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THE ANATOMY OF Human Bodies; Comprehending the most Modern DISCOVERIES AND CURIOSITIES In that ART. To which is added A Particular Treatise OF THE Small-Pox & Measles. Together with several PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIENCED CURES. With 139 FIGURES curiously cut in Copper, Representing the several Parts and Operations.

Written in Latin by ISBRAND de DIEMERBROECK, Professor of Physick and Anatomy in Utrecht.

Translated from the last and most correct and full Edition of the same, By WILLIAM SALMON, Professor of Physick.

LONDON Printed for W. WHITWOOD at the Angel and Bible in Little-Britain, 1694. At which place all Dr. Salmons Works are sold

THE PREFACE.

HOW beneficial the exact knowledge of the Fabrick of humane Bodies is, and how difficult the same skill is to attain, the continual improvements in Anatomy one Age after another, notwithstanding the utmost diligence of the last, do sufficiently evince. Were it not beneficial, so many Philophers and Physicians in all Ages had not employ'd their pains about it; and were it not difficult, some or other of these great Men had compleated it. Of which number we may reckon Democritus and Hippocrates, the two Parents of solid Philosophy and Physic, one of which great Men was by the City of Abdera invited to take a Journey to cure the other of Madness; but the Phy­sician finding the Philosopher intent upon his Anatomical scrutiny for the seat of the Bile, and receiving wise Answers to all his other enquiries, returned satisfied that the multitude of that place laboured of the very Disease, which they were so mad to have cured in Democritus.

Many more great Men among the Antients, such as Ari­stotle, Diocles, Erasistratus, Praxagoras, Herophilus, Asclepiades, Euripho and others cultivated this Province; but none in former Ages excelled Galen.

Nor was Anatomy in esteem only among Phisophers and Physicians; but even Kings and Emperors were both Specta­tors of, and Actors in it. Alexander the greatest of Emperors, employ'd both himself and his Master Aristotle sometimes in Dissections, notwithstanding his Conquests and great Affairs, which took up so much of his time and care. Also the best of Emperors, Marcus Antoninus, who was so prudent and wise a Man, gave himself to the search of Nature and to cutting up of humane Bodies, that he might the better understand his own [Page] Frame and Constitution. Nor did several Aegyptian Kings disdain to manage the Anatomical Knife with their own Roy­al hand.

Certain also it is, that Boethus and Paulus Sergius the Roman Consuls, and other great Personages, both Learned and War­like, honored Galen with their presence at his Anatomical Administrations▪ where they might see and admire the skill and workmanship of the Divine hand in building a Taberna­cle for the Soul of Man.

And indeed among all the advantages of Learning, none is greater than to have skill in Nature; and yet above all, the highest pitch of knowledge is to know our selves. Be he Philosopher, Orator, Lawyer or Divine, that thinks he knows so much, to what purpose is it, if he is wise abroad and a fool at home, if he knows not the Habitation of his Soul, the seat of his Reason, whereby he is willing to distinguish himself specifically from Brutes, and signally from the most of Men? What an exquisite piece of folly would it appear to be, if a Man skill'd in Minerals and Plants, and in most other sub­jects of Natural enquiry, yet should not know the Animal Oeconomy at all? Certainly he would to judicious Eyes ap­pear no less impertinent, than the Man that should mind every Mans business but his own, and in balancing Accounts would be found as rich in knowledge, as the foresaid imperti­nent would be in Estate.

For Anatomy is not a knowledge only honorable and plea­sant; but profitable and highly useful, especially to a Physi­cian; so necessary, that the Ancients thought it the very Foun­dation upon which the celebrated Art of Physic is built, which being once taken away, the whole Art must fall to ruine.

As an Architect, when he goes to repair a decay'd House, must of necessity know all the Parts of the House, of what substance they must be, of what figure, how many in num­ber, and how they must one be joyned to another. So he that [Page] professes Physic, can never cure the diseased Parts aright, unless he has an exact Idea of their substance, figure, bulk, number, and mutual connexion one to another, which can only be attained by Anatomy.

If a Philosopher ask a Reason of any action either Natural or Animal, it is only the knowledge of the Parts of a Humane Body, that can furnish a Man with an Answer. And if you are to cut out a Thorn, or the Point of any Weapon, or if you are to open a Fistula or an Abscess, you can perform no­thing aright without Anatomy.

It is through want of Skill in this, that sometimes Sense, sometimes Motion, sometimes both are violated, or wholly abolished, and (which is worst of all) a contemptuous neg­lect hereof by some Physicians has been the cause of present death to some Persons.

Of such moment is the knowledge of Anatomy, both in cure of Diseases, and in presaging the Event. But unskilful­ness makes Men bold where there is reason to fear, and timo­rous where all is safe, and no occasion of fear is.

Yet now adays how many Medical Rabbies are there pre­tending themselves to be either Chymists or Galenists, and not inferior to the Master of their Sect, who do not under­stand Books of Anatomy: So far are they from ever having seen or shown to others any Dissections. And divest but these fellows of their Titles, you'll find them mere Syrrup-mongers, endeavouring more to please the Palate than to cure Diseases.

Which indeed is the reason we have so many circumforane­ous Impostors, who promise boldly every thing to the un­learned Multitude, relying upon Receits for Medicines com­posed without Reason.

Hence it is come to pass, that he who knows but how to make up a Medicine, dares pronounce his Judgment of Diseases, and give his Medicines without any regard had to an able and learned Physician. And so Fellows play with Mens lives, who have skill in nothing, much less in so abstruse an Art as Physick is.

[Page]Wisely therefore have our Laws provided, that none but such as are recommended by their Learning and Probity should be admitted to take care of the Health of Men, none I say, but such as are approved of by the Learned. We have not in England wanted our Cato's, Boethus's and Paulus's, who by Law have kept Sycophants and Knaves from Practi­sing of Physick; who have obliged every one to Practise that Art and Trade he has been brought up to, and who have re­stored Learning to its place and honor.

For only the Learned in Anatomy know, what Part a Disease does primarily affect, and what by Sympathy, of what Nature things are, and what Remedies ought to be applied to each Part, since the Method of Cure varies according to the Nature of several Parts.

Only Men skill'd in Anatomy can give true Judgment upon a Wound, whether it be Mortal or no, which is of no small moment to a Judge or Magistrate for their Conduct and Procedure upon Criminals in that particular.

Such likewise they must be, who by dissecting a Diseased Body, can procure any advantage to the living, by finding out more proper Remedies, according as by Dissection they have found in others the cause and seat of the Disease.

Though by what has already been said, you see the Credit and Reputation Anatomy has in former Ages been, yet the Study of it never flourished more than in this last Age, wherein so many are so strenuously industrious, that one would think in our Age it might be brought to perfection▪ Who can ever forget the Learned Asellius, for finding out the Lacteal Veins? No less than immortal Glory can be due to the Renown'd Harvey, our Country-man, for finding out the Circulation of the Blood. He that cannot acknowledge the Excellency of our Willis for his Anatomy of the Brain, must never pretend to the subject Discourse. The curious Researches of our Wharton on the Glands surpass what has been said in former Times. The Scholastic and Learned Glisson has performed his Share in trasing the Meanders of the [Page] Liver-Vessels. The acute Lower has shown in sensible Terms, how the prime Mover of the Humane Machine ex­erts its Power. The renowned Bartholinus in Denmark, the Swammerdam's, Bilsius's, de Graaf's, and others in the Low-Countries; but especially the Learned and Laborious Diemer­broeck, in Utrecht, have raised to themselves immortal Monu­ments of their Learning and Industry about this Subject. And upon Diemerbroecks Labours principally, what I have here to say, shall be employed. He says, he had for several Years been conversant in Anatomical Studies; that in teach­ing others, he had learned many things himself that were new, and till his Time altogether unknown; upon which he resolved to write a Book of particular Observations, and make them publick, as he saw several others had done before him. But abundance of his Friends disswaded him from this, and urged him rather to write a whole Body of Anato­my, and to put into it (besides what Galen, Eustachius, Vesalius, and others had written, who had been most excellent in Works of this Nature) not only his own, but all the Mo­dern Inventions of all Learned Men whatsoever. This Ad­vice was not unwelcome to him, because none had attempt­ed this before him. But the Attendance upon his Practice, the Greatness of the Undertaking, and the Criticalness and Censoriousness of this curious Age, to say nothing of the Malice and Envy of some, did a little deterr him. However, these Difficulties being surmounted, he undertook the Busi­ness, finished it, and made it publick.

All the new things, which either he could find out, or were hitherto found out by the best of Anatomists, he has here brought upon the Stage. He further, in his First Editi­on, engaged, that whatever hereafter he should find lying hid in obscurity, he would bring to light, and when he died, that he would bequeath all to Posterity. For as long as the Desire of advancing Anatomical Knowledge should continue in the World; he knew innumerable other things would be produced, which we cannot now so much as dream of, such [Page] things he recommends to Posterity, and that out of Love to the common Welfare, Men would not hereafter scruple to undertake this Province.

In this Anatomy of his, he tells you, he is not so ambiti­ous as to arrogate to himself the excellent Sayings, or the new Inventions of others; but desiring to give every one his due Honour; he sets down the Names of the Authors, of whom he borrowed any thing; for, as Pliny says, He ever reckoned it a piece of Good Nature and Modesty, to acknowledge his Bene­factors, but that it was an Argument of Guilt and Ill Nature, to chuse rather to be catched in Theft, than to restore another his own, when he at the same time is in debt upon Interest. And so he gives to all their Due. For, he professes, he would not be ac­counted one of these, that by writing of Books, would procure themselves a Name, who by raking and scraping all they can from others, get a great deal together, and vaunt it all for their own, concealing the Authors Names from whence they stole, when in the mean time they mis-apprehend perhaps the Authors Meaning, and what they have thence transcribed, neither they themselves well understand, nor are they able to express it to others.

Nevertheless, in quoting of Authors, he uses not many Flatteries and Complements, but avoids all fulsome and A­dulatory Blandishments, wherewith abundance of Books now adays are rather blotted than adorned, while they style the Authors, whom they cite, the most Eminent, never e­nough to be commended, the most Acute, the most Famous, the most Learned, the most Noble, the most Celebrated, &c, and adorn themselves, especially such as are yet alive, with I know not what Epithetes (it may be to avoid and prevent some shrowd Objections, which haply they might otherwise fear; or that they themselves being ambitious and delighted with such empty Applause, desire the same Fa­vour, at one time or other, to be returned upon themselves) he reckons, all he quotes, to be Learned Men, nor does he doubt of it, though he thinks some more Learned than o­thers. [Page] Therefore he would have no Man take it ill, that he lards not his Name with many such Epithets; because, as Complements now pass indifferently upon all Men, they ra­ther fully the Illustrious Worth of the Deserving, than add any Splendor to it.

In this Book he studies not so much Politeness of Style, as the Truth, which has no occasion for Bombast and Rheto­ric. But that he may the better discover what the Truth is, in several places he opposes other Mens Opinions, but in a friendly way; some he refutes, and wholly rejects, but without any Malice; here and there he ushers in his own, but without Ambition; and whereas he has observed, that in most Authors, several things are wanting about the True Use of the Parts, many things, either written or judged a­miss, in several places he treats more fully concerning it, but without Disparagement or Reproach to others. For he ne­ver reckoned it▪ any Fault in a Learned Man, that all other Mens Writings do not please him alike, nor that he corrects many things, and contradicts many, provided it be done ci­villy, and without Virulence and Calumny; which alass! is now the Practice of too many Supercilious Scriblers, who, the better to defend their Darling Opinions, and these often taken, and stolen from others, and vouched for their own, had rather attack their Adversaries with foul Words and Scur­rilous Writings (which does not at all become Learned Men) then concert the difference in friendly Reasonings.

In the Seventh Book of this Work, and other where, in describing the Ducts of the Veins, he takes a new and unusu­al Method; for whereas other Anatomists heretofore de­rived the Branchings of the Veins from the Vena Cava and other great Veins, to all the Parts of the Body, he on the contrary prosecutes them from the Parts to the great Veins, and so to the Vena Cava, that so the continual Progress of the Blood, according to the Order of Circulation, might the better be demonstrated.

Thus much he published in his Life Time: But before [Page] he died, he had made several fresh Collections, and some­where Alterations. These in this last Edition, from whence this Translation was made, are added by his Learned Son. Wherein we may modestly aver, that the most material things, found either in Ancient or Modern Anatomists, are comprehended, and far more Opinions and Discoveries, than ever were contained in any one Anatomical Treatise yet extant.

Now it being agreed by all skilful Physicians, that Anato­my is the solid Basis of Physic; and (as has before been said) the Learned Diemerbroeck having excelled in laying the Corner Stone, how can it reasonably be suggested, that the same Learned Hand cannot build a Superstructure Correspon­dent? The Author therefore having not rested in Theory alone, but having put in Practice what he so well knew in the Art of saving Men; and moreover, having given, not only his own, but other Mens Practice in the most Epide­mic Diseases, the Small-Pox and Measles, which were ne­ver till this Edition made publick; we thonght we could not do better, than give our Country-men, in their own Tongue, what he so advantagiously has written in the Learned, and only to such as understand that. In these acute and violent Diseases, we find the best Methods yet invented, scarce sufficient to rescue the major Part of Patients from them; how requisite therefore is it, that the Skill of so Learn­ed and successful a Physician as Ours should not dye with him? But he rests not here, his worthy Son has likewise communicated in this Edition, some of his Fathers Observa­tions upon various Diseases, wherein consists the Life and Soul of Physic; for in them, as in a Piece of Workman­ship, you may see the Authors Skill, better than in any Pre­cepts, inasmuch as it is much easier to prescribe Rules how to act, than to put those same Rules in Practice. So that in this Volume you may have a Summary of the Excellencies in the Art of Physick, which so many Learned Men in all Ages, since Physic was an Art, have by their utmost Diligence and Ingenuity been able to accomplish.

Tab. I.

[Page]THE EXPLANATION Of the Sixteen PLATES.

The EXPLANATION of the First TABLE. In Folio 68.

This Table exhibits the Delineations of the Chyle-bearing Channels, the Pectoral Chyle-bearing Channel, and of the Lymphatic Vessels of the Liver; cut in Brass by their first Discoverers.

FIGURE I. All the said Vessels, as they occur in a Dog.
A.
THE Ventricle.
B.
The Pylocus.
CC.
The Duodene Gut.
DDD.
The Iejune Gut.
EEE.
The Ilion Gut.
F.
The Blind Gut.
H.
The Beginning of the Right Gut.
IIIII.
The five Lobes of the Liver.
K.
The Vesicle of the Gall.
LL.
The Kidneys.
MM.
The Emulgent Veins.
NN.
The Hollow Vein.
O.
The Gate Vein.
R.
The Vesicle of the Chylus.
SS.
The Mesentery.
TT.
The broken Part of the Mesente­ry, that the Ligature of the Lym­phatic Vessels of the Liver might be conveniently adapted.
aa.
The Glandulous Sweet-bread.
bb.
The Fleshy Sweet-bread, an­nexed to the Duodenum, and lying under the Ventricle.
ccccc.
The milkie Veins lying be­tween the Intestines and the Glan­dulous Sweet-bread.
ddd.
The Milkie Veins issuing out of the Glandulous Sweet-bread.
eeeee.
The Exits of the Lymphatic Vessels from the Liver.
fff.
The Progress of them to the Kernel.
m.
And from thence into the Chylus-Bag.
gg.
Two Branches of the Choller-re­ceiving Channel.
H.
The Insertion of this Channel in­to the Duoclenum.
iiiii.
The [...] Veins.
m.
A K [...]rnel seated under the Porta Vein, receiving the Lymphatic Ves­sels of the Liver.
nn.
One of these Channels cree [...]ng through the Vesicle of the Gal [...].
oooo.
The Ramification of the Por­ta Vein, and its Ingress into the Liver.
[Page]tt.
The Veins of the Vesicle of the Gall.
xxxx.
The Places of the Valves in those Channels.
FIGURE II.
pppp.
The Places of the same Valves.
FIGURE III.
T.
The Bifurcation of the Chyle­bearing Channel in the Thorax, under the Heart, as it is fre­quently found.
FIGURE IV.
z.
The various Ramification of the Chyle-bearing Channel less com­mon.
FIGURE V.
x.
The Axillary Vein, with the Left Iugular i.
n.
The threefold Insertion of the Chyle-bearing Channel, less com­mon; for it is more frequently single.
FIGURE VI.
AAA.
The same Insertion in a Mans Head.
BB.
The Axillary Vein entire.
C.
The External Iugular Vein.
d.
The Clavicle.
FIGURE VII.
A.
The Heart removed to the Side.
BB.
The Lungs turned back.
CC.
The Hollow Vein.
D.
The Right Axillary Vein.
E.
The Left Axillary Vein.
F.
A part of the same Vein opened to shew the Insertion of the Chyle­bearing Channel.
G.
The Sternon delineated only with Points.
H.
The Left Iugular Vein.
II.
The Aorta Arteria.
KK.
The little Chylus-bag.
L.
The Hepatic Branches of the Hollow Vein.
aa.
The Emulgent Veins.
bb.
The Lumbar Veins.
dd.
The Crural Veins.
eeee.
The Lymphatic Vessels under the Right Gut, tending upwards to the Chylus-bag,
fffff.
The Kernels placed by the Crural Veins, out of which those Lymphatic Vessels rise.
ggg.
The said Lymphatic Vessels ris­ing out of the Kernels.
hhh.
The Lymphatic Vessels proceed­ing between the Muscles of the Abdomen to the Chylus-bag.
iiii.
The Milkie Veins creeping be­tween the Glandulous Sweet-bread and the Chylus-bag.
kkk.
The Glandulous Sweet-bread.
ll.
The Milkie Mesenteric Veins be­tween the Glandulous Sweet-bread, and the Chylus-bag.
MM.
The Chyle-bearing Channel in the Thorax.
N.
The Insertion of it into the Axil­lary Vein.
oo.
The Kernels of the Ster non.
pp.
Their Lymphatic Vessel dis­charging it self into the Channel of the Chylus in the Thorax.
Q.
A little Branch of it proceeding toward the Ribs.
RR.
The Glandules of the Heart.
S.
Their Lymphatic Vessels inserted into the Chyle-bearing Channel un­der the Heart.
FIGURE VIII.
xx.
The Gullet.
β.
The Kernel annexed to it.
γγ.
The Lymphatic Vessel arising out of it, and inserted into the Chyle­bearing Channel.
δδ.
The Chyle-bearing Channel.
FIGURE IX. The Chyle-bearing Channel in a Dog, as first discover­ed by Pecquetus, and by him delineated.
1.
The Trunk of the Hollow Vein ascending.
2.
The Receptacle of the Chylus.
3.
The Kidneys.
4. 4.
The Diaphragma dissected.
5. 5.
The Lumbar Psoa Muscles.
66.
The several Meetings of the Chyle-bearing Channels.
FIGURE X. The same Chyle-bearing Channel, together with the Chyle-Bag, taken out of a Dog.
A.
The Trunk of the Hollow Vein as­cending, open'd upwards in length.
BB.
The Meeting of the Iugular and Axillary Veins; where the Springs of the Chylus are marked out by Points.
CC.
The Valves of the Iugular Veins looking downwards.
DD.
The Distribution of the Milkie Vessels to the Springs, as described by Pacquetus.
EEE.
Various Meetings of the Mil­kie Vessels.
F.
The Ampulla, or upper Part of the Chyle-bearing Bag, conspicuous in the Thorax, near the untouched Diaphragma, toward the Left Side.
G.
A little Channel appearing on the Right-hand by the Diaphragma.
HH.
The remaining Portion of the Diaphragma.
I.
The Receptacle of the Chylus.
LLL.
The Milkie Mesaraics entring the Chyle-bag, cut off.
MMM.
Several Valves of the Chyle­bearing Channel.
ooo.
Valves preventing the Return of the Ascending Chylus.
FIGURE XI. The Chyle. bearing Channel in a Man, as discovered and described by Bartholi­nus.
A.
The Upper Chyle-bag rare and seldom seen.
bb.
Two Chyle bags mutually joyned to the Milkie Vessels, seldom seen, for generally there is but one.
ccc.
The Milkie Branches ascending from the Bags.
D.
The single Thoracic Branch.
E.
The Right Emulgent Artery.
FF.
The Kidneys.
GG.
The descending Trunk of the Great Artery, cut off below the Heart.
H.
The Spine of the Back.
K.
The Gullet turned back to the side.
LL.
The Kernels of the Thymas.
M.
The Thoracic Channel tending to the Subclavial Rib.
N.
The Insertion of the Chyle-bearing Channel into the Subclavium.
o.
The Valves.
P.
The inner Form of the Axillary Vein, expanded and slit the full length.
R.
The External Form of the Iugu­lar Vein.
TTT.
The Ribs of each Side.
V.
The Bladders in their proper Holes.
xx.
The Diaphragma laid open on each side.

The EXPLANATION of the Second TABLE. In Fol. 69.

This Table shews the Lymphatic Vessels seated in the Neck, as they are describ'd one way by Lewis de Bills, and ano­ther way by Iacob Henry Pauli.

FIGURE I. The Lymphatic Channels of the Neck described by Lewis de Bills, and by him call'd the Dew-bearing Channels.
A.
THE Dew-bearing Channel ascending upwards from the Cistern.
B.
The fissure of the said Channel about the fifth and sixth Vertebre of the Thorax.
E.
The Winding Receptacle which that Channel makes above the small Twigs of the Iugular Vein.
F.
The windings which that Recepta­cle makes about the writh'd Recep­tacle.
3.
Part of the Hollow Vein under that Receptacle.
4.
The Kernels of the Thorax.
G.
A Branch of the Dew-bearing Channel, running forth to the Ker­nels of the Breast.
H.
The Branch that grows to the Thoratic Kerhels under the wind­ing of that Channel.
I.
A Branch of the Dew-bearing Channel, ascending to the upper Kernel of the Neck.
K.
A little Twig of the first Branch ascending upwards.
L.
A Branch of the same ascend­ing to the lower Kernel of the Neck.
M.
The division of the Branch L.
5.
The lowermost Kernel of the Neck.
N.
The Gullet.
O.
The Iugular Vein.
P.
A little Sprig of the Iugular Vein.
R.
A Trunk of the great Artery.
V.
The Guts distorted.
X.
The Dew-bearing, by us called Milkie Veins.
YYY.
The great Kernel of the Me­sentery, or Asselius's Sweetbread▪ with the Kernels adjoyning to it.
Z.
The little Pipes from the Mesen­teric Glandules toward the Ci­stern.
6.
The Duodene Gut cut off.
7.
The Right Gut cut off.
9.
The hollow part of the Liver with its Lobes.
FIGURE. II. The Lymphatic Channels of the Neck, described by Ia­cob Henry Pauli.
AA.
The Hyoides Muscles in the Sternon out of place.
B.
The Sheild resembling Gristle.
C.
The Pipe of the Aspera Arteria.
DD.
The Gullet lying under the Aspera Arteria.
EE.
The Muscles of the Neck cut a­thwart.
G.
The hollow Vein ascending.
HHH.
The Axillary Veins.
II.
The External Iugulars out of place.
KK.
A Sprig of the External Iu­gular near the Neck.
LL.
The External Iugulars.
M.
The single Channel of the Iugular Lymphatics, coming from the long Kernel, and partly spread upon the Gullet, out of place.
NN. OO.
Two Lymphatic Vessels proceeding from the Cervical Ker­nels. [Page]
[figure]
[Page]
Tab: III
[Page]P.
The common hole like a Viol.
qq.
Two Appendixes, one entring the Axillary, the other the Iugu­lar Veins.
ss.
Pecquetus's and Hornius's Tho­racic Channel▪ ascending from the Chyle-bag.
TT.
The upper Ribs.
V V.
The lower Ribs.
1.
The lower conglobated Parotic.
2.
A small Kernel seated outwardly above the Iaws.
3.
The Maxillary Kernels, round.
4
The oblong Maxillary Kernel.
5
The lesser Kernel sometimes want­ing.
6.
The fleshy Tyroidaean Kernels discovered by Wharton.
7.
The Cervical Kernels compacted like a Bunch of Grapes.
8.
The Kernels of the Neck, some­times placed outwardly next the External Iugular, but seldom.
9.
The under Axillary Kernel.

The EXPLANATION of the Third TABLE. in Fol. 146.

This Table shews the Urinary Bladder, and the Testicles in Men, with their dependencies acurately describ'd by Regner de Graef.

FIGURE. I. The Urinary Bladder with [...] Parts annexed.
A.
THat part of the Urinary Bladder to which the Ura­chus was annexed.
B.
The fore-part of the Urinary Blad­der open'd.
CC.
The Ureters.
DD.
The Exit of the Ureters into the Bladder.
E.
The Neck of the Bladder.
FF.
The Parts of the seminary Ves­sels cut off.
GG.
The Vessels running forth to the seminary Vessels.
HH.
The Seminary Bladders blown up.
I.
The Caruncles with two holes through which the Seed breaks forth into the Ureter▪
KK.
The Glandulous Body, or the Prostate open'd in the fore­part.
LL.
The small mouths of the Chan­nels of the Glandulous Body, open­ing into the sides of the Caruncle, and unless they be blown up, con­spicuous only by certain points.
M.
The Beak of the Caruncle.
N.
The Ureter open'd in the upper part.
FIGURE II. The Testicles of a Man with its Coverings.
A.
The Parts of the preparing Ves­sels cut off.
B.
The Vaginal Tunicle containing all the Vessels of the Tunicle.
C.
The beginning of the Cremaster Muscle.
D.
The Fleshy Fibres of the same, annex'd to the Vaginal Tunicle, and running out the whole length of it.
EE.
The Fleshy Fibres of the same, ending obscurely in the Vaginal Tunicle.
F.
The Vaginal Tunicle containing the Testicle.
FIGURE. III. The Testicle with its Cover­ings annex'd laid bare.
A.
The Preparing Vessels cut and turn'd back.
B.
The same Vessels annex'd one to another by slender Membranes.
CC.
The Artery preparing the Seed, carry through the Belly to the Stones.
DD.
The Ramifications of the Veins preparing the Seed through the sides of the Stone.
E.
The Albugenious Tunicle contain­ing the substance of the Testicle.
F.
The Vaginal Tunicle thrown back.
G.
The bigger Globe of the Epidi­dymis.
H.
The middle part of the Epididy­mis.
I.
The lesser Globe of the same.
K.
The end of the same, or the be­ginning of the Vessel carrying the Seed.
L.
The different Vessel cut away.
FIGURE IV. The Testicle inverted.
A.
The Artery preparing the Seed.
B.
The division of it into two Branches.
CC.
The bigger Branch carry'd to the Testicle.
DD.
The lesser Branch hastening to the Epididymis.
E.
The bigger Globe of the Epidi­dymis adhering to the Testicle.
FF.
The Epididymis inverted, to shew how the Artery runs under it.
G.
The end of the Epididymis.
H.
The Vessel carrying the Seed cut away.
FIGURE V.
A.
The beginning of the Epididy­mis, where the Seminary Vessels perforate the Albugineous Tunicle.
BBB.
The bigger Globe of the Epi­didymis drawn upward, to shew the Ramificatious of the Vessels, and their entrance into the Testi­cle.
C.
The preparing Vessels cut off.
D.
The Divarications of the prepa­ring Vessels through the Albug [...]e­ous Tunicle.
E.
The Albugineous Tunicle.
FIGURE VI.
A.
The Body of the Testicle, the Al­bugineous Tunicle being taken off.
BB.
The Albugineous Tunicle in­verted.
CCC.
The Portions of the preparing Vessels preforating this Tunicle cut away.
D.
The Albugineous Tunicle sticking close, to the back of the Testicle, by reason of the Membranes of the Testicle there meeting.
FIGURE VII.
A.
The substance of the Testicle, se­parated from the Albugineous Tu­nicle.
BBB.
The Solutions of the substance; by which it appears not to be a Glandulous body, as at first sight it seems to be, but a Body com­pos'd of Vessels.
C.
The Albugineous Tunicle stretch'd upward.
FIGURE VIII.
AAA.
The Seminary Vessels of the Testicles placed in a certain order between the thin Membranes.
BB.
The Seminary Vessels running out through the Membranous sub­stance sticking to the back of the Testicle.
C.
Certain small Portions of the Seminary Vessels perforating the Albugineous Tunicle, cut off.
DDDD.
The Albugineous Tunicle opened, and drawn to the sides.

[Page] [Page]

Tab IV
FIGURE IX.
A.
The Testicle cut athwart.
BBB.
The Disposition of the Semina­ry Vessels.
C.
The Concourse of the Membranes detaining the Seminary Vessels, least they should be jumbled toge­ther, sticking close to the Back of the Testicle.
FIGURE X. The Prostate or Glandulous Body.
AA.
The Glandulous Body opened in the Fore-part.
B.
The Ureter opened in the upper Part.
C.
The Passages of the Glandulous Body laid bare.
O.
The Place of the Caruncle, through which the Seed breaks forth into the Ureter.
FIGURE XI. The Vessel of the Testicle of a Dormouse.
A.
The Spermatic Artery descending to the Testicle.
BB.
The whole Testicle, with admi­rable Dexterity, cleared so as to shew the Vessels.

The EXPLANATION of the Fourth TABLE In Fol. 154.

This Table shews the Yard, with the Seminary Vessels, and other Parts annexed to it, exactly delineated by Reg­ner de Graef.

FIGURE I. The hinder Part of the Yard
A.
The Urinary Vessel.
BB.
Portions of the Ureters.
CC.
Portions of the Vessels carrying the Seed.
DD.
The deferent Vessels dilated like little Boxes.
EE.
The Vessels running forth to the Seminary Vessels.
FFFF.
The Seminary Vessels distended with Wind.
GG.
The Hinder Prospect of the Prostatae.
H.
The Ureter.
I.
The Meeting of the deferent Vessels, with the Seminary Vessels.
K.
The Muscle dilating the Ureter.
L.
The same Muscle drawn back to the Side.
M.
The Spungy Part of the Yard un­der the Ureter.
NN.
The Ureter.
OO.
The Spungy Bodies of the Yard.
P.
The Nut.
qq.
The Muscles extending the Yard.
FIGURE II. The Forepart of the Genital Parts.
A.
The Urinary Bladder.
B.
The Neck of the Bladder.
CC.
Portions of the Ureters.
DD.
Portions of the Vessels carry­ing the Seed.
EE.
Vessels running forth to the Se­minary Vessels.
FF.
The Seminary Vessels.
GG.
The Prostatae.
[Page]H.
The Ureter adjoyning to its Spongy Part.
II.
The Spungy Part of the Ureter.
KK.
The Muscles erecting the Yard.
LL.
The Beginning of the Nervous Bodies separated from the Share-Bones.
MM.
The Skin of the Yard drawn to the Sides.
NN.
The Doubling of the Skin which constitutes the Preputium.
OO.
The Skin which was annexed behind the Nut.
P.
The Back of the Yard.
Q.
The Nut of the Yard.
R.
The Urinary Passage.
SS.
The Nerve running forth above the Back of the Yard.
V.
The Nervous Bodies meeting to­gether.
WW.
Two Veins meeting together, and running along the Back of the Yard with one remarkable Branch.
X.
The Vein opened to shew the Valves.
FIGURE III. The Yard divided to the Ureter.
AA.
The Nut of the Yard, together with the Nervous Bodies divided through the Middle.
BB.
The Membranes of the Nervous Body of the Yard divided one from the other.
CC.
An Artery creeping through the Spungy Substance of the Nervous Body.
DD.
The Spungy Substance of the Yard.
EE.
The intervening Fence.
FF.
The Fibrous Shoots of the Inter­vening Fences, ascending like a Comb.
G.
The Ureter cut off about the Glandulous Body.
H.
The Middle of the Ureter.
I.
The End of the Ureter perforating the Nut.
KK▪
The Spungy Substance of the U­reter.
LL.
The Beginnings of the Nervous Bodies dilated like little Bel­lows.
MM.
The Muscles erecting the Yard.
FIGURE IV. The Yard opened at the Side.
AA.
The Nut laid bare.
B.
The Bridle.
CC.
A Portion of the Skin, from which the other Part covering the Yard, is separated.
DD.
The Ureter lying under the Nervous Bodies.
EE.
The Membranes of the Nervous Bodies of the Yard divided.
FF.
An Artery shooting out through the Spungy Substance of the Ner­vous Body.
GG.
The Spungy Substance of the Nervous Body.
HH.
The Orifices of the Arteries cut off.
I.
The Ureter.
K.
The Spungy Substance of the U­reter.
LL.
The intervening Fence of the Nervous Bodies.
FIGURE V. The Yard dissected athwart.
AA.
The Spungy Substance of the Ner­vous Bodies.
BB.
Two Arteries perambulating the Nervous Bodies.
C.
The Urinary Passage of the U­reter.
D.
The Spungy Substance of the U­reter.
E.
The Intervening Fence.
FF.
The strongest Membrane of the Nervous Bodies.
G.
The thinnest Membrane contain­ing the Spungy Substance of the Ureter.
A.
A remarkable Vein creeping a­long the Back of the Ureter.

[Page] [Page]

Tab. V.
FIGURE VI. The Communication of the different Vessels, with the Seminary Vessels in the Body of Man.
AA.
The thick Parts of the diffe­rent Vessels endued with Substance and a small Cavity.
BB.
The Parts of the different Ves­sels, endued with a thin Substance and a large Cavity.
CC.
The Extremities of the Diffe­rent Vessels, streightned again to­gether, and gaping with a small Hole into the Neck of the Semi­nary Vessels.
DD.
The Neck of the Seminary Ves­sels divided into two Parts, by means of a certain intervening Membrane, to the end the Seed of the one side should not mix with the Seed of the other, before it comes to the Ureter.
EE.
The Seminary Vesicles distended with Wind.
FF.
The Vessels running through them.
GGG.
The Membranes by which the Vesicles and different Vessels are detained in their Situation.
HH.
The Blood-bearing Vessels runing out to the sides of the different Ves­sels, and embracing them with their small Branches.
I.
The Caruncle through the Pores of which the Seed bursts forth into the Ureter.
KK.
The Channels of the Glandulous Body gaping into the Ureter, at the sides of the Caruncle.
LL.
The Glandulous Body divided in the Fore-part.
MM.
The Ureter opened.
FIGURE VII.
  • The same Letters with those of the preceding Figure, as the one shewed the Exter­nal, so these shew the In­ternal Substance of the Se­minal Vessels.

The EXPLANATION of the Fifth TABLE, In Folio 174.

This Table shews the Constitution of the Womb, and the Female Privities, and the Parts adjoyning, as well in Women with Child, as in empty Women.

FIGURE I. The Womb containing an Embryo almost two Months gone.
A.
THE Womb.
B.
The greatest Vein among those which are in the Superficies of the Womb.
CC.
The Pendulous Testicles.
DDDD.
The Membrane of the Womb, to which the Shootings forth of the Vessels adhere.
E.
The Nympha.
FF.
The Hair of the Privities.
GG.
The Horns of the Womb, in the Superficies of which, appear lit­tle Veins, according to the Deli­neation of Aquapendens. But these we do not reckon to be the true Horns.
H.
The Urinary Passage.
[Page]II.
The Privity.
KK.
The Wings.
FIGURE II. The Entrance of the VVomb divided according to its Length.
A.
The Orifice of the Womb.
B.
The Neck of the Womb.
C.
The Orifice of the Bladder.
D.
The Neck or Sheath Divided.
FIGURE III, The Substance of the VVomb of a VVoman with Child divided, to shew the Chees­cake.
AAAA.
The four Triangular Parts of the Womb reflexed outward.
BBB.
The Cheescake of a tuberous and unequal Form.
C.
The Membranous Substance of the Cheescake, thicker than the other Membranes which is annexed to the Womb, but here torn off to shew the Chorion.
a.
The Chorion.
D.
The Neck of the Womb divided.
FIGURE IV. The Genital Parts of an Emp­ty VVoman.
A.
The Right Kidney Kernel.
B.
The Left Kidney Kernel.
CC.
The Kidneys on both sides.
DD.
The Right Emulgent Veins.
EE.
The Right Emulgent Arteries.
FF.
The Trunk of the Hollow Vein divided into two Iliac Branches, the Right and Left.
G.
The Left Emulgent Vein.
HH.
The Left Emulgent Arteries.
II.
The Right Spermatic Vein.
K.
The Right Spermatic Artery.
L.
The Left Spermatic Arterie.
M.
The Left Spermatic Vein.
NN.
The Trunk of the Great Arte­ry divided into the Right and Left Iliac Branch.
OO.
The Female Testicles.
PP.
A Portion of the broad Liga­ment.
QQQQ.
The Tubes of the Womb on each side.
R.
The Bottom of the Womb.
SS.
The round Ligaments of the Womb cut off below.
T.
The Neck of the Womb.
V.
The Hypogastric Vein on the Right Side.
V.
The Hypogastric Artery on the Left Side.
X.
The Hypogastric Artery on the Right Side.
X.
The Hypogastric Vein in the Left Side, extended to the Womb.
Y.
The Sheath of the Womb.
Z.
The Urinary Bladder depressed a­bove the Privity.
aa.
A Portion of the Ureters cut off about the Bladder.
bb.
A Portion of the Ureters cut off about the Kidneys.
cc.
The Vessels preparing the Seed, di­lated about the Testicles.
c. d.
The Channel of the Testicles, or the different Vessel.
FIGURE V.
A.
The Right Testicle.
BB.
The Right Tube depressed.
C.
The Left Testicle.
DD.
The Left Tube of the Womb.
E.
The Bottom of the Womb.
FF.
The round Ligaments of the Womb.
G.
The Urinary Bladder inserted into the Sheath of the Womb.
HH.
Portions of the Ureters.
II.
The two musculous Supporters of the Clitoris.
K.
The Body of the Clitoris it self.
FIGURE VI.
AA.
The bottom of the Womb dissect­ed athwart. [Page] [Page]
TABULA VI.
[Page]BB.
The Cavity of the Bottom.
C.
The Neck of the Womb.
D.
The little Mouth in the Neck of a Womans Womb which has born a Child.
EE.
The wrinkl'd Prospect of the Sheath of the Womb dissected.
FF.
The round Ligaments of the Womb cut off underneath.
FIGURE VII. The Womans Yard.
A.
The Nut of the Yard.
B.
The Prepuce.
CC.
The two Supporters.
D.
The Chink not manifestly pervi­ous.
FIGURE. VIII.
AA.
The two spongie Bodys of the Yard dissected athwart.
B.
The Nut of the Yard.
C.
The Prepuce.
DD.
The two Supporters.
FIGURE IX.
A.
The Head of the Clitoris promi­nent under the Skin.
BB.
The outward Lips of the Privity sundred one from the other.
CC.
The Nymphae sundred also.
D.
The Caruncle plac'd about the Urinary passage (a)
EE.
Two Myrtle-shap'd fleshy Pro­ductions.
FF.
Two Membranous expansions containing the Chink.
FIGURE X.
A.
Membrane spread athwart the Privity, taken for the Hymen.
FIGURE XI.
  • This shews the Privities of a Female Infant, where the the Parts are the same as in Fig. 9.

The EXPLANATION of the Sixth TABLE in Fol. 186.

This shews the Genitals of Women taken out of the Body, and placed in their natural Situation, accurately delineated by Regner de Graef.

AA.
THE Trunk of the great Artery.
BB.
The Trunk of the hollow Vein.
C.
The Right Emulgent Vein.
D.
The Left Emulgent Vein.
E.
The Right Emulgent Artery.
F.
The Left Emulgent Artery.
GG.
The Kidneys.
HHH.
The Ureters cut off.
I.
The right Spermatic Artery.
K.
The left Spermatic Artery.
L.
The right Spermatic Vein.
M.
The left Spermatic Vein.
NN.
The Iliac Arteries.
OO.
The Iliac Veins.
PP.
The Internal Branches of the Iliac Artery.
QQ.
The External Branches of the Iliac Artery.
RR.
The Internal Branches of the Iliac Vein.
SS.
The External Branches of the Iliac Vein.
TT.
The Hypogastric Arteries carri­ed to the Womb and Sheath.
VV.
The Hypogastric Veins accom­paning the said Arteries.
XX.
Branches of the Hypogastric Artery shooting to the Piss-blad­der.
[Page]YY.
Branches of the Hypogastric Vein carry'd to the Bladder.
ZZ.
Portions of the Umbilical Ar­teries.
a
The bottom of the Womb wrapt about with its common Tunicle.
bb.
The round Ligaments of the Womb, as they are joyn'd to the bottom of it.
cc.
The Follopian Tubes in their na­tural Situation.
dd
The rims of the Tubes.
ee.
The holes of the Tubes.
ff.
The Stones in their natural places.
g.
A portion of the right Gut.
h.
The Neck of the Womb, the com­mon Tunicle taken off to shew the Vessels more conspicuously.
i.
The Fore-part of the Sheath freed from the Piss-bladder.
k.
The Piss-bladder contracted.
ll.
Bloody Vessels running through, the Bladder.
mm.
The Sphincter Muscle girding the Neck of the Bladder.
n.
The Clitoris.
oo.
The Nymphae.
p.
The Urinary Passage.
qq.
The Lips of the Privity.
r.
The Orifice of the Sheath.

The EXPLANATION of the Seventh TABLE In Fol. 245.

This Table shews the Secondines with the Umbilical Vessels, in a human Embryo, and the Parts differing from those of ripe Age exactly describ'd by Casp. Bauhinus, Bartholine and H. Fab. ab Aquapendente.

FIGURE. I.
AAAA.
THE Flesh of the Chees­cake, or the Uterine Liver.
BB.
The Amnios Membrane.
C.
The Umbilical Vessels.
D.
The Umbilical Vein, and the two Umbilical Arteries.
FIGURE II.
AAA.
The Amnios Membrane.
B.
The Umbilical Vein and two Um­bilical Arteries.
CC.
The Chorion Membrane.
DD.
The branches of the Veins and Arteries dispeirs'd through the Chorion.
E.
The Conjunction of the Vessels of the Navel, as they are wrapt about with a little Tunicle resembling a little Gut.
FIGURE III.
  • The Skeleton of a dissected Birth, differing in many things from a Man of grown years, as may be seen in the Text.
FIGURE IV. Shews the length of the Um­bilical Vessels from the Cheesecake to the Liver of the Infant, and the progress of the Umbilical Vein from the Navel to the Liver; also the Liver of the Birth and the Gall-bladder.
A.
The Cheesecake wrapt about with the Chorion.
BBBB.
The Umbilical Vessels. [Page]
TABULA VII
[Page] [Page]
[figure]
[Page]
[Page]CC.
The Liver of the Infant.
DD.
The two larger Branches of the Umbilical Vein s [...]itting themselves into lesser.
EE.
The Branches of the Umbilical Arteries.
G.
The Trunk of the hollow Vein ascending to the gibbious part of the Liver.
H.
The Gate-veine.
I.
The Umbilical Vein boaring the Porta and the hollow Vein.
K.
The Gall-bladder.
LLLL.
The Vessels of the Chorion, or Branches of the Umbilical Veins and Arteries dispeirsed through the Chorion.
FIGURE. V.
AAA.
The outermost enfolding of the Birth call'd the Chorion.
BBB.
The Flesh growing to the outer­most folding, or the Uterine Cheese­cake or Uterine Liver.
CCC.
The Vessels distributed.
FIGURE VI.
AAAA.
The bottom of the Womb dissected into four parts.
B.
Part of the Neck of the Womb.
CC.
The Veins and Arteries em­bracing the Neck of the Womb.
D.
The Utrine Cheesecake.
EE.
The outermost enfolding of the Birth.
FIGURE VII.
AA.
The substituted Kidneys.
BB.
The true Kidneys distinguished with several Kernels ill expressed by the Error of the Graver.
C.
The great Artery, whence branches to the Capsulas and Kidneys.
D.
The hollow Vein from whence the Emulgents, and little Veins of the Capsulas.

The EXPLANATION of the Eight TABLE In Fol. 270.

This Table shews the Birth of the Womb describ'd by H. Fab. ab Aquapend. and G. Bartholinus.

FIGURE I. Shewing the Situation of the Birth, swimming upon the Moisture, together with the Cheesecake, and the Chorion annex'd to it.
A.
THE Cheesecake with the Chorion annex'd.
B.
The Umbilical Vessels.
C.
The Moisture upon which the Birth swims.
DDDD.
The four Parts of the Womb.
E.
The Neck of the Womb.
F.
The Sheath open'd.
G.
The most remarkable Trunks of the Vessels of the Chorion.
FIGURE II. Shewing the Situation of the Birth in the Womb; which however varies in others.
A.
The Head Prone with the Nose hid between the Knees.
BB.
The Buttocks to which the Heels are joyn'd.
CC.
The Arms.
D.
The Line drawn about the Neck, and reflex'd above the Forehead, and continuous to the Cheesecake.
FIGURE III. Shews the Situation of the Birth now endeavouring to come forth.
A.
The Head of the Infant.
B.
The Privity.
CCCC.
The upper Parts of the Abdomen taken away with a Pen­knife.

The EXPLANATION of the Ninth TABLE In Fol. 326.

Shewing the Heart with its Vessels in its Situation, with the Ventricles and Valves belonging to the same: toge­ther with the Lungs in their Situation, the Rough Artery and Diaphragma.

FIGURE I.
A.
THE Pericardium enfold­ing the Heart.
BB.
The Lungs embracing the Heart in their natural Situation.
C.
The hollow Vein ascending above the Heart.
D.
The Original of the Azygos Vein.
E.
The right Subclavial Vein.
F.
The right Iugular Vein.
G.
The left Iugular Vein.
H.
The left Subclavial Vein.
II.
The right and left Carotis Ar­tery.
KK.
The right and left Subclavial Ar­tery.
LL.
The Nerves of the sixth pair descending to the Lungs.
M.
The Original of the great Artery descending.
FIGURE II.
A.
The Pericardium taken from the Heart.
B.
The Heart spread over with the Coronarie Veins and Arteries.
C.
The Trunk of the great Artery shooting out of the Heart.
D.
The descending Portion of it tur­ned upward.
EE.
The Arterious Vein distributed toward the Left hand to the Lungs.
F.
The Channel between the Arterious Vein and the great Artery, conspi­cuous only in the new born Birth but dry'd up in those of riper Age.
G.
The right Branch of the Arte­rious Vein.
HH.
The right and left Branch of the veiny Artery.
I.
The Auricle of the Heart.
KK.
The Lungs adjoyning to the Heart.
L.
The Proper Tunicle of the Lungs separated.
FIGURE III. Shewing the Heart of an In­fant entire.
A.
The Proper Membrane of the Heart separated.
B.
The Parenchyma of the Heart bare.
CC.
The right and left Auricle of the Heart.
D.
The great Artery issuing out of the Heart.
E.
A portion of the hollow Vein standing without the Heart.

[Page]

Tab. IX.

[Page]

FIGURE IV.
A.
Part of the Heart cut athwart.
B.
The left Ventricle.
CC.
The right Ventricle.
DD.
The Fence of the Heart.
FIGURE V. The inside of the Heart.
A.
The Orifice of the Coronary Vein.
B.
An Anastomosis between the hollow Vein and the veiny Artery, con­spicuous only in new born Insants, in ripe years consolidated.
CCC.
The treble pointed Valves.
DDD.
The right Ventricle of the Heart open'd.
aa.
Passages terminating in the Fence.
FIGURE VI.
A.
The Arterious vein dissected in the right Ventricle.
BBB.
The Semilunary or Sigmoi­des Valves, in the Orifice of the said Vein.
CCC.
The right Ventricle of the Heart open'd.
FIGURE. VII.
A.
The Arterious Vein dissected.
B.
A mark of the Anastomosis be­tween the veiny Artery and the hollow Vein, as being only to be seen in the Birth.
bb.
Passages terminating in the Fence within the Membranes.
CC.
Two Miter-like Valves seated in the left Ventricle at the entrance of the Arterious Vein.
DD.
The left Ventricle of the Heart open'd.
FIGURE. VIII.
A.
The great Artery dissected near the Heart.
BBB.
The Semilunar Valves belong­ing to it.
CC.
The left Ventricle of the Heart.
D.
Part of the left Ventricle re­flexed.
FIGURE IX.
AB.
A right and left Nerve of the sixth pair, to the Lungs.
C.
A middle Branch between each Nerve.
D.
An Excursion of the same to the Pericardium.
EE.
Two larger Branches of the rough Artery, Membranous be­hind.
FF.
The hinder Part of the Lungs.
G.
The proper Membrane of the Lungs separated.
HH.
A remainder of the Pericar­dium.
I.
The Heart in its place, with the Coronary Vessels.
FIGURE X.
AAA.
The inner Superficies of the Sternon, and Gristles connex'd.
BB.
The Mammary Veins and Ar­teries descending under the Ster­non.
C.
The glandulous Body called the Thymus.
DDDD.
The sides of the Media­stinum pull'd off.
EE.
A hollowness caused by a vul­sion of the Sternon, between the Membranes of the Mediastinum.
F.
The Protuberancy of the Mediasti­num, where the Heart is seated.
GG.
The Lungs
HH.
The Diaphragma.
I.
The Sword resembling Gristle.
FIGURE XI. The Diaphragma.
AB.
The right and left Nerve of the Diaphragma.
C.
The upper Membrane of it separa­ted.
D.
The fleshy substance of it bare.
F.
The Hole for the hollow Vein.
[Page]GGG.
The Membranous Part or Center of the Diaphragma.
HHH.
The Appendixes of the same between which the great Artery de­scends.
FIGURE XII. The glandulous Body seated by the Larynx.
AAA.
The Kernels growing to the Larinx.
B.
A portion of the Iugular Vein, two Branches of which pass for­ward through the said Kernels.
FIGURE. XIII. The Aspera Arteria taken out of the Lungs.
A.
The rough Artery cut off below the Larynx.
B.
The right Branch of it, divided first twofold; afterward into se­veral Bronchia.
C.
The left Branch divided in like manner.
dddd.
The Extream Parts of the Branches terminating in little Membranous Channels.

The EXPLANATION of the Tenth TABLE In Fol. 357.

Shewing the Bronchial Artery discover'd by Frederic Ruysch; together with the substance of the Lungs as it was obser­ved by Malpigius.

FIGURE I. The Ramification of the Bronchial Artery.
A.
THe hinder Part of the Aspe­ra Arteria, of a Calf cut off from the Larynx.
B.
The right Branch.
C.
The left Branch.
D.
The Bronchial Artery, the little Branches of which accompany the Bronchia to the end.
E.
The hinder part of the descend­ing Artery, from whence the In­tercostals proceed.
F.
The uppermost Branch, to be found in Calves and Cows only.
FIGURE II. This and the following shew the substance of the Lungs.
  • The outermost Piece of the Lungs dry'd containing the Net as it is delineated.
FIGURE III.
  • The Inner Vesicles and hollownesses shaddow'd, with a particle of the space in the upper part annex'd. But the Original and entire Pro­pagation could not be expos'd to the Eye by the Graver's Art.
FIGURE IV.
  • The various concinnation of the Lobes, above the Trachea and Pul­monary Vessels, which are shewn as taken out from their natural Si­tuation.
FIGURE V. The Lungs of Frogs, with the Trachea annex'd.
A.
The Larynx, which is half gristly. [Page]
[figure]
[Page]
Tab. XI.
[Page]B.
A little Chink, which is exactly closed at the Will of the Animal, and being closed, keeps the Lungs Swelled with Air.
C.
The Seat of the Heart.
D.
Part of the Exterior Lungs.
E.
The propagated Net of the Cells
F.
The Propagation of the Pulm [...]y Artery.
G.
The Hollow Part of the Lung cut in the middle.
H.
The Propagation of the Pulmona­ry Vein, shooting forth to the tops of the Sides.
FIGURE VI. Shews the meer Cell, with­out the intervening Sides, encreased in Magnitude.
A.
The inner Area of the little Cell.
B.
The Sides torn away and stop­ped.
C.
The Trunk of the Pulmonary Artery, with the Branches Appen­dent, terminating as it were in Net-work.
D.
The Trunk of the Pulmonary Vein, wandring with its running Branches over the Tops of the Sides.
E.
A Vessel at the Bottom, common as well to the lateral Angles of the Sides, as to the continued Ramifi­cations of the Net.

The EXPLANATION of the Eleventh TABLE In Folio 370.

Shewing the Larynx with its Muscles; as also the Aspera Arteria, the Gullet, the recurring Nerves, and the upper Part of the Throat, with its Muscles.

FIGURE I. The Prospect of the Larynx before.
A.
THE Hyoides Bone covered with certain little Mem­branes.
B.
The lower Side of the Hyoides Bone.
D.
The upper Side.
F.
The Second Pair of Muscles, com­mon to the Larynx.
G.
The Second Pair of common Mus­cles, ill described about the Origi­nal being so narrow.
N.
The First Pair of Muscles proper to the Larynx.
I.
Part of the Shield-resembling Gri­stle.
FIGURE II. The hinder Part of the Larynx.
L.
The Epiglotis.
H.
The Guttal Gristle.
V.
The Ninth Muscle of the Larynx.
K.
The hinder Part of the annular Gristle.
FIGURE III. The hinder Lateral Prospect of the Larynx.
V.
The Ninth Muscle of the Larynx.
P.
The Second Pair of the Muscles of the Larynx.
R.
The Third Pair of the Muscles proper to the Larynx.
a.
The Right Muscle of the fourth Pair of Muscles, proper to the Larynx.
b.
The upper Part of the same left Muscle.
h.
The Prospect of the Shield-resem­bling Muscle behind.
i.
The Prospect of the Annular Mus­cle before.
k.
The hinder Prospect of the same.
l.
The Guttal Gristle.
FIGURE IV.
A.
The inner Face of the Epiglottis.
aa.
The Prominences of the Aryte­noides Gristles.
BB.
The Arytenoides Muscles every way loose.
CC.
The hinder Crycoartenoides Mus­cles.
D.
The broader Part of the Annular Gristle.
EE.
The hinder Membranous Part of the Aspera Arteria.
FIGURE V.
A.
The External Face of the Epi­glottis joyned to the Larynx.
BB.
The Thyroartenoides Muscles.
CC.
The lateral Crycoartenoides Muscles.
D.
The Crycoides Gristle.
EE.
The Fore-part of the Aspera Arteria.
FIGURE VI. The Lateral Face of the Larynx.
A.
The Hyoides Bone still covered with certain small Gristles.
B.
The lower Side of the Hyoides Bone.
C.
The upper Process of the Scuti­form Gristle.
F.
The second pair of Common Mus­cles to the Larynx.
G.
The first Pair of common Mus­cles.
H.
The Throat.
I.
The Swallowing Muscle, which o­thers call the third Pair.
K.
The Place of the Muscles of the Epiglottis in Brutes that chew the Cud, which is wanting in Men.
l.
The Guttal Gristle.
g.
The Fore-part of the Scutiform Gristle.
M.
The Kernels of the Larynx, an­nexed to the Root, at the Sides of the Aspera Arteria.
FIGURE VII.
A.
The Hyoides Bone still covered with little Membranes.
B.
The lower Side of it.
C.
The upper Side of the Scutiform Gristle.
D.
The upper Side of the Hyoides Bone.
K.
The Place of the Muscles of the Epiglottis in Brutes.
L.
The Epiglottis.
h.
The Fore-part of the Scutiform Gristle.
L.
The Epiglottis.
M.
The Kernels fastned to the Root of the Larynx.
H.
The Throat.
FIGURE VIII. The Aspera Arteria and Gul­let, with the recurring Nerves, on the hinder Part.
AA.
The Muscle drawing the Gullet together.
BBB.
The Gullet.
CCC.
The Aspera Arteria under the Throat.
D.
The Membranous Part of it.
EEEE.
The Nerves of the Sixth Conjugation.
FF.
Nerves inserted into the Tongue behind.
GG.
The Right recurring Nerve turned back to the Humeral Ar­tery.
HH.
The Left recurring Nerve wound about the descending Trunk of the Great Artery.
II.
A Nerve tending to the sinister Orifice of the Ventricle, and the Diaphragma.
KK.
A Nerve descending to the Dia­phragma.
LL.
The Iugular Arteries, of each side one.
M.
The Left Humeral Artery.
N.
The Right Humeral Artery.
O.
the great Artery.
PP.
Stumps of the Pulmonary Ar­teries.
FIGURE IX. The upper Part of the Throat, with its Muscles.
AA.
The Cephalopharyngean Mus­cles.
BB.
The Sphaenopharyngean Muscles.
CC.
The Stylopharyngean Muscles.
DD.
The Sphincter of the Throat di­vided.
E.
The inner Face of the Throat.
F.
The outer Face of the Throat.

The EXPLANATION of the Twelfth TABLE, In Folio 418.

This Table, delineated by Willis, shews the Originals of the Nerves of the Fifth and Sixth Pair (according as he num­bers them) and the Roots of the Intercostal Nerve, pro­ceeding from them: Also the Originals of the same Inter­costal Nerve, and the Vagous Pair, and of the Nerve pro­ceeding from the Spine to the Vagous Pair, carried along to the Region of the Ventricle. Moreover, it represents the Originals and Distributions of the Nerves of the Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth Pair, and of the Nerve of the Dia­phragma. In the same also are described the Originals of the Vertebral Nerves, and their Communications with the Former, as they are to be found in Men. But it is to be observed, that Willis, in this Table, does not fol­low the Ancient (which we observe in our Descripti­on) but his own new Computation of the Number of the Nerves. VVhence it comes to pass, that what we in our Text call the Third, he calls the Fifth; what we the Fifth, he calls the Seventh; what we the Seventh, he calls the Eight Pair.

AAA. A
Nerve of the Fifth Pair, with the two Branches of it: AA. of which the uppermost tending up-right be­fore, distributes several Sprigs to the Muscles of the Eyes and Face, to the Nose, Pallate, and upper Part of the whole Mouth. Besides, two little Branches, aa. which are the two Roots of the Intercostal Nerve. The other lower Branch of the Fifth Pair, tending down­ward, is dispiersed into the lower Iaw and all the Parts of it.
aa.
The two Sprigs sent from the upper Branch of the fifth Pair, which together with the other little Sprig, b. closing with the Nerve of the Sixth Pair, constitute the Trunk, D. of the Intercostal Nerve.
B.
A Nerve of the Sixth Pair, tend­ing streight forward before to the Muscles of the Eye; from the Trunk of which, the Sprig b. which is the third Root of the In­tercostal Nerve, is reflexed.
bbb.
The third Root of the Interco­stal Nerve.
C.
The Original of the Auditory Nerve, or of the Seventh Pair, with its double Process, soft and hard.
c.
The softer Branch of it, which is entirely distributed into the inner Part of the Ear, into the Muscle which elevates the Hammer, and into the Cochlea.
c.
The harder Branch, which rising whole out of the Cranium, and slightly touching the Slip E. of the Eighth Pair, together with that makes a particular Nerve, which is presently divided into several Branches, of which, the
1.
Terminates in the Muscles of the Tongue and Hyoides Bone.
2.
Is again divided into several Slips; of which the Uppermost [Page]
XII
[Page]
[Page]3.
Ends in the Muscles of the Face and Mouth.
4.
In the Muscles of the Eye-lids and Fore-head.
5.
In the Muscles of the Ear.
D.
The Trunk of the Intercostal Nerve, consisting of the three fore­said Roots, being about to pass the Ganglio-form'd Fold. Which Fold seems to be the uppermost Node of the Intercostal Nerve, produced without the Cranium.
E.
The Original of the Nerves of the Vagous Pair, consisting of many Fibres, to which a Nerve rising from the Spine joyns it self, and inoculated with them, passes the Cranium; which being crossed, it goes away, and after Communica­tion with some of the adjoyning Nerves, ends in the Muscles of the Scapula and Back.
e.
A little Sprig of the Eight Pair, Meeting the Auditory Branch.
fff.
Other Slips of the Vagous Pair, tending to the Muscles of the Neck.
G.
The principal Branch of the same Pair, terminating in the proper Ganglio-form'd Fold.
H.
The upper Ganglio-form'd Fold of the Vagous Pair, I add which admits the little Sprig K. from the other adjoyning Fold of the Inter­costal Nerve.
hh.
A Branch from the foresaid Fold of the Vagous Pair, into the Mus­cles of the Larynx, a remarkable Branch of which passing under the Scutiform Gristle, meets the re­current Nerve, and is united to it.
i.
A small Twig from the Cervical Fold of the Intercostal Nerve, in­serted into the Trunk of the Va­gous Pair.
KK.
The lower Fold of the Vagous Pair, from which several Nerves proceed to the Heart and its Ap­pendix.
l.
A remarkable Sprig sent to the Cardiac Fold.
m.
Nervous Fibres distributed into the Heart and Cardiac Fold.
n.
The Left recurrent Nerve, which being wound about the descending Trunk of the Aorta, and reflex'd up­wards towards the Scutiform Gri­stle in its ascent, imparts many Slips XXXX. to the Aspera Arteria; and lastly, meets the small [...]wig h. sent from the Ganglio form'd Fold. This Recurrent, by moans of its being reflected, sends cer­tain Branches also to the Heart.
L.
The recurrent Nerve in the Right Side, which being reflected much higher, twines about the Axillary Artery.
o.
A remarkable Branch sent from the Trunk of the Vagous Pair in the Left Side; which being pre­sently divided, one Sprig of it winds about the Trunk of the Pneumonic Vein; the other touch­ing the hinder Region of the Heart, is scattered into several Slips, which cover the Superficies of it. This is also met by the Cardiac Branch, sent from the Trunk of the other.
p.
A Sprig of the foresaid Branch encompasing the Pneumonic Vein.
q.
The other Branch of the same, im­parting many Shoots to the Heart, which Shoots cover the hinder Su­perficies of it.
rrrr.
Small Shoots sent forth from the Trunk of the Vagous Pair, which after a long Course, are in­serted into the Oesophagus; re­flexed beyond their proper Situ­ation.
ssss.
Many little reflexed Sprigs, whose Ramifications being distributed into the Substance of the Lungs variously bind and tye the Blood­bearing Vessels.
TTT.
The Trunk of the Vagous Pair is divided into two Branches, the outer and inner, both which bending toward the like Branches of the other side, are united to them, and after mutual Communi­cation, constitute the two Stoma­chic Branches, and upper and low­ermost
VV.
Inner Branches, which being united into X. constitute the Ori­ginal of the Lower Stomachie Branch.
[Page]WW.
The External Branches, which constitute the upper Stomach▪ Branch.
X.
The closing of the inner Branches.
F.
The Original of the Ninth Pair, with many Fibres which united, make a Trunk that is carried toward the Tongue; nevertheless, in its Progress, send­ing forth two Sprigs.
ΘΘ.
The first tending downwards, and united to the Branch of the Tenth Pair, terminates in the Sternothyroides Muscle.
φφ.
The second Sprig, ending in the Muscles of the Hyoides Bone.
99.
A Trunk of this Nerve passing into the Body of the Tongue.
G.
The upper Ganglio-form'd Fold of the Intercostal Nerve, which is the uppermost Node of this Nerve, when it is got out of the Brain.
a.
A Sprig sent forth from this Fold into the Neighbouring Fold of the Vagous Pair.
bb.
Two Nervous Processes, by means of which, this Nerve communi­cates with the Nerve of the Tenth Pair.
γ.
A Sprig sent to the Sphincter of the Throat.
L.
The Cervical or middle Fold pro­per to Man, which is placed in the middle of the Neck in the Trunk of the Intercostal Nerve.
δ.
A remarkable Branch from the second Vertebral Pair into this Fold, by means of which, this Branch communicates with the Nerve of the Diaphragma, in its first Root.
εε.
Two Branches from the same Fold into the Trunk of the Nerve of the Diaphragma.
55.
Several nervous Fibres from the Cervical Fold to the Recurrent Nerve.
θ.
A Twig from the same to the Trunk of the Vagous Pair.
χ.
Another remarkable Sprig into the Recurrent Nerve.
χχ.
Two remarkable Branches sent to­ward the Heart, which the other λ. rising a little below, overtakes: These being carried downward, between the Aorta, and the Pneu­monic Artery, meeting the Paral­lel Branches of the other side, make the Cardiac Fold Δ. from which the principal Nerves that termi­nate in the Heart proceed.
λ.
A Branch proceeding somewhat beneath from the Intercostal Trunk, which with the former is designed to the Cardiac Fold.
Δ.
The foresaid Cardiac Fold.
μ.
A little Lappet proceeding from the same which winds about the Pneumonic Artery.
γ.
The lower Lappet binding the Pneumonic Vein.
z.
The Intercostal Nerve that sinks into the Cavity of the Breast, where it binds the Axillary Ar­tery.
ηηη.
Four Vertebral Nerves sen [...] to the Thoracic Fold, of which, the uppermost binds the Vertebral Ar­tery.
ooo.
Three remarkable Nerves sent from the Cardiac Fold, which o­verspread the Fore-Region of the Heart, as the Nerves P. q. pro­ceeding from the Trunk of the Va­gous Pair, impart their Ramifica­tions to the hinder Part of it.
[...].
The Vertebral Artery bound about by the Vertebral Nerves.
sss.
Nervous Shoots covering the Fore-Region of the Heart.
TTT.
Nervous Shoots and Fibres distributed to the hinder Part of it.
Θ.
The lower fold, properly called the Intercostal or Thoracic; into which, besides the Intercoctal Nerve, four Vertebrals are inserted, of which, the uppermost in its. De­scent, winds about the Vertebral Artery.
I.
The Intercostal Nerve descending through the Cavity of the Breast, near the Roots of the Ribs, where in its whole Progress, it admits [...] Branch from the particular middle Vertebres.
H.
A Nerve of the Tenth Pair, con­sisting▪ in its Original, of many Fibres, and springing forth be­tween the first and second Vertebre, [Page] where it presently sends forth two nervous Processes bb. into the upper Fold of the Intercostal Nerve.
X.
A Branch of the same, which be­ing united to a little Twig of the ninth Pair, terminates in the Muscle Sternothyroides, immedi­ately resting upon the Aspera Ar­teria.
20.
A small Twig reversed into the hinder Muscles of the Neck.
21.
A small Twig into the Pathetic Spinal Nerve.
X.
Shoots from the principal Branch of the same Nerve into the Sterno­thyroides Muscle.
I.
The Original of the first Vertebral Nerve, which in this as in all o­ther Vertebral Nerves, consists of many Fibres, of which, the one Bunch proceeds from the upper, the other from the lower Brim of the Spinal▪ Marrow, when they are met close into the same Trunk, which is presently shattered into Nerves distributed several ways.
θ.
A small Sprig from this Nerve in­to a Branch of the tenth Pair.
θ.
Another small Sprig into the Pa­thetic Spinal.
c.
A signal Branch sent upwards to the Muscles of the Neck and Ears.
T.
A small Sprig from the bowed Nerve to the Fore-muscles of the Neck.
7.
A Nerve from this Pair to the first Brachial Nerve, from whence the Nerve of the Diaphragma takes its uppermost Root.
M.
The Original of the second Ver­tebral Nerve, from which the upper­most Brachial Branch proceeds, and into which the Nerve of the Diaphragma is first radicated. This Brachial Nerve, in four-footed Beasts, rises near the fourth and fifth Vertebre, and so the Root of the Diaphragma lies beneath.
V.
The Vertebral Branch designed to the Arm.
Y.
The Nerve of the Diaphragma, to the Root of which, the Sprig δ. from the Cervical Fold, joyns it self, and a little lower, from the same Fold, two other Branches εε. extend themselves to the Trunk of it. This Communication is only proper to Men.
φ.
The other Root of the Diaphragma from the second and third Brachi­al Nerve.
χ.
The lower Trunk of the Nerve of the Diaphragma, removed out of its place, which in its natural Si­tuation, crossing the Cavity of the Breast without any Communicati­on, runs directly to the Diaphrag­ma; where spreading into three Sprigs, it is inserted into the Musculous Part of it.
ψψψ.
The rest of the Brachial Nerves.
ωωω.
The Originals of the Brachial Nerves.
22.
The farthest Original of the Spi­nal Nerve that comes to the Va­gous Pair.
23.
The beginning Trunk of the same Nerve, which in its whole assent, running through the side of the Spinal Pith, passes through the middle Originals of the Verte­bral Nerves, and from the Stalk of the Pith, receives its Fibres.
24.
The descending Trunk of the same Nerve, which parting from the Vagous Pair, is reflexed out­ward, and after Communication with the Nerves of the Ninth and Tenth Pair, terminates altogether in the Muscles of the Scapula.
25.
The lower Process of the same Nerve.

The EXPLANATION of the Thirteenth TABLE In Fol. 419.

This Table shews the lower Ramifications of the Vagous and Intercostal Pair distributed to the Ventricle and the Bow­els of the whole Abdomen: as also the Originals of the Ver­tebral Nerves, which lye opposite to the former, and are inoculated into some of them.

A.
THe lower Stomachic branch, which consists of the inner branches of the vagous Pair of each side united together, and which being spread over the Bot­tom of the Stomach, dispeirses it's shoots and rivolets all along every way.
BB.
The upper Stomachic branch which consists of the External branches of the vagous Pair uni­ted together, and creeps through the upper Part of the Ventricle.
C.
The Coalition of the outer bran­ches.
D.
A Nervous Fold compos'd of the fibres of each Stomachic Nerve, united together near the Orifice, and as it were woven into a kind of small Net.
aa.
The Extremities of each Stoma­chic Nerve, which there meet the Hepatic Nerves and communicate with them.
EE.
The Intercostal Nerve in each side, descending near the Roots of the Ribs, and all along from the several Vertebral Nerves εε. recei­ing a Branch.
F.
A Branch proceeding from the Intercostal Nerve of the left side, and sent toward the Mesenteric Folds.
G.
The same Mesenteric Nerve bi­forked, sends a larger Branch to the Fold which is both the Stomachic and Spleenary and a lesser into the Kidney Fold.
H.
A Parallel Mesenteric Branch proceeding from the Intercostal Nerve of the right side, and bend­ing toward the Mesenteric Folds.
3.
The bigger Branch of this Nerve in like manner bifork'd, runs to the Hepatic Fold, and the lesser to the Kidney Fold.
h.
The first Mesenteric Fold of the left side, which is also the Stoma­chic and Spleenary, from which se­veral little bundles of Nerves, or numerous Conjugations run several and several ways.
5.
The Mesenteric Kidney Fold of the left side, into which besides the Mesenteric Sprig, ββ. two other Nerves are immediately inserted from the Intercostal Nerve.
γγγ.
From this Fold seated near the Capsula of the Gall, several Nerves and Fibres, are sent to the Kidneys.
δδ.
The Nerves and Fibres by means of which this Fold chiefly commu­nicates with the Mesenteric Fold.
η.
The first little bundle of Nerves tending from the former Fold h. to the Spleen, where being arriv'd, it turns back certain Fibres to the bottom of the Ventricle.
n.
The second Conjugation of Nerves, from the foresaid Fold to the bot­tom of the Stomach, whose Fibres communicate with the small Sprigs of the lower Stomachic Nerve.
θ.
The third Conjugation of Nerves between this Fold and the Hepatic adjoyning.
ψ.
The fourth Assemblage of Nerves between this and the largest Me­senteric Fold.
6.
The Kidney Mesenteric Fold, into which as in its Parallel, be­sides the Mesenteric branch.
KK.
Two Nerves are produc'd from the Intercostal Nerve. [Page]
[...] ▪ XIII
[Page]
[Page]λ.
The Nerves and Fibres between this Fold and the largest of the Mesentery.
μ
A signal Branch between this Fold, and the adjoyning Hepa­tic.
γ
A signal Assemblage of Nerves and Fibres from this Fold to the Kidneys, which climb the Emul­gent Vessels, and variously bind them.
77.
The upper Mesenteric Fold of the right side, called the Hepa­tic.
oo.
A numerous Assemblage of Nerves from this Fold to the Liver and Gall-bladder, from whence several Sprigs are distri­buted to the Pylorus and Sweet­bread. These Nerves and Fibres ascending toward the Liver, cover the Hepatic Artery with a kind of Net, and almost hide its Trunk. These Sprigs meet toge­ther with the tops of the Stoma­chic Nerves aa.
π.
Sprigs distributed about the Pylo­rus.
ρρ
Other Sprigs dispeirs'd into the Sweet-bread.
cc.
The Nerves extended between the Fold and the largest of the Mesentery,
O.
The largest Mesenteric Fold, from which a vast Assemblage of Nerves **. arising under the large Kernel of the Mesentery, is dispeirs'd every way into seve­ral shoots and branches, and di­stributed to all the Intestines be­sides the right Gut. Nerves and Fibres extended every way rest all along upon the Arteries and Veins, and bind and tye them after various manners.
TT.
Nervous shoots from this Fold into the Female Testicles, or Ute­rine Kernels, which meet the branches of the Vertebral Nerves of the twentieth and one and twen­tieth Pair sent to the same Parts, and are knit together.
VV.
The Vertebral branches into the Female Stones.
8.
The lowermost Fold of the Mesen­tery, seated much beneath the for­mer, and having for their Origi­nal three Nerves on each side, ari­sing somewhat lower from the In­tercostals.
ΦΦΦ.
Three Nerves on each side sent from the Intercostal Nerve to the lowermost Mesenteric Fold.
χχ.
A Nerve extended directly from that Fold to the largest Mesenteric Fold, which in its passage receives certain Branches from the Inter­costal Nerve on each side, viz. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. and sends it self two Sprigs to the Female Testicles.
φφ
Two Nerves from the foresaid Nerve to the Female Testicles.
9.
Another little Fold somewhat a­bove this lowermost.
ω.
A nervous Process extended from the foresaid lowermost Fold into the adjoyning small one.
a.
A signal Nerve from the least Fold 9. carry'd to the largest Fold of the Mesentery, which during its whole ascent, stretches it self under the right Gut and part of the Colon, and furnishes them with numerous shoots.
bb.
The other Branch sent down­wards from the same Fold, which stretches it self under the lower Part of the said right Gut, and affords it numerous shoots.
cc.
Two Nerves sent downward from the lowermost Mesenteric Fold 8. which being dismissed about the lowermost Cavity of the Belly into the Basin, in that place sink under the two Folds kk. viz. one seated in each side.
KK.
The double Folds seated within the Basin, the Nerves of which are assign'd for the Excretions of Urine, Dung and Seed, and so they send forth the Nerves d. d. toward the lowermost Mesenteric Fold.
dd.
A Nerve which ascending from the foresaid Fold on each side, near the sides of the right Gut, inserts several shoots into it: with which being double the other Nerve b. [...]. descending from the smallest Fold, meets.
[Page]ee.
The Nerves from the same Fold to the Womb.
f.
A Nerve from the same Fold to the Blader.
g.
A Nerve to the Prostates.
h.
A Nerve from the Root of the twenty eighth Vertebral Pair to the Muscle of the Podex.
i.
The twenty ninth Vertebral Pair, from whence,
k.
A Nerve to the Sphincter and the rest of the Muscles of the Po­dex.
ll.
A signal Nerve on both sides from the same Pair to the Yard.
m.
Another shorter Branch to the Muscles of the Yard.
LL.
The Intercostal Nerve below the Kidneys.
m.
A little Nerve from the Vertebral Branch to the Cremaster Muscle of the Testicle in Men.
n.
The 21. Vertebral Pair, the Ori­ginal of which lyes hid near the Kidneys. From this Nerve seve­ral shoots are sent on both sides to the Female Testicles, which meet with other Mesenteric Sprigs di­stributed to the same Part.
o.
A Nerve from the 22. Vertebral Pair, from whence also certain Sprigs to the Female Stones.
pppp.
Nerves designed for the Thigh, of which those that rise above, in their descent receive Branches from those that rise beneath.
q.
The Intercostal Nerves bending each to other near the beginning of the Holy-bone, communicating by the transvers Process r.
rr.
The other transvers Process with­in the Curvature of the Os Sacrum connecting the two Intercostal Nerves.
s.
Both Intercostal Nerves terminate into minute Fibres, which Fibres are distributed into the Sphincter of the Podex.
t.
A Nerve from the 24. Vertebral Pair, which is carry'd to the Ker­nels of the Groin.
vvv.
Shoots on each side sent from the Intercostal Nerves to the body of the Ureter.
X.
A Nerve design'd to the Testicle and Cremaster Muscle; cut off where it goes forth from the Ab­domen.

The EXPLANATION of the Fourteenth TABLE In Fol. 457.

FIGURE I. The Exterior Parts of the Eye.
AAAA.
THE Skin turn'd back,
BB.
The bigger Muscle of the Orbicular Eye-lid.
C.
The Tendon of the same in the wider corner of the Eye.
DD.
The lesser Muscles of the Eye­lyds.
EE.
The Brows of the Eye-lids.
G. H.
The upper and lower Eye-lid.
I.
The larger Corner.
K.
The lesser Corner.
L.
The Conjunctive Tunicle.
M.
The Corneous Tunicle.
FIGURE II. The Muscles and Nerves of the Eye.
AAAA.
The Cranium cut open.
BB.
A portion of the dissected Brain.
CC.
The Cerebel.
D.
The meeting of the Optic Nerves.
EE.
Their Progress to both Eyes.
GG.
The first Muscle of the Eye, cal­led the Attollent.
H.
The second Muscle of the left Eye, called the Depressor. [Page]
Tab. XIV.
[Page]
[Page]II.
The streight inner Muscles, or drawers to, in each Eye.
KK.
The external streight Muscles or drawers from each Eye.
L.
The fifth Muscle of the left Eye, or the External Oblique.
MM.
The sixth Muscle or Internal Oblique, the Tendon of which passes through the Trochlia, N.
O.
The Optic Nerve of the right Eye.
P.
The Corneous Tunicle in the midst of which is the Apple.
FIGURE III.
AA.
The Cranium resected.
BB.
The Cerebel.
CCCC.
The Dura Mater.
D.
A portion of the dissected Brain.
EE.
The Sprig of the Optics.
F.
Their concourse.
GG.
Their separation.
H.
The general Original of the Mus­cles.
II.
The Muscle of the Eyelid in its place.
K.
The streight Muscle drawing the Eye outward.
L.
The streight Muscle moving the Eye upward.
M.
The third right Muscle moving the Eye-downward.
N.
The last right Muscle drawing the Eye to the inner Parts.
OO.
Branches of the Motory Nerve inserted into the Muscles.
PP.
The Globeous Body of the Eye it self prominent under the Muscle of the Eye-lid.
Q.
The upper Eye-lid with its Hairs.
R.
The Bone broken off.
S.
The Body of the left Eye.
T.
The Muscle of the upper Eye-lid, out of its place turn'd back.
FIGURE IV. The Eye-brow and Eye-lids.
AA.
The hairy Eye-brow.
BB.
The fat of the Eye-brow.
CCCC.
The inner superficies of the Eye brows.
DDD.
The Gristle of the Eye-brows.
E.
The upper edging of Hair.
F.
The lower edging of Hair.
FIGURE V.
AA.
The Muscle of the upper Eye-lid in it's place
BB.
The Gristle of the Eye-brow.
C.
The place of the Eye-lid cut off.
D.
The hairy edging of the upper Eye-brow.
FIGUR VI.
AA.
The Muscle of the upper Eye­lid.
BB.
The Gristle of the same Eye­brow.
C.
The Hairs.
FIGURE VII.
A.
The Nerve of Optic.
B.
The Motory Nerve.
C.
The rise of all the Muscles.
D.
The Trochlear Muscle.
E.
The Trochlea or Wheel.
F.
The string of the Trochlear Mus­cle.
G.
The Internal streight Muscle.
H.
The External streight Muscle.
I.
The Muscle of the upper Eye­lid.
KK.
The remainder of the Eye-lids cut off.
L.
The hairy Edgings.
FIGURE VIII.
AAA.
The Gristle of the Eye-lids taken out.
B.
The Hairs of the upper Eye-brow.
C.
The Hairs of the lower Eye-brow.
FIGURE IX.
A.
The Corneous Tunicle, with the transparent Apple.
B.
The streight Muscle Attollent.
C.
The streight Muscle depressing.
D.
The inner Muscle bringing to.
E.
The External Muscle drawing from.
[Page]F.
The inner Oblique, or Trochlear.
G.
The outter Oblique, or lower.
FIGURE X.
A.
The Optic Nerve.
B.
The seventh Muscle proper to many Brutes surrounding the Eye.
CCCC.
The streight Muscles.
D.
The Trochlear Muscle.
E.
The lower Oblique Muscle.
FIGURE XI.
A.
The Optic Nerve.
B.
The Original of the Muscles.
C.
The streight lateral Muscle.
D.
The upper streight Muscle.
E.
The other streight Muscle.
FF.
The Fat of the Eye hiding the Muscles and the Optic Nerve.
G.
Part of the Skin of the upper Eye­lid cut off.
HH.
The Sclerotic Tunicle of the Eye.
I.
The Corneous Tunicle.
K.
The Apple of the Eye.
L.
The Hair of the lower Eye-brow.
MM.
The lower Eye-brow.
FIGURE XII.
  • The Annate Tunicle separated and out of place, furnished with several minute Veins and Arteries.
FIGURE XIII.
  • The Christalline Tunicle.
FIGURE XIV.
  • The Chrystalline Humour and its Figure.
FIGURE XV.
  • The Watry Humour.
FIGURE XVI.
  • The Vitreous Humour receiving the Chrystalline in the middle.
FIGURE XVII.
A.
The Optic Nerve.
BB.
The Choroides Tunicle laid bare from the Sclerotic.
CCCC.
Veins depressed through the Sclerotic.
DD.
The Sclerotic inverted.
E.
The Rupture of the Sclerotic.
FIGURE XVIII.
A.
The Optic Nerve.
BB.
The Dura Mater surrounding the Optic.
CC.
The Sclerotic opened, shewing the Nerves through the Fissure.
FIGURE XIX.
A.
The Optic Nerve.
BB.
The Uveous folded back, and partly separated from the Net­like.
C.
Part of the Net-like separated from the Uveous.
FIGURE XX.
A.
The Net of the Tunicle bare.
B.
The Conjunctive Tunicle, or the White of the Eye.
C.
The Corneous.
D.
The Apple of the Eye.
Tab. XV.

[Page]The EXPLANATION of the Fifteenth TABLE, In Folio 469.

Shewing the Parts of the Ear, especially the Inner Parts.

