HYDROLOGIA PHILOSOPHICA OR, An ACCOUNT of ILMINGTON WATERS In Warwick-shire; With Directions for the Drink­ing of the same.

Together with some Experimental Observations touching the Original of Compound Bodies.

By SAM. DERHAM Bachelour in Physick lately of Magd. Hall. OXON.

OXFORD, Printed by Leon. Lichfield, Printer to the Univer­sity, for John Howell Bookseller. 1685.

TO HIS Honoured Friend WI [...]IAM LENTHALL Esq of Haseley.

S [...]

I [...] was not my Ambitious Design but the importunity, or rather Command, of several Gentlemen to commit to the Press these Experi­ments I had made on Ilmington Waters, that maketh me thus appear; however was resolved it should pass as from an unknown Pen, until I found Conceal­ment was impossible; and by absconding should seem to impose falsities on the World; which are the only Reasons of my Name in Print. And seeing that hereby I do expose my self to the Cen­sure of all men, although it is but a mean Return for your Kindness and Civilities to me to entrench farther upon your good Nature; yet I hope you'l allow this following Treatise a propitious Ac­ceptance, whose Prudence and Learning is able to withdraw me from the Calum­ny of mine Enemies. Although the [Page] greatest Patron that ever liv'd was never able to protect Books from Censure, (neither is it reasonable to impose O­pinions in Philosophy as Truths necessa­rily to be believed against the Argu [...]ngs of more solid judgement) yet as just Umpire may advance Truth against the malicious Cavils of them, that neither consider the Sureness of the Experi­ments, nor whether the Deductions be a forced Consequence or the Sence of Authors perverted, but through Envy quarrel at the Treatise because De­livered by such an Author. Flattery for Patronage I shall avoid, true praise being not more pleasing to You, than Counterfeit is ungrateful, but shall pre­sume the more because of your imbred proneness to the Advancement of Scho­lastick Undertakings. Neither shall I endeavour an Encomium of Him, whose Merits and Excellent Endowments have already become their own Herauld, be­yond the Praise of

Your truly Affectionate and Humble Servant SAMUEL DERHAM.



PErhaps it may seem strange that I should thus undertake an Hydrological Essay, seeing that many Eminent Writers have given their judgement of the Cause and Vertues of Mineral Waters, such as Georgius Agricola, Libavius, Solinan­der, Andr. Baccius, Fallopius; and of our own Countrymen Dr. Jorden, Simpson, Turner and many others both Ancient and Modern Authors. Yet there were several Reasons inducing me to publish this my Scrutiny into the Nature and Operation of this New-found Spring, by some called Bal­moore Waters naming the Spring from the Place, which is near Ilmington a Town in Warwick-shire. This may also deserve the Name of Ilmington-Spaw from its brackishness, according to Van Helmonts's [Page] Appellation Parad. 3 and 4 of Fontes aci­duli, Spadanae or Spaw-Waters. Which name I shall retain in my following Treatise.

My chief Inducements hereto, were

First, The Common Good; seeing Mul­titudes dayly flocked to this Fountain, of whom many were poor illiterate Country­men, that inconsiderately (without prepa­ring their Bodies or Physitians advise) re­pairing hitherto might as well have hastened to their ruine, as to recover their impared Health. For,

The most ingenious Dr. Cole who first tryed and applauded these Waters by his re­commending a Person of Quality to the Drinking of them, did so alarum the Ordi­nary sort of People and the rude Mobile, as if Waters had been found with some Su­pernatural Vertue like the Pool of Beth­esda, or the Waters of Jorden when they cured Leprous Naaman the Syrian.

Secondly, The Doctor being called away by his Employment, I was desired by several Gentlemen to commit the Tryals I had made on those Waters to the Press; on no other de­sign then to give Caution to the incautelous Multitude, among which many are (as [Page] anAuth. of the Query about Dri [...]king the Bath-water pre­fixed to Dr. Jor­d [...]n o [...] the Bath. Author observed) like so many Animals that follow one another and are apt to go the broader way, though it lead to ruine.

Thirdly, Ancient Authors did usually take a general Survey of Mineral Waters, not descending to a strict Scrutiny by Ex­periments into Particular Springs. Ʋpon which account many things have been left false and imperfect, which an Examina­tion of Particulars may descry; and perhaps afford more of knowledge to Posterity though in a few Experiments, than in great Vo­lumes of Conjectural Philosophy. As Dr. Tyson in his Phocaena Page▪ 9. rightly saith, Malpighius in his Silk-worm hath done more then Jonston in his whole Book of Insects; and He and the ingeni­ous Dr. Crew have taught us more of Plants, than either Gerard or Parkinson.

Yet I desire not to contemn, but to speak with due honour and reverence of the wri­tings of the Ancients to whom we owe great part of our knowledge, but withal hoping that I may have as much freedome to com­municate my Sentiments, as others have done theirs before me.

[Page] As for the Calumny and Reproach which I shall occur from mine Enemies, and espe­cially those that out of a Disgust to the Au­thor verify the Proverb Try the Man and not the Cause, I shall pass by remem­bring the Saying ‘—Habent sua fata libelli’

But least that by making use of some words mentioned by Helmont and other Chymists, such as Archeus, Leffas terrae, Acid and Alkali &c. I should seem far short of answering my Design, I shall by the way hint out the Sence of them, least that by obscure Terms I should seem to darken the Matter and amuse the Reader, that is unacquainted with Chymistry.

Helmont De Form. Ortu Sect. 61. thus explaineth himself Repetam semi­num massam recipere in se corporalem Auram, vulcanum, Quem Archeum no­mino. Now the Aura Vitalis by him ter­med Archeus, is but that Stamp or Divine Impress made at first by God Almighty, to direct blind Matter in the Composition of an Object. For we cannot suppose that an Embryo is formed by a fortuitous concourse of Atoms, and that Animals do propagate [Page] after their kind by an accidental Conjuncti­on of Matter; but the Divine Fiat in the Creation made an over-ruling Power to the work of Generation and Specification of the Individual: whether it be called Archeus, vis [...], Forma &c. Which was at first made by God the Creator, and as Hel­mont else-where telleth us is as a Faber or Workman to the shaping of a Concrete in its Generation.

Leffas terrae is that Succus terrae fra­cidus unde surgit omne plantarum ge­nus visibili carens semine, sataque se­mina promoventur in Destinationes. Helm. Imag. Ferm. Parag. 31. viz, That fracid juice of the Earth, that is the Nu­tritive Juice to Vegetables. For Water on the Earth exposed to heat and air will be soon endowed with a putrid Ferment, which is a Leffas convertible by the Archeus into Vegetables.

Salts are either Acid or Alkalizate, upon the mixture of which contrary Salts an Effervescence will follow. So that an Alkali may be thus described. It is a fixed Salt which will make an Ebullition with an Acid, and by taking off the Edges of its [Page] Particles will sweeten an Acid Liquor.

As for Mineral Waters, Libavius giv­eth us this Notion Quae a simplici vul­gari & mera discedentes, cum aliquo subterraneorum conspirant, & aut spi­ritaliter sunt tinctae aut mistae corporali­ter. Judicio Aquar. Lib. 1. Cap. 1. viz. Waters that besides their own Nature, have imbibed something of the quality or sub­stance of some Subterranean Mine. What are the Subterranea he afterwards telleth us Lib. 1; but Gab. Fallopius De Therm. Aq. Cap. 8. ranketh them under Five Heads. viz. Vapours, Juices, Metals, Stones, and Earth.

As for Vapours impregnating Waters in their Current, I see no reason to make them a distinct Ingredient from the others, Fal­lopius alloweth only Vapours to be found in Waters that are Poisonous, Bituminous, and Sulphureous, yet of what kind soever, they seem not to differ from the Evaporating Object: as the Vapour of Water, is but Water rarisied, whose Particles recollected in a Receiver may appear again under the form of Water. As Helmont Parad. 2. hath observed, Vapor reipsa nil aliud est [Page] Materialiter & formaliter, quam Ato­morum Aquae in altum sublata Con­geries. To the same effect speaketh Li­bavius de Jud. Aq. Lib. 1. Cap. 6.

Dr. Jorden On Natur. Bath. and Min. Wat. Cap. 4. not content with what Fal­lopius hath done, especially because New Minerals have lately been discovered (as Calaem in the East Indies, Rhusma and Terra Ghetta in Turky &c.) and perhaps future Ages may discover many more) hath comprehended them under Seven Heads; taking a Mineral for An inanimate Per­fect Body bred in a Mine, in the Bow­els of the Earth. His Genera are 1 Earth, 2 Stone, 3 Bitumen, 4 Salts or Concrete Juices, 5 Spirits, 6 Mean or half Metals, 7 Metals. Of all which in as much as they cause Alterations in Waters, I shall take a short Survey; Brevity here beeng in­tended.

First, Earth is a cold dry sluggish Body altogether effete in its vertue, except when it containeth some active Principle; such as a Nitrous Salt by which Fullers-Earth doth scour Cloth, and Marle laid on Land [Page] doth cause Fertility; or an Aluminous Salt, such as is found near Scarbrough Spaw &c. Ʋpon which account the Chymists rightly call Simple Earth Caput Mortuum or Terra damnata. Water hereby may become turbid and muddy, but not impreg­nate with any Vertue.

Secondly, Stones by their Qualities of Cold, Dryness, and Stipticity come near that of Earth. Yea as Dr. Jorden Cap. 4. hath hinted to us, Stones in their simple Nature distinct from any other Ingredient, are but as a Caput Mortuum and untama­ble by [...]ire or Water. 'Tis true some Stones will melt, others by Calcination turn as it were to Ashes; but that is from a Hetero­geneous Mixture of some Salt, Metal, &c. And this may be concluded hence, The more pure and free from Mixture Stones are, by so much the more indissolvable by Water or the devouring flames of Fire; as Diamonds, Amiantus or Alumen plumosum, Glym­mer, Saxum Arenarium all which stony Concretions will endure the Fire: yea I suppose had we but a pure stony Body it would endure the washings of Water, and [Page] the utmost degree of Fire. Pliny Natur. Hist. Lib. 36. Cap. 19. saith Amiantus lapis nihil igni deperdit. Not only the Terra Damnata left after the Active Principles are drawn off in Distillation will endure the Fire; but the Asbestum which is an Efflorescence of the Amiantus, and many such like Stony Concretions (I doubt not) were they free from Heterogene­ous Mixtures.

Stones then in their simple Nature yield no Vertue to Springs, except whilst in their Primitive juices or Solutis principiis; for then they may cause an Alteration, as we may perceive by many cold petrifying Springs; of which almost infinite Exam­ples might be produced here in our own Country. But when there is a mixture with a Minera, then Stones by Fire or Water may soon suffer a Dissolution: as Marcasites of Iron, Copper, Alum, &c. not only by fire may undergo a Change, but also may communicate their Vertue to Wa­ters having a proper Menstruum.

Thirdly, Bitumina are either hard as [Page] Amber, Carbofossilis; or Liquid as Pe­troleum and Naphtha. We find by dayly Experience that unctuous Matter or Oyls will not undergo a perfect mixture with Wa­ter: yet by some Mineral juice may have its body so opened as to come floating with the Spring Water though in a confused Posture. Yea saith Fallopius de Aq. Therm. Cap. 8. It is sometimes so con­fused, that a Separation from the Water is very difficult. Instances of Bituminous Waters he giveth us; as the River Lip­paris in Cilicia, which by its plenty will as it were anoint the Bodies of them that swim in it; the Fountains of Mount Gibbus near Modena in Italy; many Fountains likewise near Baia in Campania; so also Springs at the foot of Vesuvius; many also we read of in Saxony, Swedland, and at Avergne in France; and of one famous in our own Country at Pitchford in Shrop­shire; and that Bitumen is the predomi­nant Principle in our Springs at Bath, Dr. Jorden hath proved De Nat. Bath & Min. Wat. Cap. 6▪

Fourthly, Concrete Juices called Salts [Page] which are not only found in Waters but being dissolved make the Current Springs as so many Menstruums to unlock the Bodies of other Minerals. The Species are usually reckoned Four viz. Alum, Vitriol, Nitre and Common Salt (but as for the Num­ber I shall not here dispute) 'Tis true differ­ent Salts will shoot by Chrystallization into several Forms, as Vitriol and Alum into Glebas (although these of Alum differ something from them of Vitriol) Nitre into Stirias and Salt into Tesseras; so likewise will other Species of Salt compre­hended under these, by reason of their Glebes and difference of Particles. As for the Vertues of such Springs we must look to the Nature of the Ingredients; and whether the Waters are not impregnated with several Mineras; from whence there must needs follow great Variety in Mineral Waters. That Salt, Nitre, Alum, and Vitriol are Ingredients of Mineral Waters, we have the Testimony of several Authors, too many here to relate. As Salt-Springs at Saltz­burgh and Halstat, and many other places in Germany; the Salt-Springs in Tusca­ny, and as our Springs at Droit-Wich and [Page] at Nant-Wich will testify. Nitrous Springs we read of at Calestria in Macedonia; in many places of Aegypt; in many places in France mentioned by Du Clos Classe Second and Third; and Nitrous Springs by Baccius De Therm. Lib. 5. Cap. 6. Alum Springs are frequent in Tuscany and many other Places of Italy; and also in Ger­many, and in Spain; with us at Oken­yate in Shrop-shire, and that famous Spaw at Scarbrough in York-shire. Vitrioline Waters are also found (although the truth thereof is questioned by Dr. Lister De Font. Med. Angl. Cap. 7.) Instances of which Dr. Jorden de Nat. Ba. Cap. 7. giveth us; as that at Cyprus described by Galen where the Water is Green, at Smol­nicium in Hungary, in Transilvania &c, in which (saith he) the very Body of Vitriol is found. Besides the Testimony of Hel­mont Paradox. 4. of Pauhont and Save­nir two German Spaws, and the Experi­ments of Dr. Simpson on our Scarbrough Spaw; and as I shall prove of Ilmington Spaw. As for the distinction of being vertually or by its quality contained I can­not allow of, not finding any solid Reason [Page] how an Accident can be seperated from his Substance, and remain Existent in another: for I look upon that Rule as true Accidens non migrat a Subjecto in Subjectum.

Fifthly, Spirits (so called from their Vo­latility by fire) that enter the Composition of Metals will not endure fusion by fire but easily fly off; such as Quicksilver, Au­ripigmentum, Sandaraca, Chrisocolla, Cadmia which by some Authors are reckoned for Concrete Juices, but by others for Spirits from their Volatility: and Wa­ters endowed with these kind of Ingredients are generally poisonous. Agricola Lib. 1. & 2. telleth us of waters betwixt Seburgh and Strapela that by their Malignancy will kill Fishes, and other Animals that drink thereof. Arsenical Waters we read of, as at Circum in Thracia, at Perant near Mompelier; of many such waters Fallo­pius de Therm. Aq. giveth us an account. Now Dr. Jorden reckoneth some Waters that contain Quicksilver for wholesome waters, as that at Serra Morena and La Nava in Spain, Almagra and Toletum. But if we consider how that Mercury is an [Page] Enemy to the Nervous Parts, especially when unprepared; how it abounds with Ar­senical Particles before it is purisied, we may much doubt of the wholesomeness of them, yet I shall not dispute against the Possibility of the Thing. So also are these from Sulphur very dangerous, because they often partake of a Poisonous Minera.

These that partake of Cadmia are to be avoided, because the Natural Cadmia is Poisonous and a strong Caustick. Cadmia foffili Aquae infectae acres esse consueve­runt, Agricol. de Natur. Eor. Efflu. ex Terra. Lib. 1.

Sixthly, Mean or half Metals, so called because they are fusible but not malleable like Metals, as Antimony, Bismuthum or Tin-Glass found in England and Germa­ny. These may be Ingredients to Mineral waters, and for the Vertues of such we must look to the impregnating Object.

Seventhly, Metals as Lead, Tin, Iron Gold, Copper, and Silver: for Mercury from its Volatility by fire is reckoned by Dr. Jorden among Mineral Spirits. These [Page] saith Fallopius de Therm. Aq. Cap. 8. May be Ingredients in Mineral waters, but telleth us, that he never knew any Par­ticular Spring in which Metals had their share.

But we have sufficient Testimony of Par­ticular Springs that are impregnated with Metals. Baccius De Therm. Lib. 6. Cap. 3. giveth us an account of several waters that have preyed on Iron, and seve­ral whose Vertue is from the Magnet (which indeed is a better sort of Iron-stone) Soli­nander De Font. Temperat. Cap. 6. In­stanceth divers Springs containing Metal­line Ingredients, as that impregnated with Copper at Baia in Campania, and that at Luca called St. John's Bath; with Lead, as the Lead-Waters in Lotharingia; with Iron, as at Siena, Verona, and Luca. To which I might add our Chalybeat wa­ters at Tunbridge, Astrap, and Scar­brough, with our late found Spring at Il­mington. The same Author telleth us that waters are found impregnated with Gold, Silver, Lead, and Precious Stones although very rarely, because of their Scar­city, and the compact Substances of Pearls.

[Page] Multitude of Examples of Mineral waters we have cited by Dr. Jorden On Min. Wat. & Nat. Bat. Cap. 10. to whom I may refer the Reader.

But it may be questioned; how can Earth be reckoned as a Mineral and one of the fore­going seven Genera, taking a Mineral for an Inanimate perfect Body bred in the Bowels of the Earth? Answ. Minerals are here taken in a large sense, under which Earth is comprehended in as much as it is the Receptacle and Matrix of Subterraneous Conceretes, whose Particles may also be com­municated to water in its Current; Stones also in this respect may be taken for Mi­nerals.

Concrete Juices or Salts are reckoned as a Distinct Genus (although as I shall hereafter prove, that all Compound Bodies in the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdome are made out of a Succus as their more immediate Matter) from their Pro­perties resulting from their peculiar texture of Parts. Thus Salts are reckoned from their easy Dissolution in water, and their reconcretion. Bitumina from their burn­ing and wasting by fire, although they enter [Page] not the Composition of a Metal. Sulphur will burn and wast by fire, and is also often a Metalline Ingredient; and is reckoned with Mercury &c. among Mineral Spi­rits, which are so called from their Vola­tility by fire although they enter the Com­position of Metals. Antimony and Tin Glass are accounted as half Metals, because they are fusible, but not malleable like Me­tals; which are both Fusible and Malleable Mineral Substances.

I need not Apologize for the Ʋsefulness of Mineral Waters, seeing they have been for several Hundreds of years in great Esti­mation. The Romans we are informed by Baccius De Therm. had their Baths in great request, and for the greater splendor had many Magnificent Buildings erected at Rome. And of the frequent Bathings of the Turks, although only with pure Water Alpinus De Medic. Aegypt. Lib. 3. Cap. 17. giveth us an Account.

I need not likewise relate the Superstition of the Ancients; who, when a Mineral Spring was found, from the strangeness of its Effects soon dedicated it to some Saint or Deity, because they made little Scrutiny [Page] into the Nature of Mineral Waters. And since that Experimental Philosophy hath found favour in the world, knowledge here­in hath dayly encreased; and for the Pro­motion hereof, let us make enquiry into each Particular, that at length we may ar­rive to Ʋniversal Conclusions.

In the Prosecution of my Design I shall observe this method, and accordingly di­vide the following Treatise.

First, To enquire into the Nature of Compound Bodies either in the Animal, Vegetable or Mineral Kingdom; under Minerals will fall in a Consideration of the Original and Difference of Glebes, that chiefly give Essence to Mineral-Wa­ters.

Secondly, To make Experimental Es­says into the Nature of Ilmington-Spring.

Thirdly, After taking a short Survey of most Diseases incident to the Body of man, as to their Causes or Original; to enquire how far Ilmington-Spaw may [Page] conduce to their Cure, and to preserve Health whilst entire.

But by the way take notice, That where­as I made the Experiments on Ilming­ton-Spaw in a dry Season, and was very careful and exact in the weight of the water which I have given Pag. 48; it may admit of a Variation not only in weight, but be weakned in its Vertue in a wet Season when the Springs are rank by a mixture of Rain-water; and also by the breaking in of any fresh Spring.

Hydrologia Philosophica OR An Account of ILMINGTON WATERS, &c.

HAVING Observed with* Para­celsus that proof by Authority, where Reason and Experience are deficient, is altogether uncertain; and that Philosophy is not to be founded on Phansy, but on Experience and plain Natural Diductions therefrom: I shall in this following Treatise lay down only such Positions, that I find built on Experience. For if bare Authority might pass for Proof, I might cite Anax­agoras to prove the Snow black, and such like [Page 2] strange speculations, which to the judicious will seem only as such. Yet I shall not contemn Authority, but yeild due honour and Reve­rence to our Ancestors, whose Works still are for our Instruction; but shall chiefly insist in the footsteps of them, that have made Expe­rimental Essayes for their guid.

In the prosecution of my design, I shall speak somewhat as to the Principles of Concretes, which will lead me on to a consideration of Mineral Glebes, that principally give Essence to Spaw-waters.

Divers have been the opinions of Philoso­phers about the Elements of Compound bo­dies; not to mention the Opiniō of Heraclitus, who observing Fire to be an active simple te­nuious body, made it the first Principle of all things; nor the opinion of Hesiod, assigning Earth for the Original of Compounds, there are other more famous, which Sects of Philo­sophers do still maintain. Such as that 1st, of the Aristotelians; 2ly, of the Chymists; 3ly, of Thales Milesius, Helmont and others; 4ly of Epicurus and Democritus.

1. The Aristotelians place the foundation of Bodies in the four [...]lements (viz) Fire, Air, Water, and Earth. Which I wonder at, seeing Aristotle lib. 2. de gener. cap 8. alloweth of, and urgeth that Argument. Bodies consist of such Principles into which they are ultimately reduci­ble. But by all the Analysis that either Art or Nature could make, did never find Fire an [Page 3] ingredient. To talk of an Element of Fire sub Concavo Lunae, is but a supposition without a Demonstration. The Air we know is ne­cessary, and that in several respects, to the Continuance, and Preservation of our lives, but no Demonstration of its first being an E­lement. The Quaternary of Elements is so far from solving the Phenomena, of the more abstruse Recesses of Nature; that it is all one as Dr. Willis de Ferm. c. 1. p. 3. hath rightly observed, to say a House is made of wood and stones, as to say a Body is made of the Four Elements. For it is hard to imagine such Things to be Principles, which neither answer the Phaenomena of Nature, nor the Reducti­on of Concretes, and truly the supposing Such for Elements, will be but an Imaginary Philo­sophy.

2ly. The Chymical Principles are, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, because in an Analysis of Bodies by Fire, these Three appear; whether the Concrete belong to the Animal, Vegeta­ble, or Mineral kingdom. By Reduction of a Metal or Mineral (as the Chymists thought) into its first Elements, they extract a Sulphur or Oyl, a Fluid which in Minerals is a plain Mercury or Quicksilver, and a Salt. Out of Vegetables and Animals, they extract an Oyl or Sulphureous Spirit, which is but an Essen­tial Oyl gotten by Fermentation, a Salt, and Mercury; which last is but the Phlegm or Water, whose Particles are driven off by the [Page 4] stress of Fire, and recollected in a Receiver.

But the ingenious Dr Willis de Fermen. c. 2. observing a faeces left after Distillation, and when the other Principles are drawn off to be quite useless, yea void of Mutation and Ex­altation, and therefore properly called Caput Mortuum, or Terra Damnata. Besides, he con­sidering that there must be some subtile spiri­tuous Agent, to bring Things to maturity and perfection, as in the growth and fermen­tation of Vegetables and their fruit; that by the Depression of this Active Principle, Things are crude and immature, and by the decay thereof decline and die. That Heat, Consistence, variety of Colours, and Tasts; yea the amiable texture of Parts do chiefly de­pend on a Sulphur. That the Weight, Soli­dity, and Duration of Bodys without Putre­faction do depend on a Salt, which detaineth and fixeth the Volatile Parts and Sulphur. That Water is a convenient Vehicle for the most active Principles, and to associate them to the Salt. Upon such like considerations hath multiplied the Chymical Principles into Five, Spiritus, Sal, Sulphur, Aqua & Ter­ra.

Against which multiplication I shall propose these Experimental Observations, proving Spiritus to be no distinct Principle from the three former, viz. Salt, Sulphur and Mercury: besides what may be said to his fifth Princi­ple Earth.

[Page 5] All sorts of Chymical Spirits are reduceable to two kinds, Sulphureous and Saline; of Sa­line Spirits there are two sorts, Volatile Al­kalizate and Acid.

Sulphureous Spirits, such as Spirits of Wine, Rosemary, Juniper; and all Sulphureous Spi­rits got by fermentation out of Vegetables, are nothing but an essential Oyl or Sulphur exalted with a little Phlegm and Salt. This is evident from its Inflammability, which is allowed on all sides to depend chiefly on the Sulphur.

Take Spirit of Wine or Brandy a Spoon­ful, it will take flame by a burning Paper or Candle, which will continue until all is con­sumed, except an insipid Water or Phlegm: and the best way of trying the goodness of Vinous Spirits, is by inflammability; which prove better or worse, according as they burn away more or less. Some Chymists assert, they have had such highly rectified Spirits of Wine, that by burning would totally con­sume away, that the flame would like the containing Vessel dry, leaving neither Faeces nor Phlegm. What difference is there betwixt Sulphur, and Sulphureous Spirits; excepting Fermentation and Distillation, by which the subtile parts are separated from the more fe­culent, but not in an ordinary Sulphureous Body, seeing both take flame and burn alike? Tis true, by Distillation the more refine parts are separated, and the Sulphureous carry [Page 6] with them some Phlegm, and a little Vola­tile Salt: but that destroyeth not the Sulphu­reous parts as such, which being the predo­minant Principle, give denomination to the Liquor, and differ not as to the Principle of Sulphur.

Volatile Saline Spirits, as Spirit of Harts-horn, Spirits of Sal Armoniac; and all Spi­rits drawn from Animals, as Spirit of Vi­pers &c. consist of a volatile Salt dissolved in a little Phlegm, with a very small quanti­ty of Sulphur. And that it dependeth on a Volatile Salt dissolved in Phlegm, is thus Ap­parent. Fill a small Vial with good Spirit of Harts-horn, Sal-Armoniac, &c. let it stand without moving for about half a year, you'l find a Phlegm instead of a Spirit, but the Salt all shot or Chrystallized to the sides of the bottle; which Salt being dissolved in fresh Phlegm, will become again Spirit of Harts-horn. Besides you may make Spirit of Harts-horn thus, yea as good as the shops will afford. Take of the Volatile Salt shot in the Neck, or to the sides of the Receiver in the Distilla­tion of Harts-horn; mix it with so much Phlegm drawn off, as sufficeth for its dissolu­tion; you'l have an excellent Spirit, which according to the Quantity of Salt dissolved will be stronger or weaker. So that the Phlegm rising with volatile Salt in Distillati­on, or afterwards mixed with it; liquisieth and turneth it into a Spirit. The same may [Page 7] be said of the Spirits of all Animals, and is manifestly apparent by the Distillation of Vipers, whose Salt sticketh for the greatest part to the sides of the Receiver, or head of the Limbeck, but mixed with the Phlegm doth become a Spirit of Excellent Use.

