A SECOND EDITION OF CAMDEN'S Description OF SCOTLAND, Containing a Supplement of these Peers, or Lords of PARLIAMENT, who were Mentioned in the First Edition; and an Account of these since Raised to, and further Advanced in the Degrees of Peerage, until the Year 1694.

EDINBVRGH, Printed by the Heirs and Successors of Andrew Anderson, Printer to His Most Excellent Majesty, Anno DOM. M.DC.XCV.

THE PREFACE.

Reader,

IN the Description of Scotland, the Author Camden hath been at great Pains, and taken Information from the most Intel­ligent, in the Antiquities, Peerage and Constitutions of the Kingdom; and especi­ally from Sir Alexander Hay Secretary of State, who in the year 1608, did succeed in that Office to the Lord Balmerinoch; till which time, he hath given the most full and exact account of our Nobility, or Lords of Parliament, in the Order and Description of the Countries or Shires, the Places from which they take their Designations, and where they have their Interest or Residence; and there­fore his Work deserves very well a Second Edition, for the benefit of the Kingdom of Scotland; which if it had been finished in due Time, as it was begun to be Printed, might have been a part of the Second Edition of the whole Bri­tannia, and will always be a Treatise by it self concerning Scotland, to satisfy these whose Curiosity lead them no fur­ther.

In this Edition, little Alteration is made from the Words of the Author, albeit now less used, except where the Error or Mistake can be mended by a few Words, and might have proceeded, rather from the Fault of the Tran­scriber or Printer, then the Author; and I have left out the Latine Lines made by Johnston, the Poet on several Occasions, and also the Translation of them in English [Page] Rhime, as Tending more to increase the Volumn, then to give Light to the History; and have made Alteration of these words which directly relate to the former Treatise, as a part of it, and so have omitted the Authors Preface and Apology, for his little experience in Scottish Affairs, which he lightly passeth over, reserving the due Honour to these of that Nation, with a more full Pinsel to set forth these Matters. Albeit in several things of more remote and an­cient Times he is mistaken; yet still the Treatise is useful, and deserving well to be published: nor is he or his Infor­mers lyable to Censure on that account, most of these being Vulgar Errors, passing in that Time, and since, for truth: and a second Edition was more proper, passing over them, then in this to have Commented upon, and con­tradicted the Author, which is but seldom and slenderly done, in Matters only concerning the Kingdom in General, and the Great Stewarts of SCOTLAND, the Progenitors of our Kings.

It will be a Task, requiring great time, skill and pains, and the help of more knowing persons, by particular Trea­tises, going in order from the greater Antiquity downward, out of the most antient and approved Histories, most ex­act Collections and authentick Records and Documents, to describe the considerable and eminent Families, who have by their Actions deserved to be Noticed, without which the Account of the Nation in general, and of the other great Families will be incompleat; albeit some of them did ne­ver attain to the Degree of Peerage: seing in the Sense and Language of our Law, as well as of the French, the Nobi­lity is composed of the Barons, Free-holders, and immedi­at Tennents of the King, and not of the Peers only, now called Lords of Parliament. In which undertaking, the Errors in this Treatise, to the Advantage of some, and [Page] Prejudice of other Families, may be rectified; and in the mean time, the Publisher of this Edition is not to be con­cluded of the Opinion, that all the Matters contained therein, are to be received as Truth, and is not to Incurr the displeasure of any, by the further publishing of these smaller Errors.

If in the Supplement and Addition, the Publisher hath er­red in anything, upon better Information, & full Convicti­on, he is most willing to amend, and shall study to find an Op­portunity to publish the same: and if in the Descriptiou of some Families, he hath been more Large then in others, it is not to be imputed to Partiality, but that his Knowledge and Infor­mation was not alike full in all. As to these more ancient. Lords, who are described by the Author, the Publisher hath gi­ven no more particular account of the times of their Creati­on▪ then the Author did, reserving that to another Time and Occasion; but hath been more special in the Accounts of the Later Lords, and in the method of the Author hath men­tioned them, according to the Order of the Situation of the several Places from which they have their Designations: Some Errors are mended in the Description of Places, but in that, exactness is not studied, there being particular Maps and Descriptions of the Countries by Straloch and Scotstarbat, Printed anno 1654, and lately by Mr. Adair, some more exact Tables are published, and the rest dayly expected.

It is Observable, That a great part of the Nobility, since the Reign of King James the Sixth, have made and en­creased their Estates, by being Members of the Colledge of Justice, or Session, and obtaining the Erection of Church Benefices, (whereof they were Commendators) in Tem­poral Lordships, to them and their Successors: the finer Spirits, who formerly were imployed in the Wars, or be­came [Page] Churchmen, since the Reign of King James the Fifth, beginning to apply themselves to the Laws, some of them did attain to the Degrees of Lords of Session, and other publick Imployments; and for their better Encou­ragement, were rewarded with Abbacies in Commen­dam, and were Created Peers, or Temporal Lords of Parliament.

It is likewise worth Observing, That King James the Sixth (after his Succession to the Crown of England) did make a considerable Addition to the antient Nobility of this Nation, by new Creations, as well as in his other Domi­nions; for in England and Ireland, as well as here, the Peers were much diminished by Forfaultures, extinction of Dignities, and by the suppression of the Abbots, and Priors, which Queen Elizabeth had not supplyed.

Since the Reformation of Religion, the Constitution of our Parliament did receive a considerable Alteration, the Clergie, the third Estate, for some time, being almost A­bolished; and these in the Sederunts of the Parliaments, and Articles pro Clero, not being Church-men, but meer Laicks, Titulars and Commendators of Abbacies and Pri­ories; and of them seldom a full and equal Number with the other Estates in the Articles, and for the most part but two or three of them designed Bishops, who had not the full Power and Episcopal Jurisdiction, which was for a long time lodged in the Synods and General Assemblies, and the only Popish-Bishop, who imbraced the Reformation, and continued in Office in the Church and State, was Adam Bothwel, Bishop of Orkney. There was also a great Alteration in the Repre­sentation of Barons and Free-holders in Parliament, who al­beit fred by Act of Parliament King James the First, from general appearances in Parliament to which they were formerly lyable, and allowed to send their Commissioners to [Page] represent them; yet if this Act was ever observed, it was long in desuetude, till revived in the Parliament 1587; Since which time the Free-holders of the Shires, under the De­grees of Peers, have sent their Commissioners to represent themselves and their Vassals in Parliament.

To supply these Alterations, it was necessar that more should be Created Lords of Parliament, to come in proper Right, and as representing these holding their Lands of them, as the Bishops and Abbots did for themselves and their Vassals, in right of their Baronies, which they held immediatly of the Crown; and Bishops being again sup­prest, as well as Abbots and Priors, whose Lands are pos­sest by the Peers or Free-holders, or their Vassals, the great number of Peers is still more reasonable, whereof the half do never appear in Parliament, by reason of Minority, or as being Females, or being otherways Legally incapacitat or hin­dered to take place there; and also, the Addition of Twenty six Members, by a late Act of Parliament to the representation of the Barons, did make a just Ballance, the Free-holders re­presenting a great part of the Property of the Nation.

It is to be remembred, that of those Dignities noted as Extinct, some of them do stand in the Rolls of Parlia­ment, their Honours being lately enjoyed, and the Rolls not altered, but by special Warrand.

To the Treatise, is subjoyned a List of the Nobility with their Sirnames, and the Titles of such of their eldest Sons who are Lords, and of the other Members of this Current Parli­ment, Commissioners for Shires and Burghs Royal; and a second Alphabetical Table of these whom the Publisher ob­served to have been created, or to have used at anytime, the Titles or Dignities of Lords, Viscounts, Earls, Marquesses and Dukes; and a Table of the Abbacies & Priories, especial­ly these who were Conventual, once a part constituent of our [Page] Parliament; with a List of the Presbytries, Synods and Commissariots not specified in the Treatise.

These are the few Things with which the Publisher thought fit to advertise the Reader, Farewel.

A DESCRIPTION OF Scotland.

CHAP. I.
The Division of SCOTLAND.

THe North part of the Island of Britain, was of old time inha­bited throughout by the Picts, who were divided into two Nations, the Dicalidonii, and Vecturiones: of whom the Author did speak out of Ammianus Marcellinus. But when the Scots became Lords and Rulers over all this part, it was shared into seven parts among se­ven Princes, as we find in a little ancient Pam­phlet touching the division of Scotland, in these words and old Name.

The first part contained Enegus and Maern.

The second, Atheodl and Goverin.

The third, Stradeern and Meneted.

The fourth, was Forthever.

The fifth, Mar with Buchan.

[Page 2] The sixth, Muref and Ros.

The seventh Cathanes, which Mound, a Moun­tain in the midst divideth, running on for­ward from the West Sea to the East.

Then afterwards the same Author reporteth, according to the Relation of Andrew Bishop of Cathanes, that the whole Kingdom was divided likewise into seven Territories.

The first from Erith, in the British tongue cal­led by the Romans Worid, now Scotwade, to the River Tae.

The second to Hilef, according as the Sea fetch­eth a compass, to a Mountain in the North­east part of Sirivelin, named Athran.

The third from Hilef to Dee.

The fourth from Dee to the River Spe.

The fifth from Spe to the Mountain Brunal­ban.

The sixth Mures and Ros.

The seventh, the Kingdom Argathel, as it were the border and skirt of the Scots: who were so called of Gathelgas their Captain.

Also according to the Habitation of the Peo­ple, Scotland is now divided into Highland-men and Lawland-men: Highlandmen. Lawlandmen. These being more civil, use the English Language and Apparel; the other, which are rude and unruly, speak Irish, and go apparelled Irish-like. Out of this division the Borderers are excluded, because by reason of Peace shining now upon them on [Page 3] every side, by a blessed and happy Union, they are to be ranged & reckoned in the very heart and midst of the British Empire, as who begin to be weary of Wars, and to acquaint them­selves with the delightful benefits of Peace.

Moreover, according to the Situation and Position of the places, the whole Kingdom is divided into two parts: the South on this side the River Tay, and the North beyond Tay; besides a number of Islands lying round about. In the South part, these Countries are more remarkable than the rest.

  • Tiviotdale
  • Merch
  • Lauden
  • Liddesdale
  • Eskedale
  • Annandale
  • Niddasdale
  • Galloway
  • Carrick
  • Kyle
  • Cunningham
  • Arran
  • Clidesdale
  • Lennox
  • Stirling
  • Fife
  • Strathern
  • Menteith
  • Argile
  • Cantire
  • Lorn.

In the North part are reckoned these Countries.

  • Loquabrea
  • Braidalbin▪
  • Perth
  • Atbol
  • Angus
  • Merns
  • Marr
  • Buquhan
  • Murray
  • Rosse
  • [Page] Sutherland
  • Cathanes
  • Strathnavern.

These are subdivided again according to thei [...] civil Government into Counties, called Sheriffdoms, Seneschalsies, commonly Stew­artries, and Bailliwicks, or Bailliaries, whereof a List shall be subjoyned as they now are, and in the Order they stand in the Rolls of Parlia­ment.

As touching the Administration of the divine City and Common-wealth,Bishopricks. which we term the Church, likeas the Bishops in all the world besides, had no certain Dioeceses, be­fore that Dionysius Bishop of Rome, about the year 268. did set out Dioeceses for Bishops: so the Bishops of Scotland executed their Epis­copal Functions in what place soever they came, indifferently and without distinction, untill the time of King Malcolm the third, that is about the year of our Redemption 1070, at which time the Dioeceses were confined with­in their Bounds and Limits.

Afterwards, in process of time, this Hierar­chie, or Ecclesiestical government, was establi­shed in Scotland. Two Archbishops, one of Saint Andrews, the other of Glasgow; whereof the former is counted Primat of all Scotland: under whom there be▪ eight Bishopricks.

  • Dunkeld.
  • Aberdene.
  • Murray.
  • Dunblan.
  • Brechin.
  • Rosse.
  • Cathanes.
  • Orkney.

Under the Archbishop of Glasgow there be only three.

  • Whiterne,
    Candida Casa, or Galloway.
  • Lismore, or Argile.
  • The Isles, or Sodorensis Episc.

Edinburgh was erected an Episcopal See 1633 by K. Ch. 1. Suffragan to the Arch-bishop of St. Andrews, and hath place of Dunkeld. By the 3d. Act of the 1st. Session of this current Parliament, the Estate of Bishops being the third Estate of Parliament is abolished. By the fifth Act of the second Session, Presbyterian Church Government was settled, and the No­bility which did consist of the great Barons or Lords, or the lesser Barons or Free-holders, is divided in two Estates; so that by the third Act of the second Session of the same Parlia­ment, the three Estates are declared to be the Lords of Parliament, designed the Nobility, the Barons or Commissioners from Shires de­signed the Gentlemen; and the Commissio­ners from Burghs designed the Burgesses.

CHAP. II.
The States or Degrees of SCOTLAND.

THe Republick, or Common-wealth of the Scots, like as that of Englishmen, consisteth of a King, the Nobility or Gentry, and Commons.

The King, to use the words of the Re­cord, is Directus totius Dominus, that is, The direct Lord of the whole Domain, or Dominion, and hath Royal Authority and Jurisdiction over all the States and Degrees, as well Eccle­siastical as Lay or Temporal.

Next unto the King is his eldest Son, who is called Prince of Scotland, and by a pecu­liar Right Duke of Rothsay, and Seneschal or Steward of Scotland. But all the rest of the Kings Children are named simply Princes.

Among the Nobles, the greatest and most honourable were in old time,Thanes, The Thanes, that is, those who were enobled only by the Office which they administred. For the word in the ancient English Saxon Tongue signifi­eth, The Kings Minister. Of these, they of the superior place were called Abthanes, the inferior Vnder Thanes. But these Names by little and little grew out of use, ever since that King Malcolm the third conferred the Titles of Earls and Barons, after the manner receiv­ed from the English, upon Noblemen of good good de [...]. In process of time, new Titles [Page 7] of Honours were much taken up, and Scotland as well as England, hath had Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons. As for the Title of Duke, the first that brought it into Scotland was King Robert the third, a­bout the year of Salvation 1400. Likeas the honourable Titles of Marquess and Viscount were first brought in by King JAMES the sixth. These are counted Nobles of the higher degree, and have both place and voice in the Parliament, and by a special Name are called Lords, likeas also the Bishops.

Among the Nobles of a lower degree, in the first place are ranked Knights, Knights, who verily are dubbed with greater solemnity than in any other place throughout all Europe, by taking of an Oath, and are proclaimed by the pub­lick voice of an Herauld. In the year 1621 was instituted the Hereditary Order of Knight Baronet, for advancing the Plantation of Nova-Scotia in America, with Precedency of all ordina­ry Knights, Lesser Barons or Lairds; Of which Order there is a great Number, but the anci­ent Great Lairds, Chiefs of Clans or Families, have not generally yielded Precedency to them. Of a second sort are they, who are termed Lairds and Barons, among whom none were reckoned in old time, but such as held immediatly from the King, Lands in Chief, and had jus furcarum, that is, power to Hang, &c. In the third place are all such as being descen­ded from worshipful Houses, and not ho­noured with any special Dignity, be termed [Page 8] Gentlemen. Gentlemen. All the rest, as Citizens, Merchants, Artisans, &c. are reputed among the Com­mons.

CHAP. III.
The Judicatories, or Courts of Justice.