FIGURE I. The External Ear whole with the Muscles and Concavi­ties.
AA.
THE Helix of the Ear.
BB.
The Anthelix.
C.
The Tragus or Bunching of the Ear.
D.
The Anti-tragus.
E.
The Lobe of the outer Ear.
FF.
The Shell or Hollow of the outer Ear.
GG.
The Nameless Cavity between the Helix's.
H.
The Muscle moving the Ear di­rectly upward.
III.
The three-fold Muscle drawing it upwards.
FIGURE II.
AA.
The Skin with the Mem­brane drawn upward and down­ward.
BB.
The Gristle constituting the Ear.
C.
The Hole pervious to the Audito­ry Passage.
D.
Part of the Ligament of the out­er Ear.
E.
Part of the Lobe of the Ear.
FIGURE III. The Fore-part of the Inside Ear.
A.
Part of the Bone of the Temples, containing the Stony Bone.
B.
The Auditory Passage.
C.
The Threshold of the Auditory Passage, or Bee-hive.
D.
The Mammi-form Process.
E.
The Style-resembling Process torn off.
FIGURE IV.
A.
A Portion of the Auditory Pas­sage.
BB.
The Membrane of the Drum.
C.
The little Foot of the Hammer transparent through the Menbrane.
D.
The Teat-like Process.
E.
The Bodkin-like Process.
FIGURE V. The Muscles of the Inside Ear.
A.
The Muscle moving the Mem­brane with the Hammer outward.
B.
The Membrane of the Drum.
CC.
The Muscle moving the Mem­brane with the Hammer inward.
E.
The Head of the Hammer.
FIGURE VI.
A.
Part of the Auditory Passage.
B C.
The Cavity of the Drum, wherein.
B.
The Oval Hole, conspicuous when the Stirrup is removed.
C.
The Round Hole.
FIGURE VII. The Stony Bone, with the small Bones of the Tym­panum, in Place.
A.
The small Hammer.
B.
The small Bone called the Anvil.
C.
The upper Part of the Stirrup.
[Page]DD.
The Windings of the Cochlea discovered according to their na­tural Bigness.
FIGURE VIII. Four little Bones out of place.
A.
The little Hammer, with its two Processes.
B.
The Anvil applied to the Ham­mer.
C.
The Stirrup.
D.
The Orbicular Bone fastned with the Ligament of the Stirrup.
FIGURE IX. The lower Face of the Bone of the Temples.
A.
The Goos-quills transmitted into the Auditory Passage, through the Passage which leads to the Palate.
BB.
Shews the same Passage next at Hand, though broken in Part.
FIGURE X.
AA.
The Hollowness of the Cochlea, the broader Part of which, runs to the Labyrinth.
BB.
The Hollowness of the Labirinth, wherein the Oval Hole appears, by reason of the Bone dissected from the side. Four other Holes open­ing themselves in Circles, are sha­dowed with Black. The fifth, in the Extream largest Turning of the Cochlea, is broken,
FIGURE XI.
AA.
The first Hole of the Bones of the Temples, into which the Audi­tory Nerve is admitted.
BB.
The Stony Process of the Bone of the Temples, in which the demon­strated Cavities are contained.
FIGURE XII.
AB. CD.
The end of the passage dis­cover'd. into which the Auditory Nerve enters, the Bone being fil'd away.
B.
The Hollowness wherein the softer part of the Auditory Nerve, rests at the Center of the Chochlea.
CA.
An Apophysis between each Por­tion of the Nerve, prominent like a Bridge.
EE.
The Footsteps of two Circles, tending to the Labyrinth.
FIGURE XIII.
A.
Part of the Bone of the Tem­ples in which the Tympanum be­ing removed, together with the passage receiving the Auditory Nerve, appears.
AA.
The softer part of the Auditory Nerve.
BBB.
The harder part of the Auditory Nerve, obliquely descending un­der the Drum, thicker at the Ex­it.
CC.
A Small Nerve from the fourth Pair, joyning it self to the descend­ing harder Portion of the Audi­tory Nerve.
FIGURE XIV.
AA.
The Shell.
B.
The Drum.
C.
The Hammer.
D.
The Stirrup.
FIGURE XV.
E.
The Stirrup.
F.
The orbicular Bone fasten'd with the Ligament of the Stirrup.
G.
The Oval hole.
FIGURE XVI.
H.
The Hammer.
I.
The Staple.
K.
The Stirrup.
L.
The Orbicular Bone.
Tab. XVI.

[Page]The EXPLANATION of the Sixteenth TABLE, In Folio 488.

Shewing the Salavary Channels, and the Lymphatic Chan­nels of the Eyes in a Calves Head, as they are acurately delineated by N. Stenonis and Wharton.

FIGURE I.
aaaa.
THE Parotis conglome­rated.
bb.
The Parotis conglobated.
c.
The Lymphatic Vessel tending downward from the conglobated Parotis.
dddd.
The Roots of the outer Sali­val Channel.
eee.
The Trunk of the Salival Chan­nel.
fff.
The outermost Branches of the Iugular Vein.
ggg.
The Nerves which are between the Kernel and the Head, so are they knit one to another, as in H.
II.
Little strings of the Nerve accom­panying the Salival Channel.
FIGURE II.
aa.
The Orifices of the Vessels pro­ceeding from the lower Kernel of the Cheeks into some of which a Bristle may be thrust.
b.
The opening of the outermost Salival Channel in the uppermost and Ex­tream Part of the little Teats. The other points mark out the o­ther holes, through which the vis­cous Humor upon squeezing issues forth.
FIGURE III.
aa.
The Kernel under the Tongue.
bb.
The Vessels belonging to it.
cc.
The Orifices of the Vessels for excretion.
d.
A hollowness observ'd at the side of the Tongue.
FIGURE IV.
A.
The holes of the Palate through which the slimy Humor is squeezed out.
bb.
The Tonsils.
FIGURE V.
  • One Vessel among the rest of those that proceed from the Kernel in the lower Part of the Cheeks.
FIGURE VI.
A.
The hinder Part of the Maxil­lary Kernel.
aa.
The hindermost Roots of the Sali­val Channel.
C.
The hindermost Trunk of the same Channel, ascending the Tendon of the double belly'd Muscle.
DD.
The return of it and uniting with the foremost Channel.
E.
The common Trunk of the Salival Channel.
F. G.
The double belly'd Muscle.
H.
The Progress of the said Trunk to the Fore-teeth, of the lower Iaw.
I.
The Opening of the Channel under the Tongue.
K.
The round Kernel next to the Maxillary.
FIGURE. VII.
A.
The hinder Part of the Maxil­lary Glandule.
BB.
The former Part of the same, with the foremost Roots of the Spittle-Channel.
C.
The hinder Trunk of the same [Page] Channel ascending a Tendon of the double-belly'd Muscle.
D.
The return of the same and Uni­on with the foremost Channel.
EE.
The common Trunk of the Sali­val Channel.
F. G.
The double-Muscl'd Muscle.
H.
The Progress of the Trunk to­ward the Fore-teeth of the lower Iaw.
I.
The Salival Channel open'd under the Tongue.
K.
A round little Kernel nextto the Maxillary.
L.
A row of Asperities under the side of the Tongue.
M.
The Tongue out of its place.
FIGURE VIII. The Conglobated Kernels.
a.
The Conglobated Parotis.
b.
The Conglobated Kernel next the lower Maxillary Kernel.
c.
Another Conglobated Kernel sea­ted above the Chaps.
d.
The common Kernel.
e.
The Lymphatic Vessel tending to the Confines of the Jugulary and Maxillary Kernel.
fff.
Three Lymphatic Vessels, carry'd from the three Glandules a. b. c. to the common Glandule d.
FIGURE IX. The Left Eye of a Calf.
A.
The upper nameless Glandule of the Eye.
b.
The larger Corner of the Eye.
c.
The lesser Corner of the Eyes.
ddd.
The Lobes into which the fore­most Border of the Kernels is di­vided through the Lymphatic spa­ces of which eee. They make their Exit.
FIGURE X.
A.
The inner superficies of the Eye­lid.
bbb.
The Nameless Kernel which to­gether with the small Vessels ccc. appears through the slender Tunicle of the Eye-lid.
dd.
The Orifices of the Lachrymal Vessels.
FIGURE XI.
A.
The Lachrymal Kernel seated in the inner Corner.
B.
The Gristle proceeding from the Kernel it self.
bbb.
The gristly Border.
cc.
The Membrane.
dd.
Two Entrances, one of each side the Gristle.
FIGURE XII.
aa.
The continuation of the Lachry­mal points to the Extremities of the Nostrils.
bb.
The Vessel for excretion proper to the Nostrils.

ANATOMY BOOK I. Of the lowest Cavity.

The Preamble.

I Am undertaking to write a Book of Anatomy; but am doubtful whether I should term it the Art and Exercise of Physicians, or of Philosophers. For though formerly it was first instituted for their sakes; yet now these are so much taken up with it, that it can scarce be determined, to which Facul­ty it is more obliged, or to which it is of nearer Affinity: Since in this our Age both the one and the other are as industrious in this Affair, as if the well­fare of each Faculty lay in Anatomy, and as if both borrowed all their Light from it, as from ano­ther Sun; so that they who are destitute of Skill in this one Art, are reckoned to walk in darkeness and to know nothing in a manner: Since several others also, who areof neither Faculty, nor indeed professedly of any, are so sollicitous about the knowledge of Man's Body, that may strive how they may bring Anatomy to greater perfection; and most of these men are desirous not only to equalize others in this Exercise, but to signalize themselves above the rest. So that Anatomy, which formerly was undertaken for the sake of Physick, appears now to be the common Pra­ctice of all men, and as it were the Eye of all solid Knowledge whatever. To whose further advance­ment, since I also would contribute my Talent, when I have examined first what Anatomy is, and what its Subject, I shall in succinct order take a view of all the Parts of the humane Body.

CHAP. I. Of Anatomy, and Man's Body, its Division and Parts in general.

I. ANatomy is an Art which Definition of Anatomy teaches the Artificial dis­section of the Parts of the Body of Man, that what things in them can be known by Sense, may truly appear.

The primary subject of Anatomy isSubject. the Body of Man, partly because it is the perfectest; partly because the know­ledge of a Man's self is very necessary, a great share whereof consists in the know­ledge of his own Body. Besides, Anatomi­cal exercises are very necessary for Physi­cians, and were chiefly instituted for their sakes, whose Studies are directed to the cure of Diseases only in humane Bodies, and not to the cure of Brutes, as being unworthy of their noble Speculations, and therefore left to [...]arriers and other Ple­beians. So that in this regard the Arti­ficial Dissection of humane Bodies must be preferred before the Dissection of any Brute whatever; since Physicians may this way far better attain the perfect know­ledge of the subject of their Art, than if they should search the Bodies of Brutes. In the mean time, however, because humane bodies cannot always conveni­ently be had, neither will Law nor Piety at any time allow the cutting of them up alive, yet nevertheless it is necessary that we should get the perfect knowledge, of the site, connexion, shape, use, &c. of the Parts by many Dissections and Inspections; for which purpose men use, in defect of humane Bodies, to dissect se­veral Brutes, sometimes alive, but usually dead, especially such, whose Inwards and most of their Parts are likest in form, site, and use to the humane body; that by the knowledge of them the parts of a humane body may the easilier be known, when afterwards they are once or twice shown in a humane body.

II. A humane body is considered ge­nerallyDifferent considera­tion of the Body. Generally. or particularly.

III. Considered generally, or in the whole, the chief differences are observed in relation both to the shape, stature and colour.

What the shape is in the knownDifference of shape. World, every one knows, and dayly sees. But they that have seen the East and West Indies, and that have Tra­velled other strange and remote Coun­tries, describe many uncouth and un­known shapes to us. For some tell, how they have found Men without heads, whose eyes were in their breasts: Others, men with square heads: Others, men all hairy: Others, Salvages, whose shoul­ders were higher than their heads; they write, such were found in Guajana: O­thers, men with Tails: And others, men otherwise shaped.

Difference of stature consists herein,Difference of Stature. that some are thick, others slender; some short, others tall. Upper France breeds short and slender men, and very few tall people are found there. Nor­thern Countries breed tall and strong men: And the Germans come nigh them. England and Holland breed a middle sort. Nevertheless, some very tall peo­ple, though few, are found in the Low Countries. Ten years agone at Utrecht Very tall People. I saw a Maid Seventeen years of Age, so tall, that a proper man could scarce reach to the top of her head with his fingers ends. Neer Schoonhoven, in the Village Leckerkerck, a few years agone, there lived a Country fellow, a Fisher, commonly called the great Clown, a very strong man, I have often seen him, when he stretched out his arm, the tallest of ordinary men might go under it and not touch it. Anno 1665. at Utrecht-Fair, in the Month of Iuly, I saw a very strong man, and very tall, and witty enough, (which is a rarity in such great bodies) above eight feet and an half high, all his Limbs were pro­portionable, and he was married to a very little woman, whom, when he Travelled, he could without any trouble carry in a Pouch along with him: he was born at Schoonhoven of Parents of an ordinary size. At the same time a Country wench was shewn, Eighteen years of age, who was nigh as tall as the said man, her whole body was well shaped, but she was of a dull capacity. Yet these rare instances of a vast stature which I have seen (like unto which Pla­terus Observat. l. 3. describes four more) are nothing, compared with some, which are described by Historians. The body of Orestes, which by command of the Oracle was dug out of the Earth, is said to have been seven Cubits long: which Cubits, according to Aulus Gellius, a­mong the Romans amounted to twelve [Page 3] feet and a quarter. William Schouten in his Journal reports, that in the Port, cal­led Desire, neer the Straits of Magellan, he found men of ten and eleven Cubits. Fazellus, decad. 1. lib. 1. cap. 6. mentions several bodies, found in divers places, some of which were seventeen, others eighteen, others twenty, others two and twenty Cubits long, and one of their Teeth weighed five ounces. Pliny writes, that in Crete a Mountain was broke by an Earthquake, and on that occasion a body of forty seven Cubits was found, which some thought Orion's, others Oetius's. So likewise Camerarius relates divers stories of such Giants, Meditat. Histor. cent. 1. cap. 82.

And on the other hand likewiseDwarfs. sometimes men are [...]ound of a very low stature, viz. three or four feet long. We call such Dwarfs. Formerly I have seen three or four of them. Platerus Observ. l. 3. in principio, describes three such, which he saw. Aristotle lib. 8. histor. animal. cap. 12. writes for a certain truth, that Pigmies dwell about those place, where the Nile runs into Egypt, and they are such short dwergens, that they are not above an ell high. But this People could never yet be found by the modern Seamen, who have sailed the World over (perhaps, because they could not get with their Ships to that peoples Country) and therefore one might very well question the truth of the story, had not Aristotle, who ought to be trusted a great way, writ it. Nevertheless Spigelius does not believe Aristotle, but reckons his story of the Pigmies a fable, being so perswaded, 1. From the authority of Strabo, lib. 1. Geograph. 2. From the experience of Francis Alvarez a Portugueze, who himself Travelled those parts, wherea­bout Aristotle writes, the Pigmies are, namely where the Nile runs into Egypt; yet he could no where see or find that little Nation, but says, that those parts were inhabited by middle statured people.

The difference of colour is great,Difference of colour. according to the difference of Coun­tries: For in Europe and Christendom people are white, in Aethiopia and Brasile black, in divers parts of India tawny, in some places almost red, in o­thers brown, in others whitish.

IV. A humane body considered Particular considera­tion of the body. particularly, or according to each part, affords for consideration the neat figure of each part, the most convenient con­nexion, the admirable structure, the necessary action, and lastly, the great, yet harmonous diversity of all and each function and use.

V. The part of the Body is any bodily Definition of a part. Substance joyned to the whole in con­tinuity, having its own proper circum­scription, and with other parts making up the whole, is fitted for some functi­on or use. What con­tinuity is.

This is an exquisite definition.

For First, the part of a humane body must be a bodily substance, and such as is joyned to the whole in continuity (a thing is said to be continued, whose least particles stick one to another in rest) not in contiguity: For contiguous bodies must of necessity be diverse, and one may be separated from the other without hurt­ing either, both remaining entire. For as Wine contained in a vessel cannot be called a part of the vessel, nor the ves­sel a part of the wine, because there is no continuity between them two; so likewise blood contained in an Artery, cannot he called a part of the Artery, nor of a humane body, since it is not joyned thereto in any continuity.

Secondly, A part must with others make up the whole; for whatever things are above the complement, are not reckoned parts of one body, but are bodies subsisting by themselves, which often adhere to the whole, that they may be nourished by the whole. Thus a child or mole in the womb are not parts of a womans body, but subsist by themselves, and yet by means of the placenta uterina and umbilical vessels, they are joyned to the womb, that they may receive nourishment from it; ne­vertheless the woman, when she is de­livered, remains entire. So likewise Sarcomata or fleshy excrescences, and such things, are not reckoned among the parts of a humane body, because they neither make up the complement of the whole, nor are designed for re­quisite functions and uses, but adhere to the whole, that thereby they may be nourished.

VI. Thirdly, A part must be made for some function or use,

VII. A Function, or Action, is a cer­tain What a function is. effective motion made by an Organ, through its own proper disposition to it.

This is either private, whereby the parts provide for themselves; or publick whereby the whole is provided for; for instance; The stomach by a private acti­on, or coction, converts the blood brought to it by the Arteries into a sub­stance like it self, and so is nourished: But it performs another action besides, [Page 4] whereby it provides for the whole Ani­mal, to wit, chylification.

VIII. The use of a part is a certain What vse [...]. aptiude to some proper intention of na­ture, to wit.

Such as not only turns to the benefit of the part, whence it proceeds, but also respects the good of some other part, or of the whole. It is doubly distin­guished from action. First, because acti­on is only competible to parts that operate, but use is often competible to things that do nothing at all, that is to such as help an acting part, so that it may act better. Thus the cuticle acts nothing; but its use is to moderate the sense of the skin, to cover it and the extremities of the vessels, and to defend it from external injuries: Fat acts nothing, it only cherishes and moistens the parts and makes their mo­tion easier: Hair acts nothing; but its use is to cover and adorn the head, and to defend it from external cold. Secondly, Because action is competible to the whole operating Organ, but use to e­very part of the Organ; for instance; The action of a Muscle is to contract; but the use of the Musculous Membrane is to contain its fibres, and to seperate it from other Muscles; of the Artery, to bring blood to it; as of the nerves, ani­mal spirits, to support the fibres of the flesh. Yet oftentimes use, action and function are promiscously used by Ana­tomists: And the action of a part, be­cause it tends to some end or other, is often called use: And also use, because it excludes not action, is called action. But use is of greater latitude then action.

Hippocrates divided things that makeThings that make up the whole. up the whole into things containing, things contained, and things that move or have in themselves the power of motion. Galen calls these three things Solid parts Humors and Spirits. In this di­vision the threefold parts of the body are not comprehended, but only three things, without which a man cannot con­tinue entire, that is, alive. For only the containing or solid parts are true parts of the body. Yet these parts cannot continue alive, except they be continual­ly nourished by the humors. NotWhere the humors & spirits be parts of the Body. that humors are parts of the body, but the proximate matter, which by coction is changed into the substance of the parts, into which till they are changed, they cannot be called parts; and when they are changed, they cannot be called humors: for a bone is not blood, and blood is not bone, though the one be bred of the other. The same must be understood of spirits, which being made of the subtilest and hottest part of the blood, do very much contribute to the nutrition of the body. Therefore though a man cannot continue alive without these three, yet it does not follow, that all these three must necessarily be parts of the body. A Vine consists of solid woody parts, and a Juyce whereby it is nourished, and yet it is evident, this Juice is no part of the Vine, because if a Vine be unseasonably cut, abundance of it runs out, the Vine remaining en­tire: wherefore a blind man may see, that it is no part if the Vine, but only liqour, which by further coction would be turned into a Vine. Thus also when there is a Flux of blood by the Haemor­rhoids, Menses or any other part; or when one makes water or sweats, no man in his wits will say, that then the parts of a mans body are voided, al­though a man cannot live without blood and serum. But if pieces of the Lungs be brought up in coughing, or if pieces [...] of the Kidneys be voided in Urine, as it sometimes happens in their exculcera­tion, then it is certain that the true parts of the body are voided.

Besides, these are parts of the body,Actions proceed from So­lids. whence actions immediately proceed, and they proceed not from the hu­mors and spirits, but from solids. For the humors and spirits move not the Heart, Brain, and other parts, but they both breed and move the humors and spirits: for when the Heart, Brain, and other parts are quiet, humors and spirits are neither bred nor moved (this appears in a deep swoon) and though there is abundance of them in the body, and those very hot and fit for motion, as in such as dye of a burning Fever; yet as soon as the Heart is quiet, they neither move through the Arteries, Veins and Nerves, nor are able to move the Heart, or any part else, which is a certain Ar­gument that they are Passive, and that no Action can proceed from them. And that the humors and spirits are moved by the Heart, and bred in it and other parts, will more plainly appear, lib. 2. cap. 11. and lib. 3. cap. 10, 11. and in several other places.

And now though solids cannot actSolids [...] not without the humors. without the humors and spirits, and by them their Actions (in as much as by their quantity, or quality, as their heat, cold, &c. they are able to cause this or that mutation or temper in Solids) are made quicker, slower, stronger, weaker, better or worse; yet they are [Page 5] without air; yet air is no part of the body, neither does the Action of respi­ration proceed from it, but from the muscles of the breast forcing it out, though in the mean time air by giving way to the motion of the muscles, and passing in and out through the Aspera Arteria, affords such an aptitude for respi­ration, as without it no respiration could be performed; though also by its heat or cold it may make respiration quicker, slower, longer or rarer, according as by these mutations the heat of the parts is augmented or diminished, and there­upon necessity obliges one to breath quicker or slower. So the Heart and o­ther solid Parts are not mov'd by the hu­mors and spirits, but act upon the hu­mors and spirits, they move, attenuate and concoct them till at length they turn their apt particles into a substance like themselves, and so apply and unite them to themselves, and make them parts of the body, which they were not before they were applied and assimilated. For one part of the body is not nourished with another part of its whole, a bone is not nourished with flesh, nor a vein with a nerve, &c. Neither can that which nourishes the parts, by any means be called a part, for otherwise there would be no difference between a part and its nutriment: With which Nou­rishment, unless the Parts be daily che­rished, and their consumed particles re­stored, their strength and substance would quickly waste and fail, and by that failure at length their Action would be lost.

So that Man of necessity must have both Blood and Spirits for the support of Life (hence saith the Text in Levit. 17. 11. the Soul (that is the Life) of the Flesh is in its Blood) as being the near­est Support of the Body, without which neither the Parts of the Body can act, nor the Man himself live. Yet it does not follow from thence that the Blood and Spirits are part of the Body: For the same might be said of the external Air, without which no Man can live. For take away from a Man the use of external Air either by suffocation or drowning, or any other way, you pre­sently deprive him of Life, as surely as if you took from him his Blood and Spirits. Yet no man of Judgment will say that the external Air is a part of the Body: Seeing that most certainly, if that without which Life cannot subsist were to be accounted a Part, the exter­nal Air must of necessity be said to be a Part of our Body, as well as the Blood and Spirits. Moreover it is to be con­sidered, that if the Humors and Spirits have contracted any Foulness or Distem­per, they are by the Physicians numbred among the Causes of Diseases, not a­mong the diseased Parts. Besides, that if they were Parts, they ought to be si­milar, yet never any Anatomist that I ever yet heard of, recken'd 'em among similar Parts. For most of the Organic Parts are composed out of the Similar. And yet among those Similar Parts which compose the Organic, never did any one reck'n the Blood or Spirits, as Similar Parts. For all the Organs ought to derive their Composition from those things which are proper and fixed, not from those things which are common to all, and fluid, continually wasted and continually renewed.

IX. Therefore the Body of Man may exist intire in its Parts without Blood, Spirits, and Air; but it cannot act, nor live without 'em.

And thus a Man cannot be said to live without a rational Soul, and to be a perfect and entire Man; yet every one knows that the Soul is not to be reck'n'd among the parts of the corruptible Bo­dy, as being incorruptible, subsisting of it self, and separable from the rest of the Body; since, that being incorrupti­ble, it cannot proceed from any incor­ruptible Body, but derives it self from a divine and heavenly Original, and is infused from above into the corruptible Body, to the end it may act therein so long as the Health and Strength of those corruptible Instruments will permit Acti­ons to be perform'd. To which we may add, that an Anatomist, when he en­quires into the parts of human Body, considers 'em as such, not as endu'd with Life, nor as the parts of a Ratio­nal Creature. Neither does he accompt the Causes of Life and Actions, by any manner of Continuity or Unity adhe­ring to the Body, to be Parts; nor is it possible for him so to do.

And thus it is manifest from what has been said, That the Spirits and Blood, and other Humors neither are nor can be said to be Parts of our Body. Yet all these Arguments will not satisfy the most Eminent I. C. Scaliger, who in his Book, de Subtil. Exercit. 280. Sect. 6. pretends with one Argument, as with a strong battering Ram, to have ruin'd all the Foundations of our Opinion.

If the Spirit (saith he, and he con­cludes the same Thing of the Blood and Spirits) be the Instrument of the Soul, and the Soul is the beginning of Motion, and the Body be the Thing moved, there must of Necessity be a Difference between [Page 6] the thing moved, and that which moves the Instrument. Therefore if the Spirits are not animated, there will be something between the thing enlivening and en­liven'd, forming and form'd; which is neither form'd nor enliven'd. But the Body is mov'd because it is enliven'd. Yet is it not mov'd by an external but an internal Principle. Now it is manifest, that the Spirits are also internal, and that the internal Principle of Motion is in them, therefore it follows that they must be part of the Member.

But this Argument of the most acute Scaliger, tho' it seems fair to the Eye at first sight, yet (thoroughly considered) will appear to be without Force, as not concluding any thing of Solidity against our Opinion. For the Spirit is no more an Instrument that moves the Body, than the Air is the Instrument that moves the Sight or Hearing. So neither are the Spirits the Instrument of the Soul, but only the necessary Medium, by which the active Soul moves the in­strumental Body; and also perceives and judges of that Motion so made in that Body. So that it is no such Ab­surditie (as Scaliger would have it to be) but a Necessity, that there should be something inanimate between the en­livening Soul, and the instrumental Body enliven'd, which is part of neither, but the Medium, by which the Action of the enliven'd instrumental Body may be perform'd by the enlivening Soul. But, saies Scaliger, the Body is moved, because it is enlivened, and that not by an external, but an internal Principle. We grant the whole; yet we deny the Spirits to be the internal Principle, when it is most apparent that the Soul is the internal Principle which operates by the assistance of the Spirits.

So that it cannot from hence be proved that the Spirits live or are Parts of the Body, but only that they are the Medium, by which the Soul moves the Body. But because that Scaliger spy'd at a distance a most difficult Objection, viz. How the Spirits could be a Part of any corporeal Body, when they are always flowing and never in any constant Rest, but continually in Motion through all the Parts of the Body indifferently, to avoid this Stroak, he says that the Spi­rit's a quarter of that part of the Body where they are at the present time, and when they flow out of that part then they become a part of that Body into which they next infuse themselves; and so onward. But this way of concluding of Arguments is certainly very insipid, and unbeseeming so great a Man, when it is plain from the Definition of a Part, that a part of our Body, is not any fluid and transient Substance but as it is joyned to the Body by Continuity and Rest.

X. The Parts of the Body are two­fold. Division▪ the [...].

  • 1. In respect of their Substance.
  • 2. In respect of their Functions.

XI. In respect of their Substance, they are divided into Similar, and Dissimilar.

XII. Similar Parts are those which are divided into Parts like themselves. So that all the Particles are of the same Nature and Substance. And thus every part of a Bone is a Bone; of a Fiber, a Fiber. Which Spigelius calls Consimiles, or altogether alike: the Greeks [...], or of like Parts.

They are commonly reckoned to be ten: Bones, Gristles, Ligaments, Mem­branes, Fibers, Nerves, Arteries, Veins, Flesh, and Skin. To these by others are added the Scarf-Skin, Tendons and Fat. By others, the two Humors in the Eyes, the Glassie and the Crystal­line; by others the Marrow, the Brain, and Back-Bone: And lastly by others, the Hair, and Nails.

Of these some are simply Similar, as the Bones, Gristles, Fibres, &c. wherein there is no difference of Particles to the Sight. I say, manifest to the Sight, for that in respect of the several smallest Elements, not to be perceived by the Eyes, but by the Mind, of which they are composed, no part of 'em can be said to be really and simply Similar. Others are only Similar as to the Sen­ses, wherein there is a difference of Par­ticles manifest to the Sight, as a Vein, Arterie, Nerve, &c. For a Vein con­sists of the most subtile Fibers, and a Membrane: An Arterie of Fibers, and a double different Tunicle. A Nerve consists of the Dura and Pia Mater, or Membrane, little Fibers and Marrow. Nevertheless to a slight and careless Sight they seem to be Similar, because they are every where composed after the same manner, and so are like to themselves, as not having any other Substance or Composition in the Brain, than in the Foot or any other Parts.

Of the several similar Parts we shall af­terwards discourse in their proper Places.

Now all the similar and solid parts, in the first forming of the Birth are drawn like the Lines of a rough Draught in Painting, out of the Seed; to which the Blood and milkie Juice contain▪d in the Amnion, and Membrane that wraps a­bout [Page 7] the Birth soon after joyning, nou­rish the Parts delineated, and encrease and enlarge their Bulk.

'Till of late, it was believed that the Blood of the Mother in the first forming of the Parts did concur with the Seed, not only as a material but effective Principle (which Opinion was after­wards exploded by all the most eminent Philosophers) and that some Parts sha­red of more Seed, others of more Blood, and others received an equal Share of both. And hence proceeded that old Division, which divided the Parts, in respect of this Principle of Generation into Spermatic, which in theirSpermatic, Sanguine, and Mixt. Forming were thought to partake of more Seed than Blood, as the former eight Similar Parts. Others, into San­guine, in the forming of which the Blood seemed to predominate, as in the Flesh. Others mixt, which were thought to be form'd of equal Parts of Blood and Seed, as the Skin. But this Diver­sity of the Parts, does not proceed from the first forming, but from the Nourish­ment, in respect of which some receiv'd more, others less Blood for the Increase of their Substance: Also others are more and more swiftly, others less, and more slowly encreased in their Bulk.

Those Parts which are called Sperma­tic being cut off, never grow again, or be­ing broken or separated, never grow again but by the assistance of a Heterogeneous Body. Thus a Bone cut off can never be restored; but it being broken, it unites to­gether again by means of the Callus, or glutinous Substance, that gathers about the Fracture; but Parts made of Blood are soon restored, as is apparent when the Flesh is wounded or cut off.

Those that are mixed, are in the mid­dle, between both. Nevertheless as to the Spermatic Parts, when broken or se­parated, some question whether they may not be united again without the help of a Heterogeneous Medium: and they believe that in Infants and Children, whose Spermatic Parts, as the Bones, are very tender may be united again by Vertue of a Homogeneous Medium. But seeing we find that even in Children and Infants, wounds of the Skin never unite without a Scar, nor fractures of the Bone without the assistance of the Callous Matter, 'tis most probable that in no Age the Spermatic Parts unite with­out a Heterogeneous Medium; though it be not so conspicuous by reason of the extraordinary Moisture of the Parts in new Born Children, and young Peo­ple.

XIII. Dissimilar Parts are those Dissimilar Parts. which are divided into Parts, unlike in Nature and Substance, but not in­to Parts like themselves. Thus a Hand is not divided into several Hands, but into Bones, Flesh, Nerves and Ar­teries, &c.

XIV. In respect of their Functions, the Parts are distinguished two ways.

  • 1. Into Organic, and not Organic;
  • 2. Into Principal and Subservient.

XV. Organical Parts are such as Organical Parts. are design'd for the performing of Acti­ons, and to that end have received a certain, determinate and sensible Con­formation and Fashion.

Now that they may have an aptness for the Duties imposed, there are re­quired in these Parts, Continuity, fit Situation and Number, proper Figure, and Magnitude.

Which Parts are not only Dissimilar, as was formerly thought, but also Si­milar. For Example, a Nerve, tho' it be a Similar Part, yet because it is en­trusted with the office of Conveighing and distributing the animal Spirits; for this reason it is no less an Organical Part than a Muscle, or a Hand: and the same thing is also to be understood of a Bone, an Arterie, and a Vein. So that it is a frivolous distinction of Caspar Bau­hinus, and some others, who while they endeavour to exclude Similar Parts, out of the number of Organic, distinguish be­tween Instruments, and Instrumental Parts; whereas indeed there is no more difference between 'em, than between an Old Woman, and a very Old Woman.

XVI. Parts not Organic are those Parts not Organic. which have a bare Use, but perform no Action, as the Gristles, the Fat, the Hair.

XVII. Principal Parts are those Principal Parts. which perform the Noblest and Prin­cipal Action.

By these the Motions of several other Parts are promoted, and from them proceed. And they are reckoned to be three in Number; two, in respect of the Individual; and one in respect of the Species. 1. The Heart, the Foun­tain of Vivific Heat, and the Primum Mobile of our Body, from whence the vital and Natural Actions proceed. 2. The Brain, the immediate Organ of Sense, Motion, and Cogitation in Man, by means of which all the Animal Acti­ons are perform'd. 3. The Parts of Ge­neration; [Page 8] upon which the Preservation of the Species depends.

XVIII. Subservient Parts, are all Subservi­ent parts. those that are useful and subservient to the Principal: As the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Lungs, Kidneys, Hands, &c.

And these, as necessary to Life, areNoble. to be called either Noble, without which a Man cannot live, as the Lungs, Stomach, Guts, Liver, and the like. O­thers as not being necessary for Life, but are proper for some use or action, which renders Life more Comfortable, are toIgnoble. be called Ignoble, as an Arm, a Finger, a Foot, a Hand, Ear, Nose, Teeth, &c. which we may want and yet Live.

To these may be added, those whose Office is more mean and hardly mani­fest, as Fat, Hair, Nails, and the like.

Now that the Demonstration of these Parts may be the more conveniently made plain, and described in their Or­der, we shall divide the Body of Man, according to the modern Anatomists in­to the three Ventricles, and Limbs.

XIX. The Venters are certain re­markable Cavities, containing one or more of the Noble Bowels.

In this Place the words Cavity and Venter are not to be strictly taken for the Cavities themselves only, but lest the Members of this Division should be too Numerous, we would have com­prehended under 'em at large, as well the containing Parts that form those Ca­vities, as also the Parts contain'd within 'em: together with the Neck, or if there be any other parts annexed to 'em, which may be reckoned to the Members. Afterwards in the following Chapters, when we come to discourse particularly of the several Venters, we shall more at large subdivide 'em into Parts Containing, Contained, and such as are adjoining to them.

XX. These three Venters are the uppermost, the middle, and the lower­most.

XXI. The uppermost Venter or Ca­vity The upper­most Venter or Cavity. is the Head, wherein are con­tained the Brain, the Eyes, the Ears, and other Parts.

Now there was a necessity that this same Tower of the principal Faculties should be seated in the highest Place, to the end that being at a further distance from the places where the Nourishment is drest, the most noble Animal Functi­ons should not be disturb'd by its Steams and thick Exhalations: partly for the convenience of the Senses of Hearing, Seeing and Smelling, whose Objects more easily dart themselves from a higher than a lower place into the Or­gans of the Senses, and by that means become more perceptible.The middle Venter.

XXII. The second or middle Ven­ter or Cavity is the Breast, the Mansion of the Heart, Lungs, rough Arterie or Windpipe, and the Oesophagus or Gullet. This the great Creator placed in the middle, that as a King resides in the mid'st of his Kingdom, so the Heart the most noble and principal Habitacu­lum of Life should inhabit this middle­most Palace of the Microcosmical King­dom, and there sit as in its Throne, from thence with more convenience to water the several Regions of the Little World with its Rivulets of enlivening Nectar and Heat.

XXIII. The third Venter which is The lower­most Ven­ter. generally called the lowermost, and concludes with the Abdomen or Paunch, as the seat of the Liver, Stomach, Guts, Reins, Womb, and many other parts, serving for the Concoction of Nourish­ment, Evacuation of Excrements, and Generation of Off-spring: therefore necessarily to be placed lowermost, lest the manifold disturbances and abomina­ble filth of this Kitchin should annoy the superiour principal Viscera in their Fun­ctions.

XXIV. Limbs are the Members Limbs. adjoyning to the Venters, and distin­guish'd with Ioynts.

These being granted to Man for the better accommodation of Life, are two­fold, Arms and Legs.

XXV. The Arms in Man, are di­vided into the Shoulders, Elbows, and Hands: The Legg is divided into the Thigh, the Shin, and Foot.

According to which Division we haveA Division of the Work. divided this our Anatomy into ten Books. In the first four of which shall be ex­plain'd the History of those things which are contain'd in the several Cavities and Limbs. In the six latter we shall dis­course of those things which are com­mon to the whole Body, the Muscles, Membranes, Fibers, Arteries, Veins, Nerves, Bones, Gristles, and Ligaments.

CHAP. II. Of the lowermost Venter in ge­neral.

I. IN regard the lowermost Venter contains in it several moist Parts which are liable to putrefaction, the sink of many Dregs, therefore A­natomists begin their Dissections from thence, to avoid the effects of swift pu­trefaction, and to remove those Bowels first out of the way, which might soon­est infect the whole Body, and so pre­vent a requisite consideration of the rest.

II. This Venter Aristotle (Hist.Nomina. Anim. lib. 1. c. 13.) properly calls [...]: the Common People simply the Belly, in a more reserved signification: which Celsus willing to distinguish from the superiour Venter, calls Imum Ventrem, the lower Belly.

III. The lower Venter is all that Ca­vity, The lower Venter. bounded above by the Sword­like Cartilage and the Diaphragma or Transverse Muscle; on each side by the lower Ribs, behind by the Ioynts of the Loyns; and below, by the Bones of the Hip, the Os Sacrum and Share-bone, or Os Pubis.

IV. The fore parts of this Cavity ad­joyning to the lower Cartilages of the Ribs, and comprehended under 'em, were by the Ancients call'd Hypo­chondria and Praecordia; being two, a Right and a Left.

V. All that which falls upon the Epigastri­um. middle Ventricle of the Hypochon­dria, and the Gutts next to it, for more clear distinctions sake, with Ves­lingius, is call'd Epigastrium, tho' Riolanus will have it to be the Region of the Stomach: But the Ancients gave the name of Epigastrium to the whole Paunch; which the Arabians call'd Myrach. In the upper part of this Epigastrium is a certain Cavity, by the Greeks call'd [...] and [...]; by the La­tins Scrobiculus Cordis.

VI. The middle Region is the Re­gion The Region of the Na­vel. of the Navel, lying equally from the Navel three fingers above and below, whose sideling Parts are by the Greeks call'd [...], by the Latins Ilia, because the Gut Ilium lies chiefly conceal'd un­der those places.Hypoga­strium.

VII. That part which is compre­hended between this Region and the space of the Share, is call'd the Hypo­gastrium, Imus Venter, and Aqua­liculus. Whose lateral Parts from the bending of the Hip to the Share, are call'd Inguina, or the Groyns.

VIII. The Share▪ by the Greeks The Share. [...], is that part next above the Pri­vities covered with hair in persons grown to full Age. Of each side of which are the [...], which the Latins call Inguina, or the Groyns. Perinae­um.

IX. The lower part between the Root of the Yard and the Fundament, is call'd the Perinaeum.

X. The hinder parts of the Paunch Loyns. or Abdomen above, are fill'd up by the Loyns or Lumbi, below by the Buttocks or Clunes, which the Greeks call [...] and [...].

The Cleft dividing the Buttocks byButtocks. Hierophilus is call'd [...], where the hole of the right Intestine breaks forth, vulgarly call'd the Podex or Funda­ment.

XI. This Venter consists of parts containing or external, or of parts contain'd or internal.

XII. The Containing, which they Abdomen. properly call the Abdomen or Paunch, are either common or proper.

XIII. The parts contain'd are adap­ted either for Nourishment, Evacuati­on of Excrements, or Generation.

The Physiognomists affirm that no­table Conjectures may be made con­cerning the Disposition of Men from the form and bigness of this Belly. Thus Aristotle affirms that a little Belly is one of the principal Parts from whence Wis­dom appears in man. Among others, a [...]lat and hollow Belly denotes a man envi­ous and covetous. A round Belly beto­kens sobriety. A swag-Belly marks out a sleepy, slothful, stupid Fellow. A Navel swelling out very much, is a sign of a person given to Venery.

CHAP. III. Of the common Containing Parts; and first of the Cuticle and Skin.

I. THose are said to be the Com­mon containing Parts, that infold not only this Belly, but cover all the rest of the Body except the Yard, the Scrotum, or Cod, the Eye­lids, and some other parts that want Fat.

II. These are, the Cuticle, the Skin, The con­taining parts. the Fat, the fleshy Pannicle, the Mem­brane common to the Muscles.

III. The Cuticle, or Scarf-skin, which the Cuticle. Greeks call [...] (as it were a thing spread over the Skin) is a thin, fast, insensible little Skin spread over the Cutis, and so closely sticking to it, that it cannot be parted from it, but by the raising of little Blisters by the force of Fire or Vesicatories.

Aquapendens observed it sometimesSometimes double. double under the Vesicatory, divided into two very thin Skins, an outermost somewhat closer, and an innermost much thinner, and sticking so close to the Skin, that it cannot be taken off with a Pen­knife; which was so provided by Nature, that seeing the Skin is subject to outward violence, that if one Skin should perish, the other might remain entire, and sup­ply the uses to which the other was de­sign'd.

IV. It is said to grow from the Original. moisture of the Flesh condens'd by the dryness of the ambient Air; but er­roneously, in regard it appears to have a Seminal Principle as well as the Skin, or any solid Parts.

It covers the Skin, and shuts up the The Use. Mouths of the Vessels that extend to the Skin, and moderates its exquisite Sense, and prevents the overmuch run­ning out of the moisture.

Iulius Castor of Placentia, and several other Anatomists, will not allow it to be a part of Human Body, for four Rea­sons.

1. Because it was not produc'd out of the Seed in the first forming of the Parts; but afterwards arises from the Excre­ments of the third Concoction condens'd and dry'd by the Cold, like the film that grows upon Porridge. Which they say is apparent from hence, that when it is taken away or scrap'd off, it easily grows again, which the Spermatic parts never do.

2. Because it is void of Sense; nor is it wasted, as the other parts are, by Di­seases.

3. Because it does not live.

4. Because it performs no action.

But all these Arguments are of no force, as being full of manifest contra­diction. For by the unanimous consent of all Anatomists, even of those that propose these Arguments; it is allow'd to be the first and outermost of all the containing Parts; in which particular they had all very grosly err'd, were it not a part of Human Body. But let us see what weight their Arguments car­ry.

To the first we say, That the smallest Threds or Fibres of it were form'd out of the Seed, in the first delineation of the Parts. Which is apparent in all A­bortions covered with a Skin, where there is always a Scarf-skin to be seen; which could not be generated by the ex­ternal Cold, for there can be no such thing in the clos'd Womb; nor by the driness of any ambient Substance, there being no such thing that can touch the Birth swimming in a moist milkie Li­quor; and therefore proceeds from some small portion of the Seed. Which is apparent in Ethiopian Infants, as well brought forth in due season, as ejected by Abortion, who bring the external blackness along with 'em out of the Womb. Which Colour only dyes the Scarf-skin, and not the Skin (as Riolanus observ'd in the Dissection of an Ethio­pian, whose Scarf-skin or Cuticle was only black, the Skin it self being whiter than Snow.) If now they receive that blackness from their first Formation in the Womb, then the Cuticle into which that Colour is incorporated in the very first forming of the Body, had its Ori­ginal with the rest of the Parts out of the Seed; not from any Excrements, or Viscous Exhalations, in regard that no such things can be at the beginning of Formation. As for its growing again when cut away or rub'd off, it has that quality common also to the Teeth, which are daily worn by Mastication, yet grow again (concerning which see lib. 9. cap. 10. following.) Nay we find, that in the change of Teeth, the greatest part of 'em shed themselves, and afterwards come again. The same quality also is com­mon to the Sanguin Parts; which are not excluded however out of the num­ber [Page 11] of Parts, because they grow again when taken away: seeing they have such a copious nourishment of Blood, that easily admits of such a Restoration. And thus from the ends of the Vessels of the Skin, which it covers and shuts, certain Exhalations breath continually forth like a kind of Dew from the Blood to the Cuticle, for its nourishment, which is sufficient easi [...]y to restore its decay'd and wasted Particles.

Then if it be generated, as they say, like a Film growing over Milk thickned with flower, that prove; it to be a part of the Body, proceeding from the same Principle with the rest. For that same cream or film in Milk, is not the Excre­ment of the Milk condens'd, nor any thing extraneous to the Milk, but the thicker part of the Milk, and therefore the Milk.

To the second, we say, that though it be not sensible, nor wasted manifestly in Diseases, yet is it no less a part of the Body than the Bone, which is neither sensible, nor does seem to be wasted.

To the third, we say, 'Tis a false Assertion, that it does not live; for it increases and grows with the rest of the Body, (which Parts not living never do) and is nourished with Alimentary Juices, like the rest of the Parts. Which Juices, though they cannot be manifestly percei­ved by the sight, that signifies nothing, for that happens to those Juices that nourish many Bones, and the Periostea or Membranes that enclose the Bones, the Teeth and many other parts. Be­sides, it is subject to its Diseases proceed­ing from bad Humours and Blood, as is apparent in the Leprosie, the Meazles, and many other disaffections. In some it is thinner and softer, in others thicker and harder. But such differences de­prive the Cuticle of Life, no more than the Skin, which is subject to the same variety. Lastly, who can be so sottish to believe that our whole living Bodies should be covered and born with a dead substance or matter round about it.

To the fourth we say, That though it do not act, yet the use of it is absolutely necessary; and consequently that it is no less a part of the Body than a Cartilage or Gristle, the Fat, many Membranes, Flesh, and other Parts which are very useful, but perform no action at all.

Therefore we must conclude it a true part of Human Body: 1. Because it is one of those things that fill up the space; for a man without a Cuticle is not a com­pleat whole man: 2. Because it adheres in Continuity to the Body: 3. Because it is appropriated as aforesaid to a certain necessary use.

V. The Skin, Cutis, [...], as The Skin. it were [...], a Band tying together the parts of the Body; in Brutes P [...]l­lis and Corium, the Pelt or Hide is a covering Membranous, thick, genera­ted act of the Seed, and cloathing the External Body, as well to measure the excesses and differences of tactible Qua­lities, as to preserve it against the as­saults of accidental Violences.

VI. It consists of a Substance proper Its Sub­stance. to it self, being of a middle Nature, between a Nerve, a Membrane, and Flesh. For it is not without Blood, nor so quick of feeling as a Nerve; not so thin as a Membrane; nor so full of Blood as the Flesh; but it is indued with Blood, and as it were a Membrane some­what sinewy and somewhat fleshy, which by vertue of its fleshiness, enjoys a great­er thickness than any Membrane; and by vertue of its Nervosity has an acute and quick sense.

Aristotle seems to allow it a Substance plainly fleshy; for (in the 29th Problem, & l. 2. de generat. Animal. c. 6.) he af­firms the Cutis or Skin to be produced of the Flesh growing dry. In which sence also Columbus (l. de Spir. c. 5. & 8.) calls the Skin the Exiccation or drying up of the Flesh. With whom Galen, 3. Me­thod, and Ferne [...]ius l. 5. Pathog. c. 8.) seem to consent, saying, That the Skin is the dryer part of the Flesh that lyes underneath it. But seeing there is so great a difference between the Substance of the Skin, and the Flesh that lies un­der it; and for that the Skin is almost e­very where separated from the Flesh by the Fat that runs between, and the fleshy Pannicle, it is apparent that the Skin can be no part of the dry'd up Flesh. I say almost every where, for in the Forehead it sticks so fast to the Muscles under it, that it follows their Motion, and seems to be united to 'em, though in truth it be a part subsisting of it self, and not ge­nerated by the Flesh of the Muscles, but only most closely fixed to it. Whence we must conclude that the Skin owes its Original to no other part; but that it was produced in the first forming the Parts no less immediately from the Seed, and obtained a Nature no less proper to it self, than any other of the Parts.

Lindanus affirms the Substance of it to be twofold; the outward Part, ner­vous; the inward part fleshy. For he likens the Skin to the rind or peel of an Orange; [Page 12] whose exterior yellow Substance is thin­ner, harder, thicker, and more porous. The inner white part thicker, softer, loos­er and more spungy: and so he believes the Skin to be. And Massa is of the same Opinion, who writes that the Skin consists of two little Skins, and that they may be divided by the edge of a Ra­zor.

VII. In respect of the Substaace the The Diffe­rence. Skin differs in thickness, fineness, thin­ness, and hardness, according to the variety of Temperament, Age, Sex, Re­gions, and Parts.

Here Spigelius proposes a Question,Whether the Instru­ment of Feeling? Whether the Skin be the Instrument of Feeling? Which Aristotle and Avicen seem to deny, but Galen and his Disci­ples affirm to be true. For the Solution of the Question, this is briefly to be said: That the Membrane is properly the In­strument of feeling; and hence the Skin, as it is a Membrane, may be said to feel. But because that other thicker Parts not feeling of themselves are intermixed with the Sensitive Particles, hence it comes to pass, that its feeling Faculty is in some measure moderated, that it might be neither too dull, nor too quick.

VIII. It is temperate in the first The Tem­per. Qualities, and enjoys a moderate Sense of Feeling. For in regard it is subservi­ent to the Sense of Feeling, to the end it may be able the sooner, and with less de­triment, to feel External Injuries, before the Inward Parts receive any Dammage, it ought to have a mean temper between the tactible Qualities; by means of which it might be able to perceive all Ex­tremities. And because the Constituti­on of tactible Qualities is generally felt and examined by the Hands, therefore the innermost Skin of the Hands is most exactly temperate, and of a moderate sensibility, so it be not become brawny by laborious Exercise.

VIII. The Figure of it is plain and The Fi­gure. Flat; nor has it any other Properties peculiar to it self, but such as it bor­rows from the Parts subjected to it; according to whose Shape it is either Level or Unequal, Prominent on Ex [...]uberant, Contracted or Depres­sed.

In many Parts it has various Lines and Wrinkles according to the variety of its Motions; from the Inspection of which in the Hand the Art of Chiromancy pro­mises Wonders.

IX. It never moves of it self b [...]t Motion. when it is mov'd, and then it is mov'd either by the Part which it invests, or by the Muscles annexed to it, as in the Forehead and hinder part of the Head.

X. It is nourished by the Blood in­fused Nourish­ment and Vessels. into it through innumerable lit­tle Arteries. It has innumerable little▪ Veins, of which several discharge them­selves into the Iugulars, the Axillars, or Armhole-Veins, the Epigastric's, Veins of the Loynes, and Saphaenae or Cru­ral Veins. Innumerable other Veins al­so return their Blood to the Heart in­vincibly through some other greater Veins. It receives the Animal Spirits through the Nerves, of which the num­berless small Branches, and little Fibers terminate in the Skin from the parts be­neath it; and contribute to the quick­ness of its Feeling.

XI. It is of a continuous or con­nexed The Pores. Substance, except only in those places where there is a necessary Per­foration for the Entrance and Egress of things necessary, as the Mouth, the Nostrils, the Eyes, the Fundament, the Womb, the Pores, &c.

XII. In many places it is hairie, Hair. as upon the Head, the Share, the Chin, the Lips, the Armpits; more­over, but especially in Men, upon the Breast, the Armes, Thighs, and Leggs.

But as for the Quantity, Colour, Length, Thickness, and fineness of Hair, there is a very great Variety according to the Temperament and Constitution of the Body.

XIII. The Colour of the Skin is Colour. various. 1. According to the diver­sity of Regions. Hence some are deep Yellow, like the Scythians: Others bright Yellow, as the Persians, ac­cording to Hippocrates. Others Black, as the Ethiopians, Brasilians, and Nigrites. Others between Yellow and Black, as many of the Indians. Others between a deep Yellow, Red, and Black, as the Mauritanians. Others White, as the Europeans. 2. According to the Variety of Temperaments and Humors therein contained. Hence the Flegma­tick are Pale, the Choleric Yel­low, the Melancholy Swarthy, and the Sanguine Fresh and Lively. 3. Ac­cording to the Variety of the parts of the Body: For if it stick to the Flesh, as in the Cheeks, it is more ruddy, if too [Page 13] much Fat, it looks pale; if to a dry and wrinkled part, brown and dull; if it lye over great Veins, it looks blue.

XIV. Whether Action or Use be to be The Use. attributed to the Skin is disputed. Galen will allow it no Action. li. de Caus. Morb. c. 6. And therefore affirms it to be form'd by Nature particularly for Use. On the other side Iulius Casser of Placentia l. de tact. org. sect. 2. c. 1. besides Use ascribes to it a certain pub­lick Action, so far as it performs the Act of Touching or Feeling, and dis­cerns and judges of Qualities. Aristo­tle agrees with Galen; and many Argu­ments uphold Casser, which he rehear­ses and weighs in a long Discourse. l. Citat. à cap. 1. ad 9. And there also at the same time disputes of the Organ of Feeling, from Chap. the 10. to the 19. of the Book even now cited.

CHAP. IV. Of the Fat, the fleshy Pannicle and Membrane of the Mus­cles.

I. FAT, is an unctuous or oylie Fat. Substance, condens'd by Cold to the thinnest Membrane lying upon the fleshy Pannicle, and closely joyn'd to it, produced out of an oylie and sulphureous part of the Blood, which b [...]ing spread under the Skin, excludes no less the penetrating Injuries of Cold, than it hinders the immoderate Dissipa­tion of the natural Heat, moistning the in­ward Parts, and facilitating their Motion.

When I say it is condensed by Cold, then by Cold I mean a lesser Heat, not an absolute Frigidity void of all Heat. Which is explain'd at large by Andr. Laurentius▪ Anat. l. 6. c. 6. Where by many Reasons and Similitudes he clear­ly demonstrates, how a lesser Heat may make a Condensation. Valesius also weighs and decides all the Arguments brought to and agen upon this Subject. Controvers. Med. & Philos. l. 1. c. 10.

II. The Matter of Fat is Blood: Hence it comes to pass that where The Sub­stance. Blood is wanting, there is never any Fat or Grease. And that not every sort of Blood, but such as is prefectly concocted, Oyly and Sulphureous, made by Concoction out of the most airie and best part of the Nourishment. Hence it comes to pass, that such Persons whose Blood is not Oyly (tho' plentiful) but hot, Melancholic, Choleric, ill Concoct­ed, Serous, Salt, or which way soever sharp as in Scorbutics and Hypochondri­acs, never become Fat. For that through the vehement and sharp Fermentation, occasioned by the acrimonious Particles, the oylie Sulphureous Particles in the Blood either are not generated in suffi­cient Quantity; or being generated or consum'd, before they can be separated from the sanguine Mass, and grow to the Membranes. Hence it is manifest wherefore Children are tenderly plump, but never Fat, because their Blood is very Serous, and the more thick and oyly parts of it, are wasted in the Nou­rishment and Growth. Therefore Ari­stotle in his History of Animals l. 3. c. 13. writes, That all Creatures of riper Age sooner grow Fat than such as are young and tender, especially when they are arri­ved at their full Growth of Length and Breadth, then they come to augment in Profundity.

III. The Primarie efficient Cause is moderate Heat (not too fierce, as The effici­ent Causes that which dissipates overmuch, nor too little, which neither concocts well, nor dissolves the concurring Vapors) the secondary Cause is the Condensa­tion of those Vapors raised by that Heat to the colder Membranes. Nor is it a Wonder that Condensation should be made, when those Vapors light upon the Membranes not absolutely cold (tho' they are said to be cold in respect of other Parts that are hotter) but mo­derately hot as is before said. As we see melted Lead, when it is remov'd from the Fire condenses again tho' the place be very warm, however not so hot as the Fire.

Nevertheless those oyly sulphureous Vapors do not only light upon, neither are they always condensed upon the Su­perficies of the Membranes, but if the Members are sufficiently Porous, they insinuate themselves into their Pores, and spread over the whole Membranes, where they embody together, and be­come a part of 'em; and by that means the Fat is dispersed through those uni­versal Membranes, as it is done in that Membrane which lyes next under the Skin. But if the Membranes are more firm and thicker, then the Fat ad­heres only to their Superficies, as we find in the Intestines, the Heart and some other Parts that are fortify'd with a [Page 14] firmer and more compacted Mem­brane.

IV. The learned Malpighius (ex­ercit. Fat Ker­n [...], [...] [...] th [...] de Om. Ping. & Adip.) makes an Enquiry what that is, by means of which, the Oyly and Fat Particles are separated from the Sanguine Mass, seeing that Heat alone (which can raise indifferently any Vapors from the Blood, but not particularly separate the oyly Vapors from the rest) is not sufficient to do it. Whence he con­jectures [...] that Separation is made by the means of certain Kernels, appropri­ated only to that Duty, and that by o­thers the oy [...]y Particles are infused into certain Channels or Passages, which he calls Ductus Adiposos, or Channels for the Fat, and through which they are spread up and down upon the Mem­branes. In which place he brings seve­ral Arguments to support this new Spe­culation of his. Which new Discovery of so great a Man, is not to be despised, nor to be rashly rejected; but to be more seriously considered; in regard the following Reasons render it somewhat Doubtful. 1. Because the Kernels ne­ver appear to sight, nor can be any where demonstrated. 2. Because the certain­ty of the Passages of the Fat and their Cavity, is a thing as much to be dispu­ted. 3. Because the Fat or oyly Matter is somewhat Viscous, and therefore not so lvable to be separated from the Blood by invisible Kernels; or to pass through the imaginary Cavities of invisible Chan­nels, when the most subtle Animal Spirits which are liquid and not viscous at all, cannot pass through the invisible Pores of the Nerves, but that they are stopp'd by every slight Obstacle, more especially by the least quantity of viscous Humor, as we find in Palsies. 4. For that a fat Sweat breaths forth from the Bodies of many People, when it is a thing not to be believed, that these sort of Kernels are every where inwardly annexed to the Skin of the whole Bo­dy.

V. Whence it is apparent, what is The Tem­perament. to be thought of the Temperament; that is to say, that Fat is moderately hot, tho' it condense in the Cold, and be less hot than Blood. Which Tem­perament appears, 1. From the Mat­ter of it, which is Blood concocted, airie and sulphu [...]ie. 2. From the effi­cient Cause, which is Heat. 3. From the Form, which is Ovliness. 4. From the End, which is to help the Concocti­on of the Parts; and by its temperate Heat to defend against the external Cold. 5. For that it is easy to be set in a Flame. Of which Galen thus writes, l. 4. de usu part. c. 9. That Fat is hot, is known to the Sense it self, by those that use it in­stead of Oyle. And this also more espe­cially manifests it to be true, because it's easily set on a light Flame, as approach­ing nearest the nature of Flame; for no­thing cold is suddenly kindl'd.

VI. Picolominus has asserted that Whether it has any pe­culiar Mem­brane? Fat grows to a proper Solid but most thin Membrane (as we have already affirm'd) for that in Living Creatures the oylie Vapors of the refin'd Blood, would breath out in great Quantitie through the Pores of the Skin, unless some thick and cold Membrane (which Malpigius calls the Adipous Mem­brane) should restrain and curdle 'em together. But Riolanus in his Anthro­pogr▪ believes there is no need of any particular Membrane for that work, in regard that Condensation may be well enough performed between the thick­ness of the Skin, and the fleshy Mem­brane (perhaps as it grows outwardly to the Intestines and Membranes of the Kidneys: Which he proves from hence, for that in fat Bodies, especially in Wo­men, the fleshie Membrane lyes wrapt up in Fat, as it were in the middle of it. And the same thing is prov'd by others by this Experiment, that if Fat be mel­ted at the Fire, there does not remain any Membrane proper to it but only the fleshie Membrane. Hence Riolanus be­lieves that Fat is not to be taken for any peculiar Part, since it seems to con­stitute but one only part with the fleshie Membrane. Yet the same Riolanus (in Enchirid. Anatom. l. 2. c. 7.) re­claiming his former Opinion, attributes a peculiar Membrane to Fat. And this is that which we also believe. For if the Fat which lies under the Skin be pull'd off with the Fingers, you may easily perceive its more close and fast sticking by means of the Membrane; and tho the fleshie Membrane be sometimes o­verspread with Fat, as sometimes it hap­pens to the Intestines and other Mem­branous Parts, this does not prove, but that the Fat it self, which is extended over the whole Body under the Skin, has its own proper Membrane.

VII. But here some will object, This Membrane then at the first forming of the Birth ought to have been form'd out of the Seed with the [Page 15] rest of the solid Parts. But neither in Abortives, nor in Infants newly born, any Flesh is observ'd to lie un­der the Skin, therefore there can be no such Membrane there as that to which the Fat is said to adhere.

I answer, That that Membrane in all new born Infants is most certainly form'd, but by reason of its extraordi­nary close sticking to the fleshy Panni­cle, it is not so easily to be discovered. I remember once that in a certain large and fleshy Infant, that was Still-born, I found something of a small peice of Fat, like a kind of Froth, sticking to the Membrane, and as a Rarity not usually to be seen so soon, I shew'd it to all the Lovers of Physick that were by. Pe­ter Laurembergius also seems to agree with us in this particular; as he, who in his Anat. l. 1. c. 8 demonstrates, That the Fat (he should have said, rather, the Membrane to which the Fat will af­terwards grow) is form'd in the Womb, and that there never was any Child born without Fat (that is, without the Membrane) surrounding the Body and the Caul.

VIII. As the Fat which incompasses The Fatty Membrane. the Body grows to its own Membrane, so the same thing happens in the Fat of other Parts. For whereever Fat is to be found, as in the Intervals of the Muscles, the Heart, the Kidneys and other parts, there are to be found many thin Membranes, like little Baggs or hollow Lappets, hanging at the Ends of the Vessels, which adhere to another thicker Membrane spread underneath as it were a Base and Foundation. In these the Fat or oyly Matters of the little Bagg being separated from the Blood are condensed and col­lected; and so out of several little Baggs filled with oyly Matter, being mutual­ly clapt together, at length are made huge Portions of Fat. Malpighius also, by the help of his Microscopes, has ob­serv'd that the said little Sacks are va­riously formed, some being flat, others oval, others of another Shape, and that they are knit together partly by the Membranes of which they are for­med, partly by the little Net of the Vessels. Nevertheless it is to be obser­ved, that these little membranous Baggs do not grow to all the thick Mem­branes, which is the reason that Fat does not grow to all Membranes; as in the Lights, Bladder, the Meninges, or Membranes of the Brain, the Liver and Spleen, &c. in regard that no such membranous Baggs do grow or hang to the Membranes that cloath and invest 'em. Then, as for the Bones it may be questioned in some measure, whether their own Cavities do not supply the place of membranous Baggs, (which Cavities in the larger Bones are bigger, in the lesser Bones lesser and Spungy) or whether any membranous Baggs may be contained in those Cavities, in which the fat Marrow is collected. Which latter seems to be therefore so much the more probable, for that the Marrowy Fat seems to be in a manner interwoven with little Fibres and Membranes.

IX. Others there are who farther Whether a­ny part of the Body. extend the foresaid Doubt concerning the Membrane of the Fat, and do not put the Question, whether the Fat en­compassing the Body, either alone, or together with the Membrane to which it sticks, be a Part of the Body it Con­stitutes; but whether it be any man­ner of way to be reckoned among the Parts of the Body? They who main­tain the Negative affirm, 1. That it is not a spermatic Part engendered out of the Seed. 2. That it is not endued with Life like the rest of the Parts, be­cause it sometimes grows and sometimes wastes Insensibly. 3. For that in case of Hunger and Famine it turns into the Nourishment of the other Parts, where­as one Part cannot nourish another. 4. Because it performs no Action. 5. Be­cause it is not restrain'd within any pecu­liar Circumscription. But because the Affirmative seems to me the more fit to be embraced as the truer, I answer, to the First; that the first and least Deli­neaments of the spermatic Parts, are on­ly engendered out of the Seed, which at the first are so thin, that they can hard­ly be discern'd by the Eye, or else lye hid, as in the Teeth and several other Parts, which do not appear till long af­ter, when enlarged and encreased by the Nourishment which is daily afforded 'em: And so also it is with Fat. To the Second, That as the Muscles through Diseases insensibly decay, and yet it cannot be said that they are not endued like the rest of the Vessels with Life, thus also the Increase or Decrease of the Fat is no Proof that the Fat is not also endued with Life like the rest of the Parts. To the Third, I answer, That it is not true, that the Fat turns to the Nourishment of the rest of the Parts in [Page 16] case of Famine; but rather that is most certain, That the Fat is wasted also by long abstinence, like the other Parts, when depriv'd of its Nourishment. To the Fourth, I say, that Galen (l. 6. de placit. c. 8.) allows Action to Fat, by understanding Use, as he also in many other places confounds Action and Use, tho' in reality there be a great diffe­rence between 'em. Besides that the Cu­ticle, the spungy Bones of the Nostrils, the various Membranes, the Hair and other Parts, tho' they perform no Action, but only serve to several Uses, are therefore not excluded out of the number of the Parts; for which Rea­son there is as little cause for the exclu­sion of Fat from the same Number. To the Fifth, I affirm, That it is restrain'd within its own Circumscription, tho' not contracted to a Point, in like man­ner as the Flesh, which has no Circum­scription exactly determined; besides we know that the Figure makes nothing to the Essence of the Part.

X. The Colour of Fat in Men, as Colour. well as in brute Beasts, differs some­thing according to Age. For in Youth it is of a yellowish, or rather rosie kind of Colour; in elderly Peo­ple somewhat enclining to White; but in decrepit People altogether White. Tho' these Rules are not so general in a­ny Age, but that there may be sometimes an Exception, and the Sport of Nature may be observ'd. Laurembergius attri­butes this Diversity of Colours to the Qualities of the Blood: Not without reason. Others would rather deduce it from external Causes. But these will agree with Laurembergius, if we will al­low the Qualities of the Blood to be changed by external Causes: And so the Blood may be said to be changed by the Variety of Causes.

XI. Fat is either internally thic­kened in the internal Parts or ex­ternal, spread next under the Skin, of which we chiefly speak in this place. This is circumfused over all the Body, except the Lips, upper part of the Ear, the Eye-brows, the Cods, and the Yard, to which it would be but a Burthen.

XII. It differs also in Quantity The Plenty of it. several Ways. 1. In respect of Age: For in florid Age, it is more plen­tiful than in Childhood and Old-age. 2. In respect of Sex: For in Wo­men it is more plentiful than in Men. 3. In respect of the Temperament, Region, and Time of the Year: For it less abounds in hot and dry than in cold and moist Tempers. 4. In respect of Motion and Rest: For sedentary and lazy People are more subject to be fat, than they who are given to Exercise, or constrained to hard Labor. 5. In respect of Dyet: For they that feed upon costly Dyet, and indulge their Appetites, and make use of Nourishment of plentiful and good Iuice, are more subject to be fat, than they that live sparingly. 6. In respect of the Parts themselves: For it is more plentiful in those Parts where it is of most use, as the Abdo­men, Breasts, Buttocks; more spa­ring in those Parts where it is of lit­tle Use, as the Hands and Feet; but none at all where it is unprofita­ble and burthensome. 7. In respect of Health: For healthy People are fuller than sickly and diseased.

XIII. Suet grows to the internal A [...]eps or Suet. Parts, being the same with Pingue­do or Fat in a large Sense. But to speak specifically, it differs from Fat, for that this is softer and more moist, easily melted, and being melted, does not so easily congeal. Whereas Suet is harder and dryer, is much longer in melting, and being melted, more difficultly hardens again. This is cer­tain however, that several Physicians use the Word promiscuously, and call any oily Substance of any Creature Fat, Grease, or Suet, as they please themselves; which is also to be found in Galen: who is frequently carelesly neg­lectful of making any Distinction or Property between these Words; and l. 2. Sympt. de pingued. thus writes; If thou wilt call every oily and fat Sub­stance in Animals Grease; but Fat may be taken for the whole Genus of that sort of Substance.

XIV. The fleshy Pannicle, fleshy The [...] Pannicle. Membrane, and membranous Muscle, by the Greeks [...], is a strong Membrane full of fleshy Fibres, espe­cially about the Forehead, Neck, hinder part of the Head, and Regi­on of the Ears, spread over the whole Body, as well for Covering as De­fence, endued with an exquisite Sence, so that being assail'd with sharp Ra­pers, [Page 17] it causes a quivering and sha­king over the whole Body.

XV. This Pannicle in Man lyes Situation. next under the Fat, and extends it self to those parts that want Fat, as the Eye-lids, the Lips, the Cods and Yard. In most Brutes it is spread under the Skin, to which it sticks very close, and has the Fat lying under it. By the benefit of which, many Creatures have a Skin that is easily moveable, by means whereof they shake off Flies and other troublesome Insects, as we find in Cows, Harts, and Elephants.

XVI. It sticks most closely to the Connexion. Back, and is there thickest, and there­fore is vulgarly said to derive its Ori­ginal from thence.

In the Neck, the Forehead, and the hairy part of the Head it can hardly be separated from the Muscles that ly under it, and it is so firmly knit to the broad Muscle, that it seems to compose it.

XVII. It is somewhat of a ruddy Colour. Colour in new-born Infants, in People of riper years it is somewhat white. Which Colour however varies somewhat according to the Fat, the Vessels and Fi­bres annexed to it; so that it is some­times more pale, and sometimes between both.

XVIII. The inner part is smear'd Zas's ab­surd Opini­on of the vse. over with a slimy Humour, to make the Muscles slippery, and render their Mo­tion more easie.

N. Zas in his little Dutch Treatise of the Dew of Animals, ascribes a most un­heard of Use to this Membrane. For he affirms that it attracts to it self the serous Humours from all parts, and that it is the real Receptacle or common Seat of the Serum or Dew. Which serous Hu­mour flows from thence into all the Spermatic parts, and washes away all their Impurities. That it is the Spring and Source of all our Sweat; and that in all Distempers of the Joynts, it poures forth an incredible quantity of gravelly water, vulgarly call'd Aqua Articularis, or Joynt-water, with many other fanta­stical Dreams (as he was taught by his illiterate Master Lodowic de Bils) con­cerning this Membrane, which he frivo­lously indeavours to impose upon others; altogether ignorant that there is no at­tractive virtue in this Membrane at all, nor any receptacle or place where such a manifest quantity of the serous Humour or Dew, much less any great quantity, sufficient to be sent to all the Spermatic Vessels, and to be emitted by Sweat; nei­ther are there Pores sufficient to receive so great a quantity in so compact and thin a Membrane: Moreover, in the Dissections of Bodies, as well living as dead, that Membrane never is to be seen turgid or swelling with any serous or o­ther dewy Humour, as he calls it.

XIX. The Membrane common to The Mem­brane of the Mus­cles. the Muscles, is a thin Membrane cloathing all and every one of the Mus­cles, and separating them from them­selves, and the adjacent parts.

Riolanus, animadvert. in Bauhin. finds fault with Bauhinus for reckoning this Part in the number of the common Con­taining Parts; and yet in the mean time calls it a Membrane proper to the Mus­cles. But Bauhinus's meaning may be easily interpreted for the best; That he reckon'd that Membrane among the com­mon Containing Coverings, as it is pro­per only to the Muscles, but common nevertheless to all the Muscles, that is to say such a one as infolds, covers, and contains such and such Muscles only, but in the mean time is common to all the Muscles.

CHAP. V. Of the Proper Containing Parts.

I. THe Containing Parts proper The Bones. to the lower Belly, are the Bones, Muscles of the Abdomen, and Peritonaeum, or Membrane of the Paunch.

II. The Bones are few and large, that is, the Vertebers of the Loyns, the Os Sacrum, with the Crupper-bone adjoyn'd, the Huckle-bone, Hip-bone, and Share-bone; of which more l. 9. c. 12.

III. The Muscles of the Paunch or Muscles. Abdomen are ten, (sometimes eight, seldom nine) distinguish'd by their pro­per Membranes, and the running along or situation of the Fibres; on both sides equally opposite one to another.

IV. The first Pair, which is Exter­nal, Oblique de­scending. is fram'd by the Oblique descend­ing Muscles, full of obliquely descend­ing Fibres also.

These arise from the lower part of the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth and [Page 18] eleventh Ribs, before they end in Gri­stles folded among the Spires of the greater Saw-shap'd Muscle, and the trans­verse Processes of the Vertebers of the Loyns; sticking also to the side of the Hip-bone, and end with a broad Ten­don in the middle of the Paunch at the Linea Alba. Which Tendon sticks so close to the Tendon of the next ascend­ing Muscle, that it is almost inseparable from it, nor can be parted from it with­out being torn and dilacerated. Now its membranous Tendon begins at the Linea Alba, which Spigelius calls the Similunar or Halfmoon Line. These Tendons in Men (which also happens to the two other lower Pairs, the Ascending and Transverse) are crossed on both sides by the Processes of the Peritonaeum, ex­tending themselves to the Testicles; but in Women by the Vermiform Ligaments of the Womb; which Passage being o­vermuch widen'd or broken, if the Call or Intestines fall upon the Groin or Cod, it is the cause of Burstenness.

They derive Nerves, Arteries and Veins from the Intercostal Branches at the upper part:

V. The Linea Alba is a whitish The Linea Alba. part running from the Cartilago Mu­cronata through the middle of the Paunch and Navil, to the Os Pubis, or Share-bone.

It has the firm Substance of a Ten­don, through the Concourse of the Ends of the Tendons of the Descending, As­cending, Transverse, and Pyramidical Muscles of the Abdomen.

It is broader above the Navil, nar­rower below it; and in Women with Child many times it appears of a blewish Colour; which Colour it has been known to keep till the third Month after Deli­very.

Riolanus animad. in Bauhin. seems to believe it to be a peculiar Membrane running out from the Cartilago Mucro­nata of the Breast, through the Navil, to the Commissure or joyning of the Share-bone, and receiving the Tendons of the Share-bone. In the same Ani­mad. in Bauhin. he affirms the Linea Al­ba to be imaginary; perhaps because that being blind through Age, he could no longer discern it.

VI. The second Pair is constituted Obliquely Ascending. by the Muscles obliquely Ascending, furnish'd with Ascending Fibres, which as they ascend, cross the Descending in form of a Letter X.

They arise from the Transverse Pro­cesses of the Vertebers of the Loyns (from whence they receive the Nerves) and the Apophyses or going forth of the Os Sacrum, (but membranous both,) and the outward fleshy part of the Hip-bone▪ Hence the fleshy Ascending are joyn'd at the top to the Cartilages of the eighth, ninth, tenth and eleventh Ribs, and terminate in the Linea Alba with a broad nervous Tendon crossing the right Muscles; and are nourish'd by the little Branches of the Arteries growing from the musculous Artery near the Loyns, and casting forth Veins to the musculous Vein.

Some Anatomists vulgarly hold, that these Muscles with a double Tendon en­fold the right Muscles. Which is not very probable. For above, the Tendons of the Ascending Muscles rest upon the right Muscles, and are so fast interwoven with their Tendony Intersections, that they can hardly be separated whole from 'em. But in the lower or inner part of the Muscles those Tendons cannot be discover'd, and therefore they are de­servedly rejected by Vesalius, and Riola­nus; and Lawrentius is justly blam'd by Riolanus, for taking notice of 'em in his Sculptures.

VII. The third Pair is that of the Musculi Recti. Musculi recti, so call'd because of the streight Course of the Fibres.

They are very strong, three or four fingers broad, and about a finger thick.

They arise fleshy from each side of the Cartilago Macronata, the Breast-bone, and the Cartilages of the Ribs, (where they receive three or four Nerves from the Intercostal parts) and so descending directly down; and being united almost near the Navil, and distinguish'd with two, three, sometimes four Impressions, as it were into several Muscles, end at length with a strong, thick Tendon in the Share-bones. Some Anatomists de­scribe their beginning from the Share­bones, and make 'em to end in the Car­tilages of the Ribs. Others believe that they consist of several Muscles, and place their beginnings partly in the Car­tilages of the Ribs, partly in the Share­bones, and make 'em to end at their In­tersections, and affirm the several parts contained between the Tendon-like In­scriptions to be so many Muscles. To which Opinion, not improbable, Spige­lius gives his consent, induc'd thereto by this Argument, Because they not only receive Nerves from the Intercostals a­bove, but also below from the first Pair of the Loyns. For it is a perpetual Rule, [Page 19] that every Muscle moves toward its be­ginning. But where the Nerve is in­serted, there, as Galen testifies, is the be­ginning of the Muscle, (See the Reason l. 5. c. 1.) but here several Nerves are inserted into their Parts, not only above and below, but also those which are in­terspac'd with separate Interfections; and therefore there are many beginnings of these Muscles; which in regard they cannot be many in one Muscle, therefore all the Musculi Recti do not consist of one, but of several Muscles. Moreover if we consider their primary use, which is strongly to press down the Belly for the Expulsion of Ordure and the Birth; which Compression and Expulsion does not require that either the Breast-bone should be drawn downward, or the Os Pubis upward; but that those Bones should remain in their places, and that all and every the parts of these Muscles should swell together; that so the upper parts of every one should draw upward some parts that are nearest to 'em at the first Intersections; the lower parts other parts which are nearest to 'em, down­wards; and that the middle parts, lying between the Intersections, should draw to themselves the parts that are next 'em on both sides.

Which Contractions being made by distinct and several Parts to several parts, (which cannot be done in one Muscle) it follows that every single Musculus Rectus must consist not of one, but of several Muscles.

VIII. As they receive large Arte­ries from the Epigastrics ascending, and the Mammillary Arteries descending, so they send forth a larger sort of Veins to the Epigastric and Mammil­lary Veins.

IX. These Arteries and Veins at their Ends in the inner part, are vul­garly said to joyn together about the middle by Anastomoses one into ano­ther. So that the Ends of the Epiga­stricks open into the Ends of the Mam­millary Veins, whence many derive the Consent and Sympathy of the Dugs▪ with the Womb. But I have always obser­ved these Anastomoses or Openings of one Vein into another, to be wanting; nor did I ever yet meet with any Body wherein these Ends were not distant one from another, the breadth either of a Thumb or a little Finger, so that I am certain the Cause of that Consent can by no means proceed from hence.

Thus Vesalius likwise, in Exam. Obs. Fallop. writes; that he has observed that those Vessels are never so united, that it may be said, there is any Communica­tion between 'em. Bartholin also in dub. anat. de lact. Thorac. c. 1. writes that he sought for these Anastomoses in a sound young Woman, kill'd six weeks after her Delivery, but could find none: rather that the Branches ascending and descend­ing were about a fingers breadth distant one from another: yet Riolanus defends those Anastomoses most stiffly, Anthropog. l. 2. c. 8. and asserts that he had shewn 'em to a hundred of his Scholars. But for all that, I do not give so much credit to his words, as I do to my own eyes. Perhaps old Riolanus might be dimm-sighted at that time, and so per­haps might think he saw what was not to be seen. Of these Anastomoses see more l. 6. c. 3. & l. 7. c. 7.

X. The fourth pair resting in the The Pyra­midal Muscles. lower Place upon the Musculi Recti, are the Pyramidal Muscles, so call'd from their figure which is Pyramidal; but from their use Succenturiati, be­cause they are thought to assist the Mus­culi Recti in their duty.

They arise small and fleshy from the Share-bones, where they also receive the Nerves. From this larger foundation they rise smaller and smaller, and scarce four fingers bread, ascending the Ends of the Musculi Recti, yet somewhat unequal in length, the left being both shorter and narrower, they thrust their sharp Tendon into the Linea Alba, and sometimes ex­tend it to the Navel with a slender End.

Vesalius▪ Andern [...]cus, and Columbus describe those Ends erroneously for the beginning of the Musc li Recti, seeing that the interceding Membrane, and al­so the Separation which may be made without any prejudice to the Musculi Recti, also the Obliquity of the Fibres quite different from the strait Muscles, and lastly a peculiar way of thrusting themselves into the Linea Alba, clearly demonstrate that they are several and di­stinct Muscles.

XI. Fallopius and Riolanus as­cribe Their Of­fice. to these Muscles the Office or A­ction of compressing the Bladder, and promoting the Excretion of Urine, or the Act of making Water.

Nevertheless sometimes' both these Muscles are wanting; sometimes the one, and sometimes the other, is lacking; but more frequently the Left than the Right, and then the broader and more fleshy End of the [Page 20] Right supplies their place. We have several times shewn as well when they have been both to be seen, as when they have been defective, both in Publick and Private Exercises.

XII. The fifth Pair consists of the Transverse Muscles. Transverse Muscles, fasten'd to the Peritonaeum underneath, and full of Transverse Fibres.

They begin from the Ligament rising from the Transverse Processes of the Vertebers of the Loyns, the Huckle-bone, and the Cartilaginous Neighbourhood of the six inferiour Ribs. And being furnish'd with Arteries, Veins and Nerves obliquely ascending, they end with a large Tendon in the Linea Alba. To these the Peritonaeum sticks so close, that it cannot be separated from 'em without Dilacerati [...]n.

XIII. The common Opinion is, that The Action of the Mus­cles of the Abdomen. all the foremention'd Muscles compress the lower Belly, and by that means promote the dispersing of the Nourish­ment through the Vessels and Bowels, as also the expulsion of super abundant Ex­crements, and the mature Birth, also that they assist the Breast in strong Re­spiration, and Expectoration, or forci­ble throwing off what is offensive to the Lungs, fasten the Contain'd Bow­els, and defend 'em from External Injuries, and cherish 'em with their Heat. But I think this, that it is con­venient to discourse somewhat more par­ticularly of their Actions. For if ge­nerally they all serve to compress the Belly; which are they that raise the Con­taining Parts of this Belly? For their E­levation and Depression is Alternate, and both are equally necessary to the pushing and squeezing forward of the Nourish­ment and Humours through the Con­tain'd Parts, which I admire no Person has hitherto taken notice of. And there­fore there is a notable Distinction to be made of the Operations of these Mus­cles.

XIV. In the first place the two ob­lique Pair raise the Abdomen. For in regard they swell at their beginnings or fleshy Part, then the Tendons with the Linea Alba draw outward and raise upward; and that same swelling usual­ly concurs with the swelling of the Dila­ting Muscles of the Breast; and there­fore in breathing, the Abdomen is also e­levated together with the Breast▪ which every man may find in himself. Then again that Elevation may be made with­out breathing, when the Animal Spirits, especially more copious, are determin'd to these Oblique Muscles, and very few flow into the dilating Muscles of the Breast. This Operation also, among o­ther things, their Oblique Situation teaches us; (which is not so convenient for pressing forth;) as also their Origi­nal, and the length of their Tendous. But the other three Pairs manifestly serve for Compression. For the Muscu­li. Recti, with the Pyramidal, when they swell, cannot but very forcibly depress the Belly; and the transverse Muscles swelling, because they rise from the Loyns, cannot but very strongly con­tract the Belly, by drawing the Linea Alba backward.

Spigelius l. 4. anat. c. 10. ascribes ano­ther Use to the Muscles of the Abdomen, that is, to move the Trunk of the Body at the Sides Circularly and Obliquely, and to bend the Body forward. Of which two Offices, the one is to be as­cribed to the Oblique, the other to the Streight Muscles.