This Salt in Distillation carrieth with it a little yellowish Oyl, but by instillation of Sp. Vini Tartarizatus is preserved, except the Spirit of Wine containeth a considerable quantity of Phlegm, which will soon dissolve the Volatile Salt of Vipers.

Acid Spirits, as of Vitriol, Vinegar, Sulphur &c. is but an Essential acid Salt liquified by Phlegm, or by Violence of Fire. Spirit of Vitriol is Salt Liquified by force of Fire, which hath freed the Saline from the ter­restrious parts; this we may conclude from the Caustick quality both of the Spirit and Oyl; which only differ, in as much as the Oyl is the more Acid part of Vitriol with a little Phlegm and Sulphur and improperly called Oyl, but the Spirit with more Phlegm and less of the Acid Part. And that Spirit of Vitriol chiefly consists of a Salt in fluore, is more fully manifest by instillation of an Alka­li, for Example; pour Olcum Tartari per Deliquium, upon Spirit of Vitriol, as in the making of Tartarum Vitriolatum, the Acid of Vitriol and Alkali of Tartar combine toge­ther into a Neutral Salt, but the Phlegma­tick part is evaporated as an insipid Water. [Page 8] So may any Acid Salts in fluore, being mixed with Alkalis be revived again into dry Salts, by Evaporation, Precipitation, Chrystalli­zation &c. so that Saline Spirits either Acid or Alkalizate, in as much as they contain a Salt highly exalted or volatilised, are called Spirits, Sal quatenus volatile Spiritus dici po­test. Helm. Paradox. 4.

Against this Opinion Thales Milesius, Hel­mont and others oppose themselves. Thales observing Vegetables to grow and flourish by Moisture, that Plants fade by drougth and Trees cast their leaves, but after showrs of Rain revive, look fresh and green; that Moisture is requisite to Nutrition of Animals, that Minerals take their Original and encrease from a concretion of their proper Succus, that Stones take their Rise from a petrifying juice: upon such like Considerations hath assigned Water for the Original of Concretes. To which Principle Van. Helmont hath added Se­men; making the Chymical Principles Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, but posterior products of Water and Seed. He telleth us indeed, Pri­mordialiter duo tantum in Ʋniverso esse Elemen­ta aerem videlicet & aquam, à Textu sacro sa­tis insinuata, per spiritum in mundi incunabulis aquarum abysso supernatantem Paxad. [...]. But then speaking of the Elements as the first mat­ter of Compounds, telleth us by his own ex­perience, he could convert all Concrete bo­dys into Water, as into the only and first Prin­ciple. [Page 9] And if so, what becomes of Earth the Fourth Aristotelian Principle, and the Fifth Chymical, according to Dr Willis? Nostra Mechanica mihi patefecit, arenam, marcasitam, argillam, terram, lapides coctos; vitrum, cal­cem, sulphur, &c. transmutari in salem actua­lem aequiponderantem suo corpori, unde sactus est; & quòd iste sal aliquoties cohobatus cum sale Cir­culato Paracelsi, suam omnino fixitatem amittat, tandem transmutetur in liquorem, qui etiam tan­dem transit in Aquam insipidam & quòd Aqua ista aequiponderet sali suo unde manavit. Plan­tam verò, carnes, ossa, pisces, & quicquid si­milium est, novi redigere in mera sua Tria, unde [...]ostmodum aquam insipidam confeci. Helm. in Elementa. So that by his Alkahest, at least assisted with Paracelsus's Sal circulatam he could reduce all Concrets into Water, yea the Tria Chymicorum Principia, whence we may suppose them but secundary things made out of Water, by the efficacy of Seminal Prin­ciples planted ab origine. Lantent in Elemen. torum condo an ditissimo promptuario, hospita [...] ab initio rationes in aevum durabiles, scientiâ re­rum sibi in tempore futurarum instructae, &c. Haelmont Parad. 1. So that he granteth but Two first Principles (viz.) Water for the sub­ject matter, and Semen for the efficient and plastick cause. From this experiment we must necessarily conclude allowing the truth thereof) That the Quaternary of the Aristote­lian principles, and also the [...]ria (for Spirits [Page 10] and Earth are but products of the other) of the Chymists must fall, excepting that of Water with the Seminal Principles, for we must allow that argument of the Aristotelians; into which bodies are ultimately resolved, of such they do consist; but into the Principle Water bodies are ultimately resolved, Ergo, They consist of the Principle of Water. For the truth of which Analysis, we have the ex­perience of that profound and learned Helmont, who with his [...]kahest could reduce Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals into a pure water: only telleth us, that the greatest difficulty was in the Reduction of the Sabulum bulliens or Quellem, yet by industry the thing was feci­ble. Paracelsus his Predecessor did arrive al­most to that height, who could with his Cir­culatum majus resolve Metals into an Oyl, which Helmont by the addition of an Alkali did change into water. Besides the testimony of Helmont, led (as he tells us) by thirty years experience, and not trusting to probable con­jectures, Lullius and others have contended for the same thing, and pretended to have been experienced in the same grand and noble Menstruum. But to lay aside Authority, Rea­son built upon Experience seemeth to con­clude that Water is the main (and perhaps I might truly say the only subject matter of Concretes. Which by the Seminal Principles and ferments thereof is transmuted into this or that Bodie, according to the nature or spe­cies [Page 11] of the Semen or Idea of the Archeus. It may perhaps seem a strang Paradox, and a re­novation of an old Philosophical Hypothesis exploded by most of the Ancient and Modern Naturalists; But were it not beyond my in­tended subject, I might prosecute the asserti­on and prove, That all bodies in the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral kingdom do take their material Principle from Water. I mean not that all sublunary bodies do immediately owe their Original to a pure elementary Water; but either to simple Water, or else to a Suc­cus sui generis nutritius, which is matter run through some alterations from that first pure Element of Water. And in this sense are the Assertions of the Hydroplasticks, comprehend­ing Succus under the notion of Water. I might only propose, Let any man shew me an Ani­mal, Vegetable, or Mineral that I cannot prove to owe its Original immediately to Water, or to a Succus transformed by the Seminal prin­ciple into the proposed Object. But shall only instance some particulars, leaving a further prosecution to another's enquiry.

Dr. Sharrock giveth us a Catalogue of Plants that would grow and encrease by simple wa­ter in a Glass-bottle; as Mints, Sedum mul­tifidum, Pennyroyal, Bugle, Prunella, Water-cresse, Scordium, Marsh-mallows, Nummula­ria, &c. Sedum multifidum in a month en­creased in weight half a Scruple, Scordium [Page 12] as much in a fortnight, Dorias his Wound­wort in six weeks gr. 13. Bugula in less time gr. 15. Water-cress in a month gr. 25. Ranuncu­lus in 6 weeks half a Scruple, Periwincle as much, Prunella, Brooklime and most of the sorts of Mint got weight proportionably.Shar. Veget p. 102.

For experiment sake I took several small young slips of Mint diligently weighed, which I kept in Glasse-bottles of fair water the space of Twelve weeks, as the water wasted I pour­ed on fresh, at the end of which time I weigh­ed each Plant for every Slip was now become a Plant with large roots and branches) and found the former weight of several of them to be tripled, but the least of them doubled.

Famous are the Experiments of Mr. Boyle. ‘I caused (said he) my Gardiner to dig out a convenient quantity of good Earth and dry it well in an Oven, to weigh it, to put it in an Earthen Pot almost level with the surface of the ground, and to set in it a selected seed, he had from me of Squash, which is an Indian kind of Pompion, which grows a­pace; this Seed I ordered him to water on­ly with Rain or Spring water &c. and a lit­tle after giveth us the account of it from his Gardiner. ‘I have weighed the Pompion with the Stalk and Leaves, all which weigh­ed Three Pound wanting a quarter; then I took the Earth, baked it as formerly and [Page 13] found it just as much as I did as first, which made me think I had not dryed it suffici­ently, then I put it into the Oven twice more, after the Bread was drawn, and weighed it the second time, but sound it shrink little or nothing. Boyle Scep. Chy.

He giveth us also another Experiment from the same Gardiner in these words. ‘To give you an account of your Cucumbers, I have gained two indifferent fair ones, the weight of them is Ten pounds and a half, the bran­ches and the roots weigh'd Four pounds wanting two Ounces; and when I had weigh'd them I took the Earth and baked it in seve­ral small earthen Dishes in an Oven: and when I had so done▪ I found the Earth wan­ted a pound and half of what it was former­ly, yet I was not satisfied, doubting the earth was not dry: I put it into an Oven the second time (after the Bread was drawn) af­ter I had taken it out and weighed it, I found it to be the same weight. So I suppose there was no moisture left in the earth. Neither do I think that the Pound and half that was wanting was drawn away by the Cucumber, but a great part of it in the ordering was in dust (and the like) wasted.’

Famous is also that Experiment of Helmont: Who took of earth dryed in an Oven 200 pound, put it in an earthen vessel, and moi­stened it with rain-water, and planted in it a [Page 14] Willow tree of Five pounds weight; this he kept and watered with rain, or distilled wa­ter, to prevent an addition of fresh earth, he covered the vessel with a plate of Tin full of holes At the end of Five years he dug up and weighed the Tree, and found the Tree, computed with the leaves fallen off in four Autumns, to weigh 169 Pounds, and about three Ounces, and the Earth in which it was set to want only about two Ounces, so that 164 pounds and upwards was the encrease by Water.

Had this Tree, or other Plants encreased by simple water been distilled, undoubtedly there had been found the same principles with o­thers of the same Species that sprung in open Gardens or Fields. Water we see by these Ex­periments was disguised by the Plastick virtue of the Seeds into various formes; as it is evi­dent by the Experiments of Mr. Boyle. ‘One of the Vegetables cherished only by water, having obtained a competent growth, I did for tryal sake cause to be distilled in a small Retort, and thereby obtained some Phlegm, a little Empyreumatical Spirit, a small quanti­ty of adust Oyl, and a Caput mortuum, which appeared to be a Coal, I concluded it to consist of Salt and Earth.’ ‘And a little after. The water I used to nourish this Plant was not shifted or renewed, I chose Spring water rather than rain-water, because the latter is a kind of [...], containing [Page 15] steams of several bodies wandring in the Air, and a certain spirituous substance, &c. Scept▪ Chym. p. 112. Here are the Chymical Principles extracted from a Subject, whose matter before transmutation was Water.

That Water is the material Principle for the growth and encrease of Vegetables, may be collected from these observations. viz. Rain-water or Dews refresh the fading Herbs; That flooding of grounds causeth fertility, That Grass cut down by the want of a supple­metal Succus soon withereth; That exceeding Droughts have caused Famines; and that the Corn of Aegypt dependeth on the overflow­ing of Nile. And truly whence is the lustre of the Fields bedecked with flowers, but from Water transformed into this or that Species, according to the Idea of the semen, or Arche­us; for according to the Plastick or Forma­tive power, Water is changed into roots, stalks, leaves, yea to make the glorious Lilly.

As Vegetables, so Animals receive their growth and sustenance immediately from Water, or else mediately viz. From Herbs, Flesh, &c. which is but Water metamorphi­zed, and run through former alterations. An Ox feedeth on grass or plants, viz. Water transformed thereto, a Man feedeth on the flesh of the Ox, whose material Principle is but Water transformed into a Plant, thence [Page 16] into Flesh by divers fermentative alterations of the Ox, and now farther according to the ferments of Man.

But to shew more particularly, how that Water or at least a succus is necessarily requi­site to the nutrition of every Animal; Ali­ment taken into the stomach, before it is fit for nutrition is turned into Chyle, (which is a Succus) from whence blood, then Chyme, to be assimilated into each part. As for ex­ample, Bread or Flesh eaten by a man, is by concoction turned into a fluid Chyle, by the ferment in sanguification, the Saline and Sul­phureous parts work upon each other, and turn the Chyle into Blood; out of which a succus is separated, and by the innate ferment of each part assimilated thereto. What is Flesh but a Leffas or watery succus first turned into Grass, Corn, &c. and at length by suc­ceeding alterations by ferments shaped into Flesh. And the more probable it is, seeing that the Flesh, Blood, Urine or Milk of Ani­mals by bare distillation is turned for the greatest part into Phlegm. The flesh of Eeles (as Mr. Boyle hath observed) by distillation doth yield a great quantity of water, and whilst distilling they seem to boyl like a pot of water, seeming to be nothing else but a congealed water.

The semen of Vegetables before roots and [Page 17] branches are formed do require a moist body, which according to the Plastick power of the Archeus, doth Proteus like turn its shape, and that which was in the form of Water is turn­ed into a Vegetable, which by the Ferments of our body may become blood or flesh, which at length by Putrefaction may be resolved and turned in Worms &c. But even to the gene­ration of Worms and Insects a putrid juice is required.

If we look to the first formation of an Ani­mal, we shall find the Sperme to be but a Liquor disguised by the Ferment of Seminal Vessels, which by circulation through the parts of the body whilst blood, is impregna­ted with an Efflorescence of the whole. And when it is thus prepared, before the Aura vitalis can exert its operation, it must have a convenient Matrix as a place, but an Ad­dition of moisture for encrease of the Animal formed.

As Vegetables and Animals have their Seeds, so likewise Minerals in the Bowels of the Earth; and not only to the encrease, but also to the first formation of a Particular in either of these Species, we still find a Succus required. 'Tis true the Mineral Seeds are inconspicuous and fall not under our sense of Seeing. So by an exact enquiry we shall find these of Animals and Vegetables. For the prolifick part, or Genitura is properly the Seed; but the Sperme in an Animal, and the [Page 18] Grains or Corns among Vegetables, are but convenient Receptacles to lodge the more active part, (which is indiscernable by the best instruments in Opticks) until set at work by some External cause, in its proper place. But however we see by dayly experience, that by the plastick power of the Seeds, a juice is formed into roots and branches: so from Metaline and Mineral Seeds placed in the body of the earth, rather in divers parcels thereof ab origine; whence the variety of Mineral Glebes, which turn a Succus into their own nature. These Mineral Principles being set at work by the Celestial influence upon appropriate matter, form to themselves a Mercurial Juice and Sulphur, as the more immediate matter to the production of Me­tals or Minerals, which by the specifick Fer­ments of the Seeds at length are compleated.

That Mineral Glebes will appropriate a juice, and therefrom perfect a Metal is hence evident. As Earth out of which Nitre is extracted, and afterwards exposed to the open Air will centre upon it the floating Saline Particles; the like effect we shall find upon the Caput mortuum of Vitriol, so as to be again impregnate with a fresh Vitriol or Ni­tre; in like manner Mineral Glebes after the Metal is extracted, will again convert a Succus into a Metal: as the Miners of Tin, Lead, &c. can testify, who find a fresh Ore where All was for sixty or seventy years before extract­ed. [Page 19] Dr. Jorden hath observed, that the Tin­ners in Cornwall within thirty years have found Tin generated de Novo, where it hath been all digged up, and the place filled with earth. Jord. Natur. Bath. Cap. XI. Many examples he citeth, as the great Income witnessed by Fallopius, that the Duke of Florence hath by Metals and Minerals produced where all Ore was before exhausted. So also that of the Iron Mines at Ilva an Island of the Adriatick Sea, where the Venetians find Iron generated afresh, yea as fast as they can work it; this is testified by Georgius Agricola. de Ortu & Cauj. Subt. Lib. 5. p. 61. Who farther confirm­eth the Reproduction of Metals, Putei ex quibus materia metallo gravida est effossa, ali­quot annis eadem replentur. And a little after; In Lygiis ad Sagam oppidum eruitur è pratis ferri vena, quae fossae decennio replentur venâ renatâ. Agric. Lib. 5. p 64. Remarkable a [...]so is that of Erastus. Vidi ego argentum purissimum in valle Joachimicâ, in arbore sive trabe cuniculi cujusdam concretum, quae vix ante annos 25 aut 30 ad sustinendum cuniculum ibi collocata fuerat. Erastus de Medicin. Nov. Paracels. de Metallis p. 19. That in the Mines of S. Joachims Val­ley, Silver was generated on a Prop of Wood, that had not above 25 or 30 years supported the Mine-works.

We cannot suppose the reason of the new Eruptions of fire after hundreds of years at Aetna and Vesuvius, and these prodigious [Page 20] burnings of the Mountains Popochampeche and Popocatepec mentioned by Mr. Gage in his Survey of the West Ind. Cap. 13. Except a production of Bituminous or Sulphureous matter generated de Novo is the cause of per­petuating these Vulcano's. For else how could the fire burn round these Hills, and per­haps return violently to the same place it had burned in about a hundred years before. It must certainly find new matter, seeing that in former Eruptions of fire Ashes have been cast forth, yea the very stones and earth have been as it were calcined to Powder. So that we cannot imagine Sulphureous matter to be there left, but by the Seminal Principles and a convenient Succus to be newly begotten. But I need not proceed to produce the testi­mony of more Authors, as I might out of Caesalpinus de Metallis, and Libavius in his Al­chem. de Metal. seeing most Authors as to this particular have allowed a generation of Mi­nerals de Novo, not approving the Opinion of some few, supposing them to have been latent from the Creation. The difference is whether with Erastus in defence of Aristotle we suppose the matter (before concretion into a hard Mineral or Metalline Substance) to be a Vapor, or with Agricola we believe Succus est ex quo formatur Metallum de Ortu Subt. Lib. 5. p. 71. but it will not be very mate­rial. For if the Matter do arrive to the Mi­neral Glebes under the form of Halitus or [Page 21] Vapor; What is Vapor but a Succus or moist body, whose Particles are seperated and ele­vated apart, but may be collected again into a greater Bulk by a Receiver, &c. as Helmont hath sufficiently proved? In Distillation of Water the vapour that ariseth is but Water rarified, whose Particles collected in a Re­ceiver make up again a body of Water.

That Minerals may be made out of Water, we have that Experiment cited by Mr. Boyle out of Monsieur de Rochas. ‘I took (saith he) wa­ter which I well knew not to be compound­ed nor mixed with any other thing then the Spirit of Life. By a well proportioned ar­tificial heat I so ordered it, that with it and coagulations, congelation and fixation I turned it into earth, which earth produ­ced Animals Vegetables and Minerals.’ Here Water was turned into Earth which at length was converted into either of the Three States.

Out of Mercury saith the afore-cited Au­thor, a fourth or fifth part of Water may be obtained without any addition, which for ought he could find, could not be reduced to Mercury; so that it appeared to be plain Water.

As for that Objection; why Metals should weigh heavier than water, or that a Spoonful of Quicksilver is in proportion nigh fourteen to one, if Metals should be made out of, or else Water disguised? This I say doth depend on the Seminal Principles collecting more mat­ter [Page 22] in less space in some bodies then in others. Bodies which have few Pores or Interstices of parts, but Particles of matter closely uni­ted, so they are more heavy or light, al­though the same Elementary matter compose all, but not compact in all bodies alike. And the inspection through a Microscope on the Pores of bodies will clear up this answer to the Objection.

The first Change of Water in order to Me­tals is into a Mineral Mercury, the next change by coagulation with Sulphur is into some metal, according to the Specification of the Seed, the repurgation from Sordes or fecu­lent matter, and the tincture of the Sulphur either Solar, Lunar, Saturnine, &c. so the di­versity of Metals arise.

Although the foregoing Experiments prove the more immediate matter of Generation and Nutrition to be Water, yet they do in effect prove one material Principle which is the ultimate Result of Water and all other Bodies; as by the Experiment of Monsieur de Rochas, and by Conversion of water into the roots and branches of Vegetables may be col­lected. For as Helmont by his alkahest could convert Stones, Earth, Glass, yea any body into water; so water may again be transmu­ted into fixed matter. As it is proved by the encrease of Mints or other Vegetables in wa­ter; by Helmont's Experiment before cited of a Willow Tree; by Mr. Boyle's Experi­ment [Page 23] of a Squash, in which water is transfor­med into a body according to the nature of the thing nourished. Yea in the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdome, as the Ali­ment is converted into a Succus, or at least is a succulent matter before Nutrition; so the Succus is again converted into flesh, bones, roots, branches, leaves, or metalline Concrete, according to the individual and its parts of this or the other Species. So that it may be as well urged; That fixed matter is the first Element of all things, as well as Water. For as all Concretes may be converted into Wa­ter, so Water may be converted into fixed matter. As for Instance, Vegetables that from a watery nourishment are become a gross and hard aliment taken into the stomach of an Animal is by the ferment thereof turn­ed into a liquid Chyle, which by the ferment of the Heart, &c. is turned into a balsamick blood, and from thence again into bones, flesh, or other gross and fixed Substances.

From the transmutations and reductions of Matter into its pristine form, may be conclu­ded the truth of the Fourth Opinion, viz. of Epicurus, and Democritus. That Matter is the first and only Principle, out of which all con­crete bodies are made. And according to the divers figurations, motions, and fixation of the Atoms or minute parts of matter, so are bodies of this or that Species. I cannot close [Page 24] with the opinion of some, that to matter would add Chance for a Principle; as if the glorious bodies of the Sun, Moon, Stars, &c. were made by Chance, or by an accidental collection of Atoms, as if a Dog or other A­nimal were but as a Clock, or other mechani­cal Engine: but that Matter was shaped at first by the Divine Fiat, and is now meta­morphized according to the Plastick power of the Archeus, or Seminal Principles planted ab origine by God Almighty; which by the Ce­lestial influences are set at work, and out of convenient matter form to themselves a Body. We must not rely on Secondary Causes to ex­plain all the secrets of Nature, as Mr. Boyle in his Ʋsefuln. of Experim. Phil. Essay 2. hath ob­served. That Gods power is conspicuous in all Creatures, and even in the least of them the Wisdom of God is manifest.

Des-Cartes telleth us Materia in toto Ʋni­verso una & eadem existit. Princ. Nat. Phil. Par. 2. parag. 23. And a little after, Omnis mate­riae variatio, sive omnium ejus formarum diver­sitas, pendet a motu. Matter in the whole U­niverse is one and the same, and that all vari­ation or diversity of Forms which matter hath put on, doth depend on Motion. Which Philosophers seemed to observe by their De­finition of Nature, Natura est Principium mo­tus & quietis. For then they understood (saith he) Id, per quod res omnes corporeae tales eva­dunt, [Page 25] quales ipsas esse experimur. But then if we consider, what is the First Movent that set­teth Secondary Causes in action; we must with Cartesius, §. 36. acknowledg God to be the Universal and Primary Cause of motion. Ingenious is his Phansy, That God made all the parts of matter equal in the beginning both in magnitude and motion, which whilst moving by Attrition did break off their angu­lous parts, that became a subtile matter fit to make the Sun and fixed Stars; but these that be­came Spherical globuli, were for the structure of the Heavens; but the parts of matter which by their figures were unfit for motion, did re­main gross and fit to make the Earth, Planets, and Comets.

But seeing I have disowned imaginary Phi­losophy, I shall enquire how far Experience giveth light to this opinion, viz. That Mat­ter Indeterminate is the only Elementary Principle ex Quo is made every compound Body.

If we take a survey of the whole frame of sublunary Concretes, we shall find Matter of it self to be unconsined to any One Species: but the same Matter according to the deter­mination of Forms runneth through any Spe­cies, and according to the disposition of its parts doth put on the forms of different Ele­ments; which gave occasion to Philosophers so much to dispute the number of Ingredients [Page 26] in a mixt Body, which really are but Secon­dary things made out of Matter, that first Principle of Concretes.

From that Experiment of Mr. Boyle Scep. Chym. p. 112. before mentioned, of his Di­stillation of a Vegetable nourished only by Water, out of which he procured (according to some) the Five Chymical Principles, Spi­ritus, Sal, Sulphur, Aqua, & Terra; we may conclude thus much, viz. That Matter which made up the body of Water was converted into Salt, Sulphur, &c.

Having proved before that a Succus or Wa­ter is the immediate matter for nutrition of Vegetables; Let us take for Example a Vine, which requireth a great deal of moisture, as may be concluded from its hasty growth, and bleeding of broken slips. The increase of its bulk is by liquid Sap, which through different strainers and coagulation is turned into leaves, branches, Grapes, &c. The juyce of the Grapes by fermentation will cast a Tartar to the sides of the Vessels, which by distillation will yield a Salt and Terra damnata, the Wine will yield a Phlegm and a Sulphureous Spirit; and yet all from the Sap as the more imme­diate matter. So that here was but one thing in common, viz. Matter indeterminate to this or that Species.

[Page 27] As the Leffas terrae is converted into Grass, so Grass into Chyle, Blood, and after various Alterations into the Flesh of a Brute, whose flesh may be converted again into Chyle, Blood and parts of a Man that did eate of that Brute; and by the corruption of the humane Carcase is turned again into Earth, which may by Nature be again converted into Wa­ter, as well as by Helmont's Alkahest, and so pass over a new Stage. The parts of this Brute distilled would yield the Chymical Principles, yea the Aristotelian so far as they are consistent with truth; as may be easily seen by the Distillation of the Horns, Hoofs, Flesh, and Blood of Animals. In all which changes we shall find One ultimate result, viz. Matter indeterminate to any One particular Species.

I shall easily grant, That a Body may be made out of Spirit, Salt, Sulphur Phlegm, and Earth; or of Salt, Sulphur, and Mercu­ry, according to others; yet these are but E­lementa secundaria, seeing they admit of a far­ther Resolution, as well as a Tree or any com­pound body admiteth a Resolution into these. That cannot be accounted for a First Element, which deriveth its Original a Priori: as from the configuration, disposition, motion, or qui­escence of the particles of Matter, not only mixed bodies, but others more simple assigned for Principles by Sects of Philosophers may [Page 28] be derived. To instance in Particulars, How that the parts of Matter free from cohesion and as it were in fluore with perpetual motion make Water; that the opace gross fixed parts of Matter make Earth, the agile Spherical Particles in a raped motion make Fire, &c. would be beyond my intention. Only thus much we find by experience; That in genera­tion and corruption there is One ultimate re­sult from all compound bodies, which Ari­stotle rightly called materia prima, out of which all Natural bodies are first made, and at last resolved into. As for example; take a Plant, such as Mint, Pennyroyal, Bugle, Num­mularia, &c. by a Chymical Analysis it may be resolved into Spirit, Salt▪ Sulphur Phlegm, or Water, and Earth; or according to some Chymists that look a little higher, or to more remote Principles, into Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury seeing that Spirit and Earth are but Products of the other three Yet all these as Dr. Sharrock by the encrease of Vegetables in pure Water, and the foregoing Experiments have proved, are but Water transformed. And although Water is necessary to Nutri­tion, and that all Aliment before assimulation to its Substance must be converted into a Li­quid, yet Water cannot claim the Property of a First, but Secondary Element, seeing that Water it self is convertible into the Substance of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, as these are by Van Helmont's Experiment into Wa­ter. [Page 29] So that the Ultimate result in all Cor­poreal transmutations will be Matter, the on­ly constitutive Principle, from which accord­ing to the Plastick Power of the Semen, or that Divine Impress stamped at first by God Al­mighty, that is the Formative Cause in Con­crete Bodies, is produced the difference of Spe­cies and Individuals. Which bringeth me to consider, how cometh the Variety of Animals, Vegetables and Minerals; and the Difference of Waters that our Soil doth afford.

