[printer's or publisher's device]

LONDON, Printed for Iohn Maynard. 1641.

❧ The use of daily publike Prayers, in three Positions.

I. That daily publick Prayers have been in use among Christians from the beginning (so farre as persecutions gave leave) and were ac­counted a principall part of Gods worship.

II. That those Prayers were at set houres, in a prescript form; not arbitrarie in either.

III. That the peace and prosperity of the publike Weal, in the long life, and happy pre­servation of pious Princes, and other particu­lars; and the good successe of Armies in times of warre; have been thought by ancient [Page 2] Christians, of purest times, the fruit and ef­fect, in part, of these publike Prayers, and dai­ly Service of the Church.


IT is most certain, and acknowledged by all, That in the Primitive times, the holy Communion was publikely administred every day. The word Liturgia ▪ is, for the most part, by ancient Wri­ters, appropriated to the Communion, because that was the most solemn service: though som­times, it is also taken more generally. The form of administration (which Saint Augustine saith in divers places, was the same in all, or, almost, all Christian Churches in his time I was insti­tuted and prescribed by Saint Paul himselfe, as is directly affirmed by Saint Augustine, Au [...]st. [...]. 118. [...]6. ad Ja­nuar. in his Epistle to Januarius: Apostolus de hoc sacramento loquens statim subtexuit: Caetera cum venero ordi­nabo: unde intelligi datur, (quia multum erat ut in Epistola totum illum Agendi ordinem insinuare [...], quem universa per Orbem servat Ecclesia,) ab ipso ordinatum esse, quod nulla morum variatur diversi­tate.

Besides the Prayers at the Communion, there were publike Morning and Evening [Page 3] Prayers; and those daily also. Mention of those Prayers is made in the Councill of Lao­dicea, in the eighteenth Canon, [...]: that is, That the forme or Liturgie of Prayers, both at the Nones, and at the Vespers, ought always to be the same.

Saint Chrysostome, upon the Psalmes, In Psal. 140. & alibi. occasio­nally speaking of divers Psalms and Hymnes, which made part of the publike Prayers, de­rives the first institution from the Fathers; by which words it is likely hee understood men Apostolicall, or at least of next antiquity to A­postolicall. By him also it appeares that Chri­stian people in his days were wont so studious­ly to frequent the publike Prayers of the Church, that they knew by heart divers of the Psalmes that were ordinarily used.

What Saint Paul writes,1 Tim 2.1. I exhort that first of all supplications, prayers, intercessions, &c. is by St. Augustine understood of the daily solemne Prayers and Supplications at the celebration of the Sacrament; but by Saint Chrysostome, upon the place, is also expounded of the solemne Morning and Evening Prayers of the Church. His words are these, Every Priest is as it were a common Father of the whole earth, and therefore ought to take care of all men, as God doth, to whom hee is consecrated: Therefore saith the Apostle, I exhort, &c. But what meaneth hee, First [Page 4] of all▪ that is, in the daily service; and this, all the faithfull know, how it is daily performed both in the Evening, and in the Morning: How wee make intercession for the whole World, for Kings, and all Magistrates, or Governours, &c.

Origen (whose antiquity, I hope, is sufficiently known by al men) doth often exhort the people to come to Church, not onely upon Sundays and other Holidays, but upon ordinary days al­so, to heare the Word of God read, and to be present at the Prayers of the Church: yea, and sharply reproves them that did it not, as care­lesse of their spirituall welfare and salvation. See him, for example, in his tenth Homily up­on Genesis, throughout the whole Homily, as where he saith: Sine intermissione orandum Apo­stolus praecipit. Vos qui ad orationes non convenitis, quomodo impletis sine intermissione, quod semper omit titis? Sed & Dominus praecipit, vigilate & orate ne intretis in tentationem. Quod si illi vigilan­tes & orantes, & semper verbo Dei adhaerentes, ten­tationem tamen nequaquam effugerunt; quid faci­unt hi qui diebus tantum solennibus ad Ecclesiam conveniunt? &c.


