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THE ANATOMY of HUMANE BODIES

By Willm. Cowper Surgeon

1698.

THE ANATOMY OF HUMANE BODIES, WITH FIGURES DRAWN AFTER THE LIFE By some OF THE BEST MASTERS in Europe, And Curiously Engraven In One Hundred and Fourteen Copper Plates, ILLUSTRATED WITH LARGE EXPLICATIONS, CONTAINING MANY NEW Anatomical Discoveries, And CHIRURGICAL OBSERVATIONS: TO WHICH IS ADDED AN INTRODUCTION EXPLAINING THE ANIMAL OECONOMY. WITH A COPIOUS INDEX.

BY William Cowper.

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OXFORD PRINTED AT THE THEATER. For SAM. SMITH and BENJ. WALFORD, PRINTERS to the ROYAL SOCIETY. At the PRINCES ARMS in ST PAUL'S CHURCH Yard, LONDON MDCXCVIII.

TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE CHARLES MOUNTAGUE, FIRST LORD OF THE TREASURY; CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER; ONE OF THE LORDS OF HIS MA­JESTY'S MOST HONORABLE PRIVY­COUNCIL; AND PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL-SOCIETY, &c.

SIR,

Having heard from those Persons who have of­ten the Happiness of waiting on You, how easie an Access You give to All, I have presum'd to ask the Honor of being admitted into Your Presence. [Page] If this Address may be thought too forward, it will be some Excuse, to have it known, that I was justly afraid of being prevented by those Numbers of Men, Eminent in all Faculties and Professions, who are preparing to make the same Attempt upon You. The Peace, which His Most Sacred MAJESTY has with the greatest Glory brought Home to us, as much as it owes to the Influence of Your particular Counsels, will be very far from allowing You any Share of that Rest, which it affords to all Europe besides: Believe me, SIR, the Men of Letters knowing now, that Your Thoughts are no longer taken up by the War, are all ready to break in upon You with their Offerings; they look on You as their declar'd Patron and Protector; they have upon this Prospect recover'd their Spirits, and en­larg'd their Hopes; and some of them have gone so far, as to think they find You Born for their Advancement, under that very Star, which was never before observ'd to shine out in all its Lustre, but only at the Birth of the Roman Mecaenas, and the French Rich­lieu and Colbert.

Every Art and Science pretends a Right to approach You, because every one of 'em is Familiarly known to you: ANATOMY has this also in particular to Alledge for it self, that, having receiv'd its Chief Improvements and Advantages from our own Country-men, it may be accounted of English Growth; which the World will agree, is the most effectual Thing that can be said of it, to Recommend [Page] it to Your Protection, who lay the Honor and Interest of England so near Your Heart, and whose Love for Your Country, is not to be out­done, but by the Love Your Country returns You.

The Favor of Great Ministers to the Learn­ed, is a Subject that takes up but little Room in our British Annals. It has been thought to be the Defect of some Former Reigns, Fa­mous in all other respects; and was reserv'd, we believe, to Compleat the Glories of This. My Lord Treasurer Burleigh was a better Servant to Queen Elizabeth, than Patron to the Muses: But were Spenser, who had the Misfortune of being born a Hundred Years too soon, Alive at this Time, we have Instances sufficient to Convince us, that his Applica­tions would meet with no Repulse. Mr. Stepny, Mr. Prior, Mr. Congreve, and many more, are as much Distinguish'd by Your Favor, as by their own Merits; the World at last being satisfied, that Polite Learning in good Hands, is so far from excluding Business, that it gives a Grace to it; and that a Genius truly Great, will, which way soever it is Directed, Exert its Force and Maintain its Rank.

You will please to bear this Freedom, SIR, in a Person who as little Capable as he is himself of making a right Iudgment of Men, yet living in a Place, where he is ever sur­rounded on all sides with Your Praises, may have leave to Remember what he so often hears from the Knowing and Iudicious, and [Page] to repeat a Character, that comes Warranted to him, by the most allow'd Authorities.

The truest Mark of Worth, SIR, is to be Valued there, where One is most Known. The People of Westminster, who were acquainted with the First Parts of Your Life, and have had the longest Experience of Your Virtues, own Openly their just Esteem of You, by Pla­cing in You the Trust of Representing them in Parliament. 'Tis there, in the Midst of Those that Choose You, that Your Excellent Con­duct of Publick Affairs is still Supplying Them, and all the World, with Fresh Matter of Ap­plause and Admiration: But they had never more Reason to be Satisfied with their Choice, than on that Glorious Day, when Right was done to Your Merit, by the Testimony of the Nation in a Vote of the House of Commons; where it was Resolv'd, That it is the Opi­nion of this House, That the Honorable CHARLES MOUNTAGUE ESQUIRE, CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER, for his Good Services to this Government, do's Deserve His Majesty's Favor. A Vote, that carries more Honor in it, than all the Titles and Patents of Modern Heraldry, than all the Inscriptions of Ancient Greece or Rome. What has ever happen'd like this to any of our Ancestors, in all the Course of our Re­cords and Histories? Who besides, has Re­ceiv'd so Solemn, so Noble, and so Publick a Panegyrick from the Vocie of his Country; Pronounc'd within those Walls, where the [Page] Tongue is left to its Liberty, and no Man Oblig'd to Speak otherwise than he Thinks? 'Tis, without doubt, the First Wish an En­glish-man would make, thus to Deserve, and Possess the United Favor of Prince and Peo­ple; and this Degree of Happiness has been Granted to You alone: The Next is, to have a Place in the Good Opinion of Him that is so Universally Valued; and this is the Utmost Ambition of

SIR,
Your Most Humble and Most Obedient Servant WILLIAM COWPER

THE INTRODUCTION Explaining the ANIMAL OECONOMY.

THE Contemplation of Humane Bodies is doubtless one of the most Diverting and Noble A­musements, in which a Philo­sophical Mind can employ it self. The Structure, Contri­vance, and Disposition of the Parts are Astonishing, and we can hardly desire more plain and convincing Proofs of the Wisdom and Providence of the Author of Nature, than what may be deduc'd from this Source. How surpizing are the Discoveries which the Hap­py Industry of the present Age has made in the Animal World: The Doctrine of the Circulation of the Blood; the Vnity of the Veins and Arteries; the Origin and Distribution of the Chyle and Lympha; the Ovaria in Females; the Em­briunculi in the Masculine Seed, are equally certain and ama­zing; besides a Multitude of other Curious Observations we Daily make by the Help of Microscopes, Mercurial Inje­ctions, and such like Methods.

These are sufficient Motives to induce all Inquisitive Per­sons, and Lovers of Natural History, to the Study of Ana­tomy; but all Professors of Medicine are more immediately concern'd to be Acquainted with it; this being little less than the Basis and Foundation of their Art. Without a due Knowledge of the Animal Mechanism, I doubt all our Attempts to Explain the Multiform Appearance of Ani­mal Bodies, will be Vain and Ineffectual, and our Ideas of the Causes of Diseases and their Symptoms, as Extravagant and Absurd as those of the Chinese and Indians; nay I am afraid the whole Art of Physick will be little better than Em­pirical.

But if the Knowledge of our Bodies do's so much con­duce to advance true Philosophy and Medicine; it is not less required in the Practice of Surgery: In this Case it seems not meerly convenient, but absolutely necessary; I mean so far as concerns the External Parts, since the Ar­tist here, do's not as in the former Instances, Acquiesce in Contemplating his Subject, and the Manner how it is Affe­cted; but is often oblig'd to Perform some Difficult, and per­haps Hazardous Operation on it. For my Part I cannot forbear wondring at the Confidence of Ignorant Men, who dare Attack a Humane Body, make Incisions, apply Cau­sticks Actual and Potential; without a due Knowledge of the Site, Position, Dependance, and other necessary Conside­rations of the Parts concern'd. The Fatal Consequences of these bold Practices are frequently felt, an Instance or Two of which, are Accidentally shewn, Tab. 13. Fig. 1. Tab. 15. Fig. 2.

I must confess frequent seeing and assisting at Chirurgical Operations may dispose Men to Perform the like again, when Circumstances in all Points shall agree; but without a Com­petent, if not Accurate Knowledge of Anatomy, and actual Administration of Dissection, such Persons must be a long Time Spectators, before they can Arrive at a tolerable Pre­tence to a General Practice: And therefore as I cannot but deplore the Profound and Universal Ignorance which pre­vails, so I would candidly recommend it to most of the Sur­geons in this vast and populous City, to apply themselves with more Industry than they have hitherto done, to so Use­ful a Part of their Art; who would soon then be convinc'd this was no Dishonour to themselves, and cease to Reproach others who have spent some of their vacant Hours in these Exercises.

But this is foreign to my purpose, and therefore I shall Address my self to the Business now before me, which is to Present the Reader with a Brief and General Plan of the Animal Oeconomy, as an Introduction to the following Ta­bles.

All the Functions of an Animate Body may be well enough divided into Natural and Animal; by Natural, I mean all which Terminate in the Body, and Conduce to the preserva­tion of the Individual or Propagation of the Species; by Animal, I understand such, in which the Soul is concern'd, which in Regard of the Body to which it is United, are Pas­sive or Active; the First is Sense; the Latter Voluntary Mo­tion. For the more Orderly Distribution of the Whole, we shall first Treat of the Former, leaving the Animal Fun­ctions to succeed; and here we shall follow the Process of Nature; beginning with the First Reception of the Aliment in the Mouth, and pursuing it thence thro' its several Sta­ges.

After the Aliment is taken into the Mouth, (for the more Commodious doing of which, the Dentes Incisorii are often Employ'd) it here suffers Comminution, and is mixt with Sa­liva, which is Previous to the Second Preparation, it receives in the Stomach. This Operation is call'd Mastication, and is perform'd by the Lower Jaw, Variously mov'd by its Pro­per Muscles, and Assisted by the Tongue, Cheeks, and Lips; which last, still apply the Less divided Parts of the Mass, to the Dentes Molares, for it's due Comminution; while all the Neighbouring Muscles in their several Actions, Compress the Parotid, Maxillary, Sublingual Salivary Glands, and those of the Lips, Cheeks, &c. and force them to Discharge their Contents to mix with the Masticated Aliment, now ready for Deglutition.

The Aliment after it has undergone this Alteration, do's not Descend into the Stomach by its own Weight, but is con­vey'd thither by the joint Action of the Muscles of the Tongue, Os Hyoides, Fauces, and Oesophagus; all which Con­spire in Deglutition, by Raising and Dilating the Gula, and Protruding the Meat into it. The whole Action do's very much resemble the pouring Corn into a Sack, and is done in the Manner I shall just now Describe. The Root of the Tongue being Deprest by means of its Muscular Fibres, its Tip and Sides are applied in a Semicircular Manner, to the Insides of the whole Range of Teeth of the Upper Jaw or Gums, when these happen to be wanting; and the Whole in this Position is drawn Upwards, by the Musculi Styloglossi and Stylohyoidei, Tab. 14. Fig. 1. Tab. 15. Fig. 1. At the same Time the Fauces are Rais'd by the Musculi Stylopharyngaei, which by their Oblique Position, (as is Noted App. Fig. 38.) draw open their Mouth, and Dilate that Cavity. Now Two Thirds at least of the Upper Surface of the Tongue, being applied to the Roof of the Mouth, and drawn as we have now Describ'd, Upwards, and Inwards; the Epiglottis is De­prest in such Manner, that the Aliment is Protruded over it (as on a Bridge) into the Dilated Cavity of the Fauces, and thence by the Contraction of the Musculus Pterygopharyn­gaeus and Oesophagaeus, App. Fig. 38. it is Deprest into the Gulae, which Helps its Descent into the Stomach, by the Action of its Muscular Fibres.

We must not omit to observe here, That in the In­stant the Aliment passes thro' the Isthmus of the Throat, the Gargareon is drawn Upwards and Backwards, by the Musculi Sphaenostaphylini, (Exprest Append. Fig. 8.) and the [Page] Foramina Narium by this means occluded, while the Epiglottis below covers the Rimula, as was above Noted; and by this means the Matter in its Passage is hindred from Reverting by the Nose, or Descending into the Wind-Pipe; The first hap­pens when the Gargareon is wanting, whether by Venerial Ex­ulcerations or otherwise; or Intumified and Inflamed as in the Small Pox, and cannot yield to this Motion. We may like­wise Note, That the Musculus Mylohyoideus (T. 15. F. 1.) in its Action does press the Sublingual and Maxillary Glands, and force them to discharge their secreted Liquors, by the Papillae, situated at the Fraenum or Ligament of the Tongue; and that the Muscles which Contract the Fauces, have the same Effect on the Tonsills and other Glands of that Part; all which Liquors, discharged from the Mouths of their Excretory Channels, do facilitate the Passage thro' the Gula, and serve to Compose the Stomachick Menstruum; of which further in the next Paragraph.

After the Aliment, thus alter'd by Comminution and Ad­mistion with the Saliva, is received into the Stomach, we proceed next to consider, how its Second Preparation is perform'd. The great Agent in Digestion is the Sto­machick Juice, secreted from the Blood by numerous Glands in this Part, and discharged into its Cavity, in Conjun­ction with the Spittle. This is that which acts promptly upon the Meat lodg'd in the Capacity of the Stomach, and from the Mixture of these two Juices, is compounded a proper Menstruum, by which the Parts of the Aliment are dissolved, and receive their first Transmutation with­in the Body. In this Action, which is a Dissolution of the Texture of the Alimentary Mass, the Aerial Parts included in its Pores, now escape from their former Prisons, and being rarified, distend the whole Body of the Stomach; and this I take to be the true Reason why most Men have less Appetite at some distance of Time, viz. when this Intu­mescence is made, than immediately after they cease from Eating: From the same Cause arise frequent Eructations, great Inflation from divers Meats, such as Old Pease, Cabbage, Roots, Herbs, and other Vegetables, which very much disturb decay'd debilitated Stomachs. I am apt to suspect the Stomachick Menstruum may excite an Intestine motion of the Particles of the Mass in Digestion; which yet I do not think fit to call Fermentation, fearing so bold a Term may mislead us into a False Idea of a greater Con­flict than really happens.

The Intumescence or Dilatation of the Stomach has two Effects: First to compress the Gall Bladder and Pancreas, and oblige their Ductus Excretorii to spue out their Contents into the Duodenum; next to retard the Refluent Blood, and by this means dispose the Muscular Fibres of the Ventricle to a Contraction. The Reason of this last Hint will appear by what we have offer'd concerning Muscular Motion, in the Introduction to our Myotomia Reformata.

For the Cause of Hunger which is an observable Phaeno­menon belonging to this part, I conceive it to be an Irrita­tion of the Stomach, arising from a copious Quantity of this Menstruum, when it wants Matter to act upon. This con­jecture seems more probable, since it is Natural to discharge the Spittle out of the Mouth which comes into it at that Time, rather than suffer it to descend into the Stomach; and we may perpetually observe a depraved Appetite does follow a Vitiation of the Saliva, as in Scorbutick Ha­bits, Salivations by Mercurial Medicines, and such like Cases.

When the Mass is sufficiently prepar'd and reduced to a Pultaceous Consistence, the Stomach by the help of its Mus­cular Fibres contracts it self, and expels its Contents thro' the Pylorus into the Duodenum; where the Digested Mass is mixed with the Bile and Pancreatick Juice, (forced to discharge it self here as was just now described) which Volatilize, Subtiliate, and Separate the more Fluid and Fine Parts of the Aliment, from the more Impure and Gross, and here it is that Chylification is first made perfect. Now the Bile abounding with Lixivial Salt, is apt to intangle with the grosser Parts of the Chylaceous Mass, and its Saline Qua­lity not only cleanses the Cavities of the Guts from the Mucus, Excreted by their Glands (App. Fig. 40.) (to smear their Inmost Coat, and defend the Ostia of the Lacteal Ves­sels from being injured by Extraneous Bodies, which may happen to pass that way) but Stimulates the Intestines in their Peristaltick Motion.

The Peristaltick or Wormlike Motion of the Guts being thus Accelerated by the Acrimony of the Bile, the Contents of the Intestines are carried on, and the Thinner and more Fluid Parts, fitted for the Pores of the Lacteal Vessels, is absorbed by them, and the Thicker move on more slowly, till by the many Stops they meet with in the Connivent Valves, all the Chyle is at length absorbed, and the Remains being meerly Excrementitious, are only fit to be excluded by Stool.

This Vermicular Motion of the Guts, is perform'd by the Alternate Contraction of their Longitudinal and Transverse Fibres, (App. Fig. 39.40.) which at the same Time convey the Digested Mass thro' the Intestinal Tube, and express the Chyle into the Orifices of the Lacteal Ves­sels adapted to receive it; whose Progress from the Intestines, till it is discharged into the Mass of Blood, next presents it self to our Consideration: By the reciprocal Action of these differing Fibres, and the Apposition of the Connivent Valves (Tab. 39. Fig. 2.) the Chyle is forced into the Lacteal Vessels, Tab. ib. Fig. 1.) and hence it is we cannot make any Fluid pass from the Cavity of the Guts into the same Vessels, when the Peristaltick Motion ceases. A farther Use of the Con­traction of these Muscular Fibres, is to Accelerate the Chyle in its Progress, till the Lympha derived from the Arteries of the Guts joyn with it, which is done before it leaves the External Surface of the Intestines; by this Addition the Chyle is diluted and assisted in its Progress towards the Me­senterick Glands; in the Cells of which it is a Second Time Mixed with a Juice or Lymphatick Liquor there Secreted from the Arteries, and so carried on to the Vasa Lactea se­cundi Generis. These Vessels resembling Pipes, convey the Chyle from hence, all emptying themselves into the Common Receptacle or Cistern; the happy Discovery of which, we owe to the Observation of Mons. Pecquet: It is here the Lympha re­turned from the Inferior Limbs and adjacent Parts, is mixed with the Chyle, (App. Fig. 11.) which not only serves to di­lute, but promotes its Ascent thro' the Thoracick Duct, (Fig. ib.) to the Lest Subclavian Vein, (Fig. ib.) where this Channel empties its Contents into the main Current of the Blood. If we consider in this Duct, its several Divisions and Inosculations, (resembling the Veins of the Testicles) its numerous Valves looking from below Upwards, its advan­tageous Situation between the Great Artery and Vertebrae of the Back, together with the Ducts discharging their Refluent Lympha from the Lungs, and the other Neighbouring Parts, we shall find all conduce to demonstrate the utmost Art of Nature, used in furthering the Steep and Perpendicular Ascent of the Chyle; which Beautiful Order is Represented App. Fig. 11. and cannot but equally Create in us Delight and Admiration.

Having traced this Animal Juice to its Reception into the Blood, with which it is at last Circulated and Assimulated, we shall proceed to the Blood it self, whose Circular Motion, the various Artifices of Nature for adjusting the Proportions and other subordinate Contrivances; the Manner and Cause of the Contraction of the Heart and Arteries, Respiration, with the whole Theory of the Lympha and Glandular Secretion in the Order of Nature, follow.

The Refluent Blood in the Upper and Lower Trunk of the Vena Cava meeting in the Right Auricle of the Heart, is thence expelled by its Contraction into the Right Ventricle, when the Heart is in its Diastole; but by its Systole or Con­traction, it is thence driven into the Arteria Pulmonaris, from whose Capillary Vessels it passes into the Extremities of the Vena Pulmonaris, and thence returning, is discharged into the Left Auricle and Ventricle of the Heart: From whence it is again by the Systole driven into the Aorta, by whose Branches it is convey'd thro' the whole System of the Body: But when it arrives in the Capillary Arteries, it do's not stop there, but passes into the like Capillary Veins, and from thence into the greater Branches, next into the Trunk of the Vena Cava, and so into the Right Ventricle again. In the mean time the Three Tricuspid Valves in the Right (Tab. 22. Fig. 6.) and the two Mitral Valves (Tab. ead. Fig. 12.) in the Left Ventricle of the Heart, oppose its return into the Vena Cava and Vena Pulmonaris; and the Semilunary Valves of the Arteria Pulmonaris (Tab. ead. Fig. 14.) and Aorta, (Tab. ib. Fig. 13.) prevent its Reflux into the Ventricles. The Structure and Position of which Membranes, are sufficient alone to lead all Observing Men into a compleat Knowledge of its Motion and Progress.

The Circular Motion of the Blood was first Explain'd, and the whole Demonstrated in a Treatise expresly Writ upon that Subject, and Published in the Year 1628. by our Learned and Ingenious Dr. Harvey; To omit all dis­putes here how far this was known to Cesalpinus, Colum­bus, Servetus, or any of the Anatomists or Virtuoso's of the last Age. But the Manner how this Animal Liquor is transmitted from the Arteries to the Veins, has remained hitherto a Secret, and afforded Matter of Controversie. Some pretend this is done by some blind Imperceptible Meatus in the Carnous Parts, and perplex themselves to give Irrational and Chimerical Accounts, which we shall not here lose Time to enumerate or refute. But the late great Improvement of Microscopes has put an end to all these un­certain Conjectures, by discovering to our Naked Eye, that the Veins and Arteries are but one continued inflected Tube, and the Blood passes from one to the other in an uninterrupted Current; which Unity of the Blood-Vessels by a Parity of Reason, we infer extends to the whole System, and will hardly be questioned by those who consider the Prompt Pas­sage of Mercury, and other injected Liquors from the Ar­teries to the Veins, or see the Globules of Blood passing these Angustia, and reverting with incredible Rapidity in the [Page] Fins of Fishes; (App. F. 4, 5.) which curious Discovery ought not to be reputed the least Advancement which this Part of Natural History has receiv'd.

The great Engine which sets all this Motion on Foot, is the Heart, (Tab. 22. Fig. 9.) by whose repeated Elastick Con­traction, the Blood is driven to the remotest Parts thro' the Arterial System, (App. Fig. 3.) and forced to continue its Motion back thro' the Venous Channels. This Elastick Force is primarily seated in its own Muscular Fibres, whose Spiral Contortion (Tab. 22. Fig. 2, 3.) is very well described by Dr. Lower in his Book De Corde; but the Pendulous Position and the Fibres, which compose its Great Arteries, i. e. the Pul­monaris and Aorta, assist very much; and the Heart taken out of the Body and held up by the Arteries, will continue the least gentle Motion imprest on it for a considerable Time, which Effect can only be ascribed to the Elasticity of the Arterial Trunks by which it is suspended.

The Heart is the immediate Instrument, but what is the Vis Motrix which forces its Fibres to a Contraction, is a far greater Difficulty, and one of the most Abstruse, Inscrutable Myste­ries of Nature. It is in this respect our Bodies differ from Ar­tificial Machines; the Former having in themselves a perpetual Principle of Motion, which the Latter by no Invention of Men can arrive at. In my Opinion the Heart of an Animal bears a great Analogy to the Pendulums of those Artificial Automata, Clocks and Watches, whilst its Motion is per­form'd like that of other Muscles, the Blood doing the Office of a Pondus. The Observation of the Curious Mons. Peyer in Parergo Septimo, seems to favour this Opinion; who tells us, He has with Pleasure seen the Heart renew its Con­traction, by blowing into the Thoracick Duct, when the Parts have began to grow stiff after Death. The like Motion of the Heart I have more than once observ'd to be restor'd, by blowing into the Veins of a Dog, and pouring warm Water on it, or applying the Palm of the Hand not long after its Cessation.

Besides the Quantity, doubtless the Quality of the Blood has a Share, since all Distempers which alter the Mass, at the same Time create a Hurry and Disorder in its Motion. To explain the Action of the Blood in this Case, and the Influence it has over the Motion of the Heart, we must con­sider its Nature, Constituent Parts, and the Alterations it is disposed to receive. This Animal Fluid consists of Two Parts, Serous and Globular. The Distinction of these Parts of the Blood is evident to the Naked Eye, after its Stagna­tion in any Vessel, but is clearly evinced by the Microscope in its Circulation thro' the Tails and Fins of Fishes, and other Transparent Parts, in the same manner as is Repre­sented Appendix Fig. 4, 5. where the Globules seem to Swim in the Serum in this state of Mixture. Now the Blood being in this manner a Heterogeneous Liquor, Compos'd of Particles of various Magnitude and Figure, must be subject to an In­testine Motion; but the great Rapidity of its Current thro' the Arteries, and the Angustiae in the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels, not admitting any Retrograde Motion to be there made, it is deferr'd till it arrives in the Great Veins, where its Progress is retarded, and the Room more spatious, and the Intestine Motion there Commences, which arises to a Greater or Less Height, as the Blood is more or less Charged with Incon­gruous Parts. The Alteration which the Blood by this means receives, has no inconsiderable Share in the Heart's Con­traction; and tho it be not the prime efficient Cause, yet we cannot deny but that it is Partial and Incitative, as appears in Fevers and several other Distempers, where the whole Mass is Accelerated, and the Pulse more frequent.

Besides all these Causes, the Brain by its Nervous Trunks sent to this Part, which are very Thick and Tense, yet lie very loose, contributes much to this Action. And here we may observe, not only these of the Heart, but the whole System of Nerves which serve the Viscera in the Thorax and Lower Belly, have their Propagines very Numerous and Tense, notwith­standing which, they lie Loose or Free in their Progress from the Brain to their respective Parts; both which concur in dis­posing them to Receive and Retain all Impressions from their Extremities: This Faculty beginning to Exert it self even while the Foetus is in Vtero, grows Familiar and Natural, and from this early Habit and Practice of the Infant, they after perform their Duty Sleeping or Waking, without the least Advertence; but this by the by. And now if what has been Noted, shall be thought sufficient to give ground to Hope Future En­quiries may discover more Adequate Causes of this great Phaenomenon, we have obtained our Desire, and shall leave these Hints to be improv'd by Men of more Industry and Leasure.

Before we leave this Subject, we must not omit to Remark some Observable Artifices of Nature, for the better carrying on the Circulation. The First is the Valves placed in the several Divarications of the Veins, between their Capillar Extremities and Larger Trunks: These are Membranes pro­ceeding from the inner Coat of the Vessels, in the Form of a Crescent or C. which was the Ancient Greek Sigma, and are generally Double, with their Concavity looking towards the Heart, and readily give way to the Current of the Blood thither, as is Represented: (Tab. 23. F. 7.) But if by its Weight, or any other Cause, the Blood should Revert, they oppose it, and being Distended, prevent its Return from the Great Trunks of Veins to the Lesser, and at the same time hinder the Superincumbing Blood from pressing on the Inferior; con­cerning which consult Tab. 23. Fig. 6.

Another Considerable Artifice in Nature, is the Conveying great Quantities of Refluent Blood from several Parts of the Trunk by particular Channels, instead of discharging it by the next and most immediate Passage into the Neighbouring Cur­rent. Dr. Lower has well Observ'd, that the Heart is not placed in the Center of the Body, but inclines to its Upper Part, which Position is necessary to Drive the Blood in its Systole to the Head, with more Force then is required to make it Descend to the Feet, to which its own Weight and Fluidity do's not a little Conduce. Now the Heart being seated so near the Upper Part, as that Two Parts in Three of the whole Fabrick, appear to be below it, there must be a like Inequality of Blood sent to the Inferior Parts, to that which Ascends to the Superior. And this we see Confirm'd by comparing the Diameter of the Blood-Vessels Descending with the Ascending, the Former being much Larger then the Latter. This great Dispropor­tion of Blood in the Upper System to that of the Lower, seems to threaten a great Disturbance in the Animal Order, but is prevented by the Provident Care of the Author of Nature, in the Manner we are now about to Describe.

The Intercostal Arteries App. F. 3. which arise from the Low­er System, are accompanied with Veins (that Return the Blood they Exported) which do not enter into the next Large Trunk according to the ordinary Process of Nature in other Parts; but are all United into One Channel (and sometimes Two) which Ascends by the Side of the Aorta, and Empties it self into the Descending Trunk of the Vena Cava, there Discharging all its Refluent Blood; which had it been Inserted into the Ascending Trunk, it must have added so great a Weight, that the Blood could not have past up to the Heart, which it now easily do's. Beside these, the Mammary Veins likewise Empty themselves into the Subclavian, so that all the Blood Ari­sing from the Parietes of the Thorax, the Back and its Mus­cles, as well as those of the Scapulae, returns again to the Heart, by the Upper Trunk of the Vena Cava, tho' it was sent thi­ther from the Lower Trunk of the Arteria Magna.

Another Contrivance of this Nature is Observable in the Vena Porta, which Receives the Blood from the Stomach, Omentum, Spleen, Pancreas, Guts and Mesentery, sent thither by the Coeliack and Mesenterick Arteries, which large Quan­tity had it Enter'd into the Vena Cava, immediately below the Liver or Kidneys, its Weight so far beneath the Diaphragm, must have Hindred its Ascent; wherefore the Vena Porta (not unlike the Azygos of the Thorax before Noted) carries up all the Blood by another Channel, and Discharges it into the Extremities of the Vena Cava within the Liver, where it is Diluted and Propell'd by the Refluent Blood from the Splenick Vein, and afterwards assisted in its Ascent, by the Contraction of the Diaphragm.

Here I cannot forbear making a Digression, and presenting my Conjectures of the Use and Office of the Spleen, since it ministers in this Part of the Animal Oeconomy. The Arteria Splenica is not only very large in Proportion to the Magnitude of the Spleen, but has a Remarkable Tortuous Passage to it, (Tab. 36. F. 1.) whence we may conceive as the Quantity of Blood sent to the Spleen is very great, so its Impetus is very much Abated: Next the Communications between the Ex­tremities of its Arteries and Veins are very Large, as ap­pears by the Prompt Exit, which Water pour'd into one Finds by the other, and the Inflation of the Veins which is easily made by Blowing into the Arteries, when the whole Spleen and its Veins become Distended with it. The Lym­phe-ducts of the Spleen we have Observ'd, (Tab. 36. Fig. 1.) to Arise from the Vesiculae at the Extremities of its Veins, and Discharge their Contents into the Neighbouring Lym­phatick Glands, whence it is sent into the Receptacule of the Chyle: Its Nerves are Distributed thro' its whole Sub­stance, and serve to preserve its Tone and Regulate the Separation of its Lympha and Nutritive Juice. But the most exact Scrutiny of Anatomists could never yet Discover any Excretory-duct arising from this Viscus; and indeed the Patent Communication of its Vessels seems a convincing Proof, that no such Excretory-duct can Exist but must ap­pear very plain. Besides it seems Extravagant and Unbecom­ing the Wonderful Providence of Nature, to Separate any particular Juice in the Arteries here to be instantly Refunded into the Veins, and we can hardly conceive the Blood can suffer any Alteration, in a Place where the Transit from the one to the other, is so Ample.

After these Considerations Premis'd, if the Problem be Pro­pos'd, What can be the Design of the great Architect of our Bodies, in the Fabrication of so Large and Remarkable a Part, without any Fluid Secreted in it, besides its own Nutritive Juice and Lympha? I believe our Hypothesis will enable us to give a sufficient Reply to this seeming invincible Difficulty, with which Learned Men have exceedingly perplex'd them­selves. I conceive then the Spleen is Design'd by Nature, as [Page] a Diverticle to receive a large Proportion of Blood to be Refunded by its Veins into the Porta, and promote the Re­flux of the Blood Imported thither from the Stomach, Guts, Pancreas, Mesentery, &c. by whose slow Progress thro' the innumerable Glands of those Parts, it returns Thick and unfit for Motion: And this seems but Necessary that a new Quantity of Blood, charg'd with a Copious Serum, should be Infunded into this Refluent Liquor before it Arrives at the Liver, to dispose it to pass the Extremities of the Vena Cava, and add a fresh Impetus to its Languid Motion caus'd by its Long and Tortutous Progress. This I take to be the Use and Office of the Spleen, and seems to have all the Cir­cumstances the Laws of Mechanism require for this Purpose. The Novelty of which Opinion will (I hope) be no Preju­dice to its Reception in the Minds of Candid and Impartial Men.

Having thus Represented the Circulation; the Order of Nature leads us to Respiration, which serves in conveying the Blood from the Right to the Left Ventricle of the Heart, and Impregnates it with Parts proper for its further Elaborations.

Respiration or Breathing is a double Action, i. e. Inspi­ration or Receiving of Air into the Lungs; and Expiration or Expelling it again: The whole is done by means of Wide­ning and Straitning the Cavity of the Thorax, in which the Lungs are contain'd.

How the Cavity of the Thorax may be Enlarged and Con­tracted, we may easily conceive, if we consider the Order of its Bony Parietes, (Tab. 27, and 28.) and observe the Oblique Descending Position of the Ribs from the Vertebrae of the Back, with their Cartilaginous Connection to the Os Pectoris, and the Position and Action of the Diaphragm, as is ex­plained Tab. 52. whence it appears when the Ribs are drawn up, and the Superior Convex Surface of the Diaphragm de­prest towards a Plain, the Included Space must necessarily be Enlarged; and on the contrary very much Straitned when the Ribs are drawn down, and the Upper Surface of the Dia­phragm Convex towards the Lungs, as it is Represented in the last mention'd Table.

The Elevation and Depression of the Ribs is perform'd by the Proper and Common Muscles of the Thorax: The First have their Rise and Termination confined to the Parts Composing its Parietes: The Other, notwithstanding their Relation to other Parts, yet chiefly respect This: Of the Common Muscles some are Principal, immediately moving This, together with those Parts from which they are de­rived: Others are Auxiliary, which by moving the Con­tiguous Bodies, Contribute to the better performing the Grand Motion: Thus the Elevation of the Shoulder-Blades is required in violent Respirations, without which the Musculi Serrati (Tab. 20.) (which spring from the Scapulae) (Tab. 29. V. W.) could not Act; hence it happens that Re­spiration is Interrupted when the Arms are in Action, by reason the Scapulae at that time engage all their Muscles (espe­cially the Serrati T. 20.) to render them Stable; and the Extension of the Vertebrae of the Neck becomes necessary, to the end the Musculi Scaleni (Tab. 18. B B.) may Raise the Upper Ribs.

The Proper Muscles of the Thorax are the Intercostales Ex­terni and Interni, (Tab. 26. Fig. 1.) the Triangulares, (Tab. and Fig. ead.) the Serrati Superiores and Inferiores Postici, Tab. 28.

The Principal Common Muscles, are the Scaleni, (Tab. 18.) the Subclavii, Tab. 20. the Serrati Majores & Minores Antici, (Tab. ead.) and the Sacrolumbales, (Tab. 29.)

The Auxiliary Muscles are such as Raise the Scapulae, and draw them Backwards, and those which Extend the whole Spine.

The Cavity of the Thorax being dilated in the manner above mention'd, the Ambient Air necessarily rushes thro' the Aspera Arteria and Bronchia, into the Vesiculae of the Lungs, whereby their whole Substance becomes Distended; and this we call Inspiration.

In Expiration, the Air contain'd in the Vesiculae of the Lungs, is Excluded; in this Action the Lungs are not meerly Passive as in the Former, but the Elasticity of the Ligaments of their Bronchia, draw their Small Cartilages over each other, and Conduce to the Expulsion of the Air contain'd in their Ve­siculae.

This Alternate Diastole and Systole of the Lungs and Tho­rax, bears an Analogy to a Pair of Bellows, whose Two Boards being drawn from each other, the Ambient Air neces­sarily rushes in between them, and Fills the Internal Space enlarg'd by the Deduction of their Sides; which Air is again Expell'd from thence, by Approaching them towards each other.

The Inducements the Author of Nature had to Frame this Pulmonary Organ, are many; by this the Aerial Parti­cles pass to the Mass of Blood, which Rarifie, Subtilize and render it fit for those Elaborations it afterwards undergoes: By these the Tenacious Serum of the Blood is Attenuated, and the whole Mass rendred fit for Motion; the Effects of which are Evident in those Rhumatick Asthmas and other Cases, which Oblige some to leave this Town for a Clearer Air.

The Lungs are the Intermediate Passage between the Two Ventricles of the Heart, whereby the whole Mass of Blood passes thro' their Large Blood-Vessels in an equal Rapidity and Quantity, with that of all other Parts of the Body be­sides, and do by this means discharge the Blood of a great Quantity of its Serum, by Halitus in Expiration; wherefore the Accurate Dr. Tyson Reckons them among the Num­ber of Glands.

This Alternate Action in which Respiration consists, is Ne­cessary, to the End the Blood may pass the Lungs, whose Ve­siculae, if they were constantly Distended by the Inspired Air, the Extremities of the Pulmonick Blood-Vessels would be Comprest; and on the contrary, if these Vesiculae were Col­laps'd (as after Expiration) their Blood-Vessels would be con­sequently Corrugated; but by this Vicissitude they become Permeable, and the Blood easily passes their Extremities.

We have Traced the Aliment from its First Reception till it is Elaborated into Blood, and pursued in its Motion and Circulation thro' its several Channels. We ought next to take a View of the several Liquors or Fluids separated from it in its Tour. All Animal Juices except the Chyle are separated from the Arterial Blood, which common Material in its Per­colation in the Brain and Nerves, yield the Contents of their Fibres; in the Glands of the Mouth and Throat, the Saliva; in the Mammae, the Milk; in the Kidneys, the Urine; in the Testes, Sperm; (not to name the Sweat, Mucilage of the Joints, &c.) and thro' the Universal Body, a Copious Quantity of Lympha; which is not applied to any distinct Use in the Animal Oeconomy, but is all discharg'd into the Great Cystern or Re­ceptacle of the Chyle and Subclavian Vein, and so Refunded into the Refluent Blood.

The Doctrine of Secretions is the last and only remaining Part of those Natural Functions, which are directed to the Preservation and Subsisting of the Individual. For the Na­ture and Properties of these Liquors, their Use and Office, and the peculiar Structure adapted for the Percolation of one, and excluding the rest; we must remit the Reader to the De­scription of the Organs themselves, contenting our selves here with the Theory of the Origin of the Lympha, and Se­cretion in General.

The Knowledge of this Animal-liquor call'd Lympha, and the Ducts which Convey it, is owing to the Industry and Searches of this present Age. But whether Rudbeck, Bartholine or our Countrey-man Dr. Iolive ought to carry the Honour of the Discovery, I shall not pretend to decide. But the Rise, Course, and other particular Circumstances needful to inform us of their Use, and the Design of Nature in the Fa­brication of these Ducts, has not been hitherto, at least fully, Demonstrated. Some have pretended to derive these Ducts from the Nerves, others from the Membranes or Tendinous Parts of the Muscles; but these are Impertinencies scarce worth a serious Refutation.

The diligent Melpighius in his Epistle to the Royal-Socíety, is follicitous in enquiring whether they are not Excretory-ducts to Export the Juice Secreted in the Conglobate Glands, since there is none of these Glands so inconsiderable to be found which has not its Lymphe-ducts belonging to it, as well as its Nerves and Blood-Vessels. After several Observa­tions premis'd, he concludes they Arise in exceeding Minute, and scarce perceptible Sirculi, from the Lesser Glands, which afterwards are United to those Arising from other Glands, forming Greater Trunks, and so proceed till they Empty themselves into the Common Cystern of the Chyle. I shall not repeat the Reasons or Experiments of that Curious Gentle­man to sustain his Opinion, which mainly amounts to this, That in pursuing these Ducts, we cannot by the most exact Scrutiny, or any Art yet known, Trace them further. But we must crave leave to differ from him in this Point, and per­haps the Reasons we shall offer, will be sufficient to justifie our Dissent, and give a more clear and satisfactory Account of the First Source of this Fluid.

The Glands I must confess have a great Concern in prepa­ring the Lympha, insomuch that no Lymphe-duct can absolve its Course without Touching on them; and their Necessity ap­pears yet further, while we see other Lymphe-ducts, (when the main Trunk passes by,) yet emit several Lateral Branches which Insert themselves into these Glands, and after being remitted from thence, are rejoin'd to the Former Trunk (App. Fig. 14.) Besides these Lymphe-ducts which Enter the Glands, are frequently divided into several Branches; which make their Exit again divided, and after approaching each other, join into one Current, ib. Fig. 13. But however Im­portant the Glands may be, I think they are far enough from being their Source.

The Glands of the Mesentery have their Lacteals which Import, and others which Export the Chyle from them. We shall find the Case of these Vessels to be entirely Parallel; every Lymphatick Gland we have yet been able to Discover having both Species of Ducts, the one to Import, the other to Export the Lympha from them; whence it is probable the Lesser not differing from the Greater in Structure, but Magni­tude only, they serve to Transmit the Lympha, and not give it its First Rise: This will be still more evident, if we [Page] consider the Great Communication between the Blood-Vessels and these Ducts.

The First Origination and Extremities of these Lymphe-ducts, are too Subtile and Fine to be discern'd by the Eye, even Assisted by the Microscope, and must give Room for Suspi­tion and Conjecture. The Arteries and Veins, we have above Demonstrated, are but one continuous Reflected Tube: For the Truth of this Assertion, in the Transparent Parts of Ani­mals (App. Fig. 4, 5.) we have the Evidence of our Senses; and that the same Continuity is kept thro' the whole System of the Body, no Rational Man who will please to Reflect on the Uniformity of Nature, can with any Pretence of Reason doubt. Now as these Vessels Communicate with each other, and admit a Prompt Passage of Air, Tincted Liquors, Mercu­ry, &c. from each to other, so by some Experiments we find they have with the Excretory-ducts, and Vice-versa, those Li­quors which we can convey into the Excretory-ducts after Death, will pass from them into the Blood-Vessels and Lym­phe-ducts, which Experiment I have remark'd (Tab. 43. Fig. 5.) as an Objection to those who suppose Valves in the begin­ning of the Excretory-ducts.

From these Demonstrative and Convincing Experiments, we may conceive the true Origin of the Lymphe-ducts, is from the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels; and their Office to carry Back the superfluous Serum, which is more Copious in the Ar­teries, than is perhaps convenient in the Veins, where the Pro­gress of the Blood is Slower, and the Quantity much greater. This Rise of the Lympha is still more clear,* if we consider in some States or Habits of Body, when the Crasis of the Blood is deprav'd, some Parts of it pass this way, and the Lympha is Ting'd by it; as it happens by Injecting Water by the Arteries after Death, when Part of the Blood still remains in its Vessels, you will see the Lymphe-ducts fill'd with a Bloody Water.

This Origination of the Lymphe-ducts from the Extremi­ties of the Blood-Vessels, we don't take to be altogether im­mediately from their Sides, as we do that of the Secretory Tubes, (App. Fig. 7.) but that they have a Double Origin, the one from the Extremities of the Arteries, and the other from the Cells or Tubes which contain the Nourishment of the Parts they Arise from: By this means not only the super­abundant Serum of the Blood in the Arteries, is carried off before it Arrives in the Veins, but the superfluous Nutritive Juice also, is return'd with the Lympha.

In those Parts where we find the Passage of the Blood be­tween the Arteries and Veins very Patent, as in the Spleen and Penis, the Lymphe-ducts Arise from their Vesiculae; as has been Observ'd in the Former by the Accurate Nuck, and by my self in the Latter.

The like Origin of these Ducts may be Observ'd from the Spermatick Veins of the Testes and Ovaria, in which the Blood returns very little Divested of its Serosity, to the end its Globular Parts may the better Ascend in those Veins, with a Less Proportion of Serum.

These Ducts Empty themselves into the Vesiculae of their Glands, as is Represented (App. Fig. 13, 14.) from whence the Exporting Ducts Arise, and carry the Lympha on to the next Gland or Thoracick-duct, (App. Fig. 11.) and so to the Subclavian Vein. Thus we find the Motion of the Lym­pha, Chyle and Nutritive Juice, is propell'd by means of the Systole of the Heart, by which all the Secretions of the Ani­mal Fluids, are in like Manner carried on.

In the Seventh Figure of our Appendix we have Exprest the Secretory Tubes Arising from the Venous, as well as the Ar­terious Part of the Sanguineous Channel before its Inflection; because we find there is a Transit from the Veins into these Vessels; yet in my Opinion most of them Arise from the Artery, where it Commences to grow Conical, where the Sides of the Vessel thro' the Efforts made by the Parts of the Blood propell'd, receive a more direct Pressure than in their Cylindrical Extremities, and the Particles Adapted to their Pores, are driven into the Tubes deriv'd from them.

By this Scheme, the Origin of the Lympha, and the Man­ner of Secretion, is well enough Explain'd. But why the Sa­liva is separated in the Parotid Maxillary and Sublingual Glands, the Bile in those of the Liver, the Urine by the Kid­neys, &c. must be deduc'd from their peculiar Structure; the Magnitude, Figure of their Pores, and Various Disposi­tion of their Arteries, having a mighty share in these Opera­tions. Thus we may Observe the Arteries of the Testes, have a long and Flexuous Progress, and contrary to the ordinary Method of Nature, are smaller at their Origina­tions from the Aorta, than in their Trunks after a farther Descent, as we have Noted (Tab. 45.) all which conduce to abate the Impetus of the Blood, before it Arrives in the Testes. On the other Hand the Current of the Blood to the Kidneys, (by the Largeness, Short and Streight Course of the Emulgents, and their Vicinity to the Left Ventri­cle of the Heart,) is very Rapid, which discharges a great Quantity of Urine, soon after the Use of Chalybeat Wa­ters, or other plentiful Drinking, whilst it is infinite­ly more slow in the Salival Glands, Pancreas, Liver, &c. We shall not here recite any further Particulars, hoping the Reader will peruse our Tables and Discourse of the seve­ral Organs.

Having done with our Doctrine of the First Order of Natu­ral Functions, we proceed to the Second, or those which serve for the Propagation of the Species; which Naturally divides its self into Two Parts, (viz.) Generation, and Accretion, or what concerns the Foetus in its Formation, and by what means and steps it's carried on to an Adult State. Since Animal Bodies are Transient and Temporary, the Author of Nature has endued them with the Power of Propagation, and a Set of Proper Organs to continue their Species, and furnish a constant Supply of new Individuals. From the Difference of which Organs of Generation Arises the difference of Sexes.

All Animals have been Divided into Viviparous and Ovi­parous, till Dr. Harvey remov'd the Distinction, by Demon­strating all Living Creatures to derive their Original from Eggs, with this Difference only; in one the Foetus is perfected within, and in the other without the Mothers Body. This Doctrine of that great Man has since been fully evinc'd by the repeated Dissections, Observations, and Experiments of Later Anatomists: No Species of Fowls, Fishes and Quadru­pedes are found to want them: The Foetus being sometimes found in the passage between the Ovarium and Vterus, [...]ad the Alveoli deserted by them, are sufficiently discernable in all Animals after Impregnation; so that the Existence of These cannot be doubted, or that there is a perfect Confor­mity between the Pullus in Ovo, and the Foetus in the Womb. But here we must distinguish the Essential and Constituent Parts, from those which are only Alimentary and Accessory. It is the Cicatricula alone in the Eggs of Fowls, in which re­side the Rudiments of the Foetus, whilst the Vitellus and Al­bumen prepare and supply its Nourishment; both bearing an exact Analogy to the Lobes and Plantula Seminalis in Vegeta­ble Seeds. The Seminal Vesicula or Ovum found in the Testes of Women, &c. agrees in every respect with the Cicatricula, and the other Parts are unnecessary, because the Foetus is nourish'd by Aliment supplied from the Mothers Body. Since the Dis­covery of these Eggs, the Ancient Doctrine that the Foetus was Form'd from the Commistion of the Male and Female Seed, has been by all Rejected, and that Liquour which has been taken by all preceding Ages for Seed in the Latter, is found to be only a Mucous Matter, Secreted from the Glands of the Vagina, (Tab. 51. F. 3. C.) and discharg'd without the Body; which in Mares, Cows, and many other Animals is in much greater Quantity, than is possible to be contain'd in their Testes.

Tho' Generation ex Ovo may be justly reputed among the Modern Improvements of Anatomy, yet this did not altoge­ther escape the Notice of the Sagacious Hippocrates, who in his Book De Natura Pueri, informs us, the Embryo after Conception is Included in a Membrane, exactly resembling an Egg without its Shell, and describes the Rudiments of the Vmbilicus and Placenta, with its Plexus of Blood-Vessels, and the Pellucid Liquor of the Amnios after the same Manner as Represented (Tab. 57. Fig. 2.) This Accurate Observation, he acquaints us he made from an Abortion artificially pro­cur'd within Six Days after Conception, to preserve the Reputation of an Incontinent Wench; which remarkable Passage (not ordinarily taken Notice of) was shewn me by my very Ingenious Friend Dr. Fern. Much of the same Age or something more, and agreeing with the Description of Hippocrates, are the Secundines which the Learned Dr. Hannes keeps among his other Anatomical Collections.

Upon the Invention of these Ova, De Graaf and Others, who have successfully employ'd themselves in their Enquiries on this Subject, began to Erect an Opinion, That the Fe­male only furnish'd the Matter of the Foetus, and the Male serv'd to Actuate it by its Prolifick Influence. This Opinion, which derogates much from the Dignity of the Male-Sex, prevail'd till Mons. Leeuwenhoeck by the Help of his Exquisite Microscope, in which he has been well pursued by Mr. Melling, detected Innumerable small Animals in the Masculine Sperm, and by this Noble Discovery, at once remov'd that Difficulty, and added much to the Theory of Generation: In his Let­ter to the Royal-Society, he Acquaints them he had observ'd Incredible Numbers of these Animalcula in the Testicles of Froggs, so slender, as not to exceed the Thousandth Part of a single Hair, with a Head proportionably larger than the rest of their Body, all Variously moving to and fro; That he had found the same in the Testicles of all Animals, which he had Inspected; and in another, he gives them an Account, That in the Spawn of a Cabeliaw he had found them to be still Lesser, and more than Ten Thousand Swimming about in a Portion of Seed, not exceeding a Grain of Sand; and pre­tending to find by a Formal Computation all the Animals contain'd in the Lactes of this Fish, to exceed more than Ten times the Number of Men on the Surface of the Earth. Foe­cundation he esteems to proceed from one of these Nume­rous Animalcula, after Ejection, striking thro' the Pores or Perforations on the Sides of the Ovum, and Lodging it self in the Cicatricula, which is dispos'd to Receive and Nourish it.

From this surprizing Discovery, it is evident That [Page] no Aura Seminalis, or Influx of Active Spirituous Mat­ter do's Delineate the Foetus; and that Observation of Malpighius Illustrated, That before Impregnation, no Vesti­gia of the Pullus could be found, and yet in some few Hours after, it is distinct and visible. Having thus taken a short Prospect of the Materials, we must proceed to the Or­der and Progress of Generation, from the Inchoation, till the Perfection of the Foetus in the Womb, and its Exclusion, and thence till its full Growth, or Dimensions prescrib'd by Nature to the Species.

The Arteriae Spermaticae in Men bring the Blood to the Te­stes, in whose Convolutions, it is Prepar'd and carry'd by the Vasa Deferentia to the Vesiculae Seminales, where it is Lodg'd till in the Time of Coition, it is Injected into the Vagina Vteri. The Manner of the Erection of the Penis in applying it to the Transverse Ligament of the Ossa Pu­bis, by the Musculi Erigentes and the Constriction of the Cor­pus Cavernosum Vrethrae, by the Musculi Acceleratores, to Stop the Refluent Blood, and Inflate the Bulb and Cavernous Bodies, I shall wave Repeating, having amply Describ'd this Artifice, in the Appendix to my Myotomia Reformata.

The Semen Injected into the Vagina of the Woman, is Con­vey'd to the Ovaria, thro' the Womb it self and the Fallop­pian Tubes; which, in the Time of Coition, by means of their Reticular Structure, are Inflated and strictly Em­brace them. We have Describ'd the Manner how the Fo­liated Expansions of the Left Falloppian Tube, Embrace the Ovarium on that Side, and are Distended by the Refluent Blood from the Vagina, whose Veins being Comprest by the Penis in Coition, all, or the greatest Part of its Blood, passes up by the Spermatick Veins, (which Inosculate with the Hy­pogastrick) and the Distended Tubes are Incurvated by the Broad Ligaments of the Vterus, and the Fundus Vteri being Distended also, and at the same Time the External Air Pent out by the Penis, a free Passage is left for the Se­men to the Ovarium. This I prefer as a more Compen­dious way of Conveying it, than either thro' the whole Mass of Blood, which must in my Opinion too much alter it, or thro' the Porous Substance of the Vterus, as others would have us believe. Nor can I conceive why any Man should scruple to think these small Animals may pass some Pore in the External Membranes, as they do in Froggs, Fish, &c. where the Ovula are ejected out of the Female, before they are Impregnated by the Male, rather than suppose they should pass by the Spermatick Arteries to the Ovarium, after se­veral Circulations thro' the whole System of the Body. The immediate and direct Passage of the Semen is very much confirm'd, by comparing the Appearances of these Uterine Parts in Fowl, especially Hens.

One, or sometimes more of these Ova happening to be Foe­cundated at a Time, are distended and break the Pedunculi, by which they are affix'd, and leaving their Folliculi, pass into the Falloppian Tube, which resembling the Ovi-ducts in Birds, re­ceive and convey them to the Fundus Vteri. The manner how they are carry'd on is not less Mechanical, than most other Operations in the Animal Oeconomy; for as the Tur­gescence of the Penis first remits in its Extremity, so do's this exactly after the same manner, and by Consequence drives the Ovum contain'd in it to the Fundus of the Womb.

After the Ovum is arriv'd here, it Fluctuates about some Time without being fix'd, and receives Nourishment by Ap­position only, till at length some of its Vessels begin to Ger­minate, and afterwards Inosculate with those of the Vterus. The Arteries of the Ovum protruding themselves into the Veins of the Vterus, and the Veins Vice-versa into the Arte­ries, from which mutual Intertexture of the Vessels, the Pla­centa is compos'd.

By Intervention of the Placenta and Umbilical Vessels, the Foetus receives Blood from the Mother, and a common Circulation is continu'd, the Particulars of which, and the Difference of its Course from the Circulation after the Birth, is Describ'd in the Explication of the following Tables.

The Aliment for Nutrition of the Foetus, seems to be a sort of Chylous Juice separated by the Glands of the Pla­centa, and reposited in the Capacity of the Amnios (Tab. 55, 58.) which Grows considerable for its Quantity in the Se­cond and Third Month, and the Foetus begins to take it in at its Mouth, for some time before its Birth, whence it is con­vey'd to the Stomach and Intestines, and Part passes into Chyle and Blood-Vessels, according to the Ordinary Method of Nature in an Adult; the remainder Composing the Ex­crement we find in the Intestines of the Foetus, and some­times Floating in the Liquor of the Amnios. Besides which, the Mammill [...] of Recent-born Infants of both Sexes, con­tain a Serous Milky Liquor, which is discharg'd into the Li­quor of the Amnios.

After the Foetus has lain Nine Months in the Womb, it Arrives at such a Magnitude as makes it uneasie both for want of Room and Aliment. Besides the Excrements voi­ded from its Anus foul the Contents of the Amnios, and mo­lest the Foetus, which by its frequent and strenuous Strug­lings, shakes the Placenta, and breaks the slender Vessels, which Connect it to the Vterus; from the Conspiring of which Circumstances, Parturition must necessarily follow.

After the Secundines are remov'd, and the Infant first Opens its Mouth, the Ambient Air rushes into the Lungs, and Di­stends the Vesiculae Aereoe, which afterwards remain in some measure Inflated, because the Extremity of the Bronchia which Open into them, are much Less than the Vesiculae themselves, and some Part of the Air will still continue in them; whence they Gain a greater Specifick Lightness, and Swim in Water. The Pulmonick Blood-Vessels which before the Birth lay Collaps'd, have their Trunks and Ramifications Extended, and admit the Blood to pass thro' them; the Foramen Ova­le, and Canalis Arteriosus not lying in a Direct Line to the Propulsion of the Blood; these Passages in Tract of Time, become Obliterated, and all the Blood from the Right Ven­tricle of the Heart, passes thro' the Lungs, before it can Ar­rive at the Left. These Alterations of the Oeconomy happen af­ter the Foetus is brought into the World, and Expos'd to the External Air.

Having seen how the Infant is Generated and Usher'd into the World, with the Alterations which attend its Birth, we must consider next by what means Nutrition and Accretion are Effected, or the Steps by which it proceeds insensibly from such small Beginnings, to its due Size and Dimensions. It is certain, that the Bodies of Animals are nothing else than a Vascular Compages, and all their Parts Exist in the Foecun­dated Ovum, which by the Accession of New Matter, are only Distended and become Visible. From which Consideration we may infer, That the Augmentation of the Body is made by a Simple Extension of all the Tubes, Vessels and Cells; which when they will no longer recede to admit the Nutri­tious Particles, to be Lodg'd in the Interstices of the Fibres which Compose their Parietes, and there remain no more Ostiola in the Sides of their Vessels, by which the Fluids can Open a Passage, the Body is Arriv'd at the utmost limits of its Growth. This Tenseness and Contiguity of the Fibres which refuses to admit more of the Nutritious Parts, is that which Determines the Magnitude of Animals, and the same Hypothesis will serve to Explicate the differing Sizes of Individuals of the same Species. In this Manner the Bones Arrive at their full Dimensions, and then preserve their Sta­bility and Figure, whose Accretion and other Accidents Ari­sing from its Vitiation, are very well Explain'd by Dr. Havers in his Osteologia. But besides the gradual Increase and For­mation of the Tubes and Vessels, there is a necessity for a Supply of Fluids to maintain a Plenitude, with a constant Reparation of the Blood and Humours to prevent the Col­lapse: Thus in an Atrophy, the great Emaciation and appa­rent Loss of the Substance, proceeds from a want of Proper Fluids to preserve the Arteries, Veins, Lymphe-ducts, &c. and other Channels of the Body in their due Distention. I must confess a Corrosive Salt in some deprav'd Crases of the Blood, may consume the Stable and Organick Parts, as in the Spina Ventosa, and such like Cases, where the Bones some­times (as I have seen in one of the Fingers) are wholly Dis­solv'd, while the External Teguments have not been injur'd; but in this Case, contrary to the other, the Loss is Irreparable. Hence Appears the necessary Distinction between Accretion and Nutrition, the First being an Accession to the Organical Parts, by New Matter Intruding into the Interstices of their Fibres, and there remaining; and the Latter only a Supply of a Proper Pabulum to the Fluids, to preserve them in a due Temper and Proportion. The First being fix'd and perma­nent, and scarce alter'd once in the Term of a Man's Life, and the Last in a perpetual Succession and Flux; which there­fore requires the superfluous Part of the Succus Nutritius, not retain'd in the Proper Tubes and Cells to be Infunded into the Lymphe-ducts, by which it is again return'd to the General Mass; the Manner of which we may Conceive by Fig. 6. of the Appendix.

From the Natural, we pass to the Animal Functions: That the Brain and Nervous System are the Common Medium of Sense and Motion is uncontested; but the manner how the Impressions are convey'd from the External Organs to the Sedes Animae, and Vice-versa from thence to the Organ, and how a Material Substance can affect and be affected by an Immaterial, is Obscure and scarce to be conceiv'd. Where­fore waving all Precarious Hypotheses, I shall confine my self to the Description of such Phaenomena as are Matters of Fact, and undeniable, and leave the Reader at Liberty to erect what System he pleases. The Seat of Sense is the Brain, whose Nervous Dispensations are the Intermediate Bodies between it and the Organs, on which the External Objects act. When the Impression is made by the Object, and receiv'd into the Organ of Sense, it is convey'd from thence with the same Type or Character, by an Agitation of its Nervous Expansions and their continued Trunks, to the common Sensory: This is common to Men and Brutes, and is by Des Cartes made the First Degree of Sensation: The Second is the Perception of the Soul attending that Mo­tion, which immediately follows the former Degree, by rea­son of the intimate Connexion of the Soul to the Sensorium Commune. The Third comprehends all those Judgments which we form by the Occasion of those Motions: Hence [Page] it follows, all Corporeal Objects are only Perceivable by us, in as much as they affect the Nerves expanded, in such and such Organs. This is the general Idea of Sensation so far as can be explain'd without Engaging in particular Schemes.

Before we enter on the Consideration of the External Senses, we shall offer a short Account of the Structure of the Brain and Nerves in general. The Cerebrum, (Tab. 10. Fig. 1.) Cerebellum and Medulla Spinalis (Tab. and Fig. ib.) are evidently compos'd of Two Parts: the first which appears on the Surface of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum is of a Cineritious Colour, and is call'd the Cortical and Glandulous Part; the other or internal is Whiter and Harder, and is call'd the Medullary, Callose, and Fibrous Part: This Order is inverted in the Spinal Marrow, where the External Part is Callose and White, and it's Internal, Soft and Cineritious. The Ci­neritious or Cortical Part of the Cerebrum is remarkable in those Turnings and Windings which are deeply divided by the Pia Mater within the Body of the Cerebrum (Tab. 10. Fig. 1. C.) from whence it appears to have a very large Surface. The like Contrivance is observable in the Cere­bellum; the outward Appearance of the Sulci of which differ from those of the Cerebrum, and are ranged in Parallel Lines according to its Length, as exprest Tab. 7. Fig. 2. Besides the Cineritious Part of the Cerebrum plac'd on its Surface, it has still other Cineritious Bodies or Protuberances added to its Corpus Callosum; as the Corpora Striata, (App. Fig. 30. ΔΔ.) Na­tes and Testes. (Tab. 10. Fig. 1.)

In a Horizontal Section of the Cerebrum, its Cortical and Me­dullary Parts Appear, as Represented App. Fig. 30. In a Trans­verse Section of the Cerebellum, an Arboreous Disposition of the Latter Appear within the Former (Tab. 10. Fig. 1.) The Cineritious Colour of the Cortical Parts of the Brain Arises from the Number and Contortion of its Proper Blood-Ves­sels, which Pass according to the Length of the Fibres in the Callose and White Part.

In Viewing the Surface of the Cortical Parts, it Appears Compos'd of a vast Number of small Glands of a Deprest Oval Figure, from each of which Spring the Medullary Fi­bres, which Compose the Callose or White Part; all which make the Centrum Ovale of Vieussens (App. Fig. 30. n n.) be­fore they Compose the Crura Medullae Oblongatae, (App. Fig. 29. B B.) In this Progress, the Medullary Fibres of the Ce­rebrum, give Originals to the Olfactory and Optick Nerves: At the Conjunction of the Crura, the Third Pair of Nerves Arise, App. Fig. 28, 3, 33: soon after the Annular Process or Pons Varolii, (which partly Arisies from the Cerebellum) (App. Fig. 28. s s) is Join'd with the Crura. In this Part of the Conjunction of the Medullary Parts of the Cerebrum with the several Processes of the Cerebellum, the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Pair of Nerves Arise: and at the Beginning of the Medulla Oblongata, (whence Spring the Eighth and Ninth Pair of Nerves,) there is a compleat Union of all the Medullary Parts of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum; Where a Cineritious Part may be seen in its Middle, as Appears App. Fig. 29. d d. This Inversion of the Order of the Callose and Cineritious Parts, is kept thro' the whole Medulla Spinalis.

From what has been above Observ'd, it Appears, the Sur­faces of the Cortical Parts of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum are much larger than those of their Medullary, consequently each Gland which helps to Compose them, must be larger in its Diameter than the Medullary Fibre, which Arises from it. This Consideration will lead us still farther; for since it's plain, the Surfaces of the Medullary Parts of the Brain and Cerebellum, are much larger than they are afterwards in the Medulla Oblongata, therefore the Fibres which Compose them, must necessarily be thicker in their Diameters, at each Gland, than they are afterwards in their Progress to the Beginnings of the Nerves, where they are considerably contracted, and frame the Apex of a Cone.

Here we must not omit to take notice, that all those Medullary Fibres inservient to Motion in general, and the Organs of Tasting and Touching, are very much Con­tracted at the Beginnings of their Nerves, without the Bo­dy of the Brain and Medulla Spinalis; and on the other hand, all those Medullary Fibres employ'd in the Organs of Seeing, Hearing and Smelling are contracted, or have the Apices of their Cones within the Body of the Brain: Thus the Nervous Fibres concern'd in Motion in general, and such as are Mov'd by the Contact of Gross Objects, are lessen'd between their Originals and several Divarications, extra Cerebrum; but those affected by the Mediation of Light and Air, within the Brain.

The utmost I could yet Observe in Viewing the Nervous Fibrillae with a Microscope (whether Composing the Corpus Callosum of the Brain, or the Bodies of the Nerves themselves) is, that they are Form'd of a Reticulated Compages of Fi­bres; which in the Latter Appear Globular; but in the For­mer or Corpus Callosum (by reason of the irregular Section, or Expanding a Thin Divided Transparent Part of it on the Ob­ject-Plate of the Microscope) it Appears Reticulated, and the Interstices of its Rete of various Angles. This Structure of the Nervous System, seems to Plead against those Hypotheses of the Animal Functions, Founded on the Motions of the Spirits or Fluids, Deriv'd immediately from the Brain, and Transmitted by the Nervous Channels. We shall here only present the Reader with an Anatomical Plan of the Organs of the External Senses, and shew how Objects may be Im­prest on them and Convey'd to the Sensorium Commune, and leave him to Contemplate on the Elegant Fabrick of the Brain, whose particular Contrivances have hitherto escap'd the Dis­covery of the most Sagacious Enquirers.

The Five External Senses, are so many differing Species of Perception from the Applications of Bodies to their several Organs; either Immediate, as in Feeling and Tasting; or thro' a Proper Medium, as in Smelling, Hearing and Seeing. The Sense of Feeling is Extended thro' the whole Body, except some few Parts, as the Bones, Cartilages, &c. but chiefly Re­sides in the True Skin, whose Structure, so far as it Relates to this Sense, is as follows. The Cuticula, (Tab. 4. Fig. 1, 2, 3.) (which is a common Covering to the whole Surface of the Skin) being Remov'd, certain Papillary Protuberances Dis­cover themselves, which View'd with a Microscope (Tab. 4. Fig. 6.) Appear made up of many Roundish Sudoriferous Glands, with a vast Number of Nervous Fibrillae Expanded on their Surface: This Uneven Papillary Surface is necessary, to the end those Fibrillae may be the more Expanded and Ap­ply'd to Tangible Objects; so that the Figure, Modification and other manifest Qualities may be Discern'd, and the Im­pressions Convey'd to the Common Sensory, by the Media­tion of their Nerves. Since the Extremities of the Fingers and Thumbs are (for many Reasons) necessary Parts to be En­dued with an Exquisite Sense of Feeling; therefore the Or­der of these Papillae are there Converted to a Contorted Series, which Appear like so many Rugae under the Cuticula, as is Represented in the last Mention'd Table, Fig. 4. The Cuticula here, as well as in other Parts of the Skin, is a ne­cessary Medium between the Object and the Organ; but when it Grows very Thick, as in some Laborious Mecha­nicks, it becomes an Impediment. From the vast Number of these Nervous Filaments, any Solution of Continuity of the Skin it self, is more Painful, than most of its subjacent Parts.

The Fabrication of the Tongue, its Papillary Surface, and the Manner of its Application to Objects, bears a great Simi­litude to that of the Skin now Describ'd, in so much that some have reckond the Sense of Tasting a Species of Tactus. The Structure of this Part, as well as its Coverings and Papilla­ry Bodies, are Represented Tab. 13. where Fig. 2. Shews the External Membrane, in which the Papillary Bodies lying un­der it, Appear variously Figur'd, some Conical, others Round, and others with their Extremities Forked. In some Animals these Papillae are externally Large, and their Extremities Cartilaginous and Horny, but in Humane Tongues it is far otherwise; the Outward Membrane here being very Soft, the Papillae Numerous and Small, and appearing Villous to the Na­ked Eye. This Membrane being Rais'd (after sufficient Boyl­ing the Tongue) the next which offers, is more Spongy, Softer and full of Blood-Vessels, Tab. ib. Fig. 6, 7. This is Perfo­rated by the many Nervous Papillae, immediately Plac'd un­der it: (Tab. ib. Fig. 8.) the Tops of which are afterwards Re­ceiv'd in the Vaginulae of the External Membrane. These Pa­pillae Cleave to the Fleshy Fibres of the Tongue, and are of various Sizes and Figures as above Noted. In the Inter­stices of these Papillae are Plac'd Divers Salival Glands, the Excretory Tubes of which, Discharge themselves by certain Apertures; (Tab. ib. Fig. 2. G G.) whereby the Villous Covering of the Tongue is Moisten'd, and the Saporiferous Particles are readily Admitted to the Corpora Papillaria, whose Nervous Expansions (on their Surface, like those of the Cutis) Transmit the several Impressions (made by Objects of Va­rious Figures) to the Common Sensory, by the Mediation of the Par Quintum. Thus the Structure of the External Parts of the Tongue, Agree with that of the Skin, with this Difference, the Former being Cloth'd (in Humane Bodies) with a very Thin Soft Membrane, and its Papillae very Nu­merous, Less and more Extruded or Longer; whereas the Papillae Cutis, are Larger, Shorter, and Cover'd with a more Dense Membrane or Cuticula. Hence the Tongue Appears to be an Exquisite Organ of Tactus. However the Sense of Taste principally Resides in the Tongue, yet we must Refer the Or­gans of Smelling hither, since Experience Shews us the For­mer Sense cannot be Compleat, where the Latter is Defi­cient.

The External Organ of Smelling is not Confin'd within the Cavities of the Nostrils, but is Compos'd of a very Large Glandulous Nervous Membrane, in like manner Extended within the Cavities of the Ossa Frontis (Tab. 89. Fig. 1. ib. Tab. 91. Fig. 2.) Fourth Pair of Bones of the Upper-Jaw, (Tab. 92. Fig. 1. E.) and in that Part of the Os Sphenoides composing the Sella Tur­cica, (Tab. 89. Fig. 2.) all which Open into the Foramina Na­rium. Besides these Cavities, the Nostrils are furnish'd with Divers Ossa Spongiosa, Describ'd, Tab. 92. Fig. 1. H. on which the same Membrane is Expanded. This Membrane is in a great Measure compos'd of the Extremities of the Olfactory Nerves, and is the Organ of this Sense, which receives the Impression made by the Odoriferous Effluvia, whether in Inspiration, as in the Proper Action of Smelling; or Expiration, as in Tasting, which happens in Mastication or Deglutition of the Aliment. [Page] What we have hinted concerning the Complication of Tast­ing with Smelling, will in some Manner be evinc'd, if we re­flect on that Common Practice of Holding the Nose to avoid Nauseous Tasts: And when the Foramina Narium are partly Obstructed, (as after taking Cold) how little we Distinguish the Proper Tasts of some Things, especially such as are Odoriferous.

The Organs of the Fourth External Sense, are the Two Ears, by which the Various Sounds Imprest on the Ambient Air, are Represented to the Common Sensory. The Exter­nal Ear or Auricula (Tab. 12. Fig. 1.) is Compos'd of a Car­tilage Cover'd with the Cuticula and Cutis; whose many Con­torted Foldings, are Fitted for the Reception of the External Undulating Air, and Transmitting it to the Meatus Audito­rius. The Winding Progress of the Meatus seems purposely contriv'd, to prevent some Inconveniences which might Arise, from the Violent Irruption of the Air thro' too Direct a Passage to the Membrana Tympani, plac'd at the farther End of it: (Ap. Fig. 15. e.) For the same Intent, the Cerumen or Ear-Wax, seems to be Separated by the Numerous Glands in the Membrane of the Meatus, to Infringe its Motion. The Air which thus Passes the Meatus, Shakes the Membrana Tympani more or less, according to the Various Impressions made on it ab Extra: The Long Process of the Malleus (App. Fig. 15.) which is Contiguous to this Membrane, is necessarily Mov'd, consequently the Incus which is Articulated with the Malleus, (App. Fig. 16. H, I.) and the Stapes, which is Articulated with the Incus, by the Mediation of the Os Orbiculare, (App. Fig. 17. H I.) are all successively Mov'd by each other: Nor could any Tremulous Motions be Imprest on the Membrana Tym­pani by the External Air, if the Cavity of the Tympanum it self had no Aperture, by which its Contain'd Air could Fluctuate, no more than a Drum it self would Sound if there were no Holes in its Sides. For this Reason a Passage from the Palate to the Tympanum is Form'd, (Vid. App. Fig. 8. N N.) By this Curious Artifice the Various Sounds Arising from the Vibrations of the External Air, are Modifi'd, and Ar­ticulately Represented to the Auditory Nerve, Expanded within the Winding Cavities of the Labyrinth or Three Se­micircular Ducts and Cochlea (App. Fig. 17, 18.) by means of the Stapes, whose Basis immediately Covers the Foramen Ova­le or Entrance to those Cavities, where the Aer Insitus or Con­genitus, is said to Reside. This Air tho' call'd Innate, must Arise from that Contain'd in the Tympanum, and necessarily has a Communication with it, else we cannot see how the Vibrations made by the Stapes, should be Communicated to these Contorted Channels. Nor can it be suppos'd, the Ba­sis of the Stapes has any loose Membranous Connexion to the Margin of the Foramen Ovale (which it must have, to keep out the Air Contain'd in the Tympanum;) Or that the Sta­pes adequately Closes that Foramen: Both which would meet with Equal Impediments from the Grosser Air in the Tym­panum, pressing on the Basis of the Stapes, and hindring its Elevation.

The Small Muscles which move the Malleus, and that of the Stapes, like the Heart, Diaphragm and Muscles concern'd in Respiration, do their Office Inadvertently, and are Useful herein, as we have Represented them in App. Fig. 15, 16, 17. This Structure of the Auricula and Parts within the Tym­panum, Prepare the Impressions made in the External Air, and Represent them to the Expansions of the Auditory Nerve; not unlike the Membranes and Humours of the Eye, Refracting the Rays of Light in passing to the Tunica Retina in the Eye, which falls next under our Consideration.

As the Air is the Vehicle of the Objects to the Two For­mer Organs, so the Light is to this. The Nature and Pro­perties of Light, the Magnitude, Figure or Motion of Lu­minous Particles, as well as the Shape or Conformation of those Parts, which Affect the Organs of the other Senses, we omit as more Proper for the Disputes of the Schools than an Anatomical Discourse, confining our Theory of Vision to the Structure of the Parts.

In the Fabrication of these Organs, the Eye-lids or Pal­pebrae (Tab. 11. Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.) are none of the least Re­markable. The Upper is Elevated and Deprest by Two Muscles, the External of which is Circular and call'd Or­bicularis. (Tab. 12. Fig. 4.) This Draws the Upper Eye-lid down; the Internal is Straight (Tab. 11. Fig. 4.) and Pulls it up. By this Contrivance the Eye is not only Defended from Extraneous Bodies, but the Discharge of the Lachri­mal Humour is Accelerated by the several Ducts, into the Internal Part of the Palpebrae next the Bulb of the Eye, Vid. Tab. 11. Fig. 5. The Eye it self is Spherical and Mov'd by its Proper Muscles, Represented in the last mention'd Tab. Fig. 7, 8, 9, 10. Its Membranes, Humours, and the Parts which Compose it being Exprest Tab. ib. Fig. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24. we shall here only take No­tice of its Structure, so far as Relates to its Action, and De­scribe the Plan made by a Section thro' the Axis of Vision, which will Conduce to the right Apprehending the Manner, how Objects are Represented in the Sensorium Commune.

[figure]

A A, The Tunica Cornea, whose External Surface is a lit­tle more Convex than the Bulb of the Eye it self.

B B, The Tunica Sclerotica or Dura.

C C, Parts of the Tunica Adnata or Conjunctiva, which are Continu'd to the Internal Parts of the Palpebrae.

D D, The Choroeides, the Fore-part of which is call'd Vvea; Its Blood-Vessels Appear very Beautiful, when Injected with Mercury, and seem to Compose Divers Glandulous Bodies.

E E, The Retina or Expansions of the Optick Nerve, on which Objects are Depicted.

F F, The Iris which lies Loose or Floating in the Aqueous Humour.

G G, The Ligamentum Ciliare.

H, The Aqueous Humour.

I, The Chrystalline.

K, The Vitreous Humour.

L, Part of the Optick Nerve.

The Tunica Cornea Receives the Various Rays of Light proceeding from all Points of the Object, Collects and Trans­mits them thro' the Foramen of the Vvea, or Pupill, Refracting the Diverging Rays on each Side toward the Perpendicular. The Chrystalline Humour Receives the Rays First Infracted in the Cornea, and beginning to Diverge again in the Aqueous Humour, and Refracts them a Second Time; So that all the Rays proceeding from the same Point of the Object, by Pass­ing thro'. this Dense Medium, do Converge again, and Ter­minate in the same Point on the Retina. From this Refraction or Direction of the Rays of Light, to a Point, distinct Pictures or Images of Visible Objects are Represented on the Retina, as the Figures of External Bodies in passing thro' a Single Convex Glass on a Paper on the Wall of a dark Chamber, the whole will be better Conceiv'd by the following Figure, which Represents the same Section of the Eye, as the For­mer with the Luminous Rays passing thro'.

[figure]

Thus the Rays in Passing thro' the Cornea and Humours of the Eyes, are Inverted, and the Image of the Object is so Depicted on the Concave of the Retina. How this Inver­sion is Reduc'd in the Sensorium Commune to a Right Per­ception, may be Accounted for in our Proper Knowledge of Things, in the same Manner, as we know when we hold a Stick in each Hand cross each other, that the Stick in the Right Touches such an Object, and that in the Left another: Thus Vision being made by the Rayes of Light proceeding from the Object, and making Due and Various Motions of the Nervous Fibres of the Retina, which are Com­municated to the Common Sensory by the Optick Nerves with the same Type and Character; we may reckon this Sensation to be not altogether unlike that of Tactus.

The Last of the Animal Functions which we should here speak of, is Muscular Motion, but having already Publish'd my Thoughts conerning that Phaenomenon in my Myotomia Reformata, I shall not trouble the Reader here with a Repe­tition, since no Experiment, nor Observation (besides that mention'd in Tab. 64. Fig. 2. concerning the Fleshy Fibres) has since Occur'd, which should Add to those Conjectures, or Favour any other.

To the READER.

THE Fate of Authors, when they appear on the Publick Stage of the World, is extreamly uncertain; Good or Ill Success, Reputation or 'Disgrace fre­quently depend more on the Humor and Prejudice of the Reader, than the Merit of the Performance. This hard Fortune of all Writers has made it Dangerous for any Book to venture Abroad, without some Ha­rangue or Apology before it, to bespeak a favourable Treatment. For my Part, I have no Excuse to offer for not Complying with this reasonable Cu­stom; but wholly resign my Cause to all Well-wishers, to the Advancement of Anatomy, the proper Iudges of this Matter; whose Candor and In­dulgence, I doubt not, will be a better Protection, from the Defects that shall be Discover'd in this Work, than any Reasons I shall be able to alledge in my Defence.

This Volume contains a General Description of the Fabrick of Humane Bodies, after the Manner of a Commentary on the Tables, which Represent their several Organs. The present and last Age, have been Industrious in making Discoveries in the Animal Machine, by Detecting the Structure of the Heart, and Artifice of the Circulation, the Origin and Course of the Lymphe-ducts, the se­veral Salival Glands and their Channels, the Texture of the Bones, and Medullary Cells, the Mu­cilaginous Glands of the Ioints, the Organs and Process of Generation, the Organs of the External Senses, in reforming the Myology, (an Essay on the Last of These, with some Remarks on the Stru­cture and Erection of the Penis, I some time since Publish'd,) all which the Reader will find in the following Descriptions, with my own Observations and Conjectures, which in many Places differ from the General receiv'd Opinions. Besides the History of the Natural Structure, I have thro' the whole Series of the Work, Inserted some Phaenomena, I have found in Dissecting Morbid Bodies, and such Practical Instructions, as I hope will be Useful in many Cases, to the Chirurgical Operator.

The whole is dispos'd in this Order: In the first Hundred and Five Tables, after a Prospect of the Body, with the Teguments, Hair, &c. the Parts of the Head, Neck, Brain, Medulla Spinalis follow, and so proceeds to those of the Breast, Back, Loins, Lower-belly, Uterus with the Foetus and its Adjuncts; next the Muscles of the Limbs, and lastly the Osteology. These Figures were Drawn after the Life, by the Masterly Painter G. de Lairess, and Engrav'd by no less a Hand, and Represent the Parts of Humane Bodies far beyond any Exstant; and were some time since Publish'd by Dr. Bidloo, now Professor of Anatomy in the University of Leyden. I shall take the Li­berty here to acquaint the Reader, That in these Tables I have added above Seven-hundred Refe­rences, all which are Letter'd with a Pen in the several Figures; among which it is hardly possi­ble, but Mistakes may occur in some Places, (by those who have Inserted them) which I hope will not be imputed to my Inadvertence. The Parts which in many Places had their Nomenclature barely annex'd, are here Copiously Describ'd; to which, as I before Noted, are added such Observations of the Male Conformation and Vitiated Structure, as may Illustrate the Pathology or History of Diseases, their Symptoms and Causes; I have likewise interspers'd several Remarks on the usual Method of Chirurgical Operations, with Directions for performing them in a more Exact and Successful Man­ner; and lastly given an Account of several Cases and Accidents rarely occurring, and not (at least commonly) observ'd by Authors. The Appendix is partly a Supplement to the preceding Tables, and partly a Correction of such Things as are not well Exprest; for Instance, The two First Tables present a Prospect or General View of the whole Body, both on the Fore and Back-side, Denuded of its Teguments, and Clear'd from its Fat; where the External Muscles with their Ten­dons, Fasciculi and Series of Fibres, Appear on the Surface. These are not Drawn by Invention, but are Touch'd on after an Original Cast from the Life in Plaister of Paris, which I have now by me. The Third Table contains a System of the Arteries Dissected from a Foetus, with their several Trunks and Ramifications, Delineated from the Life, which I have also by me Injected with VVax; how much this differs from that Describ'd (Tab. 23.) may be soon Discover'd. In two other Fi­gures of the same Table, are the Prospects of the Extremities of the Veins and Arteries, as they Appear in the Transparent Finns of a Grigg and Flounder, view'd thro' a Microscope. Here the Method of Circulation, the Continuity of the Venous and Arterious Channels, the Globuli pas­sing them in an uninterrupted Current, is Demonstrated. In another Figure is Exprest our Con­jecture of the Rise of those Ducts, which Export the Lympha and redundant Nutriment. In the Fourth Table, the Receptaculum Chyli is Represented, Fill'd with Mercury, with the Various Course of the Chyle-Vessels and Lymphe-ducts, their Communicant Branches, the Lumbal Glands, the Triple-Division of the Receptacle, hitherto Unobserv'd, at least not Delineated. In the remain­ing Tables (I fear the tedious Enumeration of Particulars may tire the Reader's Patience) are the Organs of Hearing, with the Meatus à Palato ad Aurem, and that from the Inner Ear to the Ex­ternal Meatus; the Foramina of the Tonsils which Evacuate the Pituita; the several Parts of the Tongue and Aspera Arteria; the Basis of the Brain, that of the Cranium; the Muscles of the Face and Lips, several of which are not Describ'd, and the rest Erroneously.

In this Undertaking I have been Oblig'd to my Learned Friend Dr. Tancred Robinson, in Re­vising as many Sheets as his Leasure would give him leave. In the last Place, to render the whole more Useful, a Copious Index is added at the End; which if the Reader finds Useful, he is Oblig'd to return his Thanks to the Deserving Mr. James Fern the Surgeon, who was at the Trouble of digesting the Contents of this Work, into an Alphabetical Order, which my Avocations would by no means permit me to do.

—If the Reader happens to Discover any Literal Errors, of which some may be found, it is hop'd he will Excuse them, upon Account of the Haste and Distance of the Press; the Practice in my Profession not suffering me always to Revise every minute Passage.

THE ANATOMY OF HUMANE BODIES.

BEFORE we enter on the Anatomical Description of Hu­mane Bodies, let us take a View of their External Parts, as they appear in the Living State: Here we shall First briefly take notice of their most remarkable Appearance in the Embryo and Foetus of the Womb; and thence proceed to observe the several Stages of Proportion from Children to those of a Full­grown State, and Old Age: To these we shall add the dif­ferent Proportions of Men and Women; and lastly the Ex­ternal Appearance of the Muscles and other Parts in divers Actions.