THe supreme Court, as well for Dig­nity as Authority, is accounted the Assembly of the States of the King­dom, which is called by the very same Name as it is in England, Parliament. A Parliament: and hath the same very power as absolute. It consisteth of three States, of Lords Spiritual, namely, Bishops, Abbots, and Priors: and of Lords Temporal, to wit, Dukes, Marques­ses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons: and Com­missioners for Cities and Burghs. Unto whom were adjoyned not long since for every Coun­ty or Shire also two Commissioners. And by the 11th Act of the second Session of this current Parliament, certain Shires, and the Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright therein enumerat, according to the largeness and extent of the Lands, are allowed an additional Represen­tation of Commissioners in Parliament, where­by the greater Shires are allowed four, some Shires three, and in the Stewartrie of Kirk­cudbright two Commissioners. As will appear clearly by the List of Parliament subjoyned. [Page 9] It is appointed and solemnly called by the King at his pleasure, at a certain set time, be­fore it be holden. When these States above­said are assembled, and the causes of their as­sembly delivered by the King, his Commissi­oner, or Chancellor, the Lords Spiritual chuse out apart by themselves, eight of the Lords Temporal; as also, the Lords Temporal make choise of as many out of the Lords Spiritual: then the same all joyntly together nominat eight, of the Commissioners for the Counties, and as many of the Commissioners for the free Burghs regal, which make up in all the number of thirty two. And then these Domini pro articulis. Lords of the Articles (so they are termed) together with the Chancellor, Treasurer, Keeper of the Pri­vy Seal, Kings Secretary, &c. do admit or reject every Bill proposed unto the States, after they have been first imparted unto the King, or his Commissioner. Being allowed by the whole Assembly of the States, they are through­ly weighed & examined, & such of them as pass by the greater number of Voices, are exhibited unto the King, or his Commissioner, who by touching them with the Scepter, pronounceth, that he either ratifieth & approveth them, or disableth and maketh the same void· But if any thing dislike the King, it is razed out before.

This Method of the Lords of Articles is al­tered by the 3d. Act of the first Session of this current Parliament, whereby the Committee of Parliament is abrogated, and the Parlia­ment to appoint Committees of what Number [Page 10] they please, being alike of Noblemen, Barons, and Burg [...]sses, to be chosen out of each Estate by it self, for preparing all Motions and over­tures first made in the House, and that the Parliament may alter the said Committees at their pleasure, or conclude upon matters pro­poned before them in plain Parliament, with­out Committees, and that in the Committes, some of the Officers of State may be present by their Majesties or their Commissioners ap­pointment, who is freely to propose and de­bate allennerly, but not to Vote. By Act of Par­liament 1617, the Officers of State are re­stricted to the number of Eight, including the Master of Requests, beside the Chancel­lor, who by his Office is President of the Par­liament. Since the Restauration of King Ch. 2d. there hath been no Master of Requests, but frequently two Secretaries; and there hath been also Debate amongst the lesser Offi­cers of State: and especially between the Thesaurer-Depute and the others, concerning their Precedency; but at present by Order, the Thesaurer-Deput is ranked after the Advo­cat, and before the Justice-Clerk.

The second Court, or next unto the Parlia­ment, is the Colledge of Justice, or Session, The Session. which King James the fifth, Parl. 5. Art. 36. 40. and 41. anno 1532. instituted after the form of the parliament of Paris, consisting of a Pre­sident, fourteen Senatours, seven of the Clergy, and as many of the Laitie (unto whom is ad­joyned the Lord Chancellor, who being pre­sent, [Page 11] is to have Vote, and be Principal of the said Council; And sick [...]ike other Lords as shall please the Kings Grace to injoyn to them of his great Coun­cil, to have vote sicklike, to the number of three or four: By vertue whereof the King uses to adjoyn besides the Chancellor four of the Nobility or Lords of Parliament, who are called Extra­ordinar Lords, and are not counted of the Quorum of the Nine, which must be of the Ordinar Lords. The Distinction of half Spiri­tual half Temporal is laid aside, and the Lords are all of the Temporality, and three principal Scribes or Clerks: But by the 38 Act. 1st. Sess Parl. K. Ja. 7. there is allowed two persons to be conjoyned in each of the three Offices of ordinary Clerks of Session, and so now six Clerks, and as many Advocats as the Senators shall think good. These sit and minister Justice, not according to the rigour of Law, but with Reason and Equity, every day (save only on the Lords day and Monday) from the first of November to the fifteenth of March; and from Trinity Sunday unto the Calends of August. But by Law and Custome, the Session fitteth from the First, of No­vember to the last of February, and from the First, of June to the last of July inclusive. In regard the Office of the Lords of Session are for Lifetime, they are set down as fol­lows.

  • [Page 12]JAMES Viscount of STAIR, Lord President of the Session.
  • Sir John Baird of Newbyth,
  • Mr. Alexander Swinton of Mersingtoun,
  • Sir Colin Camphel of Aberuchil,
  • James Murray of Philiphaugh,
  • Robert Dundass of Arnistoun,
  • Mr. John Hamilton of Haleraig,
  • Mr. David Hume of Crossrig,
  • Sir John Lawder of Haltoun,
  • Sir John Lawder of Fountainhal,
  • William Enstruther of that llk,
  • Mr. Archibald Hope of Rankeilor,
  • Mr. James Falconer of Phesdo,
  • Robert Hamilton of Presmenuan,
  • Sir William Hamilton of Whitelaw.
Extraordinary LORDS.
  • William Duke of Queensberry,
  • William Earl of Annandale,
  • Patrick Lord Polwarth,
  • The fourth is vacant by the Death of Wil­liam Duke of Hamilton.

The President of the Session by an Act of Parliament 1661. is declared to have Prece­dency of the Lord Register and Advocat, and they to have Precedency of the Lord Thesaurer-Deput.Mckenzies Precedency. page. 37. * Sir George Mckenzie in his Precedency, doth relate, That there was an Ordinance upon the 20. Feb. 1623 [Page 13] amongst his Majesties Officers and Counsellors, where the lesser Officers of State are ranked, and after them the Lords of Session, according to their Admission, and before Privy Counsellors being Barons & Gentlemen. Suitable to this prece­dency, the Lords of Session have since their Institution enjoyed the Title of Lord, both in Designation and Compellation, albeit the Designation be proper to the Lords of Parlia­ment: The Lords of Session in the beginning being composed of Bishops and Abbots, and dig­nified beneficed Persons, Chief Barons, and eminent Lawers; This Designation is fre­quently given to them in the Acts of Parlia­ment, and particularly to President Provan, in an unprinted Act, anno 1581. intituled Act in favours of Mr. William Baillie Lord Provan, & frequently thereafter. All the space between Sessions, being the times of Sowing and Har­vest, is Vacation and Intermission of all Suites and Law matters. They give Judgment accor­ding to the Parliament, Statutes, and Munici­pal Laws, and where they are defective, they have recourse to the Imperial Civil Law.

There are besides in every County or Shire, in ferior civil Judicatories or Courts kept, where­in the Sheriff of the Shire, or his Depute, decid­eth the Controversies of the Inhabitants, about violent Ejections, Instrusions, Damages, Debts, &c. From which Courts or Judges, in re­gard of hard and unequal dealing, or else of Alliance and Partiality, they appeal some­time to the Session. These Sheriffs are all for [Page 14] the most part Hereditary, for the Kings of Scot­land, like as these of England also, to oblige more surely unto them the better sort of Gentlemen by their Benefits and Favours, made in old time, these Sheriffs hereditary and and perpetual. But the English Kings soon perceiving the inconveniencies thereby ensu­ing, of purpose changed this Order, & appoint­ed them from year to year. There be Civil Courts also in every Regalitie, holden by their Baillies, to whom the Kings have graciously granted Royalities: as also in Free-Burghs, by the Magistrates thereof.

There are likewise Judicatories, which they call Commissariats, the highest whereof is k [...]pt at Edinburgh: In which before four Judges, or Commissars; Actions are pleaded concerning Wills & Testaments, the Right of Ecclesiastical Benefices, Tithes, Divorces, and such other Ecclesiastical Causes. In every other several part almost throughout the Kingdom, there sitteth but one Judge alone in a place about these matters.

In criminal Causes,Courts of Cri­minal Matters. the Kings Chief Justice holdeth his Court for the most part at Edin­burgh, (which Office the Earls of Argile exe­cuted for some time,) and he doth deput two or three Lawers, who have the hearing and deciding of Capital Actions concerning Life and Death, or of such as infer loss of Limbs, or of all Goods. And by the 16 Act 3d. Sess 2d. Parl. K. Cha. 2d. concerning the Justice Court, it doth now consist of the [Page 15] Lord Justice-General, the Lord Justice-Clerk, who are both at the Kings Nomination, and to them are added five of the Lords of Session, who are supplied from time to time by the King, and are called Lords of the Justiciary. In this Court the Defendant is permitted, yea in case of High-Treason, to entertain a Counsellor or Advocat to plead his Cause.

Moreover in Criminal Matters, there are sometimes by vertue of the Kings Commission and Authority, Justices appointed for the de­ciding of this or that particular Cause.

Also the Sheriffs in their Territories, and Magistrats in some Burghs, may sit in Judge­ment of Man-slaughter (in case the Man-slay­er be taken within 24 hours after the Deed committed) and being found guilty by a Ju­rie, put him to death. But if that time be once over-past, the Cause is referred and put over to the Kings Justice, or his Deputs. The same priviledge also some of the Nobility and Gentry enjoy against Theives taken within their own Jurisdictions. There be likewise that have such Royalities, as that in Criminal Causes they may exercise a Jurisdiction with­in their own Limits, and in some Cases recal those that dwell within their own Limits and Liberties from the Kings Justice, howbeit with a Caution and Proviso interposed, That they judge according to Law.

Thus much briefly the Author hath put down, as one that had but slightly looked in­to these matters, yet by the information of the [Page 16] judicious Knight, Sir Alexander Hay, Secre­tary to K. Ja. 6. for Scotland, who had given the Author good light. He being one of the three principal Clerks of Session, was in the year 1608 appointed Secretary in place of the Lord Balmerinoch removed, and admtted a Lord of Session the 3d, of Feb. 1610. But as touching SCOTLAND, what a Noble Countrey it is, and what Men it breedeth (as sometimes the Geographer wrote of Britain) there will within a while more certain and more evident matter be delivered, since that most high and mighty Prince K. Ja. 6. did set it o­pen for us, which had so long time been shut from us. Mean time before we proceed to the De­scription of particular Places, according to the Authors project, we must give some short Account of the Privy Council, Thesaury and Exchequer, being Soveraign Courts, and omitted by the Author. The Privy Council is constitute by the King's Commission to decide in matters that concerns the Government and publick Peace of the Nation, wherein the Chancellor by his Office doth preside, and af­ter him the President of the Council, who hath the same precedency as in England: The Persons are chiefly named out of the Nobility, with the addition of some Barons. In the Thesaury and Exchequer, the Lord high The­saurer doth preceed, but this Office is frequent­ly in Commission, as it is at present, and then the Lord Chancellor is, and uses to be one and Chief of the Commission, as also the Lord [Page 17] Thesaurer Deput, and they together with the Lords of Exchequer nominat by Their Majesties do Order, Determine, and dispose of the Kings Rents, Revenues, Gifts, and Casualities: I have omitted particular Lists of them, in regard the Commissions to the Council, Thesaury and Exchequer are some times changed, as the King doth think fit; and that the persons employed in them are emi­nent, of whom occasion will be to make men­tion in some part of this Treatise, either as Noblemen, Sheriffs of, or Commissioners from Shires, or otherwise.

CHAP. IV.
GADENI, or LADENI,

UPon the Ottadini, or Northumberland, bordered as next Neighbours the [...], that is, GADENI, who also by the inversion or turning of one Letter upside down, are called in some Copies of Ptolo­my LADENI, seated in that Countrey which lieth between the mouth of the River Tweed and Edinburgh Forth: And is at this day divided into many petty Countries: The chief whereof are Teviotdale, Tweddale, Merss, and Lothian, in Latine Lodenium, under which one general Name alone the Writers of the middle time comprised all the rest.

CHAP. V.
TEVIOTDALE.

TEviotdale, that is to say, the Vale by the River Tiviot, or Teveat, lying next un­to England, among the edges of high craigie Hills, is inhabited by a war-like Na­tion, which by reason of so many Encounters in foregoing Ages, between Scots and English, are always most ready for Service and sudden Invasions. The first place among these that we meet with, [...]. Royal. is Jedburgh, a Burgh well inhabited and frequented, standing near unto the confluence of Teviot and Jed, whereof it took the Name: Also Melros, a very anci­ent Monastry, wherein at the beginning of our Church, were cloistered Monks of that ancient Order and Institution, that gave them­selves to Prayer, and with their Hand-labour earning their Living; which holy King Da­vid restored, and replenished with Cistertian Monks. And more Eastward, where Tweed and Teviot joyn in one Stream, Rosburgh shew­eth it self,The Shire of Roxburgh. called also Roxburgh, and in old time MARCHIDUN, because it was a Town in the Marches, where stands a Castle, that for natural Situation, and towred Fortifica­tons, was in time past exceeding strong. Which being surprised and held by the En­glish, whiles James the second King of Scots encircled it with a Siege, he was by a piece of a great Ordnance that broke, slain untimely in the flower of his youth; A Prince much [Page 19] missed and lamented of his Subjects. As for the Castle, it was yielded; and being then for the most part of it lay'd even with the ground, is now in a manner quite vanished and not to be seen. The Territory adjoyn­ing, called of it the Sheriffdom of Roxburgh, hath one hereditary Sheriff out of the Family of the Dowglas, who is usually called the Sheriff of Teviotdale; Dowglas of Cavers. The Heir of this Family is Sir William Dowglas of Cavers, who is present She­riff, and one of the Commissioners of the Shire to this present Parliament. And now hath Roxburgh also a Baron, Rox­bert Ker, through the favour of King James the sixth, out of the Family of Kers, a fa­mous House, and spred into a number of Branches, as any one in that Tract: Out of which the Fernhersts, and others inured in martial Feats,Spotswood Hist. of the Church of Scotland. lib 7. page 476. have been of great Name. Sir Robert Ker of Cessfuird, was amongst other great Men, chosen by K. James the sixth, to attend him in his Journey to England, in the year 1603. to take possession of that Crown, at which time he was created Lord Roxburgh, and is mentioned amongst the Com­missioners for the Union, Parl. 1604. first of all the Lords created about that time; and in like manner in the Decreet of Ranking and the several Rolls of Parliament, he is placed before Loudown, Lindores, &c. till the year 1617,E. Roxburgh. when he is designed by the Rolls of that Parliament Earl of Roxburgh; he was Lord Privy Seal to King Ch. the first, whose Grand­childs Grandchild is Robert Earl of Roxburgh: [Page 20] The Laird of Berneherst, the other principal Family of that Name, was by King James the sixth created Lord Jedburgh, L. Jedburgh. which Peerage doth belong to the Lord Newbottle, eldest Son to the Earl of Lothian, and in the Quality of Lord Jedburgh, William Lord Newbottle is a Member of this present Parliament, which is special to the Earl of Lothians Family, that both the Father and the Son are Peers. Sir Robert Ker the youngest Brother of the first Lord Jedburgh, a great Favorite of King Ja. the sixth, was by him made Thesaurer of Scotland and Earl of Somerset in England. Also of the Family of Ferneherst, Sir Robert Ker of Ancrum was created Earl of Ancrum by King Cho. [...]. Ancrum. he first, in the year 1633, of whom is descended Robert Earl of Lothian, by his Father, William Earl of Lothian, who mar­ried the Heiress, and the younger Brother succeeded to his Father in the Dignity of the Earl of Ancrum residing in England, who sat in the Parliament 1681. Collonel Ruther­foord of the Family of Hunthill, was created Earl of Teviot by King Cha. E. Teviot. the second, who left his Fortune and the Dignity of Lord Ru­therfoord to the family of Hunthill, L. Rutherfoord which hath been possessed by three Brothers, the young­est is Robert Lord Rutherfoord. The Dignity of Viscount Teviot was conferred by King Ia. V. Teviot. the seventh anno 1686, on the Lord Spencer el­dest Son to the Earl of Sunderland in England. In the same Shire lived Sir Walter Scot of Bran [...]holme, who by King Ja. the sixth, 17 May [Page 21] 1606 was created Lord Scot of Buckcleugh, he was the next after the Lord Scoon, and these mentioned in the Decreet of Ranking,Mackenzies precedency pag. 48. and was immediatly created before the Lord Blantyre, his Son Walter was created Earl by the same King in the year 1619, & in the Rolls of Parliament 1621, is ranked after the Earls of Roxburgh and Kellie and before the Earl of Melros [...]; his Son Earl Francis was Father to Countess Margaret, married to Wal­ter Scot of Heychester, who shortly deceased, her Husband was by King Cha. the second crea­ted Earl of Tarras during life, by whose de­cease the Dignity is extinct, the younger Daughter Countess Anna, was married to James Scot Duke of Monmouth, Son to K. Ch. the second, and was by him created Dutchess of Buckcleugh, D. Buckcleugh about the year 1661. who li­veth, and her Son is James Earl of Dalkeitb.