Besides the foresaid Muscles, those Muscles seated in the Region of the Loyns and Ossa Sacra, may be reckon'd among the Muscles of the Inferiour Bel­ly: But because that they are chiefly serviceable to the Action of other Parts, they are not muster'd in the Order of the Muscles of this Belly.

XV. The most inward Containing The Peri­tonaeum. Part of the Abdomen is the Perito­naeum, by the Arabians call'd Zip­hach, because it is spread over all the Bowels of this Belly, and not only contains and restrains 'em, but clothes them with a Common Tunicle.

Vesalius and Bauhinus, following the Opinion of Galen, de [...]su part. lib. 4. cap. 9. ascribe to it the Office of compressing the Intestines, and to the Exclusion of the Birth. But in regard that Action or Compression is Voluntary, it is neces­sarily perform'd by the Muscles, the In­struments of voluntary Motion, by which means the compress'd Peritonae [...]m pushes forward, and so presses forth only by Accident.

XVI. It is a thin and soft Mem­brane, interwoven with Spermatic Fi­bres, smooth within-side, and as it were besmear'd over with Moisture, without fibrous and somewhat rough.

XVII. It is improperly said to de­rive its Original from the first and se­cond Vertebrae of the Loyns, because [Page 21] the thickness of it is more in that place, and its Connexion firmer. I say improperly, because no one Sper­matic Part derives it self from another, but all take their Original from the Seed. Fallopius is of Opinion that it has its beginning from the beginning of the Mesentery. Lindan, agreeing with Rio­lanus, deduces its beginning from the Membrane outwardly infolding the Ves­sels and the Bowels. But in regard this Membrane is rather to be taken from the Peritonaeum that spreads it self over all the lower Belly, the Peritoneum can never derive its beginning from that.

XVIII. Jacobus Sylvius observes it Its Dupli­city. in men, to be thicker and stronger in the upper part of the Belly, in women to­ward the lower part of the Belly. Which Bauhinus believes so order'd by Na­ture in the one, as being more addicted to Gluttony; in the other, for the sake of the Womb, and the Birth to be there­in conceived. But Spigelius affirms it to be thicker in both Sexes always in the lower part, and never in the upper. Which he believes was so ordain'd by Nature with great Prudence, as being the Part which is most obnoxious to Ruptures; in regard that whether we sit, walk, or stand, the Bowels always weigh downwards; and therefore that the Pe­ritonaeum may be better enabled to sustain their weight, she thought it necessary to strengthen and fortifie that part.

XIX. It has very small Nerves that Its Vessels. arise from the Vertebra's of the Breast and Loyns. Arteries and Veins that spring from the Diaphragmatic, Mam­mary, and Epigastric Vessels.

XXI. It is bor'd thorough at the passage of the Gullet and Vessels above and below, and proceeding outward in the Birth, as also of the Vermiform Ligaments of the Womb. Moreover, its outward Membrane forms in men, two Oblong Processes, like more loose sort of Chanels descending toward the Scrotum, for the defence of the Testicles and Spermatic Vessels descending and turning again.

XXII. This Membrane is call'd Vaginalis, the Sheath-Membrane, be­cause it comprehends the Stones as it were in a Sheath. But in Women, whose Stones are not pendulous without, it extends it self on both sides to the end of the Round Ligaments of the Womb; and proceeding forward, together with it, without the Abdomen, extends it self above the Share-bones to the Clitores. But its inner Membrane sticks fast, and grows to the Spermatic Vessels, or the foresaid Ligaments of the Womb, pas­sing forward, and together with the Vagi­nal Membrane, extending without the Cavity of the Abdomen. For that Mem­brane being either dilated or broken in that place causes Bitterness; so that the Intestine and Caul in Men falls into the Scrotum; in Women down upon their Groyns. Which Rupture or Dilation of the Peritonaeum, if it happen in the Navel, is call'd Hernia Umbilicalis, or the Navel-Rupture.

CHAP. VI. Of the Parts Contain'd; and first of the Caul.

I. THE Parts Contain'd in the Abdomen, either perform the publick Concoctions; or serve for the distribution of the Nourishment and Blood; or expel the Exerements, or serve for Generation.

The Stomach, small Guts, Sweet­bread, Liver, Spleen, and Caul (which is serviceable to them) perform the pub­lick Duties of Concoction.

The Arteries, Veins, Milky and Lymphatic Vessels serve for the distri­bution of the Nourishment and Blood.

The thick Intestine, the Gall-bladder, the Porus Biliarius, the Kidneys, and the Urinary Bladder, expell the Ex­crements.

The Spermatic Vessels, the Stones, the Parastatae or crooked Vessels at the back of the Testicles; the Prostatae or Glandules under the Seminal Bladders, the Seminary Vessels, the Womans Pri­vities, her Womb and Neck of the Womb contribute to Generation. But tho' in Men the Yard and Testicles are excluded out of the Abdomen, yet are they by Anatomists reckon'd among the Parts contain'd▪ because the Spermatic Vessels go forth toward the Testicles from the Internal Parts, and the diffe­rent Vessels proceed from the Testicles toward the inner Vessels; and for that the Seed which is collected together in the inner Prostatae and Seminary Vessels, flows out of the Yard.

Of all which we are to treat in the fol­lowing Chapters according to their order.

[Page 22]II. The Peritonaeum being open'd, presently appear the Navel Vessels. Of which in the 32. Chapter.

III. Those being remov'd, the Caul The Caul. offers it self; in Latin Omentum, as it were Operimentum, because it covers the Bowels. The Greeks call it Epiploon, for that it does, as it were, swim over the Guts; sometime Garga­mon, sometimes Sagena, that is, a Net, or little Net; for that by reason of the stragling Course of its Vessels, it resem­bles a Fisher-man's Net: the Arabians call it Zirbus. It covers all the Sangui­neous Parts; tho' it appears fatter over some, and more membranous over others.

IV. It is a thin and double Mem­brane The De­scription. rumpled like a Purse, arising from the Peritonaeum that infolds the out­side of the Stomach and Colon. Riolanus derives its Original from the Mesentery: Which Opinion differs not from the first, when the Mesentery has its Membranes from the Peritonaeum; of which it is a certain sort of Production.

V. It consists of a thin Membrane Its Sub­stance and Connexion. interwoven with several folds, and small thred-like Fibres, growing in the forepart to the bottom of the Sto­mach and the Spleen, and sometime also to the round Lobb of the Liver, at the hinder part growing to the Co­lon, and so folded like a Sack; as also of several Vessels, and a soft kind of Fat, which is chiefly spread about the Vessels, and is very plentiful in fat People.

VI. It has a world of Veins, which Its Vessels. it transmits to those which run toward the Liver from the Stomach and Spleen, and so to the Vena Porta, or great Vein of the Abdomen. With which are intermix'd several Arteries from the Branches of the Ramus Coe­liacus and Mesenterick Artery, and some few Nerves that proceed from the Plexures of the Intercostal Nerves of the sixth Pair.

VII. The Roots of the Blood-con­veighing Its Inter­weaving. Vessels, meet one another here and there with an Anastomoses, leaving conspicuous Spaces between each other, which are also fill'd themselves with smaller Branches; springing side­long from the larger Roots, by means of whose frequent Conjunction an ap­parent Net is form'd, whose middle Spaces exhibit various Figures fram'd with wonderful Art and Workmanship. Many of these lesser Branches also run out into the Fat, and not only thrust themselves slightly into the outermost Lumps, but also penetrate farther in, and are fasten'd to the Lumps or little Globes of Fat: and sometimes they are hid with a small thin Membrane spread over 'em, so that they are imperceptible. Malpigius Exercit. de Oment. ping. & Adip. exactly describes the Structure of the Caul, in an Ox, a Sheep, a Hart, a Dog, and some other Animals.

VIII. Veslingius asserts, that se­veral The Gla­dules. little Kernels, plain to be seen, sometimes more, sometimes fewer, are scattered up and down in the said Vessels. But Riolanus animad. in Vesling. & Barthol. affirms that he never ob­served any such Kernels. But through Age he seems to have forgot a truer As­sertion in Anthropogr. where he ac­knowledges some few. And indeed they are very few, and those only under the lower and deeper Part, under the Py­lorus, or right Orifice of the Ventricle, and the Spleen.

In like manner Wharton, in his Ade­nographia makes mention of but very few. For c. 12. he writes, That he only found two little Kernels, but those always in the Caul. One bigger in the place where it joyns with the Pylorus; which he observ'd receiv'd some few milkie Vessels running from the bottom of the Stomach toward the length of the Caul (but he is in an Error, for there are not any milkie Veins that derive themselves from the bottom of the Stomach, but as far as I could find by three or four Obser­vations, these Vessels do not seem to be milkie, and advancing to the Kernel, but rather Lymphatic, and proceeding out of the Kernel.) These Vessels, the same Author says that afterwards, viz. from the length of the Caul they run with an oblique Course toward the right Extremitie of the Sweetbread, which they partly seem to creep under, and partly glide by, tending toward the common Receptacle of the Chylus, into which they disburthen themselves. The other Kernel he asserts to be a little less, which he affirms to have found sometimes double, sometimes treble, sometimes consisting of more Bodies. But if many Kernels are found in any Body that was sickly, at his Death, he calls those Kernels Adventitious, because they are not to be found in healthy Bo­dys.

[Page 23]IX. The learned Malpigius, be­sides Corpora adiposa. the aforesaid Vessels, observes o­ther very thin and slender Bodies, ex­tended like small Threads, among the Vessels that shoot sorth, which he calls Corpora adiposa, or fat Bodys: and he believes 'em to be certain pecu­liar hollow Vessels, carrying the mate­rials of Fat for the Generation of Fat, tho' it be impossible to observe their Original, by reason of their extream Slenderness. In the mean time he is of Opinion that these Materials of Fat are separated from the Blood by the means of certain invisible adipous Kernels, and are so sent to these Vessels, and thro' those conveighed into the Membranes, rhere to be coagulated into Fat. For as there are certain peculiar Kernels appointed for the separation of Acid, Salt, Bitter, Lympid, &c. Humors, from the Blood (for this shall be made out in the following Chapter) so he believes that there must be certain peculiar Kernels (which he calls A lipous) of necessity appointed of oily and fat Par­ticles from the Blood; and that those oily Particles being separated, are to be carried through certain peculiar adipous Vessels, in the same manner as the Blood, the Animal Spirits, the Chylus, and lympid Humor, called Lympha, are carryed through peculiar Vessels; upon which he introduces many ingeni­ous and probable Conjectures. But what it is that makes me question the Truth of these Kernels and Adipous Vessels, I have already set down in the fourth Chapter preceding; where I have made mention of these Kernels.

X. The Caul is seated about the Its Situ­ation. Intestines, into whose Windings and Turnings it insinuates it self, and spreads a great part of its self be­tween the Spleen and the Stomach.

XI. In many Persons it scarcely The Big­ness. extends it self below the Region of the Navel, in some farther, reach­ing even to the Bladder, and some­times in fat Women compressing the Mouth of the Womb (to the bottom of which it rarely grows) it occasions Barrenness, as Hippocrates testifies: And in Men if it fall down through the torn Peritonaeum into the Scrotum, it causes that Rupture which is called E­piploce, when the Caul falls into the outward Skin of the Cods. It appears in more Folds and Doubles toward the Spleen than in any other Parts. Some­times in Women after Delivery; re­maining all rumpled about the middle of the Belly, it occasions terrible and frequently returning Pains.

XII. For the most part, in Men The Weight. grown up, it hardly exceeds the weight of half a Pound; and yet sometimes it has bin known to weigh several Pounds. Thus it is found to be won­derfully encreased in some Diseases: And Wharton relates that in a Virgin that dy'd of a Cachexie, he saw a Caul that was fleshy, or rather Glandulous; about half a Thumb thick. Sometimes also in fat and tun belly'd People that are sound, it is covered over with a great quantity of Fat, which encreases its weight. Thus Vesalius l. 5. c. 4. saw a Caul, which being augmented to the weight of four or five Pounds, drew down the Stomach with its Ponderosity, and was the Occasion of the Parties Death by its weight.

XIII. By cherishing the Heat of the Its vse. Stomach and Guts, it causes more successful and speedier Concoctions. It supports the splenick Branch, and other Vessels tending to the Stomach, Co­lon, and Duodenum. Moreover it many times receives the Impurities and Dreggs of the Liver, as appears out of Hippocrates, l. 7. 55. also out of his 4. lib. de Morb. & lib. 1. de Morb. Mulier. As also from the Observations of Rio­lanus, Rossetus, and other Physicians.

CHAP. VII. Of the Ventricle, Hunger, and the Chylus.

I. TAke off the Caul, and pre­sently The Sto­mach. the Ventricle or Sto­mach appears; as it were a little Bel­ly, call'd by the Greeks [...], as also Gaster.

II. It is an organic Part of the Definition. lower Belly, seated in the Epigastri­on, next under the Diaphragma, which receives the Nourishment ta­ken, prepared by Mastication, and let down through the Gullet, and there concocts it; and dissolving the best part of the Nutritive Substance, con­verts it into a Chylus or whitish kind of Substance, like to Cream.

[Page 24]III. It consists of a triple Mem­brane; Mem­branes. the outermost thick and com­mon, springing from the Peritonaeum, the middle, fleshy, the innermost, full of Wrinkles, and covered over with a viscous Crustiness, to preserve it from the Injuries of Acid Iuices.

IV. In the middle and innermost Fibres. Membrane, in the first place, there is to be seen great Variety of Fibres ex­tended, some obliquely, some streight, and some Circular: For the strength­ning of the Bowels, and more easy Retention and Expulsion.

V. The innermost Tunicle is vul­garly The inner Tunicle. said to be common to the Gullet and Oesophagus; whereas it is of a far different Nature and Structure, and in regard of its Temper and Com­position, contains a most admirable fermenting Quality, which the Mem­brane of the Mouth of the Stomach and Oesophagus is not indued withal; and hence it engenders and stores up within it self a peculiar Fermentative Humor; which being in a sound Con­dition, the Concoctions of the Stomach are rightly perform'd, but being vitia­ted by the Mixture of Choler, or any other depraved Humors, occasion a bad Concoction. And therefore it would be better to say that this Tunicle is not common with, but continuous to the Oesophagus and Mouth of the Stomach. For there is a great Difference between Continuitie and Communitie. For the one denotes only the inseparable Adhesion of the Substance alone; but the other sig­nifys the Equality both of Faculties and Uses. For Example, the great Arterie, is continuous to the Heart, but not com­mon, as not having such Qualities and Actions as the Heart has.

VI. The Temperament of the Sto­mach Tempera­ment. is moderately Hot, not so hot as the Heart, Liver, and many other Parts. Which moderate Heat is aug­mented and cherished by the Heat of the Parts that lie round about it: To the end the Concoction of the Chylus may be the better accomplished; which otherwise is greatly endammaged by the Excesses of these Parts either in Heat or Cold.

VII. In a Man there is but one The Num­ber. Stomach: It being a rare thing to find two Stomachs in any Body: Of which I never read but three Observati­ons; of which one concerning a Sto­mach divided into two, is cited out of Ioselinus by Theod Schenkius, in Anat. The other is cited by the same Person out of the Observations of Salmuthus: And the Third is set down by Riolanus, Anthropogr. l. 2. c. 20. in these Words. Once I saw a double Stomach continu'd, but distinguished with a narrow Mouth in a Woman publickly dissected in the Year 1624. In this Woman the Stomach was oblong, narrow in the Middle, equalling the Gut Colon in Breadth and Largeness. Which being dissected, I found that nar­row Part, being like the Pylorus, to end in another large Cavity, which afterwards terminated in a thicker Orifice, which was the real Pylorus, from whence, as an Ecphysis, the first Intestine took its begin­ning. Beside these three Examples, I do not remember that ever I read any thing farther upon this Subject. But there are two Stomachs in Animals that chew the Cud, and many other Animals, that feed upon harder and raw Nourish­ment; also in Birds that cast up their Meat out of their Stomachs to feed their Young ones. And then the First by the Latins was called Ingluvies, or the Crap: Which is more Membrany and Thinner, the other more Thick and Fleshy. And in the First the Matter seems to be prepared for concocting, the Second to be perfectly Concocted. It is said that in some Creatures three Sto­machs have bin found; and Riolanus testifys, that four have bin found in those Creatures, which chewing the Cud have Teeth only in one Jaw.

VIII. The Shape of the Stomach is Figure. Oblong, Gibbous toward the right Part, and slenderer toward the Right.

IX. It rests upon the Back-Bone Situati [...]. near the first Verteber of the Loyns, and with the left Part, which is rounder and bigger, giving way to the Liver, it hangs forward toward the left Side: The left Side being the slenderer, and covered with the left Lobe of the Liver, and supported by the Sweetbread, is joyned to the Du­odenum, or first of the small Guts.

X. The Bigness varies according to The Big­ness. the Diversity of Ages and bigness of Bodys; to the Proportion of which it ought to answer; tho' that be no certain and perpetual Rule. For I have dissected several tall Men, who have had very small Stomachs, and se­veral Men of a short Stature, that have [Page 25] had large Ventricles. Gluttons, Vora­cious, or Greedy People, have general­ly large Stomachs. Such was that, which Schenkius anat. l. 1. Sect. 2. c. 14. affirms that he saw in a great Glutton that held ten Quarts of Wine. That was also a large one, mentioned by Spigelius Anat. l. 8. c. 8. that contain'd fourteen Pints of Liquor: Which was found in a Man that had a large Mouth. Whence Bau­hinus Anat. l. 1. c. 46. believes that a Man may judge of the bigness of the Stomach from the largeness of the Mouth: And that such as have a wide Mouth▪ have a large Stomach, and are Voracious: Which is also the Opinion of Spigelius. But neither is that Rule without Exception: For I remember that Falcoburgi [...]s, a certain famous Ana­tomist of Leiden, cut up before us, in the publick Theater, the Body of a very tall strong Man, who in his Life time had bin a stout drinker, and a great Eater, and always Healthy until he came to be hanged against his Will, in whom we saw so small a Stomach, that it hardly amounted to half the bigness of an ordinary Mans Stomach: But trebly exceeded other Ventricles in thickness.

XI. It is distinguished into the The Bot­tom. Bottom or Cavity (the one the lower or greatest Part, inclining to the left Side, with its chiefest and largest Part, where the first Concoction is finished) and two Orifices, the Right and Left.

XII. The left Orifice, commonly The Sto­mach. called the upper Orifice, is that which is properly the Stomach, and Conti­nuous to the Gullet and Diaphrag­ma, about the eleventh Verteber of the Breast, over against the Cartilago Mucronata, admits the swallowed Nourishment. This, exceeding the o­ther in Bigness, thickness, and Large­ness, is interwoven with many orbicular Fibres, somewhat fleshy (which cause its more firm Contraction, and in the various Postures of the Body lying down, hinders the Nourishment from falling back into the Mouth) and Nerves from the sixth Pair; and in that is the natural Heat of the Appe­tite, according to the vulgar Opinion: Not that the Act of Desiring is there performed, which is only in the Brain, but that through the Intervals there is such a Cause in it, the Trouble of which being perceiv'd in the Brain, stirs up such an Act of Desiring.

XIII. The other Orisice, which is The Pylo­rus. the Lower, properly called Pylorus, or the Door-keeper, is narrower than the other, somewhat bow'd toward the Back Bone, on the left Side, full of Fibres thwarting one another, having a thicker Circle, and shap'd like an Orbicular Muscle (by means of which it detains the Nourishment for some time, lest it should slip away too soon, and undigested) and continuous to the Duodenum Gut, send the concocted Nourishment to the Bowels. Which Nourishment does not pass by a steep Fall, as lying equally high with the Stomach, but ascends before Expul­sion.

XIV. The Ventricle receives Nerves, The Ves­sels. Arteries, and Veins.

XV. It receives Nerves from the Its Nerves. sixth Pair. For that both the Trunks of the wandering Pair, be­low the Ramus pneumonicus, de­scending along the Sides of the Oe­sophagus, is divided into two Bran­ches, the External and Internal. Of these, the External by and by joyn together again, and embody into one Nerve, and spreads it self over the up­per part of the Ventricle with many Shoots. The Internal also running to­gether, make one Nerve, which de­scending along the Oesophagus, and the external part of the Stomach, encom­pass the bottom of the Ventricle, and sends into it a great number of Fibres. Through these Nerves the Animal Spi­rits flow in great Quantity into the Ven­tricle, contributing to it a quick Sense of Feeling: Which because of the lar­ger Quantity of Nerves dispersed into the Stomach, becomes more sensible in the upper Part than the lower, which is thought to be the cause of Hunger. Through these Nerves of the wandering Pair is infused into the Fibres of the Ventricle, a natural Power of Contract­ing themselves, in all Expulsions, of what ever is contained in the Ventricle: And by means of them also is that great Consent between the Ventricle and the Brain.

XVI. It receives its Arteries from Its Arte­ries. the Coeliac Arterie, which serve to carry the Alimentary Blood with which it is nourished.

XVII. It is sprinkl'd with several Its Veins. Branches of small Veins sculking a­mong its Tunicles, many of which [Page 26] meeting here and there, and closing to­gether, they form at length four more remarkable Veins, which run to the Porta Vein, that is the 1. Gastrick, which is bigger than the rest, 2. and 3. the right and left Gastroëpiploid, 4. and the Pyloric Branch: Also another Vein,Vas breve. called the Vas breve, or Vas Venosum (which issues forth from the Ventricle sometimes with one, sometimes with two, sometimes three, and sometimes more Branches, to be inserted into the Spleen Branch. By these the remainder of the Blood, which is left after the Nourishment of the Stomach is con­veighed to the Liver.

XVIII. Formerly Physicians asser­ted It carrys nothing from the Spleen to the Ventri­cle. that there was a certain acid Iuice or Blood, which ascended into the Ventricle through the Vas breve, for the Nourishment of it, as also to create an Appetite, and stir up Hun­ger in the Ventricle. But the very Sight it self demonstrates the False­hood of this Doctrine in the Dissecti­ons of living Animals, in which it is apparent that there is nothing flows from the Spleen to the Ventricle; but that the Blood continually flows from the Ventricle to the splenic Branch: For upon tying the Vas breve, there will presently appear a Swelling between the Ventricle and the Ligature; but a shrinking of the Vessels between the Li­gature and the splenetic Branch. Which is a certain Sign that the Blood flows as we have said; and that it hardly reach­es the Spleen (for the Entrance of the Vas breve into the splenetic Vein, for the most part, is somwhat distant from the Spleen) nor does it enter into the Spleen, but is poured forth into the splenetic Branch, and flows from thence directly to the Porta. More of this Matter may be seen in the following 16. Chapter.

XIX. Here we are to note by the The Trian­gular Space. way, that some learned Men are very trivial in their Exposition of the 54. Aphorism of Hippocrates l. 7. where he says, They who have any Flegm included between the Ventricle and Diaphragma, are troubled with Pain, because the Flegm has no Passage to either Belly, &c. Induc'd by these Words, they assert, That between the lest Sde of the Ventricle and the Dia­phragma, there is a large Triangular Cavitie, fenc'd about with Membranes proceeding as well from the Ventricle, as from the Diaphragma and Caul, which nevertheless is a gross Mistake: For that there are no Membranes sent from those Parts that meet in that place, neither is there any such Cavity form'd there. In­deed sometimes a Portion of the Caul insinuates it self between the Diaphrag­ma and the hinder part of the Ventricle, so that sometimes it counterfeits the swel­ling of the Spleen. And this is that without all doubt, which has deceived the Patrons of the said Opinion, not be­ing well versed in Anatomie.

XX. The Ventricle, tho' it be not a It is mo­veable. principal Part, yet is it an assistant and serviceable Part; To which we are c [...]iefly beholding for the Preparati­on of the Nourishment (whence Quin­tus Serenus, a Sammic Poet, calls it the King of the Body.

They on Truths Royal Basis seem to stand,
Who give the Stomach the Supreme Command:
If it be Strong, it gives Strength, Vi­gor too,
To other Parts: If weak, their Over­throw.

And therefore all Diseases that assaultWounds of the Sto­mach m [...] ­tal. it are to be accounted very dangerous; and the Wounds which it receives are by Hippocrates, 6. Aphor. 17. deservedly accounted Mortal; because the mem­branous Vessels are hard to be cur'd in that part: and if they happen about the Stomach, by reason of the great num­ber of Nerves intermingled in those pla­ces, they kill the Patient with continual Convulsions and Hichups: but if they light upon the lower part, the swallow'd Nourishment presently falls through the Holes into the Cavity of the Abdomen, where in a short time they rot the other Bowels with their Corruption and Pu­trefaction. However tho' Use and Rea­son confirms that saying of Hippocrates, yet this Rule sometimes, tho' not fre­quently, admits an Exception; for it has been known that some Wounds of the Ventricle have been cur'd. And of such Cures we find Examples set down by Fallopius de cap. Vuln. c. 12. Cornax in Epist. Iulius Alexandrinus Annot. ad l. 6. c. 4. Therapeut. Galen. Schenkius also collects other Stories from others, Obser­vat. A rare Ob­servation. l. 3. Such a Cure I observ'd in the Month of December 1641. in a Country [...]ad, who in upper Holland was wound­ed with the Stab of a Penknife in the right side of the Ventricle; the wound being of an indifferent size, so that for eight days together we saw all his Meat [Page 27] and Drink came out again at the Orifice, especially if you did but press the lower part of the Ventricle with your hand: Which Efflux of his Nourishment stop­ped for seven days, but then return'd a­gain for three days, and no more; nor did the Nourishment discharge it self so much as it did before. Afterwards be­ing ordered to lye upon his right side day and night, nothing more flow'd out; so that no other Disease happening, and the Surgeon following his Cure, the Pa­tient, beyond mine and the Expectation of all Men, within six or seven weeks was perfectly cur'd. Nor did he after­wards feel the effect of any detriment which the wound had left behind, nor any hurt done to his Stomach. But,

More miraculous are those Accidents concerning two Knife-swallowers, of which the first is related by Bernard. Sue­v [...]s, Tract. de Inspect. Vulner. Crollius in Praefat. Basilic. Sennertus Prax. lib. 1. part. 1. Sect. 1. c. 15. and several others, of a Bohemian Country-man, who in the Year 1602. at Prague, swallowed a Knife nine Inches long; which Knife, after it had lain seven weeks, was at length cut out of his Stomach, and the Patient perfectly cur'd.

The other Accident George Lothus and Roger Hempsing relate, as seen by themselves, in a particular part of Ger­many, of a young Man of two and twenty years of Age, who at Regiomont in Prussia, in the Month of May 1635. swallowed a Knife by chance, the breadth of two hands in length, the smooth Haft slipping down unawares. Which Knife was cut out of his Stomach six weeks after, and the Patient perfectly cur'd in a Month. This Knife was af­terwards given by Daniel Becker, a Phy­sician of Dantzick, to Otho Heurnius then Professor of Physic and Anatomy at Ley­den, where it is still preserved among other Rarities in the Anatomy-Thea­tre.

XXI. That Stones do grow in the That Stones grow in the Ventricle. Kidneys and Bladder, is a thing fre­quently known, and sadly experienced; and that Stones have been also found in the Liver, Lungs, and several o­ther parts, is that which the Observa­tions of Physicians testifie: but that they should breed in the Stomach, is a thing hardly ever heard of; and yet Bauschius gives us four Examples of it. Ephemerid. Med. Phys. Tom. 2. Observ. 181. The first out of Iames Dobie Zen [...]ki, who reports, That a certain Woman, after long Pains in her Stomach, vomited up two Stones about the bigness each of an Almond, and was presently freed from her Gripes. The second out of Laurentius Scholtzius, who writes, That a certain Person, long tormented with cruel pain in his Sto­mach, at length vomited up a very large, oblong, and hard Stone, upon which his pain ceased. The third out of the same Author, of a Woman who at forty years of Age was troubled with a Pain and Swelling of her Stomach, want of Appetite, and continual Reaching; In whose Stomach, after she was dead, were found as many Stones as a man could well hold in the hollow of his hand, which being long kept, moul­der'd away, and crumbl'd into a kind of yellow Salt: He adds a fourth Exam­ple of Count George of Oppendorf, in whose Stomach were also found several little Stones.

XXII. The Action of the Stomach Its Action. is to make the Chylus, that is, to ex­tract a Milkie Iuice by peculiar Con­coction out of the several Nourish­ments, which is call'd the Chyle.

XXIII. The Chyle is a Milkie The Chyle. Iuice like the Cream of a Ptisan, pre­par'd and concocted out of the Nou­rishment received into the Sto­mach.

XXIV. The Nourishment or Food The manner of Conco­ction. is concocted in the Stomach by way of Fermentation; by which means they dissolve, and so the Iuice is extracted out of 'em.

XXV. Fermentation is twofold. Fermenta­tion two­fold. One whereby the Particles of the Mix­ture are stirr'd about of themselves, grow warm, and are rarify'd; and by dissolving the Salt which binds 'em together, they are so separated, that they become more full of Spirits: and are then for the greatest part mixed together again, and tho' more full of Spirits, yet remain mix'd. The o­ther, which is by many call'd Effer­vescency, is that by which the Acid Particles of the Salt, for the greatest part, boyling together with some Wa­try and Tartarous Matter, are con­center'd by Coagulation, and so are separated from other Particles of the Mixture, that they never return to an exact Union and Mixture with 'em again.

[Page 28]XXVI. After the first Manner Fermentation causes Chylification: tho' in our following Discourses, when we design to express a vehement Fer­mentation, we shall make use of the word Effervescency.

XXVII. This Fermentation is made The man­ner of Fer­mentation. when the Salt parts of the swallow'd Food, are by the heat of the Stomach, and the acid Iuice, dissolv'd, melted, and become full of Spirits, and withal corrode and move about the Sulphu­rous Particles, and so after a kind of Combat forsaking the strict Chains of their Mixture, are expanded and sha­ken somewhat sowre and sharper as they are, through the thicker Mass, together with the sulphury spiritous Particles jogg'd together in like manner, and be­cause of their passage deny'd, and mix­ture of the thicker Matter not yet fully dissolv'd, being driven back again, they assail that Mass with motion upon mo­tion, and divide and expand the smallest Particles of it one from another, and dispose 'em to a more easie separation, and to receive the form of another Pap­like and Milkie Mixture. But as for what Particles cannot be sufficiently dis­solv'd by this Fermentation, or reduc'd to a Milkie Substance, they become Ex­crement, whose separation from the Milkie Juice is wrought in the Guts.

XXVIII. This fermentative Conco­ction The force of Fermen­tation. (which is finish'd without any vehement Motion upward or down­ward, or any tumultuous Agitation through the Cavity of the Ventricle, as happens in Water boyling over the Fire) is so violent, that by the force of it the hardest Meats, which can hardly be mollified with a whole days boyling over a Kitchin-fire, in a few hours are not only soften'd, but so dissolv'd and melted, that the Particles being forc'd from their friendly Union, and torn one from another, and mix'd with the Liquor either inherent or in­fus'd into the Stomach, they are turn'd into a Pap-like Consistency, not unlike to the Cream of a Ptisan.

XXIX. Now that the Food is ra­ther The reason of Chylifi­cation. turn'd into Chyle, than into Choler, Blood, or any other Humour, that is to be attributed to the peculiar Quality of the Substance of the Ventri­cle, or to the Specific Temper and pe­culiar Structure, and consequently to the Specific Ferment and manner of Fermentation; as the peculiar Quality of the Liver and Spleen produces ano­ther Ferment, and as Blood is made in the Heart. However it is not done by the fermentative Particles alive, which are mix'd with the swallow'd Food, nor by a moderate Heat, as some are of O­pinion. For they only conduce to the dissolution of the Nourishment, but the moderate Heat to promote the said Con­coction or Fermentation, and excite the absconding Power to Action. But why that Concoction and Dissolution pro­duces the Chylus, rather than any other Humour, that is to be attributed to the peculiar Quality of the Substance, there is no other Reason to be given for that, but only the peculiar Quality of the Substance, in respect of which, the Heat operates otherwise in the Stomach, than in the Heart or any other part; and there disposes of the Ferment after ano­ther manner than in any other Bowel. Thus as the Kitchin-fire mollifies one way by Boyling, another way by Roast­ing, another way, that which is Fry'd in Butter, or otherwise, that which is pre­par'd in Vinegar or Pickle, and that by reason of the Substances by which, and upon which that soft'ning is to be brought to pass: Thus the Heat of our Body, by reason of the proper dispositi­on of the Ventricle, and the Juices there­in contain'd and bred, therefore other­wise soften and dissolve the Nourishment in the Stomach than the other parts, and disposes the Ferment after another manner, to inable that Ferment to dis­solve and concoct the swallow'd Nou­rishment, in a distinct manner from the Reconcoction in other parts of the Nou­rishment already melted and dissolv'd for second Concoction. So that by reason of this peculiar Quality, while the Stomach is sane, and acts accord­ing to Nature, there can be no other Juice there made than a white Chyle.

XXX. Paracelsus writes that Ar­chaeus with his Mechanic Spirits could perfect Chylification in the Stomach: but by Archaeus he means the innate Heat. To this Opinion Riolanus seems to adhere in Not. ad Epist. Wallaei. Ne­vertheless he admits something of a sha­dow of a peculiar Quality, in these words: I attribute the Cause to the diversity of the innate Heat, in the manner of the Substance, that is, saith he, the pro­perty of the innate Heat. Not that the innate Heat differs of it self in [Page 29] Substance. But when it cannot subsist without a Body or Substance without it self, it must operate variously accord­ing to the diversity of that Substance in the several parts.

XXXI. Hence it is apparent, how frivolous that is which some assert, That the Ventricle does not make the Chyle, but is only an Instrument and Receptacle where the Chyle is made; and that it no otherwise makes the Chyle than the Pot wherein the Meat is boyl'd makes the Broth. But I would fain know who is so blind as not to see, that when Chylification is attribu­ted to the Stomach, we do not mean the bare Membranes of the Ventricle, but a live and sound Ventricle that is furnish'd with its own Spirit and Heat, and a Con­venient proper Ferment generated out of the peculiar Quality of its own Substance, with none of which things a Porridge Pot can be said to be endued.

XXXII. The Colour of the ChyleThe Colour of the Chyle. is Milkie and somewhat white, by reason of the sulphury Particles, dis­solv'd with the salt ones, and mix'd with the acid Ferment of the Stomach. For every Liquor impregnated with Sulphur and a Volatile Salt, or a Salt admirably well dissolv'd, presently turns to a kind of Milk, if any thing of acid Moisture be pour'd upon it. Which is prov'd sufficiently by the preparations of Sulphur, and the Extracts of Vegetable Rosins. Also Spirit of Hartshorn or Soot, being sprinkled with any liquid Juice, or only fair Water, presently turns to a kind of Milk.

XXXIII. Plempius and WalaeusWhether it may be red. are of Opinion that the Chylus is not always white; but that from red Nou­rishment it becomes red, from green, green. But herein they mistake; for were it not white of it self, it never would be found always white in the Milky Ves­sels of the Mesentery and Breast; but we should also meet with red, green, or any other Colour, which was never yet observ'd by any Person. True it is, that frequently it appears sometimes more, sometimes less serous and thin, in the pectoral Chanel of the Chylus, according as there is more or less of the Lymphatic Juice, which flows in great quantity from all parts into the Chyle­bearing Bag; which Limpid Juice, when there is no Chyle, continually and lei­surely flows alone through that Chanel; nevertheless the Chyle that appears in those Milky ways, is never seen to be of any other Colour than white.

XXXIV. Therefore tho' the whi­tish Colour of it may be something darken'd in the Ventricle and Intestins by many other thick Particles of the Nourishment tinctur'd with green, red, or any other Colour, and inter­mix'd with it, in such a manner that the Mixture cannot be discern'd, it does not thence follow, that the Chy­lus of it self has any other Colour than white. For tho' in green Herbs the white, or rather pellucid Colour of the spirituous and watery Parts be not appa­rent to the sight, it follows not from thence, that the spiritous and watry part of those Herbs is of a green Co­lour; for if the separation be made by distillation, it presently appears pellucid. And so it is with the Chylus, for being separated from the Mass which is tin­ctur'd with any more cloudy Colour, mix'd with the acid Ferment of the Pancr [...]as or Sweetbread, it never appears of an [...] other Colour than white.

XXXV. But because Chylification cannot go forward unless the Nou­rishment be swallowed into the Sto­mach, it will not be amiss, before we prosecute any farther the History of Chylification, first to inquire into the cause of Hunger, that so we may more easily attain to the more perfect know­ledge of Chylification.

XXXVI. What Hunger is there is What i [...] Hunger. no man but can readily give an ac­count, that is to say, a desire of Food.

But what it is that provokes that de­sire, and is the occasion of it, has been variously disputed among the Philoso­phers.

XXXVII. Anciently they held that Whether from suck­ing. it proceeded from the attraction or sucking of the emptied Parts; and that the first emptied Parts suck'd it from the Veins, the Veins from the Liver, the Liver from the Stomach en­du'd with a peculiar sucking Quality; which act of sucking they thought occa­sioned that trouble which we call Hun­ger. But this Opinion is now adays utterly exploded. First, for that ac­cording to this Opinion plethoric Persons would never be hungry: Secondly, be­cause there can be no such att [...]action by the emptied Parts through the Veins [Page 30] from the Liver, by reason of the little Lappets or Folding-doors that hinder it.

XXXVIII. Others observing that Whether from an a­cid Iuice. acid things create Hunger, believ'd it to be occasion'd by the acid Iuices, carried from the Spleen through the Vas breve to the Ventricle. But this Opinion Modern Anatomy more curious has utterly destroy'd, demonstrating in living Animals, that the Blood descends through that Vessel from the Stomach toward the Spleen, and so empties it self into the Splenic Branch, but that nothing flows a contrary Course from the Spleen to the Stomach.

XXXIX. Many there are, of which Whether from the Iuices of the Arte­ries. number Regius, who affirms that Hunger is occasion'd by the biting of the emptied Ventricle, by certain sharp and hot Iuices, continually forc'd through the Arteries into the Ventricle or its Tunicles, which after the Expul­sion of the Chylus, not knowing what to gnaw upon, prick the Ventricle, whereby the Nerve of the sixth Pair, being mov'd within it after a certain manner, excites an Imagination of taking Nourishment for the relief of that pricking. But this Opinion is from hence confuted, for that the Blood of the Arteries, by reason of the Domini­on of the Sulphury Particles, is by no means sowre, but smooth, soft and sweet; so that it neither does, nor can cause any troublesome pricking or corrosion, neither in the Tunicles of the Ventricle, nor of any other Parts, tho' of most exquisite Sense (as the Adnate or Conjunctive Tunicle of the Eye, the Nut of the Yard, &c.) Besides, it would hence fol­low, That by how much the more of this Arterious Blood is thrust forward to the emptied Stomach, so much the more hungry a man would be: but the Contrary is apparent in burn­ing Fevers, that such as in health have fasted two days together, are no more a hungry, whereas their Stomach is clearly emptied, and the Blood con­tinually flowing through the Arteries into the Stomach. Then if Hunger should be provok'd by that Corrosion, why does not that hungry Corrosion happen in such People?

We were about forty of us one timeA Story. travelling together, in our Return out of France, at what time being becalm'd at Sea, so that there was a necessity for us to tarry longer than we expected, all our Provision, Water and other Drink being near spent, so that at length we were constrain'd to fast the third day, not having a crumb of Bread nor a draught of Drink to help our selves: but after we had fasted half a day, or a little more, there was not one that perceiv'd himself a hungry; so that the third day was no other way troublesome to us, but that it weak'ned us, and made us faint: Neither did the Arterious. Blood occasion any hungry Corrosion in our empty Stomachs. And thus not only Reason, but also Experience, utterly overthrows the a­foresaid Opinion. And therefore Ludo­vicus de la Forge vainly invents a way for this Arterious fermentative Liquor from the Arteries to the Stomach, in Annot. ad Cartesii lib. de Hom▪ where, saith he, It may be here question'd, why that Liquor (i. e. the Fermentative) is carried through the Arteries to the Sto­mach and Ventricle, rather than to other Parts. To which I answer, That the Arteries conveigh it equally to all Parts, but the Pores of all the Membranes are not so convenient to give it passage, as the Pores of the Ventricle. Now that this feign'd Subterfuge is of no moment, ap­pears from hence, That in the Mem­brances of the Brain, and many others, whose Pores are so convenient, that the Blood may be able to flow in greater quantity through them, than is convey'd to the Stomach; yet there is neither any Corrosion or Vellication of the Part. Some, that they may de­fend this Corrosion the better, say That the Blood which is conveighed, or flows to the Stomach, is sharper than that which is conveighed to any other Part. But this no way coheres with Truth, because all the Blood is one and the same which is sent out of the Heart to all the Parts of the whole Body; nor is there any thing to sepa­rate the sharp from the milder Particles, or thrusts 'em forward to these, rather than to those Parts.

XL. Others lastly, to whose Opini­on The tru [...] Cause. we think fit to subscribe, assert that Hunger is occasioned by certain acid fermentative Particles, bred out of the Spittle swallowed down, and some others somewhat Salt or indi­gested Acids, adhering to the Tuni­cles of the Ventricle, and by that drawn to some kind of Acidity; or remain­ing in it after the Expulsion of the Chylus, stitching to the inner [Page 31] wrinkl'd Membrane (especially about the upper Orifice) and a Vellication, trouble­some to the Stomach, which being communicated by the Nerves of the sixth Pair to the Brain, thereby an Imagination of Eating is excited, to appease the troublesom Corrosion.

XLI. This Acrimonie is infused into those fermentative Particles by the Stomach, when the sulphurous Parts are jumbl'd in the Iuices that stick to the inner Tunicle, and the Salts are melted by the convenient Heat of the Ventricle to a degree of Fusion, and so they turn Acid after a Specific Man­ner. To which purpose the swallowed Spittle descending to the Stomach may be very prevalent (for this hath a fer­mentative Quality in it self, as we shall shew ye l. 3. c. 24.) and to the same effect may also conduce the subacid Pancreatic, or Sweetbread Juice being infused into the Duodenum, if any Part of it shall rise toward the Stomach, or shall transmit any acid Vapors or Exha­lations from the Intestin to it.

XLII. Here some Object, and say, An Ob­jection. if this be the Cause of Hunger, then when the Stomach is full, and Con­coction and Fermentation are both busily employ'd, Men would be most Hungry; for then many more acid and fermentaceous Particles are called forth to their Work, which must of Necessity pull and tear the Ventricle much more than the few before men­tioned. 'Tis deny'd. For the Parti­cles to be fermented and fermented, that is dissolv'd, will be more; but not the Fermentaceous, or Particles dissolving. Of which we have an Example in Le­ven'd Bread, whose single Parts have no power to ferment another Mass of Flower; because the acid Particles are no longer predominant, but the Sulphu­reous, as appears by the sweetness of the tast: And so long as that prevalency of the sulphury Particles continues in the dissolv'd Particles, so long they cannot become Acid or Fermentaceous (for Sul­phur is Sweet.) As appears in Fevers, wherein acid Medicins are generally most plentifully prescrib'd, for the subduing of the sulphury Predominancy: And restoring the convenient fermentaceous Quality. For when the Prevalency of the sulphureous Particles is overpowered by the Force of the salt Acids, then comes the fermentaceous Acidity to be introdu [...]d. So that there are not more acid, sharp, and corroding Particles in the full Ventricle concocting the Food▪ or if there be, they are so stain'd by the copious Liquor intermixt, so that they can occasion no troublesom Vellication to the Stomach; by which means the Hunger cannot be greater at that time, but rather ceases altogether. But when the Ghylus, and with that the dissolv'd sulphureous Particles intermixt with the salt are gone off to the Intestins, then the Remainder that sticks to the inner Tunicle of the Ventricle, or is carried thither with the spittly Juice, as being freed for the most part from the redun­dancy of sulphurous Particles, grows sowre through the heat of the Ventricle, and so begins to tear again, and renews the Appetite, which ceases again, when that Acidity comes to be retemper'd by the Meat and Drink thrown into the Stomach, and its Acrimony comes to be mitigated and blunted.

XLIII. But if these fermentaceous Iuices are not only not moderated in the Stomach, but that through some defect of the Liver, Sweetbread, or other Parts, over sharp Humors are too abundantly bred in the Body; or flow from the Head, or some inferior Parts, into the Stomach, in so great a Quantity, that their Acrimonie can­not be sufficiently tam'd and temper'd by the swallowed Food, then happens that preternatural Hunger which we Canine Appe [...]ite call Canine; with which they who are troubl'd, often vomit up undigested Meat together with sowre Iuices like the Iuice of Limon (as they them­selves confess) and by reason of the gnawing Acrimony, occasioned by the extream viscousness of the Humors remaining in the Ventricle, presently become hungry again and fall to eat. But if the fermentaceous Particles are in themselves very viscous, or thicker, and of a slower Motion, then they require a longer time to elevate them­selves and excite Hunger; which chiefly happens when the acid Spirits less a­bound in the whole Body, and conse­quently in the Spittle, and that viscous Humor that sticks to the inner Tunicle of the Stomach.

XLIV. Sometimes also it happens that Hunger is frequently diminished, when bitter Choler ascends in too great Quantity into the Stomach (as [Page 32] in cholerick Men, in the Iaundise, and several sorts of Fevers) and there­in by its Mixture corrupts not only the fermentaceous Relicks of the Nou­rishment remaining in the Stomach after the Expulsion of the Chyle, but al­so the Spittle that flows to it. The more remote Causes of lessening the Appetite are various, as excess of Sleep and La­ziness, excess of Care, and looseness of the Belly, &c. Overmuch Sleep, and too much sitting still, for that for want of sufficient Exercise of the Body, the Humors also are not sufficiently stirr'd; nor are the acid Particles conveniently separated from the Viscous, so that they cannot be sufficiently roused up to Acti­on. In extraordinary Cares of the Mind hunger is not perceiv'd, because the Thoughts are otherwise employ'd. And as for loosness of the Belly, 'tis a certain Truth that the Ferment is vitiated.

XLV. Now these fermentaceous The Fer­ment. Particles that excite Hunger, as ap­pears by what has bin said, are acid, or somewhat acid, and are the same that promote the Conoction of the Stomach, and ferment and dissolve the swallowed Nourishment. Hence it is, that Acids moderately taken in­crease the Appetite, and cause a better Concoction of the Stomach. Of which we have an Experiment (besides our daily Experience in our Seamen, who make long Voyages to the Indies. For having fed upon thick and hard Meats for a long time, hence it comes to pass that their Appetites are deprav'd, and their Concoctions but weak; which breeds a Scorbutic ill Habit of Body. But when they come to Islands or Coun­tries where they meet with plenty of Limons, and other acid Fruits, present­ly their Appetite is restored, and all the concoctive Faculties, that languished be­fore, are renewed, together with their Strength, through the said acidity, and so in a short time they recover their for­mer Health. Therefore to keep the Seamen in Health in those long and te­dious Voyages, the Masters of Vessels are wont to carry along with 'em a cer­tain Quantity of Citron Juice, which they distribute now and then among the Mariners, when they find their Sto­machs begin to fail 'em.

XLVI. Acid therefore are those fermentaceous Particles which excite Hunger; which if they be wanting in the Stomach, the Appetite fails, nor can the Chylification be perfected, but the Meat is thrown off into the Bowels raw and unconcocted as when it was first swallowed down: But they being again restored to the Stomach, the Con­coction returns, and the Appetite is re­stored. Hence says Hippocrates 6. Aph. 1. In long Fluxes of the Belly, if sowre Belches happen, it is a good Sign.

XLVII. Now how it comes to pass that the fermentaceous Particles ob­tain that embased Acrimony, has bin already said, by an apt Heat melting those salt Particles to a degree of being Liquid and ready to flow. I say, Apt. For as Bread becomes well leavened in a luke warm Place by the Ferment mix­ed with it, in a cold Place in great dif­ficulty, but in a hot Oven can never be fermented: So this Acidity which will not be excited but by a moderate Heat of the Stomach, will not be stirr'd by too small a Heat, and is scattered and dispelled by too great a Heat; and thereby those Juices that should make the Ferment will be quite consum'd. Hence Flegmatic People that are troubled with a cold Distemper of the Stomach, have neither good Appetites nor good Concoctions; and Choleric Persons, who are infested with an over-hot Temper of the Stomach, have none at all. How­ever it does not follow from this, that the greater the Heat of the Stomach is, the quicker must be the Appetite, and the stronger and better the Concoction: For the contrary appears in burning Feavers, and an Inflammation of the Stomach: As also in a Lyon, whether he be accounted the hottest of all Creatures, yet can he not digest Iron, Gold, Brass, or the like; which however are easily digested in the Stomach of an Estriche, as being endued with a sharper Ferment, tho' not with so fervent a Heat. As Langius relates that he saw at the Duke of Ferrara's Court an Estriche both swallow and digest those Metals, l. 1. Epist. 12.

XLVIII. Therefore it is not the Heat but the Ferment, which in some is more sharp and acid, in others more moderate, which is the next Cause of the Appetite and Digestion of the Stomach: But moderate Heat is the Cause which disposes the Matter which begets that Ferment that elevates and ex­cites to Action.

XLIX. But whereas this Power What is the chylifying Heat. and Vertue in the Stomach of making [Page 33] this Ferment, and of Chylifying by its Assistance, cannot be excited into Action but by an apt and moderate Heat, some there are who question what, or rather where this Heat lies that produces this Action. Whether it be the Heat of the Membranes of the Ventricle, or the Parts that ly round it, or of any Humor, or any Spirits. Cer­tainly there is no difference of this Heat in the diversity of Subjects, in relation to self; for all Heat is excited by the Motion and Agitation of the least Parti­cles and subtil Matter (for because the Heat is fiercer in red hot Iron, slacker in the Flame of Straw; this does not ar­gue the difference of the Heat it self, but of the Quantity, proceeding from the diversity of the Subject to which it is inherent) But the Diversity of Operations proceeds from the diversity of the things themselves, upon which, and by virtue of which the Heat acts. For the same Heat melts Wax, hardens Clay, wasts the Meat upon the Spit, bakes it in the Oven, and boyls in the Pot, putrifys in a Dunghil, and hatch­es Eggs in a Stove, without the assistance of a Hen. In like manner to promote the Act of Chylification, it is required that the moderate Heat (which is no more than one and the same, should be proportionably adapted in the Stomach; that is, both in its Membranes, its Hu­mours and Spirits, and that it should be cherished and foster'd in like manner by the Heat of the Parts that lie round a­bout it; for so being truly and aptly proportion'd, it is impossible but the Ventricle must act properly and natu­rally toward the Chylification of proper Matter, by dissolving and extracting a Chylus out of it.

L. The Preparation of Nourish­ment The man­ner of Chy­lification. for Chylification proceeds gradu­ally after a certain kind of Method. For first the Spittle is mixed with the Meat which is chewed and masticated in the Mouth, not only softning them, but infusing into them, a fermentative Quality (of which Quality see l. 3. c. 6. & 24.) then comes Drink, Ale, Wine, or any other Liquor, which for the most part contains in it self acid Particles and fermentaceous Spirits. This Nourish­ment the Stomach strictly embraces, and squeezes it self round about it by the help of its Fibres, and mingles with it the Specific fermentaceous Juices, as well those bred in the interior Tunicle, as those that are affused upon the Spit­tle. Then by an apt and proper Heat there is a Mixture and Liquation or Melting of the whole Substance of the Nourishment together. For that the fermentaceous Particles sliding into the Pores of the Nourishment, withal get into their very Particles themselves, stir about, melt and dissolve the more pure from the thick, and render 'em more fluid, to the end they may be able to endure another form of Mixture; and be united among themselves into the form of a milky Cream. Which be­ing done, by the squeezing of the Ven­tricle they fall down to the Intestins to­gether with the thicker Mass with which they are intermixt; in them to be separated by the mixture of Choler and the pancreatick or Juice, after ano­ther manner of Fermentation, and so to be thrust down to the milky Ves­sels.

LI. The certain Time for the fi­nishing The time for Chylifi­cation. of Chylification cannot be de­termined. For here is great Variety observed proceeding from the variety of the Temperament of the Stomach, Age, Sex, Position, and Disposition of the Parts adjoyning, and the Nature of the Nourishment themselves.

LII. But why some Meats are di­gested sooner, some later; the Reason is to be given from the variety of the Meats themselves in Substance, Hard­ness, Solidness, Thickness, Thinness, Heat, Cold, &c. For which reason some are dissolved with more case and sooner, some with more Difficulty and later in the Stomach. But then again, why the same Meats are in others sooner in others later concocted; and where­fore some Stomachs will easily concoct raw Fish, hard Flesh, half boyl'd, or tho' it be raw, but the Stomachs of o­thers will with great Difficulty the ten­derest and best prepared Dyet; this pro­ceeds from the various Constitution of the Stomach, the Ferment, and the pro­portion of Heat.

LIII. What I speak of Meats, the same is to be understood of Drinks: Which for the same Reasons, and be­cause of the same Varieties, are di­gested in others well, in others ill, in others sooner, in others later; and render the Digestions of the Stomach, in others better, in others worse. For Example, if Wine or any other Liquor be drank plentifully, that is ei­ther quickly digested, by reason of the [Page 34] great Plenty, Thinness, and Spirituosi­ty of acid Particles, and so flows down to the Intestines; or else by reason of the extraordinary Quantity, being very hea­vy and troublesome to the Stomach, is thrust forth raw and undigested; of which Crudity the signs are sowre Belches, Vomiting, Rumbling in the Guts, and Crude Urines.

LIV. If fair Water be drank which contains no acid Particles, in a hot­ter Stomach, or where sharp and hot Humours abound, there it uses to temper, and somewhat to suppress an excessive and stinking Fermentation: but in a colder Stomach, and full of cold Iuices, it hinders Digestion. For that by its cold Moisture it dulls the sharp fermentaceous Particles contain'd in the Stomach, and the Meat receiv'd; that is, by its intermix'd and plentiful Aquosity it breaks to pieces and separates the least Particles of the active Princi­ples at too great a distance one from a­nother, so that they cannot act with a mutual and sufficient activity one upon another, so that then there happens a lesser Motion, and for want of that the more cold arises, so that the fermentace­ous Particles cannot be sufficiently atte­nuated by the heat of the Stomach, nor elevated to a just degree of Effervescen­cy; and then they become unable to act upon the Particles that are to be fermen­ted.

LV. Note also that fat Meats too Fat things abate hun­ger. plentifully eaten abate hunger, and render the Chylifying Concoction more difficult; because they dull the Acri­mony of the fermentaceous Particles: or rather because they so involve the chiefest part of the Particles of the Nou­rishment receiv'd, that the sharp fer­mentaceous Particles cannot act with conveniency upon 'em; which efficacy of Fat is to be seen in External Things. For Silver or Pewter Vessels being smear'd over with Fat, are not to be corroded by sharp Vinegar infus'd, tho' the Vinegar retain all its Acrimony. Nei­ther will Aqua fortis corrode the Skin if well greas'd over. Thus the sharp fer­mentaceous Matter acts with very great difficulty upon Meats that are over fat; which is the reason that the eating of too much Fat occasions vomiting. See more of Ferment, c. 17. & l. 2. c. 12.

LVI. Ludovicus de Bills; a kind of a paradoxical Anatomist is said to have observ'd the Time of Chylification in the dissection of Dogs, after this manner, according to the Report of N. Zas. If a Dog be fed with only sweet Milk, then the Chylification will be perfected about two hours after: Mix white Bread with that Milk, it will be three hours, or somewhat less, before the Chylification will be perfected. If the Milk be thicken'd with Barly Meal, and so eaten by the Dog, it will be four hours before the Chylus will appear in the Stomach: But feed the Dog with white Bread only, and it will require six hours to perfect the Chylus.

But these Observations of Bills are ve­ry uncertain; for that all the Stomachs of Dogs are not of the same Constituti­on, nor in the same Condition of Sani­ty, nor digest their Meat in an equal space of Time; thence it will come to pass, that Digestion which shall be ac­complish'd in the Ventricle of one with­in an hour, shall not be finish'd in ano­ther in two or three hours, though it be of the same Meat. Moreover, un­less these Observations be meant of all sorts of Concoctions of Nourishment re­ceived by the Stomach, they will con­tradict both Reason and Experience, which will teach us that neither in Men nor Dogs, all Meats that are swallow'd into the Stomach, are digested together, nor are all their apt and agreeing Parti­cles turn'd into Chyle; all at a time, the thinner first, the thicker afterwards, so that there can be no certain time pre­fix'd for Chylification. For Milk being eaten with Bread, tho' perhaps it re­quires three hours, before all the apt Particles shall be turn'd into Chylus; yet will it not be three hours before some Chyle be produced out of it; for the thinner Particles of the Milk will be sooner turn'd into Chyle, which will be conspicuous after one, sometimes in half an hour, and sometimes sooner, while the Bread and thicker Particles of the Milk shall remain to the third hour in the Ventricle. He then who affirms that the Chylification is not perfected be­fore the end of the third hour, is in an Errour, for the very first hour a good part of it was perfected and finish'd.

LVII. Bernard Swalve in querel. & opprob. Ventric. elegantly describes the time of Chylification, and the Ob­stacles that may happen to hinder it. Where he introduces the Stomach thusThe [...] diments and [...] of [...]. speaking:

All things that are receiv'd do not equally resist my Labour. One gives way sooner than another. Upon Milk meats I spend [Page 35] but an hour; not full two upon Pot-herbs: Nor does the softness of Fish require that time. Food made of Flower, as Bread and Crust, I can hardly dissolve into Cream in four hours; and the harder the Flesh is, the longer and more diligently must I labour. Mutton and Beef require seven hours to tame their Contumacy. Here I stand in need of a greater quantity of A­cids, and a greater resort and assistance of Spirits. Now my Substance operates more strongly, and then all these things are fre­quently weaken'd and dispoil'd of their force. I omit to mention many things that disturb my Office, and hinder me in my du­ty, now this, now that, which puts me in­to a languishing Condition. For this is my misery, hence my tears, that I cannot resist the Invasion of External Injuries, and that I am expos'd to so many and so great Errours and Mistakes that obstruct me in my Employment. These Mischiefs are so fruitful, that I cannot always obtain my End in Digestion.

LVIII. Assuredly these things are ve­ry The Order of Chyli [...]i­cation. well and succinctly described by Swalve, for that many and several sorts of Food being eaten at one Meal, do not all together, and at one equal distance of time, suddenly part with their Milkie Iuice; but according to the greater or lesser force of the Sto­mach, and the fermenting acid Iuice, and the difference of Food in Sub­stance, Quantity, Quality, Hardness, Viscosity, Thinness, Solidity, &c. The more spirituous and thinner Parts in some are sooner, in others later dis­solv'd, and turn into Chyle; and they which are first digested, pass first through the Pylore or Orifice, the other remain­ing a longer time in the Stomach, till a more accurate dissolution. This pro­ceeding is manifest from the Refreshment after the Meal; For the strength of Na­ture is soon repair'd, whereas the Meat is easily perceiv'd to remain in the Sto­mach. Which first Refreshment is caused by the thinner Particles of the Nourishment first dissolv'd and concoct­ed, and already discharg'd by the Sto­mach. Which, should they remain in the Stomach till the absolute Concoction of the harder Masses, by that over-long stay they would be too much digested, and so become corrupted, or vitiated at least. And this Method is evident in the dissection of Dogs, kill'd presently after they have fill'd their Bellies. For generally in their Bowels and chyliferous or milkie Vessels, there is found a thin­ner sort of Chyle, which we have many times shewn to the Spectators in a suffici­ent Quantity, scarce an hour or two af­ter they had eaten: especially if they fed upon a more juicy fort of Meats, when the chiefest part of the Food, not being yet turn'd into Chyle, still remain'd in the Ventricle.

LIX. Hence appears the mistake of The Order of Meats; many Physicians, who thought that the Nourishment which was first eaten was first discharg'd out of the Stomach; those things which were last eaten were last parted with. And hence they have been very careful to prescribe an Order in Feeding; as, to eat those things which are of easie Concoction first, and those things which are hard of Digestion last, for fear of begetting Crudities through a preposterous Order in Feeding; accord­ing to the Admonitions of Fernelius 3. de Sympt. Caus. c. 1. 5. Pathol. c. 3. Mercu­rialis 3. Prax. c. 12. Sennertus 3. Prax. part. 1. Sect. 2. c. 9. and of many others. Certainly whatever Variety is received into the Stomach is confus'd, mix'd, and jumbled together, and that by Fermen­tation, by which the spiritous and thin Particles spread themselves, and free themselves from the dissolv'd thicker Substances, and so the thick being stirr'd and agitated together with the thin; by that motion there is made a Mixture of all together; of all which Mass, that which is sufficiently digested passes through the Pylorus, that which requires farther Concoction, remains of a harder Substance in the Stomach.

LX. Here three hard Questions are to be examined in their Order. First, Whether if Hunger be occasion'd by the acid fermentaceous Particles, crea­ting a troublesome Vellication in the Stomach, what is the Cause of that which is call'd Pica, or a deprav'd Ap­petite (as when People long for Chalk, Oatmeal, Lime, and the like.) Se­condly, Whether in a Dyspepsie (or dif­ficulty of Digestion and Fermentation in the Guts) Choler can be bred in the Stomach, such as is evacuated upward and downward in the Disease call'd Cho­lera. Thirdly, Whether the whole Chyle, when concocted on the Stomach, fall in­to the Intestines.

LXI. As to the first, The Cause of a deprav'd Appetite (call'd Pica and Malacia) seems to us not to have been by any person sufficiently explain'd; when as the affect it self is a thing to be admir'd, in regard the force of it [Page 36] is such, especially in Virgins and Wo­men (for men are seldom troubled with it) that they will often with a wonderful desire covet Meal, Chalk, Tobacco-pipes, Dirt, Coals, Lime, Tarr, raw Flesh, Fruits, and other strange things altogether unfit for Nou­rishment; as live Fish, the fleshy and brawny part of the Members of a living Man, and Stones, (as Sennertus reports that he knew a Woman that swallowed every day two pound of a Grindstone, till she had at length devour'd it all) be­sides several other Precedents cited by Physicians, and what daily occurs to our Observation. Now they generally af­firm the Cause of this Mischief to be the deprav'd Humours contain'd in the Ventricle, which, according to their va­rious Natures, excite in some a various Appetite to this, in others to that, whe­ther bad or good: in some, to dissimilar noxious things, in others to similar, as the vitious Humours according to their diffe­rent qualifications variously tear & move the little Fibres of the Nerves of the Ven­tritle, by the peculiar Motion of which communicated to the Brain, there arises the same Motion in an instant in the Brain, by which a peculiar Appetite is stirred up to this or that thing. Francis de le Boe Sylvius Prax. l. 1. c. 2. as also in the Dictates of the Private Colledge assembled in the Year 1660. going about to explain this thing more particularly, asserts that the Cause of this deprav'd Appetite is a vitious Ferment of the Sto­mach, corrupted either by the vitious Nourishment, Physic, or Poyson, swal­low'd down; or by several Diseases, especially such as are incident to Wo­men, infecting the whole Mass of Blood, then the Spittle, and lastly the Ferment of the Ventricle, and disposing 'em to an ill habit. But if this formal Reason be of any force, let us from thence also ask this Question, Why such an Appe­tite, coveting this unusual Dyet, is also to be found in those who are troubled with no vitious Humours in the Sto­mach, as I have sometimes found by Experience; tho' I cannot deny but that there may be now and then for all that some ill Humours in the Stomach? Wherefore in a Man, whose Ferment and Ventricle are without fault, meerly upon the wistful looking upon some Pi­cture, sometimes of Fish, sometimes of Fruits, or other things not fit for Dyet, shall find himself to have a strong Sto­mach for these things? in the same man­ner as the looking upon the Picture of a naked Venus excites many Men to Vene­ry? What, and of what sort must be the Nature and admirable Quality that must so move the little Fibres of the Nerves and the Brain, that by reason of that special Motion there must be an Appe­tite to Grindstones, Tobacco-pipes, Coals, &c. which there is no body but knows can never be desir'd as a remedy against that troublesome gnawing, or as neces­sary for Nourishment.

LXII. And therefore these things must proceed from some other Cause, that is to say, from the Mistake of the Imagination, and thence a deprav'd Iudgment arising from an ill habit of the Brain, and a vitious Motion of the Spirits; and not from the pravity of the Humours in the Stomach. For according as the vitious Humours aug­ment or diminish the Vellication of the Fibres more or less intensly, it may in­crease or abate the Appetite, but not di­rect it to a particular choice of Dyet, especially such a one as is unnatural. For Hunger is a natural [...]nstinct, by which Nature is barely excited to receive Nou­rishment, as a remedy for the gnawing, but not more especially to this o [...] that Food, or to this or that Dyet, if it may be so call'd, as being altogether unnatural.

LXIII. Then as for that which is said, That sound healthy People being a hungry, covet sometimes Fish, some­times Flesh, sometimes Fruit, now roasted, now boyl'd, &c. This pro­ceeds not from any peculiar Vellication or Gnawing, but from an Animal Ap­petite, which judges that sometimes such sort of Meats, sometimes another, sometimes sweet, sometimes sowre, will be more grateful and proper for the Stomach; and therefore sometimes they covet more eagerly Wormwood-wine, raw Herrings, and several other things of themselves ungrateful, than others more pleasing to the Palate, and more wholesome.

LXIV. Now since the Choice or Re­fusal of Meat, or of any thing else, depends upon the Iudgment, and Iudg­ment proceeds from the Brain, cer­tainly the Cause of coveting this or that peculiar thing, is not to be sought for in the Stomach but in the Brain; which if it be out of order, through bad Humours, and ill Vapours arising from any filth gathered together in the Womb, Spleen, or Sweetbread, and hence as­scending [Page 37] up to the Brain, easily occasions deprav'd Imaginations, whence follows a deep deprav'd [...] Judgment, and through the mistake of that Judgment, noxious and absurd things are covered, rather than the best and most wholsome, as Chalk, Coals, &c. (A thing well known to happen to melancholly People, who many times doat upon one particular thing, tho' in other things their Judg­ment is sound enough.) For how far Intent and frequent Cogitation upon a thing avails to increase such a deprav'd Appetite, is apparent in Women with Child, who many times long to that degree, that if they cannot get what they desire, the Child shall carry the Mark of the thing long'd for. Which impression cannot be said to preceed from any deprav'd Humours of the Sto­mach, but from the Brain; for that the Imagination being intense upon those things, and Judgment made upon their use, and Benefit proceeds from thence, and the Ideas of those things are con­veigh'd from thence, and imprinted up­on the Birth by the Animal Spirits. Besides, they that are troubled with a deprav'd Appetite, do not always long for one and the same thing, but some­times for one thing, sometimes another, as their Fancies are fix'd more upon one thing than another, which cannot be imputed to any ill Humour adhering to the Ventricle; for that then the longing for variety of things must proceed from the variety of Humours. Besides, these sort of Patients are troubled with a de­prav'd Appetite when they are a hungry, and then they most eagerly long for those things which they have thought of before, whether good or bad; and be­lieve 'em then not to be bad or hurtful, but pleasing and wholesom. Which Depravation of the Appetite I have cur'd more by Cunning than by Physic; en­joyning the People of the House never to mention in the hearing of the Pati­ents those hurtful things, and to remove all sorts of Pictures out of their sight; and in the mean time to feed 'em with wholesom Dyet, and that often in the Day, to prevent their being much an hungry.

LXV. There is one Objection re-mains, An Obje­ction. that is to say, If a deprav'd Appetite were not caus'd by the ill ha­bit of the Stomach, the Patients would be sick upon the eating such kind of noxious Dyet, neither would such things be digested in the Stomach; but on the other side, it appears that few or none suffer any harm by it, with­out doubt because there are those de­prav'd Iuices in the Stomach, which are able to digest that preternatural Dyet, which the Stomach seems to have particularly requir'd, as a remedy for that peculiar Vellication or Twitch­ing of the Nerves. But the force of this Objection is easily answer'd, when it is consider'd that it is not absolutely true, that such Patients receive no Dam­mage from such incongruous and pre­ternatural Dyet, and that it is only true in very few, and that only once, twice, or thrice, but that afterwards they are cruelly afflicted by it, contracting Oppi­lations of the Bowels, the Dropsie, the wild Scab or Maunge, call'd Psora; and several other Distempers. But the rea­son why they receive no Dammage at first, is twofold.

First, Because upon the eager devou­ring of these things the Animal Spirits flow in great Plenty to the Stomach (as upon Venereal thoughts they flow in great abundance to the Generating Parts; together with a great quantity of Arteri­ous Blood. Now how effectually these Natural Spirits operate in nourishing the Body, we shall explain more at large, l. 3. c. 11. and how far they conduce to the Concoctions of the Stomach, if they flow into it more plentifully than is usu­al, is apparent in those Slaves to their Bellies, that waste whole days and nights in thinking what they shall eat, and are always stuffing their Guts. For they, by reason of the plentiful Spirits design'd for the Stomach, have much swifter and better Concoctions, than such as are al­ways busi'd at their Studies, whose Ani­mal Spirits are call'd another way; and therefore are frequently troubled with Crudities, and hardly are able to digest the lightest Food.

Secondly, Because they that are trou­bled with a deprav'd Appetite, are for the most part melancholy; or such as breed more sowre fermentaceous Juices, are more sharp and copious than usual, in the Spleen, Sweatbread and Ventricle; whence when they begin to be a hungry, they have a sharper Stomach, and far more easily digest whatever they eat, than others; nay, than they themselves can do at another time. Thus I have known a Woman with Child, that long­ing for ripe Cherries, has at one time eaten up six or seven pound together; another that has eaten thirty Cheesecakes; and another that would eat raw salt Herrings and digest 'em well, when [Page 36] [...] [Page 37] [...] [Page 38] at other times they did not use to be so greedy. And hence it comes to pass, that at sueh a time they will digest a large quantity of Meat, or those preter­natural Things (as Oatemeal, Chalk, and Coals) or at least the Stomach dis­charges 'em without any harm. But if they continue that immoderate Course of Dyet, that sharper Juice at length failing, it becomes such a Di­sturbance to the Bowels and Stomach, that their Concoctions are thereby plain­ly interrupted and deprav'd, to the breeding of copious bad Juices, that in­crease a great quantity of ill Humors, which is the cause of several Di­stempers. From all which I think it is sufficiently manifest, that a deprav'd Appetite does not primarily proceed from any deprav'd Humors bred in the Stomach, or sticking to it, but from some defect of the Brain, and mistake of the Imagination.

LXVI. The second Problem is af­firm'd Whether Choler be generated in the Sto­mach. by Regius, and several other Physicians, altho' it be far from being true. For in a crazy Condition of Health, the Humors in the Stomach may be corrupted several ways, and many bad ones may be gathered to­gether, and yet never any Choler bred therein. And for that which is exone­rated upwards and downwards in the Disease called Cholera, that is not bred in the Stomach but in the Liver, col­lected and amassed together in the Blad­der of the Gall, the Porus Biliarius, and other places adjoyning; from whence, sharply or sowerly fermenting and boy­ling, it bursts forth at last, with great Violence, into the Duodenum, and by virtue of that Motion is discharged and thrust out partly upward, through the Stomach, partly downward through the rest of the Intestines. Which is suffici­ently apparent from hence, in regard that the Invasions of Choler are subitane, no Signs preceeding of any ill Affection of the Ventricle, or of any Choler bred or gathered togethet within it; and for that often when People have made a good Meal, not feeling any Disturbance either in the Appetite, or in Digestion, it overflows in their Sleep at Midnight, and sometimes in the day time, with­out any foregoing Notice; which cer­tainly could not but precede, if a copi­ous quantity of Choler, the Cause of the Disaster, were bred in the Stomach, or gathered there together. Neither will Reason permit us to believe, that Nature has constituted various and se­veral Organs to perform one and the same Office, such as is the Generation of Choler. For to ob [...]ain that End, she makes use only of one sort of Means; and thus the Stomach alone Chylifys, the Liver alone breeds Choler, To wi [...] that serous or lympha­tick Iuice, of which Choler, by means of the Fer­mentum in the Gall. Bladder i [...] bred. See more here­of in▪ Sy­nopsis Me­dicinae, l▪ 4. c. 8. Sect. 10. § 14. ad 36. Salmon. the Heart only breeds Blood, &c. Nor does the usual Subterfuge avail in this place; that Choler generated in the Stomach, is not natural, but preternatural Choler. For to this I answer, that that Choler, which the Distemper, call'd Cholera, (which Choler, they say, is bred in the Stomach) and in the Loosenesses of many Infants is discharged in great quantity, is a sharp, and for the most part eruginous or green Choler; I have found it to be such in the dissected Bodys of many that have dy'd of this Distemper, heap­ed up together in great Quantity in the Gall-Bladder, and the ductus Cholodi­chus; but little or none in the Stomach. Which is a certain Sign, that this Cho­ler, when it is in a boyling Condition, breaks forth into the Stomach and In­testines, but that it is not bred there.

LXVII. In Infants that have dy'd of such a green choleric Loosness, I have observ'd, and that frequently, the Gall-bladders full of very green Choler, and swell'd to the bigness of a large Hens Egg. So that it is most certain that where the natural, there the preternatural Choler is bred; that is to say, on the Liver. This is to be un­derstood [...] the [...] before [...] ­pressed, [...] we have hinted i [...] the M [...]r­gin of the former P [...] ­ragraph, Salmon. But some will say, that it is impossible that so great a quantity of green Choler should be so suddenly bred in the Liver, or be col­lected and stir'd up from any other Part within it, as uses to be evacuated in the Disease called Cholera, in a few Hours: For in the space of four and twenty Hours, several Pints of that Matter are evacuated, to the filling of some Chamberpots, and therefore of necessity it must be true, that that Cho­ler is at that time bred in the Stomach. To which I answer, That this Choler being gathered together from all Parts to fill the Gall Bladder, for the most part is of a dark green Color, and very sharp, and when this, being in a boyling Condition, breaks forth into the Inte­stines and Ventricle, then it vexes and tears those Parts, and like a violently pricking Medicin, causes the Serous, and various other Humors, to flow from all Parts to the Intestines. Which being tinctur'd by a small quantity of green Choler infused into the Ventricle and Intestins, become all of a green Colour and so are discharged green out of the [Page 39] Body: Which Redundancy of flowing Humors being sometimes very great, the Ignorant believe that it is only meer Choler that is expel'd the Body in such a great Quantity, when they are only other Humors coloured by the Choler. Now that this Choler causes such a Tincture by its Intermixture, I know by Experience; for that with half a Spoonful of that Juice taken out of the Gall-bagg; I have, in the sight of seve­ral People, tinctured a whole Pint of Water.

LXVIII. The affirmative Patrons Whether part of the Chylus be carried to the Spleen? of the third Problem, with whom Regius consents, assure us that all the Chylus does not flow from the Stomach to the Intestins, but that some Part of it is conveighed to the Spleen, through the Vas venosum breve, and other neighbouring Ga­stric Veins. For Proof of which they give a two sold Reason. The first is, because the Birth in the Womb is nou­rished first of all with the milky Juice that swims at the top of it, and through the Navel-vein sticking to it, and not as yet extended to the Placenta, conveigh­ed to the Liver and Heart of the Infant. Now if this happen to the Embryo; 'tis no wonder that when a Man is born, that part of the Chylus should pass thro' the Gastric Veins to the Spleen. The other Reason is, that after a Man has fed heartily, there follows such a sud­den Refection, that so great and so sud­den could never happen, if the whole Chylus were first to pass through all the milky Vessels; and that some part of it did not rather get to the Spleen by a shorter Cut, and thence reach to the Heart more speedily.

LXIX. To the first Reason, I an­swer, That the Embryo is not at that time nourished with the milky Iuice, but with the remainder of the seminal Liquor, poured upon it by reason of its vicinity to it, entring the Pores, and soon after received into the Mouth: And that the Navel▪ vein, be­ing at length fastened to the uterine Pla­centa, can neither receive or attract any more milky Juice; So that an Agree­ment with it and the Gastric Veins, was ill contriv'd from hence. Moreover, supposing that any thing of the alimen­tary Juice were carried at that time to the Liver of the Birth through the Na­vel Vein; I say, it does not follow from thence, that the Chylus in Men born, passes also out of the Ventricle through the Gastric Veins, and out of the Intestins through the Mesaraics: That Compari­son being altogether lame, seeing that several Parts are in such a manner ser­viceable to the Birth, which they can­not pretend to in Men born. Of which, all the Navel Vessels afford us an Ex­ample, the Foramen Ovale in the Heart; the Closure of the Arteria Pulmonaris with the Aorta, &c. besides that seve­ral Parts have no use as yet in the Birth, that come to be serviceable in Men born, as the Lungs, the Liver, the Spleen, the genital Parts, the Eyes, the Nose, the Ears. So that from the use of any Part in the Birth▪ there can be concluded no use of any Part in a Man born; as we cannot conclude any use of the Gastric and Mes [...]raic Veins from the use of the Umbilical.

LXX. As to the second Reason, it seems to infer a very plausible Argu­ment from sudden Refreshment, that follows after Eating and Drinking, which is thought to be occasioned from hence, because that the more subtil Part of the Chyle, passing by a shor­ter Cut from the Ventricle to the Spleen, gets far sooner to the Heart, and refreshes it, than if it were first to pass to the Intestins, thence thro' several milkie Vessels to the Vein cal­led Subclavia, and so through the Vena cava to the Heart. Nay, I have sometimes heard that for a farther Proof of this Assertion, that an Exam­ple was cited by Regius out of Ferneli­us, of a certain Female Patient, whose Pylorus or Orifice of the Stomach was wholly obstructed, yet did she cat every Day, tho' she threw what she cat up again, and in that manner liv'd a long time. Which could never have bin, says Regius, unless something of the Chylus had bin conveighed out of the Stomach through the Gastric Veins to the Spleen. 1. Because the Chyle enters no other but the milky Vessels. 2. Be­cause there are no milky Vessels at all, that are carried to the Stomach, or from the Stomach (as Deusingius pretends to assert Institut. Anat. tho' I do not be­lieve that ever any Deusingian will pre­sume to make out) so that if the Chyle should pass from thence to the Spleen, it ought to be conveighed through the Vas breve, and other Blood conveigh­ing Veins; whereas they neither admit the Chylus, nor can receive it, for the Reasons brought concerning the Mesa­raicks [Page 40] l. 7. c. 2. 3. Because the Chyle is not separated from the thicker Mass, nor enters the milky Vessels, unless Choler be first mixed with it, together with the pancreatic Juice, which doth separate and attenuat [...] it by a peculiar Fermen­tation or Effervescency from the thicker matter that involves it; which Choler is poured forth into the Guts, and not into the Stomach, and if it should be carried to the Ventricle by Chance, that is, contrary to the usual Motion of Na­ture, and then Chylification is disturb'd. Now that the Chyle cannot be separa­ted from the thicker Matter, or atte­nuated by Fermentation without the In­termixture of Choler, so that it may be able to enter the milky Vessels, is apparent in those People that are trou­bled with the yellow Jaundice; in whom, by reas [...]n that the Choler cannot flow into the Duodenum, by reason of some Obstruction of the Cholodochus, or any other Cause whatever, that Distemper happens, because the Choler being de­ny'd Passage into the Duodenum, the Patients cannot go so often to the Stool, and when they do, the Excrement is for the most part Chylous and white, col­lected together in the Guts, and cannot be fermented and distributed for want of Choler. How true this Passage is, I leave to those who have read what I have for­merly [...]it in my Synophs Medicinae l 4. c. 8. sect. 10. § 14. ad 36: but be­sides what we have there spoken we have had several I [...]cterical Patients, in whom none of this has bin true, but their Stools have bin as nu­merous as before, and in some more nu­merous, and in most of them of as good a co­lour as for­merly: Moreover, I have near a hundred times seen the Excre­ments Chy­lous, white, and some­times like Clay, void of all man­ner of red­dish or yel­lowish Co­lour, & yet the Person not only free from the yellow Iaundice, but also in good Health. Salmon. As to the suddain Re­freshment after Meals, that comes not to pass by reason of any shorter Cut from the Stomach to the Spleen, and from thence through the Liver and Ve­na Cava to the Heart (which however is not a shorter way neither, than when it is carried from the Ventricle to the Intestines) but because the subtil Va­pors of the Nourishment, penetrate through the Pores of the Ventricle to the Heart (For the whole Body, as Hip­pocrates testifies, is [...], or full of Streams) and likewise all together gent­ly tickle the Nerves of the Sixth Pair, common to the Heart and Ventricle; which is apparent from hence, because not only Nourishment, but all fragrant Smells, and cordial Epithemes or Ap­plications, refresh those that are subject to swooning, and recover 'em out of their Fits; when as neither the Odors nor those things from whence the O­dors exhale, reach either the Spleen or the Heart, but only the most subtil Vapors make their Passage through the Pores. And moreover 'tis wonder­ful to think how soon the thin Particles of the Nourishment, which require but little Digestion, pierce through the mil­ky Vessels to the Vein Subclavia, and the Heart. I have given to Doggs, empty'd with long Fasting, liquid Nou­rishment of easy Digestion, and within three quarters of an Hour after having dissected 'em, I found in that short space of time a watery Chyle, very plentiful in all the lacteous or milky Vessels, car­ried from the Ventricle and the Inte­stines, tho' the Food seem'd to be all en­tire in the Stomach. The History cited out of Fernelius seems not to be very rightly quoted. For I do not remem­ber that ever Fernelius wrote any thing of Obstruction of the Pylore. In­deed in his L. 6. Patholog. c. 1. he relates a Story of a Woman with Child, that had a hard swelling in her Stomach, so that no Nourishment could descend in­to her Stomach, but presently upon touching that Orifice they returned to­wards the Throat again, which Woman in two Months time, with all the Art and Endeavours that were used, could get nothing into her Stomach. But what is this Story to the Proof of the Opinion forementioned? He tells us the Nourishment could not descend into the Stomach, therefore no Chyle could there be made out of it; neither could the Chyle flow from the Stomach to the Spleen. The Story of Philip Salmuth Cent. 1. Obs. 20. might have bin cited and objected much more to the Pur­pose, of a certain Person who was troubl'd with continual Vomiting, and was forc'd to throw back all the Meat he swallowed, by reason the Passage was stopp'd by a Scirrhous or hard Swel­ling at the Mouth of the Pylore, as was found after he was dead. Another Sto­ry like this is recorded by Benivenius observat. 36. and another by Riverius cent. 1. Obser. 60. and another by Schen­kius exerc. l. 1. Sect. 2. c. 33. not unlike the Story which Io. Vander Meer rela­ted to me of an Accident seen as well by himself as by several of the Physici­ons in Delph, of a certain Woman that for half a Year lay very ill at Delf, and vomited up all the Meat she eat after some few Hours, the first well con­cocted, the next loathsome and smel­ling very badly: After which her E­vacuations by Stool began to cease by degrees; so that for the first Week she did not go to Stool above twice or thrice, then once a week, and then hardly once in a Month, which brought her to nothing but Skin and Bone, till at length she dy'd: In whose Body, being opened, was found a Py­lore all Cartilaginous, with an Orifice so small, that it would only give Passage to a little Needle. But seeing it appears [Page 41] by these Histories, that the Pylore can never be suddenly nor long so streight­ned, but by degrees, so the passage of the Chylus is obstructed by degrees, from whence it comes to pass, that for want of sufficient Nourishment, the strength is wasted insensibly, and the Body emacia­ted by degrees: Seeing also that by their going to stool, tho' it were but very sel­dom, and for that the Pylore would ad­mit the passage of a little Needle, that it would not admit a greater Body, it appear'd that the Pylore in those Per­sons was not totally obstructed, or if it were wholly clos'd up, yet that they did not live long by reason of that Ob­struction, but dy'd in a short time, it cannot thence be prov'd that the Chylus passes from thence to the Spleen. For if this were true, the Patients strength would not have fail'd so soon through the Obstruction of the Pylore, nor have yielded so easie an Access to Death.