If a Praeexistence of Parts in an Embryo was allowable, that at Twenty five days after Conception (Figured Tab. 57. Fig. 3.) would incline us to believe the Brain and whole Head had a Precedency, since its Magnitude then exceeds the whole Bulk of the rest of the Parts; but as the time of the Birth advances, the Head of the Foetus does not commonly exceed a Fourth Part in its whole Length.

The Center or Middle Part between the two Extreams of the Head and Feet of an Infant, is in the Navel; but that of an Adult in the Ossa Pubis: And this Pro­portion of dividing Children into Four Parts, whereof the Head is one, is common­ly made use of by Painters and Sculptors, &c.

A Child Two Years old has about Five Heads in its whole Length; but one of Four or five Years, has about Six; thus measured, by dividing the whole Body into so many Lengths, whereof the Head must be one. Hence it appears, as the Growth of the Body advances, there is a gradual Approach to the Proportion of an Adult of Eight, nine, or ten Faces in the whole Length.

There are many Bodies in a Full-grown State, which have not above Four or five Lengths or Faces; but those are Miscarriages in Nature, and therefore not Subjects of our present Consideration.

About the Fifteenth or sixteenth Year, Seven Faces or Lengths are then the Proportion or Measure, and the Center inclines towards the upper Parts of the Ossa Pubis; and tho' this Proportion may serve indifferently for a short well-set thick Person, when the Shoulders are broad, and the Limbs thick, and strong; yet if on the contrary the Shoulders are somewhat narrow, and the Limbs slender, it will represent a Youth: And however Paradoxical it may seem at first, yet an Old Woman, or the Goddess Vesta will fall under this Proportion of Lengths, thro' the bending forwards of the Back-bones; and tho' the Limbs bear a Propor­tion to one of Eight or nine Faces, yet they not being duly extended (for want of the vigorous Action of the Muscles) render the Appearance of the whole Fi­gure very short.

The Ancients have commonly allowed Eight Heads to their Figures, says the Author of the Observations on Mr. Du Fresnoy's Art of Painting, made English by the Incomparable Mr. Dryden; but we, says he, divide the Figure [of a Hu­mane Body] into Ten Faces, from the Crown of the Head to the Sole of the Foot, in the following manner: N.B. That this Number of Faces depends on the Age, as above hinted, and the Quality of the Persons represented. The Apollo and Venus de Medices have more than Ten Faces.

THE FIRST TABLE.

FROM the Crown of the Head 1, to the upper part of the Forehead A, is the Third Part of a Face.

The Face begins at the Roots of the lowest Hairs, which are upon the Forehead AB, and ends at the Bottom of the Chin I.

The Face is divided into Three proportionable Parts; the First contains the Forehead AB; the Second the Nose C; and the Third the Mouth and Chin GHI.

From the Chin to the Pit between the Two Coller-bones, or upper Part of the Sternum, are Two Lengths of a Nose.

From the Pit between the Two Coller-bones to the Bottom of the Breast, called Scrobiculus Cordis N, One Face.

From the Bottom of the Breasts to the Navel R, one Face; the Apollo has a Nose more.

From the Navel to the Pudenda S, One Face; but the Apollo has Half a Nose more: and the upper Half of the Venus de Medices is to the lower Part of the Belly, and not to the Privy Parts.

From the Genitories or Pudenda, to the upper Part of the Knee, called the Thigh W, Two Faces.

The Knee contains Half a Face.

From the lower part of the Knee to the Ancle, call'd the Leg, Two Faces.

From the Ancle or Malleolus internus to the Sole of the Foot, Half a Face.

A Man, when his Arms are stretched out, is from the Extremity of the Longest Finger of his Right Hand to the Extremity of the Longest of his Left, as broad as he is long.

From one side of the Breasts to the other below the Paps M M, Two Faces.

The Bone of the Arm call'd Humerus is the Length of Two Faces from its Conjunction with the Shoulder-blade to the Elbow. Here we think our Author is mistaken, for if you allow Two Faces to that Part of the Arm between the Shoulder and bending of the Cubit, and Two more from the Elbow to the Root of the Little Finger, when the Fingers contain Half a Face, and the Distance between the Point of the Shoulder, and Pit of the Throat, a Whole Face; you will make Five Faces and Half on each Side or Half Length, which amounts to Eleven Faces in the Whole: But if you add to this what he says afterwards, that the Boxes of the Elbows with the Humerus, and of the Hu­merus with the Shoulder-blade, bear a Proportion of Half a Face, when the Arms are stretched out; then the Whole Distance between the Extremities of the Two Middle Fingers, when the Arms are so extended, will amount to Eleven Faces and a Half; wherefore we think the Account may stand Corrected thus.

From the Pit of the Throat to the Top of the Shoulder or Extremity of the Spine of the Scapula, One Face; from thence to the bending of the Cubit or Elbow, one Face and a half; thence again to the Wrist, One Face and a Nose. The Hand with the Fingers Extended contain One Face: hence it follows that Four Faces, a Nose, and Half a Face, is the distance between the Throat Pit, and Extre­mity of the Middle Finger; which upon extension of the whole Arm, &c. will amount to Five Faces, or rather more than less.

The Sole of the Foot, is the Sixth part of the whole Figure, says our Author; but the Foot ought not to exceed a Face, and a Nose in Length.

As for the Breadth of the Limbs, no precise Measure can be given, because the Measures themselves are not only changeable according to the Quality of the Persons, but according to the Movement of the Muscles.

A Man is Two Lengths or Faces from the Point of each Shoulder; that is to say, from the Upper Part of the Sternum between the Claviculae call'd the Pit of the Throat, to the Extremity of the Spine of the Scapula, call'd the Top of the Shoulder, One Length; and so on the other Side.

The Breadth of the Hips of a Man is One Length and a Half; that is, from the great Trochanter of the Thigh Bone of one Side, to that of the other: The precise Places of which Bones are intersected by an Horizontal Line drawn from the Pubes to each Side.

  • K, The Pomum Adami, or Protuberant Part of the Larynx, which in Men is much larger than in Women.
  • L, The Sternum or Os Pectoris appearing under the Skin &c. between the Two Pectoral Muscles.
  • N, The Scrobiculus Cordis commonly call'd the Pit of the Stomach, under the Skin, &c. Precisely in this Place, is the Carti­lago Ensiformis.
  • O P, The Epigastrium.
  • Q Q, That of the Left Side denotes the Inguina; that of the Right, the Ilia.
  • R, The Region of the Navel.
  • S, The Penis.
  • T T, The Arms.
  • V V, The Legs.
  • W W, The Thighs.
  • X X, The Feet.
  • Y Y, The Shoulders.
  • Z Z, The Hands.
  • δ δ The Hypocondrium.
  • * *, The Hypogastrium.

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THE SECOND TABLE

REPRESENTS the Fore-part of a Woman, in whom the Symmetry or Proportion differs from that of a Man: First, that most remarkably the Shoulders are narrower; the Man having Two Lengths or Faces in the Breadth of his Shoulders, and One and a Half in his Hips; whereas a Wo­man on the contrary, has but one Face and a Half in her Shoulders, and Two in her Hips: Secondly, the Claviculae or Channel-bones, and Muscles in general do not appear in Women as in Men; whence it is, the out Line of the one, as Painters call it, differs very much from that of the other. Nor will any Action, in which a Woman uses her utmost Strength, occasion such Swellings or Risings of the Muscles and other Parts to appear, as they do in Men; since the great Quantity of Fat placed under the Skins of Women so cloaths their Muscles, &c. as prevents any such Appearance.

We cannot conceive this one Quantity, and more equal Distribution of Fat under the Skins of Women does intirely proceed from any peculiar Qualification, either in their Whole Frame, or intimate Structure of their Parts where it is produced; but by reason they lead a more sedentary Life, and are scarce at any time ac­custom'd to hard Labours, whereby their Fatty Vesiculae (exprest Tab. 4. Fig. 14.1, 2, 3.) are comprest, by the frequent Operations of their Muscles, so as to prevent that more equal Distribution, and increase of their contain'd Oyl: Yet on the other hand, it must be acknowleg'd, that the Legs, and Feet of Women, and even those who walk much, do not afford those Muscular Appearances like those of Men, which we might expect, were it not that Women did suffer very much in those Parts; whether in the time of Impregnation, when the Uterus by its Extension so presses the Iliack Veins, as to hinder the Progress of the refluent Blood, whence the whole Legs become Swell'd, and frequently Varices of their External Veins pro­ceed; or when the Menstrua are Obstructed, the Legs (thro' a Plenitude of Sero­sities in the Vessels) are incident to suffer in like manner in their outward Inclo­sures, by reason of the Unaptness of their Position to discharge their refluent Blood.

The other remarkable Parts, which differ from a Man, and appear Externally in a Woman, are;

A A,
The Mammae.
B,
The Pudendum.

THE THIRD TABLE.

WHAT has been said, in the preceding Table, relating to the Appearance of the External Parts of a Man, or Woman, may indifferently serve this Place; wherefore we shall proceed to the last Part of our Design in these Animadversions, viz. Of the External Appearance of the Muscles, and other Parts, in divers Actions. If a strong Person is to be represented in a vigorous Action, such as Hercules &c. after a suitable Proportion to such a Figure, and the Action is design'd; the next Thing the Painter, or Scul­ptor is to consider, which are those Parts, or Limbs imploy'd in the chiefest Force of the Action; and if the Figure is standing, let him be sure one Leg, and particularly its Foot, be in a Right Line, or Per­pendicular to the Trunk, or Bulk of the Body, where the Center of its Gravity may be plac'd in an Aequilibrium: This Center is determin'd by the Heel; or if the Figure is on Tiptoe, as it's call'd, then the Ball of the Great Toe is the Center; the Muscles of this Leg, which thus support the Body, ought to be exprest more in Action, or Swelled in their Bellies, and their Ten­dons drawn more to an Extension, than those of the other Leg, which is plac'd only in Order, to receive the Weight of the Body towards that Way, to which the Action inclines it: As for Example, suppose Hercules was with a Club, or the like, stri­king at any Thing which stood before him towards his Left Side; then let his Right Leg be plac'd so as to support the whole Weight of his Body, and the Left loosly touching the Ground only with its Toes. Here the External Muscles of the Right Leg ought to be exprest very Strong, or much Tumified: but those of the Left, scarcely appearing more than if the whole Figure was in some sedentary Posture; except, as in the Case now mention'd, the Foot being extended, then the Muscles, which compose the Calf of the Leg, are in Action, and appear very Strong; as it is well exprest in the Right Leg of that excellent Figure of the Ancients, the Gladiator in Prince Borgheses's Palace at Rome; of which, we have only a Copy, or Cast, plac'd by the Canal in St. Iames's Park. When we say, the External Muscles of the Right Leg, or that which supports the Weight of the Body, ought to be exprest very Strong; we don't mean that all those Muscles should be exprest equally Swell'd, or in Action; but that those chiefly Concern'd in that Action, or Posture, that the Leg is then in: As for Example, if the Leg, or Tibia is extended, then the extending Muscles, plac'd on the Thigh, are most Swell'd; if it is Bended, then the Bending Muscles, and their Tendons appear most. The like may be observ'd of the whole Body in General, when it is in pursuit of some vigorous Action; as appears in that Figure of the Gladiator last mention'd. The Laocoon in the Vatican Garden at Rome also furnishes us with an Example of this Muscular Appearance thro' the Whole; but in the Antinous, Apollo, and other Figures also of the Ancients, in the Vatican, and other Places, in Postures where no considerable Actions are design'd, we see their Muscles exprest but Faintly, or scarcely Appearing; whence we can't but think the Sculptors of those Times were very well ac­quainted with these Observations. Tho it be granted, the ancient Greeks were accustom'd to see Nudities very Often, nay, almost Constantly; yet the Difficulty of Copying these things from the Life is so Great, that unless they were well acquainted with such like Remarks, they would fall short of Nature in such Performances; since it is well known, even the Life it self, when expos'd to the Artist, can't continue those vigorous Actions for any time; but the Muscles fall, and the Parts loose their necessary Appearance in Action, tho' the Posture is the same. Hence it is, that Limbs, tho' Cast, or Moulded from the Life it self, are not strictly to be follow'd, unless the Life could continue the whole Spirit, or Force of the Action during the time, that the Mould was making from it, which I am apt to think is next to an Impossibility; however it might be attempted, at least in some particular Parts. Wherefore a rational Theory must help us, at least, to such Hints, that when we see, we may know what to observe, and the Reason why it appears so in the Life.

This is indeed a very Entertaining Study, which many of our Modern Painters and Sculptors are least acquainted with.

Thus far, in General, relating to the Muscles, &c. In the next Place, let us take Notice of some particular Appearances of the External Muscles, and other Parts: First, of the Musculi Mastoidii (vid. App. Fig. 1.14.14.) if either of these Act, the Head is turn'd to the contrary Side, and the Muscle, which performs the Action, appears very Plain under the Skin, and is often well exprest both by Painters and Sculptors, as is represented in the Neck of the Figure of the First Table.

If the Arms are lifted up, the Swelling of the Muscles, plac'd on the Shoulders, which perform that Action, call'd Deltoides, (App. Fig. 1.20.) make the Extremities of the Spines of the Shoulder-blades, (App. Fig. 2.ii.) call'd the Tops of the Shoulders, appear Hollow, or Indented.

The Shoulder-blades follow the Elevation of the Arms, their Basis (App. ib. l, l.) incline, at that Time, Obliquely Downwards.

If the Arms are drawn Down, put Forwards, or pull'd Backwards; the Shoulder-blades necessarily vary their Positions ac­cordingly; all which is to be learnt by consulting the Life only; when being well acquainted with what then appears in the very Action, the Artist will be able to comprehend an Idea, how to express it: Hence it is, we seldom find the Back so well exprest, as the Fore-parts; the Latter not being subject to such various Alterations, as the Motions of the Shoulder-blades cause in the Former.

When the Cubit, or Arm is Bended, the Two-headed Muscle call'd Biceps Internus (App. Fig. 22.) has it's Belly very much Rais'd; as appears in the Left Arm of the Figure of the First Table: The like may be observ'd of the Biceps Externus, call'd Ge­mellus, (App. Fig. 2.17, 17.) when the Arm is extended.

The Right Muscle of the Abdomen (App. Fig. 1.41.41.) appears very Strong in Rising from a decumbent Posture.

Those Parts of the great Saw-Muscle before, (App. ib. 40, 40.) which are receiv'd in the Teeth, or Beginnings of the Oblique Descending Muscle (ib. 38, 38.) are very much Swell'd, when the Arm on the same Side is thrust Forwards; that Saw-Muscle then being in Action in drawing the Scapula Forwards also.

The long extending Muscles of the Trunk, plac'd on each Side the Back-bone, (App. Fig. 2. **) Act alternately in Walk­ing after this manner; if the Right Leg bears the Weight of the Body, and the Left is in Translation, as on Tiptoe; the last mention'd Muscles of the Back on the Left Side, may be observ'd to be Tumified about the Region of the Loyns; and so on the other Side.

The Trocanthers, or outward, and uppermost Heads of the Thigh-bones (App. Fig. 2. r, r.) vary in their Positions, in such manner, as no precise Observations can explain their several Appearances; but the Study after the Life will soon inform the diligent observing Artist.

If the Thigh is Extended, as when the whole Weight of the Body rests on that Side, the Glutaeus, or Buttock-Muscle, (App. Fig. 2. 32, 32.) makes a different Appearance, from what offers at another Time; but if the Thigh is drawn Back­wards, that Muscle appears still more, and more Tumified.

When the whole Leg is drawn Upwards, Forwards, and at the same time the Foot inclin'd Inwards, the upper Part of the Musculus Sartorius (App. Fig. 1.44.) appears rising very strong; in other Positions of the Thigh that Muscle makes a furrowing Appearance in its whole Progress, as is exprest in the Figure of the First Table.

If a Man is on Tiptoe, the extending Muscles of the Shank, placed on the Forepart of the Thigh (App. Fig. 1. 46, 47, 48.) and those of the Foot, which compose the Calf of the Leg, (App. Fig. 2. 43, 44.) appear very strong, and the Musculus Peroneus primus (App. Fig. 1.55.) makes a considerable Indentation, or furrowing at that time in its Progress, on the Outside of the Leg.

Besides these Remarks we could mention many more, which will soon be taken Notice of by the observing Artist in consulting the Life; to which he ought to apply himself, after he is well acquainted with the Anatomy of the External Parts; see the First, and Second Figures of our Appendix.

  • A B, The Hairy, or Back part of the Head.
  • C, The Right Temple.
  • D, The Hair tied up on the Occiput.
  • E, The Neck, where Fontanels are usually made.
  • F F, The Shoulders.
  • G, The Back.
  • H, The Loins.
  • I I, The Buttocks.
  • K K, The Thighs.
  • L L, The Legs.
  • M M, The Arms.

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THE FOURTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

REPRESENTS a Portion of the Cuticula or Scarf-skin, rais'd from the Back of the Hand, and viewed with a Microscope.

A A, The Perforations or Pores, whereby the Sweat is discharged.

B B, The Indentures or Furrows.

C C, The Bladder like Protuberances; both these arise from the Inequallity of the Papillary Surface of the Skin it self.

D D, The Hairs which break forth through the Cuticula.

E E, The Asperities or Filaments, by which the Cuticula is fastned to the True Skin.

With the Assistance of the Microscope, the Cuticula appears composed of divers Strata or Beds of Scales, fastned to the Papillary Surface of the Skin; and are so intangled with each other, as that they appear a con­tinued Pellicle or Membrane when rais'd from the True Skin, whether by the Application of Blister-Plasters in Living People, or Scalding Water, Hot Irons, or the like, in Dead Bodies: According to the Number of these Strata or Beds of Scales, the Skin appears to be more, or less Fair, and the Person is commonly said to have a thicker or thinner Skin; tho' ve­ry frequently the Jaundice and other Diseases give it an ill Tincture. The Cuticula like the True Skin is not Uniform, in divers Parts of it the Number of its Scales and their Strata exceed those of others; on the Lips not above two Strata appear; on other parts more, seldom less; in the Bottoms of the Feet of those who walk much, and the Palms of the Hands of Laborious Mechanicks, these Strata are not only very nu­merous, but each Scale is thickned. If you Macerate the Cuticle in Water, after some days, its Strata of Scales will appear, and you may divide it in­to Two, sometimes Three, or Four Pellicles; the like Division of it may be also observ'd in Vesicatories or Blisters rais'd on Living Persons.

Fig. 2.

A Portion of the Cuticula rais'd from the Bottom of the Foot, and view'd with the same Microscope as the former; where its remarkable Thickness appears.

Fig. 3.

A Portion of the Cuticula rais'd from the Back; in which the Inden­tures, Furrows, &c. agree with those of Figure the 1st. The Surface of the True Skin of that Part being exactly agreeable with that of the other; but at the Extremities of the Fingers, and Thumbs, the Cuticle is variously wreathed and contorted, conformable to the subjacent Papillary Protu­berances of the True Skin, as appears in the following Figure.

Fig. 4.

The Upper and Inner Side of the Thumb drawn likewise by the Assi­stance of the Microscope.

A, From the Point arise

B B, Two Lines, of a Circular Disposition;

C C, Others which form Triangles.

D, Other Lines variously contorted or winding.

The Cuticle being remov'd, the Cutis or Skin it self appears.

Fig. 5.

A Portion of the Skin of the Arm, as it appears on its External Sur­face to the naked Eye.

Fig. 6.

The External Surface of the Skin, when view'd with a Microscope; where its Internal Structure or Rete of Blood Vessels are also exprest.

A A, The Papillae Pyramidales; made up of divers Pyramidal Round­ish Glands, in whose Composition the Nerves have a considerable Share.

B B, The Capillaments of the little Aqueous Vessels placed between the Papillae according to Bidloo. I must confess notwithstanding all the Diligence I could yet use in examining this Part with the Micro­scope, or otherwise, I have hitherto doubted of the Existence of these Aqueous Vessels, between the Cuticula and Cutis; in which some have placed the Seat of that Tawny Tincture of the Aegyptians, and that Black one of the Aethiopians.

C C, The Sudoriferous Glands, which compose the Papillae.

D D, The Sweat Vessels or Excretory-ducts arising from the last mentioned Glands.

E E, The Hairs arising near the Pores of the Sweat Vessels: Be­sides these Vessels, the Skin is furnished with Arteries, Veins, Nerves, and Lympheducts; the Trunks of the Two former are well exprest in this Figure F F: Hence it appears the Skin can no more be esteem'd a Similar or Simple Part, than any of those call'd Dissimular or Compoun­ded Parts. Nor is there any Part of the whole Animal Oeconomy, that can be justly esteem'd Simple or not Compounded; even the Blood Ves­sels, Nerves, and Lympheducts are Compounded Parts, as shall be else where demonstrated. Besides the Pyramidal Sudoriferous Glands, which compose the Papillae Cutis, there are other Sudoriferous Glands placed on the Internal Surface of the Skin; the most considerable of these we find in the Axillae, where they are sometimes call'd Axillares, but more properly Miliares, from their Figure; the Axillary Glands lying un­derneath these Sudoriferous ones; they receiving the Lympha, brought into them by the Lympheducts springing from the whole Arm, do dis­charge it again into the Exporting Lympheducts in its Way to the Tho­racick Duct. There are other Sudoriferous Glands, tho' not so evident to the naked Eye, under the Skin of the Fingers, Inguina, and behind the Ears: The Hairy-scalp, Skin of the Forehead, Palms of the Hands, and Soles of the Feet are also furnished with these Glands; wherefore we shall not distinguish them with the Names of the Places of their Si­tuation, but choose to give them a more general Denomination, either as to their Office, as Glandulae Sudoriferae, or Figure, as Miliares. In the Skin also are placed those Bodies whence the Hairs arise; these, by some are also esteem'd Glands, and call'd Piliferae: These Piliferous Bo­dies or Glands, are furnished at their Roots with Importing and Exporting Blood Vessels, Nerves, &c. the Hairs being as it were their Excretory Ducts with this Difference from those of other Parts, viz. They receiving their separated Juyce immediatly from the Pores in the Extremities of the Blood Vessels; whereas the Hairs, as we conceive, have their Radi­cal Moisture transmitted to them by the Mediation of a Spongious Body which absorbs it from the circumjacent Parts: Hence it is that the Hairs grow in dead Bodies, when the Natural Motions of the Fluids cease. The Hair between the Light, and naked Eye, appears pellucid; but if viewed with a Microscope in that Position, it appears Spongy, or not unlike the Internal Part of a Cane: It seems to be compos'd of horny globular Particles variously joyn'd together, and colour'd, where it hath Plenty of Moisture, it is commonly Pendulous; if more Dry, it is Curl'd.

Fig. 7, 8.

Two of the Hairs of the Head figur'd with a Microscope:

A, Its spongious Body compos'd of horny globular Particles.

B B B, Its straight and transverse Stalks, which joyn its Globules to­gether.

C C C, The woolly or downy Part of the Hair, which descends from above, and stands obliquely downwards; whence it happens, when the Ends of the Hairs are not placed in their right Position, the Hairs are apt to intangle in Combing, as it do's in those Periwigs made of what they call Combings.

D D, The Top of the Hair divided:

E, Its Middle Part:

F, Its Root arising from the Piliferous Body, placed within the Skin.

G, A Portion of the Cuticle, which commonly sticks to the Hair when extracted.

Fig. 9.

The Branches, which sometimes appear on the Top of the Hair by a Microscope.

Fig. 10, 11, 12.

The different Thickness of the Hairs of divers Parts of the Body, when view'd with the same Microscope. Figure the Tenth, that of the Groin; the Eleventh, that of the Nostrils; the Twelfth Figure repre­sents the Hairs of the Eyelids.

Immediatly under the Skin is placed the Fat in Humane Bodies; nor is it found in all Parts alike; on the Forehead it is very little, under the Hairy Scalp less, except its Hinder Part, on the Eyelids and Penis none, nor on the Muscu [...]us Quadratus Colli.

Fig. 13.

A Portion of the Fat of the Abdomen.

A A, Its External Membrane.

B B, Its Internal Membrane.

C C, The Globules of the Fat with their Blood Vessels passing to them, whence their oyly Contents are deriv'd.

  • 1. The Integument or Covering of the Globules of Fat rais'd.
  • 2. The Globules of Fat themselves.
  • 3. Some of the Globules divided from the rest; in which the Breaking off of their Membranes, and Blood Vessels, are exprest: Hence it appears, that the Fat is a Congeries or Heap of Membranous Cells, which in the Microscope appear distended with Oyl: If the Existence of those Ductus Adiposi could be demonstrated, as Bidloo intimates at C C in the last describ'd Figure, I should incline to think of another Office of them intended in Nature, than what Malpigbius has assigned them, viz. To convey the oily Contents of the Adipose Cells to some neighbouring Interstices, whether of Muscles, or other Parts, that are on Occasion mov'd, or slide on each other; or into some remarkable Ca­vity, as into that of the Abdomen, &c. where it meets with a Mucilage se­parated by the Mucilaginous Glands placed in the neighbouring Mem­branes, and serves to make up a Composition to Lubricate the Parts ac­cording to Doctor Havers's Osteologia Nova, Pag. 209.

Fig. 14.

The Outside of the last Common Integument of the whole Body, call'd the Common Membrane of the Muscles; some divide this into Two Membranes, and distinguish them by the Names of Carnosa and Communis Musculorum; which we look on to be altogether needless as may ap­pear by the following Description.

Fig. 15.

The Inside of the Membrane last described: The rise of this Membrane is commonly said to be from the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Back, because as I suppose that is the most stable Part to which it's Connected: It is co­extended with the Skin it self, as appears in most Parts, and has its Cor­responding Foramina for the Eyes, Nostrils, Ears, Mouth, Anus, and Pudendum: As to its Intimate Structure, I have always met with con­curring Experiments and Observations, of its being an Extensible Bo­dy, compos'd of divers Strata or Membranes, framing Cells, which have divers lesser Cells or Loculi within them; and in divers Parts, where the Loosness of the Skin it self would admit, those lesser Cells or Loculi, are fill'd with Oil, and are call'd Fat; but in other Parts where either the Hardness of the subjacent Bone, when the Skin is extended, as on the Top of the Skull, or the repeated quick Motions, as of the Eye­lids, or the Structure of the Part, as of the Penis; these Membranous Loculi are not so extended with Oil, as to make an Appearance of Fat; whence it is we find this Membrane much thicker in those Parts last mentioned, than in others; and on the contrary, thinner and fewer Strata of Laminae, where its Cells are partly possest with Fat. This Common Membrane is furnished with Vessels of all sorts; nor is it con­fin'd to the Surface of the Muscles only, but insinuates in their Intersti­tia, and helps to compose their Coverings; whence it happens that by blowing into the divided Strata of the Cells of this Membrane, the whole Body of the Animal is Tumified; which is commonly practised by Butchers, especially in dressing their Veal.

The common Integuments of the whole Body being demonstrated, we proceed to those particularly belonging to the Head; nor shall we omit speaking again of these hereafter, where any thing in their par­ticular Parts occurs to our Observation or Memory, which the suc­ceeding Figures may help us to explain.

THE FIFTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

A A, &c. SHEWS the Internal Part of the Hairy Scalp, as it appears after a cross Section, and hanging down, when free'd from its subjacent Membrane the Pericranium. The Thickness of the Hairy Scalp is not only owing to the Number of its Piliferous Bodies, and they so much larger than those of other Parts, except the Chin, Lips, &c. but it is also plentifully furnish'd with Sudoriferous Miliary Glands; both which appear in a Division of the Scalp: Hence so many Blood-Vessels, and they so very large, are to be found in this Part; whence such large Fluxes of Blood arise in dividing the Scalp in Living Bo­dies, as is commonly done to apply the Trepan, &c.

B B, &c. Part of the Pericranium, together with the Frontal Muscle on the Left Side hanging down: The Pericranium like the common Membrane of the Muscles may be divided into divers Lamel­lae, or Membranes, as is hinted in the Explanation of the preceeding Table: It is plentifully furnish'd with Blood-Vessels which chiefly spring from the Temporal and Occipital Arteries; but divers of them arise from the Arteries of the Dura Mater, which pass thro' the Skull; of which Two remark­able Trunks may be observ'd, one on each Side the Longitudinal Suture, between that Part call'd the Sinciput and Occiput, a little above the Lamdoidal Suture.

C, Part of the Pericranium cleaving to its Subjacent Membrane the Periostium.

D D D, The Periostium rais'd and reclin'd to the Right Side, where the Pores of that Membrane, and of the Skull, for the Transit of the Blood-Vessels, are exprest: Nor is the Periostium of this Part truly distinct from the Pericranium, but seems to be a Continuation of its Inferior, or Internal La­mellae; the Distribution of the Blood-Vessels being in common to both, except where they are di­stinguish'd by the Temporal Muscles, under which the Periostium is plac'd, and the Pericranium runs over them.

E E, The Os Frontis, and Bregmatis.

F, The Upper Part of the Temporal Muscle divested of the Pericranium.

G, Part of the Coronal Suture on the Left Side.

H, The Sagital Suture.

I, A small Artery, together with a Branch of a Nerve passing out of the Skull to the Frontal Muscle; in the former an Aneurism has happen'd on a sudden, and a great Laughter, when all At­tempts in the Cure thereof prov'd unsuccesful, till with a pointed Actual Cautery the Bone was so burnt, as to cause an Exfoliation of its External Lamina; the concealed bleeding Artery being then not only more expos'd to a Compress, but by the Removal of the circumjacent Bone, the neigbouring Blood-Vessels in its Meditullium, were at Liberty to confirm a Cicatrice.

Fig. 2.

The Upper Part of the Brain in Situ, with its Membranes, the Top of the Skull being remov'd.

A A, The Dura Mater covering the Brain on the Right Side.

B B, The Left Hemisphere of the Brain cover'd with the Pia Mater only, where the Anfractus of the Brain are elegantly exprest.

C C, The Dura Mater on the Left Side divided, and reclin'd laterally.

D D, A faint Appearance of the Brain thro' the Dura Mater.

E, The Blood-Vessels of the Dura Mater lying in its Duplicature.

F, That Part of the Dura Mater, which was contiguous to the Coronal Suture, where divers Blood-Vessels pass from it to the Skull, of which some pass thro' to the Hairy Scalp.

G G, The Veins of the Brain lying in the Duplicature of the Pia Mater, before they enter the Longitudinal Sinus; here it is they are subject to Rupture in Concussions of the Brain, and let out their contain'd Blood between the Dura and Pia Mater; which Case I have seen more than once, where the Dura Mater ought to have been divided, &c.

H H, The Edges of the Skull.

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THE SIXTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Upper Part of the Brain cover'd with the Dura Mater, as it ap­pears after the Top of the Skull is taken off.

A A, The Edge of the Forepart of the Skull, whence the Upper Part was divided.

B, Part of the Temporal Muscle.

C C, The Dura Mater covering the whole Brain.

D D, Divers Impressions on the Dura Mater, which adhered to the Internal Part of the Skull, near the Coronal Suture; where divers Blood-Vessels pass between it, and the Hairy Scalp.

E E, The Blood-Vessels distended with Wind.

F F, The Longitudinal Sinus opened from near its Beginning at the Os Crista Galli, to its En­trance into the Two Lateral Sinus's, as exprest in the following Figure.

Fig. 2.

A A, The Back Part of the Longitudinal Si­nus opened, together with the Lateral One on the Left Side.

B B, The Os Occipitis broken off and turn'd down.

C, The Os Petrosum.

D, The Orifice of the Fourth Sinus, call'd Tor­cular Herophili, at the Conjunction of the Two La­teral Sinus's with the Longitudinal One.

E, Divers transverse strong Ligaments in the Lateral Sinus.

F F, The Orifices of the Veins of the Brain in the Longitudinal Sinus.

G G, That Part of the Dura Mater, which ad­hered to the Lamdoidal Suture of the Skull.

H, The Medulla Oblongata going out of the great Foramen of the Skull, in the Os Occipitis.

I, The Cerebellum cover'd with the Dura Mater.

Fig. 3.

A, Part of the Longitudinal Sinus opened.

B B, &c. The Veins of the Brain, before they enter the Sinus.

C C, Their Orifices opening into the Sinus va­riously; some of them being parallel to their Trunks; other Veins first pass in the Duplicature of the Sinus forwards, and others backwards; by which means the Progressive Motion of the Blood is not only assisted in some Positions of the Head, and its too rapid Motion prevent­ed in others; but a due Mixture and Reunion of its Parts are made, after undergoing so elabo­rate a Strainer, as that of the whole Substance of the Brain, especially in its Cortical or Glandu­lous Part.

Fig. 4.

A A, The Posterior and Lateral Part of the Brain covered with its Meninges.

B B, The Os Petrosum broken off from the Cra­nium.

C, Part of the Os Occipitis in like manner di­vided from the Skull.

D, The Inferior and Tortuous Part of the La­teral Sinus on the Left Side opened, in which may be observed its transverse strong Ligaments, ex­prest Fig. 2. E.

E, The Cavity in the Os Petrosum or Specus, which receives the Bulbous Part of the Lateral Si­nus at the Beginning of the Jugular Vein.

F, The Trunk of the Internal Jugular Vein.

G, A Probe inserted into the Jugular Vein by the Sinus.

H, The Bulbous Part of the Lateral Sinus, which was contained in the Specus of the Os Petrosum.

Fig. 5.

A A, Part of the Lateral Sinus cut off.

B B, A lacerated Portion of the Dura Mater, which involv'd that Sinus, expanded.

C, The Bulbous Part of that Sinus, which was contain'd in the Specus or Cavity of the Os Petrosum; which is a Diverticulum to the Re­fluent Blood, least it should too suddenly press in­to the Internal Jugular Vein.

D D D, The Filaments of the Dura Mater broken off.

E, The Beginning of the Internal Jugular Vein.

As the Structure of the Veins of this Part dif­fer from that of others; so also the Arteries of the Brain, have a peculiar Organization at their Entrance from the ordinary Course of those of other Parts, as does somewhat appear in the fol­lowing Figure: We have also Figured this Dispo­sition of the Trunks of the Carotid Arteries, find­ing them much more Tortuous, than they are here represented. Vid. App. Fig. 3.13, 14.

Fig. 6.

A, The Trunk of the Carotid Artery passing to­wards the Brain.

B C, Part of its Membrane borrowed of the Dura Mater, separated and expanded.

D D, The lower Part of the Artery next the Heart.

The Vertebral Arteries also enter the Cavity of the Skull very much Contorted, as appears in the Third Figure of our Appendix, and again in the Eighth Figure; where II, shews their passing through the Transverse Process of the first Verte­bra of the Neck; K K, their Trunks marching be­tween the first Vertebra and Os Occipitis, to the great Foramen of the last named Bone, through which they pass into the Skull, and afterwards conjunctly make up the Cervical Artery. The De­sign of these Curvations in the Arteries, before they enter the Cavity of the Skull, is to prevent too great a Swiftness of the Current of the Blood through the whole Substance of the Brain, which being placed so near the Heart, would also suffer by its too great Pulsation; were it not that the Contorted Trunks of these Arteries lessened its force; else the frequent disorderly Motions of the Heart, would make us as often incident to suffer great Inconveniences in the Brain; yet neverthe­less we are incident to suffer in some Degree; whence 'tis that the Passions of the Mind, where­in the Heart is affected so suddenly, disorders the Reason.

THE SEVENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

REPRESENTS the Posterior Part of the Brain as it ap­pears lying on the Basis of the Skull, its Upper Part being free'd from the Dura Mater.

A A, The Hinder Lobes of the Brain raised, and drawn somewhat forwards.

B C, &c. The Ligature, and Two Pieces of Wood, made use of for the better supporting the Brain in that Position.

D D, Parts of divers Quadruplicatures of the Dura Mater.

E E, A Division of the Second Process of the Dura Mater on the Left Side; in which the Cerebellum appears.

F F, The Cerebellum laid bare in that Division.

G H, The Second Process of the Dura Mater, on the Right Side intirely co­vering the Upper Part of the Cerebellum.

I I I, The Edge of the Os Occipitis, whence the Upper Part of the Skull is divided.

K K, The Common Integuments of the Head turned off.

Fig. 2.

The Inner Face of the Os Occipitis, together with the Cerebellum, &c.

A A, The Cerebellum inclined forwards towards the Cella Turcica, so that its Back Part, which rests on the Os Occipitale, comes in view.

B B, The Hindmost Part of the Medulla Oblongata, in its Passage out of the great Foramen of the Os Occipitis.

b, The Processus Vermiformis of the Cerebellum.

C C C, Divers Roots of the Eighth, Ninth and Part of the Tenth Pairs of Nerves.

a a, The Accessory Nerves accompanying those of the Eighth Pair, at their Egress.

D D, &c. The Crassa Meninx, or Dura Mater.

E E, &c. Part of the Edge of the Skull.

F F, The Hairy Scalp diffected.

G, Part of the Pericranium raised.

H, The Left Ear.

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THE EIGHTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

IS Part of the Dura Ma­ter, together with the Falx, dri'd.

A A, The Falx suppor­ted, so as to shew its pro­per Extent and Figure.

B B, The Sinus Falcis Superior or Longitudina­lis, opened.

C, The Sinus Falcis Inferior, not distinguished in this Figure.

D D, &c. The Orifices of Veins opening into the Longitudinal Sinus, and Trunks of other Veins going to it.

E, The Beginning of the Longitudinal Sinus at the Os Crista Galli.

F F, The Left Lateral Sinus.

G G G, Two Parts of the Quadruplicatures of the Dura Mater, lying between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum.

H H, &c. The Sticks, Thread, and Pins made use of, to support the Membrane in drying it.

Fig. 2.

Parts of the above mentioned Sinus distended with Wind and dried, together with Part of the Dura Mater.

A, The Longitudinal Sinus.

B B, The Two Lateral Sinus's.

C, The Fourth Sinus.

D, A large Vein, which empties its Blood at the Conjunction of the Four Sinus's; which Union of the Sinus's, is called Torcular Herophili.

Fig. 3.

The Connection or Beginning of the Falx, at the Os Crista Galli.

A, The Os Cribrosum.

B, The Crista Galli.

C, A Portion of the Falx cleaving to the Crista Galli.

Fig. 4.

Part of the Falx dried, and exprest some­what bigger than the Life.

A, The Forepart of the Falx;

B, Its Hindpart.

C, That Part of the Falx where the Fifth Sinus passes, called Sinus Falcis Inferior. To this lower part of the Falx the Pia Mater firmly adheres, where divers Veins pass into its Lower Sinus as well as its Upper one; which together with di­vers Adnascences the Falx has with the two Hemi­spheres of the Brain, (as may be seen by freeing it from them) the Brain is kept suspended, least its Superiour Part should press too much on its Inferiour; which Office cannot be ascribed either to the Internal Part of the Brain, called Fornix, as the former and some later Anatomists pretend, or to the Corpus Callosum, as Vieussenius will have it: A further use of the Falx is by its Ex­tension between the Two Hemispheres of the Brain, to prevent the Superincumbence of the one upon the other, when we lie on either Side; and by its Connection with the Os Crista Galli, and Continuation of it to the Superior Part of the Du­ra Mater, and its Second Processes, lying between the Cerebrum, and Cerebellum, the whole Brain is kept suspended, and especially its Hinder Lobes, from pressing on the Cerebellum.

D D, Divers Veins of the Brain before they enter the Longitudinal Sinus.

E, The Cavity of the Longitudinal Sinus as it appears after a Transverse Section of it.

F F, Part of the Dura Mater which covered the Left Hemisphere of the Brain.

G G, The Superiour and External Surface of the Dura Mater on the Longitudinal Sinus.

Fig. 5.

The Two Hemispheres or Upper Part of the Brain, together with the Cerebellum, as they ap­pear when the whole Brain is taken out of the Skull, and laid on its Basis.

A A, The Two Hemispheres of the Brain.

B B, The Cerebellum covered with the Dura Mater.

C, The Processus Vermiformis.

D, A Portion of the Medulla Oblongata cut off.

E F, The Forepart of the Division of the Two Hemispheres of the Brain, in which the Falx is inserted.

G G, The Middle Membrane of the Brain ac­cording to Bidloo, separated and turned to one side, which we take to be the External Mem­brane or Lamina of the Pia Mater. That the Pia Mater is composed of divers Strata of Mem­branes, not unlike the Peritonaeum, does not only appear in an Hydrocephalus or Hydropical Brain; but in ordinary Diffections we find it Double, especially about the Medulla Oblongata, Proces­sus Annularis, &c.

In Wounds of the Pia Mater, and Brain, we meet with very great Fungus's, even to the Size of a Tenis Ball above the Surface of the Dura Mater, and Skull; which may be taken off by Incision without a dangerous Flux of Blood: An Instance of which we have had more than once an Opportunity of observing; and notwith­standing these Excrescences have been frequent­ly removed, yet they have grown again, and the Patient has Languished, and died. Vid. Die­merbroeck, Anatom. Lib. III. Cap. V.

I I I I, The Pia Mater remaining on the Brain.

K K L, The External Surface of the Brain com­posed of divers turnings and windings of its Cor­tical Part.

M M, The Retiform Distribution of the Blood Vessels between the External and Internal La­mina of the Pia Mater; the largest of these Ves­sels on the Superior and External Part of the Brain, are Veins which discharge their Blood in­to the Longitudinal Sinus, from whence they are here cut off.

THE NINTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE whole Brain taken out of the Skull, free'd from the Dura Mater, and lay'd on its Hemi­spheres, its Basis being uppermost. In this Figure many things are unob­serv'd, and others very ill exprest, wherefore we shall add a Figure of the Brain in this Position, more correctly drawn after the Life. Vid. Appendix.

A A, &c. The Basis of the Brain;

B B, &c. Its Division into Four Lobes;

C C, The Foremost Lobes,

D D, The Hindmost Lobes of the Brain.

E, The Infundibulum, very ill exprest.

F F, The Two white Protuberances behind the Infundibulum, not well exprest.

G G G, The Annular Process, or Pons Varolii, and Beginning of the Medulla Oblongata.

H, The Medulla Oblongata cut off near its Egress at the great Foramen of the Os Occipitis.

I I, Part of the Pia Mater, where it is appa­rently Double between the Annular Protuberance, and Medulla Oblongata.

K K L L The Cerebellum cover'd with the Pia Mater.

O O, The Cerebellum cover'd with the Pia Mater.

M, A Section in the Cerebellum.

N, The Arborescent Distribution of Blood Ves­sels within the Cerebellum.

P P Superior, The Trunks of the Carotid Ar­teries injected with Wax, and cut off.

P P Inferior, The Cervical Artery in like man­ner injected with Wax.

NB. That the Two Semicircular Branches, which join these Two last mentioned Arteries to­gether, call'd the Communicant Branches, are exprest too large in this Figure, or else the Sub­ject, from whence it was taken, differed very much from the ordinary Course of Nature; neither of which are mentioned by Bidloo.

Q R S, The Olfactory Nerves.

T T, The Optick Nerves;

V, Their Conjunction;

W W, Their Trunks cut off at their Egress from within the Skull.

X X, The Third Pair of Nerves, call'd Oculo­rum Motorii.

Y Y, The Upper and Forepart of the Proces­sus Annularis.

Z Z, Par Patheticum, or the Fourth Pair of Nerves.

a a, The Fifth Pair of Nerves.

b b, The Sixth Pair of Nerves.

NB. The Seventh Pair of Nerves are not here ex­prest, tho' Bidloo pretends to describe them at c c d e.

c c, d, e, f, g, Confused Descriptions of several Pairs of Nerves erroneously multiply'd into di­vers Pairs by Bidloo.

h h, The Spinal Accessory Nerves.

* *The Beginnings of the Ninth Pair of Nerves.

i i, k k, The Tenth Pair of Nerves, or the First of the Neck.

Fig. 2.

Part of the Brain on the Basis of the Skull.

A A, The Forepart of the Brain.

B, The Fingers which support it, so that the following Parts come in view.

C, The Infundibulum.

D, The Glandula Pituitaria lying within the Cella Turcica.

E, The Membranous Connection of the Infun­dibulum to the Glandula Pituitaria.

F, A Blood Vessel passing thro' the Lateral Part of the Os Cuneiforme, which Bidloo has grosly mistaken for the Olfactory Nerves.

G G G, Portions of the Optick Nerves so di­vided, that Parts of them remain on the Basis of the Skull, as well as on the Brain it self.

H H, The Third Pair of Nerves, call'd Motorii Oculi, in situ.

I I, The Internal Part of the Basis of the Skull.

K K, The Dura Mater.

Fig. 3.

The Internal Part of the Basis of the Skull, after the Brain is taken out, and Portions of the Ten Pair of Nerves of the Brain remaining at their Egress, together with Part of the Dura Mater.

A A, &c. The Edges of the divided Skull in which the Duploi may be seen.

B B, The Os Crista Galli.

C C, The Os Cribriforme on both Sides.

D D, &c. Part of the Dura Mater cleaving to the Basis of the Skull.

E E, The Os Occipitale bared from the Dura Mater.

F F, Portions of the Olfactory Nerves cut off, near their Egress at the Os Cribriforme.

G G, The Optick Nerves in like manner cut off, before they pass the First Foramina of the Os Sphenoides.

g g, The Carotid Arteries also divided.

H H, The Third Pair of Nerves cut off.

I I, The Pituitary Gland within the Cella Tur­cica, lying under the Dura Mater.

K, The Infundibulum.

L L, The Fourth Pair of Nerves, or Par Pa­theticum going out of the Skull, with the Third and Sixth Pair of Nerves.

M M, The Fifth Pair of Nerves.

N N, The Sixth Pair of Nerves running un­der, or in the Duplicature of the Dura Mater, at a considerable Distance before they march out of the Skull at the Two Second Perforations of the Os Sphenoides. Vid. Tab. 89. Fig. 2. C.D.I.

O O, The Seventh, or Auditory Nerves passing out at the Ossa Petrosa.

NB. That O on the Right Side should have been placed a quarter of an Inch below the M on the same Side.

P, The Eighth Pair of Nerves, or Par Vagum going out at the Second Perforations of the Os Oc­cipitis, with the Lateral Sinus's, which lead to the Internal Jugular Veins.

Q Q, The Spinal Accessory Nerves passing out of the Skull with the Par Vagum.

R R, The Ninth Pair of Nerves passing thro' the Third Perforations of the Occipital-bone.

T, The First and great Foramen of the Os Oc­cipitis, by which the Spinal Marrow passes out of the Skull to the Specus of the Vertebrae of the Back.

The Sinus's of the Dura Mater, which appear where it cleaves to the Internal Part of the Basis of the Skull, are exprest in a Figure of our Appen­dix; where the Egress of the Ten Pair of Nerves of the Brain are also represented, together with the most considerable Blood-Vessels, which come in, and go out from the Cavity of the Skull.

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THE TENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Brain together with the Medulla Oblongata continu'd to it, when free'd from the Skull, and Specus or Cavity of all the Vertebrae of the Neck, Back, and Loins.

A A, The Dura Mater free'd from the Brain, and somewhat expanded.

a a, Part of the Falx.

B B, Part of the Brain cut Transverily.

C, The Division in its Cortical Part, which compose those turnings, and windings on its External Surface.

D D, The Cortical, or Cinericious Part of the Brain; by some call'd the Glandulous Part.

E E, The Medullary, or white Part of the Brain; by some call'd the Callous, and Fibrous Part.

f f, The Hindmost Part of the Brain, which rested on the Second Process of the Dura Mater.

F G H, The Right and Left Ventricles of the Brain open'd; where the Blood Vessels of the Pia Mater, which Line them, may be seen: F, their Upper and Foreparts, which are largest, and become still less, and less towards their Lower, and Back-parts, G.

H H, The Corpus Callosum.

I K, The Roots of the Fornix.

L, The Thalamus Nervi Optici of the Right Side; that of the Left, not being Leuer'd.

M, The Corpus Transversale of the Corpus Callosum.

N N, Parts of the Corpora Striata whole.

O O, The Nates.

P P, The Testes.

Q, The Glandula Pinealis, in situ.

RR, The Plexus Coroeides compos'd of Blood Vessels of both Kinds, Lympheducts, Membranes, and Glands. See Fig. 3.

S S, The First Process of the Cerebellum, going to the Nates.

T, A Transverse Process joyning the Two Pathetick Nerves, and last mentioned Process.

s, The Fourth Ventricle, call'd Calamus Scriptorius.

V V, The Pathetick Nerves.

W W, Two Processes of the Spinal Marrow which compose the Sides of the Fourth Ventricle.

X Y Z, The Meditullium of the Cerebellum appearing in an Arbo­reous Manner, after a Transverse Section of the Cerebellum.

a b, a b, &c. The Dura Mater, which incloses the Spinall Marrow, divided, and expanded.

c c, &c. The Pia Mater as yet inclosing the Medulla Spinalis, but raised with a Probe in its Lower Part, where it inverts the Cauda Equina.

1 2 3, &c. The several Pairs of Nerves springing from the Medulla Spinalis: From 1 to 9 the Origins of the Nerves of the Neck; the First of which passes out at the Third Perforation of the Os Occipitis, and [...] reckoned the Tenth of the Brain; the rest march out between the Vertebrae of the Neck, Back, Loins, and Perforations of the Os Sacrum successively; that of Fig. 9 marching out between the Sixth and Seventh Vertebra of the Neck; those of 10 to 21 are the Nerves of the Back: From 22 to 27 those of the Loins; the rest go out at the Foramina of the Os Sacrum.

Fig. 2.

A A, Part of the Brain boyl'd, and view'd with a Microscope.

B B, The Membranes of the Brain separated; of which the External is the Dura Mater; the Two Internal compose the Pia Mater.

C D, The Reticular Distribution of the Blood Vessels near their Ex­tremities.

E E, Divers Orders of Cortical Glands on the Surface of the Brain.

F F, The Tubes deriv'd from those Cortical Glands.

G G, The Lobes, or distinct Clusters of Glands wreathed with va­rious Angles.

H H, The Complicated Tubes.

I I, The Nervous Fibres deriv'd from the last mentioned Tubes.

Fig. 3.

Part of the Plexus Coroeides delineated, by the help of a Magnifying Glass.

A A, The Membranous inclosures of the Fasciculi of the Vessels, separated.

B C, The Blood Vessels extended with Plaister of Paris, and their own Blood.

D D, Branches of Lympheducts, somewhat extended with Wind.

E, Nervous Tubuli according to Bidloo, which I can by no means conceive to be existent in the Plexus Coroeides.

F F, The Glands of the Plexus Coroeides placed irregular, of which, some are Hard, and Fibrous, others are Vesiculous, and Flaccid.

Fig. 4.

A Portion of the Medulla Oblongata cut off, and divided laterally according to its Length; exprest somwhat bigger than the Life.

A A, The Upper Part of the Medulla Oblongata.

B B, The Fore and Back Part.

C C, The Nervous Fibrillae arising from the Fore, and Back Part of the Spinal Marrow.

D D, The Inferior Part of the Spinal Marrow cut off.

E E, Portions of the Dura Mater left, to shew its Perforations for the Nerves, as they pass out of the Specus of the Vertebrae.

F F F, The Plexus Ganglioso [...]mes of the Nerves at their Egress from between the Vertebrae: Two or Three of the Bodies of the Nerves themselves are exprest in this Figure pinn'd out.

Fig. 5.

A Portion of the Medulla Spinalis, cut off about the Third Verte­bra of the Back, exprest somewhat bigger than the Life.

A, The Upper Part of the Spinal Marrow.

B B, A Portion of the Continuation of the Dura Mater expanded.

C C, The Nervous Fibres arising from the Fore and Back Parts of the Spinal Marrow.

D, The Nervous Fibrillae collectively passing thro' the Dura Mater.

E, Their Gangliform Plexus at the Beginnings of the Bodies of the Nerves.

F, A Division of the Spinal Marrow according to its Length.

G, Some Vestigia of Bloud Vessels, which pass on the Outside of the Spinal Marrow.

Fig. 6.

The Structure of a Nerve exprest by the Assistance of a Microscope.

A, The Branch of a Nerve dissected from the Neck.

B, The Bloud Vessels passing in the Nervous Fibrillae: These Bloud Vessels I had an Opportunity once of discovering with my naked Eye in a very small Branch of the Par Quintum of the Head, where they were fill'd with Mercury, by pouring it into the Carotid Artery; but in examining the same Branch of the Nerve with my Microscope, I discovered a vast Number of smaller Branches of Blood Vessels, which did not before appear, lying still parallel with the Nervous Fibres, as here exprest; tho' without doubt divers of the Trunks of those Blood Vessels do intersect, and pass obliquely over the Nervous Fibres, espe­cially near their Extremities. From those Blood Vessels I am in­clin'd to think the Globular Contents of the Nervous Fibres take their rise immediatly, and not from the Brain, as it has been generally suppos'd; since the Fibres of the Brain, as well as the Nerves themselves do neither of them appear Tubulated, or hollowed Pipes according to their Length; but their Cavities are frequently interrupted with divers Cells, which make a Globular like Appearance; and this Structure of the Nervous Tubes is very easily demonstrated in the Tunica Retina of the Eye by the Assistance of the Microscope.

C C, A Fasciculus of the Nervous-Tubes separated, and expanded.

D D, The Cohesion of the Tubes by Lateral Fibres.

E E, The Villous Extremities of the Tubes as they could be deli­neated. What has been said above, relating to the intimate Structure of the Nerves, interferes very much with those Hypotheses common­ly propos'd concerning the Animal Spirits, by some call'd Fluidum Animale; and that not only because their Original is suppos'd to be in the Brain, but that they are transfer'd from thence by the Nerves so very quick to serve those Offices, to which they are on such fre­quent Occasions said to be imploy'd in: Neither of which can reason­ably, nay possibly, happen, from the Structure of the Nerves them­selves: Besides, if the Animal Spirits, or Fluid were ordered to skip up and down at that rate, another visible Impediment would be inci­dent to obstruct them, at the Originals of the Nervous Tubes from the Medulla Spinalis; where those Tubes are much contracted, and again expanded, and frame Gangleons, as appears in this Figure at E; nor can we conceive what should give the Spirits that Impetus to drive them up and down in that manner; wherefore we should rather in­cline to believe the Contiguities of those Globuli, above mentioned, are the Mediums between the Objects, and Common Sensory. There is too much of Argument belongs to this Subject, to be inserted in this Place; wherefore we must proceed in our present Undertaking.

Fig. 7.

A Portion of the Medulla Spinalis taken out of the Specus of the Vertebrae of the Back, together with its Common Integument.

A A, The Back Part of the Spinal Marrow next the Spines of the Vertebrae.

B B C, The External, or Common Integument (accompanying that of the Dura Mater the whole Length of the Specus of the Vertebrae) here being partly rais'd and supported with a Stylus.

D, The Dura Mater, or First Proper Membrane of the Spinal Marrow.

E E E, Divers Sacculi of Fat lying between the Proper and Com­mon Membranes of the Medulla Spinalis.

Fig. 8.

The Inferior Part of the First Vertebrae of the Thorax:

A, Its Spinal Process,

B B, Its oblique descending Processes, which are Articulated with the ascending Processes of the Superior Part of the Second Vertebra of the Thorax;

C C, The Transverse Processes.

D, The Body of the Vertebra.

E, The great Foramen of the Vertebra, in which the Medulla Spi­nalis descends.

F F, Some fatty Mucilaginous Glands, which are continued thro' the Inside of the whole Specus of the Vertebrae.

The Office of these Glands is to separate a Liquor to lubricate the Membranes of the Medulla Spinalis, and Inner Part of the Specus; which Liquor I have frequently found in such Quantity, as to run out, in breaking up the Vertebrae to discover the Spinal Marrow.

THE ELEVENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE External Parts of the Eye, as they appear when the Eye­lids are open'd.

A B, The Eye-brow: B, the various Disposition of its Hairs in this Subject.

C, The Great Canthus of the Eye next the Nose.

D, The Lesser Canthus.

E, The Upper Eye-lid.

F, The Lower —

G, The White of the Eye cover'd with the Tunica Adna­ta or Conjunctiva.

H, One of the Lachrimal Glands plac'd in the great Can­thus of the Eye, call'd Caruncula Lachrimalis, and Glandula Lachrimalis Inferior.

Fig. 2.

The Eye-lids shut.

A, The Eye-brow, as in the former Figure.

C, The Great Canthus of the Eye towards the Nose.

D, The Lesser Canthus.

E, The Superior Palpebra.

F, The Inferior Palpebra.

Fig. 3.

A A, The Skin with the Musculus Orbicularis Palpebrarum remov'd.

B, The Bone of the Upper Part of the Orbit of the Eye bared.

C, The Great Lachrimal Gland involv'd with Fat.

D D, A faint Appearance of the Excretory Ducts of the Lacrhimal Glands, by Borri­chius, call'd Hygroophthahmicos.

E E, Divers little Glands interpos'd between the last mention'd Ducts.

Fig. 4.

Parts of the Muscles of the Eye-lids.

A, Part of the Musculus Aperiens Palpebram Rectus, at its Implantation to the Upper Eye-lid: The Origin of this Muscle is sharp and fleshy at the profoundest Part of the Orbit, near the Egress of the Optick Nerve, accompanying the Rectus Oculi Attollens in its Progress, becoming broad, thin and tendonous, as it passeth over the Superior Part of the Bulb of the Eye, to its Implantation at the whole Superior Part of the Upper Eye-lid.

B C, A Portion of the Upper Part of the Orbicularis Palpebrarion turn'd down, it still remaining to the Upper Eye-lid: A Description of which Muscle will be inserted in the following Table. Fig. 4.

Fig. 5.

The Lachrimal Glandules, &c. within the Orbit of the Eye, represented much bigger than the Life.

A A, The Upper Part of the Bones of the Orbit.

B B C C, The Superior Lachrimal Gland.

D D D, The Vasa Lachrimasia, or Ductus Hygroopluhalmici, whose Orifices open into the Internal Part of the Palpebrae, whence the separated Liquor, convey'd by the Tubes, issues to moisten the Palpebrae, and External Part of the Bulb of the Eye.

E E E, Divers Lachrimal Glands interspers'd between the last mention'd Ducts.

F F G G, The Cartilages of the Cilia joyn'd together with divers Membranes G.

H H, The Hairs of the Eye-lids turn'd Upwards, whose Ramifications appear.

I, Part of the Superior Lachrimal Gland, by Bidleo call'd, Glans Lachrimalis.

K K, The Bones of the Nose broken off, so that the following Ducts may appear.

L, The Ducts, which convey the superfluous Moisture of the Vasa Lachrimalia from between the Palpebrae, and Bulb of the Eye, into the Foramina Narium: The Orifices of these Ducts appear in the two Papillae of the Upper and Lower Eye-lid, at the Great Can­thus of the Eye. Fig. 1. H. and are evident to the naked Eye, especially in those, who Cry much, and are call'd, Puncta Lachrimalia: Soon after these Two Ducts leave the Great Can­thus of the Eye, they are united into One Trunk, call'd the Lachrimal Duct, which de­scends in a Foramen of the Second Bone of the Upper Jaw, Tab. 92. Fig. 1. D. into the Cavity of the Nostrils. In the great Canthus of the Eye arise those Tumours, call'd Aegilopes, whose contain'd Matter, when it degenerates into an Abscess, frequently frames Fistula's in that Part; and when the Membrane, which composes the Lachrimal Duct, within the Cavity of the Bone, becomes Tumified; the Passage of that Duct is rendred impervious, and Part of the Humor imploy'd in moistning the Eye-lids, is hindred in its Discharge that Way; whence the Cheeks become inflam'd by its running down on them; in which latter Case, besides opening the Tumor largely, we must also Perforate the Second Bone of the Upper Jaw or Os Lachrimale, into the Cavity of the Nose, whereby the Lachrimal Humor will afterwards be discharg'd: This Operation is best Practis'd with a pointed Actual Cautery, fitted with a proper Cannula or Director. The Incision in these Cases may be made according to the Direction of the Fibres of the Musculus Orbicularis Palpebra­rum; and in using the Actual Cautery, great care must be taken to defend the Palpebrae; which we have sometimes seen expos'd to the heated Cannula thro' the Strugling of the Pa­tient: After this Operation is thus perform'd, it is not necessary you should keep the Ex­ternal Wound open to expect an Exfoliation of the Fragments of the Bone thro' it; but after Three or Four days, when the Callosity is remov'd, and the Matter discharg'd, you ought to lessen your Dozils, or Tents, and permit the Sinus to fill with Flesh, and hasten a Cicatrice, and the Edges of the perforated Bone will pass off by the Nostril, as well as that Part of the Bone thrust in by the Cautery. Nor will any great Inconveniency fol­low if the Healed up Part should Imposthumate again, thro' the moving of the Frag­ments of the Bone towards the External Wound, if it is again open'd by Incision to dis­charge them; but should you keep the External Wound open long, either by hard Tents, or Escharoticks, you will not only procure a Discharge of the superfluous Tears, or Moisture that way; but the Perforation made in the Os Lachrimale will fill up, and you must be oblig'd to repeat the Use of the Actual Cautery, or thrust a Probe thro' it. I had almost forgot to tell you, that after the First Incision made in the External Parts, it is necessary you should pass your Knife down to the very Bone, and divide the Trunk of a large Artery, and Vein, which pass that way with the Lachrimal Duct, least the Flux of Blood at the time of the Operation should so cool the Cautery, as to prevent its Action.

Fig. 6.

The Bulb of the Eye lying within the Orbit after the Superior Palpebra is remov'd.

A B, The Tunica Adnata plac'd on the Forepart of the Sclerotis.

C, The Iris, in whose Center is the Pupilla.

D D, The Lower Eye-lid, in situ, together with Part of the Upper, dissected.

E, The Bone of the Orbit.

F, The Margin of the Lower Eye-lid, where the Hairs grow out.

Fig. 7, and 8.

The Muscles of the Eye, as they appear within the Orbit, when clear'd of the Fat, and adjacent Parts.

A, The A [...]usculus Attolens.

B, (Fig. 8.) Musculus Adducens.

C, Deprimens.

D, Abducens.

E E, The Internal Part of the Bones of the Orbit.

H, The Tendon of the Musculus Obliquus Superior passing thro' the Trochlea K, to its In­sertion behind the Musculus Attollens.

I, The External Part of the Bones of the Orbit next the Nose.

K, The Trochlea, or little Cartilage, on which the Tendon of the Oblique Superior Muscle is reflected.

X, Fig. 7. The Optick Nerve.

Fig. 9.

The Fore-parts of the Muscles of the Right Eye, when taken out of the Orbit, and clear'd from the Fat, Membranes, and Glands, a; and Expanded.

A, Attollens.

B, Deprimens.

C, Adducens, which Bidloo calls Abducens.

D, Abducens, which be in like manner mistakes, and calls Adducens.

E, Trochlearis Musculus, or Obliquus Superior cum Trochlea.

F, The Trochlea Cartilage, exprest in situ. Fig. 7. K.

G, The Musculus Obliquus Inferior.

H H H, The Tunica Adnata, together with another Membranous Tegument deriv'd from the Tendons of the Four straight Muscles, mention'd by Realdus Columbus. Lib. X.

I, Is scarce seen, but is plac'd in the Center of the Bulb, and distinguishes the Pupilla.

K, Part of the Optick Nerve.

Fig. 10.

The Back Parts of the Muscles of the same Eye, when taken out of the Orbit, &c.

A, The Musculus Abducens, or Indignatorius.

B, Adducens, or Bibitorius.

C, Obliquus Inferior, or Brevissimus Oculi Musculus.

D, Attollens, or Superbus.

E, Deprimens, or Humilis.

F, Obliquus Superior, seu Longissimus Oculi Musculus.

G, The Trochlea Cartilage.

H, A Portion of the Optick Nerve.

I, The Back Part of the Bulb of the Eye, compos'd by the Tunica Sclerotis.

Fig. 11.

The Bulb of the Eye and Optick Nerve free'd from the Muscles and their Common Membranes, so that the proper Membranes of their Surface appear.

A, Part of the Tunica Adnata, which is continued to the Internal Part of the Palpe­brae, which can by no means prevent the Retraction of the Eye, when any of the straight Muscles Act, as some Anatomists conjecture.

B D, The Tunica Sclerotis.

C, The Tunica Cornea, circumscrib'd by the Iris, in whose Center is the Pupilla.

E, The Optick Nerve cover'd with a Tunick deriv'd from the Dura Mater.

Fig. 12.

A A, The Sclerotis open'd, to shew the Choroeide Tunick immediately under it.

B, The Tunica Chorocides.

C, The Cornea, Iris, &c. as in the preceding Figure.

Fig. 13.

Part of the Ligamentum Ciliare view'd with a Microscope.

A A B B, The Ligamentum Ciliare consisting of Two Sorts of Fibres; the one extended thro' its whole Breadth, A A; the other end in the Mid-way B B: Between these are plac'd divers Lympheducts according to Bidloo. This Musculous Contexture of the Ligamentum Ciliare moves the Uvea, or Fore-part of the Tunica Retina composing the Iris, by which means the Inner Edge of the Iris approaches towards the Center of the Pupilla, or is re­tracted, whereby the Pupil is enlarg'd, or diminish'd according to the different Radia­tion of Light. In some Animals, as Cats, &c. we find a Musculous Structure in the Iris also, for a more effectual narrowing their Pupils; which Contrivance in those Creatures, perhaps, is the more requisite in regard their Horny Tunicks have a Surface not so promi­nent in Proportion to the Bulbs of their Eyes, as those of other Animals.

Fig. 14.

The Bulb of the Eye together with a Portion of the Optick Nerve, where a Division of the Tunica Sclerotis together with the Chorocides is made, to exhibit the Tunica Retina.

A, The Tunica Retina.

Fig. 15.

Part of the Optick Nerve together with the Tunicks of the Eye, after the Humors (Fig. 19, 20.) are taken out.

A, The Inner Surface of the Tunica Retina.

Fig. 16.

Another View of the Internal and External Surface of the Tunicks of the Eye, after the Humors are discharg'd.

A A, The Tunica Sclerosis.

B, The Cornea.

C, Part of the Optick Nerve.

Fig. 17.

The Internal and Fore-part of the Tunicks of the Eye, when the Humors are dis­charg'd by a transverse Section thro' the Bulb.

A, The Tunica Cornea.

C, The Inner Surface of the Iris, next the Ligamentum Ciliare.

D, The Tunica Retina Chorocides, and Sclerosis together.

Fig. 18.

The Inner Surface of the Back Part of the last mention'd Tunicks of the Eye.

A, Part of the Optick Nerve cut off; in which Division its Blood-Vessels are exprest.

B, The Tunica Sclerosis.

C, The Tunica Retina, in situ.

Fig. 19, and 20.

The Vitreous and Crystalline Humors of the Eye, when taken out of the Tunicks.

A, The Crystalline Humor.

B, The Vestigia of the Ciliar Ligaments on the Vitreous and Edge of the Crystalline Humor.

C, The Vitreous Humor.

Fig. 21.

A B, The Crystalline Humor taken out; A, its Fore-part next the Aqueous Humor; B, as it appears Laterally.

The Aqueous Humor cannot easily be exprest after the Life, wherefore we shall here speak of its Interstice, where it is lodg'd, whereby its Figure is circumscrib'd; its Fore­part is Convext by means of a Concave fram'd by the Cornea in the Center, and Iris in the Circumference; the Back Part of the Aqueous Humor is Concave, to receive the Con­vex Surface of the Crystalline Humor; it's sides are Circular, conformable to the Cavity of the Bulb; whence it appears the Aqueous Humor is Circular in its Circumference, Convext forewards, and Concave backwards, like the following Figure.

Fig. 22.

A, The External and Fore-part of the Vitreous Humor.

B, A Concave in the Vitreous Humor, which receives the Crystalline Humor. The Tunicle, which is said to inclose the Vitreous Humor, do's not appear, but when it is expos'd to the Air; wherefore Dr. Briggs supposes it to be meerly adventitious.

Fig. 23.

A B, The Crystalline Humor dri'd; which Bidloo according to some Anatomists, calls Tunica Aranea, or Crystaloeides[?].

Fig. 24.

A B, The Vitreous Humor dri'd in like manner; leaving its supposed investing Membrane only.

I should in this place (as I have hitherto, and shall hereafter in describing of Parts, to which any considerable Operation of Surgery do's belong) speak of the Couching of Cataracts; but I am afraid I have already transgress'd the limits of my Page; wherefore I shall only tell you that in Practising that Operation, the Puncture thro the Adnata, ought to be at a greater Distance from the Pupilla, than Authors commonly direct; and that a round Needle is to be preferr'd; for the edges of the Needle else are lyable to wound the Blood-Vessels of the Choroeid Tunick largely, and an Extravasation of Blood happens between that Tunick, and the Sclerotis; which may be of ill consequence to the Patient.

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THE TWELFTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

IN this Figure there is a Repetition of the same Letters of the Alphabet; the one on the External Parts of the Au­ricle; the other on its Muscles, and Parts adjacent:

The First.

A A, The External Margin of the Outward Ear, call'd Helix, and Capreolus, from its Tortuous Disposition.

B B, Anthelix Auriculae.

C, Hircus Auriculae, by some call'd Antitragus.

D E, Circumscribe the Concha; D, Tragus Auriculae, below which is the Lobus.

The Second.

A, The Musculus Attollens Auriculam; which derives its partly fleshy, and Membranous Origin, from above the Temporal Muscle, and descending over it to its Insertion at the Superior Part of the Cartilage of the Root of the Auricle.

B C C, The Musculus Retrahens Auriculam, whose Origin we have always observed with M. Du Verney, to be from the Apophy­sis Mastoides; the whole Muscle is here exprest much larger than it is commonly found.

D D, Part of the Parotid Gland cleaving to the Outward Ear:

E F F, The Excretory Ducts arising from that Gland, which compose the Ductus Salivalis Superior.

G, Part of the Ductus Salivalis Superior.

Fig. 2.

Exhibits the Back Part of the Auricle, when cut off.

A, The Skin, &c. divided from the Hairy-Scalp, and free'd from the Cranium.

B, The Internal, or Back Part of the Ear next the Skull.

C, The Inferior Part of the Auricle.

D, The Meatus Auditorius;

E, The Thickness of its Cartilage.

Fig. 3.

Represents the Ramifications of the Ductus Salivalis inje­cted with Wax, and free'd from the Parotid Gland.

A, The Trunk of the Ductus Salivalis cut off at its Progress over the Musculus Masseter.

B B C, The Ramifications of the Salival Ductus free'd, which arise from the Extremities of the Arteries within the Paro­tid Gland.

Fig. 4.

Represents divers Muscles of the Face after the Quadratus Genae is taken off.

A, This formal Appearance of circular Fibres about the Alae Nasi, I suspect to be fictitious, having never observ'd such a Disposition in any Subject, tho' I have purposely examined this Part; yet the like Figure of them may be seen in Placentinus.

B, A Muscle, whose Position renders it capable of pulling up the Ala Nasi; whence it is called Elevator Alae Nasi; and by Casserius, Pyramidalis, from its Figure; nor do we com­monly find this Muscle in Dissection; the fleshy Fibres on this Part, frequently taking the same Course with those of the Orbicularis Palpebrarum, do pass by the Ala Nasi.

C, The Musculus Elevator Labii superioris proprius.

DD, The Orbicularis Palpebrarum; This is a thin fleshy Muscle, circularly environing the Eyelids, to which it is inserted, not unlike the Sphincter Muscles of other Parts, as of the Lips, and the Bladder of Urin: It acts in drawing the Eyelids nearer each other; which we call shutting the Eyelids; but if this Muscle Acts vigorously, it not only draws the Eyelids close together, but forces the Bulb of the Eye into the Orbit. Galen and the ancient Anatomists not discovering the Musculus Ape­riens Palpebrarum Rectus, (since found out by Fallopius,) were at a loss for assigning a proper Instrument to draw up the Upper Eyelid; wherefore they erroneously divided this Or­bicular Muscle into Two: The like error has been incident to some later Writers, among which Bidloo falls into the same Mistake.

E, The Zygomaticus or Distortor Oris.

F, A Branch of an Artery, which arises from the Carotid in the Neck, and passing through the Inferior Maxillary Gland, runs over the Lower Jawbone, at the Insertion of the Masseter Muscle, as it is here exprest.

I have frequently met with Tumors on this Part, which have required Incision; in which Case the dividing of this Artery ought to be regarded; wherefore I have rather cho­sen first to make Two Perforations, one on each Side this Ar­tery, whether by Caustick or otherwise, and then pass a Liga­ture to comprehend the Artery for some Days; and tho' I cannot advise the Practice of letting the Ligature divide the whole, by frequently straightening it; yet in Three or Four Days time the Ligature will so compress the Artery, that you may cut through free from any dangerous Flux of Blood.

G, The Os Iugale.

H, The Lower Jawbone made bare by the removing of the Skin, and Musculus Quadratus Colli.

I, Part of the Carotid Artery.

K M N, The Temporal Muscle; K N its Outside; M its Inside next the Cranium turned down.

L, Part of the Parotid Gland, the greater Part of which Gland being cut away, to exhibit the following Muscle.

O, The Musculus Masseter in situ: The Origination, Progress, and Insertion of this, and the Temporal Muscle, are suffi­ciently exprest in this, and the following Figure.

Fig. 5.

Exhibits the Muscles of the Lips, and some of those of the Lower Jaw.

A B C, The Musculus Buccinator free'd from its Origin at the Procossus Coronae of the Lower Jaw, (nearer N) and left at its Insertion at the Angle of the Lips: Here we may observe, that in this Figure (as in the Life) the Fibres of this Muscle run according to its Length, contrary to the Description Bidloo, and others give of it; through this Muscle passes the Ductus Salivalis of the Parotid Gland into the Mouth.

D, The Musculus Elevator Labiorum Communis; This arises from the Os Quartum of the Upper Jaw, and descends directly to its Insertion under the Termination of the Zygomaticus; in this Figure (as we have likewise seen it) a Fasciculus of fleshy Fibres of this Muscle run over the Termination of the Zygomaticus.

E E, The Elevator Labii superioris proprius, and the Muscu­lus Dilatator Alae Nasi.

F, The Musculus Zygomaticus.

G, Depressor Labiorum Communis.

H, Depressor Labii inferioris proprius.

I, Constrictor Labiorum.

K M N, The Temporalis; N, its Implantation at the Processus Coronae of the Lower Jaw.

L, Part of the Parotid Gland.

O, The Masseter cut from its Origin at the Os Iugale, and left at its Insertion to the Lower Jaw.

P Q, Part of the Origin of the Musculus Pterygoideus ex­ternus in situ; This springs from the External Part of the Pro­cessus Pterygoides, and Upper Part of Os Sphenoeides, and runs backwards to its Insertion at the Neck of the Processus Con­dyloides: To discover the Progress of this Muscle, the Pro­cessus Coronae should be cut off with a Chizel.

R, The Processus Condyliformis of the Lower Jaw, which is here in a great Part lay'd bare.

S, Part of the Musculus Digastricus of the Lower Jaw.

THE THIRTEENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE External Parts of the Nose, together with the Tongue, Fauces, Garga­reon, and the like, in Situ.

A, The Back of the Nose.

B, The Spine,

C, The Tip,

D, The Septum Nari­um or Bridge,

E E, The Alae Nasi or Sides of the Nose.

F F F, The Cheeks divided, so that the Parts within the Mouth may appear.

G, The Tongue.

H, The Gargareon or Uvula in Situ, cover'd with the Glandulous Membrane of the Palat.

I, The Tonsillae described in our Appen. Fig. 9.

K K, The Gums of both Jaws.

L L, The Palat or Roof of the Mouth, whose Glandules are exprest Tab. 14. Fig. 4. B C.

M, The Upper Part of the Epiglottis raised through the Depressure of the Tongue. We sel­dom see the Epiglottis in looking into the Mouths of Living People; but in some few I have some times seen its Upper Part, by very much depres­sing the Tongue to inspect the Fauces; in such Per­sons some (very Ignorant in Anatomy) have taken it for an Excrescence, and have proposed its Extraction. A Mistake, equally as pernicious, has been incident to some Practitioners, in sup­posing the Foramina of the Excretory Ducts of the Tonsillae when fill'd with a Tenacious Mat­ter, (as in Cases of taking Cold, as it's call'd, &c.) to be Ulcers; as Fallopius takes notice.

Fig. 2.

The Outward Covering of the Tongue view'd with a Microscope: This Figure together with the 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th, were done after the Tongues of some Quadrupedes, as of Bulls, Sheep, or the like. With the Assistance of a Microscope, an Appearance not altogether unlike this may be found on a Humane Tongue; without any Horny Covering like that described by Bidloo in these Figures, as follows.

A, That Part towards the Tip of the Tongue,

B, That towards the Root may be seen, arising from the Membrane underneath, a sort of Bodies of a Toothlike Form C C, &c. hard as Cartilages, or the Nailes; for which reason (says he) I call them Ungulae: Betwixt these (he further adds) are placed certain forked Bodies of the same Stru­cture: (See Fig. 3.) Between these Two Kinds of Bodies, and sometimes upon them, are placed cer­tain Bladder-like Pyriformal, and Pellucid Glo­buli. (Fig. 2. D.) These Ungulae are framed by the manifold joyning together of Fibrous Lamellae. (See Fig. 4. A.) whose Middle B, is Medullary and Pervious; but the Globuli are hollow like Blad­ders: Both these kinds are clotted about with a strong tensile Membrane (Fig. 2. E.) to which they are fastned on their Sides. This Membrane is supported with Hairy Stamina F. like the Mem­brane immediatly under it, which subjacent Mem­brane is Perforated by the aforesaid Bodies, as ap­pears in (Fig. 6.) In some of the Interstices of these Bodies there may certain Cavities G, Fig. 2. be disco­ver'd; whose Bottom is very Porous. The Appea­rance of the Back Part of these Bodies is represented in Fig. 5. A, The broken Globuli. B, The Aspe­rities of the Ungulae. C, The Hairy Membranous Covering. D, The porous Apertures. The Upper Covering being remov'd, the Second or Subjacent Membrane, mention'd above, comes in view. Fig. 6. Spread like a Net; the Duct of whose Fibres is so intricate and various, that nothing certain can be determin'd of their Order; For in a Raw Tongue it is glutinous, in a Boyl'd one exten­dible; its Superiour Part exprest in this Figure, is whitish and thinner; but the Lower is observ'd to be thick, and more tenacious. (See Fig. 7.) Its Per­forations AA, Fig. 6. answer to the Number of the Ungulae: Here also may be observ'd several small Vessels B, creeping along, and running to the Su­perficies of the Tongue. The Edges of these Per­forations are made rough by small Fibres and Vessels of their own, as well as of the broken Un­gulae. The like Structure may be observ'd every where in the Membrane in the Inside of the Mouth, especially in the Palat. Under this Net­like Covering some Nervous Papillary Plexus. Fig. 8. A, and certain Glands B are hid; the Tops of which are inseparably joyn'd to the above nam'd Medullary Middles of the Ungulae: So that these Ungulae, like little Horns, cover those Pa­pillary Bodies like a Membrane spread over them: These Papillae are tyed in several Places to the Carnous Fibres of the Tongue; of these, some are Large C; some Smaller D; some confused and in Heaps E; others more distant, and distinct, and of different Figures; about These are placed a great many Glands F, to which the Vessels of the Net-like Covering do adhere. The same Or­gans, tho' in a larger Form, do arise out of the Coverings of the Lips and Cheeks, as above.

Fig. 9.

The Musculous Structure of the Tongue.

A A, The External Order of Fibres continued according to the Length of the Tongue, (viz.) from its Basis to its Tip; between these are in­terspersed (B B B) divers Glandules and Lobes of Fat, B B.

C D, The Second Order of Fibres of the Tongue, which descend from the Upper Part towards its Basis.

E F, Other Fibres arising from the Basis go to the Superficies of the Tongue.

G H, Others carried from the Middle of the Tongue towards the Sides; the Tendinous Extre­mities of these Fibres are fastned to the Coverings of the Tongue: At the Middle of the lower Part of the Tongue, are Two distinct Classes of Fibres very intricately disposed, which contribute to those various Motions the Tongue is necessarily imploy'd in, whether in Speaking, Mastication, or the like.

Fig. 10.

The Structure of the Gums magnifyed with a Microscope.

A A, Part of the Gums.

B B, Two of the Foreteeth.

C, The Covering of the Gums opened.

D, The Duct of the Fibres.

E, The Glands situated between the Fibres.

F, Part of the Upper Jaw broken off.

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THE FOURTEENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

DIVERS Muscles of the Tongue, Os Hyoi­des, and Larynx, as they appear in their proper Situation, after the Side of the Lower-Jaw is taken off.

A A B B, The Tongue Pinn'd up B.

C, The Musculus Styloglossus in Situ; It arising from the Processus Styloides is in­serted to the Root of the Tongue immediately below the Im­plantation of the Ceratoglossus; it draws the Tongue up, and inwards, in the Action of Deglutition.

D D, The Musculus Ceratoglossus, Arising Fleshy from the Horns at the Os Hyoides, and is so Inserted to the Tongue: If this with its Partner Act, they draw the Tongue directly into the Mouth; if One of them Acts, it pulls the Tongue to one Side.

E F G I L, The Musculus Genioglossus in Situ; It arising from the Middle of the Internal Part of the Lower Jaw, and is Implanted at the Root of the Tongue; when this with its Partner Act, they draw the Tongue Forwards, and thrust it out of the Mouth.

H, Part of the Fauces contiguous to the Root of the Tongue.

K, Part of the Musculus Sternohyoideus.

L, Part of Coracohyoideus.

N. B. That L is inserted in Two different Parts of this Figure; wherefore the Reader is desired to take Notice that the Lowermost belongs to the last Reference.

M, The Musculus Styloceratohyoideus; Its Origin, Progress and Insertion, are so well exprest in the Figure, that there needs no other Description to be added; this Muscle, toge­ther with the Styloglossus, and Stylopharyngaeus, with their Part­ners on the other Side, Act in Drawing up the Os Hyoides, Tongue, Larynx, and Pharynx in Deglutition; by which means the Aliment when fitted for Swallowing, do's not only De­scend into the Pharynx (which is at that Time dilated;) but the Epiglottis is in that Position of the Tongue by conse­quence deprest, and adequately Covers the Rimula of the La­rynx; whereby, the least Particle of the Aliment is hindred, in its Descent into the Larynx, and Aspera Arteria; which is a wonderful Mechanism in Nature! Hence 'tis we can by no means Expire in the Action of Swallowing of the Aliment, without some Part of it Descending into the Rimula of the Larynx; which is so troublesome as to cause an incessant Coughing, till it's ejected.

N, The Musculus Mylohyoides, Cut from its Origination at the Internal Part of the Lower Jaw-Bone, and left at its Im­plantation to the Middle and Upper Part of the Os Hyoi­des.

O, The Geniohyoides Muscle in Situ.

P, The Middle Part of the Lower Jaw-Bone, which com­poses the Chin, broke off.

Q, The Internal Surface of the Upper Lip.

R, The Inside of the Cheek.

S, The Gustatory Nerve; being a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves of the Brain, in its Way to the Tongue.

T, The Motory Nerve of the Tongue, springing from the Ninth Pair of the Brain.

t, A small Branch of the Ninth Pair going to the La­rynx.

V, The Left Horn of the Os Hyoides.

W, The Trunk of the Carotid Artery.

X X, The Musculus Digastricus left to its Origination at the Processus Mastoides.

Fig. 2.

Represents, according to Bidloo, the Salival Ducts free'd from the Inferior Maxillary Gland, exprest in Situ, in Fig. 1. of the following Table M M. I cannot conceive this Figure of the Salival Ducts was design'd after the Life; nor do's it express any other Excretory Duct which occurs to my Memo­ry; wherefore I shall here add the Description of it by Bidloo. A, The Twigs of the Salival Duct, above mention'd, injected with Wax, and free'd from the Glandules: B, The larger Branches: C, The Common Duct: D, It's Orifice inclos'd with an Edging. E, Part of the investing Membrane of the Mouth cut off. See the Figure of the Salival Ducts of the Lower Maxillary Glands, together with the Sublingual Glands in our Appendix.