PAR. I. SECT. 2.

BY the History of the Creation we find that God created the Heavens and the Earth, but first created Matter, out of which He af­terwards made bodies different according to their kind. For as Divines tell us, quoting S. Augustine, Quod caelum & terra appellatum est, materies erat confusa quaedam de quâ mundus (qui duabus maximè partibus caelo scil. & terrâ constat) digestis Elementis & acceptâ formâ fa­bricaretur. Aug. lib. imperf. ad literam de Ge­nesi cap. 4. ‘That which was called Heaven and Earth was a confused matter, out of which the world (that doth chiefly consist of two parts, Heaven and Earth) by digestion of the Elements and putting on a form was made.’ And a little after telleth us, In prin­cipio fecit Deus coelum & terram, id est, materi­am quae caeli & terrae formam capere posset: quae materia terra invisibilis & incompleta erat, id est, informis & luce carens profunditas: quae ta­men quoniam moventi & operanti artifici subjecta esset, propter hoc ipsum quod cedit operanti, Aqua etiam nominata est. The making of the Hea­ven with its proper form was the work of the second day, Gen. c. 1. v. 8. The making of the Seas and the Earth with its vegetables was the work of the third day, v. 13. So that the [Page 31] Heavens and Earth, mentioned v. 1. must be understood only of the matter, or the dark abyss, on which the Spirit of God moved, in order to posterior formation. And indeed the next following words intimate as much to us. The Earth was without form and void.

This undigested Lump of matter the An­cients called a Chaos; as we may see by Hesiod in his Theogonia, by Apollonius in Argonauticis, lib. 1. lin. 496. who there speaketh to the same effect that Ovid metamorph. lib. 1.

Ante mare & terras, &, quod tegit omnia, coelum,
Ʋnus erat.—

Which are excellently rendred by Mr. Sandys thus,

The Sea, the Earth, all covering Heaven
One face had Nature, which they Chaos nam'd.
An undigested lump, a barren load,
Where jarring Seeds of things ill-joyn'd aboad.

I might cite also many more Heathen Phi­losophers and Poets, which I shall pass by; only taking notice of their Opinion concern­ing the Seminal principles of Bodies lodged in that undigested lump of Matter. All which I suppose received their opinions from the writings of Moses, from whom we are taught, that God created all things, but some he made actually existent, other things he left to [Page 32] be produced by the Seminal Principles, which He planted in the Chaos, or confused Matter. As we may see by Gen. 2. v. 5, God made e­very plant of the field before it was in the eartb, and every herb of the field before it grew, viz. the semina of vegetables, which by the primi­tive Fiat, so soon as the Matter was digested into form, were set on work, and brought forth according to the formative vertue of the latent seeds. The Waters brought forth Creatures abundantly after their kind, the winged Fowl after his kind, the Earth brought forth the living Creature after his kind, Cat­tel and creeping things and Beast after his kind; and of the dust of the ground made He Man. Upon all which we find a Divine Impression stamped or Generative faculty, by which they might be fruitful and multiply,

The Earth before Adam's transgression brought forth of its own accord grass and herbs for the Use of man, which we may well believe to be from latent Seeds, which now are more manifestly requisite to continue the species. After Adam had drew a curse on the ground, we still find that the Earth should bring forth, but it should be such as were more useless an unfit for meat, as thorns and thi­stles: but the more useful plants it should not, unless by humane labour and industry. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. Gen. 3 19.

[Page 33] As God implanted various seeds of Herbs in the earth, which as at first sprung there­from, so yet from seeds continue their species, being set at work by the Divine Fiat so soon as the celestial influences and appropriate se­condary Causes are rightly applied with con­venient Matter; so in like manner hath God the Creator placed variety of Mineral seeds in divers parcels of Earth, from which cometh a Diversity of Mineral glebes, as here Clay. Marle, there Marcasites of Iron, Alum, &c. as Dr. Jorden Nature. Bath. and Min. Wat. c. 7. argueth, That Minerals have their Seeds to perpetuate their species.

And that there are Metallick seeds in the bowels of the Earth, may be concluded from the Generation and Maturating of a crude Mercurial and sulphureous juice, until a per­fect Metal is formed: As hath been proved p. 18. how the caput mortuum of Vitriol, exposed to open Air, will be again impregnated; and fresh Ore of Tin or Lead, where 60 or 70 years before a [...] was extracted, and old mines replenished with fresh Iron stones. All which productions depend on the Seminal Principles lodged in several parcels of Earth, which from a succulent Matter from a Body according to the Specification of the Archeus. The succus of the Earth by the operation of the Seminal Agent, is at first converted into a crude Mer­cury and embrionate Sulphur, which at length [Page 34] by maturation doth become a perfect Metal. So from the Esurine or common Salt of the earth, according to the diversity of Glebes, do arise different Mineral Salts, such as that of Vitriol, Alum, Nitre, and Sal Gemma.

These Salts being dissolved in spring-water sliding through the veins of the earth, and meeting with a Vitriolick or Aluminous glebe, &c. doth become a natural Menstruum to open the body of a Minera. These Salts, as so many Keys to unlock the Mineral King­dom make the current Springs impregnated with the vertues of them; and hence is the Original of Medicinal Waters.

Against the opinion of an Universal or one Common Salt of the Earth, out of which all Mineral Salts, according to the different Glebes, are made into different species, Dr. Lister, de font. med. c. 6. objecteth several reasons, and endeavoureth a confutation of Helmont's Assertion of an Esurine or Ʋniversal Salt. His Reasons are reduced to four Heads.

1. The Esurine Salt, as it doth participate of no Quality, to assert the existence thereof is but a gratis dictum. 2. A Pyrites or Mar­casite cannot perfect its vitriol under water. 3. It is scarce credible that a vein of Iron can be corroded of that Esurine Salt. 4. Vi­triol is not made suddenly, or in a moment, but by a gentle assiduous germination.

[Page 35] Against which reasons I shall offer these Experimental Observations, proving that there is an Universal Salt or Common Mat­ter to them all.

1. There is one thing in common among them, because of the Convertibility of one Salt into another; as a Vitrioline by Altera­tions may be turned into an Aluminous Salt, witness the making of Turbith Minerale thus. Add four ounces of oyl of Vitriol to one ounce of Mercury; by setting the mixture on a di­gestive furnace the Phlegm will be evapo­rated, but there will remain in the Bolt­head a Citrine powder from the Alkalizate Mercury fixed by the acid parts of the oyl of Vitriol. From this powder edulcorated by washings of water, and distilled with Quick­lime or Pot-ashes, may be revived a current Quicksilver, yea to its full weight as at first. The water that by washings edulcorated this powder boyled up, yieldeth an aluminous Salt. Here Vitriolick salt is turned into Alum, for the Mercury may be restored to its full weight, so that the Vitrioline is the only salt transformed This is mentioned by Dr. Simpson, Hydrol. Chym. p. 60. where an Experiment of his own he giveth thus. ‘Di­still oyl of Vitriol and common Salt with a gentle heat in a glass body or Retort, you will find a very volatile spirit of Salt will come over the helm, which will fume ex­ceedingly, the Caput mortuum or remaining [Page 36] Salt being dissolved gives a Salt exactly re­sembling Alum.’ To which I may annex that Observation of Dr. Jorden, Natur, Bath. c. 7. That in Distillation of oyl of Vitriol, the Lute wherewith the glasses are joyned will yield a perfect Alum. The affinity (or ra­ther transmutability) of Vitriol and Alum are so great, that he telleth us, it may be doubted whether they are distinct species of Salts.

2. Set several plants in the same soyl, as Scurvigrass, Wormwood, &c. These by di­stillation shall yield different salts, as the greatest part of that of Wormwood will be a fixed, but of Scurvigrass a volatile salt. Which variety of salts must proceed from the diffe­rent fermentations and alterations of the nu­tritive succulent Matter. If it be objected, that each plant attracteth a peculiar succus, whose particles are answerable to the pores of the Vegetable, and so some Plants take in more of the volatile, and others more of the fixed salt. Answ. The same Plants, as Worm­wood, Beans, yea I had almost said All vege­tables, by distillation yield both volatile and fixed salt, although they differ as to the quan­tity thereof. For the division of Salts into Fixed and Volatile, is only from the degrees of volatization. The fixed or Alkali salt is not easily sublimed, but will endure calcination in as much as it is deprived of spirits, and in­corporated with earth; but the volatile is [Page 37] endowed with spirits, and may be easily sub­limed: either of which containing all the ver­tue of the Plant, may be called an Essential Salt. Yet the proximate Matter before for­mation might be the Common universal Salt, determined by different Strainers and Fer­ments of Vegetables.

3. The production of Sal fossilis is from the Acid of the Earth, insinuating it self into the pores of stones that are an Alkali; it be­ing once penetrated is united with the stony parts into a saline Concrete, which from its transparency is called Sal Gemma. Thus an Acid of the Earth sliding through mountains of stone, have converted them almost all into a fossile Salt, as Authors of credit do testifie of mountains in Poland.

4. That Salts have something in common among them, may be hence concluded. Ex­pose the Caput mortuum of Vitriol, of Nitre, of Alum, and of Sal Gemma, to the open air: Each will center upon it the floating saline particles of the Air, or else imbibe a saline suc­cus, so as to become again impregnate with a peculiar Salt. So that the saline particles are indifferent to which kind they are to be ap­propriated by the latent Seminals.

And that all Minerals, stony and saline con­cretions, do come from a succus, which is af­terwards congealed into a hard substance, may be concluded from Animals that are found [Page 38] enclosed in stones, such as a Toad in the midst of a Stone, a petrified Fish, a Spider in Amber, so also Fljes, Worms, Ants, &c. For Stones and Minerals, whilst in solutis principiis or in succo, may environ an Animal as a pe­trifying juice doth a piece of wood, which be­ing congealed will be as a coat of defence to preserve them from putrefaction, as Gilber­tus speaking of Amber hath well described it. Mollis primùm & viscosa materia fuit, quare muscas & vermiculos, culices, formicas, in fru­stulis quibusdam comprehensos & tumulatos, ae­ternis sepulchris relucentes continet. Qui omnes in liquidum cùm primum efflueret involârunt, vel irrepserunt, vel inciderunt Gilb. de magnete, lib. 2. cap. 2.

Upon such like considerations Helmont might well conclude one Common Salt, indifferent to which species it should be determined (but not void of Qualities, as Dr. Lister urgeth) who assigneth an Acid liquor sliding through the veins of the earth for the Original of all Salts. Quocirca notandum est. Sal quoddam existere hermaphroditicum metallorum, quod de­fectu nominis Esurinum sive Acetosum re & no­mine vocari coepit. Generale equidem & ad om­nia metalla accommodabile, adeo (que) si non primam velut & remotissimam eorundem materiam puta­re placeat, saltem est metallorum scundina, qui­buslibet metallis congenialis. Helm. parad. 3.

The second argument against one chief Salt, [Page 39] out of which others are formed, is taken from the Pyrites, which (saith Dr. Lister) cannot perfect its Vitriol under water. But the making of vitriolum Martis or Veneris doth evince the contrary. For Vitriol being but a Mineral Salt, that hath preyed on, and com­bined with a Metal, as with Iron or Copper, the Menstruum may be aqueous, if there be a convenient quantity of Salt therein, to incor­porate with the dissolved part of metal. In making vitriolum Martis, water added to oyl of Vitriol doth only weaken the Menstruum, that the more soluble parts of Iron may be dissolved and incorporated with the saline parts of the liquor: for were the Menstruum too corrosive, it would insinuate into the bo­dy of Mars, and make an impure Salt or Vi­triol of Iron.

His arguments against the possibility of the Esurine salt dissolving a vein of Iron, suppose no distinction betwixt the crudity and matu­rity of the minera. Although Aqua fortis or spirit of Nitre will not dissolve Ocre nor the Haematites, yet either will strongly ferment with filings of Iron, or the more maturate parts of Mars. Although the Haematites be a sort of Iron-stone, and Ocre be the Terra me­tallica, yet thence it will not follow, that the Menstruum for Iron are the Menstruums for the Haematites, which many times is soft and like clay, and the Ocre a meer metalline earth.

For Bodies must have their proper Dissol­vents, [Page 40] which may undo the fast and hard con­texture of some Bodies, but leave untouched the softer compages of others: Witness, an Aluminous liquor will corrode a bar of Iron, but leave safe and sound a piece of cloth, as Dyers daily find by experience. So also by the testimony of them, at the Alum-works, a Lee made by the decoction of the calcined minera of Alum, is boyled in a leaden Cistern which it leaveth uncorroded; but a furnace of Iron, or a plate thereof put into the boyl­ing liquor is soon torn to pieces. So likewise Aqua fortis will corrode a bar of Iron, but leave entire a ball of soft Clay. As this Esu­rine Acid doth prey upon a vein of Iron, it doth incorporate with the more pure metal­line parts, and make a Neutral Salt. To the effecting of which a long tedious delay is not requisite, for we find by the making of vitrio­lum Martis, the saline parts of the Menstruum do soon insinuate themselves into the pores of the metal. Whence Helmont: Constat martis vitriolum sale Esurino embryonati sulphuris & vena (non ferro) ferri, quam sal esurinum adhuc volatile lambendo corrosit, in quo corrosionis actu fit aliqualis dissolutio ipsius venae, & coagulatio sive fixatio salis volatilis. Helm. Parad. 4.

To the difference of Salts then in the bowels of the earth, these three things do concur. 1. An Esurine Acid, 2. Water to convey this Acid to an appropriate Glebe, 3. a Mine­ral Glebe.

[Page 41] As Water impregnate with this Acid run­neth through the subterrestrial Channels, and meeteth with a glebe of Alum, Nitre, Mar­casites of Iron or of Copper, &c. so it is de­termined to this or that specifick Salt, whe­ther Alum, Nitre, Sal Gemma, Vitriol of Iron or Copper.

The Esurine Acid thus coagulated into Salt, may by the subsequent streams of water, or by a free Current of the same, bring along with it some particles of the mineral salt, ei­ther floating or dissolved in it; the more in­deed in case the Minerals are in solutis princi­piis or their Succulencies. If water floweth from a Nitrous glebe, it giveth a cold spring, as many there are in England: if from an Aluminous glebe, and bringeth some of the salt thereof, and thereby is the more able to prey on an occurrent minera of Iron, it yield­eth fontes [...]eidulos or Spaw-waters; such as Scarbrough Spaw, Barnet, and Epsom waters, &c. all which Aluminous waters though Cha­lybeat work by Siedge. If the Esurine Acid prey chiefly on a minera of Iron, the water will be most what Diuretick, and colour the ex­crements black, such as Tunbridg, Astrap, and Stallbridg Waters, among which that near Ilmington in Warwick-shire may be accounted the principal, no water in England being a stronger Chalybeat, as I shall hereafter prove. If water wherein is this Esurine Acid meet [Page 42] with no Mineral glebe, as of Iron, Copper, &c. it remaineth only a sower brackish water, which with Galls will strike no Purple. Of this sort there is one famous near Chesterfield in the County of Derby: the salt of which by Chrystallization and Evapo [...]ation is of an ir­regular figure, and not a Calcarious Nitre or common Salt, as Dr. Lister would have most of our medicinal Fountains to consist of.

But against what hath been said concerning the Esurine Acid meeting with Marcasites of Iron or Copper, and being by them convert­ed into a Vitrioline salt, which may give es­sence to some Springs, Dr. Lister, de font. med. Ang. c. 7. opposeth himself; telling us, that mature Vitriol is not to be found in any of our medicinal Waters, and that he cannot credit Helmont, who saith, that by distillation he found Pauhont and Savenir, two German Spaws, to contain a Vitriol of Iron. His Rea­sons are intimated to us, Pyrites qui in aere in merum vitriolum, &c. ‘The Pyrites or Mar­cafite in open air is turned by its proper ger­mination into a meer vitriol, but under wa­ter doth as it were dissolve into a spirit, sul­phureous halitus or Ocre.’ And afterwards saith, ‘Vitriol is resolvable into three Princi­ples, Salt, Sulphur, and Ocre; but the Saline principle is only owing to the Germination in Air.’

But had the Docter considered, how that Vitriol is found under ground, where we can­not [Page 43] suppose a free access of air, (if any at all,) he would not have been so positive in his as­sertion. For the Hungarian and Cyprian blew Vitriol is digged up near the Copper-mines; the English, Roman, and German Vitriol, (which last partaketh of a little Copper) lie near to Iron stones. All which without ex­posing to the air will from their Marcasites yield their distinct sorts of vitriol. And what should hinder the germination of vitriol un­der ground, seeing that vitriol is but a Com­pound body, of an acid Salt and sulphureous Earth? The sulphureous Earth is but the Ocre or Terra metallica, that Mater ferri vel Veneris, which receiveth the Acid, and deter­mineth the same according to the Power of the Semen latent in the Earth, which may as well convert the Acid of the Earth, as the Sa­line particles floating to and fro in the air. As for the dissolution of the Pyrites in water, I shall easily grant that much of its saline part may be thus resolved, especially whilst it is near its first succulency; but thence see no reason to lay its Original upon the Air: nei­ther could ever find any of these spirits flying off from mineral waters, which the Doctor calleth ipsum metallum vegetans; for if so, then certainly there might be, by the help of an Alembick and Receiver, such a spirituous sub­stance preserved from fresh Spring-water, which none that ever I heard of could obtain. Tis true, some steams will fly off from mineral [Page 44] water, as by our sense of smelling may be perceived, but these Aporrhea are but some particles winding off, and are the effect of fermentation or heat, yet cannot be collected retaining the full nature of the mineral ingre­dient. All mixt bodies are subject to change; by internal or external ferments, and by the a­ctive agile parts and motion, many vapours, as in insensible transpiration, may fly off, and en­ter the pores of other bodies, or perhaps put on a new form, but never could be found an essential spirit of Mineral water▪

But by spirit perhaps the Doctor might mean Ocre, for he tells us c. 7. that Ocre doth ‘evaporate from our Baths, and that spirit which flyeth off is a Metal;’ and elsewhere will not allow Ocre to be a sulphureous Earth, but a meer Metal, merum ferri metallum est. L [...]st de font. med. c. 2. because after burning in the fire it may be drawn by the Loadstone. But Gilbertus hath proved, that not only Iron, but many other things will answer the opera­tion of the Magnet. Non ferrum tantùm & magnes à magnete attrahitur & volvitur mag­neticè, sed ferreae venae omnes, lapides etiam alii ut fissiles Rhenani & Andegavenses nigri, quibus pro tegulis utuntur, aliorumque colorum & sub­stantiarum plurimi si praeparati fuerint: tum om­nis argilla, glis, saxaque nonnulla, atque ut pla­niùs dicam omnis terra firmior, modò pinguiori­bus & humidis corruptelis defoedata non fuerit, [Page 45] ut lutum & coenum. And a little after, Omnia magnete attrahuntur solis ignibus praeparata, & à recrementitio humore liberata. Gilb. de mag. lib. c. 17. Not only Iron and a Magnet (which is but a more pure minera of Iron, or finer Iron-stone) may be drawn by a Magnet; but Stones, white Earth, Potters clay, yea all firm Earth, in case the Excrements and pu­trid moisture are purged off by fire. Tis true the Operation betwixt the Magnet and Iron is great, and consequently by how much the more of metalline parts of Iron there are in a mineral Earth, by so much the more conspi­cuous is the Magnetism; yet simple Earth af­ter Calcination will (though in an inferior de­gree) shew the like effect. But this leading me to the enquiry of a new subject I shall re­turn to my proposed matter in hand.

Du Glos observ. on the Min. wat. of Fran. p. 8. rightly telleth us, ‘That the first Beings or Embryo's of Mineral Salts are nothing else but vapours or juices unconcrete, wholly va­pourable,’ And pag. 9. ‘The Embryonate Salt in the Chalk-stones is a stony juice, which mixeth it self with waters that pass between the beds and interstices of the stones in the rocks, but is not easily discern'd in the waters impregnated therewith.’ The Semi­nary of Alum and Vitriol is also necessary in the substances whence these sorts of Salts are drawn. Waters current in their chan [...]els [Page 46] meeting with and dissolving them, become a proper menstruum to unlock the Mineral King­dom; and according to the dissolved minera, so Waters differ in their qualities.

Upon the variety of Salts and Mineral Earths dependeth variety of Springs. For there are four sorts of Salt commonly known to us, according to Dr. Jorden and others, viz. Alum, Vitriol, Nitre, and common Salt; which others, and perhaps with as great rea­son, reduce to three, Alum, Vitriol and com­mon Salt, which last may be again divided into Sal gemma or fossilis, Fountain-salt, and Sal Marine, because these three sorts partake near of the same nature, and work almost the like effects. Only the Sea-salt being dissolved in water hath lost many of its sharp points, and consequently is not so penetrating as Sal fossilis, from mountains and rocks of which, according to most of our modern Authors, the saltness of the Sea doth take its original. An affinity betwixt these Salts Monsieur Le­mery hath observed, who a [...]so in his Cour. Chym. Remar. on Salt-peter, giveth us this Experi­ment. When Salt-peter is boiled a long time in water, and over a great fire, some part of the spirits fly away, and there at last remains nothing but a Salt like unto Sea-salt or Sal Gemma, which serves to prove that Salt-peter is only a Sal gemma, fuller of spirits than the other: And if so, then Salt-peter may be [Page 47] ranked under the other, and make no diffe­rent species of Salt.

From these Salts with which waters may singly or joyntly be impregnated, (to which for ought we can tell species of Salt as yet un­known to us may be added) preying upon di­vers Minerals, must needs depend great vari­ety of Mineral waters. As for the Calcarious salt asserted by Dr. Lister, I suppose it to be but a kind of Nitre, which is centered upon the Lapis Calcarius mentioned by Falopius de Therm. Aq. c. 8. and by the seminary prin­ciple thereof doth become a stony salt, di­scernable enough by some clear but cold pe­trifying Springs.

The variety also of Earths, as white, red, or yellow Marle, Clay, Chalk, or other mineral Earths, may cause great variety, as to the weight, colour, sediment, smell &c. more e­specially when there is a complication of ma­ny in the same water.


NOw I shall proceed to Enquire, what are the Ingredients of Ilmington-Spaw, first taking notice of its Colour, which is far more pale then Rock-spring water. With Syrup of Violets it would turn green, like Alkalizate Liquors with that syrup: with Galls, to a Purple; like Martial Vitrioline Waters: for Cuprous Vitrioline with Galls turn muddy with a very little Purple or Black; but of this more afterwards. Its bo­dy being of a thick muddy consistence, I weighed (in a very dry Season) a Pint of this Spaw-water against a Pint of ordinary Wa­ter, but the Spaw exceeded near half a Drachm. Another time after a wet Season and when the Ocre was fallen an old Pint pot of common Pump-water weighing 18 Oun­ces did equalize (and if either, did turn the Scales) the same quantity of the Spaw-wa­ter: which may caution us from prefixing a determinate Weight to any Spring-water. Variety in the Weight of Waters may ap­pear by comparing That Salt spring water of Droit-wich with sweet springs, yea to him that compareth the Waters of se­veral [Page 49] sweet springs together, For the Esurine salt many times being carried along with the water sliding through its secret Meanders or veins of the Earth; of which part insinuateth it self into, and part corroding occurrent bo­dies; it fretteth off fragments, such as fragmenta ferrea from Iron-stones, and parti­cles from ordinary stones, which are carried along with the water, and lie latent to the na­ked eye in its pores, but by Distillation, Eva­poration &c. will appear, Whence of necessity followeth a great variety in weight, according to the greater or less quantity of sabulum or fragments therein contained.

Then I proceeded to enquire after the Mi­neral, with which this Spring was impreg­nated. And first I took about half a pint of new milk, upon which in a Porringer I poured this water fresh from the Spring-head, but could not discern any coagulation; yea, for any thing did appear, this mixture differed not from a mixture of milk and ordinary spring water. After four miles carriage of the water, when the reddish Ocre began to subside, I poured upon warm milk from the cow a pretty quantity of this water, and let it stand at least twelve hours; but neither in this mixture, nor in milk and this Spaw-water boiled together, did any Coagulum appear. Hence I began to suspect, that its brackish taste was not from an acid Salt; therefore on this spring-water I instilled some oyl of Tar­tar, [Page 50] but upon the instillation, and the stand­ing of the water all night, a very small curd­ling did ensue; only the mixture looked more white than the Spaw-water it self, which alte­ration of colour proceeded from the oyl of Tartar. Whereupon I concluded, that no Acid salt was here predominant, yea rather as such, scarce discernable in this Spring; it being, as I shall hereafter prove, far nearer to an Alkali than to an Acid salt.

Upon an Oaken leaf bruised I poured a pint­glass full of this Spring-water, and immedi­ately it inclined to a Purple colour: I then try'd it with Galls, and it turn'd first to a Purple, but with an addition of more Galls to a black. But desiring more exactness, I caused one single grain of Galls finely powder­ed to be divided into twenty parts, another grain into nineteen, another into eighteen equal portions, &c. Upon tryal I found, that the eighteenth part of a grain did something incline a pint of this water to a Purple co­lour, as might be perceived in a chrystal glass set in a clear light; but the sixteenth part of a grain put into a pint of water, did present­ly cause a tincture plainly discernable and in­clining to a purple; but the eighth part of a grain fully turned a pint to a Purple, much re­sembling in colour Syrup of Damask Roses mixed with ordinary Spring-water. After­wards the more Galls were added, by so [Page 51] much the more it altered towards a black, until it turned into a muddy inky Liquor. Which Liquor by the instillation of spirit of Vitriol was cleared, but by oyl of Tartar or spirit of Harts-horn was again muddied; with spirit of Nitre, oyl of Vitriol, or Aqua fortis, &c. became clear again: for what an Alkali muddieth, an Acid again cleareth.

Now considering the small quantity of Galls, with which a Pint of water was thus tinged, I believe we may compare our new found Spaw (in this particular) with any of the English Medicinal waters, yea with the German Spaws so much in request.