LXXI. Bernard Swalve consider­ing Whether the Chylus enters the Gastric Veins. these Difficulties, Lib. de Querel▪ & Approb. Ventric. p. 63, 64. dares not assert that Refreshment is occasion'd by the Chylus coming a shorter way than through the Intestins, but writes that supposing a case of necessity, the little Orifices of the Gastric Veins in the Tunicles of the Ventricle gape a little, and that into them, it is not the Chylus, which is too thick, but a more Liquid Iuice is speedily in­fus'd presently, to be intermix'd with the Blood flowing back to the Heart. But according to this Assertion Swalve seems to offer a most cruel Violence to the Gastric Veins, and to force 'em to confirm his Speculation, as if by agree­ment he would, at his own pleasure shut 'em up, but upon this Condition, that they should not gape, but in a time of necessity, or being open, should not emp­ty their Blood into the Cavity of the Ventricle (which otherwise might easily happen, and so occasion Vomiting of Blood,) and that they should not take the Chylus it self, but only sup up a Liquid Humour out of the Stomach, and so carry it in a hurry to the Heart.

LXXII. The use of the Chylus is [...]he use of [...] Chylus. A second [...]igression. Whether a­ [...] parts are [...] by the Chylus. to breed good Blood out of it: But whether any parts are nourished at the first hand by the Chylus, before it be chang'd into Blood, is a Controversie.

This Galen most plainly writes con­cerning the Ventricle, l. 3. de Natural. Fa­cult. c. 6. in these words▪ Moreover this is the end (that is of the Concoction of the Stomach) that so much as is apt and agree­ing in Quality, should take some part to its self. And therefore that which is the best in the nourishment, that it draws to it self in the nature of a Vapour, and by degrees, stores up in its Tunicles, and fixes it to 'em. When it is fully satisfied, whatever of Nourishment remains, that it throws off as burdensome. The same thing he also asserts, c. 12, 13. of the same Book. Val­lesius confirms this Opinion of Galen by many Arguments, Controvers. Med. & Philos. l. 1. c. 14. That the Ventricle is nourish'd by the Chylus, the shape of its Substance, and these Reasons over and a­bove, te [...]us. If the Ventricle were not nourish▪d by the Chylus, neither would it digest the Food. For why does it generate the Chylus? Is it not to send it to the Liver? Therefore 'tis the Care of the Ventricle to nourish the Liver; and there­fore it is not guided by Nature, but by Intellect. For those things that operate by Nature, are never concern'd with the care of other things. Moreover, either the Ventricle retains some part of the Chylus, and sends some part to the Liver, or it retains nothing at all of it. If it retain'd nothing, it would presently covet more, since only Nourishment seems to be that which can protect it from Hunger; and therefore the Blood alone is not proper to nourish the Mem­bers. Endi [...]s Parisanus is also of the same Opinion with Galen, l. 5. Subtil. Exercit. 3. c. 2. as likewise Hen▪ Regius Medic. l. 1. c. 4. neither do Peramatus and Montaltus differ from the rest. A­ristotle contradicts Galen, who shews by many Reasons, l. 2. de part. Animal. c. [...] ▪ that the Blood is the last Aliment, and that all the Parts are immediately [...]ou­rish'd by that, and not by the Chylus. Plempius l. 2. Fund. Med. c. 8. tho' he thinks that both Pa [...]ts may be easily maintain'd by reason of the weakness of the Arguments; nevertheless he asserts with Aristotle, That the Ventricle, and all the Parts, are at first hand nourish'd with the Blood, and supports this Opi­nion by many Arguments. Of the same Opinion is Bernard Swalve in que­rel. & Opprob. Ventric. we are also enclin'd to approve the Opinion of Aristotle, That the Blood is the last Nourishment▪ But I would have this added, That the Chylus contributes a certain Irrigation necessary▪ to moisten the Stomach and Milkie Vessels, without which they could not continue sound, tho' they may be nourished by the Blood. In the same manner, as many Herbs being ex­pos'd [Page 42] to the heat of the Sun▪ tho' they receive sufficient Nourishment from the Earth, yet languish and wither, unless they be often water'd; the moisture of the Water contributing new vigour to 'em; as loosning again the Particles too much dry'd and contracted by the heat of the Sun, and by that means giving a freer ingress to the Nourishment. In like manner the Tunicles of the Ventri­cle and Milkie Vessels, unless moysten'd by the Chylus, would grow too dry, and so the Pores of the Substance being con­tracted, would not so readily admit the nutritive Blood flowing into 'em, and for that reason would be much weak­ned, and at length quite fa [...]l in their Of­fice. Which is the reason that by long fasting the Milkie Vessels are many times so dry'd up, that they can never be o­pen'd again, which afterwards obstruct­ing the Distribution of the Chylus, causes an Atro [...]hie that consumes the Patient. But when there is a defect of that moi­sture in the Brain, then the troublesom contraction of its Tunicles causes Thirst, and the Vellication occasion'd by the fermentaceous Juice that sticks to 'em, begets Hunger, neither of which a new Chylus pacifies by its Nutrition, but the Humid Moistures swallow'd produce that effect, and the Chylus extracted out of those by their moist'ning, by which the contraction of the Tunicles is releas'd; and the Acrimony of the Juice yet twitches, is temper'd and mitigated. And that this is done only by Humecta­tion, is mani [...]est from hence; for that all moist'ning things, as Ale, Water, Ptisan, and the like, being plentifully drank, presently allay and abate the thirst and hunger for the time.

LXXIII. But what shall we say of the Child in the Womb, which seems to be nourish'd by the Milkie Iuice a­lone of the Amnion or Membrane that enfolds the Birth, at what time there is no Blood that flows as yet through the Navel Vessels? To which I answer, That the Birth is nourish'd by the thicker Particles of the Seed re­maining after the forming of the Body of the said Seed, first partly chang'd into Blood in the Beating Bladder, or Bubble; partly clos'd together by Proxi­mity a [...]d some kind of Concoction: not that it is nourish'd by the Chylus or any Milkie Juice of the Amnion Membrane: but then the remaining Particles of the Seed being consum'd, then it is nourish'd by Blood made of the Lacteous Liquor of the Amnium. By which nevertheless it could not be nourish'd, were it desti­tute of that Moisture with which it is water'd by the Lacteous Liquor. See more of this c. 29. of this Book.

LXXIV. If any one shall acknow­ledge, That the Stomach, which be­cause it is manifestly furnish'd with se­veral Veins and Arteries, is therefore nourish'd with Blood, but deny that the Milkie Vessels were to be nourish'd with it, when they receive into 'em no Blood conveighing Arteries. I answer, That there are innumerable Parts in our Body, wherein the Arteries are not to be discern'd, tho' it be certain they enter into those Parts. And to which we can perceive no way through which the Blood should be conveigh'd; which Parts nevertheless are nourish'd by the Blood, and not by the Chyl [...]s. Of which sort are the Corneo [...]s Tuni [...]e, the U [...]eters, the Membrane of the Tympanum or Drum of the Ear, sundry Ligaments and Bones, ma [...]y Gristles, &c In which number the Milkie and Lymphatic Ves­sels may be reckon'd. For tho' En­tra [...]ce of the Blood into 'em be not so perceptible, yet can it not be thence con­cluded, that the Blood does not find a way into those Vessels, when in many other Parts the Entrance of the Blood is not discernable, and yet their being nou­rish'd proves the Access and Entrance of the Blood.

CHAP. VIII. Of the Guts.

I. FRom the right Orifice of the Ventricle, call▪d the Pylore, the Guts are continu'd; by the Greeks [...], because they are placed within the Body; and henco by the Latins call'd also Interanea.

II. They are Oblong Bodies, Mem­branous, The [...]. Concave, Round, variously wreath'd about, reaching from the Ventricle to the Podex, serving to re­ceive the Chylus, and to contain and Whether they d [...] [...] [...] to the r [...] ­king the Chyle. make way for the Excrements. I say for receiving the Chyle, &c. But it is a thing much controverted, whether they do not also contribute to the making the Chyle. For this seems to have been the Opinion of Galen, who l. 4. de us [...] part. [Page 43] has these words; The Guts, though they were not fram'd for the Concoction of the Chylus, but only to contain and distribute it, yet because Nature is sometimes sloth­ful and idle, in its passage through the Guts, it comes to be perfectly elaborated. Aretaeus and Aretius follow the Opinion of Galen, and among the more modern Authors Spigelius; and the very Simi­litude of the Structure of the Ventricle, the Guts seem to make for him; as well in the Substance, Temper, Colour, and Contexture of the Tunicles. And Plempius, sway'd by these Authorities, l. 2. Fund. Med. c. 8. assumes the Affir­mative; and affirms that the same Con­coction which is perform'd in the Sto­mach, may be perform'd in the Guts (which Regius also inculcates) and hence concludes, the Clysters made of Liquid Nourishments, given at the Fundament, may nourish, in regard there is a thick Chylus concocted out of 'em in the Guts, and carry'd away through the Milkie Vessels, and so communicated to the whole Body. But we rather approve the Negative; for that seeing all man­ner of Crudity proceeds from a cold and moist Distemper of the Stomach, (as in a Lientery) the Meat is evacuated without any alteration, or without any manner of Concoction, which however, were there any chylifying virtue in the Guts running a long way through their crooked Windings and Meanders, would at least gain some kind of Alteration in­to a Chylus. Moreover, the Choler flows continually together with the Sweetbread Juice into the Guts, and in them indeed ferments the concocted Nourishment, but by the virtue of that peculiar Effervescency, and its Bitterness, it rather hinders than promotes chylific Concoction, as is apparent when it sticks in too great quantity to the Stomach. And then who can believe, that Clysters mixt with the Excrement in the thick Gut, can be chang'd into a Chylus, and consequently nourish the Body. The stinking Place, and the feculent Ordure therein intermix'd, plainly teach us, that there can be no alteration into Chyle made there. Perchance they may so far repair the strength of the Body, as some more subtil and benign Vapours may ascend through the Pores and Ves­sels to some superiour Bowels, and some­what refresh 'em, in the same manner as the Odor of Wine, hot Bread, Ho­ney, Aqua vitae, and roast Meat, re­ceiv'd thorough the Nostrils, refresh the fainting Spirits, tho' they be not turn'd into a Chylus.

III. The length of the Guts exceeds The length. or equals the length of the Person whose they are, six times more, or less, (others who also measure in the Stomach and Gullet, say seven times, or somewhat less.) Hippocrates stretches 'em out to twelve or thirteen Cubits. Vesalius to fourteen Italian Ells and a half. We commonly measure 'em at fourteen of our Dutch Ells, or very near. Only in the Year 1668. in November, once at a Public Dissection we found the Guts of one Person to be sixteen Ells and a half; and hence, that they might lye in a little room, placed in the Ab­domen with several windings and crooked Circumvolutions, and joyned to the Mesentery, by means of which they were ty'd to the Back, and sustain'd by the Cavities, the Os Ilium.

IV. There was a necessity for such a The reason of the length. length and circumvolution, that the concocted Nourishment falling down from the Stomach, might stay the long­er in the Guts, be more conveniently fermented by the mixture of the yel­low Choler, and the Pancreatic Iuice, and by that means the more subtil Parts of the Chyle being separated from the thicker Mass, might with more ease be thrust forward into the narrow Orifices of the Milkie Vessels, partly by the proper Peristaltic Motion of the Entrals, partly, and that chief­ly, by the impulse of the Muscles of the Abdomen, mov'd by the force of Respiration: And to that end, because the Separation ought to be made in the small Guts, Nature leads about, and forces the thinner Substances through several windings and turnings as through so many Stops and Remora's, whereas she carries the thicker Substances tho­rough a Circular and Oblique Passage only. Moreover, she has form'd cer­tain little Folding-doors to open and shut, which hinder the over rapid course of those things that flow downward. For had the Chylus flow'd down through the short Guts, either before a due and con­venient Fermentation, or could pass from 'em, whereby the Body had been deceiv'd of its due and convenient. Nou­rishment, she had constrain'd Man to eat often for the support of himself, and to supply that defect by continual fil­ling. Of this Cabrolius and Riolan [...]s give us several Examples, that is to say of Men most voracious, in whom, after [Page 44] their decease, one Gut has been found, and that wonderfully short, in the shape of a great Roman S. Add to this, that the Excrements had flow'd down much more speedily, and had thereby expos'd Man to the more frequent duty of Eva­cuation.

V. Their Circumference is round, Their Cir­cumference to the end they may be more capacious, and for the more easie descent of those things that pass through 'em.

VI. Their Substance is Membra­nous, Their Sub­stance and Tunicles. like the Stomach, having also a triple Tunicle. The Exterior common, and overcast with Fat, arising from the Membranes of the Mesentery, springing from the Peritonaeum. The Middlemost fleshy; interwoven with several thinner Fibres, especially the transverse and streight Fibres. The Innermost nervous, which in the slender Guts is wrinkl'd, to stop the Chylus, and overspread with a kind of fleshy spongy Crust, but very thin, (which some call the Peristoma, others the Silken Covering, others the Woolly Moss) through which Fallopius believes the Chylus to be transmitted and strain'd, as it were, through a Sponge; and to prevent the Injuries of the sharp Humours, and for the better defence slippery, by reason of a slimy Clammi­ness, generated cut of the Excrements of the third Concoction; but in the thick­er Guts dilated into little Cells. Riolanus l. 2. Anthrop. c. 12. writes; tho' without any ground, that the Carneous and Fleshy Tunicle, which is the middlemost in the Stomach, is the innermost in the Guts, and that the innermost is thick, but how­ever more nervous, and not much diffe­rent from the inner Tunicle of the Ven­tricle.

VII. Now in regard the Guts are Whether they have an attra­ctive force. furnish'd with Fibres of all sorts; the Question is, Whether they have an attractive Force, by which they may draw the Chylus out of the Ventricle. Many maintain the Affirmative, induc'd thereto by the Authority of Avicen, and many other Arguments; but erroneous­ly; seeing there is in 'em no such attra­ctive Force. In like manner there is also another Question started concerning their Retentive Faculty. Both Questi­ons are learnedly and at large discussed by Andrew Laurence l. 6. Anat. c. 15. Quaest. 10, 11.

VIII. They draw their Nerves from Nerves and Arteries. the sixth Pair; their Arteries from the Mesenteric Branch, both upper and lower, and some from the Intestinal Branch of the Coeliac Artery.

IX. Innumerable Roots of small Veins. Veins dispers'd between their Tunicles, meeting together about the knitting of the Mesentery, form many Veins, from the Ingress of the Mesentery, which they ascend together, call'd the Mesa­raics; which at the upper part of the Mesentery, a little before its Ingress into the Vena Porta, close together into two greater Branches, and so con­stitute the right and left Mesaraic Vein.

X. Into these Vessels are ingrafted The Milly Vessels. the Mesenteric Milkie Vessels, gaping with their Orifices toward the inner Guts, and receiving the Chyle from 'em, and conveighing it to the Grand Receptacle of the Chyle.

XI. The Temperament of the Guts Tempera­ment. is said to be cold and dry; that is to say, speaking comparatively, as they are less hot and dry than many other Parts.

XII. The Use of the Guts appears Their [...]. by what has been said already, not on­ly to receive the Nourishment concocted in the Stomach, but also that a Sepa­ration may be made there in them, of what is useful, from what is unprofita­ble; and from them to send what is profitable into the Milkie Vessels, and exonerate what is unprofitable at the Fundament.

XIII. Now the act of Propulsion Their Mo­tion. and Expulsion, is perform'd by the Compressure of the Muscles of the Ab­domen, which is very much assisted by the proper Motion of the small Guts, proceeding from the Contraction of the Fibres, resting in their proper Tunicles, which is very conspicuous in living Cats and Coneys dissected. And it is most certain, that this Motion of the Fibres is perform'd by the Oblique, but chiefly by the Transverse Fibres, and by them the Things contain'd are thrust down from the upper Parts to the lower. Which Motion, if it happen to be irre­gular, which rarely happens, and that the Fibres by their Contraction move the things contain'd in the Guts, begin­ning from the lower Parts to the superi­our, then the Ordure carried up from the thick Intestines, ascends into the Sto­mach, [Page 45] and is thence vomited out at the Mouth. Thus I remember I hand­ledAn Obser­vation. a young Lad that lay sick at Nim­meghen, who, besides many other nasty1. things, vomited up a Suppository that was given him at the Fundament. And here at Utrecht, in the Year 1658. in2. April, I had prescrib'd a Clyster to the most prudent and grave Consul Wede, who then lay very ill, which being in­jected at the Fundament, in a little time he vomited up again, from which ex­travagant Motion I concluded a Prog­nostic of Death, which ensued some few hours after.

XIV. Tho' there be but one Gut The Divi­sion. from the Pylore to the Fundament, yet in regard of the thickness of the Substance, the Magnitude, Shape, and variety of Function, it is distinguish'd by Anatomists, into the thin or slender Guts, and into the thick.

XV. The thin or small Gut, so call'd The thin Gut. from the thinness of its Substance, possesses all the Navel-Region, and the Hypogastrium. And this, according to the shape, situation, length, and plenty of Lacteous Vessels, is by the Ancients said to be threefold. The Duodenum, Iejunum, and Ilium.

XVI. The first is continuous to the The Duo­denum. Pylore, by Galen call'd [...], the springing, or proceedings forth: by the ancient Greeks, and Hierophylus, [...], and thence commonly by the Latins call'd Duodenum, from the measure of two Transverse Fingers; tho' most Modern Anatomists will hardly allow it the measure of four Fingers. But if you reckon from the Pylorus to the Inflexion of the Iejunum, where it rises upward athwart, lying un­der the Sweetbread, then it will be found to be twelve Fingers in length.

XVII. This Duodenum contigu­ous The Sub­stance. to the Pylore upon the right side, nor wreath'd with Circumvolutions, tho' it be narrower than the rest of the Guts, yet is of a thicker Substance than all the rest of the small or thin Guts, and is bor'd thorough, about the breadth of four or five Fingers from the Pylore (but seldom about the middle of the Jejunum, though Plempius says he has seen it) in the wrinkle of its Flexure, where sticks out a little Teat, sometimes with one hole common to the Cholidochus; and that other found out by Wirtzungius, sometimes perforated with two several holes proper to both Chanels. Which holes, if they be two, the one transmits into the Duct [...]m [...], the other into the [...]. But if there be b [...]t one Chanel at the Ingress, (which is frequent in Men, very seldom in Dogs) then the Point thrust into that Gut to­ward the upper Parts, enters the Ductus Biliartus; if toward the lower Parts, it enters the Ductus Pancreaticus. Veslingi­us reports, and daily Dissections teach us, that this Gut is found to be of an extraordinary laxity and largeness, and then seems to be joyn'd as a lesser Ven­tricle to the larger Ventricle. Which Laxity happens from the sharp fermen­taceous and vitlous Humours sliding into it; which occasions vehement fermenta­ceous Ebullitions, by which the Gut is not only very much distended, but often times fill'd with troublesome Rumb­lings, great Pains, sharp Prickings, and extraordinary Anguish which thence a­rise.

XVIII. It begins, as has been said, Situation. from the Pylore, and by and by go­ing down backwards under the Ventri­cle, it is reflex'd toward the right Kidney, and adhering to the broader end of the Pancreas or Sweetbread, is fasten'd to the Vertebers of the Loyns and the left Kidney by membranous Ligaments, and then extending it self downward to the beginning of its windings, ends under the Colon▪

XIX. The second is call'd by the The Jeju­num. Greeks [...], by the Latins Jejunum, because it is found empty for the most part, as well for the great quantity of the Milkie Vessels that enter into it, as also because of the more speedy Ebul­lition of the Chylus, by reason of the Choler and Pancreatick Iuice flowing at first hand through its proper Chanels, or its separation from the Dregs, and passage into the Milkie Vessels.

XX. It is in length about twelve or Situation and bigness thirteen Palms, and about a Fingers breadth wrinkled with many windings; and seated under the Pancreas, near the Back-bone, in the Region of the Navel, chiefly toward the left side, be­ginning from the first Circumvolution of the Intestines, and ending where it ceases to look black and bluish, [Page 46] and to be empty. Theodore Kerckringius Observ. 39. takes notice in this Gut of some little Valves or Folding-doors, as it were, for that they do not so shut up the Gut, as to fill up all its Cavity: But about the middle of its Cavity so shut it up, that being each of 'em broader at one end than another, they grow narrow­er by degrees, and then a little lower are received by another, which being broader in that part where the other is narrower, so frame and constitute the Gut, that those things which fall down from the upper Parts may slip down, but not be precipitated as it were at one fall. The same Kerckringius was the first also that discover'd and observ'd Valves or little Trap-doors like to these in the Colon Gut, which he has plainly shewn me in a thick and blown Gut, and then dry'd, which is the best way to discern 'em most perspicuously. And therefore he deservedly merits the Applause of this first Invention, seeing that never any Person before ever made mention of these Fol [...]ing Docrs or Valves, that I know of.

XXI. The third proceeding from The Ilium Gut. the foremention'd, is call'd Ilium, by the Greeks [...], from its being twisted and twirl'd; and Volvulus by the Latins, by reason of its Circum­volution, and the multitude of its Twistings.

XXII. This being seated under the Situation and bigness. Navel, next the Lateral Parts of the Abdomen and the Ribs, equals the breadth of a transverse Finger; and in length exceeding the other two Measures one or two and twenty Palms.

XXIII. The Original of it is where the Intestine begins to grow narrower, and being somewhat ruddy, ends at Bauhinus's Valve, where the Colon begins.

XXIV. That which follows is call'd The thick Guts. Intestinum Crassum, the thick Gut, as being of a more fleshy and thick Substance; and that is also divided into three Parts, the Blind, the Co­lon, and Intestinum Rectum, or the Right Gut.

XXV. The first is that which the The blind Gut. Greeks call [...], the Latins Caecum, so call'd from its obscure use; or else because it is not passible or penetrable at the other end; whence it is also call'd [...], Mesocolon. And therefore it is a small Appendix, like a long Worm, sticking to the beginning of the Colon, in length about four Fin­gers transverse, having a small Cavity in People grown up altogether empty, but in the Birth full of Excrements. Spigelius has sometimes found a round Worm within it. In fourfooted Beasts it contains some Excrements for the most part.

XXVI. It is not fasten'd to the Connexi­on. Mesentery, but by the help of the Peritonaeum is joyn'd to the Right Kidney.

XXVII. The Use of this Gut was The Use. unknown till of late; tho' some there were that attributed to it this Use, others that, tho' all were but vain con­jectures, with which they thought fit­ting rather to expose, than confess their own Ignorance.

XXVIII. The second of the thick Guts is called Colon, as much as to say [...], or hollow, as being the most hollow of all the Guts; or as o­thers will have it, from [...] to hinder, because the Excrements are Stops in its little Cells. This is larger and broader than the rest, as being eight or nine Palms in length.

XXIX. It begins about the OsSituatir. Ilium, knitting it self to the next Kidney; hence it ascends upward, and then being turned toward the Liver, it proceeds athwart under the bottom of the Stomach, to which, by the help of the Caul, it is joyned, and on the left Hand is joyned to the Spleen and left Kidney with thin Membranes, and then winding a­bout the left Os Ilium, weaves to the beginning of the Intestinum Rectum.

It possesses the upper Part of the Bel­ly. 1. To the end the Excrements that are gathered within it, may be rowl'd down by their Weight, and so the more easily exonerated. 2. To as­sist in some measure the Concoction of the Stomach by the heat of the Excre­ments; in regard the Chymists believe no Digestion to be so natural as that which is perfected by the heat of Dung. 3. Secondly, to prevent the middle Mesentery from being compressed by the weight of the Excrements: Which would very much straiten the milkie and Lymphatic Vessels, and Mesaraic Veins and Arteries.

[Page 47]XXX. It has a proper Ligament, Its Liga­ment. about the breadth of the middle Fin­ger, according to its length extended at the upper Part from the Caecum to the Intestinum Rectum, wherein the Row of little Cells is contain'd.

XXXI. It is ty'd to the upper and Connexi­on. lower Parts by the Assistance of the Peritonaeum. Veslingius ascribes to it two peculiar suspensorie Ligaments that never appear. But the Extremity of it, which below the left Kidney extends it self to the beginning of the Intesti­nam Rectum, is ty'd to no part, but re­mains free from any manner of Band, and is overspread with a good quanti­ty of Fat.

XXXII. At the Ingress of the thin Bauhi­nus's Valves. Gut, it has an orbicular Valve, or little solding Door, looking upwards, which prevents the Ascension of the Excrements and Vapors, which from the first Finder, is now called Bau­hinus's Valve, tho' others rather as­cribe the first Discovery to Varolius, and Salomon Albertus: But Riolanus raises a bitter Contest concerning it.

XXXIII. Anatomists do not agree in the Description of this Valve. 1. Some say, that it is a Membrane sticking to the Gut on one side, and drawing before it a Curtain. 2. O­thers say, it consists of two Mem­branes opposite one to another, placed toward the inner Parts of the Colon, which closing together, shut up the thin Gut. 3. Others believe there is no true Valve in that place, but a fleshy Circle, wrapt over the thin Gut, where it enters the thick one, and contracting it like the sphincter Mus­cle. 4. We our selves formerly, as has bin said in the Preliminaries, could not think it to be any other than a loose circular Membrane, or some little Lappet of the Ilium Gut, where it enters the Colon: Which when any thing ascends out of the Ili­um into the Colon, gives way and opens: But when the quagmiry Excrements or Vapors descend from the Colon to the Ilium, falls and folds down, and so by ob­structing the way, hinders the passage towards the thin Guts; in the same man­ner as in the little long Gutters of Lea­ther hanging out at the sides of Ships, through which the Water that falls up­on▪ the Decks, readily flows out again. But tho' the Waves dash upon those; Gutters, yet because they do not mix with the Water, therefore the Water coming not into them, does not flow back. Now that we might be assur'd in this our last Opinion, I thought it convenient to fish out the Truth a little farther by some Experiment. And therefore having taken the Colon out of a Body, with a part of the Ilium, and ty'd it at both ends with a Pack thread, and blew into it with a strong Breath, through a small Pipe, and kept the Wind within with a small Thread, and then dry'd the Gut, so distended, in the Air, till it became hard: And then we could clearly discern, not only those half opening Valves of the Colon sound out by Kerckringius, but we also ob­serv'd the aforesaid Valve of Bauhinus, to be a Membrane spread athwart over the Ingress of the thin Gut, and hang­ing somewhat over toward the inner Parts of the Colon, and bo [...]'d through in the middle from one side to the other with a right or straight Hole, as if slit with a Penknife. And so we observ'd also, that the Lips of both those Open­ings closing, the Ingress of the Ilium into the Colon was so guarded by these Valves that nothing could fly back again▪ And by this View we found, that of the foresaid four Opinions, the second was the most probable, but that the first, third, and fourth, which was our own, was a Deviation from the Truth. Only that the third rightly and truly asserts, that there is a certain fleshy Circle which laps the Ingress of the Ilium into the Colon.

XXXIV. In this Colon, the The Use. thicker sort of Excrements are ga­thered together, and contain'd till the time of Exoneration, whereas it would be a great Shame and Trouble to have his Excrements continually dropping from him. For which rea­son it is very large and capacious, and has little closing Valves, to stop and re­tard the Excrements. And by reason it encompasses almost the whole Abdo­men, sometimes ascending, sometimes descending, hence it happens that the Dregs and Excrements to be expell'd, pass down more slowly, requiring two or three times of compressing it self for their Expulsion.

XXXV. The third and last of the The Inte­stinum Rectum▪ thick Guts, is the Intestinum Re­ctum, which descending in a streight Line into the hollow of the Hips, ends [Page 48] in the Fundament. Call'd by the Greeks [...], because it runs on without any Excrescencies or Windings; also [...], because it is the Beginning; or [...], because it constrains us as it were by a kind of Command, to quit our selves of the Burthen that oppres­ses us.

XXXVI. It is far inferior to the The Big­ness. Colon in Length and Br [...]dth, as not being above one Palme and a half in Length, and about three Fingers broad; but in Thickness and Carno­sity exceeds all the Guts: Being out­wardly covered with fat Appurtenan­ces.

XXXVII. It is ty'd to the Os Sa­crum;Connexi­on. and Coccyx, by means of the Peritonaeum, and in Men is fastned to the Root of the Penis, in Women to the Womb by a musculous Substance, whence springs the great Consent of these Parts.

XXXVIII. The End of it is the The Fun­dament. Fundament, called Anus, and Po­dex, which has three Muscles: The First, which is called Sphincter, and is fasten'd to the lowest Parts of the Os Sacrum, embraces and purses up the Fundament orbicularly, to keep in the Excrements. To this, there are some who add another, but of a thinner Substance for the same Use, inseparably joyn'd to the former, and as it were riveted into the Skin, at the Extremity of the Fundament. But this the greatest part of Ana­tomists confound with the first, and make but one of both. The other two are called Levatores, or Funda­ment-Lifters, which rising from the Ligaments of the Coxendix, and Os Sacrum, descend distinct to the Sphincter, and intermix their Inser­tions with it, to the end they may draw the Fundament back again, brought down by the Force of strain­ing, in Evacuation. Tho' Riolanus derives their Original from the Bones themselves, yet he divides 'em errone­ously into four Muscles, whereas such a Division cannot be made without Di­laceration, as de Marchettis well ob­serves, Anat. c. 3. These Muscles being loosened by any Accident, cause a fal­ling of the Fundament, or rather a sinking down of the Gut.

XXXIX. Into the Fundament are Haemor­rhoid Veins. ingrafted the Roots of the Haemor­rhoid Veins, which are two fold. Of which, the Internal ascending some­times to the Right, sometimes to the Left Mesenteric Veins, and sometimes to the Splenic Branch, empty their Blood into the Vena Porta; but the Ex­ternal enter into the Hypogastric Branch.

XL. Arteries accompany the Veins, Arteries. proceeding partly from the lower Me­senteric Branch, and partly from the Hypogastric Arterie.

XLI. To these, three or four little Nerves. Veins joyn themselves, deriv'd from the extream parts of the pith of the Back, which make this Gut very sen­sible, and infuse Spirits into the Muscles to enable their Contraction.

CHAP. IX. Of the Mesenterie.

I. THE Mesenterie, or [...], is so called from its Situa­tion, as being placed in the middle of the Bowels.

II. It is a membranous Part sea­ted Situati [...] and vse. in the middle of the lower Belly; destin'd not only to bring the Vessels safe to the Intestins, and carry 'em back again, but also to be a common Band of all the Guts themselves, lest their manifest Windings and Turn­ings should be confounded and intangl'd to the manifest hazard of Life and Health.

III. Which tho' it be but one, is The Divi­sion. divided by some into the Mesaraeum, or Mesenterie, and the Mesocolon, while the thin Guts stick to the first, the thick Guts to the latter.

IV. It consists of a double strong Mem­branes. Membrane, continuous to the Perito­naeum, and every where stuft with Fat. Besides which, Wharton writes Adenograph. c. 7. That he has found out and demonstrated a Third Middle­most and proper to it, somewhat thin­ner than the former, and propping up the Vessels and Kernels within it.

V. From the Center to the Circum­ference Bigness [...] Shape. it is about the bigness of a Span. But the Shape of it is Circu­lar, [Page 49] whose Circumference is contract­ed into innumerable Folds, to streigh­ten the length and widness of the Guts, and to contain their proper Situation and Order. In the Middle it is large, Oblong in the Sides, especi­ally on the left Side, where it descends to the right Gut. But it is of an extra­ordinary thickness in fat People, the bulk of Fat being largely augmented: In others it is much more thin.

VI. It rises about the uppermost [...]ts Rise. and third Vertebra of the Loyns, to which it is ty'd with a very firm Connexion. Fallopius believes it to de­rive its Original at the Nervous Plexa­re, or Knitting, from whence it takes its Beginning; of which more c. 18. & l. 3. c. 8.

VII. It has several very small and Its Ker­nels. soft Glandules, inserted among the Membranes; and in the middle, one great one, all which it is most certain do manifestly conduce to the attenu­ation and greater Perfection of the Chylus. And of these Glandules there is great Difference found in the num­ber, not only in several sorts of Animals, but in many Individuals of the same Species: However this is observ'd in Man, where they are sewer in number, their bigness compensates that Defect. Now that they conduce to the Attenua­tion and perfecting the Chylus hence ap­pears, for that innumerable milkie Ves­sels run through 'em (after what man­ner is to be seen Cap. 11.) and pour the Chylus into 'em, to imbibe in it something of a slight subacid Quality, for its grea­ter Perfection; which Vessels procee­ding from 'em, meet together at length in the middlemost great Glandule, and thence in a direct and short Channel are carry'd to the Receptacle of the Chylus, into which they empty their milkie Juice. This Glandule Fallopius and Asellus erroneously call the Pancre­as or Sweetbread, and many at this day, the Pancreas Mesenterii; but very far different from the real Pancreas seated under the Stomach.

VIII. This both Experience and The use of the Ker­nels. our own Eyes do teach us. For if these Glandules come to be obstructed by any Accident, or that the Liquor bred in 'em (concerning which see something in the preceding Chapter, & l. 2. c. 2.) and which is to be of necessity, mix'd with the milkie Iuice, has by any accident acquir'd an over acid Sharpness, then the milkie Iuice within 'em becomes coagulated in the Form of a Cheese, and by reason of its abundant Overflowing swells very much: By which means the Passage is obstructed to the Chylus that comes next, whence such People as are troubled with this Distempet (by reason of the Di­stribution of the Chylus is obstructed) are troubled with the Coeliac Flux, and grip'd with Pains in the Belly, and by reason of Passage deny'd to the Nourishment, labour under an Atrophie, and by degrees are wasted to death. Of which I have already given three Ex­amples.

IX. The first was of a Scotch Soul­dier, Observ. [...] who during his stay in India, and a long tedious Voyage upon his return, having fed upon unwholesom Dyet all the while, fell into a languish­ing Sickness, and labouring under a Coeliac Flux with Gripings of the Guts, tho' his Appetite was still in­different good, was brought to our Hospital, where after he had lain three or four Months, and that all this had been try'd in vain to cure his Coeliac Flux, at length he dy'd as lean as a Rake. The Body be­ing opened, first there was to be seen an overgrowing Spleen hard and black; a Pancreas extreamly swell'd, hard and of an Ash-Colour; we also found the innumerable Glandules in the Mesente­rie (which in some Persons are hardly discernable) to be very tumid, and somewhat hard, insomuch that some were as big as a Bean, but most of 'em as big as a Filberd, and some few as big as a Nutmeg. But when they came to be dissected, there was nothing in 'em, but a certain white Cream coagu­lated into a milkie Substance.

X. The second Example was of a Observ. [...] poor Girl of about eleven Years of Age, who dying of such a Flux of the Belly, accompanied with rumbling and Pain in the Belly, was reduced to nothing but Skin and Bone. I o­pen'd her Body in November 1656. at the request of her Parents, who be­lieved her to have been bewitch'd and kill'd by diabolical Arts, and by the murmuring and hissing in her Guts, be­liev'd Snakes, Toads, and other Crea­tures to have bin bred in her Bowels. But when she came to be open'd, we [Page 50] found, as in the former innumerable Glandules of the Mesenterie, very tu­mid and somewhat hard, of which ma­ny were as big as a Filbert, and some somewhat bigger. Their outward Co­lour in some was white, in others speck­led like black and white Marble: But within fide, as well in these as in all the rest, was contained a very white milkie Juice, curdl'd into the form of a Cheese. The Spleen and Pancreas somewhat exceeded their due Proportion.

XI. The third Example was of a Observ. 3. noble Danish Child, called Nicholas Retz, between seven and eight Years of Age, who having lain under a great Atrophie for several Months, accompanied with griping in the Guts, at length reduced to Skin and Bone, dy'd in June 1662. Whereupon be­ing desired by his Friends and others, who had the Care of him, to examine the cause of the Child's Death for the Satisfaction of his Parents, I opened the Body in the Presence of several Specta­tors; and there I shew'd the Liver, Spleen, Heart, Lungs, Kidneys, Ven­tricle, and Guts, all in good Order and well Condition: Only the Pancreas was somewhat swell'd and ill coloured: But in the Mesenterie appear'd the certain Cause of his Death: For that the in­numerable Glandules of the Mesenterie, were swell'd to such a wonderful degree, with an extraordinary hardness, some as big as a Filberd, others somewhat bigger, and many as big as a Bean: They were all of a white Colour, and contained in 'em a white Cream coa­gulated to the hardness of a dryer sort of Cheese, which hindring the Passage of the succeding Chylus, was the cause of the Atrophie, and consequently of the Death of the Child that ensu'd.

XII. From whence it is sufficient­ly apparent that the Coeliac Flux, and Atrophie, is occasioned by the Obstruction of those Glandules or Kernels. Nor is that their Use, which Anatomists commonly ascribe to 'em, that is to say to prop the Veins and Arteries carried through the Mesenterie, but in them, as in all Glandules, there is something of a particular fermentaceous Liquor bred, to be mix'd with the milkie Chylus; and for that Reason they be­come serviceable to the milkie Vessels (not the Sanguiferous) and hence by reason of their Obstruction, or some­thing else amiss (such as is occasioned by a vitious Ferment mingled with the Duodenum) many times the Membranes of the Mesenterium are stuft with a world of ill Humors, the occasion of lan­guishing Fevers, and several obstinate and diuturnal Distempers.

XIII. Riolanus has conceiv'd a The Opini­on of Ri­olanus. strange Opinion of these Glandules, Anthropog c. 15. while he asserts, that by reason of them, the Root and Foundation of all Strumas is in the Mesenterie: And that never any Strumas appeared without the Body, unless the Mesenterie were strumous; Which he says, was also the Opinion of Guido and Iulius Pollux, with whom it seems he rather chose to mistake, than to understand by physical Practice and Philosophy, that Strumas have no Af­finity at all with the Glandules of the Mesentery, being only design'd for the farther Preparation of the Chylus alone. Neither can those Strumas that break out on the outside of the Body, pre­tend in any manner to any Cause or Ori­ginal in the Mesenterie: Since daily Ex­perience tells us, that most People who are troubled with Struma's, are sound in all other Parts of their Bodys; nor do they complain of any Distemper in the lower part of the Belly, whereas the Diseases of the Mesenterie are usual­ly very fatal to the Patient. And the very Cure it self instructs us in the con­trary, which is chiefly perform'd by Topics, that would never prevail, if the original Cause of the Distemper lay concealed in the Mesenterie. Lastly in the Dissections of Persons troubled with Strumas, the same thing manifestly ap­pears, who are for the most part seen to have a sound Mesenterie.

XIV. The Mesenterie derives its Its Nerves. Nerves from the Plexure of the in­ner Nerves of the sixth Pair; and the Nerves proceeding from the Mar­row of the Loyns; which causes it to be so sensible in its membranous Part, tho' it be more dull of Feeling in its Fat and glandulous Part, for which Rea­son Apostemes ly long conceal'd in it be­fore they be discern'd as they should be, either by the Patient or Physician.

XV. Its Arteries proceed from the Its Arte­ries. mesenterie Branch of the great Arte­rie, the Right and Left, or the Up­per and Lower.

XVI. It has several Veins running It [...] Veins. between its Membranes, call'd the [Page 51] Mesaraic, which rising with very small roots from the Tunicles of the Guts, and mutually opening one into another, as they frequently meet in the Mesentery, at length meet altogether in the two greater Branches, that is, the right and left Mesenteric continues to the Vena Porta. These infuse the Blood, forc'd through the Arteries to the Mesentery and Guts, being the re­mainder of the Nourishment of these Parts, into the Porta Vein, thence to be conveigh'd to the Liver. Of the Use of the Porta and Mesaraic Veins, see more l. 7. c. 2.

XVII. Besides the Arteries and Milkie Vessels. Mesaraic Veins, an innumerable Com­pany of Milkie Veins, and many Lym­phatic Vessels run through it, of which we shall discourse c. 11. & 13.

CHAP. X. Of the Pancreas or Sweetbread.

I. THE Pancreas or Sweetbread so call'd in Latin, as being all Flesh, is also call'd by another name [...], and by the Latins Lactes, from its inner white and milkie co­lour.

II. It is a glandulous, loose and The defini­tion and si­tuation. shapeless Body, situated at the first Vertebra's of the Loyns, under the hinder part and bottom of the Sto­mach, cloath'd with a thin Membrane from the Peritonaeum, and as it were hanging at it.

III. The shape of it is oblong and Shape. flat.

IV. With its broader part adjoyn­ing Connexion. to the Confines of the Liver, it lyes under the Stomach near the first Verteber of the Loyns; and including the Meatus Biliarius and Trunk of the Porta is joyned to the Duodenum: Hence it extends it self toward the Spleen, and sharpens by degrees, but is not fasten'd to it.

V. The Substance of it is altogether Its Sub­stance. glandulous, and consists of many as it were little Knots or Knobs, cohe­ring together by means of the Vasa Intercidentia, or interpassing Vessels, and many small Fibres, and included in the common Membrane taken from the Peritonaeum. From whence it is that Francis de le Boe Sylvius describes the Sweetbread to be a conglomerated Glandule, compos'd as it were of many small Kernels gather'd in a cluster toge­ther, and cloath'd with their own pro­per little Membrane. These little Knobs make a shew of being hard, but taken together, seem to be very soft, by reason of their loose Connexion.

VI. The colour of it is pale, hardly Its Colour. shewing the least tincture of any Blood; neither does it agree in colour with any of the fleshy parts. And hence proceeds the wonder, that by the ancient Anatomists it should be call'd [...], that is, all fleshy; whereas it should have been rather nam'd [...], or all kernelly.

VII. The bigness is not the same Its bigness. in all Persons; for sometimes you shall find it to equal the length of six, seven, or more cross Fingers, seldom so short as three or four. Its greatest breadth is generally two Fingers and a half; its thickness the breadth of one Finger.

VIII. The weight of it is various, Its weight. according to the weight and difference of the Body. Wharton has observ'd it in Men of full-grown Age to weigh four or five Ounces for the most part. Regner de Graef has observ'd it in Hor­ses to weigh eleven Ounces. In sickly People it exceeds the usual bigness, and is often full of Corruption (of which Riolanus, Hildan, R. de Graef, Horsti­us, Tulpius, Blasius, and others, give us several Examples,) and sometimes also little Stones breed within it, as were found to the number of seven or eight, at Pa­ris, in the Body of a certain deceas'd Nobleman, by the Report of R. de Graef, lib. de Succ. Pancreat. who also adds in the same place another Example out of Sennertus, of a Pancreas harden'd to a Gristly Substance.

IX. It is furnish'd with small Its Nerves Nerves from the sixth Pair, more e­specially from the upper Plexure of the Abdomen.

X. It receives its Arteries from the Arteries. left Branch of the Coeliac Artery, leaning toward the Back; and some­times from the Splenic Artery.

XI. It sends forth its Veins to the Veins. Splenic Branch near the Porta: Fur­thermore, it transmits a Trunk of the [Page 52] Vein, which in some measure it em­braces.

XII. It is also stor'd with many Lymphatic Vessels. Lymphatic Vessels: In the middle part of it, according to its length, a pe­culiar Chanel extends it self, indiffe­rently capacious, and consisting of a thin and strong Membrane, call'd from the first Discoverer Ductus Wirt­zungianus.

XIII. This one Chanel runs through the middle of the Bowels, and re­ceives an innumerable Company of little and small Vessels, open into it from all parts of the Bowels. Among which there is one somewhat bigger than the rest, which it admits in its lower part, not far from its Ingress into the Intestin. Sometimes there are two Chanels to be found, but not equal in their length, of which the one keeps its wonted Station; the other remains a little lower; but both are joyned to­gether for the most part, and make one Orifice: Sometimes also the other enters the Ductus Cholidochus near the Duode­num, while t'other perforates the Inte­stine a little below. Frederic Ruisch, Ob­servat. Anat. 12. writes, That he has often observ'd two Pancreatic Chanels in Human Carkases, of which neither had any Communication with the Du­ctus Cholidochus: also that he rarely found this Chanel single in Dogs. For that in reference to this Chanel the Sport of Nature is various, even in the same Creatures sometimes, but more especial­ly according to the diversity of Animals. For that some have one, which is most frequent in Men: Others two, others three, which being often joyn'd toge­ther, before their Exit out of the Pan­creas, sometimes enter the Intestine se­parately. In some, they are inserted into the Ductus Biliarius; in others, part­ly into the Intestine, in some few, they are inserted into the Stomach; which happens most frequently in some sort of Fish.

XIV. The Chanel call'd the Wirt­zungian, tho' it be easily discover'd in Men, yet is not so soon found out in Dogs; because their Pancreas is not contracted, as in Men; but thin and extended in length; and sometimes as it were divided into certain Parts. But if the Instrument be thrust into its Orifice, where it opens into the D [...]ode­num, the Chanel is presently to be found.

XV. The Orifice of the said Cha­nel The Exit of the Cha­nel. discharges it self into the Duode­num, having an opening sufficiently large, sometimes the breadth of four, sometimes five or six Fingers from the Pylorus, in a remarkable wrinkle of the Flexure of the Duodenum, (where there is a very small extuberancy, de­noting its Exit) next to the going forth of the Biliary Pore in Men, in Dogs about two Fingers breadth below the Exit of the Meatus Biliarius, and not unfre­quently opening into the very Biliary Chanel it self, (as is familiarly observ'd in Sheep) and some affirm that there is a Valve belonging to it, looking outward, and obstructing the Ingress of any thing out of the Intestine into the Chanel. But because the Chanel from part of the Intestine easily admits the Instrument, and for that this Valve did never mani­festly appear to us, we are apt to believe, that an Oblique Insertion into the Inte­stine is sufficient to exclude the Hu­mours, as shall be said concerning the Ductus Biliarius, c. 15. In another part being extended toward the Spleen; it grows slenderer and slenderer, till it quite vanishes, before it reach the ex­tream Part of the Pancreas, so that it never touches the Spleen, nor enters it, which is that which some have endea­vour'd to perswade us.

How Nicolas Steno found this Chanel call'd Wirtzungian in Birds, he most ele­gantly describes Lib. de Musc. & Glandul. in these words:

XVI. There is, saith he, an Ob­servation made upon Birds, that is of very great use for the Explanation of the Wirtzungian Duct. For in seve­ral sorts of Birds, I have seen a dou­ble Pancreatic Chanel, meeting also with a double Ductus Biliarius (of which the one comes from the Vessel of the Gall, where it does not lye upon the Liver, the other from the Liver it self) the Insertion of which four Ves­sels varies three manner of ways. For either they all meet together in one Mouth, or every Pancreatic Chanel, with its Bilary, enters into a common Mouth, so that the Intestine is only pervious at two holes; or else every Chanel having its own particular Cha­nel, is the occasion that there are four ways into the Intestines. Lately I saw the Hepatic Ductus in a Turky-Hen, where it went forth out of the [Page 53] Liver single, but then being divided in its progress, it ran to the Intestine with two little Chanels, so that the In­testine by that means receiv'd the Cho­ler out of three little Vessels.

XVII. Into this Wirtzungian Duct, out of all those little Knots, of which the Pancreas consists in Men, certain little Branches like small Rivulets run abroad, and pour out the Pancreatic Humour, prepar'd and concocted in the little Knots of the said Pancreas, to be thence carried to the Duodenum. But in that Chanel there is never any Pancreatic Iuice to be found, because it flows with a steep Current into the Duo­denum, and never stays in the Chanel: In like manner as the Urine flowing from the Reins through the Ureters, by reason of its rapid Passage, is never to be found in them.

XVIII. I admire at Lindanus Med.Whether the Chanel be an Ar­tery. Physiol. c. 16. Art. 16. vers. 244▪ where he asserts this Chanel to be an Artery; but that it is uncertain from whence it springs, whether from the Aorta, or the Coeliac, before its Splenetic Emission. Assuredly it has no similitude with the Artery, neither in Substance nor in Use, neither is it any where continuous with the Arteries: nei­ther does it beat, or contain any Blood as the Arteries, but without any Blood car­ries in it a certain peculiar Liquor; nei­ther does it discharge it self into the Veins, as the Arteries do, but into the Cavity of the Intestine. Neither is it true which Lindanus adds, that is to say, That from this Chanel (which he calls an Artery) several little forked Branches are extended into that Bowel, whereas indeed several little forked Branches run out from the little Knobs of the Bowel into the Chanel, as has been said. There­fore less erroneous were they, who affirm­ed this Chanel to be a Vein, as resem­bling a Vein in the Structure and Spe­cies of its Substance, whereas indeed it is no Vein, nor carries any Blood, but is another sort of Membranous Vessel, appointed for the Conveyance of a pecu­liar Humour.

XIX. As to the Office of this Bow­el The Office of the Sweetbread (and I hope no Body will be offend­ed, that by virtue of a peculiar Philo­sophical Licence, we call this noble Glandulous Body a Bowel) there have arisen sharp Contests; while some af­firm'd that it did only support the Divi­sions and Separations of the Vessels, and lay under the Stomach like a Pillow; others asserted that it fed upon the cru­der Portion of the Blood; others that it assisted the Heart in Sanguification; o­thers that it drew Melancholy from the Spleen, or furnish'd the Stomach with fermentaceous Juice, or supply'd the place of the distemper'd Spleen. Others that it receiv'd the Chylus, and concocted it to a greater perfection, and separated the Choleric Excrement from it. All which Opinions, when I found 'em to be meerly Conjectural▪ and altogether uncertain, nor supported by any solid Reasons or Experience, I thought fit to be a little more diligent than ordinary in the Examination of this almost neg­lected part of Anatomy: and at length, after many Experiments (of which some succeeded ill, some well; for that besides the Pancreatic Iuice; there flow'd for the most part great store of Choler by the Ductus Cholidochus into the Duodenum, ty'd both above and below, and then slit long-ways; which Choler spoil'd both the Colour and Taste of the Pan­creatic Juice) I found by the Dissections, as well of Living as of newly strangled Creatures, a certain Sublimpid and Sa­livatick, or Spittly sort of Liquor flow from the Ductus Pancreaticus, somewhat sowre, and slightly Acid (tho' Needham, contrary to all Experience, denies its A­cidity.) And sometimes having some­thing of Saltness mix'd with it (and the same in mangy Dogs I have observ'd to stink, and to be of a very ill taste) I say I observ'd this clear and salivous or spittly sort of Liquor to flow from the Ductus Pancreaticns into the Duodenum, and that sometimes to a very considera­ble quantity; but never any of the Vasa Chylifera extended to this Bowel, nor e­ver was any Chyle found in it.

XX. Whence I judg'd, that tho' A Digres­sion. several Anatomists have describ'd se­veral Vasa Chylifera running out of this Bowel, and caus'd 'em to be de­lineated in their Tables; nay tho' Schenckius himself deriv'd the Vasa Chylifera from hence, and were di­stributed from hence toward the Me­sentery, tho' Veslingius and Baccius affirm that the Chylus flow'd out of it being wounded, and tho' Dominicus de Marchettis fancy'd that he had observ'd several Chanels running out toward the Liver, and distributed from it to the Guts, yet that all they [Page 54] were deceiv'd by some preconceiv'd O­pinion; The use of the Sweet­bread Iuice. and that neither the Vasa Chylifera do run out of it, neither is the Chylus emptied forth into it, but that there is in it a peculiar Humour concocted in it, bred out of the serous and saltish part of the Arterious Blood which is carried into it, mixt with some Animal Spirits brought and con­veigh'd through the small and scarce discernable Nerves. Which Humour flowing into the Duodenum, and be­ing there mixt with the Choler flowing also thither, and the Nourishment digested in the Stomach, and falling down through the Pylore into the Sto­mach, raises a peculiar Effervescency in those Aliments, by virtue whereof the profitable Chylous Particles are se­parated from the Excrementitious, at­tenuated, and made more fit for Li­quation and Distribution. And this Operation is apparent from the Diversi­ty of the Substance of the Aliments con­cocted in the Stomach, and still contain'd there, from the Substance of those which are already fall'n down into the Guts. For those are more viscous and thicker, and retain the Colours of the various sorts of Food; These more fluid, less slimy, and more white. Which aptness for Liquation is prepar'd, to the end that by the Peristaltic Motion of the Intestines the Chylous Particles may be forc'd through their innermost mucous Tu­nicle into the Milkie Vessels, while the rest that are more thick fall down by de­grees into the thick Guts, there to be kept till the time of Evacuation. Now this Effervescency is occasion'd by the Volatil Salt of the Choler, and the sulphu­rous Oyl meeting with the Acidness of the Pancreatic Iuice, as in Chymistry we find in like manner the same Efferve­scencies occasion'd by the meeting toge­ther of the like Mixtures.

XXI. These things being more seri­ously consider'd, I was confirm'd in my self, that the Pancreas or Sweet­bread is no such useless Bowel, as it is by many describ'd to be; nor that the Iuice which is prepar'd within it is so small, that it can scarcely be di­scern'd, nor that it is unprofitable or excrementitious, as many have hither­to thought; but that it is a Iuice of which there is a moderate Quantity, and by reason of its specific subacid Quality very necessary to raise a new Effervescency in the Guts, together with the Choler that is mixed with it, of the Nourishment concocted and fall'n already down from the Sto­mach, and by that means a separation of the profitable from the unprofitable Particles, and that therefore a sound Constitution of Health depends in good part upon a sound Pancreas or Sweet­bread, and that through the unsound­ness of the Sweet-bread many Diseases proceed, hitherto ascrib'd to Distem­pers of the Spleen, Liver, Mesentery, and other parts. And it may be easily observ'd, that upon its Juice being out of order, that is either too plentiful or too sharp (especially if there be too co­pious a mixture of sharp Choler) there is occasion'd an Effervescency too vio­lent and disorderly in the Guts, which is the cause of sowre Vomits, Belchings, Wind, distension of the Bowels, Diar­rhea's, Dysenteries, Colick Passions, and several other Diseases▪ tho' it is as certain, that most of these Diseases may proceed from a vitiousness in the Choler only.

XXII. On the other side, if the Sweetbread Iuice be two scanty, too mild and insipid, it causes but a weak Effervescency, Obstructions, Atrophie, and extraordinary binding of the Bo­dy. Or being too Salt and Acid, and rising toward the Stomach, it occasions Canine Hunger, Reaching, sowre Belch­es, &c. but falling down into the Guts, extraordinary Gripings, Corrodings, Loosness, &c. Ascending toward the Head, together with the Blood, Epi­leptic Convulsions, and as it were Hy­steric Passions, and Melancholy Ra­vings. Therefore Highmore out of Aubertus, relates, That in a noble Wo­man, long troubled with an Epilepsie, and as it were an Hysteric Passion, and at length dying of those Distempers, there was nothing found defective but her Sweetbread.

XXIII. Ascending toward the Sto­mach or the Heart, it causes Palpita­tions of the Heart, Swooning Fits, to­gether with an inequality and weak­ness of the Pulses, &c. Thus High­more relates from the same Aubertus, That a Merchant of Leyden could not sleep, or if he did, he swooned away, and at length went away in one of those [Page 55] Fits; in whose Carkass, all other parts being safe, only the Sweetbread was found putrified with an Aposteme. And thus according as this Juice is variously affect­ed, it occasions various Distempers, as are to be seen in those that are troubled with Hypochondriacal Diseases, of which a great part are to be attributed to the bad disposition of this Juice. Which Impurities it contracts, partly through ill Dyet, as salt Meats, smoak'd Meats, Sowre, Acid Food, and such like; or through the bad Concoctions of the o­ther Bowels, especially of the Spleen: For that from these Causes, by reason of the vitious Ferment of the Blood, many Particles of the Blood in the Heart being render'd less spiritous, and some­what acid and salt, and remaining prone to Coagulation, and so being carried through this Bowel to the Arteries, can­not be sufficiently concocted therein, nor chang'd into a Ferment convenient and proper for the concocted Aliments already slid down to the Guts.

XXIV. Two years after I had made these Examinations, and committed 'em to writing, there was brought me a Disputation of the Learned Regner de Graef, once my Scholar, held in the Academy of Leyden, under the Presidentship of the famous Professor Fr. de le Boe Sylvius, concerning the Pancreas or Sweetbread, and its Iuice, which confirm'd me much more in my Opinion. For at length, among many other Experiments, after several Endeavours and Inventions to little or no purpose, he found out an ingenious way, whereby this Juice might be ga­thered together in a living Dog; which he afterwards very liberally shewed to Us, and several other Spectators, in the Month of March, 1665. He took a fasting Dog, and having ty'd his Mouth that he should not bite, and opened his Aspera Arteria with a Pen-knife, that he might breath through that hole, pre­sently he ript open his Abdomen, and then binds the Gut, as well under the Pylore, as under the Egress of the Pan­creatic Ductus, and then dissects and opens it between those two Ligatures in the Ex­ternal Part, which is free from the Me­sentery; and with a Sponge wipes away the Choler, Flegm, and other Stuff which he found there. Then taking a small Quill of a wild Duck, at the one end of which he had fitted a small Glass Bottle close stop'd round about, he thrust the other end into the Ductus Pan­creaticus, which in Dogs is two Inches broad below the Egress of the Ductus Biliarius; and then with a needle and a double Thred, sew'd the Gut and the Ductus to the Quill and the Bottle, so that the Quill with the Glass Bottle, hanging without the Abdomen, should not stir either from the Gut or the Du­ctus. This done, he put back the Guts that hung out before into the inner Parts, and sews up the slit of the Abdomen with a strong Thread, and so keeps the Dog alive as long as he could, that is, for eight or ten Hours. In this manner, within the space of seven or eight hours, he received into his Bottle an indifferent quantity of this Limpid Juice that di­still'd into the Bottle thorough the Quill, sometimes half an Ounce, sometimes six Drams, sometimes a whole Ounce; of which we tasted, and found the taste to be the same as I had tasted in several of my Experiments before mentioned, that is, a little sowre, somewhat saltish, and somewhat Subacid. The whole O­peration De Graef relates more at large in his Disputation, and describes in his Tables annexed; and farther testifies, That in some Dogs, that perhaps were not so sound, he has observ'd that Juice to be very impure, that it yielded some­times a stinking, sometimes a nauseous, sometimes a very austere and astringent taste; in so much that they who tasted it were all that day troubled with an uneasie Suffocation, sometimes with stinking Belches, and Reaching of the Stomach. The same De Graef, in a lit­tle French Book which he published in the Year 1666. upon the same Subject, writes, That at Anjou, in a Man that dy'd suddenly, and was dissected before he was cold, he collecttd together the Pan­creatic Juice, and found the Acidity of it to be so very pleasant to the taste, that he never tasted the like in Dogs. And in the same Book, and more at large in Lib. de Suc. Pancreat. Edit. An. 1671. c. 7, 8, 9, 11. he discourses of the Qualities of this Juice, how being mix­ed with the Choler, it promotes Effer­vescency, and causes the Chyle to be white; and what Distempers it causes, if vitious; all which would be too long here to repeat. Most certainly a most ingenious Invention, and for which the Industrious and Learned Discoverer de­serves a high Applause, who by this Industry of his has lighted us a Candle to the better and clearer knowledge of most Diseases.

[Page 56]XXV. But by the way we are to ob­serve, That as the first Discoverers of new Inventions are generally giv'n to err in this, that they have such a ten­der affection for their new-born Em­bryo's, tho' yet but weak and imperfect, that they will observe no Deficiency or Error in 'em, but with an extraordi­nary Pride, loathsome to all Company, endeavour to extoll'em above others, more mature and perfected by Age and Experience; So does Regner de Gra­ef in this part shew himself a little faulty, while he following the most fa­mous Francis de le Boe Sylvius, from this one discovered Cause of many Dis­eases, endeavours to deduce the Cau­ses and Originals of all Distempers; believing that Diarrheas, Dysente­ries, Colic, Epilepsies, Syncopes, Hysterical Suffocations, Fluxes of the Terms, Agues, and I know not how many other Diseases, proceed from this one Cause; as if no other vitious Humours, bred by the ill Habits of the other Parts, could ever occasion such Diseases. Whereas a thousand Disse­ctions of Bodies, that have dy'd of those Diseases, plainly demonstrated that those Diseases were occasion'd by the viticus habit of the other Parts, in regard the Pancreas in them was absolutely sound.

XXVI. We have also in the sight of many Spectators demonstrated, that when the Sweetbread has been safe and untouch'd, Diarrheas, Dysenteries and Colicks have proceeded from some Corruption of the Liver and Cho­ler; Epilepsies from the depravation of the Brain and Meninx's, or by some stinking Ulcer in the Ear: also that several Fevers are occasion'd by vitious Humours bred in the Body through the bad Temper, ill Concocti­on, Corruption, Ulceration or In­flammation of the other Bowels and Parts, as in Pleurisies, Inflammati­ons of the Lungs, Squinancies, Phrensies, &c. Also that many times deadly Symptomes and most terrible Hysteric Passions and Fits are occasi­on'd only by the Distemper of the Testicles preternaturally swell'd, and containing a virulent, yellow, livid Iuice, sending up virulent Exhalati­ons to the upper Parts. Which Dis­eases have been many times cur'd by the Evacuation of that vitious Matter, without applying any Medicins to the Pancreas or Sweetbread, that was altoge­ther Innocent of the Distemper.

XXVII. In the Year 1667. No­vemb. 16. I dissected in our Hospital a Carkass of a young Maid of four and twenty years of Age, which had lain sick for three years together, some­times troubled with immoderate de­fluxions of her Courses, sometimes with Gripes of the Colick, sometimes with Diarrhea's, and want of Appetite; lastly an▪ Anasacra or Hydropsical swelling of the whole Body; and toward her latter end oppress'd with a tedious Cough, accompanied with filthy Spittle; in which Body we found the Sweet­bread almost entire, and without any Dammage; but the Liver was in a very bad Condition, not dy'd with a red, but with a black and bluish Co­lour, and the Lungs full of many little Ulcers. Which being seen, many Per­sons, as well Physicians as Students in Physic, renounc'd the Opinion of Sylvi­us, and Regner de Graef.

XXVIII. On the other side Whar­ton has started a new Opinion con­cerning the Use of the Sweetbread, be­lieving the Excrementitious Iuices of the Nerves to be purified therein, and chiefly of that Complication which lies under the Nerves. Which from the sweet Taste of the Substance of the Sweetbread, he judges not to be bitter or sharp, but sweet and insipid. But in many other Places of his Adenogra­phy, he discourses after another manner of the other Glandules; and affirms 'em to prepare the Alimentary Juice for the nourishment of the Nerves. But who can believe that there should be a redun­dancy of Excrements in the most pure Animal Spirits, and that they should flow from all parts of the Body through invisible Pores to the Pancreas only, there to be separated from the Animal Spirits? Or who is not able to see that the thicker Juices prepared in the Glandules, can never pass thorough the thick Substance of the Nerves, but they must occasion Obstructions and Palsies. But more of these things l. 8. c. 1.

XXIX. By what has been said, it is apparent how far the Ancients, and [Page 57] many of the Moderns were mistaken in their Opinions concerning the Use of the Sweet-bread; and among the rest Fernelius, who asserts that most of the superfluous and unprofitable Moistures are heaped up together in the Sweet-bread as in a Sink, and thence flow into the Guts. But in regard this Bowel it self is covered with a thicker Membrane, and all the parti­cular Glandules are covered by them­selves with a thin little Membrane, nor has it any other Vessels that enter into it, unless some very small Arteries and Veins, and very slender Nerves, there does not appear any way for the super­fluous and excrementitious Moistures of other Parts to enter the Sweet-bread: Besides that there is no Reason why they should be forced more to this Part than to the Kidneys, Guts, or other evacuating Parts.

XXX. Seeing then it is apparent by what has bin said, what the Con­stitution and Use of the Sweet-bread, and Sweet-bread Iuice is. We will only add two Things by way of Co­rollary. 1. How that particular Juice is generated in the Sweet-bread? 2. How Great, and what sort of Effervescency it raises in the Guts.

XXXI As to the First, our mo­dern The Gene­ration of the panore­atic Iuice. Philosophers teach us, that the Blood contains in it all manner of Humors, Acid, Bitter, Salt, Sweet, Insipid, Thick, Thin, &c. And that, of these, certain particular Parts of the Body admit of such and such particularly, which by reason of cer­tain Disposition of Magnitude and Figure, have an extraordinary Ana­logy with their little Pores; but ex­clude others by reason of their Dis­proportion: And so by reason of that specific Constitution of the Pores, the cholerick Humors are most properly separated in the Liver; the Serous in the Reins, and the pancreatic Iuice in the Sweet-bread. But tho' it must be granted, that in the Nourishment of the singular Parts by reason of the cer­tain and peculiar Disposition of the Pores in each, some Particles of the Blood stick to these, others better and more closely to those, till they are changed into their Substance: Yet this is not to be granted in the Generation of Humors, from whence at length, that general Nourishment, the Blood, proceeds. For in the Blood is contain­ed a Matter, out of which Humors of all sorts may be form'd, as it is fermen­ted, mingl'd, and reconcocted in these or those various Bowels, and several Parts, yet is there not in the Blood a­ny Pancreatic, Splenetic, Choleric Juice, &c. (as in Wheat and Bread there is not really any Chylus, Choler, or Blood) but it is a Heterogeneous Mat­ter containing such and such different Particles, which being after a peculiar manner mingled and concocted in the proper Vessels, become Humors Sweet, Bitter, Acid, &c. Not by reason of a­ny Analogy with the Pores, but because of the specific Nature, Temper, and Structure of the specific Parts. And thus the matter is contained in the Earth, out of which, according to the Variety of Mixture and Concoction, a thousand sorts of Herbs, Trees, Flowers, Shrubs, and other things are generated: And thus in like manner several Forms of things are shap'd by the Hands of the Artificer: While one makes Statues, another Bricks, another earthen Ves­sels of all sorts, tho' such things were never in the Earth before, nor could be said to have bin. The Blood there­fore, which is sweet, flowing through the splenic Arterie into the Spleen, is there depriv'd of the greatest part of its Sweetness, and gains a subacid Quality somewhat saltish; not by reason of the Pores of the Spleen, but by reason of the natural subacid Quality of the Spleen, which it infuses in the Blood and certain other Humors that accompany it. Sweet Wine thus grows sowre, being poured into a Vinegar-Vessel; not by reason of the Pores of the Vessel, ha­ving some kind of Analogie either be­tween the Wine it self and the Particles of the Vinegar, or else because there was an Acidity in the Wine before, and its acid Particles were only mix'd with the Vinegar, and the sweet not mixed; but because the sowre Acidity of the Vinegar, contained in the Ves­sel, might there fix the sweet sulphury Spirits of the Wine, and exalting the Salt and Acid above 'em, altogether de­prive it of its Sweetness. For in that manner is Choler bred in the Liver: not that it was really praeexistent in the Blood, or for that the Pores of the Li­ver have any Analogie, with the chole­ric Particles of the Blood, were the occa­sion of its being separated from it; but because the sweet Blood, flowing in great Quantity through the splenic Branch [Page 58] to the Porta out of the mesaraic Veins, with a mixture of the splenetic Juice, becomes so altered, that it is fermented and concocted after a new Manner in the Liver (which proceeds from the peculiar Temper, Structure, and Fer­ment prepared in it) by which means many Particles of it are made Choler, which were not so before that new Mix­ture and Concoction: Concerning which see the following 15th. Chap. de Genera­tione Bilis. And thus it is in the Pan­creas, wherein some part of the Blood flowing into it through the small Ar­teries, is changed into Sweet-bread Juice (the rest proceeding forward to its Fountain the Heart) not by reason of the Analogy of the Pores of the Sweet-bread with that Juice; but by rea­son of the new Alteration which the Blood undergoes in it, occasioned by the particular Property or Nature of the Part, together with the new Mix­ture and Concoction.

XXXII. As to the second we have The Effer­vescency of the Choler, [...] [...] [...] [...].] affirm'd, that the pancreatic Iuice being mix'd with the Choler that flows to it, causes a new Effervescen­cie in the Duodenum. Which is ap­parent in the Dissection of living Dogs; in whom generally there is a spumous Humour boyling in the said Intestine, which is raised by the Aci­dity of the pancreatic Iuice, and the mixture of Choler, abounding in Volatile and fixed Salt. Which is that very thing which Chymical Ope­ration teaches us; viz. That acid Spi­rits meeting with the lixivious Salt, al­ways fall a boyling if there be nothing in­termix'd to prevent the Operation. Now that in Choler there is contained a lixi­vious Salt besides the oily sulphury Parts, is hence apparent, for that both may be separated from it by chymical Art. And then the Tast discovers the moderately sharp Acidity of the pan­creatic Juice; and moreover for that being put into sweet Milk, it presently curdles it, even as Vinegar and other sharp Juices do. Lastly, for a farther Proof of that Effervescency occasioned by the mixture of Choler with the pan­creatic Juice, we will add the twice re­peated Experiment of D. Schuylius, Tract. de Vet. Medicin. The Abdomen of a live Dog, saith he, being opened, I ty'd the Duodenum with a String, not far from the Pylorus; and with another String a little below the Insertion of the pancreatic Ductus, and so left the Dog, having sow'd up the Abdomen again. Three Hours after, the Dog being still a­live, and strong, for he had lost very lit­tle Blood, the Abdomen being opened a­gain, we found the Space between the two Ligat [...]res so extreamly distended, that it would not yield to the Compression of the Fingers, but threaten'd a Rupture, nor did we find the Dogs Gall-bag less di­stended. A most intense and burning Heat also scalded that intercepted Part of the Duodenum; in which, when I had made a little Wound with a Lancet, together with the Humors contained there­in, great store of Wind brake out with the usual Noise and ratling of breaking Wind; from whence also, a sowre kind of Smell offended the Noses of the standers by; which when the Gut was more opened, none of the Spectators could endure. Which was a manifest Argument, that there had not only flow'd thither such a Quantity of Choler, and pancreatic Iuice, but that there was an Effervescency raised in 'em, not a mild and moderate one as in sound People, but extreamly vehement. For not only that part of the Intestin was full, but distended extraordinarily by a violent force and rushing of the Blood and Spirits. Nor was it probable that that part of the Duodenum could have bin so distended, nor that the Vapors, Exhalations, Humors, and Wind, could have bin dissipated with so great a Force, but by the Effervescency and Agitation of Particles quite contrary to those Humors. Some few days after I repeated the same Experiment, in the presence of several Students; and within two Hours or little more, that Portion of the Intestin swell'd very much, but did not burn so violent­ly: But having opened that swell'd Por­tion of the Intestin, which I had ty'd before, frothy Bubbles brake out with a loud noise, with which that Space of the Gut was distended. So that it is not for Impudence it self to raise any more Doubts concerning the Truth of this Ef­fervescency.

CHAP. XI. Of the Mesenteric Milkie Vessels.

I. THE milkie Vessels conveigh­ing the white Chylus from the Guts through the Mesentery, were first discovered in our Age; [Page 59] And in the Yeor 1622, by Gaspar Asellius, Anatomist of Padua. I say in our Age, for that Hippocra­tes and others had some obscure Knowledg of 'em. Galen also saw 'em and observ'd 'em; but he believ'd 'em to be Arteries, and sway'd by that Er­ror, assirm'd that the Orifices of the Arteries reaching to the Intestines, re­ceiv'd some small Quantity of Nourish­ment, appears l. 4. de Off. Part. c. 17. & l. 3. de natural. Facult. c. 13. & lib. an Sang. in Art. content. c. 5.

II. Asellius was the first that gave The Name. em the Name of milkie Veins. But in regard they carry no Blood, and for that their Substance is far diffe­rent from that of the Veins, as being much more transparent and thinner, we thought it more proper to call 'em milkie Vessels for better distincti­ons Sake.

III. They are thin transparent The De­scription. Vessels covered with a single Tuni­cle, scattered through the Mesentery, infinite in number, appointed for con­veighing the Chylus.

IV. They take their Original from The Ori­ginal. the Guts (the chiefest Part from the Iejunum and other small Guts, a­mong whose Tunicles, with several small and slender ends of Roots they open into the inner Hollowness of the Intostines, their Orifices lying hid, under a spungy kind of Slime, into which the Chylus is squeezed by Com­pression of the said Guts, and from whence it is received by the gaping Vessels.) From hence, with an oblique Passage, they ascend the Mesentery, by the way interwoven one among ano­ther, and variously confused, and so proceed forward between and thorough many little Glandules, chiefly those that are placed at the Separation of these Vessels, toward the great or middlemost Glandule of the Mesen­tery, into which a very great number enter, and a many cross over the Su­perficies of it, and afterwards end at the great Receptacle of the Chylus, absconded under that great Glandule. But they never enter the Liver, as some with Waleus and [...] endeavour to persuade us. Neither do any of 'em open into the Vena Porta, the Vena Ca­va, or Mesenteric Vein; tho' Lindanus, fol­lowing Waleus (l. 2. Physiolog. c. 5.) asserts that Mistake. Nor are they ever continued with the Mesaraic Veins, as being Slips of them, which was a Fig­ment of Deusiagius. Nor ever were a­ny seen to proceed from the Stomach.

V. Wharton observes in his Ade­nographia,How they pass the Glandules. that those Vessels in their Entrance into the Glandules, or a little before, are divided and subdi­vided into several little Branches, and so are quite obscur'd in the very Substance of the Glandules, and after they have so in a manner disappear'd in the very middle of the Glandules, presently new Strings of the said Ves­sels spring out again, from the very Body of the said Glandules, which meeting together form a Trunck as be­fore, and being carried toward the Beginning of the Mesentry, associates to it self other Branches of the same kind meeting with it, and is by them enlarged. Thus without doubt, those Vessels that enter the great Glandule, spring out of it again as from a new Root, and into the Receptacle of the Chylus.

VI. They have many Valves which Their Valves. admit the Entrance of the Chylus from the Guts, and hinder its Return, which tho' they cannot be easily de­monstrated to the Sight, by reason of their extraordinary smallness, yet thus are they easily apprehended; that is to say, if these milkie Vessels are pressed toward the great Glandule, they presently grow empty: And Fre­d [...]ric R [...]isch, a Physician formerly at the [...], now at A [...]sterdam, and a famous Dissecter, had publickly shewn 'em, and caused 'em to be engraven in his Plates: But if the same Com­pressure be made from the Kernel to­ward the Guts, the Chylus stops, neither can it be thrust forward. Which is the reason that in Dogs and other Crea­tures well fed, that are dissected alive, or hang'd three hours after they have fed, these milke Vessels appear soon af­ter very numerous and full of Juice in the Mesentery: But while the Guts are stirr'd and mov'd up and down by the Anatomists, together with the Mesen­tery annexed for Demonstration sake, that milky Juice is squeezed out of 'em by that Motion, and flows to the Re­ceptacle of the Chylus; and so these [Page 60] small Vessels in the Mesentery vanish as it were from between your Fingers, and escape the Sight, when being empty'd, by reason of their thinness and transpa­rency, as has bin already said, they can no longer be discern'd.

VII. The use of these milkie Vessels, Their Use. is to conveigh not the Blood, but the Chylus from the Guts to the great Glandule of the Mesentery, and thence to the Receptacle of the Chyle. And this the whitish Colour of the contain'd Juice teaches us, which in a Creature kill'd three or four hours after feeding, is like the Cream of Milk, and disap­pears when the Distribution of the Chy­lus is at an end, nor does the Blood ever succeed into its Place, and so the Chylus being evacuated, these pellucid and small Cobweb-lawn Vessels, for want of that milkie Colour almost escape the Sight, which is the Reason why they have lavn undiscovered for so many Ages. I say almost, in regard that to these that look narrowly, they remain conspicuous in the form of little Fibres. Which deceiv'd Galen and some others, who took these little Fibres for Nerves or very small Arteries.

VIII. Now that the Chylus is A Proof. carried through these Vessels from the Guts to the Receptacle, is appa­rent from hence, for that if in a living Animal well fed, and sud­dainly dissected three hours after, they be ty'd in the middle, there will happen a swelling between the Liga­ture and the Gut, and a lankness in the other Part. And the same is also manifest from the Situation of the Valves, of which we have already spoken.

IX. The cause why the Chylus en­ters The impul­sive Cause. the milkie Vessels, and is forced through those, is twofold. The one more feeble: a kind of rowling Con­traction perform'd by the Fibres of the Guts themselves, which Con­traction is conspicuous in Cats and Rabbets dissected alive. The other is stronger, powerfully assisting the for­mer, an Impulse of the Muscles of the Abdomen mov'd upwards and downwards by the Act of Breathing: By which the Chylous, and consequent­ly the thin and most spirituous Parts of the Nourishment concocted in the Sto­mach, and fermented by the mixture of Choler, and the Pancreatic or Sweet­bread Juice in the Guts, being separa­ted from the grosser and more crude Mass, are forc'd out of the Guts into the gaping Orifices of the milkie Ves­sels. Which Orifices, by reason of their extream Narrowness, will not however admit the grosser Parts; and hence it comes to pass, that being separated from the thin Chylous Parts, and forced to the thick Guts, they are exonerated through the Fundament as unprofitable Excre­ments.

X. From what has bin said, it appears that these Chyle-bearing Ves­sels, do not always conveigh the Chy­lus (for they are often found emp­ty) but only by Intervals: That is, so soon as the Chylus is perfected in the Stomach, and descends from thence to the Intestines.

XI. Deusingius in his Treatise deWhether [...] Chylus [...]e attracted. motu Chyli, believes that Expulsi­on only is not sufficient; and there­fore he adds to it Sucking or Attracti­on, the necessity of which he endea­vours to prove by these Reasons. If there be no Attraction (says he) but that all Motion must be referr'd to Impulsions, how shall we think that the Nourishment enters from the Mo­ther into the Umbilical Veins, or by what Cause can it be forc'd thither? Or how does the Alimentary matter in an Egg reach to the Heart of the Chicken? Unless by Attraction, by means of the Motion of Rarefaction, and the Reciprocal Distension and Contraction of the Heart. But these Reasons are not of Force enough to de­fend and establish the said Opinion. I answer therefore to both, That no Nourishment enters immediately from the Mother into the umbilical Veins; but that as well the Blood, as the milkie Juice, by the Impulse of the Mo­ther is forced from the Womb only in­to the Uterine Placenta (as shall be de­monstrated more at large c. 30. of this Book) and thence by the Impulse which is caused by the umbilical Arteries from the Heart of the Birth toward the said Placenta, the Blood of the Mother that lies therein, being rarify'd and concocted by the arterious Blood of the Embryo, is forc'd into the umbili­cal Vein, and the Chylus also is forc'd along into the Vasa Chylifera, that tend to the Concavity of the Amnion, or Membrane that enfolds the Birth. If [Page 61] any one enquires how the rarify'd Juice enters the Embryo, before the Navel be grown to its just Magnitude, and how such a Motion of the Heart is caus'd by its Arteries? I answer, That that In­gress is caus'd by a kind of sliding or slipping into it; but there is a great dif­ference between attraction and slipping into a thing. For a hard, heavy, dry, or any other such kind of Substance is attracted, that cannot follow of it self, and sticks to the thing that draws it: but a soft and fluid thing slides or slips in; which finding a lower evacuated place, can neither contain it self, nor subsist in its place, but slides in of it self without attraction. As for Example; If the Wa­ter next the Mill is cast upward by the Water-Mill, the subsequent Water can­not be said to be drawn by the Mill, which is sufficiently distant from it, nor is any way joyn'd with it, but not being a­ble to support it self, slides voluntarily down to the empty space. And in this manner the Liquation of the Chylus slips into the Embryo. For while the Heart continually makes Blood of the Matter that daily offers it self, and forces it a­way from it, presently the Particles of the adjoyning Liquation or dissolv'd Nou­rishment, slip of their own accords into the empty Pores, and supply the Vacuum. So that there is no attraction of the Nourishment in the Embryo. And the same is to be said of the Chicken in an Egg, into which the Alimentary Nou­rishment enters, partly by slipping, part­ly by the Impulse of the Heart of the Chicken.

CHAP. XII. Of the Ductus Chyliferus of the Breast, and the Receptacle of the Chyle.

I. THis Chyliferos Ductus of The De­scription. the Thorax, is a Vessel ex­tended from the Region of the Loyns all the length of the Back-bone, to the Subclavial Vein, lying under the short Ribs; through which the Chylus being pour'd into it, out of the Milkie Mesenterics, together with the Lym­pha or pellucid Water, is carried to the Subclavial Vein. But because the Passage of the Chylus through it is not continual, hence some, not without rea­son, have thought that this Vessel ought to be more properly call'd Ductum Lym­phaticum The Great Lymphatic Chanel. Magnum, the Great Lympha­tic Chanel; for that as soon as the Chylus vanishes, it is found to be re-supply'd by the Lymphatic Water.

II. The first Discovery of this is a­scribed The Disco­verers. to John Pecquet of Diep▪ John van Horn, a famous Anato­mist of Leyden, both which disco­ver'd it in the Years 1650. and 1652. neither being private to what the other had done; and in our Time publickly shew'd it, and caus'd it to be engraven in their Plates.

But altho' we are much beholding to 'em for their Diligence for restoring to the great Benefit of Physic, the know­ledge of this Vessel, which had lain bu­ry'd in darkness for almost a whole Age, through the negligence and unskilfulness of Anatomists, for rendring the know­ledge of it more perfect, and making it apparent by publick demonstration; and all this without any Information before­hand; yet are they not to assume to themselves the whole honour of the first Invention. For above a hundred years ago this very Passage was first observ'd and taken notice of in the Dissection of Horses, by the most famous Anatomist Bartholomew Eustachius, who Lib. de Ve­na sine pari, Antigram. 13. writes thus: In those Creatures, (says he) speaking of Horses) from the great sinister Iugal Trunk, where the hinder seat of the Root of the Internal Iugular Vein appears, (he believes it to be the Subclavial, where the Jugular enters it above) a great Root springs forth, which, besides that it hath a Semicircular Orifice at its beginning, (clearly designing a Valve;) there is also another Root, full of a watery Humour; and not far from its Original, divided in­to two parts, which meeting in one stock again that spreads no Branches, near the sinister side of the Vertebra's, penetrating the Diaphragma, is carried downward to­ward the middle of the Loyns, where be­coming broader, and embracing the great Artery, it concludes in an obscure ending, which I have not as yet so well▪ found out. From which words it is apparent, that this Passage was first discover'd and ob­serv'd by Eustachius, but the use of it was not rightly understood. For he de­scribes the Beginning of it from the Sub­clavial Vein, where the End is: and the End in the Loyns where the Beginning is: So that we are beholding to Eusta­chius for the first, but ruder detection; [Page 62] but to Van Horn and Pecquet for the more accurate and perfect knowledge and demonstration of it.