Fig. 3.

The Inner Face of the Upper Jaw, and Fauces, after the Lower Jaw is taken off.

A, The Roof of the Mouth, or Palat.

B B, The Glandulous Membrane of the Fauces near the Tonsillae.

C C, Divers Foramina in the Surface of the Glandulous Membrane of the Mouth or Palat, thro' which issues a Juice separated in its Glandules, exprest Fig. 4. B, B, C, C.

D E, The Forepart of the Palat near the Dentes Incisores, where the Bone underneath is Perforated, to transmit divers Blood-Vessels and Nerves; but in Bulls and some Animals, in this Part, is a Perforation thro' both the Membrane of the Palat, and that of the Nostrils, and is a common Pas­sage between their Foramina Narium and Mouths; which in them is call'd Fretum, and serves to convey Part of the Matter separated by the Glands of their Nostrils into their Mouths.

F F, A Stylus put thro' the Left Nostril into the Fauces.

G, The Vvula or Gargareon hanging down from the Palat.

H, The Glandulous Membrane which helps to compose the Back Part of the Fauces.

I I, Parts of the Musculi Flexores Capitis.

K K, Parts of the Longi Colli.

L L, The Vertebrae of the Neck.

Fig. 4.

The Inside of the Membrane of the Palat, as it appears when Rais'd, and View'd with a Microscope.

A A, The Tunica Palatina Rais'd from the Bone, and Pinn'd out.

B C D, The Glandules, and Carnous Fibres, which com­pose the Membrane.

E E, Two Dentes Incisores.

F, The Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, by some call'd Os Palati, whose Surface is full of Vestigia, where the Tunica Palati did Adhere.

Fig. 5.

The Foramina Narium Open'd, by taking off the Greater Half of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, or Os Pa­lati.

A A B B, The Pituitary or Glandulous Membrane, which invests the Foramen of the Left Nostril, separated from the Septum Narium B.

C C, The Glandulous Membrane extended, so as to receive a strong (D D) Reflection of Light, by means of a Stylus D D, introduc'd as in Fig. 3. The Structure of this Glan­dulous Membrane is altogether agreeable to that of the Pa­lat Fauces, &c. so that we need not say more of it in this Place; but that it is not only extended to all the tortuous Meanders of these Cavities of the Nostrils, but it also in­vests the Cavities of the Cheek-Bones, Os Sphenoides, and Frontis; all which communicate with the Nostrils, where they discharge their Pituita; as shall be demonstrated in the Osteological Part of this Work.

THE FIFTEENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

DIVERS Muscles of the Lower Jaw, and Os Hyoides in Situ, the Skin, and Musculus Quadratus Colli being Remov'd.

A B C, The Musculus Digastricus or Bi­venter; B, its Fleshy Origination from the Processus Mammillaris; C, its Middle Ten­don passing thro' the Musculus Stylocerato­hyoideus (N), and an Annular Ligament arising from the Os Hyoides, to its Fleshy Termination A, in the Lower Jaw (D).

The Middle Tendon of this Digastric Muscle, and its Part­ner, passing thro' Two Annular Ligaments Fixt to the Os Hyoides, as the Ropes thro' a Double Pully, is a necessary Contrivance in Nature to render them capable of pulling the Lower Jaw Down; which, had their Progress been di­rect from their Originations, they could not have per­form'd; nor is there any Processes, whether of the Vertebrae of the Neck, or Neighbouring Parts, that could give Origina­tions to these Muscles below their Insertions, as in some Qua­drupedes: Wherefore the Divine Architect, in Humane Bo­dies, has plac'd this Double-Pully below their Terminations, by which means they are made capable of performing their design'd Office. Hence Deglutition is Hindred, when these Muscles are in Action, they at that Time preventing the Ascent of the Tongue, and Larynx; neither can we in the Time of Swallowing, draw the Lower Jaw down, because the Center of Direction is pull'd up; wherefore we are oblig'd to keep the Jaws close in that Action. But in Dogs, and other Voracious Animals, (wherein these Muscles Arise from the Transverse Processes of the First Vertebra of the Neck) these Actions do not Depend upon each other; whence it is they devour their Aliment so Quick

D, The Inferior Edge of the Lower Jaw Bone made bare.

E E, The Musculus Mylohyoideus, which derives its Fleshy Origin from the Internal Part of the Lower Jaw, partly under the Inferior Maxillary Glands, and partly at the Insertions of the Musculus Digastricus; whence Descending with a Dou­ble Order of Fibres, here elegantly Exprest, is inserted to the Superior and Forepart of the Os Hyoides. Immediate­ly under this Muscle lie the Glandulae Sublinguales, and Sali­val Ducts of the Inferior and Maxillary Gland; both which are Comprest by it, and their contain'd Saliva driven Fore­wards into the Mouth when this Muscle Acts, as in Deglu­tition, &c.

F F, The Musculi Sternohyoidei, Arising from the Internal and Superior Part of the Claviculae, and not from the Ster­num, as it's Vulgarly suppos'd, and are inserted to the Infe­rior, and Forepart of the Os Hyoides.

G G, Parts of the Ceracohyoidei, coming from under the Mastoid Muscles (II).

H H, Parts of the Sternothyroidei, which spring from the Superior and Internal Part of the Sternum, and march under the Sternohyoidei to their Terminations in the Thyroide Carti­lage, as appears in the following Figure.

I I, The Mastoidei.

K, Part of the Masseter on the Right Side.

L, Part of the Parotid Gland on the same Side.

M M, The Glandulae Maxillae Inferioris.

N, That Part of the Musculus Stylohyoideus, that is Perfo­rated to transmit the Middle Tendon of the Biventral Muscle of the Lower Jaw; which together with an Annular Liga­ment, springing from the Os Hyoides, in like manner invol­ving the last mention'd Middle Tendon of that Muscle, do's like a Pully render it capable of pulling the Lower Jaw down, as above Noted.

O, Part of the Internal Jugular Vein.

P, Part of the Carotid Artery.

Q, A Blood-Vessel cut off and ti'd.

Fig. 2.

Divers Muscles lying under those exprest in the former Figure.

A A A, The Lower Edge of the Inferior Jaw-Bone laid bare.

B B, The Musculi Sternohyoidei free'd from their Insertions, and left at their Originations.

C C C C, The Coracohyoidei are a Pair of Digastrick Mus­cles; they Arise Fleshy from the Processus Coracoides Scapulae, and Ascend under the Musculi Mastoidei where they become Tendinous, but Growing Fleshy again, are Inserted at the Ba­sis of the Fore-Bone of the Os Hyoides; this draws the Os Hy­oides downwards, and pulls it somewhat inwards.

D, Part of the Musculus Stylohyoideus at its Termination.

E E, The Musculus Mylohyoideus; on the Right Side not quite Free'd from its Origination; on the Left, so Rais'd, as that the Glandula Sublingualis W, do's Appear; this Bidloo calls Geniohyoidei.

F F, The Geniohyoidei, by Bidloo call'd Anthereohyoidei; they Arise Fleshy from the Internal Part of the Lower Jaw, which composes the Chin, and are Inserted to the Superior, and Forepart of the Os Hyoides: When these Muscles Act, the Os Hyoides is pull'd Upwards, and Forewards, and Assist the Genioglossi in Thrusting the Tongue out of the Mouth.

G G, The Digastrick Muscles of the Lower Jaw cut from their Insertions.

H H, The Mastodei Muscles; that of the Right Side being cut from its Origination and left at its Insertion, that of the Left remaining in Situ.

I, The Scutiformal Cartilage of the Larynx, which makes what they call, the Pomum Adami.

K, The Aspera Arteria or Wind-Pipe.

L L, The Glandulae Thyroidaeae.

M, The Musculus Masseter in Situ.

N, The Musculus Pterygoideus Internus in Situ; it A [...]es partly Tendinous, and partly Fleshy, from the Cavity of the Winglike Process of the Os Sphenoides. Tab. 29. Fig. 2. K. whence it Descends to its Implantation at the Internal and Inferior Part of the Lower Jaw-Bone, opposite to the Ter­mination of the Masseter: Either this, or its partner Acting, draws the Jaw to the contrary Side; if both Act, they Assist the Musculi Temporales, and Masseteres.

O, Part of the Parotid Gland.

P, The Musculus Hyothyroideus; it Arising from the Os Hyoides, is Inserted to the Lower Part of the Scutiformal Car­tilage; this draws the Larynx Upwards in an Acute Tone of the Voice.

Q, The Cricothyroideus. See Tab. 24. Fig. 5. H H.

R, The Sternothyroideus ending in the Scutiformal Carti­lage.

S, The Internal Jugular Vein, whose Lower Part is at some distance plac'd under that Part of the Mastoid Muscle, (App. Fig. 1.14.) which springs from the Clavicle, which Part of that Muscle is most commonly Contracted in those who are said to have Wry Necks, which the Operator in that Case ought to Observe, least in too boldly Thrusting in his Knife to divide the contracted Part, he also Wounds this large Blood-Vessel, and the Flux of Blood prove Destructive to the Patient; for tho' its Flux may easily be restrain'd out­wardly, yet the Vein lying in so large an Interstice, defended by the Clavicle, and Adjacent Muscles, the Blood will ne­vertheless pass out of the Vessel between the Muscles, and Neighbouring Parts. When such a Mischief is done, we ought to divide the External Integuments largely, and clear the Part of the Coagulated Blood, and apply a moderate Compress on the Wounded Vessel: An Instance of which Practice we had once Occasion to make in a Wound between the Pectoral, and Deltoid Muscles, immediately under the Clavicula, where the Subclavian Vein was Wounded. In such like Cases, how can those Ignorant in Anatomy, Practice without Fear and Trembling?

T, The Carotid Artery.

V, A large Vein proceeding from the Thyroide Gland to the Ramus Subclavius.

W, The Glandula Sublingualis lying immediately under the Musculus Mylohyoideus.

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THE SIXTEENTH TABLE.

THE External Muscles which move the Head as they appear on the Back-part; the Upper-part of the Cucularis being taken off, and some Muscles of the Shoulder-blade, and Thorax, rais'd and reclined laterally.

A A, The Musculus Splenius in Situ;

B B, &c. Its partly Tendinous, and partly Fleshy Origina­tion from the Five or Six Spines of the Superior Vertebrae of the Thorax; the Lower Part of this Muscle appears in most Subjects distinct from its Superior, and is Inserted to the Transverse Pro­cesses of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Vertebrae of the Neck, as is Exprest at e e e.

C C, &c. The Origination of the Superior Part of the Splenius from the Spines of the Inferior Vertebrae of the Neck, D D its Fleshy Termination at the Os Occipitis.

E E, The Splenius on the Left Side raised, and reclined laterally;

e e e, Its Three, sometimes Four, Tendinous Terminations inserted to as many of the Transverse Processes of the Neck: Anatomists have erred in reckoning the Splenii among the Proper Muscles of the Head, since they are also Implanted to the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck, wherefore they are to be esteemed as Common to the Head, and Neck, so that if either of Them Acts, it draws the Head together with the Vertebrae of the Neck to which it's inserted, to that Side Backwards; if they both Act, they pull the Head directly Backwards, together with those Vertebrae of the Neck.

F G H, &c. The Complexus Implicatus or Tergeminus, on both Sides in Situ; the Left being laid bare;

H H, Its partly Tendinous, and partly Fleshy Origin, from the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Thorax, which becomes still more Fleshy in its Ascent F G, and is so inserted to the Os Occipitis I I, immediatly under the Ter­mination of the Splenius D D.

f f, A Part of the Musculus Complexus, Inserted to the Processus Mammifor­mis, and is by Fallopius described as a distinct Muscle; but to avoid Con­fusion, and multiplying the Number of Muscles, we have hitherto look'd on it as not perfectly distinct, having in some Subjects found it inseparably join'd with the other Part of the Complexus.

Either of these Complexi Acting, draws the Head to the same Side Backwards; if they both Act, they draw it directly Backwards.

K, The Serratus Superior Posticus, raised.

L, The Rhomboides in like manner raised and reclined laterally.

M, The Upper Part of the Longissimus Dorsi, and Sacrolumbalis.

N, The Musculus Levator Scapulae, partly appears.

THE SEVENTEENTH TABLE.

SEVERAL Muscles of the Head and Neck, lying under those represented in the precedent Table.

A, The Musculus Rectus Major Posticus Dissected from its Insertion at the Occiput D, on the Left Side, and hanging down from its Origination at the Double Spine of the Se­cond Vertebra of the Neck:

B, The same Muscle in Situ, on the Right Side.

C C E, The Rectus Minor Posticus on the Left Side laid bare, and remaining in Situ; on the Right Side it is partly hid by the Rectus Major.

D D, The Insertions of the Recti Minores to the Os Occipitis; they derive their Originations from the Back-part of the First Vertebra of the Neck, and not from any Condyliform Process of that Vertebra, as Bidloo discribes them; the First Vertebra of the Neck, not only wanting such a Process, but is constantly without any Process in that Part, as has been taken Notice of by most, if not all Anatomists.

Those Recti Minores pull the Head backward on the First Vertebra of the Neck, and from their Use may be call'd Renuentes or Nodders backwards, and are An­tagonists to a small Pair of Muscles in the Forepart of a Right Position also; to distinguish which, from these, we call them Recti Minores Antici, and Annuentes from their Use, of which, we shall add a Figure in our Appendix.

F F, The Obliqui Inferiores; that of the Right Side remaining in Situ, the Left being free'd from its Insertion and remaining at its Origin: Either of them, arises from one of the Double Spinal Process's of the Second Vertebra of the Neck, and after an Oblique Ascent, is Inserted to the Transverse Process of the First Vertebra.

When either of these Inferior Oblique Muscles Acts, it draws the Trans­verse Process of the First Vertebra near the Spine of the Second, and the Head by Consequence, is mov'd to the same Side, and is very much assisted by the Ma­stoideus on the contrary Side, of which in the following Table; If both Act, they conspire to hold the Head more stable.

G H, The Obliqui Superiores; that of the Right Side remaining in Situ G; the Left being cut from its Implantation at the Os Occipitis, and left at its Origin at the Transverse Process of the First Vertebra of the Neck: Tho' these Su­perior Oblique Muscles perform the same Office with the Recti Majores last treated of, when the Head is in an Erect Position in pulling it directly back­wards; yet in regard it is necessary the Head should be mov'd also backwards, at the same Time it is turn'd to one Side; it is an Argument of a considera­ble Council of the Author of Nature, to add these and the Recti Minores to Act at that Time; since the Recti Majores are then so extended by that Ro­tation of the Head, that they cannot well Act.

I I, An Asperity of the Bone of the Occiput, where the Musculi Splenii and Complexi Terminate.

K K, The Under Sides of the Musculi Complexi, as they appear when rais'd and reclin'd laterally, the greater Part of that of the Right Side being cut off.

L, Parts of the Longissimus Dorsi and Sacrolumbales.

M N, The Musculus Spinalis Colli; this arises Fleshy from all the Transverse Processes of the Neck, except the First and Second; and is Inserted, after an Oblique Ascending Progress, to the Inferior Margin of the Back-part of the Se­cond Vertebra of the Neck, as it is here exprest on the Right Side: This and its Partner Acting, draw the Vertebrae of the Neck directly backwards.

O O, The Spines of the Vertebrae of the Neck.

P P, The Musculi Interspinales; of which, in our Appendix.

Q, The Elevator Scapulae.

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THE EIGHTEENTH TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles of the Head and Neck, which appear in the Forepart after the Lower-Jaw, Tongue, Larynx, Aspera Arteria and Gula are removed.

A A, The Musculi Longi Colli, which arise partly Tendi­nous, but chiefly Fleshy, from the Foreparts of the Five Superior Vertebrae of the Thorax, and after a Dilatation, in the Middle of their Progress to Fleshy Bellies, they are inserted, in like Manner as they begin, to the Foreparts of all the Vertebrae of the Neck:

These may be called Flexores Colli from their Use.

B B, The Three Scaleni in Situ: The First of these Muscles arises Fleshy from the Forepart of the Second, Third and Fourth Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck, and descending obliquely forewards, becomes Tendinous at its Insertion to the First Rib, the Axilary Nerves pass between this and the fol­lowing: Scalenus Secundus, in like manner springs from the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Transverse Processes of the Neck, and is inserted to the Second and sometime Third Rib. Scalenus Tertius, arises from the same Trans­verse Processes with the former; as also from the Fifth and Sixth, and is soon implanted into the First Rib.

I I, The Mas [...]oidei, which arises partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy from the Upper Part of the Os Pectoris or Sternum, and near Half the Clavicula M, with Two and sometimes Three distinct Beginnings (as in this Sub­ject K K K) which ascend obliquely and joyn in Half their Progress; composing a somewhat round, thick, Fleshy Muscle, and marching over the Upper Part of the Musculus Elevator Scapulae, becomes broader again and Tendinous, at its Implantation to the Back-part of the Processus Mammillaris, and the adjoyning Part of the Os Occipitis, above the Implantation of Part of the Splenius.

The Origin, Progress, and Insertion of this Muscle, not being duly consi­dered, has led Anatomists into Errors concerning its Use: For if this Muscle Acts on either Side, the Mammillary Process on the same Side, is brought towards a Right Position with its Original at the Sternum, and the Head is turned to the Contrary Side; and this Action of it is commonly well exprest by Painters; but should it more and more contract, it will draw the Head to one Side fore­wards, as we see in Wry Necks (commonly so called) where one of these Muscles remains contracted; but if they, both Act together, the Head is rather pulled back than forewards, by how much their Insertions are rather behind the Mam­millary Processes, than upon them; which Processes are e Diametro opposite to the Articulation of the Head, with the First Vertebra of the Neck.

L L, The Recti Interni Majores Antici, by some called Par Rectum Internum Colli, says Bidloo; we have elsewhere called them Flexores Capitis from their Use: They Arise partly Fleshy, but chiefly Tendinous from the Fore-part of all the Trans­verse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck, except the First and Second be­coming Fleshy, are Inserted to the Anterior Appendix of the Os Occipitis, before the great Foramen that transmits the Medulla Oblongata.

They are imployed in Bending the Head forewards.

M M, The Claviculae.

O, The Uvula.

P P, The Bodies of the Vertebrae of the Neck.

THE NINETEENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1, 2.

ONE of the Mammae or Breasts of both Sexes; some distinguish them by their Denominations, calling that of a Woman Fig. 1. Mamma, and that of a Man Fig. 2. Mammilla: We common­ly call them the Breasts; but in Woman Dugs.

A A, A Portion of the Skin Rais'd and Pinn'd out, to shew its Inside.

B B, The Protuberant Parts of the Breasts of both Sexes, in which that of the Woman exceeds that of a Man.

C C, The Papillae, or Nipples; the Difference in the Magnitude of which, is very Conspicuous.

D D, The Areolae whose Difference is here very well Exprest between the Man and the Woman, as they appear to the naked Eye.

E E, The Glandules of the Mamma.

F F, The Plexu's of Blood-Vessels and Lactiferous Ducts lying be­tween each Glandulous Protuberance.

G G, Divers Sacculi Adiposi lying on the last mentioned Vessels and Ducts between the Mammary Glandules.

H H, The Adipose Membrane Pinn'd out.

Fig. 3.

The Papilla and Areola of a Womans Breast view'd with a Micro­scope, and Represented Six times bigger than the Life.

A, The Head or Top of the Papilla.

B, Its Glandulous Membrane.

C C, The Orifices of the Lactiferous Vessels in the Top of the Pa­pilla.

D D, The Areola.

E, Its rough Membrane. The Areola in Virgins is of a Pale Colour, and somewhat hard; in those with Child and give Suck, it is Brown; and in Old Women Blackish.

F, The Papillary Protuberances of the Areola; from each of which a Hair proceeds.

G G, Some Vestigiae of the Lactiferous Tubes in their Progress from the Mamma thro' the Areola to the Papilla.

Fig. 4

The Papilla of a Womans Breast in like manner Exprest with the Assistance of a Microscope.

A A, The External Glandulous Membrane of the Papilla, separated and expanded.

B B, Divers Glands of the Papilla cleaving to its Membrane.

C C, The Lactiferous Tubes which arise from the Extremities of the Arteries within the Mamma, in their way to their Orifices in the Top of the Papilla, C C Fig. 3.

D D, The Glands of the Papilla whose Sec [...]e [...]o [...]y Ducts discharge their Contents into the last mentioned Lactiferous Tubes.

To examine the Papilla or Nipple, the following Method may be Practis'd. Insert a Blow-Pipe into one of the largest of the Lactiferous Tubes on the Top of the Nipple C C, Fig. 3. and after making a straight Ligature on the Nipple and Blow-Pipe, you may Blow up all the Lactiferous Tubes of the Mamma, thro' their Communications with each other, before they approach the Nipple Figur'd by Nuck A­denog. Curiosa, Fig. 11. Fol. 15. All the Lactiferous Tubes of the Mamma being thus extended with Wind; those Parts of Them which help to compose the Papilla (C C;) together with their Extremities within the Glands D D, being very much extended; make a straight Ligature on the Inferior Part of the Nipple next the Breast, then cut off the Nipple from the Breast and Dry it, and afterwards by cutting it Va­riously, you may easily examine its Structure: By these means the Nip­ple appears to be compos'd of a Double Series of Fibres; the one some­what Large, the other Less; both of a Net-like Disposition, being full of Perforations of divers Forms; the like of which is not to be found in other Parts of the Body, says Nuck in his Tract above mention'd; to this add a vast Number of Blood-Vessels which every where adorn the Papilla: Hence an Account may be given how the Nipples strut out, and are so extended in Nurses, and on the contrary so Limp in those who discontinue giving Suck.

I could never discover any Valves in the Lactiferous Vessels of the Mammae of Women, which some describe; tho' I have made Inje­ctions of divers Liquors, and sometimes Mercury into them; the like has been done by the Accurate Nuck, who, with what I have frequently observ'd, also takes Notice that the Mercury so Injected passes into the Blood-Vessels of the Mamma, especially its Arteries. But our last nam'd Author takes Notice of divers Straitnesses in the Lactiferous Vessels, occasion'd, as He suspects, by divers fatty hard Substances compressing Them, even to that Degree, that if their contain'd Milk becomes a little Thickned, it there stops thro' the Narrowness of the Duct, or requiring a longer Stay, it becomes so Vitiated as to Affect the Breast variously, especially with what are commonly call'd Milky Tumors; in which Case an Abscess succeeds, and the Milky Tubes break and discharge their Contents with the Pus. The Milk by these means flowing at the Ulcer, frequently proves troublesome, and hinders its Cicatrice or Closing, as it happen'd in the Case of a Patient I not long since had under my Care, who at the same time was infected with the Itch, in whom the Milk flow'd from the Ulcer for at least Three Months; nor could I find any tollerable Abatement of the Milky Flux, notwithstanding her dry Diet, and Drinking of a Decoction of Sarsa, China, Guaiacum, &c. till she had taken proper Remedies for the Itch.

The Expert Nuck takes Notice that the Lactiferous Tubes, tho' ve­ry Capacious in the Mamma, yet are Straitned at their Orifices in the Papilla, insomuch, that a Bristle of the smallest Size will not enter them: This Contrivance, He adds, is very necessary, least the separa­ted Milk contain'd in the Tubes should be continually apt to run out, and that it should be only so retain'd, that the Nipple of the Mother when Suckt by the Infant may easily void it: This Structure is ve­ry evident in the Tets of Quadrupedes, especially where their pendu­lous Position renders this Contrivance very necessary; yet when the Lactiferous Tubes are fill'd with Milk, it is apt to run out.

Fig. 5.

The Inferior and Internal Part of the Areola and Basis of the Pa­pilla after Dissection from the Mamma.

A A, The Circumference of the Areola next the Mamma.

B B, The Mammary Glands plac'd under the Areola.

C C, The Lactiferous Tubes in their way to the Nipple.

The Arteries which convey Blood to the Mamma, are many small Branches, Springing from the Mammary and Intercostal Arteries; of these I told Six, which afforded a Flux of Blood without Pulsation in taking off a Schirrous Breast Here I cannot omit recommending to Pra­ctitioners of Surgery the Tying of these Arteries; the doing of which is so easie, that it is hardly possible for One tollerably acquainted with the same Practice in taking off of Limbs, to be at a loss in this. The Trunks of these Arteries Arising from the Mammary and Inter­costal Arteries, are very small, as they pass between the Pectoral Mus­cle and Mamma, as appears from the Blood not having any Pulsation as it flows from them when divided in Living Bodies, except the Breast which was taken off is much Tumified. You must not expect to ful them with Wax by Injecting into the Aorta; because you are oblig d to raise the Sternum in order to Practice that Operation; whereby you cut off their Communication with the large Mammary Artery adjacent [...]; nor do's Wax commonly pass the Intercostal Arteries so far as to reach these. The Veins of the Mamma are Numerous, and pass on the Outside of the Mamma under the Skin only, and are very Conspicuous in those who give Suck, or have had Children: These Arise, or are continued from the Extremities of the Arteries and com­posing many large Trunks which discharge their Blood into the Mam­mary and Intercostal Veins; some pass up to the Subclavian Vein. The Nerves are commonly said to Arise from the Thoracick Nerves, and pass thro' the Intercostal and Pectoral Muscles to the Mamma: I must confess I never yet trac'd Them, nor do's Vieussemus Figure Them; but in his XXIV. Table Expresses Two Branches U, X, Arising from the Sixth and Seventh Nerves of the Neck composing one Trunk, which descends and gives Branches to the Musculi Serratus minor anticus, Pectoralis, Serratus major anticus, and to the Coverings of those Muscles: From the same Nervous Stock I am apt to think may also Spring some Branches passing to the Mamma, whence those pain­ful Communications between the Mamma and Axilla may proceed. Besides these Vessels the Lymphe-Ducts of the Mamma are also men­tion'd; I must confess I never yet saw these Ducts Arising from the Mamma, yet I can't doubt of their Existence on that Part, when I reflect on what Use they are of in General, in the Animal Oeconomy, of which elsewere. The Communication between the Lactiferous Tubes and Blood-Vessels, is demonstrated in the above mention'd Expe­riment, by Injecting Mercury into the Former, and its Running out again by the Later. The Opinion that the Chyle is transmitted to the Mamma immediately from the Thoracick Duct is now altogether Ex­ploded, and the last mention'd Experiment seems to evince the Milk to be deriv'd immediately from the Blood within the Mamma. It is evident, the Milk is not Transparent like other Liquors separated from the Blood, as the Saliva, Urine, Bile, &c. but by a Microscope it appears compos'd of Globules not unlike those of the Blood, except that the Globules of the Blood are somewhat larger than those of Milk.

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THE TWENTIETH TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles on the Superior and Fore-Part of the Trunk of the Body.

A, The Musculus Subclavius in Situ; when free'd from the Trunk of the Body and left to the Clavicula; (see Tab. 66. P.) It ariseth Fleshy from the Inferior Part of Half the Clavi­cula next its Connexion to the Spina Scapulae, whence its Fi­bres Descend Obliquely Forewards, to its partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy Implantation at the Superior Part of the First Rib next the Sternum.

The Office of this Subclavian Muscle is to draw up the First Rib, and con­sequently the rest in Inspiration.

B, Part of the Clavicula on the Right Side.

C, The Cartilaginous Ending of the First Rib at the Sternum.

D D, The Musculus Serratus Major Anticus in Situ on the Left Side; It ariseth Broad and Fleshy from the whole Basis Scapulae, Tab. 65. G G, and running on the Subscapularis Tab. ib. E, becomes broader and thicker as it passes Forewards to its Fleshy Insertions at the Eight Superior Ribs Laterally E E &c. by di­vers distinct Portions by some called Digituli; of which, the Three Inferior, are Indented with the Musculus Obliquus Descendens Abdominis, as is here Exprest on the Left Side; on the Right Side the Serratus Major Anticus E F is raised.

G, Part of the Obliquus Descendens on the Lest Side Indented with the last men­tioned Serratus.

H, The Pectoralis in Situ, on the Left Side; this Muscle has a Broad Semicir­cular Fleshy Beginning; above from near Half the Inferior Part of the Clavi­cula B; below from the Os Pectoris L, and all the Cartilaginous Endings of the Six Superior Ribs M M, and from the Bony Part of the Seventh Rib, it hath some­times a distinct Fasciculus of Fleshy Fibres which I have frequently seen Confound­ed with the Obliquus Descendens; hence it passeth Transversely over the Upper-Part of the Biceps Cubiti, where it is made into a short and broad strong Tendon In­serted to the Superior and External Part of the Os Humeri, above the Termina­tion of the Deltoides.

I, The Right Pectoral Muscle rais'd, where the Decussation of its Fibres near its Insertion is well Exprest: This crossing of its Fibres is a Contrivance in Na­ture to render its Action more Vigorous; the Fibres of its Upper-Part De­scending to the Lower-Part of its Implantation to the Os Humeri, and those of its Lower-Part Ascend to the Superior; crossing each other with Acute Angles. This Muscle is call'd Adductor Humeri; when it Acts, it moves the Arm variously ac­cording to the Operation of its several Series of Fibres.

K, The Serratus Minor Anticus, raised from its Implantation at the Bony Parts of the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Ribs, and left at its Origin at the Pro­cessus Carocoides Scapulae.

L, The Os Pectoris or Sternum.

M M, The Cartilaginous Endings of the Superior Ribs Connexed to the Sternum.

N N, The Deltoides. Vide Tab. 66. XX.

O O, The Superior Parts of the Recti Abdominis. Vide Tab. 32, Fig. 1. N O, &c.

P, Part of the Coracobrachialis. Vide Tab. 65. F.

Q, Part of the Biceps Cubiti. Tab. ib. 1.

[...]
[...]

THE TWENTY-FIRST TABLE.

SHEWS the Sternum Rais'd, and the Principal Organs contain'd in the Thorax partly in View. A, The Inner-Face of the Sternum or Os Pectoris.

B B, The Cartilages of the True Ribs, cut from the Bony Extremities of the Ribs, and left at their Con­nexions to the Sternum: Upon these Cartilages are plac'd the Musculi Triangulares; which Muscles Arise from the Inferior and Internal Part of the Sternum, and after an Oblique Progress are inserted to the Bony Endings of the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and sometimes Seventh, and Eight Ribs. These Triangular Muscles scarcely appear in Macilent Subjects, as is Exprest in this Figure.

C, The Mediastinum free'd from the Os Pectoris, where, in Humane Bodies it appears Double, being a Continuation of the Pleura from both Sides the Internal Part of the Thorax; whence it Descends and firmly Cleaves to the Pericardium, dividing the Thorax into Two Cavities, and the Right Lobes of the Lungs from the Left: In this Progress of the Mediastinum it parts with One of its Laminae to cover the large Blood-Vessels within the Thorax. A Triangular Interstice is fram'd immediately under the Sternum at the Approach of the Pleura, from each Side as it Descends to compose the Mediastinum: Nor is this Interstice an empty Space as it is commonly suppos'd, but is interwoven with various Orders of Fibres, framing Loculi or little Cells. Real. Columbus Lib. xi. Cap. iii. Proposes the letting out of Pus, collected in this Interstice by Perforating the Sternum. As the Fore-part of the Mediastinum plainly appears a Continuation of the Pleura [...] so its Back-part is evidently a Continuation of the same Membrane, as it advances towards the Vertebrae of the Back. In Dissecting a Morbid Body, I found the Right Side of the Ca­vity of the Thorax so extended with a Serous Humor, as its External Appearance, (especially at the Cartilaginous Endings of the True Ribs,) was Prominent: Nor would the least Portion of the Lungs on the same Side Swim in common Water, but Sunk to the Bottom of the Vessel: In this Subject I could not find any Part of the Hydropick or Serous Humor in the other Side of the Thorax; but the Lungs on that Side in no very ill State. By this, we may be assur'd that the Mediastinum ade­quately divides the Right Side of the Thorax from the Left. The Mediastinum also supports the Pericardium, leaft its Flacci­dity impede the Systole of the Heart, and sustains the Trunks of the Nerves of the Par Vagum in their Progress thro' the Tho­rax. The Diaphragm is also said to be suspended by the Mediastinum, leaft the Liver, to whose Lower-Side it's Connexed, should become Insupportable. The Mediastinum receives Arteries from the Mammary and Intercostal Branches; it has Two large Veins which discharge their Blood into the Subclavian and Neighbouring Trunks: Its Nerves are said to Spring from the Eighth Pair. The Lymphe-Ducts of the Mediastinum pass towards the Thymus.

D D, The Pericardium or Capsula Cordis Open'd and Pinn'd up. The Pericardium Arises from the large Vessels at the Basis of the Heart, and seems to be compos'd of a Continuation of the Pleura or Mediastinum. It adheres to the Diaphragm below, and laterally to the Mediastinum. It has Blood-Vessels from the Diaphragm and Mammary-Vessels, according to the Accu­rate Ruysch in his lately publish'd Epistles: The Capillary Extremities of these Blood-Vessels are very Numerous, as will appear when Injected with Mercury. There are divers Lymphe-Ducts on the Pericardium, which convey the Lympha to the Thora­cick-Duct. The Glands, which are in the Pericardium and at the Basis of the Heart, which separate that Humor imploy'd in Moistening the Inside of that Membrane and Surface of the Heart, are not to be discover'd by the naked Eye in ordinary Dissections; no more than those on the Inside of the Peritonaeum and Surface of the Intestines, which afford a Humor to Lu­bricate those Parts; but when either of these Parts are Diseased so that those Glands are Affected, their Existence then is De­monstrable; as appear'd in the Pericardium of an Infant I lately Dissected, where the Neighbouring Parts and Pericardium its self were Apostumated. In the Pericardiums of this Subject we found Two or Three Ounces of Purulent Matter in place of the Serous Humor; and the External Membrane of the Heart so loosned, as its Surface appear'd Villous; nor did any Fat appear on the Basis of the Heart. In an Adult Person who Died suddenly I found the Pericardium somewhat Thickned and no Humor contain'd in it; but in Two, or Three Places cleaving to the Heart especially near its Basis, and the Heart it self intirely cover'd with Fat; The Use of the Pericardium is to defend the Heart in its Systole from the Neighbouring Parts, and to contain a Humor to Moisten the External Surface of the Heart.

E, The Heart lying within the Pericardium.

F F, Parts of the Lungs on both Sides the Thorax in Situ.

G, The Thymus in Situ. The Magnitude of the Thymas varies according to the Age of the Body; in a Faetus Two Months after Conception it is larger in Proportion to the Bulk of the Body than in One of Five or Six Months: In a Faetus of Nine Months it almost fills the Interstice which the Lungs after the Birth begin to take up in the Upper-part of the Thorax. The Thymus after the Birth gradually decreases, except the Upper-part of the Cavity in the Thorax is Capacious enough for its Reception, as appear'd in an Anatomical Subject I lately Dissected of Thirty Years of Age, in whom the Thymus was very large: I must confess I never yet met with a Subject, tho never so Old, in whom the Thymus was wanting. In those Bo­di [...] the Thymus is less than ordinary, we find the Subclavian Glands, those of the Internal Jugular Veins, and the Glandule Thyraidam larger; as they lately appear'd in a Boy of about Eight Years of Age. In Women the Thymus and Thyroid Glands are larger than in Men, but the Subclavian Glands are less; by reason the Claviculae in Women are straight and shorter than those of Men; whence a much less Interstice is frain'd for entertaining those Glands. I have more than once found the Lymphe-Ducts fill'd with Wax, which Arise from the Thymus, and empty themselves into the Upper-part of the Thoracick-Duct; by Injecting that Duct by the Vesica Chyli: See App. Fig. 12. D.

From what has been abovesaid, it appears the Thymus bears a Proportion to the Head; whether in the Faetus or in Bodies before they become Adult, which we conceive, is in order to receive a Proportionable Quantity of Lympha, deriv'd from thence: And as the Subclavian Glands of Women are less than those of Men; so the Thyroide Glands and Thymus are larger: Hence also it appears the Thymus is a Lymphatick Gland, and Varies its Magnitude according to the Quantity of the Lympha, that is necessarily transmitted thro' it from the Superior Parts; or as the Neighbouring Lymphatick Glands do more or less transmit their Lympha to it: Besides this common Office of the Thymus, whether in the Faetus or Adult; it has another Use which was first suggested to Me by Injecting a Liquid into the Thoracick-Duct; when finding it not only fill the Lymphe-Ducts of the Thymus, but the Thymus it self was Extended with it: The like Observation, I since found, was made by the Expert Ana­tomist Dr. Tyson, some Time since; whence I conceive, the Thymus and its Lymphe-Ducts are Diverticula to the Chyle, when too great a Quantity is pressing forewards towards the Subclavian Vein. I know it may be Objected that the Valves of the Lymphe-Ducts oppose this contrary Course of Liquours in them; but repeated Observations convince me, that not only these Lymphe-Ducts of the Thymus, which are large and have very few if any Valves, (as appears by their being Injected with Wax) but those of the Loins, and their Glands from whence they Arise, are frequently fill'd with Chyle, when no Compress is made on the Thoracick-Duct. Hence it is, a Milky Liquor has been commonly found in the Thymus, but more frequent in that of a P [...]tus than i [...] an Adult; and that not only because the Thymus and its Lymphe-Ducts are much larger Proportio­nably in the former State or Faetus, but the bended Position of the Thoracick-Duct of the Fetus in Vter [...], renders the Ascent of the Chyle by that Duct more liable to Regurgitate by the Lymphe-Ducts of the Thymus.

H H, The Fore-part of the Diaphragma free'd from the Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs, and Pinn'd up.

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THE TWENTY-SECOND TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Heart with Parts of the Trunks of the great Veins and Arteries cut off.

A A, The proper Membrane of the Heart; a Portion of which is Rais'd and hangs Down.

B B, The Left Side of the Heart, adorn'd with in Coronary Vessels.

C ψ, Part of the Right Auricle of the Heart.

C, The Left Auricle on the Basis of the Heart.

D, The Cone of the Heart.

E, The Vena Cava which conveys the Refluent Blood from the whole Field of the Body into the Right Auricle of the Heart, when the Heart i [...] i [...] Systole; whence the Blood is again transmitted into the Right Ventricle of the Heart when it is in Diastole: So that when the Auri­cles of the Heart are in Diastole or Relaxation, they are fill'd with Blood, and the Heart it self is in Systole or Contraction, and Vice versa when the Heart is in Diastole, the Auricles are in Systole.

F, The Arteria Pulmonalis or Vena Arteriosa which carries the Blood from the Right Ventricle of the Heart into the Lungs.

G, The Vena Pulmonica or Arteria Venosa which conveys the Re­fluent Blood from the Lungs into the Left Auricle and Ventricle of the Heart, not unlike the Vena Cava, &c.

H, The Arteria Magna Arising out of the Left Ventricle, which conveys the Mass of Blood from the Heart thro' the Field of the Bo­dy; from whose capillary Extremities the Veins are continued, as appears by a Microscope in the transparent Parts of living Animals: See App. Fig. 4. and 5.

Fig. 2.

The Heart divested of its External Membrane and Carnous Fibres after Boyling; so that the Disposition of the Subjacent Fibres may ap­pear. The way of preparing the Heart to exhibit this Disposition of its Fibres, may be practis'd after the following Manner. The Heart with Portions of the Trunks of the large Blood-Vessels being taken off; the Blood as well within its Ventricles as Blood-Vessels being evacuated, then with Tow, or Pieces of Rags, fill the Ventricles, Auricles, and large Vessels on the Basis of the Heart; the Mouths of the large Blood-Vessels being stitch'd up, least their Contents should be Extruded by the Contraction of the Heart in Boyling. This done, Boyl it according to its Bulk; if it is the Heart of an Ox, &c. Boyl it Four or Five Hours; if of a Man, One or Two.

N. B. This Figure is Printed reverst.

A, A Sinus plac'd between both Ventricles, in which a large Trunk of one of the Coronary Arteries is convey'd.

B, The Cochleated or Oblique descending Order of Fibres of the Left Ventricle of the Heart.

C, The External and Oblique descending Order of Fibres of the Right Ventricle; which decussate the former or Subjacent Fibres in Acute Angles.

D, Part of the Arteria Pulmonalis.

E, The Aorta.

ee, The Trunks of the Coronary Arteries.

F, The Right Auricle.

G, The Left.

Fig. 3.

A, The Sinus above mention'd between the Ventricles.

B, The Tortuous Disposition of the Fibres of the Right Ventricle.

C, Those of the Left.

The Heart consists chiefly of divers Strata of Oblique descending Fibres; the External passing more straight or less Contorted than the Internal; whence it happens that the External Fibres are seen to De­cussate the Internal with Acute Angles; the former Arising from the Basis of the Heart at the Roots of the Blood-Vessels, and End in the Cone; the later Arise from the same Place, and Terminate either in the 'Parietes of the Ventricles or Columnae Carneae Fig. 7. g g, from which divers Tenditious Filaments are continued to the Lower-parts of the Tricuspid and Mitral Valves.

D, The Aorta divided between its Origin from the Heart and Valves, and reclin'd to One Side, hanging by its Two [...] Coronary Ar­teries; Exprest Fig. 2. e e.

e e, The Three Semilunary Valves of the Aorta, which hinder a Return of the Blood into the Left Ventricle, when the Heart is in Dia­stole.

Fig. 4.

The Concourse of Fibres near the Cone of the Heart, as they appear after a Transverse Section.

Fig. 5.

Some Fasciculi of Fibres of the Left Ventricle of the Heart.

A B, The Two Tendinous Extremities of the Oblique Fleshy Fibres, Exprest Fig. 2, 3.

C, The Fleshy Parts of the Fibres between the Two Tendons.

D, The Collateral Fibres which appear in dividing the last men­tion'd Fasciculi: Nor are these any other than Parts of the Fibres of the divided Fasciculus, and lay Parallel to each other according to their length. The Blood-Vessels and Nerves passing between these Fibres make a Reticular Appearance, when divided, as here Exprest.

Fig. 6.

The Right Auricle, and Part of the Basis of the Heart.

A A, The Right Auricle expanded.

B B B, The Three Tricuspid Valves; Two of which, are extended by Pinning out their Tendons, deriv'd from the Columnae Carneae: See Fig. 7. g g, Fig. 10. A, Inferior. The Office of the Auricles is to re­ceive Part of the Refluent Blood whilst the Heart is in Systole, and to discharge that Blood again into the Ventricles of the Heart when it is in Diastole, so that the Auricles of the Heart seem as Diverticula to the Blood in its passing into its Ventricles; else a Repercussion of the Blood in the Veins would necessarily happen in the Systole of the Heart; which would prevent the regular Influx of the Blood to the Ventricles.

Fig. 7.

The Heart with its Left Ventricle Open'd.

A, The Inside of the Vena Pulmonalis.

B, The Aorta in like manner Open'd.

C C, The Septum Cordis, which divides the Right Ventricle from the Left.

D, The Left Auricle intire which in Humane Bodies is very little, as appears by this Figure; and the Trunk of the Pulmonick Vein very large.

d, The Trunk of the Arterìa Pulmonica cut off.

e e, Two of the Three Semilunary Valves at the Beginning of the Arteria Magna; which hinder the Reflux of the Blood when the Heart is in Diastole; in which Action they are Exprest, Fig. 3. e e.

f f, The Two Mitral Valves in the Pulmonick Vein, which prevent the Blood repassing that Vessel when the Heart is in Systole.

g g, The Carneae Columnae compos'd of Muscular Fibres, deriv'd from those of the Sides of the Heart, whençe divers small Tendinous Fila­ments do Arise, and are faltned to the Inferior Limbus of the Mitral Valves; by which means those Valves are drawn down towards the Cone of the Heart, and prevent the Blood from passing out again that way when the Heart is in Systole. I know Dr. Lower in his Accurate Book De Corde, Supposes that these Mitral and Tricuspid Valves are Relax'd in the Systole of the Heart, and by their Rising up stop up the Passages of the Veins: But if the Structure of the Heart and these Parts are Atten­tively consider'd in a large Animal, as in an Ox, &c. it will appear rea­sonable to conceive that these Mitral and Tricuspid Valves are rather drawn down than suffer Extrusion upwards: nor need Nature have been at any trouble in making those Valves at the Orifices of the Veins, any otherwise than the Reverse of the Semilunary Valves of Arteries; if as the Expert Dr. Lower Supposes they are driven up and Extended like a Sail with Wind when the Heart is in Systole; but by fastening those Tendinous Fibres to the Lower-parts of those Tricuspid and Mitral Valves; which, are of a Conical Figure, seems to me to be an Ar­gument that they cannot suffer such Extension upwards, without let­ting some Part of the Blood repass them in the Systole of the Heart: Besides there must constantly a considerable Part of the Blood remain in the Ventricles of the Heart, if those Valves are so dispos'd in its Sy­stole; which I think the Dr. himself seems no where to conceive; but on the contrary the Ventricles of the Heart are with great Strength adequately Comprest in it's Systole, for which End the Insides of its Ventricles are compos'd of divers Fleshy Columns; between which divers Intersticia necessarily Result, (that are elegantly Exprest in this Figure,) by which means, the Ventricles are more exactly Closed in their Systole, than they could have been, had they been smooth.

Fig. 8.

The Heart with its Right Ventricle Open'd.

A, The Inside of the Right Auricle of the Heart as it appears when Open'd and Pinn'd out.

B, The Left Auricle Intire.

C, The Coronary Blood-Vessels of the Heart; from these, particu­larly from the Arteries, Spring those of the Auricles and large Blood-Vessels of the Heart; as the Accurate Ruysch describes them in his Anatomical Epistles Pag. 15. The Nerves of the Heart Spring from the Eighth Pair and Intercostal Nerves; a particular Description of which, may be found in Dr. Lower's Book De Corde, and Vieussenius Nervographia.

D, Part of the Right Ventricle of the Heart Open'd.

E, A Portion of the Vena Arteriosa or Arteria Pulmonalis Divided and Expanded.

f f f, The Three Valvulae Sigmoides or Semilunares, which oppose the Return of the Blood from the Lungs, by the Arteria Pulmonica into the Heart, when it is in Diastole.

Fig. 9.

A A, The Heart cut Transversely.

B, That Part of it next its Basis.

C, That next its Cone.

D D, The Right Ventricle of the Heart.

E, The Left —

F, The Septum Cordis or the Partition between the Two Ventricles of the Heart.

G G, A Stylus put thro' the Vena Cava into the Right Ventricle of the Heart.

H H, Another passing from the same Ventricle thro' the Arteria Pul­monalis.

I I, A Stylus in the Left Ventricle of the Heart passing out at the Arteria Magna;

K K, Another Inserted into the same Ventricle, by the Vena Pul­monica.

Fig. 10.

A, Inferior, A Portion of the Columna Carnis of One of the Ventri­cles of the Heart cut off: See Fig. 7. g g, in Situ.

B, The Tendinous Fibres deriv'd from the Fleshy Column, and fast­ned to the Inferior Margin of One of the Tricuspid Valves.

A A, Superior, Portions of the Tricuspid Valves.

Fig. 11.

The Coronary Blood-Vessels of the Heart as they appear on its Sur­face when Injected, after Drying the whole Heart.

A A, The Arteries fill'd with Mercury fix'd with Tin.

B B, The Veins Extended with Wax.

Fig. 12.

A Portion of the Vena Pulmonalis next the Basis of the Heart.

A A, Parts of the Mitral Valves Pinn'd out by their Tendons.

Fig. 13.

The Inner Surface of a Portion of the Arteria Magna cut off at the Basis of the Heart when Divided and Expanded.

A A A A, The Three Semilunary Valves well Exprest when Pinn'd out; One of them being cut thro' in its Middle, in dividing the Great Artery.

Fig. 14.

Represents in like manner a Portion of the Arteria Pulmonalis.

A A A, The Three Sigmoidal or Semilunary Valves.

THE TWENTY-THIRD TABLE.

Fig. 1.

REPRESENTS the External Coat of a Vein viewed with a Microscope.

A B C D, The Fibres extended according to the Length of the Vessel, where may be observed the Vasa Vasorum.

Fig. 2.

A, The Second Coat of the Vein, called by Dr. Willis, the Vasculous and Glandulous Coat.

Fig. 3.

The Third or Internal Tunick of a Vein composed of Circular Fibres.

Fig. 4

The External Coat of an Artery consisting of a Rete of small Nerves (A,) Blood-Vessels, (B) and Membranous Expansions (C▪) On this Membrane of the Artery divers Glandulous Bodies appear com­posing greater and lesser Clusters, D E, variously dispersed.

Fig. 5.

A B, The Second Coat of an Artery consisting of divers Strata of Fibres variously decussating each other, and joyned with the Internal or Third Coat.

Fig. 6.

A B C, The Inner and Smooth Surface of the Third or most In­ternal Coat of the Artery; where the Foramina for the Branches which arise out of it, are exprest, and its Fibres extended according to its length B, C. The great Trunks of the Arteries do evidently appear to consist of a greater Number of Strata of Fibres, than those of the Veins; but the farther they recede from the Heart, they are both still more and more subdivided, and their Trunks and Capillary Branches become still thinner and thinner, till their outmost Extremities con­sist of one single transparent Membrane; chiefly composed of such Tubes, as only convey their Succus Nutritius. And this I am apt to think may serve for the Description of Blood-Vessels in general; and shall farther consider the Organization of the several Extremities of the Blood-Vessels, in speaking of their particular Offices relating to Se­cretion in the several Parts; wherefore at present shall only men­tion, that the Extremities of Veins and Arteries are continued Chan­nels, variously contorted and not all of them of an equal Size, even in Parts which are uniform or the same. Vid. App. Fig. 4.5.

After the Blood has past the Extremities of its Vessels, and is in its Return to the Heart again by the Veins; it there meets with divers Valves or Stops, which prevent the Weight of the Blood of the In­ferior Parts of the Body, and the Recoiling of it in the Superior, (when any violent Motions affect the Thorax, as in Coughing, from pressing on the Extremities of the Vessels, and hindering its progressive Motion. That there is a Recoiling of the Blood in any extraordinary Motions of the Thorax, in the Jugular Veins, may be observ'd in taking Blood from thence, especially in Children. Hence it is the Valves in those Veins are necessary; least the Blood should again repass into the Vessels of the Brain with great Violence; which is also prevented in the Contortion made in the Internal Jugular Vein, in its Specus in the Basis of the Skull. I must confess I never yet observed above Two Valves (one opposite to the other) in the largest Vein that is fur­nished with Valves; however Anatomists commonly mention Three, and Professor Bidloo tells us of Four and Five Valves, as they ap­pear in the following Figures.

Fig. 7.

Part of a Vein extended with Wind and dried, having a double Valve or Two Valves of Semilunary Figures, placed opposite to each other.

Fig. 8.

A A, A Portion of the Jugular Vein blowed up and dried; B B B, Its Three-fold Valves.

Fig. 9.

Part of a Vein with Five Valves.

Fig. 10, 11.

A A, The Portions of Veins exprest in the Two preceeding Fi­gures lay'd open;

B B, &c. Their Valves as they appear in their Insides.

Fig. 12.

The Valves as they appear in the Insides of the Veins according to Bidloo.

Fig. 13.

Two Valves as they appear when taken out of the Veins.

Fig. 14.

The unequal Distance of the Valves in the Veins; the Vestigia of the Valves being here only exprest, as they appear when the Vein is extended with Wind.

Fig. 15.

Represents (according to Bidloo) a System of the Arteries injected with Wax, and free'd from the Body of an Infant Six Months Old; which he tells us he has reserved: If so, it is a great Rarity indeed! For having more than once free'd the Arteries from the Body of an Infant, as well as from an Adult, and finding them far differing from this Figure, and not much disagreeing with the Descriptions and Fi­gures of Vesalius and others; I cannot look on this, but as a Prodigy in Nature. Wherefore I shall here give you his Description of it, and refer you to my Appendix. Fig. 3. Where their common Ap­pearance is exprest, as I now have them injected by me, and dissected from the Body of an Infant.

The Arteria Aorta (say's Bidloo) arising from the Heart, soon sends out Two small Coronary Branches. B, in the Body of the Heart. Its Trunk is divided on the Pericordium into the Ascendens C, and Descendens D. The First gives Branches to the Parts above the Heart, and is divided into the Subclavii E, from which the Axillares F, and Internal Mammary G, Three or Four Intercostales H, and Cervicales I. do arise. From the Axillary Artery are Branches com­municated to the Scapula K, and to the Superior Parts of the Thorax. When it has got between the Muscles of the Cubit, it is divided into Two little Branches; the First of which L, goes to the Wrist, Thumb, and Fore-Finger; the other to the Three other Fingers. It divides into Two about the Thymus, and Forms the Carotides M. These ascen­ding near the Wind-pipe after having sent several Branches to the Tongue, Larynx and Parts adjacent, and are divided into the Exter­nal N, and Internal Branch O, the Exterior supplies the Face, Lips, partly the Ear and lower Teeth; the other Branch serves the Forehead, Temples and Neighbouring Parts.

The Inward Branch ascending streight through the Os Sphoenoides creeps under the 'Dura Mater, and forming various Plexus's, in that Part within the Skull, it is cover'd with a particular Coat already de­scrib'd; it sends out small Branches near the Optick Nerves; but the large Trunks creep back again, sometimes united and by and by se­parated from each other. There are small Branches convey'd to the Spinal Marrow, partly above and partly below the Heart. From the Axillarie's, and ascending and descending Trunks, it derives several Branches which reflected into a Circle, creep through its Coverings and several Parts of the Head. The descending Trunk of the Aorta D, supply's some of the Intercostals 1, and the Neighbouring Muscles and Parts; there is a large Trunk 2, also sent to the Diaphragm; under the Diaphragm the Branches of the Viscera of the Abdomen are re­markable. viz. of the Stomach, 3. The Inferior and Superior Me­seraic Branches, 4, 5, those of the Omentum, or Caul, 6, of the Liver, 7, of the Kidneys 8, the Spermatics 9, and so on. About the Os Sa­crum this Trunk is divided into Two Branches, from which others are again deriv'd to the Right Gut and Pudenda, some to the Hips, some to the Thighs and Legs, as well Internally, as Externally. Thus much concerning the principal Distribution of the Aorta.

In the next Place Professor Bidloo gives us the Anatomy of the Blood. In the Anatomy of the Blood Chymically performed (say's he) it is manifest there is a Water in it, which as well as it can be, is simply to be considered) a Spirit and Salts both fixt and volatile. Tho' by this Method (he very well say's) some Parts are very accurately disco­ver'd; yet doth it exceedingly destroy the Appearances of some Figures, which ought by no means to be alter'd; wherefore he proposed the following Figure.

Fig. 16.

A, A small Drop of Blood inclosed in a Glass Tube, and its Parti­cles by the Help of a Microscope are represented very much magnifyed.

B, The Globular Bladders.

C, The little Fibres variously turned, laid, and disposed, accord­ing to Bidloo. I must confess I have frequently view'd the Blood in the same Manner as here Exprest with a Microscope, and have con­stantly observed its Appearance as here represented: Nor could I ever apprehend the Blood was furnished with Fibres (so much talk'd of) but that the Fibrous Appearance it has, (when any Blood-Vessel is open in the Mouth, or in Bleeding into warm Water and the like) is owing to a Coagulation of its Serum, by which Means its Globules are entangled and frame those Fibrous Bodies: The Streaked Mass repre­sented at D, E. (according to Bidloo) I am apt to think proceeded from a Coagulation of the Serous Part of the Blood, by sealing the Tube Hermetically; in doing which the Glass must be heated. To this our Author adds another Way of Anatomizing the Blood, thus:

The watery whitish Liquor, which is of a different Substance, being separated from the cold coagulated Mass of Blood, and set on the Fire, thickens in a short Time; the red Part which remains, (of which the more fluid Part being frequently washt away with warm Water,) appears like a grumous Heap; every Particle of which resembles a Glo­bular Bladder; of which, some are Transparent, others not. The rest of the Mass which consists of very flexible Fibres, according to Bidloo, and being exposed to the Air and Cold, become very tough, tensile, and seem like Net-work, owe that Appearance to a Combination of the Globules variously stratified on each other.

The Third Way (which our Author proposes) of enquiring into the Blood, is when the Blood is separated from the Serum or Li­quor it swims in, and put on a Piece of Paper dawb'd over with Lard, is become a little dry; after an External View of the Particles, gently with the Finger break off a little of the Mass of Blood; in which, you will presently behold little Globes of a differing Frame and Fi­gure, little Fibres, and Streaks of the same Kind.

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THE TWENTY-FOURTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Fore-parts of all the Viscera within the Ca­vity of the Thorax, when taken out together.

A, The Heart cover'd with the Pericardium, and hanging to the Lungs by its Membranes and Vessels.

B B, The Descending Trunk of the Vena Ca­va, on the Right Side, and the Aorta on the Left.

b b b, The Ascending Branches of the Arteria Magna, which make the Two Carotides and Right Subclavian Branch.

C, Part of the Mediastinum cut from the Sternum.

D D, The Right and Left Anterior Lobes of the Lungs.

E E, The Two Posterior Lobes of the Lungs.

F, Part of the Wind-Pipe.

G G, Portions of the Nerves call'd Par Vagum.

H, Part of the Gala.

In freeing the Lungs from the Cavity of the Thorax, we frequently find their Outward Membrane cleaving to the Pleura, nor has any known Inconveniencies attended such Persons when Living. The ma­ny Phoenomena which have occurr'd to our Observation in Dissecting Morbid Bodies, in whom these Parts have been Diseas'd, are too Nu­merous to be inserted in this Place; wherefore I shall only mention what I have more than once taken Notice of in examining these Parts, when they have not been Diseas'd (viz.) by Blowing into the Blood-Vessels, (i. e.) the Vena Arteriosa and Arteria Venosa those Vessels de­riv'd from the Pleura, as well as those by Ruysch call'd Arteriae Broncha­les, (Corresponding to which I have frequently observ'd Veins which empty themselves into the Subclavian Branches;) all which I have found to Communicate with each other upon Distension; by which we may be inform'd the Blood do's not enjoy such particular Vessels in its Circulation thro' these Parts, as some have conceiv'd; but that Part of the Blood which Arises from the Right Auricle of the Heart, may pass into the Bronchial Veins, as well as into the Arteria Venosa; and on the other Hand, the Blood Springing from the Bronchial Arteries, may partly pass into the Left Auricle of the Heart by the Arteria Ve­nosa, as well as by its Corresponding Bronchial Veins before men­tioned.

Fig. 2.

Part of One of the Lobes of the Lungs cut off, and a Division made according to its Length, so that a Branching of the Blood-Ves­sels and Bronchus do appear.

A A, A Branch of the Pulmonick Vein, or Arteria Venosa, lying on that of the Bronchus.

B, A Branch of the Bronchus.

C, The Pulmonick Artery, or Vena Arteriosa, cut Transversely, lying on the other Side of the Bronchia.

Fig. 3.

Another Lobe of the Lungs Dissected as in the preceding Figure.

A A B B, The Ramifications of the Pulmonick Artery Accompanying those of the Bronchia: See Tab. 25. Fig. 10.

C, The External Membrane of the Lungs Rais'd and Pinn'd out to shew its Blood-Vessels: These Vessels partly Arise from the Pul­monick Vessels last mention'd, and partly from the Arteriae and Ve­nae Bronchiales, as appears from what has been above Noted; and do frequently Germinate and Inosculate with the Intercostal Veins and Arteries of the Pleura: The Germination and Inosculations of these Vessels I have had frequent Opportunities of observing to be in several little Parcels or Fasciculi, and of an Inch or Two in Length between the Lungs and Pleura: They very often appear in Filaments more or less Divided, and I am apt to think are frequently the Beginnings of those Adhesions of the Lungs with the Pleura.

Fig. 4.

A A, The Bronchia or Branch of the Trachea made bare.

B B, Part of the Lungs.

Fig. 5.

The Fore-part of the Larynx, and Part of the Wind-Pipe, together with the Common Muscles of the Larynx, &c.

A B, The Musculus Sternothyroideus, not well Exprest; it being here as it were continuous with the Hyothyroideus C E.

D, The Os Hyoides, or Bone of the Tongue reclin'd Laterally.

F, The Upper and Fore-part of the Epiglottis in Situ.

G, The Fore-part of the Scutiformal Cartilage.

H H, The Musculi Cricothyroidei; on the Left Side One of them hanging down at its Beginning; the other remaining in Situ. These Muscles Spring from the Fore-part of the Annular Cartilage, and are soon Inserted to the Internal, and Lower Part of the Scutiformal Car­tilage.

I, O, The Fore-part of the Cartilago Annularis, made bare.

Fig. 6.

The Back-part of the Larynx, and its Muscles plac'd on it; Exprest very Confusedly; which, together with the former Figure, is Erro­neously describ'd by Bidloo.

F F G K L M P Q, Should Express the Back-part of the Cartilago Annularis cover'd with the Musculi Cricoarytenoidei Postici, as it's Represented in our Appendix.

N N, The Musculus Arytenoideus.

O, The Internal and Concave Part of the Epiglottis, as it appears when Pinn'd up.

R, The Posterior Edge of the Scutiformal Cartilage of the Right Side.

S, The Membranous Part of the Wind-Pipe next the Gula.

Fig. 7.

The Os Hyoides, or Bone of the Tongue, together with the Fore-part of the the Cartilages which compose the Larynx, and Part of the Aspera Arteria.

A, The External and Convex Part of the Cartilago Scutiformis.

B, The Internal and Concave Part of the Os Hyoides; which Part of it necessarily comes in View in this Position.

C, The Annular Cartilage.

D, The Epiglottis, Exprest with the Internal Concave Part Fore­wards, as is truly Exhibited in the following Figure; which on the contrary, should have been here Represented with its External and Convext Part, as in Fig. 5. F.

E, Part of the Aspera Arteria, or Wind-Pipe.

F F, The Glandulae Thyroideae: From what I have hitherto observ'd, these Glands seem to be of the same Office with the Thymus: Nor do's their Colour or Compactness distinguish them from the Thymus; if we consider, that by their Situation on the Wind-Pipe, they are perpe­tually in Motion, by which the Motion of the Blood is very much hasten'd thro' them, and the Blood-Vessels consequently Enlarg'd, whence their Colour and Compactness do's Arise.

G G, Two long Processes of the Thyroide Cartilage, or Scutiformis ty'd to the Extremities of the Os Hyoides.

Fig. 8.

The Os Hyoides and Back part of the Lar [...]yx.

A, The External Convext Part of the Os Hyoides. This Bone of the Tongue appears in this preceding Figure, to be compos'd of Three Bones; the Middle-Bone A, is joyn'd to One of the Extremities of the Two Side-Bones, by a Cartilaginous Interposition call'd Sychondrosis; the Two other Extremities of these Side-Bones are ty'd to the Extremities of the Two long Processes of the Thyroide Cartilage G G, Fig. 7. by a Ligament; which Connexion is call'd Syndesinusis.

B, The Internal Concave-part of the Epiglottis next the Glottis.

C C, The Arytenoidal Cartilages cover'd with the Glottis, or Inter­nal Membrane of the Oesophagus.

D, The Cricoidal Cartilage cover'd with the Internal Membrane of the Oesophagus which composes the Glottis.

E E, The Two Sides, or Back-part of the Thyroidal Cartilage, whence the Musculus Oesophageus do's Arise; which Muscle in a Semi-circular Manner Invests the Back-part of the Oesophagus.

F F, The Back-parts of the Thyroidal Glands.

G, The Posterior-part of the Wind-Pipe where it is Membranous, and receives the Fore-part of the Gula in its way to the Stomach.

Having View'd the Fore and Back-parts of the whole Larynx, we come in the next place to Examine those Cartilages which Compose it, when Separated from each other.

1, The External Convext-part of the Thyroidal Cartilage.

2, The Internal Concave-part of the same Cartilage: In these Two Figures, the Two Kinds of Processes of the Thyroidal Cartilage are Re­markable; the Two Superior or long Processes are joynd with the Ex­tremities of the Os Hyoides G G, Fig. 7. the Two Inferior are fastned to the Cricoidal Cartilage Laterally.

3, 4, The Cricoidal Cartilage; 3, the Fore-part; 4, the Back-part of this Cartilage: That Figure of the Right Hand (towards the Figure of the Lungs and Heart) Expresses the External, Inferior, and Back-part of the Annular Cartilage; That of the Left Hand, Represents the Inferior, Internal, and Fore-part of the Annular Cartilage.

5, 6, 5, 6, Two different Views of the Arytenoidal Cartilages, which are Articulated to the Superior Part of the Cricoidal Cartilage.

THE TWENTY-FIFTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

A Portion of the Wind-Pipe cut off.

A B B, The External Membrane of the Wind-Pipe Rais'd and Pinn'd out.

Fig. 2.

The Muscular Fasciculi lying between the Car­tilages of the Wind-Pipe.

Fig. 3.

The Glandulous Membrane of the Wind-Pipe, where divers Clusters of Glandules of a different Magnitude are Exprest.

Fig. 4.

The Internal Membrane of the Wind-Pipe, compos'd of Fibres ex­tended according to its Length; between this Internal and Longitu­dinal Order of Fibres, and the Cartilages, are plac'd another Trans­verse Order, which pass Circularly according to the Disposition of the Cartilages: These Internal Transverse Fleshy Fibres are more Nume­rous than the Superior Longitudinal Ones: Both these Orders of Fi­bres are Exprest in this Figure. This Disposition of the Fibres of the Internal Membrane of the Wind-Pipe, is very Conspicuous in the Wind-Pipes of most Quadrupedes, especially in the Larger sort, as Oxen, Horses, &c. But chiefly, (considering the Bulk of the Animal) in a Hog, in whose Wind-Pipe this Membrane appears compos'd of Strong Fleshy Fibres; whence an Account may not improbably be sug­gested, why that Animal is capable of altering the Tone of the Voice from a Base to a Treble: For when these Fibres Contract, the Chan­nel of the Wind-Pipe is very much Straitned, as well in its Diameter as Length; whence the Tone is rendred more Acute. This Constructure of the Inward Membrane of the Wind-Pipe, is continued to the Begin­ning of the Bronchia, where these Fleshy Fibres lessen and bear a Pro­portion to the Cavities of the Bronchia, and are at length so Thinn'd as to Frame Transparent Membranes, which help to compose the Vesi­culae of the Lungs.

Fig. 5.

Part of One of the Lobes of the Lungs, with the Bronchia Injected with Wax to exhibit the Lobuli.

A, Part of the Bronchial Tube cut off.

B B, The Lobuli, or distinct Clusters of the Vesiculae, partly com­pos'd of the Extremities of the Bronchia; and partly of the Blood-Ves­sels of the Lungs: These Lobuli are not always of the same Figure, some being Round, others Oval, some Oblong, and others Variously Figur'd.

C C, The Interstitia of the Lobuli; which are Invested with the Internal Lamina of the Proper Membrane of the Lungs, here Pinn'd out; on which the Blood-Vessels are very Conspicuous: These Inter­stitia, or Spaces between the Lobuli, Appear in the Lungs of a Foetus very plain, and do not Communicate with the Vesiculae of the Lobuli, but are distinguish'd from them, as do's Appear by Blowing into these Interstitia; which may be done with a Blow-Pipe, after Wounding the External Membrane of the Lungs, and you will find the Intersti­tia of the Lobuli very much Distended with Wind, and the Vesiculae not at all Inflated: Nor on the Contrary, will these Interstitia be any ways Inflated by Blowing into the Bronchia, tho' the Vesiculae and Lobuli are very much Extended.

D D, The Branches of the Pulmonick Vein and Artery on each Side the Bronchia: See Fig. 10. A, B.

Fig. 6.

Part of the Bronchia with divers Lobuli of One of the Lobes of the Lungs. Dr. Willis who has given a Figure of these Lobuli, after the Manner as they are here Represented, says, that by filling the Bronchia with a Liquid, these Lobuli may be separated from each other. I must confess I have more than once Attempted to Divide these Lobuli, but could not be satisfied of their Appearance like this Figure: The Ex­ternal Surface of the Lobuli in the Foetus Appear Angular, and are in a Cubical manner plac'd by each other.

A, The Inside of the Bronchia, where the Holes for divers of its Ramifications which pass out of it; and the Straight Progress of the Fibres of its Internal Membrane do Appear.

B B, The Bronchia divided into lesser Branches; to which the Lo­buli are Fastned.

C C, The Lobuli, which may be more or less Divided, and are com­pos'd of the Vesiculae. The Vesiculae as above hinted, are Fram'd by the Extremities of the Bronchia, and the Pulmonick Blood-Vessels.

N. B. The Lobuli in this Figure may be observ'd to have the Extre­mities of the Blood-Vessels Branch'd on Them. Each Vesicula also has One of the Extremities of the Pulmonick Veins and Arteries Branch'd on it; and without doubt (Conformable to the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels of other Parts) those Vessels also are continued Channels on the Vesiculae of the Lungs. Here the Art of Nature is very Extraordina­ry, in Framing the Extremities of these Blood-Vessels of the Lungs so very small, and confining their vast Number in so narrow a Compass, as the Body of the Lungs; for these Pulmonick Blood-Vessels Correspond to those of the whole Field of the Body, in constantly 'Discharging the Blood thro' them, as well as thro' the Heart; whilst Life with perfect Health is maintain'd. And notwithstanding One Half of the Lungs is compleatly Vitiated, (as I have more than once found in Dissecting Morbid Bodies) yet nevertheless the Circulation of the Blood has been still carried on for some time. Tho' in this Case Respiration must not only be very Quick and Attended with no small Difficulty on frequent Occa­sions; but the Heart must also Labour very much to drive the Blood on.

Fig. 7.

A Portion of the External Surface of the Lungs cut from them, when Dri'd, after Inflation.

A A, The External Membrane.

B B, The Lamellae of the External Membrane, which pass between the Vesiculae and compose the Lobuli; between which, the Interstitia necessarily Result.

C D, The Lobuli compos'd of the Vesiculae, which are here well Ex­prest.

Fig. 8.

The Aspera Arteria or Wind-Pipe, together with the Bronchus or Ramifications of it, free'd from the Lungs.

A A, The Fore-part of the Wind-Pipe.

B B, The Division of the Wind-Pipe into Two Branches, and after­wards into more, call'd Bronchus.

C C, The Larger Branches of the Bronchus.

D D, The Lesser, from whose Extremities the Vesiculae are Pull'd off.

E E, The Semicircular Cartilages of the Wind-Pipe.

F G H, The Cartilages of the Bronchia of Various Figures and Si­zes; some of which are Circular F F; others Semicircular, Trian­gular G; Quadrangular &c. H. These Cartilages of the Bronchus are not Connexed to each other like those of the Wind-Pipe it self; but the Lower-parts of the Superior receive the Upper-parts of the Inferior; not unlike the Crustaceous Coverings of the Lo­custs, or Tail of a Lobster: so that in Inspiration the Bronchus may be Coextended with the Tumified Lungs; for these Ligaments between the Cartilages of the Bronchus have an Elastick Power of Restitution; not unlike that strong Ligament, plac'd on the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Necks of Quadrupedes; by which means the Superior Parts of the Lower Cartilages of the Bronchus are drawn under the Inferior Parts of the Upper, in Expiration: But in Inspiration the Ligaments are Extended, and the Inferior Cartilages are with-drawn from under the Superior; and to this Action in Expiration the Longitudinal Fi­bres of the Wind-Pipe (which pass into the Bronchus) do concur to Contract them. In Inspiration the Weight of the Superincumbent Air is sufficient to Extend the Bronchus, and consequently the Lungs, when the Cavity of the Thorax is Widen'd by the Muscles which Draw the Bibs up.

Fig. 9.

A small Portion of the Lungs, whose Bronchial Branch is fill'd with Injected Quick-Silver.

A, The Bronchial Branch; on both Sides of which, the Pulmonick Blood-Vessels Appear.

Fig. 10.

Part of the Largest Branches of the Bronchus free'd from One of the Lungs; together with the Pulmonick Blood-Vessels and Lobes In­jected with Wax.

A A, The Pulmonick Vein.

B B, The Artery fill'd with different Colour'd Wax. Besides freeing the Bronchia, as in Fig. 8. there is another way of Demonstrating their Ramifications by pouring of Melted Tin into them; which may be Practis'd in the following Manner. Cut off one Side of the Humane Lungs at the Division of the Trachea B B, Fig. 8. and with the Feather End of a Goose-Quill so wipe the Inside of the Bronchia, by often thrusting it into their Various Ramifications, that at length it no longer comes out wet with the Mucus they have in them. The Insides of the Bronchia being thus throughly Dri'd with a Feather: In like Manner Anoint them with Linseed Oyl. This done, Tye the Mouth of the Divided Trachea to a Tin or Iron Tunnel: This Tunnel must be so plac'd that the Lungs may hang Pendulous and Free; but least their Flaccidity should too much Compress the Bronchia, it's conve­nient to pass divers Threads thro' the External Parts of the Lungs, and so Fasten them to the Floor and other convenient Places, that the Lungs may be Extended thereby: In doing of which, be sure you do not distort the Lungs from a direct Pendulous Position; but that the large Trunk of the Bronchia remains Perpendicular to the Tunnel. This done, Melt Block-Tin and pour it into the Tunnel; in doing of which, stand at some Distance, least the Conflict which arises from the hot Metal in its meeting with the remaining Moisture in the Bronchus, scat­ters it on your Hands, or Face, &c. N. B. If the Metal is made very hot it will so Scorch the First Passages of the Bronchia as to Contract them, and thereby Obstruct the rest: Nor must it want Fluidity, least its passing into the smaller Branches is thereby Hindred. The Bronchus being thus Injected in the Lungs; lay them in Water, Nine, or Ten Days▪ till they begin to Putrifie; then Boyl the whole Lungs off the Block-Tin, and you may expect to see it much fuller of Branches than it's Exprest in the 11th Figure.

Fig. 11.

Represents the Ramifications of the Bronchia in Block-Tin, as above Describ'd.

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THE TWENTY-SIXTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE upper Part of the Body lying in a Supine Posture, with the Os Pecto­ris or Sternum rais'd, together with the Cartilages of the Ribs which are connexed to it; so that the Cavity of the Thorax after its Viscera are remov'd, comes in view.

A A A, The Cavity of the Thorax invested with the Pleura, whose smooth Surface towards the Lungs, is here seen.

B B, The Musculi Triangulares as they Arise from the Inferior and Internal Part of the Sternum, and Ascend to their Insertions at the Bony Endings of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Ribs: In this View of the Internal Part of the Sternum, the Mammary Blood-Vessels on each Side of it are conspicuous: The Cartilaginous Endings of the Two First Ribs are also remarkable, being some­what longer than the rest.

b, The Ensiformal Cartilage.

C D, Superior) The Course of the Fibres of the Internal Intercostal Muscles which appear thro' the Pleura A A.

C D, Inferior) The External Intercostal Muscles whose Fibres decussate the Internal like the Letter X.

These Intercostal Muscles arise from the Lower Edge of each Superior Rib, and are Inserted to the Upper Edge of each Inferior one: They are employ'd in bringing the Ribs nearer each other, to Enlarge the Cavity of the Thorax in Inspiration.

D D, &c, The Seven Superior or True Ribs.

E E, The Saw-like Endings of the Serratus Major Anticus.

F F, The Diaphragm free'd from the Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs and Ensiformal Carti­lage, b.

f f, The Musculi Psoii partly in view.

G, The Cartilage of One of the Bastard-Ribs which is not joyned to the Sternum.

H H, The Bodies of the Vertebrae of the Thorax.

I, The Vertebrae of the Neck.

K, The Lower Jaw-Bone made bare.

k, The Musculus Pterigoideus Internus in Situ.

L L, The Claviculae.

M, Part of the Deltoides Muscle.

3, 4, 5, 6, The Bony Endings of the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Ribs, cut from the Carti­lages which are fastened to the Sternum.

Fig. 2.

See Tab. 52.

THE TWENTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

THE Skin, Fat, and Membranes being removed, the Muscles appear on the Back as follows.

A A, B B, C, D D, E, F F, G, H, The Musculus Cucularis or Trapezius on both Sides in Situ:

Either of these arises Fleshy from the Os Occipitis, and Ten­dinous from the Ligamentum Colli and Points of the Spines of the Three Lowest Vertebrae of the Neck, and Eight Superior of the Thorax; from which broad Origination becoming thick and Fleshy A A D D F, is so inserted to the Claviculae E and Tendinous H F to the Spina Sca­pulae I. These move the Scapulae variously according to their Directions of Fi­bres, as Upwards, Backwards, and Downwards.

J, Part of the Spina Scapulae.

K O O, The Latissimus Dorsi or Aniscalptor: A thin, broad Tendinous Ori­gination of This is deriv'd from the Spines of the Seven Inferior Vertebrae of the Thorax, and all the Vertebrae of the Loins, and Superior of the Os Sacrum; as also from the Posterior Part of the Spine of the Os Ilium R, and begins to grow Fleshy as it marches over the Longissimus Dorsi and Sacrolumbus, K. and in its Ascent over the Ribs laterally, it has divers Fasciculi of Fleshy Fibres arising from thence and joining with it, becomes still thicker, more Fleshy, and narrower, marching over the lowest Angle of the Scapulae; whence sometimes a Fleshy Portion of this Muscle do's arise, which we have commonly found in those Bodies in whom the Teres Minor was wanting, as it was in this Subject, and is at Length Inserted with a short flat strong Tendon to the Os Humeri, at the Implantation of the Te­res Major: Its Use is to draw the Arm Downwards and Backwards.

L L, Parts of the Obliqui Descendentes Abdominis.

M, Part of the Deltoides on the Left Side.

N, The Infraspinalis on the Right Side.

O O, The Sacrolumbalis lying under the Tendon of the Latissimus Dorsi on the Right Side.

P, The Basis of the Right Scapula.

Q Q, The Rotundi Majores.

R, The Spine of the Os Ilium.

S, Part of the Glutaeus Magnus.

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THE TWENTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

THE Muscles of the Back lying under those Represented in the preceding Table.

A B C D, The Rhomboides in Situ, It arises Tendinous from the Spines of the Two Inferior Vertebrae of the Neck, and Three or Four of the Su­perior of the Thorax C; growing Fleshy in its Oblique Descent, it is in­serted to the Basis of the Scapula D: It draws the Scapula Upwards and Backwards.

E, The Rhomboides on the Right Side, remaining at its Origin at the Ba­sis of the Scapula.

F, A Portion of the Rhomboides which we frequently find distinct.

G, Part of the Elevator Scapulae or Musculus Patientiae: This Muscle has divers separate Origina­tions from the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck composing a large Fleshy Muscle, which is Inserted to the Superior Angle of the Scapula.

H, That Part of the Basis Scapulae towards its Superior Angle.

I, The Serratus Superior Posticus Arising thin and Tendinous from the Spines of the Two In­ferior Vertebrae of the Neck, and Two Superior of the Thorax; and after an Oblique Descent over the Inferior Part of the Splenius Capitis and Upper Parts of the Longissimus Dorsi and Sacrolum­balis, becomes Fleshy, marching under the Scapula to its Insertions at the Second, Third, and Fourth Ribs. This Muscle assists in drawing the Ribs Upwards in Inspiration.

K, The Serratus Inferior Posticus: The Origination of this Muscle is much larger than this Figure seems to represent. I have frequently taken Notice of a Series of Tendinous Fibres con­tinued between the Serratus Superior and this Muscle; and its Lower Part in like Manner continued to the Spine of the Os Ilium, strictly embracing the Sacrolumbus and Dorsi Longissi­mus; in which it performs the Office of a Bandage as shall be hereafter mentioned. These In­ferior Saw-Muscles, in this Figure, are free'd from their Originations at the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Thorax and Loins, in raising the Latissimi Dorsi, Exprest in the preceding Table K L O O, whose Tendinous Originations in most Subjects, do inseparably cleave to these Serrati near the Spines: This Figure demonstrating the Progress and Insertion of these Muscles, I shall only add; their Use is to draw the Ribs Downwards, and Contract the Thorax in Expiration.

L, Part of the Cucullaris left at its Insertion to the Clavicula.

M, The Latissimus Dorsi rais'd and left hanging at its Insertion on the Right Side; the like is done on the Left, but not Letter'd.

N O P Q; The Longissimi Dorsi; This Muscle and its Companion the Sacrolumbalis are insepa­ble at their Origination from the Spine of the Os Ilium, Superior Part of the Sacrum, and all the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Loins; Externally it is Tendinous; Internally Fleshy; in its Ascent it bestows divers Insertions on the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Loins; but proceed­ing farther, it continues to derive Tendinous Originations from the Spines of the lower Vertebrae of the Thorax, which in their Progress become Fleshy Fibres, and Terminate in the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Spines of the Thorax; and this Part of this Muscle Bidloo calls Semispinatus: The other larger Part of it, in its Ascent on the Thorax, divides it self after the Manner of a Palm-branch, into many Fleshy Portions which become Tendinous at their Insertions to the Transverse Pro­cesses of each Vertebra of the Thorax, and Tubercle of the Ribs, and some of the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck; This Muscle is not only imploy'd in keeping the Trunk of the Bo­dy Erect and Bending it Backwards; but in Progression, it has also a considerable Office; for when either Leg is mov'd Forewards, this Muscle on the same Side, near its Origin, may be observed to be in Action; which we suppose is necessary to render the Os Ilium at that Time stable, to the End the Thigh-Bone may be more commodiously moved in its Acetabulum of the Coxendix.

R, The Sacrolumbalis which we shall describe hereafter.

S, Part of the Glutaeus Magnus.

S, The Spine of the Os Ilium.

T, The Splenius Capitis.

V, The Deltoides.

W, The Infraspinatus.

X, The Teres Major.

Y, Part of the Spina Scapulae, above which, Part of the Supraspinatus may be seen.

Z, Part of the Serratus Major Anticus.

ψ, The Seventh Rib made bare.

THE TWENTY-NINTH TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles imploy'd in moving the Back, Thorax and Arms.

A B D E, The Musculus Sacrolumbalis: Its Origin is already describ'd in the preceding Table with the Dorsi Longissimus, they arising inseparably: At their parting below the last Rib, the Fleshy Part of the Sacrolumbus is divided into divers Parts, which become so many distinct Tendons and Terminate on the Ribs, as may be seen on the Left Side of this Figure: Besides these Fleshy and Tendinous Productions of this Sacrolumbal Muscle; it has another Order of Tendinous and Fleshy Fibres which may be esteemed as so many distinct Muscles; They arising partly Tendinous and part­ly Fleshy from the Transverse Processes of the Loins, and Posterior Pro­minence of the Ribs, that is connexed to the Transverse Process's of the Back, whence Ascend­ing Obliquely outwards, become Fleshy, and growing Tendinous, do pass over Three or Four of the Superior Ribs, and join with the First describ'd Tendons at their several Terminations above men­tioned. This Disposition of the Sacrolumbus is continued the whole Length of the Thorax, even to the Fourth Vertebra of the Neck; which Upper Part of it is call'd by Diemerbroek, Cervica­lis Descendens, and by him made a distinct Muscle.

C, The Tendon of the last described Muscle and Longissimus Dorsi, cut from the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Loins.

F H I K K, The Longissimi Dorsi; that of the Right Side being free'd from the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Back and Loins.

L, The Spines of the Vertebrae of the Loins.

M M, The Musculus Semispinatus or Transversalis Dorsi: The Course of the Fibres of this Muscle agree exactly with that lying below it, called Musculus Sacer G; which is Exprest on the Right Side of the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Loins between L M C: They are call'd Transversales Dorsi and Lumborum, because they arise from the Transverse Processes of those Vertebrae; from whence they ascend Obliquely and are inserted to the Spines of the Superior Vertebrae; which Oblique ascending Disposition of these Fibres may be observed in this Figure M M.

N, Part of the Musculus Trapezius left on the Neck.

O, Part of the Serratus Superior Posticus left at its Insertion.