OF set houres, because I doe not finde it much opposed, I will not spend many words in vain. If there be that make any que­stion, [Page 5] I shall refer him to Clemens Romanus, a man of very authentike authority, because A­postolicall, and mentioned in the New Testa­ment: who presseth it very close in that un­questioned, and so much commended Epistle of his to the Corinthians, lately set out and made common by Learned Master Patrick Young, out of the rich Treasures of his Maje­sties Royall Library. It seemes by him that no small part of that [...], or, good order, required by Saint Paul, (whose mind he might best know, as one of his Disciples) 1 Cor. 14.40 doth consist in the due observing of those times and houres, limited and prescribed by authori­ty for our Prayers and Devotions. But I desire his own words may be looked upon, pag. 52.53 As for set forms of Prayers, I should not have thought that I should have needed to have said much of that neither, but that I have lately seen a Book, which came to my hands under the re­commendation of a Master-piece, wherein I finde this strange assertion,Answer to the Humble Re­monst. p. 7. That liberty in prayer (it is spoken of publike Church-prayers) was not taken away, and set and imposed formes introdu­ced, untill the time that the Arrian and Pelagian Heresies did invade the Church, &c. The Authour cals himself Smectymnuus, both name and man, being altogether unknown unto mee. Which if they were not, yet should I be worse than a Heathen, if I should prefer any wordly love or friendship, before the truth of God. In some small things, mistakes may happen without any [Page 6] great harme; and may be passed over with as little danger. Let us therefore consider whither that be not most true which hee peremptorily denies; and then examine the va­lidity of his objections.

For the first, wee will begin with a great man, both for his piety, and his learning, Saint Basil the Great; who indeed was some yeers later then Arius, but many yeers before Pelagius: However, that which he speaks of his times, he so speaks it, as that his testimony may stand for times long before. A friend of his that was gone to travell, had written to him, that he would be mindfull of him in his Pray­ers:Ep [...]st. [...]41. p 1014. to whom his answer is this: [...] ▪ that is, To forget thee in my prayers is impossible, except I shall first forget our work, to which the Lord hath ordained us. For thou canst not but remember, being by the grace of God one of the faithfull, the so­lemne Biddings, (or Praeconizatiōs) of the Church, how that in the holy Church wee make prayers for all our brethren that travell, for all that are enrolled Souldiers, for all that take liberty for the Name of the Lord, (or, for all that confesse freely the Name of the Lord) for all that bring forth spirituall fruits, &c.

[Page 7]I think no man will think it probable, that if these solemne set Prayers of the Church had been of late institution, and therefore easily al­terable, hee would have spoken of them so peremptorily, That it was impossible, &c. But here I must needs give a reason why I translate the word [...], a Bidding, or Praeconization, and not with the Latine Interpreter, concionem: and this the rather, because I see Bellarmine, De Cler. lib. 1. c. 13. as great a Clerke as hee was, grosly to mistake in the like, and upon the mistake of the word, to ground a false opinion, that Deacons in ancient times were wont to preach. In ancient times it was the Deacons office, in the time of publike Prayers and Liturgie, by lowd speech and pro­clamation of the matter, to let the people know what was done, or to be done. Which was to this end, that both they whom it particularly concerned might take the better notice; and al­so to quicken and stirre up their intention and attention generally, that they might all re­member themselves where they were, and what they were about, and carefully hoc agere. Sometimes their cry was, Hearken to the Word of God: to the Gospel: the Epistle: and then they were said, [...]: or, [...] Praedicare lectionem, or, Euangeliū, &c. Somtimes they said, O yee Cathecumeni, yee are to pray: O yee believers, let us pray for the Cathecumeni: &c. and then they were said, [...]: praedicare orationem, that is, to bid the prayer. It be­longed also to the Deacons to direct the people when they should kneele or stand: as also when [Page 8] and who should draw neere; when and who should retire or depart: for which part of their office Saint Chrysostome in Heb. c. 9. hom. 17. (as some read the place, out of what Edition I know not, for my Edition of Saint Chrysostome hath it there, not, [...], but [...]) shews how they may properly be styled [...]. But this is not to our purpose here.

I would gladly know, whether, when Saint Cyprian said, Pro arcendis hostibus, & imbribus impetrandis, [...]rian [...]pist. [...] D [...]t [...]. & vel auferendis vel temperandis ad­versis rogamus semper & preces fundimus: & pro pace ac salute vestra, &c. or, when Tertullian, Oramus pro Imperatoribus, pro ministris eorum ac Potestatibus, [...]. 39. pro statu saeculi, pro rerum quiete, pro morâ finis; either of them, by any reasona­ble man, can be understood otherwise, then of solemne set Prayers? Both these were ma­ny yeeres, the latest of them a full hun­dred or thereabouts, before Arius was tal­ked of.

Origen, of as great antiquity, very nigh, as the most ancient of those two, in his sixt book against Celsus, gives this description of a true Christian: [...]: that is, They that serve the God of all through Christ, and live according to his Gospel, who also frequently and duly, both night and day, use those Prayers that are prescribed. Where if any object, that the words night and day (which also are in Saint [Page 9] Cyprians passage) must needs inferre private prayers: I answer, that there would be no absurdity perchance in it, if by night and day, Morning and Evening were understood. But if this please not, I can make it good, that the an­cient Christians were wont to use the publike set prayers of the Church in their private hou­ses and families, and there might use them at what time of the day or night they thought good: whereof we shall by and by give an ex­ample in Constantine. And yet I professe, I doe not alleage this passage as an infallible proofe, because I know the word [...] may be also otherwise interpreted.