But it being sufficiently proved by the Learned Dr. Simpson in his Hydrologia Chy­mica, that a solution of the Calx of Alum, or of Alum-stones with the addition of Galls, will turn to a deep Purple, and from thence with more solution of Galls added becometh blackish and opacous almost like Ink. Upon which spirit of Vitriol being poured, it be­comes clear again; with oyl of Tartar again muddied, and with spirit of Vitriol, of Nitre, Aqua fortis, &c. reduced to its pristine cla­rity. He also in his Hydrological Essays write­eth thus. ‘Not only Galls will strike a pur­ple tincture with the Alum-salt (got before the addition of Kelp and Urine) dissolved in distilled or fresh spring-water, but also the [Page 52] same may be done by other bodies, whose texture of parts are congeneal; as for exam­ple, the inner part of the Oak, the roots of Tormentile, Avens, Bistort, Clove-gillyflow­ers, and the flowers called Balaustia. All which like Galls will strike a purple with water wherein the Alum salt is dissolved, yea and will also become clear again by the in­stilling a few drops of oyl of vitriol, and with the oyl of Tartar will become turbid and muddy, &c, Hydr. Ess. p. 132.

I began to enquire farther into this Spaw, upon consideration that a Purple colour, and from thence a dark muddy liquor like Ink, might be made with Galls from another Li­quor than from a Vitriolick water or Solu­tion. And that Vitriol dissolved, by an ad­dition of Galls will strike a good black, is e­vident from the ordinary way of making black writing Ink, Whereupon I compared Aluminous waters and this Spring.

I made a Solution of Mineral Alum with fair w [...]ter, which presently upon the instilla­tion did curdle Milk; but upon the mixture of Milk and this Spring water no Coagulation did ensue. And that Alum consisteth chiefly of an Acid salt all-sufficient to coagulate milk, is apparent by the mixture of a Solution of simple Alum salt, with a Solution of salt of Tartar, Wormwood, or any Vegetable fixed [Page 53] Salt; from whence will arise a turbid liquor with Coagulations in it, which Coagula are caused by the mutual conflict of different Salts, destroying each other until a Third and Neu­tral Salt result therefrom.

Besides, Aluminous Springs are purgative, witness the Scarbrough Spaw, Epsom and Barnet Waters, &c. but this near Ilmington worketh most what by Urine. Yea perhaps (and truly) I might conclude, That this Spaw in respect of its mineral ingredients worketh not by Siedge. I know it may be objected, That some persons drinking of this water do there­upon find a loosness, perhaps to the number of four or five stools or more, To which I might answer,

1. That any simple Spring-water drank in a large quantity, will purge by its own weight: for as it lyeth heavy upon the sto­mach and intestines it oppresseth Nature, whence the Peristaltick motion is excited to expell that which infests and is burdensome; and if the water doth much oppress the sto­mach before it pass through the Pylorus, vo­miting is the effect according to Dr. Willis. In vomitu fibrarum motricium spasmus ab alteris earum finibus, viz. sinistris incipiens & statim violentus & impetuosior factus, totam stomachi [...]avitatem simul collectam & valdè coarctatam, versus sinistrum orificium corripi & illac evacua­ri cogit. Cujus ratio est, quoniam si quid valde [Page 54] incongruum ac naturae infestum stomacho insede­rit, illud non ordinariâ viâ per intestina, ut per anum expellatur, circumferri, verum exitu pro­piori excerni debet. Willis Pharm. ration. sec. 2. cap. 1. de vomitione. parag. 5. The same rea­son he giveth for purging by Stool, only by a contrary motion of the Stomachical and inte­stinal fibres from a less irritation, which mo­tion is continued usque ad anum. We cannot say then, that this Water is purgative by its Minerals, as I shall more evince when I speak of its Essential parts. For

2. If this Spaw water as such, were Cathar­tick, then it must have the same effects on all persons, allowing a proportionate quantity according to the Constitution of the Party: but that it is not, Experience testifieth. For many find great Costiveness hereby, but a great Secretion by Urine. Yea I have known some persons that have ventured upon five Pints for the first Dose to begin their Water-course; yet instead of a Purge, found their Excrements to come off in blackish hard Scy­bala.

3. To whom this Water becometh a Ca­thartick, they must be either of a weak con­stitution, soon opprest by a large quantity of water, or else whose bodies abound with sharp humors (as Scorbutick persons, &c.) all-sufficient to produce a Diarrhoea or loosness by a long irritation of the fibres: whence the Peristaltick motion being once excited, Na­ture [Page 55] as through its common Sink expelleth its peccant matter. For if according to Dr. Wil­lis, not only the succus Pancreaticus and Bilis, but the serous humors also in their natural Crasis, by Contraction of the tunicles squeez­ed out of the intestinal Glandules to make the common Ductus slippery, and irritating the fibres, do promote Purgation; much more then according to Sylvius, when the Saline Principle becomes too much exalted.

To which I might add a fourth Cause, why this Spaw should become to some persons, and at some times, a Cathartick, viz. an Incli­nation to a Lask, whether it be from a Pra­vity of Humors, Obstructions of the Vessels, Viscera, &c.

Besides that, Alum is an Acid, as I have al­ready proved, and also is a Cathartick; both which properties are not to be found in this Spaw, comparatively more than in ordinary Spring-water. I observed also, that the Ex­crements of those that drank this water were turned blackish, which is a consequent to the taking of Chalibeat Medicines, but not to the drinking of Aluminous waters.

For farther tryal I took about two Quarts of this water, and after Evaporation set it to Chrystallize, but could not find any Salts shot to the sides or bottom of the vessel. I there­fore [Page 56] evaporated it ad siccitatem, and found left a reddish white powder, upon which I dropped spirit of Harts-horn; but it made no ebullition or effervescence, but with an Acid did make a great ebullition with fumes: quite contrary to Alum, which maketh a plain ef­fervescence with spirit of Harts-horn, but with an Acid stirreth not: which proveth, that an Aluminous Salt is not found in this Spaw.

Because oyl of Vitriol and spirit of Nitre mixed together cause a great effervescence, and from thence spirit of Nitre is concluded upon by Dr, Grew in his Tractate of Experi­ments to be a Subalkalizate Acid, because also that spirit of Nitre and Mercury presently boyl up; it put me upon Enquiry, Whether a Nitrous liquor was the Menstruum to the Mineral of this Spaw-water.

But by the way I shall propose one Para­dox, taken notice of by Dr. Simpson, Hydrol. Essay p. 142. quite contrary to the received opinion of vulgar Chymists, viz. That Ni­tre, as Nitre, or before it hath suffered the force of fire, is not an Acid. For if Nitre were an Acid, then it being put into boyling milk would curdle it; that it will not, Experience teacheth, yea no more than Sal Gemma, nei­ther of which do become acid until they have undergone a fiery Tryal, whose spirits drawn off will soon curdle milk. Which seemeth [Page 57] to confirm that opinion of Monsieur Lemery before mentioned, viz. That Nitre is only a Sal Gemma, fuller of spirits than the ordinary fossile Salt, because when the spirits of Salt-peter by boiling over a strong fire are fled away, there remaineth only a Salt resembling Sea-sa;lt.

That Nitre, before its particles are acu­ated by the stress of fire, is not acid, may hence appear: because it will make no Ebul­lition with a Lixivium of Salt of Tartar, nor any other Alkali, which any Acid will do. And the ordinary way of making Fixatio Ni­tri, by putting a burning coal into the Cruci­ble or Mortar wherein is Nitre, proveth; That when the volatile parts are fled off, (as may be perceived by the great detonation) Salt-peter is become a plain Alkali salt.

Neither for my part can I approve of Schro­der's Definition of Salt-peter. Sal Nitrum est sal sulphureum seu [...], salso amarum ex terrâ pingui excoctum. I know it may be urged, that Salt-peter yeildeth Red fumes or va­pours, when its spirits are drawn over the Helm, which seem inflammable and sulphure­ous; and that Nitre flung upon burning coals will burn most vehemently, and with great noise; and that the strength of Gun-powder proceedeth from the Elastick force of Nitre, its spirits taking their Explosion from the inflammation. To which may be an­swered, [Page 58] That Sulphur is the chief Principle of [...]nflammability, but This I deny to be in simp [...]e Nitre. For about Nitre in a Crucible or earthen pot make Ignis Rotae, or the most vehement fire that can be; yet the Nitre without an addition of Sulphur shall not take flame and burn, which must have been a ne­cessary Consequent were Inflammability ap­propriate thereto. Let but a small quantity of Sulphur be added as that of a burning coal, &c. with great impetuosity the volatile parts fly off; even as a great wind that increaseth the flame of combustible matter, but of it self is not capable of accension, so Nitre by its vo­latile parts like bellows doth blow up the sulphureous parts of a Coal that are the prin­ciple matter of Flame. Were these Volatile parts inflammable, then once accended, like other combustible matter in a sufficient quan­tity, they would totally waste. But in fixing of Nitre it is observed, that as the burning coals waste, so the flame decays; but by put­ting on fresh coals the flame is renewed, and so until all the volatile parts of Nitre are gone: as Monsieur Lemery well observed, App. Cour. Chym Remar. on. fix. Nitr. p. 83. As for the Red vapours yeilded in Distillation, they are not without Sulphur capable of flame, and the sudden Explosion thereof in Gun-powder is from the quick accension of Charcoal and Brimstone, to which doth con­cur the flatulent Explosion of the volatile [Page 59] parts of Salt-peter in a rapid motion. Argu­ments against any sulphureous principle of Salt-peter might also be taken from the Whiteness of the flame when mixed with Sul­phur, and from its cooling Quality, which is contrary to the effect of a sulphureous body.

Upon farther Tryal I could not find Nitre to be any Ingredient in this Spaw. For in the whole Anatomy of this Water by Evapo­ration, Distillation, Crystallization, &c. I could not find the least footsteps of Nitre, much less any of its Salts shot into its usual Styria's. Besides, the Powder left after Eva­poration sheweth its self to be far different from a Nitrous salt, as I shall hereafter prove.

But observing this Water after its being exposed to the open air for some time, either stagnating at the Spring-head, or else as it is set in open vessels hath a blewish Cremor swim­ming on the top or surface of the Water, much resembling waters that stand long upon sulphureous bogs; I began to enquire, whe­ther this might not be a Sulphureous Spring, like that at Knarsbrough, &c.

By an Analysis of this Water into its Prin­ciples, not one grain of combustible Sulphur is to be found. In its Distillation in close stop­ped vessels, the Water that first comes over is insipid, it will not strike a Purple by an addi­tion of Galls, so neither will the Spring-water [Page 60] when its Ocre is precipitated by being long exposed to the open air, neither will any Sul­phureous Smell of the distilled Water strike the Nostrils. What remains in the bottom after Distillation, and also the Sediment pre­cipitated after long stagnation, I tryed with burning Coals and a red hot Iron, but could not perceive the least flagration. Now were there any Sulphur, (I mean as to the body thereof) it would shew its self a combustible matter on the Top after stagnation, like the mare Asphalticum, and in Italy the Springs at Maiamum, Sassalo, and at the foot of Vesuvius, with many more mentioned by Dr. Jorden, nat. Bat. c. 6. to which I may add that fa­mous Rivulet spoken of by Agricola, ‘Sulphureâ Nar albus aquâ,—’

Nar is white with its sulphureous Cream, Agr. de natur. cor. Effl. ex ter. l. 2 Or else the Sulphur must subside with the Vitrioline Ocre of this Spring; for as the Water letteth fall its vitrioline Ocre, so it becometh effete in its vertues. But as no Oyl nor Bitumen, so nei­ther Sulphur will mix per minima with Water; its parts being heterogeneal to these of Oyl or Sulphur: whence there can be no mixture un­less by a ferment. The Compages of the Water then being dissolved, and by letting fall its vi­trioline Ocre becoming effete and insipid, the Sulphur must have shew [...]d it self by a combu­stible Cream, or Sediment, had any been there as to its body.

[Page 61] It may be then Queried, What maketh this Cream on the top after stagnation, and what is it that giveth a strong Odour to this standing Water?

Answ. A blewish skin or Cremor is common to all Vitrioline or other Mineral waters, and to all waters that stand long upon a Bog: which skin taken off, and put upon burning coals, giveth a fetid smell. But as I have said before, Mineral Sulphur as to its body is not here, How comes then this fetid smell? Wa­ters may yeild a sulphureous Cream and smell two ways, First, when a bituminous matter issueth forth with the Spring-water, as in the Springs about the Mare Asphalticum, at A­verne in France, at Pitchford in Shropshire, and at many places as we are informed by Agri­cola, de nat. eor. Eff, ex ter. lib. 1. and 2. For the Watery and Oyly parts being heteroge­neal, there can be no perfect Union; whence the Oyl must either subside, or else turn to a Cream at the top. Or secondly, Waters may get a sulphureous Cream and Smell by putre­faction. For Waters, but more especially Mi­neral, by standing in the air let fall their in­gredients, and cast up sulphureous particles to the top. Because the Air by its ferment dis­solving the Compages of Water, doth generate a Sulphur de novo, as in long standing Ditch-water; or else doth cause the particles of Em­bryonative Sulphur, or Sulphur in fieri, to swim at the top, (for combustible or Mineral Sul­phur [Page 62] I cannot find in this Spaw) as of water standing on Bogs, or black moorish ground. So that this Water exposed to the air, may by a putrefactive ferment generate a sulphureous Cream de novo, or else cast up its Embryona­tive Sulphur, (all-sufficient to cause the Cream and Smell) which it hath got from the Mar­casites of Iron or Vitriol, that are the main Ingredient in this Spaw, as I shall anon prove. And that Marcasites of Vitriol do contain an Embryonative Sulphur, take that Conclusion deduced from Experiments by Dr. Simpson, ‘That the Marcasites of Vitriol and Alum have an Embryonative Sulphur connatural with them, produced out of the same Mine­ral Seed; for instance, the Sulphur crust, se­parated by calcination of the Alum-stone; and in the Vitriol Marcasites I find, that put­ting them into the fire, they burn of a blew flame, and have a sulphureous smell; in both these the Sulphur is really answerable to the common Sulphur or Brimstone. Hydrol. Ess. p. 61.

But by way of Objection, there is an usual Observation, that may seem to prove the common Mineral Sulphur, and not an Embry­onate, to be in this Spring, in case Marcasites of Iron do concur to the making up of this Spaw, viz. many Iron-stones contain a plain Brimstone, as may clearly be discerned by the naked eye, by the fetid smell and blew flame in burning them at the Forge or Iron Mills.

[Page 63] Answ. Although there is found many times among Iron-stones a plain Brimstone, yet we have no Demonstrations to conclude that it is here. But suppose that it should be among the Marcasites, that are chiefly con­cerned to the effecting this Mineral Spring; yet Sulphur whether in its own proper Earth, or Mineral veins, must have its proper Men­struum in order to its Dissolution. Now an Alkalizate Salt (and not an Acid) is the pro­per Menstruum to open the body of Sulphur, that it may shew it self a part: but a Lixiviate Salt I cannot perceive to be the Menstruum to unlock the Minera of this Spring, for then must the Sulphureous part have plainly mani­fested it self by tinging of Silver and combu­stible Cream, neither of which are here appa­rent. And besides, Lixiviate liquors are un [...]capable of dissolving Iron, for Mars partaketh most what of an Alkali Salt: upon which ac­count Chalybeat Preparations (wherein the Body of Iron is to be opened) do require an Acid Menstruum; as the Crocus or Saffrons of Mars with many more might testifie. For let the Preparation of Crocus be performed by exposing the Iron for some time to the Dew or Rain, or by spirit of Nitre, Sulphur, &c. yet still by examination we shall find an Aci­dity in the Dissolvent, by which it is able to corrode Mars. The Odour then and Cream of this stagnating Water must be by its small quantity of Embryonate Sulphur brought along [Page 64] with the Mineral, and manifested by a putre­fa [...]tive ferment. For a Minera in its crude parts, or in succo primitivo, will sooner shew it self, than in its fast compact substance, that requireth a stronger or more peculiar Men­struum.

It being a consequent to vitrioline Solu­tions to turn to a Purple by addition of Galls, by addition of more Galls to turn dark, and from thence to a thick muddy inky Liquor; I began to Query, Whether this Spring was vitrioline.

As for Vitriol or Copperas I find it agreed upon by the most eminent Authors, to be made of an Acid Salt preying upon a Mineral, whose Particles it combineth with into a close texture. So that a Mineral containing sul­phureous Earth, the Parts of Natural vitriol may be concluded, An Esurine or Acid Salt, Metalline Particles, and a Sulphureous Earth. According to the Diversity of Minerals, on which the Acid preyeth and combineth with, so different Vitriols do arise. All which (as yet known) may be reduced to two Heads, viz, Vitriol of Iron, and Vitriol of Copper. Vi­triolum album hath but little of the Metalline part, and therefore by some is reckoned for a distinct species. Because of its Mildness, it may with a little Preparation not only become an Internal Remedy, witness the Sal Vitrioli vomitivus, but also may be applied to tender Parts, as it is usual in Eye-waters.

[Page 65] Vitriol of Copper, called by some vitriolum caeruleum from its blewish colour, by so much the more it partaketh of Copper the more blew it is, such as the Hungarian and Cyprian Vitriol. Among the Particular sorts of Vi­triol of Copper there is difference, according to the quantity of the Acid or Esurine Salt, and as it partaketh more or less of the Copper.

Vitriol of Iron is commonly Greenish, as the Goslarick, Swedish, English, and Roman Vitri­ols. These partake most of Mars, and con­sequently are not so Caustick as them of Cop­per, for the more Copper the more Caustick are the Vitriols, and by so much the more fit for composition of Corrosive Menstruums. As for instance, the German greenish Vitriol, con­taining more of Iron than of Copper, is reck­oned among the vitriols of Iron; but by rea­son of a small quantity of Copper therein comprehended, is found to be more Corrosive than the ordinary green Vitriols; although far short of the Blew, whose Metalline parts are Copper; yet I deny not, that there may be a complication of Iron with Copper in the same Marcasite.

As for the Red Vitriol our Druggists have lately obtained from Germany, and by some esteemed as a distinct species of Vitriol, it seemeth to be nothing but a Terra Vitriolica, from which the Mineral Salt is separated by [Page 66] preterlabent Springs, or else is not as yet en­dowed with an Esurine Acid, but remains as a Mater Vitrioli or proper Bed for its genera­tion. By its aspect it resembleth the Chol­cothar of vitriol of Iron which is redish, but that of Copper like a yellow Oker,

Besides these Natural vitriols already men­tioned, there are many Artificial; such as vi­triols adulterated (by way of cheat) in imita­tion of the Natural, as much is to counterfeit the Roman Vitriol. By Solution, Evapora­tion, Crystallization, &c. we may find a great deal that passeth for true Natural Vi­triols to be but Factitious adulterated Com­positions by addition of Salts made shoot in­to strange Crystals with variety of colours.

Notwithstanding that all the sorts of Na­tural Vitriol will strike a Purple, and from thence a muddy Inky liquor by a mixture of Galls; yet I conclude the white Vitriol and Vitriol of Copper not to have existence in this Spring, for these Reasons.

1. White vitriol is vomitive, witness the Gilla vitrioli, so also is the vitriol of Copper, yea excepting some Preparations of Mercury the greatest Emetick of Metals: And be­sides, vitriol of Copper is a violent Caustick as Chirurgical practice assureth us; neither of which Properties do agree to this Spring.

Secondly, the red Oker that subsides out of [Page 67] this stagnating water, and is to be found a­mong the stones at the Spring-head in a consi­derable quantity, doth exactly resemble the mineral Earth of Iron, and not of Copper; which is carried along with the Metalline parts dissolved by the Esurine Acid; which Earth as the mater ferri because of the body of Mars in it, being preyed upon, doth be­come as a Crocus Martis or Rustings of Iron.

If it be Queried, Whether the Mineral of this Water may not be Copper, but in so small a quantity, as not to have so powerful an O­peration as is required to an Emetick; like spirit of vitriol although a Caustick, yet a few drops may be safely taken inwardly, when there is a large Latex, as it is frequent­ly and with good success in cooling Juleps.

Answ. This Spring is very strong of the Mineral, witness the Tincture with so small a quantity of Galls, (as before I have menti­oned) any herein not any water in England doth exceed; so that were it from an Eme­tick or Purgative Mineral, as from Alum or Copper, This must have been a Cathartick, but we have no such assurance from Experi­ence. Besides, were it from Copper a great vomitive, then the Mineral being mixed in a less quantity must purge by Stool; for as Dr. Willis, Pharm. ration. sect. 2. c. 1. de vomitione. hath proved, When the irritation of the in­testinal [Page 68] fibres is less than is required to cause a Vomit, it worketh by Siedge. In vomiting the Spasms of the Fibres being violent, Na­ture is necessitated to evacuate the next way, but less violent by the irritation of a Cathar­tick, which is not of so quick an Operation, nor to nauseous and offensive to the Stomach as an Emetick; wherefore the Natural mo­tion of the fibres is not inverted, but conti­nued usque ad Anum to work by Stool. Now had here been so much Copper as clearly to have manifested it self; this Spaw, if not an Emetick, must have been a Cathartick, at least in an inferior degree.

Upon consideration that a Solution of vi­triol of Iron with Galls would strike a Purple, and from thence a black by addition of more Galls; I began a comparison betwixt this Spring-water and vitriol of Iron, otherwise called Sal Chalybis, made out of filings of Steel and oyl of Vitriol.

I took a Pint of fair Spring-water, in which I dissolved a quarter of a Grain of Sal Chalybis, then I took a Pint of Spaw-water; into each of them severally put a quarter of a grain of Galls finely powdered, and upon the mixture both became Purple. The mixture with the Sal Chalybis turned more to a blewish, but that of the Spaw more to a redish Purple, much resembling fair water mixed with a lit­tle Syrup of Damask Roses. The dissolution [Page 69] of the Sal Chalybis in fair water and the Spaw-water had the same taste, as near as Art could imitate Nature. A small variation in Colour, and as little as may be, in taste may well be allowed, by reason of the redish Oker contained in the Spaw, that upon stag­nation of the Water will subside, which must needs cause it to incline something more to a right Purple, and to be something more styp­tick than the solution of vitriolum Martis, con­taining none of this red Oker▪ Neither can it be expected, that the Spaw-water, after its Oker is fallen, should be of the same colour with a solution of Sal Chalybis. For the Oker that falleth is not a simple Earth, but carrieth with it a great deal of the Mineral and Sa­line parts; for in so much as the Oker falleth, the Water looseth its Tinging property, yea degenerates from a Mineral water, and at length becometh effete in its vertue.

By addition of more Galls to the Solution of Sal Chalybis and to the Spaw-water, both began to turn to a dark, and at last to a black inky Liquor. Then I poured into each a few drops of spirit of Vitriol, and both returned to their pristine clarity; then I instilled upon each a few drops of oyl of Tartar per Deli­quium, and again they became muddied, but with spirit of Nitre both became clear again. From whence I infer a Similitude betwixt this Spaw-water and a Solution of Sal Chaly­bis [Page 70] or Vitriol of Iron, being alike in their va [...]riation of Colours, Precipitation, and redu­ction to Clarity again.

But before I shall proceed to more Experi­ments, to prove a farther Similitude betwixt this Spaw-water and vitriol of Iron, I shall speak something as a Rationale, Why these have alike Precipitation, Variation, and Re­duction, which may farther illustrate an Affi­nity betwixt them from the forementioned Experiments.

Why there is some difference in colour be­twixt a Solution of sal Chalybis in fair water which inclineth to a Blew, and this Spaw-water (I mean when Galls are added to both) which inclineth more to a Purple, as I said before is from the red Ocre in the Spaw-water. For all Natural vitriol containeth in it a terra Metallica, whose Colour may be changed into a brown, black, &c. according to the diffe­rent Analysis of Vitriol by fire. But before any Chymical Preparation of this Spaw-water its Oker is red, as may appear by the Stagnation of the water, to them that make Inspection at the Spring-head,

Now if we look into the Nature of the thing, we shall scarce find any or no difference be­twixt the Spaw-water and a Solution of vitri­ol of Iron. For Blew and Purple are but a Black in a remiss degree; for proof hereof [Page 71] I could cite the Tryals of experienced Au­thors, all-sufficient to confirm the Assertion. But instead thereof take one or two Observa­tions.

First, that Blew and Purple do only differ by addition of a little Red, Take a Blew, as Indy-blew, &c. ground into a fine powder; which being divided into two parts, add to one part a little Vermilion finely powdered, and it giveth a Purple, by reason that the Blew and the Red particles do refract their rays in­termixtim, which cannot be distinguished but by good Microscopes. If this be the result from dry Powders, much more then and far­ther from distinction when Bodies are in flu­ore, and the Particles of one implexed and in­sinuated into the Pores and interstices of the other.

Secondly, That Blew and Purple are but a remiss degree of Black, take this Observation to the present business. By an addition of a small quantity of Galls to the Spaw-water, and also to a Solution of vitriol of Iron doth arise a Purple, and a Blew inclinable to a Purple, even so it doth in making of Ordinary ink, when to a solution of Vitriol there is made an addition of a small quantity of Galls, a Purple is the Result, but by addition of more and more Galls it turneth to a Black or inky Li­quor. So that Blew or Purple is but a medium to a Black, for the same thing by variation in its quantity maketh both.

[Page 72] But let us suppose a difference in colour be­twixt the Spaw-water and a Solution of sal Chalybis; yet that will rather prove a differ­ent Position of the Parts of Matter, causing a different refraction of Light, than a Difference in the Nature of the Subjects. For the same Thing by altering the modification of its Particles, may alter its Colour. So Syrup of Violets, by instillation of a little Oleum Tarta­ri per Deliquium, changeth from a Blew to a famous Green, A few drops of spirit of Nitre instilled on a considerable quantity of this mixture, or on fresh Syrup, will change it into a Carnation Red. But neither of these Li­quors had any resemblance of Red, or Green, before the Mixture, Divers changes in co­lour I could instance, made by instillation of clear Liquors upon a Decoction of Logwood, &c. and by mixture of Tinctures. By the fre­quent practice of Dyers we are informed, that the same thing viz▪ a Decoction of Gla­stum will produce a Green from a Yellow, and a Russet from a Red, only by a previous pre­paration with Alum: Yea I could produce a Liquor I have got from a vegetable, (which Experiment I lighted upon by accident, whilst making some scrutiny into Colours) that by instillation of another Liquor as clear as rock-water, will strike an excellent Scarlet; which colour seemeth not to have the least footsteps in the ingredients before they are mixed. Many such like Observations, I que­stion [Page 73] not, may be found by Tryal on mix­tures, yea for ought I know to compare with our Bow-dye, without the least recourse to Chochineel. But this being to dive [...]nto the Dyer's Trade, I shall only take notice from such Experiments, That Colour dependeth more on the Texture of Parts differently re­flecting the Light, than from a difference in Matter. So that a Blew or Purple will be no Material difference betwixt a Solution ef Salt of Mars and this Spaw-water, with Galls ad­ded to both▪ And that this Oker is the main occasion thereof, may be hence concluded. I made a Solution of English vitriol in fair wa­ter, which with a small quantity of Galls did strike a Purple very near as deep as this Spaw-water: but let vitriol be distilled, and reunite all its parts except the Colcothar, and with fair water and Galls you shall fail as to the former Purple; and in all vitrioline So­lutions with Galls may be observed, The more Terra Metallica the deeper the Purple.