P, Part of the Spina Scapulae.

Q, The Basis Scapulae.

R, Musculus Deltoides.

S, Infraspinatus.

T, Teres Major.

V W, Parts of the Serrati Majores Antici; that of the Left-Side representing its Progress over the Subscapularis, as it arises from the Internal Part of the Basis Scapulae as is mentioned Tab. 20.

X X X, The Serrati Inferiores Postici rais'd and left at their Insertions.

Y, Part of the Obliquus Descendens.

Z Z, The Spines of the Ossa Ilii.

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THE THIRTIETH TABLE.

SOME of the Muscles imployed in Extending the Back and Loins, Rais'd.

A B C D E F G H I K, The Longissimi Dorsi and Sacrolumbales near their Originations.

L, The Sacrolumbalis on the Left Side free'd from the Ribs, &c. and hanging loose from the Trunk of the Body.

M M, Those Tubercles of the Ribs connexed to the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Thorax made bare; whence the other Order of the Tendinous and Fleshy Fibres of the Sacrolumbal Muscle (mention'd in the precedent Table) do arise.

N N, The Spinal Processes of the Vertebrae of the Back made bare.

n n, Their Transverse Processes.

O O, Parts of the Musculi Splenii Capitis.

P, The Infraspinatus Rais'd from the Scapula.

Q, Part of the Rotundus Major.

R R, Parts of the Serrati Majores Antici on both Sides.

S, The Upper Part of the Bone of the Arm laid bare.

T, The last or Twelfth Rib.

V, The quadratus Lumborum: It arises Fleshy from the Posterior Part of the Spine of the Os Ilium, and after an Oblique ascending Progress is so Inserted to the Transverse Processes of the Ver­tebrae of the Loins: This not unlike the Rectus Abdominis, moves the Vertebrae of the Loins or Os Ilium nearer each other, as either is held most stable: So when we stand on one Foot it draws the Vertebrae to that Side, and makes the Trunk come towards a Perpendicular Direction of its Gravity to that Foot; as appears in the Figure of the First Table, where the Right Leg sustains the Weight of the whole Trunk, and Superior Parts: But if we hang by the Hands, then either of these Musculi Quadrati Acting, draws the Os Ilium nearer the Vertebrae of the Loins.

It was necessary the Muscles imploy'd in Extending the Head, Neck, Back and Loins should be framed strong enough not only to sustain the Head and Trunk in their Projection forewards from the Axis of the Vertebrae; but that they should move the whole Spine variously, especially in Bending it backwards: Hence it is these Muscles are not only more Numerous; but are Multi­form, as appears in the Dorsi Longissimus and Sacrolumbalis; whereas the Bending Muscles of the Trunk and Head are but one Pair to each, and they of a Longitudinal Order of Fibres only; namely, the Par Rectum Internum Capitis, or Flexores Capitis, Tab. 18. LL; and the Recti Ab­dominis Tab. 31. EE.

THE THIRTY-FIRST TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Common Integuments of the Abdo­men, and the External Appearance of its Muscles on the Left Side.

A A A A, The Skin together with the Fat and Membranes of the Left Side Rais'd.

B B, The Fat remaining on the Right Side after Raising the Skin; where the Lobi of Fat and the Blood-Vessels passing be­tween them, are Elegantly Exprest.

C D E F G, The Musculus Obliquus Descendens in Situ; CC, Its Fleshy Part Springing from the Ribs; D D, Its Inferior Tendinous Part, under which the Fleshy Fibres of the Ascendens do Appear.

E E, The Sraight Fleshy Fibres of the Musculus Rectus, as they Appear un­der the Tendons of the Descending and Ascending Muscles.

F F, The Tendinous Interfections of the Rectus Appearing thro' the Two Tendons of the Oblique Muscles.

G G, The Linea Semilunaris compos'd by the Two Tendons of the Oblique Muscles before they March over the Rectus to the Linea Alba.

H, The Linea Alba.

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THE THIRTY-SECOND TABLE.

Fig. 1.

ABCDEFG, THE Obliquus Descendens, or Declivis Rais'd: See App. Fig. 1.38, 38. It Arises with several partly Fleshy and partly. Tendinous Acute Pro­ductions from the Lower Margins of the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eight Ribs; where its several se­parate Origins lie between the Indentations of the Serra­tus Major Anticus; these, for better distinction we call its Former Origin; Besides which, it continues to derive more Heads in like Manner from the Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and sometimes from the Extremity of the last Bastard-Rib; (Vid. Tab. 29, Y.) where it's frequently Indented with the Serratus Inferior Posticus (Tab. ib. XX.) as Vesalius takes Notice: From its Former Origin B B B, its Oblique Descending Fleshy Part E E, Expands its self into a Broad Membranous Tendon F F, before it Marches over the Rectus P P, to its Insertion in the Linea Alba Tab. 31. H, and Os Pubis G: From its Lat­ter Origin, in the same Manner Descending, (Vid. App. Fig. 2.31.) it Ends partly Tendinous in the Ligamentam Pubis C C, but chiefly Fleshy on the Superior and Fore-Part of the Os Illum. Besides the Offices commonly Ascrib'd to this Mus­cle in Compressing the Intestines and Bladder, &c. either in Extruding the Foeces and Urine in both Sexes, or Foetus in Women; They have still a farther Use: That Part of this Muscle that's Interjacent between its Lower Origin and Spine of the Os Ilium, Tab. 29. Y. bearing an Analogy in its Posi­tion to the Mastordeus of the Head, (App. Fig. 1.14.) serves for the Circumrotation of the Trunk upon the Axis of the Vertebrae; as when we Convert our Bodies to the contrary Side, the Feet remaining Stable.

H H H, The Cartilaginous Endings of the Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Ribs; which, in the following Table are cut off at the Bony Parte of the Ribs and Rais'd: Vid. Tab. 33. K K.

1 K K, The Musculus Transversalis Rais'd from the Perito­naum and Reclin'd Laterally; It derives a Tendinous Origin from the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae Lumbares, and a Fleshy One, from the Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs, Spine of the Os Ilium, and Ligamentum Pubis; whence it passes over the Convext Surface of the Peritonaeum, composing a Broad Tendon as it Marches under the Rectus to its Termi­nation in the whole Length of the Linea Alba. When this Muscle and its Partner Act, they press the Abdomen directly Inwards.

L M N O P, The Recti Abdominis; One remaining in Sat [...] the other being Rais'd: Either of these Muscles derives its Origin from Two of the Cartilages of the True, and One of Bastard Ribs; and in its Descent has Four, sometimes Five Tendinous Intersections O O O O; still Lessening it self be­low the Navel, becomes Tendinous, immediately above the Os Pubis, where it's Implanted M: This Bends the Trunk of the Body.

P P, The Under-Side of the Rectus, where the Epigastrick and Mammary Blood-Vessels may be seen.

Q, The Pyramidales, which derive their Fleshy Origin from the Upper-Part of the Ossa Pubis, and Terminate in the Linea Alba.

R R S S, The Obliquus Ascendens, or Acclavis in Situ: It A­rises from the Fore-Part of the Spine of the Os Ilium and Li­gamentum Pubis, whence Mounting with an Order of Fibres Inclining Forewards, Forms a Broad Membranous Thin Ten­don SS, Marching over the Rectus to its Implantation in the Linea Alba; the Posterior Part of it being Inserted to the Car­tilages of the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Ribs. Besides its Office in Compressing the Contents of the Lower Belly; that Part of it that's between the Spine of the Ilium and Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs, is not only Use­ful in drawing the Ribs Downwards in Expiration; but its Fleshy Fibres (Intersecting those of the Descendens in the Ilia) are also imploy'd in Converting the Trunk of the Body to the same Side, as the Descendens above Noted, do's to the Contrary. In the Structure and Reciprocal Cooperations of these Parts of the Ascending and Descending Oblique Muscles, the Art of Nature is very Admirable.

T T V V, The Peritonaeum under which the Intestines Ap­pear TT. Tho' the Peritonaeum is a Transparent, Thin Mem­brane, yet it consists of divers Laminae, and is apparently Double in divers Parts, especially between the Navel and Os Pubis: Besides its giving an External Double Integument to all the Viscera of the Lower Belly, it Provides still others Investing each Viscus, and Helps to compose the Omentum and Mesentery. What vast Extensions the Membranes of the Peritonaeum are capable of, is well known to those who have seen it Affected with a Dropsie; for in its Duplicature I have often taken out above Fourscore Pints. Iob Meekren in his Ob. Med. at Chir. tells us of a Hundred and Twenty-Five Pints of clear Water contain'd within the Duplicature of the Pe­ritonaeum; besides, the Membranes themselves (in the Case now mention'd) were Thickned beyond a Thumbs Breadth, and their Internal Surface furnish'd with many Fleshy Bodies and Water-Bladders, call'd Hydatides; so that the whole, when taken out, seem'd to be a Monstrous Mass of Fleshy Matter.

Fig. 2.

The Texture of the Peritonaeum Examin'd with a Micro­scope.

A A, The Nervous Fibres Running according to the Length of the Abdomen.

B B, Other Fibres carri'd in a Circular Manner from the Nervous Plexus thro' to the Breadth of the Abdomen.

C C, The Fibrillae which join the preceding Fibres toge­ther, and are Complicated with them.

D D, The Nerves and their Branches which are very Re­markable about the Ventricle.

E E, The Blood-Vessels broken off.

Concerning the Lymphe-Ducts of the Peritonaeum, &c. con­sult Nuck's Adenographia Curiosa, Cap. IX.

The Peritonaeum has divers Perforations; Forewards, for the Umbilical Vessels in the Faetus; in its Upper-Part, for the Vena Cava, Gula, and Eighth Pair of Nerves, &c. In the Lower-Part by the Anus Bladder of Urine, and Vterus in Women: in this Lower-Part of the Peritonaeum, it's Two Processes at­tending the Spermatick Vessels fall next under our Inspe­ction.

Fig. 3.

A A, Part of the Peritonaeum.

B, The Process of its Internal Membrane, proceeding from within the Cavity of the Abdomen.

C C, The Spermatick Vessels as yet Cover'd with the Dou­ble Process of the Peritonaeum. We call it a Double Process of the Peritonaeum in Men, that passes thro' the Muscles of the Abdomen in the Inguen, because it consists of Two Mem­branes of different Extents; the External of which, being a Continuation of the External Membrane of the Peritonaeum, is there call'd Tunica Vaginalis, Inclosing the Spermatick-Ves­sels and Testicle; the Internal Process Descends about Four Fingers Breath on the Spermatick-Vessels in the Inguina, and then Cleaves to them Inseparably (and this Nuck calls a Diver­ticulum) as it's Exprest, tho' somewhat stifly, in the following Figure.

Fig. 4.

A A, Part of the Internal Membrane of the Peritonaeum.

B, The Orifice or Anulus of its Process.

C, Its Progress on the Spermatick-Vessels, call'd Diverti­tulum.

D, Its Cohesion to the Spermatick-Vessels.

THE THIRTY-THIRD TABLE.

SHEWS the Viscera of the Lower Belly in Situ, after the Com­mon and Proper Integuments of the Abdomen are laid Open, and some of them cut off, and the Cartilaginous Endings of the Bastard Ribs divided from their Bony Parts, and turn'd Up­wards.

A A B B, The Omentum, where its Upper Membrane Ap­pears Contiguous to the Bottom of the Stomach, from whose Inferior Coronary Vessels it receives its Arteriae Gastricae, Em­ploicae Dextrae, Sinistrae and Mediae, which have their Correspondent Veins entering into the Coronary Veins, and Convey their Blood to the Vena Porta; the Arteries being Propagated from the Coeliack Arteries. This Superior Part of Lamina of the Omentum is not only a Continuation of that External One of the Ventricle, Borrow'd from the Peritonaeum, but its Right Ala in like Manner is deriv'd from the Lower Part of the Liver, and its Left from the Concave Part of the Spleen: Thus the Superior and Outwardmost Part of the Omentum Arises; and after De­scending on the Intestines, joins or is continued to its Inferior or Inward Part, in like Manner deriv'd from the Colon: Between these Superior and Inferior Parts, is fram'd the Bursa Omenti; which may be plainly Discover'd, if you pour Water into its Cavity; and tho' the Water will pass it's many Foramina, yet it will ne­vertheless Discover the Lower Part of the Omentum to be Double.

C C, The Bottom of the Stomach where its Inferior Coronary Blood-Vessels may be seen.

D D, The Liver.

E, The Ligamentum Suspensorium Hepatis, in which the Umbilical Ligament is Inclos'd.

F, The Fissure made by the Umbilical Ligament.

G G, Part of the Colon near its Beginning in the Right Ilia.

H H I I I, The Small Guts, some of which being here Cover'd with the Omen­tum.

K K, The Cartilaginous Endings of the Bastard Ribs cut from their Bony Parts, and turn'd up towards the Sternum: To these Cartilages, Parts of the Transverse Muscles of the Abdomen and the Diaphragma may be seen to Adhere in this Fi­gure.

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THE THIRTY-FOURTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

A A, A Portion of the O­mentum, the Cells of which being fill'd with Oily Contents are call'd Fat.

B B, The Fatty Glan­dules of the Omen­tum which are plac'd in the Arboreous Di­stribution of the Fat.

C C, Divers Foraminulae Collateral to the Ar­boreous Fatty Bodies.

Fig. 2.

The Membranes of the Omentum free'd from their Oily Contents; which Professor Bidloo Propo­ses to be done after the following Manner. When the Blood-Vessels of the Omentum are Injected with Wax, or any Tenacious Body, then dip the whole in hot Oil of Turpentine, and with your Hand squeese it, and move it up and down till the whole Mass of Fat is disolv'd in that Oil. After­wards expose the Membranes to the Air, or gentle Fire to dry them.

A A, The Upper Lamella or Membrane of the Omentum.

B B, The Lower Membrane of the Omentum.

C C, The Foraminulae.

D D, The Arboreous Ramifications of the Po­rous Cells, whence the Fat or Oil is Exprest.

E E, The Blood-Vessels Injected with Wax ac­cording to Bidloo.

Fig. 3, 4.

These Figures of the Muscles of the Pharynx are Copied after Bourdon's Table 4. Fig. 28, 29. and are agreeable to the Erroneous Descriptions of those Muscles by Ryolan, Spigelius, Veslingius, Bartholin, &c. The Muscular Contrivance of this Organ being vastly differing from what is here Exprest, I shall add a Figure of it in the Appendix.

Fig. 5.

The Stomach with Part of the Omentum taken out of the Cavity of the Abdomen; the Stomach being somewhat Extended with Wind, and plac'd according to its proper Position.

A A, The External and Anterior Surface of the Stomach, Cover'd with a Common Membrane deriv'd from the Peritonaeum.

B C, Two Bunchings out in the Lower Part, or Fundus of the Stomach.

D, Part of the Gula at the Upper or Left Ori­fice of the Stomach, call'd Cardia.

E, Part of the Intestinum Duodenum Arising from the Right or Lower Orifice of the Stomach, call'd the Pylorus.

F, The Superior Coronary Blood-Vessels of the Stomach, and the Nerves of the Eighth Pair Com­plicated with each other, are here Elegantly Ex­prest.

G, The Inferior Coronary Artery and Vein of the Stomach. These Coronary Blood-Vessels are in like Manner distributed to the Omentum.

H, The Superior or Outward Membrane of the Omentum, hanging at the Bottom of the Stomach.

In Dissecting the Morbid Body of a Young Gentle-woman, by the Order of Dr. Radcliff: A­mongst other Phaenomena of the Viscera in the Abdomen, I found the Omentum so Lessen'd, that at first Sight, it Appear'd doubtful wether there ever had been such a Part fram'd in that Subject; but upon stricter Enquiry, that little Remains of it seem'd to Represent a Heap of small Glands, con­taining a Steotomatous or Suet-like Matter. Nor was this Appearance of these Steotomae on the O­mentum only; but a Multitude of Little White Bo­dies or Specks (not unlike those of the Omentum) plac'd at some small Distance from each other, were spread on the Outward Membrane of the Sto­mach, Intestines, and Internal Surface of the Pe­ritonaeum. In this Subject the External Parts of the Small Guts so stuck to each other, that they seem'd to be contain'd in One proper Covering, or not unlike the Brain Cover'd with the Pia Ma­ter: so strictly did the Intestines Cleave to each other, that it was not without Violence I could any where Divide them to see the Mesentery: By this means the Peristaltick Motion of the Guts must needs be very much Lessen'd, if not quite Hindred; so that it was no wonder to find their whole Chanel fill'd with Excrements, even from the Pylorus to the Anus: Besides the Inte­stines had suffer'd Mortifications in divers Parts, whilst other Parts of them were Inflam'd and ve­ry much Thickned: Nor was there any Part of them Appear'd of a Natural Constitution; so general did this Diseas'd-Habit Affect the Peri­tonaeum, in all its Expansions. Nor can I omit doing Justice to the Inquisitive Dr. Radcliff, who upon frequent Observations of the Symptoms of this Case, left this Prognostick, That there was scarce any of the Viscera of the Lower Belly which had escap'd the Attacks of the Disease: All which he suppos'd to Arise from a Scrophulous-Ha­bit, as Appear'd by very large Tumified Glands of the Mesentery; of which Two very Remark­able Ones had so Comprest the Receptaculum Chy­li, as very little (if any) of the Aliment could at Length pass into the Blood. Whence the Bo­dy became so very much Emaciated, that scarce any thing but Bones Appear'd under the Skin: Nor did I any where see the least Lobe of Fat in the whole Dissection. From what has been above taken Notice of in the Omentum, and Surface of the Peritonaeum, whether Covering the Inside of the Abdomen, or Outsides of the Intestines; It Appears, that when the Mucus, which is neces­sary in Lubricating the Intestines, is obstructed; those Parts are Subject to Adhesions, and the Pe­ristaltick Motion of the Latter can no longer be Perform'd, and tho' the Existence of proper Glands for separating this Mucus from the Blood do's not offer in Common Dissections, yet it may be hop'd that the frequent Examining of Morbid Bodies, will at one time or other Demonstrate them; which, I am apt to believe, not unlike the Sweat­ing Glands of the Skin, are plac'd at certain Distances, and do discharge their Mucus from their Excretory Pores in like Manner; which Mucus may joyn with Fatty Exsudations from the Omen­tum, &c. and make a Composition necessary for making the Intestines slide on each other. That there is a Slimy Matter besmearing these Parts, may be observ'd in Opening any Large Ani­mal, not Diseas'd, soon after Death. It is well known to the Butchers that this Mucus makes the Hands Glib or Smooth; to which End they commonly Use it, so soon as they have Open'd any Animal, by Rubbing their Hands with the Intestines. I know it's commonly suppos'd the Water in an Ascites proceeds from a broken Lym­phe-Duct within the Cavity of the Abdomen; but it's not unlikely that that Scrosity may at least sometimes Arise from an Exsudation by thos [...] Glands; since we constantly find the Peritonaeum very much Thickned in those Cases.

THE THIRTY-FIFTH TABLE.

THE Membranes, Glan­dules, Blood-Vessels, &c. which compose the Sto­mach.

Fig. 1, 2.

A A, &c. Portions of the Stomach shewing its First or External Mem­brane, borrow'd from the Peritonaeum; the Veins being Injected with Wax, are extended beyond their Natural Magnitude.

B B, The Superior and Inferior Coronary Veins, Inosculating with each other in their Large Trunks.

Fig. 3.

A B, &c. The Branches of the Blood-Vessels on the External Membrane of the Stomach, Repre­senting their Various Plexusses and Mutual Inos­culations with each other, viz. The Veins being join'd with Veins, and Arteries with Arteries, be­fore they become Capillary.

Fig. 4.

The Second Membrane of the Stomach, call'd the Muscular Membrane, consisting of Two Or­ders of Fibres.

A B B, The First and Superior Order of Fibres, continued between the Pylorus and Upper Orifice of the Stomach.

A C C, The Second or Inferior Order of Fibres, embracing the Fundus of the Stomach.

Fig. 5.

A Portion of the Second or Muscular Mem­brane of the Stomach Dri'd.

A A, The First Order of Fibres,

B B, The Second; Consisting of Fleshy and Tendinous Parts,

C C, Their Fleshy Parts,

D D, Their Tendinous Parts.

The Third, or Internal Membrane of the Sto­mach, may be Divided into Three Lamellae, and therefore may be consider'd in a Threefold Manner.

Fig. 6.

A A, The Inward Surface of the Third Mem­brane of the Stomach, by Dr. Willis call'd the Villous Tunicle: The Villi or Velvet-like Surface of it, is best shewn by dipping it in Scalding Water.

B B, The Glandules as they Appear obscurely under the Villi.

C D, &c. The Glandules and Vessels of the Sto­mach as they Appear where the Villi are taken off, which may easily be done with the Assistance of Hot Water. This may be esteem'd the Second Part of the Third Membrane of the Stomach.

Fig. 7.

The Third or Last Division of this Internal Membrane of the Stomach, which Bidloo and others call the Tendinous, and Dr. Willis the Nervous Membrane.

A B, Divers Perforations for the Blood-Vessels to pass thro' this Membrane.

Fig. 8.

The whole Stomach partly laid Open to shew the Foldings of its Internal or Third Membrane.

A A, The Foldings of the Internal and Third Membrane, in which the Villous Surface do's Ap­pear.

B, The Upper and Left Orifice or Mouth of the Stomach, with Part of the Gula.

C, A Portion of the Intestinum Duodenum continued to the Pylorus.

D, The Pylorus or Lower and Right Orifice of the Stomach.

E, The Antrum Pylori.

The Omentum and Superior and Inferior Coro­nary Blood-Vessels, are here again Exprest as in the preceding Table, Fig. 5.

Fig. 9, 10.

The Two Orifices of the Stomach when Dri'd after Inflation. Fig. 9, The Superior. Fig. 10, The Inferior.

The Plexus of Blood-Vessels Appearing in the Inside of the Stomach, Fig. 8. are Remarkable, and their Appearance is owing to the Stagnation of the Blood in them. The Stomach cannot be Wounded into its Cavity, but many of these Ves­sels, especially the Arteries must be Divided, and no small Effusion of Blood must necessarily hap­pen, which if it flows into the Cavity of the Sto­mach, must either be Ejected by Vomit, or pass down the Intestines with the Excrements, if the Patient Survives: An Instance of which lately occur'd, where my Friend Mr. Goodier call'd me to see the Patient; who had receiv'd a Wound by a Sword on the Right Hypochondrium, which past Obliquely to the Linea Alba, imme­diately below the Ensiformal Cartilage: A Vo­mitting of Blood soon follow'd with Syncopes, which denoted the Stomach to be Wounded, not less than a Pound of Coagulated Blood being E­jected by the Mouth so soon as he was brought to his Bed. After some Hours the Vomiting ceas'd, and the Pulse was recover'd which before was very feeble: Nor was it many Days before the Patient Recover'd and could Drink Two or Three Quarts of Strong Drink at a Sitting; what became of him afterwards, we could by no means learn. By this it Appears that Wounds in the Stomach are not always Mortal, tho' they very frequently prove so, as in the Case of one Wounded in like manner with a Sword on the Left Hypochondrium, in whom the Stomach was Wounded also; but in this the Contents of the Stomach in no small Quantity, were Discharg'd with a great deal of Blood into the Cavity of the Abdomen, as Appear'd on Dissecting his Body. If the Trunk of a Large Artery happens to be Wounded on the Stomach, it is a great Chance but it proves Mortal thro' the Flux of Blood, but if the Wound happens where the Blood-Vessels are Capillary, the Flux of Blood do's not prove Fatal.

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THE THIRTY-SIXTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

SHEWS the Lower Part of the Stomach and a Portion of the Intestinum Duodenum continued to it, together with the Pan­creas and Spleen.

A A, The Upper Part of the Duodenum continued from the Right Orifice of the Stomach or Pylorus, in a Semicircular Man­ner; in which Bending of the Gut, the Common Passage for the Gall and Pancreatick Juice empties it self N. This Cur­vation of the Intestine is here necessary, left the Aliment after having undergone a Preparation in the Stomach, should too quickly descend into the Small Guts, before it has met with a due Mixture with the Gall and Pancreatick Juice.

B, The Ductus Pancreaticus made bare, before it enters the External Membrane of the Intestine, between which, and the Internal Membrane, it passes before it arrives at its Ori­fice N, in Conjunction with the Common Gall-Duct.

C, The Progress of the Common Gall-Duct in like Man­ner between the Membranes of the Gut, before it arrives at its Orifice N, in Conjunction with the Pancreatick Duct.

D D, The Superior and External Part of the Pancreas as it appears in its proper Situation.

E E E, Part of the Bottom of the Stomach next the Pan­creas, Colon and Spleen; whence divers Blood-Vessels are pro­pagated, especially Veins, which discharge Part of the Blood from the Stomach into the Ramus Splenicus: The most re­markable of these have obtained the Denomination of Vasa Brevia; to which, some Anatomists have inconsiderately as­sign'd divers Uses.

F F, The Internal Concave Part of the Spleen next the Pancreas and Stomach, cover'd with its Proper Membrane, as well as a Common one continu'd from the Peritonaeum.

G, The External Membrane of the Pancreas rais'd and pinn'd out:

H, That of the Spleen in like Manner rais'd and pinn'd out.

I I I, Divers Vesiculae or Airy Bladder-like Appearances, occasion'd by the Breaking forth of the Wind into the In­terstitia of the Common and Proper Membrane of the Pan­creas, in Blowing into its Ductus Excretorius B.

K, The Duodenum open'd, to shew the Common Orifice of the Gall and Pancreatick Duct.

L L, The Pancreatick Duct made bare in divers Parts of the Pancreas.

M, Part of the Common Gall-Duct.

N, The Common Orifice of the Gall and Pancreatick Ducts, opening into the Cavity of the Intestinum Duodenum.

O O, &c. The Arteria Splenica injected with Wax; its Ma­gnitude and Tortuous Progress being very remarkable as it is truly Exprest in this Figure.

P P, Divers Arteries of the Pancreas arising out of the Splenick Artery.

Q, The Vena Splenica in whose Cavity a Blow-Pipe is inserted.

R, One of the Lympheducts arising from the Spleen pinn'd out. In Blowing into the Vena Splenica of a Castling Calf, I have frequently observ'd the Lympheducts of the Spleen distended with Wind: The like has happen'd by Blowing into the Splenick Artery after tying the Vein, tho' not so immediatly as by Blowing into the Vein. The same Phaeno­mena I have observ'd in the Penis of a Dog by Blowing into the Veins of that Part. The Accurate Nuck in his Adeno­grap. Curio. p. 52. tells us by forcibly Blowing into the Sple­nick Artery, he has not only seen divers Vesiculae to rise on the Surface of the Spleen; but divers Lymphatick Vessels arising from those Vesiculae and distended with Wind also: In the Subsequent Page he takes Notice that the Spermatick Vein of the Testicle being distended with Wind, shews the Lym­pheducts on the Tunica Vaginalis, but in Blowing into the Spermatick Artery of that Part, the Lymphe-Ducts are by no Means distended with Wind: By this, it appears the Lym­pheducts of the Spleen, Penis and Testicles, do not arise from the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels of those Parts, as the Lympheducts of other Parts seem to do; but that the Ve­nous Chanels of those Parts seem to give the immediate Originations to their Lympheducts.

S, The Spleen partly made bare of its Integument.

Fig. 2.

The Ductus Pancreaticus injected with Wax, and free'd from the Body of the Pancreas, together with a Portion of the In­testinum Duodenum and Common Gall-Duct dried.

A, Part of the Duodenum dried.

B, The Ductus Pancreaticus lying between the Membranes of the Intestine before it joyns with the Common Gall-Duct.

C, The Common Orifice of the Gall and Pancreatick Duct opening into the Intestine.

D, The Common Gall-Duct.

E E, The Trunk of the Pancreatick Duct.

F G, The Ramifications of the Pancreatick Duct, which arise from the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels of the Pancreas.

Among the Opinions hitherto held concerning the Office of the Pancreatick Juice, that of Brunnerus seems most pro­bable: That like the Saliva it is a Dissolvent or Menstruum for a farther Concoction, in Order to Chylification. Nor can I conceive the Succus Pancreaticus can Act with any Ho­stility by Way of Fermentation with the Bile and Aliment, as Franc. Sylvius, Bern. Swalve, Rog. de Gaff, and Isbrand de Diemerbroek apprehend; or that it takes off the Acrimony of the Gall; which Latter, would be to rectifie a Mistake in Nature that might have been avoided in the First Design: Wherefore the Pancreas appears to be a Large Salival Gland, or One of the Largest of the Glands of the Intestines, which continually supplies a proportionable Quantity of Liquor for the End above mention'd. Besides, the Pancreas has ano­ther as it were accidental Use, (viz.) To discharge those Sero­sities from the Blood which we find in taking of Purging Medicines; Or at other Times, when the Blood is disordered so that a Diarrhaea happens, the Pancreas as well as the Glands of the Intestines are those Strainers which discharge the Vi­tiated Juices from the Mass of Blood.

Fig. 3.

The Spleen with its Blood-Vessels Injected with Wax.

A A, The Internal Concave Part of the Spleen next the Stomach and Pancreas.

B B, The Splenick Arteries Injected with Red Wax.

C C, The Veins fill'd with White Wax.

D E, The Various Flexures and Contortions of the Veins and Arteries near the Surface of the Spleen.

Fig. 4.

A, Part of the Spleen of some Quadrupede cut off, after the whole Spleen has been distended with Wind and dried.

B, The External common Membrane deriv'd from the Pe­ritonaeum.

C, The Internal Proper Membrane of the Spleen.

D E, &c, The Cells of its Cavernous Body, which open in­to the Large Veins of the Spleen.

In the Humane Spleen these Cells are more Numerous and Less, and open into the Extremities of the Veins and Arteries. I know Ruysch in his Accurate Anatomical Epistles lately publish'd, denies the Existence of these Cells as well as Fibres in the Humane Spleen, but if you blow into the Splenick Vein, or Inject Water by the Arteries, when the Outward Membrane of the Spleen is not torn or broke in taking it out (which are very liable to happen in freeing the Humane Spleen) you may be satisfied of the Existence of its Cells; and if you Inject the Veins with Wax you will find this Difference from that of a Quadrupede; that the Wax in the Humane Spleen do's not reach the Cells, except it is driven on with great Force, and Injected very hot; but if you Inject Wax into the Spleen of an Ox, Dog, or the like, you will find all its Cells soon distended with it, and the great Ramifications of the Veins scarce to be distin­guished, by Reason the Wax so soon passes out of their Sides into the Cells.

Fig. 5.

A A, The Internal Face of the Proper Membrane of the Spleen of a Quadrupede.

B C, The Fibres broke off which pass between the Cells to each Side of the proper Membrane of the Spleen.

D D, Some of the larger Cells of the Spleen of various Figures.

Fig. 6.

The whole Spleen free'd from its External and Proper Membranes, after its Blood-Vessels were Injected with Wax.

A A, The Arteries.

B, The Veins of the Spleen fill'd with Wax.

a a b b, The Ramifications of the Blood-Vessels before they enter the Body of the Spleen.

C, Part of the Capsula or Proper Membrane of the Spleen, according to Bidloo.

D, The Nervous Plexus.

E F, The Ramifications of the Blood-Vessels at their Ex­tremities, into whose Sides the Cells of the Humane Spleen open.

F, The Interstitia at the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels, which Bidloo Calls the Cells.

G G, The Extremities of the Lympheducts, and divers Fi­bres of the Spleen. The Texture and Composition of the Spleen being thus known, we should in the next Place consider what Office this Part has in the Animal Oeconomy; but that being a Task too great for the Limits of our present Page, I shall insert my Thoughts of it elsewhere.

THE THIRTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Superior Convex Surface of the Liver here Printed on the Reverse.

AA, The Superior Gibbous Part of the Liver, where divers Lympheducts may be seen.

B B, The Ligamentum Suspensorium Hepatis, fasten'd to the Diaphragma, its Fore-Part being cut from the Ensiformal Car­tilage.

C C, Part of the Diaphragma; in which its Fleshy and Ten­dinous Parts appear together with its Blood-Vessels.

D, The Ligamentum Umbilicale pinn'd out.

E E, That Part of the Liver which is Extended towards the Left Side, and rests on the Stomach, and is sometimes (as in this Subject) divided into Lobes.

F, Seems to be Part of the Diaphragma: Bidloo makes it to be a Ligament that adheres to the Ensiformal Cartilage, which I can by no Means conceive.

G, A Portion of the External Membrane of the Liver, continued from the Peritonaeum, rais'd.

Fig. 2.

The Inferior Concave Surface of the Liver.

A, The Right Side of the Liver.

B, The Ligamentum Suspensorium Hepatis pinn'd out.

C, The Ligamentum Umbilicale.

D, The External and Common Membrane of the Liver rais'd and pinn'd out.

E, The Liver cut into, to shew its Inside.

F, Part of the Diaphragm.

G, The Arteria Hepatica, which we commonly find divided into Two Branches or Trunks of the Size of this here Exprest, before they enter the Liver.

H H, The Vena Porta as it enters the Liver.

I, The Capsula Communis or Production of the Peritonaeum, which is said to in­close the Vena Porta, Arteria Hepatica, and Ductus Bilarii in their Progress thro' the Liver; which Description of it, I am apt to think, is rather imposed on it in Favor of some Conjectures concerning the Office of the Vena Porta within the Liver, than any real Appearance of it in Nature; tho' it is very plain those Vessels within the Liver do appear cover'd with a Common Inclosure; the like of which may be seen on the Vessels within the Spleen, Kidneys, &c.

K K, The Vena Cava Extended on a Pencil.

L, The Gall-Bladder.

M, A Lympheduct passing on the Surface of the Gall-Bladder.

N, The Ductus Cysticus.

O, The Common Gall-Duct.

P, The Lympheducts of the Liver marching on the Vena Porta towards their Lymphatick Glands, placed on the Trunk of that Vein below the Liver.

Concerning the Distribution of the Vessels of the Liver, and the intimate Structure of that great Gland, consult the following Table.

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THE THIRTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

A Portion of the Liver Boyl'd and View'd with a Microscope.

A, The Outward Membrane of the Liver Rais'd and Pinn'd out.

B B B, The Lobuli compos'd of small Glands, of Various Figures and Sizes.

C, The Membranes continued from the Blood-Vessels, which divide the Lobuli from each other.

D D, The Blood-Vessels, of which some are Broken off.

E E, The Gall-Ducts, many of which are in like Manner Broken off as they Arise from the Lobuli.

Fig. 2.

A, A Branch of the Vena Cava.

a a, Its Extremities within the Liver.

B, A Branch of the Vena Porta.

b b, Its Extremities in like Manner not join'd with the former, says Bidloo. In preparing the Liver to Inject its Blood-Vessels with Wax, I found such a Communication between the Vena Cava and Porta, that I could by no means but Conceive the Extremities of those Vessels are continued Chanels; for by pouring Water or Spirit of Wine into the Vena Porta, with the assistance of a Tunnel only, I found it soon run out again by the Vena Cava: Nor do's the Extre­mities of the Arteries of the Liver seem less Communicative with the Vena Cava; for by Syringing Water into the Hepatick Arteries, it easily passes into the Vena Cava, or Porta. In Blowing into the He­patick Arteries or Gall-Ducts, I commonly find the Lympheducts of the Liver Distended with Wind.

Fig. 3.

The Gall-Bladder and its Ducts.

A, The Ductus Cysticus.

B, The Internal Membrane of the Ductus Cysticus Appearing after Raising the External. This Internal Membrane is much Larger than the External, by which means it Frames divers Valves or Rugae in the Cavity of this Duct. These Rugae (which some call Valves) pre­vent the perpetual Effusion of the Bile into the Duodenum: Nor do they Oppose the Retrocession of the Gall by the Cystick-Duct, as some pretend; for if you either Blow, or Inject Water into the Ductus Communis, the Gall-Bladder soon becomes Distended. In Examining the Gall-Ducts of a Lamb's Liver, I clearly Discover'd divers Ducts of Gall Arising from the Liver, and emptying themselves into the Ductus Cysticus: Nor could I by any means observe in that Subject any Gall-Ducts Arising from the Liver, and Discharging their Contents into the Gall-Bladder at its Neck, as some pretend. I have more than once emptied the Gall-Bladder of a Humane Body, and made a Ligature on the Ductus Cysticus some Distance from its Neck, and afterwards forci­bly Distended the Hepatick-Ducts with Wind, but could by no means Raise the Gall-Bladder: I have also made the same Experi­ment in Quadrupedes with Mercury, by Injecting it by the Ductus Hepaticus, but could not find it come into the Gall-Bladder imme­diately; but in the Ductae Cysticus about a Quarter of an Inch from the Gall-Bladder, I have seen the Mercury Arise from Two or Three Gall-Ducts proceeding from the Liver.

C, The Ductus Hepaticus cut from the Liver.

D, Part of the Ductus Communis.

Fig. 4.

A A, The Gall-Bladder partly Open'd.

B, A Portion of the Meatus Cysticus.

C C, Divers Blood-Vessels Propagated between the Gall-Bladder and Liver, which Bidloo takes to be some of the Lesser Cystick-Ducts.

D, One of the Larger of the last mentioned Vessels, which Bidloo in like Manner Describes as One of the Largest of the Cystick-Ducts, with its Orifice E F, looking into the Gall-Bladder.

Fig. 5.

The Blood-Vessels of the Liver and Gall-Ducts Injected with Wax, and free'd from their Extremities which compose the Glands. This Scheme or Distribution of these Vessels may be prepar'd after the fol­lowing Manner. The whole Liver being taken out with the Trunks of its Blood-Vessels left to it of a convenient length; wash out the Blood from its Vessels by Syringing of warm Water into Them: This done, fill the Blood-Vessels with Spirit of Wine or Alum-Water, or In­ject them with Oyl of Turpentine a little warm'd. After some Hours, dip the whole Liver in hot Water, and Inject Wax of a different Colour into all its Blood-Vessels and Secretory-Ducts; the Arteries being fill'd with Red; the Vena Porta with a Dark Colour; the Vena Ca­va of a Distinguishable Colour; and the Gall-Ducts with Yellow Wax: This done, free the Liver of its Outward Membranes, and with your Fore-Finger begin to divide the Lobuli from each other, by thrusting it thro' the Glandulous Surface even to the Trunks of the Large Blood-Vessels. The Lobuli of the Liver being very much divided, dip the whole in warm Water, and with a stubbed Brush, made of the stiffest Hogs-Bristles, begin to Brush off the Glandules of the Liver from the Extremities of the Injected Blood-Vessels. In do­ing of this be Cautious, left you break off the Large Trunks of the Injected Vessels, always remembring to begin at the Surface of the Glands, and after the Extremities of the Injected Vessels are clear'd, than proceed to their Larger Branches and Trunks. If due care is taken in managing this Preparation of the Vessels of the Liver, you will find them more Numerous than this Figure Represents.

A, The Right Side of the Liver.

B, The Left.

C C, The Larger Trunks of the Hepatick Arteries Injected with Red Wax.

c c c, The Branches of the Arteries which do Accompany the Vena Porta, and Hepatick Gall-Ducts.

D, The Trunk of the Vena Cava fill'd with Green Wax.

E E, A Portion of the Diaphragm.

F G H, The Three Large Branches of the Vena Cava within the Liver, lying towards its Superior and Convex Surface, and not As­sociating with the Vena Porta and other Vessels, framing Acute An­gles in their Intersecting those of the Porta.

g h i, The Lesser Branches of the Vena Cava.

K, The Trunk of the Vena Porta cut off, after being Injected with White Wax.

L L, Parts of the Capsula which includes the Vena Porta, Hepatick Arteries, and Gall-Ducts together.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, The Large Branches of the Vena Porta.

M, The Gall-Bladder.

N, The Roots of the Ductus Cysthepatici, according to Bidloo.

O, The Ductus Cysticus.

P, The Ductus Hepatius: p, their Branches.

Q, The Ductus Communis.

R, Part of the Ligamentum Umbilicale.

S, The Canalis Venosus between the Vena Porta and Cava, become a Ligament.

T, Parts of the Hepatick Nerves.

V, Some of the Lympheducts of the Liver Marching on the Cap­sula of the Vena Porta.

Hence it Appears the Liver is a Glandulous Body compos'd of Blood-Vessels, Excretory-Ducts, Nerves and Lympheducts. The Vessels which Import Blood into it, are the Vena Porta and Arteria Hepati­ca; at their Extremities Arise, or are Continued, the Branches of the Vena Cava: Nor are the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels of the Liver equally lessen'd like the Veins and Arteries of other Parts, as the above mention'd Experiment of pouring Water only into the Vena Porta, and its running out by the Vena Cava do's Evince; or by gentle Syringing Water by the Hepatick Arteries, and its easily passing by the Vena Cava; so that the Extremities of the Hepatick Blood-Vessels seem to be largely Inosculated with each other, especially the Vena Porta with the Cava. The Gall-Ducts Arise from the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels, and tho' they Communicate immediately with the Blood-Vessels, yet Liquors convey'd into the Vena Porta and the like, do not so rea­dily pass into these Ducts as the other Blood-Vessels; because the Or­tiolae in the Sides of the Blood-Vessels whence those Ducts Arise, are much less than the Pore of those Vessels themselves. Besides the Blood-Vessels of the Liver, which are furnish'd with Pores for the Secre­tion of the Gall, there are still other Branches of the same Vessels which Administer a proper Nourishment to the Gland it self. By the Gland it self. I mean the Parietes of those Vessels which compose the Liver: For I cannot conceive the Liver to be any thing else then a Compages of Vessels more or less Distended. As there is a proper Nourishment due to the Gland it self, so it is Necessary, that besides its Secretory-Ducts, the Liver should be also furnish'd with Lympheducts, to car­ry off the Redundancy of its Nutritive Juice, continually supplied by the Arteries; but of this elsewhere. The Nerves are necessary in the Liver, as they are in all Parts where Membranes are Useful; not be­cause they Import any Liquor as some conceive, as an Ingredient to the Matter separated; but by the Nerves the Tone of Parts is in a great Measure maintain'd; for if the Nerves are Relaxt, the Parts to which they belong, suffers an Atrophia, tho the Blood has its free Accession to the Part as before; but of this also in another Place.

In Dissecting a Morbid Body which before Death was much afflicted with Hypochondriack Pains, I found the Liver very much lessen'd, and its Surface uneven, not unlike a heap of small Bullets. In Dis­secting the Body of a Noble-Man afflicted with the like Pains, I found that Part of the Liver which Appears below the Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs, of a Livid Colour, and the whole somewhat Lessen'd, the Gall-Bladder very much Contracted, and fill'd with Two or Three small Stones; the Peritonaeum on the Parts adjacent being much Thick­ned, and its Blood-Vessels Turgid. In the Body of a Young Lady (reduc'd to a Marasmus from a Scrophulous Indisposition) I found the whole Surface of the Liver very Black. In a Person who is now Living, and in tollerable Health, I could Three Years since discover (by feeling the Right Hypochondrium) the Lower Part of the Liver ex­ceedingly Tumified and Hard; which is now intirely Vanish't.

THE THIRTY-NINTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

PART of the Iejunum or Hungry Gut, together with a Portion of the Mesentery, &c.

A A, The Surface of the Iejunum Cover'd with its External Membrane continued from that of the Mesentery, it being produc'd from, or a continuation of the Internal Lamina of the Peri­tonaeum.

B B B, The Vasa Lactea not Extended, being here Exprest by simple Lines only, as they pass from the Intestines thro' the Mesentery.

The Lacteal-Vessels carry both Chyle and Lympha Promiscuously, and have a Two-fold Origin; the One from the Extremities of the Arteries; the Other from divers Ostiolae in the Cavities of the Guts: The Former Appears not only by Injecting of Mercury by the Arte­ries of the Mesentery D, and its passing into the Lacteals B; but when these Milky-Vessels are not imploy'd in conveying of Chyle, they are constantly charg'd with Lympha: The Latter Origin of these Milky-Tubes from divers Ostiolae in the Cavities of the Guts, Appear in their receiving of Chyle from thence. The Lympha from the Arteries meets with the Chyle at the beginnings of the Lacteal-Vessels, by which means its Progress towards the next Lymphatick Gland is promoted: The Vasa Lactea primi generis, Arise with Capillary Branches very much Divided, and become United into large Trunks, in the Mid-way between the Intestine and Lymphatick Gland; and are sometimes again Divided before their Entrance into the Vesiculae of the Gland. The Chyle and Lympha thus re­ceiv'd into the Vesiculae of the Mesenterick Glands, there meets with other Lympha brought into those Vesiculae by the Arteries; whereby the Chyle is not only more diluted, but its Ascension towards the Ve­sica Chyli is promoted, by its receiving a fresh Impetus from the Lympha so mixing with it. Thus we may conceive the Progress of Chyle towards the Receptaculum Commune is carri'd on, by means of the Lympha joining with it in its several Stages thither. Nor would the Valves of the Lacteal-Vessels be of any considerable Use, if the Chyle did not receive an Additional Impetus from the Arteries in their supplying it with fresh Lympha, as well in the Lymphatick Glands, as at the Beginnings of the Vasa Lactea primi generis.

C, The External Membrane of the Intestine Rais'd and Pinn'd out.

C C, The Muscular Membrane of the Intestine lying immediately un­der the External Membrane consisting of a Longitudinal and Circular Order of Fibres.

D D, The Mesenterick Arteries Propagated to the Intestine.

E E, The Veins which Arise from the Extremities of the Arteries, and discharge the Refluent Blood into the Vena Porta.

F, A Branch of the Mesenterick Nerve made bare.

G G, The Vasa Lactea primi generis.

H, The External Surface of the Intestine Adorn'd with Blood-Ves­sels.

I I, The Glands of the Mesentery into whose Vesiculae the Vasa Lactea primi generis Import their Contents, as above noted; whence the Vasa Lactea secundi generis Arise, and convey their Contents in like manner, either into the Receptaculum Chyli immediately, or into the Pancreas Asellii. Tab. 40. L, Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

A Portion of the Iejunum dri'd after being Distended with Wind, whereby its Valvuiae Conniventes, fram'd by the loosness of its Inward Membranes Appear as here Represented.

A B C D, The Various Disposition of the Valves in the Cavity of the Intestine; some of them taking up near Two Thirds of the Cir­cumference of the Inside of the Gut, A, Inferior: Others B D, about a Fourth Part; whilst others are Semicircular.

As the Upper Part of the Duodenum next the Pylorus is Furnish'd with large Valves, so they gradually Decrease in the small Guts as well in Magnitude as Number, as they approach the Lower Parts of those Intestines towards the Colon: Hence the Valvulae Conni­ventes of the Duodenum are very Large; that at the Pylorus being Circular; The Valves of the Iejunum less; those of the Ilium still less; insomuch, that the Lower Part of this Gut next the Colon scarce affords any Appearance of them: See Fig. 3.

These Valves are compos'd of the Internal Membranes of the Inte­stines, which being much larger then the Exterior, are necessarily laid up in Foldings, and Frame these Parts. These Connivent Valves hinder the quick Descent of the Contents of the Intestines, least the Chyle as well as the Excrementitious Parts should escape the Mouth of the Lacteal Veins.

Fig. 3.

A Portion of the Ilium dri'd after Inflation.

A A, The External Surface of the Intestine.

B, The Internal —

C C, The Valves of this Intestine much less then in the Iejunum.

D, That end of the Ilium next the Iejunum.

E E, That next the Colon.

Fig. 4.

The Beginning of the Colon, Extremity of the Coecum, together with a Portion of the Ilium dri'd after Inflation.

A A, The Coecum Adorn'd with its Blood-Vessels.

B B, The Colon plac'd in the Right Ilia G G, Tab. 33. and C, Tab. 40.

C C, Its Blood-Vessels Injected with Wax.

D, A Portion of the Ilium as it enters the Beginning of the Colon.

Fig. 5.

The same Parts of the Colon, Ilium, and Coecum, Exprest in the prece­dent Figure, Open'd to shew the Valves of the Colon, and the entrance of the Ilium into the Colon as they Appear after Inflation and drying them.

A, The Valve at the Orifice of the Coecum in the Colon.

B B, The Colon Open'd to shew its Inside.

C C, The Blood-Vessels Injected with Wax.

D, Part of the Ilium before it enters the Cavity of the Colon.

E E, The End of the Ilium which hangs down loose into the Cavity of the Colon, as Appears before drying of the Guts, which here Frames an Appearance of a Connivent Valve.

F, The Orifice of the Ilium Opening into the Colon.

By this Contrivance we may easily conceive how the Excrements, when they have past the Small Guts into the Colon, cannot return again: A likeness of which, may be imitated if you take a Piece of Gut and put One End of it into the Neck of a Bottle, and tying the other end of the Gut on the Outside of the Nosel of the Bottle, filling the Bottle with Water by that Gut; and tho' you afterwards turn the Nose of the Bottle downwards, yet no Part of the contain'd Water can come out, till it has so Prest out the end of the Gut in the Bottle that it becomes Inverted. This may serve to give us an Idea how it may happen in this Part when the Excrements are rejected by the Mouth in Cholick and Iliack Passions.

G G, The large Valves of the Colon, which like those of the small Guts are partly Fram'd by the Loosness of the Internal Membrane of the Gut; and are here in the Colon chiefly made by a Corrugation or Folding of the Membranes of the Gut it self, by means of its Ligaments, Tab. 40. Fig. 1. D, and Tab. 54. d d. These Ligaments of the Colon are truly Fleshy Fibres, and I am apt to think are capable of contracting themselves and promote the passing on of the Contents of this Gut. When the Ligaments of the Colon are divided, the Foldings of it which help to compose its Valves, are loosned, and the whole Gut becomes almost plain without any Inequalities. As the Ligaments of the Colon Descend towards the Rectum they begin to Expand themselves, and at length Frame an External Membrane for the Rectum.

H H, The Internal Concave Surface of the Cells of the Colon.

I I I, The External Convex Surface of the Cells of the same Gut.

Fig. 6.

A Portion of the Rectum with Part of the Mesentery continued to it.

A A B B, The External Surface of the Rectum, on which the Liga­ments of the Colon compose a Tegument, whose Fibres are very strong, and are Extended according to its Length.

C C D D, The Fatty Appendages, whose Extremities have divers Figures.

E, The Mesentery.

F G, The Trunks of the Blood-Vessels.

Fig. 7.

The Rectum Divided according to its Length, and Expanded to shew its Inside.

A B, &c. The Internal Tunicle of the Rectum, which being much larger than the External, necessarily Appears in many Folds in this Po­sition. This Internal Tunick of the Rectum is compos'd of a vast Number of Glands, to which divers Blood-Vessels belong; of these, the Veins are considerably Large and are commonly fill'd with Blood, by reason of their Position and the Blood Ascending directly in them; whence it happens they become very much Distended when the Blood do's not readily pass on in their Superior Trunks; or when any sharp Humor Affects this Membrane, these Veins become Tumified, and sometimes discharge their Blood, and are call'd Haemorrhoides Apertae; if no Blood flows from those Tumified Veins, they are call'd Haemor­rhoides Caecae. The Glandules imploy'd in separating a Matter to Lubri­cate the Inside of the Rectum, and cause the Excrements, tho' very much harden'd to pass off easily, are in this Case also very much Swell'd, and a great Quantity of Mucus flows from them: Hence the whole Inward Membrane of the Rectum becomes much Thickned, and when prest down beyond the Stricture of the Sphincter Muscle of the Anus, it is call'd Procidentia Ani. Tho' it is commonly suppos'd the Outward Membrane of the Rectum as well as the Internal, is driven out in a Common Procidentia Ani; yet the following Case seems to evince the contrary, and that it is the Internal Membrane of the Rectum only that is then Prolaps'd.

A Gentleman of about Twenty Seven Years of Age, had for se­veral Years been very much Afflicted with the Haemorrhoides and a Procidentia Ani, who after a sudden Debauch had a great Inflamation and Tumor Affected the Anus, attended with great Pain: In the space of Twelve Hours, the Parts about the Anus Appear'd of a Livid Co­lour; soon after a Mortification follow'd. The Sphincter Muscle of the Anus being Relaxt, a Procidentia Ani follow'd; the Prolapsed Inte­stine (being expos'd to the Matter which flow'd from the Adjacent Parts) soon suffer'd Mortification. The Patient after some Weeks recover'd his usual Strength, and in a few Months became perfectly Well. Nor did any inconveniency follow by reason of the Mortification of the Prolapsed Intestine; but on the Contrary, He continued Well, and was free'd not only from the Habitual Haemorrhoides, but was after­wards free'd from a Procidentia Ani.

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THE FORTIETH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Trunk of the Body lying in a Supine Posture, and some of the Viscera of the Abdomen Expos'd to View.

A A, The Common and Proper Integuments of the Abdomen Dissected.

B, The Under-side of the Omentum as it Appears when Rais'd and re­maining Contiguous to the Colon.

C C, The Colon at its Beginning in the Right Ilia, and in its Progress over the Right Kidney, by the Pylorus and under the Bottom of the Sto­mach: The farther Progress of this Intestine is commonly so well Describ'd, that we need not say more of it in this Place.

c c, The Coecum.

D, That Part call'd One of the Ligaments of the Colon, which we take to be Compos'd of Fleshy Fibres, &c.

E E, The Intestina Tenuia, or Thin Guts, which are the Duodenum Iejunum, and Ileum; to these some add the Coecum.

F F, The Intestina Crassa, or Thick Guts, are the Colon and the Rectum; to these the Coecum is commonly reckon'd.

G H I, The Mesentery to which the Intestines are Contiguous. The Mesentery is Compos'd of divers Strata of Membranes, the outwardmost of which, on both Sides of it, is a Continuation of the Internal Membrane of the Peritonoeum; between these are plac'd divers Membranaceous Loculi, which Inclose its Glands K K: This Internal Part of the Mesentery is by some Esteem'd as a Third Mem­brane proper to this Part. The Rise or Connexion of the Mesentery to the Stable Parts, is at the Three Superior Vertebrae of the Loins on both Sides the Arteria Magna, where it sends out the Arteria Coeliaca and Mesenterica Superior. Besides Blood-Vessels, the Mesentery is plentifully furnish'd with Lympheducts and Nerves; the Latter are well Describ'd by Dr. Willis and Vieusenius; the Lympheducts are mention'd in the precedent Table; its Arteries are: Figur'd in our Appendix; its Veins Correspond to them, and discharge their Blood into the Liver by the Vena Porta.

K K, The Glands of the Mesentery thro which the Chyle and Lympha passes to the Receptaculum Chyli.

L, A Large Gland of the Mesentery near the Receptaculum Chyli, call'd by Asellius, Pancreas.

M M, The Fat which in Humane Bodies is commonly very plentifully plac'd between the Mem­branes of the Mesentery. In some Quadrupedes, especially in Dogs, the Fat only Accompanies the Trunks of the Blood-Vessels of the Mesentery.

Fig. 2.

This Figure is Copied from Bourdon's Third Table, Fig. 1.

A A A, The Mesentery in which its Vessels and Glands are here only Exprest.

B B, The Intestines.

C D, The Glandules of the Mesentery, thro' which the Chyle and Lympha pass together from the Intestines to the Receptaculum Chyli. C D, Those Glands which receive the Contents of the Vasa Lactea Primi Generis; F, That plac'd near the Receptaculum Chyli which receive the Contents of the Venae Lacteae Secundi Generis. A A, Inferior, Denote the Venae Lacteae Primi Generis. A, Supe­rior and E, Represents the Venae Lacteae Secundi Generis. E, Superior, Part of a Lympheduct Arising from the Spleen.

G, Part of the Receptaculum Chyli, or the Beginning of the Ductus Thoracicus.

H, The Arteria Mesenterica.

I, The Vena Mesenterica.

A further Description of the Receptaculum Chyli and Ductus Thoracicus, is Inserted in the Appen­dix, Fig. 11, 12.

Fig. 3, 4.

Shew the different Insertions of the Thoracick-Duct into the Lower Side of the Left Subclavian Vein; which in these Figures are Erroneously Exprest in the Right Subclavian.

E E, The Subclavian Veins.

F F, The Thoracick-Ducts.

Fig. 5, 6.

A B B, One of the Lacteal-Vessels Blow'd up and Dri'd, in which the Valves Appear at a greater Distance from each other, then in a Lympheduct prepar'd in the same Manner, Fig. 6.

THE FORTY-FIRST TABLE.

SHEWS the rest of the Viscera as they Appear within the Ca­vity of the Abdomen, after the Intestines together with the Me­sentery, are remov'd.

A A, The Lower Parts of the Kidneys. It's well known the Kidneys are those Parts which separate the Urine from the Blood; whence it is Convey'd by the Ureters into the Bladder of Urine. Concerning the Structure of the Kidneys; See Tab. 43.

B B, The Ureters partly Cover'd with Fat, in their way from the Kidneys to the Bladder of Urine.

C, The Bladder of Urine somewhat Distended.

D D, The Spermatick Vein and Artery on both Sides Involv'd with Fat and Membranes, as they pass towards the Testicles.

E, The Right Side of the Scrotum, with the Testicle of that Side remaining in it. This Right Side of the Scrotum is Divested from the Left by a Suptum Inter­medium, mention'd by the Accurate Ruysch.

F, The Left Testicle taken out of the Scrotum.

G, The Bottom of the Stomach in Situ.

H H, The Liver in Situ.

I, The Pancreas as it Appears in its Proper Situation after the Intestines are remov'd.

K, A Portion of the Duodenum cut off and tied below the Insertion of the Gall and Pancreatick Ducts.

L, The Lower Part of the Rectum in like Manner tied up.

M, Part of the Mesentery according to Bidloo.

N, The Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna.

O, The Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava.

P, The Internal Surface of the Peritonaeum, as it Appears when Divided in a Crucial Manner, together with the Common and the rest of the Proper Integu­ments of the Abdomen. In the Upper Part of this Appearance of the Peritonaeum, the Fibres of the Musculus Transversalis may be seen as they lie under it.

Q Q, The Fat withinside the Skin.

R R, The Superior and Inferior Parts of the Musculus Rectus Abdominis, Di­vided as above Noted.

S, The Lower Part of the Spleen in Situ.

T, The Trunk of the Arteria Mesenterica Superior cut off near the Aorta.

V, A Portion of the Arteria Mesenterica Inferior in like Manner Divided.

W, The Umbilical Ligament of the Liver turn'd Upwards, and not free'd from its Inclosing Membranes.

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THE FORTY-SECOND TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Kidneys, Testicles, Bladder of Urine, and Spermatick Vessels, free'd from the Body and Display'd.

A A, The Right Kidney:

B B, It's Membrana Adiposa partly Separated.

C C, The Left Kidney free'd from the Membrana Adiposa.

D D, The Glandulae Renales: After frequent Injecting of Wax into the Veins of a Foetus, I have constantly found the Cavities of these Glands fill'd with the Wax. If you Blow into the Veins of a Foetus, the Glands of the Kidneys will soon become Distended with Wind: These Glands are soft and and Membranous in the Foetus, in the Adult very hard, and proportionably Less, and not capable of being Distended by Blowing into their Veins; nor do's any Fluid Iniected by the Veins, of an Adult, pass into the Cavities of these Glands. The Glandula Renalis of the Right Side has Arteries from the Emulgent, and Arteria Phrenica. The Gland of the Left Kidney has divers small Arteries from the Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna: Their Veins are Two Trunks; One to each Gland, that of the Right Side Arising only from the Gland of the Kidney it self, is Less than the Left, and empties its self into the Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava, above the Emulgent Vein; that of the Left, Arises from the Arteries of the Neighbouring Parts, as well as from those of the Gland it self, and Discharges its self into the Left Emulgent Vein K.

1 E, The Arteria Coeliaca cut off near its Origin.

2 E, The Trunk of the Arteria Mesenterica in like Manner cut off.

a F, The Descending Trunk of the Aorta below the Kidneys.

F F, The External Iliack Branches of the Great Artery.

G G, The Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava below the Kidneys.

g g g, The Iliack Branches of the Vena Cava.

X G, The Spermatick Artery of the Right Testicle, which commonly Arises from the Fore-part of the Aorta near the Beginning of the Left Spermatick Artery; but in the Subject whence this Figure was taken, it seems to Arise with Two Trunks from the Right Emulgent Artery, or else the Operator committed a Mistake in Dissecting these Parts here Exprest. In all the Subjects I have hitherto Examin'd, I have constantly found the Spermatick Arteries to Arise near each other, on the Fore-part of the Aorta, as is Exprest on the Left Side, and commonly Describ'd by Anatomists. Riolan tells us he has observ'd One of the Spermatick Arteries to Arise from the Emulgent; the like I have more than once thought I had seen, but upon strict Examination, I found it a Branch from the Emul­gent Artery, Descending in the Duplicature of the Peritonaeum with the Spermatick Artery and Vein; nor could I observe any Inosculation between it and the Spermatick Artery.

The Spermatick Arteries being very small as they Arise out of the Aorta, I don't much wonder that they have escap'd the Eyes of the less Accurate Dissectors, and give them occasion to suppose they were sometimes wanting.

†G, The Spermatick Vein of the Right Testicle, Ending in the Vena Cava, as I have constantly Observ'd it.

xF, The Left Spermatick Artery Arising from the Fore-part of the Descending Trunk of the Aorta towards the Left Side.

†F, The Spermatick Vein of the Left Testicle which empties it self into the Left Emulgent Vein in one Trunk most commonly; but sometimes I have seen it, as in this Figure, Divided a lit­tle below the Emulgent Vein.

H H, The Ureters of their common Size Descending from the Kidneys to the Bladder of Urine.

I, The Urine Bladder Distended with Wind.

K, The Left Emulgent Vein.

I, The Emulgent Artery of the Right Side.

M, Part of the Arteria Mesenterica Inferior.

N N, The Testicles.

O, The Epididymis of the Left Testicle.

P P, The Vasa Deferentia free'd from the Tu­nica Vaginalis of the Preparantia.

22, Divers Blood-Vessels Propagated to the Pe­ritonaeum from the Spermatick Vessels.

THE FORTY-THIRD TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE External and Inferior Side of the Left Kidney.

A A B B, The Proper Membrane of the Kidney covering above Two Thirds of its Body: The Superior Part of the Kidney being free'd from its Mem­brane, some Vestigiae of its Lobuli (when in the Foetus) do Appear.

C, The Emulgent Artery Pinn'd out.

D, The Emulgent Vein Pinn'd out.

E, The Vreter, and its Expansion within the Kidney, call'd the Pelvis, made bare.

Fig. 2.

A A, The Concave Part of the same Kidney Represented in the former Figure, Open'd, to shew the Ramifications of its Pelvis.

B B, The Blood-Vessels.

C C, The Vreter and its Pelvis Branching within the Body of the Kidney. A piece of a Tobacco-Pipe being Inserted to the Superior Branch of the Pelvis.

Fig. 3.

Half of the Kidney when Divided according to its Length.

A A, The External Convex Surface and Glandulous Part of the Kidney.

B B C C, The Tubuli Vrinarii Arising from the Glands of the Kidney in their Way towards the Papillae.

D, Half of the Pelvis Expanded, so that the Beginning of the Vreter from it may be seen.

E, The Vreter hanging down.

F, The Blood-Vessels of the Kidney.

The Proper Membrane of the Kidney is here Pinn'd out.

Fig. 4.

The Kidney Divided thro' its whole Length, from its Back to the Pelvis.

A A, The Urinary Tubes as they Appear in divers Clas­ses, in their Way towards the Papillae in the Pelvis.

B C, The Glands and Urinary Tubes Interspers'd with the Blood-Vessels of the Kidney.

D, The Pelvis or Infundibulum Open'd, so that the going out of the Vreter may be seen.

d, The Vreter.

E E, The Carunculae Papillares compos'd of the Endings of the Urinary Tubes, which open into the Branchings of the Pelvis, into which the Urine is discharg'd, in Order to its being transmitted to the Bladder of Urine by the V­reter.

e e, The Fat within the Kidney lying on the Pelvis.

Fig. 5.

The Blood-Vessels and Urinary Tubes of the Kidney Ex­prest by a Microscope.

A, The Proper Membrane of the Kidney.

B B, The Ends of the Blood-Vessels broke off.

C C, The Blood-Vessels of the Kidney which help to compose its Glands.

D D, The Glands of the Kidney compos'd of Blood-Vessels, Urinary Tubes, Nerves and Lympheducts.

The Nerves of the Kidneys as well as of other Glands in the Abdomen furnished with Excretory Ducts, are very few, and their Trunks very small; nor do's any exquisite Pains affect the Kidneys themselves, tho' Stones compos'd of divers Angles are lodg'd in their Glandulous Parts; but the Parts whose Nerves are Complext with those of the Kidneys, suffer most in such Cases. Tho' we reckon the Nerves among the Parts which compose the Glands of the Kidneys, yet we cannot think they are any otherwise Use­ful here, than Subservient to the other Vessels which are immediately imploy'd in the Secretion of the Urine, as the Blood-Vessels and Urinary Tubes; which are the Parts Or­ganiz'd for Separating the Urine from the Blood. Nor are the Lympheducts otherwise imploy'd here than we have elsewhere taken Notice of, as in the Liver; to carry off Part of the Succus Nutritius which is constantly convey'd to the Gland it self. How these Parts are Organiz'd, the following Experiments may a little Inform us.

If you Blow into the Emulgent Artery, the Wind will pass into the Vein of that Name, Vreter, and Lympheducts; the the like will happen if you Blow either into the Vreter or Emulgent Vein. If you Inject Mercury, all these Vessels will in like Manner be Distended. If you Syringe Water into the Emulgent Arteries, it will at first pass the Veins and Vreter; but if you continue Injecting it for any time, the whole Kidney will at Length become Distended, and the Water will no longer pass off again by those Vessels. Hence it Appears the Blood consisting of Globular Bodies, (Propor­tionated to the Magnitude of the Extremities of the Vessels moving in the Serum) readily pass on by a Succession of Glo­bules still driving others before them; whilst the Urinary Tubes (as they Arise with small Orifices from the Sides of the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels) receive the Thinner or Urinous Part of the Blood, and Discharge it into the Pelvis of the Kidney. In the Body of a Person of the First Rank I lately Dissected, I found the Left Kidney Large, its Texture very Loose; and by Blowing into its Vreter, the Emulgent Vein very suddenly became Distended: In this Person among other Disorders, he had near Twenty Years before his Death, very Feculent Urine: If his Urine was Evaporated by Heat as in a Spoon over a Candle, its Fe­culent Part became still thicker; by which it appear'd the Nutritious Parts of the Serum of the Blood as well as the Urinous Part, past off by the too great Laxity of the Uri­nous Pores in the Sides of the Blood Vessels in the Kidney.

E, The Urinary Tubes in their way from the Glands to the Papillae.

F, The Extremities of the Blood Vessels which Compose the Glands of the Kidney.

G, The Urinary Tubes Composing the Papillae, where their Mouths open into one of the Branches of the Pelvis.

H, A Branch of the Pelvis cut off.

Fig. 6.

A A, The Internal Concave Part of the Kidney opened.

B, Part of the Vreter.

C, The Pelvis free'd of the Kidney.

D D, The Branches of the Pelvis within the Kidney al­so made bare.

E E, The Urinary Tubes which Arise from the Extremi­ties of the Blood Vessels of the Kidney, and open into the Branches of the Pelvis, Composing the Papillae.

Fig. 7.

The Vreter, Pelvis and its Ramifications free'd from the Kidney and dried.

A, Part of the Vreter.

B, The Pelvis or Beginning of the Vreter lying within the Body of the Kidney.

C D, The Ramifications of the Pelvis cut from the Cor­pora Papillaria, or Endings of the Urinary Tubes.

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THE FORTY-FOURTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Membranes of the Ureter View'd with a Microscope.

A A A, &c. A Portion of the Ureter cut off near the Bladder and Ex­panded;

B, Its Exterior Mem­brane.

C D, Its Membrana­ceous Fibres running according to its Length, fill'd with Fat.

E, The Second Membrane or Lamella of the Ureters, consisting of Oblique Muscular Fibres Intersecting each other.

F, The Blood-Vessels lying between this and the First Membrane.

H, The Third or Internal Membrane of the Ureter, compos'd of Fibres much Looser and standing at greater Distances, than those of the Former.

I I, Divers Glandules which Appear in this Membrane, and Emit a Mucus to Defend the U­reter from the Acrimonious Salts of the Urine.

Fig. 2.

The Inferior or Back-part of the Bladder of Urine, &c. together with the Penis.

A B, &c. Portions of the Ureters in their Tor­tuous Progress to their Oblique Insertions, be­tween the Exterior and Inferior Membranes of the Bladder.

C C, The Bladder of Urine cover'd with Fat, as it is commonly found in Humane Bodies.

The Bladder of Urine may be said to be a Dila­tation of the Ureters; the intimate Structure of the Membrane of both agree, except that the Muscular Fibres of the Bladder are Stronger and Larger than those of the Ureters; the Superior and Largest of them embracing the Bladder, like a Hand, as Spigelius compares them; the Internal are Less, and Decussate the Superior with Various Angles: Some Anatomists reckon these among the Muscles, and call them Detrusores Urinae. The Glands of the Bladder of Urine are also Larger than those of the Ureters, and are frequently Tumified as well as the Fibres in Diseas'd Bodies, especially in those who for some time have been Afflicted with a Stone in this Part, the Sides of the Bladder have been very much Thickned; and by Compressing them a Mucus may be seen to Arise from its Internal Surface, thro' divers Ostio­la or Excretory Ducts. The Bladder is Situated in the Hypogastrium in the Duplicature of the Peri­tonaeum: When it's Inflated in the Body, it exact­ly fill's that Cavity of the Abdomen, call'd the Pelvis; its Upper Part is Suspended by the U­rachus, which in some Animals would be liable to fall on its Neck and hinder the Evacuation of Urine.

The Use of the Bladder is to Receive the Urine from the Ureters, and Contain it till the Time of Excretion; whence it's Squees'd out partly by its own Carnous Fibres, but chiefly by the Mus­cles of the Abdomen.

D, That Part of the Urethra that is Bended under the Os Pubis in its Proper Situation, and is plac'd between the Sphincter Muscle of the Anus and Prostatae. This Part of the Urethra is lia­ble to be Wounded, and sometimes Perforated by too hastily Introducing the Conductor into the Bladder, after an Incision is made in the Peri­naeum in Cutting for the Stone; whereby the O­perator afterwards thrusts his Forceps between the Bladder of Urine and Rectum. This Inad­vertency I am perswaded is very often Practis'd among the Pretenders to Lythotomy, and fre­quently proves fatal to the Patient. One would think it was hardly possible a Man in his Senses, and but tollerably acquainted with Anatomy, could commit such Errors; yet of this I have met with more than one Instance, when being call'd to Dissect the Deceased, in whom such O­perators have been so Unfortunate as to leave the Stone still in the Bladder.

E, The Vasa Preparantia or Blood-Vessels of the Testes, involv'd in the Peritonaeum.

F, The Testicle. Between F and E G, is that Part of the Spermatick Vessels, call'd Corpus Pyra­midale, and Plexus Pampiniformis or Varicosus.

G G, The Vas Deferens Ascending from the Testicle to the Vesiculae Seminales.

H H, The Vesiculae Seminales Blow'd up by the Vasa Deferentia; that of the Right Side having a Blow-Pipe still remaining in it.

I, The Back-Part of the Prostatae or Corpus Glandosum.

K K, The Back-Part of the Penis.

L L, The Musculi Directores Penis, whose Origin, Progress, and Termination are Exprest Tab. 47. Fig. 5.

M, The Bulb of the Cavernous Body of the Urethra Devested of the Musculus Accelerator Urinae, Exprest in the last mention'd Table; that Part of the Bulb towards the Anus being cut off; its Internal Cavernous Part here Appears Deprest, or drawn Inwards.

THE FORTY-FIFTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

IS the Testes with its Vessels and Membranes when free'd from the Scrotum.

A, The Body of the Testicle.

B, Some Appearances of the Musculus Crema­ster (according to Bid­loo.)

C C, The Tunica Vaginalis;

D, Its Inferior Part cleaving to the Testicle;

E, Its Superior Part continued to the Perito­naeum.

F, The Serpentine Distribution of the Blood-Vessels on the Testes.

G, That Part of the Testes next the Epididymis.

h, The Epididymis.

H, The Vas Deferens whole Thickness and Cavity is very truly Exprest at its Extremity.

I, A particular Vaginal-Tunicle of the Vas Deferens, which Bidloo says has Circular Fibres, but not here Exprest.

K, The Blood-Vessels of the Testicle call'd Va­sa Praeparantia, as they Appear before any In­jection or Inflation is made into them.

L, The Nerve of the Testicle.

Fig. 2.

The Testes, Vas Deferens, and Vasa Praeparan­tia Display'd, together with some Lympheducts of the Former.

A, The Arteria Spermatica continued from a Portion of the Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna: I can't but suspect this Part of the Figure to be Erroneous, since in the many Subjects I have always observ'd the Origin of the Spermatick Artery to be very Small, even much Smaller than its Inferior Trunk; insomuch, that its Ca­vity Arising from the Arteria Magna, would scarce admit the Smallest Probe commonly us'd, it being but just Capacious enough to receive a Large Hogs Bristle.

a a, &c. The Ramifications of the Spermatick Artery in their Descent to the Testes.

B, The Trunk of the Spermatick Vein with a Portion o [...] the Vena Cava, into which it Enters;

C D bb, &c. Its Various Anastomoses and Re­tiforme Inosculations, as it Ascends from the Te­stes.

E E, The Valves of the Spermatick Vein which look from below Upwards, and prevent the Descent of the Blood in that Vessel. Should it be askt why the Spermatick Veins in Humane Bodies, and the Arteries in Quadrupedes should have a Tortuous Progress towards the Testicles; and Vice Versa the Humane Spermatick Arteries and Veins of Quadrupedes should pass Straight? We answer, Tho' the Separation of the Semen in the Testicle is after the Manner of that of other Li­quors in Conglomerate Glands, yet we constantly find in all Animals, that the Arteries of the Testes are Propagated from their Large Trunks at a considerable Distance from them; and those of the Conglomerate Glands, are always supply'd with Blood-Vessels from the next Neighbouring-Branch: And this Practice in Nature we can't at present Account for otherwise, than that the Blood in the Testicles should not pass with that Velocity as it do's in other Glands; else what should be the Design of those many Turnings and Windings made in the Spermatick Arteries of most, if not all Quadrupedes? But that every An­gle of their Contortions should take off the Im­petus of the Impell'd Blood from the Heart. But the Subject of our present Animadversions here, offers an Objection. Why than are the Sperma­tick Arteries in Humane Bodies Straight, when their Progress is towards a Perpendicular Descent, upon the Account of the Erect Position of the Body? We answer, That the Descending Progress of the Blood might be a very good Argument of its Enjoying a freer Accession to the Testes; but we constantly Observe in all Humane Bodies, that the Spermatick Arteries are (as we have Inti­mated above) very Small at their Originals from the Arteria Magna, which is a sufficient Impe­diment to any great Impetus of the Blood from the Great Artery: Nor was this Contrivance in Nature necessary in Quadrupedes, because it would be an Impediment in them in providing that Requisite Stock of Semen to Impregnate the Female with her Numbers; or in regard a greater Proportion of Semen was in them necessary on the Account of the Length of the Cornua Uteri, which it must first pass thro', before it can Arrive at the Fallopian Tubes and Ovaria: Whence it is, that the Testes of Quadrupedes are much Larg­er in Proportion, than the Humane. But why the Humane Spermatick Veins are thus Divided and Inosculated with each other, when those of Qua­drupedes are Straight and fewer Trunks, is Ac­countable from their Positions; those of Men being towards a Perpendicular Ascent to convey the refluent Blood; and those of Quadrupedes near Horizontal. From hence the Necessity of making one of these Blood-Vessels Varicous, do's Appear, especially the Humane Spermatick Veins; which, if had the Arteries been also, as in Qua­drupedes; the Spaces or Perforations in the Mus­cles of the Abdomen for their Egress, must have been so Large, as that the Intestines would have been continually liable to an Extrusion.

F, Part of the Epididymis.

G, The Glandulous Part of the Testicle De­vested of its Proper Membrane.

H H, The Vas Deferens partly free'd from the Epididymis, to Exhibit some of its Contortions.

I, The Tunica Vaginalis of the Vas Deferens.

K, The Tunica Albuginea, with some of the Glandulous Part of the Testicle Rais'd with it.

L, Part of the Tunica Elythroides or Vaginalis.

M, Some of the Lympheducts of the Testicle Pinn'd out.

Fig. 3.

Part of the Vas Deferens that Composes the Epididymis, done much bigger than the Life.

A A, Part of the Testicle.

B D, The Tortuous or Serpentine Disposition of the Vas Deferens in the Epididymis; in which Manner the whole Body of the Epididymis is Compos'd of that Vessel, or Secretory Duct of the Testicle.

C D, Another Separation of the Vas Deferens in the Epididymis.

E, The Vas Deferens.

I I, The Tunica Vaginalis of the Vas Deferens Compos'd of Circular Fibres according to Bidloo.

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THE FORTY-SIXTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

A, THE Glandulous Part of the Testicle Devest­ed of its Proper Inte­gument.

B B, The Tunica Albuginea, or Proper Membrane of the Te­stes Rais'd and Pinn'd up.

C C, The Vessels of the Testes broken off in Raising the Albuginea.

D E, &c. Some of the Blood-Vessels which Perforate the Tunica Albuginea.

F, Part of the Foldings of the Vas Deferens, which Composes the Epididymis, made bare.

G, The Vas Deferens;

H, Its Cavity or Ductus which is very Con­spicuous in all the Figures of the preceding Table, and not Letter'd.

I D, The Vasa Praeparantia or Blood-Vessels of the Testes involv'd in their Proper Membrane.

K, The Nerve of the Testes.

Fig. 2.

The Testes Devested of its Tunica Albuginea.

A, The Seminal-Vessels of the Testes Colle­ctively passing to their Egress, in Order to Com­pose the Epididymis.

B B, The Tunica Albuginea free'd from the Testes.

C C, The Glandulous Part of the Testicle.

D D, The Seminal-Vessels or Tubes deriv'd from their Originals, in the Sides of the Arteries that Compose the Glands.

E E, The Orifices made by breaking off of the Blood-Vessels as they pass thro' the Tunica Al­buginea.

F, The Seminal Tubes passing out of the Te­stes, which are afterwards United into one Trunk, whose Foldings, Turnings or Windings Com­pose the Epididymis; whence it's continued (as is Exprest in the preceding Figure) and call'd Vas Deferens.

Fig. 3.

The Testes Dissected Transversely.

A A, The Tunica Albuginea Rais'd.

B B, The Glandulous Part of the Testes where some Vestigia of the Blood-Vessels Appear.

C C, The Progress of the Seminal Tubes thro' the Substance of the Testes.

D, Their Trunks Collectively passing towards their Egress, as in the Former Figure, which by some is call'd Ductus Highmorianus.

Fig. 4.

The Vessels of the Testes Exprest with a Mi­croscope according to Bidloo, whose Description take as follows. A, The Seminal-Vessels sepa­rated from each other. B, Their Cavities Swel­ling in the Manner of Valves. C, The Blood-Vessels Accompanying the aforesaid Vessels, and Covering them with Glands. D E, The Frag­ments of the Small Membranes. I am apt to be­lieve this Figure of the Seminal-Vessels of the Te­stes is Fictitious, or that it may be of the Semi­nal-Vessels of the Epididymis; for I am well assur'd the Seminal-Vessels of the Testes and their Blood-Vessels, can with no Art be so Display'd as Bidloo Describes these to be so Represented with a Mi­croscope: But grant it was Practicable so to Dis­play those Vessels, yet I am sure it is not possible to distinguish the Vessels which carry the Semen from those of the Blood; so that such a Descrip­tion must be Precarious. The Experiments I have made in Examining the Testes, convince me that the Extremities of their Blood-Vessels which Com­pose their Glands, are much Less or more Tender than those of other Parts; whence it is, if you Inject Mercury by the Spermatick Artery, it will not pass back again by the Vein, as in the Kid­neys and other Glands; but the Mercury upon pushing it Forwards, will sooner break the Extre­mities of these Vessels, and get out in the Tunica Albuginea, and Extend the whole Stone than re­turn again by the Spermatick Vein: Nor could I ever find the Lympheducts fill'd with Mercu­ry, upon Injecting it into the Spermatick Artery; but by Blowing into the Vein of that Name, the Lympheducts soon become Distended, as Nuck has also taken Notice in his Adenographia Curio­sa, Pag. 53.

Fig. 5.

A, The Blood-Vessels of the Testicle Injected with Wax, and not Separated from their Inward Membrane, deriv'd from the Peritonaeum.

B, The Spermatick Artery.

C, The Vein.

D D, The Spermatick Blood-Vessels above the Testes which are Distributed to the Epididymis. E, Vasa Deferentia; F, Tunica Albuginea; G, and to the Stone it self H. The Sixth Figure shews the other Side of the same Testicle and Vessels, which are Distinguish'd by the same Letters.

From what has been said, it Appears the Vasa Deferentia like the Secretory Ducts of other Glands, Spring from the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels of the Testes; and agreeable to the Length and Tortuous Progress of the Blood-Ves­sels of these Parts, so their Secretory Ducts or Vasa Deferentia are of a vast Length also, and Dispos'd in divers Foldings in Composing that Part call'd the Epididymis. The Vasa Deferen­tia thus Arising from the Epididymis, pass up Straight with the Preparantia: Soon after they are in the Cavity of the Abdomen, these Defe­rent Vessels leave the Preparantia, and Descend over the Ureters in the Pelvis of the Abdomen, between the Bladder of Urine and the Rectum; where they begin to Dilate themselves and Open into the Vesiculae Seminales, as Appears in the following Table, Fig. 1, 2.

THE FORTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

SHEWS the Fore-parts of the Penis, Glan­dulae Prostatae, and Vesiculae Seminales, &c.

A A, The Vesiculae Seminales.

a a, The Blood-Vessels; B B, their Branches on the Vesiculae.

C, The Membrane which covers the Vesiculae Seminales and Vasa Deferentia.

D Superior, The Vas Deferens of the Left Side appearing very much enlarg'd before it enters the Vesiculae Seminales of that Side.

D D Inferior, The Vesiculae Seminales of the Right Side.

E, The Neck of the Bladder cut off at the Beginning of the Vrethra.

F F, The Fore-Part of the Prostatae divided to shew the Inside of the Vrethra.

G, The Caruncula or Caput Gallinaginis on the Inferior or Back-part of the Vrethra; as it appears when the Su­perior or Fore-part of the Vrethra is divided.

H H, The Two Orifices of the Seed-Vessels, as they ap­pear when the Upper Part of the Caruncula or Caput Galli­naginis is snipt off with a Pair of Sizars. The Ostia Prosta­tarum on both Sides the Caruncula do somewhat appear.

I I, The Upper Part of the Penis, call'd, Dorsum Penis, cover'd with its Membrana Carnosa, whose Fore-part with the True-skin, composes the Praeputium.

K K, The Corpora Cavernosa Penis cut from the Ossa Pubis.

L, The Bulb of the Cavernous Body of the Vrethra.

The Figure of the Cavernous Body of the Vrethra dif­fers very much from those of the Penis; That of the Vre­thra being less in its Middle, and Large at both Ends; where­as the Corpora Cavernosa Penis are Less at their Extremities, and Large in their Middles.

M, The Glans composing the other Extream of the Ca­vernous Body of the Vrethra.

N N, The Nerves of the Penis pinn'd out.

O O, The Arteries of the Penis.

P, The Vena Ipsius Penis where it is Comprest by the Trans­verse Ligament of the Os Pubis, when the Penis is Erected.

Q, Part of the Membrana Carnosa Penis pinn'd out.

Fig. 2.

The Vesiculae Seminales cut through after Inflation and dry­ing them, to shew their Insides.

