer'd this Sacrifice. See Vinalia.

On the twenty seventh, was the Feast call'd Robigalia, from Robigus the God of Mil-dew and Hoar-frost which blast the Corn. See Ro­bigalia.

On the twenty ninth, the Festival in ho­nour of Flora, the Goddess of Flowers, was kept, which was called Floralia.

On the last day, some Sacrifices were offer'd to Vesta, upon the Palatine Mount, in the Pa­lace of Augustus.

AQUA,

Water, one of the four Elements, or the four Principles which concur to the Production of all Beings. Thales Milesius, one of the Wise Men, thought Water was the Principle of all things; but Heraclitus said it was Fire. The Priests, call'd Magi, admitted the two Principles of Fire and Water; and Euripides, the Scholar of Anaxagoras asserted the two other Elements of Air and Earth; but Pythagoras, Empedocles, Epicharmus, and the o­ther Philosophers, affirm'd that there were four Principles, viz. Air, Fire, Water, and Earth.

The Egyptian Priests, to signifie that all things subsist only by this Element, cover'd and adorn'd a Vessel full of Water, which they look'd upon as the Temple wherein their God resided, and prostrating themselves on the Ground, with Hands lifted up to Heaven, they gave thanks to the Divine Goodness for his admirable Inventions.

Pliny, in lib. 31. ch. 1. makes an Encomium on Water, wherein he reckons up so many excellent Qualities of it, as make it proba­ble that this gave occasion to that superstitious Worship which was paid to it: For he tells us, That the Empire of the Waters consists in ruling over all the other Elements, in over-flowing the Earth, extinguishing the Fire, in raising it self up into the Air, and continuing there suspended, in mounting up as high as Heaven, and descending a­gain with that fruitful Vertue, which makes the Earth produce all sorts of Plants and Animals. Upon this account it was that the Poets inven­ted Fables, to make the Wonders of this Ele­ment more grateful.

The Book of Wisdom deplores the Blind­ness of those Idolaters, who worship'd not the Almighty Power of the true God, but the Force and Abundance of Water, which has something very beautiful and terrible at the same time, [...].

Plutarch says, That the Egyptians ador'd the Waters of Nile, whose Inundations serv'd them in­stead of Rain. Thus the Nile was held to be their Jupiter, who was thought to be the cause of Rain; and so in Athenaeus we find this Prayer address'd to the Nile, as being the Ju­piter of Egypt, [...].

The Eastern Nations had no less a Venera­tion for their Rivers: Herodotus and Strabo say, the Persians reverenc'd the Rivers so much, that they durst not throw nor suffer any Ex­crement to fall into them, nor so much as wash their Hands in them. Xerxes sacrific'd white Horses to the River Strymon, according to Herodotus: and Tiridates did as much to the River Euphrates before he pass'd over it, accor­ding to the Relation of Tacitus. Pliny says, that the same Tiridates would not put to Sea, [Page] because he would not lose that Reverence which he thought was due to the Ocean, by spitting in it.

Atergatis the Goddess of the Assyrians, of whom we shall give an account in the proper place, was also the Goddess of Waters; for she was drawn as half Woman and half Fish.

The Greeks consider'd Water as one of the four general Principles of all sublunary Beings, and call'd it in former times [...].

There are several sorts of Water, that of the Sea, of Rivers, of Springs, of Lakes, and Rain-Water, which is gather'd and kept in Water-houses and Cisteins. Of all these sorts there is none better than Rain-Water, says Vitruvius, because it is compos'd of the lightest and most subtil Particles, which are extracted out of all other Waters, and which the Air has purified for a long time by its Motion, till they are dissolv'd, and so fall down in Showers upon the Earth; for the Earth being heated emits its Moisture out of its Breast, after the same manner as our Bodies, when they are hot, do sweat. There are hot Springs whose Waters are not proper for ordinary Drink, al­tho they have no ill Taste; and these are only to be used for the Cure of some Diseases, which require Dryness and Heat. There are cold Waters whose Smell and Taste are un­pleasant, such are the Waters call'd Albulae, which are near to Tivoli, and those in the Springs which are near to Ardea. All hot Springs have a Medicinal Virtue, beause af­ter they are heated, they have another Effect than common Water; for the Sulphureous are good for Diseases of the Nerves, which they fortifie by heating them, and besides they con­sume the bad Humours. The Aluminous cure those Bodies which are weaken'd with the Palsie, or any other such like Disease, by re­ducing the Parts, which are distemper'd by Cold, to their natural state by Heat. The Bi­tuminous, by purging, expel the Diseases of the inward parts.

There are also cold Waters which are ni­trous, such are those near Penna, a Country of the Vestini, and in the Country of the Cutisians, which are drank for purging and dissolving scrophulous Tumours.

There is another Water which is not very clear, and besides has Scum or Froth which swims at top, of the colour of red Glass: one of this sort is to be seen, chiefly near to A­thens, where it is convey'd to make Water-Spouts, and is made use of for washing, but not for drinking.

There are also found many other kinds of Water, which have different Properties; such is the River Himera in Sicily, which, after it rises from its Spring-head, is divided into two Branches, whereof one, which runs towards Mount Aetna, is good to drink, because it passes through a sweet Earth; but the other, which runs through an Earth that yields Salt, has a very saltish Taste. Likewise in the Pare­tonian Fields, through which there is a way to the Temple of Jupiter Hammon, there are found fenny Lakes, whose Waters are so salt, that the Salt swims at top congeal'd.

There are other Waters to be met with, which percolate through Veins of unctuous Earth, and which seem as if mixt with Oil? such is the River Liparis, which runs to Soli a City in Cilicia, where all those that bath in it, when they come out of the Water, look as if they were anointed. Near to Dyrrachium and Apollonia, there are Springs which throw forth great Quantities of Pitch. There are also Springs which the Moisture of the Earth from whence they rise, makes very bitter; such is the River Hypanis in the Kingdom of Pontus, which from its Source for the space of about forty miles is sweet; but when it reaches to a place 160 miles distant from its Entrance into the Sea, a little Spring, which runs into it, makes its Waters bitter; this Bitterness pro­ceeds from a Mine of red Arsnick, which is found near the Head of that Spring.

There are Waters also which are dangerous to those that use them, by reason of the vene­mous Juices through which they percolate: such is that Fountain at Terracina, call'd Nep­tuniana, whose Waters are poisonous; such also was that Lake near Cyderes in Thracia, whose Waters kill'd not only those that drank of it, but even those that wash'd with it. In Macedonia, near the Grave of Euripides, two Rivulets join together, one of which has a Water so good that Passengers stop there on purpose to refresh themselves; but the Water which run on the other side is so pernicious that no body dares come near it.

In that part of Arcadia which is call'd Nona­cris, there distils from certain Mountains a Water extremely cold, which the Greeks call [...], the Water of Mourning, which can­not be taken up in any other Vessel, but only in the horny part of a Mule's Foot. 'Tis said that Antipater made his Son Iolas carry some of this Water into the Province where Alexan­der was, and that it was its Poison that kill'd that King.

There is also another Water in the Alps, in the Kingdom of Cottus, which makes all that drink of it fall down suddenly.

In the Country of the Falisci, near the Road which goes to Naples, there rises a Fountain, in which are found the Bones of Serpents, Li­zards and other venemous Beasts. There are also some Fountains whose Water is soure; [Page] such is that of Lyncostis, that of Velino in Italy, and that of Theano in the Terra Laboris, which have a Virtue to dissolve Stones in the Bladder. There are also some Fountains whose Water seems as if it were mixt with Wine; such is that of Paphlagonia, wherewith a Man may make himself drunk.

In the City of Equicoli, which is in Italy, and in the Country of the Medulli, in the Alps, there are Warers which make the Throat swell.

In Arcadia there is a City very well known, call'd Clitor, near which there is a Cavern, from whence a Spring rises, which makes those who drink of it hate Wine; because in this Fountain, Melampus, having first offer'd Sa­crifice, purified the Daughters of Pretus, to cure them of their Folly, and by this means de did in effect restore them to their right Wits again. In the Isle of Chio there is a Spring which makes them mad who inconsi­derately drink of it. At Suza, the Capital City of Persia, there is a Fountain whose Wa­ter makes the Teeth fall out.

AQUA LUSTRALIS,

Lustral Water. The Antients did not make use of all sorts of Water indifferently for their Lustral Water, wherewith they purified themselves at their Sacrifices. The Romans commonly sent to fetch it from the Fountain Juturna, near the River Numicius; as the Athenians sent to that Fountain which they call'd Calirrhoe; the Trezenians to the Fountain of Hippocrene, and the Persians to the River Choaspes. They al­ways made use of Running Water, which was clear; such as that of rapid Rivers or of the Sea, which they bless'd after their man­ner. Hospimanus and Pontanus think that the Antients us'd only that Water which was per­fectly pure, without any Mixture, to make their Lustral, which Opinion they ground on that passage in the sixth Book of the Aeneids, ver. 229.

Idem ter socios purâ circumtulit undâ,
Spargens rore levi.

Yet Du Choul, speaking of this Lustral Wa­ter, says, That they took the Ashes of the Wood which was made use of for burning the Victim, or of some pieces of Cedar, of Hysop and Cumin, which they threw into the Fire, when they were about to extinguish it, and of these Ashes made their Lustral or Holy Water, which they plac'd at the Entrance into their Temples in great Vessels, and wherewith they purifi'd themselves when they enter'd into them. They had also little Vessels, or Holy-Water Pots, wherein they put some of the Water, and with it they sprinkled those who were present with a kind of Brush; not unlike that now used in the Church of Rome.

Ovid has also told us of the Water of Mercury, which was near the Porta Capena, wherewith Merchants sprinkled themselves, thinking thereby to blot out the Sins of Injustice and Fraud, which they had committed in their Trading.

The Antients, when any Person was dying, were wont, out of a superstitious Fancy, to throw out all the Water in that House where he was, and the neighbouring, because they thought that the Angel of Death, or Satan, who appear'd to all Dying Persons, would wash his Sword, wherewith he had kill'd the De­ceas'd, in that Water.

AQUAEDUCTUS,

an Aquaeduct, a Stru­cture made of Stone, standing upon an uneven Ground, which was to preserve the Level of the Water, and to convey it through a Canal from one place to another. The Romans were very magnificent in their Aquaeducts, which were sometimes an hundred thousand geome­trical paces long.

The precise time when Aquaeducts first be­gan to be made at Rome is not certainly known. Pliny informs us, that Ancus Martius, the King, was the first who began to bring Water from a Fountain call'd Aufeia, which was afterwards call'd, from his Name, Aqua Martia. Frontinus who liv'd under the Emperour Nerva, and has wrote a long Treatise upon this Subject, attri­butes the first Aquaeduct to Appius Claudius, Censor together with M. Plautius Venox, who in the year 441, under the Consulship of M. Va­lerius and P. Decius, built a subterraneous Water­passage of strong Stones, vaulted at top; the rais'd Arches were of Brick or very hard Stone, and were call'd, Substructiones, opera arcuata, aerii fornices, & camerati arcus, which are mentioned by Cassiodorus.

The Height of the Aquaeduct of Aqua Mar­tia, which Q. Martius built, was level with the Top of the Viminal Mount; and that of Aqua Appia was rais'd an hundred feet above the Ground.

Some have reckon'd up fourteen Aquaeducts which convey'd Water to Rome, that were of admirable Structure; but Frontinus, who was the the grand Over-seer of these Waters under the Emperour Nerva, says there were but nine Aquaeducts, in his time, at Rome.

The first was that which convey'd the Aqua Appia, so call'd from Appius Claudius, Censor, who gather'd Water together from many pla­ces in the Territory of Freseati, about seven or eight Miles from Rome, and from thence con­vey'd it through Canals and Arches into the City; the Current of this Water from its Spring-head, as far as to the Sabini, near the Forta Tergemina was eleven thousand one hun­dred and ninety paces long: it was divided at Rome, near the Mons Testaccus, into twenty [Page] Castles or Repositories, called Castella, and af­terwards distributed by many Pipes into seve­ral Quarters of the City.

The second was that of the Water of the old Tiverone, call'd Anio Vetus, begun by the Censor M. Curius Dentatus, in the year 481, under the Consulship of Septimius Carbilius and L. Papy­rius (for the building whereof he employ'd all the Spoils he had got from King Pyrrhus) and at last finished by Fulvius Flaccus the grand Overseer of the Waters. The Canal began about twenty miles from Rome, above Tivoli, its Course was forty two thousand two hun­dred eighty seven paces. This Water serv'd only to wash withal, to water Gardens, and for Drink for Beasts.

The third Aquaeduct was that of the Aqua Martia, made by the Industry of Martius sur­named Rex, which was begun by Ancus Mar­tius the King. This Water came from the Fountain call'd Piconia, which is in the utmost part of the Mountains of Peligni; its Course extended to sixty one thousand seven hundred and ten paces, through subterraneous Chan­nels, and Arches equal to Mount Viminalis: It entred into the City by the Porta Esquilina, and having furnish'd two Mountains of Rome, the Viminal and Quirinal, it emptied it self in­to fifty one Cisterns, for the Convenience of many Parts of the City, for this Water was the clearest and best to drink. This Aquaeduct was built in the year 609. under the Consul­ship of Sulpitius Galba and Aurelius Cotta.

The fourth Aquaeduct was that of the Wa­ter called Tepula, which the Censors Cn. Servi­lius Scipio and L. Cassius Longinus, convey'd from the Territory of Frescati to the Capitol, being twelve thousand paces long. This Spring had no certain Source, but only some little Veins or Branches, which met together in the Canal of the Aqua Julia: one part of this Water was convey'd to the Country, and the other to the City, which was kept in fourteen Conservato­ries, and distributed into the several Quarters of the City.

The fifth was that of Aqua Julia, which M. Agrippa erected in the time of Augustus, and to which, in honour of it, he gave his Name. This Water was collected, from many Sour­ces into one great Water-house about six miles from Rome, its Course extended to fifteen thou­sand paces and an half; it pass'd through the Porta Esquilina, and the Trophies of Marius, and emptied it self into seventeen Cisterns, for the Accommodation of the several Quar­ters of the City.

The sixth was that of Aqua Virginis, so cal­led, because a young Maid first discover'd its Spring-head to the Souldiers when they were searching for Water, as Frontinus tells us in his First Book of Aquaeducts. This was also the work of Agrippa which he finished in one Year, and about thirteen years after he had built the for­mer. Its Canal began about eight miles from Rome, in the Territory of Tusculum, near the Bridge Salaro, and its Course extended to four­teen thousand one hundred and five paces. It passed through the Campus Martius, and em­ptied it self into many Cisterns, for the con­venience of the several Quarters of the City. This Water, to this day is still called Aqua Virginis, and is the only ancient Aquaeduct that remains: Pope Nicolas V. repair'd it.

The seventh Aquaeduct was that of a Lake called Alsietina, four thousand paces distant from Rome, and six miles to the right-hand from the Via Appia. This was the Work of Augustus, and from his Name it was called Via Augusta. It served only to fill the Circas with Water for the Naumachiae or Sea-fights, and for watering Gardens.

The eighth was begun by the Emperour Caligula, but Death prevented his finishing it: Claudius his Successor thought the Design was too brave to leave it imperfect. Pliny never speaks of this Work but with great Admira­tion. It convey'd the Water of two fine Springs, call'd Caeruleus and Curtius, which were in the Country of the Latins, thirty eight thousand paces distant from Rome, holding its Course for the space of forty six thousand pa­ces in length, through many Arches, which terminate at last in the Porta Nevia, and rise as high as Mount Aventine. This Water was called Claudia from Claudius, and was very good to drink.

The ninth was also begun by Caligula, and finish'd by Claudius in the same year with the former. It derives its Water from a place fur­ther off than any of the rest, viz. at the di­stance of sixty two thousand paces from the City, from a muddy River call'd Tiverone or Anio, from which another Aquaeduct was for­merly made, and this latter is nam'd Anio No­vus. Claudius thought fit, for purifying his thick and muddy Waters, to make, at the distance of four thousand paces from their first Rising, a Pool or Pond, wherein the Mud might settle to the bottom, which was call'd Piscina Limaria; but notwitstanding all this Precaution, when the Rains fell, the Water came to Rome very thick.