Tweed aforesaid runneth through the midst of a Dale, taking Name of it, replenished with Sheep, that bear Wool of great request. A very goodly River this is, which springing more inwardly Eastward, after it hath passed, as it were in a straight Channel by Drumelzier Castle,The Shire of Peebles by Peebles a Burgh Royal, which had for the Sheriff thereof Baron Yester, now Earl of Tweddale Lord high Chancellor, who sold his Estate in that Shire, and the Sheriff­ship to the Duke of Queensberry, E. Tweddale. of whom afterwards in East-Lothian. In this Shire the Laird of Traquair as a Baron, Commissioner to the Parliament 1621, was by King Ch. the first [Page 22] created Lord Stuart of Traquair, and in anno 1633 was made Earl,E. Traquair. his Predecessor was a Lord of Session, in the year 1560 he him­self was first Thesaurer-deput, and afterwards Lord high Thesaurer and high Commissioner for the King, whose Grand-child is Charles Earl of Traquair. In this Shire also, Sir Pa­trick Murray of Elibank, was designed in the rescinded Parliament 1644,1. Elibank. Lord Elibank, whose Father Sir Gideon Murray Thesaurer-deput, was admitted a Lord of the Session anno 1613, the great Grand-child is Alexander Lord Elibank.

Likeas Selkirk a Burgh Royal hard by,The Shire of Selkirk. hath another Sheriff out of the Family of Murray of Falahill, Philiphaugh. an ancient Family, designed of Philip­haugh, James Murray now of Philiphaugh is one of the Lords of Session and Sheriff; This place is famous by the Defeat of the Army of the great Marquess of Montrose. By King Charles the first anno 1646, Lord William Dowglas second Son to the Marquess of Dow­glas was created Earl of Selkirk, E. Selkirk. was married to Anna Dutchess and Heiress of Hamilton, and by King Charles the second (after the Restauration) created Duke of Hamilton, he was Commissioner to two Sessions of this current Parliament, and enjoyed many great and honourable Offices, who in his Lifetime did convey and establish the Title and Dig­nity of Earl of Selkirk on Charles his second Son now Earl of Selkirk, his Lady Anna Dutchess of Hamilton and James Earl of Arran [Page 23] doth survive. Tweed also receiveth Lawder a Riverat, upon which is situat a Royal Burgh, and seat of a Bailliary, belonging to the Fa­mily of Lawderdale, within the Sheriffdom of Berwick; near to which stands Thirlestane Castle, a very fair House of Sir John Mait­lands, sometime Chancellor of Scotland, whom, for his singular Wisdom, King Ja. the sixth created Baron of Thirlstane. Sir Richard Maitland of Lethingtoun was his fa­ther, who is marked in the Book of Sederunt of the Lords of Session 1553 amongst the Lords, being then an extraordinary Lord; In the Sederunt 1561, he is admitted an or­dinar Lord, and his eldest Son William, then Secretary is admitted Extraordinar, and there­after Ordinar, in place of Sir Robert Carnagie deceased, (it being Customary at that time, first to be entered Extraordinar, and then Or­dinar;) This Sir Richard was Privy Seal to Queen Mary, and continued an Ordinar Lord till his old Age, when he demitted the eleventh of July 1584, in favours of Sir Lewis Ballenden Justice-Clerk upon the Kings Letter, bearing Lethingtoun to have served his Grand-sir, Good-sir, Good-dame, his Mo­ther and himself faithfully in many publick Offices, and now greatly disabled by Age, he had demitted in favours, &c. Reserving all Profits to himself during his Life; which not­withstanding of his Dimission, he enjoyed till his death, anno 1586. The said Mr. John Maitland of Thirlstane, his second Son was in [Page 24] April 1581 admitted Lord of the Session, and about the year 1584 Secretary, and in the 1586 Vice Chancellor, and thereafter Chan­cellor, and in the 1592 designed Lord Thirl­stane Chancellor, whose Son John was crea­ted Viscount of Lauderdale by King Ja. sixth, and is so marked in the Rolls of Parliament 1617, and in June 1618, under the Designa­tion of Viscount of Lauderdale, he is admit­ted an ordinar Lord of Session,E. Lawderdale. and thereaf­ter created Earl of Lauderdale by King Ja. thessixth; about the year 1624, whose Son John Earl of Lauderdale was Secretary to King Ch. the second, & by him created Duke of Lau­derdale in the year 1672, he was high Com­missioner to the hail Sessions of the second Parliament King Ch. the second & Convention of Estates 1678, and enjoyed many other honourable Offices, and upon his decease with­out Heirs-male of his Body, his brother Charles Maitland of Haltoun Thesaurer-deput, and a Lord of the Session succeeded to him in his Dignity of Earl of Lauderdale, the Title of Duke being extinct with himself) whose Son is Richard Earl of Lauderdale.

Then Tweed beneath Roxburgh, augment­ed with the River of Teviot resorting unto him, watereth the Sheriffdom of Berwick throughout; a great part whereof is possess­ed by the Humes (wherein the chief man of that Family exerciseth the Jurisdiction of a Sheriff (& so passes under Berwick, the strong­est Town of Britain, where he is exceeding full of Salmons, and so falleth into the Sea.

CHAP. VI.
MERCHIA, MERCH, or MERS [...]

MERCH, which is next, and so named because it is a March Countrey, lyeth wholly upon the German Sea. In this, first Hume Castle sheweth it self: the ancient Possession of the Lords of Home, or Hume, who being descended from the family of the Earls of Merch, are grown to be a noble and fair spred Family: Out of which Alexander Hume, who before was the first Baron of Scot­land, & Sheriff of Berwicks, was about the 1604, advanced by James the 6. the first King or Great Britain to the Title of Earl of Hume; to whom Charles now Earl of Hume succeeds.E. Hume. Sir James Dowglas, Brother to the first Marquess of Douglas, married the Heiress of Oliphant, and in her Right had the Precedency of the Lords of Oliphant, L. Mording­toun. with the Dignity of Mording­toun; whose Grand-child is presently Lord Mordingtoun. Near unto Hume Castle lyeth Kelso, famous sometime for the Monastery, which with thirteen others, King David the first of that Name built out of the ground, for the propagation of Gods glory, but to the great empairing of the Crown-Land.

Then is to be seen Coldingham, which Bede calleth the City Coldana, and the City of Coludum, haply Colania mentioned by Ptolomy, a place consecrated many ages since unto pro­fessed Virgins or Nuns, whose chastity is re­corded [Page 26] in ancient Books: For that they, to­gether with Ebba their Prioress, cut off their own Noses and Lips, choosing rather to pre­serve their Virginity from the Danes, than their Beauty and Favour; and yet for all that the Danes burnt their Monastry, and them withal. Hard by is Fast-Castle, a Castle of the Lord Humes, so called for the firmness and Strength thereof, at the Promontory of the said Saint Ebbe, who being the Daughter of Edilfrid King of Northumberland, when her Father was taken prisoner, got hold of a Boat in Humber, and passing along the ra­ging Ocean, landed here in safety, became renowned for her Sanctimony, and left her Name unto the place. But this Merch is men­tioned in the Historiographers a great deal more for the Earls thereof, than for any places therein, who for Martial Prowesse were high­ly renowned, and descended from Gospatrick Earl of Northumberland, whom after he had fled from William Conquerer of England, Malcom Canmor, that is, With the great head, King of Scotland entertained, enriched him with the Castle of Dunbar, and honoured with the Earldom of Merch; E. Merch. Whose Posteri­ty, besides other goodly and fair Lands in Scotland, held (as appeareth plainly in an old Inquisition) the Barony of Bengelly in Northumberland, that they should be Inborow and Utborow between England and Scotland, What the meaning should be of these Terms let others guess. In the Reign of King James [Page 27] the first, George de Dunbar Earl of Merch by Authority of Parliament, for his Fathers Re­bellion lost the Property and Possession of the Earldom of Merch, and the Seignorie of Dun­bar; And when as he proved by good Evi­dences and Writings brought forth, that his Father had been pardoned for that Fault by the Regents of the Kingdom, he was answe­red again, that it was not in the Regents power to pardon on Offence against the State; and that it was expresly provided by the Laws, that Children should undergo Punishment for their fathers Transgressions, to the end that being thus Heirs to their fathers Rash­ness, as they are to their Goods and Lands, they should not at any time in the haughty Pride of their own Power, plot any Treason against Prince or Countrey. This Title of Earl of Merch, among other honourable Titles, was given afterward to Alexander Duke of Albany, and by him forfeited; And this Title of Honour was revived again in Ro­bert, the third Brother of Matthew Earl of Lennox, who being of a Bishop of Cathanes made Earl of Lennox, resigned up that Title soon after unto his Nephew, then created Duke of Lennox; and he himself in lieu there­of received of the King the Name and Stile of the Earl of Merch; Which Title was also brooked by Charles, Uncle to King James, and younger Brother to Henry Lord Darnley, afterward King. Collonel John Churchhil was created by King Charles the second Lord [Page 28] Churchhil of Eymouth, L. Eymouth. near Berwick, who is now Earl of Marleburrow in England; And Sir Patrick Hume of Polwarth Baronet,L. Polwarth. was by Their Majesties created Lord Polwarth in the year 1691.

CHAP. VII.
LAUDEN, or LOTHIEN.

LOTHIEN,Lothian. which is also called Lauden, named in times past of the Picts, Pictland, shooteth out along from Merch unto the Scottish Sea, or the Forth, having many Hills in it, and little Wood; but for fruitful Corn­fields, for Courtesie also and Civility of Manners, commended above all other Coun­tries of Scotland; which is divided in three Shires, Haddingtoun called East Lothian, E­dinburgh called Mid-Lothian, and Linlithgow called West-Lothian. About the year of our Salvation 873, Edgar King of England (be­tween whom and Keneth the third, King of Scotland, there was a great Knot of Alliance against the Danes, (common Enemies to them both) resigned up his Right unto him in this Lothian, as Matthew theFlorilegus. Flour-gathe­rer witnesseth: And to win his Heart the more unto him, He gave unto him many Mansions in the way, wherein both he and his Successors, in their coming unto the Kings of England, and in return homeward might be lodged: Which unto the time of King Henry the second continued [Page 29] in the hands of the Kings of Scotland.

In this Lothian, The Shire or Constabulary of Hadding­toun. the first place that offereth it self to the view, to these coming from the Mers, is Dunbar, a passing strong Castle in old time,B. Royal. and the Seat of the Earls of Merch aforesaid, who thereupon were called Earls of Dunbar. A Piece many a time won by the En­glish, and as often recovered by the Scots. But in the year 1567, by Authority of the States in Parliament it was demolished, be­cause it should not be a Hold and place of Re­fuge for Rebels: But James King of Great-Britain conferred the Title and Honour of Earl of Dunbar upon Sir George Hume The­saurer, who is marked last Earl,E. Dunbar. and after Dumfermling in the Decreet of Ranking, March 5. 1606, for his approved Fidelity, whom he had created before Baron Hume of Berwick, to him, his Heirs and Assigneys. After­ward the same King did confer the Dignity of Viscount of Dunbar upon an English Gentleman of the Name of Constable, V. Dunbar. whose Heirs in En­gland doth presently enjoy that Dignity; this Viscount is marked in the Rolls of Parliament 1621. Hard by, Tine a little River after it hath run a short Course, falleth into the Sea; near unto the Spring-head, whereof stand­eth Yester, which hath his Baron out of the Family of the Hays Earls of Erroll. John Lord Yester, was by King Charles the first created Earl of Tweddale about the year 1646:E. Tweeddale. John now Earl of Tweddale his Son, after he had enjoyed several honourable publick Employ­ments, [Page 30] was by Their Majesties constitute Lord High Chancellor of Scotland. The Lord Hay of Yester, is descended of the antient Family of the Hays of Locherward, near Borthwick, which raise to greatness by the Marriage of three Heiresses, viz. of Frazer of Oliver-Castle, in Tweddale, and the Heiress of Gifford of Yester, & the Heir­ess of Cunninghame of Belton, both in East Lo­thian; his chief Residence is Yester, which he hath extraordinarly improven & beautifyed by Planting & Inclosing. By the same Riveret, some few miles higher,E. Royal. is seated Hadingtoun or Hadina, in a wide and broad Plain: which Town the English fortifyed with a deep and large Ditch, with a Mure or Rampire also without, four-square, and with four Bull­works at the Corners, and with as many other at the Inner-wall: and Sir James Wilford, an Englishman valiantly defended it against Dessie the Frenchman,1548. who with Ten thousand French and Dutch together fiercely assaulted it, until that by reason of the Plague, which grew hot among the Garrison Soldiers, Henry Earl of Rutland coming with a royal Army, raised the Siege, removed the French, & having laid the Munitions level, conducted the English home. And King James the sixth a­bout the year 1606 ranged Sir John Ramsey among the Nobles of Scotland, with Title and Honour of Viscount Haddingtoun, V. Hadding­toun. for his faith­ful Valour, as whose Right hand was the De­fender of Prince and Countrey, in that most wicked Conspiracy of the Gowries against the [Page 31] Kings Person. I shall choise this place to speak of Sir Thomas Hamilton, whose last De­signation was Earl of Haddingtoun, and the more particularly, in respect he did pass through very many Degrees in the Session, and enjoyed many publick Offices, and at­tained to great Honour and Riches, the first of November 1587, in the Books of Sederunt of the Lords of Session, Mr. Thomas Hamilton appear and Heir of Priestfield, was admitted an ordinar Advocat, he was Son to Thomas Ha­milton of Priestfield, afterward a Lord of the Session, descended of the Hamiltons of Inner, weick, one of the most antient and great Ca­dets of the Family of Hamilton; he was ad­mitted Lord of the Session 1592, under the Designation of Lord Drumcairn, he is ap­pointed one of the Commissioners for the The­saurey and Exchequer, commonly called Octavians in the year 1595; and is admitted in February thereafter Kings Advocat; the fif­teen of May 1612, under the Designation of Sir Thomas Hamilton of Byers, is made Clerk Register: In the Parliament 23 of October, the same year he is designed Secretary in place of Sir Alexander Hay formerly mentioned, who became in his place Lord Register. The four­teen of June 1616, upon the death of Presi­dent Preston, he under the Designation of Lord Binny, was admitted President of the Session: In the Rolls of Parliament 1617, he is designed Lord Binny, and before the Lord Carnagie; In the Rolls of Parliament 1621, [Page 32] he is designed Earl of Melross, which Title he thereafter exchanged for Earl of Haddingtoun, E. Hadding­toun. he continued Secretary and President till the year 1626, & then was constitute Lord Privy Seal and he & his Successors in that Office have had the same Precedency, as the Lord Privy Seal in England, which he enjoyed seve­ral years, his Grand-childs Grand-child is Thomas Earl of Haddingtoun.