The same Origen, in his fourth book against Celsus, quotes three or four severall passages of the Scriptures out of their [...], or Prayers; by Prayers, meaning that which now the Grae­cians call their Euchologium, or Prayer-booke. And I hope it will be granted, that if the Prayers gave the denomination to the whole Book or Rituall, it is more then probable, that it contai­ned many forms of set composed Prayers.

But if all this will not serve to perswade men, that are not wont easily to believe any thing, that crosseth their fancies, though of it selfe never so probable, or plausible: why yet I hope, if wee can produce some Formulae of those very Prayers then used, that they will at last yield to the truth. This because it is done to my hand by men, whom I thinke they will not suspect to be partiall in this point▪ I will [Page 10] spare my selfe further labour, and onely here set down what I find in the Centurists of Mag­deburgh: Denique & hunc ritum in Orationibus publicis, Cent. 3. c. 6. p. 135. &c. That is, Moreover, that this rite also was then used in their publike Prayers, Cyprian in his Sermo de Oratione Dominicâ, doth witnesse, to wit, That when they were to begin Prayers, the Priest was wont to stir up, and prepare the minds of his Bre­thren, to a more fervent calling upon God, by saying, Lift up your hearts: to which all the Congregation together did answer, We lift thē up unto the Lord. Moreover, it is out of all question (their very words, Formulas denique quasdam precationum sine dubio habuerunt:) That they had (in those dayes) certain Formulae (that is, set and prescribed formes) of Prayers. For Origen in his eleventh Homily upon Jeremy, seems to allude to those Prayers, now commonly called Collects, in these words: Vbi fre­quenter in Oratione dicimus, Da Omnipotens, da no­bis partem cum Prophetis, da cum Apostolis Christi tui; tribue ut inveniamur ad vestigia unigeniti tui, &c. So they.

Besides these Centurists, I finde it to be the judgment of famous Du Mornay, De M [...]ssa c. 3. Ed Gallans [...]l. p. 32. who thinks it probable that some Ritualists of the middle age, as Walafridus, and others, who describe the simplicity of the first age in matters of Rites and Ceremonies, might have seen some of those first Ritual-books, or Formularies, as he cals thē.

This was writ­ten before the late Defence came out.As for Jewish Liturgies, I leave that to the learned Authour of the Remonstrance, as best able to answer for himself, if hee see occasion. [Page 11] Onely this I shall here say by the way, that if this gain-sayer were, at least in late Writers, as well read, as we find he is not in the ancient, he would not have made such a wonder at the matter. Hee might have read [...], at least in the same Mornay, (an Authour much canvased by men that meddle with Controversies) of a Jewish Liturgie yet extant, containing severall formes of Prayers, composed (according to the opinion of the learned Jews, not contradi­cted by the said learned noble man) by Esdras, and used by the Iews ever since their returne from the Babylonish captivity: yea and of other forms of prayers, long before that, used by the Iews ever since Moses, and them also yet extant. And as for the Prayers that Saint Peter and Saint Iohn used, when they went up together to the Temple at the houre of Prayer, Act. 3.1. he might have read of set forms of prayers appointed for that hour, and commonly used by the Iews of those days, yea directly by the said Saint Peter, Lud. Capell. Spi­cileg. p 68.69. and Saint Iohn, in a late Protestant Writer, of as considerable authority for his learning gene­rally, but especially in those kinde of stu­dies, as any whom he can alleage for the con­trary opinion. However I speak not this to in­terpose mine owne opinion in that point, which I suspend: but onely to shew that a little more reading would have done well in one that had undertaken such a worke, as the refutation of that learned Author.