These two Works were worthy of a great Prince, as well for the Height and Magnifi­cence, as for the excessive Expences that were laid out upon them, which were found to a­mount, according to the Computation of Vi­genere, to thirteen millions eight hundred seventy five thousand Crowns: Vicit anteceden­tes Aquarum ductus neo [...]ssimum impendium oper i [...] [Page] inchoati à Caesare & peracti à Claudio; quippe à lapide quadragesimo ad eam excelsitatem, ut in om­nes Urbis montes levarentur, &c.

These are the nine Aquaeducts which Fronti­nus treats of, that had 13594 pipes, which he calls Quinarios and were one inch in diameter and 3 in circumference. The first Aquaeduct of the Aqua Appia had 694 pipes: The Anio Vitus, or the Teverone, had 1981: That of the Aqua Martia had 1741: The Tepula had 445: The Julia 755: The Aqua Virgo 2504: The Alsietina 592: The Cloudia and Anio Novus 4882. Of all these Pipes there were only 10350 which convey'd Water for the City, the rest were for the benefit of the Countrey.

There are also other Aquaeducts made at Rome since Frontinus's Time. Pope Pius IV. built one in the Year 1563. which brought Water at eight miles distance from Rome, be­tween Tivoli and Praeneste; 'tis thought to be the ancient Alsietina. Sixtus Quintus built an A­quaeduct of the Aqua Felix, in the year of Grace 1581, as may appear by an Inscription engraven upon an Arch, near the Gate of St. Laurence,

Sixtus V. Pont. Max.
Ductum Aquae Felicis
Rivo pass. subterraneo Mil. XIII.
Substructione arcuata VII.
Suo Sumptu extruxit
Anno Domini M. D. LXXXI.
Pontificatus I.

Let us now see how the Partition and Di­stribution of these Waters was made into the several Quarters and private Houses.

There were in all Parts of the City Conser­vatories or Water houses, which were called Dividicula or Castella, into which the Waters emptied themselves, and from which they were convey'd on both sides by Pipes. Agrip­pa alone, during his Edileship, made an hun­dred and thirty of these Water-houses, ador­ned with Statues and Pillars of Marble.

There were Over-seers appointed, to whom the Care of them was committed, who were called Castellani, who distributed the Water by divers Conduits into several places of the City, and even to private Houses, and hindred any private Person from misapplying the Water to his own Use without Leave first had; which was granted upon conditon of a certain Duty to be paid, which was more or less according to the Quantity of Water any one had a mind to have. Marlianus informs us, That Agrippa was the first who invented this Partition of the Wa­ters by Inches and Ounces, as well for the Use of the Publick as of Private Persons. The Reve­nue of these Waters, according to the Com­putation of Vigenere, amounted yearly to six millions two hundred and fifty thousand Crowns. The Water which was not good to drink, as that of Teverone, emitted it self into Lakes, and serv'd the Beasts to drink, and to wash withal; it was us'd also for Baths, for dying, and tanning of Hides, for milling of Cloth, and for representing the Naumachiae or Naval Fights in the Campus Martius. And after they had serv'd for these several uses, they were all gather'd together in the Cloacae, or common Gutters, and from thence emptied themselves into the Tiber.

Nero, after the Burning of Rome, says Taci­tus, hinder'd private Persons from applying the publick Water to their own use, as they had been accustomed to do, made Conserva­tories, which might serve for quenching Fires, and appointed some Persons to look after them. The Censors, and after them the Aediles Curuli, took care of the Aquaeducts and the Waters of Rome. But under the Emperours Overseers were appointed, who had under them many subordinate Officers, who distributed them for use of the Publick and Private Persons, upon payment of a certain Duty, and enjoy'd the Benefit of it, not as a Property, but only for Life.

AQUARIUS,

One that pours forth Water; 'tis a Sign in the Zodiac, which is the eleventh reckoning from Aries. The Sun moves thro' it in the Month of January, and this Sign is of the Nature of Saturn; 'tis mark'd thus [...]. The Poets feign'd, That this was Ganymede, whom Jupiter ravish'd under the shape of an Eagle, and carry'd away into Heaven, to serve as Cup­bearer in the Room of Hebe and Vulcan.

AQUILA,

an Eagle, the King of Birds: He is call'd The Bird of Jupiter, because he flies highest of all Birds, and aims, say the Poets, to hatch his young ones in his Bosom. After this the Fable adds, That there was formerly a King of the Isle of Cos, call'd Merops, whom Juno chang'd into an Eagle, when he was just ready to put him­self to death for the Loss of his Wife. But Aglo­osthenes relates, That Jupiter being carried away from Candia, was transported to Naxus, where, as as he was preparing to make War against the Titans, he saw an Eagle with his Thunderbolt, which he took for a good Omen, and ever after that this Bird was taken into his Protection. Some Authors tell us, That Mercury being smitten with the Love of Ve­nus, and not being able to obtain any Favour from her; One day as the Goddess was bathing her self in the River Achelous, Jupiter caus'd an Eagle to take away one of her Sandals, which he carried to Mercury, and she to get it again satisfied the Pas­sion of her Lover. Nevertheless Ovid and Lucian inform us, That it was Jupiter who transformed himself into an Eagle to carry of the Beautiful Gany­mede from Mount Ida.

It was a Bird of good Omen, when it came flying on the right-side with expanded Wings. [Page] Thus Aristander the Soothsayer foretold, That Alexander should be victorious, because he had seen an Eagle flying from his Enemies Camp into his own. Thus when Lucumon, call'd Tarquinius, came to settle at Rome, with all his Family, an Eagle presag'd to him that he should be King; for as he came near the Janicula, an Eagle came on a sudden and lit upon his Head, and having ta­ken off his Cap, it play'd for some time with it in the Air, and then put it on his Head again; Tanaquilla his Wife, who was afterwards call'd Caia Caecilia, being a Tuscan by Nation, and ve­ry well vers'd in Augury, interpreted this Pro­digy in favour of her Husband, and assur'd him that he should be King; which was justi­fied by the Event. In the Roman Armies the Eagle was the Ensign that was carried in the first Company of the Legion; it was of Silver, and was born upon the top of a Pike, with ex­panded Wings, and sometimes it held in its Talons the Thunderboltof Jupiter, as being just ready to dart it, It was of Silver rather than Gold, says Pliny, because Silver is seen at a greater distance.

The first who carried the Eagle in their En­signs were the Persians, according to the Testi­mony of Xenophon. The Romans having for­merly carried divers other Ensigns, at last fix'd upon the Eagle, in the second year of the Con­sulship of Marius, which they made the Ensign for the Colonel's Company in each Legion, and was carried on the top of a Pike. Some say, That Constantine was the first who appointed an Eagle with two Heads, to signifie, that tho the Empire seem'd to be divided, yet it was but one Bo­dy. But this opinion is confuted by an Eagle with two Heads, which Lipsius observ'd in the the Pillar of Trajan, and from the Custom of later times, wherein the Eagle had but one Head, as in the Seal of the Bulla Aurea, which was made in the time of Charles IV. Emperour. The Conjecture of Father Menestrier is more probable, who says, That as the Eastern Emperors, when two of them sat upon the Throne, stamp'd their Money with a Cross having a double Bar, which each of them held with one hand, as being the Sceptre of Christians; so the Romans did the Eagle in their Heraldry, and instead of doubling their Escutcheons and Eagles, they join'd them together, and represen­ted one Eagle with two Heads, which Custom was fol­low'd by the Emperors of the West for some time after.

The Consuls carried a Battoon of Ivory as a sign of their Dignity, on the top of which there was an Eagle, as we learn from Martial,

Da nunc & volucrem sceptro quae surgit eburno.

AQUILICIANA,

Festivals which were celebrated at Rome during a great Drought, for obtaining Rain of the Gods. The Priests were call'd Aquilices, quia aquam cliciebant, because they brought down Ram upon the Earth by their Prayers.

AQUILO,

the North-Wind, which blows from the North-side, which is cold and dry. The Poets represent it to us, With the Tail of a Serpent, having its Beard and Hair cover'd with Snow and Ice. Hesiod, who has given us the Genealogy of the Winds, makes this, as well as the rest, the Son of the Stars and Aurora.

ARA,

an Altar. Some derive this Word from ardeo, which signifies to burn, because Per­fumes and the Entrails of Beast were burnt on it. Others derive it from the Greek word [...], which signifies Prayer, from whence comes [...], which signifies Imprecation. Whatever the Etymology of the Word is, there is certainly a difference between Ara and Altare, which comes from altus, i. e. high, for according to Servius they did not Sacrifice on the latter, but only to the Gods on high, or Celestial Deities, but upon Ara's they sacrific'd both to those and the Infernal Gods. There is also another Diffe­rence between these 2 Words, that there were Steps for ascending the Altars which were call'd Altaria, but there were none to those call'd Ara, which were indeed rais'd upon the ground, but in a plain and even plat. Yet notwithstanding these Differences, Authors have confounded these Words, and do often take one for t'other.

We must now enquire what was the Matter of which Altars were made, what was the Fi­gure and Ornaments, what was their Consecra­tion and Use.

The Matter of Altars was different according to several Countries and Times.

At first they were made only of Turf heap'd one upon another. Pausanias, in his Elegiaca, describing the Altar of Jupiter Olympius, says, That it was made of the Ashes of the Victims that were sacrific'd to him, and was 22 feet high, and that the Steps for ascending to it were also of Ashes; and that every Year, on the 19th of February, the Aruspices were wont to carry the Ashes of the Pry­taneum, and make an Altar of them, tempering them with the Water of the River Alpheus. The same Author mentions another Altar of Apollo Spadius which was made after the same Fashion. In following times Altars were made of Stones, of Marble, of Wood, and even of Horn, as that of Apollo in the Isle of Delos.

The Figure of Altars was different, some were round, others four-square or oval; but they were always turn'd towards the East, and stood lower than the Statues of the God, which were plac'd upon Bases above the Altar. These Statues were crown'd and adorn'd with Orna­ments convenient for them, which express'd their Divinity: thus also the Altars were ador­ned with Festoons of Leaves and Flowers which had been dedicated to them; and so the Statues and Altars of Apollo were adorn'd with Laurel Leaves, those of Hercules with Poplar, Jupiter's with Oak, of Venus with Myrtle, and those of Pallas with Olive Leaves, Neverthe­less the same name Verbenae, was commonly [Page] given to them all, as we learn from Donat [...] upon Terence's Andria, Act. 4. Sc. 4. Ex ara hinc sume verbenas tibi: upon which words he says, verbenae sunt redimicula ararum, sive omnes herbae, frondesque festae ad aras coronandas.

These Altars were consecrated with Oyl, which was pour'd upon them. The People of Elis for this end made use of the Ashes which they took from the Prytaneum, and temper'd with the Water of the River Alpheus, and with these they rub'd over their Altars. They dedi­cated them afterwards to some Deity, and put on them the Name of the God, together with his who made the Dedication. I will here sub­join a Form of the Dedication of an Altar:

C. Domitius Valens Duumvir praeeunte D. Julio Severo Pontifice legem dixit in ca verba quae infra scripta sunt.

Jupiter Optime, quandoque hodie tibi hanc aram dabo dedicaboque, ollis legibus ollis (que) religionibus da­bo dedicaboque, quas hîc hodie palam dixero; uti infimum solum hujus arae est, si quis hic hostiâ sa­crum fecit, quod in augmentum ne protollat, idcirco tamen probè factum esto.—

Sicuti dixi hanc tibi aram, Jupiter Optime, Ma­ximè, dico dedicoque, uti sis volens propitius mihi collegisque meis, decurionibus, colonis, incolis Coloniae Martiae, Juliae, Saloniae, conjugibus (que) liberis (que) nostris.

Here follows likewise the Inscription of an Altar, which the Inhabitants of Narbon erected to Casar Augustus in their City.

T. Statilio Tauro,
L. Cassio Longino,
Coss. X. Kalend. Octob.
Numini Augusti votum susceptum
A plebe Narbonensium in perpetuum.

Quod bonum, faustum felixque sit Imp. Caesari Divi F. Augusto P. P. Pontifici maximo Tribun. potestate XXXIIII.

Conjugi, liberis, gentique ejus, Senatui, populo (que) Romano & colonis incolisque C. I. P. N. M. qui se numini ejus in perpetuum colendo obligaverunt, ple­bes Narben. aram Narbone in foro posuit, ad quam quotannis VIIII. Kal. Oct. quâ die eum seculi felicitas orbi terrarum Rectorem edidit, tres Equites Romani à plebe & tres libertini hostias singulas immolent, & colonis & incolis, ad supplicandum numini ejus, tus & vinum de suo eâ die praestent: & VIII. Kal. Oct. tus, vinum colonis & incolis item praestent: VII. quoque Idus Januarias, quâ die primùm Imperium orbis terrarum auspicatus est, ture, vino supplicent, & hostias singulas immolent, & colonis incolis (que) tus vinum eâ die praestent.

By these Inscriptions we see, that the first use of Altars, was there to offer Sacrifices and and Prayers to the Gods to whom they were dedicated.

The second use of them was to render Alli­ances more solemn, Treaties of Peace more firm, Marriages more indissoluble, and Oaths more sacred; for the two Parties having of­fer'd Sacrifice to the Gods to witness the Sin­cerity wherewith they swore that Alliance, and conjuring them to bring the Infractors of it to some miserable Death. Thus K. Latinus sware an Eternal Peace with Aeneas, in the presence the Armies of the Trojans and Latines.

Tango aras, mediosque ignes & numina tester:
Nulla dies pacem hanc Italis, nec faedera rumpet.
Aen. 12. v. 201.

The Romans observ'd the same Ceremony in the Oaths they took about divers Civil Affairs, and prescrib'd certain Words to be us'd by him who swore, while he laid his hand upon the Altar of the Gods. Thus Gripus in Plautus makes Labrax swear, while he held by the Altar of Ve­nus, to restore to him a Portmanteau, and makes him repeat after him the Words of his Oath: Act. 5. Sc. 11. Rud. v. 46. Gr. Tange aram hanc Veneris. La. Tango. Gr. Per Venerem hanc juran­dum est tibi. La. Quid jurem? Gr. Quod jubebo. La. Praei verbis quod vis—Gr. Tene aram hanc. La. Teneo—Gr. La. Venus Cyrenensis, testem te testor mihi: Si vidulum illum, quem ego in navi perdidi, Cum auro atque argento salvum investiga­vero, Is (que) in potestatem meam pervenerit—La. Tum ego huic Gripo dico, Venus, ut tu exandias. Gr. La. Talentum argenti magnum continuo dabo. Gr. Et si fraudassis, dicito, uti in quastu tuo Venus eradicet caput atque aetatem tuam.

By which Passage it appears, that they us'd Imprecations against those that should violate their Oath. From this Custom came the Latin Proverb, Amicus ad aras, which Pericles first made use of, meaning thereby, that he would serve his Friends in every thing so far as he could without offending the Gods, [...]. This Answer he gave to one of his Friends, who desir'd him to bear false witness in his favour; [...] I ought to serve my Friends, but without touching the Altar. From thence came also that other Phrase, pro aris & focis pugnare, which signifies, to fight for the In­terest of the Gods and Religion.

The third use of Altars was to serve for an Asylum or place of Refuge and a Sanctuary to all those who fled to them, whatever Crimes they had comitted; for it was expresly forbid­den by the Laws to take any one from them by Force, and especially from the Altar of Concord; which Privilege belong'd also to those that held in their arms the Statues of the Emperors. This happen'd often to Slaves, who being unfaithful to their Master, ran to the Altars and Statues, which they embrac'd as a most safe Asylum, as Plautus tells us in this Verse,

Nemo accusat, Syre, nec tu aram tibi nec preca­catorem parabis.

Upon this account the Altars were call'd Arae confugii, and Euripides calls them the Retreat of Slaves, as the Caves are of Wild Beasts. [Page] [...] was the first who appointed these places of Refuge in the Temples, and at the Altars of the Gods, that by this means he might People his new City; during the Tri­umvirate it was expresly forbidden to take any Criminals by force out of the Temple of Julius Caesar, who had fled thither and em­brac'd his Altars. In fine, the privilege of these Sanctuaries came to so great an height, that at Rome and in the Cities of Greece, the Tem­ples were fill'd with Debtors, fugitive Slaves, and Criminals, and yet the Magistrates could give no Orders about them, nor put any stop to the fury of the People, who protected these superstitions as sacred and mysterious.