Within a little of Haddingtoun standeth Athelstanford, Athelstanford. so called of Athelstane, a chief Leader of the English, slain there with his men about the year 815. But that he should be that warlike Athelstane, which was King of the West-Saxons, both the Account of the Times, and his own Death do manifestly con­troll it. The Sheriff ship of this Shire, being at the Kings disposal, is given to Sir Robert Sinclar of Stevinson Baronet, and one of Their Majesties Privy Council, and a Member of this present Parliament for the Shire.

Above the mouth of this Tine, in the very bending of the Shore, standeth Tantallon Castle; from whence Archibald Douglas Earl of Angus, wrought James the fifth, King of Scots, much Teene and Trouble. Here by retiring back off the Shores on both sides, is room made for a most noble Arm of the Sea, and the same well furnished with Islands, which by reason of many Rivers encountring it by the way, and the Tides of the surging Sea together, spreadeth exceeding broad: Ptolomy calleth it Boderia, Bodotria. Tacitus Bodotria, [Page 33] of the depth, as is thought; the Scots the Forth, and Firth, we Edinburgh Firth; o­thers the Fresian Sea, and the Scotish Sea, and the Eulogium, Morwiridh. Patrick Ruthven General to King Charles the first his Forces, was created by him in the year 1639, first Lord Estrick, from the Name of a Rivolet, and in the year 1641,E. Forth▪ Earl of Forth in Scot­land, and Earl of Branford in England; there is none descended of him that claims the Title. Upon this River, after you be past Tantallon, Tantallon. are seated, firstB. Royal. North-Berwick, a famous place sometime for an House there, of religious Virgins: And then Dirltoun, which belonged in times past to the notable Family of the Halyburtons, and by them to the Ruth­vens, and by their Forfeiture to Sir Thomas Er­skin Captain of the English Guard, whom James King of Great-Britain for his happy Valour, in preserving him against the traiterous At­tempts of Gowrie, first created Baron of Dirl­ton about the 1603, being the next af­ter the Lord Loudoun, and before Kinloss, Abercorn and Balmerinoch: And afterward advanced him to the honourable Title of Vis­count Fenton, V. Fenton. in the year 1606, making him the first Viscount that ever was in Scotland, James Maxwel of the Bed-Chamber, was created by King Charles the first,E. Dirltoun. Earl of Dirl­ton, who left no lawful Issue Male, but two Daughters, the one married to William Earl of Lanerk, afterwards Duke of Hamilton, and at present his Dignity is not claimed by any. [Page 34] A Gentleman of the Name of Douglas was first created Viscount of Belhaven, V. Belhaven. a place near to Dunbar, which Honour being extinct, Sir James Hamilton was created Lord Belhaven by King Charles the first,L. Belhaven. about the year 1648, to whom succeeds John now Lord Belhaven. Against these places there lyeth in the Sea, not far from the Shore, the Island Bass, which riseth up as it were all one craigy Rock, and the same upright and steep on every side: yet hath it a Block-house belonging to it, a Foun­tain also and Pastures; but it is so hollowed with the Waves working upon it, that it is almost pierced through: What a multitude of Sea-fowles, and especially of those Geese which they call Scouts and Soland-Geese, Soland Geese, which seem to be Plinies Pi­carniae. flock hither at their times (for by report, their Number is such, that in a clear day they take away the Suns Light,) what a sort of Fishes they bring (for as the Speech goeth, a hun­dred Garrison Soldiers that here lay for de­fence of the place, fed upon no other Meat but the fresh Fish that they brought in,) what a Quantity of Sticks and little Twigs they get together for the building of their Nests, so that by their means the Inhabitants are a­bundantly provided of Feuel for their fire; what a mighty gain groweth by their Feathen and Oyl, the report thereof is so incredible that no man scartcely would believe it, but he that had seen it. The Garrison of the Bass having stood long out against Their Majesties before they surrendered about the beginning [Page 35] of May 1694. The Fortifications were or­dered to be slighted.

Then as the shore draweth back, Seton sheweth it self, which seemeth to have taken that Name of the Situation by the Sea-side, and to have imparted the same unto a right Noble House of the Setons, branched out of an English Family, and from the Daughter of King Robert Bruce: Out of which the Mar­quess of Huntly, E. Winton. Robert Earl of Wintoun, A­lexander Earl of Dumfermling, advanced to Honours by King James the sixth, are pro­pagated. George now Earl of Winton, is great Grand child to the first Earl, whose Brother was Alexander Seton of Vrquhart an extraor­dinar Lord of Session, and by the same De­signation admitted ordinary Lord in February 1587-8, in August 1591 created Lord Vr­quhart, and in May 1593 on the death of President Provan, admitted President of the Session, and in the year 1595, one of the Octavians, in the year 1604 he was a Commissioner for the Union, by the Designation of the Lord Fyvie, and in that Parliament the Earl of Montrose Chancellor being Commissioner he did preside; in March 1605 in the Books of Sederunt, Alexander Earl of Dumfermling is made Chancellor,E. Dumferm­ling. and was afterward Commissioner to the Parlia­ment, his Designation was from a Royal Burgh in Fife, formerly a famous Abby, his Son was Charles Earl of Dumfermling Lord Privy Seal to King Charles the second, and [Page 36] his Grand-child James Earl of Dumfermling is now forefault, also Alexander Seton Uncle to George now Earl of Wintoun, was by King Charles the first created Viscount of Kingston, V. Kingstoun. whose Son is now Viscount.

After this,The Shire of Edinburgh. the River Eske in Mid-Lothian, which dischargeth it self into this Firth, L. Borthwick. when it hath run by Borthwick (which hath Barons surnamed according to that name, and those deriving their Pedegree out of Hungary) by Newbottle, that is, The new building, some­times a fair Monastrey, now the Barony of Sir Mark Ker; by Dalkeith now belonging to the Dutchess of Buckcleugh, and from whence her eldest Son is designed Earl, a very pleasant Habitation of the late Earls of Morton; and by Musselburgh, hard under which in the year of our Lord 1547, when Sir Ed­ward Seymor Duke of Somerset, with an Army Royal had entred Scotland, to claim and challenge the keeping of a Covenant made, concerning a Marriage between Mary Queen of Scotland, and Edward the sixth King of England, there hapned the heaviest Day that ever fell, to the adventurous Youth of the most noble Families in all Scotland, who there lost their lives, at Pinky-Cleugh.

The Dignity of the Lord Borthwick is not now claimed by any. Mark Commendator of Newbottle an extraordinar Lord of Session anno 1569, after his decease was succeeded by his Son Mark also Commendator of Newbottle in the same Office in the year 1584, at which [Page 37] time he was Master of Requests, which he en­joyed long after; and obtained of King James the sixth the Erection of that Abbacy in a temporal Lordship to him and his Heirs, in October 1591; who was thereafter created Earl of Lothian, E. Lothian. by the same King anno 1606; whose Grandchild Anna Countess of Lothian was married to William Ker eldest Son of Ancrum, of the Family of Ferneherst; he was by King Charles the first created Earl of Lothian, of which Marriage is descended Robert now Earl of Lothian Justice-general, with the precedency of his great Grand-father, and was Commissioner to the General Assem­bly; he is Sheriff of the Shire of Edinburgh: The Dignity of the Earl of Ancrum was con­veyed to the younger Brother, and the eldest Son of this Family is Lord Jedburhg, a Peer as hath been said. Near to this place was the Seat of Sir William Cranston of that Ilk, who was created Lord Cranston by King James the sixth,L. Cronstoun. and is the last Lord marked in the Rolls of Parliament 1612, whose Descendants enjoyes that Title and Dignity, and reside in Teviotdale. As also the Residence of Sir James Mcgill of Cranston-riddel Baronet, who being one of the Lords of Session,V. Oxenford. was created Vis­count of Oxenford by King Charles the second, whose Son is Robert now Viscount of Oxenford, his Grand-father was Mr. David Mcgill of Nisbet, Advocat to King James the sixth, and one of the Lords of Session; his Grand Uncle Mr. James Mcgill was Clerk Register to [Page 38] Queen Mary and King James the sixth, and one of the Lords of Session; and his Uncle Mr. David Mcgill of Cranston-riddel, also a Lord of Session. Upon the Sea-side is the Town of Prestoun, V. Prestoun. from which Sir Richard Graham had the Title of Viscount of Prestoun conferred on him by King Charles the second in the year 1681. In this Shire of Edinburgh is the Castle of Dalhousie, which belongeth to the antient Family of the Ramsays, who by King James the sixth was created Lord Ram­say, and is marked in the Rolls of Parliament 1621 after the Lord Carnagy, and by King Charles the first anno 1633,L. Dalhousie. was made Earl of Dalhousie, whose Granchilds Grandchild is William Earl of Dalhousie, General Major George Ramsay is his Uncle. Near to Edinburgh is the Castle of Marchistoun, which belonged to the Napers; Sir Archibald Naper of Marchi­stoun Baronet, was Thesaurer-deput to K. Cha. the first, and an ordinar Lord of Session, who in the beginning of that Reign was created Lord Naper, L. Naper. whose Grandchild Margaret La­dy Naper doth succeed him, and hath a Son to succeed her; their Residence now is near to Dumblane. Here is not to be passed over in silence this inscription, which. John Naper, a learned Man, Predecessor to the Lord Na­per, hath in his Commentaries upon the Apocalyps recorded to have been here dig­ged up, and which the right learned Knight Sir Peter Young, Teacher and Trainer of King James the sixth in his youth, in this wise more truly copied forth. [Page 39] APOLLINI
GRANNO
Q. LUSIUS
SABINIA­NUS
Procurator. PROC:
AUG:
Votum suscep­tum solvit lu­bens merito. V. S. S. LV. M.’

Who this Apollo Granus might be,Apollo Gra­nus. and whence he should have this Name, not one to my knowledge, of our grave Senate of An­tiquaries hitherto could ever tell: But if I might be allowed, from out of the lowest bench, to speak what I think, I would say that Apollo Granus amongst the Romans, was the same that [...], that is, Apol­lo with long hair amongst the Greeks: for Ifi­dor calleth the long hair of the Gothes, Gran­nos.

Lower yet, and near unto the Scotish Forth, is seated Edinburgh, Edinburgh, the Metrapoli­tan City. which the Irish Scots call Dun Edin, that is, the Town Edin, or Edin Hill, and which no doubt is the very same that Ptolomy named [...], that is, The winged Castle: for Adain in the British Tongue signifieth a Wing: and Edinburgh (a word compounded out of the British and [Page 40] Saxon Language) is nothing else but The Burgh with Wings. From Wings therefore we must fetch the reason of the Name: and fetched it may be, if you think good, either from the Companies of Horsemen, which are called Wings, or else from those Wings in Ar­chitecture, which the great Master builders term Petromata, that is, as Vetruvius shew­eth, two Walls so rising up in height, as that they resemble a shew of Wings: Which, for that a certain City of Cyprus wanted, it was called in old time (as we read in the Geogra­phers) Aptera, that is, without Wings. But if any Man believe that the Name was deri­ved from Ebrauk a Britain, or from Heth a Pict, good leave have he for me, I will not con­front them with this my conjecture.

This City in regard of the high situation, of the wholsome Air and plentiful Soil, and ma­ny Noblemens towred Houses built round a­bout it, watered also with clear springing Fountains, reaching from East to West a Mile out in length, and carrying half as much in bredth, is worthily counted the chief City of the whole Kingdom, strongly walled, adorned with Houses as well publick as pri­vat, well Peopled and frequented, by reason of the opportunity from the Sea, which the neighbour Haven at Leith affordeth. And as it is the Seat of the Kings, so is it the Oracle also, or Closet of the Laws, and the very Palace of Justice. For the high Courts of Parliament are here for the most part holden, [Page 41] for the enacting and repelling of Laws: also the Session, and the Court of the Kings Ju­dicators, and of the Commissariat, whereof I have spoken already, are here settled and kept.

On the East-side, hard unto the Monastry of Saint Crosse, or Holyruide, is the Kings Pallace, which King David the first built, and was burnt by Oliver Cromwel: King Charles the second after his Restauration, did raise there a fair and stately Court and Pallace, all of Hewen Stone. In anno 1633, the City of Edinburgh did to their great Expense, build a stately Hall for the Meetings of the Parlia­ment, with other Rooms adjoyning for the Session, and above Stairs for the Privy Coun­cil and Exchequer, with a large Closs or Yard, to the South of St. Giles-Church, sur­rounded from the Entry with that Church, and other fair high Buildings, all in Hewen Stone, and in the middle is raised a stately Statue of King Charles the second on Horse-Back in Brass. And to the South-west, on a rising Ground, is a curious and large Hospi­tal, built with the Money left by George He­riot Gold-smith, which doth entertain above an hundred young Boys, Children of decay­ed Burgesses. This City is well watered with five large Fountains on the high and broad Street thereof. In this City also, by King James the sixth an University was foun­ded over which, within a large Park, riseth an Hill with two Heads, called of Arthur the [Page 42] Britaine, Arthurs Chair. On the West side, a most steep Rock, mounteth up aloft to a stately hight every way, save only where it looketh toward the City: On which is pla­ced a Castle, with many a Tower in it, so strong that is counted impregnable, which the Britains called Castle Myned Agned, the Scots, The Maidens Castle, and the Virgins Castle, of certain young Maidens of the Picts royal Blood, who were kept there in old time, and which may seem in truth to have been that Castrum Alatum, or Castle with a Wing abovesaid. John Bothwel Commendator of Holy-rud-house, who being one of these Ho­nourable persons who attended King James the sixth to England, in the year 1603, was by him created a temporal Lord of Holy-rud-house in the year 1607,L. Holy-rud-house. which Honour is now extinct, he was a Lord of the Session, as also was his fa­ther Adam Bishop of Orkney, who excambed that Bishoprick with Robert Stuart for the Abbacie of Holy-rud-house, and the Heir of the one became Earl of Orkney, and the Heir of the other Lord Holy-rud-house: In the Institution of the Colledge of Justice, Mr. Richard and Francis Bothwels were nominat­ed two of the Lords of Session. Near to Edinburgh, is Brughtoun, which belonged to the Family of the Ballendens, and Sir Wil­liam Ballenden being Thesaurer Deput to King Charles the second, was by him made Lord Ballenden of Brughtoun about the year 1661,L. Ballenden. whose Honour was conveyed to John [Page 43] Ker now Lord Ballenden, Uncle to the pre­sent Earl of Roxburgh, who carries the Name and Arms of Ballenden: Of this Family, were Sir John Ballenden of Auchinnoul, Ju­stice Clerk, and one of the ordinar Lords of Session in the Reign of Queen Mary and King James the sixth; and Sir Lewis Ballen­den also of Auchinnoul, Justice Clerk, and an ordinar Lord of the Session; in the Reign of King James the sixth, by Cnarter under the Great Seal, Sir John Ballenden foresaid, had the Heretable Office of Usher to the Exche­quer, which is transmitted to the Lord Bal­lenden, and is exerced by a Deput named by him. Fairfax an English Gentlemen, was created Lord Cameron, L. Cameron. who is in the Rolls of Parliament 1633, his Successor Thomas Lord Fairfax is a Member of the House of Com­mons for the County of York in this current Parliament. Richardson an English Gentle­man, was created Lord Cramond. L. Cramond. About the same time Lord Forrester of Corstorphine was created by King Charles the first anno 1633. George Lord Forrester of Corstorphine is one of the Commissioners for the holding of the Par­liament 1633,L. Forrester. and yet in the Rolls of the same Parliament, he is marked Sir George Forrester for the Shire of Edinburgh, so that he hath been Nobilitat after he was chosen for the Shire, and before the sitting of the Parliment, his Grand-child is William Lord Forrester.