III. But tho' there may be one con­tinued Chanel from the Loyns to the Subclavial Vein, yet because it has a broad capaciousness at the beginning, like a little Bag, first receiving the Chylus out of the Mesenteric Vessels, it is excellently well distinguish'd into the Receptacle of the Chylus, and the Ductus Chyliferus.

IV. The Receptacle of the Chy­lusThe Recep­tacle of the Chyle. is the Original of this Chanel, more capacious than the Chanel it self, and is a kind of a little Cell, seated in the Loyns, into which the Chylus first flows out of the Mesaraic Milkie Veins, and is collected into that as into a Common Receptacle, which was the reason that Pecquet first call'd this little Cell by the name of the Re­ceptacle of the Chyle. Which ne­vertheless Van Horn would rather have call'd by the name of the Little Milkie Bag. This Bartholinus calls the Milkie Lumbar Glandule, but erroneously, in regard the Substance of it has no Re­semblance with the Substance of the Glandules. Walter Charleton calls it by the name of the Pecquetian Conceptacle, from the Discoverer. But in regard it receives as well the Lymphatic Water poured forth from the Glandules of the adjacent Parts, as the Chylus it self (for in a live Creature, if you squeeze out the Chylus with your Thumb, it is pre­sently fill'd with Lymphatic Water) it may be no less properly call'd the Re­ceptacle of the Lympha, as well as the Chylus, and so much the rather because the Chylus only flows into it at such and such Intervals, but the Lympha fills it continually.

V. The Seat of this Receptacle is The Recep­tacle of the Lympha. under the Coeliac and Emulgent Veins, almost in the middle Region, between the Muscles Psoas, the Kidneys and the Renal Glandules, which, together with the Kidneys, it touches by im­mediate Contract, so that there can hardly be separated with a Penknife certain little Branches running be­tween. Yet in all Creatures it does not exactly keep the middle place of the Loyns, but in Beasts most commonly inclines toward the left side, near the hollow Vein descending, close to the left Kidney, seldom turns to the right side, or keeps directly in the midst of the Lum­bal Muscles.

VI. In Brute Beasts this Vessel is The Num­ber. generally single, with one Cavity; sometimes twofold; that is, one in each side. Sometimes one, with a little Membrane going between, as it were distinguish'd into two Cells. Moreover, sometimes three of these Vessels have been said to have been found, two in one, and one in the other side; which is more than we have ever met with as yet. Bartholinus has ob­serv'd three in a Man; two of a bigger size, set one upon another, but con­ioyn'd with mutual milkie little Branch­es, seated between the Cava descending, and the Aorta Veins, in an Angle, which the Emulgents make meet with the Ve­na C [...]va. The third somewhat higher, and nearer to the Diaphragma, and lo­sing it self in its Nervous beginning under the Appendix.

VII. The shape of this Receptacle is The Shape. for the most part round, and some­what compress'd; but many times O­val.

VIII. It varies in Bigness: Fre­quently The Big­ness. it fills the space between the Lumbar Muscles, extending it self to the Kidneys and their Kernels. In Brutes we find it sometimes a little big­ger, somewhat extended toward the lower parts.

IX. The inner Cavity, the ChyleThe Wi [...] ­ness. being taken out, sometimes equals two Ioynts of the Fore-fingers, sometimes only one of those Ioynts; sometimes it will hardly admit the top of the Finger. In Men the Cavity is less than in Beasts; But the Substance of the little Bladder is much more solid, as being very thin, smooth and soft in Brutes, in Men thicker.

X. From the upper part of the Re­ceptacle Ductus Chylife­rus of the Breast. rises a Branch somewhat broad, call'd the Ductus Chiliferus of the Breast, or the Great Lympha­tic, consisting of a thin and pellucid small Membrane, like the Receptacle, leaning upon the Back-bone about the middle below the great Artery, covered with the thin skin that covers the Ribs, and winding somewhat toward the right side of the Artery, where it is more conspicuous in its lower part, the Guts being remov'd to the right side, [Page 63] with the Mesentery and the Dia­phragma cut off. Hence proceeding farther upward under the Great Ar­tery, about the fifth and sixth Verteber of the Breast, it turns a little without the Great Artery toward the left side, and so between the Intercostal Arte­ries and Veins, ascends to the sinister Subclavial, into which it opens in the lower part or side, in that part where the sinister Iugular enters into it in the upper place. But at the entrance it does not open into it with a wide Gaping, but with six or seven little small Holes, covered over together with a little broad Valve in the inner Concavity of the Subclavial Vein, which Valve looks from the Shoulder towards the Vena Cava, where is appointed the Ingress of the Chylus and Lymphatic Iuice out of the Ductus Chyliferus into the Subclavial Vein; but the Return of the same Juice, and of the Blood also into the said Cha­nel out of the Subclavial Vein, is pre­vented.

XI. Sometimes two Branches, some­what Two Cha­nels. swelling, ascend from the Recep­tacle, which nevertheless we find uni­ted below in the middle under the Great Artery, as if there were but one Chanel only in the upper part.

XII. In Human Bodies sometimes, Two or more Re­ceptacles of the Chyle. tho' very seldom, there are to be found two or three Receptacles of the Chylus, and from each arise particular Ductus's, which being united in their Progress, at length with one Ductus proceed to the left Subclavial Vein.

XIII. Their usual Insertion is into The Inser­tion. the left Subclavial Vein, as well in Men as in Beasts; but very rarely do Anatomists observe the Insertion into both Subclavial Veins. Whence I judge that it is scarce to be found in one Beast of an hundred. Thus Bar­tholinus reports that he found the Inser­tion of the Ductus Chyliferus into the left Subclavial Vein in the Dissections of six Men and several Beasts, and once only in a Dog its Ingress into the right Subclavi­al also. Pecquet observ'd two Branches ascending upwards, joyn'd here and there together in the Mid-way, with several parallel little Branches, and meeting to­gether at the third Verteber of the Breast, and then divided again, of which one entred the right, the other the left Sub­clavial.

XIV. In the inner part, this Chanel Its Valves. has many Valves, preventing the Re­turn of the Chylus and ascending Lymphatic Juice, sufficiently mani­fest from hence, because the Chylus contain'd in it may be easily forc'd up­ward by the Finger, but by no means downward; and for that the Ductus being bor'd thorough in any part, the Milkie Juice tending upward from the lower part, flows out; but in the upper part, above the little wound, stays with­in the Valves, nor will descend to the wound made in the Chanel. Moreover, for that the Breath blown into it, through a small Pipe thrust into it; or Liquor injected into it through a Syringe, easi­ly ascends upward, but cannot be forc'd downward.

XV. The Discovery of this DuctusThe way to discover it. Chyliferus belonging to the Breast, is not always equally to be made with the same easiness, for that because its Tunicle is pellucid, and lyes under the inner cloathing of the Ribs, it is not so easily obvious to the sight, espe­cially if it be empty of Chyle, as fre­quently it is some hours after Meals, or after Fasting: but it presently ap­pears when it swells with a whitish Chylus. And therefore it presently shews it self in live Dogs, or strangled three or four hours after a full Meal. And then also the Ingress of the Milkie Mesenteric Veins into the Receptacle of the Chyle, from the great Glandule of the Mesentery, manifestly displays it self. Bartholinus writes that he readily found this Chanel with the Receptacle in the Bodies of two men newly hang'd, that had fed heartily before their deaths. In such as lye sick, and dye of the Disease, it is hard to be discover'd, as being emp­ty of Chylus, for that sick People eat very little, especially when Death ap­proaches, and that their Stomach makes hardly any Chylus out of the Nourish­ment receiv'd. Nevertheless in the Year 1654. I found it in two Persons that dy'd through the Violence of the Dis­ease, and shew'd it to some Students in Physick. First in April, in the Body of a Woman emaciated by a long Dis­ease, but while she liv'd, very thirsty. In which Body, the next day after the Woman dy'd, I found it swell'd with Serous and Lymphatic Humour, and shew'd it to the Spectators that were pre­sent. The second time was in May, in the Body of a Woman that dy'd of a [Page 64] Pleurisie, in her right side, and in her life time, provok'd by continual thirst, had drank very much: and for that reason, both the Receptacle and this Ductus were very much swell'd with Se­rous Humours. But in both Bodies I found the Situation of the Chanel to be such, as it us'd to be in Dogs, and that its Insertion was into the sinister Subcla­vial. Only in the first Body the Re­ceptacle of the Chylus was small, in the latter more large, as admitting into it the whole Joynt of the Thumb. After­wards we have search'd for, and found this Ductus in several Human Bodies, tho' we have found some variety as to the Receptacle, as sometimes that there was but only one, sometimes that one distinguish'd or divided with a small Membrane in the middle; sometimes by reason of a double protuberancy, they seem'd to be two distinct Recepta­cles: and sometimes that out of this one Ductus very seldom two arose; which afterwards clos'd together in one. But hitherto we never found in Men the In­sertion of this Ductus into the right Subclavial, but always into the left.

XVI. But whether the Ductus Chyliferus sends any Branches to the Breasts and Womb, we shall inquire in our Discourse of the Womb and Teats.

While we were writing this, cameLewis de Bill's Cir­cle. forth in Print a small Dutch Treatise of Lewis de Bills, wherein he boasts to have found out a much further Propagation of the Lactiferous and Chyliferous Ves­sels. For he writes, and gives you the draught of it in a Plate annexed, that the Ductus Chyliferus belonging to the Breast, makes a wreath'd Circle to the Division of the Jugular Veins (which afterwards some rather chuse to call the Labyrinth, others the Twisted Turning) and that two little Branches ran from it to the Glandules of the Teats, and two ascended further upwards to the Glan­dules of the Neck. For my part, I have several times search'd for the Con­tinuation of this Contorted Circle with the Chyliferous Duct of the Breast, but could never bring or follow this Chanel farther than the Subclavial Vein. Never­theless, understanding by report of o­thers, that the said Circle could not of­ten be found, yet that it was sometimes discover'd by Steno and others, I order'd my Dissections of Dogs after another manner, that is, from the upper part of the Throat to the Sternum or Breast­bone, and upon several diligent Inquisi­tions after this Circle, sometimes I found it manifestly conspicuous, especially if it were blown up; for so it became most obvious to the View of the Spectators. At other times I found nothing else, but only a various Concourse of several Lymphatic Vessels, taking their Rise out of the Jugular Glandules, the Glan­dules behind the Ears, and others adja­cent thereto, and thence running out to several Veins, and then discharging it self into them. In the mean time I ob­serv'd this also very accurately, That this Concourse of small Lymphatic Vessels, was not continu'd with the Chyliferous Duct of the Breast, nor receiv'd the Chy­lus from, or carried it farther to the Glan­dules that lye round it, as Lewis de Bills erroneously asserts; but quite the con­trary, that that Lymphatic Juice was carried from the said Glandules to that Lymphatic Circle or various Concourse of several Vessels (I say various, because it is not always the same in all Bodies) and thence by means of several little Branches spreading farther, is emptied into several Veins, as the Glandules of the Armpits and Groins, by means of their Lymphatic Vessels, exonerate their Lymphatic Juice for the most part into the Milkie Vessels.

XVII. But tho' this Circle has ap­pear'd to us now and then, and other times not at all; yet it is manifest that some could never discover it. For of late their came to our hands, the Anatome of the Bilsian Anatome, by Ia­cob Henry Paulus Royal Professor in the Academy of Hoppenhaghen, wherein that Learned Person utterly explodes the said Bilsian Labyrinth, as a meer Fable, because he could never find it, but only some kind of Concourse of small Lym­phatic Vessels, as aforesaid. His words are these, L. 6. of the said Book: The new Chylifer Chanel, says he, which D. John van Horn has first divulg'd, (he means the Pectoral Chanel) when it leaves the Breast, does not again ascend toward the Throat, or come to be taken notice of again: And the wreathed Receptacle of Bilsius, with its Windings, Turnings, Pipes, Branches and small Twigs, is nothing else but the Propagations and Excurrencies of the Lymphatic Iugular Vessels from the upper Glandules to the Glandules of the Armpits, and this on both sides. Wherein Nature sports her self after a wonderful manner, in the same manner as in the Veins of the Hands and Feet, and which have been obvious to me at several times in several varieties. But generally they kept this Order, that the Ductus proceeds alone by it self from the Oblong Glandule [Page 65] of the Iaw, where it lyes between the hud­dle of the Parotides, and Wharton's Glandules at the lower Seat of the Larynx, call'd Thyroidae, accompanied sometimes with three or four small Branches, which often close with another Branch, proceed­ing from the lesser Glandules, which ad­joyns to the Caro idal Artery, and the In­ternal Iugular Vein, tho'▪ not always. This Ductus then forsaking the Gullet, over which it is spread, associates it self to the External Iugular Vein, and creeping un­der it, sometimes crosses over, sometimes passes by two other Lymphatic Vessels, which proceeding from the Glandules of the Neck, in the middle of the Neck mutually embrace and bind each other, and are the occasion of many Branches, but no proper Circle, unless a man will fancy it so to be. And therefore that famous Circle is a meer La­byrinth, and an inextricable Errour. But all those Propagations of Vessels, when they have once reach'd and pass'd the Branch of the External Iugular (to which frequently adjoyns a small Glandule also) proceeding from the Muscle that bends the Head or Mastoides, fall into a common Ductus like a Glass Viol, with a wide Belly, and as it were blown like a bladder, so that it might not improperly be call'd a Recepta­cle by Bilsius. From which, at length, double Appendixes extend themselves, of which the one enters the Armpit Vein, near the Pipe of the rough Artery, in the place where the Carotidal Arteries arise from the Trunk: the other at a little distance enters the External Iugular: To which another Lymphatick Vessel (which hitherto Anato­mists have deriv'd originally from the Ioynts) joyns it self from the Subaxillary Glandules. So that there happens a meet­ing of several Insertions, that is below, of the Pectoral Ductus (an Error; for that never passes beyond the Subclavial Vein) from the side of the Axillary Vessels; a­bove, of the Lymphatical Iugular Vessels, and Vessels arising out of the Thymus, which is one of the Iugular Glandules, but seldom any passing of one into ano­ther.

XVIII. This Description the same Author, in a new Plate annex'd, ap­parently demonstrates, and in the same seventh Chapter, adds the way to find out the Iugular Lymphatics.

But tho' the foresaid Doctor Paulus wittily enough derides Bilsius's Circle, yet is it not probable that Bilsius at his dissection should delude so many Learn­ed Men that were present, into that Blind­ness and Madness, as to testifie in a Pub­lic Writing, that they saw such a Circle clearly by him demonstrated, which was not really there to be seen: Could they be all so blind? Besides, we our selves, and several others, have seen this Cir­cle, tho' we could not always find it. Which we the rather believe may hap­pen through the Sport of Nature, in re­gard that in some Dogs the Circle is found to be perfect; in others only a disorderly Concourse of Lymphatic Vessels about the Throat. To conclude then, I assert this in the mean time, That this Circle is no Production of the Tho­racical Ductus Chyliferus (as Bilsius er­roneously avers and delineates) and that, as has been said, it receives no Chylus from it, nor carries any Chylus, but is a Chanel into which the Lymphatic Juice, being carried from the Circumjacent Glandules, and other parts, and to be conveigh'd into the neighbouring Veins, and other parts, is collected together.

Now whether the Chylus and Lym­phatic Humour be one and the same thing, or whether distinct Juices. See Chap. 13. following.

XIX. The use of the ChyliferousThe vse. or Great Lymphatic Pectoral Du­ctus, is to conveigh the Lymphatic Iuice continually, and the Chylus at certain Intervals, being forc'd out of the Milkie Mesaraic Vessels, and at­tenuated therein, by the mixture of the Lymphatic Iuice, to the Subclavial Vein, to the end the Lymphatic Iuice may prepare the Blood to cause an Ef­fervescency in the heart, and that the Chylus mixed with the Venal Blood, and carried together with it through the Vena Cava to the Heart; may be chang'd by that into Blood.

XX. That the Chylus and Lym­phatic The ascent of the Chylus. Iuice ascends upward, not on­ly the Situation of the Valves, but o­cular observation in the very Dissecti­on of Animals, sufficiently teach us, by means of a string ty'd about this Cha­nel; for presently there will be a swel­ling between the Knot and the Recep­tacle, and a lankness above the Liga­ture. Which Experiment proves suc­cessful in a Dog newly hang'd, if when the Knot is ty'd, the Guts, together with the Mesentery, be lightly press'd by the hand, and so by that Compression the Chylus be squeez'd out of the Chyliferous Mesaraic Vessels into the Receptacle, and out of that into the Pectoral Du­ctus.

[Page 66]XXI. Now that the Chylus enters the Subclavial Vein, together with the Lymphatic Iuice, and thence is carried to the Heart through the Vena Cava, besides that what has been already said concerning the Holes, is obvious to the sight; it is also appa­rent from hence, for that a good quan­tity of Milk being injected into the Du­ctus Chyliferus, it is forthwith carried into the Subclavial Vein, hence into the Vena Cava and right Ventricle of the Heart, together with the Blood con­tain'd in the Vena Cava, and may be seen to flow out at the Wound made in the Ventricle.

XXII. Now the Cause Impulsive that The impul­sive Cause. forces the Chylus, together with the Lymphatic Iuice, out of the Receptacle into this Ductus Pectoralis, and so for­ward into the Subclavial Vein, is the same that forces it out of the Guts into the Milkie Mesaraic Vessels (of which in the preceding Chapter, that is to say, the Motion of the Muscles of the Abdomen, mov'd upward and down­ward with the act of Respiration, which causes a soft and gentle. Impulsion of the Chylus through all the Milkie Ves­sels, which impulse is conspicuously ma­nifest from hence; for that if in a li­ving Creature the Muscles of the Ab­domen be open'd and dissected, and thereby their Motion be taken away, and then the Bowels of the lower Bel­ly be gently squeez'd, presently we shall see the Milkie Iuice move forward, and croud through all the Milkie Ves­sels; and tho' that Compression has no Operation upon the Pectoral Ductus, yet the Chylus forc'd into it by that Com­pression out of the Receptacle, is by that forc'd upward, as one Wave pushes for­ward another.

XXIII. Here now arises a Question, Whether the whole Chylus as­cend to the Subclavial. Whether the whole Chylus ascend through this Chanel to the Subclavial? and whether or no also a great part of it do not enter the Mesaraicks, and so ascend to the Liver? To which, we say, that the whole Chylus passes to the Subclavial Vein, except that which out of the Chyliferous Bag, by an extraor­dinary Course sometimes, tho' very seldom flows to the Urine Bladder, (of which see more c. 18.) or else in Women with Child, according to its ordinary course flows to the Womb, (See c. 30.) or in Women that give suck to the Breasts; (See l. 2. c. 2.) But Regius is of another Opinion, believing that part of the Chylus is carried to the Spleen out of the Stomach through the Gastric Veins, and part through the Mesaraics to the Liver. Of which, the one is refuted by us in the preceding Chap. 7. and the o­ther L. 7. c. 2. Deusingius smartly main­tains, that the whole Chylus is not carri­ed to the Subclavial through the Ductus Thoracicus, and confirms his Opinion by these Arguments. Exercit. de Chylificat. & Chylimotu.

  • 1. Saith he, There is no congruous pro­portion of Nature between the innumera­ble Milkie Veins scattered through the Me­sentery, and the Thoracic Ducts (which nevertheless are seldom more than one) conveighing the Chylus beyond the Axil­lary Veins.
  • 2. How shall the Thoracic Duct be able, without prejudice, to transmit such a quan­tity of Chylus, carried through so many Milkie Vessels, to the Receptacle of the Chylus?
  • 3. So very small a portion of the Chy­lus as is carried through the Ductus Tho­racicus to the Axillaries and Vena Cava, does not suffice to supply the continual waste of Blood, agitated and boyling through the whole Body, nor to repair the continu­al wearing out of all the parts.
  • 4. Seeing there is a great quantity of Chyle made, and but very little can pass through the streights of the Ductus Tho­racicus, where shall the rest of the Chylus remain, which between every Meal is not able to pass through the small Thoracic Duct?
  • 5. That same largest quantity of the Chylus, which in time of Breeding and giving Suck, is carried to the Womb and Dugs, whither is that carried, when the time of Breeding and giving Suck is over, when it is very probable that it cannot pass through the Ductus Thoracicus.
  • 6. If the Ductus Thoracicus of a live Animal be quickly ty'd with a string, the motion of the Milkie Liquour in the Me­sentery is not perceiv'd to be hindered.

And then he adds the Experiment of Lewis de Bills, by which he believes it to be obvious to sight.

These are the principal Arguments by which that Famous Artist endea­vours to uphold his Opinion. Now let us examin of what weight they are, and whether they are so ponderous as they promise to be, to the end we may see whether Truth will give her voice for this acute Invention.

[Page 67]XXIV. I answer to the first and se­cond, That there is not only a lesser but a greater Proportion between the Milkie Mesenteric Vessels, and one or two Thoracic Ducts, than there is between so many innumerable Veins that proceed from the Head, the Trunk, the Feet, the Arms, and some other Parts, and one Vena Ca­va into which they all evacuate them­selves. For if we consider so many Myriads of Veins, all of 'em may be thought to evacuate into the Vena Cava ten times as much Blood, as either the Vena Cava can contain, or disburthen from it self. And yet who does not see that it is done without any disorder; and why therefore should we wonder that the same should be conveniently done in the Milkie Vessels? Besides, we must consider that the flowing of the Chylus is not so continual; for many times there is a great distance between the two Meals, at what time there is no Chylus that is either made or flows (which is manifest to the Eye in Creatures hang'd a long time after they have fed, in which those Vessels are found empty of Chylus) and that Men who feed often, or else eat to excess, and therefore nei­ther Concoct the Chylus over hastily, or in over great quantity, so that it cannot swiftly make its way through those Pas­sages, such men are out of order, either because they do not digest the Food they have eaten sufficiently, or for that the quantity of the Chylus being too great, cannot pass quick enough through those Milkie Vessels, and therefore by the way, by reason of its longer stay, grows thick, sowre, coagulates, or is other­wise corrupted, which breeds Obstructi­ons, and impedes the Passage of the Chylus. Lastly, If we may argue from similitude, we must consider how much serous Humour passes in a little time through the narrow Ureters: which, if it may be done with so little trouble in those Vessels, why may not so much pass through the Milkie Vessels, and the Ductus Thoracicus?

XXV. To the third and fourth I answer, That the portion of the Chy­lus that passes through the Ductus Thoracicus, is not so small in quanti­ty, but very copious, as is obvious to the sight. If a living Dog be quickly open'd four or five hours after he has been well fed, and the Milkie Vessels in the middle of the Breast be cut away, and then the Intestines together with the Mesentery, be alternately and softly pressed by the hand, so they be relax'd (as in Respiration that Compressure is alternately made in healthy and living Creatures) then it will appear what a quantity of Chylus passes through that Vessel in the Breast. For in a short time a great quantity will flow forth into the hollowness of the Breast; neither shall any thing be discern'd to flow thither through any other Passages. Moreover, by the singular Observation of Walaeus, there is wasted every day in a healthy Plethoric Person, very near a pound of Blood. Is it impossible that in a whole days time a pound of Chylus should pass through the Milkie Vessels, to restore and supply that waste of Blood? In the space of half a quarter of an hour we have squeez'd out above two Ounces by the same way as is before express'd, how much therefore might pass in a whole day? certainly much more may be thought to pass than is wasted, supposing that the Chylus were continually present in the Guts, from whence being continually present, and still passing, proceeds the growth and increase of the Body, and the Plethory is caus'd. To this may be ad­ded Lower's Experiment, cited by Gualter Needham, l. de Format. Foet. c. 1. who in a live Dog having made a hole in the right side of his Breast, tore the Receptacle of the Chylus with his Fin­ger near the Diaphragma, and then sewing up the External Wound, pre­serv'd the Dog alive: nevertheless, tho' the Dog were very well fed, within three days, he dy'd, as being starv'd to death: but then after he had opened the Body, the whole Chylus was found to be cram'd into that part of the Breast which was wounded, and the Veins being o­pen'd, the blood was seen to be much thicker without any serous Humour, or Refreshment by any mixture of the Chylus.

XXVI. To the fifth I answer, That a great part of the Chylus that is wont to be carried through the Ductus Thoracicus to the Subclavial Vein, during the time of breeding and gi­ving suck, is carried to the Womb and the Dugs, and because that for want of that Chylus, which is carried ano­ther way, the Womans Body is not sufficiently nourish'd; hence those Wo­men (if they be otherwise healthy) by the force of Nature, become more hun­gry and greedy, that by eating and drinking that defect may be supply'd [Page 68] and that in the mean time the Necessities of Nature may be fur­nished, which requires Nourishment for the Embryo or Birth. But if through any Distemper of the Stomach, or of any other Parts, those Women are not so hungry, but eat little or less than they were wont to do, then they grow weak, by reason that the Chylus is carried ano­ther way for the Nourishment of the Birth, and are emaciated almost to skin and bone, as we find by daily Experi­ence.

XXVII. To the sixth, That when the Pectoral Chanel is ty'd, and the Creature lyes a dying, we see that the Milkie Mesentery, being partly press'd by the adjoyning Parts that lye upon 'em, and partly flagging one upon a­nother, vanish by little and little. This is true; but not because the Chylus enters the Mesaraic Veins, but because it is pour'd forth into the Chyliferous Bag, and the Ductus Thoracicus, which are then dilated and extended more than is usual by the Chylus, and when they can hold no more, then it stays about the great Glandule of the Mesentery in the Milkie Mesaraics, and may be seen therein for a whole day and longer, which could not be, if the Chylus enter'd the Mesaraic Veins.

XXVIII. As for the Experiment of Lewis de Bills, which has seduc'd too unwarily several Learned Men in­to another Opinion, what is to be thought of that, we shall tell you L. 7. c. 2.

Iohn Swammerdam in his Miracles of Whether the whole Chylus as­cend through the Mesaraic Veins to the Liver? Nature p. 29. promising to himself that he will restore to the Liver the Office of Sanguification, or of making Blood, affirms, that the whole Chylus ascends through the Mesaraic Veins to the Li­ver, and that what we see in the milkie Vessels is nothing else but a whitish lym­phatic Juice. And this he proves from hence, for that as he says, we find the Blood as it were streaked and mixed with white Lines in the Mesaraics, sometimes as it were mark'd with Spots, and sometimes he found nothing but pure Chylus in 'em; and at length he adds these Words; In the Gate Vein, tho' not ty'd, we have often seen the Chy­lus, and taken it out of the same; and we have seen many of the Mesaraics fill'd with Chylus. Now if any Person will suf­fer himself to be persuaded into these things, let him, for me, I envy him not. But for my part I give more Credit to Asellius, Pecquet, Deusingius, Wharton, and several others, but espe­cially to my own Eyes; than to such Writings as these: Unless Swammerdam can prove all that I have nam'd to have bin Purblind, and his own Party the only sharp-sighted People in the World. For they that have any Skill in Anato­my are to be persuaded rather by De­monstration than by Writing, as be such who have Eyes in their Heads and believe what they see. But in regard that Swammerdam promises to explain these things more at large in his Anatomicis Curiosis (so he calls his Treatise which is now in the Press) we will there ex­pect a more curious Explanation, in the mean time we will stick to our former Opinion. But why the Blood is some­times of a bad Colour in the Mesara­ics we shall shew l. 7. c. 2. However Swammerdam, to confirm his own Opi­nion, adds another Argument taken from that which never any one could yet demonstrate, that the Chylus is car­ried out of the Guts into the milkie Veins of the first sort. But by the same Argument will I prove, that the Chylus is not carried into the Mesaraic Veins, because no Man could ever yet demonstrate its Ingress out of the Guts into those Veins. 'Tis true that Iohn Horn Epist. ad Rolphin. say's he can make it out by Demonstration, but was never yet so good as his Word; tho' if there be any at this day who pretend to do it, I wish they would ad­mit me to be a Spectator, and then I may be able to judg of these Sayings. Again, No Man could ever yet demon­strate to the Eye the manifest Passage of the Seed out of the Testicles through the different Vessels into the little se­minary Bladder: Does this prove that the Seed is not conveighed through these Passages in living People, because it cannot be demonstrated in dead Bodys? The Seed conspicuous in the Parastatae or Vessels affixed to the back of the Testi­cles, and the seminary Vessels, without any more manifest Demonstration, suf­ficiently prove, that it ought to be con­veighed out of the Testicles and Para­statae through those Vessels, seeing that the Seed is made in no other Parts out of the Testicles, (as we shall shew c. 22.) and there are no other Passages to the seminary Vessels. In like manner when we see that the Chylus concocted in the Stomach flows no where else than to the Intestins, and is then conspicuous with its white Colour, which is apparent [Page 69] from those white Chylous Stools in the Coeliac Fluxes or Loosness of the Belly, and is also seen to be no less white in the milkie mesenteric Vessels, the chy­liferous Bagg, and the pectoral milkie Channel: Nay seeing moreover, that after long Famin the Guts being emp­ty'd of the Chylus, it is no longer to be found in the said milkie Vessels, nor does any such white Liquor appear in any other Vessels; What Man in his Wits, by the Dictate of Reason only, will question whether the Chylus passes out of the Guts into the milkie mensen­teric Vessels, and thence are pressed for­ward to the rest of the milkie Vessels, tho' the first Entrance were never yet demonstrated to the Eye. The Defect of which Demonstration proceeds from hence, that there is such a pressing and moving forward of the Humors and Spi­rits in the Bowels and other Parts which are entire and endu'd with Life, which no Art can perfectly demonstrate to the Eye in dead, mangl'd, and dissected Bodys. In the mean time how the Chy­lus passes out of the Guts into the mil­kie mesenteric Vessels, has bin already shewn in the foregoing Chapter. Lastly, what Swammerdam writes, That it is on­ly a white lymphatic Juice which is carried through the milkie Vessels, let him, I beseech him, tell that Story to those that know no Difference between the Lympha and the Chylus, nor can distinguish between those Liquors or Juices.

We affirm and demonstrate that both Liquors pass through the said milkie Vessels, and why the milkie Liquor is mix'd with the lymphatic Juice, we teach a little before in the same Chapter, and in the following 17.

XXIX. Besides the Passage of the Chylus already mentioned, which many maintain to be through the Mesaraics to the Vena Porta, Rio­lanus l. 2. Enchir. c. 18. Walaeus Epist. ad Barthol. & Maurocorda­tus l. de mot. & us. Pulm. c. 13. write, That they have observed the Distribution of the Chylus to other Parts; and farther relate that they have taken notice that the milkie Vessels run forward to the very Liver, the Sweetbread, the Trunck of the Vena Cava, near the Emulgents, to the Vena Porta and Mesenteric, and some others. But all those learned Men were most apparently deceiv'd by the lymphatic Vessels, which they thought to be the milkie Vessels, as is apparent from the Text of the forecited Places, and from what shall be said in the following Chapter concerning the Rise and Distribution of the Lymphatics.

CHAP. XIII. Of the lymphatic Vessels of the Lympha.

I. THE lymphatic Vessels are thin The Defi­nition. and pellucid Vessels, conveigh­ing the Lympha, which is a thin transparent, and clear Liquor, to the Vasa Chylifera and the Veins.

II. The first Discoverers of these The Dis­coverers. were Thomas Bartholinus, and Olaus Rudbech, between whom there is a very great and sharp Dispute for the Honour of the first Discovery, while each one assumes to himself. These two in Years 1650 and 1651, searching after something else in dead Bodys, happen'd by chance into the Knowlege of these Vessels, perhaps nei­ther of 'em knowing that the other had made the Discovery, so that both may contend unjustly to ascribe that Honour singly to themselves, which may be e­qually due to both. However Glisson and Charleton affirm that these Vessels were discovered and shown at London by one Ioliff an English Man, before they were made known by Bartholinus. But Bartholine in his Spicilege, affirms upon his Word, that he knew that Io­liff was not born before his Discovery, and that he never knew him either by Name or by Report.

III. Bartholine gives to these Ves­sels The Names. the Names of Lymphatic, Wa­tery, and Crystalline, and the Li­quor therein contained he call'd by a very proper Name, Lympha, from its Clearness and crystalline Bright­ness. Olaus Rudbech chooses rather to call 'em the watery Channels of the Liver and Glandules.

IV. They consist of clear and cob­web-like The Sub­stance. Skin, out of which being brok'n, if the Water happen to flow out, they presently disappear, because their Tunicles are affixed to the Ves­sels [Page 70] and Membranes that lie under 'em, from which, by reason of their ex­tream Thinness and Clearness, they cannot be distinguished.

V. Their Number is not to be Their Number. numbered, and therefore not to be certainly determined.

VI. Their Colour is Transparent Colour and Shape. and Chrystalline: Their Shape Ob­long, full of Holes, and hollow like the Veins, but very knotty: Their Breadth but very small.

VII. They have several Valves ad­mitting Their Valves. the Lympha into the Vasa Chylifera, and several Veins, but hindering its Return. These Valves has Lewis de Bils most obstinately all a­long deny'd, till they were shown him at the Hague, delineated in Plates, and made public in a printed Treatise by Frederic Ruysch, a most excellent Phy­sician and Anatomist, who discovered 'em bent like a Crescent, fix'd to the Sides of the Vessels, and plac'd oppo­site one to another, but much more numerous and thinner than any that are to be met with in the Veins. Which Valves may be also observ'd without any opening of the Vessels: For the Lym­pha contain'd being press'd with the Finger contrary to its proper Motion, is every where stop'd by the Valves.

VIII. Lewis de Bills, who had Bils's Error. call'd these Vessels before the Dew­bearing-Channels, finding himself convinc'd by Dr. Ruisch as to the Valves, presently invented a kind of Evasion, and published it abroad to save his Reputation in a little Dis­course Printed at Rotterdam 1668. He distinguishes between the lymphatic Iuice and the Dew; confessing the one to be carried to the Veins and milkie Vessels through the lymphatic Vessels, which are furnish'd with Valves, and affirms this to have bin found out by himself many Years before (tho' how truly, appears by Bartholinus's Answer de experiment. Bilsian. to Nich. Zas, Prin­ted 1661. p. 11.) but this he says flows through particular little Pipes, con­sisting of very small Fibres woven to­gether, but furnish'd with no folding Shutters, seated among the Veins and Tunicles of the Arteries and lympha­tic Vessels, like a kind of Moss, with a continued Course from the inner Parts to the exterior. An excellent Evasion indeed, whereby he endeavours to un­derprop the Truth of his first Opinion by certain imaginary little Pipes. I call 'em Imaginary, because that as yet ne­ver any, tho' but a young Practitioner in Anatomy, who does not easily ap­prehend there can be no such Pipes in Nature, when the Tunicles of the Veins and Arterys so closely adhere and stick one to another, that they are hardly separable by any Art, and that there are no such intervening of Pipes or a­ny other Passages to be seen, tho' Men had Lynx's Eyes, much less demonstra­ble: Seeing that in regard of this same close sticking of the Tunicles, many sharp-sighted Anatomists have question­ed, whether the Veins consist of one or two Tunicles. Which may be said of the lymphatic Vessels, which seem to consist of one single Tunic.

IX. There can be no certain Si­tuation Their Si­tuation. assigned to the lymphatic Vessels; in regard they are to be found in several Parts of the Body, and in the Trunck accompanying many Veins, especially the greater, and seem to be fasten'd to 'em by little Fibres. Many are also conspicuous in the Mid­dle, and innumerable in the lower Bel­ly, which do not accompany the big­ger Veins. Many also are found in the Arms at the sides of the Brachial Vein; as also in the Thighs, sticking to the Iliac and Crural Veins. Some there are that hold that these Vessels are joyned to the Muscles, but I could never ob­serve any in the Muscles themselves.

X. Concerning their Rise, there Their Rise. have bin formerly very great Dis­putes; but by the singular Industry of modern Anatomists, those Mists are in a great Measure scattered. Nicholas Steno, a most accurate Dis­secter, has laboured so diligently in search of their Rise, that at last l. de Musc. & gland. he pronounces for certain upon the Testimony of his own View, that there is an Inter­course between all the lymphatic Vessels and the Glandules, especially such as are clustered together; which to that pur­pose have a kind of Hollowness in the Middle, in which that Liquor is col­lected out of the Body of the Glandule, as having a farther Journey to make through the lymphatic Vessels. Thus also Malpigius, lib. de hepat. writes, that all the lymphatic Vessels, in what Parts soever, still every where arise out of the clustered Glandules, which are found in a thousand Places of the Body, even those that proceed out of the very Liver. [Page 71] Which he affirms, as having found those Glandules in the Hollow and Covering of the Liver of a Calf, where the bloody Vessels, and the Hepatic Chan­nel enter it. In like manner Frederic Ruisch reports that he has in the Liver of a Man found, as it were, a Chain of Glandules; under the Gall-Bladder, which were hard but mix'd with no Blood.

XI. A great Number of these Ves­sels go forth from the Liver, which is manifest to the Sight, tho' no Li­gature be made use of, but if a Li­gature be made use of between the Stomach and the Liver in that part of the Mesentry which knits the Li­ver to the Ventricle and Guts, by which Ligature the Vena Portae, with the Bilarie shall be comprehended: Then presently (if the Experiment be try'd upon a living Creature) be­tween the Ligature and the Liver, there will be a Swelling of these Ves­sels, which will more increase if the Liver be gently pressed by the Hand. But they chiefly arise out of the hol­low Part of the Liver, where the Glan­dules aforesaid are principally seated, and some of 'em cross over the Vesi­cle of the Gall. But whether or no, or how they run through the Substance it self of the Liver, that is not visible to the Eye, nor can it be as yet found out by any Instruments or any other Art. Glisson, in Anat. Hepat. searching back­ward, found that they creep under the Capsula of the Vena Portae (which Cap­sula is a Membrane from the Peritone­um enfolding the Vena Portae, where it enters the Liver) and that there they hide themselves, nor could he observe any farther Progress; from the Con­jecture it might be probable, that they follow the Distribution of the Capsula, and Bilarie Passage included in the same, and never enter the Substance of the Li­ver. But to us it seems more likely, that arising out of the clustered Glan­dules seated in the hollow part of the Liver, they presently break forth and shew themselves; and therefore that they neither follow the Course of the Capsula and Bilarie Passage, nor can be much dispers'd through the Substance of the Liver.

XII. How Pecquet has observed tho Egress of the lymphatic Vessels out of the Liver, he himself describes lib. de lact. Thorac. of the second Edition.

Behold, says he, having slit the Belly of a live Dog, I search for the lympha­tic Passages. These being supported by the Trunck of the Vena▪ Portae, after the manner of Ivy, presently shew themselves▪ to the greedy Eyes of those that are called to the Sight. Then after many Encomi­ums to the eternal Memory of Bartholine, seeing some running toward the Duode­num, other toward the Center of the Me­sentry, like so many Furrows, I bind'em apart from the Porta with several Strings. From the Liver all swelling upon their being ty'd, the other way languid, va­nished from the sharpest Eye; then loosning the Knots, the Lympha pouring out of the Liver again, through various Springs most worthy to be observ'd, by the means of most evident Vehicles of Aqueducts, it seem'd to creep into the Sweetbread.

These things has Pecquet excellently well observ'd (tho' at that time he knew not the true Rise of those Ves­sels from the clustered Glandules of the Liver) for the lymphatic Vessels issuing out of the Liver, through the Duplica­ture of part of the Mesentery knitting the Liver and Guts to the Back, creep on as well above as below the Sides of the Vena Portae, and Ductus Choli­dochus, the greatest part toward the Mesentery; and under the Vena Cava, near the fleshy Pancreas annexed to the Ventricle and Duodenum, several with little dispersed Branches pass over a certain Glandule lying under the Vena porta, and sticking to it in many Bodies (being sometimes one, sometimes two or three, seldom none at all) and thence together with many others, passing beyond that Glandule, throw themselves into the Receptacle of the Chylus.

XIII. Now lately that accurate Dissector Frederic Ruisch, has ob­serv'd also several lymphatic Ves­sels to proceed from the Spleen, not only from the Superficies, but from the inner Part of it, accompanying the splenic Arteries and Nerves, and sets down a singular Method by which it may be found out lib. de Valv. Lymph. And farther notes, that they are not equally so numerous in all Crea­tures of the same Species; and that the Spleen of a Man has fewer than that of a Calf.

XIV. The same Ruisch, in the From the Lungs. same Book, writes that he has also [Page 72] seen lymphatic Vessels in the Lungs. Bartholin avers the same; and Olaus Rudbech has caused 'em to be engrav'd in Copper.

XV. Moreover in other Parts these Vessels arise from the cluster'd Glandules; which Glandules have this specific Virtue, to imbue the sal­tish Particles separated from the Se­rum, by Dissolution with a slight A­cidity: For the Lympha contains in it somewhat of Acid. They that pro­ceedTheir In­sertion in­to several Parts. from the Glandules of the Neck, empty themselves for the most part in­to the Labyrinth (of which in the fore­going Chapter) or Concourse of the lymphatic Vessels seated between the ju­gular Veins. But those that proceed from the Axillary Glandules they de­scend, and partly according to the length of the Vena Cava are carried to the Cystis of the Chylus; partly in the Mid-way, enter the Thoracick Chylife­rous Duct, into which is opened a Branch proceeding from the Glandule of the Oeso­phagus or Gullet. Those that rise out of the Groyns of the Loins, ascend, and running under the lower part of the chyliferous Receptacle, empty their Lympha into it, at the Entrance forti­fy'd with double Folders, preventing the slipping of the milky Juice into 'em. Now that several lymphatic Ves­sels empty themselves into the Recepta­cle of the Chyle, is hence manifest, if up­on the opening of a live Animal, you press the Receptacle with your Thumb, and so empty the Chylus out of it. For then it presently swells and is fill'd up again with the Lympha.

XVI. Nor do they open only into Their In­sertion in­the Veins. the Vasa Chylifera, but also into many Veins. And thus Nicholas Steno observ'd, that they gape into the Iugu­lar and other Veins, and pour forth their Lympha. And Frederic Ruisch writes, that it appears to him by Liga­ture, and the Structure of the Valves, that all the Conveiances of the Lympha, which are found in the Lungs, empty their Liquor into the Subclavial, Axil­lary, and Iugular Veins. Whither they that arise out of the Joynts are carried is not yet discovered. Some there are who report they have seen clustered Glandules in the Joynts, from whence, no doubt, proceeds the Original of these Vessels; and as to their Insertion, there is no doubt but that they discharge themselves into the Vasa Chylifera, and into several Veins.

XVII. Lewis de Bils, out of his Bils's Error. Ignorance of the Valves of the lym­phatic Vessels, in his Epistolary Dis­sertation publish'd An. 1659. describes a quite contrary Course of the Lym­pha, through a Mistake most remote from Truth, and seems not at all to distinguish the Lympha from the chylous Iuice. And the Admirers ofWhether the Lym­pha be the same with the chylous Iuice; B [...]s, choose rather to err with him, than to follow the Truth. Among the rest Nicholas Zas, in his Dutch Trea­tise of the Dew of Animals; and others who have seen the Demonstrations of Bils, believe they have observed the Lympha to be the same thing with the chylous Juice contain'd in the milkie Vessels, and that it is carried out of the Bag, and other chyliferous Vessels to the Liver, and to the Glandules of the Groins, Armpits, Jaws, and others, and from them flows also to the Sperma­tic parts, for to moisten and nourish 'em; but that it is not carried from the Glandules and Liver to the Vasa Chylife­ra. Moreover that it only appears thinner and clearer, as being strain'd through the Glandules.

XVIII. But our Eyes, and Reason The [...] ­tation. it self teaches us quite the Contrary.

XIX. Our Eysight thus: Because that besides myself, Bartholin, Van Horn, Pecquer, N. Steno and seve­ral other Sharp-sighted Persons could never perceive any other Course of this Liquor, than from the Liver, and not from the Glandules of the Armpits, Loyns, and Groyns, (and the same Reason certainly will hold in other remoter Parts) toward many Veins, but chiefest of all to­ward the Receptacle of the Chyle, and other Vasa Chylifera, to which it may be easily forc'd with the Fin­ger; but cannot be mov'd from them toward the Glandules or Liver, by reason of the Obstruction of the Valves. Nay if in the Dissection of a living Crea­ture, the Vessels be ty'd (which has bin often experimented by me and my Scholars) there will be a swelling be­twen the Knot and the Glandules, but a lankness and emptiness toward the Vasa Chylifera. Nor is it of any moment what Regius offers, l. 4. Physic. c. 7. E­dit. 1661. That upon the tying of a Knot, these lymphatic Vessels will swell beyond the Knot; because the Juice that was wont to be press'd into 'em, is not [Page 73] pressed forward by reason of the Liga­ture, and hence when they fall, by their falling they squeez the Juice contained in 'em backward toward the Ligature. But wherefore I pray, do they not squeez it forward, seeing that by the same Reason it might far more easily be done than backward? And if that Motion ought to be made forward, why does it not so fall out in Veins that are ty'd, as well as in the Mesenteric and Thoracick milkie Vessels? Wherefore do not these Vessels, when the farther Progtess of the contain'd juice is ob­structed by the Ligature, by their Fall squeez the Juice backward toward the Ligature, but are almost quite empty beyond the Ligature? Have they not the same Right and Power, as the lym­phatic Vessels? Wherefore also, when there is no Ligature, cannot the Lym­pha be forc'd by the Finger from the chyliferous Bagg toward the Liver and Glandules of the Groyns and Armpits, tho' it may be easily for [...]'d toward the Vasa Chyliferae▪ Why do the Valves ob­struct this, more than that Motion of the Lympha? Certainly all these things plainly teach us that the Lympha does not move from, but to the chyliferous Bag, and the Vasa Chylifera. In the Liver, or a little below the Liver, the thing is so plainly manifest by the fore­mentioned Ligature, that it is beyond the Contradiction of any Man that has Eyes; whenas there is no Chylus strain'd through the Liver, nor any Chylus that comes thither, whatever Regius, Bils, and other Asserters of antiquated Learn­ing and erroneous Demonstrations, so vigorously maintain to the Contrary; as shall be more largely prov'd l. 7. c. 2. Now then if this happen thus in the Li­ver, why shall the same thing seem such a wonder in the forementioned Glandules, in which the same thing is evident by Ligature? Why must the Glandules of the Groyns and Armpits make milkie Juice, and not rather ex­tract it out of the Vasa Sanguifera them­selves, in like manner as we see, that in the Ventricles of the Brain, the small Glandules adhering to the Choroïdal Plexure (so far as which no milkie or chylous Liquor penetrates) extract a se­rous and lymphatic Liquor out of the Vessels to which they adjoyn; and dis­charge it into the Cavities of the Ven­tricles? However if any Follower or Admirer of Lemis de Bils, either will be pleased, or can at any time demon­strate this thing otherwise to us, so as to convince us by seeing it with our Eyes, we shall rest satisfy'd, in the mean time we are bound to believe what we have hitherto seen and now asserted.

XX. Reason also gainsay's the fore­said Opinion: For that the milkie Iuice of the chyliferous Receptacle, cannot immediately upon its slipping out of the Receptacle toward the Glan­dules, supposing 'em to be the Glan­dules of the Groyns, changed in­to this pellucid and clear Lympha, and lose all its milkie Colour in a Moment. But this they say is done, because it is strain'd through the Glan­dules lying in the Mid-way. But there are no Glandules where the Insertion of the lower lymphatic Vessels into the Re­ceptacle of the Chylus shews it self. There are two indeed a little lower, but the various lymphatic Vessels pass by 'em at such a Distance that they do not so much as touch 'em; so that the Lympha con­tained in them cannot attain its transpa­rent Thinness from such a Straining. Others more studious of Novelty than Truth, that they may by some means or other underprop this new Opinion, assert with Regius, that the milkie Juice being infused with Violence into the Receptacle of the Chyle, becomes Fro­thy and White, but by Cessa [...]ion, the Froth ceasing, becomes watery, and flows to the Glandules, so coloured like Water: Like brown Ale, which being poured forcibly into the Glass, foams at the top with a white Froth, but let it stand a little, and the Froth turns a­gain to watery Liquor. But how lame this Simile is, is every way apparent▪ For certainly there is not so much Vio­lence in the Motion of the Chylus which should occasion the chylous Juice to be­come white and frothy; for that natu­ral Motion proceeds softly and gently, of which no more violent Motion can ever be felt by a Man, not discern'd by the Eye in Dissections of living Crea­tures. So that if it presently loses its white Colour (which they call Spumo­sity) descending from the chyliferous Bagg by a short way to the Loins and Glandules of the Groins, why does it retain it in a Channel four times as long, ascending to the subclavial Veins▪ Whence has it that whiteness in the Intestines and milkie Mesaraics before it is infused into the chyliferous Bagg with that feign'd Violence? Wherefore stan­ding quiet in the milkie Vessels, or taken out in a Spoon, by that Sedate­ness does it not lose its Colour, but still preserve its whiteness?

[Page 74]XXI. And thus, whether we con­sider the Autopsia, viz. Ocular Con­vincement, or Reason, the Lympha­tic Vessels do not seem to have any o­ther Original than from the cluster'd Glandules, and the Parts by us al­ready mention'd. And further also, it manifestly appears that the Lympha is a Liquor very much distinct from the Chylus.

XXII. After the description of these What sort of Liquor the Lym­pha is? Chanels or Vessels, let us examine in few words what sort of Liquor the Lympha contain'd in 'em is. For the Opinions of Learned Men are very va­rious in this Matter; and every one ad­vances his own as truest, or at least most probable.

XXIII. Bartholine de vas. Lymp.Whether Water. Brut. c. 6. writes that the Lympha is a simple Water, being the remainder of the Nourishment, as it is Elementary. This Martin Bocdan (who, Apol. 2. Memb. 11. Artic. 3. agrees with his Prae­ceptor) asserts in Man to be diffus'd be­tween the [...]at Membrane and the Mus­cles, but in other Creatures is contain'd under the Skin, and because it does not all transpire through the Skin, therefore that these Vessels were made for its E­vacuation. But both the one, and the o­ther, describe a very mean rise, substance, and use of this Lympha, when such a simple Water could never be sufficiently expell'd through the Pores only by the heat of the Parts, nor would there be such a necessity for it to be carried in­ward through the Pores of the Body. If you say that this is requisite for the moist'ning of the Parts, certainly that Office is sufficiently perform'd by the moisture of the Meat and Drink as­sum'd. Besides, a meer Water never settles into a Gelly, as this Lympha will do, if it stand a while in a Spoon.

XXIV. Glisson Anat. Hep. be­lieves Whether a Vapour of the Blood. the Lympha to be a Liquor con­sisting of the Vapors of the Blood, gather'd together like Dew, forc'd in­to these Vessels, and flowing back with the Vehicle of the Nourishment brought through the Nerves. But this Opinion is confuted by these Reasons; 1. Because such Vapors may easily thicken into Dew or Water, but never like the Lym­pha into a Gelly. 2. For that the Sup­position of the Nutritive Juice being car­ried through the Nerves, is false, and by us C. 16. of this Book, and L. 3. c. 11. and L. 8. c. 1. sufficiently refuted. 3. Be­cause the Vapours of the Blood, partly invisibly through the Pores, and visibly by Sweat, partly by the Expiration of the Lungs, or else condens'd, may be emptied with the Urine, Stool, Weep­ing, &c. so that if that be all, there is nothing that compells 'em to enter those Vessels.

XXV. Backius does not seem to Whether the Lym­phatis Ves­sels are Veins. differ much from Glisson, who seems to deduce those Vapours of the Blood out of the Veins into these Vessels; for he affirms the Lymphatic Vessels to be Veins arising from the veiny Trunk. But in regard there is a vast variety of Substance between them and the Veins, and for that no such Original appears, nor not so much as the least shadow of it, about the veiny Trunk, or Vena Ca­va; seeing also they are never known to arise from any other Veins, but are some­times inserted into 'em out of the clu­ster'd Glandules, 'tis to be thought that this Opinion is far from the Truth.

XXVI. George Seger, Dissert. Anat. Artic. 2. pronounces the Lym­pha to be the Animal Spirits, or to be made out of 'em, which after they are distributed into all Parts through the Nerves, are partly there consum'd and dissipated, and partly congeal into this Water.

With Seger agrees Francis de le Boe Sylvius, Disputat. Med. 4. Thes. 31. and more at large Disput. 8. Thes. 40, 41. But that this Invention of Seger is more Ingenious than True, is apparent from hence, for that the Animal Spirits are such thin Vapours, that there are not the like in the whole Body (for they pe­netrate with an extraordinary swiftness the narrowest and most invisible Pores of the Nerves) whence it is very likely that they being pour'd forth into the Sub­stance of the hotter Parts, presently do their duty with an extraordinary swift­ness; and for the remaining part, by reason of its extream tenuity and vola­tility, is far more swiftly dissipated by the heat of the Parts than any other Va­pours, and much less congeal into Li­quor, than any other extravasated Va­pours, unless it happen in some colder Parts, as in the Testicles, of which we shall treat c. 28. And how suddenly they are dissipated, is apparent from that weariness which follows violent Exercise, or in the suddain Laxation of the con­tracted Muscles. Moreover, should these Spirits congeal into this Liquor in the Parts to which they flow down, hot­ter [Page 75] than the Brain, certainly they would much sooner, and more easily, congeal in the Brain and Marrow of the Back, by reason of the greater degree of Cold in both, that is by reason of the Heat which is less in them than in other Parts: but they are never seen to be condens'd in them, neither can such a sort of Liquor penetrate through the Nerves; and if in them they are not condens'd into Li­quor, much less in the Parts hotter than the Brain, the heat of which would ea­sily dissipate such thin Vapours. Lastly, a most copious quantity of Lympha flows from the Liver and its Glandules, to which nevertheless there are so few, and such slender Nerves that reach, that some Anatomists question their ingress into 'em. Also in the Ventricles of the Brain, from the Choroidal Plexure▪ a copious quantity of Lympha, somewhat thicker, is separated by the small Glan­dules lying between it, thence design'd to flow forth through the Papillary Pro­cesses, and yet there are no Nerves, that enter that Plexure. From whence it is apparent that the Lympha is not made of Animal Spirits condens'd.

XXVII. Bernard Swalve L. deWhether composed of Animal Spirits and Acids. Pancreat. p. 76. believes the Lympha to be compos'd of the Remainder of the Animal Spirits that have lost their Volatility, with somewhat of an Acid Spirit mix'd with it out of the Glan­dules, and so entring the Lymphatic Vessels. The greatest part of the Lym­pha, says he, is beholding to the Animal Spirit, the lesser to the Acid Spirit. But what has been already said destroys this Opinion; as also this, that the Lympha is continually mov'd through innumerable hollow Vessels in great quantity, whereas so great a quantity of Animal Spirits can never pass in so great a quantity through the invisible Pores of the Nerves, and cannot be carried to the making of the Lympha. Moreover, for that a great quantity of Lympha breaks thorough several Vessels; into which nevertheless, as has been said, very few Animal Spirits can be carried, and that through very few and most slender Nerves. Add to this, that the Acid Spirit of the Glandules has a coagulating Power, and therefore would be a strange obstruction to the thinness of the Liver. Moreover, Swalve himself Eod. lib. p. 88. and 89. most eagerly maintains, that nothing, not so much as the thinnest of Liquors can be carried through the Pores of the Nerves, and therefore much less such a quantity of Spirits, out of which a part of such a copious Lympha must be made.

XXVIII. N. Zas above-cited, writes, Whether A­limentary. That the Lympha, which he calls Dew, is an Alimentary Iuice, by which the Nerves, the Membranes, Tendons, also the Tunicles of the Veins and Ar­teries, and all the Spermatics are nou­rish'd, increas'd in growth and en­larg'd. But among all the foregoing Opinions, there is none that carries with it less probability than this; which is ut­terly destroy'd by what we have written L. 2. c. 12. where we prove at large that all the Parts are nourish'd by the Blood, and not by any other Humours. But Lewis de Bills, from whence Zas draws all his main Fundamentals, finding that Zas was too short in the defence of his Argument, has found out another In­vention; for he distinguishes between Dew and Lympha, and says that the Dew serves for the Uses by Zas assign'd, but not the Lympha: He also ascribes diffe­rent Passages to each of them, by which they flow to their parts; of which passa­ges or ways I have lately treated, and sufficiently demonstrated the vanity of this Invention.

Seeing then that most Learned Men, and Studious Assertors of the Commonwealth of Physic, did not discern the true Original of this Lympha, and hardly seem to have reach'd the use of it, I will not be afraid to venture my own Opinion concerning this Matter. What sort of Liquor it is.

XXIX. I take the Lympha to be a fermentaceous Liquor, separated from the serous part of the Blood in the cluster'd Glandules, yet not simple, but mingl'd with much volatile and liquid Salt, and impregnated with some few sulphury Particles, which by reason of the thinness of its Parts en­ters these Vessels, and is carried through them, partly to the Vafa Chy­lifera, partly to many Veins. To THOSE, that in them it may by its mixture make the Chylus thinner and more easie, and more apt to make an easie Dilatation in the Heart. To THESE, to the end that being mingl'd with the Venal Blood, not at present so thin, it may prepare it to a quick Dilatation in the Heart: for in both respects the Mixture of it is very necessary. For the Chylus of it self is somewhat sweetish, and some­what fatty, which shews the predomi­nancy of the sulphury Juice, not as yet [Page 76] become sufficiently spiritous. And hence, by reason of the viscid and thick Parti­cles, seeing that if it came alone to the Heart, it is unapt for Dilatation, there is a necessity, that by the way this Liquor should be thin, saltish, sowrish, and en­du'd with a kind of fermentaceous Qua­lity, to attenuate its viscousness, and pre­pare it for Fermentation. For as Mi­neral Sulphur, by reason of its viscous Particles, by it self slowly, and by de­grees, but by the mixture of the Salt-Peter, cutting those Particles, kindles at the very touch of Fire; so also the sul­phury Particles of the Chylus, if other saltish and thin Particles were not mix'd with it to a just proportion, would be slowly, and not suddenly dilated, and become spiritous in the Heart.

XXX. To which purpose aforesaid the Pancreatic Iuice does also in some measure contribute, being mix'd with the Chylus in the Duodenum, which is a kind of a stronger and sharper Lympha, and indu'd with a more vigorous fermentaceous Quality. And therefore it is that this Lympha being carried with the Chylus to the Heart, ren­ders it more easily diffusive, and fit to be alter'd into spiritous Blood. As in Gunpowder the Mineral Sulphur mix'd with the Salt-peter and Coals, presently takes fire. But the Venal Blood, having lost a great part of its Spirits in the nourishment of the Parts, and the length of its Course, has need of some mix­ture of the Lympha to facilitate its fusion in the Heart. But because it is much thinner than the Chylus, and still mix'd with many Spirits: Hence it is that it requires the less quantity of Lympha, and that's the reason that fewer Lymphatic Vessels open into the Veins, but a vast number into the Milkie Vessels.

XXXI. Now because this LymphaWhether the Serum. is separated from the serous part of the Blood, the Question is whether it be not the Serum, or a Liquor different from it? To which I answer, That it is not the Serum, but a particular thin Liquor, extracted out of the Se­rous part of the Blood. For in this serous Humour, besides the watery Par­ticles, are contained other briny Parti­cles in good quantity, and some sulphury Particles. The salt Particles are appa­rent from the briny taste of Tears, Sweat, and Urine; the sulphury from hence, that stale Urine being heated, is easily fir'd by the touch of the least flame. Then again in these there are other more vis­cous, more crude and fix'd Parts, as are often to be discern'd in Urine; others more thin and spiritous, which by rea­son of their extraordinary thinness, to­gether with the thin watery part of the Serum in which they abide, being separa­ted from the thicker Particles on the cluster'd Glandules, easily enter those narrow Orifices of the Lymphatic Ves­sels, proceeding from those Glandules, (from whence the thicker Particles are excluded by reason of their thickness) and through these are carried to the Va­sa Chylifera and several Veins.

XXXII. The difference between the The diffe­rence be­tween the Lympha and the Se­rum. Lympha and the Serum, is hence made plain; for that the Lympha being taken out in a spoon, not only held to the fire for the thinner Particles to exhale (which is the direction of Rolfincius) but being cool'd of it self, without any Exhalation before the fire, thickens into a Gelly; whereas the Serum will neither thicken before the fire, nor without fire. For that the Salt of the Lympha, which seems to contain in it somewhat of sowrish, being reduc'd to an extraordinary thinness in its most thin watery Particles, and im­pregnated with some sulphury Particles, while any heat remains in it, is very fluid; but being condens'd by the Cold, is not fixed into hard and salt Crystals; but together with the sulphury Parts mix'd with it, by reason of their fatty viscousness, by which the hardness of the salt Particles is soften'd, it congeals into a Gelly, which again dissolves into a most thin Liquor by the heat of the fire. Whereas on the contrary, the cru­der Particles of the Serum condens'd by the Cold, will never dissolve through the heat of the fire (which is apparent in Urine) but into crude and clammy Strings, and many of 'em retain a Stony and Tartarous Form, and will never re­turn to their former thinness.

XXXIII. Now out of what parts the Lympha proceeds, which is to be separated in the Glandules, and de­riv'd into the Lymphatic Vessels, is by many question'd, Glisson believes it proceeds from the Nerves; Bar­tholine from the Arteries. The first is absurd: Because the invisible Pores of the Nerves cannot give passage to such a visible and copious Liquor, with­out a Palsie of the Parts, and an ex­tream Relaxation of the Nerves with [Page 77] continual Moisture. The latter is more probable, by reason of the quan­tity of the Lympha, which cannot be so copiously strain'd out of any Vessels as out of the Arteries, in regard that all the Glandules receive some ends of the Arteries. And so from that Arte­rious Blood forc'd into the Glandules, by reason of their Specific Structure, the Lympha seems to be separated in the same manner almost as the Serum is separated from the Blood in the Kidneys: and from the little Arteries of the Choroi­dal Plexure the lymyid serous Liquor is separated from the same Blood by the Glandules lying between, and deposited in the Cavities of the Ventricles of the Brain, from thence to be evacuated through the Papillary Processes, or Ex­tremities of the Olfactory Nerves. But in the Liver, which receives very few Arteries, but sends forth many Lympha­tic Vessels, and pours forth a copious quantity of Lympha out of its Glandules, this Lympha cannot be there so copiously separated and pour'd forth out of so few Arteries chiefly creeping along the Ex­terior Membrane, but is rather separated from the Blood brought through the Vena Portae (which here performs the office of an Artery) by the Glandules that adhere to the hollow part of it.

XXXIV. But what it is that presses The Impul­sive Cause. forth the Lympha out of the Glan­dules of the Liver, Spleen, and other parts, and thrusts it farther when once enter'd the Lymphatic Vessels, is apparent from what has been said concerning the thrusting forward of the Chylus, c. 11. & 12. For the impul­sive Cause is the same, that is to say the Motion and Pressure, partly of the low­er part of the Belly by the Muscles of the Abdomen mov'd upward and down­ward; partly by the Respiration of the Lungs. That which proceeds from the Joynts, is mov'd by the motion of the Muscles of those Parts; as we find by the motion of the Jaws and the Tongue a great quantity of Spittle flow into the Mouth, which Spittle is a kind of Lym­phatic Iuice, but somewhat thicker, whereas when a man sits motionless, or lyes asleep, his Spittle is nothing so plen­tiful. For by the Compressure of these Parts, as well the Glandules therein con­ceal'd, as also the Lymphatic Vessels, are press'd, not only by the Muscles, but also by the incumbent flat Bowels, by which means the contain'd Liquor is squeez'd and thrust forward out of those Ves­sels.

XXXV. Charleton, Oeconom. Animal. writes that the Motion of the Lympha through its Chanels is very slow. But Bartholine in Spielleg▪ confutes that Opinion, and proves the contrary. For my part, I believe the Lympha to be mov'd sometimes slower, sometimes swifter, according to the more vehement or remiss motion of the Parts where the cluster'd Glandules and the Lymphatic Vessels lye, as happens in the Salival Vessels under the Tongue, which proceed from cluster'd Glandules.

XXXVI. Observe by the way con­cerning The Cause of the Dropsie call'd Asci­tes. the Lymphatick Vessels lying hid in the lower Belly, that if they be broken up by any accident, (for they are very tender) then there happens to be a serous Liquor pour'd forth into the hollow of the Abdomen, the in­crease of which at length insensibly pro­duces that sort of Dropsie, call'd Asci­tes; tho' it may also proceed from o­ther Causes.

In the Year 1658▪ we dissected a young1. Observa­tion. Woman of four and twenty years of Age, which for seventeen years had la­bour'd under that Distemper call'd As­cites, and at length dy'd of it. In whom I did not perceive the least desect of her Bowels, only that some of the Lym­phatic Vessels were broken, which was the Cause of the Distemper; for in her Childhood she had been cruelly us'd by her Parents, who were wont to kick and thump her; and those blows occasion'd the breaking of her Lymphatic Vessels. Which Suspicion, the Humours that were gathered together in the Abdomen, did not a little confirm. For they ap­pear'd somewhat coagulated in the Bo­dy, when it was cold; tho' it was not come to that consistency of a Gelly, as is usually seen in the Lympha when ta­ken out of the Lymphatic Vessels in a Spoon. However, the reason why she had liv'd so long in Misery, was the soundness of her Bowels, and for that by reason of the youthful heat of her Body, much of the Serous Moisture insensibly flowing into the Concavity of the Abdo­men, was every day consum'd.

XXXVII. These Vessels being bro­ken, 2. Observa­tion. sometimes also it happens that the Lymphatic Liquor does not come to be pour'd forth into the Cavity of the Abdomen, but flows out between the [Page 78] neighbouring Membranes, and that occasions the production of those watry Bladders, call'd Hydatides, with which the Liver sometimes within, sometimes without, and sometimes al­so the Mesentery, and other parts in the Abdomen are seen to abound. A great number of these Bladders (some as big as a Pigeons Egg, others as a Hen Egg, and many less) William Stra­ten, at that time Physic and Anatomy Prosessor in our Academy, afterwards principal Physician to the Prince of O­range, shew'd us in the hollow part of the Liver of a Thief that was hang'd, Febr. 1647. We have also shew'd 'em growing sometimes in the Mesentery be­fore the Students in Physic at our Ho­spital: and there also we have seen Livers, which withoutside have been cover'd with little Bladders full of Lympid Wa­ter, of which number, some having been lately broken, had insus'd a Serous Li­quor into the Cavity of the Abdomen, and by that means had occasion'd an Ascites. Hence I concluded that the Dropsie, call'd Ascites, is never genera­ted without some Solution of the Conti­nuum of the inner Parts of the Abdomen, whatever the Cause of it may be, and I thought their Opinion to be rejected, that this Disease is begot by the conden­sation of the Vapours exhaling out of the Internal Parts into Water, when that Exhalation in some Men happens to be continual, and yet very few come to be troubled with the Ascites. Volker Coiter, Obser. Chirurg. Musc. p. 117. writes that he himself found in the Bo­dy of a Phthisical and Dropsical Man, the Bowels of the lower Belly wasted, and emptied of all their Moisture; but little Bladders, some bigger, some less, adhering every where to the Mesentery, Peritonaeum, Intestines, Spleen, Liver, and all the Bowels, and all those little Bladders full of Water. The same Case is cited by Cordaeus. Com. 5. ad Hipp. de Morb. Mul.

XXXVIII. Now there may be several Causes for the breaking of these Vessels: But besides violent and external Acci­dents, the most frequent Cause is, either Corrosion by sharp Humours, or else their Obstruction and Compression. And for this Reason the Ascites happens to Gluttons and great Drinkers, that e­very day stuff and swill their Guts, who from the Crudities hence bred, either heap together a great quantity of sharp Humours in the Body, or else bring a weakness and obstructions upon the Bow­els, by which means these little Vessels are either corroded, or else compress'd and straiten'd, that they cannot carry and discharge their Lymphatic Humour as they were wont to do, which there­fore flowing out of the Lymphatio Ves­sels, either causes little Membranes a­mong the Bladders; or else the covering Membranes being broken, it slides into the Concavity of the Abdomen.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Liver.

I. THe Liver [...], or Jecur, is a remarkable Bowel seated in the right Hypochondrion under the Diaphragma or Midriff, of a vast bigness, round and smooth in the con­vex or gibbous part, but concave in the lower part, where it rests upon the right side of the Stomach.

II. In Dogs and many other Beasts Lobes. it is divided into several Lobes, but in Man it is contiguous, swelling into a little Lobe in the lower simous, saddle or flat part. It is rarely divided into three Lobes, which Iames Sylvi [...]s in I­sagoge, reports to have seen.

III. The bigness of the Liver is not Bigness. the same in all Creatures, but accord­ing to the proportion of Bodies, it is larger in Man than in other Creatures, and the natural and ordinary bigness is such, that it descends three or four fingers below the Bastard Ribs, and extends it self somewhat beyond the pointed Cartilage of the Breast. An­drew Laurentius writes, that in cowardly People, great Drinkers and Gluttons, the Liver is thought to be bigger. Which Rule however, 'tis very probable, is ly­able to many Exceptions. In a preter­natural Constitution it deviates from its ordinary Magnitude, as well in excess as defect. In the Year 1660. I dissected a Body wherein the Liver was of that enormous Magnitude, that it caus'd Ad­miration in all the Spectators; for below it reached down to the Groyns, and ex­tended it self from the right side to the Spleen, and so possessed the chiefest part of the whole lower Belly. But tho' to the outward view and touch, it seem'd [Page 79] to be of a healthy Colour and sound Substance, yet we found in the middle of it a large hollowness, from whence to the amazement of all the Beholders, we took out eleven Market pounds of Mat­ter, white, well-concocted, and without any ill smell. Other monstrous large Livers are describ'd by Spigelius Anat. l. 8. c. 12. Riolanus Anthrop. l. 2. c. 21. Bartholine Obs. cent. 1. hist. 85. and by se­veral others.

IV. Less frequently is the Liver defective for want of its due proporti­on. And yet we find an Example of that too in Riolanus, lib. citat. who writes that at Paris, in a certain Body, was found a Liver that was no bigger than a Kidney; and thence he observes out of Avicen, that the smalness of the Liver is always noxious, but not the bigness.

How you may guess at the largeness of the Liver by the bigness of the fingers, See l. 4. c. 1.

V. The Substance of it is soft and Substance. ruddy, like congeal'd Blood, the firm­ness of which appears nevertheless when the Liver is boyl'd. There lye hid in it many Kernels, out of which the Lym­phatic Vessels break forth.

VI. Malpigius, who has examin'd the substance and inner parts of the Liver, most accurately by his Micro­scopes, l. de hep. c. 2. has observ'd many things unheard of, and hitherto altogether undiscover'd. 1. That the substance of the Liver in a Man con­sists of little Lobes, which shew forth a heap of Clusters, and are cloath'd with their own enfolding Membrane, and strengthen'd by membranous Knots continued athwart, so that there may be observ'd middle spaces, and little small chinks, between the sides of the Lobes. 2. That the whole Mass of the Liver consists of glandulous Balls and several Roots of Vessels; and hence, that they may all cooperate for the common good, there is a necessity of an intercourse between the Vessels and these Glandules. 3. That the Branches of the Vessels of the Porta, Vena Cava, and Porus Biliarius in an equal number through all the small Lobes, and that the Roots of the Ve­na Portae supply'd the place of Arte­ries, and that there is such a Corre­spondence between the Porta and the Porus Biliarius, that both their little Branches are closely contain'd under the same Covering. 4. That the Roots of the said Vessels are not joyn'd toge­ther by way of Anastomo [...]is, but that the glandulous Balls, constituting the chief substance of the Liver, are in the middle between the Vessels that bring and carry, by means whereof those that carry infuse their liquor into those that bring. From which Observations he concludes that the Liver is a conglomera­ted or cluster'd glandule separating the Choler, and this (Ibid. cap. 3.) he endea­vours to prove by several Reasons. And because this is proper to conglomerated Glandules, that besides the Arteries, Veins, and Nerves, they enjoy their own proper emptying Vessel (as is apparent in the Parotides, Sweetbread, and others) which is dispers'd through their Sub­stance, and extracting and carrying off the design'd Humour; he asserts this Ves­sel in the Liver to be the Porus Biliarius with the Gall Bag. Most certainly these new Observations of the famous Malpigius dispel many Hepatic Obscurities, and lighten us to the inmost knowledge of the Liver. For formerly there was no que­stion made, but Choler was generated in the Liver; but how it came to be se­parated from the Blood, was not known: but now by the Observations of this quick-sighted Artist, it appears to be done by the small Kernels and glandulousAs to the truth of this Hypo­thesis, see our Synopsis Medicinae, lib. 4. cap. 8. Sect. 10. §. 14. ad 36. where we have, by indubitable Reason, strong Argu­ments, and matter of Fact, prov'd that there is no Choler or B [...]le separated from the Blood in the Liver. Salmon. Balls lying up and down *.

VII. But tho' Malpigius, by reason Whether the Liver may be call'd a Bowel. of these new Golden Inventions seems unwilling to call the Liver a Bowel for the future, but rather a conglomerated or cluster'd Glandule; yet I beseech him to grant us this liberty, that we may still, for a while, call it a Bowel, lest by too sudden a change of the name, we should render our Discourse ob­scure, especially among those who ne­ver heard of this Denomination be­fore.

VIII. In the mean time the Condi­tion of the unfortunate Liver is to be lamented; as being that which for­merly was call'd the Principal Bowel, and by Galen seated in the highest [Page 80] Throne of Sanguisication, and there has been worship'd for many Ages by the common consent of Physic; yet that in these our times it should be torn and depos'd from its Throne, and de­spoil'd of all its Soveraignty; nay that it should be said to be dead, and there­fore be buried, and only remembred with an Ironical Epitaph by Bartholine, and yet contrary to the expectation of all men, like a Silkworm chang'd into a Butterflie, so metamorphos'd into a piti­ful conglomerated Glandule, be beholding to a miserable resurrection in that like­ness.

IX. The Colour of the Liver obvi­ous Colour of the Liver. to sight, which is ruddy, is not peculiar to it, by reason of its frame, and composition, but accidental, by reason of the copious quantity of Blood infus'd into it, through the Vena Portae, as by the following Ex­periment of Glissons may appear. The proper Colour of it is pale, slightly inclining to yellow, which however it seems to be a tincture which it receives from the Choler passing through it: and hence it is that Malpigius ascribes to it a white Colour.

X. By reason of the vast quantity The Tem­perament. of Blood that flows to it, the tempera­ment of it is hot and moist, and by its heat it cherishes and comforts the Sto­mach.

XI. It is incompass'd with a thin Its Mem­brane. Membrane, arising from the Perito­naeum that girds the Diaphragma, and rolls it self back about the Li­ver.

XII. It hangs as it were strictly The Liga­ments. fasten'd above through all its Circum­ference to the Diaphragma, with a broad membranous strong Ligament, arising from the Peritonaeum, where it adheres to the joynted Cartilage. Erroneously therefore wrote Spigelius, that it is distant a fingers breadth from the Diaphragma. This Ligament is not only fasten'd to the outermost Mem­brane of the Liver, but constitutes it, and to the end it may sustain the weight of so large a Bowel without the hazard of breaking, it descends toward the in­ner parts of it, and is fasten'd to the common sheath or swath of the Branch of the Vena Portae, where the Navel Vein adjoyns to it. To this broad Liga­ment is joyn'd another peculiar round and strong Ligament springing also from the Peritonaeum, where the Liver is joyn'd upon the right and left side to the Diaphragma. But this Ligament we have seen more than once wanting in Men; and for the most part is not to be found in Beasts; and there some Disse­cters of Beasts, that have not seen many Dissections of Human Bodies, from their Dissection of Brutes, believ'd that Liga­ment to be frequently wanting in Men. Below, it is fasten'd to the Abdomen by the Navel Ligament, that is, the Navel Vein cut off after the Birth, and chang'd into a Ligament, by which the massie Bowel is kept fast in its place, and hin­der'd from ascending higher with the Diaphragma.

XIII. It also adheres to other neigh­bouring Parts, as the Vena Cava and Vena Portae, the Omentum, &c. Which Ligaments however do not hold it in its hanging Posture.

XIV. By these Ligaments, altho' the Liver be fix'd in its place, yet is it not so straightly ty'd, but that it may be mov'd with Convenience e­nough in Respiration upwards and downwards, and in the Motion of the Body to the Right or Left, or in any other Posture, as Necessity requires.

XV. It admits into it four very Its [...]. small Nerves; two from the sixth Pair; a third from the Stomach Pair, and a fourth from the Costal Pair; to which the obtuse Sense or Feeling of that Membrane or Tunicle only that involves it is attributed; for they do not seem to penetrate into the inner Substance of it. However Galen 4. de us. part. c. 23. & 3. de loc. affect. c. 3. & 4. has observ'd two nota­ble Nerves which accompany the Vena Portae enter the Parenchyma. It wanted not bigger nor more inward Nerves, as that which needed not to feel, and ma­king the Ferment it self, might well be without the fermentative Quality of the Animal Spirits.

XVI. It is furnished with very Its Arte­ries. small Arteries coming to it from the right Coeliac Branch (according to Veslingius very few, but according to Walaeus innumerable) and Do­minic. de Marchettis anat. c. 4. writes that he has sometimes seen when the upper Mesenteric Artery has communicated a large Branch to [Page 81] the Liver. These Arteries Galen tells us are chiefly dispersed through the Hollow or Saddle Part of it. Rolfinch says that he has observ'd 'em very nu­merous in the Convex Part of it. Glis­son observes no little Branches of small Arteries extended toward the inner Parts of the Liver, but all plainly to terminate in the Membrane. Reason altogether confirms Glissons Opinion; for the Substance of the Liver has hard­ly any need of Arteries, seeing that the Blood flows to it in Quantity sufficient enough through the Porta Vein (which here performs the Office of an Arterie) which Blood by reason of its similitude in Substance, is more convenient for its own Nourishment and making of choleric Ferment, than the Arterous Blood. Nor does the Vena Portae with its Branches, nor the Roots of the Vena Cava want Arteries; as being suf­ficiently furnished and nourished with their own contain'd Blood; nor does it ever appear, that any little Branches of Arteries are inserted into the Tunicles of any Veins for their Nourishment. Therefore because fewer Parts of the Liver are nourished with arterial Blood, Veslingus seems not erroneously to have observ'd, that only a few Arteries enter the Liver. Hence Lindan takes notice, and that very truly, that those Arteries seem rather to stop in the investing Membrane, than to penetrate into the Substance of the Liver.

XVII. It has double Veins. For The Veins. in the upper Part, the Vena Cava seems to be joyn'd to it, into which many Roots being up and down dis­persed through the Substance of the Liver, discharge their Blood. With these Roots, in the lower Part, meet the little Branches of the Vena Portae, which run likewise through the whole Parenchyma.

XVIII. To these Vessels is adjoyned The Choler Vessels. the Porus Biliarius, which is disper­sed through the Liver with innumera­ble Roots, receiving the Choler sepa­rated from the bloody Ferment: With which moreover are intermingl'd other very thin Roots afterwards closing together, and in one little Pipe con­veighing the Choler to the Vesicle of the Gall.

XIX. Besides these Vessels, AselliusThe Lym­phatic Vessels. writes, that he has observ'd a Branch of the milkie Vessels in the Liver. But without doubt the Egress of the lymphatic Vessels, at that time alto­gether unknown, from the Liver, de­ceived him. For there are no milkie or chyliferous Vessels that run to the Liver, as we have a thousand times demonstrated in our Dissections of Brutes as well alive as dead; but many milkie Vessels issue forth out of it, car­rying a most clear and transparent Juice.

So also Gualter Charleton l. de Oecon. Animal. saith, that the same is to him unquestionable by a thousand Experiments, and there­fore he concluded without any farther Scruple that there was no Portion of the Chylus conveighed to the Liver. And therefore no Credit is to be given to Gassendus and Backius, who believe the Chylus to be carried to the Liver through the Ductus Cholidochus. For the obstructing Valves, and the narrow and oblique Entrance of the Ductus into the Duodenum, and the contrary Motion of the Choleric, and Pancreatic or Sweet­bread Juice toward the Intestine, in living Animals obvious to the Sight, sufficiently refute their Opinion.

XX. The Vessels of the Liver are The Inter­mixture of the Vessels. intermix'd after a wonderful manner through its Substance or little Lobes, as plainly appears if the Flesh be se­parated, which is to be done leisurely and carefully, for fear of tearing the Vessels. For the performing of which Excarnation, Glisson describes three ways. Anat. hep. c. 21. Formerly it was asserted by the Anatomists, that the Roots of the Vena Cava ran chiefly through the upper Part, but that the little Branches of the Vena Portae ran chiefly through the lower part of the Liver. But by the more indefatigable Industry of Glisson and Malpigius, it is since discovered, that both the aforesaid Vessels, and the small Branches of the Gall-Vessels, are equally dispers'd and intermix'd one with another through the whole Parenchyma, and reach to e­very Part alike: But that the little Branches of the Gall-Vessels are much less than those of the Vena Cava or Portae: For that through those the few­er and thinner Choleric Humours glide; through these the more bloody and somewhat thicker are to be conveighed. And it was but Reason that these Ves­sels should be dispersed through the whole Bowel, when all its Parts con­spire to the same Performances. How­ever the Liver is harder in its lower [Page 82] Part, by reason of the Ingress and E­gress of the larger Vessels, as also for that the Conglobated Glandules are there chiefly seated.

XXI. But how all these little Branches are intermingl'd one among another in the Liver, there is a great Dispute among the Anatomists. For I say nothing of the Lymphatic Vessels, for that they take their Rise no farther than from the Conglobated Glandules, nor enter any farther into the rest of the Substance of the Liver. The greatest part of Anatomists, following Galen, write that the little Branches of the Porta with the Roots of the Vena Cava, are joyned together by many Anastomo­ses, so that sometimes they close toge­ther at their Ends, sometimes their Ends enter into the Sides of other little Branches; and that to these the inter­jected Bilarie Vessels are fasten'd by frequent Anastomoses. To these Fallo­pius, Cartesius, Riolanus, and several o­thers are of a contrary Judgment, who altogether question those Anastomoses, and affirm that either they are not at all, or else very obscure. Bartholine writes, from the Observation of Har­vey, that the Roots of the Vena Portae creeping through the Gibbous Part of the Liver, are covered with Sieve-like Tunicles full of infinite Pinholes, other­wise than the Branches of the Vena Ca­va, which are divided into large Arms, and that the various Excursions of each Vessel run forth into the Bossie Part of the Bowel without any Anastomoses. Bau­hinus tells us of a remarkable Anastomo­ses, which represents a Channel, and is as it were a common and continued Pas­sage from the Branches of the Vena Portae into the Roots of the Vena Cava, admitting the point of a good bigg Bod­kin. Into this apparent Channel others deny that any Branches of the Vena Porta are opened, because that no such Opening could either be seen or ob­serv'd. Glisson writes that this Chanel is a Production or Continuation of the Umbilical Vein through which, in the Embryo, the Navel-Blood is carried di­rectly to the Vena Cava: But that it is altogether shut up in Men that are once Born, and together with the Umbilical Vein supplys the Office of a Ligament, neither do any Orifices of any other Vessels open into it.