A B C, The Cells of the Vesiculae Seminales so extended by Inflation, that the Rete or Vesiculae Minores in their Insides do not appear.

D F F, The Insides of the Vasa Deferentia in like Manner so Extended by Inflation, that their Vesiculae Minores do not appear.

G, The Two Seminal Ducts which discharge the Semen into the Vrethra.

H, Part of the Prostatae.

Fig. 3.

A, A. The Corpus Glandulosum or Prostatae divided.

B, C, &c. Its Glandulous Inside.

D D, The Ducts of the Prostatae which open into the Vre­thra, at the Sides of the Caput Gallinaginis, which are elegantly Exprest in the following Table, Fig. 1. K.

F, F. Part of the Vrethra.

Fig. 4.

The Prostatae blow'd up, their Excretory Tubes in the Vre­thra and dry'd.

A, A, The Exterior Membrane.

B, B, The Interior Membrane compos'd of more carneous Fibres than the former.

C, C, &c. Their Transparent Vesicules extended.

D, D, Some of the Vesicules broke up.

E, E, Other Vesiculae that remain Hard and Extended.

F, F, Some Parts of the Ducts remaining Extended.

G, G, The Fragments of the Membranes.

Fig. 5.

The Muscles of the Anus and Penis in Situ.

A, B, C, D, The Musculus Sphincter Ani: The Figure and Situation of this Muscle is here well Exprest; tho' Part of it be frequently divided in Opening a Fistulous Sinus of the Anus, yet the remaining Part of it is sufficient for its pro­per Office of retaining the Faeces.

E, E, The Levatores Ani: The Origination of which Muscles are best seen after dividing the Ossa Pubis, to take out the Bladder of Urine with the Penis: They spring from the Internal Parts of the last mention'd Bones, and descend close over the Corpus Glandulosum or Prostatae. The Hinder Parts of these Muscles derive their Broad, Thin, Fleshy Be­ginnings from the Ossa Ischii and Os Sacrum; from these Places their Fibres descend to their Implantation, into the Lower End of the Intestinum Rectum in the Anus.

These Muscles have a Two-fold Office; first in drawing up the Anus, least it should be too much press'd upon by the Foeces; secondly they Compress the Prostatae and Vesicu­lae Seminales in Coitu, in Order to discharge their Contents or Semen into the Vrethra.

F, F, The Directores Penis or Erectores: They arise Fleshy from the Lower Margin of the Ossa Pubis where they are join'd to the Ischii; whence they ascend to their Implanta­tions near the Beginnings of the Corpora Cavernosa Penis.

The Position of these Muscles renders them capable of pulling the Penis Inwards and Downwards; but by Means of a Ligament arising from the Ossa Pubis, which is fastned to the Upper Part of the Penis, they have a different Ef­fect by drawing the Penis somewhat Upwards and Nearer the Pubes, whereby the great Vein on the Dorsum Penis is Comprest, and the Erection of the Penis Promoted.

G, G, The Corpora Cavernosa Penis.

H, H, The Musculus Accelerator Vrinae covering the Bulb of the Cavernous Body of the Vrethra: This derives its Origin from the Upper-part of the Vrethra L, Fig. 1. on both Sides, and encompassing the Bulb, meets on its Inferior Part, but after a considerable Progress on that Part of the Vrethra in the Perinaeum; this Muscle divides its self and makes Two Tendinous Insertions on both Sides the Corpora Cavernosa Penis, as is Exprest in this Figure.

Besides the Offices commonly ascrib'd to this Muscle of compressing the Vrethra in driving out the Remains of Urine, and promoting the Ejaculation of the Semen, both which Actions are chiefly done by the last describ'd Parts of it, em­bracing the Vrethra. It also Assists the Musculi Directores in promoting the Erection of the Penis, by compressing the Bulb whose contain'd Blood is then driven towards the Glans, in a greater Quantity than can immediately be discharg'd by the Veins of the Bulb; the Glans thereby suddenly becomes distended: But the Vigorous Action of this Muscle not con­tinuing long, the Veins of the Bulb which were then com­press'd, are again at Liberty to discharge the retain'd Blood, and the Glans suddenly Sinks: Whence it comes that the Glans is not always duly extended, when the Corpora Cavernosa Pe­nis are Erected.

This Part of the Bulb and Accelerator Muscle, &c. are di­vided in Lithotomy, or Cutting for the Stone in the Bladder; Whence it happens that the Cicatrice of these Parts after­wards, often hinders a compleat Extention of the Glans Penis in an Erection. The like happn'd in a Patient I was not long since call'd to, who had a Fistulous Sinus in the Pe­rinaeum, in whom I found this Bulbous Part of the Caver­nous Body of the Vrethra very much Indurated: Upon Enquiry he told me, When his Penis was Erected, the Glans remained shrivelld and no Ways Extended: Nor could the Cor­pus Cavernosum Vrethrae be extended, and therefore he could by no Means Ejaculate the Semen at the Time of Erection; but the Semen often came with the Urine.

I, The Musculus Transversalis Penis on the Left Side, that of the Right not being Letter'd; It Arises from the Knob of the Os Ischium immediately below the Origination of the Musculus Director, and passes transversly to the Superior Part of the Bulb of the Cavernous Body of the Vrethra.

K, The Glans or Balanus.

L, The Praeputium.

M, The Fraenum.

N, The Vrethra open'd

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THE FORTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Upper and Fore-parts of the Penis and Bladder of Urine, well Exprest after a Curious Dissection.

A A, The Cavernous Bodies of the Penis Whole.

B B, That Part of the Skin which Composes the Praeputium.

b, The Reduplication or Inner Membrane of the Praeputium.

C D, The Blood-Vessels which Adorn the Up­per-part or Dorsum Penis.

E, The Glans or Balanus.

About the Neck of the Glans where the Pre­puce is join'd to the Penis, are plac'd the Glan­dulae Odoriferae, taken Notice of by the Accu­rate Anatomist Dr. Tyson. These separate a Mat­ter, which serves to Lubricate the Prepuce, and make it slide easily on the Glans. These Glan­dules of the Prepuce are frequently very much Tumified in Venereal Contacts, and especially if these Parts happen to be Ulcerated, whence a Foetide Matter proceeds.

F F, The Urine Bladder Open'd.

G G, Parts of the Ureters next the Bladder.

H H, Portions of the Vasa Deferentia.

I I, Parts of the Vesiculae Seminales in View.

K, The Caruncula or Caput Gallinaginis, and Ostiolae Prostatarum as they Appear after the Fore-part of the Urethra is Divided.

K L, The Prostatae whose Upper-part is Di­vided with the Urethra.

M, The Vein of the Penis which is Comprest in an Erection, by a Ligament plac'd under the Ossa pubis.

N N, The Two Arteries of the Penis.

O O, The Nerves.

P P, The Corpora Cavernosa free'd from the Ossa Pubis and their Musculi Erectores.

Q Q, Parts of the Musculus Accelerator Uri­nae free'd from the Bulb of the Cavernous Body of the Urethra, and Expanded.

Fig. 2.

A A, Parts of the Glans Penis view'd with a Microscope.

B B, The Common Membrane of the Penis or Praeputium.

C C, The Proper Membrane of the Glans se­parated.

D E F G, Divers Rows of Fibres dispos'd like Membranes, and Intricately interwoven with the Internal Membranes and Blood-Vessels.

Fig. 3.

The Fore-part of a Portion of the Penis, to­gether with the Glans Dri'd after Inflation.

A A A, The Inner-parts of the Corpora Ca­vernosa Penis.

B, The Septum of the Corpora Cavernosa.

C D, The Cells of the Cavernous Bodies which Open into the Sides of the Veins, and are Sustain'd by the Fibres which pass to and fro' from the Cap­sula or Exterior Membrane of the Corpora Ca­vernosa and Septum. These Fibres are not so Conspicuous in the Humane Penis, as in that of a Horse: Nor are the Cells of a Humane Penis so Evident as they are in Quadrupedes: This Stru­cture of the Cavernous Bodies of the Penis seem­ing to agree with the Spleen in the same Animal.

E E, The Arteries passing thro' the Middle of each Cavernous Body of the Penis.

After taking off the Tops of the Corpora Caver­nosa Penis, from a Patient who had the Glans very much Ulcerated, I could easily take hold of the Ends of the Bleeding Arteries with my Forceps, and pass a Ligature on their Trunks, and Tie them; which Practice in such Cases is Preferable to the Application of Stypticks which cause Pain.

F, The Glans.

G, The Orifice of the Meatus Urinarius in the Glans.

Fig. 4.

The Hinder-part of the Penis in like Manner prepar'd by Inflation, &c.

A A, A Portion of the Capsula of the Caver­nous Body of the Penis cut, and rais'd up; on which Part of the Rete of the Corpus Cavernosum do's Appear.

B, The Corpus Cavernosum.

C, The Urethra Open'd.

D, The Corpus Cavernosum Urethrae Divided.

E, The remaining Part of the Urethra and its Cavernous Body entire.

F, The Glans Penis.

Fig. 5, 6.

The Corpora Cavernosa Penis and that of the Urethra, after a Transverse Section when Inflated and Dri'd.

A A, The Capsula or Strong Membrane of the Cavernous Bodies of the Penis.

B B, The Corpora Cavernosa Penis; in the Middle of each of which the Trunks of Two Ar­teries pass according to their Length.

C, The Septum.

D, The Strong Membrane or Capsula of the Corpus Cavernosum Urethrae.

E, The Circular Cavernous Body of the Ure­thra.

A particular Account of the Structure of this Part is Inserted in an Appendix to our Myotomia Reformata; where the Lympheducts of the Hu­mane Penis are Describ'd, and some Phaenomena relating to them Explain'd: Since the Writing of which, I have had an Opportunity of seeing the Lympheducts on the Penis of a Dog, where I Ob­serv'd by Blowing into the Veins, the Lymphe­ducts were immediately Distended.

THE FORTY-NINTH TABLE.

SHEWS the Cavity of the Abdomen of a Woman after the In­testines, Mesentery, &c. are remov'd.

A A, The Internal Part of the Peritonaeum, together with the Common and Proper Integuments of the Abdomen after a Crucial Section.

B, The Right Falloppian Tube of the Uterus somewhat Rais'd from within the Pelvis of the Abdomen.

C, A Portion of the Intestinum Rectum.

D, The Bladder of Urine in Situ.

E, The Pubes.

F, The Arteria Magna with its Iliac Branches lying on those of the Vena Cava.

G, The Vena Cava.

H, The Stomach supported with a Stylus.

I, The Liver in Situ.

K, Part of the Spleen.

L, Part of the Left Kidney.

M M, Parts of the Musculus Psoi Magni.

N, The Ligamentum Venosum Umbilicale Turn'd up.

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THE FIFTIETH TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Parts of Generation in a Woman Curiously Diffected, and plac'd in their Natural Site.

A, The Right Kidney.

B, The Left Kidney.

CC, The Glandulae Renales with their Blood-Vessels.

E, The Arteria Magna.

D D, The Ureters.

a, The Trunk of the Arteria Mesenterica Superior cut off.

b, The Trunk of the Arteria Mesenterica Inferior.

e e, &c. The rest of the Branches of the Great Artery; of which the Su­perior are the Emulgents, the Inferior the Iliaci Externi, and Interni.

F, The Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava.

f f f, The Various Ramifications of the Vena Cava; whereof the Superior are the Emulgentes, the Middle the Vertebrales, the Inferior the External and Internal Iliac Branches.

G G, The Spermatick Artery and Vein in their Progress to and from the Ovaria Blow'd up, and Separated from each other on the Right Side.

H H, The Spermatick Artery and Vein of the Left Side, still remaining within their Coverings.

I, A Portion of the Intestinum Rectum Tied.

K, The Fundus Uteri lying under the Internal Membrane of the Peritonaeum.

L, The Bladder of Urine, in like Manner, under the Internal Lamina of the Peritonaeum.

M M, The Tubae Falloppianae Adorn'd with their Blood-Vessels.

m m, The Cavities of the Falloppian Tubes.

N N, The Ovaria.

n n, The Fimbriae of the Falloppian Tubes which Embrace the Ovaria after Impregnation, as Ap­pears Tab. 53. B, C. Fig. 1.

O, The Orifice of the Vagina or Pudendum.

P P, The Labii Pudendi.

Q, The Praeputium Clitoridis made by the Nymphae.

R R, The Nymphae.

T, The Upper-part of the Pudendum towards the Mons Veneris.

V, The Extremity of the Clitoris call'd Glans, cover'd with the Nymphae.

W W, The Ligamentia Teretia continued to the Fundus Uteri, and Pinn'd out.

Tho' these Parts have obtain'd the Name of Ligaments, yet their Structure and Composition dif­fer very much from the Ligaments of other Parts, which are Hard, Dry and very Compact Bodies; whereas these Round Ligaments of the Uterus are Compos'd of a great Number of Veins and Arte­ries; the Nerves and Lympheducts are also said to Enter into their Composition: They Appear to be very Extensible Parts, and are Coextended with the Fundus Vteri after Impregnation: They are Broad towards the Fundus Vteri, and gradually Lessen themselves and become Round as they Ap­proach the Pubis, where they Terminate under the Fat: They pass thro' the Muscles of the Abdo­men, not unlike the Spermatick Vessels in Men, whence Women are sometimes liable to have a Her­nia Intestinalis; but the Perforations of the Muscles not being so Large as in Men, those Ruptures do not so often happen in Women.

X X, &c. A Large Portion of the Internal Lamina of the Peritonaeum covering the Surface of the Fundus Vteri, Bladder of Urine, Ovaria and the like: This by some is Erroneously call'd the Ligamentum Latum Vteri. Nor is there any such Ligament belonging to the Vterus, unless this Part of the Peritonaeum may be so call'd.

THE FIFTY-FIRST TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Clitoris and Parts annex'd, Dissected.

A, The Upper Part of the Clitoris with its Veins, which are comprest by the Li­gamentum Transversum of the Os Pubis in the Time of Coition, in like Manner as the Vein of the Penis is in its Erection.

B B, The Two Crura Clitoridis, which arise from the Ossa P [...]bis, where they appear Porous.

C C, Parts of the Labia Pudendi.

D, The Glans Clitoridis.

G G, The Nymphae which compose the Praeputium Clitoridis.

H, The Meatus Vrinaruis, or Passage of Urine.

E E, The Musculi Erectores Clitoridis, which arise from the External Margin of the Os Ischium, and are Inserted to the Beginnings of the Corpora Cavernosa of the Clitoris: Their Office is to draw the Clitoris to the Ossa Pubis, in Order to stop the Refluent Blood in its large Vein, whence the Clito­ris like the Penis becomes Extended. By these Means the Clitoris is not only Dilated, but the Labii Pudendi are in like Manner Extended by Two Cavernous Bodies or Retia of Blood-Vessels plac'd on each Side the Orifice of the Vagina ex­ternally. These are accurately describ'd by Reg. de Graaf de Mulierum Organis, Cap. VII. and call'd Plexus Retiformis.

F F, Parts of the Musculus Sphincter Vaginae left at the Extremity of the Clitoris. The Circular Fibres of this Muscle Encompass the Vagina on the Retiform Plexus, and Com­press its Veins, (which discharge their Blood into the Vein of the Clitoris A.) By which Means the Plexus is fill'd with Blood, and the External Orifice of the Vagina (about the Carunculae Myrtiformes) is straighten'd and adequately em­braces the Penis in a Mutual Coitus.

Fig. 2.

Part of the Clitoris cut off after Inflation and Drying.

A, The little Head or Glans Clitoridis.

B, Its Proper Membrane or Capsula.

C, Its Cavernulous Contexture.

D, Its Septum.

Fig. 3.

The Pudendum and Fore-part of the Vagina Vteri Open'd.

A, Part of the Vagina, which lies under the Bladder of Urine.

B B, The Vagina and Meatus Vrinarius divided.

C C, The Corpus Glandulosum or Part Analogous to the Pro­statae in Men, divided.

D D, The Ductus Secretorii or Lacunae of De Graaf, within the Gland, which have divers Ostiola about the Meatus Vrina­rius, whence Issues Part of the Matter emitted in Coitu.

Besides these Ducts arising from Glands plac'd about the the Meatus Vrinarius, there are others of the same Kind in the Vagina, and Two remarkable ones arising from Two ve­ry conspicuous Glands, plac'd towards the Lower Part of the Orificium Pudendi by the Anus, whose Ducts open at the Roots of the Carunculae Myrtiformes externally on each Side the Pudendum. These and the above-mention'd Ducts dis­charge the Matter commonly call'd Semen.

E E E, The Meatus Vrinarius open'd; at whose Extremi­ty divers of the aforesaid Ostiola appear.

F F, The Labia Pudendi open'd.

G, The Internal Rugous Membrane of the Vagina Vteri: This Internal Membrane is much fuller of Rugae towards its Upper Part, B, C, D, here divided, than in the Lower, G, next the Rectum: As it approaches the Pudendum, it becomes some­what Narrower, and behind or above the Orifice of the Meatus Vrinarius it frames a Valvulous Appearance in Virgins of above 16 or 17 Years of Age. In Girls of 7 or 8, it appears to be a Transverse Membrane having a Small Perforation towards its Upper Part. When the Hymen is broke, whether in Coitu or otherwise, the divided Parts of it make the Carunculae Myrti­formes, whence it is, the Figure and Number of those Carun­cles are uncertain; Wierus, Parry, Hildanus and others give us Histories of Cases where the Hymen has been Impervious after Twenty-Two Years of Age, and such a Quantity of Menstrua Pent in the Vagina, &c. extend the Lower Belly, as if they had gone with Child. Some Years since I was call'd by my Ingenious Friend Dr. Chamberlin to see a Mar­ry'd Woman of above Twenty Years of Age, whose Lower Belly was very much Distended, as if with Child. Upon Examining the Pudendum, we found the Hymen altogether Im­pervious, and driven out beyond the Labia Pudendi in such Manner, that at First Sight it appear'd not unlike a Prolapsus Vteri. In the Upper Part towards the Clitoris we found the Orifice of the Meatus Vrinarius very open, and its Sides Ex­truded not unlike the Anus or Cloaca of a Cock, and without any Difficulty I could put my Fore-finger into the Bladder of Urine. On dividing the Hymen, at least a Gallon of Gru­mous Blood of divers Colours and Consistencies came from her, which was the retain'd Menstrua. The next Day no less a Quantity of the same Matter flow'd after removing the Pessary which I had put in the Day before. After Three, or Four Days she was easie, and soon after recover'd, and with in a Year was deliver'd of a healthful Child. Her Husband told us, Tho' lying with her at First was very painful to him­self as well as to her, yet at last he had a more easie Access; which could be by no other Way than the Meatus Vri­narius.

Fig. 4.

The Vterus, Ovaria and Falloppian Tubes Dissected.

A, B B, The Fundus Vteri open'd to shew the Cavity and Thickness of its Sides.

C C, The Collum Vteri leading from the Vagina to the Fundus, likewise open'd.

D, The Os Tincae or Orifice of the Collum Minus.

E, The Vagina Vteri divided to shew its Rugae.

F F, The Cavity of the Fundus Vteri as it appears before Impregnation, it being of a somewhat Triangular Figure, and not exceeding the Magnitude it's here represented of. Between D and F is the Collum Minus or Cervix Fundi Vteri, where divers Rugae are truly represented, in whose Sulci are the Orifices of divers small Tubes, which arise from a Glandu­lous Contexture of the Vessels of this Part; whence proceeds a Pituitous Serous Matter, as may be seen by Compressing this Part externally.

De Graaf de Mul. Organ. Generat. Inseroi. Cap. VIII. acknow­ledges his Ignorance, to what End this Matter is here sepa­rated, unless it be to moisten the Parts and excite Venery, &c. In preparing a Humane Vterus after Three Months Impre­gnation, I found the Os Tincae and Collum Minus very much dilated, and fill'd with a very Tough, Glutinous Matter. The like is taken Notice of by Spigellius, Lib. VIII. Cap. XXIII. As the Time of the Partus draws in, the Os Tincae still becomes Larger, and the Glutinous Matter encreases, whereby it pre­vents Abortions by opposing any Extrusion of the Chorion, notwithstanding the Efforts made by the Foetus from within towards the Time of the Partus: This Glutinous Matter also hinders the Intrusion of any Thing from the Vagina after Impregnation. When this Matter is Vitiated as in a Fluor Albus, Impregnation is Hindered.

G H H, The Orifices of the Falloppian Tubes in the Two Superior Angles of the Fundus Vteri.

I I I I, Two Probes Inserted into each of the last mention'd Tubes.

K, A small Constricture in the Mouth of the Tube.

L L, The Right Falloppian Tube Open'd and Expanded, whose Internal Membrane is somewhat Rugous.

M N, The Right Ovaria entire.

O O O, The Fimbriae or Expansum Foliacium Tubae.

P P, A Broad Ligament between the Ovarium and Tube, not unlike to a Bat's Wing.

Q, The Left Ovaria Open'd.

R R, The External Membrane of the Ovarium.

S S, T T, Divers Glands and Transparent little Vessicules, which compose the Ovaria.

V V, The Peritonaeum or External Tegument of the Vte­rus, which is call'd the Ligamentum Latum.

W W, Portions of the Ligamenta rotunda Vterina.

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THE FIFTY-SECOND TABLE.

THE Cavity of the Ab­domen after its Viscera are remov'd.

A A, The Common and Proper Integuments of the Abdomen, Dis­sected and turn'd Aside.

B B, The Diaphrag­ma in Situ: It Arises Tendinous on the Right Side from the Third, Second and First Vertebra of the Loins, and last of the Back (H); On the Left, from the First of the Loins, and Last Vertebra of the Back; hence Ascending with Fleshy Fibres on each Side running Straight, but towards the Middle they pass somewhat Curvedly, Intersect­ing each other near the Oesophagus (D), do as it were Embrace it: After which they become Ten­dinous and join with its Upper-part (F), which Arises Thin and Fleshy from the Os Pectoris or Sternum: Its Lateral Parts derive their Origins from the Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs and Lower Margin of the Last Rib (G) on each Side. From these Parts the Fleshy Fibres of the Dia­phragm (like Lines drawn from a Circumference towards a Center) pass to its Middle Part, where its Tendinous Fibres are Intercussated with each other and Exhibit a Rete. Besides its Perforation for the Oesophagus in its Fleshy Part, it has ano­ther in its Tendinous one, no less remarkable, to Transmit the Vena Cava (C). Its Double Origin at the Vertebrae of the Loins gives Way to the Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna (E), and Two Ascending of the Ductus Chyliferus and Vena Azygos on the Left Side. In Expiration this Lower Surface of the Diaphragm is Concave towards the Abdomen (as here Exprest), and its Upper, Convex towards the Thorax. In Inspira­tion it Approaches towards a Plane next the Tho­rax as well as the Abdomen. If the Viscera of the Lower Belly are taken out in Vivisection, the Inferior Surface of the Diaphragm will Appear Convex in Inspiration, and more especially if Two small Wounds should be made into the Ca­vities on both Sides the Thorax, so that the Am­bient Air may Rush into its Cavities on each Side the Mediastinum; the Diaphragma than will still remain Concave towards the Thorax, and Convex towards the Abdomen. Nor can Respiration be perform'd, except the Wounds in the Thorax are Large enough to Discharge its contain'd Air free­ly again; whence it happens that Wounds in the Thorax may suddenly prove Mortal, when no contain'd Part is Injured. But in such Cases the External Wounds ought to be Enlarg'd that the Air may have a Free Egress, which the Perforation of the Skin and Muscles not corresponding, Hin­ders; but this seldom happens, because both Sides of the Thorax are not very liable to be Wounded in such Manner at the same time. If one Side of the Thorax only is Wounded, the External Air ought by all means to be Pent out, tho' the Pa­tient is not Incident to be Suffocated; because the other Side of the Lungs are not Incommoded, yet the Intruded Air ought to be let out, tho' it only Hinders the Dilatation of one Side of the Lungs. In Dissecting a Morbid Body which had one Side of the Diaphragm very much Deprest, (by the contain'd Water on the same Side of the Thorax) I found the Lungs on that Side in great Part Mortified, and the Blood Stagnated; there being some Air also broke out from the Bronchia into the Cavity of the Thorax, which compleatly Hinder'd Inspiration on that Side of the Lungs.

B, The Blood-Vessels of the Diaphragm, call'd Phrenicae.

C, The Perforation for the Vena Cava.

D, The Gula or Oesophagus cut off before it passes the Diaphragm.

E, The Trunk of the Arteria Magna in like Manner divided.

F, The Fore-part of the Diaphragm towards the Cartilago Ensiformis.

G, The Back-part Contiguous to the last Rib.

H, The Tendinous Origin of the Diaphragm on the Right Side call'd Appendix. The Chief Action of the Diaphragm is to Compress the Vi­scera of the Lower Belly, in Order to Enlarge the Cavity of the Thorax in Inspiration: Nor can we see any reason to doubt its being a Muscle elegantly Fram'd for this Action, wherein divers contingent Offices occur; as the great Work of Chylification is Assisted by the frequent Com­presses made by it, in its repeated Contractions; and that not only in Promoting the Descent of the Contents of the Stomach and Intestines; but also the Ascent of the Chyle by the Vasa La­ctea and Blood by the Vena Porta are also Pro­moted. It also hastens the Discharge of those Liquors contain'd in the Excretory Ducts of those many Large Glands within the Cavity of the Abdomen, as the Liver, Pancreas, Kid­neys, &c. Not to mention many other contin­gent Offices of this Part; as in the Exclusion of the Foeces and Urine in both Sexes, and Foetus in Women, &c.

I I, The Vertebrae of the Loins with their Car­tilaginous Interstitia join'd by Ligaments.

K K, The Musculus Psoas Magnus on the Right Side; the Psoas Parvus in this Subject perhaps was wanting.

L L, The Psoas Magnus on the Left Side somewhat free'd from the Vertebrae, and Pin'd out: This large Fleshy Muscle derives its Ori­gin from all the Vertebrae of the Loins Internal­ly, Laterally within the Cavity of the Abdo­men, whence Descending over the Superior Part of the Os Sacrum and Spine of the Ilium, where it joins with the Fleshy Fibres of the Iliacus In­ternus (N), and passes to its Implantation on the Superior Part of the Lesser Trochanter of the Thigh-bone. This pulls the Thigh Upwards, and moves it Forewards in Walking, Running, &c.

M, The Musculus Quadratus Lumborum, De­scrib'd Tab. 30.

N N N, The Iliaci Interni in Situ: Either of these Muscles Arises from above half the Su­perior Region and Internal Concave Part of the Os Ilium, and joining with the Psoas Magnus, is Inserted with it to the Lesser Trochanter. The Office of this Muscle, and the Psoas Magnus are the same.

O, Part of the Gracilis.

P P, Parts of the Triceps.

THE FIFTY-THIRD TABLE.

Fig. 1.

REPRESENTS the Fore-part of the Fundus Uteri not long after Impregnation, together with the Parts Annext.

A, The Fundus Vte­ri.

B, The Left Falloppian Tube Distended, and its Foliated Expansions Embracing the Ovarium; which Action, accord­ing to De Graaf do's not Appear in Rabbets till Twenty-four Hours after the Coitus.

C C, The Ovaria with their Protuberant Ova in their Folliculi.

D D, The Blood-Vessels more Extended with Blood than before Impregnation.

E, The Right Falloppian Tube with its Fim­briae Expanded.

F F, Portions of the Blood-Vessels of the Ova­ria call'd Praeparantia and Spermatica.

G G, A Portion of the Peritonaeum which makes the External Membrane of the Vterus, and call'd Ligamentum Latum Vteri.

H H, The Uterine Round Ligaments lying under the Peritonaeum.

I, The Cervix Vteri Divested of its Common Membrane the Peritonaeum, to shew its Blood-Vessels.

K K, The Vagina Vteri Inverted, where its Internal Rugae are well Exprest.

L, The Internal Mouth of the Vterus, call'd Os Tincae, somewhat Dilated.

Fig. 2.

A, The Left Uterine Tube (Exprest in the pre­ceding Figure) pull'd from the Ovaria it Em­brac'd with its Fimbriae; which remain Extended, together with its whole Ductus.

B, The Fimbriated Orifice of the Tube Open.

C, Its Progress towards the Fundus Vteri: The whole Tube being of a deep Red Colour from its many Blood-Vessels, especially the Veins which Frame a Reticular Body, as may be Demonstrated either by Injecting them with Mercury, or Infla­tion. Hence it Appears the Uterine Tubes (not unlike the Corpora Cavernosa Penis Clitoridis, &c.) have their Reticulated Sides Extended, and their Internal Cavities of Consequence Enlarg'd upon a particular Stop of the Refluent Blood; but whe­ther this Stop or Retardation of the Blood in the Veins, made in the time of the Coitus, (which for some Reasons we are enclin'd to suppose) or as De Graaf intimates Five or Six and Twenty Hours after; neither our present Occasions nor Opportunities will allow us to Examine.

Fig. 3.

A A, The Falloppian Tube Open'd, according to its Length.

B C C, Its Internal Membrane Divided and Expanded.

D D, A Probe Inserted into its Beginning near the Fundus Vteri, which is not yet Divided.

The rest of the Adjacent Parts of this Figure are Explain'd Tab. 51. Fig. 4.

Fig. 4.

The Inferior or Back-part of the same Impreg­nated Vterus, &c. Exprest Fig. 1. Its Vessels here being Injected with Wax.

A A, The Fundus Vteri somewhat Enlarg'd by reason its Veins are Injected with Wax.

B B, The Veins fill'd with a Dark Colour'd Wax:

C, The Arteries with Red Wax: Both which Vessels become Distended by Injecting of their Large Trunks on either Side.

D, Part of the External Membrane of the V­terus deriv'd from the Peritonaeum, Rais'd from the Cervix Vteri.

E, That Part of the Peritonaeum, call'd Li­gamentum Latum Vteri.

F, The Ovaria of the Left Side.

G G, The Falloppian Tubes also fill'd with White Wax, and very Tortuous in this Position, their Extremities being drawn from the Ovaria.

H, The Round Ligament of the Left Side.

I I, The Broad Ligaments like Batt's Wings joining the Falloppian Tubes to the Ovaria, where the Blood-Vessels passing to and from the Ovaria, are Exprest.

K K, The Vasa Spermatica cut off. These Spermatick Veins and Arteries are not only Inos­culated in their Large Trunks, with the Hypoga­strick Veins and Arteries of the Vterus, but those of the Right Side of the Vterus, are Inosculated with the Left, in such Manner that by Injecting of Wax into one of the Spermatick Veins, it will not only fill the Hypogastricks, but the Sperma­tick Vein also of the contrary Side. The like will not happen by Injecting Wax into the Arte­ries, because their Trunks are Smaller than the Veins. But Mercury readily passes from the Arteries of one Side to those of the other.

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THE FIFTY-FOURTH TABLE.

SHEWS the Abdomen of a Woman open'd after Seven Months gone with Child.

A A A A, The common Integuments of the whole Body di­vided and turn'd off.

B B, The proper Integuments of the Abdomen, viz. The Muscles and Peritonaeum in like Manner divided.

C C. The Fundus Uteri very much enlarg'd; and in this Sub­ject enclines more towards the Right Side than the Left.

D D D, The Colon and Parts of the small Gutts as they appear above the Fun­dus Uteri.

d d, The Muscular Compages of Fleshy Fibres call'd the Ligamentum Coli, well Exprest.

E, That Part of the Fundus Uteri towards the Collum minus.

F F F, The Veins of the Uterus very much Dilated.

As the Time of the Birth draws on, so the Thickness of the Uterus is still said to encrease, and the Trunks of the Veins become still more and more distended. The Trunks of the Arteries of the Uterus are also at that Time proportionably Dilated. These Blood-Vessels of the Uterus are inosculated with those of the Placenta, as may appear by the Passing of Mercury from One to the Other, so that if you pour it into the Hypogastrick Arteries of the Mother, it will pass into the Veins of the Placenta as well as those of the Uterus: And on the contrary the Mercury will pass from the Arteries of the Placenta to the Hypogastrick Veins of the Mother, as also into the Veins of the Placenta. Hence it appears there is a Circulation of Blood between the Mother and Foetus; and it seems as if the Blood-Vessels of both did Germinate and Inosculate with each other. But this requires too much Speculation for my Occasions to admit of a farther Enquiry at present. There­fore I shall here only speak of some Phaenomena which offer in Child-bearing.

If the Fundus Uteri remain Tumifi'd after Child-bearing or an Abortion, the Flux of Blood proves very great and sometimes destructive to the Mother, be­cause the Uterus do's not Collapse, and by that Means close the Orifices of the Broken-off Arteries of the Mother. The like Flux also happens from the same Cause, when but Part of the Placenta comes away in the Partus; in which Case the remaining Part ought to be remov'd as soon as possible.

THE FIFTY-FIFTH TABLE.

IS the Abdomen of the same Woman Open'd, Represented in the Precedent Table.

A A A, The Fundus Uteri after a Crucial Section Expanded.

B B Inferior, The Inside of the Skin Cover'd with Fat.

B B Superior, C C, The Inside of the Peritonaeum.

D D, Part of the Colon above the Fundus Uteri.

E E, The External Convex Surface of the Placenta free'd from the Fundus Uteri.

F G H, The Asperities F, Little Hollownesses G, and Tubercles H, of the Ute­rus, which receive and were receiv'd by the like in the Placenta.

I K, Part of the Chorion cleaving to the Internal Concave Surface of the Pla­centa.

L, Part of the Urinary Membrane or Allantoides.

M, Part of the Amnios made bare, as it Appears fill'd with its containing Li­quor.

Tho' this Membrane which immediately Involves the Foetus, Appears in most Parts very Transparent, yet here are a vast Number of Blood-Vessels every where dispers'd thro' it. In divers Parts of the Amnios in Cows, I have more than once Observ'd Various Clusters of somewhat Opacous Bodies, which I am apt to think are a Congeries of Glands, and help to Separate from the Blood, Part of the Contents of the Amnios in which the Foetus mov'd, and is receiv'd by its Mouth to­wards the time of the Partus.

N, Part of the Chorion Rais'd from the Amnios, and Left to the Uterus it self on the Right Side.

Part of the Liver Appears above the Intestines immediately under the Ensi­formal Cartilage.

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THE FIFTY-SIXTH TABLE.

THE Abdomen and Uterus of the same Woman (Figur'd in the Two prece­dent Tables) Open'd, after Seven Months gone with Child.

A, The Placenta Uterina free'd from the Upper Part of the Uterus, and drawn towards the Right Side, so that its Internal Concave Surface next the Amnios, Appears Cover'd with the Chorion; under which the Arboreous Disposition of its Blood-Vessels are elegantly Exprest.

B, Part of the Chorion free'd from the Amnios, and Rais'd with the Pla­centa, to whose Concave Part it Adheres, and its continued (H) on the Um­bilical Rope.

C, Part of the Urinary Membrane free'd from the Amnios, and cleaving to the Chorion.

D D, The Uterus with the Chorion Divided Cross-ways and Expanded. The Inequalities of the In­ternal Surface of the Uterus are here Remarkable: Its Blood-Vessels as well as those of the Placenta not only Germinate, but Inosculate with each other, as is above Noted.

E E, The Proper Integuments of the Abdomen, (viz.) the Muscles and Peritonaeum in like Man­ner Divided.

F, The Foetus lying within the Transparent Membrane call'd Amnios.

G, The Amnios entire.

H, The Umbilical Rope Arising from the Placenta, and passing to the Navel of the Foetus: Its Progress is Various, sometimes it Marches over the Right Shoulder, sometimes over the Left close to the Neck; at other times it Ascends towards the Breast, whence it is again Reflected to the Back of the Foetus, and thence to the Navel. Tho' the Blood-Vessels of the Umbilical Rope are Dispos'd in the best Manner (Vid. Tab. 60.62. Fig. 5.) to avoid their being Comprest in any Contorted Position; yet it sometimes happens either thro' the shortness of the Umbilical Rope, as in the Case mention'd by Hildanus, Cent. II. Observ. LI. or by the great Strugling of the Foetus in Utero; that it is so Com­prest, that the Blood cannot pass in its Vessels: In which Case if an Abortion do's not happen, or if it is at the time of the Partus, and the Birth do's not presently follow, the Dead Foetus with its Se­condines are retain'd in the Uterus; and if the Mother Survives, they do gradually Putrifie and come away; as Appears in the History of a Case very well Attested in the Excellent Works of the above mention'd Author, where the Bones with Part of the Muscles of the Limbs were taken out near the Navel of the Mother, some Months after the Secondines gradually came away at her Pudendum. A like Instance was lately Communicated to me by the Ingenious Mr. Dale the Apo­thecary, who was an Eye-witness of it in a Woman in the Country where he lives.

I K L M N O P, The Foetus lying in the Vterus in its Natural Posture.

The Posture of the Foetus in the Uterus varies very much, especially towards the time of the Par­tus; this Order of it is then Inverst, the Head at that time is downwards towards the Neck of the Womb. In the most easie Births, the Face is turn'd towards the Back-bones or Os Sacrum. If any Part, besides the Head of the Foetus offers it self first, (except both Legs together,) the Birth proves Labo­rious, and sometimes very Dangerous; wherefore the Operator in such a Case is Oblig'd (if possible) to reduce those Parts, and turn the Foetus to the most Natural Order that can be.

THE FIFTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

A A, B B, DIVERS Eggs of a different Size taken from the Ovaria of a Maid.

Fig. 2.

An Egg Impregnated; in which the Branches and Plexus of divers Blood-Vessels Appear.

Fig. 3.

A Foetus with its Secondines, Twenty-five Days after Conception; in which the Rudimerits of all the Limbs Appear.

A A, The Placenta Uterina.

B, The Chorion.

C, The Urinary Membrane according to Bidloo.

D, The Amnios Open'd.

E, The Umbilical Rope between the Placenta and Foetus.

F, The Foetus.

Fig. 4.

A Foetus Forty Days after Conception, in which all the External Parts Appear Distinct.

Fig. 5.

A Masculine Foetus about Two Months and a Half after Conception; in which the Magnitude of the Head in Proportion to the rest of the Body is Remarkable. The Conformation of the Bones at that time may be seen in the 100. Tab. Fig. 3, 4.

Fig. 6.

An Abortive Three Months after Conception, or there abouts Dri'd; so that the Connection of its Bones may be seen in divers Parts.

Fig. 7.

A Foetus of Eight Months taken out of the Uterus, together with its Placenta, &c.

A, A Male Foetus, whose Hands are Contracted and Feet Contorted Inwards.

B C D, The Umbilical Rope continued in its wonted Progress between the Foetus and Placenta.

E E, The Chorion covering the Internal Concave Surface of the Placenta, and its Arboreous Ramifications of Blood-Vessels deriv'd from the Umbilical Rope.

F, Part of the Urinary Membrane.

G, Part of the Ammios.

H, A Portion of the Chorion.

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THE FIFTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

A,SHEWS the External Convext Surface of the Placenta Uterina free'd from the Vterus.

The Placenta is compos'd of Blood-Vessels of both Kinds deriv'd from the Mother and Foetus, which Frame Glandulous Bodies and Fibres, to which divers Succiferous Ducts are Inserted, says Bidloo.

These Succiferous Tubes and Glands I must confess never yet Occur'd to my Observation in Dissection, nor do I at present know who besides Pro­fessor Bidloo mentions them: Here he only Names them among other Vessels of the Placenta, and in Tab. 66. he Represents divers Succife­rous Ducts in the Umbilical Rope; nor do's he any where mention what Juice these Ducts of the Placenta carry, or those of the Umbilical Rope; wherefore I shall here Venture to add my Conjecture, and so proceed. If any Liquor Transcolated by Glands of the Placenta is convey'd towards the Foetus, it is most likely that contain'd in the Amnios; and tho' we have Observ'd Tab. [...]5. divers Glands plac'd at Various Distances in the Amnios of Cows, yet we can by no means think they are sufficient to supply that Membrane with a Necessary Quantity of Liquor for Entertaining the Foetus: And since we have Observ'd divers Tubercles on the Surface of the Um­bilical Rope, mention'd in the following Table (P). We cannot tell how to reconcile those Phae­nomena, but by supposing the greatest Part of the Liquor of the Amnios, is convey'd thither from the Glands of the Placenta, by the Ducts of the Umbilical Rope.

This Liquor of the Amnios not only serves to Facilitate the Motions of the Foetus, but towards the time of the Partus it is partly receiv'd by its Mouth, and is convey'd into its Stomach and Guts, and Administers Chyle to its Lacteals and Thoracick-Duct; which is receiv'd by the Subclavian Vein of the Foetus, and there joins with the Blood Transmitted from the Mother to the Foetus. Thus the Stomach and Intestines as well as the Common Passages of Chyle and Lympha of the Foetus are im­ploy'd in the Uterus; by which means those Channels are the more readily made use of, soon after the Birth, when the Infant has no other way of receiving its Nourishment but by the Mouth. The Chyle thus mingling with the Blood of the Foetus, so Thins it, that its Circulation may be the bet­ter carried on by the weak Systole of its Heart; whereby its Blood may be again Discharg'd into the Hypogastrick Veins of the Mothers Uterus. The Liquor of the Amnios has another, as it were Ac­cidental Use, in Lubricating the Vagina at the Time of the Partus; the Foetus then breaking the Amnios by its Strugling, its Contents flow by the Pudendum, which they commonly call The Breaking of the Water.

B B, The Furrows or Clifts of the Placenta, which more or less Result from its Tubercles.

C C, The Tubercles of the Placenta, which are Thick and Large towards their Center, and Less towards their Circumference.

D D, The Chorion or External Membrane Involving the Foetus, Varigated with Blood-Vessels Springing from the Placenta, (and Umbilical Rope in some Animals) and the Vterus it self in Hu­mane Bodies.

E E, The Urinary Membrane call'd Alantoides, lying immediately under the Chorion, and clea­ving to it by Vessels and Fibres; it Environing the whole Foetus, according to Bidloo.

The Existence of this Membrane is much Doubted of in Humane Bodies. I must confess I never met with a Subject in which I could Discover it. The Midwives take Notice of a By Water, as they call it, near the Time of the Partus; which I am apt to think is the Contents of this Membrane breaking forth, which often happens some Weeks before the Birth, and no ill Consequence follows.

F, Part of the Amnios or Internal Membrane Involving the Foetus.

G, Part of the Umbilical Rope Tied.

THE FIFTY-NINTH TABLE.

EXPRESSES the Membranes which Involve the Foetus; to­gether with the Internal Concave Part of the Placenta next the Foetus and Umbilical Rope. Which altogether are call'd the Secondine, or After-Birth, or Burden.

A A, The Amnios Separated from the Urinary Membrane; Tho' the Amnios appears Transparent to the Naked Eye, it is full of Blood-Vessels of both Kinds deriv'd from the Um­bilical Rope: If Mercury is Injected into its Arteries and Veins, their Extremities will (by the Assistance of a Microscope) appear con­tinued to each other; as in a Preparation of Part of the Amnios I have now by me, taken from a Cow, mention'd in the 55th Table.

B B, A Portion of the Umbilical Rope arising from about the Middle of the In­ternal Concave Side of the Placenta.

C C, Part of the Urinary Membrane not free'd from the Chorion: In Cows and other Quadrupedes, it is Long and Unequal; whence it's call'd Allantoides or Far­ciminalis: It is plac'd between the Amnios and Chorion, and receives the Urine from the Bladder by the Urachus thro' the Umbilical Rope. The Urachus of Hu­mane Bodies is scarce Pervious. I must acknowledge in the Subjects I have Exa­min'd, I could never make the Wind pass from the Bladder of Urine into the Ura­chus in the Umbilical Rope; but I have constantly found the Urachus evidently Hol­low from the Bottom of the Bladder to the Navel in a Foetus, and very little further.

D D, The Chorion strictly cleaving to the Internal Concave Side of the Placenta.

E E, The Cavities and Tracts of the Succiferous Ducts according to Bidloo.

F, The Umbilical Arteries Distended.

G G, The Internal Concave Surface of the Placenta next the Foetus.

H I, The Ramifications of the Arteries tending towards the Circumference of the Placenta.

K K, The Large Ramifications of the Umbilical Veins Distended.

L, Their Lesser Branches.

N N, Divers Indentations made in the Veins where the Arteries pass over them.

O, The Concourse of the Umbilical Vessels to their Inclosure in the External Membrane of the Umbilical Rope (P).

P, That Part of the Umbilical Rope, whose External Surface in Cows is full of Tubercles, which we suppose are plac'd at the Extremities of the Succiferous Ducts, where they Discharge their Contents into the Amnios. This Part of the Umbilical Rope in these Animals we find Distended with a Mucilaginous Mat­ter, somewhat Thicker than that contain'd in the Amnios, but like it in Colour.

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THE SIXTIETH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

DEMONSTRATES the Blood-Vessels of Part of the Umbilical Rope and Placenta Injected with Wax.

A B, The Concave Internal Surface of the Placenta next the Foetus.

C C, The Chorion.

D, Part of the Urinary Membrane according to Bidloo.

F F, &c. The Umbilical Arteries fill'd with Red Wax.

G G, &c. The Veins in like Manner Injected with White Wax.

H, The Umbilical Rope cut off.

I K M, The Propagations of Vessels from the Umbilical Rope to the Placenta.

Fig. 2.

A A, The Placenta cut transversly.

B C, The Thickness of the Placenta in a Transverse Section.

D D. Its Glandulous Body.

E E, Some large Branches of Blood-Vessels Propagated from the Umbilical Rope under the Chorion.

F, The Succiferous Ducts according to Bidloo.

G, Their little Hollownesses or Interstitia like Fat.

H H, A Portion of the Chorion, free'd from the Placenta and suspended.

I I, The Blood-Vessels which lie between the Chorion and Placenta.

K K, Their Ramifications as they appear under the Chorion on the internal Concave Surface of the Placenta.

L, Part of the Urinary Membrane.

M, A Portion of the Amnios.

N, The Umbilical Rope cut off and ty'd.

Fig. 3.

The Umbilical Rope with Part of the Chorion.

A, Part of the Chorion free'd from the internal Concave Part of the Placenta.

B, The Umbilical Rope cut transversly from the Foetus.

C C, The Two Umbilical Arteries cut off.

D, The Umbilical Vein in like Manner divided.

E, The Urachus according to Bidloo, Exprest in the following Figure between the Two Arteries.

F F, The Umbilical Rope cover'd with its loose Membrane continu'd from the Amnios.

Fig. 4.

A A, The Umbilical Rope cut transversly and view'd with a Microscope, after its being immers'd in hot Water.

B, The Trunk of the Umbilical Vein divided.

C C, The Trunk of the Two Umbilical Arteries in like Manner cut off.

D D, The Succiferous Tubes also divided.

E E, The Fibres contracted by the hot Water.

F, The thin contorted Tube of the Urachus, lying between the Two Arteries like a loose or flagging Membrane.

Fig. 5.

The Umbilical Vein and Two Arteries Injected with Wax and dry'd, so that the Urachus and Succiferous Tubes disappear.

THE SIXTY-FIRST TABLE.

Fig. 1.

A A, EXHIBITS the Placenta Uterina, after the Blood is Wash'd out of it.

B, The Chorion partly Rais'd from the Placenta, and ly­ing Loosely on it.

C, Part of the Urinary Membrane according to Bidloo.

D D, The Contexture, and Reticular Plexus of the Vessels of the Placenta made bare.

E E, The Concave Surface of the Placenta next the Foetus.

F F, The Blood-Vessels.

G, A Portion of the Umbilical Rope.

Fig. 2.

A, Part of the Chorion separated from the Urinary Membrane, and supported on a Piece of Paper.

B C, The Urinary Membrane Pinn'd out, from which the Chorion is separated.

D D, A Piece of Paper Rold up to support the Chorion.

Fig. 3.

A B B, Part of one of the Umbilical Arteries free'd from the Umbilical Rope, and Extended with Wind; in which the Various Inequalities of its Trunk (occasion'd by its Contortions with its Companion and the Umbilical Vein) are Exprest.

C C, The same Artery Open'd according to its Length, and Expanded.

Fig. 4.

Part of the Umbilical Rope.

A Inferior, Part of the Umbilical Vein Open'd according to its Length.

A B B, The Umbilical Arteries inclos'd in their Proper Membranes.

Fig. 5.

A, Part of the Blood-Vessels of the Umbilical Rope Injected with Wax.

B B, The Two Arteries fill'd with Red Wax, in which may be observ'd the Ine­qualities of their Trunks.

C, The Vein Distended with a Dark Colour'd Wax.

Fig. 6.

A A, Part of the Chorion free'd from the Placenta.

B B, The Blood-Vessels of both Kinds free'd from the Glands Succiferous Tubes and Ducts, according to Bidloo.

Fig. 7, 8.

The Branching of the Arteries and Veins on the Chorion, whose Capillary Ex­tremities frame Glands, and Escape the Sight of the Naked Eye.

Fig. 9.

This is not taken Notice of by Bidloo; but I supose it Represents Part of the Blood-Vessels of the Umbilical Rope, free'd from their Membranes and not Injected with Wax, or any Thing else; the Trunks of the Two Arteries and Vein appear­ing Flaccid.

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THE SIXTY-SECOND TABLE.

THE Abdomen of a Female Foetus Seven Months after Conception open'd, to shew the Progress of the Umbilical Vessels towards its Navel.

A, The Umbilical Rope suspended.

C C, The Common and Proper Integuments of the Abdomen turn'd aside.

E G, The Umbilical Vein entering the Liver at a Fissure near the Mid­dle of its lower Part, whence the Ligamentum Suspensorium Hepatis may be here seen continu'd to the Ensiformal Cartilage and Diaphragm.

F, The Liver, which in Proportion to the rest of the Viscera in a Foetus, is very large, extending it self to both Hypochondria.

The Magnitude of the Liver in a Foetus rather Proceeds from a greater Quantity of Blood car­ri'd into it by the Vena Umbilicalis, than any proper Office it then Executes: This Disproportion of the Liver do's not remit in an Infant, but seems to continue in some Measure, till they are Four or Five Years Old: Hence it is, that the Intestines of Infants and Children are suppli'd with more Gall than those of riper Years; and are therefore incident to be gript much in the lower Belly, and attended with a Diarrhoea. Nor do I in this conceive Nature has any Ways committed a Mistake; for sure it is very necessary some notable Discharge ought to be made of the Serosities in Children, whilst their Limbs are not able to perform those Exercises which promote Perspi­ration and the like.

The Blood imported into the Liver by the Umbilical Vein meets with a contrary Current of Blood in the Vena Porta, as it passes the Sinus to the Vena Cava; whereby some of the Capillary Vessels about the Liver or Umbilical Vein are frequently broken, and the Blood is discharg'd in­to the Cavity of the Abdomen.

In an Abortive Humane Foetus (after Seven Months Conception) I found the Abdomen with­out any Integuments; its Viscera being expos'd, as in this Figure: Nor could I find so much as any Part of the Peritonaeum that had cover'd them; which I suspected might have been broken. The Left Kidney also was expos'd to View. Besides this, the Top of the Skull was wanting, and in­stead of it a Membrane distended with Grumous Blood. Very little Part of the Brain appear'd on the Basis of the Skull, but it was chiefly contain'd in the Specus of the Vertebrae of the Neck. The Left Eye and Ear were wanting, as well as the Nose. A Ligament of about an Inch in Length, fasten'd the great Toe of the Right Foot to the Bone of the upper Jaw. The Left Arm was want­ing; and instead of it, something like a Hand was fram'd, seeming to have a Thumb and Fore-Finger: This was ty'd by Two Ligaments; the one springing from the Carpus was short, and fasten'd it to the Scapula; the other Ligament was longer, and arising between those Parts which repre­sented a Finger and Thumb, was sixt to the Basis of the Skull on the same Side.

Upon opening the Thorax I found the Cone of the Heart pointing upwards; its Basis towards the Diaphragm. And both Extremities of the Bastard Ribs of the Left Side resting on their Vertebrae.

G G, The Two Umbilical Arteries Arising from the Two Internal Iliack Branches of the Arte­ria Magna, and passing on both Sides the Bladder of Urine to the Umbilical Rope.

H, The Bladder of Urine.

I, The Vrachus where it is visibly pervious.

The Ligamentum Suspensorium Hepatis, is here well Exprest between the Umbilical Vein and Enfiformal Cartilage; and the Small Gutts in their Natural Situation, are also Represented.

THE SIXTY-THIRD TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Cavities of the Abdomen and Thorax open'd of the same Female Foetus, Exprest in the preceding Table.

A, The Umbilical Rope suspended.

B, The Umbilical Vein.

C, Its Insertion into the Liver.

D D, The Two Umbilical Arteries, arising from the Two internal Iliack Branches of the Arteria Magna. Vid. App. Fig. 3.56.56.

E E, The External Iliack Branches of the Great Artery, by our Author said to be Internal; which in this View of the Parts do's not appear.

F G, The Urachus.

H, The Umbilicus cut from the Common Integuments of the Abdomen.

I, The Head of the Foetus, which in Proportion to the rest of the Body is much larger than in the Adult: See the Description at Tab. 1.

K, The Mammae, which in a Foetus of both Sexes contain a Serous Liquor.

L, The Thorax open'd.

M M, The Abdomen in like Manner open'd.

N, The Thymus in Proportion to the rest of the Parts, is very large in a Foetus, and gradually lessens in the Adult: See Tab. 21.

O, The Heart, which in Regard to the other Viscera is very large.

P, The Lungs on the Right Side.

Q Q, The Kidneys, which appear Conglomerate, and are somewhat large.

R R, The Glands of the Kidneys or Capsulae Atrabilares are also large, and are here remov'd from their proper Situation; they not only bordering on the Kidneys, as in the Adult, but lie upon them, embracing their Upper Parts: In this Figure they seem to be remov'd from their Pro­per Situation.

S S, The Ureters, which are also large and unequal.

T, The Bladder extended with Urine.

V, The Falloppian Tube, somewhat long, and very large in Proportion to the rest of the Parts.

W, The Ovaria are also Large and Tumid.

X, The Fundus Uteri somewhat rais'd by the Suspension of the Bladder of Urine.

a, The Round Ligament of the Vterus of the Left Side.

b, The Arteria Magna, where the Emulgent Arteries pass to the Kidneys.

c, The Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava cut off.

d d, The Diaphragma divided.

e, The Spleen in Situ.

The Stomach and Intestines are here laid aside.

f, The Sternum rais'd together with the Cartilaginous Endings of the Ribs, where the Mamma­ry Vessels on both Sides are Exprest.

Fig. 2.

A, The Bladder of Urine of a Foetus.

B, Its Ureters fill'd with Wax.

C D D, The Umbilical Vein and Two Arteries, according to Bidloo, which we cannot think to be well Exprest.

E, The Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna.

F, Its Bifurcation.

G G, Its Two Internal Iliack Arteries, whence the Umbilical Arteries arise.

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THE SIXTY-FOURTH TABLE.

THE Professor Bidloo in Imitation of Steno and Bourdon, here adds Geometrical Fi­gures of the Disposition of the Tendons and Fleshly Fibres of divers Muscles; First of a single Fibre.

Fig. 1.

A, The Fleshy Part of the Fibre of a Muscle;

B C, B C, Its Two Tendinous Extreams making Obtuse Angles with the Fleshy Part.

Fig. 2.

Many of the Fibres Represented in the First Figure, Ex­pos'd in the same Plan together, Framing an Oblique Angled Parallelogram.

A, B, The Order of the Moving, or Fleshy Fibres.

C, D, F, G, E, H, I, K, Their Tendinous Extremities: When any Additional Matter passes into these Fleshy Fibres and Distends them, the Breadth which they thereby Acquire, necessarily Shortens them, and their Tendinous Ex­tremities fixt to the most Movable Part, is pull'd nearer the more Stable. This Additional Matter we take to be the Blood, which is constantly in a Progressive Motion, as well in the Capillary as in the Larger Trunks of its Vessels; and when a sudden Stop or Retardation of it happens in the Trunks of the Veins in Muscles, the Blood in the Extremi­ties of those Veins necessarily breaks forth by their Colla­teral Pores, and passes into the Cells of the Fleshy Fibres; whence an Intumescence of those Fibres follows, and their Length is necessarily Lessen'd. When I say the Blood as a Pondus Acts in Muscular Motion: I mean that as a Fluid, it Insinuates where ever there is a Passage, and necessarily Di­stends the Cells of the Fleshy Fibres, when it is push'd on by the Arteries, and d o's not readily return by the Veins. This Structure of the Extremities of the Blood-Vessels in Muscles, renders the Appearance of their Fleshy Fibres Red or more Bloody than other Parts, which are Furnish'd with a far greater Number of Blood-Vessels than the Muscles; as the Pancreas, Salival Glands, and Cortical Part of the Brain. The Liver, Spleen, and Kidneys have their Colour, from the Number and Magnitude of their Blood-Vessels always fill'd with Blood. The Question is, How the Venose Chan­nels are so instantaneously Comprest that the Refluent Blood is Retarded? Till Enquiry and Observation affords me something to the purpose, I shall say no more; choosing to Recommend such Speculations, to those who have more Ta­lent and Time to bestow on them.

Fig. 3.

The Fibres of a Muscle Framing a Simple Parallelepipede Figure.

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, The Carnous Part.

H I, K L, The Tendinous Parts.

Fig. 4.

The Disposition of the Fibres of the Musculus Deltoides, said to be Compos'd of Twelve simple Muscles.

A A, The Upper-part of the Deltoides towards the Top of the Shoulder.

B B, Its Lower-part.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, The Order of the Fleshy Fibres which Frame Parallelograms, and Compose the Deltoide Muscle, fixt to their Tendinous Extremities A B.

Fig. 5.

The Order of Fibres of the Musculus Biceps Humeri.

Fig. 6.

The Musculus Membranosus.

Fig. 7.

The Fibres of Part of the Gemellus.

We come next to the Muscles of the Artus or Limbs; and First to those of the Whole Arm, by which is understood all the Part fastned to the Upper-part of the Trunk of the Body, Arising at the Shoulder. Fig. 8. The Arm in com­mon Acceptation, is taken to be all that Part between the Neck of the Shoulder-blade and Wrist (H). The Arm strictly speaking, is that Part between the Shoulder and Elbow (B), which, otherwise, is call'd Humerus: It consisting of One Bone, and is call'd Os Humeri, the Shoulder-bone, or Arm­bone. The Lower-part of the Arm from the Elbow (B) to the Wrist (H), is call'd the Cubit, and consists of Two Bones, call'd Vlna and Radius; we shall elsewhere speak of the Articulations of these and other Bones. As some have Comprehended the Shoulder or Arm, Cubit, Hand, and Fingers under the Title of the Whole Arm; so others have call'd all those together, The Whole Hand. The Hand in com­mon Acceptation, is meant all that Part below the Cubit, or Wrist, consisting of Four Fingers (M N O P) and a Thumb (L). The Palm (C) call'd Vola Manus; opposite to which is the Back of the Hand or Dorsum Manus.

Fig. 8.

The External Muscles of the Arm, Cubit and Palm.

A A A, The Skin with its Parts Annext free'd from the Muscles.

B, The Internal Tubercle of the Os Humeri, whence the Musculus Pronator Radii Teres, Palmaris Longus, Flexores Digi­torum Communes, and Flexores Carpi do Arise.

C, The Tendinous Expansion of the Palmaris Longus in the Palm; where, near the Root of the Fingers it's Divided, to give Way to the Tendons of the Flexores Digitorum.

D, The Biceps Cubiti.

E, The Pronator Radii Teres.

F, The Long Tendon of the Palmaris deriv'd from a small Fleshy Bodied Muscle, springing from the Internal Pro­tuberance of the Os Humeri, here Exprest.

G, The Tendon of the Radialis Flexor Carpi, whose De­scription may be seen Tab. 67, 68.

H, The Transverse Ligament of the Carpus.

I, The Abductive Pollicis Arising from the Ligamentum Trans­versale Carpi, and Ending at the Superior and External Part of the Second Bone of the Thumb. It draws the Thumb from the Fingers, whence it derives its Name.

K, The Palmaris Brevis, or Caro Musculosa Quadrata; This springs from the External Part of the Os Metacarpi Minimi Digiti, with a Thin Tendon Encompassing the External Part of the Abductor Minimi Digiti becoming a Thin Disgregated Fleshy Muscle in the Palm, as it is here Represented; it passes under the Tendon of the Palmaris Longus, to its Tendi­nous Termination in the Eighth Bone of the Carpus.

This Hollows the Palm by drawing the Bale of the Thumb or Mons Lunae, and Metacarpal Bone of the Little Finger, nearer each other.

L M N O P, The Thumb and Four Fingers, with Part of the Skin remaining on them.

Q, The Head of the Os Humeri which was Articulated with the Scapula.

R R R, The Blood-Vessels and Nerves passing withinside the Arm, between the Musculus Biceps and Gemellus, of which the Former especially the Arteries are to be Comprest in the time of Amputation; which may be perform'd with the Fingers only, without any Compress or Boulsters under them; or with the hard Twisting of a Ligature, which some use: The Compression being thereby the more easily Com­manded, to let the Arterious Blood pass out in Order to Dis­cover the Divided Large Arteries, so that they may be taken hold of with the Ends of the Forceps and Ti'd; which Practice we can't but Recommend in Amputations, or in other Cases where Large Fluxes of Blood happen. Nor have I found any considerable Inconveniency to the Patient, tho' the Trunk of the Nerve has been also Ti'd up with the Ar­tery, which the Diligent Operator may very easily avoid.

S, Part of the Musculus Deltoides.

T, Part of the Gemellus or Biceps Externus.

V V, The Tendinous Part of the Musculus Supinator Radii Longus.

W, The Flexor Carpi Vlnaris.

X, Part of the Musculus Flexor Digitorum Perforatus.

Y, The Abductor Minimi Digiti.

Z, Flexor Primi & Secundi Ossis Pollicis; It Arises Fleshy from the Ligamentum Transversale Carpi, Bones of the Carpus at the Bottom of the Mons Lunae, and Os Metacarpi of the Middle Finger; whence passes to its Insertion partly to the Ossa Sesamoidea of the Second Internode, and partly to the First Bone of the Thumb: This Disgregated Fleshy Muscle is very Divisible as Vesalius takes Notice, and Appears Tab. 68. M N O O P. It moves the Thumb Variously ac­cording to the several Disposition of its Series of Fibres, In­clining its First and Second Bones, either Directly or Oblique­ly towards the Carpus and Palm.

THE SIXTY-FIFTH TABLE.

REPRESENTS divers Muscles of the Arm and Cubit.

A, The Musculus Deltoides Rais'd from its Origination and left at its In­sertion.

B, The Clavicula made bare.

C, That Part of the Deltoide Muscle, which Arises from the Spina Sca­pulae.

D, The Pectoralis cut from its Original, and left at its Implantation.

d, The Rotundus Major: It Arises from the Inferior Angle of the Scapu­la, and becoming a round Fleshy Body, passes under the Superior Head of the Gemellus, where it Grows Thinner and makes a Broad Flat but short Tendon Implanted below the Neck of the Os Humeri. Its Office is to draw the Arm Backwards and pull it somewhat Downwards.

E, The Subscapularis or Immersus: It fills the Internal Concave Part of the Scapula, Arising Fleshy from its whole Basis and Superior and Inferior Costa Internally, and in its Progress Lessens its self according to the Configuration of the Scapula, and Running over its Juncture; it's Inserted to the Neck of the Os Humeri in a Semicircular Manner. This draws the Arm to the Trunk of the Body, and is made Use of by the Bag-pipe-Player to Compress his Bellows under his Arm.

F, The Coracobrachialis: Its partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous Origination, is at the extream Point of the Processus Coracoides Scapulae, in its Descent Growing Thicker, strictly Adhering to the Internal Head of the Biceps, which it Parts from near its partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy Inser­tion, about the Middle of the Internal Part of the Os Humeri.

f, A Trunk of a Nerve which passes thro' the last Describ'd Muscle; whence it's also call'd Perso­ratus.

G G, The Basis Scapulae.

H, The Processus Coracoides Scapulae.

I, The Biceps whose Two Heads or Tendinous Beginnings are here Exprest; the one Arising from the Processus Coracoides (H) call'd the Internal Head, the other Springing from the Upper-part of the Brink of the Acetabulum Scapulae under the broad Ligament of the Articulation, and is call'd the External Head, passing in a Sulcus or Channel on the Head of the Arm-Bone (Vide Tab. 96. Fig. 1. D, E,) wherein it's inclos'd by a Proper Ligament: In its Descent becomes Fleshy, and joins with its other Head, Composing a Large Fleshy Muscle, which becomes Less near the Articulation of the Cubit with the Shoulder-Bone, and presently Growing perfectly Tendinous, which Tendon is again Divided into Two; the External being Thin, passes over the Musculus Pronator Radii Rotundus, and makes an External Inclosure to all the Muscles on the Cubit. (Vide App. Fig 1. m.) The Internal (which is Short Thick and Round, as it is here Exprest) is fastned to a Protu­berance near the Upper-part of the Radius. (Vide Tab. 96. Fig. 6. A.) When this Muscle Acts, it Bends the Arm: Besides its common Office to which its Lower External Tendon also more Advan­tagiously Contributes, by how much the more it Approaches towards the other Extream of the Radius from the Os Humeri: This Lower Tendinous Expansion, by us call'd Fascia Tendinosa, has also a further Use in Corroborating the Muscles of the Carpus and Fingers in their Strenuous Actions, whose Office we have Endeavour'd to Explain in our Treatise of the Muscles, where an Extraordina­ry Case in Practice, relating to this Muscle, is Explain'd. Vid. Myotomia Resormata, Pag. 149.

K K, The Brachiaeus Internus: It Arises Fleshy from the Internal Part of the Os Humeri at the Terminations of the Deltoides and Musculus Coracobrachialis, and Descending over the Juncture of the Cubit with the Os Humeri, it's Inserted partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous to the Superior and Fore-part of the Ulna, and Part of the Radius, as this Figure Expresses; which Latter I must con­fess I never yet Observ'd in Nature. It Bends the Cubit.

L, Part of the Brachiaeus Externus.

M, The Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri.

N, The Ulna.

O, The Radius.

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THE SIXTY-SIXTH TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles of the Arm and Cubit.

A, The Biceps free'd from its Subjacent Muscles.

B, The Brachiaeus Internus in Situ.

C, D, E, The Biceps Externus or Gemellus: It has a Twofold Origin; the First (C) or Superior, Arises Tendinous from the Superior Part of the Inferior Costa of the Scapula Internally, and Marching out from between the Two Round Muscles, soon Grows Fleshy, and joins with its Second Be­ginning (D), which Arises Broad and Fleshy from the Upper and Back-part of the Os Humeri under the Deltoide Muscle; soon after the Conjunction of these Two Heads, it becomes Externally Tendinous (E), and is so Im­planted to the Superior and External Part of the Ulna, call'd Olecranum, Ancon, or the Elbow. Its Office is to Extend the Cubit, which it do's the more Advantageously, by how much the more it is Intertext with Various Orders of Fibres. Hence it comes that Tumblers when they stand on their Hands, can by the sudden Extension of their Cubits, immediately return to their Feet.

F, The Infraspinatus: It lieth below the Spine of the Scapula; It Arises Fleshy from the Infe­rior Part of the Basis Scapulae, also from its Spine and Inferior Costa (in those Bodies in whom the Teres Minor is wanting, as I am apt to think, it was in the Subject by which this Figure was taken) whence Marching in a Triangular Form according to the Figure of the Bone, it's Inserted to the Upper-part of the Head of the Os Humeri. This moves the Arm directly Backwards.

G, The Supraspinatus, it being plac'd above the Spine of the Shoulder-blade. It Arises Fleshy from the Superior Part of Basis Scapulae that's above the Spine, as also from the Spine and Costa Superior of the Shoulder-blade, and hence Marching between the Processus Coracoides and An­choriformis, becoming Tendinous as it Marches over the Juncture of the Humerus, and is so In­serted to the most Superior Part of the Shoulder-bone. It's Office is to lift the Arm Upwards and somewhat Backwards towards the Occiput.

H, The Spina Scapulae.

I I, The Clavicula.

✚ The Subclavian Muscle, free'd from the first Rib and remaining on the Clavicula.

K, The Rotundus Major.

L, The Os Humeri made bare.

M, The External Protuberance of the last nam'd Bone, whence the Extending Muscles of the Carpus and Fingers do Arise.

N, Part of the Supinator Radii Brevis, as it Arises from the Ulna, and passes over the Upper-part of the Radius.

O, The Ulna.

X X, The Deltoides Arising from above one Third of the Inferior and External Part of the Cla­vicula (II), where it is intirely Fleshy; it also Arises partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous, from the whole Inferior Margin of the Spina Scapulae (H), from hence Descending, soon becomes Thick and Fleshy, Growing still Narrower, till it is Inserted by its partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous Apex, to the Middle of the Os Humeri (L). This draws the Arm either directly Upwards, or somewhat Forwards, or Backwards according to the Direction of its differing Series of Fibres.

THE SIXTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

SOME of the Muscles Employ'd in Bending the Fingers and Carpus.

A, B, C, D, E, The Per­foratus, or Sublimis, or Flexor Secundi Interno­dii Digitorum, Dissected from its Original: It A­rises partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous, from the Internal Extuberance of the Os Humeri, be­tween the Flexores Carpi: It has also a Disgre­gated Fleshy Origination from the Fore-part of the Radius, between the Pronator Radii Teres, and Flexor Pollicis Magnus, soon Composing a Fleshy Belly, Lessens its self where it begins to Divide into Two Parts, each of which being again Subdivided, makes Four Roundish Tendons (c c c c), included in their Proper Mucilaginous Membranes, and pass under the Annular Liga­ment of the Carpus thro' the Palm: Near the First Internode of the Fingers, each of these Tendons are again Divided or Perforated (E), to admit the Tendons of the following Muscle to pass thro' 'em; these Tendons joining again, are Inserted to the Superior Parts of the Second Bone of each Finger.

F, G, H, I, &c. The Perforans in Situ; it's also call'd Profundus and Flexor Tertii Internodii Di­gitorum: It Arises Fleshy from near Two Thirds of the Superior and Fore-part of the Ulna, and Internal Edge of the Radius, as also from the Li­gament between the Radius and Ulna; it be­coming a Large Thick-Bellied Muscle; it Grows Outwardly Tendinous before it passes over the Pronator Radii Quadratus, where Dividing in­to Four Round Tendons, which March under those of the Perforatus (last Describ'd) beneath the Transverse Ligament of the Carpus, where the Lumbrical Muscles M, M, M, M, are said to Arise: These Tendons pass the Palm H, H, H, H, and run thro' the Tendons of the former Muscle and proceeding over their Extremities, Termi­nate in the Superior and Fore-part of the Third Bone of each Finger I I I I.

The Tendons of the First of these Two last De­scrib'd Muscles A, B, C, D, being Perforated E, to Transmit those of the Inferior Muscle F, H, and to their Insertions I, &c. is a no less Useful than Stupendious Artifice in Nature: For since its re­quisite the Fingers should be Bended with a con­siderable Strength, and each of their Internodes should be Accommodated to different Tactile Bo­dies, it was therefore Necessary the Muscles em­ploy'd in that Action, should not only be Large, Proportionable to the Force required; but that each Internode should be Furnish'd with a Parti­cular Instrument. The Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri, being a Necessary place for the Rise of Part of these Muscles; but upon the Account of Bending the Cubit, the Extreams of that Part of them might suffer some Ap­proximation; it was therefore thought fit, that Place should be allotted to the Bender of the Se­cond Internodes of the Fingers, to which not so much Force is requir'd, as to the Bender of the Third Internodes; for the Fingers like so many Leaves are more effectually mov'd, when the Vis Movens is fastned to their Extreams, which is their Third Internodes; wherefore the Strongest Muscles are there Inserted: Now the Origin of the Superior Muscle being confin'd to the Inter­nal Extuberance of the Os Humeri, and Part of the Radius only, these Places could not Furnish Spaces for a Muscle so Large as that of near Two Thirds of the Superior and Forepart of the Ulna, Internal Edge of the Radius, and Intermediate Li­gament of the Bones of the Cubit, whence the Inferior Muscle Springs: Hence it Appears the Inferior Muscle is much Stronger than the Su­perior; wherefore the Tendons of the Latter are Perforated, to Transmit those of the Former in a right Progress to their Terminations, at the Ex­tremities of the Fingers: Nor is this Constructure only Advantageous in Bending the Fingers only; but if the External Muscle should be Divided Transversely, as I have sometimes seen it; yet the compleat Flexion of the Fingers has never­theless been perform'd by the Internal Muscle; which is a provident Contrivance in Nature.

K K, The Mucilaginous Membranes which In­volve the Tendons of the Perforans, those of the Perforatus not being Exprest in this Figure.

L L, The Ligamentum Transversum, or An­nulare Divided.

M M, The Lumbricales, or Flexores Primi In­ternodii Digitorum. The Originations and Pro­gress of these are here so well Exprest, that they need no other Description.

N N, &c. The Tendons of the Lumbrical Muscles passing to their Terminations, with the Musculi Inter-Ossei.

O O, The Annular Ligaments of the Fingers Open'd, which keep in the Bending Tendons, when they Act.

P, The Abductor Pollicis.

Q Q, The Tendon of the Flexor Pollicis Longus.

R R, Flexor Secundi Internodii Pollicis.

S, The Trunk of that Nerve whose Branches are Propagated to the Fingers.

T, The Long Tendon and Bellied Part of the Muscle Palmaris.

V, The Radialis Flexor.

W, Part of the Ulnaris Flexor.

X, Part of the Supinator Radii Longus.

Y, The Artery whose Pulfation is commonly Felt near the Carpus.

Z, Pronator Radii Quadratus, partly in Sight.

*, The Internal Protuberance of the Os Hu­meri.

✚, Pronator Radii Teres.

ψ, The Lower Part of the Bicipital Muscle.

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THE SIXTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

THE Muscles Bending the Fingers, Thumb, Carpus, &c. Rais'd from their Originations, and left at their Insertions.

a, The Perforatus.

b, The Perforans.

c c, &c. The Lumbri­cales.

d, d, The Six Inter-Os­sei Muscles free'd from between the Metacarpal Bones, and left at their Insertions in Conjunction with the Tendons of the Extensor Digitorum Communis. These draw the Fingers to each other, and Assist in Extending them.

e, The Fore-finger.

A, The Pronator Radii Teres, or Rotundus: It Arises from the Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri, and in its Oblique Descent, Cleaves to the Flexor Carpi Radialis, Lessening its self at its Insertion a little above the Middle of the Ra­dius Externally. Its Name declares its Office, and Figure.

B, The Pronator Radii Quadratus, or Inferior Quadratus: It Arises from the Lower and Inner Part of the Ulna, and passes Transversly over the Ligament, joining the Radius to the Ulna, and is Inserted to the Superior and External Part of the Radius. Its Name intimates its Use, and Figure.

C, The Supinator Radii Longus.

D, The Supinator Radii Brevis; left at its In­sertion, which is here truly Exprest.

E, Flexor Carpi Radialis: It Arises Fleshy from the Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri, Cleaves to the Pronator Radii Teres A; in Half its Progress, becomes Tendinous, and runs under the Annular Ligament, and is Inserted to the Up­per Part of the Os Metacarpi; which Sustains the Fore-finger as here Exprest.

F, The Little Finger.

G, The First Bone of the Thumb made bare.

H, The Adductor Pollicis ad Dorsum Manus, and Abductor Iudicis Rais'd both together.

I, K, The Abductor Minimi Digiti: This we have often seen, as its here Represented, Divided into Two, and sometimes Three Distinct Muscles, and each of a differing Order of Fibres: It Arises First from the Ligamentum Transversale, and Fourth Bone of the Carpus; Secondly from the Third Bone of the Carpus; Thirdly and Last­ly from the Superior Part of the Subjacent Os Metacarpi: The Two First, Terminate at the Superior Part of the First Bone of the Little Finger Forwards: The Latter Ends at the same Part of the said Bone Internally and Laterally.

L, The Flexor Pollicis Longus: This we have Observ'd to have a Twofold Beginning; the First and Superior of which is Sharp, but soon Grows Fleshy at the Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri, between the Perforatus and Perforans: This Fleshy Body becoming Tendinous, again joins with the Middle Tendon of its other Large Head. The Second and Inferior Origin of this Muscle is that Part of it commonly Describ'd and here Figur'd. It Arises with a Double Order of Fleshy Fibres from immediately below the Supe­rior Part of the Radius, which Unite in a Mid­dle Line or Tendon, not unlike the Fibrillae of a Feather joining to their Stamina; and before it passes over the Articulation of the Carpus, and under the Transverse Ligament, it Composes a somewhat Flat Strong Tendon, running in an In­terstice in the Musculi Flexor Primi, and Secun­di Internodii Pollicis, to its Implantation at the Superior Part of the Third Bone of the Thumb.

M, P, O, Flexor Primi & Secundi Ossis Polli­cis: It Arises from the Ligamentum Transversa­le Carpi, and Bones of the Carpus at the Basis of the Mons Lunae, and Os Metacarpi that Sustains the Middle Finger, and is Inserted to the Ossa Sesamoidea of the Second Internode, and partly to the First Bone of the Thumb. Its Actions are Various according to the Diversity of its Series of Fibres. So it Bends the First and Second Bones of the Thumb either Directly or Oblique­ly towards the Carpus and Vola Manus.

N, N, &c. The Abductor and Part of the Fle­xor Secundi Internodii Pollicis Rais'd together.

Q. The Ulnaris Flexor Carpi: This like the Radialis derives its Origin from the Internal Pro­tuberance of the Os Humeri, as also from the Superior and External Part of the Ulna, and is partly Inserted in some Subjects to the Fourth Bone of the Carpus; but most commonly it pas­ses farther on, and runs under the Transverse Li­gament, and is Implanted to the Upper Part of the Os Metacarpis that Sustains the Little-Fin­ger. Its Name denotes its Imployment.

R, The Biceps left at its Insertion to the Ra­dius.

S, The Brachiaeus Internus.

T, The Internal Tubercle of the Os Humeri.

V, The Ulna made bare.

W, The Radius.

X, The Ligament between the Ulna and Ra­dius.

THE SIXTY-NINTH TABLE.

REPRESENTS the External Muscles lying on the Cubit, imploy'd in Extending the Fingers, Thumb and Carpus.

The Skin with the Parts annex'd, Rais'd.

B, The Elbow, which Bidloo Erroneously calls the External Apophysis of the Os Humeri.

C, The External Protuberance of the Os Humeri, which Bidloo (in like Manner) calls the Internal Apophysis of that Bone.

D, F, The Radialis Extensor Carpi: This has Two Beginnings, and does indeed represent Two distinct Muscles; The Uppermost (F) arises imme­diately above the External Protuberance of the Os Humeri, below the Supinator Radii Longus; The other Beginning is beneath the former, either from the Apex of the Extuberance of the Os Humeri, or Superiour Part of the Radius. Both its Tendons, marching under the Extensores Pollicis, run under the Annular Ligament, and are Inserted to the Superiour Part of the Ossa Metacarpi of the Fore and Middle Fingers. Vid. Tab. 71. F, I.

E, The Extensor Carpi Ulnaris: This Arises from the External Protuberance of the Os Hume­ri, as also from the Upper Part of the Ulna, and is Inserted to the Metacarpal Bone of the Little Finger. If this and the Ulnaris Flexor, Act, they move the Hand Sideways towards the Ulna; and in like Manner, if the Radialis Flexor and Extensor, Act, they move it towards the Radius.

G, Extensor Digitorum Communis, by some call'd Cnemodactilius; It springs from the Outward Extuberance of the Os Humeri between the Extensores Carpi, and its Tendons pass under the Annular Ligaments between the Lower Parts of the Ulna and Radius, marching separately over the Back of the Hand, do transmit Tendinous Filaments to each other, before they pass the First Internodes of each Finger, and are Inserted to the First, Second, and Third Bones of the Fore, Middle and Third Fingers. There being no Force requir'd in Extending the Fingers, we need not wonder that the Muscles imploy'd in that Office are no larger in Proportion to their Antagonists.

H, The Extending Muscles of the Thumb, which are distinctly Exprest in the following Tables.

I, Part of the Tendon of the Musculus Indicator.

K Inferior, Abductor Minimi Digiti.

K Superior, The Lower End of the Ulna, next the Carpus B, its Upper Part call'd Olecranum.

L, The Annular Ligament.

M, Extensor Minimi Digiti, Describ'd in the following Table.

N, Part of the Ulnaris Flexor.

O, The Anconaeus: It Arises Fleshy from the Inferior and Back Part of the Os Humeri, and growing Thicker as it Marches between the Superior Ends of the Ulna and Radius, is Inserted to the lateral Part of the Ulna, a Thumbs Length below the Olecranum, or Elbow. This Assists in Extending the Cubit.

P, Part of the Supinator Radii Longus: This Arises Broad and Fleshy from the External Part of the Os Humeri, Three Finger's Breadth below the Termination of the Deltoides; and Descending Obliquely, it gradually lessens its self, and makes a Flat, Broad Tendon, which likewise grows Narrower till it's Inserted to the External and Inferior Part of the Radius, near the Carpus. Vid. Tab. 68. C.

Q, Part of the Gemellus, which is sometimes continuous with the Anconaeus.

R, Part of the Brachiaeus Internus.

S, Part of the Biceps Cubiti.

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THE SEVENTIETH TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles which Extend the Carpus, Fingers, and Thumb; somewhat Separated from each other and Rais'd.

A, The First Internode of the Fore-Finger.

B, The First Internode of the Little-Finger.

C Inferior, The Second Internode or Bone of the Thumb.

C Superior, The Musculus Extensor Tertii Internodii Pollicis:

This has a Broad partly Fleshy Origination from the Ulna, im­mediately below the Beginning of the Extensor Primi Internodii, or between it and the Iudicator, as also from the Ligament between the last nam'd Bone and Radius, whence. Descending Obliquely becomes Tendinous, as it Marches in a Proper Sinus on the Inferior Appendix of the Radius, wherein it's Enclos'd by an Annular Ligament, passing over the Two Tendons of the Radiaeus Extensor, to its Implantation at the Superior Part of the Third Bone of the Thumb.

D D, The Extensor Digitorum Communis.

E F, &c. Its Tendons passing over the First and Second Joints of the Fingers, here supported with a Pen.

G G, The Radialis Extensor stretch'd out with a Pair of Compasses.

H H, The Ulnaris Extensor.

I, The Anconoeus.

K, The Extensor Minimi Digiti Proprius: This Arises partly Tendinous at the Extremity of the External Protuberance of the Os Humeri, and partly Fleshy from the Superior Part of the Ulna, between the Extensor Communis Digitorum, and Ulnaris Extensor; and becoming Tendinous as it passes under the Ligamen­tum Annulare at the Carpus, where it is Divided into Two, sometimes Three Ten­dons, which are again United near their Insertions to the First, Second, and Third Bones of the Little Finger.

L, Part of the Ulnaris Flexor.

M, The Upper Epiphysis of the Ulna.

N, The Musculus Iudicator, or Extensor Iudicis Proprius: This Arises Fleshy from the External Part of the Ulna next the Radius, immediately below the Ex­tensores Pollicis, and in its Oblique Descent becomes Tendinous, Running under the Annular Ligament on a Sinus, in the Lower Part of the Radius, and passes over the Os Metacarpi Iudicis, joins with the Tendon of the Extensor Communis Digitorum, and is Inserted with it.

O O, The Extensores Secundi & Tertii Internodii Pollicis.

P, The Lower Part of the Ulna.

Q Q Q, The Inter-Ossei.

R, The Abductor Minimi Digiti.

S, The Adductor Pollicis ad Dorsum Manus.

THE SEVENTY-FIRST TABLE.

SHEWS the Muscles Employ'd in Extending the Carpus, and Fingers, Rais'd, and left at their Insertions.

A, The Radius made bare.

B, The Ulna made bare.

C, The Upper End of the Radius, Articulated with the Os Humeri.