How Edinburgh in the alternative Fortune of Wars was subject one while to the Scots, [Page 44] and another while to the English, who inha­bited this East part of Scotland, until it be­came wholly under the Scots Dominion, about the year of our Salvation 960, what time the English Empire sore shaken with the Danish Wars, lay as it were gasping and dying.

How also, as an old Book of the Division of Scotland, in the Library of the right honourable Lord Burghly sometime high Thesaurer of Eng­land, sheweth:Oppidum Eden. Whiles Indulph reigned, the Town of Eden was voided and abandoned to the Scots unto this present day, as what variable Changes of reciprocal Fortune it hath felt from time to time, the Historiographers do relate, and out of them ye are to be informed.

A Mile from hence lyeth Leith, Leith. a most com­modious Haven, hard upon the River Leith, which when Dessey the French­man, for the security of Edinburgh had fortified, by reason of many men repair­ing thither, within a short time from a mean Village, it grew to be a big Town. Again, when Francis the second King of France, had taken to Wife Mary the Queen of Scots, the Frenchmen, who in Hope and Conceit had al­ready devoured Scotland, and began now to gape for England, in the year 1560, sttength­ned it with more Fortifications. But Eliza­beth Queen of England, solicited by the Nobles of Scotland that embraced the reformed Reli­gion to side with them, by her Puissance and Wisdom effected, that both they return­ed into France, and these their Fortifications [Page 45] were laid level with the Ground, and Scotland ever since hath been freed from the French. As also, near this place is New-Haven, from which an English Gentleman of the Name of Cheney, (being by K. Charles the second anno 1681, created Viscount) got the Designa­tion of Viscount of New-Haven. V. New-Haven.

Where this Forth groweth more and more narrow, it had in the midst of it the City Caer Guidi, as Bede noteth, which now may seem to be the Island named Inchkeith. Whether this were that Victoria which Ptolomy mentio­neth, I will not stand to prove; although a man may believe, that the Romans turned this Guidh into Victoria, as well as the Isle Guith or Wight into Victesies or Vecta: truely seing both these Islands be dissevered from the shore, the same Reason of the Name will hold in both Languages. For Ninius hath taught us, that Guith in the British Tongue betoken­eth a separation.

In West-Lothian, The Shire of Linlithgow. the first remarkable place in the same Forth, is the Burgh ofB. Royal. Queens-Ferry, supposed to be called from Saint Mar­garet, Queen to King Malcom Canmore, as the shortest and easiest Passage over the River of Forth to Dumfermling, where she did much reside, and began to found that Monastry. Upon the same Forth is situat Abercorn, in Bedes time a famous Monastry, which by the gracious favour of King James the sixth gave unto James Hamilton eldest Son to Claud Ha­milton, first Commendator and then Lord of [Page 46] Pasley youngest Son to the Duke of Chattel­rault, the Title of Lord of Pasley in Renfrew, he is ranked after the Lord Torphichen, [...]nd before the Lord Newbottle; James his said Son was created Lord Abercorn about the year 1603, and is ranked after the Lord Kin­loss, and before Balmerinoch; and in the year 1606 was created Earl of Abercorn, E. Abercorn. which Title is enjoyed by Hamilton Lord Stra­band an Irish Peer, descended of the first Earls of Abercorn. And fast beside it stand­eth Blackness Castle,Blackness. and beneath it South­ward, the anctient City Lindum, whereof Ptolomy maketh mention, which the better learned as yet call Linlithgow, B. Royal. commonly Lith­gow, beautified and set out with a very fair House of the Kings, a goodly Church, and a fishful Lake; of which Lake it may seem to have assumed that Name: For Lin, in the British Tongue soundeth as much as a Lake. A Sheriff it had in times past by inheritance out of the Family of the Hamiltons of Peyle; and now in our days it hath for the first Earl, Sir Alexander Livingston, whom King James the sixth raised from the Dignity of a Baron, wherein his Ancestors had flourished a long time, to the Honour of an Earl. In the same Shire is situat Livingstoun, the Peyle of Livingstoun, which was burnt by Oli­ver Cromwell, and did antiently belong to the Family of Livingston, who from the seat and sirname were first designed Lairds of Living­stoun: And afterward Callender of that Ilk [Page 47] being Forfaulted for adhering to the Baliol. A Daughter of that Family was married to Li­vingstoun, who by Right of Blood, and Grant from King Robert the Bruce, obtained the Lands and Barony of Callender, whose Suc­cessor Sir Alexander Livingston of Callender was great Counsellor to King James the first, and by him appointed Governour to King James the second; himself or his Heir was created Lord Livingstoun: Alexander Lord Livingstoun about the year 1603, was by King James the sixth created Earl of Linlith­gow, and was one of the Commissioners for the Union 1604.E. Linlithgow. George Earl of Linlithgow, great Grand child to the first Earl, doth pre­sently enjoy the Dignity, and is one of the Commissioners of the Thesaury. Near to Livingstoun is the Castle of Calder, which an­tiently belonged to the Family of Sandilands; in the Reign of Queen Mary 1563, Sir James Sandilands being Preceptor of Torphichen, and Lord of St. John, L. Torphichen. was created Lord Torphi­chen, whose Successor Walter Lord Torphichen doth enjoy the Title. The Sheriffdom of Linlithgow being annexed to the Barony of Abercorn, it doth belong to Charles Hope of Hoptoun, Hoptoun. who doth inherit the Barony and Sheriffship.

CHAP. VIII.
SELGOVAE.

BEneath the Gadeni, toward the South and West, where now are the small Territories of Liddesdale, Eusdale, Eskdale, Annandale, and Nidesdale, so called of little Rivers running through them, which all lose themselves in Solway Firth, dwelt in antient times the Selgovae; the Reliques of whose name seemed to the Author to remain in that name Solway.

In Lidesdale there riseth aloft Armitage, Liddesdale. so called, because it was in times past dedicated to a solitary life; of old a very strong Castle, which belonged to the Hepburns, who draw their Original from a certain Englishman a prisoner, whom the Earl of Merch, for deliver­ing him out of a danger, greatly enriched. These were Earls of Bothwell in Clydsdale, L. Bothwel. and a long time by the right of inheritance Admi­rals of Scotland: But by a Sister of James Earl of Bothwell, the last of the Hepburns, married unto John Prior of Coldinghame, base Son to King James the fifth (who begat many Bastards) the Title & Inheritance both came un­to his Son now extinct. Hard by is Branksholm, the Habitation of the warlike Family of Buck­cleugh, surnamed Scot; of whom already in Teviotdale, or the Shire of Roxburgh, where Branksholm is situat▪ beside many little Piles or [Page 49] Forts of military Men every where. In Eus­dale, one would deem by the affinity of the Name, that old Vzellum, mentioned by Ptolomy, stood by the River Euse.

In Eskdale some are of Opinion that the Horesti dwelt, into whose Borders Julius Agricola, when he had subdued the Britains inhabiting this Tract, brought the Roman Army: especially if we read Horesci insteed of Horesti. For Ar-Esc in the British Tongue betokeneth a Place by the River Eske. The Author hath disjoyned this Chapter too far from the Description of Teviotdale, but gives an Entry to treat of Annandale.

CHAP. IX.
ANNANDALE.

UNto this on the West side adjoyneth Annandale, This Stewart­try lyes in Dumfreis Shire that is, The Vale by the River Annan; into which the Access by Land is very difficult. The Places of greater note here­in are these;B. Royal. a Castle and Town by Lough-Maban, three parts whereof are environed with Water, and strongly walled, and the Town Annan at the very mouth almost of the River Annan: B, Royal▪ which lost all the Glory and Beauty it had by the English War, in the Reign of Edward the sixth.

In this Territory, the Johnstons are Men of greatest Name; a Kindred even bred to War: between whom and the Maxwels there [Page 50] hath been professed an open Enmity over long, even to deadly Feud and Blood-shed: which Maxwels by Right from their Ancest­ors, had the Rule of this Seneschalsie or Stewartrie, for so it is accounted. This Vale Edgar King of Scots, after he was re­stored to his Kingdom by auxiliary Forces out of England, gave in Consideration and Reward of good Service,L. Annandale unto Robert Bruse or Brus Lord of Cliveland in York-shire; who with the good favour of the King bestowed it upon Robert his younger Son, when him­self would not serve the King of Scots in his Wars. From him flowered the Bruses Lords of Annandale, of whom Robert Brus married Isobel the Daughter of William King of Scots by the Daughter of Robert Avenal: His Son likewise, Robert the third of that Name, wed­ded the Daughter of David Earl of Hunting­ton and of Garioch: whose Son Robert sur­named The Noble, when the Issue of Alexan­der the third King of Scots failed, challenged in his Mothers Right the Kingdom of Scot­land, before Edward the first King of England, (as the direct and superiour Lord of the King­dom of Scotland, (so the English give it out) or, an honourable Arbitrator (for so say the Scots) as being nearer in proximity, in De­gree and Bloud, to King Alexander the third and Margaret Daughter to the King of Nor­way, although he was the Son by a second Sister, who soon after resigning up his own Right, grant­ed and gave over to his Son Robert Brus, Earl [Page 51] of Carrick,E. Carrick. to his Heirs (the Author al­ledges this out of the very Original) all the Right and Claim which he had or might have to the Kingdom of Scotland. But the Action and Suit went with John Balliol, who sued for his Right, as descended of the eldest Sister, although in a degree farther off: and Sentence was given in these words. For that the Per­son more remote in the second Degree, descend­ing in the first Line, is to be preferred before a nearer in a second Line, in the succession of an Inheritance that cannot be parted. Howbeit the said Robert, Son to the Earl of Carrick, by his own vertue, at length recovered the King­dom unto himself, and established it to his Posterity. A Prince, who as he flourished notably, in regard of the glorious Ornaments of his Noble Acts, so he triumphed as happi­ly with invincible Fortitude & Courage, over Fortune that so often crossed him. Sir Richard Murray of Cock-pool Baronet was first created Viscount of Annan, V. Annan. & is so designed in the year 1623, and thereafter in the 1624, was by King James the sixth created Earl of Annandale. E. Annandale Murray. The Laird of Johnstoun was created Lord John­stoun by King Charles the first, anno 1633, and by the same King made Earl of Hartfield, E. Hartfield. and so designed in the rescinded Parliament 1644: and by King Charles the second after the Re­stauration, the Title of Earl of Hartfield was changed into that of the Earl of Annandale, E. Annandale Johnstoun. (the Dignity of Annandale Murray being ex­tinct) and William the present Earl is a Privy [Page 52] Counsellor, and extraordinar Lord of Session, and now Hereditary Stewart of Annandale.

CHAP. X.
NIDISDALE.

CLose unto Annandale on the West-side lyeth Nidisdale, The Shire of Dumfreis. sufficiently furnished with Corn-fields and Pastures; so nam­ed of the River Nid, which in Ptolomy is wrongly written Nobius, for Nodius or Ni­dius: of which Name there be other Rivers in Britain, full of shallow Foords and muddy Shelves, like as this Nid is also. It springeth out of the Lake Logh-Cure, by which flowrished Corda, a Town of the Selgovae. He taketh his course first by Sanquher a Town and Castle of the Creightons, B. Royal. who a long time kept a great Port, as enjoying the Dignity of the Barons of Sanquher, and the Authority besides of He­reditary Sheriffs of Nidisdale. Afterwards by King james the sixth, anno 1622, was created William Viscount of Air, and by K. Cbarles the first anno 1633, Earl of Dumfreis, E. Dumfreis. whose great Grand-child is Penelope Countess of Dumfreis. then by Morton, which gave Title of Earl to some of the Family of Dow­glas, out of which others of that Sirname have their Mansion and Abiding at Drumlan­rig. The Laird of Drumlanrig was one of the Commissioners to the Parliament 1617, for the Shire of Dumfreis, and being a Baron of a great Estate, was at his first Promotion crea­ted [Page 53] Viscount of Drumlanrig, after the Vis­count of Air, and is so Ranked in the Rolls of Parliament 1633, and in the same year was created Earl▪ of Queensberry, whose Grandchild William Earl of Queensberry was first created Marquess,D. Queens­berry thereafter Duke of Queensberry by King Charles the second, and was Lord high Thesaurer of Scotland, and Commissioner to the Parliament anno 1685, and did enjoy other great Offices and Ho­nours, (The Lordship of Sanquhar and She­riff-ship of Dumfreis, was purchased by the Earl of Queensberry from the Earl of Dum­freis, whose Residence since hath been at Leifnoris, near Cumnock, a Regality belong­ing to them in Kingskyle in the Shire of Air:) The Duke of Queensberries eldest Son, is James Earl of Drumlanrig, who besides other Offices enjoyed by him, is one of the Commissioners of the Thesaury; and by a special Commission did represent the Lord High Thesaurer in the last Session of this cur­rent parliament. I cannot pass over in silence his Uncle, James Dowglas of Scraling, second Son to James the second Earl of Queensberry, who being an expert Captain, and Lieutenant General, was joyned with the Duke of Schomberg in the first Expediti­on into Ireland 1689, where he continued that year and the next, until he went with the Army into Flanders in the year 1691, where he died, leaving Children by his Wife Anna Hamilton, Daughter to the Laird of [Page 54] Red-house, of the Family of Haddingtoun. Also a Natural Son of the Regent Mortons, was created by King James the sixth Lord Tothorwald, L. Tothorwald it seems betwixt the year 1585, at which time the natural Children of the said Earl were restored, and the year 1592, Tothorwald being ranked in the Rolls of Par­liament 1612, before the Lord Thirlestane, al­beit omitted out of the Decreet of Ranking 1606, his Honours are now extinct, but many considerable Persons are descended of him, his Lands being purchased by the Family of Queensberry, is one of the Titles of the present Duke. By the same River, near unto the Mouth whereof standeth Dumfreis, B. Royal. between two Hills, the most flourishing Town of this Tract; which hath to shew also an old Castle in it, famous for making of Woollen Clothes, and remarkable for the Murder of John Commin, the mightiest man for Manred and Retinew in all Scotland; whom Robert Brus, for fear he should fore-close his way to the Kingdom, ran quite through with his Sword in the Church, & soon obtained his Par­don from the Pope, for committing that Mur­der in a Sacred place. Near unto the Mouth, is Solway, a little Village which retaineth still somewhat of the old Name of Selgovae: Up­on the very mouth, is situat Caer-Laverock, which Ptolomy I suppose called Carbantorigum, accounted an impregnable Fort; when King Edward the first, accompanied with the floure of English Nobility, besieged, and [Page 55] hardly won it: but now it is a weak Dwel­ling-house of the Barons of Maxwel, who be­ing men of an ancient and noble Linage, were a long time Wardens of these West Marches, and of late advanced by Marriage with the Daughter of one of the Heirs of the Earl of Morton; whereby John Lord Maxwel was declared Earl of Morton upon the Forfaulture of the Regent Morton, and is designed John Earl of Morton in the Parliament 1581, and the Dowglasses being restored to the Dignity of Earl of Morton in the Parliament 1585, the E. of Angus, Nephew to the Regent, was first vested with that Earldom; Thereafter it came to the Laird of Loch-Leven, of which Fa­mily was William E. of Morton, Thesaurer to K. Ch. the first,E. Morton. and James now Earl of Morton, is his Grandchild. The Lord Maxwel was crea­ted by King James the sixth Earl of Nithsdale, E. Nithsdale. with the same precedency he would have had when created E. of Morton, which Dignity his Successor William now E. of Nithsdale doth en­joy: As also by the Daughter and Heir of Lord Hereis of Taregles, L. Hereis. whom J. a younger Son of the Family of Maxwel took to Wise, and obtained by her the Title of Baron Hereis. The Heirs of the eldest Son of the Earl of Nithsdale failing in the Reign of King Charles the second, the Lord Hereis succeeded to be Earl of Nithsdale, and so the lesser Dignity of Hereis is swallowed up in the greater of the Earl Nithsdale, and is now in the person of the present Earl. Moreover, in this Vale [Page 56] by the Lake side lyeth Glencairn, Glencairn. whence the Cunninghams, of whom I am to write more in place convenient, bare a long time the Title of Earl.