When Galls are added to this Spring-wa­ter, and also to a Solution of Sal Chalybis, an Alteration in Colour (as I said before) and an inky smell doth also ensue. The reason here­of is this; An inky liquor or Ink (and conse­quently will smell as such) is made by a solu­tion of vitriol precipitated, or made opacous by the addition of Galls; whose stiptick parts do make Coagula with the vitriolick, and hur­ry [Page 74] the vitriolick out of the former posture, and make them like so many confused Atoms: they also fill these interstices and pores of the water, which before made a diaphanous bo­dy, but is now become a turbid, confused, and consequently a blackish liquor. In the ordi­nary way of making ink, Gum Arabick and Sugar is added to the Galls and vitriol, by reason they cause a thicker consistence, and their glutinous parts buoy up these confused Atoms and Coagula, which by long standing would subside, and so the Solution return dia­phanous.

The solution of vitriol of Mars and Spaw-water, by instillation of spirit of Vitriol, spi­rit of Nitre, or by other Acids, are reduced to a clear consistence; because that spirit of Vi­triol, &c. doth work upon and scatter those confused Atoms and coagula made by the Vi­triol and Galls, which the Galls had caused to float up and down in a confused posture. Wherefore the Liquors return clear, the Acids having expelled the stiptick and Alkalizate Particles.

By instillation of oyl of Tartar these Li­quors become again turbid and muddy incli­nable to an inky colour. For an Alkali pre­cipitates and destroys an Acid, such as spirit of Vitriol, spirit of Nitre, &c. and bringeth into confusion what an Acid had cleared, and doth by destroying the Acid drive out its [Page 75] Particles from the interstices and pores of the water, and sets them, with them of the Gall as yet unprecipitated into confusion; so that the coagulum betwixt the vitriolick parts of the Water and Galls resumes it self. Upon the instillation of spirit of Nitre, both became clear again, and with spirit of Harts horn both again turbid and muddy, for the same reasons before alledged.

Whence I infer a similitude betwixt a So­lution of Vitriol and this Spaw-water, as to Precipitations and Reductions by the instilla­tion of Alkalizate and Acid Liquors or Salts.

For farther tryal and proof that this Spaw is vitrioline, and that only, I took two or three quarts of this Spring-water, and evapo­rated it in an earthen vessel ad siccitatem, where it left behind a redish white powder▪ on some of it I let fall a few drops of spirit of Nitre, and immediately a great ebullition with froth and fumes did arise with a sensible effervescence. Upon the same quantity of powder I let fall some spirit of vitriol, and the like effect did ensue. I let stand a quart of this spring-water in an open vessel, and ano­ther quantity in a glass-bottle closely stoped; out of both in a short time I found precipi­tated a redish sediment, which being dryed with the aforesaid Acids did make an Ebulli­ [...]on.

[Page 76] I then forthwith made tryal with the same Acid spirits and vitriol of Iron or salt of Steel. Upon a little vitriol of Iron I instilled a few drops of spirit of Nitre, and an ebullition with forth and fumes did arise, like as upon the powder left after evaporation, and also upon the sediment of water with spirit of Ni­tre. Upon vitriol of Iron I let fall a few drops of spirit of Vitriol, but could not perceive any Luctation, either by ebullition, efferve­scence, exhalation, crepitation, or elevation. But why spirit of vitriol should not ferment with vitriol of Iron, and yet should ferment with the powder left after evaporation of this water, when, as I said before, that the strength of this water consists in a vitriol of Iron with a terra metallica or Colcothar ad­joyned to and precipitated with it; the rea­son is plain. In the making of sal Chalybis or vitriol of Iron with oyl of vitriol and file­ings of Steel, the oyl doth incorporate with the Steel or Iron; and being a strong Acid, and indeed the most Caustick part of Vitriol (and improperly called Oyl) doth ferment with the Alkalizate parts of Iron; and from the combining of these two different Salts a neutrum quid, viz. vitriolum Martis comes. Now the pores of Iron being fully saturated with the Acid of Vitriol, upon a new instilla­tion of more spirit or oyl no fermentation follows; seeing the iron hath already as it were imbibed as much of the Vitriol as it can, [Page 77] there will not follow any fermentation. For as Water worketh not upon Water, so nei­ther spirit of Vitriol on spirit of Vitriol, the same thing worketh not upon it self: neither can the oyl or spirit work again on the Alka­lizate parts of Mars, which are already sub­dued by the Acid of vitriol, and utterly un­capable of making a new conflict with it; but will with spirit of Nitre being a subalkalizate Acid, because the pores of sal Chalybis are open to it. But why then spirit of vitriol should make an Ebullition with the powder left after evaporation, and upon the sedi­ment, is, because the metallick particles brought from the Marcasites of Iron are not fully saturated with the Esurine Acids in the water, which preyed upon the Marcasites, and brought with it fragments thereof; whose pores are still so disposed, that Acids may be able to close, and by their violent mo­tion divide and as it were tear in pieces, until the contrary salts have embraced each other, and are united into a Tertium Quid or indis­solvable Texture.

For a farther comparison betwixt this Spring-water and a solution of Vitriol of Iron I took a quantity of Milk, but by mix­ing with this Spring-water could find no coa­gulation, either with hot, cold, or boiling Milk. Then I made a solution of sal chalybis with fair water, and mixed it with cold milk, [Page 78] with milk warm from the cow, and also boyled it with Milk; but neither of them curdled, yea no more than fair Spring-water and milk.

But now it may be Queried, What is be­come of the Acid, viz. the Esurine acidity? And how comes a Solution of vitriol of Iron not to curdle Milk, when as oyl of vitriol go­eth into its composition, which is an Acid; and like other Acids as Vinegar, Aqua fortis, &c. will curdle Milk?

Answ. The Esurine salt of the Earth prey­ing upon the Metallick parts of the Marcasites of Iron, so also the oyl or spirit of vitriol in making Sal Chalybis on the Iron or Steel; and the vitriol on the oyl of Tartar in making Tartarum vitriolatum, viz. an Acid upon an Alkalizate body. When they are in a propor­tionate quantity the conflict betwixt these contrary Salts is great, but the Acid being in a proportionate quantity cannot tear in pie­ces and shiver the Alkalizate into invisible Atoms, but fixeth its points in the pores of the Alkalizate Matter; yet hath not power to shatter it all to pieces, and free it self from Combinations: but the Parts of the Acid lie sheathed and loaded with the Alkali. So they being closed together, do by their own weight (especially after the Liquor buoying them up is weakened by Evaporation) fall down to the bottom: and by their mutual conflict or [Page 79] ferment having broken off and dulled the edges of each others Particles, and combined together, do become a Neutral Salt.

Some Authors have asserted, That from a Tartarum vitriolatum put into a Retort, by the force of fire may be drawn off a spirit of vitriol again: as if the Salts clasping toge­ther had not as it were destroyed each others pristine texture of parts, by breaking off and dulling the edges of the saline Particles. Ne­vertheless Experience proveth, That what is drawn over the Helm from Tartarum vitrio­latum, is not a spirit like the oyl or spirit of vitriol at the first. For the Taste and Opera­tion of it plainly sheweth, that the Alkalizate salt of Tartar hath almost wholly taken off its Acidity; yea I think I might positively af­firm, That it is an impossibility from these Neutral Salts, such as Tartarum vitriolatum, vitriolum Martis, &c. to restore an Acid to its pristine lustre and efficacy.

I said before, when the Acid and Alkalizate Bodies are mixed in a proportionate quanti­ty together: For the Acid in too great a quantity dissolves and destroys all these Coa­gula that it made with the Alkali, when mix­ed in a small quantity. Whilst these Contra­ries are proportionate, the Alkalizate Par­ticles maintained their part against the Acid, so that both lay fixed and free from motion, [Page 80] but by addition of more Acid its strength is increased, so as to scatter and dissolve the Co­agulation. And this may be seen, as I inti­mated before, by instillation of spirit of Vi­triol upon this Spaw-water or a Solution of sal Chalybis with Galls; wherein the vitrioline parts of the Water with the Galls make coa­gula, but by addition of more spirit of vitriol or other Acid are scattered, that the Liquor becomes again clear. The same reason is, when the Alkali is too strong for the Acid; it destroys and expells the acid particles float­ing in the Liquor, and maketh them unable to bear up a conflict. So also when Milk is curdled by an Acid, the Acid hath entered the Cheesy part, and lost its motion; but upon the pouring on of more Acid the Cheesy part will be precipitated, but at last the Coagula­tion will dissolve away, and quite disappear. Many Instances I might produce, which I shall pass by, seeing they allow the same Rationale.

As in the making of Tartarum vitriolatum the Salts combine, and work themselves into a Neutral Salt, so also in this Spring-water; where by an Esurine acid Salt acuating the Water is made a Solution of the Minera of Iron, whose Alkalizate parts combined and clasped with the Esurine acid Salt, are be­come a Neutral. Upon the instillation of a contrary Salt, whether volatile or fixed Al­kali, the Salts presently make an assault upon [Page 81] each other, and by their closing together and taking off their edges by the ferment become a third or Neutral Salt, In the conflict or duel they thrust forth and partly leave the Mineral body dissolved by the Esurine Acid: which precipitates to the bottom, and carri­eth down with it some of the Salts of the Menstruum. For more than a Colcothar must be here separated, because of the ebullition following an instillation of Acids thereon.

But least that it should be imagined, that there may follow a fermentation by instilla­tion of Acids, because of the Alkali added to make a Precipitation, but not belonging to it as a Mineral Water; we must consider, that a precipitation may be made (besides that by droping thereon or mixing contrary Salts) out of mineral Water three ways: 1. by ex­posing to the air (which causeth a putrefa­ctive ferment) the Mineral parts will subside; 2. by heat, as in boiling, distilling, &c. the Ocre falls; 3. by motion ab extra, as by car­riage, &c. The Powder thus precipitated did with Acids make a great ebullition, which could not be from any Salts not belonging to it as a Mineral. Wherefore the Sediment thus precipitated is not a simple Colcothar, but with the Colcotar do fall some of the Salts of the Menstruum: for by pouring on fresh water, and dulcifying the Sediment, a Salt is extracted from the Colcotar, that may by E­vaporation, [Page 82] Chrystallization, &c. be brought to a dry body, and exactly answereth sal Cha­lybis as to its Operation, Experiments, and Effects.

I distilled a considerable quantity of this Water in a Glass Retort and Receiver close­ly luted to it. The first Water that came over the Helm I found by taking off the Re­ceiver to be insipid, which would not with Galls, Balaustia flowers, Avens, Bistort roots, &c. like vitrioline waters strike a Purple. Then I distilled off more insipid Water, but to the sides of the Retort when cooled I found sticking a redish powder, like that I found by Evaporation; the Residue of the Water in the Retort by Evaporation ad siccitatem yeilded more. Upon this Sediment dryed I let fall a few drops of spirit of Nitre, of Vi­triol, oyl of Sulphur per Campanam, and Aqua fortis; an ebullition with a great effervescence did immediately follow. But upon instilla­tion of oyl of Tartar per Deliquium, spirit of Harts-horn, or other Alkalizate Liquors, not the least ebullition or efferverscence could be perceived. From which Experiments, as also from the former, may follow these two col­lateral Conclusions.

First, That this Spaw like other Mineral Waters by the precipitation of its Ocre or Sediment doth lose its tinging Property with Galls, and also is weakened in its Operation. And although some of the Salt yet remain [Page 83] dissolved in the Water after the falling of the Sediment, its former vigour and efficacy is decayed; for by so much the Water hath let fall of its Ocre and Sediment, (which as I proved before is not a simple metallick earth, but doth carry down with it some of the salts of the Menstruum) by so much the water is weakened, and by the falling of more Sedi­ment groweth weaker and weaker in its Ope­ration.

Secondly, from the ebullition and efferve­scence of Acids poured upon this Powder left after Evaporation, or precipitated by Moti­on, Heat, or Air; but upon instilling of oyl of Tartar or other Alkalizate Salts no fer­mentation follows; I conclude, that the Salt in this Powder is rather Lixivial than Acid: although it be (as I have hinted before) a Neutral Salt from the combining of the Esu­rine Acid in the Water and the Alkalizate part of Iron, yet like Tartarum vitriolatum, or vitriolum Martis, it inclineth much to an Al­kali.

And whereas an Ebullition and Efferve­scence followed the instillation of Acids on the precipitated Sediment, like as upon vitri­ol of Iron, or Tartar vitriolated, &c. and that an effervescence and ebullition follows the pouring of oyl of Vitriol on filings of Mars in the making of sal chalybis, and the oyl of Vitriol upon the Tartar in making Tartarum vitriolatum; both which Compo­sitions [Page 84] like the sediment of this Spaw will strongly ferment with Acids; I conclude it is highly probable, that this Spring, when first it becomes a Mineral water, (which is whilst the Esurine Acid preyeth on the minera of Iron) is hot: but by long running through a Colander of earth or gravel loseth its heat, and becometh almost a cold Spring. Almost I said, for by comparing the water of this Spaw with other ordinary Spring-water, but especially with a Rock-spring, a sensible warmth may be discerned. And that the Ef­fervescence is scarce over at the Spring-head, may be gathered from the Sparkling of the Water in a glass, like bottled Sider newly emptied: and, as I have it by good informa­tion, doth much resemble the German Spaw-water sealed up in bottles, and brought to Leyden and several places in the Low-countries.

I took about a Pint of Ilmington Spaw-wa­ter fresh from the Spring-head, into which I let fall a few drops of Oyl of Tartar per Deli­quium, which made a white Coagulation di­spersed through the whole body; but so small, that it was scarce discernable. I then made a Solution of sal chalybis with fair water, upon which I droped some oyl of Tartar, and found a Coagulation in it exactly like the Spaw-wa­ter with oyl of Tartar, The coagula in both by an addition of spirit of Vitriol were di­sp [...]rsed, but by Alkali's were reduced &c.

[Page 85] Now it may be questioned, How come Al­kali Salts, as oyl of Tartar, &c. to make these Coagulum's, when as spirit of Vitriol or other Acids cause no Alteration?

Answ. There are two sorts of ordinary Menstruums for Bodies; Ordinary I say, be­cause I must except Paracclsus's Sal circula­tum, and Helmont's Liquor Alkahest, the grand Solvents of Bodies into their first Principles.

First, Menstruums impregnated with acid Spirits or Salts, whether they be Natural A­cids, such as the Juice of Crabs, the sowr juice of Plants, the Acid of Marcasites of Iron, Alum, &c. or Artificially made from natural Salts, as spirit of Vitriol, sp. of Sulphur per campanam, &c.

Secondly, Menstruums endowed with Al­kalizate Salts, either fixed Alkali's, as salt of Tartar, Wormwood, &c. or volatile, as spi­rit of Urine, Harts-horn, or of the horns and hoofs of Animals, Sage, &c.

Some add a Third sort of Menstruum, viz. a vinous Spirit, which is the common Men­struum for making of Tinctures and Extracts, because it is apt to imbibe the sulphureous Principle from Compounds. But for my part, I take a vinous Spirit not as a distinct Menstruum from the two former. For spirit of Wine is nothing but an oyl highly advanc­ed by its volatile Salt, with a small quantity of Phlegm. The quantity of oyl is manifest by its inflammability, for good rectified spirit [Page 86] of Wine once kindled will almost totally consume. In Distillation the volatile Salt im­plexed in the sulphureous parts striving to get free, doth tear and divide them, until they be rarified into a Spirit: to which is ad­ded a little phlegm, for the better seperation of the Salts fermenting and exalting the oyl. Now chiefly for its volatile Salt, spirit of Wine is the Menstruum in making the Tin­ctures and Extracts of Senna, Rhubarb, Aloes, Mirrh, Saffron, Hellebore, and of all dry Roots, Seeds, Flowers, Woods, and Barks. For by addition of volatile Salts the Extracts are stronger, than when made with spirit of Wine only.

Having this premised, I may return to the Question thus; That upon the mixture of Acid and Alkalizate Salts they ferment and close together in a Neutral Salt, (as I have already intimated) and forsake or rather thrust forth the Metalline Body dissolved and buoyed up in the Menstruum, which with some of the Salts of the Liquor falls down to the bottom. The Salts combined together and floating up and down in the Menstruum, with some of the Mineral body as yet unpre­cipitated do represent these Coagula: even as oyl of Tartar poured upon a solution of Vitriol made with fair Water, causeth a se­paration of the Metalline and Colcotarine Parts subsiding to the bottom, and Coagulums of the contrary Salts for a time buoyed up [Page 87] in the Menstruum. So oyl of Tartar with Ilmington Water maketh a white Coagulum, because it combineth with the Esurine Acid of the Water. But the Curdling is very small, because of the small quantity of Acid that doth free, and as it were unsheath it self from the minera of Iron; or is yet lodged in the pores of the Water, and is not as yet fixed and joyned to the Alkalizate part of Iron,

To try what figure the Salt bore that was contained in this Water, I took about two or three Gallons of the Water, and evapo­rated it ad siccitatem. At the bottom and sides of the vessel I found a redish white Pow­der, which I dulcified with warm Water: And there was left behind an insipid Earth like red Ocre or Colcotar. The Water I filtred, eva­porated, and then set to chrystallize, which yeilded a Salt of an irregular figure: it was of a palish colour, but as to its operation answer­ed vitriol of Iron.

It being asserted by some Authors (but the Truth thereof I much question) That many Mineral Waters will loose in Weight by car­riage, by loss of Spirits as They say; or ra­ther (if at all) I suppose by an Aporrhea Mi­neralis: I filled a glass bottle with this Spaw-Water, and stoped it up close at the Spring-head, where I weighed it with an exact pair of Scales. After four or five Miles carriage [Page 88] I tryed and found it continue the same weight. After it had stood a day or two, by examination I found the weight not at all di­minished: so that by this way, nor by Distil­lation could I find any volatile spirits, wherein the vertue of this Water consists.

The Bottle thus stoped I kept for a fort­night, and then could perceive the Sediment just begin to fall to the bottom▪ But in ano­ther Bottle carried with This, and left open to the air, I found great part of the Sediment fallen in twelve hours. Which confirms my former Assertion, viz. That not only Heat, Motion by carriage, &c. but the Air also precipitates its Sediment.

Upon Tryal I found, that the Water out of which the Ocre was fallen would not tinge with Galls; but the Water kept close stoped for a fortnight did with Galls readily strike a Purple, and so would more or less, until the Terra Metallica was all fallen.

To sum up then that which hath been laid down, I may say of this Spring, as Helmont said of the German Spaws, Pawhont and Save­ [...]ir. Distillavi aliquando serio Savenirium & Pauhonteum, & sanè non tantum mineralium ca­talogum, imo nil quicquam in iis offendi praeter Aquam fontanam & vitriolum ferri. Helm. pa­radox. Quar. de aq. Spad. So in this Spring the Acid Salt, with which the Water is im­pregnated, doth in its passage through the subterrestrial channels meet with a Minera [Page 89] of Iron, which it partly dissolves, and bring­eth along by its Current to the Spring-head. And by a Fermentation betwixt the Esurine Acid and the Metalline Parts of the Minera is made a vitriolum Martis, which giveth the vertue to this Spring.


HAving made an Hydrological Essay as to the Essential part of this Spaw-wa­ter, I think it not amiss to speak something as to its Vertue, seeing Multitudes resort to the Fountain, and especially the Poorer sort guided by a Hear-say, who drink it as a Ca­tholicon or Sovereign medicine for all Distem­pers, not regarding the original of its Source, or what Mineral Ingredients are contained therein.

We are told by the Learned Dr. Willis, That by the means of Ferments we are born, bred up. decay and die; that Diseases thence take their Original, and the Restoration of Health is owing thereto. Nec tantùm ration [...] Fermentorum nascimur & nutrimur, sed & mori­mur: quilibet morbus virtute fermenti cujusdam suas excitat tragoedias. And a little after, Quin & morborum curationes fermentationis ope molimur. Will. de ferm. cap. 5. I shall there­fore only speak somewhat of the Natural fer­ments of our Bodies, and their Depravations, in order to my present business; but for a large account of them shall refer the Candid Reader to Willis, Helmont, Sylvius, and other [Page 91] eminent Authors that have fully handled that subject, brevity here being only intended,

As for the Notion of Fermentation take this Definition. Fermentation is an intestine motion of the Parts or Principles of a Body, with an Inclination to its Perfection or to its Change. By Change may be understood its Destru­ction, or Dissolution of its Compages, or muta­tio in quid aliud.

Upon consideration that an entire Function or Office of every Part in the Body is the Ef­fect or Product of Health, and that a Disease is an Ill Constitution causing an impediment to the Parts in their Function or Office, some according to the diversity of Functions have made a division of Distempers.

The Functions do either respect the Conser­vation of the Individual, or the Propagation of the Species. These that respect the Con­servation of the Individual, are either Natu­ral, such as Concoction of Aliments, Sangui­sication, Secretion of Excrements, Production of Vital Spirits, &c. or else Animal, which do respect the Sensitive part of the Creature, as in its External or Internal Senses.

These that respect the Propagation of the Species are peculiar to the Male or Female Sex, and accordingly Authors have grounded their Distinctions.

I shall not proceed in this method, bnt ra­ther [Page 92] take a Summulary of Distempers (suffici­ent for my present purpose) from the Fer­ments, or rather from the Depravations of them in our body, knowing that a large Explanation would raise a Tractate to a large Volume.

Whereas the ingenious Franciscus De le boe Sylvius hath laid down the Dyscrasia of the Lympha, and of the Bilis for the two sole Causes of Fevers either Intermittent or Conti­nual, (under Lympha he comprehendeth Suc­cus Pancreaticus and Saliva) and ascribeth Chylification chiefly to the Salt in Spittle, which by Mastication is mixed with the Ali­ment or is already conveyed into the stomach, but alloweth of no stomachical Ferment, I cannot assent to be his Proselyte. For consi­dering the structure of the stomach, how that its interior or nervous tunicle hath a Crusta villosae or hairy scurf with a multitude of Glandules to percolate and imbibe the Li­quors derived from the Arteries and Nerves; we may well suppose an acid Ferment either implanted in, or derived to the stomach from the same vessels that the Saliva is. Besides this, Glisson, Willis, Diemerbroeck, yea authors both ancient and modern afford us reasons all-sufficient to believe a stomachical Ferment.

But supposing an acid Ferment in the sto­mach, or else in the Spittle and so the sto­mach [Page 93] to be only as a convenient Work-house; it will be all one in a manner, as to the Origi­nal and Cures of Diseases that arise from the Depravation of the primary Ferment.

It will be too tedious and beyond my inten­tion to describe the Modes of Fermentations in humane bodies, I shall therefore content my self to enquire, 1. What are the Fermen­tal Digestions of our bodies, and the Depra­vations of them; 2. The Distempers thence arising; 3. Whether this Ilmington Spaw will contribute to the Restoration or Cure of the disordered Digestions.

The Aliment in its way to Nutrition doth undergo several alterations by the Ferments of our bodies, it is several times percolated and as it were strained and purged from its faeces, after the Changes it hath received, be­fore the Animal spirits, the Instrument of Sensation, and the chief vehicle of the Soul, are elaborated therefrom.

There are three Principal Digestions, viz. Chylification, Sanguification, and Production of Animal spirits. Besides, there are others ap­propriated to particular parts, such as that of the Spleen, Seminal vessels and Prolifick parts, the fermental Digestions of every particular Part, by which it turneth the Nutritive juice into its own likeness, as the saline and tarta­reous [Page 94] part of the Aliment into Bones, the sul­phureous and oyly into Fat, the more tempe­rate and balsamick parts (the saline and sul­phureous being equally mixed) into Flesh, &c. To which according to some may be added the Ferment of the Reins for secretion of the Serum; a Ferment of the Glandulae Renales; and also in the Liver for a secretion of the Bi­lis, and serous Liquor through the Lymphe­ducts.

The Ferment of the Renal Glandules is on­ly supposed and conjectural; That of the Li­ver for separation of the Choler, and that of the Kidneys for separating the serous humor may with good reason be believed to be con­jectural and fictious. For when the blood is rightly fermented and in its lax Compages, the Liver is sufficient without any innate ferment to transcolate the Choler through its Glan­dulous Substance, as Malpighius de Hep. hath Observed. So also are the Kidneys by the Ob­servations of Bellinus de Ren: without any specifick ferment; yea any more then is pecu­liar to the blood in its Natural Crasis.

Chylification I conceive to be chiefly from the Ferment of the Stomach, although other Things concur thereto. How Chylification is performed Diemerbroeck Anat. Corp. Hum. Lib. 1. Cap. 6. hath excellently well described. Which in short is thus.

The Meat whilst masticated doth inbibe the [Page 95] Saliva or Spittle, which not only softens but impregnates the Meat with a Fermentative Quality (that is chiefly by the Salt therein con­tained) Unto which concureth the Drinks of­ten endowed with acrimonious fermentative Particles. The Stomack receiveth and by contraction of its Fibres closely embraceth the meat thus prepared, and communicateth the fermentative juices from the Coat of the Stomack; to which do concur the Reliques left after former Digestions, which by stay­ing in the Stomack like an old Leaven are brought to an Acidity. The Acid Particles excited by the Heat of the Stomack and adja­cent parts do enter the Pores of the Aliment, and ferment with its Saline and Spirituous Parts, until it be dissolved and eliquated into Milky Cream or Chyle: which by Contracti­on of the Stomachical fibres is sent through the Pylorus into the Guts, where it receiv­eth another Ferment by the mixture of the Bilis and Succus Pancreaticus; by which the thinner Parts are separated from the thicker and received or rather squeezed by the Peri­staltick Motion into the Orifices of the Lacte­al Vessels, but the thicker and gross ejected by Stool. This Precipitation and Separation Sylvius compareth to a Solution of Vitriol in fair Water, which by the mixture of Salt of Tartar, presently leteth its Sulphureous and dreggy Parts subside.

[Page 96] I shall not then like some take the perfect­ing of Chylification in the Intestines to be a second Digestion distinct from the former; but rather a Perfection and Depuration of the concocted Aliment or Chyle. Neither shall I make that little alteration or rather pre­paration to Sanguification, which the Chyle by mixture of the Lympha receiveth from the Mesenterical Glandules and Ductus Thoracicus before its ingress into the jugular Veins to be a third Digestion, and distinct from Chylifi­cation and Sanguification, but as a Prepara­tive to the Latter with a convenient Vehicle.