Now wee come to the examination of his [Page 12] objections against ours, and proofs for his own assertion. His words are: [But that there were not such stinted Liturgies, as this Remonstrant disputes for, appears by Tertullian, in his Apol. cap. 30. where hee saith the Christians of those times did in their publike Assemblies pray sine Monitore, quia depectore, without any Prompter, but their own hearts. And that so it should be the same Authour proves in his Treatise, de Oratione: Sunt quae petantur, &c. There are some things to bee asked according to the occasions of every man: the lawfull and ordinary Prayer (that is the Lords Prayer) being layd as a foundation; it is lawfull to build upon that founda­tion other Prayers according to every ones occasions. And to the same purpose, Saint Augustine in his 121 Ep. Liberum est, &.] The passages out of Ter­tullian de Oratione, and out of Saint Augustine, in his 121 Ep. are nothing at all to the purpose, and make as much for publike set Prayers, as for private: for publike set Prayers also are grounded upon this, That it is lawfull to adde to the Lords Prayer. What any Father ads of any mans particular occasions, may be under­stood of private Prayers, whether at home, or in the Church. For it is out of all question, and we have store of examples to that purpose, that the Christians of those times did fre­quently repaire to the Churches in private de­votion, and for particular occasions. But now to the passage of Tertullian, out of his Apol. c. 30 where hee makes Tertullian to say, that the Christians of those times did in their publike [Page 13] Assemblies pray sine monitore, quia de pectore: I say, first, that it doth not appeare by Tertullian, that he speaks it of publike Assemblies, and more probable it is that he doth not. Second­ly, I would know of this Authour, what it is that he would have, or doth inferre upon this passage of Tertullian. What, that Christians, when they assembled together, did betake themselves every one to his own private devo­tions, and used such prayers, every man by him­selfe, as his owne heart, and particular occasi­ons did suggest unto him? This if hee say, (besides that it is very absurd in it selfe, and ne­ver practised any where, that I know, amongst Orthodox Christians) will easily be refuted by expresse passages of ancient Fathers, as Ignatius, Saint Cyprian, and others, who teach the neces­sity of joynt and unanimous common Prayers at such times. But it is apparent, that that which our Authour drives at by his whole Dis­course, is, not that the people, but the Minister is to be left to his owne liberty, to use in publike Assemblies what forme of prayer himselfe thinks fit. And are not then Tertulli­ans words (if understood as hee would have them, of publike Prayers) as much against this kind of praying with and after the Minister his conceived prayer; as he cals it: as against pre­scribed Book-prayers? Nay, if there be any difference, they may more truly be said to pray cum monitore, who follow the conceptions of a private man, then they that follow a publike, pre­scribed, usual form, which having often heard, it is [Page 14] likely that in time they learn and can say with­out book; so far at least, as to follow it readily, and with a quicke and cleere apprehension of what is said: whereas they that depend of pri­vate conceptions, which are not always the same, must needs have their understandings suspen­ded, till the end of the sentence; and when at the end, have much adoe, sometimes, to make sence of it.

I have heard more then once some men, who thought themselves as good at it as the best, make this objection against set or stinted Pray­ers, as they call them, because by them the spi­rit is streightned. Which though it be but a fri­volous objection, and easily answered▪ yet, be­cause it is the nature of those men, for the most part, not to be satisfied with any reason that proceeds from men, whom they affect not: I was glad to see it, in a book which lately came to my hands, fully answered by one, whose name (I intend it not as a reproach to his me­mory, whom I have heard men of singular worth to speak of, with great respect:) is great amongst them. It comes very neere to the point that wee are now upon, and therefore I shall not thinke much to set downe here the whole passage.

The Saints daily Exe [...]i [...] ▪ by J. P. D. D. p. 81. Object. That in stinted Prayer the spirit is straitned, when a man is tied to a forme, then he shall have his spirit as it were bounded and limited, that he cannot goe beyond that which is prescribed; and therefore, say they, it is reason a man should be left to [Page 15] more liberty, (as hee is in conceived prayers) and not tied to a strict form.

To this I answer, even those men that are against this and that use this reason, they doe the same thing daily in the congregation for when another prays, that is a set forme to him that heares it; I say it is a forme to him: for put the case, that hee which is an hearer, and doth attend another praying, suppose that his spirit be more enlarged, it is a straitning to him, he hath no liberty to go out, he is bound to keep his mind intent upon that which the other prayeth: And there­fore if that were a sufficient reason, that a man might not use a set form, because the spirit is straitned, a man should not heare another pray though it be a conceived prayer) because in that case his spirit is limited; it may be the hearer hath a larger heart (a great deale) then he that speaks and prays so that there is a bound­ing and straitning, and a limiting of the spirit to him. And therefore that reason cannot be good. Again I answer, &c.

I have no more to say concerning this pas­sage of Tertullian, but that (as is well obs [...]rved by those that comment upon him) his chiefe aime in these words (and that which gave oc­casion unto them) was, to deride the custome of the Heathens of his time, who truly and really in their, whether private or publike, Temple devotions did use such Monitors or Prompters, to suggest unto them the true titles and manifold appellations of that supposed Deity, what ever it was, which they intended to worship. Now their Gods being very many in number, and [Page 16] every one having severall titles and appellati­ons; no wonder if their worshippers, most of them (for some did not, and were accounted very religious for it) needed these Monitores, or Nomenclatores, at their elbows.