D, The Ligament joining the Ulna and Radius together.

E, The Musculus Ulnaris Extensor.

F, I, cc, Radialis Extensor: I, by Bidloo is Erroneously call'd Extensor Iudicis.

G, Supinator Radii Brevis: The Origin of this Muscle is here well Exprest and its Insertion, Tab. 68. D.

H, Part of the Extensor Digitorum Communis.

K, Extensor Minimi Digiti Proprius.

L Superior, Extensor Tertii Internodii Pollicis.

M M, The Bones of the Carpus.

N N N, The Ossa Metacarpi.

O O, Extensores Primi & Secundi Internodii Pollicis, which derive their Origina­tions from the Ulna, like the Extensor Tertii Internodii, and are Inserted to the re­spective Bones of the Thumb.

P, Part of the Extensor Communis Digitorum, together with the Iudicator.

Q, The Tendinous Origin of the Ulnaris Flexor, cut from the Ulna.

R, The Ligament Rais'd which Incloses the Ossa Carpi at their Articulations, with the Radius.

S, The Adductor Pollicis ad Dor sum Manus: It Arises from the Lower Part of the Os Metacarpi of the Fore-finger, and Descends Obliquely to its Broad Termination at the Superior Part of the First Bone of the Thumb.

T, The Abductor Minimi Digiti.

V V V, The Inter-Ossei.

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THE SEVENTY-SECOND TABLE.

AS the Arm, Cubit, and Hand are compre­hended under the Title of the Whole Hand; so the Thigh, Leg and Foot, are in common call'd, the Foot. The Bones of those Parts are Represented, Tab. 103, 104, 105. where we shall speak of the particular Denominations of the Parts last mention'd: Our Business at present being to Explain the Muscles which move the Bones; First of the Muscles which move the Thigh-Bone. The Skin and Fat of the Buttocks being Rais'd, the Muscle which First offers its self to View, is the Glutaeus Major, here Rais'd and laid aside to shew its Inferior Surface (A.) The Superior or External Surface of this Muscle Appears Compos'd of divers Muscles, in whose Interstitia the Fat is Inserted, and requires an Artificial Ma­nagement of the Knife in freeing the Muscle of it, so as to leave no Part of the Fat behind, nor Wound the Fleshy Fi­bres of the Muscle.

A, B B, C, The Glutaeus Major Rais'd and Turn'd Down­ward. This Muscle is not well Describ'd by Anatomists, they only mentioning its Fleshy Part here Exprest; besides which, it has a Large Broad Tendinous Part, Springing from the Whole External Margin of the Spine of the Os Ilium (O O) next the Musculus Communis of the Membranosus, whence March­ing over the External Part of the Glutaeus Medius (D); at the Great Trochanter (E E), it meets with the Fleshy Part of this Muscle, Arising from the Posterior Part of the Spine of the Os Ilium, hindermost Part of the Sacrum Laterally, and Os Coccygis, and Cleaving to the Broad Ligament that's Extended between the Two last mention'd Bones and Tubercle of the Os Ischium; its Fleshy Fibres Descend Disgregately in an al­most Semicircular Manner, and become Tendinous as they approach the Great Trochanter where it's United with its First Describ'd Tendinous Beginning, which together De­scending over the Great Trochanter, joins with the Tendon of the Membranosus (of which hereafter,) and proceeds to Frame a Large, Thick, Strong Tendon (C,) Inserted to the Linea Asperia on the Back of the Os Femoris, near Four Fingers Breadth below the Great Rotator.

The First Describ'd Tendinous Origin of this Muscle, do's not only serve to support its Fleshy Body, but its Fibres Ex­tending themselves, Intersect those of the Membranosus as they Cover all the Muscles of the Tibia, do more Adequate­ly Include those Muscles, and Corroborate them in their Actions; as we have elsewhere Observ'd of the Muscles of the Cubit and Fingers. When this Muscle Acts, it draws the Thigh directly Backwards.

I was lately Consulted in the Case of a Fistulous Ulcer a little above the Great Trochanter; the Sinus tended Upwards, and was at least Two Inches Deep from the Surface of the Skin, and about Three Inches in Length: I could Discover the Bottom of the Sinus to be very hard like a Cartilage; nor was it at all sensible to the Touch of the Probe, as the Patient Inform'd me; but on the contrary, told me, I than seem'd to Grate against the Bone. The Sinus had been divers times Open'd, and the hard Body at the Bottom of it laid bare, but the Wound could not be Cicatric'd: I Open'd it again, and afterwards cut out the hard Cartilaginous Body which Co­ver'd the External Part of the Glutaeus Medius; the Wound afterwards Incarn'd, and was Cur'd in a few Days. This Pre­ternatural hard Body was Fram'd in the First Describ'd Ten­dinous Part of the Glutaeus Major, and the Blood-Vessels would not Spring from it to afford Incarnation; nor would common Escharoticks Act on it, wherefore it continued to lie Bare; but after cutting it out thro' the Blood-Vessels from the Sub­jacent Muscle, the Glutaeus Medius Sprung up, and join'd with those of the Membranes under the Skin, by which means a Confirm'd Ci [...]atrice was made. By this we may be Inform'd how Useful Anatomy is in Surgery.

The like Case may happen on the Tendinous Expansion of the Inferior Part of the Membranosus, on the Muscles of the Tibia and Tarsus, where dividing it only according to its Length may be sufficient.

D, E E, F, Glutaeus Medius: This lies chiefly under the Tendinous Beginning of the Maximus, Arising Fleshy from almost the Whole External Part of the Spine of the Os Ilium, whence Descending becomes Thicker and Fleshy, and is In­serted (in a Semicircular Manner E E) by a Short Strong Ten­don, to the Superior and External Part of the Great Trochanter.

This Muscle is not only Employ'd in Extending the Thigh, but is chiefly Serviceable in Turning it Inwards; and this Action of it will Manifest it self, if in Time of Dissection you give the Thigh that Motion as it lies on the Table; you may then Observe the Fore-part of this Muscle Notably Re­laxt; and in Living Persons when the Thigh is turn'd In­wards, you may see the Fore-part of this Muscle Tumified, which ought to be taken Notice of by Painters; or, if in Performing that Action with your own Thigh you lay your Thumb on this Muscle, you may easily Feel it move under the Skin: Besides these Actions, it's also Employ'd in Strad­ling or Pulling the Thighs and Legs from each other; it Co­operating with the Musculus Membranosus in that Action.

G, Part of the Triceps.

H, The Pyriformis or Iliacus Externus.

I I, Part of the Marsupialis.

K, The Great Crural Nerve.

L, The Appendix of the Os Ischium, whence the Muscles Bending the Tibia and Musculus Quadratus do Spring.

M, A Ligament Protended from the Os Sacrum to the Tu­bercle of the Ischium, or Os Coxendicis.

N, Part of the Os Sacrum.

O O, The Spine of the Os Ilium.

P, The Great Trochanter.

Q, Part of the Vastus Externus.

R, The Upper Head of the Biceps Femoris.

S, The Beginning of the Seminervosus.

THE SEVENTY-THIRD TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles of the Thigh, &c.

A, The Glutaeus Major.

B, The Medius; both being Rais'd and left at their Inser­tions.

C, The Glutaeus Minor in Situ: It has a Semicircular Broad Beginning from the Dorsum Ossis Ilii, whence its Fleshy Fibres Descend to their partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous Inser­tion, at the Superior Part of the Root of the Great Trochanter.

This Performs the same Office with the Medius, mention'd in the Description of the preceding Table.

D, F, G, I, The Pyriformis, by some call'd Iliacus Externus, by others Quadrage­minus Primus: It Arises Round and Fleshy from the Inferior and Internal Part of the Os Sacrum, within the Pelvis of the Abdomen, Descending from thence Oblique­ly in the Great Sinus of the Os Ilium (Tab. 99. Fig. 2. F) above the Acute Process of the Ischium (Ibid. G,) and joins with the Glutaeus Medius before it's Inserted to the Upper Part of the Root of the Great Trochanter. This moves the Thigh some­what Upwards and Turns it Outward.

E, The Os Sacrum.

H, That Part of the Marsupialis, call'd the Marsupium.

K, The Tubercle of the Os Ischium.

L, The Back-part of the Os Ilium.

M, The Great Trochanter.

N, The Musculus Quadratus Femoris: It Arises Broad and Fleshy from the Epi­physis of the Os Ischium, and passes Transversly of an equal Breadth and Thickness to its partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous Implantation, at the Posterior Part of the Os Femoris▪ below the Great Trochanter: This turns the Thigh Outwards.

O, Divers Muscles of the Tibia near their Origin.

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THE SEVENTY-FOURTH TABLE.

SEVERAL Muscles Imploy'd in Moving the Os Femoris, Rais'd from their Originations, and left at their Insertions.

A, The Glutaeus Major, scarcely Appearing under the Medius.

B, The Glutaeus Medius, Free'd from their Originations, and left at their Insertions.

C, And Minor, Free'd from their Originations, and left at their Insertions.

D, The Iliacus Externus, or Pyriformis hanging at its Insertion.

E, Part of the Triceps.

F, G, The Marsupialis or Bursalis, by some call'd Obturator Internus:

It Arises Broad and Fleshy from the Os Ilium, Ischium, Pubis, and Liga­ment that's Extended in the Great Foramen of the Two last nam'd Bones Internally; whence passing Transversly, it's Inflected on the Sinus of the Ischium N; on each Side of which, namely the Acute O, and Obtuse Process P, Arises its Second Fleshy Body, call'd Marsupium G; which, Covering the Tendons deriv'd from its former Origin, Descends Obliquely with them to their Insertion at the Superior Part of the Root of the Great Trochanter.

When this Muscle Acts, the Great Trochanter is directed towards that Part of the Ischium N, whereon its Tendons are Inflected, not unlike a Pulley; by which the Os Femoris is turn'd Out­wards.

H, The Obturator Exteruus cut from its Origin at the Great Foramen (R) of the Os Ischium; its Name is deriv'd from its Situation, its call'd Rotator Femoris Extrorsum from its Use; it has a Large Fleshy Beginning from the External Parts of the Os Ischium, Pubis, and Membrane that Co­vers the Foramen Externally, (opposite to the Origin of the Marsupialis) passing Transversly Back­wards, Lessens its self, and Grows Tendinous at its Implantation to the Root of the Great Trochan­ter.

I, The Head of the Os Femoris lying out of the Acetabulum, after the Ligamentum Latum i [...] cut off.

k, The Round Ligament of the Os Femoris which is Fasten'd to the Inferior Part or Margin of the Acetabulum; whereby the Great Atrition of the Superior Part of the Acetabulum, with the Head of the Os Femoris, is prevented in Walking, Running, and the like Actions.

l, The Mucilaginous Gland Entertain'd in a particular Depressure in the Bottom and Lower Part of the Acetabulum; whereby the too Great and often Compressure of the Mucilage in Ordinary Motions of the Thigh, is Prevented.

m, Some Remains of the Mucilaginous Glands on the Neck of the Os Femoris, near the Conjun­ction of the Ligamentum Latum; which is here taken off, to shew the Head of the Thigh-Bone and Acetabulum of the Os Coxendicis.

K, The Os Ilium.

L, The Os Sacrum.

M, The Coccygis.

N, The Sinus of the Os Ischium in which the Tendons of the Marsupialis pass.

O, An Acute Process of the Ischium.

P, The Appendix of the Ischium whence Springs the Bending Muscles of the Tibia.

Q, The Lower Margin of the Os Pubis.

R, The Great Foramen of the Os Ischium and Pubis.

THE SEVENTY-FIFTH TABLE.

EXPRESSES divers Muscles of the Tibia, and some of those of the Thigh.

A, B, C, The Sarto­rius, or Fascialis Longus, seu Longissimus Femoris: Itarises Sharp and Fleshy from the Fore-part of the Spine of the Os Ilium, close by the Musculus Communis of the Membranosus, and Descending Obliquely Inwards on the Rectus, and Vastus In­ternus, and over Part of the Triceps of an unequal Breadth and Thickness; it meets with the Gracilis below the Middle of the Thigh Internally, and Accompanies it in its Passage over the Internal and Inferior Head of the Thigh-bone; where it be­comes Tendinous as it passes under the Strict In­closure of the Fascia Lata, and is Inserted Four Fingers Breadth below the Superior Part of the Tibia Internally; it's Employ'd in moving the Thigh and Tibia Upwards, somewhat Fore­wards, and Inwards; in which Actions, the Up­per-part of this Muscle Appears thro' the Skin, which ought to be observ'd by Painters, and Sculptors.

D, E, F, The Gracilis: It Arises somewhat Broad, partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy from the Os Pubis Internally, between the Two First Heads of the Triceps, and in its straight Descent on the Inside of the Thigh, Lessens it self, becom­ing Tendinous a little above the Tendon of the last Describ'd Muscle, and is so Inserted imme­diately beneath it to the Tibia.

It Assists the Flexors of the Tibia.

G, The Rectus: It Arises Fleshy from a Pro­minence of the Os Ilium, between the Fore-part of its Spine and Acetabulum, (Tab. 99. Fig. 1.1,) thence Descends directly between the Vastus Ex­ternus, and Internus, over the Crureus: Its Fi­bres Externally Descend from a Middle Line Obliquely Laterally; Internally they pass ac­cording to its Length, and become entirely Ten­dinous Four Fingers Breadth above the Patella, where it's United with the Tendons of the Two Vasti and Crureus, and is Inserted with them to the Tibia.

It Assists in Extending the Leg, as also in draw­ing the Thigh and Leg Upwards.

H, The Vastus Internus: It Arises partly Ten­dinous and partly Fleshy, at the Linea Aspera on the Back-part of the Os Femoris, from imme­diately below the Lesser Trochanter, to Three Fingers Breadth above the Inferior Appendix of that Bone Internally and Laterally; whence its Fleshy Fibres Descend in an Oblique and almost Semicircular Manner, and on a sudden becoming Tendinous, joins with the Tendon of the Rectus, Vastus Externus, and Crureus, and is Inserted to a Prominence on the Upper and Fore-part of the Tibia after joining with the Patella. Its Office is the same with the last nam'd Muscles.

I, The Vastus Externus: Its Origin External­ly is Tendinous, Internally Fleshy from the Lower-part of the Great Trochanter, and Ex­terior Part of the Linea Aspera of the Os Fe­moris; whence its Fibres Descend Obliquely Forwards, and on the contrary become Out­wardly Fleshy and Tendinous Internally, and immediately becomes perfectly Tendinous, join­ing with the Tendons of the Two last Treated of Muscles, and is Inserted with them (after joining with the Rotula) to the Tibia, as is above men­tion'd.

K K, Parts of the Triceps.

L, The Pectineus, by some call'd Lividus and Flexor Femoris; it has a Thick Broad Fleshy Ori­gin from the External Part of the Os Pectinis, or Pubis, between the Musculus Lumbalis, toge­ther with the Iliacus Internus, and Second Head of the Triceps; whence Descending Obliquely Backwards, becomes a Flat Strong Tendon near its Implantation to the Asperity, on the Posterior Part of the Os Femoris, immediately below the Lesser Trochanter, and the Termination of the Psoas. This Acting together with the Psoas Magnus, and Iliacus Internus, do not only As­sist those Muscles in drawing the Os Femoris Upwards, but by its Oblique Curve Descent from its Origin to its Insertion: It Directs the Thigh somewhat Outwards, which is a provident Con­trivance in Nature, least in Walking, the Thigh-bones by their Oblique Position should be Inci­dent to turn Inwards; wherefore this Muscle is more particularly Employ'd in Directing the whole Foot, viz. the Thigh, Leg, and Foot Out­wards, in a more Graceful Step.

M, The Psoas together with the Iliacus Inter­nus, near their Insertions.

N, The Os Pubis.

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THE SEVENTY-SIXTH TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles lying on the Fore-part of the Thigh.

A, The Musculus Com­munis of the Membra­nosus.

B, Part of its Tendi­nous Expansion Rais'd and Pinn'd out; it's call'd Membranosus and Fascia Lata, from its large Membranous Expansion, Com­prehending all the Muscles of the Tibia, together with Part of those of the Thigh: It hath an Acute Fleshy Beginning from the Fore-part of the Spine of the Os Ilium, between the Origination of the Sartorius, and First Describ'd Tendinous Beginning of the Glutaeus Magnus, being Dilated to a Fleshy Belly after an Oblique Descent, it becomes Tendi­nous Four Fingers Breadth below the Great Tro­chanter; whence it Descends Directly over the Va­stus Externus, to its Proper Termination at the Su­perior Appendix of the Fibula; but in its Progress thither, it is conjoyn'd with the Tendinous Ex­pansion of the Glutaeus Magnus, that Arises from the Spine of the Ilium, Covering the External Part of the Glutaeus Medius, and all the Exter­nal Muscles of the Tibia, as well as those of the Thigh-bone, and Descending over the Patella, Comprehends all the External Muscles of the Tarsus and Toes, and joins with the Ligamentum Annulare, which retains the Tendons of the Mu­scles of the Toes and Foot: Unless it may be sup­pos'd this Fascia Lata should End at the Lower­part of the Thigh-bone, or Superior Parts of the Tibia and Fibula, and that the last Nam'd Bones should give an Origin to the Inferior Part of the Fascia; which seems to be Matter more of Con­troversie than Use. When this Muscle Acts, it draws the Leg Outwards; its Tendon being join'd with Part of the Tendinous Beginning of the Glu­taeus Magnus, having a differing Series of Fi­bres Intersecting each other, do thereby Com­pose a Strong Involucrum, as well Including all the Common Muscles of the Leg, as Covering the Proper; whereby those Muscles are Corrobo­rated in their Actions.

C, The Crureus or Femoreus: Its Origination is Large and Fleshy on the Fore-part of the Thigh-bone, from between the Greater and Lesser Tro­chanter, as Appears Tab. 79. its Fibres Descend directly, and become intirely Tendinous a little below the Upper-part of the Tendon of the Re­ctus, soon joining with that Tendon, together with those of the Two Vasti, and Fixing to the Patella, is afterwards Implanted to a Prominence at the Superior and Fore-part of the Tibia. The Ex­tending Muscles of the Tibia are much Stronger than their Antagonists the Flexors, as Appears by their Magnitude and Conformation; whether in respect to their Variety of Series of Fibres in Ge­neral, or Triple Order of those of the Rectus in Particular, and its Inclosure in the Fascia Ten­dinosa: Nor is this Conformation without some considerable End Design'd by the Author of Na­ture; for should not the Legs be Extended with a Force Exceeding the Incumbent Weight, we should be continually liable to an Inflection at the Knees, thro' the Pressure of the Whole Body; much less should we be able to Translate the Bo­dy from one Place to another. But the All-wise Architect of Humane Bodies has so Fram'd these Muscles, as not only to make them Useful in Supporting the Whole Body, and rendering them Effectually Serviceable in Walking, Running, and the like: But thro' the great Proportion of Strength of these Extending Muscles of the Ti­bia, they are also Capable (upon Inflection at the Knees) by their sudden Acting to Extend the Legs with such a Force, as to remove the Whole Body from the Place where it stood, as in leap­ing: In which Action, the Extending Muscles of the Back, namely the Sacrolumbales, Longissimi Dorsi, &c. and the Gasterocnemii of the Feet do in like Manner Concur in Extending those Parts: A likeness of which is Represented in a piece of Whale-bone, Vid. Borell. De Motu Animalium

D, Part of the Sartorius.

E, The Tendinous Part of the Gracilis.

F, A Portion of the Rectus, as it Appears hang­ing down.

G, The Vastus Internus Rais'd and hanging down.

H, Part of the Vastus Externus in like Man­ner Dissected.

I, The First and Largest Head of the Triceps, which Arises Broad and Fleshy from the Inferior Edges and External Parts of the Os Ischium and Pubis, and Descending with an Oblique Order of Fibres to its partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy Insertion to the Linea Aspera of the Thigh-bone, immediately below the Implantation of the Mus­culus Quadratus Femoris; the Lower-part of this Head of the Triceps Composing a Strong Round Tendon, Inserted to the Superior Part of the Internal and Lower Appendix of the Thigh-bone: The Second Head of this Muscle Arises Tendinous from the Os Pubis, but in its Descent soon becomes Fleshy, and joins with the Former, near its Insertion to the Middle Part of the Li­nea Aspera of the Thigh-bone: The Third and last Beginning of the Triceps, Springs from the Inferior Part of the Os Pubis, between the Origin of the last Describ'd Head, and Pectinaeus; and Descending Obliquely, joins with the First Head near its Insertion to the Linea Aspera of the Thigh-bone, immediately above the Termina­tion of the Second Head. The Triceps moves the Thigh Variously according to the Diversity of its Beginnings; so the First Describ'd Part of it draws the Thigh-bone Upwards, Inwards, and somewhat Backwards; the Second and Third Be­ginnings of it, pulls the Thigh more Inwards, and Turns it somewhat Outwards, as when we put our Legs Across each other.

K, Parts of the Psoas, and Iliacus Internus.

L, The Musculus Pectinaeus.

M, The Os Pubis.

N, The Blood-Vessels of the Thigh Ti'd.

O, The Patella or Knee-pan.

P, The Inferior and Internal Part of the Lower Appendix of the Thigh-bone.

Q, Part of the Tibia.

THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

SOME of the Muscles of the Thigh and Leg Dissected from their Originations, and left at their Insertions.

A B C, &c. The Musculus Biceps Femoris: BB, Its Two Heads or Beginnings: C, Its Termination.

D, The Semimembranosus, which in its Proper Situation is partly cover'd with the Seminervosus (E): It has its Tendinous Origin from the Protuberance of the Os Ischium, and compo­sing a Broad, Flat Tendon in Half its Progress, on the Back­part of the Thigh it becomes a Round Fleshy Belly, lying under the Long Ten­don of the Seminervosus: About the Lower Appendix of the Thigh-bone (M), this Muscle is converted into a Strong Round Tendon, Running in a Channel on that Appendix, and is afterwards Inserted to the Superior and Back-part of the Tibia: This Bends the Tibia, which Action it Performs the more Advantageously by its Lower Tendons, passing in a Channel on the Inferior Appendix of the Thigh-bone; which, as a Pully not only Directs it in its Office, but renders its Action in Bending the Leg more Vigorous. It must be Granted, that if the Tendon of this Semimembr anosus had past further on, and Terminated with those of the Seminervo­sus, Gracilis, and Sartorius, it would have rendred it capable of Performing its Action with Force; but in regard the Number of Tendons here on this Internal Side of the Ham are already Increas'd to Three, the Fourth could not well be ad­mitted without some Inconveniency, either in Performing its Office together with the Rest, or in the Figure of the Part: Besides it seems to be no small Artifice in Nature, as well here in the Leg, as in the Arm, to Furnish both with Proper Muscles, which should Gradually Bend them: Thus the Shorter Beginning of the Biceps Femoris and the Muscle now Treated of, are Analogous to the Brachialis In­ternus, Flexor Cubiti; and this Contrivance here seems the more convenient in re­spect of Walking; in which a moderate Flexion of one of the Legs is only Neces­sary, in Order to its Translation before the other.

E, The Seminervosus or Semitendinosus.

F, The Glutaeus Magnus Rais'd.

G, Part of the Glutaeus Medius.

H, The Back-part of the Thigh-bone made bare.

I, The Vastus Externus partly cover'd with the Tendinous Expansion of the Membranosus.

K, The Tendon of the Membranosus on the Vastus.

L, M, The Two Prominencies of the Lower Appendix of the Thigh-bone, of which the Internal (M) is furrow'd to receive the Round Tendon of the Semimem­branosus.

N, The Trunks of the Blood-Vessels cut off in the Ham.

O, Part of the Crural Nerve.

P P, The Two Fleshy Beginnings of the Gasterocnemius Externus.

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THE SEVENTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Muscles on the Back-part of the Thigh partly free'd from each other, and left at their Originations and Insertions.

A, Part of the Glutaeus Major.

B B, Biceps Femoris in Situ: It having Two Beginnings; the Superior and Longest of which, Arises from the Protu­berance of the Os Ischium (G), in its Descent becomes Large and Fleshy, and Lessening it self, joins with the Inferior and Shorter Head, which Springs partly Fleshy and partly Tendinous from the Linea Aspera of the Os Femoris, immediately below the Termination of the Glutaeus Magnus; soon after these Two Heads or Beginnings of this Muscle are United, it becomes Tendinous as it Descends in a Channel on the External Part of the Lower Appendix of the Os Femoris, and is Implanted to the Superior Epiphysis of the Fibula.

Besides the Office commonly Assign'd, this Muscle together with the Seminer­vosus and Semimembranosus; it's likewise Imploy'd in Turning the Leg together with the Foot, &c. Outwards in Sitting with the Leg Bended.

C C, The Semimembranosus remov'd from its Proper Situation.

D D, The Seminervosus in like Manner Rais'd, and left at its Origination and Insertion: This Arises from the same Protuberance of the Os Ischium (G), with the Upper Beginning of the Biceps and Origin of the Semimembranosus (CC), and De­scending Obliquely Inward after making a Fleshy Belly, Composes a Round Ten­don above the Ham, which Descends to its Insertion with the Gracilis and Sartorius, below the Upper Appendix of the Tibia Internally.

E, The Posterior Part of the Thigh-Bone.

F F, Parts of the Gasterocnemius Externus.

G, The Protuberance of the Os Ischium where the Bending Muscles of the Tibia above-mention'd do Arise.

H, Part of the Triceps.

I, The Great Crural Nerve.

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THE SEVENTY-NINTH TABLE.

EXPRESSES Parts of some Muscles remaining on the Fore-part part of the Thigh-Bone.

A A, The Fore-part of the Thigh-Bone.

B B, Part of the Crureus Muscle Rais'd from the Os Femo­ris.

b b, A Portion of the Crureus still remaining on the Thigh-Bone.

C, The Internal Part of the Patella, or Knee-pan.

D, The Inside of the Tendon of all the Extending Muscles of the Tibia United above the Patella.

E E, The Mucilaginous Glandules of the Knee. The Situation of these Glan­dules as well as others of this Kind, is so Contriv'd in the several Articulations of Bones to which they belong, as that they are not liable to be Comprest by the Apposition of the Bones in their Various Motions: Nor are they Destitute of such a Compressure as is Necessary to Accelerate their Mucilaginous or Slimy Juice, when Lodg'd in their Excretory Tubes. The Tubes or Excretory Ducts of these Glands, do not Discharge their Contents like those of the Fauces, by open Apertures; but are Carri'd beyond the Surface of their Glands, and Frame a Fimbria or Fringe-like Appearance, which hangs Loose or Flaggy in the Sinus's of the Articulations: This Contrivance in these Excretory Tubes of the Mucilaginous Glands of the Joints, is not only Necessary to Defend their Mouths from being Opprest by the Mucilage contain'd in the Sinus's of the Articulations in its Endeavour to Return again; but the too Plentiful Excretion of this Muci­lage is also prevented, and such a Quantity only Emitted as is Necessary to Lu­bricate the Articulations in their Respective Motions. Hence it Appears as in Violent Repeated Motions of the Bones, there is a greater Expence of the Muci­lage, so there is a constant Supply in Proportion to that Expence.

F, The Head of the Thigh-Bone taken out of the Acetabulum, or Cavity of the Hip-Bone.

G, The Ligamentum Latum, or Broad Ligament of the Coxendix, which Involv'd the Articulation of the Thigh-Bone with the Hip, here cut from the Margin of the Acetabulum, and left at its Connection to the Neck of the Thigh-Bone.

H, Part of the Great Trochanter.

The Muscles Adjacent to these Parts last mention'd, are here so confusedly Exprest, as no Explanation of them can be Asserted.

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THE EIGHTIETH TABLE.

THE Muscles on the Fore-part of the Leg lying under the Fascia Lata.

A, The Upper-part of the Tibia next the Patella which Composes the Knee.

B, The Tendons of the Musculi Peronei in their Progress towards their Insertions, as is Exprest in the following Table.

C, The Lower Appendix of the Fibula, call'd Malleolus Ex­ternus.

D, The Musculus Tibialis Anticus in Situ: Spigelius calls it Musculus Catenae, be­cause when it is Divided, the Patient is Oblig'd to Use a Sling to Support the Foot for some time. I have more than once seen this Muscle Divided, whether by Ignorantly Mis-applying of Causticks on Nodes of the Tibia, or in the Case of a Fracture of that Bone, and the Patient after some Time has Recover'd the com­pleat Action of Lifting up his Foot, by the Extensor Pollicis Pedis, H: The Tibialis Anticus derives its Fleshy Origin from the Lower-part of the Superior Apendage of the Tibia between its Prominence, where the Great Tendon of all the Extending Muscles of the Leg is Inserted, and the Origination of the Musculus Extensor Digitorum Pedis Longus seu Magnus; it also continues a Disgregated Fleshy Origi­nation for near Two Thirds of the Superior Part of the Tibia Externally La­terally, next the Fibula; which Composing a Fleshy Belly, Lessens its self in Half its Progress, and Growing into a Strong and somewhat Round Tendon, Descends Obliquely over the Inferior Part of the Tibia, and under the Annular Ligament, and is Inserted to the Superior and Internal Part of the Os Metarsi Pollicis.

This pulls the Foot Upwards and Forwards, Directly.

E, The Peronaeus Longus.

F, The Extensor Digitorum Pedis Longus.

G, Part of the Tendons of the Extensor Digitorum Brevis.

H, The Tendon of the Musculus Extensor Pollicis Longus.

I, Part of the Gasterocnemius Externus.

N.B. That the Muscles are Exprest in this Figure under the Fascia Lata; which like a Bandage retains their Tendons in their Proper Situation, in Order to Perform their Offices in Extending the Toes and drawing the Foot Upwards. In the following Figure the Fascia Lata is taken off, and the Muscles are Represented more Distinct, being partly Se­parated, and their Tendons Rais'd.

Part of the Gasterocnemius Internus is Exprest in this Figure between E, and I.

THE EIGHTY-FIRST TABLE.

DIVERS Muscles on the Fore-part of the Leg, partly Divided from each other.

A, The Superior Apophysis of the Tibia, to which the Tendons of the Extending Muscles (after joining with the Patella) are Inserted.

B, The Upper Appendix of the Fibula.

C, Part of the Tibia.

D, The Heel or Os Calcis.

E, The Musculus Tibialis Anticus.

F, The Extensor Digitorum Magnus or Longus, it being the Largest and Longest Muscle that Extends the Toes: This hath an Acute Fleshy Begin­ning Externally from the Inferior Part of the Upper Appendix of the Tibia next the Fibula; as also a Long Fleshy one from the Superior Part of the last Nam'd Bone, and Lessening it self in Half its Pro­gress on the Leg, it joins with a Second Broad, Disgregated Fleshy Beginning, continued for near Half the Inferior Part of the Fibula; where Descending under the Ligamentum Annulare of the Talus, it is Divided into Five Tendons, Four of which are Inserted to the Third Bones of all the Lesser Toes; but the Fifth is Implanted on the Superior Part of the Os Metatarsi of the Little Toe; which Part of it, Vesalius makes his Ninth Muscle belonging to the Foot.

G, The Extensor Digitorum Brevis: It Ariseth Fleshy from the External and Fore-part of the Os Calcis, soon Dilating it self to a Fleshy Belly, which being Divided into Four Fleshy Portions, be­come so many Tendons, passing over the Upper-part of the Foot, make Acute Angles with the Tendons of the Former Muscle, as they run over the First Internode of each Lesser Toe, to their Insertions at the Superior Part of their Second Internodes.

H, The Extensor Pollicis Pedis Longus & Magnus : It being the Longest and Largest Extender of the Great Toe: Its Beginning is Large and Fleshy on the Fore-part of the Fibula, from immediately below its Superior Appendix, to Four Finger's Breadth above its Inferior one; and Descending un­der the Ligamentum Annulare of the Tarsus, between the Tendon of the Tibialis Anticus, and the Tendons of the Extensor Pedis Longus, Marching along the Superior Part of the Foot; it's Inserted to the Upper-part of the Second Bone of the Great Toe; its Name declares its Use.

I, The Peroneus Primus seu Magnus in Situ: In the following Table it's Rais'd from its Origin, and left at its Insertion.

K, The Skin on the Bottom of the Foot, call'd Planta Pedis, taken off.

L L, A Style or Bodkin Supporting the Tendons of the Extensor Digitorum Longus.

M, The Lower Appendix of the Fibula, call'd Malleolus Externus.

N, Part of the Bone, call'd Talus and Astragalus made bare, so that its Cartilaginous Surface that is Articulated with the Inferior Part of the Tibia and Fibula, may be seen.

O, The Mucilaginous Gland of the Tarsus Entertain'd in the Large Cavity or Interstitium, Fram'd between the Talus and Oblong Tubercle of the Os Calcis; the Use of which Cavity and Mucus, is ta­ken Notice of by Realdus Columbus Lib. I. Cap. xxxii. to Moisten the Articulation of the Bones, least they become Dry by their frequent Motion.

P, The Tendon of the Peroneus Longus Marching behind the Malleolus Externus, in its Way to its Insertion in the Bottom of the Foot.

Q, Part of the Tendon of the Peroneus Secundus.

R, The Extensor Pollicis Brevis in Situ.

S, Part of the Gasterocnemius Externus.

T, Part of the Internus.

N. B. That the Fascia Membranosa which Helps to Compose the Annular Ligament, between the Two Malleoli and Upper-part of the Foot or Tarsus, commonly, call'd the Instep, is here taken off from its Continuance near Half the Lower-part of the Tibia, that of the Upper-part of the Leg or Ti­bia remaining on, as is well Exprest in this Figure.

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THE EIGHTY-SECOND TABLE.

SHEWS the Extending Muscles of the Toes, together with divers Imploy'd in the Motion of the Foot Dissected from their Originals, and left at their Tendinous Insertions.

A, The Inside of the Tibialis Anticus free'd from the Tibia.

B, The Peroneus Secundus, by some call'd Semifibulaeus: It has an Acute Fleshy Beginning from above the Middle of the External Part of the Fibula, under the Fleshy Belly of the Peroneus Longus, continuing to derive a Dis­gregated Fleshy Beginning from the Posterior Sharp Edge of the Fibula, Composing a Fleshy Belly; it Grows Tendinous as it passes behind the Malleolus Externus, under the Tendon of the Peroneus Longus, and is In­serted to the Superior and External Part of the Os Metatarsi of the Little Toe.

This draws the Foot Outwards.

C, The Peroneus Primus or Longus, so call'd because it is the First that offers its self to View, and the Longest Muscle plac'd on the Os Perone or Fibula; it Arises Externally Tendinous, and Internal­ly Fleshy, from above Half the Superior Part of the Fibula, Descending somewhat Backwards, Com­poses a Strong Flat Tendon, which becomes somewhat Round as it Marches in a Channel on the Mal­leolus Externus; whence it's Inflected Forwards (Tab. 81. P,) Accompaning the Tendon of the Pero­neus Secundus to its Insertion (Tab. Ibid. Q,); where the Tendon of this Muscle leaves it, and pro­ceeds to March over the Os Cuboides or Spongiosum, and under the Abductor Minimi Digiti; whence it passes in Planta Pedis, between the Ossa Cuneformia and Tendons of the Muscles Bending the Toes, to its Implantation at the Superior and Hindmost Part of the Os Metatarsi of the Great Toe, as is Exprest, Tab. 86. Fig. 1. M, Ibid. Fig. 2. F.

This Contrivance in Nature in conveying the Tendon of this Muscle, not only over the Lower Ap­pendix of the Fibula, but on the Os Spongiosum (as a Rope on a Double Pully) is very considerable in respect to its Office; for since the Ball of the Great Toe (to which Part this Tendon is Inserted) is Necessary for the Center of Gravity to the Whole Body; it is an Instance of the Skill of the Divine Architect so to Dispose of this Instrument, which brings that Center towards a Perpendicular Bearing (which Necessarily Projects from the Fulciment or Tibia), by adding this Double Pully; which Com­posing Angles of Contortion do's Reciprocally Augment the Force of making the Ball of the Great Toe Approach towards a right Bearing with the Tibia; and by this means sustains the Weight of the Body, tho it is not in a Direct Position with the Gravity of the Whole.

D, The Extensor Digitorum Pedis Longus.

E E E, &c. Its Five Tendons Inserted to the Extream Internode of the Lesser Toes; Two of which go to the Little Toe, as here Exprest.

e, One of the Tendons of the Extensor Digitorum Magnus, Implanted on the Os Metatarsi of the Little Toe.

F, The Extensor Digitorum Pedis Brevis.

f f f, Its Tendons.

G, The Extensor Pollicis Longus,

H, The Extensor Pollicis Brevis.

I, The Tibia.

K, The Fibula.

L L L, The Bones of the Tarsus Connected to each other, and the Ossa Metatarsi, by Liga­ments.

M, The Great Ligament of the Articulation of the Tarsus, with the Tibia and Fibula Divided, to shew the Upper Cartilaginous Surface of the Os Tali or Astragalus.

N N, &c. The Musculi Inter-Ossei lying between the Bones of the Metatarsus.

O, The Abductor Minimi Digiti.

P, Part of the Flexor Pollicis Longus remaining in Situ on the Back-part of the Fibula.

Q, Part of the Gasterocnemius Internus.

R, The Trunks of the Nerves and Blood-Vessels which are Inservient to the Muscles on the Fore-part of the Tibia.

S, The Ligament between the Tibia and Fibula which Distinguishes the Muscles of the Fore-part from those behind.

THE EIGHTY-THIRD TABLE.

REPRESENTS divers External Muscles of the Leg and Bottom of the Foot.

A, The Upper Ap­pendix of the Tibia, which Helps to Compose the Internal Lateral Part of the Knee.

B, The Body of the Tibia.

C, The Os Calcis.

D, Part of the Musculus Popliteus Inserted to the Upper and Internal Part of the Tibia.

E, The Gasterocnemius Externus, so call'd, be­cause it's the External Muscle which Helps to Compose the Calf of the Leg: Ves [...]ngius Distin­guishes this here Exprest, with its Companion on the Outside of the Calf, by the Name of Gasteroc­nemius, and the Subjacent Muscle, he calls Soleus, from its Figure being like that of the Sole-Fish, which Others, as Spigelius, &c. call Gasterocnemius Internus. This External Muscle is also call'd Ge­mellus, it being as it were Double; it having Two Distinct Fleshy Originations, from the Su­perior and Hindmost Parts of each Tubercle of the Lower Apendage of the Thigh-bone; which in their Descent are each Dilated into Two Large Fleshy Bellies: The Innermost of which is Thick­est, and Largest; each of these Fleshy Bellies having a Differing Series of Fibres, join to each other, near where they make a Broad Strong Tendon, which Narrowing it self, joins with the Great Tendon of the Gasterocnemius Internus, Four Finger's Breadth above its Insertion to the Os Calcis.

Riolan Asserts with Vesalius, That in the Two Beginnings of this Muscle, there are Two Ossicula Sesamoidea; which we must Acknow­ledge with Marchette, have hitherto Escap'd our Observation, tho' it's likely it may be so in Aged Bodies; as Appear'd in a Subject I lately Dissected, on one Side only.

When this Muscle Acts, the Foot is said to be Extended or pull'd Backwards, which Motion of it is very Necessary in Walking, Running, Leap­ing, and Standing on Tiptoe, &c. Hence it is those that Walk much, have these Muscles Larger than others, thro' the frequent Use of them, and a­mongst whom those that carry heavy Burthens, and especially Sedans or Chairs in this Town; and those who wear Low-heel'd Shoes have these Muscles Remarkably Larger than others.

F, The Tendinous Expansion of the Musculus Plantaris free'd from the Bottom of the Foot.

G, The Perforatus, so call'd, because its Ten­dons are Perforated like those of the Fingers. It is also call'd Flexor Secundi Internodii Digitorum Pedis, from its Use, and Sublimis from its Situa­tion: It Springeth from the Inferior and Internal Part of the Os Calcis, between the Musculi Ab­ductores of the Greater and Lesser Toes, Dilating it self to a Fleshy Belly; after it hath pass'd the Middle of the Planta Pedis; it is Divided into Four Fleshy Portions, which become so many Tendons, and are Divided near their Termina­tions to Admit the Tendons of the following Muscles or Perforatus, to pass thro' them to their Insertions; these Tendons being United again, pass Underneath the Perforantes to their Implan­tations at the Upper-part of the Second Bone of each Lesser Toe.

H H, The Tendons of the Perforans passing thro' the Divisions of those of the Perforatus last Describ'd.

I, The Tendon of the Flexor Pollicis Lon­gus.

K, The Abductor Pollicis, so call'd from its Office: It Arises partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy from the Internal and Lateral Part of the Os Calcis, and in Half its Progress Composes a Tendon which joins with another Beginning, Springing from the Os Cuniforme Majus, and Naviculare; both Marching Forwards make one Tendon at its Insertion to the External Part of the Os Sesamoides of the Great Toe Laterally: It draws the Great Toe from the rest.

L, The Abductor Minimi Digiti; this Muscle is Outwardly Tendinous and Inwardly Fleshy in its Origin at the External Part of the Os Calcis, and becoming Tendinous in Half its Progress on the Outside of the Foot; it joins a Second Fleshy beginning of this Muscle, Springing from the Superior and External Part of the Os Metatarsi of the Little Toe, makes one Tendon at its In­sertion to the Upper-part of the First Bone of the Little Toe Externally Laterally.

M, The Internal Malleolus.

N, The Tendon of the Tibialis Anticus.

O, The Tendon of the Gasterocnemii.

P, Part of the Small Long Tendon of the Musculus Plantaris, in its Descent towards the Bottom of the Foot.

Q, Part of the Gasterocnemius Internus or Soleus.

Note, That Part of the Flexor Digitorum Pe­dis Perforans and Flexor Pollicis, may be seen in this Position of the Part between M and Q; but the Membranes not being taken off (in the Sub­ject whence this Figure was taken) those Mus­cles are here Exprest very Obscurely.

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THE EIGHTY-FOURTH TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Muscles of the Hinder­part of the Leg, after the Gasterocnemii are Dissected from their Ori­ginals, and left at their Insertions.

A A, The Two Infe­rior Heads of the Thigh-bone.

B, Part of One of the Semilunary Cartilages plac'd in the Articulation of the Thigh-bone with the Tibia; this Cartilage together with that on the other Side of this Articulation, Frame Two Shallow Cavities on the Tibia, which receive the Prominencies of the Two Inferior Heads of the Thigh-bone: These Semilunary Cartilages are Thick and Large, Externally towards the Surface of the Tibia, to which they are Connected and Gradually become Thinner as they Approach the Center of the Upper-part of the Tibia; their Figure very aptly Represents a Half-Moon; their Office is very considerable in preventing those frequent Luxations and Dislocations which this Part, on very slight Occasions, would otherwise be Incident to; for which End these Semiluna­ry Cartilages are Connected to the Broad Liga­ment which Invests this Articulation; which Li­gament is very well Exprest in this Figure, it being partly taken off from the Hinder-part of the Articulation, to shew the Two Heads of the Thigh-bone.

C, The Musculus Popliteus, by some call'd Sub­popliteus: It Ariseth with a Short Strong Tendon from the External Head of the Inferior Appen­dix of the Os Femoris, whence Descending Ob­liquely over the Juncture, it becomes Fleshy or more and more Expanding it self, till it's Im­planted to the Superior Part of the Tibia Inter­nally, immediately below its Upper Appen­dix (a): This Muscle not only Assists the rest Imploy'd in Bending the Tibia, but it is Advan­tageously Situated to Antagonize the Biceps Fe­moris, when the Leg or Knee is Bended in Turn­ing the Foot and Toes Inwards.

D, The Internal Part of the Tibia.

E E, Parts of the Gasterocnemius Externus Dissected from their Originations.

F, The Inferior or Internal Surface of the Ga­sterocnemius Internus; where a very Elegant Dis­position of its Fibres are Curiously Exprest, which Appearance I have frequently Observ'd; but in some Subjects, and particularly in One I lately Dissected, a quite different Series of Fibres of this Muscle Offer'd: This Muscle lies under the Gaste­rocnemius Externus and Part of the Plantaris; it's call'd Soleus from its Figure; its External Fleshy Part is Cover'd with a Transparent Tendinous Ex­pansion, which makes it Appear of a Livid Co­lour; it Arises partly Tendinous, but chiefly Fleshy from the Hindmost Part of the Upper Ap­pendix of the Fibula, and Back-part of the Tibia, immediately below the Termination of the Sub­popliteus, and Increasing to a Large Fleshy Belly Compos'd of Various Orders of Fibres, all which being United into a Tendon, join with the Ten­don of the External Muscle, and are Inserted to the Superior and Hindmost Part of the Os Calcis. The Talus together with the Toes being as it were a Leaver to the Whole Body, ought therefore to be Attended with Muscles of great Strength to Extend them; wherefore we find those Muscles so much to Exceed their Antagonist the Tibieus Anticus, as well in the Advantageous Constru­cture of their Differing Series of Fleshy Fibres, as their Magnitude and Insertion at the Extremity of the Os Calcis; by which means they are not on­ly rendred Serviceable in Walking, Running, and the like; but do also Support the Tibiae in Stand­ing, least the Weight of the Body should make them Incline Forwards at their Articulations with the Bones of the Feet.

G G, The Plantaris left at its Origination; or which I rather believe, after Dissection from thence, and Rais'd, is there again Fastn'd; its Proper Situation being between the Gasterocne­mius Externus and Internus; the Latter of which Muscles could not without Difficulty be taken from its Origination, as is Represented in this Table, and the Plantaris left: This Muscle is so call'd because its Tendon is Expanded in the Plan­ta Pedis, like that of the Palmaris in the Palm of the Hand: It Arises Fleshy from the Superior and Back-part of the External Head of the Thigh-bone, immediately under the Outmost Beginning of the Gasterocnemius Externus; whence De­scending Obliquely between the Two Gasteroc­nemii, Composes a Thin, Long, Flat Tendon, which passes Out from between the Fleshy Bellies of the last nam'd Muscles, and Descends Inter­nally Laterally by their Great Tendons (as is Ex­prest in the preceding Table P,) and Marches over the Os Calcis, Expanding it self on the Sole of the Foot; where it almost Inseparably Ad­heres to the Fleshy Body of the Musculus Flexor Digitorum Perforatus, and is Inserted on both Sides the First Internodes of each Lesser Toe, and sometimes to that of the Great Toe.

The Office of this Muscle is very Obscure; its Tendinous Expansion on the Bottom of the Foot, is chiefly Serviceable in Defending the Subjacent Muscles, Tendons, Nerves, and Blood-Vessels, from being Comprest in Standing, Walking, &c.

N. B. In some Bodies the Fleshy Beginning and Long Tendon of this Muscle is wanting.

g, The Tendinous Expansion of the Plantaris separated from the Bottom of the Foot.

H, A Large Nerve in its way to the Bottom of the Foot and Toes.

I, The Beginning of the Flexor Pollicis in Situ.

K K, Part of the Peroneus Secundus.

L, The Beginning of the Perforans in Situ.

M, The Abductor Pollicis.

N, The Skin and Fat taken off the Heel and Bottom of the Foot.

THE EIGHTY-FIFTH TABLE.

ALL the Muscles Represented in the Preceding Table Rais'd from their Originals, and left at their Insertions.

A, The Inferior Part of the Musculus Popliteus at its In­sertion to the Internal and Upper Part of the Tibia.

a, The Internal Part of the Knee.

B, The Great Bone of the Leg call'd Tibia;

C, The Lesser Bone call'd Fibula.

D D, The Two Beginnings of the Gasterocnemius Externus;

E, its Conjunction with the Internal Gasterocnem Muscle.

F F, The Musculus Plantaris plac'd between the External and Internal Gasta­rocnem Muscles.

G, The Tibialis Posticus, so call'd from its Situation on the Back-part of the Ti­bia; it's also call'd Nauticus, from the Use which Mariners make of it in Climbing up their Masts; it's plac'd under the Flexor Pollicis Longus and Part of the Perso­rans Digitorum Pedis; in some Subjects it seems to have Two Fleshy Bellies: This Muscle remains undivided between the Bones after the Circular Incision for Am­putations of the Leg below the Knee: It Springs from a partly Tendinous and Fleshy Origination at the Superior and Back-part of the Fibula, as also from the Ligament between the Tibia and Fibula; whence Descending, becomes Tendinous as it runs in a Sinus on the Back-part of the Lower Appendage of the Tibia call'd Malleolus Internus, under an Inclosing Ligament, and is Inserted to the Os Navi­culare: This Draws the Foot Upwards and Inwards.

H, The Perforans or Flexor Tertii Internodii Digitorum Pedis; It hath an Acute Fleshy Origination from the Back-part of the Tibia, immediately under the Sub­popliteus, having a Double Order of Fleshy Fibres United to a Middle Tendon like the Flexor Pollicis Longus, but ceases to be Fleshy as it Marches behind the Malleolus Internus, Running in a Channel over the Internal Part of the Os Cal­cis, and under its Inclosing Ligaments; in Half its Progress through the Bottom of the Foot, its Tendon is Divided into Four, which March through the Fissures of the Tendons of the Perforatus I, and are Inserted to the Third Bones of the Lesser Toes.

I, The Perforatus in Situ, Describ'd Tab. 83.

K, The Flexor Pollicis Pedis Longus is an Antagonist to the Extensor Longus; It Arises opposite to it from the Back-part of the Fibula, with a Double Order of Fleshy. Fibres passing to a Middle Tendon; it ceases to be Fleshy as it passes over the Juncture of the Talus, running through a Channel on the Internal Part of the Os Calcis, its Tendon still Marches under the Tendon of the Musculus Flexor Di­gitorum Longus Perforans, to which it most commonly joins, and passes in a De­pressure made in the Flexor Pollicis Brevis (Elgantly Exprest in this Figure) to its Insertion at the last Bone of the Great Toe: Its Name Declares its Office. There are many remarkable Parts Exprest in this Figure, which have been al­ready Explain'd in the preceding Tables, as the Os Calcis made bare, the Malleo­lus Internus, the Musculus Abductor Minimi Digiti, &c. Wherefore we shall not In­sert particular Characters of them here, as we have done in the foregoing Tables.

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THE EIGHTY-SIXTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

EXHIBITS all the Mus­cles which Appear in the Bottom of the Foot, af­ter the Expansion of the Plantaris is remov'd.

A B C, The Musculus Lumbricalis, by some call'd Carnea Massa in Planta Pedis; It Springs Fleshy from the Internal Part of the Os Calcis, and Growing Tendinous, joins with the Tendons of the Perforatus; where Growing Fleshy again, Divides its self, and Composes the Four Musculi Lumbricales F F E, (properly so call'd from their Figure); all which become Tendinous at their Insertions to the Internal Parts of each Lesser Toe, Laterally next the Great Toe: It is also call'd Flexor Primi Internodii Digitorum Pedis, from its Use.

a a a, The Tendons of the Perforans Running thro' the Fissures of the Musculus Perforatus; which is here Dissected from its Original, and left at its Insertions to the Lesser Toes, that of the Little Toe being wanting.

D, Part of the Flexor Pollicis Longus.

G, The Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis cut from its First Original at the Os Calcis, and left at its Second, at the Metatarsi Minimi Digiti.

H, Part of the Abductor Pollicis.

I, The Flexor Pollicis Pedis Brevis in its Pro­per Situation.

K, The Transversalis Pedis in like Manner in Situ.

L, Parts of the Inter-Ossei.

M, Part of the Tendon of the Peroneus Lon­gus, in its Way to its Insertion in the Bottom of the Foot.

N, The Heel-bone.

Fig. 2.

A, Between C C, and D, The Flexor Pollicis Brevis: This, as Appears in the preceding Table, seems to be Divided into Two Parts, by the Ten­don of the Long Muscle Bending the Great Toe passing over it: It Ariseth from the Os Cunesor­me Medium, and Marching over the Termina­tion of the Peroneus Longus, is Implanted to the Ossa Sesamoidea of the Great Toe, which Bones are (like the Patella) afterwards Tied to the Se­cond Internode of that Toe: Its Name declares its Office.

B, The Abductor Minimi Digiti cut from its Origin and Pinn'd up.

AAAA, The Musculi Inter-Ossei in Situ, some­what Rais'd.

C C C, Part of the Abductor Pollicis, and Flexor Brevis.

D, The Adductor Pollicis: This Arises partly Tendinous and partly Fleshy from the Inferior Part of the Os Cuneforme Tertium, after Com­posing a Fleshy Belly, is Lessen'd at its Insertion to the Part of the Outermost Os Sesamoides of the Great Toe: Its Denomination Expresses its Use.

E, The Transversalis Pedis, so call'd from its Situation: It Ariseth Tendinous from the Exter­nal Os Sesamoides of the Great Toe, and becom­ing a Fleshy Belly in its Progress over the First Internodes of the Two next Toes, it is Lessen'd at its Insertion to the Inferior Part of the Os Meta­tarsi of the Little Toe: Its Office is to bring the Lesser Toe towards the Greater.

F, The Tendon of the Peroneus Longus at its Termination.

G, The Os Calcis.

N. B. Parts of the Tendons of the Perforatus and Perforans, are Exprest at their Termina­tions on the Bones of the Toes.

Fig. 3.

A A, &c. The Eight Musculi Inter-Ossei of the Toes, according to Bidloo and Others; the First of which lying on the Little Toe, we choose to call from its Office, Flexor Primi Internodii Minimi Digiti, it not lying between the Metatar­sal Bones like the rest: Its Rise being from the Su­perior Part of the Os Metatarsi Minimi Digiti, it passes Directly to its Insertion in the First Bone of the Lesser Toe. The Inter-Ossei are in Number Se­ven, they derive their Names from their Situa­tion, and may each deserve a Proper Appellation from their Use: The First next to the Muscle last Describ'd, may be call'd Adductor Minimi Digiti; the Second is the Largest, and draws the next Toe towards the Lesser, and may be call'd Abdu­ctor Auricularis; the Third Antagonizes the For­mer, and is an Adductor of that Toe; the Fourth is an Abductor Medii Digiti; the Fifth is an Ad­ductor of the same; the Sixth is an Adductor; and the Seventh an Abductor Indicis Pedis: Their Origination, Progress, and Insertion, may be seen Exprest in this Figure.

B B, C C, Divers Muscles of the Great Toe which are confusedly Dispos'd.

D, The Abductor Minimi Digiti.

E, The Tendon of the Peroneus Longus, at its Implantation to the Os Metatarsi of the Great Toe.

THE EIGHTY-SEVENTH TABLE.

HAVING Examin'd the Muscles of the Limbs and most of those of the Head, Trunk and other Parts of the Body, and taken Notice of many of the most Remarkable Ligaments in divers Articulations of the Bones: We come next to View the Whole Compages of the Bones when Dried, call'd the Ske­leton; the Fore-part of which is Represented in this Table. If you Exa­mine the Proper Situation of each Bone, you will find none of them plac'd in a Perpendicular Bearing to each other: Above Two Thirds of the Whole Head, Projects from its Articulation with the Vertebrae of the Neck: The Whole Ribs and Sternum which Compose the Fore-part of the Thorax, to­gether with all its Viscera, as well as the Viscera of the Lower Belly, Pro­ject from the Vertebrae of the Back and Loins: The Claviculae whose Positions are Horizontal, Sup­port the Arms, by their Connections with the Scapulae: The Articulations of the Thigh-bones are not Perpendicular to the Grand Fulciment of the Head and Trunk; (i.e. the Whole Vertebrae,) but are plac'd before it. The Thigh-bones Stand Obliquely Inwards, and so do the Tibiae, tho' not in so great a Manner. We Stand either on the Extremity of the Os Calcis, and Ball of the Great Toe together; or else on the Ball of the Great Toe only, as on Tip-Toe.

A, The Forehead-bone Divided into Two Parts, by means of a Continuation of the Longitudi­nal Suture, which may be seen in divers Subjects as here Exprest; nor do's such an Appearance De­termine the Sex as some pretend.

B, The Bregma.

C, The Temple-bone call'd Squamosum.

D, The Yoke-bone or Os Iugale Compos'd of Two Process's; the one deriv'd Backwards from the Os Squamosum; the other Forwards from the First Bone of the Upper Jaw.

E, The Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

F, The Lower Jaw-bone.

G, The Teeth call'd Incisores.

H, The First Rib near its Articulation with the Vertebrae of the Neck.

I, The Clavicula on the Right Side.

K, The Processus Coracoides Scapulae on the Left Side.

L, The Sternum or Brest-bone.

M M, &c. The Seven True Ribs.

N N, &c. The Five Bastard Ribs, call'd Nothae or Spuriae.

O O, &c. Divers of the Twelve Vertebrae of the Back.

P P, &c. Four of the Five Vertebrae of the Loins; the Uppermost being hid by the Cartilages of the Bastard Ribs.

Q, The Os Ilium.

R, Its Conjunction with the Os Pubis in the Acetabulum.

S, The Os Pubis.

T, The Os Sacrum.

V, The Upper-part of the Ossa Pubis, behind which, is the Os Coccygis, not to be seen in this Po­sition.

W, The Os Humeri or Shoulder-bone.

X, The Ulna, Exprest in its Whole Length in the Left Arm.

Y, The Radius; between which and Z, are contain'd the Eight Bones of the Carpus.

Z, The Bones of the Hand, particularly those of the Metacarpus.

1, The Thigh-bone.

2, The Patella or Knee-pan.

3, The Tibia.

4, The Fibula.

5, The Bones of the Foot.

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THE EIGHTY-EIGHTH TABLE.

IS the Back and Side of a Humane Skeléton.

What has been said in the preceding Page relating to the Position of the Bones, with respect to their Bearing on each other, seems better Explain'd in the Figure of this Table: Whereby it Appears, if the Muscles which draw the Head Up, or Backwards, as well as those plac'd on the Back-part of the Whole Spine, were not very Large as well as Numerous, the Trunk of the Body as well as the Head, would be continually subject to fall Forwards. Nor could we Stand, much less Translate the Body from one Place to another, if the Extending Muscles of the Thigh-bones, those of the Tibiae and Feet, were not very Strong, as is elsewhere taken Notice of in the Description of those Muscles. Hence we may easily Conceive, why we can with less Difficulty continue a Progressive Motion for a longer Time, than in a Standing Posture; the Former being an Alternate Acting of most of the Muscles; the Latter a Continued or Tonic Action of some few Muscles only. Hence also we may be Inform'd, why the greatest Part of the Gravity of the Whole Body is sustain'd by one Leg only in Standing, rather than with both at once: And divers other Phaenomena of which my Time at present will not give leave so much as to make mention.

A, The Forehead-bone.

B, The Bregma.

C, The Temple-bone.

D, The Yoke-bone.

E, The Bone of the Occiput; near E is the Mammiform Process.

F, The Bones of the Upper-Jaw.

G, The Lower Jaw-bone.

H, The Fourth Bone of the Upper-Jaw which Constitutes the greatest Part of the Roof of the Mouth.

I I I I I, Five of the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Neck; the Uppermost Ari­sing from the Second Vertebra, being Short and Double, do's not Appear in this Posture.

I I Inferior, The Spines of the Two First Vertebrae of the Back or Thorax.

K K, &c. The rest of the Spines of the Vertebrae of the Back,

L L, Those of the Loins.

M, The First Rib.

N, The Scapula or Shoulder-blade.

n, Part of the Clavicula Articulated to the Spine of the Scapula.

O, The Internal Part of the Sternum or Os Pectoris.

P P, &c. The True Ribs.

Q Q, Some of the Inferior or Bastard Ribs.

R, The Os Ilium,

S, The Sacrum,

T, The Ischium,

V, The Coccygis.

W, The Internal Part of the Os Pubis.

X, The Os Humeri or Shoulder-bone.

Y, The Ulna.

Z, The Radius.

1, The Bones of the Hand.

2, The Thigh-bone.

3, The Patella.

4, The Tibia.

5, The Fibula.

6, The Bones of the Foot.

A Particular Description of each of these Bones, may be seen in the Expli­cations of the following Tables.

THE EIGHTY-NINTH TABLE.

THIS and the Three following Tables Represent the Bones of the Skull, and those of the Upper and Under Jaws.

The Bones which Compose the Skull are the Ossa Frontis, Sincipitis, Occipilis, Temporum, Sphenoides and Cribriforme: Of these the Four First are esteem'd Proper to the Skull; the Two Latter are said to be Common to the Skull and Upper Jaw. The Bones of the Upper and Under Jaws will be more particularly Treated of in Tab. 92.

Fig. 1.

The Convex Fore-parts of the Forehead bone, with those of the Upper-Jaw and Os Sphenoides, as they Appear Separated from the rest of the Bones of the Skull.

A, The Forehead-bone whose Superior Margin, Sutur'd with the the Ossa Sincipitis, Composes near Two Thirds of a Circle.

B B B, Parts of the Superior Lamellae or Table which sticks out with Sharp Edges and Points, which are receiv'd in the Interstitia of the like Fram'd by the Ossa Sincipitis, which Conjunction is call'd Sutura.

C C, The Lower-part of the Frontal-bone, Composing the Superior Part of the Orbit of the Eye.

D, A Process of the Os Frontis near the Great Cantbus of the Eye.

E, Another Process of the same Bone towards the Lesser Can­thus.

F, Part of the Os Cuneiforme join'd to the Frontal-bone, by Bidloo call'd Two Eminencies of the last nam'd Bone, on both Sides towards the Temples.

G, In this as well as the rest of the Bones of the Skull, may be seen divers Foraminulae for the coming in and going out of Blood-Vessels, whether belonging to the Dura Mater and Common Integuments of the Skull, or Duploi of the Skull it self.

H, That Part of the Os Frontis, where a Cavity is Fram'd contain­ing a Pituitous Membrane, which is continuous with that of the Fora­mina Narium, and Helps to Separate Part of the Mucus that is Ex­creted at the Nose. This Cavity is often Divided with a Septum Osseum; as Appears in Tab. 91. Fig. 2. In some Humane Skulls this Cavity scarce Appears, in others it is very Large, especially in those who have Projecting Eye-brows. Those that take much Snuff may have Part of it, get up into this Cavity, and there Lodge, and prove Pernicious. In Quadrupedes these Cavities are Large and Di­vided by divers Bony Partitions, and Communicate with each other by Various Apertures: In Sheep I have frequently found in those Cavities divers Large Maggots, not unlike the Great Eruca Terrestris. In Cows, Bulls, &c. these Cavities are very Large; in these Animals the Pituitary Membrane which Invests these Cavities, frequently be­comes Inflam'd and Thickned; whereby the Pituita is Pent up in these Cavities, and causes a Disease in those Animals, call'd the Stag­gers; for which the Country People (particularly in Sussex) perform this following Operation, and the Animal is presently reliev'd.

The Head of the Beast being held in a convenient Posture, and the Operator Furnish'd with a Mallet and Large Broad Chisel: With One or Two Stroaks he drives his Chisel into the Os Frontis, which Com­poses this Cavity; this done, he raises up the Bone with its Superja­cent Parts, by means of the Chisel; then with his Fingers he Sepa­rates the Pituitary Membrane from the Bone, and draws it out: This done, he presently Depresses the Rais'd up Parts with his Hand; and the Divided Bone afterwards Unites, and the Animal is seldom Trou­bled with the like Disease afterwards.

This Membrane fill'd with Pituita (they tell you) is a Water-bag lying on the Brain.

The rest of the Bones Exprest in this Figure are Explain'd Tab. 92. Fig. 1.

Fig. 2.

The Internal Concave Parts of the same Bone Represented in the preceding Figure.

A, That Part of the Os Frontis which receives the Fore-part of the Brain.

B B, The Saw-like Appearance of the Os Frontis after Disjunction from the Bones of the Sinciput, at the Coronal Suture.

C C, The Superior and Fore-part of the Os Cuneiforme, join'd to the Frontal-bone.

D D, The Internal and Anterior Process's of the Os Cuneiforme, which Help to Compose the Sella Equina, or Turcica; in this Sell the Pituitary Gland is Lodg'd; the Contorted Trunks of the Carotid Arteries pass by it on each Side in their Way to the Brain, where they send out divers Small Branches which Help to Compose the Rete Mirabile: This Process gives way to the Optick Nerves in their Pro­gress to the Eyes.

F F Inferior, Two Internal Long Processes of the Os Sphenoides join'd with the Os Frontis.

F F Superior, The Impressions which the Blood-Vessels make in the Frontal-bone in their Distribution on the Dura Mater.

G, An Internal Process continued from the Os Cribrosum or Ethmoi­des, Distinguishing the Right Side of the Frontal-bone from the Left.

H, That Process of the Os Cribrosum, call'd Crista Galli.

I I, The Internal Part of the Os Cuneiforme or Sphenoides next the Brain.

K, The Lower-part of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, which Composes the Roof of the Mouth, by some call'd Os Palati.

L L, The Processus Pterygoides or Aliformis.

M M, The Internal and Back-parts of the Two First Bones of the Upper Jaw.

N, Part of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, in which the Up­per Teeth are Fasten'd.

O O, Two of the Dentes Molares left in both Sides of the Upper Jaw.

P, The Septum of the Foramina Narium.

Q, That Part of the Os Cuneiforme that was join'd to the Occipital Bone by Syncondrosis, which Conjunction becomes intirely Bony in Aged Bodies.

R, The Two Hinder Processes of the Os Sphenoides, which Com­pose the Back-part of the Sella Turcica, call'd Ephippium.

N. B. Between C D, and I, on either Side, is Exprest the Second Perforation of the Os Sphenoides or Large Rima, thro' which pass the Third, Fourth, Sixth, and a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves, together with divers Blood-Vessels, particularly a Large Branch of the Carotid Artery and Vein; which Latter is Figur'd Tab. 9. Fig. 2. F. The other Foramen, here Exprest immediately under the last men­tion'd, or between it and the Processus Pterygoides (L), is reckon'd the Third Foramen of the Os Cuneiforme, by which a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves passes out of the Skull: The rest of the Foramina of the Os Cuneiforme are the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh; the First of these namely the F [...]urth is Exprest in the First Figure of this Table, and again in Tab. 92. Fig. 1. I, within the Orbit of the Eye, and in Fig. 2. of the same Table (V V); by this Foramen, or rather Large Rima like the Second Foramen (made by the Fourth Bone of the Upper Iaw and Cuneiforme) pass the Branches of the Third, Fifth and some of the Sixth Pan of Nerves, after passing thro' the Second Foramen, to the Adjacent Muscles and Parts, together with Large Blood-Vessels of both Kinds, especially to the Temporal Muscle. The Fifth Foramen of the Os Cuneiforme, is Compos'd at its meeting of the Os Petrosum and Occipitale, Exprest Tab. 92. Fig. 2. X, X; which External Aperture there Represented, is partly fill'd with a Cartilage, but its Internal Foramen Transmits the Carotid Artery to the Lateral Part of the Sella Equina; which Artery First enters the Cranium by the Os Petrosum, as Appears in the last mention'd Fi­gure (Z Z); by this Foramen the Intercostal Nerve passes out of the Skull. The Sixth Perforation of the Os Sphenoides is Describ'd in the last mention'd Table and Figure (Y), and is Compleatly fill'd by a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves: The Seventh Foramen of this Bone is Externally Laterally Adjacent to the Sixth, and is most com­monly of an Oval Figure; by it a small Branch of the Carotid Artery passes to the Dura Mater, Accompanied with a Vein Running Paralel with it; which Frame those Sulci in the Bone, Exprest in this Figure (F F Superior), and in that of Tab. 91. Fig. 2. F F.

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THE NINETIETH TABLE.

THE Six First Figures Represent the Internal and External Surfaces of the rest of the Proper Bones of the Skull, when Separated from each other at their Sutures.

Fig. 1.

The Bone of the Sinciput or Bregma of the Right Side.

A A, The External Convext Part of the Bregma, Circumscrib'd by

B B, The Coronal Suture in the Fore-part, joining it to the Os Frontis;

C C, The Sagittal Suture in the Superior Part, by which the Right and Left Bregma are Distinguish'd;

D D, The Lambdoidal Backwards, by which it is Connected to the Os Occipitis.

D, A, B, The Inferior Side of the Bregma, on which the Superior Part of the Os Temporum, and Part of the Os Cuneiforme Rests.

Fig. 2.

The Internal Surface of the Left Sincipital-bone next the Dura Mater and Brain.

A A, The Internal Concave Part of the Os Sincipitis.

B, C, D, The Furrows which the Blood-Vessels of the Dura Mater, make on the Internal Surface of this Bone; where may be observ'd many Foramina these Vessels have, for their Entrance into the Me­ditullium [...] of the Bone; sometimes we have seen these Vessels Perforate the Cranium Directly, in more than in one or two Places, especially towards the Occipu [...], where Two of their Large Foramina are com­monly to be Observ'd on the External Surface of the Bone; but here also th [...]y sometimes pass Obliquely into the Meditullium: The Num­ber and Magnitude of these Foramina for the Blood-Vessels, may be seen to Increase near the Impression which the Longitudinal Sinus makes in the Cranium.

E E, That Part of the Bregma that was Contiguous to the Os Tem­porale, and Upper-part of the Os Sphenoides.

Fig. 3.

The Occipital Bone Separated at its Conjunction from the rest of the Bones of the Cranium.

A, The External Convext Surface of the Occipital-bone, where the Muscles Extending the Head, are Implanted, and Part of the Musculus Cucullaris do's Arise.

B, The First Great Foramen of the Occipital-bone, by which the Medulla Oblongata Descends out of the Cranium into the Great Cavi­ties of all the Vertebrae.

C C, Two Depress'd Protuberancies of the Occipital-bone, which are receiv'd into the Shallow Cavities of the First Vertebrae of the Neck.

D, Two Depressures Fram'd at the Origin of the Musculi Recti Mi­ [...]ores of the Head.

E, A Third Foramen Appearing in the Internal Part of the Left Side of the Os Occipitis; by which the Nerve of the Ninth Pair on that Side passes out of the Cranium; that of the Right Side not Ap­pearing in this Position of the Bone. The Second Foramen of the Os Occipitis, is Fram'd at its Conjunction with the Os Temporum, and Helps to Compose the Specus which receives the Bulbous Part of the Lateral Si?us, at the Beginning of the Internal Jugular Vein.

Fig. 4.

The Internal and Concave Part of the Os Occipitis next the Dura Mater, on Part of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum.

A, B, C, A Rising in the Bone Fram'd Collateral to the Lower-part of the Longitudinal Sinus, where it meets with the Two Lateral Si­nuss's.

D F, Two Depressures parting to each Side from the Inferior Part of the last mention'd Rising; in which the External Surface of the Late­ral Sinuss's are Entertain'd.

E, That Part where the Longitudinal and Lateral Sinuss's meet, which Conjunction is call'd Torcular Herophili.

G G, Divers Foramina by which the Blood-Vessels enter the Medi­tullium of the Bone.

Fig. 5.

The External Surface of the Os Temporale or Squamosum of the Right Side, when free'd from the Os Occipitis, Sincipitis, and Cuneiforme.

A, The Meatus Auditorius, being the continued Passage from the C [...]c [...]a (Exprest Tab. 12. Fig. 1. C, D, E,) to the Membrana Tym­pa [...]i: In this Meatus (by some call'd Alve [...]re Auris, and Porus Audi­torius,) is contain'd the Glandulous Membrane, in which the Cerumen commonly call'd the Ear-Wax, is Separated from the Blood; which Membrane is frequently Ulcerated, being very liable to Obstructions is in Circulating Blood and Separated Matter, by reason of the vast Numbers of Vessels that are Necessary in the Composition of its Glan­dulous Structure; here also Arise Excrescencies, some of which we have seen very much like those of the Foramina Narium, commonly call'd Polypi from their Figure: Others I have Observ'd to be like Mul­ber [...]s, and the Patient has suffer'd great Pain when they have been but touch'd with a Probe: Nevertheless I have frequently Consum'd them with Causticks, and the Patient has recover'd his Hearing. These Ex­crescencies last mention'd, commonly Arise after Impostumations on the Glandulous Membrane of the Ear.

B, A Sinus cover'd with a Cartilage, which receives the Head of the Long Process of the Lower Jaw, by the Mediation of a Cartilagi­nous Body, Describ'd in our Appendix Fig. 8. S, T.

C, D, That Part of the Os Temporale plac'd between the Os Occipi­tale and Cuneiforme, call'd the Third Process of that Bone, in which the Internal Organs of Hearing are contain'd.

E, The Second Process of the Os Squamosum or Temporale, which joining with the Process of the First Bone of the Upper Jaw, Composes that Bone call'd Iugale.

F, The First Process of the Temple-bone, call'd Mastoides or Mam­miforme, whose Internal Part is Cavernulous, and Opens into the Tym­panum.

C, G, That Part of the Temple-bone which is Contiguous to the Os Occipitis.

G, H, That Part of the Temple or Squamous-bone plac'd on the Os Sincipitis.

H, C, The other Side Sutur'd with the Os Cuneiforme.

Fig. 6.

The Internal Face of the Os Squamosum next the Brain.

A, The Process of the Temple-bone, and may be call'd Processus Petrosus, as well from its Appearance as Compactness; wherefore the Whole Temple-bone is by some call'd Petrosum. In this Process are contain'd all the Internal Organs of Hearing between A and C: As the Membrana Tympani, the Tympanum, the Musculus Obliquus, the Mus­culus Internus and Musculus Stapidis; the Incus, Maleus, Stapis and Ossiculum Quartum; the Meatus à Palato ad Aurem; the Foramen Ovale and Rotundum; the Labyrinth and its Vestibulum; Three Semi­circular Ducts, and the Cochlea, together with its Lamina Spiralis, and the Expansion of the Auditory Nerve within the Labyrinth and Cochlea.

B B, That Part of the Os Squamosum which cleav'd to the Bone of the Sinciput.

d, The Foramen by which the Auditory Nerve Enters the Os Pe­trosum, in its Way towards the Labyrinth and Cochlea.

Having already said something of the Meatus Auditorius and the Membrane which Invests it; the Order of Parts would require our next Examination of the Membrana Tympani, and the Muscles within the Cavity of the Tympanum, &c. but the succeeding Figures Represent­ing the Four Little Bones of the Labyrinth, Cochlea, and their Forami­na only; we must Prosecute the Order set before us, and refer to our Appendix to what properly belongs to this Place. (Viz.) The Muscles of the Internal Ear and Membrana Tympani.

Fig. 7.

The Labyrinth of the Left Ear of a Foetus.

A, B, C C, The Three Semicircular Ducts Clear'd of the Membranes and Part of the Os Petrosum; in which Bone they are entirely Inclos'd in the Adult, and no Marks of their Tracts Appear, as in the Foe­tus.

D, That Part of the Os Petrosum in which the Cochlea is contain'd, Part of which is here Exprest, Broken up.

Fig. 8.

The Labyrinth and Cochlea of the Left Ear.

A, B, C, The Three Semicircular Ducts whose Cavities are Invested with a Membrane, in which the Auditory Nerve is Expanded: The Extremities of these Ducts Open into the Vestibulum of the Labyrinth, or Cavity immediately within the Foramen Ovale, Figur'd in our Ap­pendix: One of the Spiral Ducts of the Cochlea also Opens into the Vestibulum.

D, Part of the Cochlea Open'd, which consists of Two Spiral Ducts, or One Duct Divided by a Bony Septum; which from its Figure is call'd Lamina Spiralis: One of these Ducts (as above Noted) Opens in­to the Vestibulum of the Labyrinth, at its Basis; the other in like Manner Ends its Basis at the Membrane within the Foramen Rotun­dum. The Auditory Nerve is Expanded in like Manner in the Cochlea, as in the Labyrinth.

Fig. 9.

The Four Little Bones of the Ear contain'd in the Tympanum, ta­ken out, and Represented in their Proper Articulations with each other.

A, The Malleolus, the Deprest Head of which, is receiv'd in the Shal­low Cavity of the Incus.

B, The Incus, Articulated with the Stapes by the Mediation of the Os Orbiculare.

C, The Stapes.

.... D, The Os Orbiculare or Fourth Bone of the Tympanum.

These Bones we shall Figure in Situ in our Appendix.

Fig. 10.

The Malleolus taken from the rest of the Little Bones of the Ear, with Parts of Two of its Muscles remaining to it.

A, ., The Roundish Deprest Head of the Malleolus.

B ..., A Ligament which Connects the Head of the Malleolus to the Incus.

C, The Neck of the Malleolus.

D D, The Two Process's of the Malleus, in which the External and Internal Muscles are Inserted: Besides these Process's, its Long Produ­ction call'd the Manubrium or Handle of the Malleus, is Remarkable, which Adheres to the Inside of the Membra [...]a Tymp [...]ni.

Fig. 11.

The Incus in whose Lower-part (as its here Figur'd) is a Shallow Depressure which receives the Roundish Head of the Malleus: Its Two Process's are here well Exprest; of which the Shortest rests in a Sinus of the Os Petrosum, within the Tympanum; but the Longer is Arti­culated with the Stapes, by the Mediation of the Os Orbiculare.

Fig. 12.

The Stapes so call'd from its Figure, whose Basis Rests on the Margin of the Fenestra Ovalis, as is here Exprest, and the Os Orbicu­lare lying under it; which Latter is Delineated som [...]what bigger than the Life.

THE NINETY-FIRST TABLE.

Fig. 1.

SHEWS the External Convex Surface of the Upper-part of the Skull, and its Proper Sutures, Elegantly Exprest.

A, B, The Forehead-bone, by some call'd Os Coronale, In­verecundum, and Os Puppis.

C, The Os Sincipitis or Verticis, by some call'd Bregma, ei­ther from the soft moist Brain lying under it, or from its thin moist Constitution in Infants, and sometimes in the Adult.

D, Part of the Os Occipitis, by some call'd Basillare, Os Pro­rae, Os Memoriae and Os Pyxidis.

E E, The Coronal Suture.

F, The Sagittal Suture or Sutura Longitudinalis.

G G, The Sutura Lambdoides.

Tho' the Sutures here Exprest are Regular according to their Common Appearance, yet in divers Subjects we find Nature sport very considerably; sometimes the Longitudinal Suture is Double, at other times it passes Oblique­ly towards the Coronal Suture, and in some Subjects it Frames an Os Triquetrum at its Conjunction with the Coronal Suture, or else divers small Bones of Various Figures; the like may be sometimes Observ'd in the Sutura Lambdoides, as also in the Coronal Suture; of which Latter, the Figure here gives a Specimen on the Right Side.

Fig. 2.

The Internal Concave Surface of the Upper-part of the Skull when Saw'd from its Basis.

A A, The Inside of the Ossa Bregmatis.

B B B, The Sutures as they Appear withinside the Skull Approaching to a sim­ple straight Line, which Conjunction of Bones is call'd Harmonia.

C, The Internal Part of the Os Frontis.

E, A Portion of the Inside of the Os Occipitis.

F F, The Channels Fram'd by the Blood-Vessels of the Dura Mater: These Insculptures or Furrows of the Bone, I found very Large in the Skull of a Per­son I lately Dissected, who Died Apoplectick, in whom the Blood-Vessels of the Dura Mater were proportionably Augmented to the Magnitude of a Goose-Quill. In this Subject divers Large Foveae Appear'd in the Skull, breaking out as it were from the Impression of the Longitudinal Sinus; One of which Foveae exceeded Half an Inch in its Diameter. When the Top of the Cranium was oppos'd to the Light, the Foveae above mention'd, as well as the Large Furrows of the Ves­sels Appear'd Transparent, not unlike the Horn commonly made Use of in Lan­terns; nor indeed did the Thickness of the Skull in those Parts much exceed it: By this, we may be Inform'd with what Caution we ought to Use the Trepan in Perforating the Skull, especially near the Longitudinal Suture, as also Lateral­ly on the Bregma, where those Vessels usually take their Course; and that more especially when the Patient has suffer'd under Habitual Head-Aches, which was Remarkable in the Person last mention'd, even from his Infancy; for doubtless these Cavities and Furrows have an early Date, from an Irregular Formation of the Blood-Vessels; whence the Refluent Blood is Subject to be Retarded, and the Neighbouring Parts as the Pericranium, &c. suffer Tension and Pain.

B Superior and E, The Channel or Impression which the Longitudinal Sinus makes in the Middle and Upper-part of the Skull, according to the Length of the Sagittal Suture.

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THE NINETY-SECOND TABLE.

Fig. 1.

SHEWS the Fore-part of the Skull, in which Part of the Proper Bones of the Skull already Describ'd, and divers of those of the Upper Jaw and the Bones of the Lower Jaw, are well Exprest.

A, B, C, The First Bone of the Upper Jaw, constituting the Inferior Part of the Orbit of the Eye, and Part of its Lesser Canthus, together with Part of the Os Iugale and Cheek: B, That Part of it which Composes Part of the Os Iugale.

D, The Second Bone of the Upper Jaw, which may be call'd Os La­chrymale, because the Ductus Arising from the Two Puncta Lachry­malia, passes thro' it into the Foramina of the Nostril on that Side, to­gether with a Branch of the Fourth Pair of Nerves, and some Remark­able Blood-Vessels.

Anatomists disagree in their Descriptions and Number of the Bones of the Upper Jaw; Galen in Libel. de Ossib. reckons XI. De Partium Usu IX. In Introductorio sive Medico Galeno Adscripto XII. to which Latter Vesalius Subscribes; but Columbus mentions XIII. and at the same time in his Description, omits the Third Pair of Vesalius and Others, and instead of them adds Two others, or another Pair call'd Ossa Spongiosa, plac'd within the Nostrils: We can't but agree with Vesalius's Description, being so very clear and intelligible by the Ap­pearance of most, if not all Skulls; nor can we find any Reason to omit what Columbus has added, so that the Bones of the Upper Jaw are XV in Number; viz. the VI. Pair of Vesalius, the Two Ossa Spongiosa and Septum Narium of Columbus, by him call'd Vomer, from the likeness it has to a Plow-Share or Coulter.

The Third Bone of the Upper Jaw is scarcely Exprest in this Figure, or in that of Tab. 89. Fig. 1. by reason of the Foreshorten'd Site (as Painters Term it) it's in, in this Position of the Cranium: This Third Bone of the Upper Jaw is commonly of a Quadrangular Figure and very Thin, plac'd within the Orbit: The precise Place of its Situa­tion is Forewards, adjoining to the Second Bone of the Upper Jaw, or Os Lachrymale; Backwards it sometimes Touches the Os Cune [...]forme at One Angle only; Above it's Sutur'd with the Os Frontis; Below with the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

E, The Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, which is the Largest of all the Bones of the Jaw, Composing the Lower-part of the Orbit, the great­est Part of the Palate, and containing all the Upper Teeth in its Sockets; its Upper-part is join'd to the Lower-part of the Forehead-bone, the Bone of the Nose, and Second Bone of the Upper Jaw; Laterally to the First Bone of the Upper Jaw; Backward to the Third, and Os Cuneiforme, and Lastly to its Fellow: The Large Foramen of it (here Exprest immediately under the Orbit of the Eye) serves to Transmit a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves to the Muscles of the Lips, &c. The Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Foramina, are in Common with it and other Bones; of these, the First is Compos'd at its Conjunction with the Os Lachrymale; (D) the Second with the Os Cuneiforme; (I) the Third at its Conjunction with its Partner near the Dentes In­cisores Fig. 2. G; and the Fourth at its Conjunction with the Os Pala­ti (Ibid. Fig. 2. h h) Backwards: It has a Large Cavity which Opens into the Foramen of the Nose; in the Lower-part of which Aperture the Os Spongiosum, mention'd by Realdus Columbus, is plac'd: This Ca­vity is call'd Antrum Maxillae Superioris; by some call'd Antrum Hig [...]orianum, for what reason I know not, since 'twas Describ'd long before Dr. Highmore, as Appears by Vesalius, Columbus, Baubinus, &c.

F, The Fifth Bone of the Upper Jaw, which with its Partner Com­poses the Upper Bony Part of the Nose, its Sutures or Conjunctions with the other Neighbouring Bones and Figure are here so well Exprest, [...] it needs no other Description.