XXII. So that how the Blood flows out of the little Branches of the Ve­na Portae into the Roots of the Ve­na Cava, and Vena Portae, from the foresaid various and differing Opini­ons can hardly be made manifest.

XXIII. In this Obscurity not only The Pas­sage of the [...]lood out of the Por­ta into the Cava. Malpigius by his Observations made with his Microscope, but Glisson, an exact Examiner of the Liver, af­fords us great Light. Which latter, by his frequent Excarnations of this Bowel, writes that he has found by Ex­perience, that the Branches of the Ve­na Portae and Vena Cava, joyn one to another, and there grow close together, but do not open into one another, nor that any little Branches are inserted in­to the Side of one another, or close with the Ends of any other, but only that the Sanguineous Humors are emptyed through the Ends of the Branches of the Vena Portae into the Substance of the Liver, and from thence again enters the gaping Ends of the Vena Cava, and Gall Vessels, all which Ends terminate into the Substance of the Liver; (this Mal­pigius, as abovesaid, observed to be per­form'd or done by the means of the Glandulous Balls, of which the Sub­stance of the Liver chiefly consists) and that there is as much Blood and Hu­mors suck'd up through the gaping Ends of those Roots, as is poured into the Substance of the Branches of the Por­ta, always granting a due and just pro­portion of the Bowel.

Certainly I believe there is great Cre­dit to be given to the Experience of this famous Person. For his Treatise sufficiently testifies that he was very di­ligent and laborious in making his Scru­tinies into the Liver; and therefore we have thought it necessary to quote his Experiment, by which he solidly proves that there are no Anastomoses of the Vessels in the Liver, anat. Hep. c. 33. in these Words.

XXIV. For the farther Confirma­tion, Glisson's memorable Experi­ment. saith he, of this Opinion, I will bring one memorable Experi­ment, which gives a great Light not only to this Passage of the Blood out of the Vena Portae into the Cava, but to several other things belonging to the Circulation of the Blood.

At a [...] therefore at London, we thought fit to try, how easily Water being forc'd into the Porta would pass through the Liver. To that end we took a good large Ox's Bladder, fitted to a Pipe (as when we give a Glister) and fill'd it with warm Water coloured with a little Milk, and then having ty'd it with a String that none of the Liquor might slide [Page 83] back, we put in the top of the Pipe into the Porta near the Liver. Presently the Bladder being hard squ [...]ez'd, the Water passing through the Pipe, enters the Ve­na Cava, and thence carried into the right Sinus of the Heart, goes to the Lungs through the Arterious Vein, and passing through them slides down into the left Ventricle, thence is carried into the Aor­ta; and lastly we discern clear Milkie Footsteps of this Humor in the Kidneys. The Liquor thus transmitted into the Li­ver, wash'd away the Blood by degrees, not only from the larger Vessels, but also from the Capillaries and the Parenchy­ma it self. For the bloody Colour seem'd to vanish by degrees, and by and by all the Blood being wash'd away, the Liver turn'd from a white and dark Brown in­to a kind of Yellow. Which Colour, as seems most probable to me, is nearest the natural Colour of the Liver, than the Ruddie which it borrows from the Blood continually passing through it. After this Experiment made, we cut pretty deep in­to the Parenchyma it self, that we might know whether the inner Parts of it were likewise chang'd, and there we also found all the Blood so washed away likewise, that it could hardly be done in such a manner any other way: For that the whole Pa­renchyma was all of the same Colour be­fore mentioned. Now if the injected Li­quor had penetrated the Liver by the help of the Anastomoses, how came it to pass that all the Blood was thence wash'd a­way, and that the Parenchyma having lost the bloody Colour, should presently of its own Accord put on the new Colour. Certainly the Water could add no Colour to it, which it wants it self. Nor could the Milk impart to it that dark Brown Colour, altho' by that means it might re­tain something of its Whiteness. But for the avoyding of all farther Dispute, I often try'd this Experiment with Water alone. Yet still the Colour appear'd to be pale and dark Brown; and because it appear'd to be alike in all the parts of the Parenchyma, it was a certain sign, that the Water wash'd all the Parts a­like. Which could not any way have been done, if part of it, having made its Passage through the Anastomoses had slid immediately into the Vena Cava. Now that the Blood naturally takes the same Road with the Water, I do not be­lieve there is any one that questions. And therefore I think it fit thereupon to con­clude that the Blood does not glide through those feign'd Anastomoses, but runs tho­rough the Parenchyma of the Liver it self.

XXV. This celebrated Experi­ment, added to the celebrated Obser­vations of Malpigius, so clearly il­lustrates the Understanding of a thing hitherto so obs [...]ure, that now there can be no farther Doubt con­cerning the manner of the Passage of the Blood out of the Porta into the Vena Cava, nor of the natu­ral Colour of the Liver it self, which being boyl'd, appears to be of a pale yellowish Colour, inclining to a dark Brown. And hence moreover it is most clearly apparent, how in other Parts also, the Circulation of the Blood is made not only through the Anasto­moses of the Arteries with the Veins, but through the Pores of the Substance of the Parts themselves. Of which more at large l. 2. c. 8.

XXVI. As the Trunk of the Por­ta Vein entring the Liver in the hol­low Part, sends forth a thousand Branches into it, so likewise a thou­sand Roots of the Vena Cava are dispersed through those interjacent Ramifications, and there by little and little meet together toward the upper­most and inner part of the Liver, and become fewer and larger, till at length they close into one Trunk, Con­tinuous to the Vena Cava: Which, according to Riolanus, is fortified with a Valve preventing the Ingress of the Blood out of the Vena Cava into the Liver. Concerning which see l. 7. c. 10. But before they close toge­ther into that Trunk, certain membra­nous Circles on the inner Side, like Valves, are opposed to the Boughs of the larger Roots meeting together, sometimes thicker, sometimes thinner, which Bartholine has observ'd looking toward the greater Tunicle. These hinder the Return of the Blood going forward toward the Vena Cava.

XXVII. Concerning the Office of The Office of the Li­ver. the Liver there are various Opinions, of which the Ancientest and the most received is from Galen, who saith that Sanguification is compleated in the Liver, and that it is the true and primary sanguifying or blood­making Bowel.

But this Opinion, after the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood, has been wholly abolish'd; since it is found that the Blood is only made in the Heart. [Page 84] Which Hippocrates himself clearly sig­nifies L. 4. de Morb. where he says, The Heart is the Fountain of Blood; the seat of Ch [...]ler is in the Liver. Moreover, Reason contradicts that Opinion: First, Because there are no Milkie Vessels that reach to the Liver, and consequently no­thing of the Chylus is carried thither to be chang'd into blood; for that the Chy­lus neither ascends nor passes through the Mesaraic Veins, we shall farther shew L. 7. c. 22. Secondly, Because in the Embryo the Heart and the Blood are seen before any Rudiments of the Liver are seen: whereas the Liver, if it were the Effici­ent of Sanguification, of Necessity, it ought to precede its Effect, that is to say, the Blood. Thirdly, Because when all the Bowels are form'd, and that in the beginning of the Formation all the Vessels are fill'd with Blood, then is the Liver still of a whitish colour, and inclining somewhat to yellow; which is a sign it does not generate the ruddy blood, seeing that of necessity it ought to be colour'd from the beginning by the blood which it generates and contains, before all the other Parts. But in the beginning it is of a pale colour, after­wards somewhat yellowish, which after­wards it preserves in its Substance, tho' clouded by the copious mixture of the blood.

XXVIII. Bartholine at first was of opinion that the more refin'd and concocted part of the Chylus was car­ried through the Milkie Vessels, and that out of the Chylus the cruder blood is generated, which is afterwards to be brought to perfection in the Heart. And Deusingius, a stiff Defender of this Opinion, believes the Chylus comes to the Liver through the Mesaraic Veins, Tract. de Sanguific. Nay, that some of the Milkie Vessels reach from the Sweet­bread to the Liver, and enter the hol­low parts of it: of the former of which Opinions was Regius. But afterwards Bartholine renounc'd this Opinion, and that with good reason, because it could be no way defended. 1. Because no Milkie Vessels reach the Liver. 2. No Chylus passes through the Mesaraics.

3. Because if the Heart should make blood of the crude blood made in the Liver, and not of the Chylus it self, of necessity all the Milkie Vessels must run to the Liver, and carry thither all their Chyle, to be turn'd into blood, and none would run to the Subclavial Veins, and a good part of the Chylus would ascend through the Mesaraics to the Liver. But our Eye-sight convinces us of the truth of the first, and Reason of the latter. See l. 7. c. 2.

XXIX. Glisson believes the Paren­chyma Whether it be a Streiner. of the Liver to be a certain Streiner through which the Blood and Humours pass, and that those alterati­ons which they undergo in the Liver, are accomplish'd by percolation. True it is, such a simple streining may sepa­rate the thin from the thick, but occasi­on no other alteration worth speaking of. Besides, where there is any streining, there the thin pass thorough, and the thick remain behind. But through the Liver not only all the Blood passes, neither is there any thing of thick that remains behind; but also some part of the ruddy Blood passing thorough, lo­sing its own nature and sweetness, is chang'd into bitter and yellow Choler. If Glisson should perchance object, That that same Choler is the thicker part, and therefore it does not pass with the rest of the blood, but is evacuated thorough the Ductus Biliarius; I answer, That the Choler indeed does often acquire a certain thickness in the Gall-bag, through its long standing, and the dissipation of the most thin parts by the heat; but that the said Choler, so long as it re­mains in the Liver mix'd with the blood, is thinner than the blood it self. And this I will prove by the Roots of the Porus Biliarius, and the Gall-bladder, which are much less, much thinner and narrower, than the Roots of the Vena Cava inserted into the Liver. For if it were thicker, it could never be suck'd in, and evacuated through Vessels much thinner than the rest; and leave the thinner to be receiv'd by the bigger and larger Roots of the hollow Vein. Be­sides, the Choler sweats through the Tunicles of the Gall-bladder, and dyes the neighbouring Bowels of a yellow colour, whereas the blood never sweats through any Tunicles of the Veins, which are thinner and softer than that Bag; and this is very likely to be true, because it is much thicker.

XXX. Therefore the true office of The true office. the Liver is to moisten the Blood with a sulphury Dew, and together with the Spleen to perfect the Ferment of that and the Chylus. And therefore all Men, all Creatures, as well by Land as by Water, are furnish'd with the Li­ver, because without that Ferment the spiritous blood could never be made.

XXXI. From all that has been said, [Page 85] it appears, that the Liver was always reckon'd among the principal parts, when Galen ascrib'd to it the office of Blood-making; and though in our Age it be depos'd from that Employ­ment, and reckon'd among the Mini­sterial Parts; yet is it to be rank'd among the Noble Parts, the Use of which we cannot be without, and which officiates in one of the highest Offices, and whose Diseases are most dangerous, and destructive to the health of the whole Body. Especially the Wounds that are given it, are by Hippocrates and Celsus numbred among the deadly and incurable, by reason the copious efflux of Blood kills the Pa­tient before it can be stanch'd by any Me­dicaments; or if the Blood happen to be stop'd, yet the Ulcer that follows the Wound is very rarely or never to be cur'd; so that of three thousand wound­ed in that part, hardly one escapes. Yet I remember five Cures of that Bowel, which are reckon'd however next to Mi­racles.

The first is related by Gemma l. 1. Cos­mo [...]rit. c. 6. of a Spaniard cur'd of a Wound in his Liver.

The second Bertin says he saw L. 13. c. 7. of a Noble Man, whose Liver was not only wounded, but some part of the Liver carried away by the wound, and yet cur'd contrary to all expectation.

The third of a Patient cur'd by Ca­brolius himself; which Patient had a wound that reach'd the deepest part of the Liver, Observat. 18.

The fourth related by the same Ca­brolius out of Rochus of Tarragon.

The fifth mentioned by Hildan, Cent. 2. Observ. 34. of a certain Helvetian, who after a piece of his wounded Liver was taken out, and terrible symptoms of approaching death, yet recover'd.

XXXII. But these are Miracles of None wounded in the Liver escape. Nature which Averrhoes formerly as­serted to happen sometimes in Cures. For my part I have seen several Wounds of the Liver, as well in the Field as in other Places, but never yet saw any man so wounded escape.

XXXIII. Things unusual are sel­dom Worms and Stones in the Liver. found in the Liver, yet we find in some Writers the Relations of Stones and Worms that have been seen therein. Among the rest Hierome M [...]ntu is reports that he has seen a Liver full of Worms I once saw the Li­ver of a great Drinker of Canary, which when it was cut in two with the Knife, abounded with ma­ny thousands of Worms; and above a quart of small living Worms were taken from it: this man usually drank two, three, or four quarts of Canary in a day, and that for some years together, by reason whereof he grew fat, and dyed suddenly without any pre­monitory Sickness: indeed the whole Substance of the Liver was nothing but Worms. Salmon.: and such kind of Worms Wier is and Bauhinus have ob­serv'd. Borell is found a Hairy worm in the Liver of a Dog.

Then for Stones, the Experience of se­veral convinces us that they have been found in the Liver: but they are rarely generated in the Liver; yet the Author of the German Physical Ephemerides cites one Example out of George Greiselius, of a certain Lady in the lower part of the Lobe of whose Liver there grew a Blad­der a hands breadth in length, wherein was contained a shining black glutinous Humour, and in the middle of it a Stone as big as a Hens Egg, shining also, as if it had been full of Niter, but insipid and without any smell, weighing an onnce and eighteen grains. The same Author cites another Example out of Iames of Negropont, of a Liver of an unusual big­ness, weighing above twelve pounds, which was hard, yellow, and here and there strew'd with hard Stones; and in the Gall-bladder, besides much yellow small sand, were contain'd two round, yellow, rough Stones, about the bigness of a Musket-bullet: besides which, another lesser Stone stopp'd up the Meatus Hepa­ticus to the Gall-bladder. But tho' Stones are rarely found in the Livers of Men, yet in the Livers of diseased Oxen and Sheep, we have sometimes found 'em very numerous, some red, some yellowish; others white like Tartar of Wine.

XXXIV. To this Story of the Li­ver The Liver sometimes joyned with the Lungs. may be added a certain Conjun­ction of the Liver with the Lungs, and a wonderful situation of both of them, and the parts adjoyning, which D. Wassenaer, a famous Physician at Utrecht, imparted to me in writing, as seen by him in a little Child of Cor­nelius de Mirop, Governour of Win­genlangenraeck. This Child was in his life time Asthmatic, and vexed with a frequent and terrible Cough, upon e­very slight occasion; and at length dy'd of a Fever at seven years of Age. Whose Body being open'd the 2d of Febr. 1665. in the presence of D. Goyer, the said Was­senaer, and two or three Chirurgions and others.

[Page 86]XXXV. The Abdomen being laid A History. open, saith he, and the Breast, there was no Diaphragma to be found by which the Thorax is separated from the lower Belly. Nor was there any more than one Lobe of the Lungs, which being continued on the right side with the Liver, seem'd to be like it both in colour and substance. There was no spunginess in that Lobe, which crossing the middle of the Liver, un­der the hollow part of it, stuck out like an Appendix. Out of the midst of the Liver certain Passages, like the Gristles of the Windpipe, deriv'd themselves into the Aspera Arteria it self. There was no skin or cover that appear'd about the Ribs; for the Li­ver and right part of its Lobe, stuck every where so close to the Ribs, that they could not be separated but by a Penknife. The Pericardium, in which there was but very little Liquor, enfold­ed but half the Heart, which about the bottom, together with the left and upper part of the Lobe of the Lungs, was so firmly united to the Spine of the Back, as the Liver and right side of the lobe of the Lungs was fasten'd to the Ribs. In the Convex and lower part of the Liver, about the ninth Rib was an Ulcer, full of well concocted Matter. The Stomach also, consider­ing the proportion of the Body, and the Age of the Child, was twice as big as it ought to have been.

XXXVI. And thus sometimes we meet with wonderful things, as to the situation, structure, and connexion of the Bowels.

As for Example; No less rare andAnother Rarity, where no Liver or Spleen could be found. monstrous is that, which upon his own, and the testimony of several other Phy­sicians and Chirurgions, Schenkius af­firms, Observ. l. 3. viz. that in the Year 1564. in the dissection of the dead Bo­dy of Ortelius, a Merchant of Antwerp, there was not so much as the footstep to be seen of any Liver or Spleen; but that the substance of all the Intestines was fleshie, and much more solid than the flesh of the Muscles, that it seem'd to resemble the flesh of the Heart. That the Vena Cava had taken its rise from the Origi­nal it self, which was thought to be the Cause that the Patient in his life time was so frequently tormented with an In­flammation and Aposteme in his Lungs. Malpigius therefore conjectures, and that not without reason, that the glan­dulous substance of the Liver, contrary to the order of Nature, was extended all the length of the Intestines.

CHAP. XV. Of the Choler Vessels, and the Cho­ler it self.

I. FOR the discharge of the Cho­ler Two passa­ges in the right and hollow part of the Li­ver. there are two Passages ap­pointed in the right and hollow part of the Liver, that is to say, the Gall­bladder, and the Porus Bilarius. Thorough the latter the more feculent and milder Choler flows into the Inte­stines. Into the former the thinner Cho­ler Rather a kind of Lymphatic Iuice, f [...]r in the place above-cited of Synop. sis Medicinae, it is there demonstratively proved, that there is [...] such thing in Nature, as the separation of Gall from the [...]; but a kind of Lymphatic Iuice, which by the Fermentum of the Gall-bladder is changed into Gall. Salmon. flows, and staying there a while, by that stay cuts off the proper quality of the part, but more from the remaining Liquor that sticks to it, acquires a shar­per and more fermentative quality.

II. The Gall-bladder is an oblong The Gall-bladder. Bladder, fashion'd like a Pear, some­what round, hollow, and seated in the caveous or hollow part of the Li­ver.

III. At the uppermost and middle Situation. part it is joyn'd to the hollow of the Liver; the rest of it hangs forth with­out the body of the Liver; where touching the right side of the Ventri­cle, and the Gut Colon, it frequent­ly moistens and stains both with the Choler transpiring through its Tuni­cles.

IV. It is furnish'd with a double Mem­branes. Membrane. The one exterior with­out Fibres, rising from the Peritonae­um, which invests the pendulous part without the Liver, and fastens it to the Liver, and is the same with the exterior Membrane of the Liver. The other proper and more thick, strength­ned with a slippery Slime against the Acrimony of the contain'd Humour. [Page 87] This several Anatomists, with Laurenti­us, affirm to be interwoven with all man­nerIts Fibres. of Fibres, and that with the right Fi­bres it attracts the Choler to it, with the oblique, it retains the Choler in it, and with the Transverse expells it. Yet to o­thers these Fibres seem to be imaginary, in regard they cannot by any way be de­monstrated; and therefore Fallopius and Riolanus explode 'em; and Glisson both rejects and refutes their Use describ'd by Laurentius. But Laurentius's Cause may be well enough maintain'd, if we say that although these Fibres cannot be ma­nifestly demonstrated, yet they may be discern'd by Reason, seeing this part stands no less in need of Fibres to main­tain and strengthen it, than the Veins, Arteries, the Piss-bladder, and several others, which when they are dilated, contract again by means of their Fibres, and so return again to their former Con­dition. Which distention happens in the Gall-bladder by reason of the redun­dancy of the Gall, or else its Efferve­scency; which, a Contraction by means of Fibres, tho' invisible or obscure, must be of necessity, not only to press forth the Choler out of the Bladder, (which Glisson grants) but also to reduce the Gall-bladder to its first condition. To this we may add, that Fibres are admit­ted by Anatomists in Veins, which never­theless no man can easily demonstrate, though it be manifest from their crooked swellings that they have Fibres.

V. It has two sorts of Vessels, some Two sorts of Vessels. that open into the Cavity of it; of which more anon. Others, which run thorough its Tunicles or Membranes, which are fourfold.

1. Small little Arteries, proceeding from the upper right Branch of the Cae­llac. 2. Many Capillary Veins, bringing back the remainder of the blood after Nourishment supply'd, and at length closing in two small Branches, through which it pours forth this blood into the Vena Portae. 3. A little Nerve hardly conspicuous, deduc'd from the branch of the sixth Pair creeping through the Tunicle of the Liver. 4. Some few Lymphatic Vessels propagated from the Liver, running through its exterior parts. The Arteries and a Nerve enter it about the Neck of it. The Veins go forth the same way toward the Porta [...] The Lym­phatic Vessels in Men enter the same way, and running thorough the bottom of the Gall-bladder, at the lower part are joyn­ed with the rest of the Lymphatics pro­ceeding from the Liver. But in those Creatures where the Gall-bladder hangs forth out of the Liver, they enter at the Neck, and fetching a Circuit about the bottom, return the same way toward o­ther Lymphatic Vessels proceeding out of the Liver.

VI. This Bladder is divided into The divisi­on. bottom and neck.

VII. The bottom is larger, round, The bot­tom. or shap'd like a Pear, dangling below, of the colour of the Gall contain'd in it; sometimes yellow, sometimes rust­colour'd, sometimes black, and some­times of a Garlick green.

VIII. In the bottom of this same Stones sometimes found in it. Gall-bladder are found several Stones, but so light, that being thrown into Water, they will swim at the top. Of these I have observ'd sundry colours: sometimes yellow, sometimes black in­clining to green, and sometimes speckl'd like Marble. These seem to be genera­ted out of Choler, void of any Acrimo­ny, which in regard it never boyls, never breaks out of the said Gall-bladder, but is harden'd within it by degrees into Stones, by the heat of the Liver. For­merlyObservati­on. I dissected a Person that dy'd of the Jaundice, after he had been for some years troubled with a black and green Iaundice I have twice in my life seen Patients afflicted with a green Iaundice: the one I cured; the other dyed, being given over by other Physicians, as uncurable. The Patient whom I cured, was all over of a yellowish green: he which dyed was of a dark or deep green. The cause or reason for this Distemper is rendred in our Synopsis Medicinae, lib. 4. cap. S. Sect. 10. § 26. ad 36. to which I refer you. Salmon., in whose Gall-bladder I found a Stone somewhat black, and of an indifferent blackness.

Fernelius Patholog. l. 6. c. 5. gives us a Relation of a certain old man, who had such a large Stone in his Gall-bladder, filling the whole Concavity of it to that degree, that he might be thought to have no Bladder at all. Other innumerable Examples there are of Stones found in the Gall-bladder, frequent to be seen in the Writings of Physicians.

IX. The neck of the Bladder is The Neck. narrower, and toward the upper parts is streightned into a thin passage, which ends in a common passage lead­ing to the Intestines.

X. In this neck, according to the Whether a­ny Valves in it. Opinion of Andrew Laurentius, Ves­lingius, and Bartholine, there are Valves to be discern'd, sometimes two, sometimes three, preventing the [Page 88] Return into the Bladder of the Choler which ought to flow into the Intestines. But I could never observe any such things; however, I observ'd the E­gress of the Bladder to be most strait, and the Neck of it to be full of many wrinkles, lest the descent of the Cho­ler should be too easie and too slippery, and therefore to render the Evacuation the more slow. In like manner neither could Riolanus and Glisson find those Valves. For the said narrowness of the Neck seems to be order'd by Nature to that end, that the Choler being once got into its Bladder, should not present­ly return again, but stay for some time within, to acquire a sharper Acrimony, and more fermentative quality This is something of the Do­ctrine which we have main­tained in the places aforecited of our Sy­nopsis Me­dicinae; which thing is worthy the serious con­sideration of all the Sons of Art: and it is without doubt, the same kind of Iuice, which being conveyed to other parts (as the Amygdalae, maxillary Glandules, Womens Breasts, Piss-bladders, Pancreas, Seminal Vessels, and Pores of the Skin,) by the Fermentum of the same parts is converted into the Humor proper to the same; (as Spittle, Milk, Urine, and Iuice, Seed, and Sweat.) Salmon., from the nature and property of the place, and by the mixture of the sharp Choler still remaining in the Bladder, which being once well mingled with it, and thence raising a slight Effervescency in the Cho­ler it self, it happens that the wrinkles of the Neck being dilated and gaping by means of that distension, some part of it being attenuated and made more fluid by that Effervescency, cannot conveni­ently be contain'd, but is forc'd down to the Intestines. Of which see more C. 17. following.

XI. The Choler is carried to the The way of the Choler to the Blad­der. Bladder through many small Roots, scatter'd up and down in the Liver a­mong many little Branches of the Ve­na Cava and Vena Portae, (as has been said in the foregoing Chapter,) which closing together into one passage, through that passage pour forth the Choler That is, the Serous or Lympha­phatic Iuice, which by the Fermentum of the Bladder, as afore­said, is changed into the Choleric Humor, for several and vari­ous intentions of Nature. Salmon. into the Gall-bladder. But these Roots are so small, that they are hardly to be seen; only the Trunk into which they all run, is to be found. And Glisson describes the way of searching for it, and finding it out, Anat. Hep. c. 13. This Trunk we have often seen very ap­parent with some Roots in an Ox Liver, admitting a good big Bodkin; to which, at the entrance into the Bladder of the Gall, sometimes a small, and sometimes a large Valve is affix'd, which hinders the return of the Choler out of the Bladder into the Liver. In Dogs, whose Liver is divided into several Lobes, we have often found, and visibly shewn to the Standers by two or three Trunks. If you ask then, how it returns in Per­sons that are troubled with the Jaundice? I answer that it does not return, but that the Choler which is generated in the Liver, for want of convenient Effer­vescency and Fermentation, is not sepa­rated from the blood, and therefore ne­ver flows into the Bladder, but remains mix'd with the blood, and together with that is carried to the hollow Vein, the Heart, and the rest of the Body.

XII. The Use of the Gall-bladder The vse. is to collect the Choler with which, in healthy Persons, it is moderately re­plenish'd, yet not fill'd so full, but that it might contain half a spoonful more. In a sickly habit of body it is some­times swell'd and stuff'd with Choler; sometimes, but very rarely, altogether empty.

XIII. The other Choler Vessel is the The Bilary Porus. Porus Bilarius, call'd the Bilary Pas­sage, which is an oblong Chanel, twice as large as the neck of the Bladder, proceeding from the Liver not far from the Vena Portae, and conveigh­ing the Choler receiv'd by the Liver into the common Chanel, which glides not only somewhat thicker and more dreggy through the broader Chanel, but also milder; where it does not tarry by the way, or acquire a more eager A­crimony, either by a longer stop, or from the nature of the place, as the o­ther already collected in the Blad­der.

XIV. To this there are some that The Valves. appropriate double Valves, preventing the regress of the Choler into the Li­ver; the one at its Exit out of the Liver, and the other at its Entrance into the Ductus Communis. But o­others deny there are any such Valves, because they cannot be found by Anato­mists. But Reason seems to perswade us, if there are not two, yet that there ought to be one, seeing it is manifest that there is such a Valve in the Trunk which hin­ders the regress of the Choler. Por our parts, we shall forbear to determine the Controversie, till our Eyes, and certain [Page 89] Demonstration shall give a definitive Sentence.

XV. Now here a Question may a­rise, Whether two sorts of Choler. Whether there be two sorts of Choler generated in the Liver, of which the one sort, being the sharper, flows into the Gall-bladder; and the other milder flows through the Choler Pas­sage? I say, No; but that it is one and the same Choler, whose somewhat more feculent parts nevertheless more easily pass through the Porus Bilarius, as being broader, and by reason of their feculency are less eager; but the more thinner parts are conveigh'd into the Gall-bladder; to the end they may there be made more sharp, and acquire a more efficacious fermentative power, as well from the Specific Temper of the Body, as from the Mixture of the sharp Choleric Juice remaining in the Bladder.

XVI. But that the Choler, which Differen­ces of Cho­ler. glides through the Porus Bilarius, differs in some qualities from that which is contain'd in the Gall, Mal­pigius has experienc'd, Lib. de liene, c. 6. and found that which flows through the said Porus to be more mix'd and less sharp, nor coloured a­like, and being heated by the fire, yields a most strong scent, which the other does not do. Perhaps it may be objected, That many times there is a thick and slimy Choler found in the Gall­bladder, which for the most part is very insipid, and void of Acrimony. I an­swer, That it is not so thick when it first enters the Gall-bladder (for being thick and viscous, it could never pass through the narrow Passages of the Roots, but when the Gall-bladder is obstructed, or that the Choler for some other cause is detain'd within it longer than is requi­site, then the thinner parts being dissipa­ted by the heat of the Liver, the Choler becomes thick and viscous in it, contrary to its natural temper; and sometimes is dry'd to a stony hardness: which for the most part happens for this reason, because it has not a fermentative quality, strong enough to stir it up to the Effervescency, and so to timely expulsion. In like manner, I say, that the Choler becomes whitish and insipid in the Bladder, for want of that saltish and sow'rish Liquor that comes from the Spleen, by reason of the corruption or defect of which Li­quor, the Liver begets vicious Choler Or rather Iuice, for the genera­ting of Choler, as aforesaid. Salmon., which may easily happen in a sickly Con­stitution, wherein any other Humors in any other part of the Body, may alter from their natural habit.

XVII. Now the Porus Bilarius re­ceives The way of the Choler into the Bilary Po­rus. that milder sort of Choler by means of innumerable Roots that are dispers'd through the Liver, which accompany the little Branches of the Vena Portae to all parts of the Liver (some excepted, to which the Roots of the Gall-bladder are extended,) nay, they are wrapt about with one and the same Tunicle, arising from the Mem­brane that enfolds the Liver, in like manner as the Spermatic Vein and Ar­tery; and by means of that so closely stick one to another, that they cannot be separated one from another without tearing; in so much that at first sight they seem to be one and the same Vessel, and can only be discern'd to be distinct from the variety of the Colour, if they be held up to a clear light, which can­not be done but when the Liver is excar­nated.

XVIII. Franciscus Sylvius de leSylvius his Opinion. Boe is of opinion that they are not the little Branches of the Vena Portae which are cover'd with one common Tunicle with the Roots of the Bilary Porus, but that they are the little Branches of the Hepatic Artery, which he reports that he saw discover'd and demonstrated by John van Horn, Di­sputat. Med. 6. Thes. 52. But with­out doubt, in that demonstration the little Gall Branches, which because of the Liquor contain'd in them, are not so ruddy as the Veins, were by Van Horn taken for Arteries. But that which Sylvius adds, That the He­patic Artery, for the most part inclosed within the common Covering, is inserted into the little Branches of the Hepatic Bilary Porus, I will believe it when I see it. I know there is a very close conjun­ction of the little Branches of the Porta and the Gall Vessels, but of no Artery. And hence, that there is any Insertion of any Artery by Anastomoses into the Bila­ry Vessels, must be prov'd before my Eyes by demonstration, before I can giveThe Choler is taken from the Substance of the Li­ver. credit to it.

XIX. And therefore the Roots of the Porus receive the Choler or Iuice generating of it from the Substance of [Page 90] the Liver it self, into which several little Branches of the Vena Portae, few of the Hepatic Arteries empty their Blood, which is presently alter'd therein, and by the mixture of sulphury and saltish Particles is concocted after a new manner, and in many of its Particles grows bitter, and turns into Choler. Which Choleric Particles, by means of the Glandulous Balls (of which Malpigius asserts the Substance of the Liver chiefly to consist) are separated from the other bloody Particles, which are less alter'd by that Concoction, and suck'd up by the Roots of the Porus Bi­larius and Gall-bladder.

XX. And, as has been already said of the Arteries, there are many that feign several Anastomoses between the Extremities of the Twigs of the Vena Portae and the Bilary Roots, although there are no such things as we have shew'n in the foregoing Chapter. And which Glisson clearly evinces by many Reasons and Experience, ought not to be; in regard that the whole Alteration of the Blood into Choler, and separation and transfusion of it out of the Veins into the Bilary Vessels, is made by means of the Glandulous Balls.

XXI. Now the Choler flowing as The Du­ctus Cho­lidochus. well from the Liver through the Bilary Porus, as out of the Gall-bladder, meets in one common Chanel, call'd the Ductus Cholidochus, which is a Me­atus Chanel or Passage made out of the Necks of the Bilary Porus, and the Gall-bladder meeting together.

XXII. This goes for the most part It is for the most part solita­ry. alone, sometimes admitting the Pan­creatic Chanel at the end of it (which is very frequent in a Man, seldom in a Dog,) toward the end of the Duo­denum, or beginning of the Jejunum, obliquely between both Tunicles of the Intestine, for the most part single, sel­dom double about the end, with an In­sertion of about a fingers breadth, o­pens toward the hollow of the Inte­stine, and empties its Choler into the Guts, as well immediately out of the Liver, as out of the Vesicle of the Gall. Others, and not without reason, rather believe that this whole Chanel is no more than the Bilary Porus, extended from the Liver to the Guts, into which, on the side, is inserted the Neck of the Gall­bladder.

XXIII. Vesalius and Sylvius assert Its Valves. that there are certain loose little Mem­branes fix'd to the Orifice of this Cha­nel like Valves, preventing the Re­turn of the Choler from the Guts to the Liver. But if we inquire more dili­gently, there will be no membranous Valves to be found here, only an Inter­nal loose Membrane of the Intestine, de­press'd by the concocted Nourishment passing thorough, so shuts up the way, that no Liquor can enter the Chanel from the Guts, which when the Choler descends and seeks to go forth out of the Chanel, presently opens and gives it a free Passage.

XXIV. Glisson allows to that part Glisson would have it to be a Sphincter Muscle. of the Chanel which obliquely enters and bores the Gut, Fibres like Rings, which he believes are open'd like the Sphincter Muscles, when plenty of Choler makes its way, but are then con­tracted again when that Choler is pass'd away, till more new Choler comes. And these Fibres, as he says, prevent a­ny Humour from ascending from the Guts to the Liver or Gall-bladder. But perhaps Glisson took that little piece of Flesh which bunches out at the Exit of the Ductus Cholidochus into the Guts, for some little Shincter Muscle.

XXV. But because that some ob­lique An Obje­ction [...] ­swer'd. Passage into the Guts is very narrow, and the Channel broad, hence the other seems not able to transmit hardly the tenth part of the Choler through a Channel no wider than a Goose-Quill, therefore Glisson thought that the foresaid Ductus Cholido­chus, did not only do the Duty of Chanels to conveigh the Choler, but also perform'd the Office of Recepta­cles or Bladders, to contain and keep it for some time. But in the Dissections of dead Carcasses 'tis very rarely seen that any Choler is contain'd in those Vessels. And therefore 'tis more probable that the Choler most usually descends in a small Quantity from the Liver and the Gall-Bladder (for a small Quantity serves to procure Effer­vescency or Fermentation of the Chylus, together with the Pancreatic Juice) and therefore by reason there is so little of it, it may easily pass through the Streights of the oblique Passage. Which Pas­sage however being obstructed contrary to Nature, then the Choler happens to stop in the Ductus Cholidochus, as it were [Page 91] in some Bladder, which never happens according to Nature in a a state of Health. For then a little Choler somewhat sharp, suffices to provoke Evacuation, to cause a Distention of the Ductus, and to open the Passages.

XXVI. Here we must observe by An unusual Constituti­on. the way a certain Constitution of the Gall Vessels seldome happening, which we saw in the Year 1668. in the Dis­section of a Woman about thirty Years of Age, who having been long trou­bled with a Dropsy not very terrible, but partly an Anasacra, partly an Ascites, at length dy'd of it. In this Body we found the Liver not Rud­dy, but inclining to Yellow: In the rest of the Bowels there was hardly any Yellowness to be observ'd, and an over­abounding serous Humor fill'd the hol­lowness of the Abdomen. The Gall-BladderA white Gall-Blad­der. was White both within and without, as also the Chanel running forth toward the Ductus Cholidochus Communis; and so large as to admit al­most a Mans little Finger. But neither in the Bladder, nor in the Chanel was any Choler at all, but a white kind of Juice, very Viscous, and not very much. Nevertheless in the common Ductus Cholidochus (which is the Bilarie Porus extended to the Guts) just entring into the Duodenum, there was contained an indifferent Quantity of yellow Choler, which by the yellow Choler within, was plainly discovered to have flow'd into the Duodenum.

XXVII. Hence we may raise a great An Argu­ment for the Passage of Choler through the bilary Pore. Argument against those who affirm that no Choler at all flows from the Liver through the Bilary Porus to the Guts, but that part of the Choler flowing from the Vesicle, breaks forth into the Duodenum, and part as­cends through the Bilary Porus, and so enters the Liver. Which that it cannot be done, is manifest from this Observation. For seeing that no Cho­ler was contained in the Vesicle, nor in its Chanel, and yet the Choler was car­ried to the Duodenum, it could be con­veighed from no other Part than from the Liver, through the Bilary Porus, and the common Ductus Cholidochus, wherein there was Choler also found.

XXVIII. Here a Question arises, Whether the Choler [...]ows conti­nually. whether the Choler descends to the Guts continually, and with an equal Course? For Resolution of which Question, I think it proper to di­stinguish between that Choler which flows from the Liver through the Po­rus, and that which falls from the Gall-Bladder. Now that some Cho­ler, tho' but a small Quantity continu­ally flows to the Guts, and is presently mix'd with the Pancreatic Juice, flowing also in a small Quantity, is apparent to Sight in the Dislection of living Crea­tures. But I should think that to be the milder sort, descending from the Liver through the Bilary Porus; not the shar­per and more fermentative Sort that comes from the Bladder, as being that, which by reason of the narrowness of the Neck of the Bladder, does not seem to glide out of its place, unless when by its Effervescency it dilates the Bladder and its Neck, and makes way for it self. And so I think that this Sort does not flow but by Intervals out of the Blad­der; and more especially when the Gall-Bladder is pressed by the Stomach full of Meat, as resting upon the right Side of it: And when by reason of the Concoction and Fermentation so near it, the Choler also begins to boyl in the said Gall-Bladder. For that same sharp Choleric Ferment is not flowing conti­nually, nor do the Intestines always re­quire the same Quantity of it. But chie­fly then (when a new Chylus, being to be separated from the Guts) it either slides, or is about to slide down into 'em, Glisson on the other side, believes, that when the Stomach is full▪ or that the Chylus is descending to the lower Parts, the flowing of the Choler is not there­by promoted, but rather hinder'd. But according to the Opinion of Galen and the Ancients, he asserts, that the Cho­ler stays for some time in the Gall-Ves­sels, and afterwards of a suddain is for­ced down from thence into the Guts; and does the Office of a Clyster to purge 'em. Which was that which be­fore Glisson, Spigelius both believed and maintained: Tho' according to the O­pinion of these two Persons the Choler would flow into the Intestines when there was no need of it. But the Ground of this Error was this, That Galen and his Followers thought the Choler to be a meer Excrement, and that it only pro­moted the Evacuation of the Dreggs of Nourishment, but were ignorant that it is altogether necessary to the Fermenta­tion of the Chylus. Of which more in the following Chapter.

XXIX. Besides the common Chanel The unu [...]u­al Chanel. already mentioned, in the Year 1655. [Page 92] in April, I publicly shew'd in the Anatomy Theater another unusual Cha­nel, thinner than the other usual Cha­nel, which nevertheless was there at the same time, and full of Yellow Cho­ler, which had no Correspondency with the Bilary Porus, or the com­mon Ductus Cholidochus already mentioned, but had its Rise apart above the Neck of the Gall-Bladder, where the Bladder begins to be streightened toward the Neck: Be­sides that it was carried apart by it self to the Duodenum, into which it was in­serted about a Fingers breadth from the Insertion of the common Ductus Choli­doch is. The next Year in another Bo­dy we observed something that was rare, that is to say besides the usual Ductus Cholidochus, another unusual Meatus or Chanel, extended from the middle of the Gall-Bladder, directly to that part of the Gut Colon adjoyning to it. And thus sometimes we shall observe a Chanel to extend it self from the Gall-Bladder to the Pylorus, and sometimes to the bottom of the Stomach. But these are the unusual Sports and Varie­ties of Nature, seldome to be seen.

XXX. From what has been said, A Digres­sion. it is apparent that Choler is made in the Liver, That is to say the Iuice ge­nerating Choler more speci­ally, be­cause the same Iuice cannot be brought from other remote Parts at the same time. Salmon. and from hence flows forth from the Choler Vessels into the Guts. It remains now that we speak something of its Generation and its Use.

XXXI. Choler then is a Fermenta­ceous What Cho­ler is. Iuice prepar'd in the Liver out of the Venal Blood, and specific splenetic Iuice. That is to say, the said Iuice is prepared and fitted in the Liver for Separation, to be received into the Gall-Bladder, and there by the Fermentum inherent, to be perfected, and made that choleric Iuice, which is bitter, and so sent into the Ieju­num. Salmon.

XXXII. It is generated as well out of the Sulphury and Unctuous Parti­cles of the Venal Blood, as the Salt and Acid Particles of the sowrish Li­quor coming from the Spleen, toge­ther with those that flow through the Vena Portae, being beforehand Con­cocted, mixed and prepared in the Liver after a specific manner. For the sulphureous Juice, altho' it be sweetish of it self, being for some time concocted with the saltish Ferment, grows bitter and changes its Colour. Now that this is the matter of which Choler Con­sists, the Art of Chymistry teaches us, as being that by which but little fixed Salt and Water, but much volatil Salt and Oyle may be extracted from the Choler of the Bladder, if in its natural Condition.

XXXIII. This Choler concocted in The M [...]i­on of C [...] ­ler. the Liver, one Part of it, being the thinnest, remaining mix'd with the Blood, is carried to the Vena Cava, and therein, infuses into the Blood a certain fermentative Quality, by which it is made fit to be presently dilated in the Heart. The other Part more bitter and more fermentaceous, partly of a milder Quality, flows through the Bilary Porus to the Intestins; and part­ly forc'd into the Gall-Bladder, from the Property of the Place and the Juice abiding in it, becomes yet more bitter and sharp, and acquires a stronger fer­mentative Quality.

XXXIV. From the Ignorance of Whether Choler be generated in [...] Par [...]. this Motion of the Choler, some famous Physicians, as Galen, Lud. Merca­tor, Helmont, Krempsius, Hoffman, and others made a Doubt whether some Choler were not generated in the Stomach, Heart, Head, and Kid­neys, as well as in the Liver and Gall-Vessels; which seems to be prov'd by the Vomiting of Choler, in the Dis­ease call'd Cholera, and the yellow Froth sometimes swimming upon ex­tracted Blood, the Bitterness of the Excrements contain'd in the Ears, and the choleric Colour of Urines. But their Mistake proceeded from hence, that they thought Choler to be a meer Excrement, and that it was all of it sent through the Gall-Vessels to the Gutts, and from thence evacuated; and were ignorant that in the Distemper called Cholera, being forc'd out of the Blad­der into the Guts, the greatest part of it ascended into the Stomach, and so was vomited up; as also that a good part of it was carried to the Heart, and mixed for Fermentation sake with the Blood, and circulated with the Blood through all the Body, and hence the Colour of it appeared in the Froth swimming upon the Blood, and in U­rines; Hence also the Colour and Tast [Page 93] of it proceeded in the Excrements of the Ears, tho' it be not generated in the Parts that evacuate those Excrements.

XXXV. The property of Place The Place generating Choler, de­pends upon the inner Tunicle of the Gall-Bladder, & the Choler residing therein. conducing to the Generation of Cho­ler, depends partly upon the inner Tunicle of the Gall-Bladder it self, which is endu'd with a peculiar fer­mentaceous Quality: Partly upon the Choler residing in that Bladder, which by a longer Stay, being there fermen­ted and Boyling, becomes more sharp and bitter, and by that means ferments and renders more sharp the fresh milder Choler flowing out of the Li­ver into the Bladder; and so by conti­nuance the sharper Choler boyling, flows out of the Bladder, and the milder taking its Room, and staying there, becomes more sharp. Nevertheless the Choler acquires either a more intense or remiss Acrimony, according as more or fewer, and those more sharp or mil­der, saltish and sowrish Juices, flowing from the Spleen to the Liver, and there are intermixt with the sulphurous Juice, and are more or less concocted. For if the Juice that flows from the splenetic Branch, be either less in Quantity or less Sharp, the Choler becomes less Sharp and less effectual to promote a Fermentative Effervescency; which grow­ing Clammy in the Choler Vessels of the Liver, and Bladder, as not being suffi­ciently attehuated by that weak Effer­vescency, causes the Jaundice and many other Obstructions. But if the Liquor that flows from the Spleen be too sharp, then the Choler becomes too sharp and eager as well in the Vasa Bilaria of the Liver, as in the Gall-Bladder, and that Acrimony corroding too violently in the Fermentation, causes great Pains, Cholera's, Dysenteries, and other Distem­pers, especially if a sowre Pancreatic Juice flow into the Intestins at the same time.

XXXVI. Francis de le Boe Syl­vius,A new Opi­nion. considering the very small and almost invincible Passages, through which the Choler is conveighed from the Liver to the Gall-Bladder, con­ceiv'd quite another Opinion of its Generation. For he imagins Choler to be generated out of the most simi­lar Parts of the Blood conveighed through the Cystic Arteries to the Gall-Bladder, and penetrating by de­grees through the Pores of its Tuni­cle into the Concavity it self, and there presently changing into the same Nature with the rest of the Choler; in like manner as a Iugg of Wine, being poured into a Tub of Vinegar streight becomes Vinegar. This Opinion of Sylvius comes very near the Truth, if it be considered as to the Particles or Matter of which Choler is ge­nerated: But as to the Ways and Passages leading that Matter to the proper Place, I am very confident he is wide from the Mark▪ For the Passages out of the Liver into the Gall-Bladder (whi [...] are indeed Strainers)▪ are evident in many Persons to the [...] Eyes; but with a Microscope, they appear famous. So [...] deny them, a man must absolutely deny his Senses. Salmon.

Regius is also of the same Opinion, Philos. Natur. l. 4. c. 12. who neverthe­less seems to acknowledg the Bilarie Roots, extracting the Choler out of the venal Blood infused into the Liver. But these three things destroy the Fiction of Sylvius. 1. For that never any Signs appear of any Blood infused into the Hollow of the Gall-Bladder; no, not so much as the least Drop ever observ'd by any Anatomists; whereas in all other Parts wherein any Juice, Liquor, or Spi­rit, is to be made of Blood, there are some marks of Blood that manifestly appear, as in the Brain and Testicles. 2. Because that Choler is generated in some Creatures that are said to be desti­tute of a Gall-Bladder, as in the Hart, the Fallow Deer, the Camel, &c. In which Creatures it cannot be generated in the Vesicula Fellis, out of the Blood that glides through the Arteries, but being generated in the Liver it self, flows through the Bilary Porus. 3. Because those Vessels are sometimes obstructed through which the Choler is conveighed to the Porus, and Gall-Bladder, which is the cause of the Jaundice, by reason of the great Quantity of Choler diffused over the whole Body; when as it is ap­parent that no Choler was generated in the mean time in the Porus, or empty Gall-Bladder, tho▪ the Cystic Arteries conveighed Blood sufficient to the Blad­der as they used to do. 4. Because that in Gluttons and great Drinkers, the Jaundice proceeding from a hot Distem­per of the Liver, cannot be caused by the arterial Blood being chang'd into Choler, which was equally both before and then carried [...]o the Gall-Bladder; nor is there any Reason it should then be more copiously conveighed thither to be changed into Choler, than at a­ny other time. 5. Because this Opinion seems to presuppose as if all the whole Mass of Choler were generated in the [Page 94] Gall-Bladder, whereas it is all genera­ted in the Liver I beg the Diversion of the Au­thor in be­lieving of this, since the contra­ry can be prov'd by ocular De­monstrati­on. Salmon. before it comes to the Bladder: As is apparent from hence, for that very much Choler flows through the Porus to the Intestin, which never comes near the Gall-Bladder; and there­fore could not be generated out of the Particles of the arterial Blood, gliding into the Bladder. 6. Because this Opi­nion seems also to maintain, that real Choler does not pre-exist in the Blood, and that the Particles of it being sepa­rated from the Blood, flow down into the hollow of the Bladder, and are there made perfect Choler. But the Vanity of this Opinion we have at large demon­strated. C. 10. artic. de generat. Suc. pan­creat.

XXXVII. Moreover what Sylvi­us,The Inser­tion of the Hepatic Artery into the Bran­ches of the Porus un­certain. in his Addition to his Disputati­on, alledges for the Support of his Opinion, do not seem to be of so much Weight, as to establish his Doctrine. For the Insertion of the Hepatic Ar­tery into the Branches of the Porus does not prove it, because the Inserti­on it self is as yet very much questi­oned, as being grounded more upon uncertain Belief than certain Sight, and therefore to be laid up among those Doubts which are not to be cre­dited unless visible to the Eyes. In like manner also his Experiment made in a Dogg, by means of a little Pipe thrust into the Hepatic Artery, and blowing through it into the Gall-Blad­der, is very uncertain, even by the Con­fession of Sylvius himself, Thes. 54. Moreover if the Wind could be so ea­sily blown into the Concavity of the Gall-Bladder, store of Blood might ea­sily be also forc'd into it by the Protru­sion of the Heart and the Cystic Arterys, which never was yet observ'd by any Person.

XXXVIII. But Malpigius abso­lutely Whether Choler be only sepa­rated and not gene­rated. denys the Generation of Choler, l. de hep. l. 3. believing that Choler is not generated out of any Blood by the Mixture and Concoction of seve­ral Humors in the Blood; but that it is only separated from the Blood by means of the Glandulous Balls of the Liver it self, and that such as it is, it pre-exists in the Blood, and therefore has need of nothing more than Separation. Which Separation he thinks to be thus brought to pass▪ Neither, says he, is there any Necessity for Suction, to the End the Choler should be sent to the Intestins or Gall-Bladder through the Porus, for a strong and conti­nued Compression of the Glandules of the Liver, caused by continual Respiration, and the Impulse of the Blood running through the Arteries, and the Branches of the Portae promote the Office of Separati­on in the Glandulous Balls, and its Pro­pulsion through the Branches of the Porus, as it happens in other conglomerated, and conglobated Kernels, in the Parotides and the like.

XXXIX. But herein the learned Gentleman is very much mistaken, for there is in the Blood coming to the Liver and bilarie Vessels, a cer­tain Substance intended for Choler, but not Choler it self. This Assertion of the learned Author agrees with Truth it self, and with what we have before (in several places) declared con­cerning this matter, and without doubt in this Sense he is al­ways to be understood, when he speaks at any time of the Sepa­ration of Choler from the Blood in the Liver, viz. That it is a certain Substance intended for Choler, but not Choler it self: The which Substance or Iuice is neither Yellow nor Bit­ter, nor Choler, nor contains any Choler till it is transmitted thereinto by the proper Ferment of the Part. Salmon.

As there is in the Nourishment a certain Matter, out of which a Chylus is to be prepared by the mixture of a spe­cific Ferment, and the specific Concoction of the Stomach, which is not the Chy­lus it self: And in the Chylus there is the Substance of Blood, but not the Blood it self: And▪ as these Humors the Chylus and Blood are made by specific Fermen­tations and Concoctions in the Bowels, design'd for that purpose, of those things which before they were not; in like manner the yellow and bitter Choler▪ is made out of sweet Blood, and acid sple­nic Juice (of which neither is yellow or bitter, neither of 'em is Choler, or con­tain any Choler in themselves) being mix'd together in the Liver, and fer­mented and concocted after a specific Manner: And the chiefest part of it (for some of the thinnest remains mix'd with the Blood, is carried to the Vena Cava and the Heart, is separated from the rest of the Blood, being unfit to be chan­ged into Choler, and is carried to the Roots of the bilary Vessels, and so by degrees proceeds to the Porus and bilarie Bladder. In like manner as in Chymi­stry, various Bodies are changed into Metals, which before were not Me­tals: And out of things void of Colour, mixed and boyling together, a new Co­lour is raised, which was not in the Sub­stance [Page 95] before; as out of white Salt-Tar­tar, and transparent Spirit of Wine is produced a red Colour. And hence it may be certainly concluded, that there is not any single Separation of Choler pre-existent in the Blood, but a new Generation of Choler which was not be­fore. As to the Arguments which Mal­pigius alledges of the pre-existency of Urine in the Blood, and other things too prolix to be here cited, they are not of so much Moment as to prove that pre-existency of Choler in the Blood, and single Separation from it; when as there is not the same Reason for the Separation of the superfluous Se­rum pre-existent, and the Generation of necessary Choler not pre-existent. Of this see more in C. 10. already cited.

XL. The natural Colour of Choler Colour and Tast. is yellow, the Tast bitter, and somewhat tart, the Substance Fluid. But by several Causes, all these three in a sick­ly habit of Body suffer Alteration, as the Blood is either in a bad or good Condition, or the splenetic Iuice con­veighed to the Liver is more or less Salt, Acid, Sowre, or Austere. For hence arise many preternatural Qualitys of Choler, and as they vary, happen Fevers, Cholerick Distempers, Dysente­ries, Iaundice, Colic Pains, and several other Diseases. Which Regner Graef affirms to arise only from the Corrupti­on of the Pancreatic Iuice; but contra­ry to Experience, for the Dissections of Bodys that have been brought to the Grave by those Diseases, frequently tell us, that when the Sweetbread has been firm and sound, the Cause of the Dis­ease has lain hid in the Liver, Bladder, and other Bilarie Vessels; tho' we do not deny but that the same Diseases may arise from a vitious Pancreas. Hence there are several Alterations of the Co­lour of the Choler, which is sometimes Pale, sometimes Saffron Coloured, some­times Red, sometimes Rust-coloured, and sometimes inclining to Black. Ne­vertheless Regner de Graef, not conside­ring the Flux of the splenetic Juice to the Liver, has conceiv'd a quite diffe­rent Opinion concerning these preterna­tural Colours: Believing that same va­riety of Colours happens to the Choler not in the Gall-Bladder, nor in the Cho­ler Vessels, but in the Duodenum, and that by the Mixture of the Pancreatic, acid or sowre Juice, no otherwise than if it should change its natural Yellow into any other Colour in the Gall-Bladder it self. But in the Dissections of Bodys that have dy'd in our Hospital, we have demonstratively and frequently shewn a Green Eruginous or Rust Coloured, and sometimes a blackish Colour in the Bladder it self before the mixture of the Pancreatic Juice; nay in the Daughter of the Lord V [...]ich, who dy'd of an Eru­ginous Flux of the Belly, and after her Death by me dissected in the sight of several Physicians, we found the Gall-Bladder swell'd to the bigness of a Hens Egg, and full of an Eruginous Choler: Which we have also observ'd in some other Infants that have dy'd of the same Diarrhoea, as also in others who have dy'd of the Disease Cholera. So that the various Colours of the Choler do not always proceed from the Mixture of the Pancreatic Iuice in the Intestins, but are often acquired in the Gall-Bladder, and Bilary Vessels, in the same man­ner as we have already rehearsed. Of which see more in the preceding C. 7.

XLI. But now that the several Variety of Colours from vari­ety of Hu­mors, con­firm'd by Observati­on. Humors engendered in the Body being mix'd with the Blood, according to the diversity of Qualitys, occasion a great Variety of Colour, is apparent from these Experiments which we have observ'd in the Gall of an Ox. Which being mix'd with acid things, as Oyle of Vitriol, or Tartar, or Vinegar first boyl'd a little, then growing very thick, became of a green Colour, but being strongly shaken in a Flaggon with these Acids turn'd to a whitish Colour. Be­ing mix'd with ordinary Cinamon Wa­ter, it became more Thin, more Yel­low, and more Fluid: But being mix'd with Spirit of Wine; presently separa­ted from it, and setled at the Bottom. Lastly, being mixed with fair Water, a little Gall dyed a great deal of Water of a Saffron Colour.

XLII. Of the motion of the Choler Whether the Choler ascend to the Liver through the Porus. we have spoken; that is to say, that some part of it mixed with the Blood, tends from the Liver to the Vena Cava, but that the greatest Part is carried to the Bilary Vessels, and so through the Porus and Gall-Bladder to the Intestines. But the Opinions of others are far different concerning this Matter. Vesalius (following the Judgment of Golen) writes that the Choler is drawn out of the Porus to the Gall-bladder, and from thence is forced down to the In­testines. But this Opinion fails, because it does not demonstrate the Way thro' which the Choler comes from the Po­rus to the Gall-bladder. To which it [Page 96] cannot ascend through the Chanel of the Gall-bladder, and through that de­scend again from the Gall-bladder to the Intestines, for that in the parts of our Body there is neither any drawing of Humors, nor any natural going and returning the same way. Fallopius l. 3. Observ. c. 7. believes that the Choler of the Liver does not ascend, unless when the Mouth of the common meatus Cho­lidochus is stopped by some Cause or o­ther, but that upon such an Occasion it may be done. But the Wrinkles and Narrowness of the Neck of the Gall­bladder contradict this Opinion, alto­gether impeding the Ingress of the Cho­ler ascending this way; so that the Cho­ler thrust forward from the Gall-blad­der it self by compressing into the com­mon Ductus Cholidochus, can by no means be repell'd back into the Gall­bladder by a contrary Compression of the said Ductus. From these Backius very much differs, Dissert. de corde c. 3. & 6. who asserts that the Choler is carried directly out of the Cystis to the common Ductus Cholidochus, but that the Extremity of it, which ends in the Intestines, is so fram'd, that it does not permit the Exit of the Choler, but rea­dily gives way to the Chylus descending from the Stomach; and suffers in like manner its ascent to the Liver. And that it communicates as well the Chy­lus, as more especially a part of the Choler through the same Hole to the Pancreatic Wirtzungian Ductus. But the very Sight it self evinces and destroys the Opinion of Backius, by which it ap­pears to the Eye in the Dissections of living Animals, that as well the Choler as the Pancreatic Iuice break forth from their own Places into the Duodenum, but that nothing of the Chylus can enter through that way out of the Guts by a contrary Conveighance. Francis de le Boe Sylvius, introduces still another Mo­tion of the Chylus, and asserts that the Choler which is bred in the Bladder flows to the common Ductus Cholidochus, and is carried from thence partly to the Guts, partly ascends through the bilary Porus to the Liver, and there being mix'd with the Blood renders it more thin; but that no blood flows from the Liver through the Porus to the Intestines. And this in his Additament he proves from hence, because that by blowing through a Reed there is a Passage open from the Porus to the Liver. A most egregious Consequence; and this is such another. The breath blown through a Pipe into the Ureter, passes into the Kid­ney, and farther into the Emulgent Vein, and Vena Cava, therefore the Urinous Serum is carried out of the Bladder through the Ureter to the Kidney. Cer­tainly it would be very strange, if the Choler which is bred in the Liver, and from thence once empty'd into the Ve­sicle, should return through the Porus to the Liver. But the Falshood of this Opinion appears from many things al­ready said. First from the rare Consti­tution of the Gall Vessels: And the Force of it is quite enervated by the Experiment of the perspicacious Malpi­gius, l. de hep. c. 7. In a Cat, saith he, of a few Months old, where the Gall-blad­der is conspicuously prominent, I have ty'd the Neck of the Cystis with a Thread, and empty'd it out of a Wound in the Middle. Then have I again bound the Extremity of the Ductus Cholidochus, where it opens into the Intestin: Then the Creature still living for some convenient space of time, I have found the intercep­ted bilary Porus extreamly swell'd, and a Portion of the common Ductus Cholido­chus. And that I might prevent all Pos­sibility of Separating the Choler by the help of the Cystis, after I had first ty'd a hard Knot in the Neck of it, I cut off the Cystis it self, and threw it away. And yet I found the same Swelling follow in the hollow'd Pores by reason of the flowing Choler. Moreover I try'd with my Fin­ger to drive upward the Choler contained in the Vessels that so swell'd, yet would it return with a Force, nor could be kept back unless with an extraordinary Violence. A little after he adds, It is most certain, from many times repeated Observation, that the Extremity of the Cystic Passage being bound, so that not the least part of the Substance of the Cystis or of its Neck, re­main beyond the Ligature, but that only the common Ductus Cholidochus, and the bilary Porus may run directly toward the Intestines; and then tying another Knot near the Jejunum, a remarkable Quantity of Choler will be collected toge­ther, and evacuated out of a small Wound made beyond the Ligature in the mid Way; which Knot may be several times unty'd, that the Porus Bilarius being plen­tifully fill'd may be emptied again.

XLIII. To which Experiment may be added three or four Observations of Riolanus, Anthropog. l. 2. c. 22. From whence it appears as plain as Day, that the Choler flowing from the Gall-bladder never ascends tho­rough the Bilary Porus to the Liver; And that no Choler often descends from [Page 97] the bladder, yet in the interim flows in great quantity from the Liver through the Poras Communis to the Intestines, and therein, if it be endu'd with bad qua­lities, produces Diarrhoeas, Dysenteries, the Disease Cholera, cruel Gripings, and other Distempers.

XLIV. Concerning the use of the The use of the Choler. Bladder, there have been hitherto great Disputes among the most Emi­nent Doctors. Aristotle thought it to be separated from the Blood, as a meer noxious Excrement; whose Opi­nion is followed by many. And hence it is that Bauhinus, Anat. l. 1. c. 45. makes a doubt whether the Collection of the Choler in the Bladder be necessary to Life; when the ancients affirm'd the cause of long life to be the emptiness of the Gall-bladder, deducing their Argu­ment from Harts, that have no Gall, and yet live long. Haly Abbas, and A­vicen, say that it heats and strengthens the Liver, and helps its Concoction. Zirbus writes, that it defends the Liver and other parts from Putrefaction. Which Opinion, tho' it be exploded by Vesalius, yet does it not displease Riolanus. Hel­mont asserts it to be the Balsom of the Liver, and all the Blood. Glisson asserts that it does not only preserve the Liver from Putrefaction, but prevents its Ob­structions, purifies the Blood, and hin­ders its Coagulation. Veslingius also says that it preserves the very Chylus from Putrefaction. Many Neoterics, accord­ing to the Opinion of Galen, have de­sign'd only to promote the Evacuation of the Excrements out of the Guts; which Bartholine says, are thereby made fluid, and fit for motion. And thus all have made a doubt concerning the Use of this Noble Juice, which is found to be want­ing in no Man, and which no Man can live without: and of which Fernelius writes, that many People have dy'd, in whom there has been found no other cause of their Death, than that the Gall-bladder was altogether empty of Gall.

XLV. Manifest therefore it is, that Its chief vse is for Fermenta­tion. Choler has a more noble Use, than hi­therto has been ascrib'd to it by Physici­ans and Philosophers. And indeed the chiefest Use of it is to be service­able to Fermentation. Of which more at large c. 17.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Spleen.

I. THE Spleen, call'd by the The names. Latines Splen, by the Greeks [...], is an Organic Part, or Bowel seated in the left Hypochondrium, under the Diaphragma, between the Stomach and the Ribs.

II. It is very rare, or rather prodi­gious, Unusual Situation. as both Aristotle and Pliny te­stifie, that the Spleen should change places with the Liver, that is, that this should be in the left, and the other in the right Hypochondrium, which nevertheless has been observ'd by Cor­nelius Gemma, and Talentonius. And such an unusual Accident Cattierus de­scribes; and Bartholine relates two or three Histories to the same purpose, Ob­servat. Anat. Rar. Cent. 2. Hist. Also it is as unusual for the Spleen to be wanting; which defect nevertheless Hollerias re­ports that he saw in a certain Woman, and was found in Ortelius, as has been said c. 14. Andrew Laurentius also makes mention of a Body dissected at Pa­ris, that had no Spleen; in which the Splenetick Branch ended in a small Glan­dulous Body. Thus Kerckringius in his Anat. Observ. writes, that in two Births dissected at Amsterdam, he observ'd the Spleen to be wanting. Aristotle also te­stifies that the Spleen is wanting in several Creatures, L. 3. de part. Animal. All Creatures, saith he, that have Blood have a Liver, but all have not a Spleen. And c. 24. All most perfect Creatures only have a Spleen. Thus Riolanus, following A­ristotle's Opinion, Creatures that have none or very small Lungs, have none or a very small Spleen. Ent also in Apolog. writes that he has observ'd several Birds to have no Spleen.

III. In Men it is generally but one, The num­ber. and seldom exceeds that number. Ne­vertheless Cabrolius, Observ. 15. as also Posthius, and Dominic de Marchettis, have fo [...]nd two. Fallopius observes, in Observ. that he has seen three; frequently in Dogs there are two, not so often three; une­qual in bigness; out of each of which there is a vessel extended to the Splene­tick branch. And the same thing per­haps may fall out in other Creatures. For Aristotle de Generat. Animal. l. 4. c. 4. writes that some brute Creatures have a [Page 98] double Spleen; and that some have none at all.

IV. The Convex part of it is knit The Con­nexion. to the Diaphragma, not so fast and tite as the Liver, but superficially, as also to the left Kidney by small mem­branous Fibres springing from the Pe­ritonaeum. And yet in Novemb. 1668. we found so fast a Connexion of it to the Diaphragma, the left Kidney, and the left Lobe of the Liver, extended so far, that the Connexion could hardly be se­ver'd without dilaceration: but this rare­ly happens. The flat part adheres to the Caul, and the adjoyning Parts, and be­ing so bound, in sane bodies seldom de­scends beyond the lowest Rib: but the Li­gaments being loosen'd, it is felt in a lower place, to the great disturbance of health; but the Ligaments being quite broken, som­times it slides down into the Hypogastri­ [...]m; which Cabrolius observ'd to have hap­pened to a certain Noble Man; whose Spleen swam upon the whole Concavity of his belly Not ma­ny months ago I had a Child un­der my cure who had a Spleen so large, that it covered almost the whole Ab­domen, and reached down to the left Groin: it was so apparent, that it might outward­ly be felt, being above nine Inches in length, and about seven In­ches in breadth. The Child died, and was opened; by which we were confirmed in the extravagancy of this Bowel. Salmon. And which by Riolanus was seen in a Parisian Woman, whose Spleen rested upon her Womb, and for two years deceiv'd the Physicians, who took it for a Mole; whereas when the dead body was open'd, the cause of the Swelling, and the Womans Death, were both found together to have proceeded from the Spleens being fall'n down out of its place.

V. The bigness of the Spleen in The big­ness. Men is various, according to the di­versity of Bodies and Constitutions. For generally it is six Inches long, three broad, and about the thickness of the Thumb. I [...] diseased bodies it some­times grows to an enormous bigness; so that its protuberancy beyond the Ribs may be both felt and seen. The [...] that inhabit moist Regions and Fenny Places, have large Spleens. Lindan reports also, That the Common People of Friezland, that use for their common Drink sowre Butter-milk, have great Livers. In the Year 1657. I dissected a body, wherein I found a four square hard Spleen, about the bigness of a mans head. Fernelius also writes that there was a Liver seen, that for bulk and quantity exceeded the Liver. Wepfer found a Spleen in the bo­dy of a Noble Woman, that in length exceeded five hands breadth, four in breadth, and one and a half in thickness, and weighed about six common pounds, and so exceeded the Liver in bigness. Aetius l. 7. c. 10, 16. writes, that in Sple­netic Persons this Bowel sometimes reach­es in length to the Groins, and with its breadth touches the Liver. Such great Spleens as these Vesalius also and Mar­cellus Donatus testifie that they have seen themselves. And Cabrolius makes men­tion of one that weigh'd five pounds. Schenkius also relates out of Gamerus the Story of one that weigh'd three and twenty pound. But such prodigious bulks are very unusual. In the mean time, the more preternaturally big this Bowel is, the worse it is with the Patient whose body is the more extenuated thereby, because it does not afford mat­ter sufficient to accomplish convenient Fermentation in the Liver, of which the blood being destitute, cannot be attenu­ated and brought to persection as it ought to be; but is left, sowre, acid, thick, and otherwise unprofitable for the Nourish­ment of the Parts. From whence arises the Scurvy, as Hippocrates first observ'd, l. 2. Poreth. They, saith he, are troubled with bad Gums, and stinking Breaths, who have large Spleens: but they who having large Spleens are subject to bleed, and yet have no ill smell in their mouths, they are troubled with bad Ulcers and black Spots in their Legs.

VI. Spigelius has observ'd, That Lean people most subject to [...] Spleens. they who have large Veins, have larger Spleens, and therefore lean People are more subject to swoll'n Spleens than they who are fat.

VII. Rarely the Spleen is less than Small Spleens. its natural proportion, and yet I re­member some Examples of such. 1. Vi­dus Vidius the younger, L. 12. de Cu­rat. Morb. c. 10. in the Body of a Man very cachectic, found a Spleen no big­ger than a Pigeons Egg, almost as hard as a Stone. 2. Salmuth Cent. 2. Ob­serv. 21. in a Woman that dyed in Child-bed, otherwise very healthy while she lived, had found a Spleen so small, that it hardly exceeded the bigness of a Man's Thumb. 3. Riolanus also reports that the Spleen of Thuanus the Historian hardly weigh'd an Ounce. 4. Conringius asfirms, that hardly any footstep of a Spleen appeared in the Princess of Luxem­burgh. The Shape.

VIII. The shape of it is oblong, like an Oxe's Tongue, whence some have [Page 99] call'd it the Tongue-Bowel, as being not unlike it in Oxen, Dogs, and ma­ny other Brutes: it is somewhat full of Crinkles within side; but the outside is somewhat bunchy or bossie. But in Man the shape of it is found to receive sundry Figures: as being in some tri­angular, in others gibbous, square, round, sharp pointed; and in others distinguish'd into Lobes. The upper­most and thicker part of it is call'd by Hippocrates and Ruffus the Head, the thinner part the Tail.

IX. The Colour in a Child in the [...] Colour. Womb is ruddy; in Persons grown up to maturity of a lead Colour, or black and bluish. And Spigelius has ob­serv'd it, and sh [...]wn it in dissection of grown Persons, when it has been as red as the Liver, which has been also observ'd by Vesalius, Bauhinus, and Conringius. The cause of which va­riety of Colour proceeds from variety of Dyet, and alteration of Temper and Heat; for thereby is caus'd a great alte­ration of the Humors of the whole Bo­dy, and so of those Humours that are carried to the Spleen, whence the variety of Colour.Mem­braces.

X. It is surrounded with a double Membrane; one exterior from the Peritonaeum; the other thin and pro­per to it self, proceeding from the ex­terior Membranes of the Vessels en­tring the Spleen, and interwoven with a neat and wonderful contexture of Fibres. Which Tunicles or Membranes have their Arteries, Veins, and Nerves from those that pass through the inner Substance.

Malpigius l. de Lien. c. 1. remarks a wonderful hardness of the inner Mem­brane, not yet observ'd by Us. It is ob­serv'd, says he, by many, that that Mem­brane becomes bony; and Boschius has seen it so hard toward the Muscles of the Abdomen, that he suspected some scyr­rhosity to be within it. And many times, especially in Sheep, I have observ'd little Stones of a Pargetty Substance, Ulcers [...]all'd Melicerides, and other Tumours, proceeding perhaps from the various conglutinating matter breaking forth from the Extremities of the Vessels. In the next Chapter he writes, that he himself once saw that Cartilaginous or Gristly Membrane in an Ox, and that the same was observ'd by Spigelius.

XI. Between both Membranes shoot Various Lymphatic Vessels, form'd like a kind of Net. forth various Lymphatic Vessels, like a kind of a Net, furnish'd with seve­ral Valves, which according to the ob­servation of Malpigius, contain a yel­lowish or somewhat reddish Liquor, but by my own, and the observation of o­thers, a Limpid, and by conspicuous passages carried through the Cawle, cast forth into the Receptacle of the Chylus. All which arise from many very small conglomerated Kernels contain'd in the Spleen.It is fur­nish'd with Fibres.

XII. It is also furnish'd with innu­merable Fibres thin and strong, com­pos'd of little Strings twisted together with a wonderful piece of Workman­ship, without any hollowness in them­selves. Glisson indeed attributes some­thing of hollowness to 'em, and mis­guided by that Error, that he thought they contributed to conveigh the Ali­mentary Juice to the Nerves. Malpigi­us altogether doubtful as to their Cavity, confesses he could not perceive it, and yet leaves it to more piercing and fortunate Inventions to determine the matter. O­thers, less accurate Inspectors, believ'd those Fibres to be a Contexture of the smallest Sanguiferous Vessels.

XIII. Besides the foremention'd Its Vessels. Lymphatic Vessels conspicuous among the Tunicles, it receives also other Vessels, as Arteries, Veins, and Nerves, dispers'd thorough its whole Body.

XIV. It is watered with two Arte­ries, Its Arte­ries. one entring the upper part, the other the lower part: which Malpigi­us observ'd to enter the Parenchyma, or Substance of the Spleen in an Ox and Sheep with one Branch, but in a Dog, a Horse, and several other Crea­tures, with three or four Branches. These Arteries are carried from the Branch of the left Coeliaca, which they call the Splenetick Artery, and sometimes from a certain Branch going forth from the Trunk of the Aorta, and with a winding Course proceeding to the Spleen by the side of the Pancre­as, and being there divided into a thousand Branches, are dispers'd all over it. Through these Arteries the Blood is forc'd, for which if there be not a passage sufficiently free, to the Roots of the Veins and the Splenetick [Page 100] Branch, so that it comes to boyl too much in the Spleen, there happens a Pul­sation in the Spleen no less than that in the Arteries. Of which Tulpius relates a miraculous Story, L. 2. Observ. 28. of a Pulsation of the Liver that was heard at the distance of thirty foot.

XV. It sends forth a great Vein Its Veins. from the flat part, call'd the Splenetic Branch, which sticks close to the Pa­renchyma with numberless Roots, out of which insensibly closing together, sometimes three, sometimes four or more greater Branches are found, by and by concurring altogether into that one Splenetick Branch which runs forth athwart under the Ventricle, through the upper parts of the Caul, to the Vena Portae, and discharges it self into it.

XVI. Highmore denies so many Highmore denies the great num­ber of the Veins. Veins, or that they run so far into the Bowel, and asserts the numerous San­guiferous Vessels to be only little Branches of the Arteries dispers'd through the whole Bowel, and believes the Anatomists to be deceiv'd, as mi­staking Fibres for Veins. But this same Bowel, of so remarkable a bigness, in respect of its Function, cannot but have many blood-bearing Vessels of both sorts, which tho' they can hardly be demon­strated perfectly distinct, yet may they be comprehended by the Understanding. For if there be so many Arteries that pour blood into the Bowel, there must be also many Veins to assume that infus'd Blood, and to carry it into the Splenetick Branch; for otherwise there would be a Restagnation of the blood, and conse­quently a Tumor and Inflammation of the Bowel.

XVII. Highmore hath also observ'd Its Valves. in the said Veins at the Exit out of the Spleen, certain little Valves looking forth from the Spleen, and soplac'd, as to suffer nothing to flow from the Splene­tick Branch to the Spleen, but only the Humours from the Spleen into the Splenetick Branch. Which Valves, tho' by reason of their extraordinary thinness, they can hardly be demonstra­ted, yet are they presently perceiv'd, so soon as the Splenetick Branch is puff't up, or that Water be injected into it through a Syringe; for then they hinder the breath and the water from penetrating into the Spleen.

XVIII. Bauhlnus, Bartholine, and Its A [...] ▪ moses. some others write, that in the inner part of the Bowel, several Branches of Arteries close together with the ends of the Veins by Anastomoses, by which means the Blood is transfus'd out of them into these; and so flow to the Splenetick Branch. But this seems not so probable, seeing that the blood in such a Passage or Transfusion only can­not acquire a requisite subacid fermenta­tive quality. And hence it is necessary, that that transfusion of the blood be made by some interceding Medium (as happens in the Liver, of which we shall say more below, when we come to dis­course of the Function of the Spleen. In the mean while one remarkable Anasto­mosis is to be observ'd (rarely two) by which the Trunk of the Artery, before it enters the Spleen, closes with the Sple­netick Branch. Which seems to be form'd to that end, partly that the Arterious Blood▪ by its mixture, may render the Humours more fluid that are carried out of the Spleen to the Splenetic Branch, and excite 'em to more speedy motion. Partly, that the redundant and superfluous blood, which by reason of the narrowness of the Passages cannot pass with that requisite swiftness through the Spleen, may flow through this Anastomosis into the Sple­netick Branch.

XIX. Now there is a Vessel call'd The Vas breve. Vas venosum breve, which enters the Splenetick Branch, not far from, or rather just at its going forth, frequent­ly in Man at the very Exit of the Branch out of the Spleen; in Beasts, a little farther off, the Roots of which Vessel sticking to the Ventricle, meet together about the bottom of it, seldom joyning into one, frequently into two or more Chanels, and so constitute sometimes one, sometimes two or three Vasa brevia, which all shoot forth in­to the Splenetick Branch. In Dogs and other brute Beasts, rarely one, frequent several Vasa brevia, descend into the said Splenetick Vessel.

XX. Sometimes a certain Vein as­cending Internal Haemor­rhoid V [...] upwards from the inner part of the Podex, enters the Splenetick Branch at the lower part, and pours forth its blood into it. The Roots of which adhering to the inner part of the Podex, are call'd Venae Haemorrhoi­dales internae, the Internal Haemor­rhoidal [Page 101] Veins, of which nevertheless the Trunk is most frequently inserted into the le [...]t Mesenteric Vein. These Ves­sels, that is to say Arteries and Veins, be­fore their Entrance, are covered with a double Tunicle; the outermost of which they put off when they enter, and cast next about the Spleen, and by that means the Tunicle of the Spleen is made out of it.

XXI. Besides the forementioned No Chy­lus goes to the Spleen. Vessels carrying manifest Humours, some there are who tell us of milkie Vessels. But it is most certain that no milkie Vessels shoot forth to the Spleen. For if the Chylus were carried thi­ther, it would run the hazard of a Coa­gulation, by reason of the acidity of the Splenetick Liquor. And there­fore they are also mistaken who think that part of the Chylus ascends from the Vena Portae, through the Splenetic Branch to the Spleen, as was former­ly asserted by the Ancients, and lately by Ent, Apolog. Art. 23. But through that Branch, as well the blood that remains out of the Nourishment of the Stomach, as that which is after a pe­culiar manner concocted in the Spleen is swiftly carried through the Vena Portae and the Liver. Which is most apparent in the Dissections of living A­nimals by a knot fasten'd upon that Branch. For presently a swelling will arise between the Ligature and the Spleen, and a lankness toward the Vena Portae. Which Ligature, if it be ty'd in live Dogs, somewhat before the En­trance of the Vas breve into the Splene­tick Branch, then the swelling will ap­pear between the Spleen and the Liga­ture, and the lankness on the other side. Which is a certain sign, that none of the thinnest Chylus, which nevertheless Regi­us inculcates is carried from the Stomach to the Spleen through Vas venosum breve, or other Gastric Vessels, to be there al­ter'd into a fermentaceous matter; but that the venal blood only descends from the Ventricle through that Vessel, and flows directly through the Splenetick Branch to the Vena Portae. Moreover if the said Ligature be ty'd upon the Vas breve it self, then are we taught another thing; for then presently the swelling ap­pears between the Ligature and the Ves­sel, and the lankness toward the Splene­tick Branch. By which it is plain, that the blood descends from the Veins of the Ventricle, as has been said, but that no Melancholy or Acid Juice ascends this way to the Ventricle, and is pour'd forth to create hunger, according to the Asser­tion of the Ancients. Lastly, if the short Vessel be open'd by Incision above the Ligature, and the Liquor flowing out be taken up in a Spoon, any man may see that it is only the pure Venal Blood, with­out any mixture of Chylus; and that it differs not a jot either in Substance or in Colour, from any other Venal Blood; and this whether you look upon it warm or cold. Which plainly overthrows the Opinion of those, who affirm part of the Chylus to be carried to the Spleen through those Passages. An Opinion which we have sufficiently refuted in the seventh Chapter above.

XXII. Besides the foresaid Vessels, Its Nerves the Spleen also receives two little Branches of Nerves, deriv'd from the Costal Branch of the sixth Pair, which do not only pass through the out­ward Tunicle, and not lose them­selves there, as was formerly thought by many, but penetrating further in­ward, are distributed through the innermost parts of the Bowel, with a manifold Ramification, which little Branches accompany the Blood-bearing Vessels, and are enfolded in the same Covering with them, being form'd out of the proper Membrane that covers the Spleen, which at the entrance of the Vessels turning inward, and shap'd into the fashion of a Pipe, accompanies, and as it were gathers into a Bundle the Ramifications of the said Vessels Glisson also observes that these Nerves, the nearer they approach to the Spleen, the larger they grow; as they likewise do in a little space after they have en­ter'd the Spleen.

XXIII. Moreover, Glisson writes, Whether they carry any Ali­mentary Liquor? that the ends of these Nerves are uni­ted with Nervous Fibres, and by that means a certain Alimentary Li­quor is infus'd out of the one into the other, and carried from these to the greater Nerves (which Alimentary Liquor, he says withal, is pour'd forth through the Parenchyma of the Spleen, being first extended by the Fibres themselves) afterwards this Liquor is conveigh'd into the Folding of the Nerves adjoyning to the Renal Glan­dules, from thence, as occasion shall [Page 102] serve, to be distributed into all the Nerves of the Body, either immedi­ately through the Nerves of the sixth Pair, or by the means of the Brain and Spinal Marrow; and so to be carried to all parts of the Body. But the most learned Person is in this par­ticular altogether out of the way. For, as has been said, the Fibres are not hollow, nor have the Nerves sufficient Cavities through which any Liquor pre­pared in the Spleen can pass: nor was e­ver any Anatomist so quick-sighted as to see any Liquor in the Nerves, or that after Dissection could squeez the least drop out of 'em. Besides, it is un­questionable, and no more than what is receiv'd and establish'd by all Philoso­phers, that the Animal Spirits are thrust forward through the Invisible Pores of the Nerves from the Brain and oblong Marrow into all the parts of the Body: Now then, shall any other visible Ali­mentary Liquor, thicker than the Spi­rits, ascend from the Spleen to the Brain, or its Marrow through the same Invisi­ble Pores by any other Chanel or Stream? Will the Nerves receive the Alimenta­ry Juice from the Spleen into themselves, not only to be cast forth into other parts, but also to be remitted back into the Spleen it self? Shall at another time the smallest drop of Liquor falling upon the Nerves beget a Palsie, and shall this en­tring in abundance out of the Spleen pro­duce no harm? These are very great Absurdities, and therefore an Opinion supported by such slender Props must fall of Necessity. See more of this L. 8. c. 1.