The next proofe or objection (which you wil) is out of Justin Martyr, in these words: And before this in that famous place of Iust. Mart. Apo. 2. Hee, who instructed the people prayed according to his ability, Nor was this liberty, &c. & in the margin: Iust. Mart. Apol. 2. [...].

No man can otherwise imagine, but that his intention in this allegation is, to infer out of these words, according to his ability, conceived prayer, in opposition to set or prescribed pray­er. I think I shall cleerly enough shew, that Iust. Mart. had no such meaning at all, and conse­quently that our Authour, to make the best of it, is much mistaken. But I must needs say, though unwilling to make the worst of it, I can not but suspect somthing, when I consider that, neither in his Text, nor in his Margin, hee doth set downe the words of the Father, fully, and faithfully as hee ought. The words are these, [...]: That is, The Bishop, or President, doth in like manner is before present, or offer unto him prayers and thanks to the utmost of his power; or as far as his abi­lity doth reach. It is a cōplement of civility, even amongst men, (ordinary in all languages, I think, but in the Greeke and Latine Languages I am sure,) when wee thank a man, to qualifie our thanks with this restriction, pro virili, o [...], quas possum. [Page 17] As when we say, Ago gratias, non quas debeo, sed quaspossum; or, quantas possum maximas: what more ordinary in Latine Writers, whether old, or late? How much more doth it become us, when we say, that we thank God; and which is more, when that wee doe [...]? the weight of which word is well observed by learned Graecians, and by the use t [...]at it hath sometimes in ancient Authours, it doth little lesse import then retaliation, or a return of good offices. We know who said, my goodnesse (bene­ficentia mea) extendeth not unto thee: and Saint Au­gustine, in a prayer of his somewhere, even of thoughts (de quo semper cogitare debemus, & de quo dignè cogitare non possumus) useth this civility of language; and shall we wonder, if any use it of thanks? This being so obvious, I should won­der this Authour could not think of it here; but that I know, some there be in the world, who are never more bold, or lesse heedfull of their speeches, then when they speake to God, by way of Prayer, or prayses, though it be in the publike. And this their boldnesse and imperti­nency, be it never so great, some there be so blind, as to deeme it zeal. Others excuse, as harmlesse Solaecismes, or [...]autologies, what a right and sober judgement, guided by the light of Gods Word, will finde little better then blasphemies. I say therefore [...], is no more then, gratias agere quantum hu­mana potest infirmitas▪ aut vilitas: [...]nd this I hope, is as proper and ordinary in prescribed set Pr [...]y­ers; as in conceived and arbitrary. Yet I will not [Page 18] deny that I finde the words, [...], other­wise understood by some learne men, who render the pass [...]ge thus; D [...]th give God thanks with as lowd voi [...], as he is able ▪ and considering there be other Fathers that testifie the accusto­med lowdne [...]s o [...] their solemne Pr [...]yers, I will not say that this interpret [...]tion is altogether impertinēt; but this, that our Author doth bring, and his inference upon it, I dare confidently say to be most groundlesse and impertinent.

His third and last objection is out of Eusebius concerning Constant. in these words: And blessed Constantine was herein as unhappy as we, who needed not have composed forms of prayer for his Guard, to use upon the Lords day, but might and would have ta­ken out of former Liturgies, if there had been any, &c. I answer, that I do not (nor perchance any other) understand what is the strength of this inference: A peculiar certain prayer was made by Constantine (a most devout and religious Prince) to be used by his guard; therefore there was no common Liturgie-book extant in Constantines days, for the use of the publike. I have read three Prayers made (they are printed under her name, I am sure, as made by her:) by Queen Elizabeth, of ever blessed and glorious memory, for the successe of her Navy, &c. Would the inference be good upon this, either that there was no Book of common Prayers then ex­tant, and used; or that the Queene had no Bi­shops, or Chaplains, at that time, that might have saved her that labour? This I think, might [Page 19] suffice; there having been enough said before, concerning formes of publike prayers, extant and used long before the times of Constantine. And indeed, the Truth is all that I ayme at, and not any bodies shame. But why should I spare him, that hath not spared his Mother; and who doth so lightly esteeme of those things, which I do, (and ever shall, I hope, as long as I breath, however the times goe) most honour and reve­rence? Let us therefore looke into Eusebius a little more exactly, that it may the better ap­pear, how this man hath dealt with his Reader.