ARA,

a Celestial sign so call'd from the Altar which the Cyclopes erected, and on which the Gods swore to assist Jupiter in his War against the Giants; for after their defeat this Altar was plac'd among the Stars.

ARAE,

certain Rocks in the Sea, at which Luttutius Catulus obtain'd a Naval Victory over the Carthaginians, and where a Peace was made between them and the Romans, which put an end to the first Punick Wat in the Year from the building of Rome DXII.

Saxa vocant Itali, mediis quae in fluctibus aras, &c. Virg. 1. Aeneid. v. 112.

Ara Maxima, an Altar call'd the greatest, from the great quantity of Stones of which it was built, as Servius tells us. This Altar was erected at Rome to Hercules in the Market­ket place for Oxen, near the Schola Graeca, and hard by the Entrance of the Circus maximus: The occasion of building it was this. Ca­cus being kill'd by Hercules, Evander, who had observ'd something very great and ex­traordinary in his Physiognomy, desir'd to know his Name; and understanding that he was call'd Hercules, he cry'd out imme­diatly, that it was he of whom his Mother Carmenta had foretold extraordinary Prodi­gies of Courage, for which an Altar was to be erected to him which should be call'd, Ara maxima; that he himself should ap­point his own Sacrifice, and prescribe the manner of it to Posterity: Immediatly Her­cules sacrific'd a fine Heifer out of the Herd, and appointed those of the Family of the Potitii and Pinarii to be his Priests:Or, according to Propertius, this Altar was ere­cted to him for finding again his Drove of Cattel,

Maxima quae gregibus deveta est ara repertis;
Ara per has, inquit, Maxima sacta manus.

Ara Lugdunensis, an Altar in the City of Lyons, dedicated to Augustus, in the Year of Rome DCCXLIV. This Altar was in a Tem­ple, which was erected at the common charge of Sixty several Nations of the Gauls, together with so many Statues, which bore the Names of each of these Nations. In this Temple the Emperor Caligula appoin­ted Ludi Academici, as Suetonius says, to which great numbers of Orators and Poets came from several parts of the World, to perform their best in Eloquence and Poetry. But be­cause it was ordain'd, that they who were out-done should be plung'd in the River Saone, if they did not like the perfor­mance of their Tongue; this gave occa­sion to Juvenal to express any great fear, by way of Proverb, by the timerousness of an Orator, who was to harangue before the Altar of Lyons.

Palleat ut nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem,
Aut Lugdunensem Rhetor dicturus ad aram.
Juv. Sat. 1. v. 43.

Arachne, the Daughter of Idmon of Lydia, very skilful in the art of Weaving She was so rash that she would be esteem'd more ex­cellent than Minerva; but this Goddess pu­nish'd her by tearing her Work in pieces, and giving her a blow with her shuttle, which so mightily offended Arachne that she hang'd her self in despair: But Minerva afterwards pity­ing her misfortune, chang'd her into a Spi­der, which still makes Cobwebs in the Air.

ARBITER,

an Arbitrator, a Judge in an amicable manner, whom the Pretor ap­pointed for Partners to end their differences; and Arbitrators in general, are such as are chosen and agreed upon by Two Parties for determining any Controversies between them: To which end they sign'd a Bond of Arbi­tration to submit to the Award given about the differences, under the forfeiture of a cer­tain Summ of Money to be paid by those who refus'd to stand to it.

ARBORES,

Trees. The Pagan Gods, says Phaedrus, in ancient times made choice of certain Trees which they had a mind to take into their Protection: Thus Jupiter chose the Oak-tree, Venus the Myttle, Apollo the Lau­rel, Cybele the Pine-tree, Hercules the high Pop­lar, Minerva the Olive-tree, and Bacchus the Ivy. Men did then also reverence Trees, Woods and Plants, as being the Temples, or Bodies of some living and intelligent Divi­nities. The Egyptians abstain'd from Onions and Leeks, because they durst not handle these Gods which grew in their Gardens, as we learn from Juvenal,

Porrum & Cape nefas violare & frangere morsa.
O sanctas geutes quibus hac nascuntur in hortis
Numina!
Sat. 15. v. 9.

Pliny tells us, that if the Ancients ador'd Trees, it was only because they look'd upon them as the Temples of some Divinity. This Testimony of Pliny shews plainly, that if the [Page] Romans ador'd Groves and their Silence, [Lucos & in iis ipsa silentia adoramus] this Worship was only paid to some intelligent Divinity, or to some Genius, which they believ'd to preside over, and also to have their Residence in these Trees. Ovid speaking of an impious Profaner of sacred Groves, and of a great Oak, under which the Dryades often us'd their innocent Diversions, tells us, that this Oak being struck with an Axe by the bold Pro­faner, declar'd that a Nymph lodg'd in the Tree, who died at the same time with the Tree, but that her Death should not long remain unpunish'd. He mentions elsewhere a Mother who was chang'd into a Tree, and desir'd her Son never to touch any Trees, but look upon them as the Bodies of some-Nymphs. Horace devoted a Pine-tree to Dia­na, at which he engag'd every Year to offer Sacrifice,

Montium custos, nemorumquc Virgo,
Imminens villae tua pinus esto,
Quam per exactos ego laetus annos,
Verris obliquum meditantis ictum
Sanguine donem.
Lib. 3. od. 22.

ARCAS,

the Son of Jupiter, and Calisto the Daughter of Lycaon King of Arcadia, with whom Jupiter fell in love. Juno, to be reveng'd of her Rival, chang'd her into a Bear, which Diana shot dead with her Ar­rows in complaisance to Juno. Pausanias in his Arcadica, says that she was then with Child of Arcas, and that Jupiter sent Mercury to save the Infant alive, and plac'd the Mo­ther in the number of the Stars under the Name of Ursa major, i. e. the great Bear. When Arcas grew up to be a great Boy, he was presented by some Hunters to Lycaon his Grandfather, who yet did not know him: But it hap'ned that Jupiter came one day to see Lycaon, and this King having a mind to try whether he was truly a God or no, caus'd Arcas to be kill'd and cut into morsels, and so serv'd up as Meat for Jupiter: But he im­mediatly punish'd his cruelty, by changing him into a Wolf, and Arcas into the little Bear, Ʋrsa minor. These Two Bears, says Vitruvius, are plac'd in the Artic Circle, so that their Backs touch one another, having their Bellies turn'd a contrary way, one to one side, and the other to the other side. The little Bear is call'd by the Grecians Cynosura, and the great one Helice: Their Heads are opposite to one another, and their Tails also remove from one another for each Head as it goes for­ward on each side is to the right of each Tail.

ARCADES,

the Arcadians, who are such Sots, says [...]ucian, as to believe that they were Born before the Moon, and for that rea­son would never receive Astrology. Their King Pelasgus first taught them the use of Acorns, for before his time they liv'd only upon Herbs and Roots: But Arcas the Son of Jupiter and Calisto, according to Vigenere, upon the Pictures of Philostratus, first shew'd them the Art of tilling the Ground, of sow­ing Corn and making Bread, with which they afterwards maintain'd themselves, and forsook their Acorns: This he learn'd from Triptolemus the Son of Ceres, and the Country where they dwelt, which was formerly call'd Pelasgia, was afterwards call'd Arcadia. Among other Deities they worship'd Pan and Diana, as Virgil says, Pan Deus Arcadiae. They sacri­fic'd Men to Jupiter Lycianus, according to the relation of Pliny. Aristotle tells us Book 4th. of his Meteors, that the Wine of this Country being put into the Skin of a He-goat, and plac'd near the fire, calcines itself, and is reduc'd to a Salt.

ARCHAGATHUS,

the Son of Li­sanias, was the first Physician who came from Peloponnesus to Rome, under the Consulship of Lucius Aemilius, and Marcus Livius, in the Year of Rome DXXXV. Cassius Hemina, an ancient Writer, says that the Freedom of a Citizen was given him, and a Shop was purchas'd for him at the expence of the Publick, in the Cross Street of Acilius. 'Tis said also, that the Epithet of Healer of Wounds was given him, and that at first he met with a wondrous good Reception; but that within a little while af­ter, when he was oblig'd to cut and burn some Members of the Body, for these un­merciful Operations they gave him the Nick­name of a Hangman, and were much disgu­sted at Rome with Medicine and Physicians, at least with that part of it which is call'd Surgery.

ARCHEMORUS,

the Son of Lycus, according to Guichard, or of Lycurgus King of Thracia or Nemaea, according to others, was kill'd by a Serpent, and after this manner. The Ar­gives going with their King Adrastus to the War of Thebes in favour of Polynice, were extremely distressed with thirst, and the Nurse of the young Prince, call'd Hypsiphile, whom they met, went along with him to shew them where they might have Water; but fearing to lay the Infant down upon the ground, because of the Prohibition of the Oracle, she laid it upon a smallage Plant, and thither a Serpent came and choak'd it. Adrastus and the other Grecians ran to the Place, and found the Serpent still sucking the Blood of the Child, where­upon they kill'd it: And to comfort the King for this loss, they appointed the so­lemn Games, call'd Nemaan, to be celebra­ted every Fifth Year, at which the Con­querors [Page] were crown'd with smallage, and the Judges that prosided over them were clad in Mourning. Clemens Alexandrinus informs us, that a Funeral Oration in ho­nour of him was also repeated at them.

ARCHIGALLUS,

the High Priest of Cybele Mother of the Gods, who was wont to cut and gash himself, as the other Priests of that Goddess did, who were call'd Galli Cybeles.

ARCHIMAGIRUS,

[...], the Master Cook.

ARCHIMEDES,

of Syracuse, a most skilful Mathematician, who by his Engines defeated all the Attacks of Marcellus at the Siege of Syracuse, and burnt also the Gallies of the Romans that were there. The Inven­tion of the Cochlea, or Water-skrew, is com­monly attributed to him, which is call'd the Mechanical Power of Archimedes, although Vitruvius does not make him the Inventor of it. Diodorus Siculus, who liv'd near the time of Vitruvius, ascribes the Invention of it to him. But as to the famous use which he says was made of this Machine, to make Egypt habitable, by draining the lower grounds which had formerly been overflow'd with Water, it may be doubted whether it is not much ancienter than Archimedes. Cicero glories of discovering the Sepulcher of Ar­chimedes at Syracuse, without the Gate Acraga­na, cover'd all over with Brambles and Thorns which grew in that place: He says, that he knew it by observing a Cylinder and a Sphere carv'd upon the Stone.

ARCHIMIMUS,

[...], the chief Buffoon, or an extraordinary Mimick, who imitates the Gate, Gesture, and Words of any Person dead or alive.

ARCHITECTONICE,

[...], and

ARCHITECTURA,

the Art or Science of Building. Architecture is divided into Civil and Military: Civil Architecture teaches to make any Buildings whether pub­lick or private, sacred or profane: Milita­ry Architecture teaches to fortifie Cities, Pas­ses, and Sea-ports. Architecture, says Vitruvius, is a Science, which should be accompanied with great variety of Studies, and requires a vast compass of Learning; for by this means it must judge of all the Works of other Arts: In effect Architecture, or the art of Building comprehends all Sciences, and therefore the Greeks gave it a Name, which signifies a su­periority, or superintendence over all the rest; and when Cicero would give an Exam­ple of a Science that is of a vast extent, he instances in Architecture.

This Art, like all the rest, had but weak and imperfect beginnings, and was not per­fected till after long use and experience. At first Houses were made only for necessity; and because in the first Ages Men often chang'd their Habitations, they did not trou­ble themselves to make their Houses either beautiful or lasting. But when in process of time, every one endeavour'd to settle in some particular Country, then Men began to build their Houses, more solid and strong that they might be able to hold out against the injuries of time: At last, when Luxury was spread among the most rich and power­ful Nations, then they began to mind the Beauty and magnificence of their Buildings and having observ'd what contributed most either to the Strength or Beauty of them, they set down Rules about them, and so fram'd the Art of Building well, which is call'd Architecture, as those who are perfect Masters of this Art are call'd Architects.

The necessity of making several sorts of Buildings first induc'd the Workmen to settle different Proportions, and from these diffe­rent Proportions they compos'd different Or­ders of Architecture. The Orders which the Ancients established at several times and upon divers accidents are the Tuscan, the Do­ric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, and the Composite. That which forms each of these different Or­ders, is the Column with its base and Capi­tal, and the Entablature, i. e. the Architrave, the Frise and Cornish; for these are the only parts which in Buildings constitute that which is call'd an Order, and each Order has its own peculiar measures. Vitruvius is the most ancient of all the Architects whose Wri­tings we have; he liv'd in the time of Julius Caesar and Augustus, and had view'd the state­ly Edifices which were then in Greece and Ita­ly. Several learned Men have also written many excellent Volumes of Architecture, as Fussitius, Varro, Septimius and Gelsus; and Cos­sutius a Roman Citizen was sent for by King Antiochus, to finish the Temple of Jupiter Olympius in the City of [...]hens.

The Original of the Tuscan Order was in Tuscany, one of the most considerable parts of Italy, whose Name it still keeps. Of all the Orders this is the most plain and least or­namental: 'Twas seldom us'd, save only for some Country Building where there is no need of any Order but one, or else for some great Edifice, as an Amphitheatre, and such like other Buildings. The Tuscan Column is the only thing that recommends this Order. The Doric Order was invented by the Dorians a People of Greece, and has Columns which stand by themselves, and are more ornamen­tal than the former. The Ionic Order has its [Page] Name from Ionia a Province of Asia, whose Columns are commonly sluted with Twenty four Gutters: But there are some which are not thus furrow'd and hollow'd, but only to the third part from the bottom of the Co­lumn; and that third part has its Gutters fill'd with little Rods, or round Battoons ac­cording to the different height of the Co­lumn which in the upper part is channell'd and hollow'd into Groves, and is altogether empty.

The Corinthian Order was invented at Co­rinth, it observes the same measures with the Ionic, and the greatest difference between them is in their Capitals.

The Composite was added to the other Or­ders by the Romans, who plac'd it above the Corinthian, to show, as some Authors say, that they were Lords over all other Nations; and this was not invented till after Augustus had given Peace to the whole World. 'Tis made up of the Ionic and Corinthian, but yet is more ornamental than the Corinthian.

Besides these Five Orders, there are some Authors who add yet Two more, viz. the Order of the Cargatides, and the Persic Or­der. The former is nothing but the Ionic Order, from which it differs only in this, that instead of Columns there are Figures of Wo­men which support the Entablature. Vitru­vius attributes the Origine of this Order to the Ruine of the Inhabitants of Carya, a City of Peloponnesus. He says, That these People having joyn'd with the Persians to make War upon their own Nation, the Gracians routed the Persians, and obtain'd an entire Victory over them; after which they be­sieg'd the Inhabitants of Carya, and having taken their City by force of Arms they reduc'd it to Ashes, and put all the Men in it to the Sword: As for the Women and Virgins they carried them away captive, but to perpetuate the Marks of their Crime to Posterity, they represented afterwards the Figure of these miserable Captives in the publick Edifices which they built, where by making them serve instead of Columns, they appear'd to be loaded with a heavy burden, which was, as it were the Punish­ment they had deserv'd for the Crime of their Husbands.The Persic Order had its rise from an Accident like this: For Pausa­nias having defeated the Persians, the Lacede­monians, as a Mark of their Victory, erected Trophees of the Arms of their Enemies, whom they represented afterwards under the Figure of Slaves, supporting the Entablatures of their Houses. From these Two Examples divers kinds of Figures were afterwards made use of in Architecture to boar up the Cor­nishes, and support the Corbels and Brack [...]s.