XXIV. Here some one perhaps may Wherefore the Spleen is not so quick of Feeling. put the Question how it comes to pass, that the Spleen furnish'd with so ma­ny little Branches of Nerves should be so dull of Feeling, seeing that the Nerves are not only endued with a most quick Sense, but also contribute to all the membranous Parts by the animal Spirits a most acute Feeling? The reason of this is, because there is a continual Numness upon those Nerves occasioned by the subacid Substance of the Spleen, which is perceived in the Tast of the Spleen being boyl'd, and Sowre withal, as also by acid fermenta­tive Iuice which is bred therein, en­compassing the Nerves. As the chew­ing of acid and sowre things begets a Numness in the Teeth, so that their Sense of Feeling is much less, or at least more obtuse than at another time.

And thus much concerning the Ves­sels, whose State and Condition, how they were found out by accurate In­spection into the Spleen of an Ox, Malpigius describes l. de lien. c. 3.

XXV. After the Fibres and the The Sub­stance. Vessels, the Substance it self of the Spleen is to be enquired into; which in a sound Spleen is somewhat hard and firm; and endures handling without any harm; but in a sickly Condition of Health grows softer and is easily dissolv'd. Thus in Scorbu­tic and Hypochondriacal Persons I have often found it so soft upon Dissection, that with the least Touch the Finger would enter into it: And the external Air would easily dissolve it; tho' out­wardly at first sight there was nothing to be discovered amiss either in Bigness or Colour. I dissected a Scorbutic Thief that was hang'd in March 1651. The Substance of whose Spleen was very soft; yet neither exceeding due Proportion nor ill Colour; and at that time, being cold Weather, within two days, it was dis­solved by the external Air into a fro­thy Liquor of an obscure red Colour, so that unless it were several Fibres and thin Vessels, there was nothing solid appeared within its Membrane. From whence appears the Mistake of many, who in the Scurvy and Hypochondriacal Distemper, Quartan Agues, and other Diseases arising from the Spleen, always lay the Fault upon the Obstruction, Hardness, and Tumor of this Bowel, when for the most part there is never­theless no such Fault in it to be found in those that dye of those Distempers, and only some specific Dyscrasis or peculiar Disposition of the Part receding from its natural Sanity, are the cause of these Distempers; while that peculiar Indis­position begets some Matter either too Acid or too Sharp, too weak or too fix'd, or some other way out of Order. Yet we do not deny but that in a preterna­tural State, sometimes it becomes so brawny and hard, that it may be felt without side of the Body. Nay George Queccius, a Physician of Norimberg and Schenckius, have seen Spleens that have been crusted in the Middle with a Car­tilaginous Substance.

XXVI. Many have affirm'd that Whether [...] be li [...] [...] Substance of the [...] ver. this Substance is like the Substance of the Liver, and that this Bowel per­forms the same Office with it, and that when that Bowel is out of Order, [Page 103] this Bowel alone does its Duty. But the Dissimilitude of each Part is suf­ficiently apparent both from the Colour and the Tast. For the Colour, which in a raw Liver is Ruddy and altoge­ther Sanguine, in the Spleen is Black and Blue, or of a leaden Colour. And that which in a boyl'd or roasted Liver is somewhat Yellowish, in a roasted Spleen is like the Dreggs of red Wine. Then the Tast of a boyl'd Liver is be­tween bitterish and sweetish; the Tast of a boyl'd Spleen is somewhat acid and sowrish.

XXVII. It is commonly held, that Whether it be bloody. the Substance of the Spleen is a cer­tain Mass of clotted Blood, suppor­ting the Vessels that run through it; because it is easily made fluid by a slight Attrition. But Malpigius, ut­terly destroys this Opinion, who ha­ving accurately searched into the My­steries of this Bowel with his Micro­scopes, writes that the whole Body of the Spleen is a membranous Mass di­stinguished into little Cells and Apart­ments, and not so thick a Body as it has been formerly describ'd to be, but loose and thin. And to this Know­ledg he attain'd by a particular Experi­ment: That is by blowing up the Spleen through the Splenetic Artery and Branch, till it was very much swollen, and drying it swell'd as it was; for so, he says, it may be plainly seen, that the whole Mass of the Spleen consists of Mem­branous Ends or Cells like the Cells of Hony-combs. And as for the Original of these Cells, and their wonderful Structure, he elegantly and at large de­scribes it in his Book de Liene, where it is to be read.

XXVIII. The same Malpigius was Little Glandules in the Spleen. the first that observed in the Sub­stance of the Spleen several little Glandules worthy Observation: Of which he thus writes. In the Spleen, says he, are to be observ'd several nu­merous Clusters of little Glandules, or ra­ther little Bladders or Baggs dispersed through the whole Spleen, that resemble a Cluster of Grapes exactly. The least of these Glandules are of an Oval Figure, and in bigness little differ from the▪ Glan­dules of the Kidneys. Their Colour as I have always observ'd, is White; and al­tho' the Vasa Sanguinea of the Spleen by the pouring in of Ink swell and play a­bout 'em, these preserve the same Colour. Their Substance seems to be Membranous; but soft and subject to crumble. Their Hollowness by reason of their extraordina­ry Smallness, is not perceptible to the Eye, and only to be apprehended by Conjecture▪ while being slit they seem to fall one into another. They are very numerous and almost innumerable, and are wonderfully placed in the forementioned Cells of the whole Spleen, where vulgarly its Paren­chyma is said to be. Also from the Slips there hang little Boxes, or else from the Fibres that arise from it: And besides the ends of the Arteries like young Vine Shoots, or crawling Ivy creep about 'em, which is to be observ'd in a fresh Splee [...], the Arteries being blacken'd. They hang for the most part in Clusters, every Cluster containing seven or eight. Yet they do not so easily appear in the Spleen of every Creature. Nay in the Spleen of an Ox, a Sheep, or a Goat, they are only to be dis­covered upon Laceration of the Bowel; or by a slight shaving with a Penkife, and long washing with fair Water. They are not so eas [...]ly discrib'd in a Man. But if by the occasion of any Disease the whole Body of the▪ Glandules swell, they appear more manifest, being enlarg'd in Bigness, as I observ'd in a Girl that dy'd, whose Spleen was full of little Globes dispersed in Clusters. More than this in the same place he tells ye his Opinion of the Use of Glandules, and what separation of Humors is made therein in a Discourse at large.

Certainly we are much indebted to this quicksighted Malpigius, who by his Microscopes, has so clearly dispell'd the thick Clouds that hung over the Knowledg of the Spleen, to the end the use of it, which was doubtful before, may be the better understood.

XXIX. Sometimes unusual things Unusual things found in the Spleen. have been found in the Spleen, Vesa­lius l. 19. de Corp. fab. c. 9. writes that he found in the Spleen of a cer­tain Person, small enough, but of an extraordinary Hardness, Fat growing to the gibbous or bunchy Part, com­pacted together like a hard white Stone. Schenkius, Observ. l. 3. relates that there was found in the Body of a Spoletan Lord a Spleen without any Juice or Pulp at all, empty like a Purse, and fix'd to the left Ribs. T [...]rneiferus in Exam. Urin. writes that he found a Stone in the Spleen of a certain noble Woman, of the Bigness of a Chestnut, soft as Alabaster, weighing two Oun­ces and five Drams, consisting as it were [Page 104] of thin places wrapt one within another like Eggshels. In like manner Fallopius has observed Stones to be bred in the Spleen. In the Year 1667. in Ianuary, we dissected a Woman in the presence of several Spectators, whose Spleen was exact, as to its Proportion, and for heat and hardness well enough; but in the fore-part, where it looks toward the Stomach, we observ'd a white Sub­stance much different from the Substance of the Bowel, hard and firm, and which would scarce give way to the crushing of the Fingers, about the bigness of a Goose Egg, not growing withoutside to the Bowel, nor swelling outward from it, but plainly and truly continuous with it, and being a part of it, tho' no­thing like the other Particles of the Bow­el; neither could it be called Fat or a Glandule, from whose Service it differ'd altogether.

XXX. Concerning the Temper of The Tem­per of the Spleen. the Spleen, some question whether it be to be call'd a hot or a cold Part? To which I answer that it ought to be call'd a cold Part. Not that it is really cold, but less hot than the Heart, Liver, and many other Bowels; and besides, because it refrigerates the arte­rious Blood that flows into it, and makes it subacid; and fixes and dulls its sulphury hot Particles, and deprives 'em of all their Volatilitie.

XXXI. Concerning the Action of The Acti­on. the Spleen, various are the Opinions of the Learned.

Erasistratus, and Ruffus the Ephesian will allow it no Office or Function. A­ristotle affirms it to be necessary by Acci­dent, like the Excrements of the Belly and Bladder. Hippocrates calls the Spleen a Fountain of Water. And hence perhaps Wharton affirms that it sucks forth a watry Liquor out of the Blood, but to what end cannot be discovered, unless it be for the Nourishment of the Nerves: Which Opinion we have suf­ficiently refuted; to which he adds se­veral other things of little Moment con­cerning the use of the Spleen.

XXXII. Many according to the Whether it separate Melancholy from the Chylus. Opinion of Galen and the Ancients, believed the Office of it to be, to se­parate the feculent or melancholy part of the Chylus, and to attract it through the splenetic▪ Branch, and to collect it into its self (as the Gall-bladder re­ceives the yellow Choler) and to con­coct it somwhat, than to empty it a­gain partly through the Vas Breve into the Stomach to excite Hunger, and partly through the splenetic Branch into the Intestins, and through the Haemorrhoidal Vein to the Podex. Which Opinion Bauhi­nus, Riolan, and Bartholine, have refuted by many and almost the same Reasons; tho' there were little need of so many, when these three are sufficient to destroy it. 1. Because there is no such large Hollowness in the Spleen, where such Excrement should be stor'd up. 2. Because there is no way through which it may be commodiously evacu­ated, since it neither ought nor can pass and repass through the same Splenetic Branch. 3. Because if in a living Ani­mal you tye a Knot upon the Splenetic Vein, the Vas venosum breve, and the Haemorrhoidal Vein, it demonstrates the contrary, as we have already shown, which Demonstration alone is sufficient to destroy that fond Opinion.

XXXIII. Vesalius, Plater, CharlesWhether it make Blood. Piso, Bauhin, Spigelius, Jessenus, and many others, affirm'd the Spleen to be a sanguifying Bowel, no less than the Liver, and call'd it, as A­ristotle does, Hepar Vicarium, the Deputy-Liver: believing when the Liver was distempered, that this Bow­el did execute its Office. Chiefly en­duc'd by this Argument, because the Spleen in the Birth is of a ruddy Colour, just like the Liver, and for that the Spleen being deprav'd, San­guification is annoy'd. Then they thought, that that same Blood which was made in the Spleen serv'd for the Nourishment of Bowels contain'd in the Abdomen, as the Liver-blood serves for the Nourishment of the rest of the Parts. Which splenetick Blood they affirm'd was made of the watry feculent Chylus, which some believe to be car­ried thither through the Milkie Vessels, others from the Stomach through the Vas Breve, and others, that it was at­tracted by the Spleen through the Sple­netic Branch. But this Opinion by ma­ny things already said, is most plainly overturned: Seeing the Work of San­guification is not accomplished either by the Liver or the Spleen, but only by the Heart: there being no Vessels that proceed from the Liver through which any Blood can conveniently flow to the Nourishment of the Parts seated in the [Page 105] Abdomen: Neither are there any Pas­sages that convey the Chylus to the Spleen, as being a Part to which no Milkie Vessels run: Neither is any thing carried through the Vas venosum breve from the Stomach; seeing that the said Vas breve is not inserted into the Spleen, but into the Splenetic Branch without the Spleen; nor can any Attraction be made of the Splenetic Branch toward the Spleen, as is before prov'd. Veslin­gius therefore observing this Difficulty of the Access of the Chylus, flyes to the Invisible Pores of the Ventricle; through which he says, there is a watry Chylus conveighed to the Spleen; but proves it by no Reasons. Lastly this Opinion is totally refuted by the circular Moti­on of the Blood, by which it is appa­rent that no Blood is carried to the Parts from the Liver or Spleen through the Veins for the Ends of Nutrition; nor can be carried by any manner of Means by reason of the obstructing Valves; but that the Boold is all trans [...]uted from the Heart through the Arteries to all the Parts.

XXXIV. Emilius Parisanus, Sub­til.Whether it prepare blood for the [...]eart. l. 6. Exercit. 2. c. 3. following the Opinion of Ulmus, believes that the Spleen prepares Arterious Blood out of the best part of the Chylus for the left Ventricle of the Heart; which Blood is carried through the Arteries into the Aorta, and thence into the left Ventricle of the Heart. Which Fiction Ent deservedly derides and explodes, Apolog. Artic. 23. Galen also writes, that some of the Scholars of Erasistratus believ'd that the whole Chy­lus was carried to the Spleen, by which it was made into a courser sort of Blood for the Liver. But both these Opinions are so absurd, that if we only consider the Passages and Motion of the Blood, they want no farther Refutation.

XXXV. Walaeus observing that Whether it [...] the [...] part of the blood. there was no motion of the Humours through the Splenetick Branch to the Spleen, nor that any milkie Vessels reach'd thither, concluded rightly, that the matter concocted in the Spleen is Arterial Blood infus'd into it through the Coeliaca. Only in this he fail'd, that he thought the Spleen at­tracted to it self the acid part of the blood, and not the rest, as if the Spleen being endu'd with judgment and taste, was more pleas'd with the acid than the sweet part, and not only could distin­guish, but knew how to separate the one from the other. Moreover, he consi­der'd not, that in Arterial Blood there are no Particles actually acid, but that acid Particles are generated in the Spleen out of the saltest Particles of it, which being mix'd with the Venal Blood, serve instead of a Ferment, whose slightest aci­dity concocted in a specific manner in the Liver with the sulphurous Particles, changes it into a biliary Ferment, which by that Effervescency that is made in the Heart, perishes again and vanishes.

XXXVI. Glisson asserts that the Whether it nourish the Nerves. chief Action of the Spleen is to make Alimentary Liquor for the Nou­rishment of the Nerves, which Opini­on we rejected when we discours'd of the Nerves of the Spleen.

XXXVII. As for Helmont's Opi­nion, Whether the seat of the Soul. who places the seat of the sensi­tive Soul in the Spleen, it is not worth a Refutation.

XXXVIII. The most accurate and An Expe­riment of Malpigius industrious Malpigius, being very much dissatisfied concerning the Action and Use of the Spleen, to the end he might be able to assert something more certain than others had done, resolv'd to try an ingenious Experiment, hoping thereby to discover some light in this obscure darkness.

In a young Dog (says he) having made a wound in the left Hypochondrium, the bloody Vessels of the Spleen bursting forth at the gates of the Spleen, were ty'd with a string, then thrusting back what was coming forth into their places, the Perito­naeum and Muscles being sow'd up together, and the skin loosly united, in a few days time the wound was cur'd. In a weeks time the Dog recover'd, and ran about as he us'd to do, so that as long as he liv'd there was no sign observ'd that any harm had been done him, or of the hurt of his health: But becoming more hungry, he greedily devour'd his Meat, and eat Bones or any thing of that nature; and his Ex­crement observ'd the exact course of Na­ture. One thing only I observ'd, that the Dog piss't frequently, and very much; which though it be customary to other Dogs, yet this seem'd to exceed the common cu­stome. The habit of body every way heal­thy and fat; and in nimbleness and brisk­ness equal to others of his kind. But this was peculiar in the external habit of his body, a swelling of the right Hypochon­drium, so that the extream Ribs burgeon'd out beyond the rest. Thereupon, fresh hopes [Page 106] encouraging, a second Dissection is design'd. The Spleen then in the slit Abdomen whose Vessels were fast ty'd, appear'd very slender, so that being wrapt with the Caul, there hard­ly remain'd any footstep of it behind. For it resembled a small bag interwoven with Membranes: the Blood-Vessels numerously dispers'd to the Stomach, and through the Caul, were entire and flourishing, and full of blood. The Splenetic Branch open, and natural, surrounded with its natural fat. The Liver to sight, as to substance, colour, and shootings forth of the Branches, all in good order: only you might have said it ex­ceeded a little in bigness, in regard it spread it self largely over the left Hypochondri­um. Neither was there any thing found amiss in the Breast or the Abdomen, or the fleshy part: the blood brisk, ruddy, and fluid. All these things being found in a Dog, gave us not the least light to find out the use of the Liver.

Certainly it is a wonder that nothing could be learnt or found out concerning the Use of the Spleen: Nevertheless I put down this, that I might excite others to make the like Experiments; that so at length the true use of the Spleen may come not only to be taught by Reason, but to be shewn and prov'd by Demon­stration.

XXXIX. From what has been said, The true Action of the Spleen. it is abundantly apparent how various and uncertain the Opinions of most Doctors are concerning the Use of the Spleen, so that hardly any one has hit upon the true use of it; which is no o­ther, than to make acid matter out of the Arterial Blood, out of which be­ing again mix'd with the sulphurous Particles in the Liver, and concocted after a specific manner, the bilious Fer­ment of the Blood and Chylus is made. But how that acid Matter or Juice is ge­nerated within it, is not so easie to be ex­plain'd. That Operation seems to pro­ceed in this manner. In the Substance of the Liver, which is acid by nature, are contain'd many Glandules; now the blood is pour'd into those small Glan­dules through the ends of the Arteries; and into that the Animal Spirits are in­fus'd through the ends of the Nerves, concluding in those Glandules, which taming the sulphurous spirit of the blood, give it a slight Acrimony; with which be­ing once endu'd by the compression of the adjoyning parts, it is squeez'd out of the said Glandules, and swallowed up by the Roots of the Splenetick Vein; and so flows through the Splenetick Vein through the Porta and Liver. But before it runs under the Roots of the Veins, it seems to stay in the adjacent Cells, whose Sub­stance is acid, and by that stay acquires in them a more eager acidity, as Wine standing in a Vinegar Vessel, acquires a more acid Acrimony.

XL. Here arises a Question, Whe­ther Whether a man may live with his Spleen cut out. the Spleen be a Vessel necessary to Life; and whether it may be taken and cut out of a Man's Body, and the wound heal'd again without any da­mage of Life or Health? For the Af­firmative part the Authority of Pliny of­fers it self, who L. 11. c. 37. thus writes, It is certain that the Bird call'd Aegoce­phalus has no Spleen, nor any of those Creatures that want blood. It is many times a peculiar impediment, and therefore they that are troubled with it, have it burnt out; and Creatures are said to live after it is taken out by Incision. Trallian seems to prove Plinies Opinion by a Practical Example, who L. 8. re­lates that a Soldier was once cur'd by him, the whole region of whose Spleen had been burnt with barbarous hot I­ron-Tools. Bartholine also Cent. 4. Anat. Rar. Hist. 51. endeavours to confirm the Authority of Pliny, by the Experience of Fierovantus, boasting that he had cut the Spleen out of a certain Woman, and so restor'd her to health; of which he writes there is no question to be made, because of the Witnesses, whereas he produces no Witnesses of any credit. This Experiment of Fierovantus, Deusin­gius both quotes and admires, and out of Francis Rousset, brings the Testimonies of two inconsiderable obscure Surgeons, who affirm'd that they had taken out Spleens that were alter'd and wounded, and had heal'd the Patients with success; and giving undoubted credit to these Te­stimonials, he concludes concerning the Spleen; This Bowel is not necessary for Life, but only for a more happy Constitution of Health; not so much to being, as to well­being; not to Nutrition and Preservation simply, but to a better Nutrition, as the generation of a thinner, more elaborate, and more spiritous Blood. To the Con­firmation of which Opinion, the forego­ing Experiment of Malpigius very much conduces, taken out of the same Author. And that same new way, lately first in­vented in England, of cutting the Spleen out of Dogs that live for all that, seems very much to favour this Opinion. As we also, with several others, have seen a whole Spleen taken, or cut out of a Dog, the Abdomen of the left side being slit by [Page 107] Regnerde Graesf, and the Vessels of the Spleen well ty'd with a strong Thred: afterwards the wo [...]nd being cur'd, the Dog was recover'd, for which reason we call'd the Dog Spleenless. At the same time the same accurate Dissecter R. de Graesf, told us, That the English gave him an account, how that those Dogs after their Spleens were taken out, were afterwards always barren: and that therefore he resolv'd to try the Experi­ment in a Bitch, which he kept after he had cut out the Spleen and cur'd the wound: but thls Bitch growing proud was lin'd by a Dog, and whelp'd two Puppies, by which he refuted the obser­vation of the English. All these things seem to shew that there is no great ne­cessity of this Bowol for Life, nor so no­ble a use as hitherto has been attributed to it.

The Negative is maintain'd, not only by the Ancients, but also by Levinus Lemnius, Toby Knoblock, Lindan, and innumerable other Neoteric Physicians; nay, of six thousand you shall hardly find one that does not altogether ex­plode the former Opinion. Of which C [...]lius Aurelianus thus writes; That the Spleen may be cut or taken away, we have heard indeed related in words, but never actually perform'd. Reason also and Ex­perience support the same Negative.

XLI. Reason: For that the chief The former Opinion re­ [...]ed by Reason. Architect never made any thing in our Bodies in vain, and therefore all the Bowels, none excepted, and all the parts are found and given to some necessary Use. What man then in his Sen [...]s can believe, that so eminent and large a Bowel as the Spleen is, and with which all Creatures that have blood, ex­cept some few, are endu'd, should be gi­ven in vain to Men and Beasts, without any necessity for Human Life. Of whose true Function and Use, altho' we in these darknesses of Nature, may not perhaps so rightly judge, and raise sharp Disputes upon this Subject, yet this does not take away the Use of the Bowel it self for the support of Life, seeing that not only its remarkable bigness, and admirable connexion and society with other Bowels, sufficiently shew, but also Health proceeding from its soundness, and several Diseases arising from its de­prav'd Constitution, daily teach us the Necessity of it.

XLII. Experience: For that ne­ver, By Experi­ence. that I know of, it was ever seen, heard, written or observ'd by any Physician of any Credit or Authority, that ever any man had his Spleen cut out and liv'd. The Story of Trallian proves nothing; for he does not say that his Patients Spleen was cut out, or con­sum'd and wasted by Ustion; but only that the exterior Region of the Spleen was cauteriz'd. As for Fierovantus, he was a strowling Mountebank, of no Au­thority, and very little Credit, who en­deavour'd to impose upon silly People, that he might appear a greater Physici­an among the Vulgar than he was. As for those obscure Chirurgeons cited out of Roussettus, there is the same Credit to be given to them. And we remember a thousand other such like little Fables re­lated to us, by certain ignorant and vain­glorious Surgeons, to whom there was no Credit to be given. Certainly, if the thing were really so, we should not need in this Age to fetch Testimonials from Mountebanks and stupid Barber Chirur­geons, since we have had so many thou­sand eminent and famous Physicians and Philosophers, who have made it their business to dive into the Mysteries of Nature, of whom, tho' not all, yet some would have seen and observ'd some­thing concerning this matter. But now the whole Confirmation rests upon the uncertain Testimonies of some obscure Authors, which are contradicted by o­ther more ponderous Reasons, besides the former alledged; so that the said O­pinion can no longer be propt by any more such weak Supporters: For that besides the Nerves, large Blood-bearing Vessels enter the Spleen of a Man, and go forth again; two Splenetick Arteries and various Veins meeting in one Sple­netick Branch, of which the sole re­section is sufficient, to kill a man with a vast Flux of blood. For it is not pro­bable that these Vessels can be so straitly bound by any Knots, or other astringent Remedies, but that the Flux of blood must be very great for all that. Or if they be bound with Strings (which in that hidden part of Man cannot conve­niently be done, as is known to them that understand the Constitution and Connexion of the Bowel) yet then not long after, the Threads being putrify'd, either a deadly Flux of blood or a Gan­grene, must of necessity follow. More­over, I my self have more than once seen Spleens wounded with Swords and Spears, but never knew any man so wounded escape, notwithstanding all the diligence that I and other Surgeons could use. Now if only the wounds, and [Page 108] those slight ones too, of this Bowel are Mortal; nay, if only its being out of order, its obstruction, or any other Di­stemper so grievously disturb the whole body, and many times occasion death; how much more deadly will it be, how much more destructive to the body and to life, when it is all taken away? As for Dogs, whose Spleens are cut out, they do not all live; nay, of many so serv'd, very few recover; and they, the rest of their lives, dull, heavy and sloth­ful, nor do they live long. And that for this reason without doubt; for that for want of convenient matter to be afford­ed from the Spleen, convenient Ferment cannot be prepar'd in the Liver, which causes a thicker blood to be generated in the Heart, out of which blood but few Animal and Vital Spirits can be rais'd, and those very thick. Besides, what may be done safely and conveniently in a Dog, to attempt that in Man, to the ha­zard of Life, would be a Villany. For that which in this particular proves not mortal in a Dog, would certainly kill a Man. Without doubt, there is no Per­son of sound Judgment but must suffer himself to be perswaded, but that this Bowel executes a more necessary Action in Man, than in a Dog, in whom the Pancreas, or other part, may better sup­ply the office of the Spleen, than in a Man, as in whom the whole Bowel is furnish'd with so many Arteries, Veins, and Nerves, and furnish'd with its own Parenchyma, and consequently cannot be created in vain.

XLIII. Hence it is apparent what The Spleen▪ not of so great vse in a Dog as in a Man. is to be answer'd to that Experiment of Malpigius, that is to say, that be­cause there is a lesser use of a Spleen, and not so necessary an action requir'd from it in a Dog as in a Man: hence it happens that some Dogs may want the use of it, and yet not all; Experience teaching us, that several have perish'd in a short time, whose Spleens have been cut out, and few have escap'd. Whereas it is otherwise in Man, in whom seeing the least disorder of the Spleen many ways, and after a wonderful man­ner disturbs the whole Microcosmical Kingdom, much more dammage would it receive from the taking it out of the Body.

XLIV. And therefore we must con­clude It is a most necessary Bowel for Life. the Spleen to be in man most ne­cessary for Life, and that it cannot be cut out, and the life of man be still preserv'd.

CHAP. XVII. Of the Function of the Liver and Spleen; also of the use of Choler, the Pancreatick and Lymphatick Iuice.

I. HOW various the Opinions A Dig [...] ­sion. of several Men have been concerning the use of Choler, the Pan­creatic Iuice, and the Lympha, we have shewn in the foregoing Chapters. But since no Body has as yet perceiv'd, or at least describ'd the Dignity of those Bowels, nor the necessity of those Juices, it will be now time that those Mysteries that have lain hid for so many Ages, should be brought to light, from the knowledge whereof will arise the greatest light to Physic, and the obscure and un­known Causes of many Diseases will be discover'd.

II. The Actions of the Liver, the The [...] ­ons of the three [...] ­els. Spleen, and the Sweet-bread all con­spire to the self same end, and prepare the Ferment of the Blood and Chylus together, in the making whereof the Functions of these three must of ne­cessity concur, when the one cannot perfect this business without the o­ther.

As Leaven is mix'd with Flowre of Wheat kneaded with warm Water, that thereby the more thick and earthy Parts of the Wheat may be dissolv'd, and the spirituous Parts asleep and ly­ing hid in that terrestrial Mass may be attenuated and stirr'd up, and so the whole Mass of Bread being throughly besprinkl'd with those attenuated Spirits is made more light and easy for Digesti­on: Thus there is a necessity for the Ferment to be mix'd with the Chylus and Venal Blood, by means of which the spirituous Particles lying hid therein, may be attenuated and quicken'd up, and so the whole Mass be more fit for Sangui­fication and Nourishment.

III. Now that same Leaven of The Fer­ment of Bread [...], [...] [...] [...] [...] operates. Bread, which will bring us more ea­sily to the Knowledg of the Ferment of the Blood and Chylus, is gene­rally [Page 109] made of some Quantity of Meal which is kneaded together with warm Water, to which is added a small Quantity of Salt & Vinegar, and so kept in a warm Place, till the salt or acid Spirits are somewhat volati­liz'd by the Heat, and pierce through the Particles of the Mass of Flower, and dilate and separate 'em, and so render the whole Mass▪ Subacid and Fermentative. Then a little Piece of this acid Ferment being mix'd into the Mass of Meal kneaded with warm Water, causes the whole Mass to ferment. For those Fermentaceous Particles diffuse themselves through the whole Mass, and cut and attenuate all the Parts of the Dough, and the Spirits therein lying hid. Our Country Folks mix also Yest with their Dough to the same end; and others perhaps may use another Ferment; but all Ferment, what­ever it be, consists of Salt, Acid, Sowre, and Corroding things, melted and some­what volatiliz'd with a moderate Heat: Which if they be thicker and closer, are more slowly dissolv'd, and their Power shews it self more slowly, and must be mix'd a longer time with the Dough be­fore they can ferment it, as happens in the first Ferment, which must be mix'd for many Hours, and sometimes a whole Night, to perfect its Work. But if by the Mixture of certain sulphury Particles they become Spirituous and more Volatiliz'd, they ferment presently as we find in Yest, which within an Hour, or half an Hour, and sometimes sooner, accomplishes its Operation. For the more spirituous sharp Particles be in this more free from the Matter wherein they are lodged, and for that Reason are in­dued with a more penetrating Power, operate more suddainly, and in a short time dissolve the thick Particles of the Dough, and more swiftly rouse the la­tent Spirits, which they do yet more vi­olently, if a little Honey be added toN [...]te this [...], viz. [...] Honey [...] the Ferment. the Yest: For the Honey contains in it self sharp Particles, but lately dissolv'd by the Sulphury, and involv'd within 'em. But nothing of this is perform'd without a moderate Heat, as being that by which the salt Particles must be brought to a moderate acid Quality, and something of Volatility.

IV. In the same manner it is with Chyle and [...] fer­ [...] in [...] same [...]. the Chylus and Venal Blood, which if they be not attenuated and pre­pared by the Mixture of convenient Ferment before Sanguification, then they fail to be full of spirits in the heart. That is to say, the Spirits lying asleep therein, are not sufficiently separated from the more thick and serous Matter, but lye drowsie still, which produces thick and watery blood, of little use to nourish the Body and strengthen the Parts; whence the Body becomes lan­guid, and both Natural and Animal Actions go but slowly forward.

V. This Ferment of the Blood and The Liver causes the Ferment. Chylus is made by the Liver, with which Hepatic Ferment however, the Pancreatic Iuice is mixt in the Duo­denum, for the more special prepara­tion of the Chylus flowing out of the Stomach.

VI. The matter out of which the The matter of the Fer­ment. Liver makes this Ferment, is the Ve­nal Blood flowing into it from the Gastric and Mesaraics through the Vena Portae, and a small quantity through the small Branches of the E­patic Artery, with which is mix'd a sowre, salt, acid Iuice, made in the Spleen of the Arterial Blood flowing into it through the Arteries, and the Animal Spirits through the Nerves, which is carried through the Splenetic Branch to the Vena Portae, and toge­ther with the Blood with which it is mixed is conveighed to the Liver.

VII. And by means of this sharp Preparati­on of the Ferment. and corroding Iuice, by the specific power of the Liver, the spiritous Par­ticles, as well the sulphury as salt, la­tent in that Venal Blood, are dissolv'd, attenuated, and also made somewhat sharp and fermentative, and some cer­tain thinnest part of' em, like fair and clear water, by means of the conglo­merated Glandules seated chiefly in the hollow part of the Liver, separating it self from the remaining thicker part of the Blood through many Lymphatic Vessels, is carried from the Liver in­to several Veins, to prepare the Venal Blood flowing toward the Heart. But the greatest part of it is carried to the Vasa Chylifera, in them to prepare the Chylus for succeeding Fermentation in the Heart. To which end also a certain fermentative Spittle, as also a salt and somewhat acid Lympha is also carried thither from the Glandules of the Arm­holes, Groyns, and other Glandules, and somewhat of the thinner Pancreatic [Page 110] Iuice out of the Intestines, together with the Chylus, enters the Vasa Chyli­fera.

VIII. But as in Ale that works, Yest, or the Ferment of Beer. many spirits already rais'd, are alrea­dy mingled with the whole quantity of Ale, and render it spiritous, strong, and fit to be attenuated and digested in the Stomachs of those that drink it: So also many spirits being still inter­mix'd and coop'd up within the more thick and viscous Particles of the Ale, ascend with them to the top, and boyl­ing, or rather fermenting and frothy, burst forth out of the Vessel with a noise. Which frothy Substance has a kind of bitterish sharp, intermix'd with something of a sweetish taste. And this is that which our Houswives call Yest, and we the Flower of Ale, which being preserv'd, serv'd to ferment new Ale, or new Dough.

IX. Thus the Operation also pro­ceeds Generation of Choler. in the Liver, and the more sharp fermentative spirits, being mix'd with the thicker and more viscous sulphury Iuices, (for Sulphur is clammy) and strongly boyling or fermenting, when by reason of the viscosity of the Iuices wherein they are lodg'd, they cannot enter the conglomerated Glandules, and from thence the Lymphatic Vessels, and yet by reason of their sharp Ebul­lition they are parted, together with the Iuice wherein they are lodg'd, become bitter, and are call'd by the name of Choler. Which Choler, by the means of the Glandulous Balls, flows by de­grees to the Intestines thorough the bila­ry Porus and the Gall-bladder, to the end that there, together with the Pancreatic Iuice, it may be mixed with the thicker Mass; that is to say, with the Nourish­ment concocted in the Stomach, and now descending to the Intestines, that it may also cause that to boyl, and by that means dissolve and separate the thinner parts of the Chylus from the thicker, and atte­nuate to that degree, that they may be forc'd into the narrow Orifices of the Milkie Vessels.

X. To that purpose this Choler Choler slides down the Ductus Cholido­chus into the Jeju­num. slides down through the Ductus Cho­lidochus to the beginning of the In­testines, that is, the Duodenum, and is there presently mix'd with the Pan­creatic Juice flowing thither through the Wirtzungian Chanel, from the Sweetbread, and by that means is by and by mingled with the Alimentary Mass concocted in the Stomach, and descending from it, and causes it to boyl.

XI. And because at the beginning Why the Jejunum is empty. it is sharper, and retains its full vi­gour, and for that by reason of the mixture of the Pancreatic acid Iuice, it is presently ready for Ebullition; hence in that very beginning, the Ef­fervescency is most intense; which is the reason that the Milkie Iuice, lodg'd in the Mass, concocted in the Stomach, is for the most part immedi­ately separated in the Jejunum, and through the innumerable Milkie Ves­sels belonging to this Gut more than to any other, with an extraordinary speed push'd forward to the Receptacle of the Chylus, for which reason that Gut is for the most part found empty and fasting. But in the next Guts, by rea­son of the most thin fermentative Spirits dissipated at the beginning, the Efferve­scency is somewhat slower and less effe­ctual, and the separation of the Chylus from the thicker Mass that remains is more tardy, which is the reason they have fewer Milkie Vessels. Lastly, The remainder of that fermentaceous Matter being mix'd in the thick Intestines, with the thick dregs of the Nourishment, be­ing now slowly dissolv'd, by reason the more subtil parts and strength of it are wasted by a long Effervescency in the thin Guts, causes a more slow and less frequent (and that not without a longer stay) fermentative Effervescency in them, which moving and distending the feculent filth, and rendring it more sharp, molests the Guts, and so provokes 'em to evacuation. And now because this Effervescency happens to be late, therefore those Provocations are not frequent, so that men in health seldom go to stool above once or twice in a day. And as that remaining Ferment is more or less acrimonious, hence it causes in the Excrement a swister or later, a more intense or remiss Effervescency, whence more frequent or more seldom going to the Stool.

XII. But how it comes to pass that How [...] Choler [...] com [...] [...] sharp. the said Choler becomes more sharp and fermentative in man, proceeds from hence, that all the milder Choler does not presently flow directly from the Liver through the bilary Porus into [Page 111] the Intestines, but a good part of it, and that the thinnest is carried from the Liver through the gaully Roots into the Gall-Bladder, and there stays a while, that by the specific Property and Temper of the Place, the more sharp Spirits, through that Stay, may be the more vigorously roused up and exalted, and thence, boyling a little in the Cystis, may flow to the Intestines: Into which Place being brought, and being either too little, or too sharp, it may there be the cause of Diseases of both kinds.

XIII. But the superfluous and chief­est The far­ther Pro­gress of the Fermenta­tion. part of the Venal Blood, of which the Ferment is made in the Liver, which neither could nor ought to be chang'd into the Nature of Choler or Lympha, being plentifully furnish'd with the fermentative Quality of the made Ferment, flows into the Vena Cava, with which from above out of the subclavial Veins, it meets a prepar'd and attenuated Chylus, or in the ab­sence of that the Lymphatic Liquor alone, mix'd with the Blood of the Subclavial Veins, and so by degrees enter the right Ventricle of the Heart, and there by reason of that previous convenient Preparation, or attenuati­on, are presently dilated into a Blood­like spirituous Vapor; as Gunpowder presently flashes into a Flame when touch'd by Fire. Now that the Blood flowing out of the Liver into the Vena Cava, is mix'd and endu'd with a Fer­mentative, and chiefly Choleric Quality appears from hence, that if in a Crea­ture newly kill'd the Liver be cut from the Vena cava, and the Blood flowing out of it sav'd, put but a little Spirit of Niter to that Blood, and presently it be­comes of a Rust-Colour, which hap­pens in no other Blood, and by that means the Bilious Ferment concealed within it, is discover'd.

XIV. But that that same bloody [...] [...] of [...] Blood. Spirit may be more perfect, and re­tain its Vigor the longer, by the beat­ing of the Heart it is forced imme­diately through the Pulmonary Arte­ry into the Lungs, and there by the Cold of the Aire breath'd in is con­densed into Liquor, and flows through the Pulmonary Vein into the left Ventricle of the Heart, wherein again (as Spirit of Wine is rectifi'd by a second Distillation) it attains the ut­most Perfection of spirituous Blood, and so is forc'd into the Aorta, that thereby it may be communicated thro' the lesser Arteries, and through all the Parts of the Body, to nourish and en­liven 'em. Out of which Nourish­ment, that Blood which at length re­mains, being depriv'd of the greatest part of its Spirits, enters the lesser Veins, and by those is carried to the greater, and by them again to the Heart, to the end it may be there a­gain attenuated and become Spirituous. But because in that Circulation, many parts of the Blood are consum'd in the Nourishment of the Parts, whose Sub­stance also is continually consum'd and dissipated by the Heat; hence it is ne­cessary that a new Chylus fit to be changed into Blood be again mix'd with the venal Blood returning to the Heart, to supply the place of what is wasted. And thus our Life consists in such a con­tinual Nourishment, which failing, pre­sently Health is impair'd, and the Oyl of our Lamp being wasted we goe quite out.

XV. It may be questioned whence The Origi­nal of Fer­ment. those sharp hot fermentative Qualities arise in our Nature. I answer, out of Sulphur and Salt. The first Emotion is from Sulphur, but the primary A­crimony is from Salt, which besides Sulphur is lodg'd in all Nourishment. For there is nothing which we eat that does not naturally contain a Salt in it, tho' some things contain more, some less: and Sulphur dissolves the Salt, and renders it fluid. Which being dissolv'd and attenuated, cor­rodes, penetrates and dissolves by means of its Acrimony, all the Par­ticles of the Nourishment, and so dis­poses 'em for the Extraction of the Spirits that ly hid within 'em. Which Operation is Fermentation, without which Man could not live; and with which being weak or deprav'd, a Man lives miserably. Now to advance this Fermentation the more prosperously, by instinct of Nature to the natural Salt which is in our Nourishment we add the help of Sea Salt, which we mix with our Meat, and with which we powder our Flesh: And so much the harder the Substance of the Meat is, and conse­quently the more violent Fermentation, [Page 112] and effective Ferment they require for Digestion, so much the more we desire to have 'em well salted; as Beef and Pork. For that the Salt in such Meats causes a more easy Digestion. So that the sulphury Spirits that are to reduce that Salt to Fusion, are sufficiently re­dundant and effectual in Man, as in young and choleric People. And of this we have a manifest Example in a Herring, which being salted and eaten raw eastly digests in the Stomach, but not being salted, tho' boyl'd, is with great Difficulty digested. Moreover that the Fermenting Spirits lying hid in that thick Salt may be roused up to Action, we boyle our Meat in the Kitch­in, that the more fix'd and solid Parts of it may be the better dissolv'd, and so prepared to Fusion and Volatilitie, that they may be the more easily tam'd and vanquish'd in the Stomach, when we feed upon those harder sorts of Food, we make use of sharp spirituous and sul­phury Sawces, as Spice, Turheps, Anise, Carrots, Mustard; many times drink strong Wine, and Spirit of Wine after Meals. For the sulphury Spirits being mixed with the Salt, potently dissolve and penetrate the thick and sixed Parti­cles, and a fitness to melt, and so advance the Energie of Fermentation. Which chylifying Operation is very much assisted partly by the Spittle which flows from the Mouth to the Stomach and is endued with a fermentative Quality; partly by a peculiar Ferment, which is made out of some part of the Chylus, remaining after its Concoction and Ex­pulsion of the greatest part to the In­testines, in the Stomach, and sticking to the Folds and Pores of the innermost Tunicle, and there turning sowre. And so by that first Fermentation the more spirituous and profitable Parts of the Nourishment come forth of the thicker Mass like Cream, and assume the Name of Chylus.

XVI. Out of this Chylus endu'd Blood is made of the Chylus in the Heart. with many salt and sulphury Particles from the Nourishment received by means of a new fermentative Prepa­ration, caused by the Choler, Pancre­atic Iuice, and Lympha, the Blood is made in the Heart, which contains in it self those salt Particles of the Chylus, but more attenuated and mix'd more exactly with the Sulphu­reous.

XVII. Out of the salt Particles of Another Ferment in the Spleen. this Blood, flowing to the Spleen, the splenic Artery, and to the Sweetbread, and many other Glandules through peculiar Arteries, and somewhat sepa­rated by the Afflux of Animal Spi­rits, there is another matter of Fer­ment to be composed in the Spleen and Parts aforesaid, to be the great­est part concocted into a more perfect Ferment by the Liver for the Venal Blood and Chylus.

XVIII. And thus the first Origi­nal Fer [...] [...] [...] degrees [...] be [...]. of Internal Ferment is from the Nourishment, which afterwards is more and more attenuated by various Concoctions, and alter'd in our Body into a more subtle Ferment.

XIX. Now that it is the true Of­fice The true Office of the Liver, Spleen, [...] [...] to [...] [...]. of the Liver, Spleen, and Sweet­bread, to make Ferment in the man­ner aforesaid, is apparent from hence, that when those Bowels are perfectly Sound, and perform their Duty ac­cording to Nature, the whole Mass of Blood is better and more full of Spi­rits, and thence the Body more Live­ly and Active, and all the Natural and Animal Operations are rightly perform'd. On the other side, when these Bowels are out of Order, a thou­sand Diseases arise from the Blood and Chylus ill fermented.

XX. As we have already said there [...]. is a sharp Salt, acid Iuice which is made in the Liver out of the artery Blood, copiously forc'd through the splenic Artery into this Bowel, which by the plentiful pouring in of Animal Spirits through the Nerves, and by the specific Temper of this Bowel is soon altered, and the sulphury Spirit that was before predominant in it is dull'd, fix'd, and suffocated, so the salt acid latent Spirits comes forth in­to Action, and the salt Particles, somewhat separated from the Sulphury, get the upper hand: And hence it comes to pass, that the hot sweetish Blood flows through the Arteries in­to the Spleen, but by and by the sul­phury Heat being extinguish'd, toge­ther with the Sweetness, it becomes Saltish, or somewhat Acid, and flows through the Splenic Branch from the Spleen to the Liver: Which is the Reason a boyl'd Spleen tasts somewhat Sowrish. And thus it happens in this [Page 113] Matter, as in a Vinegar Vessel, Vine­gar is made out of Wine; for the Vine­gar Vessel is laid in a warm Place, commonly in the Garret, where the Sun may come at it. Into this Vessel, not quite full, they pour a moderate Quan­tity of good strong Wine (for weak Wine will not make good Vinegar.) Which done, presently the sulphury sweet Spirit of the Wine is fix'd and suffocated by the salt and acid Particles predominating in the Vinegar, and the salt and acid Particles which are lodg'd in the Wine are melted, dissolv'd, at­tenuated, and forc'd to Action by the sharp Acidity of the Vinegar, and so the Wine turns Eager, and becomes Vi­negar. And thus the sulphureous Spi­rit of the Arterial Blood, is fix'd and stifl'd, partly by the Animal Spirits flowing through the Nerves, partly by the acid and salt Spirits prepared and contain'd in the Spleen; and the salt and acid Spirits that are in it get the up­per hand; which afterwards, new sul­phury Spirits that ly in the Venal Blood, being mix'd therewith afresh, are to be by the Liver altered into perfect Fer­ment.

XXI. Now that the first Matter The first Matter of the Fer­ment pre­pared in the Spleen. of the Ferment to be perfected in the Liver is prepared in the Spleen, may be in some measure demonstrated by Experience. For if the Spleen of an Ox, Hog, or other Male Creature be cut into small Bits, and macerated in luke-warm Water, and afterwards mix­ed with a small Quantity of Dough, it dilates it, and causes it to ferment, like Yest or any other Leven: Which it does so much the more effectually if the smallest Quantity of Vinegar be ad­ded to it.

XXII. Now if this Function of the The rise of Diseases from the Spleen. Spleen be interrupted, there are two Causes of Diseases which arise from thence. Some by reason of the salt and acid Iuice too thick and fix'd: Others when it is too thin and vola­tile. For when the salt and acid Juices in the Spleen are not sufficiently dissolv'd and attenuated, then the Spirits which are extracted out of them are too sharp, corroding, and in too great Abun­dance, and this Diversity produces Di­versity of Diseases.

XXIII. If the Spleen be weak, ei­ther In a weak Spleen the acid Iuice is not e­nough con­cocted. through its own or the Fault of the Nourishment, or through any o­ther Cause, then the acid Iuice that is concocted in it, is not sufficiently dissolv'd, attenuated, and volatiliz'd, but remains thick, and tartarous, or earthy, and the greatest Part of it lyes heap'd together in the Bladdery Substance of the Spleen, and adjoyning Parts, by reason of its crude Visco­sity, which causes the Spleen to wax great, and to swell, in regard the Spirit that lies hid within it is not sufficiently rous'd up, but boyling a little in the narrow Passages in the Spleen and about the Spleen, distends the whole Spleen and Parts adjoyn­ing to it, and raises a thousand win­dy Vapours with rumbling and roar­ing, and a troublesome Distemper fa­miliar to Hypochondriacks. Which Mischiefs are very much encreased by a deprav'd Condition of the Pancreas, proceeding from the Blood corrupted by the vitious Humors of the Spleen, and brought to it through the Arteries. By reason whereof it concocts its own Juice but ill; and of over Salt, leaves it too Acid or Austere, which partly be­gets great Obstructions in the Pancreas, the Disturbe [...]s of the Function of that Bowel: Partly flowing into the Inte­stines, causes an undue Effervescency therein, and infuses a bad subacid Qua­lity into the Chylus; whereby it becomes lyable to fixation, or coagulation; nor cannot be sufficiently attenuated. Whence by reason of the more fixed and thick­er Chylus remaining in the Abdomen, and less prepared to farther Solution, are generated Obstructions in the mil­kie Vessels, in the Mesentery, and Glan­dules of the Mesentery, and therein a great Quantity of crude and ill Humors is heaped together, from the Quantity and Corruption of which a thousand Diseases arise, which are vulgarly cal­led Melancholic, and are said to arise from the Spleen, but how they are bred by it, has not been as yet sufficiently Explain'd. But when the Blood remains too thick for want of effectual and con­venient Ferment, and Spirits not sup­ply'd in sufficient Quantity, the whole Body grows dull and languid, and ma­ny Diseases arise. For the Blood being thick and not sufficiently Spirituous, and having salt crude and slimy Parts in­termix'd with it, by coagulating the Humors in the Liver and other Bowels of the Abdomen, it breeds Obstructions and Scirrhosities. It is not sufficiently di­lated in the Heart, but is forc'd too thick [Page 114] into the Lungs, and there being yet more refrigerated by the Air drawn in, it diffi­cultly passes through the narrow Pas­sages of 'em, and so stuffing the Lungs, and compressing the Gristles of the Windpipe, causes difficulty of Breathing. In the Heart it self by reason of the ine­quality of the Particles, and the difficult Dilatation of many, it produces an un­equal, and sometimes an intermitting Pulse. In the Brain passing difficultly and disorderly through those narrow Channels, it causes Noises and Heavi­ness of the Head; and because it endam­mages the natural Constitution of the Brain, and because it tears it with its remaining Acrimony, the principal A­nimal Actions are thereby impaired, the Imagination and Judgment are deprav'd, the Memory is spoyl'd, and thence Mad­ness, and Restlesness, Watching, and such like Inconveniencies arise which cause true Melancholy. But if that thick­er Salt be somewhat more exalted and fluid, and yet is not sufficiently Spiritu­ous, then the Blood requires an acid and austere Disposition, as in the Scur­vy; and then the nervous Parts are torn and rack'd by it, the thin Skins in­velloping the Bones are pain'd, and the softer Parts are corroded, the Guts also are terribly grip'd, and Ulcers arise in the Thighs very hard to be cured: Moreover the Blood becomes unfit for Nutrition, and thence a slow Atrophie of the whole Body. The aforesaid salt Particles being coagulated in colder Kidneys and separated from the serous Humor, harden into Stones; but being separated in the Joynts and fixed to the sensitive Parts, and corroding 'em, they cause the sharp Pains of the Gout: And lastly, heap'd together in greater Quanti­ty, they breed knotty Bunches and Corns. All which things happen if the fermentaceous Juice in the Spleen be too raw and thick.

XXIV. But if the same Iuice be The said Ferment too thin & full of Spi­rits causes other Di­seases. too thin and full of Spirits, and be prepared too sharp, then other Di­seases arise. It excites in the Blood a great Heat conjoyned with some Acri­mony, which because of the quick and disorderly Motion of the Animal Spi­rits causes Restlesness, Watchings, high Deliriums, and Madness. Sticking lightly, coagulated in the Guts, it breeds the running Gout, for that sharp Hu­mor being by reason of its Tenuity ea­sily dissipated in one Part, presently the Pain arises again in another Part, to which some other Particles of the same Blood happen to adhere.

XXV. The Spleen Scirrhous, or The Spleen vitiated begets ma­ny Evils. Obstructed, or any other manner of way vitiated by breeding a bad fer­mentaceous Iuice, begets a thousand grievous Mischiefs.

All which things sufficiently make manifest the Office and Duty of the Spleen.

XXVI. And in like manner, the The Fun­ctions of the Liver are apparent from the Diseases that pro­ceed from it. Function of the Liver is apparent, from the Diseases that proceed from it when the Liver is colder than or­dinary, it is not able duly to digest the said Splenetic Iuice, and together with the Venal Blood, and the sul­phury Diseases a­rising from the Spleen. Iuice intermix'd and sticking to it, to alter the splenetic Iuice into a due Ferment: Whereby there can never be a due Fermentation. The Chylus is not sufficiently concocted, nor sufficiently prepared for future Fermen­tation in the Heart. The venal Blood becomes Crude, Serous, neither does it get Spirits sufficient in the Heart, but is attenuated only into a watry Vapour, which turns to a watry Liquor in theThe cause of Anasar­ca. Vessels and sost Parts, and so filling the whole Body with Serum, begets the Dropsy call'd Anasarca, attended with continual Drought, by reason of the salt Particles lodg'd in the Serum not well mix'd with the Blood, which together with the Juices flowing from the Salival Vessels, and at that time also saltish, being carried to the Chaps and Gullet, by reason of their dry Vellication, or twitching of the Part, occasion continu­al Drought.

XXVII. But when the Liver is hot, and consequently weak, then by exal­ting the sulphury and oily Spirits out of the Blood, it raises 'em in too great a Quantity; by which the Force of the acid Iuice coming from the Spleen is very much weakened, and a bad Ferment generated. which pro­duces Inflammations, Corruption, Fe­vers, and other hot Diseases arising from an over deprav'd Fermentation, and begets over much Choler. Which Choler if it grow milder by reason of the Mixture of a little acid Juice, then it breeds the yellow Iaundice. But if sharp by reason of much Salt or acid and sharp splenetic Juice concocted with it, then it occasions the Disease Cholera, Diarrhaea Dysentery, and other like Di­seases.

[Page]XXVIII. The Liver obstructed and The Liver Scirrhous. scirrhous not causing the Generation and due distribution of good Fer­ment, is also the Cause of several Crudities and many Diseases arising from Crudities.

As for the fermentaceous Quality of the Pancreatic Juice, and what Disea­ses arise from a deprav'd Sweetbread, has already been discoursed C. 10.

XXIX. In the Birth, while it is Ferment in the Birth. in the Womb, there is no need of any such Ferment at the Beginning, be­cause it is nourished by the Dissolu­tion and Fusion of the Seed, which contains in it self a Spirit moderately Fermentaceous; and then by the milkie Iuice contained in the Amni­nium that needs less Ferment. Af­terwards when it requires somewhat stronger Nourishment, brought through the umbilical Vein, and begins to en­joy it, then the whole Uterine Pla­centa supplies the Office of the Spleen and Liver, and makes a more mild Ferment, more proper for the Birth in the Beginning. In the mean time the Liver and Spleen increase their Ferment to future Uses, that is, to prepare a more sharp Ferment afterwards, that is, when the Child being born should feed upon more solid Nourishment. Which Duty however those Bowels do not perform presently after the Birth of the Child, as it were by way of a Leap, but were also by degrees accustomed to it in the Womb. For the more the Heat of the Heart increases, and Blood is generated more full of Spirits, and the more the Brain is brought to Perfection and becomes stronger, the more sharp Spirits are generated in the Womb. And out of these two things, Blood and Animal Spirits meeting every day stron­ger and stronger in the Spleen, which by Degrees is brought to greater Perfection together with the Spleen, and preparation of the fermentaceous Matter begins to be made; and as for the manner of preparing the same Matter, the said Bowels have gain'd to a sufficient Perfection; as ap­pears by the Choler, which you shall find well concocted in the Gall-bladder of a newborn Infant.

XXX. And thus I think I have Conclusion. set forth the true, and never as yet sufficiently demonstrated Duty of the Liver and Spleen: As also the Use of Choler, Pancreatic Iuice and Lympha. Many more things might be alledged for farther Proof, but to the Learned what has been said may suffice.

The impartial Reader may confer these things with the Opinions of other Doctors that have wrote before us; and then he will perceive how far they have err'd from the Mark.

XXXI. And now from what has The [...] derac. twee [...] Live [...] Splee [...] been said it is manifestly apparent what a necessary League and Confe­deracy there is between the Liver and the Spleen, and what and how many Diseases arise from the bad Constitution of either of these two Bowels. How unlikely it is for a Man to live after his Spleen is cut out of his Body. It is also apparent how erroneously the second grand Concoction is said to be made in the Liver, Spleen, and Sweet­bread, when of necessity it must be made in the Heart. For the forementioned Ferment is only made of the Blood, and the Blood must be first made in the Heart before it can come to the Liver, Spleen, and Sweetbread. And therefore the second general Concoction is made in the Heart, the third in the Liver, Spleen, and Sweetbread.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Serum and Kidneys.

I. HAving thus explain'd the Of rum Rei [...] Office of the Liver and Spleen, it follows that we discourse of those Parts which evacuate the Se­rum, which is necessarily mix'd in great Quantity with the Blood, when it is too redundant.

II. Now the Serum is a watery The give cessa thin flux to [...] Bloo [...] Part of the Meat and Drink, con­cocted together with the salt and sulphury Iuices of the Nourishment, and plentifully mix'd with the Blood, to give perfect Mixture and necessary Thinness and Fluxibility, by means whereof it may penetrate the narrow­est Passages; to wash away and mix with it the Impurities of the same and the more crude salt Particles, that together with it self they may be e­vacuated by Spittle, Sweat and Urine.

[Page 116]III. And here it is that the Opinion Whether it be an Ali­mentary Iuice. of Jerome Barbatus, and some others, is to be rejected, who endeavour by many Reasons to prove that the Serum is a Humour no less Alimentary than the Blood, and that it nourishes the Spermatic Vessels, as the blood nourishes the fleshy. But their Arguments are so weak, that it is not worth the while to refute ▪em. For tho' the Nourishment cannot be distributed to the Parts with­out the Serum, and that there are con­tain'd in it some salt and sulphurous Particles, nevertheless it cannot thence be concluded, that that same Serum nou­rishes the Spermatic Vessels, and that the Blood is excluded from that perform­ance. But of this more at large L. 2. c. 12.

But for this Serum, because there is a necessity for an abundance of it to be mix'd with the blood, and to be daily renew'd, and yet it is not apply'd to any Substance of the Parts, therefore it is that Emunctories are requisite for the Evacu­ation of its too much redundant Super­fluity.

IV. These Emunctories or Evacuato­ries, The Emun­ctories twofold. are twofold, External or Internal.

V. Again, the External are two­fold: The exter­nal Eva­cuatories. First, these, thorough which there is a manifest, but not perpetual Evacuation; as the Eyes, Mouth, and Nostrils. From the Eyes fall the se­rous Humours of Tears. Through the Mouth and Nostrils the greatest part of the serous and flegmatic Humours and Vapours are expell'd, in Hawking, Spitting, Salivation, and the Murrh; as also in Respiration, which is conspi­cuous in the Winter. Secondly, Those Evacuatories through which there is made insensible Transpiration, that is to say, the Pores of the Skin, through which day and night there is a continual and insensible Exhalation of the serous Vapour, which is often perceived in the form of Sweat. Now this Evacuation of the serous Humour through the Pores, far exceeds all other sensible Evacuations of what Excrements soever. As for ex­ample; If a Man have taken in one day twelve pound of Nourishment, he shall evacuate through the Pores of the Skin, and by Transpiration near nine pound of Excrement in vapour, and hardly two by sensible Evacuation. Which San­ctorius taught us by an ingenious Experi­ment. He to that purpose weighed in a pair of exact Scales, a young Man in the Morning, after he had been at the House of Easment; and besides that, he weighed apart all the Meat which he was to eat that day. Then he as exact­ly pois'd the weight of his Spittle, U­rine, and Stool, collected all together, and then weighed the same Person at the same hour fasting, as he did before. By which means he found that the Excre­ment insensibly evacuated through the Pores, exceeded far in weight all other sensible Evacuations.

VI. The Internal Evacuatories are The exter­nal Evacu­atories of the Serum. the Reins and Piss-bladder, with the Parts thereupon depending.

VII. But before we begin with Whether a­ny diffe­rence be­tween the Serum, Sweat and Urine. them, here is one Scruple to be re­mov'd; Whether the Serum and Sweat, under which ought to be com­prehended Exhalations and Vapours, consist of the same Materials, and a­gree in Substance: Which is that which the generality of Physicians unanimous­ly consent to. Tho' Lodowic Mercatus differs from all the rest, as he that be­lieves these four Humours to be distinct in Substance. But this Doubt may be easily resolv'd, by alledging that the Serum of it self is a meer watery Liquor; but that the Urine and Sweat are not Liquors so simple as the Serum so pro­perly taken, but Liquors endued with a certain saltness, and concocted with salt Particles, differing little or nothing, in respect of Substance, one from the other, yet in the mean time their chiefest part is Serum, from whence the serous Hu­mours, which are not erroneously for the most part call'd Serum, the word being taken at large, and the Denomination from the greater part of the Substance.

VIII. The Reins are so call'd from The Reins▪ [...], to flow, because the Urine, like so many Rivers, flows from them, and [...] from [...] to piss.

IX. They are in number two; sel­dom Two in number. more or less: For it is look'd up­on as a Prodigy, that there should be more than one Kidney upon one side, and none in the other, ▪or two Kidneys upon one side; which nevertheless has been sometimes found to be true. Ca­brolius in two Bodies by him dissected, found one Kidney leaning upon the Ver­tebers of the Loyns.

X. These two Kidneys are seated Their place behind the Ventricle and the Guts, un­der the Liver and Spleen, on both sides near the Spine, at the head of the Psoa Muscle. Whence it comes to pass that [Page 117] that Muscle, being compress'd by the Stone in the Kidney, there happens a numbness in the Hip. However Riolanus in Animadvers. in Bartholin. alledges that that numbness proceeds from hence, that the Compression is made in that place, where those three Nerves are inserted into the musculous part of the Psoa, of which that remarkable Nerve is made in the Thigh, which is thence extended to the Foot: But in regard that Nerve in the Thigh is compos'd, not only of three, but of seven Nerves, that is to say, the four lower Nerves of the Loyns, and the three upper of the Os Sacrum, some of which abscond under the head of the Psoa. I do not see how the head of the Psoa, being compress'd, it should follow that the Nerves of the Thigh, seated in a lower place, should come to be com­press'd, and that thence a numbness of the Thigh should follow.

XI. They lye upon the sides of the The Situa­tion. Aorta and Vena Cava, between the two Membranes of the Peritonaeum; the right being placed a little lower than the left. But the situation is very seldom alike; for either the right is some­what higher than the left; nevertheless in Beasts the left is many times the lower.

XII. They are both seldom of an e­qual bigness; for the most part the left The Big­ness. being somewhat bigger than the right. They generally take up the length of three Vertebers, and sometimes four: three fingers broad, and equalling the thickness of the Thumb. Sometimes the whole bulk is found to be lesser, and sometimes bigger, which Bartholine be­lieves he has observ'd in those that were most prone to Venery. Sometimes the bigness increases to Monstrosity; such was that which we saw in the Carkass of a certain Person in the Year 1658. both whose Reins surpass'd the bigness of half a Man's head: For that Nature won­derfully sports her self in bigness, number, figure, and vessels. Of which there are various and remarkable Examples in Eustachius, Fernelius, Vesalius, Carpus, Botallus, Bauhinus, and others. Yet this Variety is very rare, and hardly to be found in one among six hundred.

XIII. In Figure they represent a French Bean, or the expanded Leaf of wild The Fi­gure. Spikenard. On the Outside they are gib­bous, and bow'd backward: On the in­side somewhat hollow at the ingress and egress of the Vessels. The Superficies in a Man of ripe years is smooth and equal; otherwise in a Cow, Sheep, and many other brute Creatures, in whom it is un­equal; as if the Kidneys were compos'd of many round fleshy little Lumps or Buttons. Which external shape they also shew in new-born Children, which remains for three years, and sometimes for six years after the Birth, as Riolan witnesses. Eustachius reports that he ne­ver observ'd that shape in Men grown up, but only twice. But Dominic. de Mar­chettis writes that he shew'd the same Figure twice or thrice in the Theatre at Padua. Once I remember I saw the same in a Man run thorough the middle of the Abdomen above each Kidney with a Sword: In whose body, when at the request of the Magistrate, I enquir'd into the Cause of his death, and the Nature of the wound, by chance I found such a Figure of the Kidneys, as if compos'd of small Buttons.

XIV. They are cloathed with two Their Mem­branes. Membranes; of which the outermost is common, proceeding from the Peri­tonaeum, call'd the Fatty, because that in fat people it is surrounded with a great quantity of fat. Into this the Arteria Adiposa runs, from the Aor­ta: out of it proceeds the Vena Adi­posa, which the right Kidney sends to the Emulgent, rarely to the Trunk of the Vena Cava; the left sends forth to the Vena Cava. This Membrane knits both Reins to the Loyns and Dia­phragma; the right also to the blind Gut, and sometimes to the Liver; the left to the Spleen and Colon. The innermost and proper Membrane is form'd out of the external Tunicle of the Vessels being dilated, (which Ves­sels enter the Kidney with one only Tunicle.) Into which little Nerves are inserted, proceeding from the Fold of the sixth Pair, and the Thoracical Branch, affording a dull sense of feeling to the Kidney: which being nevertheless extended further into the Ureters, endue them with a most acute sense, and for that reason are the Cause that in Nephritic Pains the Stomach having a fellow feel­ing, has oftentimes a desire to vomit. But very few Nerves, and those very small, and hardly conspicuous, enter the Substance of the Kidneys it self.

XV. Both the Kidneys have two The Vesse large Vasa sanguifera; that is to say, an Artery and an Emulgent Vein; among which are sprinkled certain small [Page 118] Lymphatic Vessels, as some ima­gine.

XVI. The Emulgent Artery, pro­duced The Emul­gent Arte­ry. from the Trunk of the descend­ing Aorta, being first doubled, enters the flat part of the Kidney; thence it is dispers'd through the Substance of it with divers Branches, and therein vanishes into extream small and invi­sible Twigs. Through this Artery, which is very large, great store of blood is carried to the Kidney, partly to nou­rish it, together with its Urinary Vessels; partly that a good part of the serous Hu­mor may be separated from it in its Glan­dules, and that being emptied through the little Urinary Fibres, and Papillary Caruncles, or the ten little Bodies in the Reins, into the Pelvis, or Receptacle of the Reins, the blood may become less serous. This Artery we have once seen in the right Kidney, inserted into the lowermost part of the Kidney.

XVII. The Emulgent Vein is a lit­tle The Emul­gent Vein. larger than the Artery. This, with innumerable Roots meeting together in this Trunk, adheres to the Kidney and its Glandules, and thence pro­ceeding out of it from the flat part, runs on to the Vena Cava, into which it opens with a broad Orifice, so situated as to give a free passage for the Blood into the Vena Cava; but hindring it from flowing out of the Vena Cava into the Emulgent. Whence it is cer­tain, that the Blood is forc'd into the Kidney by the Emulgent Artery only, and part of it remaining after the Nou­rishment of the Kidney, being freed from a good quantity of the serous Humour in the little Glandules, flows through the Emulgent Vein into the Vena Cava. I think it was never observ'd that two E­mulgent Veins proceeded out of one Kid­ney; yet once it was seen, and publickly demonstrated by us in a dissected Body, in Novemb. 1668. Both were of the u­sual largeness; and one proceeded from the middlemost flat part of the Kidney, after the wonted manner; the other from the lowermost part of the same right Kidney, and about the breadth of half a Thumb one below the other, was in­serted into the Vena Cava. And some­thing like this I find to be observed by Saltzman in Observ. Anat. The left Emulgent Vein high­er and longer than the right.

XVIII. The left of these Emulgent Veins in a Man enters the Vena Cava somewhat in a higher place, and is lon­ger than the right, by reason of the higher and remoter situation of the Kidney from the Vena Cava. In ma­ny Beasts the right is the higher. Some­times their number is unequal, and their Progress unequal, as shall be shewn more at large L. 7. c. 6.

XIX. The dissemination and di­spersing The di­spersing of the Vessels through the Kidneys.▪ of both the Emulgent Vessels through the Kidney, cannot be exact­ly demonstrated, because of the ex­tream slenderness of the Branches, and the dimness of the Sight. In the mean while several Anatomists have written various Speculations concerning this matter, according to the diversity of their Opinions. Among the rest, Rolfinch asserts that the Roots of the E­mulgent Veins meet together with the ends of the Emulgent Arteries by Anastomoses, and that he reports to be first observ'd by Eustachius, L. de Ren. But Malpigi­us lately has sufficiently demonstrated the vanity of these Conjunctions, who by his Microscopes observ'd that several ends of little Arteries end in very small Glandules, adhering to the little Urina­ry Fibres or Vessels; and that so some part of the Serum is separated from the Blood of those small Arteries, and car­ried by the Urinary Vessels to the Pel­vis, or Receptacle of the Kidneys: but that the rest of that Blood is suck'd up by the ends of the Veins, and so flows to the Emulgent Vein, and thence to the Vena Cava.

XX. In the inner part of the Kid­ney The Pelvis. is contain'd the Pelvis or Infun­dibulum, which is nothing else but a membranous Concavity, compos'd of the Ureter, expanded and dilated in the hollow of the Kidney, and reaching thither with open and broad Branches, sometimes eight or ten, like Pipes:

XXI. Over which lye little pieces The Papil­lary Ca­runcles. of Flesh or Carunculae, vulgarly call'd Papillares, by Rondeletius, Mam­millares, (over each one) like small Kernels, not so deep coloured, but harder than the rest of the Flesh, about the bigness of a Pea, somewhat broad­er above, convex below, with holes bor'd through, but so small that will hardly admit a hair. Malpigius ob­serv'd over and above, that innumerable Fibres also extend themselves toward the gibbous part from the Appendixes of the Pelvis form'd into a Bow; and that some portions of the Pelvis, like extend­ed [Page 119] Vessels, accompanying the Vasa San­guifera, extend themselves toward the Circumference.

XXII. The Substance of the Reins, The Sub­stance of the Reins. as far as occurs to the sight, appears to be as it were fibrous, form'd out of the concourse and intermixture of the smallest Vessels joyned together, to­gether with something of Carnosity in­terventing, endu'd with various slen­der little Chanels. To the outward touch somewhat hard, but within side indifferently spungy; without of a dark ruddy colour, but toward the Pelvis or Kidney Receptacle, more pale.

XXIII. This is as much as generallyThe Super­ficies smooth in Men, rough in Chil­dren. is obvious to the sight in the Reins. But not very long ago Malpigius was the first who discover'd more Secrets in the Reins, which were unknown to the pre­ceding Anatomists; and because all A­natomists are upon this score much be­holding to that great Man: of necessity the Mysteries by him revealed are here to be added. Neither is any thing to be detracted from the Honour of this first Discoverer.

He writes L. de Ren. that tho' in MenThe Disco­veries of Malpigius grown up the Superficies of the Kidneys appears generally smooth, yet that in Children new born it is unequal (as has been already said,) and that that same Conjunction of the Buttons or Balls in grown People is still to be discern'd on the inside from the diversity of the Co­lour, which in the little Balls without, and toward the sides to which they are conjoyn'd, is ruddy, toward the inner parts is more pale. But as in Beasts those little Glandules are round, but to­ward the inner parts, being extended to an obtuse narrowness, are joyned toge­ther sometimes quadrangular, quinquan­gular, and sometimes sexangular; so like­wise in Men there is plainly to be ob­serv'd from the diversity of the Colour, the like, but a closer Conjunction of the little Balls. Then he adds, That the Membrane being taken away in a new, and as yet soft Kidney, certain round and very short Bodies roll'd up like Worms, may be discern'd by the help of a Microscope; not unlike those that are found in the Substance of the Kid­ney when cut asunder in the middle; and that this Connexion of Vermicular Vessels composing the external Superfi­cies of the Kidneys, is the same with the Vessels descending to the Renal Re­ceptacle. And that by the same Micro­scope are to be observ'd wonderful Branches of the Vessels lying hid under the outward Superficies, with little Glandules appendant, and dispers'd through the Superficies of the Kidney toward the Renal Receptacle: as also cer­tain continu'd winding spaces and little Concavities running through the whole outward Superficies of the Kidneys, con­spicuous by the pouring in a little Ink through the Emulgent Vessels: as also in­numerable little Chanels, which resem­ble, as seems to the Eye, a sort of Fibres or Liver-like Flesh, but are really mem­branous and hollow, and by their being crowded together, constitute the Sub­stance of the Reins, and are the Vessels that discharge the Urine. Moreover, he says, That the Membrane of the Kidney being taken away, and an Inje­ction of Spirit of Wine dy'd of a black Colour, being made into the Emulgent Artery, innumerable small Kernels are to be observ'd, annexed here and there to double forked Arteries, and dy'd of a black Colour by the said Injection; as also several others between the bundles of the Urinary Vessels, and the Spaces intervening, which little Kernels hang as it were like Apples upon the Vasa San­guifera, swelling with the black Injection, and spread into the form of a fair Tree. From these Kernels, where the ends of the Arteries lose themselves, he believes it also profitable that the Orifices of Veins arise, and that the smallest Nerves are produc'd from hence, and that the dis­charging Vessels are extended so far from the Ureter, seeing this is always the property of the Glandules, that the several Berries or Buttons produce their proper discharging Branch, besides the Veins and Arteries, as is done in the Li­ver, according to what we have said. He has also observ'd that those little Chanels or small Urinary Fibres being very ma­ny in number, lose themselves in every one of the Papillary Caruncles seated in the Renal Receptacle, and through those sweat through the Urine into the Recep­tacle; which Piss descends into the Pa­pillary Caruncles, not thorough any of the little Pores of the Pelvis, as was for­merly thought, but through these Cha­nels only, and out of them into the Re­nal Receptacle. And as for those Papil­lary Tunicles (of which some are round, others flat or oblong) he believes 'em to be nothing else but the Concourse of ma­ny small Chanels united together. He adds, That he certainly knows by dili­gent and frequently repeated Dissection, that in the Kidney of a Man, the Uri­nary Vessels that resemble solid and compacted sleshy Fibres, and yet are hol­low, [Page 120] end in the said apparent Papillary Tunicles, which with a swelling protube­rancy open into the Renal Receptacle, and each receive or admit so many little Pipes or Vessels as amount to the num­ber of twelve, and that the same Urina­ry Vessels are extended from the Cir­cumference to those Teats, as to the Cen­ter.

Lastly, Malpigius annexes a Question, How Gravel and Stones can descend into the Receptacle of the Kidneys thorough those Fibtes and Teats which are so ex­treamly narrow? To which he an­swers, That small Gravel may pass through, because the Vessels are mem­branous and apt to dilate. I rather think he should have said, that the tartarous Substance sticking to the Serum that pas­ses thorough, hardens into Gravel and Stones in the Renal Receptacle, after it is slid through those slender Vessels, which frequently happens: Sometimes it hardens also in the Vessels themselves, and having broken 'em, fall into the Receptacle afterwards; and if much of that matter be harden'd in those Vessels, and there remain, then the Substance of the Kidneys becomes gravelly and sto­ny.

XXIV. The Use of the Kidneys is The use of the Reins. to separate and evacuate the redundant serous Moisture from the Blood, which is carried to 'em, together with the Blood, through the Emulgent Ar­teries; from which Blood, in its pas­sage through the Glandules of the Reins, the Urinary Fibres, and the Papillary Caruncles, a good part of the Serum is separated, and distills into the Renal Receptacle or Pelvis, and thence slides through the Ureters to the Piss-bladder. But the remainder of the Blood and mix'd serous Humour (for all the Serum is not separated from the Blood) that is sent through the Emul­gent Veins to the Vena Cava.

XXV. But how that separation of The first Digression. the Serum is made, is hard to explain. For that the two first things upon which the Explication depends, are altogether obscure, that is to say, the Specific Fer­mentation, and the peculiar disposition of the Pores in the Reins.

XXVI. For, that there is a certain How the Separation of the Se­rum is made. Specific Effervescency or separating Fermentation in the Reins, or about the Reins, by which part of the Se­rum, together with the Impurities mix'd with it, is separated from the Blood, three Reasons teach us. 1. First, For that most Diureticks a­bound with Salt, which causes that Fer­mentation; nay, many of these Diure­tics are Salts themselves, as Salt of Beans, Vine-stalks, Iuniper, Prunella, &c. 2. Be­cause Sudorisics (by which the Serum is separated from the Blood) are very effe­ctual, whether Salt of Wormwood, Car­duus, Mother-wort, &c. or such as are endued with an acid Salt, as Vinegar, Oyl of Vitriol or Sulphur, Spirit of Salt, and the like, which cause or increase that Effervescency. 3. For that in cold Distempers, as the Anasarca, by reason of the weak Constitution of the Liver, because there is not a strong and suffici­ent Ferment prepar'd, for which reason the crude Serum is not sufficiently sepa­rated from the Blood, nor yet attenua­ted; thence it happens that very little U­rine is discharg'd, tho' the Serum abound in all parts of the Body, and distends all the parts with a sensible Tumour.

But how by that Effervescency part of the Serum, with its Impurities, comes to be separated, and what form it assumes to pass alone through those narrow and porous passages of the Kidneys, the Blood being excluded from 'em, who­ever can demonstrate this, deserves the Laurel.

XXVII. Here the Glandules of the Whe [...] [...] the K [...] ­nels? Kidneys assume to themselves a great priviledge, in which very few doubt but that there is a peculiar power of separating the Serum from the Blood. But in regard that besides the Serum, Matter also, slimy Flegm, and other Humours This [...] be much doubted whether that which after [...] ­sing, when the inter­nal hea [...] of it is va­nished, ap­pear to be Matter, slimy Flegm, or other very thick Humours, came so thick out of the Reins, or that Gravel or Sand should be sent out of the Blood i [...] that largeness: I think, yea know the contrary; and that [...]ose so thick Humours, Matter, or Flegm, are as thin as the rest of the Urine from the internal heat of the parts; after the same manner as it happens in Gelly-broths, which while very hot, will be liquid and fluid, but having lost their heat, become thicker: the [...] happens in the Reins, but with this difference, that the glutino [...] Substance is less in proportion to the quantity of Urine, than it is in Gellies, and therefore being [...]old cannot be so thick and [...]: so Sand or Gravel, while in the Blood, is no such thing, but a [...] Paste or Tartar, which after hardens in that form. Salmon. much thicker than the Blood it self, nay, Gravel and Stones are discharged with the Urine; hence whe­ther this Separation of the Blood be to be ascrib'd to the Glandules alone, was question'd by many; who therefore joyn'd to their assistance a specific dispo­sition of the Pores in the Kidneys, no less obscure and unknown than the foresaid specific Fermentation, and peculiar power in the Glandules to separate the Serum. [Page 121] For who, I would fain know, will unfold to us, wherefore the Serum, with the Hu­mours contain'd in it, separated from the Blood by the foresaid specific Fer­mentation, descend through the Pores of the Kidneys and Glandules, without any Blood, when in the mean time, the pu­rulent Matter brought from the Breast, and altogether mix'd with the Blood, has been often seen to pass through the same Pores without any Blood? Thus in the Year 1638. I cur'd a Merchant ofObserv. 1. Nimmeghen, who was troubled with an Imposthum [...], which was at length dis­charg'd through the Urinary Passages in two days time, with some pain in his U­reters, two Chamber-pots full of white Matter well concocted, and somewhat thick, and so was free'd from his Apo­steme. Whereas before the same Mat­ter (the Fluctuation of which was not only perceiv'd by himself, by reason of his difficult breathing, but also was ea­sily heard in the stirring of his Body back­ward and forward) threaten'd him not only with a Consumption, but with cer­tain Death.

XXVIII. Something to the same Observ. 2. purpose I also observ'd in the Year 1639. in a Servant of the Lord of Soulen, who being troubled with an Aposteme in his Breast, all the Mat­ter was discharg'd through the Urina­ry Passages, with a terrible pain in the Loyns and Ureters, by reason of the di­stension of the parts caused by the pas­sage of the thick Matter. Andrew Laurentius also, Anat. l. 9. quaest. 12.Observ. 3. relates a Story of the same nature, by him observ'd in a certain Person trou­bled with an Empyema, whose Body being opened, he found a certain sort of stink­ing Matter in great quantity in the Con­cavity of the Breast and the left hollow­ness of the Heart, of the same nature with that which came from him with his Urine, which was a certain sign that it came from the Breast through the Heart to the Kidneys.

XXIX. These and such like things, The thing farther considered. while others consider and observe a difficult Explication of the Matter, they reject the Glandules, and affirm the whole Business to be done by the sole peculiar disposition of the Pores in the Kidneys, that is to say, their Apti­tude and Structure, which they cannot describe, neither by means whereof the thick Matter finds a passage through them, but the thinner Blood cannot pass. Fling, say they, thin Chaff, Pease and Beans, into a Country Farmers Barn-Sive, the thicker Pease and Beans easily pass through the Holes, but the long thin Chaff remains in the Sive. But tho' the aptitude of the Pores in dry things may occasion such Accidents, 'tis much to be doubted, whether in liquid and fluid Bodies mix'd together, the same thing may happen, especially when neither exceeds the other in fat; that is to say, whether a Substance four times thicker than the Blood, by reason of the said Structure of the Pores alone, may be able to pass through such narrow Pores, which do not only not give pas­sage to the blood that is mix'd with it, and is much thinner, but stops it. Whether also the blood which is so thin and fluid, that it has been sometimes seen to sweat through the Pores of the Skin, coming to the Pores of the Reins, cannot as ea­sily, or rather much more easily be shap'd to the form of the Pores of the Reins, than Matter which is so thick, that it can hardly pass thorough the Ureters, but many times extreamly tor­ments 'em by their distension. And so that Reason, as to the particular Stru­cture of the Pores of the Reins, seems hardly sufficient to explain the said Eva­cuation; therefore there is something yet lies hid which no body yet could e­ver discover: In the mean time, tho' the Cause of this thing do not manifest­ly appear, this is certain as to the thing it self; and we our selves have seen Mat­ter carried from the Breast to the Kid­neys and Bladder, discharg'd in great quantity, without any intermixture of blood.

XXX. But we shall not insist altoge­ther The thing considered in solids. upon Liquids; what shall we say of things that are solid and hard, are they also shap'd in like manner, so as to be strain'd through the Pores of the Kidneys, without any concomitancy of Blood? Yet there are several Examples of hard things that are discharg'd with the Urine, without any blood attending. Thus Longinus relates a Story of a Vir­gin, that being surpriz'd with a suddain laughter, swallow'd three Needles which she held in her Mouth, which came from her again in three days with her Urine. Alexander Benedict. l. 3. Anat. c. 9. writes another Story of a Pack-needle, four fingers breadth long▪ which descended into the Bladder, and was afterwards found in the dissected body. Iohn Mat­thaeus also relates, that a small Iron Nail being swallow'd unawares, was taken a [Page 122] long time after, cut of the Bladder with a Stone cut out at the same time, (the Stone cleaving round about the Nail, as if the Nail had been the groundwork of the Stone. My Wife swallow'd a small Needle that carried an ordinary Thred, which in three days came from her a­gain with her Urine, August 8. 1665. N [...]r did the Needle put her to any pain while it lay in her Body. Iulius Annot. ad c. 14. de Sub­stan. fac. Natural. Alexandrinus has observ'd little pieces of the Roots of Parsly, as big as a farthing, swallow'd the day before, discharg'd a­gain with the Urine. Nicholas Floren­tine Serm. 4. Tract. 4. c. 29. reports that a Person, who had eat Mushrooms not exactly concocted, piss'd out again remarkable Bits of 'em with his Urine. Plutarch relates the Story [...]. 8. Sym­pos. Prob. 9. of a Man, who after a long difficulty of his Urine, at length voided a knotted Barly-stalk. George Ierome Velschius Observat. 60. relates another Story of one that was wont to void Grape-stones, bits of Lettice, and Meat, together with his Urine. And of another, that when he drank the hot Bath-waters, frequently voided with his Urine whole pieces of Melon-seeds which he was us'd to eat. Pigraeus and Hildan tell ye of some that have piss'd out Aniseeds and Alke­kengi. All which things, it is both said and believ'd by most hitherto, do pass through the narrow streights of the Kid­neys, where the blood cannot make its way. How then will the adapted dispo­sition and structure of the Pores afore­said suffice? I hardly believe it. For that such hard and large Bodies, passing the milkie Vessels, should first pass the Vena Cava, and [...]igh the Cavity of the Heart, thence through the narrow and scarcely visible passages of the Lungs, to the left side insensibly, without any pain or prejudice, and then be conveyed through the Aorta and Emulgent Arte­ries to the Kidneys, and be strain'd through their Urinary Fibres and Papil­lary Pores, and that no blood should go along with 'em, surpasses both Belief and Reason, nor can be prov'd by any Ex­perience, seeing that no Physician or A­natomist ever found Needles, Seeds, Straws, or any such like things swal­lowed, either in the Vena Cava, the Ven­tricles of the Heart, the Lungs, the Aor­ta, or the Kidneys.