This Nithsdale, together with Annandale, nourisheth a War-like kind of Men, who have been infamous for Robberies and De­predations; for they dwell upon Solway Frith, a foordable Arm of the Sea at Low-waters, through which they made many times Out-rodes into England for to fetch in Booties, and in which the Inhabitants thereabout on both sides with pleasant Pastime and delight­ful Sight on Horse-back with Spears hunt Salmons, whereof there is abundance. What manner of Cattel-stealers these be, that inha­bite these Vales in the Marches of both King­doms, John Lesly, Bishop of Ross, will tell you in these Words. The behaviour of Scotish Bor­derers. They go forth in the Night by Troops out of their own Borders, through de­sart by-ways, and many winding Crankies. All the day time they refresh their Horses, and re­creat their own Strength in lurking places ap­pointed before hand, until they be come thither at length, in the dark Night where they would be. When they have laid hold of a Bootie, back again they return home likewise by Night, through blind ways only, and fetching many a compasse about; The more skillful any Leader or Guide is, to pass through those wild Desarts, crooked turnings, and steep Down-falls, in the thickest Mists and deepest Darkness, he is held in greater Reputati­on, as one of an excellent Wit: And so Crafty [Page 57] and Wily these are, that seldom or never they for­go their Booty, and suffer it to be taken out of their hands, unless it happen otherwhiles that they be caught by their Adversaries following con­tinually after, and tracting them directly by their footing, according as quick-senting Slugh-hounds do lead them. But say they be taken, so fair spoken they are and eloquent, so many sugared words they have at will, sweetly to plead for them▪ that they are able to move the Judges and Adver­saries both, be they never so Austere and Severe, if not to Mercy, yet to Admiration, and some Commiseration withal.

CHAP. XI.
NOVANTES, GALLOWAY.

FRom Nithsdale as you go on west-ward, the Novantes inhabited in the Vales, all that Tract which runneth out far and wide toward the West, between the Sea and Dun­britain Frith, or Clyd-forth: yet so indented and hollowed with Nooks and Creeks, that here and there it is drawn into a narrow Room, and then again in the very utmost Skirt it openeth and spreadeth it self abroad at more Liberty: whereupon some have called it the Chersonesus, that is, The Biland of the Novantes. But at this day their Countrey containeth Galloway, Galloway: Carrick, Kyle, and Cun­ninghame.

[Page 58] Galloway, in the Latine Writers of the middle time,The Stewart­rie of Kirkcud­bright. Gaelwallia and Galovidia, so called of the Irish, who in times past dwelt there, and term themselves short in their own Language Gael, is a Countrey rising up eve­ry where with Hills, that are better for feed­ing of Cattel than bearing of Corn: the In­habitants practise Fishing, as well within the Sea lying round about them, as in little Ri­vers, and the Loches or Myres in every place standing full of Water at the foot of the Hills: out of which in September they take in Weels and Weer-nets, an incredible Num­ber of most sweet and savourie Eels, where­by they make no less gain than others do by their little Naggs, which for being well Limmed, fast knit, and strongly made to en­dure Travail, are most in request, and bought from hence. Among these, the first place that offereth it self by the River Dea, menti­oned in Ptolomy, which keeping the Name still full and whole, they call Dee, is Kirk­cudbright, the most commodious Port of this Coast, and the second Stwartrie of Scotland, B. Royal. which belongs Heretably to the Earls of Niths­dale. The Family of Mcclellan of Bomby, was dignifyed by King Charles the first, about the year 1633, with the Title of Lord Kirkcud­bright, L. Kirkcud­bright. but at present no person claims that Dignity▪ Then Cardines, a Fort set upon a craggie and high Rock by the River Fleet, and fenced with strong Walls. Near unto it [Page 59] the River Ken, corruptly read in Ptolomy Jena, runneth into the Sea.

On this River standeth Kenmore, from which Alexander Gordon, now Viscount of Kenmore is designed,V. Kenmore. whose Predecessor was dignified with that Title by King Charles the first before the year 1633, descended from an antient Family of the Gordons of Stitchel near Kelso, and Lochinvar in this Stewartrie: near to Kenmore, B. Royal. is New-Galloway a Burgh Royal.

After it is Wigton, The Shire of Wigton. an Haven Town with a narrow Entrance unto it,B. Royal. between the two Rivers, Bluidnoo and Crea, which also is counted a Sheriffdom, over which Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochna [...] Baronet, is Heretable She­riff, and a Member for that Shire to this cur­rent Parliament. In times past, it had for Lord, Archibald Douglas, renowned in the French War, and by the Favour of King James the Sixth, John Lord Fleming of Cum­mernald, who deriveth his Pedegree from the antient Earls of Wigton, E. Wigtoun. was created Earl of Wigton, whose Posterity doth still enjoy that Honour.

Near unto this, Ptolomy placed the City Leucopibia, Leucopibia. which I know not, to say truth, where to seek. Yet that place requireth that it should be that Episcopal Seat of Ninian, which Bede calleth Candida Casa, and the English and Scots in the very same sense Whit­hern: What say you then,B. Royal. if Ptolomy after his manner translated that Name in Greek [...], that is, White-houses (in stead [Page 60] whereof theO [...]piers. Transcribers have thrust upon us Leucopibia) which the Brittains termed Candida Casa. Hern a House or Habitation. In this place Ninia or Ninian the Brittain, an holy Man, the first that in­structed the South-Picts in Christian Faith, in the Reign of the Emperor Theodosius the younger, had his Seat, and built a Church consecrated to the Memory of Saint Martin, after a manner unusual among the Brittains, as Bede saith, who wrote that the English in his time held this Countrey, and when the Num­ber of the faithful Christians multiplied, an Episcopal See was erected at this Candida Casa. A little higher there is a Bi-land, ha­ving the Sea insinuating it self on both sides with two Bayes: The Loch of Lucé, on the South toward Whit-hern, and Loch-rian to the North, designed Abravanus, which being set a little out of his own place, is so called of Ptolomy, for Aber-Ruanus, that is, The mouth of Ruan. For at this day that River is named Rian, and the Lake out of which it floweth, Loch-Rian, exceeding full of Herrings & Stone­fishes. On this Lake standeth Stranrawer, B. Royal. a Burgh-Royal; the Promontory or point by which it entereth into the sea, is called the point of Corsehill stretching to Cantyre, and on the other side is Port-Patrick, a known Sea-port, opposite to Donaghadee in Ireland, & from thence running southward to the point of the Mule. The land betwixt the two points of Corsehill and the Mule, is called the Rinnes of Galloway, perhaps, because the points run [Page 61] out narrow a great length into the sea, and are twenty four Miles distant▪ And to the south of Lochrian is another Bay, called the Loch or Bay of Luce, running betwixt the points of the Mule and Whitehern, opposite to the Isle of Man, the neck of land interje­cted betwixt the Lakes joining the Rinnes to the Main-land, is six mile broad, and near to the midst whereof in a little rising ground, standeth the Castle of the Inch among the Lakes: on this Bay is the Vale or Glen of Luce, where there was an Abbey founded by Rolland Lord of Galloway, father to Allan, confirmed by the King with a Regality; whereof the Viscount of Stair is hereditary Baillie.

This Galloway had in times past Princes and Lords over it:Lords of Gallo­way. of whom the first recor­ded in Chronicles was Fergus, in the Reign of Henry the first King of England, who gave for his Arms, A Lyon rampant Arg, Crowned, Or, in a Shield Azur: who after many troubles that he had stirred, was driven to this exi­gent by King Malcolm, that he gave his Son Vcthred to the King for an Hostage, and himself weary of this world, took the Habit of a Chanon at Holy-rud-house in Edinburgh. As for Vcthred, Gilbert his younger Brother took him Prisoner in Battel, and when he had cut out his Tongue, and plucked his Eyes forth of his Head, he cruelly bereaved him both of Life and Inheritance. But with­in some few years, when Gilbert was dead, [Page 62] Vcthreds Son recovered his fathers Inheri­tance, who of a Sister of William Morvill Constable of Scotland, begat Allan Lord of Galloway, Constable of Scotland. and Constable of Scotland: This Allan, by Margaret the eldest Daughter of David Earl of Huntingtoun, had Dervolgilda wife to John Balliol, and the Mother of John Balliol King of Scotland, who contend­ed with Robert Brus for the Kingdom of Scot­land; and by a former Wife as it seemeth, he had Helen, married to Roger Quincy Earl of Winchester, who thereby was Constable of Scotland, like as William Ferrars of Groby, the Nephew of the said Roger, by a Daughter and one of the Heirs: But these Englishmen soon lost their Inheritance in Scotland, as also the Dignity of Constably, which the Cummins Earls of Buchan, descended likewise from a Daughter of Roger Quincy obtained, until it was translated unto the Earls of Errol. But the Title of the Lords of Galloway fell af­terward to the Family of the Dowglasses.

And now the Title of Earl of Galloway be­longeth to the Family of Stuarts of Garleis, an antient Family of the name of Stuart, which being first dignified by King James the Sixth, about the year 1609, with the Title of Lord of Garleis, is marked in the Rolls of Par­liament after the Lord Haly-rood-house, and before the Lords Cowper, Maitherty, Kintail, and Cranstoun; he was also created by the same King about the year 1622,E. Galloway. Earl of Gal­loway, and is ranked in the Rolls of Parlia­ment, [Page 63] next after the Earl of Haddingtoun: and James now Earl of Galloway, is the fifth Earl, and Great Grand-child of the first.

CHAP. XII.
CARRICTA. CARRICK.

NOw followeth Carrick upon Dumbritain Frith, The Shire of Air. lying on the East-side of Loch-Rian opposite to the Corse-hill fair to be seen with fresh Pastures;Baillairy of Carrick. supplyed both by Land and Sea with Commodities abundant­ly. In this Province Ptolomy placed Rerigo­nium a Creek, and Rerigonium a Town. For which Berigonium is read in a very antient Copy of Ptolomy, Berigonium Bargeny. printed at Rome in the year 1480, so that we cannot but verily think it was that which now is called Bargeny. A Lord it hath out of the Family of the Ken­nedies, which came forth of Ireland in the Reign of Robert Brus, and is in this Tract of high Birth, spread into many Branches, and of great power. The Chief of which Linage is the Earl of Cassils; for this is the Name of a Castle wherein he dwelleth by the River Dun: Upon the Bank whereof he hath also another Castle, Named Dunnure, his Predecessor was first designed of Dunnure, and being married to Mary Stuart, lawful daughter to King Robert the Third, whose Successor was first created Lord Kennedy, [Page 64] and thereafter Earl of Cassils, and John now Earl of Cassils, E. Cassils. is one of the Commissi­oners of the Thesaury. An ancient Fami­ly of the Kennedies, did possess the foremen­tioned Lands of Bargeny, which were purcha­sed from them by Sir John Hamilton, Son to John Marquess of Hamilton, whose Son Sir John, was created Lord Bargeny, by King Charles the First, Anno 1639, his Grand-child is William Lord Bargeny. L. Bargenie. The Earl of Cas­sils is the hereditary Bailiff of this Coun­trey. For this Carrick, together with Kyle and Cunninghame, are counted the three Bail­leries of Scotland, because they that govern these with an ordinary Power and Jurisdicti­on, are called Bailliffs, by a Term that came up in the middle times, and among the Greeks, Sicilians, and French men, signifieth a Conservator, Earls of Car­rick. or Protector. But in the Age aforegoing Carrick had Earls: for, to say no­thing of Gilbert of Galloway's,Book of Mel­rosse. Son unto whom King of William gave all Carrict to be possessed for ever, we read that Adam of Kilconcath, was about the year 1270. Earl of Carrick, and died serving in the Holy-land: whose only Daughter Martha fell extremely in love with Robert Bruce, a beautiful young Gentleman, as she saw him hunting, and thereupon made him her Husband, advanced him with the Title of Earl, and with Possessions: unto whom she bare Robert Bruce, that most re­nowned King of Scots, from whom the royal Line of the Kings is descended. But the [Page 65] Title of the Earl of Carrick being left for a time to the younger Sons of the Family of Bruce, afterwards among other honours en­creased the Stile of the Princes of Scotland. The Title of the Lord Kincleven in Perth-Shire was conferred by King James the Sixth, Anno 1607. and Earl of Carrick by King Charles the First,Stuart, E. Car­rick. upon John Stuart brother to Patrick Stuart, last Earl of Orkney, de­scended of King James the Fifth by a natu­ral Son, which is now Extinct.

CHAP. XIII.
KYLE.

MOre inward,The Shire of Air, Kings­kyle and Kyle­stewart. toward Clyds-forth, fol­loweth Kyle, plentiful in all things, and as well inhabited: In Bedes Auctarium, it is called Campus Cyel, that is, The Field Cy­el, and Coil: where it is recorded, That Ead­bert King of Northumberland annexed this with other Territories, unto his own Kingdom. In Ptolomy's time, there was known a place here named Vidogara, B. Royal. happily Air, which is a Sheriffdom, hath a Town also of Mer­chandise, and a well known Port by a River of the same name.

This Country lyeth between the River of Dune bordering Carrick, and the River of Irwine northward, bordering Cunninghame; and is divided in Kings-Kyle, under the Juris­diction of the Sheriff, which lyeth betwixt [Page 66] Dune on the South and West, and the Ri­vers of Air and Lougar running into Air on the North and East, including also the Paroch of Achinleck on the other side of Lougar; and Kyle-stewart containing the rest of the Coun­try, northward to the River of Irwine, which belonged anciently to the Stuarts of Scotland, since, to the Prince, the Kings eldest Son. The Wallaces Lairds of Craiggie, were here­table Stuarts, but now both Sheriffship and Stewartry being at the Kings disposal, are granted to one person; which Rivers hath many little Villages scattered along their Banks.L. Uchiltrie. Upon Lougar standeth Vchiltrie, sometime the Seat of the Stuarts of the Blood-Royal, as who issued from the Dukes of Alba­nie, and were created Lords of Vchiltrie, which Title is now failed, out of which House was that noble Robert Stuart, who kept continually with the Prince of Condie as an inseparable Companion, and was slain in Battle with him in France. Near to this place to the westward, on the River Air in Kings-kyle is situat Stair, the Inheritance of Sir James Dalrymple, Knight and Barro­net, who being learned▪ in the Laws, was admitted an ordinar Lord of Session, in the first nomination and settlement of the Judi­catory, by King Charles the Second, after his Restauration anno 1661, and President an­no 1671. And being removed from that Office in the year 1681, was by Their Ma­jesties, [Page 67] restored to be President of the Session in the year 1689. And in anno 1690, was created Viscount of Stair, V. Stair. whose eldest Son John Master of Stair, also an eminent Lawyer, after he had been honoured with several pub­lick Employments, was constitute one of the principal Secretaries of State, anno 1691. In this Country are the Crawfords and Camp­bels of Cessnock, and others of these Sirnames, all Families of good Note. The chief Mes­suage of the Stewartry of Kyle, was Dundo­nald, purchased by Sir William Cochran of Cowdoun, who was by King Charles the First, created Lord Cochran in the year 1648. And by King Charles the Second, appointed one of the Commissioners to the Thesaury, and by him created Earl of Dundonald about the year 1669.E. Dundonald. His great Grand-child is William Earl of Dundonald. The Government of this Jurisdiction belonged anciently to the Lairds of Lowdoun, as hereditary Sheriffs: who had many Lands in Kyle, albeit their chief Resi­dence was on the other side of the River of Irwine at Lowdoun in Cunninghame, from which they wer designed.