The acrimonious Particles of the Saliva swallowed, and the Acid Stomachical Fer­ment, and the Reliques of Aliment of former Digestions sticking to the Coats of the Sto­mack and brought to Acidity, finding no Aliment to prey upon, do molest and irri­tate the Stomack; which molestation being imprest upon the Nerves of the Sixt, or ac­cording to Dr. Willis the Eighth Pair; and by these communicated to the Brain, doth excite a desire of Eating or Hungering after Meat, to imbibe the ferment gnawing on the Stomack.

As for the Colour of the Chyle; or why Mutton, Beef, Bread, Herbs, &c. eaten together should be turned into a white Crea­my Substance. Or why the Aliment should not retain its pristine Colour, I conceive to [Page 97] be as thus. The Saline and Sulphureous Par­ticles with which our usual Aliment doth abound, being well dissolved and mixed to­gether, do by the Acid Ferment acquire a white Colour. Even as in making of Lac Sulphuris, the Flos Sulphuris and Salt of Tar­tar by boyling together turn the Water to a dark Red, but by instillation of Vinegar turneth to a white. So every Liquid impreg­nated with a Sulphur and an Alkalizate Salt, but more especially when the Salt is volatile; or with a Salt well implexed in, and dissolved with the Sulphur, by addition of an acid Li­quor becometh white, as may be seen in the making of Resinous Extracts of Vegetables, or by mixing spirit of Benjamin, spirit of Harts-horn, of Soot, or such like spirits a­bounding with volatile Salt, with an acid Li­quor or fair Water.

The Chyle having passed the Stomach into the Intestines, the purer part is received into the Lacteal vessels, (and perhaps some of the more Spirituous parts into the Mesenterical veins, by reason of the sudden refection after eating and drinking by those that are through labour and travel wearied) which convey it to the Mesenterical or Asellius his Pancreas; and from thence is conveyed by the Ductus Thoracicus into the Subclavian vein, where by the way it is mixed with the Lympha brought by the Lympheducts, which is not as an use­less [Page 98] Liquor, but serveth for a vehicle to the Chyle, and by its saline Particles doth prepare it for Sanguification.

The Chyle having once entered the subcla­vian vein is mixed with the recurrent venal blood, and by the vena cava is conveyed to the Heart, where is chiefly made the second Di­gestion or Sanguification. But first entering the right ventricle of the Heart, from thence it passeth through the Arteria Pulmonaris called also vena Arteriosa into the Lungs. From whence it is reduced to the left ventricle of the Heart by the vena Pulmonaris or Arteria venosa, in the Diastole or laxation of the Heart it enters the left Ventricle, but by its Contraction or Systole is sent forth into the Aorta, and by It is carried to the whole body. But the residue after Nutrition is reduced by the veins to the right ventricle of the Heart, from whence again it begineth its Circulation. This is the Natural course in adult persons, but in the foetus or Embryo it is something dif­ferent.

An Embryo having not attained to Respi­ration, nor to a perfection of its Lungs, the Blood cannot Circulate as in adult Animals. Wherefore Nature hath provided two vessels in a foetus that afterward grow obsolete and useless, viz. the foramen ovale and canalis Ar­teriosus. The Foramen Ovale is placed under the right Auricle of the Heart, and uniteth [Page 99] the vena cava to the vena Pulmonaria. The Use of it is, to carry the Blood that doth not enter the Right ventricle into the vena Pulmonaria, that it may enter the left ventri­cle of the Heart. The Canalis Arteriosus unit­eth Arteria Pulmonaris to the great Aorta: whose Use is, to convey the blood that hath passed through the Right ventricle, and is dri­ven by the Systole into the great Artery, so that it slideth by the left ventricle. By which we may observe, That the blood in its Circu­lation always entereth the Heart, but in an Embryo passeth through only one ventricle.

I said before that Sanguification is chiefly performed in the Heart: for it may with good reason be questioned, Whether the Ef­fervescence of the blood (the Accension, or flamma vitalis, as Dr. Willis would have it) be from the Heart, or rather from the Fermenta­tion of its contrary Principles, and according to others Sanguis sanguificat.

Dr. Lower cap. 2. de corde. absolutely deni­eth any Ferment to be placed in the Heart. He telleth us, The Heart oweth its Heat to the Blood, and not the Blood to the Heart; yea that the Blood by its heat doth actuate and enliven our bodies, and that Nature hath not bestowed more heat upon the heart than upon other Muscles: but it hath a more brisk and lively heat than other parts of the [Page 100] body, because it is in a continual motion, and so much surrounded with adjacent parts. Nei­ther doth its Action differ from the Action of other Muscles. And cap. 5. he telleth us, The Chyle is turned into blood by the vital spirit and other of its active Principles, which from the first Mixture with Chyle do work upon it until it be refined, until the saline sulphureous and spirituous Particles be set at liberty from the feculent, and associated to them of the Blood.

Dr. Harvey that exquisite Searcher into the Generation of Animals speaking of the Order of Generation of the Parts of the Body, saith Ab initio Punctum rubrum saliens, vesicula pul­sans fibraeque inde deductae sanguinem in se com­plectentes &c. Exercit. 50. That a red beat­ing Spot or Bladder with Fibres thence dedu­ced containing Blood do first of all appear. And by exact observation doth conclude, In the generation of Animals blood is the first thing that is made. And as Pulsation doth begin in it, and from it; so at the last mo­ment of life doth it end in the Blood. Quan­tum ex accuratâ inspectione discernere licuit, [...]it Sanguis, antequam punctum saliens efformatur; idemque calore vitali praeditus est, priusquam per pulsum cietur: atque ut in illo & ab illo Pulsatio incipit, ita tandem in ultimo mortis articulo, in eodem de [...]nit. Which I suppose gave occasion to Dr. Glisson in his Anat. Hep. Cap. 35. to assert, That the blood was generated and [Page 101] moved by the heart, but the heart and blood were originally by the Vivifick spirit or juice, which remaineth in the blood after its first production, and is the cause of its future gene­ration: seeing that the Womb by its heat doth excite the Vivifick Spirit of the Seed, and put it in action, which frameth the Semi­nal Matter into the structure of an Animal. So that the Quickening Spirit making the first blood and heart of an Embryo, he supposeth it still to perform the same office; according to that Axiom, Idem quà idem, semper facit idem.

Against this Opinion Diemerbroeck Anat. Lib. 2. Cap. 11 doth oppose several Argu­ments, and endeavoureth a Confutation there­of, and concludeth from his Reasons, That the Blood is generated after, and by the Heart, and not by the Vivisick spirit; which (saith he) inhering in all parts of the body, quickens and disposeth them to their proper functions. So that he concludeth of a Ferment in the Heart.

The Learned Dr. Willis telleth us, Natura posuit in corde fermentum, eujus instinctu seu oc­cursu sanguis impetuosè effervescit, ac velut in flammam accensus, de ferment. cap. 5. And in his Exercitation de Accens. sang Vitalem sive flam­meam animae partem in corde & pulmonibus se­dem praecipuam & quasi imperialem habere pute­mus. So that he avoweth, the Ferment of the Heart to be the main Cause and Seat of the [Page 102] Flamma vitalis, or the Soul's vital flame. But whether it be in rerum naturâ, may be questi­oned.

Variety of Opinions there are about the Motion of the Heart, the immediate instru­ments of its Motion are agreed upon to be the Fibres; but then what sets these Fibres in mo­tion, is the [...] the main Query or thing sought after.

Some like Dr. Lower suppose the motion of the heart to depend upon the influx of Ani­mal Spirits into the Nerves and Fibres, which make a Contraction as in other Muscles. Others suppose it to depend on the Dilatation of the Blood in the Ventricles of the Heart. Others like Franciscus de Le Boe Sylvius think to go a middle way, and make it depend partly on the Influx of Animal Spirits, and partly on the Dilatation of the Blood. Others to de­pend on a Materia Subtilis, that subtile Mat­ter supposed to be in continual motion, and to move all Bodies more or less, according as it hath more free or difficult passage through the Pores of them. Others suppose the heart not to move the blood, neither the heart to be moved by the Animal Spirits, nor by a subtile Matter, but by the Vivifick Spirit re­siding in the blood, and is the cause of its Generation. But Maurocordatus not approv­ing the above-recited Opinions supposeth the motion of the heart to depend on the respiration of the Lungs, and the respiration [Page 103] of the Lungs to depend on the motion of the heart; as if the Heart and Lungs did put their help in hand to each others Motion.

To run through each Opinion apart, and to recite the Reasons laid down for confirma­tion thereof, would be too tedious and be­yond my proposed Subject. I shall therefore lay down some Experimental Observations as Mathematical Data, and see what Collateral Conclusions about Sanguification and Motion of the Heart may be thence deduced.

1. Observ. I took out the Hearts of two young Puppies about a Fortnight old, and cut off their Nerves to prevent all influx of Ani­mal Spirits, and separated the Coherent Parts. I cut open the Ventricles of one of the Hearts, and let out all the blood therein contained. The Hearts I exposed to the open Air upon a cold Trencher, which did con­tinue beating with a regular Systole and Dia­stole as long as warmth continued. When their Motion had almost ceased I breathed upon them, and perceived their motion re­cruted by the warmth of the breath. When their motion again began to abate, by pour­ing on warm Water I renewed the same. Thus they continued until the Natural Heat was to­tally expired; which was near upon Three Quarters of an Hour after the first exposing out of the Body to the Air. The like Effect I [Page 104] found upon the Hearts of Frogs, Tortoises and several young Animals. Yea I cut out the Heart of a young Puppy and of a Frog, and divided them into several pieces, I ob­served a Motion in a Systole and Diastole for some Minutes to continue in each part thus separated; and that the pricking them with a Needle did much excite decaying Motion.

2. Observ. A Girl about Fifteen years of age, by a Pen-knife had an Artery cut asun­der in the Wrist of her hand. With con­venient Applications by a Chyrurgion the Blood was stoped, but in his absence the Girl had plucked off the Eschar; so that presently followed a great effusion of blood from the Artery. At the return of the Chyrurgion, with whom I was also called; I perceived that she had lost almost the whole mass of Blood of her body. In the time of her bleeding (which was the greatest part of a Day) her Friends about her had given her Sack and Caudle to keep up her decaying strength. At our coming we found, That which the Artery sent forth did more resemble the Cau­dle then Blood (and so it had been for some hours by the relation of her Attendants) for it was so pale and watery, that it would notting a Handcherchief red. Her Pulse not­withstanding had small remission. I admini­stered to her Cordials with Spirits to buoy up declining Nature; but before the Chyrurgion [Page 105] stoped the Blood, she died: which was about One Quarter of an Hour after our arriving thither.

To this I may adjoyn a like observation re­lated by Dr. Lower, de Cord. motu, cap. 2. the Sum is thus. ‘A Youth about sixteen years old bled for two days without intermission or ceasing. [The occasion of it is not men­tioned.] His attendants and friends gave him broth to refresh and recruit his Vitals, which he eagerly supped down. His flux of blood now and then thereby increased, but at length the whole Mass was almost evacuated. That which run out was pale and watery, nei­ther of the Colour nor Nature of blood, but was more like the Broth administred, which he drank much of. The flux so continued for a day or two, but the Heart in the mean time retained its Pulsation. At last the flux was stoped, the Party recovered his health, and became a stout strong fellow.’ This he relateth from a Physitian of Credit.

3. Observ. Dr. Lower in the forecited Chapter giveth us an Experiment of his own. He ‘drew out of the jugular vein of a Dog about half of his blood, injecting the like quantity of Ale and Wine mixed into his Crural vein. This he continued by turns until a paler tincture instead of the blood is­sued out of the vein, like water wherein flesh hath been washed, or like Claret diluted with much water.’

[Page 106] 4. Observ. I shall in the next place lay down the Observation of Dr. Harvey, de gen. Anim. Exerc. 16. The Bulla or Punctum sali­ens (which saith he maketh the Heart) is made before the Brain, that elaborateth the Ani­mal Spirits. The same also doth Langly Obs. gen. Anim. affirm, and common Experience teacheth it. So that although it be question­ed, Whether or no the Blood be formed be­fore the Heart, yet it is certain that the Bulla saliens is formed before the Brain.

From which Experimental Observations I shall gather these Conclusions.

First, the motion of the Heart in fieri can­not proceed from an influx of Animal spirits. [...] panctum saliens; which is the Heart in [...] its motion before either Brain or [...] are framed to elaborate and convey [...] spirits to it, according to the [...] Observation.

[...], neither can the Pulse be from the [...] or Ebullition of blood in the [...] of the Heart, for according to the se­cond and third Observations, That which came from the Arteries was far enough from Ac­cension, being pale and dilute like broth, and (as Dr. Lower intimateth) was far from the colour and nature of Blood. From the two Observations before cited from Dr. Lower, Dr. Gibson, in the Anat. Hum. Bod. Epitom. l. 2. c. 5. concludeth a full confutation of that [Page 107] Opinion, viz. Pulsation is from Ebullition and Accension of Blood in the ventricles of the Heart. Which may be farther denied by the first Observation, for the blood was all poured out of the ventricles of the Puppie's heart, so that there was none left to make either Ebullition or Accension.

Thirdly, Neither could the Pulse be from a continued influx of Animal spirits from the Brain. For according to the first Observa­tion, All influx of Spirits was stoped; be­cause the Puppie's and Frog's Hearts were cut off from their Nerves, by which the spirits do flow, if any at all.

Fourthly, Neither can it be from the Re­spiration of the Lungs; for by the first Obser­vation, the Hearts of them Animals cut off from the Lungs, much more the pieces, did yet continue Beating▪ And in an Embryo there is Pulsation of the Bulla saliens before the Lungs are formed, and long before they have any Respiration.

Fifthly, Neither from the impression of Subtile Matter, for that concludeth for a ge­neral, but not a particular motion; nor why the Heart should keep a Regular Systole and Diastole. Because the subtile Matter being in continual motion, would press against all the fibres at all times; so that the Heart would remain either in a Systole, or a Diastole. Be­sides, as Diemerbroeck argueth, This subtile Matter would restore the motion of the heart [Page 108] whist warm, and so always recover life in creatures that are strangled.

Sixthly, Neither can it be from the vivifick spirit in the blood; for by the first Observa­tion, The Pulse continued after the blood was poured out of the ventricles, and a stop put to all influx of fresh blood. And by Observ. 2. and 3. its proved, That when the whole mass of blood was almost emptied, and the rest watery and dilute, the heart retained its Pulse; yet the vivifick spirit of the blood must have been for the greatest part evacuated with the blood.

I shall now proceed to lay down, what I guess to be the genuine cause of Sanguification and Motion of the Heart, although this may be accounted one of Nature's Secrets, and too abstruse for Us peremptorily to determine. And first for Sanguification.

In the begining of Conception, the Spiri­tuous part of the Seed by heat is excited and collected into the Punctum or Bulla saliens from this Spirit as from a Fermentative sub­stance by the vis Plastica or Archeus are all the Parts of the body deduced. For according to Dr. Harvey's Observation, the Bulla saliens is first formed, from which are derived San­guincous fibres, and one part after another framed, until the whole Compages of the Body is perfected. Whether according to the sen­timents [Page 109] of Dr. Harvey, the blood be first made, and the Heart afterwards for the mo­tion of the Blood, or, according to Diemer­broeck, the Heart be made before the first Blood, it is not very material. For on both sides it is concluded, That the vivifick spirit of the Semen is the first Former either of Blood or Heart. This Spirit having got some Blood for his Vehicle, and being by Heat stirred up and dilated, doth enlarge its Do­micile the Punctum saliens; for being too close pent up doth endeavour for an eruption by particular assaults, which is the first cause of Pulsation. As the Ferment is increased by the addition of new Matter from the Colliqua­mentum Seminis at first, and other Matter af­terwards; so the vivifick Spirit doth farther dilate it self in the blood, uutil it hath formed the Veins and Arteries for its Channels, and as a Workman, according to the Divine Im­press stamped at first by God Almighty on blind Matter, or by the Direction of the Ar­cheus, (as Helmont calls it, but as for the Name of that Directive Power call it as you please) hath made every part of the whole Body. This vivifick acrimonious Spirit doth not on­ly forme out of convenient Matter, but also inhere in the Parts formed, more or less, and giveth to every Part a peculiar Property or Ferment, as That of the Stomach for Chylifica­tion, That of the Heart for Sanguification, &c.

[Page 110] But suppose that the first blood should be formed before the Punctum Saliens, and the Heart contribute nothing thereto. Yet it must be granted that Things proceed other­ways in Adult Animals, then they do at the first formation. As for Instance; There is Motion before the Brain or Nerves are form­ed, yet none now deny that Office to the Brain of elaborating the Animal Spirits that serve for Motion. The Embryo is nourished and encreased before the Stomach and other parts serving for Concoction are made; yet after they are made in a perfect Foetus and in adult Persons, none except through a Spirit of Contradiction will deny them to serve for Concoction; so that the Heart by his Acri­monious Spirit implanted therein may serve for Sanguification, which I imagine to be as thus.

So soon as the Chyle is mixed with the Blood, the Vital Spirit and other active Prin­ciples do work upon the Chyle to assimilate it to its own nature. By the Stomachical Ferment the Salt, Sulphur, and Spirit of the Chyle are almost set at liberty from the grosser parts of the Aliment; so that the Active Principles of the Blood soon add to their Exaltation. When the Chyle with the Venal blood is en­tered the right ventricle of the Heart, the Heart addeth a new Ferment thereto, and sendeth it into the Lungs, where it receiveth a farther Alteration from the Nitrous Particles [Page 111] of the Air admited by Inspiration, and inti­mately there mixed with its Compages, where the blood also receiveth from the Air its flo­rid Colour: As may be seen by several Ex­periments of Dr Lower's, and also by expose­ing Venal blood to the open Air, for the su­perficial part next the air will be of a florid Red, but the under part of a Blackish colour. Let the blackish part be turned to the air, and its superficies will be of a light red▪ in the left ventricle of the heart it receiveth a more perfect mixture, and entereth the Aorta un­der the form of Blood, and is of a Scarlet co­lour, until the air is transpired through the pores of the skin. But Chyle is not perfect­ly and exactly assimilated to the blood, until it hath run through many Circulations.

The most subtile and acrimonious part of the vivifick spirit planted in the heart from its original giveth its Ferment, by which the humors receive an Effervescence and Dilata­tion (if capable thereof) and more or less as they are inclinable thereto. Even as Gun­powder that of it self hath no heat, but by fire doth soon dilate and hath a great efferve­scence: So doth the blood by the ferment of the heart, and by the dilatation of the blood the sides of the ventricles of the heart are mo­lested, and the fibres of the heart are irritated and provoked to expel the oppressing blood. After the expulsion the Heart remains in its [Page 112] Diastole, until by a supply of fresh blood there is a new Dilatation and then a Systole. But to a Systole, besides the vivifick Spirit inhe­rent in the Heart, the Animal spirits as in o­ther Muscular motion are called in to help, supposing a free passage; for else what mean­eth so many Nerves derived to the Heart.

The Hearts of Puppies, Frogs, &c. cut from their bodies, and the ventricles emptied from blood, will keep (as long as natural warmth) their Pulsation. Because the vivi­fick acrimonious spirit placed in the Heart, by heat is set on work to ferment and dilate the blood contained in the Pores and Inter­stices of the fleshy substance of the Heart, and by irritation of the fibres is made a Systole and then a Diastole until the blood contained in the Pores do suffer a new Dilatation; to which both vital and Animal spirits as yet unspent, that will make a tremulous motion for some time after the death of an Animal, do concur.

The Third principal Fermental Digestion is That of the Brain, which is well appointed with blood-vessels, that serve as Channels to convey Matter to every part of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum. Nature hath so provided for a supply of Matter, That as Dr. Willis hath observed, Non modò arterias cum venis, verùm quod rarius & ferè singulare est, arterias cum arteriis; nempe arterias Carotides unius lateris [Page 113] pluribus in locis uniuntur cum carotidibus alteri­us; insuper vertebrales utriusque lateris inter sese & in posteriores carotidum ramos prius uni­tos inosculantur. Anat. Cereb. c. 7 From the blood thus conveyed by the Carotidal and Vertebral arteries, the purer and more subtile Spirituous part is carried into the Brain by the winding Meanders of the Arteries, whilst the Grosser part is absorbed and carried back by the Veins, and the Serum imbibed by the Glandules and Lympheducts, in order to be restored to a fresh Circulation. The manner how the Animal spirits are produced Dr. Willis de ferm. c. 5. sheweth by a Similitude. As in making highly rectified spirit of Wine with a glass Alembick, a Sponge being put in­to its Pipe, only the most subtile part can pass; so from the hot rari [...]ied blood, only the most Subtile spirit (as it were distilled) can pass through the Cortical substance of the Brain. This Liquor thus distilled doth obtain a higher degree of perfection, because the Brain abounding with a volatile Salt doth much exalt these distilled Spirits; so that they are as it were endowed with a Ferment, and by their volatile Salt penetrate like Spirit of Harts horn, more than Spirit of Wine.

Cartesius seems to refer it to the Glandula Pinealis separating the Spirits from the Ple­xus Choroides. But his Opinion being so wide from Truth, as may be soon made appear by a [Page 114] [...]rutiny into the Nature of Glandules, I shall p [...]ss it by.

Riolanus would ascribe it to the ventricles [...] the Brain; but for a full confutation there­ [...] I shall refer the Reader to Dr. Wepfer, de [...], only adding this Observation of my [...].

[...] was called to a Youth about eight years [...], whom I found much complaining of a [...] and Dulness of his Head, with a [...] inclination to sleep. His head I observ­ [...] [...] exceed in bigness all the other parts in a [...] proportion. The Distemper I found [...] a Hydrocephalus, and from the Symp­ [...] might easily perceive it a fore-runner of [...] that did soon ensue. I opened his [...], and before sufficient Testimony poured [...] the ventricles of the brain near a full [...] and half of clear Lympha like Rock [...] which would certainly have hindred any [...] of Animal spirits there, and all [...] into the Nerves from thence, [...] seeing his Senses remained clear, and [...] for a long time gradually increased. [...] then it is that the Animal [...] elaborated in the Cortical or Ash- [...] part of the brain, by the saline ferment [...] [...]rcolation through the pores of the [...] ▪ So that the Animal spirits only by [...] high exaltation and purification differ [...] Vital spirits, which latter are the [...] of the former.

[Page 115] Spirits thus elaborated are by others suc­ceeding them impelled into the medullous part of the brain or Corpus callosum, where they have a large place to exercise the Phansy; in the Plicae of the Brain to lay up Ideas for the Memory; and in the Corpora striata to exer­cise the Sensus communis; and according as they are directed along the Nerves to per­form Motion, or as they receive Impressions undulating backward to perform the Exter­nal Senses.

Probable also is the Opinion of Willis and Diemerbroeck, That there is a Succus Nervo­sus or Nervous juice, serving as a spirituous ferment to separate the Nutritive parts from the Blood. As the Blood supplieth Matter, so the Nervous Juice is as an Active Form in Nutrition. And good Reason may be given for this Opinion; for in a Palsie, wherein the Nerves are obstructed, although the Parts are imbued with a constant supply of warm blood, yet the Parts will fade away for want of Nourishment assimilated to them, as a sup­ply to that which was lost; because the succus nervousus is wanting, which precipitateth the Nutritive Matter from the rest of the blood.

Next to the three principal Ferments com­eth in That of the Spleen. As for the opinion of Dr. Glisson, lib. de Hep. cap▪ 45. that the Spleen doth prepare an Alimentary juice that is imbibed by the Nerves, and by them carried [Page 116] up to the Brain, and back again through the N [...]rves to the parts of the whole body, to me it seems irrational; that the same juice should be carried to and fro through the same vessels, and that an Acid juice (for such is that of the Spleen) should be supposed to be a vehicle for the Animal Spirits that are a volatile Al­kali. The proper Use then I imagine as thus.

The Spleen by its Ferment placed therein ab origine, doth with the Nervous juice depo­sited in the Glandules by the extremities of Nerves terminating in them, cause an Acidity in the blood brought by the Arteries. By which Acidity the Bile consisting much of re­torrid [...]ixivial Salt, is hastened towards a se­paration, even as by mixture with other Al­kalis and Acids may be seen: so that the blood reduced from the Spleen by the Ramus spleni­cus doth in the Liver soon make a Secretion of its Choler.

An Acid Ferment may well be supposed in the Spleen from its natural structure; which is chiefly made up of membranous Cells like the holes of a Hony-comb, about which the ends of the blood-vessels are twisted like the Tendrils of a Vine. Now here the Glandules, as in other parts of the body, may be well sup­posed to contain an Acid juice, and may the sooner impress its ferment on the blood by its little stay in the cells, before it is carried away with the subsequent streams. For a large ac­count [Page 117] hereof I shall refer the Reader to Mal­pighius de Liene.

The Seminal parts both in male and fe­male seem to be highly endowed with a Fer­ment; insomuch that the Sal, Sulphur, and Mercury, are as it were exalted into a noble Elixir, from which the Embryo taketh its rise; I mean the semen in males and the ova in fe­males, for both by the ferments of the Geni­tal parts are elaborated out of blood. The manner how is too large for me here to de­scribe, and may be seen in ample manner in Harvey and de Graef.

It is beyond my intention to take upon me here to dispute, whether or not Milk is made by a bare transcolation through the Mammil­lary Glandules, or by an innate Ferment of the Dugs; or how the Bile is separated in the Li­ver, or whether all the Glandules of our bo­dies are endowed with a Specifick ferment. But this we may lay down as a Truth, viz. That the Archeus in the first formation hath bestowed on every Part a peculiar configura­tion of Pores, and a fermental Digestion to receive its proper Aliment, and convert it into a similar substance to repair that which was lost, and hath assigned a peculiar Office to every particular part.


AS from the fermental Digestions in their full vigour and lustre the Organs have that which is requisite to their functions, and consequently Health is entire; so from their diminution and depravation Distempers take their Original. The Concoction of the Sto­mach and other fermental Digestions of the body may suffer by the inordinate Use of the Sex Non-naturalia; but I shall take a short survey of Diseases as they are immediately de­rived from the disordered Ferments.

The Stomachical Ferment may be vitiated, so as to leave a twofold Errour on the Ali­ment, viz. Crudity and Over-acidity, which concur to laying the foundation of many Di­stempers. In this sense I mean, viz. That All Diseases cannot be immediately derived from This, or the Other particular ferment, but that the Generality of Distempers owe their original to the Error of Fermental Digestions, the one many times concurring as a Procatar­tick, and another as a Proximate cause.

When the Stomachical ferment is debili­tated, the Aliment receives an imperfect [Page 119] Concoction; whence a flatus is excited and a Pain in the Stomach, with an inclination to vomiting and abhorrence of Dyet. If it pass thus crude through the Pylorus into the Inte­stines, it lays a foundation of a Diarrhoea, Worms, Obstruction of the Misentery, &c.