There are still some ancient footsteps to be seen near Athens, of those Figures of Women which carry Panniers on their Head, and sup­ply the room of the Cargatides. There are al­so Figures of Men, who are commonly call'd Atlantes, according to Vitrutius, tho' the Romans call'd them Telamones. The Greeks had some reason to call them Atlantes, from Atlas whom the Poets feign'd to bear up the Heavens, but it does not appear why the Latins gave them the name of Telamones. Bou­dus in his Dictionary upon Vitruvius, says, that 'tis probable, he who first us'd this Word to signifie these Statues which bear some burden, wrote not Telamones, but [...], which Greek Word signifies, those that are miserable and labour hard: which exactly agrees to these sort of Figures, which support Cor­nishes or Corbels, and which we commonly see in the Pillars of our ancient Temples, under the Images of some Saints, or some great Persons.

ARCHITECTURE

consists of Three Parts: The first treats of the Building of publick and private Edifices; the second is about the Art of Dialling, which treats of the Course of the Stars, and the way of making several sorts of Dials; the third is about the Engines which are made use of for Architecture and for War.

ARCHITECTUS,

an Architect: He ought, says Vitruvius, to be skill'd in Wri­ting and Designing, to be instructed in Geo­metry, and to have some knowledge of Op­ticks: He ought to have learn'd Arithme­tick, and to be well vers'd in History, to have studied Philosophy very well, and to have some insight in the Musick, Laws, Astro­nomy, and Physick.

He should be well skill'd in Designing, that he may the more easily perform all the Works he has projected according to the Draughts he hath made of them: Geometry is also a great help to him, especially to teach him how to make use of the Rule and Compass, how to lay out things by the Line, and do every thing by the Rule and Plum­met: Opticks serve to teach him how to ad­mit the Light, and to make Windows accor­ding to the Situation of the Heavens: A­rithmetick instructs him how to calculate the Charges which his Work amounts to. Hi­story furnishes him with matter for the grea­test part of the Ornaments in Architecture, of which he should be able to give a rational account. Philosophy is also necessary to make a perfect Architect, I mean that part of Phi­losophy which treats of things Natural, which in Greek is call'd Physiology. As for Musick [Page] he should be a perfect Master of it, that he may know how to Order the brasen Pipes, which are lodg'd under the Stairs of Theatres, so that the Voice of the Comedians may strike the Ears of the Auditors, with more or less force, clearness and sweetness.

An Architect ought also to be skill'd in the Laws and Customs of places that he may know how to make partition Walls, Spouts, Roofs, and Common-shores; how to order the Lights of Houses, the Drains for Water, and several other things of that nature. Astronomy is also useful to him for making of Sun-dials, by teaching him to know the East, West, South and North, the Equinoxes and Solstices, &c. He ought to be knowing in Physick, to understand the Climates and Temperament of the Air, which is wholsome and which Infectious; also the Nature of Wa­ters. For without considering these things, he cannot build an healthful Habitation. If so much knowledge is necessary to make a com­plete Architect, 'tis to be fear'd there are but few perfect Masters of that Art.

ARCHON,

the chief Magistrate of Athens: The Nine Magistrates who took upon them the Government of that City, after the Death of Codrus who was the last King of it were also call'd so: At first they were chosen to be perpetual Governors; but in process of time their Office was limited to Ten Years, and at last reduced to one. This Republick was govern'd by Nine Archontes, or chief Magistrates, Six whereof were call'd, Thesmothetae, i. e. Lagislators; the other Three were, [...], the King; [...], the General, and the Archon, by way of eminence so call'd, as being superior to all the rest. They decided with sovereign Authority all religious causes and matters of State: They were chosen by lot, and afterwards examin'd and approv'd by the People in their Assem­blies. This Name was also given to the Chief President, call'd Prytanis, who presided in the Courts of the Fifty Judges, taken out of the Five Hundred, who judg'd by turns every Month the Affairs of private Persons.

ARCTOPHYLAX,

a Constella­tion, which is properly nam'd, the director of the Bear, but is otherwise call'd Bootes.

ARCTOS,

the Biar, a Constellation, call'd by the Greeks Arctos and Helice, which is situated in the North, having its directors near it, which is not far from Virgo.

ARCTURUS,

is a Star of that Con­stellation which is properly call'd Arctophylax: This Word signifies the Tail of the Bear, be­cause it is very near it. It rises on the first day of September, and sets on the 13th. day of May; and never appears but when it brings some Hail or Storm. The Poets feign'd that it resides amongst Men in the Day-time, as a spy upon their Actions, and afterwards gives an Account to Jupiter of their persidious and unjust dealings in Trade, or in Courts of Ju­stice: This is the meaning of Plautus in these Verses of the Prologus to his Rudens, &c.

—Nomen Arcturo est mihi
Noctu fum in caelo clarus atque inter deos,
Inter mortales ambuloque intardius—
Hominum qui facta, mores, piatatem & fidem
Noscamus—
Qui falsas lites falses testimoniis
Petunt, quique in Jure abjurant p [...]uni [...]m,
Eotum referimus Nomina exsoripta ad Jovem.

The Poets made him the Son of Jupiter and Calisto, and others said he was the Son Lycaon.

Arculae aves, Birds which gave bad emens ei­ther by their flying, or their manner of eating. Because they hindred Men from undertaking any Business, they were thus nam'd, Aroulae aves, quia arcebant ne quid fioret.

ARCUS,

a Bow. The Bow and Ar­rows were the first Arms which Men made use of, as may appear from the 21th. Chapt. of Conesis, where it is said of Ismael, that he was an expert Archor; and from the 27th. Chap. where Isaac commanded his Son Esau to take his Arms, i. e. his Bow and Arrows and go a hunting. Pliny in B. 7. Chap. 56. attri­butes the Invention of Bow and Arrows to Soythes the Son of Jupiter, from whom the Scythians, who are now the Tartars, took their Name, who were very dextrous in draw­ing the Bow: Plutarch also in his Banquet of the Seven Wise Men, ascribes to them the Bow, and to the Greeks the Invention of stringed and wind Musick. But the Autho­rity of Pliny is of no value, wherein he dif­fers from the holy Scripture, which doubt­less he never had any knowledge of.

Arcus Calestis, the Rainbow which appears in the Clouds a natural Meteor; but after the Deluge it was appointed to be a Sign of the Covenant which God made with Noah, and of the Promise he gave that he would never again drown the World. The Poets feign'd that the Rainbow, or Iris, attended Juno, and carried her Orders from all parts, as Mer­cury did those of Jupiter. See this Fable more at large under the Word Iris.

Arcus, a Triumphal Arch, which was erected to the Emperors, and other great Men in ancient times, in honour of them for their brave Actions; several of them were erected at Rome; but the most ancient was that of Titus, which was very ingeniously and mag­nificently built: On one side of it, there was the Triumphal Chariot of a Prince, with a Statue of Victory behind him, which seem'd [Page] to hold out a Crown to him; the Ark of the Old Testament and the bundles of Rods were carried before him: On the other side was the rest of the Triumphal Pomp, as the Two Tables of the Decalogue, the Tables of Gold, the Vessels of Solomon's Temple, and the golden Candlestick which had Seven Bran­ches.

The Senate and People of Rome erected likewise a Triumphal Arch to Septimius Se­verus, at the foot of the Capitol, after the Victory he obtain'd over the Parthians, Ar­menians and Arabians. Victories were there represented with great Wings, holding in their hands Trophies and Crowns, with this Inscription.

Imp. Cas. Lucio Septimio M.
Fil. Severo. Pio pertinaci. Aug.
Patri Patriae Parthico Arabico.
Et Parthico Adiabenico. Pontif. Maximo.
Tribunic. potest. XI. Imp. XI. Coss. III. Procoss.
Et Imp. Caes. M. Aurelio. L. Fil. Antonino.
Aug. Pio. Felici. Tribunic. potest. VI. Cos. Procos.
P. P. optimis fortissimis (que) Principibus. Ob
Rempublicam restitutam, Imperiumque Populi
Romani propagatum, insignibus virtutibus.
Eorum
Domi. Florisque
S. P. Q. R.

There are still many other Triumphal Ar­ches to be seen at Rome as that of Titus and Ves [...]asian, that of Septimius Severus, that of Galienus which was built after a very rude manner, being of the Doric Order with one Arch only, which has this Inscription upon the Frize.

Galieno Clementissimo Principi,
Cujus invicta Virtus solâ pietare
Superata est M. Aurelius
Victor dedicatissimus
Numini Majestati (que) ejus.

There is also an Arch of Marcus Aureltus, and of Verus, and of Gordianus junior, and lastly, one of Constantine, which the Senate erected to him for the Victory he obtain'd against Maxentius at the Pons Milvius, in the Suburbs of Rome. This last was all of Mar­ble, and of the Corinthian Order, and had Eight great Columns and Three Avenues. On one of its sides there is this Inscription,

Imp. Caes. Pl. Constantino Maximo.

P. F. Augusto S. P. Q. R.

Quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine cum exercitu suo, tam de tyranno quam de omni factione uno tenpore justis Rempublicam ultus est armis.

Arcum triumphis insignem dicabit.

On the other side near the Rising Sun were Written these words, Votis X, and on the left hand Votis XX. On the Roof of the Arch about the middle on one side were these words Liberatori Ʋrbis, and on the other Fun­datori quietis. Above the Capitals of each Column were represented in emboss'd work the most eminent Captives, whose Bodies were of changeable Marble, and their Hands and Feet of white Marble of the Isle of Paros. In the Frize of the little Arches was the Statue of Constantine, holding in his Hand a Scrowl, which he seems to throw among the People for a Largess. Suctonius calls these Scrowls Tessera & Missillia, and also Tessera Nummaria. For these Scrowls contain'd certain Summs of Money, and those who catch'd them were to demand them at the Exchequer, or the Lot where­with they were mark'd, as is done in other Lotteries.

AREMULUS

or Remus Sylvius, the Son of Agrippa Sylvius XII. King of the La­tines, who was killed by a Thunderbolt af­ter he had reigned 19 Years.

ARENA

the bottom and middle of the Amphitheatre, so called, because that Place was covered with Sand, for concealing from the View of People, the Blood of the Gladiators that was spilt there at the Com­bates, which was done either by removing the Sand which was stained with Blood, or laying some fresh upon it.

AREOPAGUS,

a famous Place in the City of Athens, so called from the Temple of Mars, the Greek Word [...], signifies a Burrough, and Town, and [...], signifies Mars. There the first Grecians passed a favourable Sentence on Mars, who was accused by Neptune for killing his Son Hal­lirrothius, for violating the Chastity of his Daughter Alcippe.

Varro, as St. Austin tells us, B. 18. Ch. 10. of the City of God, will not allow the Areo­pagus, i. e. the Village of Mars to be so called, because Mars, whom the Greeks called [...] being accused of Homicide before 12 Gods, who judg'd him in this Village, was there ac­quitted, though he had but Six Votes for him, according to the common custom of that Place, which was always favourable to the ac­cused. He rejects therefore this common Opi­nion, and endeavours to find out another Origi­nal of this Name, in some old obsolete Histories upon pretence that it is a reproach to the Dei­ties to attribute to them Quarrels, and Law­suits: And he maintains that the History of Mars is no less Fabulous than that of the three Goddesses Juno, Minerva and Venus, who conte­sted before Paris for the Golden Apple the Prize of the most beautiful.

Areopagitae, the Areopagites, the Judges of [Page] Athens, who decided all Causes, as well publick as private in the Areopagiu, with a Sovereign Authority, and whose Decisions were esteem'd impartial. They heard Causes only in the night time, and did not allow the Advocates to use the Ornaments of Rhetorick in defen­ding their Clients.

ARETHUSA,

the Daughter of Ne­reus, and Doris, the Companion of Diana, with whom Alpheus of Areadia, was in Love; but Arethusa, to shun his Courtship, fled into Sicily to an Isle near Syracuse, where she was chang'd into a Fountain, and her Lover into a River, whose Water runs so swiftly that it passes through several Rivers, and even thro' the Sea itself, without mingling with them, until it comes to the Fountain of Arethusa, and then it unites so with that, that they are no longer two, but one Channel. See Alpheus.

Arethusa is a Fountain of Greece, which, as the Poets feign'd, was belov'd by the River Al­pheus, who pursues it even in the subterraneous Channels through which it fled away, as far as Sicily, where Diana receiv'd it in the little Isle Ortygia. Strabo, takes a great deal of pains to refute this Fable, and has prov'd that the River Alpheus discharg'd itself into the Sea like other Rivers. 'Tis alledg'd that such things are found in the Bason of Arethusa, as were thrown, or had fallen into the River Alpheus, which seems to be a proof of the subterraneous Communication between them.

Bochart has given a very ingenious explica­tion of this Fable: For he says, that the Arethusa is a Phaenician Word, that Arith in Syriac signifies a Brook, that 'tis pro­bable the Phaenicians call'd this Fountain Hen-Alphe, i. e. The Fountain of Willows, or the Foun­tain for Ships, because it held a very great quantity of Water, and its Banks were all cover'd with Willows, which occasion'd the Ships to put in there, and take in fresh Wa­ter. Ovid calls this Fountain Alphcias in his Metamorphoses. The Greeks after this having discover'd this Fountain to contain such abundance of Waters, that as Cicero describes it, 'tis fons aquae dulcis incredibili magnitudine, and understanding that it was call'd not only Arethusa, but Alpheias, hereupon feign'd that it receiv'd its Waters from the River Alpheus in Greece by subterraneous passages.

ARGEI,

or Argea, in the Neuter Gen­der; were certain Places at Rome consecrated by Nama in memory of some Greek Princes who were buried there. Every Year a Sacri­fice was offer'd to them on the 15th. of May, and the Vestal Virgins threw into the Tiber Thirty Images made of Rushes which were call'd Argei, from off the Pons sublicius at Rome. The Flaminica, or Priestess of Juno, was then clad in Mourning, with her Hair dis­shevell'd, in a careless dress, without any Or­nament, in a word, in a pensive and sorrow­ful silence, as we learn from Aulus Gellius, [Flaminica cum eat ad Argeos, neque caput comito, neque capillum depectito:] Plutarch in his 32d. Roman Question, says, that the Inhabitants of Latium had so inveterate an hatred against the Grecians whom they call'd Argivae, that they never forgot to throw them into the Tiber from the top of the Pons sub­licius, till Hercules coming to Rome dissuaded them from this Violence: And yet, to satis­fie in some measure their hatred, they dress'd up every Year Thirty Men of straw after the Greek fashion, and caus'd them to be thrown headlong from the top of this Bridge into the Tiber, by the Vestal Virgins and the Chief Priests, after they had offer'd Sacrifice to the Manes of the Greeks, whom they had formerly put to death.

Fabius Pictor, about the end of his Book, says that this word comes from one Argus, who was the Host of Evander, and came with Hercules to dwell at Rome in ancient times when it was called Saturnina, as being under the Rule of Saturn, and that the Plain which is at the bottom of the 7 Hills was called the Argean Field. (Subsidens septem collibus campus Argeus, dictus est ab Argo Evandri hospite, & ec­mitibus Argivi Herculis, qui ad Evandrum vene­runt & in Saturnia subsederunt.

Argentum, Silver, a Metal dug out of the Bowels of the Earth, which holds the 2d. rank among Metals,

Argentum, signifies also Money which is us'd in Trade and Commerce. It has in all times been us'd somewhere, though not in all Nations. Josephus in B. [...]st. of his Jewish An­tiquities says, that Cain amass'd together great Riches, which he had extorted [...]: And 'tis observ'd in the 20th. Chap. of Genesis, that Abimelech King of Gerar, made a Present to Abraham of a Thousand Pieces of Silver. Ecce mille argenteos dedi fratri tuo. Plutarch in the Life of Theseus, the 10th. King of Athens, says, that he stamp'd Pieces of Silver of the Weight of two Drams. Servius Tullus was the first King who stamp'd Money of Copper at Rome, but pieces of Silver begun first to be coined in the Year 483. to the value of a Denarius, i. e. 10. Asses. [which in English Money is 7 Pence half penny.]

Argentei, or Sicli, are the same thing, as may easily be proved by the Septuagints Translation of the Bible, and by the Latin Version of St. Jerom. in the 2d. B. of Kings. ch. 18. Ego dedissem tibi, says Joab, decem argenti siclos, and the other answers, si appenderes in [Page] [...]anibus meis mille argenteos. This sicle of Silver was of the value of 2 Shillings and Six Pence in our Money.