CHAP. XIV.
CUNNINGHAME.

CVnninghame adjoyning to Kyle on the east-side and on the north,The Shire of Air. Baillarie of Cunninghame. butteth upon the same Firth so close, that it restraineth the breadth thereof, which hi­therto lay out and spread at large. The Name, if one interpret it, is as much as the Kings Habitation: by which a man may guess how commodious and pleasant it is. This Territory is watered with Irwine, that di­videth it from Kyle: at the Spring-head, well near whereof, standeth Lowdoun the ancient dwelling place of the Crawfords, which by the Marriage of Sir Duncan Campbel of the Family of Lochaw, in Argyle Shire, with the Heiress, the Campbels did enjoy that Estate, with the Sheriff-ship of Air, or Kings Kyle annexed to it, as said is. Sir Hugh Campbel of Lowdoun, Sheriff of Air, was by King James the Sixth, about the year 1604, created Lord Lowdoun, whose Grand-child Lady Margaret Camp­bel, being married to Sir John Campbel of Law­ers, had the Title of Earl of Lowdoun from King Charles the First,E. Lowdoun. anno 1633. and was made Lord Chancellor anno 1641, in which Office he continued, until the year 1651, Earl James his Son died in Holland, and the Grand-child is Hugh now Earl of Lowdoun. [Page 69] King Charles the First, did redeem the She­riff-ship from John Earl of Lowdoun, which together with the Stuartry, is conferred by Their Majesties on Sir George Campbel of Cess­nock. The Earls of Lowdoun carries the Arms of the Crawfords▪ quartered with their own. Below Lawdoun on the River Irwine, lyeth Kilmarnock▪ the Habitation of the Lord Boyds; of whom in the Reign of K. James 3d, Robert, by a prosperous gale of Court-favour, was advanced to the Authority of Regent or Vice-roy, Thomas his Son, to the Dignity of Earl of Arran, and marriage with the Kings Sister. But soon after, when the said gale came about, and blew contrary, they were judged Enemies to the State: Thomas also had his Wife taken from him, and given unto James Lord Hamilton; their Goods were con­fiscate, Fortune made a game of them, and when they had lost all, they died in Exile: (This is the received History, but the Family of Hamilton doth contravert many of the Circumstances thereof.) Howbeit the Po­sterity of the Lord Boyd, recovered the anci­ent honour of Barons, and honourably enjoy it at this day. This Family was dignified with the Title of Earl of Kilmarnock by King Charles the Second,E. Kilmarnock. about the year 1661, and William now Earl of Kilmarnock, is the third Earl. At the mouth of this Ri­ver standeth Irwine, B. Royal. with an Haven so barred up with Shelves of Sand, and so [Page 70] shallow withall, that it can bear none other Vessels but small Barks and Boats. James, Brother to the Earl of Argyle, was created Lord Kintyre, E. Irwine. and then Earl of Irwine by King Charles the First. The former Dignity being extinct, Arthur Ingram an English man, was created Viscount of Irwine by King Charles the Second,V. Irwine. about the year 1661. Ardrossan also, a Pile belonging to the Montgomeries, more above standeth higher over the Creek: this is a very ancient and famous family as any other, who have to shew for witness of their warlike prowesse, Ioununy, a Fort built with the ransome money of Sir Henry Percie, sir­named Hot-spur, whom J. Montgomerie with his own hand, took prisoner in the Battle at Otterburn, and led away captive. Not far from Ardrossan is Largis, embrued with the Blood of the Norwegians by King Alexander the Third. From whence, as you follow the shore bending and giving in, you meet with Eglington a fair Castle, which was the Possession of certain Gentlemen highly de­scended of the same sirname: from whom it came by Marriage unto the Montgomeries, who thereby received the Title of Earls of Egling­ton. E. Eglington. Of this ancient Family of the Mont­gomeries, is descended Alexander now Earl Eglington, heretable Baillie of Cuninghame, and Lord of the Regality of Kilwinning, for­merly an Abbacie. But whence the said sir­name should come, a man can hardly tell: [Page 71] this I know, that out of Normandy it came into England, and that divers Families there, were of the same name: but that in Essex, from which Sir Thomas Montgomerie, Knight of the Order of the Garter, descended, in the Reign of Edward the Fourth, gave Arms a little different from these.

This noble Linage is fair and far spread, and out of those of Gevan, was that Gabriel de Lor­ges, called Earl of Montgomerie, Captain of the Guard of Scots (which Charles the Fifth King of France instituted for defence of his own person, and his Successors, in testimony of their fidelity, and his love toward them) who in running at Tilt, slew Henry the Se­cond, King of France, by occasion that a broken splint of his Spear, where the Helmet chanced to be open, entred at his Eye, and pierced into his Brain; and afterwards in that Civil War, wherein all France was in a broil, whiles he took part with the Protestants, he was apprehended and beheaded. But the Cunninghames in this Tract, were counted to be the greater and more numerous Family, the Chief whereof, enjoying the honour of Earl of Glencairn in Dumfreis-Shire, Dwelt at Kilmaurs in Cunninghame, and fetcheth his Descent out of England, and from an English Gentleman, who, together with others, kil­led Thomas Arch-bishop of Canterbury, the chief of which Family, was first created Lord Kilmaurs, E. Glencairn▪ and afterward Earl of Glencairn. [Page 72] John Son to William Earl of Glencairn, late Chancellor of Scotland is now Earl. How true this Descent is, I know not; but they ground it happily upon a probable Conje­cture, taken from an Arch-bishops Pall, which the Cuninghames give in their Coat of Arms.

CHAP. XV.
ISLE GLOTTA; OR, ARRAN.

WIthin the sight of Cunninghame, among sundry other Islands, Glotta, the Isle mentioned by Antonine the Emperour, beareth up his head, in the very Forth and Salt-water of the River Glot­in, or Cluyd, called at this day Arran, of a Castle bearing the same name. Inwardly it mounteth up altogether with high rising hills, at the bottom and foot whereof, along the Shore, it is well inhabited. The first Earl hereof that I can read of, was Thomas, eld­est Son to Robert Boyd, whose Wife and Earldom together, when Boyd was banished the Realm, James Lord Hamilton, as I said before, obtained, and his Posterity enjoyed the same Earldom, saving that Sir James Stu­art, appointed Guardian to James Hamil­ton Earl of Arran, when he was so defective [Page 73] in understanding, that he could not manage his Estate, took this Title in the right of being Guardian.

Near unto this standeth Bute, so called of a little Religious Cell which Brendanus found­ed (for so is a little religious Cell tearmed in the Scottish Tongue.)Rothsay Castle. In this Island is Rothsay Town and Castle,B. Royal. which giveth the Title of Dukedom unto the King of Scots eldest Son, who is born Prince of Scotland, Duke of Roth­say, and Seneschal of Scotland, since the time that King Robert the third invested Robert his eldest Son Duke of Rothsay, the first in Scot­land that ever was created Duke. With which Title also Queen Mary honoured Hen­ry Lord Darnly before she took him to be her Husband. Then shew themselves Hellan, sometimes called Hellan Leneow, that is, as Iohn Fordon interpreteth it, The Saints Islands, and Helen Tinoc, that is, The Swines Island, with a great number of other Islands of less Note and Reckoning in the same Forth. These Islands are erected in a Sheriffdom, and Sir James Stuart of Bute descended of a Son of King Robert the second,Sheriff of Bute. is Heretable Sheriff thereof.

CHAP. XVI.
DAMNII, CLYDSDALE, &c.

BEyond the Novantes, more inward, by the River Glotta or Clyd, and farther still even to the very East-Sea, dwelt in times past the Damnii, in those Countries, if I have any Judgment (for in things so far remote from our Remembrance, and in so thick a Mist of Obscurity, who can speak of Certainty?) which are now called Clydsdale, the Barony of Renfrew, Lennox, Stirling­shire, Monteith, and Fife.

Near unto the head of Clyde in Crawford Moor, among the wild Wastes; certain Hus­band men of the countrey, after great store of violent Rain, happened to find certain small Pieces like scrapings of Gold, which gave great hope of much Riches, since that Sir Beamis Bulmer undertook with great endeavour, to find out here a Mine of gold; near to which place, are the Lead-mines be­longing to the Laird of Hoptoun. The Castle of Crawford, E Crawford. together with the Title of the Earl of Crawford, was by Robert the Second, King of Scots, given unto Sir James Lindsey, who by a single Combate performed with Baron Welles an English man, won high Commendation for his Valour. These Lind­seys have deserved passing well of their [Page 75] Country, and are of ancient Nobility, ever since that Sir William Lindsey married one of the Heirs of William of Lancaster, Lord of Kandale in England, whose Neice in the third Degree of lineal Descent, was married unto the most honourable Family of Coucy in France. The Dignity of the Earl of Craw­ford was conveyed to the Lord Lindsey, of whom hereafter. Clyde, after he hath from his Spring-head with much strugling,L. Somervel. got out northward by Baron Somervels house, called Carnwath, which being purchased by the Fa­mily of Dalziel, also residing in Clyds-dale, was by King Charles the First, created Lord Dalziel, who is ranked the last Lord in the Rolls of Parliament 1633, and thereafter, Earl of Carnwath, E. Carnwath. whose Grand-child is John Earl of Carnwath. No person at present claims the Dignity of Lord Somervel. The last Lords marked in the Rolls of Parliament 1633, are Cranstoun, Deskford, Melvil, Carnegy, Ramsey, Naper, Cameron, Newburgh, Weyms, Ashtoun of Forfar, Rae, Dalziel. And thereafter out of the West, falleth in the Ri­ver Duglasse or Douglasse, Douglasse. so called of a black­ish or greenish water that it hath: which River communicateth his name both to the Vale through which he runneth, called Dou­glasdale, and also to Douglasse Castle therein: which name that Castle likewise hath impart­ed unto the Family of the Dowglasses: which I assure you is very ancient, but most fa­mous [Page 76] ever since that Sir Iames Dowglas stuck very close at all times, as a most fast friend unto King Robert Bruce, and was ready al­ways with singular Courage, Resolution, and Wisdom, to assist him, claiming the Kingdom in most troublesome and dangerous times: and whom the said King Robert charged at his death, to carry his Heart to Jerusalem, that he might be discharged of his Vow, made to go to the Holy-land; in memorial whereof, the Dowglasses have inserted in their Coat of Arms, a mans Heart: from which time, this Family grew up to that power and greatness, and namely, after that King David the Second, had created Willi­am, Earl of Dowglass, E. Dowglasse. that they after a sort, awed the Kings themselves; For at one time well near, there were six Earls of them, namely, of this Dowglass, of Angus, of Or­mund, of Wigton, of Murray, and of Mor­ton: among whom, the Earl of Wigton, through his martial Prowesse and desert, ob­tained at the hands of Charles the Seventh, King of France, the Title of Duke of Tou­rain, and left the same to six Earls of Dow­glasse his Heirs after him. The Earl of Dow­glass being forefeited by King James the Se­cond, the Earl of Angus got the Castle and Countrey of Dowglasse, whose Heir Willi­am Earl of Angus, M. Dowglass. was created Marquess of Dowglasse by King Charles the First, in the year 1633, whose Grand-child is James Marquess of Dowglass. Concerning [Page 77] the Lives and Actions of this Family, see the History written by Godscroft. In this place of Clyds-dale, is the Seat of the Lairds of Carmichael. Sir James Carmichael Baronet, was a Lord of the Session, and Thesaurer Depute to King Charles the First: and by King Charles the Second when in Scotland, created Lord Carmichael, L. Carmichael. whose Grand-child is John Lord Carmichael: he hath been twice employed by Their Majesties, as Commissio­ner to the General Assembly, and is of the Privy Council.

Below the falling of Dowglasse into Clyde, is the Town of Lanerk, B. Royal. head Burgh of the Sheriffdom thereof, whereof the Lords of Hamilton are heretable Sheriffs; and eight Miles below that, standeth the Town and Castle of Hamilton, in a fruitful and plea­sant Soil, the Lords whereof derive there O­riginal from England: They have enjoyed great Lands in Scotland, since the time of King Robert Bruce, and their Estate was much aug­mented by the Bounty of King Iames the Third, who bestowed upon the Lord Ha­milton, his Sister in marriage, after the death of the Lord Boyd her first Husband, as is as­serted by Mr. John Ballenden Arch-Dean of Murray, Translator in Scots of the Chronicle of Hector Boetius, Ballendens Translation of Boetius Hist. Book 12. Chap. 5. who lived in the Reign of King James the Fifth, Book 12. Chap. 5. anent the Genealogy of the Stuarts, in these words, The first Douchter of James the Secound, was marryit to the Lord Boyd, of [Page 78] whom was gottin ane Son, quhylk was slain be the Lord of Mongumry, and ane Douchter Gregane, quhylk was maryit efter on the Erl of Casselis: and efter the deith of the Lord Boyd, this Douchter of James the Secound, was mary­it on the Lord Hammylton, and be that way the House of Hammylton is decorit in the Kyngs Blude: And thereafter in Parliament 1542, James Earl of Arran, the Grand-child of this marriage, was declared Governour of the Kingdom, during the Nonage of Queen Ma­ry: And in the year 1548, was by Henry the Second King of France, created Duke of Castle-herald in France, and thereafter his Son Iohn, was by King James the Sixth, cre­ated Marquess of Hamilton anno 1599, and was the first that enjoyed that Dignity in Scot­land▪ his Son James Marquess of Hamilton was Commissioner for the King to the Parliament 1621, whose eldest Son James Marquess of Hamilton, D. Hamilton. was created thereafter Duke of Hamilton; his second Son Lord William Ha­milton was Secretary to King Charles the first, and created Earl of Lanerk in the year 1640, from the Head-Burgh of the Shire, who af­ter the death of his Brother Duke James, was also Duke of Hamilton, the Lives and Actions of James and William Dukes of Hamilton, and Castle-Herald, are set forth in the Memoirs written by Dr. Gilbert Burnet, now Bishop of Salisburry; William Duke of Hamilton as well as James Duke of Hamilton, having [Page 79] deceased without Heirs-Male of their own Body, the Dignity of Hamilton and Castle-He­rald did descend upon Dutchess Anna, eldest Daughter to Duke James, who married that Noble and Stately Person William Earl of Sel­kirk, thereafter Duke of Hamilton formerly mentioned, who have that advantage above others, of many & excellent Children, who al­ready have appeared much in the World, viz. Their eldest Son James Earl of Arran, who after he had finished his Travells Abroad, Re­sided at the Court of England, and from King Charles the second, and King James the seventh, enjoyed many Honourable Employ­ments. The second Lord William, of great Hopes, dyed in France. Upon his third Son Lord Charles descended his Dignity of Earl of Selkirk, as is said, who is one of the Gentlemen of Their Majesties Bed-Chamber. The fourth Son Lord John, is General of Their Majesties Mint, and married to Lady Anna Kennedy Daughter to John Earl of Cassils, by his most excellent and vertuous La­dy Susanna, second Daughter to James Duke of Hamilton. Their fifth Son Lord George, Collonel of that Valiant and Renowned Re­giment, ordinarly Commanded by one of the Family of Dowglass, of which this Lord is a Grand-child. The sixth Son Lord Basile, married to Mrs. Mary Dumbar, Heiress to Sir David Dumbar of Baldone Baronet in the [Page 80] Shire of Wigtoun her Grand-father, by his Son of the same Name, married o Lady He­len Montgomery Daughter to Hugh Earl of Eglington. The seventh Lord Archibald, is Commander of the Woolage, one of Their Majesties Ships of War. Their eldest Daughter Lady Katharine, is married to John Lord Murray, eldest Son to the Marquess of Atholl. The second is, Susanna Countess Dowager, and Mother of William Earl of Dundonald; and Lady Margaret is married to James Earl of Panmure.