First then, whereas hee tels us of Prayers composed by Constantine himselfe, I say it is more then doth appeare by Eusebius. Where the Latine hath it, cap. 18. Preces ab Imperatore descriptas: it is in the originall Greek, [...], that is, Such as the Emperour did most affect; and therefore descriptas here, must be, not, written, or, composed; but, selected. Again, where the Latine hath it, cap. 19. Formulam ve­ro precandi ipse militibus praescripsit, &c. it is in the Greek, [...]: that is, he taught it to all his souldiers. And I hope if a man be said or reported to teach children or ignorant people the Pater Noster, or Creed; he must not therefore of necessity be conceived to be the Authour of either.

Secondly, whereas hee saith, it was for his Guard, that Constantine composed these forms of Prayers, to use upon the Lords day; I say, it was not for his Guard, but for all his Souldiers in generall, and especially for them that were [Page 20] not Christians, that Constantine either made himselfe, or caused to be made, that Prayer which Eusebius speaks of, and setteth downe in his twentieth Chapter: that being the only Prayer, that Constantine can, in any probability, (so farre as appears by Eusebius) be conceived, to have composed, if he composed any. For, as for the Guard that lived within his Palace, to them were appointed, saith Eusebius, those Prayers which he cals, [...]. And as concerning the Souldiers, whereof Eusebius says some were Christians, and some were not; those that were Christians, hee commanded them (dispensing with them for their ordinary service, or attendance, upon that day) to repair to publike Churches, and there to celebrate the day: those that were not, even them hee compelled to meet together in the fields upon that day, and there to prayse God in that form of Prayer which is recited by Eusebius. The Prayer was this: Te solum Deum agnoscimus: te Regem profitemur: te adjutorem invocamus: per te victorias consequuti sumus: per te hostes superavimus: abs te & praesentem foelicitatem consequutos fate­mur, & futuram (future, that is, for the time to come, as is more plainly expressed by the Greek:) adepturos speramus: tui omnes supplices sumus: abs te petimus, ut Constantinum Impera­torem nostrum, una cumpiis ejus liberis, quam diu­ [...]issimè nobis salvum & victorem conserves.

Here you see is no mention of Christ at all, nothing but might very well be said by a Hea­then of those times, as may appeare by divers [Page 21] of their Prayers yet extant, the first words, Ye solum Deum agnoscimus, excepted, which never­thelesse might bear a very cōmodious interpre­tation, according to the tenets of divers of their own Philosophers and Wise men. If any shall presse the words, Omnibus militibus praescripsit, to shew that it was common to all, whether Christian or Heathen Souldiers, I shall not stand upon that, it being likely enough, that the same Prayer upon other dayes was to be used by them all, when they were mixed together, and therefore of purpose so composed, that it might be used by any, whether Christians, or Heathens of those times. But in the mean time if it be granted, (as I doe not see how it can be denied) that it was principally intended for the use of the Heathen Souldiers; how can it be conceived, that such a forme should be sound in a Book of common Prayers appointed for the use of Christians; how much lesse inferred from hence, (as this man would gladly) that the Christians of those days had no Book of common Prayers? But I have not done with him yet. I think it wil easily be granted unto me, by what hath been said hitherto, that it is very proba­ble, that this man in these his allegations out of Eusebius, tooke more notice of the Latine, then of the Greek. Now if you look upon the Latine, in the Chapter just before, (to wit the 17) you shall finde that plainly contradicted, which this man would have inferred out of the eighteenth. The words (because it is but a [Page 22] short Chapter) are these, Cap. 17. Sed his qui­dem multa magnificentiora contemplari potes, si ani­madvertas quemadmodum in ipsis Regiis Ecclesiae Dei formam instituerit, populo in Ecclesia congrega­to, ipse studiose exordiens. Sumptis enim in manus libris, vel sacrarum literarum contemplationi diligen­ter animum adhibebat, vel constitutas cum universo Ecclesiae coetu preces reddebat. What sence can any man in the World make of these words, but that it was Constantine his custome, taking the books themselves into his owne hands, somtimes to turne the Holy Scriptures, & som­times the Book of common ( [...], is the word in Eusebius) Prayers, according as the Order of the Liturgy by him there and then used, requi­red? Now if any man shall aske mee, for his owne satisfaction, how it is in the originall Greeke, I will ingenuously confesse that the Greek doth not so fully and distinctly expresse it, as the Latine doth; though it be as true, that the Latine saith no more, then what the Greek will very well beare.