ARGILETUM,

a long Street in the City of Rome over against the Mens Palatinus, which reach'd from the end of the Velabrum, or Tuscan Street, as far as the Theatre of Marcellus to the Herb-Market. It was so cal­led from one Argus who a had mind to kill Evander, but he himself was slain and bu­ried there. Varro thinks that this Place was also call'd by this Name, from Argilla, or fat Earth, whereof there is a great quan­tity in that Place.

ARGONAVIS,

the Ship of the Ar­gonauts, in which Jason sail'd to Colchos, to fetch the Golden Fleece. This Ship was built by Argus, with the help of Miuer­va, of the Pine Trees in the Forest of Pe­lens or Dedona. Phaedrus in the 4th. Book of his Fables, Fab. 6. speaks of it after the follow­ing manner. I would to God that the Thassa­lian Ax, had never cut down the high Pines of the Forrest of Peleus, and that the sub­til Argus, having a mind to go upon the Waters a daring Voyage, expos'd to many visible dangers of Death, had never fram'd a Ship by the Art of Pallas, which by ope­ning the 1st. Entrance into the Sea, that hitherto had continued inaccessible, has been so fatal both to the Greeks and Bar­barians. You will tell me doubtless, con­tinues the same Author, that all this Pray­er is impertinent, and founded upon a mi­stake about the 1st. Ship, since it is certain that a long time before the Argonautes, Minos overcame the Violence of the Eg [...]an Sea, by covering it with a great Fleet, and reveng'd the Death of his Son by a Punish­ment no less just than Exemplary.

ARGONAUTAE,

the Argonauts, a great number of Illustrious Greeks, who em­bark'd with Jason to go and fetch the Golden Fleece, viz. Hercules, Theseus, Castor and Pol­lux; Orpheus, Typhis, Lyna [...]s and some others, who arrived all safe at Colchos, after they had escap'd some Dangers.

ARGUS,

the Son of Apis succeeded his Father in the Kingdom of the Argives, and from him the Argives took their Name, for they were not so call'd before. It was under his Reign, that Greece 1st. began to ma [...]sure the Ground, and sow Corn. Argus after his Death was honour'd as a God, and Temples, and Sacrifices were appointed for him; which Honour had been given before him to one called Honogyrus, who was struck dead with a Thunderbolt, and was the 1st. who yok'd Oxen to draw. St. August. B. [...]. Of the City of God, Chap. 6.

Argus, the Son of A [...]estor, a vigilant Prince and one of great Circumspection, to whom the Poets gave a hundred Eyes to denote his Vigilance. They also feign'd that Juno em­ploy'd him to observe the Actions of Jupiter her Husband, and to guard Io the Daughter of Inacus whom he lov'd. But Mercury killed this Argus by the order of Jupiter, after he had lulled him asleep with the sound of his Pipe. Juno to recompence the Faithfulness of her Spy, chang'd him into a Peacock, which has as many golden Circles in his Tail, as Ar­gus had Eyes.

Ariadne, the Daughter of Minos, King of Crete or Candia, by Pusiphae. When Thescu [...] was sent to Candia by the Athenians, to be de­vour'd by the Minotaure, she instructed him how to get out of the Labyrinth in which this Monster was enblos'd, by giving him a Clue of Thread, which succeeded so well that after he had killed the Monster, he got out of the Labyrinth, though the escape was ve­ry difficult by reason of the many turnings and windings that were in it. After his Escape he forgat his Benefactress, and aban­don'd her in the Isle of Chio or Naxos, where she married Bacthus, who plac'd the Crown she had then upon her Head amongst the Stars.

ARICIA,

a little of City Latium in Italy, which was built by Hippoli [...]us the Son of Theseus, in Memory of his Wife, who had the same Name, as Martial tells us, B. 4. Her Name was also given to a Forest, wherein Diana concealed Hippolytus, after he was rais'd from the Dead by Aesculapius; as an ac­knowledgement for so great a Benefit he ere­cted a Temple, to him whose Priests were to be fugitive Slaves. Hard by there was a Fountain sacred to the Nymph Egeria, where King Numa, having learned Hydromancy, or the Art of Divination by Waters, boasted that he had frequent Conversation with that Nymph, that he might the more firmly establish his Empire, raise his own Reputa­tion to a higher Pitch, and conciliate greater Authority to his Laws among the common People. [...]oli [...]ms and Cassius Hemina, think that the City of Aricia, was built by Archilacus the Sicilian, in the Year 425. from the buil­ding of Rome. It obtain'd the Priviledge of the Roman Freedom, and was at first a Municipal City, and afterwards a Roman Colony, as Florus tells us, Marius Anttum, Ariciam & Lavini [...]n colonaias devastavit. It was the Place of the Nativity of Accia, the Mother of the Emperor Augustus.

ARIES,

a Ram a Warlike Engine us'd by the Ancients. It was a great Beam of Wood strengthned with Iron at the end, [Page] which represented the Head of a Ram, where­with the Ancients were to batter the Walls of Cities, there were Three sorts of them, one was hang'd upon Ropes, another run up­on Wheels, and a third sort was born up in the Arms of those who made use of it.

This Machine was first invented after this manner; when the Carthaginians laid Siege to Gades, they thought it convenient imme­diatly to demolish a Castle which they had taken, but having no proper instruments for that purpose, they made use of a great Beam of Wood which many Men bore up in their Arms, and striking the top of the Walls with the end of this Beam by their redoubled blows, they made the uppermost Stones to come down, and so descending lower from one Lay of Stones to another, they batter'd down the whole Fortification. After this a Carpenter of the City of Tyre, call'd Pephas­menos, taking the hint from the former Expe­riment, hang'd one Beam upon another like a Balance, which being thrust forward with great force, by many repeated blows he beat down the Wall of the City of Gades.

Cetras the Caelcdonian was the 1st. who made a Carr of Wood which moved upon Wheels. Upon the Carr he laid many pieces of Tim­ber, whereof some stood upright, and others lay athwart, which he join'd together and made a Hut of them, in which he hung up a Ram, and then he cover'd it with Ox-hides to secure those who play'd the Engine for battering down a Wall: And this Hut was called a Snail to the Ram, because it moved but very slowly. Polydus the Thessa­lian at last perfected the Engine at the Siege which King Philip the Son of Amyntas laid to Bizantium. This is what Vitruvius tells us B. 10. Ch. 17. But Athenaeus in his Book De Machinis, thinks that Geras the Cartha­ginian was the Inventor of this Engine: He says also, that this Architect did not sling his Ram in a Hut, as Vitruvius ex­plains it, but that it was carried by several Men who push'd it forward by the strength of their Arms.

ARIES

a Ram, the first sign of the Zodiack. This was the Ram according to the Fable of the Golden Fleece, which car­ried Phryxus and Helle through the Air, and which Jupiter plac'd among the Signs of the Zodiack. This Sign to this Day makes the Ver­nal Equinox; although Vitruvius, tells us that when the Sun has reach'd the 1st. part of the Sign Arles, it makes the Vernal Equinox. Colu­mella gives the reason why the Solstices and Aequinoxes among the Ancients were not at the entrance of the Signs, but at the 8th Part: This came to pass, says he, because then sol­low'd the Festivals which had been appion­ted about that time of the Year, at which, Endoxus, Meto, and other ancient Astronomres thought that the Points of the Aequinoxes and Solstices happen'd, though they were at the beginning of the Signs, as Hipparcus shew'd afterwards.

Aries, the Ram with the golden Fleece, so famous in fabulous Stories Strabo relates the Expeditions of Phryxus or Jason, and the Argonautes into Calches, for seizing and carry­ing off the great Treasure that was there, and chiefly the great Mass of Gold which was gather'd out of the Sand of a River by the straining it through a Ram's Fleece; and from thence he concludes that all which the Poets have said of it, is nothing but a true History, either from the Nature of these Places, or from the successful Voyages which have been made thither at divers time.

Pliny gives a strange account of the Riches of Colches, and he forgets not the golden Fleece, because the best Gold is that which is gather'd out of Rivers by the help of Fleeces which gave occasion to the Fable.

Bochart thinks, that when the Poets ex­press the Riches of the King of Colchos by-golden Fleece, it may proceed from the Ama biguity of the word Gasa, in its original Lan­guage which is Syriac, for it signifies a Trea­sure, and also a Fleece, and in allusion t­this, the Poets took occasion to Pun. Heo adds as a probable Conjecture that the two Bulls which guard the Treasure are nothing else but the two Walls which encompass the Castle wherein it is kept, because the Syriac word Sour signifies a Bull and a Wall; and that the Dragon which guarded the Trea­sure, was nothing else but the Iron Gate of the Castle, because Nachas signifies both a Dragon and Iron.

ARION,

a Native of Methymna in the Isle of Lesbos, an excellent Player upon the Harp, and a Lyric Poet, growing rich, and being desirous to return into his own Coun­try, says Phaedrus, that there he might shew great Riches. Having therefore embark'd in a Ship, the Seamen, a faithless and inhu­man sort of People, having a mind to throw him into the Sea, that they might take his Riches to themselves, he pray'd them that be­fore they did it, they would give him leave to make his own Funeral Oration, and to sing an Elegy to his Harp: After that when he threw himself into the Sea, with the most precious things that he had about him, the Dolphins which came running to the Ship, being charm'd by the sweetness of his Mu­sick saved him from drowning, and one of them carried him upon his Back as far as Te­nara, [Page] whence he went to Periander, who be­ing acquainted with his Story, caus'd all the Seamen to be hang'd in the Place where the Dolphin had set him on Shore: For some­time after the adventure of the Dolphin, it happen'd that the Ship on which Arion had embark'd, was by a Storm cast upon the Coasts near Corinth, and then Periander caus'd all the Seamen to be brought before him; and having enquir'd of them what was become of Arion, they answer'd him that he was dead and they had buried him: Whereupon im­mediately he caus'd them to be carried away to a place near the Monument he had erected to the Dolphin, which died after it had car­ried Arion a shore: And there he made them swear that Arion was dead, and then brought forth Arion before them, in the same kind of Habit which he had when he threw himself into the Sea to avoid their Fury, and he caus'd them all to be hang'd near the Monument of the Dolphin. The Gods also to recom­pence the Friendship of this Dolphin and eternize its Memory, plac'd it among the Stars.

ARISTAEUS,

the Son of Apollo and Cyrene, who was desperately in Love with Euridice the Wife of Orphaeus: She died of the Bite of a Serpent, as she fled from the amorous pursuit of Aristaeus; the Nymphs enraged at this Misfortune killed all Ari­staeus's Bees, but he by the advice of his Mother consulted Proteus about this Loss, who or­der'd him to sacrifice 4 Bulls and 4 Heifers to appease the Ghost of Euridice, which be­ing done, immediately there came forth Swarms of Bees out of the Entrails of the slain Victims. 'Tis said that he first inven­ted the way of extracting Hony from the Wax-combs which the Bees make, and of making Oyl out of Olives, and of curdling Milk. He was plac'd among the Number of the Gods after his Death, and ador'd by the Shepherds.

The Education of Bacchus was committed to Aristaeus, according to the Traditions of the Lybians, which are related by Diodorus Siculus. The same Author elsewhere gives us an Account, that Apollo transported into Lybia a Grecian Virgin call'd Cyrene, and built there a City of her Name by whom he had a Son call'd Aristaeus; and caused him to be nurs'd up in a Wilderness by the Nymphs, who taught him the Culture and the Use of Olives, of Bees, and Milk-meats, as Butter, Cheese, &c. which he in process of time communi­cated to Mankind. After divers Voyages at length Aristaeus came into Sardinia and Si­cily, and having pass'd over from thence in­to Thracia, he was there initiated by Bacchus into his Mysteries, who taught him many things useful for human Life. At last Ari­staeus died near Mount Hemis, and was there honour'd as a God, not only by the Thracians but also by the Graecians.

Herodotus, relates a Story of Aristaeus, in which Apollo is very much concerned. He was of Preconnesus, where it was commonly thought that he was dead; but he appeared again at Cyzicum as one return'd from the dead: He disappeared yet once more, and 340 Years after he shewed himself again to the Metapontines in Italy, whom he affirmed to be the only Persons of all the Italians, whom Apollo had honour'd with his Presence. enjoin'd them to erect a Statue to him in the Temple of Apollo, near that of Apollo himself. The Metapontines consulted the Ora­cle about it, which commanded them to obey him, and so they did.

ARISTANDER,

a famous Divi­ner, who foretold a Victory to Alexander, having seen an Eagle fly round about him, Quint. Curt. B. 4. and 7.

ARISTARCHUS,

a Grammarian of Samothracia, who was the Disciple of Ari­stophanes. He methodiz'd the Verses of Ho­mer by the command of Pisistratus the Tyrant of Athens, and took the Liberty of rejecting some of them as did not please him. From hence came the Custom of calling any one by the name of Aristarchus, who is a critical and severe Censurer of other Men's Works. Aelian says that he wrote more than a 100 Commentaries. He flourish'd in the time of Ptolemaeus Philometor, to whose Son he was Praeceptor.

ARISTIDES,

surnamed the Just, who was the Son of Lysimachus. He restor'd Aristocracy, or the Government of the Gran­dees in Athens, and upon that account by the perswasion of Themistocles who maintain'd the Popular State, he was banish'd by Ostra­cism. He maintain'd always an even and unimitable Temper of Mind, in Pros­perity as well as Adversity. The evil Treatment which he received from his Ene­mies, never made him in the least depart from the Rules of Justice, and he neither go­vern'd himself by Passion, nor by Prejudice. He had so great a Love for Poverty, that when he died the Publick was obliged to In­ter him, leaving nothing behind him. Lucian in his Description of Calumny, says, that as just as he was yet he conspir'd against Themistocles, being Jealous of his Glory; for the best Men have their Faults and their Passions.

ARISTIPPUS,

a famous Debau­chee, who led an effeminate idle Life, in sen­sual [Page] Pleasures and Feasting. He was very in­genious in the Art of Luxury, and was al­ways maintain'd at Athens, or the Court of the Kings of Sici [...]y, who esteem'd him high­ly, because he understood good eating, would dance after drinking, and knew exactly how to make the best Sauces and Ragoo's. He shew'd himself so excellent in this Art, that the Princes Cooks would come to take Or­ders from him, and he would not receive them unless he was in the humour, says Lu­cian.

ARITHMETICA,

Arithmetick, a Science which teaches the Art of accom­pting, and all the Powers and Properties of Numbers. The 4 first Rules of Arithmetick are Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division.

There was a Digital Arithmetick, which is more ancient as well as more Natural; for this way of reckoning by the Fingers seems to have been instituted by Nature, which has given us this Expedient as more easy than any of the rest. The Fingers are limited to 10. which is a mysterious Num­ber, and represents any thing that is most perfect and compleat: Thus we plight our Truth to one another by joining our two right Hands together.

Ten is also compos'd of the 4 first Num­bers. 1, 2, 3, 4. Which Plato commends at the beginning of his Timaeus; for these Num­bers being join'd together make the Number 10. And when we arrive at that, we begin again at one, for 10 and 1 make 11. 10 and 2 make 12, and so forwards Pliny tells us, that the Ancients reckon'd no further than to 100000.

Those who in Progress of Time invented the Cypher, and the Arithmetical Figures which we now make use of, have given us no more than 10 of them. And the Pytha­goreans, after the Jewish Cabbalists, maintain that all Tens are full of Divine Mysteries, which gave occasion to the Institution of Tenths as due to God, by which we pay him Allegiance and Homage for all the Fruits which the Ground produces by his Benediction.

Besides this digital Arithmetick is very an­cient, Nicarchus in a Greek Epigram tells us of an old Man, who begun again to reckon his Years upon his left Hand. St. Jerom in­forms us as to this matter, that the number of a 100 was carried on from the left Hand to the right, and was reckon'd upon the same Fingers, but not on the same hand; upon which account Juvenal speaking of the happy old Age of Nestor, tells us, that he reckon'd hi­therto the number of his Years upon his right Hand.