G, The Septum Narium whose Bony Fore-part here Exprest, is Compos'd partly by the Os Cribriforme, and partly by a Process of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

H, The Sixth Bone of the Upper Jaw or Os Spongiosum; this and its Partner are mention'd by Columbus, and call'd Spongiosa: These we have constantly observ'd to be Distinct Bones in Humane Skulls, as well as in those of Quadrupedes; in which Latter, these Ossa Spongiosa have a very Remarkable Disposition; they being Broad, Thin, Bony Bodies, Rol'd up very much like a Piece of Paper, Exprest Tab. 61. Fig. 2. D D: Nor is this Involuted Disposition of these Bones only in Quadrupedes, but in Humane Bodies also it's so Dispos'd (tho' not so much Turn'd in) and Cover'd every where with the Pituitary Membrane, which Invests the Inside of the Foramina Narium; on which the Branches of the Olfactory Nerves are Expanded.

I, A Chink or Foramen Compos'd by the Os Cuneiforme, together with the Fourth Bone, and Part of the First Bone of the Upper Jaw; commonly call'd the Fourth Foramen of the Os Sphenoides, or the Third Foramen of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

K, The Os Frontis.

L, Part of the Left Bregma.

M, The Os Squamosum or Temporale.

Fig. 2.

The Inferior Surface of the Basis of the Skull.

A, The Os Occipitis.

B, Part of the Bregma.

C, That Part of the Os Temporale call'd Processus Mammillaris.

D, The Os Iugale Compos'd of a Process of the Os Temporum and First Bone of the Upper Jaw.

E, The Four Dentes Incisores.

F Inferior, The Eight Dentes Molares, Four on each Side.

The rest are the Two Dentes Canini.

G, The Fourth Foramen of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

G, F, The Lower-part of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw next the Palate, by some therefore call'd Os Palati.

H, The Seventh Pair of Bones of the Upper Jaw, call'd Ossa Palati; these Bones are Perforated on each Side (h h) near the Dentes Molares; which Perforation is in Common with the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, and is call'd the Fifth Perforation of that Bone, as above mention'd.

These Seven Pair of Bones of the Upper Jaw make Fourteen on each Side, to which Realdus Columbus adds another which has no Partner, and is reckon'd the Fifteenth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

I, The Fifteenth Bone of the Upper Jaw, by Columbus liken'd to a Coulter or Plow-Share, making the Back-part of the Septum Narium.

K, The Processus Pterygoides or Aliformis, reckon'd the First of the External Process's of the Os Sphenoides.

The Musculus Pterigoideus Internus, Arises from the Internal Part of the Sinus of these Process's, Vid. App. Fig. 8. g.

L, The Lower-part of the Processus, or Appendix Styloides; its Up­per-part being Broken off on both Sides in this Figure.

M, The Margin of the Meatus Auditorius in the Os Temporale of the Left Side.

N, The Sinus of the Os Petrosum or Temporale, which receives the Head of the Long Process of the Lower Jaw.

O O, Two Process's of the Os Occipitis Articulated with the First Vertebra of the Neck.

P, The Anterior Appendix or Process of the Os Occipitis; by Ve­slingius in his Animad versions on his Figures of Chap. XIII. Erroneous­ly call'd Os Sphenoides.

Q, The Processus Mammiformis or Mastoides of the Os Temporum, on the Left Side.

R R R, The Great Foramen of the Os Occipitis, by which the Me­dulla Oblongata passes out of the Skull.

S S, The Asperities and Sinus's of the Bones of the Occiput, made by the Insertions of the Muscles Moving the Head.

T T, The Internal Parts of the First Bones of the Upper Jaw.

V V, The Fourth Foramen of the Os Cuneiforme; Vid. Fig. 1. I.

W, Part of the Os Cuneiforme next the Aliform Process.

X X, The Fifth Foramen of the Os Cuneiforme, Compos'd at the Meeting of that Bone with the Os Petrosum, and Fore-part of the Oc­cipital-bone on both Sides.

Y, The Sixth Foramen of the Os Cuneiforme at the Root of the Pro­cessus Pterygoides, by which a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves pass out of the Skull.

Z Z, The Foramina of the Ossa Temporum, by which the Carotid Arteries First Enter the Basis of the Skull.

Fig. 3.

The Inferior Part of the Lower Jaw.

a, The Internal Part of the Lower Jaw, whence the Musculus My­lobyoideus do's Arise.

b, A Large Foramen in the Internal Part of the Lower Jaw, by which the Blood-Vessels and a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves pass to the Teeth, Fig. 1. b. The External Foramina of this Bone, by which the Branches of those Vessels pass out of the Bone again to the Muscles of the Lips.

C, A Fore-shorten'd Appearance of the Processus Coronae of the Lower Jaw, call'd the Short Process.

D E, The Head of the Long Process of the Lower Jaw call'd Con­dylus, which is Articulated with the Os Temporum by the Mediation of a Moving Cartilage; Vid. App. Fig. 8. T, S.

F, The Cervix or Neck of the Long Process of the Lower Jaw.

Fig. 4.

The Teeth of the Upper and Lower Jaw of one Side only, when taken out of their Alveoli or Sockets.

A A, &c. The Dentes Incisores;

B B, The Canini;

C C, &c. The Molares.

Fig. 5.

The Right Side of the Lower Jaw in which the Alveoli or Sockets, after the Extraction of the Teeth, are Represented.

A, The Processus Coronae, to which the Temporal Muscle is fixt.

B, The Processus Condylus.

C C, The Alveoli or Sockets of the Teeth.

Fig. 6.

A A, &c. Divers Teeth Broken or Divided Variously, to shew their Internal Cavities or Sinus's.

Fig. 7.

One of the Grinding Teeth in like Manner Broken to Exhibit its Internal Structure, Figur'd much Bigger than the Life.

A, The External Stony Part.

B, The Bony Striae of the Tooth Divested of its Stony Cortex.

C, The Internal Bony Part of the Tooth becoming more Porous, as it Approaches its Middle Cavity.

D, The Middle Cavity or Hollow of the Tooth, Cover'd with a Membrane on which the Blood-Vessels and Nerves of the Tooth are Distributed; by which the Tooth derives the Matter which makes it Germinate and repair that loss it sustains by frequent Use on its Corti­cal or Stony Part: Thus when one Tooth is wanting in either Jaw, the Opposite Tooth Grows Longer for want of its Resistance in Mastica­tion. When this Internal Membrane within the Cavity of the Tooth is Expos'd thro' the Breaking away of the Upper-part of the Tooth, it is most Exquisitely sensible to the Touch of any hard Body, or cold Liquor; and very frequently a Carnous Fungus will Arise from it: In these Cases the drawing out of the Tooth is the best Remedy.

E, The External Membrane lying on that Part of the Tooth within the Socket or Alveolus: They who Doubt of the Existence of such a Membrane may be satisfied therein; After a Tooth is drawn from a Living or lately Dead Body, and laid in Water for some Days, this Membrane will be very Conspicuous even to the Naked Eye.

F, The Basis of the Tooth;

G, The Apex of one of its Roots where the Blood-Vessels Arising from the Parietes of the Alveolus or Socket, are Exprest, Running into that Part of it which lies within the Alveolus.

Fig. 8.

The Stony Parts of the Teeth of a Foetus, which lying within the Jaw-bones, are Cover'd with the Periostium, as Appear'd in the Disse­ction I sometime since made of a Humane Foetus; Vid. Tab. 101. L L.

A A, The Stony Capsula of one of the Dentes Incisores.

B B, That of the Caninus.

C C, &c. The Superior Stony Parts of the Dentes Molares in a Foetus.

Fig. 9.

The Os Hyoides or Bone of the Tongue, together with Two Pro­cess's of the Scutiformal Cartilage.

A, The Middle Bone of the Os Hyoides,

B, Its Superior Part next the Tongue,

C, Its Internal Concave Part towards the Fauces,

D, Part of the Superior Long Process of the Scutiformal Cartilage of the Left Side loosly Tied to the Extremity of the Os Hyoides of the same Side; that of the Right Side is not Letter'd in this Figure.

E, One of the Two Lateral Bones which Helps to Compose the Os Hyoides.

THE NINETY-THIRD TABLE.

FROM the Bones of the Head, we Pass to those which Support it and the Trunk of of the Body. (viz.) The Bones of the Neck, Back, Loins, Os Sacrum and Coccy­gis; all these together have generally ob­tain'd the Name of Spina. Since it's Ne­cessary the Head and Trunk of the Body should be variously Mov'd, it was therefore Requisite their Supporter should not Consist of One Bone only, but that it should be Divided into many, which are call'd Vertebrae; of these, there are Reckon'd Twenty-four; (viz.) Seven of the Neck; Twelve of the Back, and Five of the Loins. In some Subjects we have Found but Six Vertebrae belonging to the Neck; in another we Found Thirteen of the Tho­rax, and as many Ribs; as Appears in a Skeleton now Hang­ing in the Middle of the Anatomical Theater of the Surgeons of London; The like I don't Doubt may, or has been Ob­serv'd of the Loins: The Inferior Part of the Spine is Com­pos'd of the Os Sacrum and Coccygis.

Fig. 1.

The Inferior Part of the First Vertebra of the Neck, call'd Atlas, because it Supports the whole Head.

A, Its Fore-part:

B, Its Back-part, wanting a Spinal Process:

CC, Its Transverse Processes Perforated to Transmit the Cervical Artery and Vein.

D D, Two Oval Process's, whose Surfaces are Smooth and Cover'd with a Cartilage, which Process's move to either Side on those of Fig. 3. B B.

Fig. 2.

The Upper-part of the First Vertebra of the Neck.

A, The Inside of the Back-part of the First Vertebra of the Neck next the Medulla Spinalis.

B, The Outside and Fore-part of the same Vertebra:

C C, Two Process's whose Two Shallow Cavities are Ar­ticulated with Two somewhat [...] Convext Prominencies of the Os Occipitis, Tab. 92, Fig. 2. O O; in which Articulation the Head is Mov'd in Nodding Fore-wards, Back-wards and Side-ways.

D, A Sinus in the Upper-part of this Vertebra, in which the Contorted Trunk of One of the Cervical Artery, passes towards the Great Foramen of the Os Occipitis.

N. B. It is Necessary the Great Foramen of this First Ver­tebra of the Neck should be much Larger than any of the Infe­rior, least the Beginning of the Medulla Spinalis should be In­commoded in Turning the Head to One Side; in which Action, this First Vertebra Moves with the Head on the Axis or Tooth­like Process of the Second Vertebra of the Neck.

Fig. 3.

The Superior Part of the Second Vertebra of the Neck.

A, The Tooth-like Process on the Fore-part of this Se­cond Vertebra Inserted behind the Fore-part of the First Vertebra (A, B, Fig. 1, 2.) whose Apex A, is Fastned by a Li­gament to the Margin of the Fore-part of the Great Foramen of the Os Occipitis: Vid. Appen. Fig. 8. E.

B B, Two Process's, whose Cartilaginous Surfaces are of an Oval Figure, and Correspond to those of Fig. 1. D D. whereby the Rotatory Motion of the Head is Perform'd. The other Remarkable Parts of this Figure may be known by the Explanation of the Following.

Fig. 4.

The Inferior Part of the Second Vertebra of the Neck:

A, The Tooth-like Process call'd Epistropheus.

B, The Inferior Surface of the Fore-part of the Second Vertebra, join'd to the Superior and Fore-part of the Third. Fig. 5. C.

C C, Its Transverse Process's Perforated to Transmit the Blood-Vessels, as in Fig. 1. C C.

D D, Its Two Oblique Descending Process's plac'd on the Two Oblique Ascending of Fig. 5. A.

E, The Internal Part of the Second Vertebra next the Medulla Spinalis.

F, The Double - Spinal Process, to which the Superior Musculi Interspinales are Inserted.

Fig. 5.

The Superior Part of the Third Vertebra of the Neck.

A, One of its Oblique Ascending Process's.

B, Its Transverse Process Perforated like as in the Two First Vertebra.

C, The Superior Part of the Body of the Third Vertebra, on which the Inferior Part of the Second is Plac'd.

N. B. The Rest of the Figure may be Vnderstood by the Ex­planation of the Preceding.

Fig. 6.

The Lower Part of the Third Vertebra of the Neck;

A, Its Oblique Descending Process:

B, Its Transverse Process Perforated as above Noted.

Fig. 7.

The Superior Part of the First Vertebra of the Back.

A, Its Transverse Process not Perforated like those of the Neck.

B, Its Spinal Process on the Back-part.

C, A Shallow Depressure on the Fore-part of the Trans­verse Process which Receives the Tubercle of the First Rib. Vid. Tab. 94. Fig. 2. B.

D, One of the Oblique Ascending Process's, which Re­ceives the Descending of the Last Vertebra of the Neck.

E, The Sinus, in which some of the Axillary Nerves pass out of the Specus or Great Foramen of the Vertebrae.

Fig. 8.

The Inferior Part of the same First Vertebra of the Back or Thorax:

A, Its Transverse Process:

B, Its Spinal Process.

C, A Shallow Depressure in the Transverse Process, to which the Second Tubercle of the First Rib is Connected:

D, Its Oblique Descending Process, Receiv'd by the Ascend­ing of the Next Vertebra.

After Taking out the Viscera from the Cavity of the Thorax of the Late Earl of Peterborough, I was Desir [...]d by One of his Physicians Dr. Iohnston (who constantly Attended his Lordship some Time before his Death) to Examine the Ver­tebrae of the Thorax, because his Lordship did not only Com­plain of very Great Pains about the Eighth and Ninth Ver­tebrae of that Part, and particularly the Right Hypochondrium, &c. but One of the Spinal Process's of those Vertebrae was Observ'd to be very Prominent some Weeks before his Death; nor could he Endure any Motion of the Trunk of his Bo­dy: Besides at that Time the Lower Limbs were Destitute of Motion, as well as Exquisite Sense of Feeling. On Freeing the Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna and Ductus Tho­racicus from the Fore-parts of the Vertebrae of the Thorax, I Found a Tumor, whose Thick Hard Membrane was chiefly Fram'd of the Ligaments of the Vertebrae ▪ I Divided the Tumor, and a Brownish Colour'd Matter Flow'd from it: On farther Examination I Found the Upper and Fore-part of the Ninth, and in like Manner the Lower Part of the Eighth Vertebrae of the Thorax Consum'd and Gone; insomuch that I could without Difficulty put the Top of my Fore-finger into the Foramen, and Feel the Medulla Spinalis Cover'd with its Membranes only. I Doubt not but Part of the Matter con­tain'd in this Tumor, had Descended into the Lower-part of the Specus of the Vertebrae of the Loins and Os Sacrum (since it lay Open) whereby the Inferior Nervous Distributions were affected, and their Proper Office Perverted; but Decen­cy Forbid our Scrutiny in this Case, since the Bodies of those Vertebrae must have been Cut away with a Chizel to have made such a Discovery.

Fig. 9.

The Upper-part of One of the Vertebrae of the Loins:

A, Its Transverse Process: The Rest of its Parts may be known by the Explanation of the Fifth and Seventh Figures.

Fig. 10.

The Inferior Part of the same Vertebra of the Loins, whose Explanation may be Refer'd to Fig. 8.

Fig. 11, 12.

The Superior Parts of the Two Lower Vertebrae of the Loins;

A A, Their Tranverse Process's:

B B, Their Oblique Ascending Process's:

C C, The Bodies of the Vertebrae.

D D, Their Spinal Process's.

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THE NINETY-FOURTH TABLE.

THE Ribs are Twelve in Number on either Side; sometimes we have found Thirteen, at other times but Eleven on each Side; and frequently Twelve on one Side and Eleven on the other: The Seven Superior are call'd, The True Ribs, which are join'd with the Sternum or Os Pectoris, by the Mediation of Cartilages. The Inferior Ribs are the Nothae, Spuriae, or Bastard Ribs. The Nine Superior Ribs have a Twofold Articula­tion to the Vertebrae of the Back; the one Collateral to the Fore-parts of the Bodies of the Vertebrae; the other to the Fore-parts of their Transverse Process's. The Two and sometimes Three Inferior Ribs, are only Articulated to the Bodies of the Vertebrae; and don't touch their Transverse Pro­cess's. The Lowest and Last Rib has not its Cartilaginous Extremity Fasten'd to its Superior Rib, as the rest of the Bastard Ribs have, but its Extream Point gives an Origin to Part of the Oblique Descending Muscle of the Abdomen.

Fig. 1.

The Inferior Part of the First Rib of the Right Side.

Fig. 2.

The Upper-part of the same Rib.

A A, That Part of the First Rib next the Sternum.

B B, Its Protuberance Articulated in a Sinus of the Transverse Process of the First Vertebra.

C C, Its Little Head receiv'd in a Sinus of the Anterior Bodies of the First Ver­tebra, Laterally.

D D, Its middle Broad Flat Part.

Fig. 3.

The Lower-part of the Sixth or Seventh True Rib of the Right Side.

Fig. 4.

The Superior Part of the same Rib.

A A, That Extremity of the Bony Part of the Rib join'd to the Cartilage, plac'd between it and the Sternum.

B B, The other Extremity Articulated to the Vertebra of the Back Laterally.

C, A Tubercle Articulated to the Transverse Process of the Vertebra.

E, Fig. 3. A Sinus Fram'd in the Inferior Part of the Rib for the Passage of the Blood-Vessels, which ought to be avoided in Perforating the Thorax, in Case of an Empyema, &c.

Fig. 5.

The Lower Edge and Internal Part of the Eleventh Rib of the Right Side.

Fig. 6.

The Upper Edge, and Part of the External and Internal Parts of the same Rib.

Fig. 7, 8.

The Internal and External Parts of the Twelfth Rib.

THE NINETY-FIFTH TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Scapulae, Claviculae and Os Pectoris, or Sternum.

Fig. 1.

The External Convext Part of the Left Scapula or Shoulder-blade.

A B, The Outside of the Scapula a little Arch'd or Convext.

C, The Spina Scapulae;

D, Its Extremity call'd Acromion, Articulated to the Extremity of the Clavicula.

E, The Processus Coracoides or Crow's-Bill-like Process, by some call'd Ancyroides or Anchor-like.

F, The Processus Brevis, or Short Process of the Shoulder-blade which receives the Head of the Arm-bone.

The Rest of the Parts which Circumscribe the Scapula, are Explain'd in the following Fi­gure.

Fig. 2.

The Internal Concave Part of the Right Shoulder-blade.

A B B, Various Eminencies on the Inside of the Scapula, whence the Fibres of the Musculus Subscapularis take their Origin.

C, The Inferior Angle of the Scapula.

D, The Superior Angle of the Scapula.

E Superior, The Processus Coracoides.

F F G, The Foramina for the Blood-Vessels, which pass in and out from the Meditullium of the Bone.

G Inferior, The Sinus of the Short Process of the Scapula, in which the Head of the Os Hu­meri is receiv'd.

G Superior, The Internal or Lower Part of the Acromion of the Scapula.

H, The Cervix or Neck of the Short Process.

N. B. From C to D, is call'd the Basis Scapulae; From D to F, the Costa Superior; From H to C, the Costa Inferior Scapulae.

Fig. 3.

The Superior Part of the Right Clavicula or Channel-bone: Some call the Claviculae, Ossa Hu­merorum: They are also call'd Furculae.

Fig. 4.

The Inferior Part of the Left Clavicle.

A, That Part of the Clavicle Articulated to the Superior Part of the Os Pectoris or Sternum, in which Articulation a Cartilaginous Body is plac'd not Unlike that of the Lower Jaw with the Os Temporum. Vid. App. Fig. 8. S, T.

B, That Extremity of the Clavicula join'd to the Acromion of the Scapula, by Two almost Plain Cartilaginous Bodies appos'd to each other, and Connected by Ligaments: This Conjunction of the Clavicle with the Acromion of the Shoulder-blade we have more than Once seen suffer a Dislo­cation: when the Patient has fallen from some High Place, and the Top of the Shoulder or Acro­mion of the Scapula has First come to the Ground. The Scapula with the Arm in such Case will be Deprest, and the Outmost Extremity of the Clavicle will be seen to Arise up: This Disloca­tion we Mention, because we don't find it taken Notice of (or at least not commonly) by Authors.

C, The Middle Superior and External Part of the Right Clavicula.

D, The Middle Inferiour and External Surface of the Left Clavicula. The Use of the Clavi­culae is to support the Scapulae, together with the Ossa Humerorum.

Fig. 5.

The External and Forepart of the Os Pectoris or Sternum, whose Appearance in the Adult Dif­fers very much from that of the Foetus; as may be seen Tab. 101.6. In Aged Bodies it's intirely United into One Bone; in some Adults it's divided into Two; in others (as in this Subject) it has Three Distinct Bones.

A, The Superior and Largest Bone of the Sternum.

B, A Sinus which receives the Internal Round End of the Clavicula.

C, the Superior Part, or almost Semicircular Sinus of the Sternum.

D, The Middle Bone of the Os Pectoris.

E E E, The Sinus's in the Middle Bone of the Sternum Laterally; in which the Cartilaginous Extremities of the True Ribs are Receiv'd.

F, The Lower Bone of the Sternum; the Extremity of which is commonly Cartilaginous, and call'd Cartilago Mucronata or Ensiformis; Externally it Frames that Cavity call'd Scrobiculus Cordis or Heart-pit, commonly call'd the Pit of the Stomach: The Pains of which Part are call'd Cardial­giae, they Affecting the Upper Orifice of the Stomach call'd Cardia, where the Plexuss's of the Up­per and Lower Stomach Nerves are made.

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THE NINETY-SIXTH TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Bones of the Arms, together with the Two Bones of the Cu­bit: These, together with those which Compose the Hand Represented in the Following Table, are commonly call'd the Bones of the Whole Hand; but are properly Divided as above. First of the Bone of the Arm, which is properly that Part between the Elbow or Cubit and Shoulder; the Whole Arm Compre­hends the Bones of the Cubit.

Fig. 1.

A, The Fore-part of the Os Humeri of the Right Arm;

B, The Round Head of its Upper Appendix Cover'd with a Cartilage, which is Articulated with the Scapula by Ar­throdia.

C, The Circular Sinus of the Upper-part of the Os Hu­meri, to which the Ligament Involving the Juncture, toge­ther with the Tendons of the Musculus Supraspinatus, Infra­spinatus, Teres Minor and Subscapularis are Inserted.

D F, Two Prominencies of the Shoulder-bone.

E, A Sinus Fram'd between the Two last Mention'd Pro­minencies, wherein the External Tendinous Beginning or Head of the Musculus Biceps is Receiv'd. Vid. Tab. 65.1.

G, A Convext Protuberance of the Lower Appendix of the Shoulder-bone, which is Receiv'd in a Shallow Concave Depressure on the Superior Extremity of the Radius.

H K, That Part of the Os Humeri, that's Articulated to the Upper End of the Vlna by Ginglymus.

I, The Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri, from which the Greatest Part of the Muscles Bending the Fin­gers and Carpus, together with the Musculus Pronator Radii Teres and Palmaris Longus, do Arise.

L, An Interstice between the Lower Appendix of the Os Humeri and its Internal Protuberance.

N, A Large Foramen for a Blood-vessel of the Bone.

I was lately Call'd to a Boy about 10 or 12 Years of Age, who Four or Five Days before, in Playing with his Com­panion, Receiv'd such an Injury in One of his Arms, as he could not afterwards Move it Forewards or Backwards, much less, Lift it up towards his Head; but had all the Actions of his Cubit and Fingers, as we commonly Find in those who have Dislocated the Os Humeri from the Scapula: After Exa­mining the Shoulder, and Finding no such Dislocation; by Moving the Arm, I Found the Bone near the Shoulder Grate very much, which I Guess could be no otherwise than the Upper Appendix of the Os Humeri Divided from the Bone. I then Reduc'd it to a Good Figure, and after Applying a Plaister De Sapone to Attenuate the Extravased Blood, I Rol'd it up, and he has Continu'd Easie ever since. The Tingling, as he Told me, he had at his Fingers Ends, and Violent Pain in his Shoulder, Leaving him. I don't Find Authors Mention such like Cases where the Appendages of Bones are Broken off in Young Bodies; but I am Perswaded from other Examples as well as this; such Accidents often Hap­pen, and are not commonly Known by Surgeons.

N. B. These Fractures of Bones at their Appendages in Young Bodies, are sooner Vnited, than when the Middle-parts of Bones are Broken.

Fig. 2.

The Hinder-part of the Left Shoulder-bone.

M, A Cavity, in which the Superior and Back-part of the Vlna (Fig. 3, 4. C F), call'd Olecranon, is Receiv'd in an Extension of the Cubit.

N N N, The Foramina for the Blood-Vessels, which Pass to and from the Marrow, and Internal Parts of the Bone.

Fig. 3.

The Vlna or Os Cubiti of the Right Arm:

A B, Its Internal Side, next the Trunk of the Body:

C, Its Superior Part or Olecranon Articulated with the Os Humeri:

D, Its Inferior Part, whose Lateral Smooth Surface is Re­ceiv'd in a Sinus, at the Inferior Part of the Radius Laterally.

E F, The Semicircular Sinus of the Vlna, which Receives, and is Receiv'd by the Two Prominencies and Sinus of the Lower Appendix of the Os Humeri, (Fig. 1. K H,) which Ar­ticulation is call'd Ginglymus.

G, The Inferior and Lesser Acute Process of the Vlna, call'd Styloides.

Fig. 4.

That Side of the Left Vlna next the Radius.

A, An almost Semicircular Sinus of the Vlna, in which the Upper Head of the Radius, Fig. 5, 6. B B, is Receiv'd La­terally:

B C, Its External Side next the Radius; B, its Lower End next the Carpus; C, its Superior (call'd Olecranum) towards the Os Humeri.

D, A Smooth Prominence at the Lower End of the Vlna, which is Receiv'd in a Sinus of the Radius, as above-noted, Fig. 3. D.

E, The Anterior Process of the Vlna, which Frames the Semicircular Sinus, Articulated with the Os Humeri, Fig. 1. K H. This Process is Receiv'd in a Sinus at the Inferior and Fore­part of the Os Humeri, (Exprest Fig. 1. above K H) when the Cubit is Bended.

F, The Superior and Posterior Process of the Vlna in like Manner, Framing its Upper and Semicircular Sinus, which Process is Receiv'd in the Cavity (M, Fig. 2.) of the Inferior and Back-part of the Os Humeri, in an Extension of the Cubit.

G, Part of the Lesser Sharp Process of the Vlna, call'd Styloides.

Fig. 5.

The Hinder-part of the Radius of the Left Cubit.

A, The Neck of the Radius:

B, Its Superior Appendix; in whose Upper Concave Sinus, (not Exprest in this Figure) Receives the Convext Tubercle of the Inferor Appendix of the Os Humeri, Fig. 1. G.

C, D, The Inferior Part of the Radius, which is Articu­lated with the Bones of the Carpus, Exprest, Tab. 97. Fig. 2.

E, A Sinus in the Radius Laterally which Receives the Inferior Head of the Vlna, Fig. 3, 4. D D.

F, Another Sinus on the Inferior Part of the Radius, in which the Tendon of the Musculus Extensor Tertii Internodii Pollicis and Indicator, is Entertain'd. Vid. Tab. 70. C, N.

Fig. 6.

The Fore-part of the Right Radius:

A, Its Tubercle a little Below its Neck, to which the Round Internal Tendon of the Musculus Biceps is Inserted. Vid. Tab. 65, I.

B, A Smooth Cartilaginous Outside of the Superior Part or Head of the Radius; which is Receiv'd in an almost Se­micircular Sinus of the Upper End of the Vlna, Fig. 4. A, By this Articulation of the Radius with the Vlna, the For­mer, i. e. the Radius is Render'd Capable of Turning on the Vlna, like as on an Axis, the Vlna at that Time Remain­ing Unmov'd; which Motion of the Radius together with the Hand, is Call'd either Pronation or Supination: Pronation is Perform'd when the Palm of the Hand is Turn'd Down and the Back of it is Uppermost; and on the Contrary, when the Palm is Turn'd Up and the Back is Undermost, it's Call'd Supination.

C D, The Lower-part of the Radius Articulated with the Ossa Carpi.

N. B. The Foramina of the Blood-Vessels of the Bones are well Exprest in this Table.

THE NINETY-SEVENTH TABLE.

DEMONSTRATES the Bones of the Hand properly so call'd.

Fig. 1.

The Internal Parts of the Bones of the Hand, next the Palm.

These are Distinguish'd into Three Parts; viz. The Carpus or Brachialis, (1, 2, 3, 4, &c.) the Metacarpus or Postbrachialis (E E E); and the Fingers (F G H I); First of the Bones of the Car­pus or Wrist: These are Eight in Number, and Compos'd of Two Orders or Ranks of Bones; of which the First Rank is commonly reckon'd to have Four 1, 2, 3, 4; the Two First of these Bones jointly Compose a Smooth Convext Surface, Cover'd with a Cartilage which is re­ceiv'd in a Shallow Sinus at the Inferior Part of the Radius, Tab. 96. Fig. 5, 6. C D; which Articula­tion is call'd Arthrodia: The Third Bone here Exprest, do's not Help to Compose the Articula­tion of either Rank, but is Fasten'd on the Fourth by a Ligament, which Conjunction is call'd Syndesmosis; the Use of this Third Bone, is to Help to Support the Transverse Ligament, under which the Tendons Bending the Fingers pass: The Fourth Bone (plac'd between the Second and Eighth) do's not Compose either Rank, whe­ther Articulated with the Radius or Metacarpal Bones, but is Inserted between the Two Ranks: The Fifth Bone here Exprest, is not properly to be reckon'd among those of the Two Ranks, but like the Fourth is plac'd between them, and is Ar­ticulated to the First Bone of the Thumb; which Articulation may be call'd Synarthrosis: The Sixth Bone here Exprest, ought to be reckon'd the Seventh, the Sixth not being Exprest in this Figure, but is Represented in Fig. 2. *: This may be properly reckon'd the First of the Second Rank, to whose Lower Part the Metacarpal­bone of the Fore-Finger is Articulated: The Se­venth Bone of the Carpus (here Sign'd the Sixth as above Noted) like the preceding, is Articu­lated with the Metacarpal-bone of the Middle-Finger, and may be properly Esteem'd the Se­cond Bone of the Second Rank or Order: The Eighth Bone of the Carpus (here Sign'd Seventh and Eighth) is the Third and Last Bone of the Second Rank: The Lower-parts of the Metacar­pal-bones of the Little and Ring-Fingers, are Conjoin'd to this Eigth Bone of the Carpus by Synarthrosis: The Upper-parts of the Three Bones of the Second Rank last Treated of, (not unlike the Two First of the First Rank) do Con­junctly Frame a Convext Oblong Smooth Surface on their Upper-parts, which is receiv'd in a Con­cave fitted for it, fram'd by the Inferior Parts of the Two First Bones of the First Rank: This Articulation made by the Two Ranks of Bones of the Carpus, may also be call'd Arthrodia.

A B C D, The Four Bones of the Metacarpus, whose Upper-parts are Articulated to the Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Bones of the Carpus by Sy­narthrosis, and their Inferior Parts with the Bones of the Fingers, by Arthrodia.

E E E, The Interstitia of the Metacarpal-bones, wherein the Musculi Inter-Ossei are plac'd; the Internal Parts of these Bones towards the Palm are Concave, as Appears in this Figure; but their External Parts towards the Back of the Hand are Convext, as is Represented by Fig. 2; the like may be Observ'd in the Bones of the Fin­gers and Thumb.

F F F, &c. The First Internodes, or Bones of the Fingers and Thumb.

G G, The Second Internodes.

H H H, &c. The Third and last Internodes of the Bones of the Fingers and Thumb.

I I K K, The Articulations of the Bones of the Fingers with each other, and the Two last Bones of the Thumb, is by Ginglymus; but the Fingers are Articulated with the Metacarpal-bones by Arthrodia, as above Noted.

9, 10, 11, The Ossa Sesamoidea; of which Ten are said to belong to each Hand, viz. Two of the Thumb plac'd on the Inferior and Internal Part of its First Bone F; the other Eight are in like Manner plac'd on the Inferior and Internal Parts of the Ossa Metacarpi. In Young Bodies these Bones are not found, as in Others. They are apt to be lost in Freeing the Bones, whether by Boyling or otherwise.

Fig. 2.

The Bones as they Appear on the Back-part of the Right Hand; for whose Explanation Con­sult Fig. 1.

Fig. 3.

12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, The Bones of the Carpus Separated from each other.

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THE NINETY-EIGHTH TABLE.

WE come now to the Two Bones which Compose the Lower-part of the Spina, namely the Os Sacrum and Coccygis.

Fig. 1.

The Outside and Back-part of the Os Sacrum Compos'd of Four or Five Bones like Vertebrae in the Foetus; all which are United in the Adult, and some Marks of their Conjunction only Appear, especially on its Internal Concave Part. Vid. Fig. 2. D.

A A A, &c. Some Vestigia or Marks of the Conjunctions of the Ascend­ing and Descending Process's of the Five Vertebrae, which Compose the Os Sacrum.

B B B B, The Foramina Fram'd by the last mention'd Transverse Process's, and chiefly fill'd with a Cartilaginous Body; some small Branches of Nerves only passing out of them to the Musculus Glu­taeus Maximus.

C C C, D D, The Sinus's Fram'd on each Side the Os Sacrum, by the Meeting of its Transverse Pro­cess's.

E, The Superior Surface of the Upper-part of the Os Sacrum, on which is plac'd the Last Verte­bra of the Loins.

F, The Specus or Great Foramen of the Sacrum, being continued from that of the Vertebrae of the Back, by which the Nerves that Help to Compose the Cauda Equina Descend to their Egress, thro' the Internal Foramina of this Bone, Fig. 2. B B B.

G G, A Sinus Fram'd in the Oblique Ascending Process of the First Vertebra of the Os Sacrum, which receives the Oblique Descending Process of the Last Vertebra of the Loins.

H H, Those Parts of the Sacrum join'd to the Ossa Ilii by the Interposition of a Cartilage; which Conjunction is call'd Syncondrosis.

I I, The Spines of the Sacrum.

k k, Two Process's of the Sacrum, Connected to the Two Process's of the Os Coccygis, Fig. 3. A, B.

Fig. 2.

The Inside or Fore-part of the Os Sacrum.

A A A, The Smooth Inside of the Five Vertebrae which Compose the Os Sacrum.

B B B, The Foramina by which the Nerves pass out from its Specus.

C C, D D, The partly Cartilaginous and partly Bony Connection of the Vertebrae of the Sacrum.

E, The Inferior Part of the Sacrum join'd to the Upper-part of the Os Coccygis.

Fig. 3.

The Back-part of the Os Coccygis, Compos'd of Five Bones join'd to each other by Syncondrosis.

A, B, Two Ascending Process's of the Os Coccygis, join'd to those of the Sacrum, Fig. 1. k k. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, The several Bones which Frame the Os Coccygis.

Fig. 4.

The Internal Part of the Os Coccygis, whose Characters are Explain'd in the preceding Figure.

THE NINETY-NINTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE Internal Concave Surface of the Os Innominatum, which in the Foetus is Manifestly Compos'd of Three Bones; but become so United in the A­dult, as that no Marks of their Cartilaginous Conjunction do's than Appear. This Bone is by some call'd Ilium, Os Coxendicis, and Os Anchae, and some­times Lumbare: For the better Description of it, Anatomists have given di­stinct Names to the several Parts of it, which Appear in the Foetus, as follow.

A B C D, That Part of the Os Innominatum, call'd Ilium:

A A A, The Internal Concave Part of it, in which the Musculus Iliacus Internus is plac'd, call'd Costa Ilii:

B, The Spine of the Ilium:

C, The Foramina of the Blood-Vessels which pass into its Meditullium or Internal Part.

D, That Part of the Os Ilium join'd to the Sacrum by a Cartilaginous Interposition, which Con­junction is call'd Syncondrosis.

E, That Part of the Os Innominatum, call'd Os Pubis or Pectinis.

F, The Great Foramen of the Os Ischium, Compos'd by that Bone in Conjunction with the Os Pubis.

G, The Fore-part of the Os Pubis.

H, The Third Part of the Os Innominatum, call'd Os Ischium and Os Coxendicis.

I, A Prominencé of the Os Ilium, whence the Musculus Rectus Femoris do's Arise: Vid. Tab. 75. G.

Fig. 2.

The External Convext Surface of the Os Innominatum:

A B B, Its Cavity, wherein the Head of the Os Femoris is receiv'd, call'd Acetabulum and Pixis.

A, A Sinus Excavated in the Inferior Part of the Acetabulum, in which the Mucilaginous Gland is plac'd: Vid. Tab. 74.1.

The Ligamentum Rotundum Figur'd Tab. 74. k, Arises from the Lower-part of the Acetabulum to­wards its External Margin; whence it passes Upwards to its Termination in the Head of the Os Femo­ris; which Disposition of that Ligament, is no small Artifice in Nature, in preventing too great a Coa­lision of the Superior Part of the Acetabulum with the Head of the Thigh-bone, in Walking, Run­ning, &c. as before Noted.

B B, The External Margin of the Acetabulum, whence the Ligamentum Latum do's Arise; which Ligament is Implanted in the Neck of the Os Femoris.

C D E, The Dorsum Ilii.

D Superior, The Spina Ilii.

E E, Divers Processes towards the Back-part of the Ilium, where its other Side, Exprest in the Former Figure D, is join'd with the Sacrum.

F, A Sinus of the Os Ilium, in which the Musculus Pyriformis passes towards its Implantation.

G, An Acute Process of the Ischium.

H, An Appendix of the Ischium, to which a Ligament Arising from the Os Sacrum is Fasten'd: From this Appendix the Musculus Quadratus Femoris, and the Muscles Bending the Tibia, do Arise.

I, That Part where the Os Ischium joins with the Os Pubis.

K, The Os Pubis or Pectinis.

L, The Great Foramen of the Ischium and Pubis.

N. B. The Three Bones which Compose the Os Innominatum, all meet and join in the Acetabulum.

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THE HUNDREDTH TABLE.

SHEWS the Bones of the Foetus of one Month to Seven Months after Conception.

Fig. 1.

A Skeleton of a Foe­tus about a Month after Conception; in which the Cartilaginous Rudiments of Bones have di­vers little Bony Specks or Ossifications in the Arms and Legs.

Fig. 2.

The Skeleton of a Foetus of Six Weeks, in which the Rudiments of the Bones of the Artus or Limbs do Appear in Bony Specks, somewhat Larger than those of the preceding Figure; the Claviculae being Intirely Bony.

Fig. 3, 4.

The Fore and Back-part of the Skeleton of a Foetus of about Three Months; in which the Be­ginnings of all the Bones Appear.

Fig. 5.

The Skeleton of a Foetus of about Four Months; in which the Bones with their Cartila­ginous Appendages do Appear, without any consi­derable Difference (except in Magnitude) from those in the Two preceding Figures.

Fig. 6.

The Back-part of the Skeleton of a Foetus of about Four Months after Conception.

In the Embryo, or First Rudiments of the Foe­tus within the Womb; those Parts which after­wards become Bones, are than Intirely Cartilagi­nous, till about the End of the First Month after Impregnation; at which Time divers Bony Specks or Ossifications begin to Appear about the Middle of the Larger Bones of the Limbs, especially in the Claviculae. Two Months after Conception, the Whole Head do's not afford any Bony Appear­ance, except the Third Pair of Bones of the Upper Jaw, and the Two Bones which Frame the Lower Jaw, which about this Time Appear Distinct. The Middle-parts of the Claviculae are Bony after the First Six Weeks. The Shoulder-blades are with­out any Proper Figure about the Second Month after Conception, at which Time their Ossifica­tions begin in their Middle-parts: About the Third Month their Spinal Process's begin to be Bony, as well as their Coracoidal and Short Pro­cess's: Near this Time the Whole Spine, or Ver­tebrae of the Neck, Back, Loins, Os Sacrum and Coccygis, begin to be Bony. The Sixth Vertebra of the Back Internally, some Bony Specks in each Vertebra Appear, and Gradually Lessen them­selves to the Fifth Vertebra of the Neck; the like Ossifications may be Observ'd to become Less and Less in each Vertebra, towards the Lower-part of the Spine, to the Third Vertebra of the Os Sa­crum. The Incurvation or Bending Forwards of the Whole Spine at this Time, is Remarkable. The Four Upper Vertebrae of the Neck, afford some Bony Appearances Laterally, about the Third Month; near which Time the Bodies of the Three Upper Vertebrae of the Os Sacrum, seem to Frame One Bone, but its Lateral Parts are not Bony till the Fourth Month; at which Time the Bodies of the Third and Fourth Vertebrae of the Neck begin to Appear. The Fifth and Sixth Month, the Epistropheus or Second Vertebra of the Neck has a Bony Speck; but its Tooth-like Process is yet Cartilaginous: The Fore-part of the Atlas or First Vertebra is yet wanting. The Os Coccygis is Cartilaginous till about the Eighth or Ninth Month; at which Time, in its Internal Part, call'd its Body, Two Offeous Specks Appear about the Bigness of Two great Pin's Heads. All the Vertebrae of the Spine of the Foetus (at this Time) Appear Compos'd of Three Bones; First that of the Bodies of the Vertebrae Forwards; Secondly its Two Lateral Parts which Frame their Transverse Process's: Their Spinal Process's not Appearing Bony till some Time after the Par­tus; whence (as Spigelius Observes) Rope-Dan­cers, Tumblers, &c. by early Practice whilst they are Children, the Spines of the Back-bone give way to the Inflection of their Vertebrae Back­wards; the common Position of the Spines being Obliquely Descending, they do thereby incline more Horizontal, and their Points are also ren­dred more Obtuse.

The Os Innominatum about the Second Month after Conception is Cartilaginous, except that Part of it call'd Ilium, where it Frames the Upper-part of the Acetabulum, it has a Bony Speck about the Bigness of a Common Pin's Head. In the Fourth Month the Os Coxendicis or Ischium, (another Part of the Os Innominatum) has a Bony Appear­ance, where it meets the Ilium within the Aceta­bulum, not exceeding the Head of a common Pin in Magnitude; the like may be Observ'd of the Os Pubis within the Acetabulum: These Three Bones which Compose the Innominatum, remain Distinguish'd in the Foetus by a Cartilaginous In­terposition, which continues till the Seventh Year, at which Age those Cartilaginous Marks Disappear. In the Second Month all the Ribs except the First and Last, are so harden'd, that the Channels (Exprest Fig. 4. Tab. 94. E,) or Si­nus's for the Intercostal Blood-Vessels and Nerves, Appear.

The Time of the Ossification of the Sternum is uncertain; but Eustachius is mistaken in saying, It's altogether Cartilaginous in Children Newly Born. Kerckringius affirms he never Diffected a Foetus of Four Months, but he found some Little Bony-Bodies in the Sternum. Their Number and Figure Varying in most Subjects, we need not say more of them in this place. The Ossification of the Artus is very Early, as Appears by the First and Second Figures of this Table, where the Mid­dle-parts of the Bones First Appear in little White Specks a Month after Conception, as above No­ted; but some of their Appendages are Intirely Cartilaginous for some Months after the Birth. The Eight Cartilages of the Carpus become Bony some Time after the Birth. The Appendages of the Bones of the Metacarpus and Fingers, conti­nue Intirely Cartilaginous some Months after the Birth; the like may be Observ'd of the Feet and Toes; the Patellae in like Manner are Intirely Cartilaginous some Months after the Birth.

THE HUNDRED & FIRST TABLE.

REPRESENTS the Fore-parts of the Bones' of a Foetus of Nine Months.

A, The Fronticulus fram'd at the Meeting of the Bones of the Sinciput and Frontal Bones, it being a Discontinuation of those Bones in the Foetus; which continues in the Infant for Divers Months, and sometimes Years.

B B, The Two Frontal-bones.

C C, Parts of the Bregma or Sincipital-bones.

D D, The Sagittal Suture Extended to the Upper-part of the Nose.

E E, The Coronal Suture; they are call'd Sutures in Respect of their Appearance in the Adult, but here in the Foetus they rather seem to De­serve the Term Harmonia; they Approaching to simple Lines, and are not Indented till the Bones become Hard; but since a Membrane Interposes, Spigelius call's this Con­junction in Infants Synymensis.

F, The Cartilage of the Nose cut off;

G, Its Septum.

H H, The Upper-jaw, or properly the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw.

I I, The Two Bones which Compose the Lower Jaw;

K, Their Suture, or more properly their Conjunction by Synchondrosis.

L L, The External or Stony Parts of the Teeth, yet lying within their Alveoli or Sockets, and Co­ver'd with the Periostium of the Jaw-bone: The Time of their Breaking forth is uncertain, and the Order they Appear in, is commonly well known; yet in this too they sometimes vary, and the Dentes Canini Appear before the Incisores; if their Eruption is Tedious, the Gums thro' frequent Use are so harden'd, as to Occasion ill Symptoms; in which Case not only the Gums, but the Periostium, which at that Time immediately Cover's the Upper-parts of the Sockets, is to be Divided by a Sharp Instru­ment; whereby the Imprison'd Tooth is set at Liberty, and the Tension of the Periostium Reliev'd. In Practising this Operation, we ought to have Regard to the Time of the Eruption of those Teeth we cut upon; for those only ought to have their Gums and Periostium Divided, which Appear some­what Prominent: By too early Dividing of those Parts they Unite again, and their Cicatrice Ren­der's them more Obstinate to the Eruption afterwards, especially if the Periostium its self was not Divided before.

M, The Left Clavicle.

N, The Internal Part of the Right Scapula.

O, The Acromion of the Scapula join'd with the Extremity of the Clavicle.

P, The Cartilaginous Appendix of the Os Humeri.

Q, The Os Humeri.

R R, The Ulnae.

S S, The Radii.

T T, The Cartilages which Compose the Bones of the Carpus on both Sides.

V V, The Ossa Metacarpi, whose Extremities are Cartilaginous.

W W, The Bones of the Fingers, whose Knuckles or Appendages are Cartilaginous.

X, The Vertebrae of the Neck;

Y, Those of the Back;

Z, Those of the Loins.

1, The Os Sacrum.

2, The Coccygis.

3, The Ilium.

4, Ischium.

5, Pubis.

6, 6, The Sternum with Divers little Bony Bodies.

7, 7, The True-ribs.

8, 8, &c. The Bastard-ribs.

9, The Ensiformal Cartilage of the Sternum.

10, The Thigh-bone;

11, Its Trochanter Major yet Cartilaginous.

12, The Trochanter Minor in like manner Cartilaginous.

13, The Cartilage which makes the Patella.

14, The Tibia.

15, The Os Surae or Fibula.

16, The Cartilages which make the Bones of the Tarsus.

17, The Ossa Metatarsi.

18, The Bones of the Toes, which are Cartilaginous at their Extremities, like those of the Fingers.

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THE HUNDRED & SECOND TABLE.

IS the Back-part of the Skeleton of a Foetus of Nine Months.

A, Part of the Sagittal Suture.

B B, The Ossa Bregmatis.

C C, The Sutura Lambdoides.

D, The Os Occipitis which commonly in the Foetus is Di­vided into Four Bones; Three of which Appear in this Fi­gure; the Fourth lying between the Ossa Petrosa, and is join'd to the Os Sphenoides, Tab. 92. Fig. 2. P.

E, The Os Temporum or Squamosum not yet join'd with that Part or Process of it, call'd Petrosum.

F F, The Lower Jaw.

G, The Os Iugale.

H H, &c. The Seven Vertebrae of the Neck,

I I, &c. Twelve of the Thorax,

K K, &c. Five of the Loins, without their Spinal Process's.

L, The Right Scapula.

M. Part of the Right Clavicula.

N N, &c. The True Ribs.

O O, &c. The Bastard Ribs.

P, The Os Humeri.

Q, The Ulna.

R, The Radius.

S, The Cartilages which Compose the Bones of the Carpus.

T, The Bones of the Metacarpus.

V, The Bones of the Fingers.

W, The Os Sacrum;

X, The Ilium,

Y, The Ischium,

Z, The Pubis,

1, The Thigh-bone.

2, The Cartilaginous Appendages of the Lower-part of the Thigh-bone, and Upper-parts of the Tibia and Fibula.

3, The Tibia,

4, The Fibula.

5, The Cartilages which Frame the Bones of the Tarsus.

6, The Bones of the Metatarsus.

7, The Bones of the Toes.

N. B There are divers Remarkable Parts of this Figure, as well as of the preceding Table, which have escap'd Lettering: As the Spines of the Scapulae, Cartilaginous Appendages of the Ossa Humeri, Ulnae, Radii, Femoris, Tibiae Fibulae, &c. but most of these being already Letter'd on other Figures of the Bones, we shall Omit their Repe­tition on these, since the Additional Letters already made with a Pen on these Figures, are so Numerous.

THE HUNDRED & THIRD TABLE.

THE Bones of the Inferior Artus or Limbs are Divided into the Thigh, Shank, and Foot.

Fig. 1.

The Fore-part of the Left Thigh-bone.

A, The Upper Appendix of the Thigh-bone, call'd its Head, cover'd with a Cartilage, which is receiv'd in the Acetabulum of the Os Innominatum, Tab. 99. Fig. 2. A B B.

The Round Ligament Arising from the Inferior Part of the Acetabulum, is In­serted near the Middle of this Head of the Thigh-bone, Fig. 2. B. This Articu­lation of the Thigh-bone with the Hip-bone, is call'd Enarthrosis.

B, The Trochanter Major, which in Young Bodies Appears join'd with a Car­tilage to the Thigh-bone, and is therefore call'd an Epiphysis or Appendix.

C, The Cervix or Neck of the Os Femoris, to which the Ligamentum Latum is Fasten'd.

D E, The Inferior Appendix of the Os Femoris, Framing Two Heads: The Smooth Cartilaginous Surface which Appears between them, receives the Inter­nal Surface of the Patella, Fig. 4.

F, A Sinus whence the Musculus Poplitaeus has its Tendinous Origin.

Fig. 2.

The Posterior Part of the Right Thigh-bone.

A, Its Head.

B, A little Depressure, where the Ligamentum Rotundum is Implanted.

C, The Lesser Trochanter, to which the Musculus Psoas and Iliacus Internus, are Inserted.

D E, The Two Inferior Heads of the Thigh-bone, which are receiv'd in Two Shallow Depressures, Fram'd by Two Semilunary Cartilages, plac'd on the Supe­rior Part of the Tibia: The Sinus between these Two Heads, receives a small Pro­minence on the Upper-part of the Tibia, especially in its Flexion: This Articula­tion of the Thigh with the Tibia, is by Gynglimus.

F, The Great Trochanter, where the Musculus Pyriformis, Marsupialis, Obturator Externus, and Parts of the Glutaei Medii, Minimi, and Quadratus Femoris, are In­serted.

G G, The Linea Aspera, to which Part of the Musculus Quadratus Femoris, Glutaeus Maximus, and the Greatest Part of the Triceps are Inserted: The Vastus Exter­nus and Internus, do chiefly Arise from the Linea Aspera.

In some Bodies, especially Aged, we find Two Ossa Sesamoidea on the Superior Parts of the Two Lower Heads of the Thigh-bone D E: The Office of which, is to Defend the Bending Tendons of the Tibia from too great a Collision on those Heads of the Bone, which they would else be Subject to: The like Ossification I have more than once Observ'd in the Tendon of the Peroneus Longus, at its Con­tortion over the Os Calcis towards the Bottom of the Foot.

Fig. 3, 4.

The Former Figure Represents the External Rough Part of the Patella; the Latter the Internal Smooth Surface of the same Bone cover'd with a Cartilage; which is applied to the Fore-part of the Juncture of the Os Femoris with the Tibia, where it's Fasten'd by the Tendon of all the Extending Muscles of the Tibia; wherefore by Spigelius its Conjunction is call'd Syntenosis. The Use of the Patella (by some call'd Rotula, Mola, Scutum, Os Scutiforme, &c.) is to prevent the Thigh-bone from Thrusting out Forwards, especially in Walking down any Steep Place, and from Pressing on the Tendons of the Extending Muscles of the Tibia: It also Defends the Articulation of the Thigh and Tibia, especially in Kneeling; and like a Pully Acts on the Lower-part of the Os Femoris, to Extend the Tibia when Inflected.

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THE HUNDRED & FOURTH TABLE.

Fig. 1.

SHEWS the Fore-part of the Right Tibia, or Major Focile of the Leg.

A A, The sharp Edge on the Fore-part of the Tibia, call'd its Spina.

A Superior, A Prominence on the Upper-part of the Tibia, to which the Great Tendon of the Muscles, Extending the Leg, is Inserted.

B, A Process in the Middle of the Upper Appendix of the Tibia, to which a Ligament is Inserted, proceeding from the Hollow or Sinus, between the Heads of the Lower-part of the Thigh-bone, Exprest Fig. 2. in the preceding Table.

C, The Malleolus Internus, Fram'd by the Lower Appendix of the Tibia.

Fig. 2.

The Back-part of the Left Tibia.

A A, That Part of the Tibia whence the Musculus Perforans, or Flexor Tertii In­ternodii Digitorum Pedis, do's Arise,

B, A Prominence in its Upper Appendix, to which a Ligament is Fasten'd, conti­nued from the Sinus between the Two Heads of the Lower Appendix of the Os Femoris.

C, A Sinus in the Lower-part of the Tibia and its Appendix, in which the Infe­rior Part of the Fibula is receiv'd.

D, Another Small Sinus in the Lower-part of the Tibia, wherein the Tendon of the Musculus Tibialis Posticus passes towards its Insertion.

E, A Prominence receiv'd in a Shallow Depressure of the Upper-part of the Fibula.

F, The Malleolus Internus.

Fig. 3.

The Back-part of the Left Fibula with its Lower End Uppermost, it's also call'd Os Surae, Canna Minor, Focile Minus, and Os Peronae.

A A, The External Part of the Fibula.

B B, Its Edge, whence the Musculus Peronaeus Longus do's Arise.

C C, The Two Extreams of the Bone, properly so call'd.

D, Its Lower Appendix which makes the Malleolus Externus.

E, Its Upper Appendix.

F, That Part of the Fibula, whence the Upper-part of the Musculus Flexor Pol­licis Longus, do's Arise.

Fig. 3

A B C, &c. The Internal Part of the Right Fibula next the Tibia, with its Lower End Uppermost, as in the Former Figure.

D, A Smooth Cartilaginous Surface of the Lower Appendix of the Fibula, which is Entertain'd in the Sinus of the Lower-part of the Tibia, Fig. 2. C; and Touches the Os Calcis Externally Laterally. Vid. Tab. 105. Fig. 1. A.

E, A Shallow Depressure on the Superior Appendix of the Fibula, which receives the Prominence of the Tibia, Fig. 2. E.

F, The Superior Part of the Bone next its Appendix.

THE HUNDRED & FIFTH TABLE.

WE come now to the Bones of the Foot it self: These like those of the Hand are Divided into Three Parts, viz. The Bones of the Tarsus, Metatarsus, and those of the Toes. The Tarsus is Compos'd of Seven Bones, which in this Table are Represented Separated from each other; the

  • 1, Is the Astragulus or Talus, by some call'd Os Balistae;
  • 2, The Os Calcis, Calcaneus or Pedis Calcar;
  • 3, The Os Spongiosum, call'd Cuboides, Os Tesserae, Grandinosum and Polymorphon;
  • 4, 5, 6, The Three Ossa Cuneiformia;
  • 7, The Os Naviculare or Cymbiforme; it's also call'd Scaphoeides.

Fig. 1.

The Upper-part of the Bones of the Right Foot, when join'd to each other with Wires in their Na­tural Situation.

A B, The Os Calcis: A, Its External Lateral Smooth Side, Cover'd with a Cartilage which touches the Internal and Lower-part of the Inferior Appendix of the Fibula, call'd Malleolus Externus: B, The Upper-part of the Os Calcis, Cover'd with a Cartilage which is receiv'd in a Sinus of the Lower Appendix of the Tibia.

C, The Os Calcis.

D, The Os Naviculare.

E, The Os Spongiosum or Cuboides.

F G H, The Three Ossa Cuneiformia.

I K L M N, The Five Ossa Metatarsi or Second Division of the Foot.

1, 2, 3, &c. to 13, All the Bones of the Toes according to Bidloo, but we suspect the Second Bone of all the Lesser Toes was wanting in the Subject, by which this Figure was Delineated; for I am per­swaded the Painter follow'd the Life very strictly, as appears by the Figure.

Fig. 2.

The Bones of the Inferior Part or Bottom of the Right Foot.

A B, Part of the Astragalus.

C, The Os Calcis.

D, The Os Naviculare.

E, The Os Spongiosum or Cuboides.

G H, Two of the Ossa Cuneiformia.

I K L M N, The Ossa Metatarst.

O O, The Ossa Sesamoidea of the Great Toe.

N. B. The Bones of the Toes (as Exprest in the Former Figure) wanting their Second Internodes.

Fig. 3.

One of the Nails.

A, The Upper-part of the Nail, commonly call'd its Root.

B, Its Side, which was Border'd with a Protension of the Cuticula.

C, Its External Convex Part, where its Series of Fibres Appear Extended according to its Length, from A to C.

D, Its Limbus or Extream Part, which Projects over the Top of the Finger or Toe.

The Nails Arise from their Subjacent Parts, call'd their Roots, Fram'd of a Complication of Nerves and Blood-Vessels; whence Horny Fibres or Tubes Arise, and being United, Compose that Hard Bo­dy call'd the Nail. The Horny Fibres which make the Outside or Convex Surface of the Nail, Arise from the Lower-part of its Root next the Second Internode of the Finger; the rest of the Horny Fi­bres which Arise from the Superior Part of its Root towards the Top of the Finger; successively make the Internal Concave Surface of the Nail: So that the Extremity of the Nail which Extends it self be­yond the Top of the Finger, is Fram'd of all the Fibres which Arise from the Surface of its Root, and is much Thicker than its other Extream towards its Root: Hence it happens that the External Surface towards the Root of the Nail is Protruded Forwards towards its Top; as may be Observ'd if you Mark the Lower-part of the Nail towards its Root, you will see it advance to the Top; which at Length is either Worn away or cut off. When any Corosive Matter (as in a Paronychia or the like) destroys the Tender Roots of the Horny Fibres, the Nail necessarily falls off; but nevertheless it will Bud again, and a New Nail will Grow in its place; which commonly do's not prove so Beauti­ful as the Former, whether occasion'd by too early Using it, or its being Expos'd to the External Air, or some inconvenient Covering made Use of, to Defend it from Outward Injuries.

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AN APPENDIX, Representing the EXTERNAL MUSCLES, And Divers PARTS OF HUMANE BODIES Which are either Omitted, or not well Exprest in the Preceding TABLES.

Done after the LIFE.

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THE FIRST TABLE.

Fig. 1.

REPRESENTS the External Muscles as they Appear in their Proper Situation on the Fore­part of the Body, after the Skin, Fat, and Mem­branes are taken off, together with the Musculus Quadratus Colli lying on each Side the Neck, and Tendinous Expansion of the Musculus Membra­nosus from the Fore-parts of the Thighs.

1, The Musculus Frontalis.

2, The Orbicularis Palpebrarum.

3, The Elevator Labit Superioris, and Dilatator Alae Nasi.

4, The Elevator Labii Superioris Proprius.

5, Part of the Elevator Labiorum Communis.

6, The Orbicularit seu Sphincter Labiorum.

7, The Depressor Labii Inferioris Proprius.

8, The Depressor Labiorum Communis.

9, The Zygomaticus seu Distortor Oris.

10, The Buccinator.

11, The Temporalis.

12, The Masseter.

a, The Parotid Salival Gland.

b, The Os Iugale.

c, The Salival Duct, where it Arises from the Parotid Gland, and passes over the Masseter Muscle, whence it Marches thro' the Musculus Baccimator to its Orifice in the Internal Membrane of the Mouth, against the Dentes Molares.

d, The Lower Jaw-bone made bare.

e, The Insertion of the Right Mastoid Muscle, to the Processus Mammiformis.

13, The Genichyoideus.

14, 14, The Mastoidei, where their Two Beginnings are Exprest on each Side; the One from the Top of the Sternum [...]g and the Other from the Clavicula f: The Termination of the Right Mastoid in the Pr [...]cessus Mammilaris e, is also Exprest.

15, The Sternobyoideus of the Left Side, that of the Right not be­ing Figur'd.

16, 16, The Caracobyoideus Marching under the Mastoid Muscle.

17, 17, Parts of the Scalenus.

18, Part of the Elevator Scapulae.

19, 19, Parts of the Trapezius or Cucullaris, on each Side Inserted to the Claviculae.

20, The De [...]toides.

21, 21, The Two Pectoral Muscles.

f, f, The Claviculae.

g, The Upper-part of the Os Pectoris or Sternum;

h, The Scrobicu [...]us Cordis at the Lower-part of the Sternum.

22, The Biceps Humeri.

23, 23, Parts of the Coracobrachiales.

24, 24, Parts of the Brachiales Flexores.

25, 25, Parts of the Brachiales Extensores.

i, A Branch of the Axillary Nerves, which passes between the Inter­nal Protuberance of the Os Humeri k, and the Olecranum or El­bow.

k, The Internal Protuberance of the Os Humeri.

l, The Large Trunk of the Axillary Artery, which is frequently Prickt by Bold Blood-Letters.

m, A Thin Membranous Tendon Springing from the Musculus Bi­ceps Humeri, which is Expanded over all the External Muscles on the Cubit.

26, Part of the Brachialis Flexor.

27, Pronator Radii Teres.

28, 28, Radialis Flexor.

29, 29, Pal [...]oris Longus.

30, 30, Parts of the Musculi Flexores Secundi Internodii Perfo­r [...]ue.

31, 31, The Ulnaris Flexor.

32, 32, The Supinator Radii Longus in both Arms.

33, Part of the Radialis Extensor.

34, A Tendon of the Flexor Tertii Internodii Pollicis.

35, 35, The Abductor Pollicis on both Hands.

n, The Ligamentum Annulare of the Carpus

o, o, The Tendinous Expansion of the Palmaris Longus.

36, The Caro Musculosa Quadrata.

37, The Abductor Minimi Digiti.

38, 38, The Fleshy Parts of the Obliquus Descendens Abdominis on both Sides, 41, 42, q, q, their Tendons Running over the Recti to the Linea Alba.

39, 39, Parts of the Latissimus Dorsi on both Sides.

40, 40, Parts of the Serrati Majores Antici.

41, 41, The Recti Abdominis, as they Appear under the Tendons of the Two Oblique Muscles.

p, The Linea Alba.

q, q, The Tendons of the Two Oblique Muscles, call'd Linea Semi­lunaris, before they March over the Rectus to the Linea Alba.

r, r, The Fore-parts of the Spines of the Ossa Ilii.

s, s, The Glandulae Inguinales; neither these Glans, nor those in the Axillae, call'd Glandulae Axillares, are any where mention'd in the preceding Descriptions: Their Office is to receive the Lympha from all the Inferior Parts, and Discharge it again by their Exporting Lym­phe-Ducts in its Way towards the Thoracick-Duct. If any Parts of the Legs or Thighs are Diseas'd, as in an Anasarca, with an Erysipelas, Abcess, Exulceration, especially with a Caries of the Bone, and the like; you will most commonly find the Inguinal Glandules Tumid and Hard: The like may be Observ'd of the Axillary Glands, when the Mammae, Arms, Cubits, or Hands are in like Manner Affected. The Intumescence of these Lymphatick Glands, in the Cases above mention'd, is caus'd by the Vitiated Lympha, Arising from the Diseas'd Parts, not pasting the Vesiculae Glandulosae; whence a Tumor is begun, and is still Increas'd by the Accession of the succeding Lympha, and the Whole Gland becomes Distended to a vast Magnitude; as Appear'd in the Case of the Late Sir William Cranmer, in whom, after Death, I found the Glandule of the Right Inguine to Weigh above Six Pounds, and the Trunk of the Crural Artery passing thro' the Lower-part of it. Tho' the Surface of this Tumified Gland seem'd to have Matter Fluctuating in divers Parts of it, yet no other than a Glandulous Appearance Offer'd on Dividing it Variously. The like Intumescence of the Inguinal Glands happen'd after Castration, in a Hernia Carnosa of the same Side, which in like Manner prov'd Fatal. In the Case of an Anasarca of one Leg, on which an Erysipelas happen'd, I found the Inguinal Gland on the same Side very much Indurated and somewhat Distended. When the Excoriation from the Erysipelas began to Abate of the Flux of Matter, the Inguinal Gland above became more and more Distended; at length the Outward Skin on it began to look Red, and soon after Imposthumated: After the contain'd Pus was Discharg'd, I could pass my Probe very Deep into divers Interstices of the Gland, in which the Matter was Lodg'd; all which Sinus's after some Weeks Clos'd by the Use of Desiccative Topicks, with convenient Bandage, without Hard Tents or Dozils. In this Case the Patient took divers Doses of Cala­mel, and Strong Purges. The like Intumescence of these Glands also happens in Venerial Cases, especially when the External Parts of the Penis are Ulcerated, as I have elsewhere taken Notice of.

t, The Os Pubis.

u u, The Process's of the Peritonaeum Covering the Spermatick Ves­sels, as they Descend to the Testes.

42, The Pyramidales.

43, 43, The Musculus Communis Membranosi on both Sides, Part of its Tendinons Expansion of the Left Side being Exprest, Fasten'd to the Upper Appendix of the Fibula x.

44, 44, The Sartorius on both Sides.

45, Part of the Glutaeus Medius made Tumid by the Great Trochan­ter.

46, 46, The Rectus Femoris on both Thighs.

47, 47, The Vasti Externi.

48, 48, The Vasti Interni.

49, Part of the Pectineus.

50, 50, The Great and First Describ'd Heads of the Triceps on both Sides.

51, 51, The Gracilis partly Exprest on both Sides.

w w, The Patellae or Knee-pans.

x, Part of the Tendon of the Membranosus, Inserted to the Upper Appendix of the Fibula.

y, The Right Tibia made bare.

z, The Malleolus Internus.

*, The Malleolus Externus.

††, The Annular Ligament of the Tarsus.

52, The Tibialis Anticus.

53, 53, The Extensor Pollicis Pedis Longus on both Feet.

54, Part of the Peroneus Secundus or Semifibuleus.

55, Part of the Peroneus Primus or Fibuleus.

56, 56, Parts of the Gasterocnemus Externus on both Legs.

57, Part of the Flexor Tertii Internodii Digitorum Pedis Perforans.

58, Part of the Gasterocnemus Internus.

59, The Abductor Pollicis.

60, Part of the Extensor Secundi Internodii Digitorum Pedis, or Extensor Brevis.

61, The Tendon of the Extensor Pollicis Brevis.

62, The Extensor Tertii Internodii Digitorum Pedis Longus.

THE SECOND TABLE.

Fig. 1.

THE External Muscles and other Parts as they Appear on the Back-part of a Hu­mane Body, after the Skin, Fat, and Membranes are remov'd.

1, The Musculus Temporalis.

2, The Orbicularis Palpebrarum.

3, Part of the Zygomaticus.

4, The Depressor Labiorum Communis.

5, The Masseter.

6, Part of the Mastoideus.

7, Part of the Elevator Scapulae.

8, Part of the Splenius.

9, The Occipitalis.

10, 10, 10, The Cucularis or Trapezius, on both Sides.

a, The Os Bregmatis;

b, The Occipitis.

c, Part of the Sagittal Suture, or Longitudinal Suture.

d, The Lambdoidal Suture.

e, The Os Iugale.

f, The Parotide Salival Gland.

Under this Parotide Salival Gland, are plac'd divers Lym­phatick Glands, which receive Lympha from their Importing Lymphe-ducts, Arising from the Neighbouring Parts as well as the Parotide Salival Gland it self. Besides these Lympha­tick Glands immediately under the Parotides, there are still others of the same kind below them, lying near the Jugular Veins, and are continued to the Claviculae; all these Transmit Lympha (by their Exporting Lymphe-ducts) either to the Subclavian Glands, or to the Upper-part of the Thoracick-duct immediately. These Lymphatick Glands become Tu­mid in Scrophulous Cases, and may be happily remov'd by Incision, and no great Flux of Blood follow; which Practice is Preferable to the Application of Escharoticks which are commonly made use of. I have at this Time a Patient in whom not only the above mention'd Superior Lymphatick Glands of the Left Side were Distended, but the Parotide Sa­lival Gland of the same Side was very much Indurated, and not a lit tle Distended also; in the Middle of which Indura­tion of the Parotide Gland, I found an Aperture whence the Spittle Flow'd in no small Quantity, in Mastication: In Pressing the Part near the Aperture, I found the Spittle Gush out, which had Lodg'd it self between the Skin and the Gland. After the External Skin was Divided, I could plainly see the Spittle Arise from divers Interstices of the Lobuli of the Gland; when he Chaw'd any Thing, the Spittle Flow'd on his Handkerchief (per Stillicidium,) which he was wont to hold under his Ear to receive it. The Sinus's from whence the Spittle was Discharg'd being thus laid Open, the Quantity of Spittle which Flow'd, soon Abated; the Fungous Flesh being remov'd by the Application of Gentle Escharoticks, the Flux of Saliva Lessen'd. He Drinking of a Decoction of Sarsapa­rila, China, Lig. Guiaci, &c. for his common Drink, and Eating of a very Drying Diet, such as Biskets, Almonds, and the like.

Aquapendens in Treating of the Wounds of the Cheeks, mentions a clear Water not unlike the Tears of the Eyes, which he saw Flow from a very small Hole when the Patient Eat; to which he adds, Vnde & quomodo effluat, Ego certe nescio.

The Accurate Nuck tells us (from Roonhuyse a Dutch Wri­ter) of a Patient in whom the Spittle Flow'd from an Ulcer in the Cheek, not unlike that above mention'd: Nor was the Flux of Spittle Abated, and the Ulcer brought to a Cicatrix without a Drying Diet, as the Incomparable Nuck takes No­tice. A Flux of Lympha sometimes happens in Wounds of the Limbs, where the Lymphe-ducts are Wounded. After Letting Blood in the Flexure of the Cubit, I saw (the next Day) a vast Quantity of Lympha had Stain'd the Shirt which lay over the Orifice, and about the Arm; the next Day af­ter, the Flux of Lympha Abated, and the Orifice soon after Clos'd. Perhaps a great Part of that Thin Matter call'd Gleet, which we find some Days after Amputations, or large Wounds, Flows from the Divided Lymphe-ducts as well as Nutritive Tubes of the Part. When Lymphe-ducts are broken in Old Ulcers, and the Flux of Lympha do's not ea­sily Abate, tho' the Patient is confin'd to a Drying Diet. The like Difficulty attended the restraining of the Flux of Lym­pha when a Lymphe-duct was Open'd in an Issue in the Leg, as was Communicated to me by Mr. Bernard and Mr. Guddier both Experienc'd Surgeons of this Town; in which Case a Drying Diet stopt the Flux, and the Ulcer was soon after Ci­catric'd; tho' many Desicatives Topicks, as well as Actual and Potential Cauteries, had before prov'd Ineffectual. By this we may see (however some endeavour to Disparage Anatomy) how Useful it is in the Practice of Surgery.

g, The Spine of the Seventh Vertebra of the Neck.

h, h, The Tendons of the Cucularis on both Sides Inserted to the Spines of the Scapulae.

i, i, The Extremities of the Spines of the Scapulae, to which the Claviculae are Connected.

k k, The Lower Angles of the Scapulae.

l l, The Basis Scapulae.

m m, The Upper Appendices of the Vlnae, call'd Olecrani.

n n, The External Protuberance of the Ossa Humerum, where the Radii are Articulated, and the Muscles Extending the Carpi and Fingers do Arise.

o o, The Inferior Appendix of the Vlna next the Carpus.

11, The Musculus Deltoides of the Right Side.

12, 12, The Infraspinatus on both Sides.

13, 13, Parts of the Rotundi Minores.

14, 14, The Rotundi Majores.

15, 15, 15, The Latissimi Dorsi.

* * Their Tendinous Parts passing over the Sacrolumbales and Dorsi Longissimi.

16, 16, Parts of the Rhomboides on both Sides, near their In­sertions to the Basis of the Shoulder-blades, ll.

17, 17, The Gemellus, or Biceps Externus on both Arms.

18, 18, Parts of the Brachiales.

19, 19, Parts of the Supinator Radii Longus on both Sides.

20, 20, The Anconeus:

21, 21, The Radialis Extensor on either Cubit.

22, 22, The Extensor Digitorum Communis:

23, 23, The Extensor Minimi Digiti:

24, 24, The Vlnaris Extensor:

25, 25, Parts of the Perforatus or Flexor Secundi Internodii Digitorum.

26, 26, The Vlnaris Flexor on both Cubits.

27, Parts of the Tendons of the Radialis Flexor & Palmaris.

28, 28, The Abductores Minimi Digiti on either Hand.

29, The Adductor Pollicis ad Dorsum Manus.

30, The Extending Muscles of the Thumb.

31, 31, Parts of the Oblique Descending Muscles of the Abdomen on both Sides.

32, The Glutaeus Major.

33, 33, Parts of the Glutaeus Medius on both Sides.

34, The Fleshy Part of the Membranosus or Musculus Com­munis Membranosi.

p p, The Back-part of the Spines of the Ossa Ilii.

q, The Os Sacrum.

r, A Prominence made by the Great Trochanter under the Tendinous Expansion of the Glutaeus Major.

f, f, The Great Crural Nerves as they Descend in the Ham.

t, The Upper Appendix of the Fibula.

u u, The Lower Appendix of the Fibula, call'd Malleolus Ex­ternus.

w, The Lower Appendix of the Tibia or Malleolus Inter­nus.

x, The Tendon of the Gasterocnemii.

y, The Os Calcis.

35, 35, Parts of the Vasti Externi.

36, 36, The Biceps Femoris on both Sides.

37, 37, The Seminervosi or Semitendinosi.

38, 38, The Semimembranosi.

39, 39, Parts of the Triceps Femoris on both Sides.

40▪ Part of the Gracilis on the Left Thigh.

41, Part of the Sartorius on the same Thigh.

42, Part of the Vastus Internus on the same Thigh also.

43, 43, The Gasterocnemii Externi.

44, 44, The Gasterocnemii Interni Cover'd with the Ten­dons of the Externi.

45, The Peroneus Longus.

46, 46, The Abductor Minimi Digiti on both Feet.

47, Part of the Tendon of the Extensor Digitorum Longus on the Right Foot.

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THE THIRD TABLE.

Fig. 3.

SHEWS the Trunks and large Ramifications of all the Arte­ries of a Humane Foetus, Injected with Wax, and Display'd after Dissection.

1, The Aorta, or Arteria Magna, cut from its Origin at the Orifice of the Left Ventricle of the Heart.

2, The Trunk of the Great Coronal Artery of the Heart Ari­sing from the Beginning of the Aorta; the Rise of the Lesser Coronal Artery, not Appearing in this Position of the Arteria Magna.

3, The Canalis Arteriosus Fill'd with Wax, by Injecting it into the Aorta: This Arises from the Upper Part of the Trunk of the Pulmonick Artery (near its Two Ramifications which pass into the Lungs) and after an Oblique Descent under the Beginning of the Aorta, Empties it self into the Upper Part of its Descending Trunk, as here Exprest 28. Besides this Communication between the Right Ventricle of the Heart of a Foetus, and Arteria Magna; there is another call'd Foramen Ovale, by which Part the Blood, at its Entrance into the Right Ven­tricle, passes into the Pulmonick Vein, and the Left Ventricle of the Heart, thence to the Aorta. Hence it Appears, That the Blood which Flows into the Right Ventricle of the Heart of the Foetus, Passes immediately (by the Canalis Arteriosus) to the Arteria Magna, as well as the Blood of the Left Ventricle (which is Receiv'd immediately from the Vena C [...]a, or Right Article of the Heart) into the Pulmonick Vein, and Left Ventricle: So that the Blood in the Foetus, which Runs into the Right Ventricle, passes immediately to the Aorta, by the Systole of the Heart, as well as the Blood of the Left Ventricle: Not do's any Part of the Blood of the Right Ventricle pass into the Left; Or any Blood of the Left Ventricle first pass the Right, as in the Adult. Hence the Heart in the Foetus may be said to have but One Ventricle in Effect, since the Blood which passes One, do's not come into the Other, before it arrives at the Aorta. After the Birth, when the Infant has Receiv'd Air into the Lungs (and their Vesciculae remain Distended, and the Rami­fications of the Pulmonick Arteries and Vein consequently are more Display'd) the Blood th [...] begins to pass their Extremities, more freely than before; and the Arterious Chanel at length becomes neglected, as well as the Foramen Ovale; the Former becoming a Li­g [...], and the Latter Closing up. The too early Occlusion of these Passages in Chil­dren, often produces many Disorders, as Inflammation of Divers Parts of the Head, Neck, and Lungs [...] in which Cases, Bleeding is of great Use: Of this, I have met with many In [...]nces in the Dissection of Children. I have often found the Foramen Ovale open in the Adult: The Canalis Arteriosus, for what I have observ'd, closes sooner than that Foramen.

4, 4, The Subclavian Arteries, Arising from the Arteria Magna, to which the Axillary Arteries, and those of the Arms (23, 23,) are con [...]'d.

5, 5, The Two Carotide Arteries Arising from Aorta, between the Subclavian Arteries.

6, 6. The Two Vertebral Arteries, Arising from the Sub [...]lev [...]culae, which pass thro' all the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae of the Neck, from whence they are freed.

7, 7. The Arteries which Convey Blood to the Lower Part of the Face, Tongue, Ad­jacent Muscles, and Glandules.

8, 8. The Trunks of the Temporal Arteries Spring from the Carotides, and giving Branches to the Parc [...]ide Glands (9, 9.) as well as the Temples (10, 10.) also to the Neigh­bouring Muscles, Hairy-Scalp, and Forehead.

11, 11. The Occip [...]tal Arteries, whose Trunks pass close by the Mammi [...]o [...] Process, and are Distributed on the Hinder Pa [...] of the Hairy-Scalp, where they are Inosculated with the Branches of the Temporal Arteries.

12. Di [...]ers Arteries, which carry Blood to the Fauces Ga [...]ga [...]con and Muscles of those P [...].

13, 13. The Contortions of the Carotid Arteries, as they pass the Basis of the Skull to the Brain.

14, 14. Those Parts of the Carotid Arteries, where they pass by each Side of the Solla T [...]ica, where Di [...]e [...] Small Branches do Arise from them, and help to Compose the Rete [...], which is more conspicuous in Quadrupedes than Men.

15, 15. The Contortions of the Vertebra Arteries, as they pass the Transverse Processes of the First Vend [...] [...] the Neck, towards the Great Foramen of the Os Occiputis. I have more than once taken Notice, That the Cavities of these Arteries, where they are Con­ [...]e [...]ed, have been Larger than their Inferior Trunks; whereby the Impetus of the Blood must necessarily be very much Lessen'd, as well as by their Contortions only. In Qua­d [...]pedes the Angles of these Contortion: of the Arteries of the Brains are more Acute, which in them is the more Necessary to Lessen the Force of the Blood at their Extremi­ties, by Reason of the Horizontal Position of their Trunks.

16. The Vertebral Arteries, where they Ascend on the Medulla Oblongata, towards the [...] Protuberance, or Po [...]a Var [...].

17, 17. The Communicant Branches between the Carotid and Vertebral Arteries; in this Subject, somewhat Larger than we Commonly find them.

18, 18. The Ramifications of the Arteries within the Skull; the Larger Trunks of which lie between the Lobes of the Brain, and in its S [...]i. From the Extremities of these Arteries of the Brain are Continu'd its Veins, whose Trunks vary much in their Position from the Arteries: They Entring the Brain at its Basis, and Distributing themselves, as above noted; whereas the Trunks of the Veins are Extended on the Surface of the Brain, and Discharge their Blood into the Longitudinal S [...]r [...]s. Nor do's the Veins of the Brain Accompany its Arteries at their Ingress, as in other Parts: Or the Arteries and Vein. of the Dura Meter, pass the same F [...]ramen in the Basis of the Skull.

19, 19. The Arteries of the Larynx Thyroid Glandules, and Adjacent Muscles and Parts, Arising from the Subclavian Arteries.

20, 20. Others Arising near the Former, which convey Blood to the Muscles of the Neck, and Scapul [...].

21, 21. The Mammariae, which Arise also from the Subclavian Arteries, and Descend on the Cartilages of the True R [...]bs Internally, about Half an Inch distant on each Side the Or Pectoris, or S [...]rm [...]n. Some Branches of these pass thro' the Pectoral, as well as i [...]costal Muscles, and give Blood to the Mammae, where they meet with some Branches of the Intercostal Arteries, to which they are Inosculated. These Maminary Arteries join with the large Trunks of the Epigastricks (57, 57.) also, by which Means the Impetus of the Blood in Integuments of the Abdomen, is carry'd on with more Force; the Ex­ [...]es of the Intercostal and Lumbal Arteries do also Inosculate with each other, as well as with These.

22, 22. The Arteries of the Muscles of the Os Humeri, and some of those of the Scapul [...].

23, 23. Those Parts of the Large Trunks of the Arteries of the Arms, which are liable to be Wounded in Opening the Vena Basilica, or Innermost of the Three Veins in the Bend­ing of the Cubit, (See Fig. 1. of this Appendix between 26. and m,) where the Precise Progress of this Artery is Exprest.

24, 24. The Divisions of the Arteries of the Arm below the Flexure of the Cubit.

25. A Communicant Branch of an Artery, Arising from the Trunk of the Artery of the Arm, above its Flexure at the Cubit, which is Inosculated with the Arteries of the Cubit below. In some Subjects you will not find This Communicant Branch, as here repre­s [...]d [...] in whom there are divers Smaller Branches of the same Kind. By these [...] Branches (of the Upper Part of the Brachial Artery with those of the Cubit) the Blood still passes, tho' the Trunk (23) is firmly Ty'd, which is done In taking up the [...]; as it's call'd when 'tis Wounded, in the Cause of an Aneurisma. Besides firmly Tying the Trunk of the Artery above the Place where it is Wounded; it is also Ne­cessary to tie it in like manner below, least the Blood Convey'd by the Communicant Branches to the Inferior Trunk, still pours out at the Wound of the Artery from below, in a Retrograde Manner.

26. The External Artery of the Cubit, which makes the Pulse near the Carpus.

27. The Arteries of the Hands and Fingers.

28, 28. The Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna.

29. The Arteria Bronchalis, Springing from one of the Intercostal Arteries; It some­times Arises immediately from the Descending Trunk of the Aorta, at other times from the Superior Intercostal Artery, which Springs from the Subclavian. These Bronchial Ar­teries Inosculate with the Pulmonary Arteries, as I have elsewhere taken Notice, and which I s [...]re find is mention'd and Figur'd by the Accurate Ruysch, Epist, Anatom. 6. Fig. 5. c, c, c.

30. A Small Artery Springing from the Fore-part of the Aorta Descendens, passing to [...] Gula [...] Prysch tells us of Branches of Arteries from the Superior Intercostal, which [...] the Gula.

31, 31. The Intercostal Arteries on each Side the Arteria Magna Descendens.

32. The Trunk of the Arteria Caeliaca, from whence Springs

33, 33. The Hepatick Arteries, and

34. The Arteria Cystica, lying on the Gall-bladder,

35. The Arteria Cerenaria Ventriculi Inferior,

36. The Pylorica,

37, 37. The Epiplaica Dextra, Sinistra, and Media, Springing from the Coronaria.

38. The Ramifications of the Coronary Artery, which embrace on the Bottom of the Stomach.

39. The C [...]r [...]ria Ventriculi Superior.

40, 40. The Phrenick Arteries, or the Two Arteries of the Diaphragm; that of the Left Side Arising from the Trunk of the Arteria Magna, the Right Springing from the Caeliacae.