XXXI. These things when formerly Other pas­sages sup­posed lead­ing to the Bladder. I seriously consider'd with my self, and withal bethought my self that they who in great quantity drink the Spaw Waters, and other sharp and diuretic Waters, in half an hours time evacuate forth a­gain three, four, or more pound of Se­rum, without any alteration of the Heart; and that it is very unlikely that so great a quantity of crude and uncoloured Serum should so suddainly pass through the Heart, Lungs, and Kidneys, without any prejudice. I began to think that of necessity, besides the Veins, there must be some other Passages through which the more copi­ous Serum, and those hard Substances already mention'd come to the Blad­der.

XXXII. And these ways or pas­sages The milkie Vessels to the Bladder and Womb. I suspected to be certain milkie Vessels, which are carried to the Blad­der through occult and hitherto un­known ways; and tho' not in all, yet in some men are so open toward the Bladder, that they are sufficient to transmit the milkie Chylus and plen­tiful Serum, but also solid, hard, and long Substances. And this Conjecture of mine the Observations of Physicians seem to confirm, who have sometimes seen the Chylous milkie Matter evacua­ted with the Urine. Nicholas Florentine Serm. 5. Tract. 10. c. 21. reports that he knew a young Man about thirty years of Age, who every day voided, besides a great quantity of Urine, without any pain, about half a Urinal full of Milk. Capellus the Physician, by the Testimo­ny of Bauhinus, saw a Woman that eva­cuated half a Cup full of Milk out of her Bladder. Andrew Lawrentius has ob­served several Child-bearing Women to have voided a great Quantity of Milk out of their Wombs and Bladders. Whence it is manifestly apparent that some milkie Vessels run forth, not only to the Womb, but to the Bladder, and may discharge themselves into those parts, if there be no Obstruction, that is, if those Vessels are not obstructed, compressed, or stop'd up by some other means, as they seem to be in most men; which is thought to be the reason that the milkie Chylus so rarely flows to the Bladder. But in re­gard these Passages are short, and not so winding as many others are, it may easily happen that other solid Substances, besides the Chylus, may pass through 'em, as Seeds, Needles, Straws, &c. But much more easily may a great part of the crude Serum, increas'd by much drinking, flow through these Passages, and be evacuated through the Bladder, in regard so large a quantity of blood cannot be so suddainly run through other [Page 123] Vessels, and circulate through the Heart. And hence it is that such Urine proves of a watery Colour, differing much in Colour and Consistence from that Urine which is concocted with the blood, which follows well colour'd after the Evacuati­on of much copious crude Serum, and manifestly shews that it pass'd through o­ther parts, (than the other crude Serum,) that is, through the Lungs, Heart, and Kidneys, and there obtain'd a larger Concoction. I also conjectur'd that those Liquors which we drink, and whose co­lour and smell remains in the Urine, are carried the same way; for should they pass through the Heart, they would lose both. Actuarius l. 2. de Iud. Urin. c. 20. relates the History of a sick Person to whom he had given a black Medicin, who soon after made black water without any prejudice. And many times Mid­wives, by the colour and smell of the Excrements that flow from Child-bear­ing Women, know what the Woman with Child has been eating before. Saf­fron being given in drink to a Woman in Labour, in a quarter of an hour dy'd the Birth of a yellow Colour, and yet the Saffron could not pass through the Heart in so short a time, nor from thence be sent to the Womb, much less pre­serve its Colour entire in passing through so many several Chanels. Iohn Ferdi­nand Hertodius, fed a Bitch for some days before she whelp'd with Meat dy'd with Saffron, and after he had open'd her, found the Dissolution or Liquation among the Membranes, and the Pup­pies dy'd of a yellow Colour, and yet the Chylus was white in the milkie Ves­sels, not tinctur'd with any other Co­lour. I my self have seen those who have eaten the fat growing to the Kid­neys of Lambs, rosted, and in a short time voided it all again with their U­rine. Oyl of Turpentine immediately imparts its smell to the Urine. And Asparagus provokes Urine, crude, mud­dy, and retaining their own smell. Whereas if such Juices should make a long Circuit through the Heart and other Bowels, they could never come to the Bladder so suddainly, so raw, and yet retaining their own smell. Which are certain Indications that there are certain milkie Vessels occult, and taking ano­ther Course than the rest, which extend themselves, some to the Womb, and some to the Piss-bladder, and that Li­quors of this nature, and other solid Sub­stances, may sometimes through those more open Chanels, reach those parts. Which Vessels, tho' hitherto they were never conspicuous to the sight, nor de­monstrated by any Anatomist, yet of necessity must be there. Such milkie Ves­sels extended toward the Teats, are not to be seen, and yet that there are such Vessels, stalks of Herbs eaten the day before, and voided through the Paps, and Broth dy'd with Saffron, flowing out at the Teats of the same Colour, sufficiently declare. Now if these Ves­sels in the Teats are invisible to the Eyes▪ what wonder that they which tend to the Womb and Bladder should not be dis­cover'd? However, for the better clear­ing of this difficulty, I would desire all Anatomists, that they would use a little more than ordinary diligence in the search of these Vessels for the common benefit, to the end that what is now but meerly conjectur'd at, may come to be evident by solid Demonstrations.

Others there are who never thinking of the milkie Vessels, have invented, or at least imagin'd other ways.

XXXIII. Bartholine l. de Lact.Bartho­line's O­pinion, that there is some other and shorter way. Thorac. l. 6. & 9. believes that this same thick Matter, Needles, the mil­kie Iuice, and the like, and in great Drinkers, and those that cannot hold their Water, the Liquor they drink, nothing or very little alter'd, are car­ried by a direct and short way to the Emulgent Arteries, and so through the Kidneys to the Bladder. But these Passages are not confirm'd by sight, because those Chanels from the Chyle­bearing bag to the Emulgent Arteries are not to be found, nor any Branches carried to the Sweet-bread and Liver, of which he also discourses in the same place: and therefore the Lymphatic Ves­sels seem to have deceived this learned Person, as well as many others. More­over, grant that the milkie Vessels reach to the said parts, yet how is it possible that Needles, Bodkins, and the like, of a great length, and not to be bent, should pass through those narrow and winding porous Passages of the Substance of the Reins? And therefore of necessity this Invention of so famous a Man, must fall to the ground.Clemens Niloe his Opinion.

XXXIV. Clemens Niloe writes that some of the milkie Vessels are car­ried to the Vice-Reins, or black Cho­ler Kidneys, call'd Capsulae Atrabi­lariae, and that from those the se­rous Liquors flow to the external Tu­nicle, and thence farther through the Ureters to the Bladder. But the Hy­pothesis [Page 124] falters, or rather fails altogether in this, that the Hypothesis was first to be prov'd that the milkie Vessels are carried thither. Besides, there is no passage from these black Choler▪Ca [...]kets to the Ureters, but they discharge themselves into the Em [...]lgeut Veins, or Vena Cava, and so nothing can come from them to the Ureters.

XXXV. Bernard Swalve going The Opini­on of Ber­nard Swalve in this m [...]r. about to shew more manifest and shorter ways, writes, that the Bath-waters, acid Iuices, and any Liquor plentiful­ly drank is easily s [...]ck't up in the Sto­mach by the Gastrick Veins, gaping pre­sently upon their approach, and so are immediately carried to the Heart. But the vanity of this Fiction is every way apparent. For the more plentiful draughts of acid Liquors, whether Wine, or any other Liquid Juice, were re­ceiv'd by the Gastrick Veins in the Ventri­cle, must of necessity be carried then to the Vena Portae, the Liver, the Vena Ca­va and the Lungs, and in so long a way, and passing through so many Bowels, must of necessity be subject to a remark­able change; and alter their colours, whereas before they are presently piss'd out without any colour at all. Nor could they retain the [...] inctures of Saffron, Ru­barb and other things, and be piss'd out as they are with the same hue and smell as they went in. Moreover, by the Confession of Swalve himself, there is nothing thick or chylous canpass through those ways, by reason of their extraordinary narrowness; whereas we find by experience, that Matter, Needles, Milk, and black Physick, has been pre­sently discharg'd by Urine. Then again, if so great a quantity of cold Acids, as is commonly consum'd in a short space, should be carried through the forementi­oned passages, certainly the heat of the Liver, Heart, and Lungs, would be ex­tinguish'd by that same actual Cold, and the whole Body would become cold­er than Marble, and so shortness of Breath, Dropsies, and such like Distem­pers would presently seize all those that drink those Liquors: whereas experience tells us that those Distempers are cur'd by Acids.

Thus the Opinions of Doctors con­cerning a shorter way to the Bladder are very uncertain, among which neverthe­less our own above mention'd seems to be most probable, till another more like­ly be discover'd.

XXXVI. Forestus, Duretus, and Whether there be a consent be­tween the Kidneys. after them Beverovicius and Laselius, write, that one Kidney being obstru­cted, the other becomes useless, and lo­sing its own action, intercepts the f [...]ow­ing of the Urine; which RiolanusSecond di­gression. says has been more than once ob­serv'd by himself; which he also be­lieves comes to pass by reason of the sympathy between each other, by reason of their partnership in duty; and hence if the one be out of order, the other growing feeble, immediately lan­guishes: Which Veslingius also intimates in few words. But in this particular I take Experience to be prefer'd before the Authorities and Opinions of the most learned Men, which has many times taught us the contrary; that is to say, That one Kidney being obstructed, or any other way distemper'd, the other remains sound, and makes sufficient way for the Urine, of which I could produce several Examples, which for brevities sake I omit. Sometimes indeed we have seen, that by a Stone falling down upon one Kidney, the passage of the Urine has been stop'd; which has not happen'd by reason of any sympathy, but because unfelt by the Patient, the other Kidney had been long obstructed before, and yet the Urine having sufficient passage through the opposite Kidney: which op­posite Kidney being by chance obstruct­ed likewise, presently the passage of the Urine is quite stop'd up. Which the Dissections of dead Bodies apparently teach us. For many times we have found one Ureter quite obstructed near the Ori­fice, which the sick Person never percei­ved in his life time, while his Urine pass'd freely through the other. Nor did we ever observe a total suppression of U­rine, where the Kidneys were faulty, but we found upon Dissection both Kid­neys obstructed. The Lord Wede, a Noble man of Utrecht, often at other times subject to Nephritic Pains, found his Urine of a suddain supprest by rea­son of an Obstruction in his Kidneys, and yet without any pain: Presently that same whimsey of consent came into the Physicians heads, believing that one Kidney was suddainly obstructed, and that the other fail'd in its Office by con­sent. At length all Remedies in vain attempted, in fourteen days he dy'd. But then his Body being open'd, in both Kid­neys was found a Stone of an indifferent bigness, shap'd like a Pear, that was fall'n upon the Orifice of the Ureter, and had [Page 125] quite damm'd up the urinary Passage. Who would now have thought that in both Kidneys two Stones should be fallen at the same time upon both the Orifi­ces of the Ureters? And therefore it is most probable that long before, one Kid­ney had been obstructed, tho' he felt no great Prejudice by it, so long as the other was open; but when the Stone fell upon the Ureter of the other Rein, then the Urine was altogether suppres­sed. Certain it is, that that Suppressi­on of Urine was not caused by the Ob­struction of one Kidney, and consequent­ly not by any sympathetical Affection of the other. It is also farther to be noted that in the Dissections of Dogs, we shall often find in the one Kidney a long, thick, ruddie Worm that has eaten all the fleshy Substance of the Bowel, whereas there could be nothing more sound than the opposite Kidney; which shew'd no sign of Sympathizing with the Miser [...] of the other.

XXXVII. But tho' it be the only Whether the Kid­neys [...] Blood. Office of the Reins to separate the Serum from the Blood, nevertheless some more narrowly considering their fleshy Substance and peculiar Bigness, attribute also to 'em the Function of preparing and farther elaborating and concocting the Blood; Which Opinion Deusingius, following Beverovicius, most stifly defends. But if by Concoction he means that Elaboration only, by which the secous Excrement is separated from the Blood, then his Opinion may be tolerated: But if such an elaborate Con­coction, by which the Blood is made more Spirituous and Perfect, then his Opinion is to be rejected, there being no Bowel that brings the Blood to grea­ter Perfection than the Heart, from which the more remote it is, the more imperfect it is: Nor can any thing of its lost Perfection be restor'd by any other Part, no not by the Kidneys themselves. For which Reason the Blood must re­turn to the Heart to be restored to its pristine Vigor.

XXXVIII. Besides the foresaid Of­fice, Another Action. others according to the Opinion of Sennertus ascrib'd another Action to the Kidneys, which is the Prepara­tion of Seed: Which they uphold by several Reasons, of which these are the Chief.

  • 1. Because the Kidneys have a pecu­liar Parenchyma as the rest of the Bow­els have; now in regard there is a pecu­liar Power of Concoction in the peculi­ar Flesh of every one of the Bowels, that peculiar Quality must not be de­ny'd the Kidneys, which can be no o­ther than a seminific Concoction, when Straining is sufficient for the Separation of the Serum, and there is no need of Concoction.
  • 2. Because the emulgent Arteries and Veins are too large to serve only for the Conveyance of the Serum, it seems most probable that a great part of the Blood being separated from the Serum, is concocted in the Kidneys into a semi­nal Juice, which is to be further con­cocted in the Testicles.
  • 3. Because when the Seed is suppres­sed and over much retain'd, the Kidneys are out of Order.
  • 4. Because Topics apply'd to the Re­gion of the Kidneys, prove beneficial in a Gonorrhea.
  • 5. Because a hot Constitution of the Reins causes a Proclivity to Venery, lustful Dreams and Pollutions; and the hotter it is, the sharper the Seed is.

XXXIX. But these are chaffi [...] Rea­sons,Refuta­tion. and of no force, to which we an­swer thus in order.

  • 1. That the Kidneys indeed are cer­tain straining Vessels, whereby good part of the Serum is separated from the Blood that passes through, and falling into the Renal Receptacle flows out again. But this Straining can never be, unless a certain necessary specific separating Fer­mentation precede, separating the Blood from the Serum; and so the Kidneys do not simply separate the Serum by strain­ing, but transmits, as it were, through a Sponge, that which is separated by the said Fermentation. Moreover because a great Quantity of Serum is to be sepa­rated and transmitted, hence there is a a Necessity for larger and greater Strai­ners. For if so much Serum, separated by continual Fermentation, were to be strain'd through small Strainers, would they be so loose, that together with the Serum separated by the said Concoction, the thinner part of the Blood would al­so slip through 'em.
  • 2. Much of the Blood were to be car­ried through the emulgent Arteries be­ing very large for the Separation of a moderate part of the Blood only, for the Blood was not to be depriv'd of all the Serum, to preserve it fluid. But through the Emulgent Veins nothing flows to the Kidneys, as is apparent from the Circulation of the Blood, and the Valves which are placed at the En­trance of the emulgent Veins into the Vena Cava. Lastly, neither does that [Page 126] Consequence follow. Much Blood flows to the Reins, and therefore out of some part of it the matter of the Seed is pre­pared in the Kidneys.
  • 3. Nor does that other Consequence. The Kidneys are out of Order through Retention of the Seed; Therefore the Kidneys both prepare and supyly the Matter of the Seed. For then this Con­sequence would be as true. The Head­ach proceeds from the Retention and Boyling of the Choler, therefore the Head prepares Choler.
  • 4. Neither is this Consequence true. Topics apply'd to the Region of the Kidneys are beneficial in the Gonorrhea, therefore the Kidneys supply seminal Matter. For then would this be as cer­tain. Cold Water apply'd to the Testi­cles stops bleeding at the Nose, therefore the Testicles made Blood to be carried to the Nostrils.
  • 5. A hot Constitution of the Kidneys is a Sign of Proneness to Lust, but not the Cause. For this is usual that where all the spermatic Vessels are hotter, there the Kidneys are also hotter. Not that the Kidneys add a greater Heat to the Seed: But the Vapors rising from the hot Seed, heat and warm the Kid­neys. So that in Brute Animals that are ripe and libidinous, not gelt, you shall perceive a certain seminal Savour and Tast in the Kidneys.

XL. Lastly we may add for a That no Sp [...]cifick Vessels are extended from the Reins to the Testicles. Conclusion, that no specific Vessels are extended from the Kidneys to the Testicles, through which the seminal Matter can be carried thither. That the spermatic Arteries carry blood to the Testicles out of the Trunc of the Aorta, and the Superfluity flows back through the spermatic Veins to the Ve­na Cava (whose Valves are so plac'd, that nothing can slide through them to the Testicles) and so these Vessels can­not perform that Office, and as for other Vessels there are none.

XLI. From what has been said it Whether Wounds in the Kid­neys be mortal. appears, that the Kidneys are Parts that evacuate the serous Excrement, most necessary for the Support of Life. The Question is therefore whe­ther the Wounds of the Kidneys are mortal or no? We must say, they are Mortal, and that of a hundred wounded in the Kidneys, scarce one recovers perfect Health. Which Le­thality proceeds not from the Nobleness or Excellency of the Reins, but from the Concourse of supervening Symp­tomes. That is to say, a vast Flux of blood cutting off the Vessels, Obstructi­on of Urine, or else the Impossibility of the Retention of it: Great Pain, Inflam­mation, Exulceration, Apostumation, by reason of the continual Thorough­fare of the sharp Serum, difficult to be cured; and other Accidents that weare the Strength of the Patient to Death. For tho' the Kidneys are not principal Parts, yet are they such, the use of which we cannot want, which Use being either wholly suppressed or obstructed, Life ceases. True it is that some People who have been wounded in the Kidneys have liv'd, and to the more unskilful have seem'd to be cur'd, but at last the reviving Apostumes have carried off the Patient. Thus Fallopius, Cornelius Gem­ma, Dodoneus, Forestus, Valleriola, and others, relate various Examples of Per­sons wounded in the Kidneys who su­perviv'd for some Years, but at length however they dy'd of those Wounds. But that some die sooner, some later, the Reason is this, that some Wounds are more or less deep, and the attending Symptomes more or less violent. How­ever for my part in all my five and for­ty Years Practice, I never saw any bo­dy wounded in the Reins that ever per­fectly recovered, tho' I have met with many such Wounds to be cured, espe­cially when I practised young in the Camp; which makes me admire the Vanity of so many Surgeous, that dare bragg they have many times perfectly cured People wounded in the Kidneys. But what shall we then say of the cut­ting of Stones out of the Kidneys? To which Avicen inclines, Canon. l. 3. Fen. 18. tract. 2. c. 18. Of which also Pa­reus writes, lib. de Affect. When it swells and bunches out (meaning the Stone of the Kidney in the Loyns) at that time you must cut near the Kidney, and drain­ing out the Matter, cure the Gravel with Medicaments provoking Urine. But we must say that whoever has a Stone cut out of the Kidney cannot supervive the Section. 'Tis reported that such a Cure once was undertook and accomplished with Success in Spain, upon a Person condemn'd to die. But if it were true, as is greatly to be doubted, it is to be numbered among the Miracles.

XLII. Here by the way we are to A Plexure of Nerves between the two Kid­neys. observe, that there is a certain Plex­ure of Nerves between the two Kidneys under the Ventricle, consist­ing of a double Costal, and Stomachi­cal Nerve; From which all the Parts [Page 127] of the lower Belly borrow their Nerves, of which more l. 3. c. 8.

CHAP. XIX. Of the Capsulae or Deputy Kid­neys.

I. THE Capsulae Kidneys by The Names. Julius Casser are called the Deputy Kidneys, by Wharton the Glandules adjoyning to the Nervous Plexure, by Bartholine the black Choler Cases, or Capsulae Atrabila­riae.

II. They are two Glandulous Bo­dies, Situation. of which one leans upon each Kidney, where they look toward the Vena Cava under the Diaphrag­ma, at the upper Part of the Mem­brana Adiposa, to which it sticks so close, that oft-times it is overseen by the more Negligent, and the Kid­neys being taken out, is left annexed to the Membrane of the Diaphrag­ma.

The left Glandule is nearest the Dia­phragma, the right is nearest the Vena Cava; and the left is placed somewhat higher than the right: But in Brutes for the most part neither joyn close to the Reins, but ly distant about the breadth of half a Thumb, and plac'd some­what toward the Diaphragma, the Fat lying between.

They are found in that Place where the Nervous Plexure is to be seen, to which they are firmly knit.

III. They seldome exceed the num­ber The Num­ber. of Two.

IV. Their Substance is not much Substance. unlike the Substance of the Kidneys, but looser, sometimes of a ruddy Co­lour, sometimes like Fat.

V. In Shape they are seldome like The Fi­gure the Kidneys (and yet I have more than once seen 'em exactly represent the Figure of the Kidneys) but fre­quently like a piece of flat Past; be­tween Square and Oblong: Sometimes also they are Triangular and Oval, but rarely Round.

VI. In grown People they are Bigness. much less than the Kidneys; extended to the Quantity of a vomiting Nut, and the right uses to exceed the left in bigness, seldome the left exceeds the right. In the birth and Children till almost half a Year old, they almost e­qual the Kidneys; but afterwards they do not grow proportionably to the rest of the Parts; and when the Privities begin to have Hair, they cease to grow any more. However they do not diminish again in grown People, as some have averr'd. For in Consumpti­ons and Hectic Feavers where all the Parts are emaciated, these remain sound and untouch'd, and preserve their won­ted bigness.

VII. They are wrapt about with a Tunicle. thin Tunicle, by which they are strongly fasten'd to the outward Membrane of the Kidneys.

VIII. They have an apparent Con­cavity Concavity; full of Windings and Tur­nings, but so little that it will hard­ly admit a Pea, and therefore more Conspicuous in the Birth than in grown People, which contains a black fecu­lent. Matter, with which Colour also the Inside of it is also tinctured.

IX. Wharton observes that a Whar­ton's Ob­servation. great number of little Holes procee­ding from the very Substance it self of these Glandules terminate into this Concavity with gaping small Orifices, but that the Cavity it self opens into the next Vein, and is there fortifi'd with a Valve, opening toward the Vein, but closed behind. This they send from themselves for the most part to the Emulgent, sometimes to the Ve­nae adiposae, sometimes they insert a small Twig of the Vena Cava, proceeding out of their Cavity with a large and broad Orifice.

X. They also borrow an Artery Artery from the Emulgent, from the Emulgent, and sometimes one or more Branches from the Trunk of the Aorta.

XI. They admit very smell little Nerves from the Ramus Thoraci­cus. Nerves from the Stomach Branch of the sixth Pair, running to the proper Tunicle of the Reins.

XII. The use of these Kernels is Use of these Glandules not well known. hitherto unknown. Some with Veslin­gius believe that they help to draw the serous Moisture, and collect the black Choler, which like a Rennet provokes the Separation of the Serum from the [Page 128] Blood. Spigelius thinks 'em made to fill up the Vacuum which is between the Kidneys and the Diaphragma, and for a Prop to the Stomach in that Part, which is above the Emulgent Veins and Arteries; Others think that they sup­port the Division of the Retiform'd Plexure of Nerves. Riolanus, That they are of no use in Men grown to Maturi­ty, but that their Use is only to be sought for in the birth, wherein he be­lieves they receive a certain Juice ap­propriated to the Generation of the Kidney Fat; for that in the body of an Infant there is no Fat generated till after he is brought forth into the World, at what time that Juice formerly collected is produced into Act. Glisson believes that they separate the Juice that serves for the Nourishment of the Nerves from the rest of the blood, that it may be carried pure to the Nerves. All which Opinions nevertheless are meerly con­jectural, and lean upon no solid Foun­dation. Wharton believes that there is a certain Juice unapt for the Generati­on of Nerves exonerated into these lit­tle Coffers from the Plexures of the Nerves upon which they lean; which Juice however flowing from thence into the Veins, may there be useful for other Purposes. But neither is this any other than a meer uncertain Conjecture, for that it is hardly credible that either this or any other thick and feculent Humour could be conveighed through the most narrow Pores of the more so­lid Substance of the Nerves. Others con­jecture that there is a certain Rennet pre­pared in these Glandules, which flowing from thence to the Kidneys, causes there­in a quick Separation of the Serum from the blood. Which Opinion certainly carries with it great Probability; if the way from these Pasages to the Kidneys could be demonstrated. But what if we should say, That that same black Juice is prepared out of the Arterious Blood, and obtains a certain fermenta­tive Power, necessary for the Venal Blood, for which reason it flows from them not to other Parts, but endued with the same Quality flows through the Veins proceeding from the Capsulae to the Vena Cava: But neither is this any more than a Conjecture.

Hence because the Use of these Glan­dules is so little known, I am persuaded it happens, that they were never taken into due Consideration by any of our Physicians: Whereas we find that many Diseases arise from their being out of Or­der. And therefore it is to be hop'd that all Practisers, both Physicians and Ana­tomists, will for the future observe these Parts more diligently, and by frequent Dissections of dead Carkasses inform themselves what Diseases their Disorder and ill Temparature may occasion.

CHAP. XX. Of the Ureters.

I. THE Ureters, [...] from Definition. [...] to make Water and [...], are certain oblong and white Vessels, or round Channels pro­ceeding from the Kidneys receiving the Serum strein'd from the Reins, and carrying it to the Bladder, to­gether with the Gravel, Choler, Mat­ter, and other Iuices mix'd with the Serum.

II. They arise from the inward Source. Concavity of the Kidneys, whose va­rious Pipes meeting and closing toge­ther, form the Ureter.

III. One is generally granted to Number. each Kidney, seldome any more are found, tho' it were twice my chance to find more; which two Ureters however were united on both sides near the Blad­der, and enter'd it with an Orifice.

IV. They consist of a thick two­fold The Sub­stance. and white Membrane, the outer­most common, the innermost peculiar. But Riolanus more judiciously acknow­ledges but one peculiar Membrane, for that there is no outermost common Membrane joyned to it from the Peri­tonaeum. The Ureters generally are con­tained under the Peritonaeum, together with many other Parts, but they are not particularly enfolded by that Mem­brane, nor receive any peculiar Tunicle from the Peritonaeum, as the Ventricle, the Vena Cava, the Liver and many other Bowels and Vessels do. But the peculiar and only Membrane of which they consist, is a Membrane strong, ner­vous, strengthened with some Fibres, oblique and streight, and Arteries and small Veins from the neighbouring Parts; and furnish'd with Nerves from the sixth Pair and the Marrow of the Loyns, which endue it with an exqui­site Sense of Feeling: Which little Nerves however Riolanus will not allow [Page 129] the [...]reters, believing it enough to ex­cite Pain, that they are Membranous, seeing that from the distension of a Membrane by a Stone or any sharp Substance, there follows a Pain severe enough to be endur'd. Wherein he mi­stakes, for that any such thing can hap­pen without the flowing in of the Spirits through the Nerves, is prov'd from the Palsey▪ in which Distemper the Mem­branes do not feel, through the Defect of Animal Spirits, nor do they display the least sign of Feeling that may be thought to proceed from their Structure and Composition.

V. These are very small in a Man;Bigness. about a Handful in length, and about the breadth of a Straw: Tho' sometimes they are very much dilated by Stones passing violently through and with a tormenting Pain; so that sometimes they have been seen as broad as the small Gut.

VI. They proceed downwards fromSituation. the Reins above the Pso [...] Muscles that be in the Hip, between the double Mem­branes of the Peritonaeum, somewhat reflex'd toward the lower Parts, and in some manner, by an oblique Course be­tween the Membranes of the Bladder, are inserted about the hinder parts of the Neck of the Bladder, and are con­tinued with the inner Substance of the Bladder, in which place some believe 'em to be fortified with Valves at their Ori [...]ices, hindering the Return of the Urine from the upper Parts. Which Valves however Riolanus, Andrew Lau­rentius, and Plempius call in Question, and say that their oblique and winding Ingress into the Bladder stops the Re­turn of the Urine out of the Bladder, for which Opinion we also give our Vote.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Piss-Bladder.

I. THE Piss-Bladder, [...],Definition. is a Membranous Organical Part of the lower Belly, which retains the Serum received from the Kidneys, and at length discharges it as being troublesom either through its Weight or Acrimony.

II. It is seated in the Hypogastri­um,Situation. between the double Tunicles of the Peritonaeum, in the Cavity which is form'd by the Os Sacrum, the Hip-Bone and Share-Bone. In Men it leans upon the Intestinum Rectum, and is joyn'd to the Prostatae Glandules; in Women it sticks to the Neck of the Womb, and in both is fastened to the Share-Bone before; and it is also annex­ed to the Navel by the Urachus.

III. It consists of a threefold Mem­brane, Mem­branes. of which the outermost in Men, but not in Brutes, being surrounded with Fat proceeds from the Perito­naeum. The middlemost, which is thicker is endued with fleshy Fibres for Contraction and Expulsion of the Urine: and hence by Aquapendens, and Bartholine, called the enfolding Muscle, by Spigelius the Thruster downward of the Urine. This if it be too much distended by [...]oo great a quantity of Urine, occasions a total sup­pression of Urine, because the Fibres of it being too much distended are so weak­ned, that they cannot contract them­selves again. Which sort of Suppressi­on of Urine Forestus writes that he him­self was troubled with l. 25. Observ. 14. The innermost is thinner, and being of a more exquisite Sense of Feeling is pro­tected by a kind of Slime from the Cor­rosion of the Liquor contained in it. This is found very much wrinkl'd in People that are troubl'd with the Stone.

IV. The Figure of it, is oblong, The Fi­gure. globous, or round, and sometimes, sharp like a Pear.

V. The Bigness is not alike in all, Bigness. but in some larger, in some less; which extraordinary largeness is occasioned by its frequent and violent Distensi­ons, by too long a Retention of the Water.

VI. It has one Cavity, which by Its Conca­vities. the Observations of Physicians in some few has been seen distinguished into two, by a Membrane or Fence in the middle.

VII. There are three Holes belong­ing Its Holes. to it, of which the two lesser before the Neck are open to the Entrance of the Ureters: The third, which is the bigger, in the Neck gives way to the Urine going forth.

VIII. It receives Arteries from Its Vessels▪ the Hypogastries, entring the sides of the Neck, and carrying thither [Page 130] Blood for its Nourishment: The re­mainder of which it pours forth through little Veins into the Hypo­gastric Vein. It admits Nerves from the sixth Pair and the Marrow of the Os Sacrum.

IX. It is divided into Bottom Its Divisi­on. and Neck.

X. The Bottom comprehends the The Bot­tom. upper and broader part of the Blad­der; from which the Urachus is ex­tended upwards to the Navel; which Urachus together with the adjoyning umbilical Arteries in People of ripe Years proves a strong Ligament, pre­venting the falling down of the Bot­tom upon the Neck. Of the Urachus see more, c. 32.

XI. The Neck is the lower and The Neck. narrower Part, which in Men being longer and straighter is carried to the Root of the Yard, and opens into the Urinary Passage or Piss-Pipe. But in Women shorter and broader; hang­ing above over the Neck of the Womb, and opens itself under the Clitoris, a little above the Entrance of the Sheath or Matrix between the Nymphae. In both Sexes fleshy, woven out of many Fibres, chiefly Transverse and Orbicu­lar, lying hid among the right Fibres encompassing the whole Body of the Bladder, which constitute the Sphincter Muscle, pulling together the Neck of the Bladder to prevent the Urine from coming away unseasonably, and wind­ing about the Prostatae, as may be seen in the following Chapter. As for those Anatomists that describe several other Muscles of the Bladder, they do but make themselves ridiculous: As the Ex­ternal Sphincter, the Thruster down, &c. which are nothing else but the fleshy Membrane of the Bladder.

XII. Over this Neck in Men to­ward Its Valves. the Piss-Bladder, a little Mem­brane overspreads it self, like a small Valve, which prevents the Seed which is forc'd toward the Piss-Pipe from flowing into the Bladder, and the falling of the Urine which flows out of the Bladder into the seminal Pipes. Which may be demonstrated if a Bod­kin be put into the Bladder toward the Piss-Pipe, into which it enters easily without any Obstacle; but not the con­trary way, unless by the Force of Di­laceration. This little Membrane is broken by the Immission of a Cathe­ter into the Bladder, and sometimes is corroded away in a Gonorrhea. Bartho­line reports from the Observation of Riolanus, that this Membrane is to be found in Boys till twenty Years of Age, but not after that. Which Observati­on I do not take to be any perpetual Rule. For in Practice we have many times broken this Membrane not with­out great Pain ensuing, in older Men by immission of the Catheter. Perhaps Rio­lanus might observe this in the Dissecti­ons of dead Bodies in France. For the French Youth being extreamly Lustful, and abandoning themselves to their Ve­nery, and frequently Clapp'd, it may easily happen that this Membrane may be eaten away by the corroding Seed, as it passes through the Channel.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Parts in Men serving forSee Table 3. & 4. the Generation of the Seed.

I. AFter the Organs of Nourish­ment, Preamble. by which the Food is prepared for the Support of the Bo­dy, which would else decay, Order and Method require that we should proceed to the Description of the In­struments of Generation, by which the Perennity of human kind which Na­ture has deny'd to Individuals is preserv'd by Procreation.

II. These Parts are called Puden­daThe Privi­ties. from Pudor Modesty, as being those Parts of which Man was not asham'd before Sin. But after he had sin'd he took notice of his Ignominious Nakedness, and was asham'd. Theo­phrastus Paracelsus writes, that Men be­fore Sin wanted these Parts; but that af­ter Sin committed they were added by the Creator, in perpetual Remembrance of the shameless Fact he had commit­ted: And because our first Parents fell through the Temptation of the Devil, therefore to Adam was given a genital Member or Yard like a Serpent, and to Eve a Member of Generation like the Serpents Den. Now whether this be the Reason that the Adamite's Serpent is never at rest but when he is entering Eve's Den, and that Eve's Den with so much Love and Desire receives and [Page 131] admits the Adamite's Serpent, I leave to others to dispute.

III. These same Privities, which Genitals. are also call'd Genitals, being in both Sexes not fram'd alike, necessarily we must discourse of both apart: And first for the Generating Parts of Man, in the same Order as the Seed is generated, moves within 'em, and is ejected.

IV. The Genital Parts in Men are The Geni­tal Parts of Men. such Parts as are design'd for a Man to beget his own Likeness in a Wo­man. These Parts are divided into In­ternal and External; of which some ly hid in the Cavity of the Abdomen, o­thers are conspicuous without: Howe­ver all these both outward and internal Parts that serve for Generation are two­fold: Others prepare the Seed, of which in this Chapter; others conveigh the Seed into the Womb, of which in the following Chapter.

V. Among those which make the The sper­matic Ves­sels. Seed in the first place occur the Sper­matic Vessels: Which are vulgarly call'd preparing Vessels, because that formerly it was thought the Blood was there prepared for the Generati­on of Seed. These are twofold: That is to say, two Arteries, and as many Veins which are more conspicuous and bigger than the Arteries. Some write that they have seen the Arteries bigger than the Veins, which must be preternatu­ral, and contrary to the Circulation of the Blood (for then through large and broad Arteries more Blood would be carried than could be return'd back through smaller and lesser Veins; whence it is probable that such a thing never happen'd, but that the Anatomists that writ so had a Mist before their Eyes.

VI. The spermatic Arteries carry Spermatic Arteries. Blood for the making of the Seed and the Nourishment of the Testicles: Of which, the Right a little below, the Left close by or a little above the Emulgent, sometimes both together a­bout the Distance of two Fingers un­der the Emulgent, arise out of the Trunk of the great Artery before. But then the Right ascending the Trunk of the Vena Cava proceeds obliquely to the Vein of the same side, and the Left proceeds directly to the Vein of its own Side. Nevertheless Riolanus has observed that both sometimes proceed from the Emulgent; and sometimes not two but one only to have sprung out of the Trunk of the Aorta, and to have perform'd the Duty of the two. In like manner, George Q [...]ck a Physician of Norimbergh, observed this single Arte­ry in a dead masculine Body springing from the forepart of the Aorta, which being divided into two Branches above the separation of the Crural Branches, joyn'd afterwards on both sides to the descending spermatic Vein. And by the Relation of Hoffman, Peter Paw, in the Year 1598. in the dead Body of an old Man, found no more than one spermatic Artery, proceeding from the middle Trunk of the Aorta, ten times bigger than those Arteries wont to appear in others, and ending in the Testicles, be­ing without question double fork'd be­fore. But these Accidents rarely hap­pen, as in that Person of whom Corne­lius Gemma writes, Art. Cyclog. lib. 2. Often, says he, we have seen three or four seminal Arteries. In the place of often, I had rather he had said some­times: For the increased Number is so seldom found, that of six Hundred A­natomists scarce one has seen it: But generally two spermatic Arteries of each side one, spring from the Trunk of the Aorta.

VII. Bauhinus, Riolanus, and Whether the Arte­ries m [...]y be wanting. others report that these Arteries sometimes are of one side, and some­times both in both sides are obsorv'd to be wanting, and this they affirm to be the cause of Barrenness. Which thing Reason convinces us, can never be true, seeing that the Blood cannot be carried to the Stones through any other Passages, than through these Arteries; the Veins, by reason of the Obstructi­ons of the Valves, sending no Blood to the Testicles. And so for want of Mat­ter (which they affirm to be the cause of Barrenness, not only no Seed can be made, but neither can the Stones be supplied with Nourishment; and by that means would wast and dry up: Or else surpriz'd with a Sphacelus (which is an Extinction of Life and Sense, would fall down; whereas in those Bodies where one or both Bodies are said to be wanting, the Stones were found to be sufficiently swelling and juicie, and a copious Quantity of Seed conspicuous in the seminal Vessels. And therefore there must be some Deceit or Mistake in what they alledge, which proceeds from hence, which may often happen by reason of the extraordinary thinness of the Arteries, that those Arteries might [Page 132] be cut off either through the Impru­dence or overhasty Dissection of the Anatomists; and so could be neither found nor demonstrated, which is the reason they readily persuade themselves and the Spectators, that they are wan­ting through some defect of Nature.

VIII. The Spermatic Veins carry Spermatic Veins car­ry the Blood to the Ve­na Cava. the Blood to the Vena Cava, which remains after the Nourishment of the Stones, and making the Seed. Of these, the right Vein from the right Stone ascending the Trunk of the Vena Cava before, a little above the rise of the Emulgent, enters the Vena Cava; and the left enters the Emulgent on the same side, rarely the Vena Cava. Ri­olanus also writes that he has observ'd the right Vein inserted into the right Emulgent, which I never happened to see. Into both these Spermatic Veins within the Abdomen, several slender Branches proceeding from the Caul and Peritonaeum, open themselves, by the Observation of Regner de Graef; as also that the Veins do not proceed in so streight a Line as the Arteries. And Do minic de Marchettis, anat. c. 6. writes that he twice or thrice saw the Sperma­tic Vein, ascending from the Stone into the Abdomen, divide it self in the mid­way into three Branches, which singly enter'd the Trunk of the Vena Cava.

IX. But least the Blood ascending Valves. through them, should slide back to the Stones, they are furnished with many semicircular Valves, like half-Moons, disposed in a double Order, and looking upwards, and so preven­ting the Return of the Blood. Also at the Entrance of each into the said great Veins, there is to be seen a little Swelling, which is raised by the Valve when distended with Blood, looking to­ward the Vena Cava, as Rolfincius not without reason, as he believes, con­jectures, and Highmore shews that Valve in Delineation, in the right Vein one, and double in the left.

X. To each Stone belongs one Ar­tery The Pro­gress of the Spermatic Vessels. and one Vein, and these two Ves­sels, more above, at their beginning about the Reins, are somewhat distant one from another, but by and by in their Progress joyn together, and are somewhat writh'd one into another, and so firmly fastened together with a Tunicle rising from the Peritonaeum, that they can hardly be separated by Art. Iohn Saltzman tells us of three human Bodies, wherein he observed a left Artery, rising▪ a little above the E­mulgent, which did not presently joyn to the Vein, but first ascended upward toward the emulgent Vein, passed over it, and wound it self about it, and thence being presently joyn'd with the Sperma­tic Vein, descended downward after the usual manner.

XI. Thus joyn'd above the Ure­ters The Way they make. they are carried down to the Groyns, where together with a slender Muscle from the Fold of the sixth Pair latent in the Abdomen (and sometimes another is added from the 21st. or 22d. Pair of spinal Marrow) and the Cremaster or hanging Mus­cle, they pierce the Peritonaeum, en­ter its Process, which is the Extensi­on of the outward Membrane of the Peritonaeum toward the Scrotum, forming the Sheath, wherein several Spermatic Vessels are contain'd toge­ther with the Testicle; In which Pro­cess being divided into several small Branches complicated one among ano­ther with infinite Windings and Circum­volutions, they proceed to the Testi­cles. Nevertheless the inner Membrane of the Peritonaeum at that same Opening or Entrance, sticks most close to the side of the Vessels: For that Membrane being broken, Burstenness follows, the Gutt, the Caul, Water and Wind fal­ling down through the Rupture into the Production of the Peritonaeum and the Scrotum. Now these Vessels afore­said having thus reach'd the Stones, se­parate themselves again, and with a winding Course of the Artery quite through the whole length of the Artery, run out as far as the lesser Protuberance of the Epididymis, or winding Vessel, fix'd to the Back of the Testicles, and there again divided first into two, then into several small Branches, return part­ly to the opposite Extremity of the Te­sticle, partly lose themselves within the Substance of the Stones. But the Veins divided into very small Roots, are in­serted into the little Branches of the small Arteries, and with a kind of Net­work are joyned together one to ano­ther; sometimes by a meer leaning and touch, sometimes by Anastomoses. But that here are neither observ'd nor al­low'd any Anastomoses of the little Arte­ries with the slender Veins is apparent from the Injection of the Liquor into the Arteries, which never enters the Veins. Neither ought these Anastomo­ses [Page 133] to be there: For if the Blood could pass through those Anastomoses from the Ar­teries, nothing of it or very little would go to the Stones, but pass to the Vena Cava far more speedily and more easi­ly by those broader ways or Anastomo­ses, than through the narrow and invi­sible passages of the Stones themselves.

XII. Andrew Lawrentius, Bauhi­nus,The Error of the A­natomists. Veslingius, and many other Ana­tomists were grosly mistaken in this, that they thought the Spermatic Artery and Vein ended in the Parastate or Epididymis; and there was changed into the deferent Vessel, as a Body continuous to it self. Whereas it is appa­rent to those that look more narrowly, that those Vessels do not enter the Epididymis or Parastate, but the Testicle it self, and that the Parastate may be there separated from the Stone, those Vessels still re­maining whole, and adhering to the Te­sticle it self; For the blood enters the Stones themselves, as Regner de Graef, by an ingenious Experiment apparently demonstrates, lib. before cited. That O­pinion, says he, which holds that the Blood does not enter the Stones, appears to be false, as clearly as the noonday light, by the following Experiment. Thrust in a small Pipe into the Artery, and immit with a Syring, a Liquor tictured with some Colour towards the Testicle, and you shall very neatly discover the Progress of the Arteries, for that the same Liquor having reached the supream part of the Stones, or that part where it first enters, diffuses it self, leaving the Epididymises untouched within the inner tunicle of the Testicles, and runs onward toward the bottom, where while it turns again, it divides it self, and as it were wantons into several small Branches, which sometimes to the Right, sometimes to the Left, diffuse them­selves through the very substance of the Te­sticles.

XIII. These Vessels thus complicated The Fold represent­ing the Form of the Ten­drils of a Vine. and connexed constitute that Plexure, which the Anatomists call Pampino­formis, as resembling the Tendrils of a Vine, or Varicosus, from its simi­litude to the crooked windings of the Veins: Also the Pyramidal Body, from its Shape and Figure; as being more narrow at the beginning, and multiplying as it descends, till it ends at the Stone with a broader Basis. Herophylus, as Galen testifies, calls this Fold the Cirsoides Parastate, resembling the winding dilatation of the Veins; which Name Rio [...]anus also gives it. Others call it the Variciform Parastate, by reason of the Windings and Turnings of the Vessels, which Name or Appellati­on Vestingius erroneously attributes to the hinder part of the Epididymis: Where­as there are no such writh'd and compli­cated blood-conveighing Vessels to be seen in that part.

XIV. In this same Fold sometime Hernia varicosa. happens that sort of Burstenness called Varicosa, when a thick and Melan­choly Blood happens into those Mean­ders. Sometimes also a Fleshy Bursten­ness Hernia Carnosa. is here occasioned by the bruising this Fold by a fall, a blow, or by hard ri­ding; through which Contusion a spungy Flesh grows up, and that fre­quently to the bigness of two or three Fists: which is rarely perfectly cured, but by cutting away the Stone of the side affected.

XV. However, Regner de GraefDe Graef's Opinion. lib. de part. Gen. Viror. affirms, That such a Complication of the said Vessels forming a Pyramidical or winding Body, is not plainly to be discern'd in Men, but that a Trunk of the Artery, without any Net-shap'd divarication runs directly to the Testi­cle, and is divided into two Branches three or four singers breadth above the Testicles; of which, one is absconded under the Epididymis, and the other proceeds forward to the Stone; of the truth of which his own Eyes have been witnesses. And hence he does not be­lieve there is any such Net-shap'd Con­texture of small Arteries with the little Veins; which happens otherwise in ma­ny Brutes, in which he confesses the Ar­tery to be wreath'd into several Curles and Tendrils with the Trunk of the Vein. But the fleshy Burstenness which happens in this part, as also the Contexture of the Blood-bearing Vessels, conspicuous in the same place, and in the same manner in Men, as in many Beasts, seem to evince the contrary: Unless it were that per­haps Regner de Graef would have said, that altho' that same contexture in Brutes seems to consist of Veins and Arteries complicated together, that the same in men is form'd of small branches only of the Vein, returning from the Stone. Which whether it be otherwise in Men than in Brutes, I believe to be a very great Question; the Artery crossing it only directly. But because we have not [Page 134] yet so exactly observ'd it, we will leave the Question undetermin'd, till we have an opportunity to inquire more diligent­ly into it.

XVI. The Anastomoses of these Ar­teries No Anasto­moses. one into another, and of the Veins with the Arteries, as unquestion­able, have been described by many. But Regner de Graef, by Injection of some sort of Liquor into the Artery, and several strong Arguments, affirms and proves, that there neither are any such An [...]stomoses, nor ought, nor can be.

XVII. From what has been said, it The Office of the Ves­sels. is apparent, what the Arteries, what the Veins perform in reference to their use; that is to say, that the one bring blood, and the other carry back the blood that is superfluous. Whence ap­pears the vanity of the Opinion of Ga­len, Bauhinus, Spigelius, and several o­thers, who extend the Office of these Vessels too far, and talk of I know not what preparation of the Blood, and al­teration of the Colour to white, whereas there is no such thing perform'd in these Vessels, as appears by Inspection it self; but that the Blood is of a ruddy Colour, which is extracted out of these Veins, as well as out of other Blood-bearing Vessels, neither is there any thing of a whitish humour contain'd therein.

XVIII. These Vessels thus mutually The Stones. connex'd together, run forward to the Stones or Testicles, which are Genital parts hanging down in the Cod or Scro­tum without the hollowness of the Ab­domen, ordaind for the making of Seed. They are call'd [...]estes or Stones, because they are a testimony of Virility or Man­hood; and hence it was that the Romans of old admitted only Men to give testi­mony in all Causes and Trials, rejecting those that were depriv'd of their Testes, as not Men.

XIX. They are two in number, Their num­ber. therefore by Herophylus call'd [...], or Twins, partly for the more perfect Generation of the Seed; partly that if one should be lost or maim'd, the other might supply the place and office of both.

The number is rarely [...]ewer or more; in regard it seldom happens that any one is born with one Stone; tho' such acci­dents have happen'd: of which Riolan, Borellius, and Regner de Graef, produce several Examples. Very seldom also more are found in one Person, tho' it is said to be a thing familiar to some Fa­milies. And Fernelius tells us of a cer­tain Family known to himself, of which all the Males had three Stones. And Forestus, Borellus, and Regner de Graef, and others, afford us several Examples of People that have had three Stones. But seldom of all it happens that any Man is born without any Stones, and yet perform the Act of Manhood in Copula­tion; yet Cabrolius gives us an Example.

XX. The Stones are pendulous at Situation. the Root of the Yard, and there ab­sconded in the Scrotum or Cod; sel­dom and preternatural it is that both should be included within the Cavity of the Abdomen, which nevertheless has been seen by Regner de Graef; to which he adds another seen by Francis de le Boe Sylvius.

Riolanus also observ'd one to have been absconded within the Abdomen, in a noble Person, who nevertheless had a numerous Off-spring by his Wife. The same was also observ'd by my self in a strong Man, who nevertheless had seve­ral Children. Paraeus, likewise Martin Ruland and Bartholine, prove by several Examples, that both Stones have lain hid for some time, either in the Groyn, or in the Cavity of the Abdomen, which that after the hair began to appear, fell down naturally into the Cod.

XXI. In shape and bigness they are Shape and [...]igness. like a Pigeons Egg, and sometimes a small Hen-egg, somewhat flat of each side. Yet in both there is some varie­ty, according as the Vessels adjoyning are more or less swell'd. Generally likewise the left exceeds in bigness the right, and hangs down somewhat low­er; rarely the right is bigger than the left. Sometime in Veneral Distempers now and then one, or both, grow to an usual bigness, which afterwards when the Disease has been cur'd, I have observ'd to continue as long as the Party liv'd without any prejudice; but this is pre­ternatural: as is also that which Lazarus Riverius reports, of one whose Testicles exceeded the Stones of a Horse in big­ness, from which afterward fell very hard pieces of a stony Substance. And no less extraordinary is that which Hil­dan observes of a certain Person that was troubled with a Dropsie, whose right Stone being grown as big as a Goose Egg, was found stufft full of Hairs intermix'd with a purulent, oily and white matter. Plater likewise gives us an Example of Stones as big as a Man's head in a Person that was very bulky and fat.

XXII. Their Substance is peculiar, Their Sub­stance. [Page 135] there being none like it of all the other parts of the Body, whitish and soft, consisting of innumerable very little small Ropes of the Seminal Vessels joyn'd together in a continu'd Series: in which, altho there be no manifest Con­cavity to be perceiv'd, yet that the said little Ropes are hollow, and conveigh the Seed invisibly, is apparent, if they be made visible. Now Regner de Graef was he that first taught us the way to make 'em visible to the sight: for he in a Dog, or other living Animal, tyes the Deferent Vessel, by which means the in­nermost little strings of the little Vessels of the Testicles, otherwise impercepti­ble, will easily become conspicuously distended, and fill with Seminal Matter. He tells us also that these Vessels appear through a whitish Tunicle full of white Seed in the Testicles of a larger Dor­mouse: he adds also, that if you put the same Testicles into Water after you have stript off the Tunicle, and stir them a little in the Water, the little Vessels of their own accord, without the help of Instruments, will separate one from ano­ther, and the whole Substance of the Testicles appear to be compos'd of no­thing but small Vessels; which he had often made out to the Physicians and Surgeons of Delph. And the same thing he also shew'd me lately in the Stone of a Dormouse, which was so dissolv'd into little small whitish Vessels, that it seem'd to consist altogether of such. Tho' in the mean time it be very probable that in a living Creature there may be some peculiar, tender, marrowy Substance, with certain imperceptible Glandules, in­termix'd with those Vessels, which in the washing, dissolution, and preparati­on of those Vessels, is separated from 'em, and disappears. For it can hardly be believ'd that the Stones should consist of little Vessels alone, supported and connected without any other Substance, seeing that in all the rest of the Bowels, Liver, Spleen, Kidneys, Brain, &c. the Vessels that run thorough are supported and fasten'd by the Peculiar Substance of that Bowel, and the Humours contain'd in 'em, by reason of the Property, or peculiar Temper and Formation of the Substance adjoyning to those Vessels, un­dergo a very great and specific Alterati­on, which is no more than what mayThe Seed­bearing Vessels ex­tended to a great length. probably happen, as well in the Stones as other Bowels.

XXIII. The said Seed-bearing Vessels of the Stones being once loosen'd from each other▪ are to be extended to a wonderful length, requisite in those places, to that end that the Seminal mat­ter by a longer stay, and a slower passage, being more exactly and diligently prepa­red, may attain to a greater perfection.

They are in an Error who write that the Stones are little small Glandules, as not having neither temper, their frame or fashion, their substance nor their use; but are noble Parts that give both strength and vigour to Men. Nay, they may indeed be said to be the principal Parts, as con­tributing so effectually to the Procrea­tion and Preservation of Mankind.

XXIV. They receive, as has been Vessels. said, very small Arteries from the Spermaticks, and send forth small Veins to the Vena Cava and left E­mulgent. Nerves also they have, ac­cording to the Vulgar Opinion deriv'd from the sixth wandring Pair, and the twelfth Pair of the Breast. In Novemb. 1668. and again in Decemb. 1670. seeking more narrowly for these Nerves in publick Dissections of Humane Bodies, we observ'd only one little Nerve belonging to each Stone, a little above that place where the Spermatick Vessels seem to make their Exit out of the Abdomea, which joyn'd themselves with the Spermatick Vessels, and so en­tering their common sheath, ran forward to the Stone, but by reason of its extra­ordinary slenderness, we could not well observe whether it were some little small branch of the sixth Pair of Nerves, or of the twelfth Pair of the Breast, or as o­thers, not without reason, will have it, of the twentieth or one and twentieth Pair of the Spinal Marrow; which last seems to me most probable. And so, up­on view, very few small Nerves, and perhaps but only one, seem to run out to every Stone. On the contrary, Glis­son however has lately written that he has seen several Nerves in the Stones contributing Matter to the Generation of Seed: which great quantity of Nerves we could never observe in 'em; but very few, and those such as we could hardly get to reach beyond the whitish Tunicle. For they are not conspicuous in the in­ner Substance of the Stones, as well by reason of their extream Tenuity, as through their whitish Colour; tho' it is most certain that they give Animal Spi­rits to the blood that flows thither through the Arteries.

XXV. But whether the Blood­bearing Distributi­on of the Vessels. Vessels enter the Substance of [Page 136] the Stones it self, or terminate in the whitish Tunicle, is by some disputed. Hippocrates seems to be or the first Opi­nion, Lib. de Loc. in Hom. & Lib. de Oss. Nat. where he writes that certain Veins do run to the Testicles. Where by Veins he understands some of the blood­conveighing Vessels, that is to say, Veins and Arteries. Others, by reason that the Ingress of these Vessels is so obscure, thought those Vessels did not enter the inner parts of the Stones; they not ap­pearing within the Stones, but only dis­seminated through the white Tunicle. But this Doubt will vanish, if we look a little more narrowly into the Use and Formation of the Stones.

XXVI. Their Use and Office is The use and Office of the Stones. to make Seed, and to that end they are compos'd of a peculiar Substance and innumerable Seminal Vessels wherein Seed is made. But because Matter is requisite for the making of Seed, hence Reason teaches us, that of necessity there must be Blood-bearing Vessels, and little Nerves inserted into those Seed-bearing Vessels, for the sup­ply and infusion of matter, by degrees to be changed into Seed.

But some perhaps will object, that the ruddy Colour of the Blood-bearing Vessels demonstrates, that there is Blood in them; which Colour however is hard­ly ever seen in the substance of the Stones, and therefore no Blood-bearing Vessels seem to enter that substance. I answer, that happens through the extraordinary thinness of the Arteries, pressed by the white Seed-bearing Vessels; for which reason in a thousand other parts the little small Arteries and Veins are impercepti­ble. Besides if a Stone be newly taken out of the Body, and any ruddy Liquor be injected through a Syringe into the Spermatic Artery, several Blood-bearing Vessels will swell up in the midst of the Stone, and so become conspicuous. Lastly, I shall add what I have learnt by experience in Man, That is, in cutting out the Stones of vigorous and healthy Men that have been slain; that for the most part no Blood-bearing Vessels are to be discovered in the inner Substance, no nor in the Stones of living People cut out after the Cure of Burstenness; or at most only some small Foot-steps of such Vessels appear in those sound persons. But in Bodies emaciated by Diseases▪ I have observed several small Branches of Blood-bearing▪ Vessels slightly mani­fest, but very slender, running through the inner parts of the Stones, which we did not only shew privately to several young Students in Physick, but in March 1663. November 1668. in two Human Bodies emaciated by a long Distemper, shewed the same to divers Spectators publickly in our Anatomy Theater. The cause of which seems to be this: For that as there is in the Brain a peculiar Specific power, by vertue of which Ani­mal Spirits are made of the Blood in its Vessels, Fibres and Pores, so also there is in the Testicles a peculiar Seminifick Power, by vertue of which the Blood being carried into their Vasa Sanguifera, is altered into Seed. Now this active Power being strong and vigorous in sound People; hence the more subtile and more salt Particles of the Blood, carried through the little Arteries to their more inward parts, together with the Animal Spirits coming through the Nerves, fall into those Plexures or labyrinth-like, and most wonderfully interwoven Va­sa Sanguifera, and being there received by them lose their ruddy Colour, as the Chylus loses its white Colour in the Heart, and is changed into white Seed, But as for that small remainder of Blood remaining in the Vasa Sanguifera, it is so obscur'd and discolour'd by the white­ness of the substance of the Stones, and the said Vasa Sanguifera, that it is not preceptible to the sight. But in sickly People whose Stones as well as other bowels are weak, the separation of those Particles of blood which are necessary for the making of Seed, is neither well perform'd, nor with sufficient speed, for which reason the Sanguiferous Vessels are more tumid, and containing more blood than ordinary, and more visible to the Sight. Moreover at the same time the ill separated, and over ruddy Particles of the blood, being affused into the Seminiferous Vessels, are but ill and slowly concocted, and altered into Seed therein, and therefore the Sanguine red Colour appears in some measure here and there in these Vessels. For the same cause it also happens, that in those that are too frequent in Copulation, there is sometimes an Ejection of blood in­stead of Seed; the Stones being so de­bilitated by frequent Venery, and over much spending of the Seed, that the convenient Particles of blood flowing into those Vessels, cannot so soon be separated from the rest, nor changed into blood; Now the forementioned Power proceeds from an apt, convenient and proper formation and temper of the Stones, which temper being either altered or weakned by Diseases, or over­much [Page 137] use of Women, they also suffer in their Seminific Power: as for the same reason the Power of making Spirits is weaken'd in the Brain.

XXVII. Here a great question ari­ses, A Questi­on, How the Separa­tion of va­rious Par­ticles from the Blood are made? How the more salt Particles of the Arterial Blood infus'd into the Stones, and most apt for Generati­on, and the watery or white Parti­cles come to be separated from the red Particles? Which is a thing so dubious, so obscure and intricate, that never any Man as yet durst go about to unfold it: or at least they who durst attempt to say any thing, flying to peculiarity of Sub­stance and Pores, seem to have hardly said any thing at all. In the preceding 14 Chapter we have told ye, how that in the Liver the Separation of Humours to be segregated from the rest of the sanguin Humours, is performed by small invisible Glaudulous Balls, formerly unknown, but in our times discovered by the diligence of Malpigills, with the help of his Microscopes. Also c. 18. We have likewise shewn ye, that the blood passing through the Ash-coloured Sub­stance of the Brain, in that passage, by reason of the peculiar property of its Glandulous Substance, and its Pores, lo­ses its most subtil and spirituous saltish Particles, which being imbibed by the beginning and roots of the small Nerves, are there by degrees more and more ra­rified and attenuated and exalted to a more refin'd Spirituosity, while the o­ther ruddy and more Sulphury Parti­cles are sucked up by the more small Veins, and so by degrees return to the Heart. And thus it seems probable, that the same Operation is perform'd in the Stones. How Nature performs this Opera­tion we have de­monstra­tively shewn in our Synop­sis Medi­cinae, lib. 4. cap. 8. Sect. 10. §. 14. ad 36. to which I shall refer you. Sal­mon. For either some very small, and hitherto by reason of their extraordinary Exility, invisible Ker­nels, or Glandulous Balls are intermix'd and scattered among the small Vessels of the Testicles, by means of which such a necessary Separation is made: Or else there is a certain white marrowy peculiar substance surrounding the small Ves­sels of the Testicles, of which the Stones chiefly consist, into which Substance the Arterious Blood being infused, loses in its passage, the most subtil saltish Parti­cles, of which the Seed chiefly consists, most apt for the generation of Seed, to be thereupon suckt up by the peculiar Vasa seminifera of the Testicles, and more exactly to be prepared, while the other Particles entring the Orifices of the small and imperceptible Veins, return to the Spermatick Veins, and so farther to the Heart. But which of these ways is to be asserted, or whether any other third way is to be determin'd upon, we shall leave to them, who by a more ac­curate Inspection, or by the help of Mi­croscopes, shall be able to make a clear discovery. In the mean time there must be something certain and assur'd of ne­cessity, by means of which the aforesaid Separation is to be performed. For o­therwise, if by Transfusion alone the blood should immediately flow out of the Arteries into the Seminal Vessels, there would be no reason why it should not all be converted into Seed, but that some part of it should return through the little Veins to the Heart; and more­over, why its red Colour should not alwa [...]s appear in the said Vessels.

XXVIII. Besides the Vessels alrea­dy Lymphatic [...] Vessels ob­served in the Testi­cles. mentioned, by more accurate In­spection of Anatomists, and that not so lately neither, many Lymphatick Vessels have bin observed, arising with­in the Tunicles of the Testicles, meeting one another with several Anastomoses, and ascending with the deferent Ves­sels upward into the Abdomen, and there emptying their Lymphatic juice into the Vasa Chylifera. They are furnish'd with several Valves looking up­ward, preventing the falling back into the Testicles of the Lymphatic juice, ascending from the Testicles. These lit­tle Vessels are easily visible to the Eyes of the Beholders, if the Vasa Sanguifera be but ty'd a little above the Stones, and then the Stones be but stirr'd, for then these Vasa Lymphatica shall be observ'd to swell between those ty'd Vessels, as is daily to be experimented in living Ani­mals, and human Bodies that have not bin long dead. Now because there is a correspondence between all the Lym­phatick Vessels and the Glandules, and that their Original is deriv'd from them; hence because they arise from the inner Substance of the Testicles, that is mainly confirm'd which I spoke before, of the invisible Glandules intermingl'd among the Vessels of the Testicles, and separating a Salsugi [...]ous matter proper for the Generation of the Seed from the Arterial Blood.

XXIX. A strong, thick, hard, slen­der The Tuni­cle called Albugi­neous. proper Tunicle is the first Covering that involves the substance of the Stones, called the White or Nervous Tunicle, which being a little rough withinside, sticks every way close to it, [Page 138] and binds it together, being somewhat soft, for fear of being broken. With­outside it is somewhat moist, and be­dew'd with a watery Humour, and ra­ther in the Extremities than in the Middle, has the Epididymis's cling­ing to it. By means of this Tunicle, the Vasa Sanguifera, together with the Nerves that penetrate it on every side, more safely reach to the innermost parts of the Stone, and the Lymphatic Vessels more conveniently spring out of 'em.

XXX. Round about this, for its The Vagi­nal Tuni­cle. better defence, is enwrapt another strong and slender Tunicle like a sheath, and therefore call'd [...], or the Vaginal Tunicle, which is form'd by the Process of the outward Membrane of the Peritonaeum. Riolanus writes that this Tunicle again is enfolded by a­nother slender and red Tunicle springing from the Cremaster dilated. But in re­gard it is nothing but the Cremaster Mus­cle dilated, it cannot well be taken for any peculiar Membrane enfolding the Stone.

XXXI. The Stones are furnish'd The Mus­cles. with two Muscles, call'd [...], or hanging Muscles; of which each Stone has one, which both together arise from the Spine of the Share-bone, or as Rio­lanus will rather have it from the fleshy extremity of the Oblique ascending Muscle; slender, smooth within, and be dew'd with a watery Humour; without­side rough and fibrous, with their fleshy Fibres encompass outwardly almost the whole Process of the Peritonaeum, especially the hinder part, and so hold up the hanging pendulous Stones; and in Copulation bring 'em upward, that while the Seminary Vessels are evacua­ted, presently the Seminal Chanels be­ing abbreviated, and the Stones mode­rately compressed with the Parastates, new Seed may be carried more easily and speedily into the emptied Vessels.

XXXII. The Testicles thus fortifi­ed The [...]od, call'd Scro­tum. and cloath'd, hang forth without the Abdomen, in a Purse or soft wrink­led little Bag, call'd by the Latines Scrotum and Scortum, by the Greeks [...] and [...], which by a middle Line or Seam being divided into the right and left part, and interwoven with several Vessels, is form'd out of a Cuticle, and a more soft and slender Skin; and within another slender Tu­nicle adheres to it, rising out of the fleshy Pannicle, call'd [...], which cleaves to the Vaginal Tunicle with many membranous Fibres. Regner de Graef writes that he knew a Man, who by virtue of this Tunicle (for it could not be done by the Skin, drew up his Scrotum, as he listed himself, and caus'd a Motion in it, at the request of the stan­ders by at any time, not unlike the Pe­ristaltic or crawling Motion of the En­trails. But because voluntary Motions are only perform'd by the Muscles, I am apt to believe that the Cremaster Muscles in that Person stuck to the Tunicle; which Muscles are in some men so strong, that they will move their Testicles and the Scrotum too, if adhering to them, as they please themselves. But there is no Fat be­tween either Tunicle of the Scrotum, which would be but a burden and im­pediment to the part.

XXXIII. Some Symptoms of health Signs of Health. or sickness are wont to be taken from the Scrotum. For as a Scrotum wrink­led and contracted is a sign of sane health, so a relax'd Scrotum is frequently a sign of weakness, provided such a relaxation proceed not from any External Cause; by which sign Nurses and Women judge of the health of Infants.

XXXIV. The Seed being prepared The Seed flows from the Testi­cles through the Deferent Vessels. and made in the Stones, flows from thence through the Vasa deferentia toward the seminal Vesicle. But which way it comes out of the Stones into the Parastates does not so ma­nifestly appear: For as the Entrance of the Vasa Sanguifera into the Substance of the Testicles is very obscure, so the way through which the Seed flows out of the Stones into the Parastatae is hard­ly perceptible to the Eye, which is the reason Anatomists do not agree in de­scribing it. Highmore writes that in the middle of the Stone he found a certain Body round, white and thick, not un­like the Vasa deferentia extended from the bottom of the Stones to the upper Part, and strongly inserted into the in­ner part of the Albuginous Tunicle, and penetrating the Tunicle, and thrusting it­self into the Head of the Parastatae. That same whitish Body appeared like­wise to me long before I saw Highmore's Writings, into which all the winding Fibres of the Testicles seem'd to throw themselves, but I durst not assert it to be the Ductus that conveigh'd the Seed to the Parastatae; because I could not per­ceive any Concavity in it. I saw suf­ficiently that same strong ingra [...]ting of [Page 139] it into the inner part of the white Tu­nicle of which Highmore speaks; but I could not discern the Perforation of the Tunicle by that white Body; and there­fore I thought it ordain'd for some o­ther use, that is to say, to the end that together with other crooked Fibres an­nexed to it, it might serve to strength­en the Vessels, as well those that enter the Testicle, as those that are therein contain'd; and thence they hasten'd to­wards the outward parts of the Testicle to the Epididymis, to prevent a Confu­sion of all the Parts together: In like manner as in the Inside of an Orange or Citron, certain whitish harder Bodys are observ'd, by which the Vessels that convey the Juice and the Vesicles con­taining the Seed are fortify'd and up­held. Spigelius has another Conceit as concerning this very thing: For he says that between the Stones and the Para­states, at the upper part where they are joyned together, several slender Vessels pass thorough. In like manner Riola­nus also writes, that there is a small Hole to be found through which the seminal Humour enters the Substance of the Stones, and other three little Branches that run out from the Stone into the Vas deferens. These learned Men seem to have seen something as it were tho­rough a Cloud, and to have added eve­ry one a Chip of their own, according to their own Conjectures. But Regner de Graef, through his singular Diligence has illustrated all these Incertainties and made 'em much more perspicuous, who has observed these things of the Egress of the Vasa Seminifera. We have clear­ly seen, saith he, their Egress out of the Stone, and have found it to be quite o­therwise than Highmore has described it to Us. For they do not go forth from the Testicle with one thick Channel, but in many Animals with six or seven slen­der Channels, each of which being bent from side to side, from the bigger Globe of the Epididymis; and meeting together therein with one single Channel run forth to the seminary Vessels. He adds that those slender Channels, while they break forth through the Albuginous Tunicle, can hardly be seen but when they are swoll'n with Seed.

XXXV. The Seed therefore flows The Para­statae. out of the Stones into the Parastatae, so call'd because they stand by or are attendant upon the Stones, and being variously writhed and contorted like those crooked Windings of the Veins call'd Varix's, are by the Greeks cal­led [...], because they stick to the Stones, and as it were lye upon 'em. Now the Parastatae or Epididymidae, (for by both Names we design the same thing, notwithstanding the Distinction of Riolanus) are two white, somewhat hard, oblong Bodies, of which one lies upon each Testicle while they are as yet wrapt up, but still in the Albuginous Tunicle, and is infolded in the Tunicle common to the Spermatic Vessels, and toward both Extreams of both Testi­cles is most closely fasten'd to the Albu­ginous Tunicle, but in the middle sticks but loosely to it and is easily parted.

XXXVI. The beginning of these The Begin­ning. Parastates rises up somewhat swelling in that place where the Varicose Bo­dy approaches to the Stone; to which it adheres so close that many Anato­mists, have formerly thought that that same Body did not enter the Stones but the Parastates, and que­stioned by which way the Blood should come to the Stones. This Be­ginning is somewhat hard, furnished with no manifest Hollowness, but arising with six or seven Roots from the Stone.

XXXVII. In their Progress the The Pro­gress. Parastates descending to the lower­most Parts of the Stone, are for the most part of an equal Figure and Shape, and are folded and twisted together with several serpentine Cour­ses or Windings, and contain a white Seed. Then turning upward again with a wrinkled and somewhat swel­ling circular Progress, after their Re­flexion; they are freed from their closer Connexion to the Stones, and only rest upon their Tunicle, and go forth into one Passage continuous to the Vasa deferentia. From which Vessel they differ no otherwise, only that this proceeds with a straight Course, and they with many Windings and Tur­nings, and also by reason of their thin­ness are somewhat softer.

XXXVIII. Vesalius ascribes to 'em Their Sub­stance. a Nervous Substance, Fallopius a Glandulous. But Regner de Graef has lately taught us that neither is true: Who by a singular Dexterity untwisted the winding and folded Body of each Parastate, by warily cutting first the exterior, then the se­cond Membrane, and so extended [Page 140] this Body into a prodigious Length, which he writes did apparently appear in an ordinary Creature to exceed the length of five Ells, and to be one en­tire Vessel containing Seed, straiten'd in its Situation by lateral Contorsions to and again twisted one upon another. He adds moreover, that at the upper part of the Stones, in its Original it is so slender, that it may be compared to a small Thread, but by degrees it grows so thick, that being increased to the bigness of a small Packthread, at length it makes the Vessel that carries the Seed: And from hence he also believes that the Stones differ no otherwise from the Parastates, only that the former consist of sundry minute Vessels, the latter for the most part of one Channel or thicker Vessel, and that the Parastates differ from the Vasa deferentia only in this, that the latter proceed with a right Course, the former with many Oblique or Windings and Turnings, and are somewhat softer by reason of their ex­tream Thinness. From which Experi­ment it is abundantly apparent, that there is nothing of a glandulous Substance in the Parastates, nor any thing of ner­vous, as having a conspicuous Cavi­ty containing Seed apparent to acute Eyes, which is not to be found in Nerves. But it is necessary that the Seed being concocted in the Stones should pass through those serpentine Windings, to the end it may by a longer Delay and a slower Passage, not only be better ela­borated but acquire a greater Per­fection.

XXXIX. As to the Use of these The Functi­on. Parts, it is erroneously described by Spigelius, who attributes a seminific Power only to the Parastates, exclu­ding the Stones from that Office, which he will have only to collect the serous Excrements of that Concoction, be­cause that in the Stones there is no Seed, but only a serous Humour to be found. Dominic de Marchettis, because there does not seem to be any Hole ma­nifest to the Eye, through which the Seed made in the Stones, may be emp­tyed out of 'em again, concludes from thence, that the Stones were only made to cherish the Epididymises with their Heat for the more easy and speedy Al­teration of the Blood into Seed in those Vessels. But the former tells us no rea­son wherefore Nature should ordain a greater Part for the separation of Ex­crement, and less part for the seminific Action. Neither does he shew through what ways those collected Excrements are again evacuated out of the Stones. Nor does the Latter make it appear, how the Stones, which are the colder Parts, should cherish the Epididymises with their Heat. But they both seem to have fal­len into the same Error with many o­thers, for that they were both of Opini­on that the Arteries and spermatic Veins did enter the Parastates and not the Stones, which Vessels, seeing they enter the Stones themselves and not the Pa­rastates, it is sufficiently apparent that the spirituous Seed being made in the Stones, and from thence ascending tho­rough Vessels hardly perceptible, is yet farther prepared, and by a long and winding Labyrinth gains a greater Per­fection, and so by degrees is poured forth into the Vasa deferentia.

XL. Now the Vasa deferentia,Vasa defe­rentia. deferent or ejaculating Vessels are two white Bodies, somewhat hard, round, in some measure like a bigger sort of Nerve, extended from the Parasta­tes to the seminary Vesicles porous within, without any seeming conspi­cuous Hollowness. And yet Regner de Graef, a most perspicacious Enquirer in­to the Mysteries of these Parts, gives us some farther Proof of this Hollow­ness, in these Words. The Vas defe­rens, says he, is endu'd with a manifest Hollowness; which that it may be dis­cerned, this Vessel is to be opened six or seven Fingers breadth above the Testicle; then force the Breath blown in, or the coloured Liquor syring'd into it toward the Testicle, and you shall find the Vessel di­stended, and discern the coloured Liquor through the middle of it run in a right Channel to the Stone. Then you shall perceive the Cavity in the Vessel it self rowle from side to side, and lastly to be bow'd by degrees with the Vessel, in the same manner as Serpents and Eeles when they strive to creep with more than usual Swift­ness, and so with Windings, not circular, but Sideways, runs on to the Bodies of the Testicles. Thus its Hollowness appears toward the Stones, now how it may be observed toward the seminary Vesicles, he tells us a little after. This, says he, if ye desire to know clearly and distinctly, thrust only a little Pipe into the Vas defe­rens, which being distended either by blow­ing into it or injection of some Liquor, you shall observe those seminary Vesicles to be speedily distended before any thing [Page 141] breaks forth into the Urethra. Hence ap­pears their Error, who affirm that the Va­sa semen deferentia, or Vessels that carry the Seed, have no Communion with the seminary Vesicles, as being absolutely dif­ferent from 'em, and that they evacuate themselves through two peculiar Holes in­to the Urethra, distinct from those through which the seminal Matter breaks forth from the Vessels.

LXI. John Swammerdam, sharp­ly Other Opi­nions. reproves this last Experiment of Regner de Graef, and asserts for a certain that the Vesiculae Seminariae, or seminary Vesicles have no Commu­nion with the Vasa deferentia, nor receive any Moisture from 'em; and for the more solid Proof of this, he tells us of a seminal Vesicle that he has at home, inserted in three distinct Places in the Vasa deferentia. This Argument Regner de Graef derides, and in Opposition, bids him shew more than ten seminal Vesicles wherein he can demonstrate that the seminal Vesi­cles do not terminate in the Vasa defe­rentia, but the Vasa deferentia in them. Iohn Van Horn, sway'd by the Opini­on of Swammerdam, writes that the Seed breaks forth through peculiar Holes out of the Vasa deferentia, but through other Holes out of the Vesicles into the Urethra. But Swammerdam re­jects this Opinion of Horn, saying that it is only true in Bulls, and not in Men, in whom the Vesicles have an Exit in­to the Vasa deferentia in three distinct Places, but no other Communication with 'em. But I am of Opinion, that that same threefold Egress of the Vesi­cles into the Vasa deferentia, assign'd 'em by Swammerdam, is rather the Entrance of the said Vasa deferentia into the Ve­sicles, through which the Seed flows out of the one into the other. For in the Dissections of human Bodies we manifestly find, that the seminary Ve­sicles being squeez'd by the Finger, the Seed does not break forth out of them into the Vasa deferentia through those three distinct Openings, but in the same place into the Urethra. Which is a certain Demonstration, that the Seed flows forth through those three Orifi­ces into the Vesicles, but does not flow out of 'em again the same way. Lastly, After he has said all, Swammerdam con­cludes, that there is a fourfold Matter, out of which the Seed is made. One out of the Testicles; a Second, from the Ends of the Vasa deferentia; a Third, out of the seminary Vesicles; a Fourth, pro­ceeding from the Parastates. But, in regard that Entities are not to be multi­plied without Necessity, I know not why so many Matters of one Seed, and so many Parts should be alledg'd for the Preparation of those several Matters. No Man, I suppose, will deny, but that the Seed is compounded of Arterial Blood, and Animal Spirits, and seeing that Spermatic Arteries, together with small Nerves, are carried into the Testi­cles, and that there is no Progress of either to the Vasa deferentia, the Vesi­cles or Parastates any where to be sepa­rately discern'd, it seems more likely, that there is but one seminal Matter, that is to say, Arterial Blood, conjoyn'd with animal Spirits, which is altered and concocted into true Seed in that wonderful Contexture of the Vessels of which the Stones consist, and which flowing from them through the Para­states, and Vasa deferentia, in those Windings and Turnings gains something to its greater Perfection, by which means it may be preserv'd in the semi­nary Vessels untainted, till the time of necessary Evacuation. And hence it is that the Experiment of Regner de Graef, seems more consonant to Reason; by which the Communication of the Vasa deferentia with the Vesicles is confirm'd, than that of Horn and Swammerdam, by which it is opposed. For as they pro­duce the Testimony of Ocular View, so does he, but where Ocular View is deficient, there Reason is to be call'd to our Assistance, and she is to determine concerning the Truth of the Matter. And this Example may help us; for as Spirit of Wine being so thin and subtil, that ascending the Alembic, it becomes Invisible, and cannot be embody'd till descending from thence through the Ser­pentine Brass Tube set in cold Water, it attains such a Perfection of Conden­sation, that it flows down into the Re­ceptacle to be preserv'd for Use. In like manner the several Windings and Me­anders of the Vasa deferentia, serve to concoct and thicken the Seed, afore it fall into the seminary Vessels. Moreo­ver as Nature in our Bodies appoints one Part to make the Chylus, which Chy­lus flowing through the long Meanders of the Intestines, acquires therein a great Purity, and Separation from feculent Matter; tho' the Intestines themselves conduce nothing to the making of the Chylus it self: So is it in all the sperma­tic vessels, which singly make no parti­cular Matter conducing to the Compo­sition [Page 142] of the Seed, but only the Stones alter the first Matter into Seed, That is to say, the Lymphatic Matter, [...] or A [...]eous Iuice, call it by what Name you please, which is separated from the Blood, and sent by the Vasa spermatica into the Testicles, is there by their own proper Fermentum converted into Seed, as we have formerly declared concerning the Generation of other Iuices destinated to particular Ends according to the Nature of the Parts and Necessities enforcing the same. As our Author even in this place declares in so many Words, to wit, That it is done by a specific Fermentation of Humour in some speci­fic Part or Bowel, without which it could not be made: the reason of which he renders immediately, for that the said Bowels, when weak or enfeebled, are not then able to prepare those new Iuices. Salmon. which in its Passage through the other Parts gains some greater Perfection, and ap­ter Disposition to be preserv'd without Corruption for Use.

Lastly, That some new Humour or Juice, as Chylus, Blood, Choler, &c. may be made, it is not brought to pass by a bare Confusion of various Matters, but by a specific Fermentation of the Hu­mours in some specific Part or Bowel, without which no other new Juice or Humour can be made of no Humours, as is apparent when those Bowels are be­come weak and enfeebled by any un­sound Constitution; for then they are not able to prepare those new Juices. But now if the most noble Seed, which contains in it self a Compendium of en­tire Man, should be composed out of those four Matters flowing and mixing together in the Ureter from several Parts, as Swammerdam believes, then a new seminal Liquor would be made out of those four Matters simply mix'd and confus'd, without any other peculiar Concoction of those four Matters so con­fused, appointed and precedent in any other design'd Part or Bowel which is contrary to the Custom of Nature and Reason. In the last place I would de­sire Swammerdam to tell me, whether that Matter by him call'd the Second di­stilling from the Ends of the Vasa defe­rentia; be divers and distinct from that first Matter which flows from the Stones; and if it be different or distinct, as he will have it to be, from whence those Vasa deferentia receive their Matter, un­less it be from the Stones and their Pa­rastates, when no other small vessels o­pen into their Cavities. But to the Bu­siness.

XLII. One of the Vasa deferen­tiaTheir Pro­gress. rises out of the Parastate of each Stone, and creeping upward through the Process of the Peritonaeum, en­ters the Abdomen the same way through which the spermatic Vessels descend toward the Stone. Now when both are entered the Abdomen, by and by they are divided above the Ure­ters, and with a reflexed Course run a­long to the hinder Region of the Blad­der, and above the right Gut, near the Neck of the Bladder, before they meet together again, are dilated and made thicker, and much about the Sides of that meeting together, stick to the semi­nary Vessels, into which they open and discharge their Seed, and thence united together, both of 'em vanish in the Pro­statae of its own Side.

XLIII. The Seminary or Seminal Seminal Vessels. Vessels are as it were little Cells dispo­sed in Clusters, collecting and pre­serving the Seed flowing from the Stones to the Vasa deferentia; of which they contain a great Quantity, till being troublesom either in Quanti­ty or Quality, or else in Copulation, it be squeez'd out, by the Swelling of the Muscles of the Yard, and neighbouring Parts compressing the Vesicles, through the same narrow Passage through which it fell into the Vesicles; and by the same Compression be thrust forward toward the Ureter, through two most narrow Chanels crossing through the middle of the Prostates, and so comes to be eva­cuated into it, through two very small Holes, through which, the Vessels be­ing pressed by the Finger, the Seed in dead Bodies is observed to pass through in small Drops, like Quicksilver strain­ed through a piece of Leather. Here Swammerdam notes that in Moles the se­minal Vesicles, which in those Creatures are very large, have their partic