Numa erected a Statue to Janus, according to the Relation of Pliny, whose Fingers of its right Hand were so dispos'd as to sig­nifie the number 300, the Thumb and Fore-finger standing out at the full length, while the other Three were bended towards the Palm of the Hand, and the Fingers of the left Hand signified 55. the Thumb and mid­dle Finger being bended inwards, while the 3 other stood streight. Beda treats of the same thing in the 1st. Book Of the Nature of things, but after a different manner.

It will not be impertinent to our present Subject to relate a Discourse which Francis the 1st. had one Day at Dinner as it is set down in Vigenere.

A Discourse was begun in Praise of Augu­stus, whose custom it was to keep always in his Chamber two great Registers, one in which were entred the Receipts; and the other, in which were the Expences of so vast an Em­pire. As to my self, said the King, I have likewise 2 Registers which I never part with Night nor Day, viz. my 2 Hands, where­of the Left represents to me my Receipts; for the Thumb, which is the strongest of all the Fingers, signifies my Demains, which is also the most solid and lawful Re­venue that a good Prince can have; the Fore-finger signifies my Aids and Subsidies, the middle Finger, which is the Iongest, de­notes the Taxes, the Finger next to it, the casual Forfeitures; and lastly, the little Fin­ger, the Salt and Excise. The right Hand represents to me my Expence in general; the Thumb signifies the Maintenance of my House, the Salaries of my Menial Servants, the great and little Equeries, and the Trea­sury, the fore Finger signifies the Fund re­served for the Necessities of the State, the middle Finger, a Fund for the Armies by Land; the Ring Finger, or the 4th. the Payment of all the Officers of the King­dom, and particularly of the Judges in the Courts of Justice, which bought to admi­nister Gratis to my Subjects, and the little Finger a Fund for the Armies by Sea.

The Romans mark'd their numbers by Let­ters, which they disposed after this manner.

1IOne
5VFive
10XTen
[...]0LFifty
100Ca Hundred
500DFive Hundred.
1000Ma Thousand
5000Five Thousand
10000Ten Thousand
500000Fifty Thousand
100000a Hundred Thousand

[Page] These are the Figures of the Roman Num­bers together with their signification and value; for as Pliny observes, the Ancients had no Number above a 100000, but when they reckon'd higher, they set down this Number twice or thrice, from whence also comes the Custom of counting, by these Phrases, Bis, ter, quater, quinquies, decies centena millia.

For the better understanding the Roman Numbers we must consider. 1st. That there are but 5 different Figures which are the 5 first, and that all the rest are compos'd of the I. and the C, yet so that the C, is always turn'd to­ward the I, whether it be before or after, as is easy to be seen. 2dly. That when ever there is a Figure of less value before another which is of greater value, the former signifies that you must take so much off from the latter: As IV. Four, XL. Forty, XC. Ninety. From hence it appears, that there is no Number which may not be express'd by the Five first Figures. 3dly. That in all these Num­bers the Figures encrease gradually. 1st. By a quintuple Proportion, and then next by a double of the last before it: Thus the 2d. is 5 times as many as the 1st. and the 3d. is twice as many as the 2d. the 4th. is 5 times as much as the 3d. and the 5th. twice as much as the 4th. and so of all the rest. 4thly. That the Figures begin always to multiply on the right side, after such a manner that all the Ↄs which are put on that way are counted by Fives, as those which are on the other side are counted by Tens: And so we may easily find out all sorts of Numbers how great soever they are. Thus when an Author of the last Age, in a List of the Roman Em­pire, had set down the names of its Citizens, in the following Figures contrary to the Cu­stom of the Ancients CCCCCCCIↃↃↃↃↃↃↃ--IↃↃↃↃↃↃↃ. CCCIↃↃↃ. CC­ↃↃ. taking the C next to the I on the left Hand for a 1000. or the first Ↄ which is on the right Hand for 500. and so going on to the end by a decuple Progression in each Figure, on one or on the other side, I perceive quickly that there are here in all, one Million, Five Hundred Millions, a Hundred and Ten Thousand Citizens: Which may be thus express'd in the Arabic Figures, 1500110000.

Now if we reflect upon this way of ac­compting, we may easily understand, that it had its original only from hence, that Men having begun at 1st. to reckon upon the Fin­gers, they counted till it came to five upon one Hand, and then having added the other to that Number, they made of them both Ten, which is the double of the former: And this is the true Reason why the Progression in these Numbers is always from one to five, and then from Five to Ten.

All the Roman Figures themselves are also owing to the same original. For what can be more natural than to say, that the I is the same thing as if a Man shew one by holding forth one Finger only, andthat the Figure V. is the same thing as if a Man catching the 3 middle Fingers, should hold forth only the little Finger and the Thumb, as containing the whole Hand, and that if you add to these the same two Fingers of the other Hand, join'd to either at the top, they will make as it were two V's, whereof one will run across under the other, and so make an X, which signifies Tin.

Manutius shews also that all the other figures are deriv'd from the first, because an V is no­thing else but two 1's join'd at the bottom, so an L is nothing but two I's, whereof the one is perpendicular and the other horizon­tal, and if to these you add a third at the top [then they signifie an Hundred by that Figure, in Lieu of which the Transcribers for the greater ease made use of a C. If a fourth I be join'd to the other three so as to make a square thus, □ this Figure signi­fied five Hundred, in lieu of which they us'd afterwards, 1st. the IↃ, and then the D. At last by doubling this Square, □□ they made their Thousand, instead of which the Copiers either for Ornament or better Convenience, began first to round the Figure, and make it with one stroke of their Pen thus. ∞ and after that, thus, ω, from whence it comes to pass, that we often meet with an Eight, made horizontal, or a Greek Omega, to signifie a 1000. But afterwards they mark'd it thus, CIↃ, and then thus, CD. and at last, because this has a great Affinity with the Gothic M. they us'd a simple M. to denote a. Thousand, as the C. a Hundred, and the D. for Five Hundred. And from hence it comes to pass, that there are just Seven Letters which are us'd for these sort of Numbers, viz. C. D. I. L. M. V. X. unless you will add to them the Q. also, which some have us'd for five Hundred, according to Vossius.

We must also observe there are some who maintain, that when there is a line—above the Figures, this makes them stand for so many Thousands, as V. is Five Thousand. X. is Ten Thousand. I know not whether any ex­amples of this can be found among the an­cients; but as it is certain that the way of accompting maintain'd by Priscian, who thought that for signifying the Tens of Thou­sands, we must place an X between C thus, CXↃ is altogether false and contrary to Anti­quity, and that his Error proceeds only from [Page] his Ignorance of the true original of this way of reckoning, which he had a mind to accommodate to our present way, which en­creases always by a decuple Progression. But if at any time there be found an L between two C's thus CLↃ, or the like, 'tis only a Fault of the Transcribers, who finding in these Cases the I to be commonly bigger than the C, mistook it for an L.

A GENERAL TABLE Of Characters for Numbers.
The ARABICK.GREEK.ROMAN.
1 One.αʹ. or Ι [...]I Unum.
2 two.βʹ. ΙΙ [...]II duo.
3 three.γʹ. ΙΙΙ [...]III tria.
4 foure.δʹ. ΙΙΙΙ [...]IV quatuor.
5 five.εʹ. Π [...]V quinque.
6 six.ϛʹ. ΠΙ [...]VI sex.
7 seven.ζʹ. ΠΙΙ [...]VII septem.
8 eight.ηʹ. ΠΙΙΙ [...]VIII octo.
9 nine.θʹ. ΠΙΙΙ [...]IX novem.
10 ten.ιʹ Δ [...]X decem.
11 eleven.ιαʹ. ΔΙ [...]XI undecem.
12 twelve.ιβʹ. ΔΙΙ [...]XII duodecem.
13 thirteen.ιγʹ. ΔΙΙΙ [...]XIII tredecim.
14 fourteen.ιδʹ. ΔΙΙΙΙ. [...]XIV quatuordecim.
15 fifteen.ιεʹ. ΔΠ [...]XV quindecim.
16 sixteen.ιϛʹ. ΔΠΙ [...]XVI sexdecim.
17 seventeen.ιζʹ. ΔΠΙΙ [...]XVII septemdecim.
18 eighteen.ιηʹ. ΔΠΙΙΙ [...]XVIII octodecim.
19 nineteen.ιθʹ. ΔΠΙΙΙ [...]XIX novemdecim.
20 twenty.κʹ. ΔΔ [...]XX viginti.
30 thirty.λʹ. ΔΔΔ [...]XXX triginta.
40 forty.μʹ. ΔΔΔΔ [...]XL quadraginta.
50 fifty.νʹ. [Δ] [...]L quinquaginta.
60 sixty.ξʹ. [Δ]Δ [...]LX sexaginta.
70 seventy.οʹ. [Δ]ΔΔ [...]LXX septuaginta.
80 eighty..πʹ. [Δ]ΔΔΔ [...]LXXX octoginta.
90 ninety.ϟʹ. [Δ]ΔΔΔΔ [...]XC nonaginta.
100 a hundred.ρʹ. Η [...]C centum.
200 two hundred.σʹ. ΗΗ [...]CC ducenta.
300 three hundred.τʹ. ΗΗΗ [...]CCC trecenta.
400 four hundred.υʹ. ΗΗΗΗ [...]CCCC quadringenta.
500 five hundred.φʹ. [Η] [...]D, or, IↃ quingenta.
600 six hundred.χʹ. [Η]Η [...]DC sexcenta.
700 seven hundred.ψʹ. [Η]ΗΗ [...]DCC septingenta.
800 eight hundred.ωʹ. [Η]ΗΗΗ [...]DCCC octingenta.
900 nine hundred.ϡʹ [Η]ΗΗΗΗ [...]DCCCC noningenta.
1000 a thousand. [...]͵. Χ [...]M, or, CIↃ mille.
2000 two thousand.β͵. ΧΧ [...]MM, bismille.
3000 three thousand.γ͵. ΧΧΧ [...]MMM ter mille.
4000 four thousand.δ͵. ΧΧΧΧ [...]MMMM quater mille.
5000 five thousand.ε͵. [Χ] [...]VM, or IↃↃ quinquiesmille.
6000 six thousand.ϛ͵. [Χ]Χ [...]VIM sexies mille.
7000 seven thousand.ζ͵. [Χ]ΧΧ [...]VIIM septies mille.
8000 eight thousand.η͵. [Χ]ΧΧΧ [...]VIIIM octies mille.
9000 nine thousand.θ͵ [Χ]ΧΧΧΧ [...]IXM novies mille.
10000 ten thousand. [...]͵ Μ [...]XM. or CCIↃↃ decies mille.
The year 1696. one thousand six hun­dred ninety six. [...]Annus. (M DC XC VI) millesimus, sexcentesimus no­nagesimus sextus.

ARISTOTELES,

the Son of Ni­chomachus a Physician, and Phestia. He was ve­ry deformed; but he was one of the greatest Genius's of his Age. He studied 20 Years un­der Plato the Philosopher, and was Praeceptor to Alexander the Great, by whom he was ve­ry much esteem'd. He was the Author of the Sect of Philosophers, called Peripateticks: He died at 63 Years of Age, and some think that he threw himself into the Straits of Eu­rippus, out of Vexation because he could not comprehend the Cause of its Flux and Reflux He is call'd the Genius of Nature, and Plato nam'd him the Philosopher indeed. His Books lay a long while conceal'd at Athens, and were not transported to Rome, till after the taking of that City by Sylla; this Treasure was preserv'd and brought to Light by the means of Tyrannion the Grammarian, and An­dronicus the Rhodian. Lucian rails at him in his Dialogue of the Dead, and introduces Alex­ander speaking thus to Diogenes. Why dost thou weep poor Fool, says Diogenes, did not Aristotle teach thee, that all this is but Va­nity? Alexander answers him, what dost thou say, Diogenes, of him who was the ba­sest of all my Flatterers; pray do not force me to publish his Faults, and to tell thee how he hath abused my good Nature, and the extreme Passion I had for Learning. Sometimes he cajol'd me for my Beauty, some­times for my Riches, which he was so har­dy as to rank in the Number of good things, that he might neither be ashamed to ask nor receive them. This is what I learn'd by his Instructions. To take these things for good which are not so the Loss of which does now afflict me. The same Author tells us also, that Aristotle, did only give a rude Draught of the Art of Parasites.His Do­ctrine which is now in the Schools, has met with various Entertainment, sometimes good, and sometimes bad: On this Subject the Rea­der may consult. Mr. de Lannoy de varia Ari­stotelis Fortuna.

Arithmetica,

see before Aristoteles.

Arma,

Arms, which Men made use of, either for attacking others, or defending themselves. 'Tis certain that the Arms of the ancient Heroes, as well Defensive as Offensive, were of Copper or Brass. This is what the Poet Lucretius tells us. The first Arms says this Poet, were Hands, Nails, Teeth, Stones, and Sticks: Afterwards some invented Arms of Iron or Brass; but those of Brass, were 1st. us'd.

Arma antiqua manus, ungues, den [...]es (que) fuere.
Et Lapides, & item silvarum fragmina, rami;
Post [...]riut ferri vis est aeris (que) reperta.
Sed prior aeris erat quam ferri cognitus tisus,
Lucr. l. 5. v. 1282.

Tubal-Cain, one of the Posterity of Cain, according to the Scripture, was the Master and Father of the Smiths, and of all those who work'd in Iron and Steel, Tubal-Cain fuit Malleator & Faber in cuncta opera area & ferri, Gen. 4. 8, 22. Now this Tubal-Cain was the Vulcan of the Pagans, as Diodorus Siculus tells us, [A Vulcano fabricationem aeris, auri, ferri, argenti, & caeterorum omnium quae ignis opera­tionem rejiciunt inventam.] lib. 5. p. 341. Jose­phus says that Moses was the first who arm'd any Troops with Iron, and that he gave them in Aegypt the Buckler and the Head-piece. Plutarch relates in the Life of Theseus, that Ci­non, the Son of Miltiades having a mind to carry the Bones of this Hero from the Isle of Scyros to Athens, found the Point of a Lance which was of Brass, together with a Sword of the same Metal. 'Tis certain also from the former Passage of Lucretius, that Arms of Iron and Steel were used among the Greeks and Romans, both for their Cavalry and In­fantry.

They divided their Infantry into those that were heavy arm'd, and those that were light arm'd, whom they call'd Velites, and who had casting Weapons: Such were the Slingers who threw Stones, the Darters who cast the Javelin, and the Archers who shot with Bows; these had their Head covered with a Murion; carried a little round Buckler up­on their Arm, and a short dagger by their side. Under the Emperors, Trajan, Adrian, and Antoninus Pius, these Velites, or Skirmi­shers wore a Corslet of Iron, or a Curiass, adorn'd with Scales resembling Fishes, like that of the Archers: But the Slingers were clad in nothing but their usual Habit, having the lappet of their Coat tuck'd up to put Stones in it: The Archers, or such as drew the Bow, were armed with a Helmet upon their Head, and Armour adorn'd with Scales, having on their right side a Quiver furnished with Arrows, on their left a Dagger, or Sword, holding a Bow in their Hand, with which they shot their Arrows.

As to the Souldiers which were heavy arm'd, their Head was guarded with a Casquet or Helmet of Iron, which came down very low before, and behind descended as far as their Shoulders: Their Body was arm'd with a Coat of Mail, together with Knee-Pieces and Bracelets. They carried on their Arm a Shield 2 Foot broad, and 4 Foot long strengthened with an Iron Plate that went round about it: In the middle was an Iron­boss jurting out very serviceable to keep off Blows [or glance of Darts and Stones.] They had also a Sword by their left Side, and a Dag­ger which cut with two edges. Besides all [Page] this they were armed with a Dart, and two Spears 4 Foot long, having Iron Spikes at the top.

The Greeks were not so heavy arm'd; they carried long Pikes, or Sarissa's [a peculiar sort of Spear which was used by the Macedo­nians] which were Staves 18 Foot long, wherewith they forced their way across the Battalions of their Enemies. Dio, in the life of Antoninus Caracalla the Son of Severus, re­lates that the Macedonian Phalanx [being a Four-square Army consisting of 8000 Foot­men set in close Array] in the time of Alex­ander the Great, made use of a Salade or Head-piece made of the raw Hide of an Ox, and had their Body cover'd with a Jacket, or Coat of Mail, made of Flax or Hemp twisted into Cords, and 3 times doubled [which were cal­led Thoraces trilices, from the number of Cords fix'd one upon another] Homer in the 3d. Book of his Iliads, arms thus the famous Paris: He first put on his Greaves, or the Armour of his Legs; then he clothed himself with the Coat of Mail, tied his Sword by his Side, took his Shield, and armed himself with a Helmet adorn'd with Feathers of divers Colours.