41. The Trunk of the Splenick Artery, Arising from the Caeliaca: This is Contorted in the Adult, as it appears Tab. 36.

42. Two Small Arteries going to the Upper Part of the Duodemum and Pancreas; the Rest of the Arteries of the Pancreas Spring from the Splenick Artery in its Passage to the Spleen.

43. The Trunk of the Arteria Mesenterica Superior, Turn'd towards the Right Side.

44, 44. The Branches of the Superior Mesenterick Artery, freed from the Small Guts; here the Various Anastomoses, the Branches of this Artery make in the Mesentery, before they arrive at the Intestines, may be observ'd.

45. The Inferior Mesenterick Artery, Arising from the Arteria Magna.

46. A Remarkable Anastomosis of this Inferior Mesenterick Artery, with the Superior.

47, 47, 47. The Branches of the Inferior Mesenterick Artery, as they pass to the Inte­stinum Colon;

48, 48. Those of the Rectum.

49, 49. The Arteries of the Kidneys.

50, 50. The Vertebral Arteries of the Loins.

51, 51. The Spermatick Arteries, which descend to the Testes, are so Small as to escape being Fill'd with Wax.

52. The Aneria Sacra.

53, 53. The Iliaci.

54, 54. The Rami Iliaci Externi:

55, 55. The Iliaci Interni; which are here Larger in the Foetus proportionably, than in the Adult, by Reason of their Conjunction with the Two Umbilical Arteries.

56, 56. The Two Umbilical Arteries cut off.

57, 57. The Epigastrick Arteries, which Ascend under the Right Muscles of the Ab­domen, and are Inosculated with the Mammariae, as above Noted.

58, 58. Branches of the External Iliac [...] Arteries, passing between the Two Oblique Muscles of the Abdomen.

59, 59. Branches of the Internal Iliack Arteries, which Convey Blood to the Extend­ing and Obturating Muscles of the Thighs.

60, 60. The Trunks of the Arteries, which pass to the Penis.

61, 61. The Arteries of the Bladder of Urine.

62, 62. The Internal Arteries of the Pudendum, which with those here Exprest of the Penis, make the Hypogastrick Arteries in Women. The External Arteries of the Pulen­dum, Arise from the Upper Part of the Crural Artery, which is immediately below the Epigastricks.

63. The Penis Distended with Wind, and Dry'd.

64. The Glans Penis.

65. The Upper Part or Dorsum Penis, cut from the Body of the Penis, and Rais'd to Show the Corpora Caevernosa Penis.

66, 66. The Corpora Caevarnosa Penis, Fred from the Ossa Pubis, and Ty'd after Inflation.

67. The Two Arteries of the Penis, as they Appear Injected with Wax, in each Ca­vernous Body of the Penis.

68. The Capsula, and Septum of the Corpora Cavenosa Penis.

69. The Crural Arteries.

70, 70. The Arteries, which pass to the Muscles of the Thighs and Tibiae: The No­mination of each Muscle in this Place would be Tedious, and of no Use; wherefore I shall pass Them by here, as I have done in the Arms; it being sufficient, we know, the Progress of the Great Trunks, to avoid Wounding them in Chirurgical Operations, or to find them on Occasion: We shall begin first with the Description of the Trunk of the Arteries of the Arm. So soon as the Subclavian Artery has past the Claevicula, it marches thro' the Axilla, wherefore it's call'd Axillaris, whence it [...]. Trunk Descends between the Masculus Brachiaeus Intermu and Externus, on the Inside of the Arm, and is Divided below the Bending of the Cubit, as you see it Exprest in the Figure; it Parting with Several Branches to the Neighbouring Muscles, and Parts it Passes by; Their Distribution not being alike in any Two Subjects, I have hitherto Examin'd, or in the Right and Left Sides of the same, as appears in this Figure: Tho' the Progress of their Large Trunks are commonly Uniform; yet in that too, they vary considerably, and the Trunk of the Artery at the Flexure of the Cubit sometimes runs Collateral with the Vena Basilica, tho' it most commonly passes Under that Vein: Of this, Those that Let Blood ought to take Notice, and that the Vessel they See or Feel has no Pulsation, before they thrust their Launset into it. Nor can I omit a Useful Observation in this Place; which is, That the Operator before He applies his Ligature on the Arm, should first feel for the Artery, because afterwards its Palsation cannot be so easily Discover'd; the Reason of which is Obvious. After Amputation, above the Elbow, the Trunk of the Axillary Artery only, affords any Considerable Flux of Blood: In Amputations below the Elbow, we find Two, some­times Three, and Four Considerable Trunks, which may require Tying Up; the Manner of which Practice is so well Describ'd in the Works of Ambrose Pary, I shall omit saying any Thing of it in this Place, tho' it has been most commonly Disus'd in this King­dom till of Late; the many Conveniencies of which Practice will (I don't doubt) suffi­ciently Recommend it to a General Use, as well in other Impetuous Fluxes of Blood, as in those after Amputations. After the External Iliack Artery (54) is past out of the Ca­vity of the Abdomen, it obtains the Name of the Crural Artery, (69.) and Descends ob­liquely on the Crural Vein, on the Fore-part of the Thigh, immediately Under the Mus­culus Sartorius: About Four Fingers Breadth above the Knee, these Two Large Blood Vessels pass thro' the Lower Part of the Musculus Triceps to the Ham, (71.) here the Vein is Plac'd Above the Artery as in other Parts, and so Descends to the Foot, after being Divided in Three Branches, as is Exprest in Fig. 72.

71. That Part of the Crural Artery, which passes the Ham.

72. The Three Large Trunks of the Arteries of the Leg.

73. The Arteries of the Foot.

Fig. 4.

The Extremities of the Veins and Arteries, as they Appear by a Microscope in the Transparent Fin of a Living Grig.

A A, The Fin of a Grig, lying in a Glass Tube.

B B, The Cartilaginous Extremities of the Ribs, on which the Fin is Extended.

C C, The Small Scratches, or Streaks we commonly find in the Glass Tube.

D D, The Branches of the Arteries, Proceeding from their Larger Trunks in the Body of the Grig, Conveying the Blood to the outmost Margine of the Fin.

E E, The Extremities of the Arteries, Continu'd to the Veins, wherein One Globule of the Blood only moves before another. Besides these Communications of the Veins with the Arteries, there are still others which are Larger, wherein more than two Globules can pass together: Those are every where Interspers'd with the Lesser, as plainly appears in the Fin and Tail of the Flounder, Fig. 5. F.

F F, The Veins which convey the Refluent Blood to the Heart.

G G, The Magnitude of the Arta, taken by the Microscope.

Fig. 5.

The Extremity, or outmost Margin of the Side-Fin of a Small Living Flounder, view'd with a Microscope.

A A, The Cartilaginous Extremities of the Ribs, on each Side of which, the Trunks of the Great Blood Vessels pass.

B B, The Arteries.

C C, The Veins.

D D, Their Lesser Extremities Continu'd to each other.

E E, The Large Branches of Veins and Arteries, Inosculating with themselves, before they arrive at their Extremities.

F F, The Larger Conjunctions of the Veins and Arteries, at the outmost Margin of the Fin.

G G, The Arta which the Microscope took in, as it appears to the Naked Eye.

Fig. 6.

Represents (according to our Conception) the Origination of the Lympheducts from the Extremities of the Blood Vessels.

A, The Small Branch of an Artery,

a a, Its Extremity Continued to the Vein.

B, The Branch of a Vein.

C, A Lympheduct Arising from the Extremities of the Blood Vessels, either by the Me­diation of Divers Vesiculae, or Small Tubes; which have Apertures into the Sides of the Blood Vessels.

Fig. 7.

The Manner of the Origin of the Excretory Ducts, from the Extremities of the Blood Vessels.

A, The Artery.

B, The Vein.

C, A Branch of the Ductus Excretorius.

d d, The Extremities of the Blood Vessels.

e e, The Extremities of the Excretory Tubes, at their Rise from the Pores in the Sides of the Blood Vessels, before they Unite in the Branch of the Duct.

THE FOURTH TABLE.

Fig. 8.

IS the Basis of the Skull with the First Vertebra of the Neck remain­ing on it, together with divers Muscles and other Parts.

A, B, C C, D D, The First Vertebra of the Neck: A, its Fore-part, behind which, the Tooth-like Process of the Second Vertebra is plac'd; B, its Back part wanting a Spinal Process where the Musculi Recti Minores Postici Arise; C C, The Transverse Process's: D D, Two somewhat Oval Process's of the First Vertebra, which Move Side­ways on the like Process's on the Upper Part of the Second Verte­bra of the Neck.

E, A Cavity immediatly behind the Fore-part of the First Vertebra, Fenc'd with a strong Ligament Backwards next the Medulla Spinalis, in which the Tooth-like Process of the Second Vertebra Tab. 93. Fig. 3, 4. A A, is receiv'd.

F, The Great Foramen, through which the Medulla Spinalis Descends from the Head.

G, A Small Muscle, which from its Position I call Rectus Lateralis: I first met with it in Dissection, some time since, and afterwards found it was partly Mention'd by Galen, and De­scrib'd by Fallōppius: It Arises from the Superior Part of the Extremity of the Transverse Pro­cess of the First Vertebra of the Neck, and Ascends directly to its Implantation in the Os Occipitis; when it Acts, it Nods the Head Laterally.

H, The Musculus Rectus Anterior Minor, so call'd from its Progress, Situation and Size, it being much less than the Rectus Major, Tab. 18. L L. It Arises from the Fore-part of the First Vertebra, and is Inserted to the Appendix of the Os Occipisis: This with its Partner Nod the Head Forewards, and may be term'd Annuentes.

I I, The Perforations in the Transverie Process's of the First Vertebra, in which the Trunks of the Vertebral Arteries and Veins Pass.

K K, The Trunks of the Vertebral Arteries in their Contorted Passage between the Trans­verse Process of the First Vertebra and Great Foramen (F) of the Os Occipitis.

L L, The Mamiform Process's.

M M, The Cartilages of the Meatus Auditorius.

N N, A Probe Inserted into the Meatus à Palato ad Aurem. This Passage from the Fauces ad­mits the Air to Pass from thence into the Cavity of the Tympanum, whereby the Membra [...]ea Tympani becomes more Distended, and the least Impetus of the outward Air Shakes it, toge­ther with its little Bones that are Contiguous to it. Besides this Passage into the Tympanum, there is another Passage out of it, by the Upper Part of the Membrana Tympani into the Meatus Auditorius, by which some in holding their Nostrils and Mouths, and forcing up their Breath, can move a small Feather or the Flame of a Candle, when held near the Outward Ear; in others it's still Opener, and they can Blow Smoke out at their Ears. Tho' this Passage thro' the Tympanum is not commonly so Open as in the First Case, yet naturally there is a Small Passage by the Upper Part of the Membrana Tympani into the Measus Auditorius, which seems necessary, to the End when the Tympamon is Fill'd with Air, any Sudden Impetus of the Ex­ternal Air should not Violate the Membrana Tympani. The Meatus à Palato ad Aurem do's not only Convey Air into the Tympamon, but (constantly remaining Open) it Admits of a Flu­ctuation of the Contain'd Air of the Tympamon, as well as a Fresh Supply: If this Passage is Straiten'd, a Difficulty of Hearing necessarily Follows; if it is totally Obstructed, a Deafness; in which Case, the Taking of Sneezing Powders gives Relief.

O, The Glandulous Membrane Continu'd from the Foramina Narium to the Inside of the Fauces.

P P, The Processus Scyloides.

Q, The Carotid Artery Cut off near its Entrance into the Os Petrosum.

R R, The Lower Parts of the Ossa Iugalia.

S, A Cartilaginous Body lying in the Depressure of the Os Temporum, where the Processus Condyliformis of the Lower Jaw is Articulated.

T, The same Intermediate Cartilage of the Articulation Rais'd.

V, The Smooth Sinus in the Os Temporale, which Receiv'd the last mention'd Cartilage.

t, Part of the Mucelaginous Gland of this Articulation, Clearing to the above-mention'd Cartilage.

W, The Upper Part of the Os Temporale Cut off.

X, The Os Occipitis, in like Manner Saw'd off.

Y, The Musculus Occipitalis, as it Arises from that Part of the Os Occipitis, where the Muscles of the Head are Inserted, whence Mounting it, soon becomes Tendinous, and Marches on the Sincipus, where it's Join'd with the Tendon of the Fromalis: Unless it may be Suppos'd, that the Occipital and Frontal Muscles are One Biventral Muscle, Arising from the Occiput and Inserted to the Lower Part of the Skin of the Fore-head, and being Fasten'd to the Hairy-scalp, Moves it Forewards and Backwards, as well as Lifts up the Lower Part of the Forehead with the Eyebrows.

Z Z, The Thinner Part of the Os Occipitis, where the Muscles of the Head are Inserted.

a, The Gargareon Supported by the Probe, N N, Inserted into the Meatus à Palato ad Aurem.

b b, The little Glandules, which Appear in Cutting the Fauces from hence.

c c, The Extremity of the Processus Pterygoides, or more properly the Extremity of a Small Slender Process above the Processus Pterygoides in this Position of the Skull; since Anatomists in Describing the Muscles of the Uvrela have call'd this Process Pterigoides or Aliformis, we shall still Retain the same Name, tho' the Aliform Process's Exprest, Tab. 92. Fig. 2. K, are Distinct Pro­cess's, and no ways like these.

dd, The Musculi Sphenopirrigostaphilini, so call'd from their Origin, Progress, and Insertion: they are also call'd Pterigopalatini and Sphenoterigopalatini; they Arise Fleshy from an Acute Process of the Os Sphenoides Exprest Appen. Fig. 15. H. whence they Pass to the Processus Ptery­goides, c c, where they become Tendinous, and are Reflected over those Process's to their Inser­tions on the Fore-part of the Gargareon: When these Act, they Draw the Fore-part of the Garga­reus towards the Pterigoid Process's, whereby it's pull'd somewhat Upwards, as well as Forewards.

e e, The Sphenostaphilini: These Arise from the same Process's of the Os Sphenoides with the for­mer, and are Inserted on the Back-part of the Gargareon Opposite to the Former. These Draw the Uvula Upwards and Backwards, whereby it Prevents the Ascent of the Aliment into the Fora­mina Nariton in Deglutition, as it Happens in those in whom the Uvula is wanting.

f, The Musculus Pterygoideus Externus Left at its Origin, at the External Part of the Processus Pterygoides, as well as the Upper Part of the Os Sphenoides it self; whence it Passes Backwards to its Insertion at the Neck of the Processus Condyloides of the Lower-Jaw. When this and its Partner Act they Draw the Lower-Jaw Forewards, whereby the Fore-teeth of the Lower-Jaw are Driven beyond those of the Superior, as Falloppius Observes.

g, The Musculus Pterygoideus Internus also Free'd from the Lower-Jaw, and Left at its Origin: Tab. 15. Fig. 2. N. It's Represented at its Insertion.

h, Some Appearance of the Septum Narium Backwards.

i i, The Denies Molares.

k k, The Canini.

l, The In [...]isores.

m, The Glandulae Labiorum, as they Appear in the Inside of the Upper Lip. Under the In­Internal Membrane of the Mouth; each of these Glands has an Excretory Duct, which Perfo­rates the Membrane of the Mouth at a small Papilla, by which a Salival Humor is Emitted in­to the Mouth: The like Glands may be seen on the Inside of the Cheeks.

n, The Tip of the Nose.

o, The Hairs of the Palpabrae.

Fig. 9.

The External Surface of One of the Glandulae Tonfillae or Amigdalae, where the many large Foramina of its Excretory Ducts Appear, by which its Pituitous Matter is Discharg'd into the Fauces, which joins with the Aliment in its Descent to the Gula.

Fig. 10.

The Receptaculum Chyli Fill'd with Quick-silver, with the Neighbouring Lymphatick Glands remaining in their Proper Situation, together with the Adjacent Parts; as I could make a Sketch of them whilst I was Demonstrating the Parts of a Humane Body to some Worthy and Ingenious Gentlemen, when Professor Bidloo favor'd me with a Visit.

A A, The Kidneys.

a a, The Emulgent Veins, of which that of the Right Side is Lower than the Left.

B, The Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava Distended with Wind; the Lower Part of which is Comprest by the Iliack Artery of the Right Side.

b, The Trunk of the Vena Cava Cut from its Entrance into the Liver and Ty'd.

C C, Parts of the Two Iliack Veins, which may be seen Distended with Wind below the Right Iliack Artery, as the Vena Cava is above; The External Iliack Veins, as well as the Cru­tal Veins, lie immediatly under the Trunks of the Arteries that Accompany them, till they Pass by the Lower Part of the Musculus Triceps and Os Femoris, to the Ham, where the Vein is Upper­most and the Artery Passes Underneath, after the same Manner the Great Trunks of Veins and Arteries do in other Parts. This Contrivance in Nature of Placing the Trunks of the Iliack and Upper Parts of the Crural Arteries on the Veins, is an Admirable Artifice to Accelerate the Ascention of the Blood to the Vena Cava and Heart, as it Arises from the Inferior Parts, by means of the Pulsation of the Arteries. If you Inject the Arteries with Wax and afterwards Fill the Veins with the same, you will see by the Figure of the Wax Contain'd in the Veins, what Ef­fect the Pulsations of the Arteries have on them, in Order to Promote the Ascention of the Re­fluent Blood from below. In this Compressure made by the Iliack Artery of the Right Side, on the Inferior Part of the Vena Cava its Contain'd Blood is Forc'd to Ascend towards the Heart, the Valves in the Crural Veins Opposing its Descent: By this means also the Pondus of the Re­fluent Blood from below is Lessen'd, to the End its Motion may be the better Carri'd on at the Extremities of the Vessels in the Legs and Feet, and a Kind of a Pulsation made by the Vena Ca­va, whereby the Lymphatick Lumbal Gland R R, lying between it and the Bodies of the Ver­tebrae is gently Comprest, of which hereafter.

D D, The Ascending Trunk of the Vena Cava below the Kidneys.

d d, The Iliack Arteries.

E, The Trunk of the Culiata Arteries Cut off.

F, The Trunk of the Mesenterica Superior in like Manner Cut off.

e e, The Arteries of the Testes; the Right Appearing at its Origin from the Trunk of the Ar­teria Magna D; the Left Passing thro' the Lumbal Gland, Q.

f f, The Spermatick Veins near their Entrance into the Trunk of the Vena Cava of the Right Side, and Emulgent Vein of the Left; where there are Valves Plac'd, which Hinder the Descent of the Blood from those Large Vessels into these Veins.

g g, The Upper Parts of the Ureters Distended with Wind;

h h, Their Lower Parts, as they Pass to the Bladder of Urine not Extended: About these Parts of the Ureters, as they Descend over the Iliack Arteries, we frequently find them Dilated by Reason of the Pulsation of those Arteries, which Prevents the free Descent of the Urine, and especially Stones and Gravel, both which often Pass them: Tho' more than once I have Seen One of the Ureters compleatly Obstructed by Small Stones in this Part.

i, Some Fat Remaining on the Ureter, as it Passes out of the Kidney.

G G, The Glandulae Renales or Capsulae Atrabilares in Situ.

H H, The Lower Fleshy Part of the Diaphragm, which Arises from the Vertebrae of the Loins.

I, The Fissura of the Diaphragm, in which the Gula Passes to the Stomack.

K, The Bladder of Urine Distended with Wind.

L, The Urachus Turn'd down.

M M, The Musculi Psoi Magni.

N. The Saecculus Chyliferous or Receptaculum Chyli (Exprest A. Fig. 11.) as it Appears when Fill'd with Mercury, after freeing the Vena Cava, B, from its Accompanying the A [...]eria Magna, D.

O, A Large Trunk of the Vinae Lactea Secundi Geruris, by which the Mercury was Injected.

P, The Tube which Convey'd in the Mercury.

Q Q The Glandula Lumbalis of the Left Side, Lying partly on the Trunk of the Arteria Magna.

R R, The Right Lumbal Gland, Lying partly under the Trunk of the Vena Cava.

S S, Some Communicant Branches of Lympheducts between the Two Lumbal Glands.

f f, The Lympheducts Arising from the Inguinal Glandules, App. Fig. 1. S S. as well as Di­vers other Lymphatick Glandules Lying on the Iliack Branches of Blood-Vessels (C C d d:) These Discharge all the Lympha, arising from the Inferior Parts into the Lumbal Glands, whence it Passes immediatly into the Receptaculum Chyli, and is afterwards Convey'd by the Tho­racick Duct (Fig. 11. MM.) into the Subclarian Vein (Fig. 12. HL:) This is the Ordinary Course of the Lympha, arising from the Inferior Parts in its Way to the Mass of Blood again. Hence it Appears, the Lympha of the Inferior Parts Meets with the Chyle in its Receptaculum, whereby the Chyle is there not only farther Dilated, but its Ascention is Accelerated towards the Subcla­vian Vein, by an Additional Impetus from the Ascending Lympha.

Here we can't but take Notice of a Considerable Artifice in Nature in the Disposition of these Lymphatick Lumbal Glands, whereby the Progress of the Lympha is Promoted towards the Re­ceptaculum Chyli. As the Lympheducts Pass from the Inferior Parts, they Accompany the Trunks of the Arteries, by whose Continual Motion of Systole and Diastole, the Ascent of the Lympha is Promoted as well as the Blood; but when the Lympha Arrives at the Lumbal Glands, the Pul­sation of the Ascending Trunk of the Great Artery being not sufficient (by reason those Glands are much Larger than the Exterior Surface of that Artery can give a Sutable Impulse to;) One of the Lumbal Glands R R, is Plac'd under the Vena Cava B, or between it and the Ver­tebrae Lumbares, by which its Vesiculae are gently Comprest, and their Contain'd Lympha is Push'd on towards the Receptaculum Chyli.

T T, The Spermatick Vein and Artery on both Sides Involv'd in the Duplicature of the Pe­ritonaeum as they Pass towards the Testes.

Fig. 11.

The Lumbal Glandules with the Receptaculum Chyli and Part of the Thoracick Duct &c. Fill'd with Mercury and Free'd from the Body.

A, b b, The Receptaculum Chyli Compos'd of Three Trunks; One of which A, is very Large Exprest at N, Fig. 10. the other Two are much less, and he immediatly under the Trunk of the Great Artery D, Fig. 10: This Division of the Receptaculum Chyli into Three Trunks has not been taken Notice of, which Makes me Suspect the Descriptions we have hitherto had of it, have been Taken from Quadrupedes; where by Reason of its Horizontal Position, it is likely One Secculus Chyliferus may be Sufficient; but in Men, in whom the Thoracick Duct, and Receptacu­lum Inclines to a Perpendicular Position, it seems to be a necessary Contrivance that it should be Divided into Three Channels (especially before it intirely Passes under the Trunk of the Great Artery) the better to Support the Chyle and Lymphe in their Ascending Progress.

a, The Trunk of a Lympheduct Arising from the Diaphragm.

B, The Ductus Thoracicus above the Diaphragm, where it Passes between the Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna and Bodies of the Vertebrae Thoracis; which Disposition of it is very necessary, to the End the Pulsation of the Artery may continually Press this Duct, and thereby Hasten the Ascent of its Contents.

C, A Trunk of One of the Vasa Lactea Secundi Generis, Exprest Fig. 10. O, by which the Mer­cury was Injected.

c, A Considerable Double Valve, which Hinders a Retrocession of Chyle and Lympha in this Lacteal Vessel.

D, The Surface of the Left Lumbal Gland Plac'd on the Arteria Magna.

d, Another Small Trunk of the Vasa Lactea Secundi Generis, with a Small Gland of the Me­sentery, from whence it Arises.

E, The Lympheducts, which Arise from the Inferior Parts and Empty themselves into the Left Lumbal Gland.

F, The Glandula Lumbalis of the Right Side Plac'd under the Vena Cava.

G H, The Lympheducts of the Inferior Parts, which Empty themselves into the last men­tion'd Gland.

I, A Large Lympheduct, which Discharges in self into the Receptaculum Chyli Majus.

K L, The Communicant Branches of Lympheducts between the Right and Left Lumbal Glandules.

M M, The Thoracick Duct where its Valves, which Hinder the Descent of the Chyle and Lympha, are faintly Exprest.

N N, Divers Divisions and Inosculations of this Duct, whereby the Ascention of the Chyle may be the better Carri'd on.

O, Divers Lympheducts, which Arise from the Lymphatick Glands on the Back-parts of the Lungs, and are the Exporting Lympheducts of those Glands; their Importing Lympheducts Spring from the Lungs themselves and Adjacent Parts.

Fig. 12.

The Thoracick Duct at its Entrance into the Subclavian Vein, with its Lympheducts In­jected with Wax.

A, The Thoracick Duct where it Leaves the Descending Trunk of the Arteria Magna, and Accompanying the Gula as it Passes towards the Left Side of the Bodies of the Upper Vertebrae of the Thorax, in its Way to the Subclavian Vein, where that of the Former Figure is Cut off and Ty'd.

B B, Two Lympheducts, which Sprang from the Thymus.

C, A Division and Inosculation of the Thoracick Duct.

D, A Large Lympheduct, whose Extremities Arise panly from the Thymus and partly from the Right Subclavian Gland.

E, The Left Subclavian Lymphatick Gland. The Subclavian Glands (tho' not Mention'd by any Author I Know of) are Two Large Glands Plac'd under each Clavicle, and seem to be One of those Belonging to the Concatenation of Glands of the Internal Jugular Vein: They Receive their Importing Lympheducts from the Muscles of the Neck and Glands last Men­tion'd on the Jugular Veins, and perhaps from the Thyroid Gland.

F G, The Exporting Lympheducts of the Subclavian Gland, which Empty themselves into the Thoracick Duct.

H, The Large Trunk of the Thoracick Duct near its Entrance into the Subclavian Vein.

I, The External and Superior Part of the Subclavian Vein.

K, Part of the Axillary Vein not Fill'd with Wax from the Thoracick Duct by Reason of the Valves.

L, Parts of the Internal Jugular and Cervical Veins Cut off.

M, The Wax Injected by the Thoracick Duct Cut Transversely, with the Trunk of the Vein as it Passes towards the Heart.

Fig 13.

A Lymphatick Gland with its Importing and Exporting Lympheducts Fill'd with Mercury.

A, The Gland whose Vesiculae are Distended with Mercury.

E, The Importing Lympheduct, by which the Mercury was Injected into the Vesiculae Glandulosae;

D D, Its Ramifications before they Enter the Gland.

C C, The Ramifications of the Exporting Lympheducts, as they Arise out of the Gland and Unite in One Trunk, Call'd

B, The Exporting Lympheduct, which Passes either into the Receptaculum Chyli immediatly, or Thoracick Duct, or else into another Lymphatick Gland.

Besides this Communication of Lympheducts by the Mediation of Lymphatick Glands; the Trunks of the Lympheducts themselves are frequently Inosculated with each other, and tho' they commonly Enter into the next Lymphatick Gland (where they Meet with a Fresh Supply of Lymphe Separated from the Blood-vessels of the Gland, as well as an Impetus from thence) yet it sometimes Happens there is a Communicant Branch from the Importing to the Exporting Lympheduct, as Appears in the Following Figure.

Fig. 14.

A, The Gland Fill'd with Mercury as in the Foregoing Figure.

C, The Importing,

B, The Exporting Lympheduct.

D D, The Communicant Branch.

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THE FIFTH TABLE.

Fig. 15.

DIVERS Parts of the Organ of Hear­ing of a Man.

A, The External Convext Part of the Os Temporale.

B, Part of the Os Sincipitis.

C, The Processus Mastoides Conti­nuous with the Os Temporum.

D, Part of another Process of the Os Temporale, which makes the Os Iugale.

E, The Processus Styloides.

F, Part of the Os Temporum, behind which the Carotide Ar­tery passes towards the Brain.

G G, Part of the Os Sphenoides.

H, An Acute Process of the Os Sphenoides, whence the Muscles of the Gargareon Spring.

I, A Perforation between the Os Sphenoides and Temporum, by which the Ductus à Pala [...]o passes into the Tymparnum.

K, The Sixth Foramen of the Os Sphenoides which is near the Root of the Processus Pterygoides; by which a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves passes out of the Cranium. Vid. Tab. 92. Fig. 2. Y.

a, The Upper-part of the Porus Auditorius or Passage from the External Ear.

b b, The Breaking off of the Bone which Composes the Lower-part of the Meatus or Porus Auditorius.

c, The Musculus Extermus Auris, by some call'd Laxator Externus. This Small Muscle is plac'd under the Glandulous Membrane of the Porus Auditorius, which Separates that Matter call'd the Ear­Wax: In Beginning is Fleshy on the External Margin, at the Up­per-part of the Porus, soon becoming Tendinous, passes to its Broad Tendinous Expansion on the External Surface of the Membrana Tympani. When it Acts, it draws the Membrana Tympani towards a Plan Outwards, together with the Handle or Long Process of the Malleus; by which means the Great Concussion made in the Outward Air, is Hindred from Violating the Membrana Tympani; which at that Time is Relaxt.

d, The Long Process of the Malleus, call'd its Manubriton, lying immediately under the Membrana Tympani, and is Contiguous to it.

e, The Membrana Tympani or Thin Transparent Membrane, commonly call'd the Drum of the Ear.

f, A Sinus in the Os Temporum for the Articulation of the Processus Condyloides of the Lower Jaw.

g, The Conjunction of the Os Sphenoides with the Os Temporum.

h h, The Edges of the last mention'd Bones Saw'd ost.

* The Suture between the Os Temporum and Sincipitis.

Fig. 16.

The Organs of Hearing as they are made to Appear on the Inter­nal Parts of the same Bones, Represented in the foregoing Figure

A A, The Inside of the Lower-part of the Os Sincipitis which lies on the Upper-part of the Os Temporum next the Brain.

a a, The Channels in the Bone which Receive the Blood-Vessels lying on the Dura Mater.

B, Part of the Os Occipitis.

b b b, The Conjunction of the Os Temporum with the Bones of the Sincipus and Occipus, call'd Sutura Squamosa.

C C, The Os Temporum next the Brain.

c, That Part of the Os Temporum or Processus Perrosus of that Bone, which Touches the Anterior Appendix of the Os Occipitis.

D, Part of the Os Sphenoides.

d, That Part of the Os Sphenoides at the Upper-part of the Processus Pterygoides.

E, Part of the Os Iugale.

e, The External Semicircular Duct of the Os Petrosum Open'd; Exprest at k, Fig. 18.

F, The External Surface of the Os Petrosum, to which the Dura Mater firmly Adheres.

f f, The External Lamina of the Os Petrosum cut off with a Chi­zel, to shew the Two Internal Muscles of the Malleus, Part of the Cavity of the Tympanum and the Articulation of the Malleus with the Incus, with the Cavernulae of the Os Petrosum which Com­municate with those of the Processus Mastoides.

G, A Channel on the Os Petrosum, in which the Superior Long and Narrow Sinus of the Dura Mater, passes from the Sella Turcica to the Tortuous Part of the Lateral Sinus.

g, The Perforation in the Processus Petrosus, by which the Ca­rotide Artery passes in a Tortuous Manner towards the Sella Turcica to the Brain.

H.... The Head of the Malleus Articulated with the Basis of the Incus.

I... The Basis of the Incus and its Short Process in Situ.

K... The Musculus Obiiquus or Semicircularis Auris; this Du Ver­ny Describes instead of the Laxator Externus Exprest at c, in the preceding Figure: It is plac'd in a Proper Furrow of the Bone which is above the Bony Part of the Channel, from the Palate to the Ear, whence it Marches Obliquely to its Insertion at a Small Acute Process near the Neck of the Malleus: When it Acts, it draws the Handle of the Malleus Sideways towards the Os Iugale; whereby it assists the External Muscle, in making the Memorana Tympani capable of Resisting any great Impetus made in the Out­ward Air, from Injuring that Membrane.

L... The Musculus Intermos Tympani Auris: The Fleshy Part of this, like the Former, is Inclos'd within a Bony Channel of the Os Petrosum, lying on the Upper Side of the Bony Part of the Duct A Pala [...]o ad Aurem, as here Exprest; when it is Advanc'd to the Up­per Side of the Tympanum, it is Converted into a Small Tendon which passes out of its Bony Channel, not unlike a Rope from a Pully, to the Opposite Part of the Tympanum, and is Fasten'd to the Long Process of the Malieus. This Muscle Arises from that Part of the Os Sphenoides that Touches the Os Petrosum, and Helps to Frame the Aqueduct or Meatus à Pala [...]o ad Aurem. The Strong Membrane which Lines the Bony Channel in which this Muscle is Entertain'd, passes out with its Tendon to the Internal Acute Pro­cess of the Malleus, where the preceding Muscle is Inserted. Placen­tinus seeing the Tendon of the Former Muscle at its Insertion, and not Discovering that Muscle, suppos'd it belong'd to the Muscle last mention'd, which he Describes and Figures with Double Tendi­nous Terminations. When this Internal Muscle of Eustachius Acts, it draws the Long Process of the Malleus towards the Foramen O­vale and Rotundum; whereby the External Surface of the Membrana Tympani becomes Concave, and the Membrane it self much Exten­ded, which is Necessary when Sounds are Low.

M, The Foramen of the Os Sphenoides, by which a Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves, passes out of the Skull.

N, The Foramen of the Processus Petrosus or Os Petrosum, by which the Auditory Nerve passes to the Organ of Hearing.

Fig. 17.

The External Surface of the Os Temporum of the Right Side of a full Grown Foetus.

A A A, Its Superior and Anterior Margin which was Conti­guous to the Os Sincipitis and Sphenoides:

B, Its Posterior Part which Touches the Os Occipitis.

C, A Large Foramen by which the Blood-Vessels Enter the Bone; this Foramen Appears at the Root of the Mammiform Pro­cess of the Adult; which Process do's not Appear in the Foetus.

D, A Process of this Bone in the Foetus at the meeting of the Os Sincipitis, with the Os Occipitis, which is not Conspicuous in the Adult.

E, Part of the Os Iugale cut off.

F, The Sinus in which the Condyloide Process of the Lower Jaw, is Receiv'd.

G, That Part of the Os Temporum, call'd Processus Petrosus; wherein the Three Semicircular Ducts and Cochlea are Excavated.

H... The Long Process of the Incus which is Articulated to the Upper-part of the Stapes, by the Mediation of the Os Orbi­culare.

I.... The Os Orbiculare and Stapes, Articulated to the Extremi­ty of the Long Process of the Incus.

K.... The Long Process of the Malleus which is Connected to the Internal Surface of the Membrana Tympani.

By this mutual Articulation of the Four Little Bones of the Tympanum with each other, and the Connection of the Internal Surface of the Membrana Tympani, to the Long Process of the Mal­leus; whatever Motions are made by the Outward Air which shakes that Membrane, the Malleus is necessarily Mov'd, consequently the Incus and Stapes: Now the Basis of the Stapes exactly Covering the Foramen Ovale, the Air contain'd in the Labyrinth and Cochlea, is thereby necessarily Agitated, and the Effects of the Various Tre­mulous Motions of the Stapes, are Represented to the Expansions of the Auditory Nerves, in the Labyrinth and Cochlea.

L, The Circulus Osseus of the Foetus.

M..., Part of the Cochlea in Situ, Open'd.

N.... The Tendon of the Musculus Stapedis Descending from the Os Petrosum, to its Implantation on the Upper-part of the Sta­pes, whereby it Draws the Stapes Upwards towards the Foramen, and Shuts it.

O, The Stapes.

P, The Ossiculum Quartum or Orbiculare.

Q, The Musculus Stapedis Free'd from its Bony Pipe, Excavated in the Os Perro [...]on, near the Bottom of the Tympanum. The Pipe which contains the Fleshy Part of this Muscle is Less than the Sixth Part of an Inch in Length, and is much Larger than the Foramen, by which its Tendon passes to its Implantation in the Stapes.

R - , - The Basis of the Incus where the Head of the Malleus is Articulated;

S. - - Its Short Process which Rests on the Os Petrosum;

T, - Its Long Process that is Articulated with the Stapes.

V. - The Head of the Malleus which is Articulated with the Incus.

W... That Part of the Long Process of the Malleus, where the Internal Muscle of the Tympanum of Eustachius is Inserted.

X.. The External Acute Process of the Malleus, where it Be­gins to Cleave to the Membrana Tympani;

Y — Its Internal Acute Process, to which the Musculus Obliquus or Externus of Du Verny, is Implanted.

Fig. 18.

The Internal Face of the same Os Temporum next the Brain, Represented in the preceding Figure

A, The Internal Concave and unequal Surface of the Bone next the Dura Mater.

B, Part of the Os Iugale.

C, The Porous Substance of the Bone as it Appears after it's cut away to shew its Cavity, call'd Tympanum.

D, The Posterior Part of the Os Temporum which Touches the Occipital Bone.

E, The Extremity of the Processus Petrosus next the Anterior Ap­pendix of the Os Occipitis.

F... The Lower-part of the Annulus Osseus.

G... Part of the Musculus Obliquus Auris, left at its Insertion.

H.-. The Long Process or Handle of the Malleus.

I... Part of the Incus where it's Articulated with the Malleus.

K... The Os Petrosum cut away into the Cavity of the Tympa­num F, G, H I, K. The Tympanum Open'd: Besides the Membrane of the Tympanum at the Extremity of the Meatus Auditorius; the Ca­vity of the Tympanum is Lin'd with a Thin Transparent Membrane, which (I am apt to think) is also Extended on the Malleus, In­cus, Os Orbiculare, and Stapes, since the Accurate Ruysch has Ob­serv'd divers Blood-Vessels on those Bones.

k, The Superior or External of the Three Semicircular Ducts Free'd from the Adjacent Part of the Os Petrosum, and Open'd.

l, The Middle Semicircular Duct also Clear'd and Open'd.

m.... Part of the Third and most Internal Semicircular Duct also partly Open'd.

n, The Foramen by which the Auditory Nerve Enters the Os Petrosum.

Fig. 19.

The Salival Glandules of the Lower Jaw, together with those under the Tongue, Dissected.

A A, The Two Inferior Maxillary Glands, which are Repre­sented in Situ, Tab. 15. Fig. 1. M M, Compos'd of divers Lobuli, Inclos'd in One Membrane.

B B, The Glandulae Sublinguales Cover'd with their Common Membrane; One of which Glandules is Represented in Situ, in the last mention'd Table, Fig. 2. W.

C C, The Trunks of the Two Arteries which Spring from the Carotides, and Convey Blood into the above mention'd Salival Glands.

D D, Two Branches of Arteries, Arising from the last mention'd Trunks, which pass to the Tongue. Besides the Branches now men­tion'd, each of these Large Trunks sends out another considerable Branch Exprest Tab. 12. Fig. 4. F. which is Employ'd on the Muscles of the Face.

E, The Trunk of the Vein Arising from the Extremitties of the Arteries of those Glands, and those of the Neighbouring Parts.

F, A Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves.

G G, The Salival Ducts of the Inferior Maxillary Glands, as they pass to their Excretory Pores at the Extremity of each Papilla plac'd under the Tongue.

H H, The Two Papillae last mention'd, where the Excretory Ducts of the Sublingual Glands also empty themselves at the same Pores with the Two Salival Ducts. This Protrusion of the Sali­val Ducts which Frame the Papillae, is a necessary Contrivance to Hinder any Particle of the Masticated Aliment from Entring those Ducts, or the Exceted Saliva from Repassing them.

I, The Salival Duct of the Right Side Open'd according to its Length, and Expanded.

K, A Small Stone as it Appear'd lying in the above mention'd Duct: It was of a bright Yellow Colour, not unlike that of Arumpigmentum. In Dissecting these Parts the Lesser End of it happen'd to Break off, as it is here Exprest.

Fig. 20.

The Internal or Back Side of the Larynx, with the Aspera Ar­teria and Part of the Bronchia.

A, The Concare Part of the Epiglottis as it Appears when Pinn'd up.

a a, Divers Small Glands at the Root of the Epiglottis, which are Cover'd with a Loose Membrane which makes the Glottis, and is Continued to that of the Inside of the Mouth, Fauces, and Gula.

B B, The Extremities of the Os Hyoides.

C C, The Ligaments which Fasten them to the Two Superior Long Processes of the Scutiformal Cartilage.

D D, The Internal Concave Part of the Scutiformal Cartilage.

b b, The Two Long and Superior Processes of the Scutifor­mal Cartilage.

c c, The Superior Parts of the Arytenoidal Cartilages which were Cover'd with the Loose Membrane above mention'd, and Compose the Glottis.

d, The Back-part of the Annular Cartilage.

E E, The Musculi Crico [...]rytenoidei Possici which Open the Aryte­noidal Cartilages c c, by Drawing them Backwards.

F, The Musculus Arytenoideus which Draws the Two Arytenoi­dal Cartilages nearer each other, and Streightens the Rimula.

G, The Cartilaginous Part of the Wind-Pipe Forewards.

H H, The Posterior and Membranous Part of the Wind-Pipe next the Gula.

e e, Divers Small Glands which Appear on this Membranous Part of the Wind-Pipe, and Beginning of the Bronchiae. The Ex­cretory Ducts of these Glands, I am perswaded, Discharge them­selves into the Wind-Pipe and Bronchia, and serve to Moisten their Cavities, and Defend them from the Inspired Air, whence A­rises Part of that Moisture which is Rejected in Expiration; a great Part of it Arising also from the Saliva, as the Air passes the Mouth; whence it happens, less Moisture passes with the Expired Air by the Foramina Narium only, than when we Expire thro' the Mouth; and consequently the Ha [...]ms is more or less Wet, as the Mouth is more or less Open'd.

f f, The Beginning of the Bronchia.

The Glands above mention'd are most commonly Affected in Catarths, and most of those Defluctions on the Wind-Pipe which cause frequent Coughing.

Fig. 21.

A Portion of the Wind-Pipe Open'd and Pin'd out to shew its Inside.

A A, Its Cartilages Divided according to the Length of the Wind-Pipe.

B, Its Internal Membrane Compos'd of Longitudinal Fibres, Rais'd: This Draws the Cartilages nearer each other, and Shortens the Wind-Pipe.

C C, The Transverse Order of Fibres lying on the Membra­nous Part of the Wind-Pipe next the Gula: These Pull the Extre­mities of the Little Semicircular Cartilages of the Wind-Pipe near­er each other, whereby they Strenghten its Canalis.

Fig. 22.

The Larynx or Upper-part of the Wind-Pipe after the Scuti­formal Cartilage is taken off, as it Appears Laterally.

A, The Epiglottis;

B, Its Root cut from the Tongue.

C, The Arytenoidal Cartilage.

D, The Back-part of the Cricoidal or Annular Cartilage;

d, Its Fore-part which Appears immediately under the Thyrois.

E, The Musculus Cricoarytenoideus Posticus.

F, The Thyroarytenoideus Free'd from the Scutiformal Cartilage, and left at its Insertion to the Arytenoidal Cartilage Lateraly.

G, The Cricoarytenoideus Lateralis; it Arising from the Cartilage Cricoides, and is Inserted to the Arytenoides. It Assists with its Part­ner in Opening the Glottis or Arytenoidal Cartilages.

H, Parts of the Wind-Pipe.

Fig. 23.

The Larynx together with a Portion of the Wind-Pipe.

A, The Epiglottis, by which the whole Larynx is Suspended, which makes it Appear much longer in this than in the prece­ding Figure.

B, That Part of the Epiglottis cut from the Root of the Tongue.

C C, The Sides of the Scutiformal Cartilage drawn from each other;

a a, Its Superior Long Processes Tied to the Extremities of the Os Hyoides.

b, One of its Two Inferior Short Processes Cleaving to the An­nular Cartilage.

c, One of the Arytenoidal Cartilages (which Compose the Ri­mula of the Larynx,) Cover'd by the Glottis.

d d, The Annular Cartilage.

D, A Portion of the Wind-Pipe.

E, The Membranous Part of the Wind-Pipe which Touches the Gula, as it Descends to the Stomach.

e, The Musculus Cricoarytenoideus Posticus.

f, The Cricoarytenoideus Lateralis.

g, The Thyroarytenoideus Arising from the Internal Concave Part of the Thyroid Cartilage, and is Inserted to the Backpart of the Arytenoidal Cartilage above the Insertion of the Cricoarytenoideus Lateralis: This and its Companion on the other Side Acting to­gether, Draw the Two Arytenoidal Cartilages nearer each other, and Streighten the Rimula: They Act in Deglutition, whereby any Part of the Aliment is effectually Hindred from Descending in­to the Larynx, by the Assistance of the Epiglottis, which at that Time exactly Covers the Rimula. These Muscles are so Strong in some, who by adequately Closing this Passage to the Wind-Pipe, can suffer Liquors pour'd into their Mouths to pass the Gula, without the Action of Deglutition, or the Assistance of the Epi­glottis; as 'tis evident if they hold their Mouths Open and their Tongues Deprest, whilst a Quantity of Liquor Descends from thence into their Stomachs.

The Use of the Epiglottis is to Cover the Glottis in Deglutition, so that the Aliment may Descend over it into the Gula and Sto­mach. Nor has the Epiglottis any Muscles to Depress it in that Action; but when the Tongue is Elevated, the Epiglot is necessa­rily Deprest: Hence it is, when the Tongue is very much Intu­misied (as it is frequently in those who are in great Salivations) the free Action of Deglutition is Hindred, and the Patient is ne­cessitated to Swallow even Fluids very leasurely, and not without Difficulty, especially if the Tongue is so Distended, that it cannot be Contain'd within the Teeth.

Fig. 24

The Upper-part of the Tongue as it Appears when taken out with its Proper Muscles.

A, The Tip of the Tongue.

B, Its Root Free'd from the Epiglottis and Os Hyoides.

a a, The Vilous Nervous Bodies of the Tongue, which stand Obliquely from the Apex or Tip of the Tongue towards its Root.

b b, The Glands plac'd at the Root of the Tongue, whose Ex­cretory Pores may be seen to Open in their Middle, whence a Sali­val Humour is emitted, nor unlike the Glands of the Fauces and Foramina Narium, and those plac'd in the Cheeks and Lips.

C C, The Musculi Ceratoglosii Exprest in Situ, Tab. 14. Fig. 1. D D, on one Side.

D D, The Styloglossi in like Manner Exprest, Tab. ibid. Fig. ibid. C.

Fig. 25.

The Vesiculae Seminales with Part of the Vas Deferens, and their common Duct which passes thro' the Prostatae into the Urethrae, Open'd.

A A, Part of the External Surface of the Vesiculae Seminales, where the Ramifications of Blood-Vessels are Conipicuous to the Naked Eye.

B, C, The Larger Cells of the Vesiculae Seminales and Vas Deferens.

D, The Vas Deferens Open'd.

b, c c, The Lesser Cells of the Vas Deferens and Vesiculae Semi­nales within the Larger.

E, The Place where the Vas Deferens and Vesiculae Seminales Communicate with each other.

F, The common Duct of the Vesiculae Seminales and Vas De­ferens which passes thro' the Glandulae Prostatae, and Discharges the Semen into the Ure [...]ra.

THE SIXTH TABLE.

Fig. 26.

REPRESENTS the Internal Surface of the Basis of the Cranium, with the Inferior Part of the Dura Mater re­maining on it, done immediately af­ter the Brain was taken out; the Blood-Vessels being first Injected with Wax.

A A, The Edges of the Skull, as they Appear when its Upper-part is Saw'd off.

B B, Part of the Dura Mater lying on the Basis of the Skull.

C C, The Two Lateral Sinus's fill'd with Wax in their Declive and Tortuous Progress, to their Egress at the Basis of the Skull.

d d, The Two Superior Long Sinus's which Communicate be­tween the Circular Sinus 22, and Lateral Sinus's.

e e, Two Inferior short Sinus's, which also Discharge themselves into the Two Lateral Ones at their Egress.

f, The Os Cristae Gaelli or Middle Process of the Os Ethmoides or Cribrosum, by which the Olfactory Nerves pass to the Foramina Narium.

g g, Divers Blood-Vessels of the Dura Mater, not Injected with Wax, by reason of their Smallness.

h h, The First Arteries of the Dura Mater not fill'd with Wax.

i i, The Second Branches of the Arteries of the Dura Mater: These Arise from the Carotides before they Enter the Skull, and pass thro' a small Foramen Reckon'd a Fifth of the Os Sphenoides, at the Root of an Acute Process of that Bone, whence the Mus­cles of the Gargarton Spring: After these Arteries Enter the Skull, their Larger Branches lie on the Exterior Surface of the Dura Ma­ter, as Exprest Tab. 6. Fig. 1, 2, and 4, which are Entertain'd in Furrows on the Internal Surface of the Cranium, Exprest Tab. 91. Fig. 2. F F: As the Branches of these Arteries become still more and more Divided, and less on the Upper-part of the Dura Mater, so their Channels on the Top of the Skull scarce Appear; nor do any of them Enter the Longitudinal Sinus, as Dr. Ridley has well Observ'd. Besides those Branches of these Arteries which carry Blood to the Dura Mater, there are others also which convey Blood to the Meditulliton of the Skull A A, and do Inosculate with the Arteries of the Hairy-Scalp. The Branches of these Ar­teries on the Dura Mater, are Accompanied with Veins, which do not pass out of the Cranison at the same Perforation where the Arteries Enter'd, but leave them where the Inferior and Foremost Angle of the Bregma Touches the Os Sphenoides and Temporum In­ternally, and afterwards pass between the Two Internal Long Processes of the Os Sphenoides and Os Frontis, and March out at the Second Perforation of the Os Sphenoides or Large Rima, Tab. 89. Fig. 2. C D, I. Nor do the Larger Branches of these Blood-Vessels always continue their whole Progress between the Skull and Dura Mater, but Parts of them March in Bony Inclosures of the Skull, especially at the Inferior Angle of the Bregma above mention'd, and afterwards pass our again in their Usual Manner: Nor are the Perforations in the Os Sphenoides always Regular where these Arteries of the Dura Mater Enter: They sometimes Marching thro' the Sixth Perforations of the Sphenoides, where the Branches of the Far Quintum Nervorum pass out; at other times their Perforations are at the Conjunctions of the Os Sphenoi­des with the Ossa Petrosa, between the Acute Processes of the First nam'd Bone, and Perforations of the Latter where the Carotide Arteries Enter the Skull.

k, The Third Branch of the Arteries of the Dura Mater Enter the Cranium, where the Eighth Pair of Nerves pass out: I don't remember I ever saw any Branches of Veins Accompany these Ar­teries.

Besides these Arteries of the Dura Mater, I don't doubt but on a diligent Search, many more may be found; and in some Sub­jects some of these may be wanting, especially those in whom divers Branches pass the Upper-part of the Skull near the Longi­tudinal Suture; of which, we commonly find Two Remarkable Ones towards the Occiput, as has been taken Notice of, Tab. 90. Fig. 2.

L, The Great Foramen of the Os Occipitis, by which the Me­dulla Oblongata passes to the Specus in the Vertebrae.

m m, Some Veins of the Dura Mater which Communicate with the Inferior Short Sinus's.

n, Part of the Os Iugale.

o o, The Os Ethmoides or Cribriforme, by which the Olfactory Nerves pass out of the Cranium.

P P, The Optick Nerves cut off at their Egress.

q q, The Great Branches of the Carotide Arteries cut off at their Entrance into the Cavity of the Skull.

r, One of the Nerves of the Third Pair on the Left Side, made hare from the Duplicatute of the Dura Mater, in which it passes before it Marches out of the Skull with the following Pair.

s s, The Fourth Pair of Nerves Free'd from the Duplicature last mention'd, and Turn' up at their passing the Second Perfora­tion of the Os Sphenoides or Large Rima, Exprest Tab. 89. Fig. 2. between C, D, I.

t t, The Fifth Pair of Nerves on the Right Side Expanded, be­fore it is Divided into Three Branches, on the contrary Side its Trunk is Whole. Vid. Fig. 27.

V, The Upper and Foremost Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves on the Left Side, before it passes out of the Skull at the Second Perforation of the Os Sphenoides, with the Third, Fourth, and Sixth Pair of Nerves.

w, The Nerve of the Sixth Pair on the Left Side Free'd from the Duplicature of the Dura Mater; in which it is Inclos'd at a considerable Distance before it Accompanies the Third, Fourth, and Foremost Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves at its Egress.

x, The Intercostal Nerve of the Left Side, Compos'd of Two Branches from the Fifth Nerve, and joining with the Body of the Sixth in this Subject, whether this Disposition is Constant, I must confess my late Enquiries have not afforded me an Oppor­tunity of Observing.

y, The Two Branches of the Fifth Pair of Nerves which Help to Compose the Intercostal Nerve.

z z, The Contortion of the Carotide Artery Collateral to the Sella Turcica.

1, 1, The Glandula Pituitaria lying in the Sella Turcica.

2, 2, The Circular Sinus or Vein Environing the Pituitary Gland, and was First taken Notice of by Dr. Ridley.

3, The Infundibulum in whose Inside, I conceive, the Trunks of Exporting Lympheducts pass from the Pinial Gland; besides which, the Inmost Cavity of the Infundibulum it self Transmits the Aqueous Humour of the Ventricles of the Brain into the Pi­tuitary Gland, where it joins with the Lymphs above mention'd.

4, 4, Two Arteries taken Notice of by Vieustens, which pass out of the Cranium to the Glandulous Membranes of the Foramina Narium and Neighbouring [...].

5, 5, The Bended Parts of the Lateral Sinus's as they pass that Part of the Cranium, where the Os Temporum, Sincipitis, and Occi­pitis meet.

6, Part of the Dura Mater Rais'd and Reclin'd Laterally, to shew the Progress of the Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Pair of Nerves.

7, 7, The Hard and Soft Trunks of the Auditory Nerves En­tring the Os Petrosum.

8, 8, The Eighth Pair of Nerves or Par Vagum, together with the Accessory Nerves (**) Accompanying them at their Egress.

**, The Accessory Nerves.

9, 9, The Ninth Pair of Nerves.

Fig. 27.

The Trunk and Three Branches at One of the Nerves of the Fifth Pair within the Cranium.

A, The Trunk,

B, Its Gangleon,

C, Its Foremost Branch Exprest at V, in the preceding Figure, passing out of the Skull at the Second Perforation of the Os Sphe­noides;

D, Its Middle Branch somewhat less than the other Two, which passes out at a Distinct Foramen of the Os Sphenoides, Collateral to the Sella Turcica, and is Reckon'd the Third Foramen of that Bone, Exprest Tab. 89. Fig. 2.

E, The Third Branch of this Nerve, which passes the Sixth Perforation of the Sphenoides.

Fig. 28.

The Basis of the Brain with the Large Trunks of its Blood-Vessels of both Kinds Injected with Wax, some of their Rami­fications being clear'd of the Pia Mater, together with the Ten Pair of Nerves of the Brain, and a Portion of the Medulla Spi­nalis, &c.

A A, The Foremost,

B B, The Hindmost Lobes of the Brain.

C C, The Cerebellion which in this Subject was very Large.

D D, The Two Lateral Sinus's cut off after their Declive and Tortuous Progress, Exprest in the First of the Two precedent Fi­gures C C, 5, 5.

E E, The Trunks of the Vertebral Arteries as they pass the Transverse Processes of the First Vertebra of the Neck, in their Tor­tuous Progress thro' the Great Foramen of the Os Occipitis, to the Medulla Oblongata and Brain. Vid. Append. Fig. 8. K K.

F, The Vertebral Sinus or Large Vein, in whose External Mem­brane the Wax is Extravast, which makes it Appear with an Un­equal Surface, as here Exprest.

G G G G G, A Continuation of the Dura Mater Divided ac­cording to its Length; One Side lying on the Medulla Spinalis, the other being Rais'd and Pinn'd out.

a, A Foramen to whose Margin the Upper Broad Part of the In­fundibulum is Fasten'd, and Opens into it, insomuch that if you take out the Brain with the Infundibulum remaining to it, and Insert a Blow-Pipe into the Fourth Ventricle, you may thereby not only Distend that and the Two Lateral Ventricles with Wind, but you will also see the Infundibulum Rise and be Di­stended also.

b b, Two White Protuberances behind the Infundibulum.

C C, Two Large Branches of the Carotide Arteries cut off, be­fore they pass between the Foremost and Hinder Lobes of the Brain.

d d, Two Communicant Branches between the Carotide and Cervical Arteries, by which the Latter chiefly became fill'd with Wax, it being Injected into One of the Trunks of the Carotide Arteries only of One Side: Hence we may be Inform'd, not only of the Inosculations of the Large Branches of the Carotide Artery of the Right Side with those of the Left, but of their Communications also with the Vertebral Arteries, as they pass the Transverse Processes of the Vertebrae; the Wax in such an In­jection pouring out by the Vertebrals; as I have had occasion more than once to Observe by Injecting these Arteries as above mention'd, after the Head together with the Vertebrae of the Neck have been taken from the Body.

e e e e, Two Large Branches of the Cervical Artery sometimes seeming as tho' they came from the Communicant Branches; from the Foremost of these chiefly Spring the Arteries of the Plex­ut Choroeides; from the Two Hindmost Arise those Branches which go to the Chorocid Plexus of the Fourth Ventricle of the Brain.

f, Two Little Branches of the Carotides.

h h, The Two Trunks of the Vertebral Arteries which Com­pose the Cervical.

g, The Cervical Artery.

i i, The Spinal Artery whick by reason of the Retrograde Mo­tion of the Wax, or some Coagulated Blood in it near the Ver­tebral Artery, was not fill'd with Wax as the rest.

k, A Small Branch of an Artery Running between the Fasci­culae of the Nerve of the Ninth Pair, on the Right Side near their Originals.

l l, Parts of the Cr [...]ra Medullae Oblongata, immediately before they meet at their Conjunction under the Pons Varolii.

m m, The Annular Protuberance or Pons Varolii.

n, That Part of the Caudex Medullaris or Medulla Oblongata on the Right Side, call'd by Willis and Vicussen [...]us, Corpora Pyrami­dalia,

o, That Part on the same Side, call'd Corpus Os [...].

p, A Branch of the Carotide Arteries which Divide the Two Anterior Lobes of the Brain from each other; from whence Spring some Small Branches which Accompany the Olfactory Nerves at their Egress by the Os Cribriforme, Fig. 26. 4, 4.

q q, Little Branches from the Cervical Arteries which Run under the Pia Mater that Covers this Part, and sometimes pass further to the Plexus Chorotides in the Fourth Ventricle, and Cere­bellum.

r r r r, Other Branches passing into the Annular Protube­rance.

s s, The Two First Medullary Processes of the Cerebellum which are continued to the Protuberancia Annularis, and seem to Com­pose Part of it: The Two Second Processes of the Cerebel are Exprest Tab. 10 Fig. 1. S S.

t t, The Veins on the Cerebellum which pass according to its Sulci or External Furrows which Vary very much in their Progress from those of the Brain it self.

v v v, Other Veins Variously Distributed on the Cerebel which Empty themselves into the Lateral Sinus's.

w w, The Sulci of the Brain, in which large Branches of Veins and sometimes Arteries may be seen.

x x x, Their Capillary Branches as they Appear under the Pia Mater on the External Corrical Surface of the Brain.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. The Ten Pair of Nerves of the Brain, with Seven of those of the Spinal Marrow.

1, 1, The First Pair of Nerves of the Brain, call'd Par Olfae­ctorium, they are much Larger in Brutes, and are Hollow; which Hollownesses Communicate with the Ventricles of their Brains, but do not Appear so in Humane Bodies. They are call'd Processus Mammillares, from their Appearance in Quadru­pedes. By the utmost Scrutiny that Exact Anatomizer of these Parts, Dr. Ridley and my Self could make, we never Disco­ver'd but One Original to each of these Nerves; which is from the Under and Foremost Part of the Crura Medulla Oblon­gata, whence they pass in an Oblique Manner for some Space be­tween the Fore and Hindmost Lobes of the Brain, and March out from thence as Appears in the Figure: As they pass thro' the Os Ethmoides (o o, Fig. 26.) these Medullary Bodies are Con­verted into as many Nervous Fasciculi, as there are Perforations in that Bone, which are afterwards Expanded on the Glandu­lous Membrane that Invests the Foramina Narium.

2, 2, The Second Pair of Nerves, call'd Optici, or Seeing Nerves: These Arise from the Two Large Medullary Protube­rances of the Brain, call'd Thalami Nervorum Opticorum, Exprest in the following Table, c c, Fig. 30. and passing over the Crura Medullae Oblongatae, March to their Conjunction here Ex­prest Ψ; after parting from each other again, they soon pass the First Foramina of the Os Sphenoides P P, App. Fig. 26. where the Great Branches of the Carotide Arteries lie Contiguous to them; whence it happens in any great Plethora (as after plen­tiful Drinking or the like) these Arteries by reason of their Tur­gescence, so Press on the Optick Nerves, as to Distort the Course of their Fibres, and make Objects seem Disorder'd. Some Branches of the Blood-Vessels are Visible to the Naked Eye at they pass thro' the Bodies of those Nerves, and are Conspi­cuous also on their Expansions within the Bulb of the Eyes, which Compose the Tunica Retinae.

3, 3, The Third Pair of Nerves passing out between the Two Branches of the Cervical Artery e e e e; these Arise from the Up­per and Fore-part of the Annular Process, where the Crura Me­dullae Oblongatae meet: Nor do the Beginnings of these Nerves Appear till the Blood-Vessels above mention'd and Pia Mater are remov'd: They Enter the Duplicature of the Dura Mater on each Side the Pituitary Gland, as Exprest Tab. 9. Fig. 3. H H, and pass out of the Skull with the following Nerves, to the Muscles of the Eyes, wherefore these are call'd Par Oculorum M [...]terium.

5, 4, The Fourth Pair of Nerves of the Brain as they Appear after their Progress between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum: They Arise Remote from their Appearance in this Figure, even at the Back-Side of the Medulla Oblongata, Tab. 10. Fig. 1. v v. In ta­king out the Brain you'll find them under the Fore-part of the Second Process of the Dura Mater near the Sella Turcica: They March into the Duplicature of the Dura Mater immediately un­der the Former, and pass the Second Foramen of the Os Sphenoi­des with them into the Orbita Oculi: They are call'd Par Patheti­ciam, either because some Branches of them pass to the Oblique Mindes of the Eye, or that considerable Branches (if not their Whole Trunks) pass the Trochleae Cartilages of the Eyes.

5, 5, The Fifth Pair are very Large in their Originals, at the Upper and Lateral Part of the Processus Annularis, near the Pe­dunculus or Second Process of the Cerebellum. In taking out the Brain from the Basis of the Skull, you'll find these Nerves im­mediately under the Pathetick: Nor can you well see them to cut them off (in this Operation) unless you First Divide the Second Process of the Dura Mater, where it's Fasten'd to the Extremity of the Inner Process of the Os Petrosum: After they pass over the Extremity of the last mention'd Process they Frame Gangleons, and each is Divided into Three Branches Repre­presented in the preceding Figure.

6, 6. The Sixth Pair of Nerves are about the Bigness of the Third, and Arise from the Hinder-part of the Annular Process, not far from the Basis of the Corpora Pyramidalia; as they pass on the Annular Protuberance, some Branches of the Cervical Artery run over them: They Enter the Duplicature of the Dura Mater below the Former. Vid. Tab. 9. Fig. 3. N N, and pass over the Extremity of the Internal Process of the Petrosum with the Former, as is Represented Fig. 26. w.

7, 7, The Seventh Pair are the the Auditory or Hearing Nerves, each of which are Compos'd of Two Nerves; the One being Hard, the other Soft, which have Distinct Originals: The For­mer or Hard Trunk Springing from the Medulla Oblongata; the Latter or Softer Arising very Remote from it, being continu'd from divers Bright Medullary Fibres that Appear in the Fourth Ventricle of the Brain, whence they Creep on the Sides of the Caudex Medullaris, till they meet with the Harder Trunk, which they Accompany to the Ossa Petrosa, Fig. 26. 7, 7. The Soft Nerves being Expanded within the Labyrinths and Cochleas of the Organs of Hearing; whilst the Hard Trunks pass thro' the Bone, and Expand themselves in a Larger Field, as the Accu­rate Vieussens Represents them.

8, 8, The Eighth Pair of Nerves or Par Vagum; each of those have Ten or Twelve Nervous Fibrillae Springing from the Me­dulla Oblongata, immediately below the Annular Process m, m, and under the Corpora Olivaria o o, or between them and the Third or Cordal Processes of the Cerebellum, Tab. 10. Fig. 1. W W, whence they March Accompanied with divers Small Blood-Ves­sels of both Kinds, to their Egress with the Lateral Sinus's 8, 8, Fig. 26. where they meet with the Spinal Accessory Nerves * * which go out with them, and are Distributed as Vicussens has Exprest them.

9, 9, The Ninth Pair of Nerves, whose Various Originals of the Right Side differ from those of the Left: They continue to derive their Beginnings at Various Distances from the Upper-parts of the Corpora Olivarea, to Half an Inch in Length on the Caudex Medullaria; some of the Fibres of that on the Left Side, passing over the Vertebral Artery of the same Side, when those of the contrary Side pass from under it: After passing a short Space, these Nervous Fibres Collectively pass the Third Perfo­ration of the Os Occipitis. Vid. Fig. 26. 9, 9. Tab. 9. Fig. 3. R R. Tab. 90. Fig. 3. E.

k, A Small Branch of the Vertebral Artery which I have seen Injected with Wax, and pass out with One of these Nerves.

* * The Spinal Accessory Nerves as they Ascend from under the Vertebral Arteries to the Par Vagum: They Arise much Lower from the Medulla Spinalis than Vieussens describes them, even from the Formost and Hindmost Beginnings of the Seventh Pair of Nerves of the Neck (16) and in their Collateral Ascent to the Spinal Marrow, they still receive New Roots from all the Ner­vous Origins they pass by, except those of the Ninth Pair of the Brain.

10, The Tenth Pair of Nerves of the Brain on One Side, or more properly the First of the Neck, which pass out between the First Vertebra of the Neck and the Os Occipitis.

11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, The rest of the Nerves of the Neck, which pass out between the Vertebrae successively.

Fig. 29.

A A, Part of the Cerebellum;

a a, Its Second Processes which Help to Compose the Annular Protuberance.

B B, The Crura Medullae Oblongatae cut off from the Brain.

C C, The Annular Process Divided thro' its Middle, its Ex­ternal Surface (m m, in the preceding Figure) being cut off with a Razor, or large sharp Knife.

b b, The Cineritious and Medullary Striae which Appear in this Section of the Annular Protuberance.

c, The Middle Medullary Tract to which the Lateral Striae run.

d d, The Cineritious Part of the Medulla Oblongata under the Corpora Pyramidalia: In this Section the Corpora Olivaria are Di­vided.

e, The Left Chordal Process partly in Situ.

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THE SEVENTH TABLE.

Fig. 30.

THE Brain lying on its Basis after its Two Hemispheres are cut off, and the Blood-Vessels Injected with Wax; the Cerebellum remaining intire.

A A, The Inferior Part of the Fornix as it Appears when cut from its Roots b, b. and turn'd Back, with Part of the Corpus Callosum remaining on it.

a a, The Blood-Vessels that Appear on this Inferior Sur­face of the Fornix.

b b, The Roots of the Fornix.

c c, The Thalami Nervorum Opticorum or Beginnings of the Optick Nerves.

δ δ, The Corpora Striata; that of the Left Side remaining Whole; the Right being Divided to shew its Striae.

d d, The Crura Fornicis where they begin to Wind down on the Sides of the Crura Medullae Oblongatae: These Crura of the Fornix are call'd Hyppocampi or Bombycini.

e e, The Plexus Choroides whose Arteries Arise from the First Branches of the Cervical Artery e e, Appen. Fig. 28.

f, The Meeting of the Plexus at the Root of the Fornix, where its Two Veins pass to its other Part g g.

g g, The other Part of the Plexus Choroeides, whose Arteries Spring from the Second Branches of the Cervical Artery, join'd with the First by Communicant Branches; which do not Appear here, by reason they lie under the Crura Forni­cis d d.

h h, Two Veins which Arise from the Upper-parts of the Plexus Choroeides, and pass the Third Ventricle to the other Part of the same Plexus g g, near the Nates and Testes.

i i i i i i, The Branches of the Carotide Arteries cut off, as they Appear Injected with Wax, and passing between the Cortical Foldings of the Brain.

k, A Branch of a Vein which passes according to the Length of the Corpus Striatum of the Left Side, and Dis­charges its Blood into the Veins of the Plexus Choroeides; that of the Right Side being taken away to shew the Striae.

l, Part of the Rima of the Third Ventricle that do's some­what Appear under the Vein, h.

m, A long Medullary Tract between the Corpus Striatum and Thalamus Nervi Optici, call'd by Dr. Willis, Processus Me­dullaris Transversus.

n n n n, The Centrum Ovale of Vieussens.

o, That Part of the Corpus Callosum by Vieussens, call'd For­nix Vera, between which, and the Fornix p, is plac'd the Sep­tum Lucidum, Dividing the Fore-part of the Right Ventricle of the Brain from the Left. This Septum by some call'd Spe­culum, is a Continuation of the Inward Membrane which In­vests the Two Superior Ventricles, meeting in their Upper­parts not unlike the Pleura on the Sternum, where it Composes the Mediastinum, and Divides the Cavity of the Thorax. In the Upper-part of this Septum I have more than once seen its Duplicature fill'd with a Watrish Humour in Hydropick Brains, as Vieussens also takes Notice.

O, The Fourth Sinus of the Dura Mater fill'd with Wax.

P, The Longitudinal Sinus cut off, where it meets the Fourth and Two Lateral Sinus's, call'd Torcular Herophili.

Q Q, The Two Lateral Sinus's also Extended with Wax.

R, A Vein fill'd with Wax on the Second Process of the Dura Mater.

r, Some Branches of Veins as they Appear on the Second Process of the Dura Mater.

p, The Fornix cut off near its Two Roots.

q q, Some Lymphe-ducts on the Plexus Choroeides which Ac­company the Vein h h h, in their Way to the Glandula Pinia­lis not seen in this Figure; that Gland being plac'd under the Fornix A, a, with the Nates and Testes, as is Exprest Tab. 10. Fig. 1. Q, O, O, P, P.

These Lymphe-ducts perhaps were seen by that Accurate Anatomist. Mons. Beddevold, in Examining an Ox's Brain; of which he Communicated an Account to the Accurate Nuck as Mons. Beddevold himself told me, and Appears in an E­pistle at the End of Nuck's Adenographia Curiosa. Vidi, says he, Lymphaticum in Cerebro Bivino, quod examine tuo (ut Originem scias & Insertionem) erit Dignissimum. Non longe à Glandula Pi­neali, à qua Ramos forte habet, incumbit Plexui Choroidaeo ad In­fundibuli latera sese extendens.

S S S S, The Cerebellum Cover'd with the Second Process of the Dura Mater in its Upper-part, and the Dura Mater it self on the Hinder-part.

f f, Some Branches of Veins which Appear fill'd with Blood on the Dura Mater, Covering the Back-part of the Cerebel­lum; which vary in their Course from those Subjacent Vessels on the Pia Mater, which are immediately Distributed on the Cerebellum it self, and faintly Appear in those Stroaks running somewhat Parallel with the Lateral Sinus's.

T T, Parts of the Vertebral Arteries.

V V, The Vertebral Sinus's on which the Wax Appears Extravast, as in Fig. 28. F.

W, The Back-part of the Medulla Oblongata Cover'd with the Dura Mater.

x x, A Probe Supporting the large Veins of the Plexus Cho­roides in the Third Ventricle of the Brain.

† † † The Medullary;

* * * The Cineritious Part of the Brain.

Fig. 31.

The Back-part of the Cerebellum cut thro' its Hinder-part and Reclin'd Laterally; together with a Portion of the Me­dulla Spinalis.

A A A, The Cerebellum Cover'd with the Pia Mater only, where its Circular Sulci in which its Large Blood-Vessels pass, are Exprest, together with divers Arborious Ramifications of Blood-Vessels, which Decussate those of its Sulci as they March under the Pia Mater.

B B, The Branching of the Medullary Part of the Cerebel­lum, as it Appears when Divided.

a, The Vermicular Process on the Back-part of the Cerebellum.

C C, The Two Pathetick Nerves near their Origin.

c c, The Nates;

d d, The Testes, in whose Surfaces the Blood-Vessels Ap­pear Distributed under the Pia Mater.

f, The Glaudula Pinialis which we take to be a Lymphatick Gland, Receiving Lympha from the Lymphe-ducts of the Plexus Choroeides, and Discharges it into Exporting Lymphe-ducts which pass the Third Ventricle of the Brain, to the In­fundibulum and Glandula Pituitaria; the Manner we Conceive these Lymphe-ducts pass the Infundibulum, is on its Internal Surface, and so pierce the Pituitary Gland; it being unusual in the Practice of Nature for Lymphe-ducts before they Ar­rive at the Receptaculum Chyl [...] to Discharge their Contents in large Cisterns, to be again transmitted by narrow Conduits to the Thoracick-duct, as it must do, if as some Conceive, the Infundibulum it self is a meer Lymphe-duct, which in some measure I am apt to think with Dr. Ridley it do's; as I have already intimated, Append. Fig. 26.3.

g g, The First Process's of the Cerebellum which pass towards the Nates.

e, The Transverse Process which Unite the Two First Pro­cesses of the Cerebellum, whence the Pathetick Nerves take their Rise.

h h, The Third, or Cordal Process's Arising from the Cere­bellum, and Descend on both Sides the Medulla Oblongata.

i i, Some Bright Striae which Appear in the Fourth Ven­tricle of the Brain, and Help to Compose the Medullary Trunks of the Auditory Nerves; these sometimes have Va­rious Originals from the Upper-part of the Fourth Ventricle; at other Times some of these Striae Arise Lower than here Exprest.

k k, l l, n, The Fourth Ventricle Open'd and Expanded.

o, The Beginning of the Medulla Spinalis.

p p, The Accessary Nerves.

q q, Those Parts of the Tenth Pair of Nerves which Arise from the Back-part of the Medulla Spinalis.

m m, Parts of the Eighth Pair of Nerves where they meet the Accessary Nerves.

Fig. 32.

The Lower Jaw with some of the Muscles of the Under Lip remaining to it.

A, The External Left Side of the Bone made bare.

B, The Processus Condyliformis.

C, The Processus Corone.

D, An Acute Process, on the Internal Part of the Lower Jaw beyond the Dentes Mollares, under which the Trunks of Nerves and Blood-Vessels pass into the Meditullium of the Bone, and give Branches to each Tooth.

d, Some Branches of the same Nerves and Blood-Vessels Marching out of the Bone again to the Muscles, Glands, and Membranes of the Lower Lip.

E, The Inside of the Lower Lip Co [...]er'd with its Proper Membrane.

F F, The Inner Face of the Musculus Depressor Labii Infe­rioris Proprius. Vid. Tab. 12. Fig. 5. H.

G G, Some of the Small Salival Glandules which Appear immediately under the Membrane E.

H H, These Muscles I could never find Describ'd by any Author, tho' they are constant in Nature, or at least in all those Bodies I have ever look'd for them. I call them Eleva­tores Labii Inferioris Proprii from their Office. They Spring Fleshy from the Fore-part of the Lower Jaw, immediately under the Gengivae of the Dentes Incisores, and Descend to their Insertions in the Skin, which Composes the Chin: When they Act, they Draw up the Skin on the Chin, and make it Appear Variously Indented,

THE EIGHTH TABLE.

Fig. 33.

THE Muscles of the Face as they Appear after the Skin, Fat, Membranes, and Musculi Quadrati Genarum are taken off.

A A, The Musculi Frontales.

B, The Orbiculares Palpebrarum.

C, The Musculus Dilatator Aloe Nasi.

D, The Elevator Labiorum Communis.

E E, The Elevator Labii Superioris Pro­prius.

F F, The Sphincter Labiorum.

G G, The Zygomatici seu Distortores Oris.

H H, The Depressor Labiorum Communis.

I, The Depressor Labii Inferioris Proprius.

K, The Buccinator.

L, The Temporalis.

M, The Elevator Auriculae.

N, The Masseter.

a, Part of the Os Iugale.

b, The Cartilage of the Auricula free'd from the Skin.

c c, The Parotide Gland.

d, The Ductus Salivalis Superior of the Parotide Gland, as it Descends over the Masseter thro' the Buccinator into the Mouth.

e e, A Branch of the Carotide Artery which passes thro' the Inferior Maxillary Gland.

f, Part of the Lower Jaw Bone made Bare.

g, Part of the Inferior Maxillary Gland.

O, Part of the Musculus Biventer in Situ.

P, The Mastoideus.

Q, Part of the Cucularis.

R, Part of the Elevator Scapulae.

S S, Parts of the Musculi Sternohyoidei.

T T, Parts of the Coracohyoidei.

Fig. 34.

The Left Eye with its Muscles free'd from the Orbit and Dry'd.

A. The Bulb of the Eye Fill'd with Wax.

a a, The Optick Nerve in like manner Distended with Wax.

B, A Portion of the Superior and External Margin of the Bone of the Orbit next the Nose.

b..., A small Cartilage call'd the Trochlea, in which the Long Tendon of the Superior Oblique Muscle (D) passes to its Insertion.

C, A Portion of the Inferior and External Margin of the Orbit, where the Musculus Obliquus Inferior (I) takes its Origin.

D, The Obliquus Superior as it Arises from the Inferior Part of the Orbit, and passes thro' the Trochlea b... to its Insertion on the Back-part of the Bulb of the Eye. This Contortion of the Tendon of this Muscle renders it capa­ble of drawing the whole Bulb of the Eye Outwards, and turning its Papilla Downwards.

E, The Musculus Atollens.

F, The Abducens.

G, The Deprimens.

H, The Adducens.

I, The Obliquus Inferior, whose Origin from the External Margin of the Inferior Part of the Orbit, renders it capable of performing the same Action in Opposition to the Tro­chlearis or Obliquus Superior, i. e. of drawing the Posterior and Lateral Part of the Bulb of the Eye towards its Origin, whereby the whole Eye is drawn Outwards, and its Pupilla turn'd Upwards; else the Projection of the Eyebrows would hinder our looking Upwards, unless the Head at the same Time was drawn very much Back.

Besides these Proper Offices of the Two Oblique Muscles of the Eyes, they have conjunctly a very usefull common Office in holding the Bulb of the Eye as it were on an Axis, they prevent its being drawn Inwards, when any of the Streight Muscles Act; by which means, each performs its proper Of­fice in turning the Eye either Upwards, Downwards or Side­ways; which is no Inconsiderable Artifice in Nature.

Fig. 35.

Represents the Inferior Part of the Skull with its Basis uppermost; the Left Side of the Lower Jaw together with the First Vertebra of the Neck and its Muscles Arising from it, remaining to the Occiput.

A, The Left Side of the Lower Jaw.

B, The Musculus Pterygoideus Internus, in Situ.

C, The Foramen of the Fourth Bone of the Upper Jaw, by which a Large Branch of the Fifth Pair of Nerves passes to the Muscles of the Face, and a Branch of the Carotide Ar­tery to the Inner Cavities of these Bones, as you see them Exprest in the preceding Figure.

D, The Musculus Depressor Labii Superioris Proprius & Con­strictor Aloe Nasi, here cut from its Insertion to the Upper Lip, and left at its Origin from the Gums of the Upper Jaw.

d, Part of the Elevator Labii Inferoris Proprius left to its Origin from the Lower Jaw.

e, That Part of the Inferior Margin of the Orbit, where the Inferior Oblique Muscle of the Eye Springs, Exprest in the preceding Figure at C.

E, The Os Iugale.

f f, The Styloidal Process's of which that of the Right Side is broken off, which frequently happens by means of the Rope after the Common Execution of Malefactors.

G G, The Mammiform Process's.

H, The First Vertebra of the Neck remaining on the Oc­ciput.

g g, Two Process's of the First Vertebra of the Neck, which are Articulated with the like Process's of the Second.

h, The Extremity of the Transverse Process of the First Vertebra.

i, The Musculus Annuens or Rectus Minor Anticus, Exprest somewhat Foreshorten'd in Appen. Fig. 8.

k, The Rectus Lateralis or Abnuens Lateralis.

l, The Obliquus Superior Capitis.

m, The Musculus Rectus Minor Posticus.

I, The Auricula or Outward Ear.

n, The Lobe of the Ear cut off.

o, That Part of the Superior Orbit where the Trochlea is Fasten'd.

K K. The Os Occipitis.

L, The Os Squamosum.

M, The Os Frontis.

N, Part of the Os Sphenoides.

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THE NINTH TABLE.

Fig. 36.

SHEWS divers Muscles Employ'd in the Motions of the Head and Vertebrae of the Neck, which Appear on the Back-part.

A, Part of the Hairy Scalp remaining on the Fore-part of the Head.

B, The Os Occiputis, made bare.

C, Part of the Musculus Splenius left at its In­sertion.

a, Part of the Os Iugale.

D D D, The Musculus Complexus Rais'd from its Insertion, to shew its Inside.

E E, The Recti Majores, that on the Right Side remaining in Situ, that of the Left hanging down from its Origin.

F F, The Obliqui Superiores, in Situ.

G G, The Obliqui Inferiores, in Situ.

H H, The Recti Minores, also in Situ.

b, The Processus Mastoides of the Left Side, made bare.

c, The Back-part of the First Vertebra of the Neck, made bare.

d, Part of the Complexus Inserted to the Mammiform Process, by Falloppius made a Distinct Muscle, which with its Corresponding Part on the other Side, he reckons the Third Pair of Muscles of the Head.

I I I I, The Spinales Colli, that of the Left Side remaining in Situ, the Right being Rais'd from its Inferior Part, and Turn'd to One Side, to shew its Subjacent Muscle the Transversalis Colli.

K, The Transversalis Colli which Arises from the Transverse Pro­cesses of the Inferior Vertebrae of the Neck, and is Inserted to the Spi­nal Processes of its Superior Vertebrae.

L L L, The Musculi Interspinales Colli; These are not taken No­tice of by Authors, tho' they are Distinct Fair Muscles as they are here Represented: It was for these Muscles the Spinal Processes of the Ver­tebrae of the Neck are made Double: They draw the Spinal Processes nearer each other, when we pull the Head very much Back, as when we would look on the Zenith.

e e e e, The Apices of the Double Spinal Processes.

f, The Extremity of the Spine of the First Vertebra of the Tho­rax.

Fig. 37.

Represents Part of the Organ of Hearing of a Calf, where a Small Bone (Distinct from that plac'd between the Long Process of the Incus and Stapes) may be seen in the Tendon of the Musculus Stapedis. Schelbamer tells us of the like Bone found in some Animals lying in the Tendon of the Internal Muscle of the Ear, Describ'd by Eustachius; but whither he has mistaken it for the Musculus Stapedis, no Oppor­tunity has hitherto given me occasion to Observe. The Knowledge of this Small Bone in the Tendon of the Musculus Stapedis of a Calf, was Communicated to me by the Ingenious Dr. Adare; but there is no such Contrivance in Humane Bodies.

A A, Part of the Os Petrosum.

B, The Foramen Rotundum.

C, The Stapes on the Foramen Ovale.

E, The Musculus Stapedis lying bare in the Cavity of the Tympa­num; it not being Inclos'd in a Bony Channel in this Animal, as in Humane Bodies.

F, The Small Bone in the Tendon of the Musculus Stapedis, which is plac'd on a Rising of the Os Petrosum, on which it Acts as on a Pully, by which means it draws the Stapes from the Foramen O­vale.

G, The Cochlea Open'd.

Fig. 38.

The Back-parts of the Muscles of the Pharynx and Oesopha­gus.

A A A, That Part which Composes the Pharynx.

B B, The Musculus Pterygopharyngeus: This is Erroneously Divi­ded into Two Pair of Muscles by Authors, as Appears by Tab. 34. Fig. 3, 4. after Bourdon: It has Two Thin Fleshy Origins from the Roots of the Processus Pterygoides, and in a Semicircular Manner Em­braces the Back-part of the Glandulous Membrane of the Fauces<