An Error in the first Concoction cannot be corrected in the second; wherefore the crude Alimentary juice being conveyed through the Lacteal and Thoracical vessels, and so a­way to the Heart, doth cause a spurious and febrile conflict with the Principles of Sangui­fication; and according to the quantity of the depraved Aliment, that in 24 or 48 hours &c doth rise ad turgescentiam, and able to vie (as it were) with the blood, so it giveth the difference betwixt Quotidian, Tertian, or Quartan Agues, &c. as several modern Au­thors have observed. And as it is a cause of Intermittent, so also it layeth a foundation of Continual fevers, according as the Principles of the blood by this depraved Ferment be­come too much exalted. For if the Spirituous part be highly inflamed, then a febris Synochus or Ephemera; if the Sulphureous part be ex­alted, or a Putrefaction of Humors in the blood-vessels, then a Putrid fever; if a conta­gious Miasma be added, then a Malignant fe­ver, such as the Plague, small Pox, Measles, But whether this vitiated Juice be made so by the vitiated Bilis and Lympha, as Sylvius de [Page 120] le boe would have it, is not to my purpose to dispute.

If the vitiated Succus Nutritius arrive to the Brain, and by Obstruction of the Pores hindereth the Third Digestion, viz. the ela­borating of Animal Spirits, or stop their mo­tion, or subvert the volatizing Ferment of the Brain, it causeth an Apoplexie, Lethargy, Coma, or Carus. And according as the Nerves are obstructed, and the Spirits with their ve­hicle the succus Nervosus defiled and stoped in their passage, thence a Palsie great or less. And as the vitiated juice hath passed the Cor­tical substance of the Brain, and is confused with the Animal spirits, so as to cause an irri­tation of the Nerves and explosion of the A­nimal spirits, it causeth Epilepsies, Convulsions, &c.

To these Distempers the depraved Ferment of the Spleen doth contribute; for when the bilious Particles are not evacuated, but by long fermentation become retorrid and gross, then the Melancholy adust terrestrious blood subverteth the refined Texture of the Animal spirits, and bringeth on them a mighty gloo­miness, whence Melancholy Phancies; and as it impresseth its labes on the Spirits and Genus Nervosum, so it concurreth to Hypochondriacal Fits, and many Nervous diseases.

Every part in the body receiving a Succus Nutritius from the blood is deprived of its [Page 121] due nourishment, when the fermental Digesti­ons are deficient, and the Aliment unprepa­red: instead then of assimilating the succus nutritius to each Part, it being a succus depra­vatus doth instead of assimilation cause Apost­humations, Tumors, Ʋlcers, &c.

As the too much debilitated, so also the too great or over-acidity of the Stomachical fer­ment will be as a Ground-work for many Enormities. A proportionate Acidity (as I intimated before) is a cause of Digestion; so too great, and especially when alienated from its natural Crasis, is a cause of Coagulation, Precipitation, and Fixation, and consequently of Indigestion. Besides the Appetitus Caninus caused by an exorbitant Acid gnawing the stomach; and the Pica and Malacia from a depraved Ferment, causing an inordinate ap­petite after objects unfit for Aliment, as Chalk, Stones, &c. a parallel▪ instance may be given (of Precipitation, Coagulation, and Fixation of the Aliment by too great acidity of the Ferment,) I mean that of our Cooks Pickling, as of Sampier, Cucumbers, &c. whose Pores are filled with the points of the acid Particles fixing themselves in clammy matter, which put a stop to an ingress of fermentative Parti­cles from the Air that may tend to the dissolu­tion of the Compages, and so are as a coat of Defence from putrefaction. And as the aere­ous particles are not allowed free passage, so [Page 122] neither are the fermentative particles of the Stomachical Digestion admited to enter, and raise a luctation with the active principles of the Aliment, whose parts are as it were linked together by the acid particles of the Pickle, that the Stomachical ferment cannot tear them in pieces, except when they are taken in a small proportionate quantity, and not able to out-vie That of the primary Digestion. A [...] instance may be taken from salted and dryed [...]ats, as Beef, Bacon, &c. which we [...] of a hard Digestion, and unfit for a weak stomach, because its parts are tied together and pores obstructed by saline Particles, and not to be freed and set in motion without a Ferment stronger than the Coagulation.

And that the Depraved ferment by over-acidity in the primary Digestion is a cause of many disorders, yea whilst in the stomach af­fecting its Orifice causeth Ructatio acida, Car­dialgia, Ardor cum dolore, &c. may be con­cluded from their cure by fixed Alkalis, as Sylvius doth observe, whose property is to correct and destroy an Acid; and therefore in these cases may rationally (besides Expe­rience proves it) recommend Coral, Crabs-eyes, Margarites, Chalybis limatura, &c. Sylv. de al [...]. serm. in ventric laesâ Prax. med. lib. 1. c. 7.

This exorbitant Acid sent into the Inte­stines may, (with sharp vapours excited there­from) [Page 123] cause an Iliack Passion, Disenteries, Cho­lick, &c. But if it be conveyed to the Blood-vessels, so as to pass the stage of the second Di­gestion, it doth destroy the sweet Balsamick Crasis of the Blood; and by altering its ge­nuine texture doth give occasion to some of its Principles to become too much exalted, and as the ingenious Dr. Willis, de Fermentatione & Febribus hath proved, doth produce seve­ral Diseases; but its Effects may principally be discerned in Putrid and Intermittent Fevers: The Phaenomena of which latter Fran, de le Boc Sylvius de febr. ingeniously solveth from a spurious acid succus Pancreaticus and deprav­ed Bilis making sudden Eruptions into the In­testines, and a mutual Conflict with each o­ther, yea when absorbed by the vessels into the blood.

Not only the debilitated (as I said before) but also the over-acid and vitiated Ferment may concur to the Production of many Di­stempers; for it precipitating the sweet and well-poised Temperament of the Blood, giv­eth Fluidity to its Compages, and from thence an Exaltation of its sulphureous and saline Parts. This Dyscrasia sulphureo-salina and salino-sulphurea impressed on the Blood and Genus Nervosum giveth Being to the Scurvy, which sheweth it self by its vitiated Ferment in various Dresses over the whole body, such as Weariness, Dulness of Spirits, Spots, Swel­lings, Asthma, Change of Urine, flying Pains, [Page 124] stinking Breath▪ Rheumatisms, Gout, &c.

Among the Distempers derived from a Pravity in the second Digestion may be reck­oned the Dropsie, and not as Sennertus, follow­ing the footsteps of ancient Physitians, laying it upon an ill Constitution of the Liver, would have it. For on all hands it being allowed to be from a Non-separation or an Abundance of Serous Humors retained in the body, want of a due Ferment (to the destroying of which an exorbitant Acidity will in no small measure concur) as well as an Obstruction in the Ves­sels or viscera, may much contribute thereto. For when the Saline and Sulphureous particles are deficient in their due state and proportion, either by want of Aliment, or by consuming Chronical Diseases, or by a depraved Stoma­chical Ferment communicating it self to the Alimentary juice received into the blood, or by want of a due access of Air, or by a mix­ture of heterogeneous things with the Ali­ment; then the blood becomes too much di­lute and watery. As by Obstructions in the Urinary and other Passages, so the loss of a due Ferment (as many Cases might be produced of an Ischaria or Suppression of Urine by a meer defect of Fermentation in order to a Secre­tion) to lax the Contents in the Blood-vessels, or rather to make a Secretion, the Urinous Latex is not separated from the blood, but regurgitates in its Vessels, until Nature over-burdened [Page 125] layeth it down in the Habit of the body▪ thence an Anasarca; or in the Abdo­men, and thence an Ascites; and if with a fla­tus in the Cavity of the lower Region, thence a Tympanites.

Besides the Usual causes of a Consumption of the Lungs, such as an Ill-conformation of the Breast, an Hereditary weakness in the Lungs and Inclination, precedent Diseases as Pleuritis, Empyema, Variolae, &c. obstruction of the Lympheducts of the Lungs, unwhosome Air, and acrious Steams, a spurious Acidity impressed on the Blood and the Genus Nervo­sum hath no small share; in as much as the Corroding humor will soon exulcerate the Lungs, or at least excite the Diathesis morb [...]s [...] of them.

Beside the exorbitant Ferment of the Kid­neys (if any there be) and their lax Compage [...] too much percolating the Serum from the Blood, this inordinate Acidity causing a too loose Contexture of Parts, and consequently too great a Secretion of Serous humors, doth much concur to the foundation of a Diabetes. As an Ischury many times doth not so much depend on the Stone or Obstruction of the Urinary vessels, but on a too strict and fa [...] compages of the blood, when for want of a Saline ferment the Serous parts remain unse­parated; so from too much Acidity, too great [Page 126] a Secretion, and consequently a Diabetes.

This spurious Acidity assaulting and com­bining with the Tartareous recrements of our bodies, doth coagulate into Gravel or Stones commonly in the Urinary passages. For all Stony Concretions take their Original either from a viscous Matter, or fabulous Earth congealed together by a Saline Agent, as Nitre, Alum, Sal Gemma, &c. or by a Se­minal petrifying Juice, whence many stony Concretions take their growth, as Coral, Co­ralline Moss, and many other Marine Concre­tions. Yea perhaps it might be truly assert­ed, that Rocks take their growth from the Plastick power of a petrifying Seed.

If this depraved Acidity arrive with the Blood to the Brain, so as to cause Obstructi­ons, (which are as Bars to stop a generation of fresh Animal Spirits) or to deprave its Fer­ment, it effecteth a Coma, Lethargy, Carus or Apoplexie, according as an acid, serous, or o­therways vitiated humor hath entered the Brain more or less, and the Spirits retire from the outward parts of the Brain, or are incapacitated for Motion. But if a putrid recremental sordes hath entered with, and de­filed them Animal spirits that are generated, it causeth an Explosion of the Spirits until they have shaken off the heterogeneous Matter of­fending, as in an Epilepsie, Convulsions, Swoon­ings, &c.

[Page 127] If for a Nutritive juice to be conveyed to each part, that by its proper digestive fer­ment assimilateth a convenient matter to re­pair that which was lost, a sowr fretting Hu­mor is advanced in its place; instead of Nu­trition many Diseases are occasioned. For the peculiar ferment of each part being hereby depraved. That matter which should be Nu­tritive, will become a sharp corrosive sub­stance or humor, as in Cancers, Fistulas, Ʋl­cers, Aposthumations, Leprosies, Inflammations, Strumas, Scabies, and many other maladies.

If the thus depraved Aliment reach the Ge­nus Nervosum, but not so powerfully as to pro­duce a multitude of Infirmities incident to that kind, yet sufficient to cause the Succus nervosus to degenerate from a volatile spiri­tuous Ferment into an Acid humor, and by the extremities of the Nerves to be laid down in the Synodia of the joints and the extremi­ties of the Organs, where the nervous fibres end, and it there meeteth with a Tartareous or fixed humor from the blood; the Gout taketh its off-spring, or at least is excited from a latent hereditary Seed. From the combination of these different saline humors (even as from spirit of Vitriol and oyl of Tar­tar) cometh white hard Coagulums or No­dings; and by the irritation of the nervous fibres a flux of Humors, and consequently So­lutio Continui is the Result; whence the Gout, [Page 128] attended with his various symptoms or wracking Torments, approacheth Champion-like almost irresistible. The Gout Enemy-like having one displayed his Colours, how easily are its forces increased by the eating of Salt-meats, drinking of Acid liquors, and French-Wines much abounding with a Tartareous Salt: which maketh the aforesaid Cause ve­ry probable.

It may be objected, That if a spurious Acid or depraved Fermental juice of the first Di­gestion be thus transferred from the stomach through the subsequent Digestions, as to lay a foundation of so many Distempers; then from a depraved stomachical Ferment, the Diseases resulting from the second and third Princi­pal, and other peculiar Digestions, will all arise together, because the same depraved Alimen­tary juice is carried in a very small time through them all.

Answ. An Error in the first Digestion be­ing not corrected in the second or subsequent, thence it will follow; That an Error in the stomachical Ferment will be as a Proximate or at least as a Procatartick Cause of many Di­seases immediately ensuing the Digestions sub­sequent to the first. Yet it may not be con­cluded, that it always concureth as a necessa­ry Cause. For many times Distempers are the very Products of, and are derived from the Depravation of latter Digestions, with­out [Page 129] any previous disposition from the prima­ry Ferment; as the Depraved ferment of Sanguification or Production of Animal Spi­rits may be no less hurtful to our bodies, when it is immediately derived from the Errors of subsequent Digestions, than when it is laid in the stomachical or first Ferment.

Thus the Blood wanting a vital Ferment in the Heart and Arteries, or its usual volati­sing Ferment from the Air, for want of a due Secretion of its recremental sordes, by Ob­structions of the vessels, want of Perspiration, and inordinate use of the Sex Non-naturalia, &c. will cause Fevers, Scurvies, or other Di­stempers incident to the blood, when the sto­machical Ferment may be entire.

The Brain also being too lax or weakened by the irregular use of the Six Non-naturalia, or by the illness of them, or otherways hav­ing lost its saline volatising Ferment, may of it self give occasion to many Distempers inci­dent to the Genus Nervosum.

The Womb in the Female sex by its pecu­liar Ferment causeth an inturgescence of the Uterine blood-vessels, so as to open them, and make a Lunar Evacuation of the superfluous blood; which by the intention of Nature is designed for the nourishment of the foetus, but if there be no Conception (excepting impe­diments) [Page 130] then a Menstrual flux. If the blood-vessels be obstructed by gross humors, or their orifices closed by Cold, &c. then the superfluous blood ready for Expulsion con­tracts a violent acrimony, and regurgitates with the circulating blood to the Heart and Brain, whence Syncopes, Palpitations of the Heart, Faintings, Convulsions, Suffocation of the Lungs, yea many other Distempers according as the Blood and the Vital Spirits are tainted, or the Animal de [...]iled. Instances might be given of an Epilepsie, Palsie, Tumors, Scurvy, &c. occasioned by the stopage of the Men­strual course, which seem to be from the enor­mities of the second and third Digestion; but the febris alba peculiar to this sex with its u­sual symptoms plainly illustrateth, that the Menstrual Obstruction may ill affect the second and third Digestion.

Not only in the Female, but also in the Male the Spermatick vessels, exorbitant or deficient in their Ferment, may produce dire­ful disasters.

The Spleen by its ferment helpeth to sub­lime and exalt the seculent and terrestrious parts of the blood brought by the Arteries, so that by the Splenical ferment the blood re­turneth in the veins far more pure with its exalted Principles, and [...]itter to deposite the the [...]ile in the Liver. But when the Spleen is ill-affected, the blood either over-ferment­eth, [Page 131] as in the Scorbutick and Hypochondria­cal diseases; but if obstructed or Scirrous, the blood is deprived of its due ferment, and thence may occasion a Dropsie, Cachexie, &c.

To these may be added the depraved fer­ment of each Part, all-sufficient to produce Maladies in them, yea when the foregoing Di­gestions are in good plight. But I shall not insist thereon, having taken a short Abridg­ment of most of the Distempers incident unto our bodies, which may lead me to an Enquiry after the Vertue of this Ilmington-Spaw.


AFter a short Cursory of Diseases, I come next to enquire into the Medicinal Use of this [...]mington-Spaw; and finding it to be a Chalybeat Spring, a little Scrutiny into the [...] Artificia Preparations of Mars [...] to our business in hand.

[...] a Chymical Analysis is found to [...] Sulphur, and Earth, as the three [...] Constitutive [...]ngredients, with a [...] of Water and a less of Spirit. [...] say not, that These are the first Principles, [...] other Metals is derived from Wa­ter or a Nutritive Succus as a more remote, [...] Matter indeterminate as the real primary Element) but that They are such which do immediately make up the Body of Iron, and [...] it as such an Object to our Senses.

Chalybs or Steel doth differ from Iron only by Calcination with Horns, Claws, and Hoofs of Animals, or with such like Alkalis laid stratum super stratum: Which by their Alka­lizate volatile Salts do carry away in Calcina­tion many of the soluble parts of Iron, and [Page 133] destroy much of its Acidity. So that Steel is of a more fast and hard body, or of a closer texture of Parts than Iron, and doth much partake of an Alkalizate Salt.

The vertue and operation of Mars doth chiefly depend on its Saline and Sulphureous parts, and according as they are more or less set at liberty from the terrestrious, so a Pre­paration is more or less Medicinal. The usu­al Compositions are [...] Martis aperitivus cum [...] aqua, vel aceto. 2. Crocus Martis [...] 3. Tinctura Mar­tis. 4. Extractum Martis. 5. Mars diapho­reticus. 6. Vitriolu [...]. Martis

1. Crocus Martis aperitivus cum sulphure is made by applying a Butt of Brimstone to a hot Bar of Iron, or by calcining the Filings of Iron with Sulphur in an earthen pot or Cru­cible. In either way the Acids of Sulphur do penetrate the body of Mars, so as in the ope­ration to carry off much of the sulphureous parts of Iron, but by the addition of the acid parts of Sulphur to much increase the Saline. Some of the Sulphureous do yet remain, is apparent by the setid savour in Belchings af­ter the taking of this Crocus. That the Sa­line part is increased, is clear; because the Weight of the Iron will be increased by the Preparation. For Sixteen ounces of good Iron, by weighing after the Operation is [Page 134] ended, will yield Eighteen or Nineteen (ex­cept the Calcination be vehement, which is needless) of Crocus.

This is an excellent Preparation, and work­eth good effects upon a twofold account, viz. 1. because of its Sulphur, 2. its Salt. The Sulphur will enrich and add a new sup­ply to a cold watery blood, so that in the Fe­bris alba, Pica, and Leucophlegmatia, it will reduce the pale-faced Patient to a florid com­plexion; because of its Salt it is a good De­oppilative, as in Uterine obstructions and those maladies peculiar to the Female sex, and in the Dropsie may be of good use because of its vitriolick Stipticity, that bindeth up the laxity of vessels and other parts.

In the making of Crocus Martis cum aceto, the Sulphureous parts are almost separated, insomuch that after it is swallowed down it yieldeth but a weak sulphureous savour. But by addition of the Acid parts of Vinegar, the Saline Principle of Mars is so much exalted and advanced so near an Acid; that by instil­lation of other Acids it will scarce make any effervescence or ebullition at all, yea weaker than Crocus cum Sulphure, that maketh a far less ebullition with Acids than plain filings of Iron.

This Crocus in the Preparation having lost much of its Sulphur, is unfit for use when the blood is too low, or depauperated in its Bal­samick [Page 135] Sulphur; as in diseases proceeding from a waterish blood, or from phlegmatick Obstructions. But where the blood is retor­rid or adust, this Crocus cum Aceto by its Sa­line Principle being cool and aperient is of good use, as in Hypochondriacal distempers, Carbuncled faces, and to astringe a laxed blood-vessel, because of the saline stiptick Principle implexed in the Terrestrious.

Crocus Martis cum Aqua is made by expos­ing Plates or Filings of Iron to the Rain or Dew, until it hath contracted a Rust, which collected is called Crocus Martis cum Aqua, or ferri Rubigo. This Crocus consisteth of the sulphureous, saline, and terrestrious parts combined together; yea indeed it is the very substance of Iron, having its pores much open­ed by the Dissolvent or Saline parts of Water; which not only maketh its Pores more open, but by combining with it maketh this Crocus an excellent Aperient medicine, whose Deop­pilative vertue chiefly dependeth on this Salt.

The Sulphur of Iron being retained in this Preparation renders it a fit ferment for blood, whose active Principles are weak and faint: And the Saline part (being exalted by That of the Dissolvent Water that much laxeth the body of Mars) renders it a good Aperient in Obstructions, as of the Liver, Spleen, Mesen­tery, Lacteal vessel, or Womb with its cohe­rent parts.

[Page 136] Crude filings of Iron taken inwardly may be dissolved by the Acid stomachical Ferment, as by extraneous Acid Menstruums, which may be concluded from the fetid strong scent­ed Smell, and the blackness of their Excre­ments that take it unprepared. But then it must be a strong robust Constitution, able to bear the Iron in its solid substance; but in Constitutions where the acid stomachical fer­ment is weak, there is danger, lest that the Filings should remain undissolved and cause Obstructions, or else grating on the Tunicles of the Intestines cause wracking Torments. Besides, the Sulphureous part of filings of Iron unprepared will more increase the Ferment of the Blood than the Saline stiptick can repress; which maketh it unfit for Use in hot Consti­tutions, or in Distempers proceeding from a wracking fiery Blood. And if the Filings of Iron be of so hard a Dissolution, much more these of Steel whose substance is more fast and compact, and pores more closed, that its Dissolution must be more difficult.

2. Crocus Martis astringens is made by cal­cining of Filings or Plates of Iron in a strong fire, which carrieth away the saline and sul­phureous parts that made it an Aperient me­dicine. Some wash the Iron, in order to the Preparation, with fair Water or Vinegar; which not only with frequent Washings may carry away much of the drossy impurities, [Page 137] but also take away or at least destroy much of its volatile Salt and soluble Parts, that must afterwards by the violence of [...]ire have been consumed or else disposed for a separa­tion. The terrestrious part of the Iron being deprived of the active Principles (for by a strong Calcination those few that remain are become fixed) it imbibeth the saline igneous Particles, which remain fixed therein. And being much deprived of its Salt that renders it a Deoppilative, it is become a proper Astringent to be used in a Diarrhoea, Breaking of a vein, Flux of Haemorrhoids, immoderate Lunar evacuation in women, &c. for besides the Astringency it is endowed with, it will imbibe much of the exorbitant Acidity of our bodies, seeing it is deprived much of its Saline principle.

3. Tinctura Martis, made with Rust or Fil [...] ­ings of Iron and white Tartar boiled together in fair water, is an excellent Aperitive: for besides the dissolved Mars, the Tartar is also a great Assistant, especially in diseases pro­ceeding from an acid Humor. Whence it may be of good effect in a Cach [...]xie, Dropsie, Ʋterine obstruction, and Hypochondriacal Di­stempers.

4. Extractum Martis made with the phlegm of Honey, juice of the White-wine Grapes throughly brought to maturity, and the juice of Lemons, hath its aperient faculty not only [Page 138] from the Iron, but also from the saline part of the Menstruum. Now this Menstruum be­ing not very corrosive, doth dissolve only the saline and soluble parts of Mars, but leaveth the gross and terrestrious parts behind. So that the saline parts of Iron impregnated with the Essential salts of the Menstruum, maketh it a good Opener of Obstructions, such as those of the Liver, Spleen, Mesentery, or of the other viscera of the Abdomen.

5. Mars Diaphoreticus made from Rust of Iron and Salt Armoniack sublimed together in­to Flowers, which being dissolved in water will with oyl of Tartar or spirit of Salt Ar­moniack be precipitated in form of a Powder called Mars Diaphoreticus; which taketh its Sudorisick quality from the volatile penetrat­ing parts of Salt Armoniack, carried with and fixed in the Chalybeat particles in Sublima­tion. These volatile Salts will soon open the Pores of our bodies, especially seeing they carry with them Chalybeat Particles all-suffi­cient to cut tough viscous humors obstructing the Pores or Passages.

6. Vitriolum or Sal Martis is made from the parts of Iron dissolved in an Acid Men­struum, such as oyl of Vitriol, oyl of Sulphur, Aqua fortis, &c. but most commonly with oyl of spirit of Vitriol, which giveth the De­nomination to the Composition: yet if we [Page 139] look into the nature of the thing, we may form a like Composition of other Acids, with oyl of Sulphur, spirit of Nitre, &c. as well as with oyl or spirit of Vitriol, only changing the name into Mars sulphuratus or Sal Martis cum Sulphure, cum Nitro, &c. In the making of Sal Martis with oyl of Vitriol, and Iron either filed or in its gross substance, some Chymists will add an equal weight of spirit of Wine to the oyl of Vitriol, or else two pounds of or­dinary Water to one pound of good spirit of Vitriol. The reason of it is, because the spi­rit of Wine by its Alkalizate Salt, or else the Water may dilute and weaken the oyl or spi­rit of vitriol, that it may not incorporate with the main body of Mars, but with the saline and more soluble parts; that there may be gained a more pure Salt, freed from most of the sulphureous and terrestrious parts of Iron. In the Dissolution the saline parts of the Menstruum do joyn with these of Mars, and in the mutual conflict of Fermentation they take off and dull the edges of each other, and by combining together become a Neutral Salt.

In this Preparation the sulphureous and ter­restrious parts of Iron are separated from the saline, from which dissolved in fair water by Evaporation, Chrystallization, &c. is made sal Chalybis or vitriolum Martis.

Sal Chalybis being actuated by the Vitriol [Page 140] [...]s of a stronger operation against Obstructi­ons than Crocus Martis; but for want of the sulphurcous principle of Mars will not add so stronger Ferment to the blood, and conse­quently is not so effectual in Cachexies, nor against Diseases proceeding from a cold wa­tery constitution. But where the blood is over-fermented, where it is either Pontick, acrious, or fiery, and in Obstructions pro­ceeding from such a Dyscrasie of the Blood it may be of excellent use.

This Ilmington water (as I have proved be­fore doth derive its vertue from an Esurine Salt preying upon a Minera of Iron, which by working upon and combining with each other do become a vitriolum Martis. I shall then in the next place shew more fully as to parti­culars, wherein this Spring may be servicea­ble to our Country in respect of its Medicinal vertue, and then lay down some Cautions and Rules to be observed by the Drinkers of this Chalybeat Water.

After a short Account in the foregoing Se­ction of Diseases, how they may be derived from the Depraved digestions of our body; I shall now consider, how far this Ilmington Spring will conduce to the Restoration of the lost or vit [...]ated Ferments, and consequently be a Preservative for Health, or restore that which is impaired.

[Page 141] First, the Scurvy, being caused by a Dyscra­sie of the blood, either when its saline or sulphureous parts are too predominant, may be much corrected or curbed by this Chaly­beat Spring: In as much as the Mineral Salt is herein become near a plain Alkali, and will penetrate to the second Digestion, is able to correct the sowr saltish Blood. And being freed from the sulphureous parts of Iron, will much correct the sulphureo-saline Dycrasie, when the blood like Wine is become over-fermented or fretted. This Spring being a great Diuretick, will help to carry off that which is superfluous, and being a good Ape­rient in obstructions of the Spleen may correct its vitiated acid Ferment, that with other Enormities may concur to alter the sweet balsamick temper of the Blood.

But considering that a Crude Digestion or spurious Acid Ferment of the Stomach doth many times as a Procatartick Cause lay a foundation of the Scorbutick Ferment; this Water must be assisted with Purgatives to carry off the recremental Sordes of the Sto­mach, and other Digestions, (more especially for Cautions hereafter laid down,) and be also assisted with some peculiar Medicine to restore the blood to its sweet and well-poised Temparament, according to the Cause from whence the Dyscrasie took its Original: which requireth the Advice of a skilful Physician.