And now I have done with this Author; with whom I should not have had to do at all, but that he came so crosse in my way in this point of set forms of Prayers. Whether he, or I, be in the right, I shall willingly submit to the judge­ment of any that are truly indifferent; that is, that seek the truth for it selfe, and imbrace it, where ever they find it; not blindly zealous to maintaine their own side, whether it be in a just cause or not. If it shal appear to others (as hither­to it doth unto me) that this man (as confident a [Page 23] man in his way of writing, as ever I met with) is much mistaken in this point; then I shall yet, be­fore I leave him, advise others, whosoever shall happen to read this, to pause awhile & consider with themselves:

Much talke there is of a Reformation; and for my part, how hee can be accounted a true Christian, that would not be heartily glad to see that amended, what ever it be, which, to the prejudice of Gods Glory, is amisse, though per­chance not to be amended, without his particu­lar losse and prejudice in worldly respects, I know not. Now then, if that Reformation, so much talked of every where, and by many so much desired, shall go on, how farre such men as he, so confident, and so apt to mistake, may, either to direct or to informe, bee trusted with it, to the glory of that God, which is the God of Truth; & to the content of men truly zealous, that is, zealous according to knowledge; this is the thing, (and God is my witnesse I have no end in it but his glory:) that I would desire all men seriously to consider of. But this, by the way only; and so I come to my third Position.


FIrst of all I would have it here remembred, that what S. Paul writes, 1 Tim. 2.1, 2. I ex­hort therefore, that first of all Supplications, Prayers, Intercessions, and Giving of thanks be made for all men: For Kings and all that are in authority, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, &c. is by S. [Page 24] Chrysostom & S. Augustine expounded of the dai­ly publike Prayers of the Church: as hath al­ready been declared. Upon which I inferre, that when the ancients speak of the power and effi­ca [...]ie of prayers and Supplications to the pro­curing of publike blessings, as peace, plenty, &c. they are (which I think no reasonable man wil deny) especially to be understood of daily, pub­like Church-prayers. So is Origen to be under­stood in those words of his, in his eighth book, contra Celsum: thus rendred by Sigismundus Ge­lenius: Postremò hortatur nos Celsus, ut opem fe­ramus Imperatori totis viribus, & geramus ejus au­sp [...]ciis justa piaque bella, neve detrectemus militiam si res ita postulet. Respondemus, ferre nos Imperatori auxilia suo tempore, sed divinâ (ut ita loquar) arma­tura fretos, non humanâ. Idque facimus Apostoli mo­nitis obedientes, [...] Tim. 2 1. cujus haec sunt verba; Obsecro vos primum ut faciatis deprecationes, &c.

Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, who lived in S. Cyprians time, that Dionysius so much ad­mired by the Ancients, as that Eusebius makes him the chiefe subject of more then one of his Books of Ecclesiasticall Historie, in a letter of his recorded by the said Eusebius, wrote thus of Gallus, who succeeded Decius, about the yeere of the Lord 250. Quin Gallus neque Decii reco­gitavit calamitatem, &c. As for Gallus, he neither remembred the calamities of Decius, neither did he so diligently, as he ought, consider with himselfe before hand, what it might be, that had bin the chief occasion of his ruine: but unhappily, to his great misery, stumbled [Page 25] upon the same stone, though apparantly set before his eys. Who in the full sail of prosperity, when he might have boa­sted of his hearts desire in all things, by cruell Edicts, be­gan to proscribe those Religious men, who ( [...], it is in the Greek, whence may easily be ga­thered what men he speaks of:) both for the peace of his Kingdome, and for the health and safety of his owne person, were wont to make earnest Prayers, and intercessi­ons unto God: who therefore at the same time, when hee drove them away, drove with them those Prayers also, which for him they were accustomed to powre unto God.

This Gallus was a Heathen, not a Christian. And lest any man think it strange, that this holy Bi­shop should lay it to a professed Heathen Empe­ [...] charge, that he made no greater account of the solemne Prayers and Supplications of Chri­stians; I would not have it unknowne, that even Heathen Emperours (some of them) though o­therwise very ill affected to Christianity, had ne­verthelesse such an opinion of these Prayers, as that they thought themselves and their Empire, the more secure for them, as will appeare by an Edict of Maximinus recorded by Eusebius, in the eighth Eccl. Hist. c. 29. where wee find these words: Vnde Christiani hac indulgentia à nobis con­cessa devincti, debent Deo suo obnixè supplicare pro no­stra, pro Reip. pro sua ipsorum salute, ut quovis modo cum publicus rerum status integer & incolumis retinea­tur, tum ipsi in suis familiis absque cura & solicitudine vitam traducere queant, &c. Thus a Heathen Em­perour. Let us now heare Christians: and amongst them, whom before him, who was so highly fa­voured [Page 26] of God, as to be the first-fruits (though I know what is written of some before him) of all Christian Emperours, even Constantine the Great, the glory of all Emperours? Of him thus Euse­bius in his life:Lib. 4 c. 14. Ita igitur universo orbe sub unius gu­bernatoris prudentia constituto, &c. Imperator cùm ex­istimaret p [...]orum hominum preces magnum sibi mo­mentum afferre ad salutem, & custodiam universae Reip. eas cum necessario adhibuisset, non solùm ipse se Deo supplicem abjecit: verumetiam ut pro se ab Ec­clesiae Praesidibus supplicaretur, mandavit.