Now follow the Arms of the Roman Caval­ry. A Horseman carried a Lance in his right Hand, and a Shield on his left (which was an ancient kind of offensive Weapon, made in the form of a light Buckler, which the Horse of the Houshold who fought with a Lance, in former times carried on their Arm) his Body was cover'd with a Coat of Mail (which is a piece of Armour made in the Form of a Shirt, and wrought over with ma­ny rings or little marks of Iron) which came down as low as his Knees: His Hands were cover'd with Gantlets (which were large Gloves of Iron for arming the Hard of a Horseman) and his Fingers covered with thin Plates of Iron, join'd together in the Fashion of Scales; and his Arms with Bracelets (a Piece of defensive Armour which cover'd the Arms) as also his Knees with Greaves (a kind of Boots, or Armour for the Legs) on his Head he wore a Morion with a Crest adorn'd with Plumes of Feathers and various Figures of Beasts-upon it. Their Horse were arm'd with a Coat of Mail and Plates of Iron.

The light Horsemen carried a Javelin, or Half-Pike in their right Hand (which Jave­lin was 5 Foot and a half long, and had a Head of Iron with three edges which was sharp-pointed) and in their left Hand they held a great Shield, and wore a Casque upon their Head.

There were also some Throwers of Darts which were light arm'd. They carried on their Back a Quiver full of Arrows, and had a Bow out of which they were to shoot them: They wore a Sword on their left Side, and some of them had a Dagger on the right side; their Head was arm'd with a Casquet, and their Legs with Greaves.

The ancient Names of the Greek and Roman Arms and Weapons with their Explication.
  • A Slinger was one who threw Stones with a Sling. The Slingers were a part of the Roman Militia.
  • 1. A Sling is an Instrument made up of two Strings, having a little Pouch like a Net in the middle for holding the Stones that are thrown out of it.
  • 2. A Dart is a missive Weapon, made of Wood, that is arm'd with a sharp pointed Iron at the end, which is thrown with the Hand.
  • 3. A little Shield, or a kind of a round Buckler, wherewith the Infantry in former times was arm'd.
  • 4. Pilum, The ancients called any Shaft of Wood armed with Iron by this Name, and so all sorts of Arrows and Darts which they let fly were called Pila
  • 5. A Dagger is a large Ponyard, which an­ciently they us'd in fighting.
  • 6. A Salade, is a slight covering for the Head, which the light Horsemen wore It differs from a Helmet in this, that it has no Crest, and is hardly any thing but a Wea­pon.
  • 7. A Morion, is the Armour of a Souldier being a Pot which he wore upon his Head to defend it: It was used by Foot Soul­diers.
  • 8. A Curiass, is a defensive Armour made of a Plate of Iron very well beaten, which co­vers the Body from the Neck down to the Wast, both before and behind.
  • 9. Greaves, a kind of Boots or Armour for the Legs.
  • 10. A Bracelet, a piece of defensive Armour which covers the Arm.
  • 11. A Pavice, is a Piece of defensive Ar­mour which the ancients wore in the Wars, it was the largest sort of Bucklers, whose two sides bended inwards, like the Roof of a House, or a shed of Boards for Souldiers; and so it differ'd from a Target.
  • 12. A Target, in Latin, Pelta, is a Buckler us'd by the Romans, which was bended in the Form of a half Moon, and of an oblong Fi­gure.
  • 13. A Coat of Mail was a piece of Armour made in the Form of a Shirt, and wrought over with many little Rings of Iron.
  • [Page]14. A Jacket is a short Coat which the Ca­valry in ancient times wore over their Ar­mour and Curiasses; it was made of Cotton or Silk stitch'd between two light Stuffs; and sometimes also of Cloth of Gold.
  • 15. A Head-Piece, is a Piece of defensive Armour for covering the Head and Neck of a Cavalier, which is otherwise called a Hel­met.
The offensive Arms or Engines which the Romans made use of in attacking Places.
  • 1. A Rhalestra, a great Engine for throwing of Darts; the Invention of it is attribu­ted to the Phaenicians. Vegetius says that in his time Scorpiones, which M. Perrault has transla­ted Arbalestres were called Manubalista, to di­stinguish them from their great Balistae or Cata­pultae which were not portable, after the same manner as our Harquebusses and Pistols are distinguished from Cannon.
  • 2. Balista, an Engine which the Ancients made use of for throwing Stones; it differ'd from the Catapulta in this, that the latter threw Darts, but both of them let fly after the same manner.
  • 3. Aries, the Ram, was a vast long Beam, strengthned at one end with a Head of Iron, which was hung on two Chains, wherewith they us'd anciently to batter the Walls of Ci­ties. There were 3 sorts of them, one was hang'd upon Ropes, another run upon Wheels, and a 3d. Sort was sustain'd by the Arms of those who plaid it. When the Carthaginians besieg'd Gades, they judg'd it expedient sud­denly to demolish a Castle which had been taken, but wanting proper Instruments for that purpose, they made use of a Beam which several Men bore up with their Hands, who thrust forward the end of it with so great Violence against the top of the Wall, that by their redoubled Blows they beat down the uppermost Lays of Stone, and so descending from one Lay to another, they at last demo­lish'd the whole Fortification. After this a Carpenter of the City of Tyre, called Pephas­ [...]nos, taking the hint from this first Experi­ment, hang'd one Beam to another, like a Ba­lance, and by the force of the many great blows which the Beam gave while it was play'd, he batter'd down the Wall of the Ci­ty of Gades.

    Cetras the Chalcedonian was the first who made a Car of Wood which was driven up­on Wheels, and upon this Car he rear'd up many Posts standing upright, and Beams ly­ing a-cross, whereof he made a Hut, and ha­ving hang'd a Ram in it, he cover'd it over with Ox Hides, to secure those who play'd the Engine for battering down the Wall. Since that time this Hut was call'd a Tortoise to the Ram, because it advanc'd but very slowly. Such were the first Essays of this kind of Engine; but Polydus the Thessalian im­prov'd them to the highest Perfection at the Siege which King Amyntas laid to Byzantium, who invented also many other sorts of them, which might be made use of with very much ease.

    Athenaeus, in his Book of Machines, says that Goras the Carthaginian was the Inventor of the basis of this Engine, and he adds, that this Architect did not hang the Ram up in it, as Vitruvius explains it, but that it was born up by many Men who thrust it forward: He says also that some others suppos'd it to run upon Wheels; besides, Turnebus had reason to think, that Vitruvius took from Athenaeus the greatest part of what he relates here of War­like Engines, though Casaubon holds that Athe­naeus liv'd a long time after Vitruvius, and grounds his Opinion upon the relation of Trebellius Pollio, who says that the Emperor Galienus caus'd many Cities to be fortified by Byzantine Architects, whereof one was called Cleodamas, and the other, Athenaeus. Vossius follows the Opinion of Turnebus, because Athe­naeus's Book is dedicated to Marcellus, who liv'd before Vitruvius.

  • 4. Catapulta, a Warlike Engine, which the Ancients us'd for casting the larger sort of Darts and Spears upon their Enemies. Some hold that the Catapulta was invented by the Syrians.
  • 5. Corvus Eversor, the demolishing Crow, which was also called the Crane. It does not appear by the Descriptions we find in the Ancients, of the Engine called the Crow, that it could be of any use for demolishing; J. Pollux and Polybius speak of an Engine which is called the Crane, and another called the Crow, but both the one and the other were made for hooking in, drawing too, and taking away by Force; for the Crane of Pollux was us'd on the Theatre for raising Weights, and the Crow of Polybius was employ'd for grapling the Ships of the Enemies in a Fight.
  • 6. Sambucus or Sambuca: This Engine is so call'd from a Greek Word which signifies a Triangular Instrument of Musick, made in the Form of a Harp, for this was a Triangle composed of Strings that made one of its Sides, and of the Body of an Engine, which made the other Two. The Warlike Engine of this Name was the same with that which we now call a Portable-Bridge. When this Bridge of the Sambuca was laid down, it was supported by Ropes, and thus the Besiegers made use of it for passing over from their [Page]Turrets of Wood unto the Walls of the Besieg'd.
  • 7. Scorpiones, were the larger sort of Balista's, which the Ancients made use of for attack­ing and defending Walls; they were Engines made up of unequal Circles, and were called Scorpions, either upon the account of the ef­fect they produc'd, which was to wound with little Arrows, like a Scorpion which wounds with a small Sting, or else upon the account of the Figure of their Bow, which represented two Arms bending backwards like the Feet of a Scorpion. After this man­ner Ammianus Marcellinus describes the Scor­pion, which he supposes to resemble a Balista, rather than a Catapul [...]a, for he says, that the Scorpion was made for throwing Stones by the help of a Wooden Beam which he calls Sty­lus, and which was join'd in the Ropes that were fasten'd to the two bended wooden Beams, (which are like those that are us'd in the Engine for sawing) after such a manner that the Stylus being drawn back by 4 Men, and after that let go, it throws out the Stone which was in one of the Slings fasten'd to the end of the Stylus.
  • 8. Helepolis, was a Turret which destroy'd Ci­ties. King D [...]etrius, who was called Polioctetes; upon account of his resolute Attacks for ta­king of Cities, caus'd Epimachus an Architect to build an Helopolis against the Rhodians: It was 125 Foot high, and 40 Foot broad, cover'd with Hair-Stuff, and Hides lately flead off. Diognetus rendered this design of it ineffectually against Rhodes, and freed the City. He brought the Helopolis into the City, and set it up in a publick Place with this In­scription; Diognetus made this Present to the People of the Spoils of their Enemies.
  • 9. Testudo, a Tortoise, is an Engine which the Ancients made use for undermining and battering of Places. It was a Fence made of Wood that run upon Wheels, which serv'd to cover the Souldiers when they were at work. Facere Testudinem was a kind of scaling us'd among the Ancients, which was done by the Souldiers when they stood close toge­ther, and cover'd themselves with their Buck­lers, for so they made a kind of Ladder for their Companions by which they might climb up upon the Walls. The Invention of this Testudo is attributed to Artemon the Son of Cla­zomenes.
  • 10. Malleoli, or Pyroboli, according to Non­nus and Vegetius, were Engines set on Fire by a mixture of combuslible Matter where­with they were besmear'd, and which being clos'd at the end, according to the Descri­ption of Ammianus Marcellinus, were shot cut of a Bow, to set on Fire any military En­gines or Ships on which they lighted. Cae­sar in his Commentaries says, that the G [...]s fir'd the Camp of Q. Cicero, by throwing into it with Slings such Balls of Earth as were kindled before they were thrown.

Armisalii, a sort of Dancers in Armour, who danc'd the Dance called Pyrricha, which is perform'd with Arms, by keeping time while they strike their Swords and Javelins against their Bucklers.

Arquites, Archers, who shot Arrows out of a Bow.

Ars, an Art, is a Collection of Precepts, Rules, Inventions and Experiments, which being observ'd give success to our underta­kings in any Affairs, and render them use­ful and pleasant. In this Sense Art is divided into two Branches, whereof one compre­hends the Liberal, and the other the Mecha­nick Arts.

The Liberal Arts are the Sciences, such as Poetry, Musick, Painting, Philosophy, Ma­thematicks, Architecture Civil and Military, Physick, Geometry, Arithmetick, &c.

The Mechanical Arts are those which re­quire more the Labour of the Hand and the Body, than of the Mine.

Thetzes says, that in the time of Noah a cer­tain Aegyptian call'd Vulcan found out Fire, and invented those Arts in which Fire is em­ployed, and that the Greek Poets having been Educated in Aegypt, transported them into Greece, and attributed the whole Glory of these Arts to their own Nation.

'Tis certain that Noah was the first Inventor of all Arts, as well as of the cultivating of the Vine; yet it cannot reasonably be deny'd, but that during the Sixteen Ages which pass'd between the Creation of the World and the Deluge, Men had invented many Arts and Sciences which Noah could not be ignorant of, having liv'd Six Hundred Years before the Deluge; these therefore he restor'd after the Deluge, or else invented some of these Arts a new.

Artemisia, was the Wife of Mausolus King of Caria: When he was dead and his Body burnt and reduc'd to Ashes, Artemisia mix'd these Ashes with sweet-scented Waters, and drank them up, because she thought she could not better restifie the extreme Love she had for her Husband, than by drinking his Ashes, and making her self by this means his Sepulchre. Yet she built him a stately Monu­ment in the City of Halicarnassus, enrich'd with Images of Marble, which was accounted one of the Wonders of the World, and a Master-Piece of Architecture. This Work has so [Page] far merited the approbation of all Ages, that all the magnificent Monuments of Kings and other Heroes are nam'd from it, Mausolea. Artemisia died 2 Years after her Husband, for grief that she had lost him. We must not here conceal a brave Action which she did after the Death of Mausolus, which was this. Having taken upon her the Govern­ment of the Kingdom, the Rhodians could not endure that a Woman should reign over all Caria, and therefore they equipt out a Fleet to make themselves Masters of the Kingdom. But Artemisia being inform'd of it, gave orders that a Fleet of Ships should he hid in the little Harbour which the King had caus'd to be cut, toge­ther with Gally-Slaves, and such Military Men as had been accustom'd to fight at Sea, and that the rest should appear open­ly upon the Ramparts. Then the Rhodians approaching with their Fleet very well equipp'd, as it was just ready to enter into the great Harbour, the Queen gave a sig­nal from the Walls to give them to under­stand that the City would surrender. Whereupon the Rhodians left their Ships and went into the City, and immediately Artemisia caus'd the little Harbour to be open'd, out of which came the Fleet, and went into the great Harbour, where the Rhodians had left their Ships; these her Fleet carried away with them into the open Sea, after they had furnish'd them with Seamen and Souldiers; and at the same time the Rhodians having no means left of escaping were all kill'd in the publick Place wherein they were found shut up. Nevertheless the Queen went streight to the Isle of Rhodes with the Ships of the Rhodians; and the Inhabitants seeing the Ships return crown'd with Laurel, receiv'd their Ene­mies, whom they took for their own Peo­ple returning Victorious: But Artemisia pos­ses'd her self of their City.

Vetruvius, from whom I have taken this History, says that the Mausoleum was built in the City of Halicarnassus. Although Mauso­lus, says he, was born at Mylassus, yet he resolv'd to fix his abode at Halicarnassus, seeing that was a Place of a very advanta­geous Situation, and very convenient for Commerce, as having a very good Har­bour. The Place on which it stood, was bending after the manner of a Theatre; and in the lower part of it which was near the Harbour he design'd to build a pub­blick Exchange, but in the middle of the Decsivity of the Hill, he made a great and wide Street, in which was built that excellent Work called the Mausoleum, which is one of the 7 Wonders of the World.

There is a Medal of Queen Artemisia; which on the Reverse has the Figure of the Pyramid of the Mausoleum which she built for her Husband: It is of Silver and well cut. On one side of it there is the Face of the Princess, having her Hair encompassed with a Royal Diadem; on the other there is the Pyramid of the Mausoleum, and on the top of it there is a Man standing upright leaning upon a half Pike, and upon the lowermost Leg of the Pyramid there is the Greek Letter Φ. to signifie the Affection which Artemisia had for her Husband, together with these words [...].

There is also another sort of Medal of Brass on which there is the perfect and entire Figure of the Mausoleum.

ARTEMISUM,

a Temple in Italy, in the Forest of Aricia, whose Original was as follows. Pylades and Orestes having suf­fer'd Shipwrack when they were just ready to be Sacrific'd, kill'd those that guarded them, and massacred K. Thoas; and after that carried away captive the Priestess of Diana. and the Goddess her self to whom they were to be offered in Sacrifice: They landed in Italy, and built a Temple to Diana, which was called Artemisium, or Dianium, where Slaves are sacrific'd to that Goddess, and whose Priest ought to be a fugitive Slave.