[Page 142] Secondly, the Spleen by a Specifick Ferment conduceth to a Secretion of Bilis, but if by Obstruction or Depravation it be deficient in its fermental Operation, the blood not purg­ed from its sordes doth become obscure and muddy, so that the Animal Spirits thence ela­borated are neither pure nor refined, but dark and gloomy fit for melancholy Phansies. From a long supply of such feculent blood are the Spirits spoiled, and Hypochondriacal Fitts and Melancholy take their growth.

This Spaw-water, containing a vitriolum Martis, is a good Deoppilative in Splenical obstructions, for being of a penetrating na­ture is good for these abstruse Recesses. By the Reaction and Combination of the acid salt of the Menstruum with the Alkalizate of Mars is made a Neutral Salt, but most inclin­ing to an Alkali, Whence it may be of good use to correct the spurious acid Ferment of the Spleen but now communicated to the blood.

By restoring the Spleen to his natural Fer­ment in destroying that spurious Acidity, by opening Obstructions, and its Diuretick pro­perty carrying off many of the feculent parts, the blood may be freed from the opace Me­lancholy steams that defile the Brain, the workhouse of Imagination and Judgment, and so be restored to its natural Crasis. But with­al observe, That this Water must be helped [Page 143] with Purgatives to cleanse the blood from its faeces, lest that instead of being an Aperient it should prove to be an Obstructer, especially in the Extremities of the small Capillary ves­sels, where the Blood in its Circulation is hindred by a viscous dreggy Matter; but be­sides Catharticks, where other Digestions are deficient in their office, Specificks must also be applied.

Thirdly, the Dropsie consisteth in a dilute watery blood, or rather in a Non-separation of Serum or Urinous Latex that regurgitat­eth into the blood-vessels, until it be laid down in the Habit of the body, and some­times with a flatus. The loss of secretion of this Latex is frequently from the want of a Ferment in the bood, which chiefly depend­eth on the Saline Principle as the main cause of laxing the Compages of the blood for the separation of Serous Humors. Besides the loss of a Ferment, Obstructions in the Urinous vessels and Lympheducts many times do lay a foundation to the structure of a Dropsie.

Ilmington-Spaw may be useful in this case upon a threefold Account. 1. Although sal Chalybis be freed from the sulphureous parts of that Mineral, and consequently is not (as I said before) proper by it self in Cachexies and cold Phlegmatick Distempers; yet it doth mightily take off the spurious Acidity▪ and [Page 144] laxeth the too strict compages of the blood. And this Salt coming nigh to an Alkali is a great Diuretick, fit to carry off the supera­bundant Matter. 2. The saline Particles with their Edges will cut the viscous Matter obstructing the vessels, which many times put a stop [...]o the Latex in its proper Passages. 3. It being a Stiptick Medicine may be bene­ficial to restore the debilitated Membranous parts too much laxed by the stagnating water. All which Properties do exactly correspond with the Indications of Cure of the Drop­sie. Yet we must necessarily allow Specificks and other Medicines intermixtim applied, ac­cording as the Patient is this or the other way inclined.

But withal take notice, That what is here spoken must be understood of a Dropsie in its first growth; for otherwise the gulping down of three or four Quarts of Water will help to swell up the debilitated parts, and add a great Oppression to decaying Nature.

Fourthly, from Gravel-stones in the Reins and Bladder, and also the Strangury and Dys­ury we may be relieved by drinking of this Spaw-water▪ in as much as it will destroy that exorbitant Acid combining with the Tarta­reous recrements into Gravel-stones in the U­rinary Passage, and also as a Subalkalizate take off that acrimonious Humor which caus­eth a sharp fretting Urine. Besides taking off [Page 145] that sharp Humor, that giveth increase to these stony Concretions and fretting Urine, it being drank in a large quantity, and a great Diuretick, it will keep the Current open and lax the Urinary vessels, so as to carry off much of the feculent Matter, and like a Brook with a Current-stream take with it some sandy Concretions, which in our Bodies we call Sliping of a Stone.

Whether or not a Calculus may be dissolved whilst in the Kidneys or Bladder, is not to my purpose here to enquire; for I look upon it to be beyond the vertue not only of This, but of all other Chalybeat Waters.

Fifthly, the Jaundice proceeding not only from an Obstruction of the Hepatick vessels by tough viscous [...]umors, Scirrous Tumors, &c. but also by the Saline and Sulphureous or Bilious parts of the blood, too much ex­alted and indisposed for a Separation, but dispersed over the whole body. As it happen­eth frequently after immoderate drinking of Wine or strong Liquors, that too highly fer­ment the Blood; so that the acrious particles remain unseparated, and shew themselves by a yellow Tincture of the skin.

For the Cure of the Jaundice we may have recourse to this Spaw, and that upon account of answering these two Indications. 1. It o­pens Obstructions derived from impediments in the second Digestion, and so may reduce [Page 146] the Choledochal vessels to their proper functi­ons. 2. The Vitrlolum Martis in this Water by its Stiptick Vitriolick Salt will take off these high flown acrious Particles that make too strong a Ferment, and whirl about these adust Cholerick parts, which by a due fer­ment and lax compages of the blood should have been thence separated.

Sixthly, the Lunar Evacuation of Blood in the female Sex is checked in its natural course by Obstructions in the Uterine Sanguinary vessels by viscous tough Humors, Tumors, or when their Orifices are closed by Cold, &c. The blood stopped in this Critical Evacua­tion doth regurgitate by the veins up again into the body; from whence follows a De­pravation of the vital Ferment, and thence frequently a Crudity of Humors causing the Green-sickness, Cachexie, &c. And if by stag­nating in the vessels the blood hath acquired a virulent acrimony, so as to oppress the vital Spirits, then Syncopes, Faintings, &c. but if it reach the Animal Spirits, then Epilepsies, Hy­sterical Fits, and such like Diseases will make their Assault.

In Diseases thus proceeding (for these Di­stempers may also otherways take their Rise, as from passions of the Mind Hysterical Fitts, from loss or defilements of the Spirits Lipo­thymia, Syncope, &c.) Ilmington-Spaw is of ex­cellent Use. For it will open Obstructions, [Page 147] sterge the excremental sordes, and take off the spurious Acidity that is many times ex­orbitant in the blood, and may adhere to the Orifices of the Uterine vessels, that often caus­eth the Febris alba to be of so difficult Cure in some young women. Sal Chalybis being freed from the sulphureous part of Iron, it will not be amiss to add some Crocus Martis or other prepared Medicine, that by its sulphureous Particles may increase the Sanguinary Fer­ment in Cachexie, Green sickness, &c. by which the Cure will be facilitated, and the pale-faced Patient brought to a lively Complexion.

But if there is a virulent Acrimony con­tracted, then a more Appropriate medicine is also requisite; for this Spaw will not reach the remote recesses of the Genus Nervosum. So that Specificks of a penetrating nature and a­bilities to correct the Enormities of the Di­gestions subsequent to the Stomachical, with Catharticks to purge off the faeces and dregs of our Bodies, must necessarily be required.

Seventhly, this Spaw-water drank will help to cleanse and purifie the Blood, and may be used with good success in Distempers pro­ceeding from a saline acrious Humor, or fro [...] Obstructions in the second Digestion. But nei­ther Chalybeats nor Spaw-waters will help the Disasters of the Animal Spirits suffering in their abstruse Passages. It may as a Subalka­ [...]izate correct a spurious Acidity in the blood. [Page 148] and by opening the obstructed vessels as a Di­uretick carry off much of the recremental sor­des of the blood, and so as a Remote Cause help to prevent Diseases proceeding from ex­orbitant saline Humors, such as the Gout; but cannot reduce the coagulated Salts from the Synodia of the Joynts, nor correct the spurious Acidity that hath reached the Genus Nervosum, when the Gout attended with dire­ful Symptoms doth appear.

Neither can this Chalybeat water reach the Morbisick Disposition or Seminal Idea of the Gout (more especially in persons to whom it is Hereditary) which only wanteth an Acid ferment to bring this latent Enemy upon the open Stage. This latent Seed will shew it self in growth as often as it is excited by Saline Agents, such as Salt-beef, Stale beer, French Wines, &c. Which morbid Idea first laid by the Archeus, is beyond the Power of any Spaw-water or Chalybeat, but requireth more no­ble Balsamick Arcana.

I shall now sum up the Vertue of this Spaw-water, as Van Helmont de aq. Spad. Parad. quint. doth of the German Spaws, Pawhont and Savenir, and of all such that take their Medi­cinal vertue [...]rom an Esurine Salt, and a dis­solved Minera of Iron.

This Spaw assisted with Catharticks will help their Stomachs that are loaded with a [Page 149] mucous Matter, and free us from a viscous filth that hath entered the more secret Reces­ses of the veins and viscera; but the more difficult, the more remote from the mouth. It may be used with good success in obstructi­ons of the Liver, Spleen, Reins, and viscera of the middle and lower Region, and Diseases thence depending, and may be of excellent Use to correct the Scorbutick dyscrasie of the blood, and all Distempers proceeding from an exorbitant Acid, and Tartareous Humor, by obstructions perverting the Temper of the blood.

Van Helmont (in the place before cited) determineth the Spaw-waters in the Sphere of their Activity. Potestas Aquarum non tran­scendat Hypochondrium. Non enim supra Renes, ad Cor videlicet, Pulmonem, aut Cerebrum A­quae attingunt: quocirca etiam affectibus illis ex idiopathia genuinis nisi per accidens succur­runt Spadanae. And a little after, nec Potae Spa­danae in Epidemicis, Endemicis, & Astralibus morbis, ut sunt Pestis, Pleuritis, Prunella, &c. neque conferunt plurimum quibus venenum subest, vel assumptum vel intus genitum vel contagio par­ticipatum, neque in morbis Tincturae, quales sunt Lepra, Lues Veneris, Morphea, Cancer, Epilepsia, &c. But for my part, I cannot adhere to his Opinion, viz. That we must not expect Cure of Diseases that proceed from a higher Rank than the viscera of the Abdomen: For it must needs be granted, that Diureticks enter the Blood-vessels, [Page 150] and the blood in its Circulation doth pass through the Heart, yea like a Torrent washeth all parts of the Body. Yea we are not sure of any vessels to convey this Water drank or serous Humors from the Stomach or Interstices immediately to the Kidneys, but before it can enter the blood-vessels must be conveyed above the Hypochondrium, and by the Circulating blood may be hurried to all parts of the body, until by Transpiration, Sweat, or Urine it is separated: and whilst mixed with the Blood may by its Active prin­ciples of Salt and Sulphur working upon the blood alter its depraved Crasis, and restore it to a well-poised Temperament. But though it may with the blood be carried to the re­mote Parts from the Heart, yet thence it will not follow, that this Spaw-water is able to reach and cure the Maladies of the Brain and Genus Nervosum. For besides the Contrariety of its Saline Principle to that of the Brain, a Watery blood is an unfit Subject for the ela­borating of Animal spirits. When instead of pure Blood a deluge of Water is supplied by the Arteries, the Brain seemeth as it were o­verwhelmed, and Nature to suffer: as may be concluded from the frequent observation of Water-drinkers, that after large quantities taken do feel a dulness and heaviness of Head, stupidity, and other infirmities incident to the Brain, and its Appendices the Nerves, ac­cording to the previous inclination of the [Page 151] Patient, either towards a Palsie, Lethargy, A­poplexie, &c, But this happeneth usually when the Water-drinkers proceed headlong, without preparing their Bodies, or being re­gular in their Water-course, or taking Purges to carry off the Water lodged long in the blood, and the faeces that may cause Obstru­ctions, or considering their Habit of Body and Inclination. Upon which accounts they may as soon drink for their Ruine as for the restoration of Health. Which may be spo­ken by way of Caution, but more of This in the next Section.

Instances might be produced of several Persons, that by drinking Chalybeat Waters have found relief from an Asthma, Epilepsie, Palsie, and many Distempers derived from a Pravity of the Brain and Nerves. But then as Helmont rightly adviceth, we must distinguish Diseases and their Cure by their true Causes. For Example, upon obstruction of the Menses in women there may ensue an Epilepsie, Asth­ma, or Palsie, and the Spaw water by provok­ing the Menstrual Course may free the Pati­ent: yet we must not recommend the Spaw-water as a usual Specifick to cure the Epilepsy, Apoplexie, Asthma, or Palsy; for what is done as a Procatartick Cause, and upon a seconda­ry Consequence cannot be a Specifick, nor answer the Primary Intentions of Cure. Ac­cordingly then must we stear our course, and [Page 152] act with respect to the true Cause. For these Distempers proceeding from an ill-affected Ʋterus, are far different from these that are common to both Sexes.

Whatever Helmont's Spaws might be (which, saith he, took their vertue from an Esurine Acid and a dissolved Minera of Iron) as to Use in morbis Tincturae, under which he comprehendeth the Leprosy, Morphy, &c. I shall not take upon me to determine: but yet do see no reason why this at Ilmington may not be beneficial in a Leprosy, that proceedeth from an acrious corroding Humor, especially when applied in external Washings.

Of what excellent Use are Vitriolick Wa­ters for the cure of old running sores Chirur­gical Practice may testifie, and many already by the washing at this Spring. To which a­greeth the Testimony of Agricola speaking of Atramentous Waters, (which are such that tinge with Galls,) Aquae atramentosae sive ip­sum Atramentum sutorium combiberunt, sive Mi­sy, sive Chalcitida, sive Sory, sive Melanteriam, easdem vires habent quas Aluminosae, multo ta­men efficaciores, quòd multa acrimonia cum a­stringendi vi sit conjuncta. Quâ de re etiam pro­sunt Ʋlceribus, quae pascendo serpunt. Agric. de natur. eor. quae Efflu. ex ter. lib. 2. So that he concludeth all Vitriolick waters more excel­lent as to the Cure of corroding Ulcers and other Distempers than Aluminous; whose [Page 153] vertues he reckoneth to cure the ulcer of the Bladder, to help a weak Stomach subject to vomiting, to cure the inordinate Courses in Women, Abortions, Ulcers of the Mouth, swelling of the Gums, weakness of the Nerves, (by washings I suppose,) effusions of Blood, and immoderate Sweatings.


I Shall now proceed to propose a method to be observed by the Drinkers of this Spaw-water; which I shall do, First, by way of Caution, shewing some ill Consequences to the rash undertaking a Water-course; Second­ly, by laying down some Rules how to pre­vent these inconveniences, and to drink the Water with good Effect,

I might refer the Reader to Van Helmont Parad. sext. de Aq. Spad. and many other Eminent Authors, that have given good Di­rections for the right Use of Chalybeat Wa­ters. But this Section is chiefly designed for the Poor Countrymen, who most commonly are incapacitated to apply themselves to such Authors: yet were their Abilities so great, different Springs do require different Dire­ctions; especially this Spaw, that is so highly impregnated with a Mineral. Besides, I ob­served many poor People resort to the Spring, that could not require the Advice, much more the Attendance of a Physician ex­cept upon meer Charity; yet they boldly undertook the drinking of a large quantity of [Page 155] this Spaw-water, without preparing their Bodies, yea for any Distemper; neither with Advice nor Physick, but proceeded with their own confidence, or rather Ignorance, and might as well have drank for the Destruction as Preservation and recovery of their Health. For upon rash Undertakings in this kind, these Ill consequencies may ensue.

First, this Spaw-water containing in it a great quantity of Ocre or Terra Metallica, (for out of a Quart of this Spring-water I have got the best part of a Spoonful of an Ear­thy sediment) which being drank with the Water, although as I have proved by the Ex­periments on the Spaw, it is not a simple Earth, but containeth much of the Sa [...]t of the Minera and of the Menstruum, may endanger the Drinkers with Obstructions in the Capil­lary blood-vessels, or in the Lacteals conve [...] ­ing it from the Intestines to the Blood. And what may be the Result from Obstructions perverting the right use of the Spleen, Liver, or other viscera of the middle and lower Re­gion, I have above Par. 3. sec. [...]. & 3. suffi­ciently hinted. But if the Sediment enter not the Lacteal vessels, it must needs load the Intestines of these (it being not Purgative) that drink it without Physick or Advice.

Secondly, Too frequent drinking of this Spaw and also of other Mineral waters in a [Page 156] large quantity, and especially when not taken gradatim, will relax the fibres of the Stomach, extend the vessels and other membranous parts, upon the Relaxation of the Stomachi­cal fibres a loss of Appetite will ensue; and upon the Extension of the blood-vessels, Lym­pheducts and Membranous parts, will follow Weariness, Difficulty of Breathing, and Increase of a Dropsie in them that are far gone, besides othe [...] Distempers according to the Inclina­tion and Habit of the body.

Thirdly, This Water like most other Vi­triolick will cause a Vertigo or light giddiness in the Head, especially in them that unpre­pared drink it to the quantity of three or four Quarts at the first onset. Not only a Vertigo but also a Lethargie, Apoplexie, or other Ce­phalick Distempers, caused by an oppression of the Brain and stoppage of the Animal spi­rits, may ensue the taking of a large quantity, when neither faeces nor the restagnating wa­ter are carried off

I shall therefore propose this Method to the Drinkers of this Spaw water, for the a­voiding of these Enormities; yet shall not be Dogmatical, but leave the Physician to direct his Patient according to the Indication of the Distemper, and thereby directing his judg­men. And

First, Purge off the Recremental sordes of [Page 157] the Stomach and Intestines; but rather (if the habit of body and strength will bear it) begin with a Vomit: Such as a Dose of Sal Vitrioli; the Quantity is usual from One scru­ple to Four, but may be increased or d [...]minish­ed according to the condition of the Patient. This Medicine I propose, because it usually worketh both by Vomit and Siege; and not only cleanseth the viscera of the Abdomer, but also by its Stipticity will notably fortifie the membranous fibres of the Stomach against Relaxation, that often ensueth upon drinking large Draughts of Water, and also it will help to reduce the fibres to their proper state when too much extended, and consequently are weak and unfit to embrace the Aliment taken in at the mouth. The fibres of the Sto­mach and Intestines being well fortified will the better contain a large quantity of Water without Relaxation, and by the Peristaltick motion of the Guts the Lacteal vessels will sooner imbibe the Water when their Orifices are scoured and like the little holes in a cleans­ed Strainer. Yet other Catharticks accord­iug to the particular case of the Patient may be requisite.

Secondly, Then begin to drink of the Spaw-water. They of an ordinary Constitution may begin with a Pint, but they of a stronger with a Quart or three Pints, and so increase each morning a Pint until they come gradatim [Page 158] unto four Quarts, which may be the measure for a strong Constitution; and as some few may exceed, so many may fall short of it. Thus may they continue in their Water-course for a Month, and cease gradatim as they increased at first, lest there should be left a distention of the fibres and membranes.

But withal observe, That the Water must not be drank to its full Dose at once, but ra­ther with walking up the Hill, or moderate Exercise after every full Draught; that it may have time to searse through the Drinkers body, especially until it begineth to shew it self by its Diuretick faculty. For the sudden drinking of a large quantity will cause a di­stention of the Stomach, with cruel Tormina or Gripings in the bowels.

Thlrdly, In case the Water lieth long and heavy on the Stomach and Intestines, and at last worketh off in a Diarrhe or loosness, it signifieth the body to be unprepared, and pro­bably Obstructions in the [...]esenteryor viscera: which requireth a Preparation by some De­oppilative Pills or Medicine, with convenient Solutives to carry off the feculent Matter. But in these cases I cannot lay down any one Prescription general serving for particular Persons, that according to their Distempers must have different Directions from their Phy­sicians.

[Page 159] Fourthly, Because of the great quantity of Ocre or Vitriolick Earth contained in this Spring water, let the Drinkers hereof ob­serve to take at least twice a week a Dose of Physick to carry off the filth of the water, free the Stomach and Intestines from incrustation of the Earthy sediment, and the vessels from Obstructions. But the Water-drinkers must forbear the Spaw on the days he designeth for Purgation; except he take such a small quan­tity of Pills &c. on the over-night, or very early in the morning, only to keep his body from being Costive. For which purpose Van Helmont recommendeth a Dose of Ruffy Pills (the Dose may be from a Scruple to a Drachm) taken three days together in the morning before drinking of the waters. This he adviseth for the German-Spaw, Pauhont and Savenir, whose Mineral Ingredients are like this at Ilmington, though not so highly impregnated as this new found Spaw. Ruffy Pills may be of good use to purge off the filth of the viscera, and also the sediment of the Water, and being gentle in operation may be taken on the over-night, or in the morning designed for drinking the Water. But ac­cording to the Observations of Physitians, un­doubtedly the best method will be, to com­pose Pills (or Physick in such form that the Patient shall like best) of Deoppilating In­gredients and Antiscorbutick, or with such Specificks that may answer the Indication of [Page 160] Patients Distemper, but yet with such purga­tive Ingredients that may make the body so­luble to the number of three or four Stools, and may be taken through the Water course,

Fifthly, For a more speedy passage of this Water through the body, let the Drinkers take a Glass or two of good White or Rhenish Wine, about an hour or something longer time after the full Dose of Water is drank. This is convenient, but especially for them, upon whose Stomachs and viscera the water lieth long and heavy; and if the water lieth still lodged in the vessels and habit of body, Catharticks and Diureticks may be helpful.

As the waters drank in a regular course will increase (but especially for a time) the Appe­tite after meat, or Hunger; so an irregularity in Diet in a Water-course will not only take off the Appetite, but may also lay a founda­tion of many Distempers, yea may produce more Evils than the Water is able to correct. Wherefore I shall propose some Observables about Diet.

First, Fast at least two or three hours after drinking the Waters, that they may have time to pass off but by eating too soon may hinder the Digestive Ferments in their Ope­ration, or mix with the Chyle and so be car­ried into the Habit of the body, and leave [Page 161] much of the feculent sordes in the remote parts, that may endanger the Drinker with a Fever Dropsie, Scurvy, or Obstructions very difficult of Cure.

Secondly, Take that Advice of Helmont de Aq Spad. Parad. 6. sect. 5. Spadanas bibenti consulo, ut sobrietati consulat, edatque parcè in­star Accolarum. And a little after, Eâ solâ Diaetae normâ Aquae permeabunt tutò, celeriter, ac jucundè. sec. [...]. Whereby Moderation in Eating and Drinking is recommended, lest that by over-glutting the stomachical and subsequent Digestions should be over-power­ed and unfit to perform their proper functi­ons, which of necessity must cause future Enor­mities. For in most cases over-charging Na­ture will pluck down Health faster, than the Physitian is able to repair.

Thirdly, Meat well ordered and of an easie digestion, must be observed in all these Cour­ses of Physick. For well known it is, that Salt meats and Seamens fare will alter the sweet Temper of the Blood into a saline scor­butick Ferment; which, if continually sup­plied, will be able to withstand the Operation of a Vitriolum Martis.

Fourthly, The Drink is to be of a middle sort; not too small and thin to depauperate and dilute the blood, nor too strong to over-ferment [Page 162] it; not too stale and sharp to pro­duce an Exotick Acidity, nor too muddy to fill the vessels with a faeces; but rather clear mellow Ale, and now and then a Glass or two of good Wine, that will be a convenient Ve­hicle for the dry Aliments, and fit to renew the sweet Balsamick temper of the Blood.

Last of all I shall advise the Drinkers here­of to use such Specificks in their Water-course, as shall be peculiar to their Distem­pers; besides Solutive Pills to carry off the sordes, that the depraved Ferments of the bo­dy may be amended. For so long as the Diet is good, and regularly taken, and the Fer­ments of our Bodies are entire, Health will remain safe and sound.



PAR. I. Sect. 1. THe Aristotelian Principles inconsistent with Experience. p. 2, 3. Spirit and Earth are not distinct Chymical Principles from Salt, Sul­phur, and Mercury. p. 4, 5, 6, 7. The Chymical Principles are but secondary Elements made out of Water or a Succus according to Helmont, Tha­lesius, and others; and so are Bodies in the Ani­mal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdom made out of Water or a Succus, as the more immediate Matter specificated by the Plastick Power or Ar­cheus. p. 8, 9, &c. Not only Water but all sub­lunary Compound Bodies are made out of Matter indeterminate as the First Principle according to the Operation of the Archeus or Impress stamp­ed at first by God the Creator. p. 22, 23, 24, &c.

PAR. I. Sect 2. The first Matter created was a Confused Cha­os or undigested Lump of Matter, in which were lodged the Seminal Principles of future Vegeta­bles and Minerals. p. 30, 31. &c. According to the Diversity of Mineral Glebes or different Seminal Principles lodged in divers Parcels of [Page] the Earth, are made different Salts from the E­surine or common Salt of the Earth, as the more immediate Matter in order to their Composition; contrary to Dr. Lister. p. 34, 35, 36, &c. The Variety of Mineral Waters, as at Ilmington, A­strap Tunbridge, &c. is caused by Water im­pregnated with the Esurine Acid or Mineral Salts, meeting with and preying upon Minera [...]s as of Iron, Copper, &c. p. 41, 42. &c.

PART. II. THE Weight of this Spaw-water. p. 48. No Acid Salt is here predominant. p. 49. A Pint will tinge with the sixteenth part of a grain of Galls p. 50. It is the strongest in England in its kind. p. 51. Not Aluminous. p. 51, 52, &c. A Paradox that Nitre is not an Acid salt. p. 56. No Sulphur in Nitre. p. 57, 58. No Ni­tre in this Spaw. p. 59. No Mineral Sulphur in this Spaw. p. 59, 60. &c. The Nature of Vitriol, and its Species. p. 64, 65. No white Vi­triol, nor Vitriol of Copper in this Spring. p. 66, 67. A Comparison betwixt a solution of Sal Cha­lybis and this Spring-water, and the Cause of the Difference in Colour. p. 68, 69. &c. Colour is caused by Refraction of Light. p. 72. The Me­dicinal vertues of this Spring is from a Vitriolum Martis. p. 75, 76. Acid and Alkalizate salts fermenting together do work themselves into a Neutral salt. p. 77.

[Page] PAR. III. Sect. 1. A Summulary of the fermental Digestions of our Bodies. p. 90, 91, 92. The three prin­cipal Fermental Digestions. p. 93. How Chy­lification is performed▪ p. 94, 95. Experimental Observations about Sanguification and Motion of the Heart. p. 103, 104, &c. The Third princi­pal Digestion in the Brain. p. 112. Other par­ticular Digestions, as that of the Spleen, &c. p. 115.

PAR. III. Sect. 2. A Survey of Diseases arising from the lost or depraved Ferments. p. 118, 119, &c.

PAR. III. Sect, 3. THE difference betwixt Steel and Iron. p. 132.

The usual Preparations of Mars, with an Enquiry into the Nature and Operation of each. p. 133, 134. &c. Against what Diseases Il­mington-Spring may be beneficial, or what Di­stempers this Spaw will cure. p. 140, 141, &c.

PAR. III. Sect. 4. DIrections for Drinking of these Waters, or how to avoid all its ill Consequences, and receive Benefit there1by. p. 154, &c.

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