[...]b. Ecc. Hist. l. 10. c. 7.And thus he himself in an Epistle or rather San­ction of his, by way of Epistle: Quare eos qui in Pro­vincia tuae fidei concredita, in Ecclesia Catholica, cui Cae [...]ilianus praeest, huic sanctae religioni sedulo inser­viunt (quos Clericos nominare solent) ab omnibus omni­no communibus & civilibus Rerumpub. ministeriis so­lutos volo: ut nullo modo per errorem, vel per sacrilegam ac profanam prolapsionem, quae in hujusmodi negotiis ac­cidere solent, à cultu divinae Majestati debito abstra­hantur; sed absque ulla molestia propriae legi obsequium praestent. Qui quidem cum sacrum numen summo hono­re & veneratione prosequantur, incredibile est, quantum Reipub. adjumenti videantur allaturi.

What Culius is here especially meant, is more cleerly expressed in the Greeke, by [...], and [...], words which all know (the latter especi­ally) to be commonly used of the daily Service of the Church. Neither was this the Divinity of that godly religious age onely: For Justinian, who swayed the Empire two full hundred of yeares after, [...]. lib. 1. tit. 3 l. 42. spake much after the same manner. As where he saith: Omnem adhibentes providentiam cir­ca [Page 27] sanctissimas Ecclesias in honorem & gloriam sanctae & incorruptae homousiae Trinitatis, per quam & nos & communem Rempub. salvos fore credidimus: insistentes etiam doctrinae sanctorum Apostolorum de creandis ir­reprehensibilibus sacerdotibus, qui quidem ob id potissi­mum ordinantur, ut suis precibus benignitatem clemen­tissimi Dei rebus acquirant communibus, (id est, Rei­pub.) praesenti lege sancimus, &c. Where Dionysius Gothofredus (a man well known amongst Scholars for his learned labours; whose son, or Kinsman, as I take it, Jacobus Gothof: hee also a very learned man, was lately Consull of Geneva:) his margi­nall note is: Nota munus Episcopi; & ita Petrus Act. 6. ver. 4.

Again: the same Justinian elswhere,Ibid. tit. 4. l. 34. Certissimè credimus, quia Sacerdotum puritas, & decus, & ad Dominum Deum & Salvatorem nostrum Jesum Chri­stum fervor, & ab ipsis missae perpetuae preces multum favorem nostrae Reipub. & incrementum praebent, per quas datur nobis & Barbaros subjugare, &c. Where again the marginall note is; Munus Episcopi, preca­ri. Preces Episcopi, Reipub. utiles. And again, Novel. 133. cap. 5. Si enim illi puris manibus, & nudis anima­bus pro Repub. supplicent Deo, manifestum quod & ex­ercitus habebunt benè, & civitates benè disponentur, Deo quoque placato, &c. Sed & terra nobis feret fru­ctus, & mare quae sua sunt dabit, illorum oratione pro­pitiationem Dei ad omnem Rempub. deducente, &c. And there also the Margin is; Operae Dei Ministro­rum quaenam sint.

Thus have I now, through Gods grace, gone over my three Positions, and I hope I am not come short (though I have endevored to be short) [Page 28] of my undertaking in any of the three. I have no more to say, but that I desire them that shall read this (if any shall) all passion and prejudice laid a­side, as becommeth good Christians, to consider, whether the religious use of Cathedrals, where (as by the end of their institution it ought to be: if through abuse, incidentall to best things, it hap­pen to be otherwise any where, authority may look unto that;) publike prayers and supplicati­ons, for particular persons, as Princes, and Ma­gistrates; and for all men in generall, of all estates and conditions; for the peace and prosperity both of the Church, and of the Common-weale, with much reverence and devotion are daily offerd unto God, may not hence, in part, bee inferred. I say in part, because of divers other particulars, that might be alleaged to the same purpose: as for example, Sermons; another mayne part of Gods worship: which I think are more frequent (not to say any thing of the Choice) in Cathedrals, then in any other Churches of the Realme: and God forbid, but it should be so.



Pag. 6. line 2. reade, little danger. But this I conceive to be a matter of great consequence. Let us therefore, &c.

This keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above is co-owned by the institutions providing financial support to the Text Creation Partnership. This Phase I text is available for reuse, according to the terms of Creative Commons 0 1.0 Universal. The text can be copied, modified, distributed and performed, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.