ARVALES,

the Fratres Avales, so cal­led ab arvis, i. e. from the Fields, because they Preside over the Sacrifices that were offered to Bacchus and Ceres for the Preservation of the Fruits of the Earth. Ful­gentius gives the following Account of their Original. The Nurse of Romulus called Acc [...] Laurentia, had a custom of offering every Year a Sacrifice to desire of the Gods a plentiful Crop, and in doing this she was accompanied with her 12 Children: But one of them being dead, Romulus who was very willing to countenance this De­votion of his Nurse, put himself in his stead to fill up the number of Twelve, and gave this Society, the Name of the Twelve Arval Brethren, which they have kept ever since. They held their Assemblies commonly at the Capitol in the Temple of Concord, or in a Wood consecrated to the Goddess Dia, about 5 Miles distant from Rome, and which li [...]es in that way which now is called Via Campana. They wore a Crown made of Ears of Corn tied up with a white Ribbon. Those who were promoted to this Dignity were made Noble, and exempted from all Offices in the City and from Taxes. Some Authors have thought that they had the Authority [Page] of determining the Limits of Lands and Inhe­ritances; but others attribute this Authority to certain Persons who are also called Arvales Sacerdotes.

ARUSPEX,

One that divin'd by Inspe­ction of the Entrails of Beasts, which the An­cients kill'd in Sacrifice to the Gods, from which they drew Prognosticks of future E­vents.

ARUSPICINA,

Divination by the Entrails of Beasts slain to the God's. This sort of Divination is very ancient, and was practis'd by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks and Africans, and afterwards by the Tuscans, who became most excellent in it. From them the Romans learn'd this Science; Romulus at first instituted Three Aruspices, one for each Tribe, into which he divided his People; af­terwards the Senate ordain'd that a certain number of Young Men of a noble Family should be sent to Tuscany, to be better in­structed in this Science. Cicero limits the Numbers to Six, Valerius Maximus makes 10 of them, and some others 12.

'Tis said, that Tages the Son of Genius and Grandson of Jupiter taught the Tuscans this Art, and Cicero in the 2d. Book of Divination relates to us something of the Fabulous Story of this Tages. viz. That when a Peasant was tilling the Ground, the Coulter of his Plough happen'd to cut deeper than was usual; and then he saw a Clod assume the Figure of a young Infant, whom the Inha­bitants called Tages, and that this Tages instructed the Peasant presently how he might predict things to come by Animals: This is also confirm'd by Ovid.

Indiginae dixere Tagem, qui primus Hetrus­cam.
Edocuit gentem casus aperire futuros,
Ovid. lib. 15. Metam. v. 558.

This Art took its Conjectures of things future, either from the Motions of the Ani­mal which was to be sacrific'd, or from its Entrails which were pull'd out, or lastly, from the Fire into which they were thrown after they had been carefully examin'd.

It was observ'd whether the Animal went without struggling to the Sacrifice, whether it did not make unusual Noises at the time of Immolation, or whether he did not get away out of the Hands of those who led it.

After this the Entralls were examin'd which the Aruspex pull'd out, such as the Liver, the Heart, the Spleen and the Reins, their Colour was carefully consider'd, and strict enquiry made whether there was any Spot or Blemish in them.

After this these perts were cast into a Fire newly kindled, and then the Divinor look'd carefully whether the Smoke and Flame ascended together like a Globe, and whether they parted, one going to one side, and the other to another. From all these Signs they took Prognosticks good and bad which moved them either to pursue or desist from any Undertaking.

Presages also were taken from conse­crated Wine or Water wherewith the Victim was sprinkled, and it was observ'd whether the Wine of which the Libation was made, did not lose its Colour or Tast; as it hap­pen'd to Dido, who at the time of sacrificing found the Wine chang'd into black Blood, that it was corrupted in the Vessel into which she had put it, as Virgil relates,

Latices ingressere sacros.
Fusaque in obscenum se vertere vina cruorem.
Aeneid. l. 4. v. 455.

And thus it happen'd also to Xerxes, who on the Eve before he attack'd the City of Sparta, saw the Wine which was pour'd out for him to drink, three times chang'd into a very bad Blood, as Valerius Maximus tells us, [Infusum nempe paterae ejus vinum, in sanguinem, nec semel, sed iterum ac tertio conversum.]

We must not think that Wisemen among the Romans gave credit to these foo­lish Fables about the Inspection of Entrails, which were believ'd only by the ignorant People, as Cicero tells us in his 2d. Book of Divination. [Aruspicina ego Reipublicae causa communisque Religionis colendam censeo, sed soli sumus.]

Princes made use of it to keep the common People and Souldiers in their Duty: So did Age­silaus, according to the Relation of Plutarch; For he being in Aegypt, and perceiving the Souldiers to be wavering in their Duty, thought fit to confirm their staggering Faith by writing on the Palm of his Hand in great Greek Characters, N [...]KH, which signifies Victory; and after this having slain a Victim, he took its Entrails reeking hot in­to his Hand, and held them there so long till these Characters were imprinted upon them, and then having shown them to all the Army he remov'd their Fears and gave them fresh Courage, by this word which appear'd upon the Entrails of the Victim, for now they all believ'd that the Gods did promise them Victory.

At, is deriv'd from Aes according to Varro, and formerly Assis was us'd for the Nomina­tive: It signifies the weight of a Roman Pound, which was only 12 Ounces.

As, a piece of ancient Roman Money, made at [...]st. of Copper in a Lump which weigh'd a Pound, and which did not begin to be stamp'd till the time of Servius Tatla [...], and [Page] did always retain its weight of a Pound un­til the 2d. Punick War against Carthage, when they began to coin six Asses out of a Pound, each weighing 2 Ounces, according to the Testimony of Pliny; and because the weight of an As was different at several times, when Authors would express the Asses of a Pound-weight, they say, Aes grave, which is not the same thing with Rude, as [...] thought, for Rude is oppos'd to Signatum, which signifies Money, whereas Grave re­spects only the weight, and cannot agree both to one and t'other.

Now because at first they weigh'd their Money, from thence came the Words Impen­sae, Expences, Dispensator a Steward, and Libri­pens a Treasurer.

'Tis not easy to know certainly when the Romans first began to make use of Silver Mony: Pliny writes that it was five Years before the first Punick War, and Varro thinks that Servius Tullus was the first that brought it into use.

An As according to our Money at present is in Value a Half-penny-farthing, as may be seen in the Tables annex'd to the laze Cam­bridge Dictionary.

An As is us'd also for any entire thing, which is divided into twelve parts, as an In­heritance, an Estate, in which case the parts are called Ounces: Which Observation will help us to understand many Expressions scatter'd in Latin Authors, as Haeres ex asse, a general Heir, or an Heir to all the Goods; Eaeres ex besse, an Heir to two Thirds; Hares ex semisse, an Heir to one Moiety; Haeres ex dadrante an Heir to 3 Fourths, and so of the rest which may be easily understood by the following Table.

As, call'd also Libra and Pondo, 12 Ounces.The whole and entire thing divisible by 12.
Deunm, 11 Ounces, so call'd because there wants an Ounce.Eleven Twelfths.
Decunx, 10 Ounces, that is to say decem U [...]tiae.Ten Twelfths. or Five Sixths.
Dodrans, 9 Ounces, because deest quadrans.Nine Twelfths or Three Fourths.
Besses or Bessis 8 Oun­ces, because deest triens, according to Varro.Eight Twelfths or Two Thirds.
Septunx, 7 Ounces as much as to say sep­tem unciae.Seven Twelfths.
Semissis for Semiassis; six Ounces.A half Pound or Six Twelfths.
Quineanx, 5 Ounces.Five Twelfths.
Triens, 4 Ounces, i. e. the third part of in As.Four Twelfths of One Third.
Quadrans, 3 Ounces.One Fourth.
Sextans, 2 Ounces.One Sixth.
Sescunx, for Sesqul un­cia, 1 Ounce and a half.One Eighth.
Uncia an Ounce.One Twelfth.

ASAROTA,

a sort of Floor. Pliny says, that painted Pavements, wrought artist­cially, came from Greece, and that among the rest, the Pavement of Pergamus, which was done by Sesus, was the most Curious. This word Asarotos, signifies that which is not swept away. [ab a Privative & [...]] and, this Name was therefore given it, because they saw upon the Pavement the Crumbs, and other things which fell from the Table while they were at Meat, so lively represented, that they seem'd to be Realities, and that the Ser­vants took no Care to sweep the Rome clean. This Pavement was made of small Shells painted with divers Colours, and that which was most admir'd in it, was a Döve drink­ing, whose Head cast a shadow upon the Water. Monsieur Perrault rejects this opi­nion of Pliny about this word, and thinks it more probable, that these black Pavements which by reason of their driness drank up all that was spilt upon them, should rather be call'd [...] either because it was neither convenient to sweep them, or wipe them with Spunges, as they did other Floors, or else because they appear'd not to be sweps at all.

ASBESTOS,

i. e. Incombus [...]ible, is a sort of Stone, of which Cloth was made which would not burn, though it was thrown into a great Fire. Pliny mentions a Fla [...] that grew in the Indies, which he calls As­bestum.

Some think that the dead Bodies of the Romans which were burnt, were wrapp'd up in this Cloth to preserve their Ashes. But Pliny assures us, that it was kept for the Kings of those Countries upon the account of its scarceness.

Strabo and Plutarch relate that the like Cloth was also made of the Stone Amiantus, and that some at that time had the secret of Spinning it, which is not incredible, as many perswade themselves, since it is a Stone that may be all drawn out into Threads.

ASBOLUS,

a Centaur which Hercu­les hang'd upon a Gibbet.

ASCANIUS,

the Son of Aeneas and Creusa, who came with Aeneas his Father into Italy. After the Death of Aeneas, Ascanias was besieg'd in Lavinium by Mez [...]utius after [Page] such a manner that he saw he could not long defend himself: Whereupon he sent to him to sue for Peace, which was offer'd him in­deed, but upon very dishonourable Terms: and therefore he resolv'd to use his utmost endeavour to oppose him by a vigorous Sally: But before this was put in Execution, he ob­serv'd a good Omen; for having made a Di­vision of the Heavens, a clap of Thunder pass'd from the right to the left in a serene Day, which gave him great Encouragment to execute his design. Having therefore for this end made choice of a very dark Night he made some false Attacks upon the weakest of the Enemies Quarters, but his chief assault was upon the Place of the greatest strength, which was less carefully guarded. This Stra­tagem succeeded very well for him, for his Enemies were defeated, and Mezentius his Son lost his Life upon the Place. After this Vi­ctory Ascanius went and built the City of Alla lenga 30 Years after Lavinium, in the Place which was mark'd out to him by the 30 little Boar-pigs of the white Sow. He reign'd 38 Years.

Sub Ascia dedicavit. Monsieur Spon in his Antiquities of the City of Lyons, Chap. 4. Says, we have hitherto said nothing of this Phrase, sub Ascia dedicare, which we meet with so often in Inscriptions upon the Tombs of the ancient Pagans. Monsieur Chorier, who has describ'd the Antiquities of Vienna, ex­plains it very ingeniously: [...], says he signifies in Greek a Shadow, from whence comes the word [...], and in Latin Ascia, which signifies a Place without a Shadow; and it was usual with the Ancients to set up their Tombs in an open Place, or in a Place without a Shadow.

'Tis true the generality of Antiquaries use the word Ascia for an Instrument, wherewith they cut and polish'd the Stone which was to be laid upon Graves: From whence it comes to pass that in the Laws of the 12 Tables we have this Clause. Rogum Ascia ne polito, that we should not polish the Monuments of the dead. But this Law was disus'd and the Romans growing more powerful and rich, would not lose their Pomps and Vanities even after their Death: Witness the many stately Mausolca, which are to be seen in all Italy and other Provinces of their Empire. Some think that a certain Figure made in the form of an Ax, which we often meet with upon ancient Inscriptions, is that Ascia whereof we are now speaking. Gaichard in his first Book of Funerals, speaking of these words tells us, that the Law of the 12 Tables forbad to polish the Wood of the Funeral Pile, but that this Law was not at all observ'd; and that every one caus'd the Wood of the Funeral Pile to be po­lish'd, and adorn'd it with Pictures made of Wax of divers Colours; [...] which Custom adds he, we may refer these 3 Words sub Ascia dedicare. I do not think continues he, that the Romans added at the end of their Epitaphs these words to shew that the Ma­ble had been polish'd, for as much as the Ax which is there represented is not a Tool proper for polishing Marble or Stone, espe­cially seeing that part of the Stones where these words, and that Figure is to be found, are rough and unpolish'd.

ASCLEPIADES,

a Greek Physician, of whom we read this Inscription at Rome. ‘L. ARUNTIO SEMPRONIANO
ASCLEPIADI.
Imp. Domitiani Medico. T. F. L.
In Fronte P. XX.
In Ag. P. XX.’

Authors mention two of this name who were Physicians: He who was Physician to Domitian possibly was the last of the two, and he who was Cicero's Friend, the first. But here we must observe, that these Greek Phy­sicians when they came to Rome, took upon them a Praenomen, the name of a Family, and a Surname, although in their own Country they had only one Name or Surname. And the Reason of this was, because their Free­dom being given them at Rome, they were in­corporated into the Tribes, and adopted in­to the Families of the Republick. Thus As­clepiades, who according to the Custom of the Greeks had but one name, assumed here 3 pre­ceeding Names, Lacius Aruntîus Sempronlands, that of Asclepiades continuing still as an Ag­nomen or 2d. Surname.

Reinesius, in his Inscriptions publish'd a lit­tle while ago, makes this Asclepiades diffe­rent from him, who is mention'd by Au­thors as famous for the Books he wrote about Medicaments; and he thinks that he who is meant in this Inscription was the Son or Grandson of Aruntius the Physician, to whom 250 Sestertia magna, were given as Pliny tells us as a Reward, Book 9. of his History.

There is a 3d. Asclepiades according to an Inscription which we find at Arignan. ‘C. CALPURNIUS ASCLEPIADES.
Prufa ad Olympum Medicus,
Parentibus & sibi fratrib.
Civitate VII. à divo Trajano imperavit.
Natus III. Nonas Martics, Domitiano XIII. Cos.
eodem die quo & uxor ejus
VERONIA CHELIDON.
cum qua vixit an. LI.
studiorum & morum causâ.
[Page] probatus à viris clariss.
adjedit Magistratibus Pop. R.
ita ut in aliis & in Prov. Asi [...]
Custodiar—in urna
Iudicum
Vixit ann. LXX.’

CAIUS CALPURNIUS AS­CLEPIADES, a Physician of the Ci­ty of Prusa at the Foot of mount Olympus, obtain'd of the divine Emperour Trajan, 7 Cities for his Father and Mother, himself and his Brethren; and was born the 5th. Day of March, under the 13th. Consulship of Domitian, on the very same day that his Wife VERONIA CHELIDON was born, with whom he liv'd 52 Years being approv'd by Persons of the first Quality upon the account of his Learning and good Behaviour, he was Assessor to the Magi­strates of the People of Rome, not only in Asia, but a so in other Provinces. He liv'd 70 Years.

This Asclepiades was never made a Free-man, as Rei [...]esins thinks, since he took upon him the name of CAIUS CALPUR­NIUS ASCLEPIADES, and there is no L, in the Inscription, to signifie that he was Libertus. His Country was the City of Prusa, which is still to this Day call'd Prussa in By [...]inia, at the Foot of Mount Olympus. From this Place the 1st Asclepiades originally came, who was Cicero's Friend, and the Author of a Sect which pretended to cure Diseases by a moderate way of living rather than by Me­dicines; for Strabo and Galienus say, that he was of the City of Prusa in Bythrnia: And if we compute the Times in which these 2 As­clepiadas's liv'd, he who is meant in this In­scription, might be Grandson to the former, and inherit his Learning and Reputation; since he obtain'd by the Bounry of the Em­peror Prajan, probably upon the account of delivering him from some dangerous Disea­ses, the Possession of 7 Cities, which is a very remarkable particular of History. He was born under the 13th. Consulship of Domitian, which answers to the Year from the building of Rome DCCCXL. and to tha