The River Glotta or Clyde, runneth from Hamiltoun by Bothwel, which glorieth in the Earls thereof,E. Bothwel. namely, John Ramsey, whose greatness with King James the Third, was excessive, but pernicious both to himself and the King: and the Hepburns, of whom alrea­dy. Near to this place is Blantyre, from which Walter Prior of Blantyre, Lord Privy-Seal, and afterward Thesaurer, and one of the Octavians to King James the Sixth, and an extraordinar Lord of Session, was created Lord Blantyre, L. Blantyre. July 10. 1606; his Descendant is Alexander Lord Blantyre. This River runneth straight forward with a ready stream through Glasgow, B. Royal. in ancient times past a Bishops Seat: but discontinued a great while, until that King William restored it up again: but now it is an Arch-bishops See, and an University, which Bishop Turnbul, after he had in a pi­ous and religious intent, built a Colledge in [Page 81] the year 1454, first founded. This Glasgow is the most famous Town of Merchandise in this Tract: for pleasant Situation, Apple-trees, and other like Fruit-trees much com­mended, having also a very fair Bridge sup­ported with eight Arches. Near to it is Rutherglen, B. Royal. a Burgh Royal, and head Burgh of the nether-ward of Clydsdale, as Lanerk is of the whole Shire, and specially of the upper-ward.

Lower on the Bank of Clyde, lyeth the Baro­ny of Renfrew, Shire of Ren­frew. anciently in the Shire of La­nerk, but by King Robert the 3d. erected in a Shire so called of the principle Town,B. Royal. which may seem to be Randvara in Ptolomy, upon the River Cart, L. Cathcart. which had the Baron of Cathcart dwelling upon it, carrying the same sirname, & of ancient Nobility▪ The present Lord Cath­cart is called Allan, his Residence is now at Sundrom in Kings-kyle on the River of Kylne, near where it falls into the River Air. Near un­to Cathcart (for this little Province can shew a goodly Breed of Nobility) there Bordereth Cruikston, the Seat in times past of the Lords of Darnley, L. Darnley. from whom by right of marriage, it came to the Earls of Lennox, whence Henry the Father of King James the Sixth, was called Lord Darnley. Halkead, the Habitation of the Barons of Ross, L. Ross. descended orginally from English Blood, as who fetch their Pedegree from that Robert Ross of Wark, who long since left England, and came under the Al­ledgeance of the King of Scots, of whom is [Page 82] descended William Lord Ross. Pasley, some­times a famous Monastery, founded by Alex­ander the Second of that name, High-steward of Scotland, which for a gorgeous Church, and rich Furniture, was inferior to few: but by the beneficial Favour of King James the Sixth, it yielded both Dwelling-place, and Title of Baron, to Lord Claud Hamilton, a younger Son of the Duke of Chasteu Herald; the eldest Son of the Earl of Abercorn, is de­signed Lord Pasley, L. Pasley. of whom already. And Semple; L. Semple. the Lord whereof Baron Semple by ancient Right, was Sheriff of this Barony. The Lady Heiress of Semple being married to Fran­cis Abercrombie of Fiternier, he was by King Charles the 2d, created Lord Glasford, and is Father to the present Lord Semple. L. Glasford. In this Country of Renfrew, is Areskine, the Seat of the ancient Lords of Areskine, L. Areskine. now Earls of Marr. But the Title of Baron of Renfrew, by a pecu­liar priviledge, since the Reign of King Robert the 3d. doth appertain unto the Prince of Scotland. The heretable Sheriffs of this Shire, are the Earls of Eglington.

The Author Camden is not to be blamed, for asserting, that Alexander the Second, Great Stewart of Scotland, Founded the Monastry of Pasley, since it was generally related by the Scottish Historians: but be­cause the Errors in this Matter are so many and gross, to the disadvantage of the Great Stewarts of Scotland, Progenitors to our [Page 83] Kings, and that a wrong Genealogy of them is printed, with our Acts of Parliament. I must be allowed to prevent the further course of that mistake, to digress a little beyond my ordinary in privat Families, to give a true and brief account of that ancient, great and noble Family of the Stuarts, from undoubted Records, Charters and History.

Their Barony was the Shires of Renfrew, and Bute, and the Stewartry of Kyle. The first of that Family, I find mentioned in Charters and Records,Walter the Son of Allan Dapifer Regis, Founder of the Abbacy of Pasley. is Walter, the Son of Allan Dapifer Regis, Founder of the Monastry of Pasley, who in the Register Book of Charters, of the Abbacy of Pasley, now in the custody of the Earl of Dundonald, Proprietar of these Lands, and where he hath his chief Resi­dence, is mentioned as the Founder and Son of Allan, and particularly in a Discharge granted by himself to the Monks, of two Chalders of Meal, payable out of the Miln, he is designed Walter, the Son of Allan, and in a Confirmation by Pope Alexander of the Abbacy of Pasley, to Alexander Stuart of Scotland, he is designed Heir by Pro­gress, to Walter the Founder. There are al­so Charters extant, granted by this Walter, designing himself the Son of Allan, and Dapi­fer Regis. The Chronicles of Melross and Fordon, do design him Walter the Son of Allan Dapifer Regis Scotiae, qui fundavit Pasle­tum, and that he died in the year 1177, by the former, and 1178. by the latter, which [Page 84] was in the 12th or 13th year of the Reign of King William. And frequently in King Willi­am's Charters in the said Register of Pasley, Allan Dapifer is mentioned,Allan Dapifer. and also in the foresaid Confirmation by the Pope, he is de­signed Allan the Son of Walter the Founder,Chronica de Melross & Fordon. he died in the year 1204. To him succeeded Walter his Son, designed Senescallus Scotiae. For­don relates,Walter Stewart and Justiciar of Scotland. that King Alexander the 2d, at the Feast on his Birth day, in the year 1231, made Walter the Son of Allan, Stewart of Scotland, Justiciar of Scotland. A Manuscript of An­dreas Wintonius, Prior of the Inch in Lochlevin, who wrote in the time of the Government of Robert first Duke of Albany, and Uncle to King James the First, Dedicate to Sir John Weyms, Predecessor to the Earl of Weyms, agrees with Fordon, that at St. Andrews, King Alexander made Walter, Allan's Son, Stewart of Scotland, the Kings Justiciar. The Manu­script contains many things useful to the History, and is in the hands of the Reverend Mr. James Kirktoun, one of the Ministers of Edinburgh, a person well known in Scottish Antiquities. This Walter is an ordinary wit­ness in King Alexander the Second's Charters, under the Designation of Senescallus & Justi­tiarius Scotia. And as the same Winton men­tions, Walter, Stewart and Justiciar of Scot­land, was in the year 1238, sent over to France, to bring Mary Daughter to Ingeram de Coucy, to be Queen to King Alexander. Anno [Page 85] 1241. Obiit Walterus filius Allani junioris. Chron. de Mel­ross.

To Walter succeeded his Son Alexander, Alexander Stewart of Scotland. Stewart of Scotland, frequently so design­ed in his own and other Charters, Recorded in the Register of Pasley. Fordon mentions him to be killed in the Battle of the Largis in Cun­ninghame, which he places in the year 1263, Chron. de Melross 1262, where the Norwegi­ans were defeated, and ever since banished from any possession of the Isles: he is design­ed Alexander Stuart of Dundonald, great Grand-child to the first Walter Stuart, and Grandfather of the noble Walter, who marri­ed King Robert Bruce's Daughter. Beside the Records of Pasley, many of his Charters are extant, and I have seen one by this Alexan­der, confirming the Donation which Wal­ter the Father, gave to the Church of St. An­drews of Bromholm, of 20 shilling yearly, to be taken out of the Burgh of Renfrew, with the Seal entire, himself on Horse-back on the one side, and the Checker on the other for his Arms, which the sirname of Stuart do still bear.James Stewart of Scotland. To him succeeded James, Great Stewart of Scotland, his Son who was one of the Wardens of Scotland, after the death of Alexander the third, and one of these who Treated with Edward the First of England, in relation to the marriage betwixt the Maid of Norway, and King Edward's Son, and in the Competition concerning the Crown, be­twixt Bruce, Baliol, and others. As also after Ba­liol [Page 86] was defeated, & resigned the Crown, he is amongst these whom Prinns History,Prinns Hist. page 649. anno 24. Ed. 1. bears to have given Allegiance to Edward Longshanks, and designed James Seneschall de scoce saluz, &c. A little after 15 die Maij apud Rokesburgh, venit Dominus Ioannes quondam Seneschallus, praedicti Domini Jacobi `Germanus, miles. And I have a Charter of James Stuart of Scot­land, designing himself Son to Alexander Stu­art of Scotland, and confirming the Charter formerly mentioned, granted by Alexander Stuart of Scotland his Father, and Walter his Grand-father, his Seal appended, is also entire: he died in the year 1309. At the Battle of Falkirk 1298, Sir John Stuart designed of Bute, Sir John Stuart of Bute. who contended with John Cummine, for leading the Van-guard of the Army, was killed, it seems he was the same person who in the 1296, in Prinns History, is called frater Germanus, domini Jacobi, and in the absence or restraint of his elder Brother the Stewart of Scotland, acted as Stewart for him: this probably hath been the mistake, why our Historians omitted Iames Stuart of Scotland, Predecessor and God-father to all the King Iames's, and insert John Stuart, to be Father to Walter Stuart of Scotland, Walter Stuart of Scotland. who is well known to have been Husband to Marjory Bruce the Kings Daughter, and by her, Fa­ther to Robert Stuart, Robert Stuart of Scotland, & E. of Strathern K. R. 2. who in the absence of King David Bruce his Uncle, and in De­fence of his Title against Edward Baliol, did [Page 87] many brave Actions from the year 1335, to the year 1338, when he was chosen Gover­nour of the Kingdom, which he freed from the English and Baliol's claim, and restored it to King David Bruce at his Return from France: this King being afterward taken Pri­soner at the Battle of Durham, commonly placed in the year 1348, was again Gover­nour, till the King returned from England in the 1359, by the help of his two eldest Sons, John then Lord▪ Kyle, designed Senescallus de Kyle, afterward King, and Robert, designed Senescallus de Monteith, afterward Duke of Albanie. Maurice Murray, Lord of Bothwel, and Clydsdale and Earl of Strath­ern, being killed in the Battle of Durham, Robert Stuart of Scotland was created Earl of Strathern; at the same Battle, John Ranulph Earl of Murray being killed, the Stewart of Scotland, married his Relict Eupham Ross, Daughter to Hugh Earl of Ross, as appears by a Charter granted by Robert, Stewart of Scotland, Earl of Strathern, and Eupham his Spouse, Countess of Murray, to John Max­wel, Predecessor to Sir John Maxwel of Ne­therpollock, of certain Lands within the Earl­dom of Strathern, which have of a long time, belonged to the Lairds of Glenagies: John Hadden now of Glenagies, hath the Charter and Lands, an ancient Baron, nobly de­scended. There is a Charter to the same per­son of the same Lands, but then designed Sir [Page 88] John Maxwel, by David Earl of Strathern, who was eldest Son of the second Marriage, by the said Countess Eupham, and who got from his Father the said Robert, when he be­came King of Scotland, the Earldom of Stath­ern, it being then usual to renew the In­vestiture or Infeftment, upon the change of the Superior, as well as upon the change of the Vassal: the Charter is dated at Edinburgh May 10. 1372. Coram his testibus, nobilibus viris & potentibus, Domino Joanne, Domini nostri, &c. Regis Scotiae primogenito, Comite de Carrick, & Senescallo Scotiae, Roberto Comite de Fyfe, & Monteith, fratribus nostris charissimis. King Robert confirmed the 25 of April the third year of his Reign the said Charter, by his Son David Earl of Strathern, whom he designed dilectus filius, and amongst the Witnesses to the Charter, is, Joannes Comes de Carrick primogenitus, & Robertus Comes de Fyfe & Monteith, filius noster dilectus, This is a clear acknowledgment, both by the King the Father, and by the Earl of Strathern himself, the eldest Son of Eupham Ross, that the Earls of Carrick and Monteith, were his elder Brothers, but of this, Sir George Macken­zie hath already said very much, and more Proofs do dayly occur, to rectifie this univer­sal mistake of our Historians, which, together with the Description of that ancient Family▪ and the Family of Darnly and Lennox, and other great Branches descended thereof, de­serve a particular Treatise. I shall only re­peat, [Page 89] that Fordon in his Chronicle lib. 14 pag. 73, inserts a Charter of Confirmation of the Popes Bull, granted by King David Bruce to the Bi­shops, with the consent of Robert Earl of Strath­ern his Nephew, giving power to Bishops, to dispose in Testament upon their own Move­ables: in which Charter, the Witnesses are Robertus Senescallus Comes de Strathern, Ne­pos noster, Ioannes Senescallus Comes de Car­rict, filius suus primogenitus & haeres, &c. before all the other Earls, which is an At­testation of the Grand-uncle King David, owning the Earl of Carrick to be his Fathers eldest Son in this matter of Importance: and there are two Declarations in Parliament concerning the Succession of the Crown, whereof one of them is extant with the Seals of the Nobility, by Robert Earl of Strathern after he was King, the one the first, and the other the third year of his Reign, assert­ing the Earl of Carrick to be his eldest Son, and to succeed him in the Kingdom, for proving that this Robert Stuart the first King, was Grandchild to James, Stewart of Scotland, there is a Charter recorded in the publick Register of Charters, by the same King Robert, the first year of his Reign, to Sir Adam Fullertoun, of the Lands of Ful­lertoun and others, confirming the Char­ters granted by himself, when Stewart of Scotland, and by his Grand-father James, Stuart of Scotland, to Sir Adam Fullertoun: this Sir Adam Fullertoun was Predecessor to [Page 90] William Fullertoun now of the Ilk in Kyle-stewart, of these Lands.

CHAP. XVII.
LENNOX.

ALong the other Bank of Clyde, The Shire of Dunbarton. above Glasgow, runneth forth Leviana, or Lennox, northward, among a number of Hills close couched one by another, having that name of the River Levin, which Ptolo­my calleth Lelanonius, and runneth into Clyde out of Loch-Lomund, which spreadeth it self here under the Mountains, twenty Miles long and eight Miles broad, passing well sto­red with variety of Fish: but most especial­ly with a peculiar Fish that is to be found no where else, (they call it Pollac) as also with Islands, concerning which, many Fables have been forged, and those rife among the com­mon people.

As touching an Island here that floateth and waveth too and fro, I list not to make question thereof. For what should let, but that a lighter Body, and spongeous withal in manner of a Pumice-stone, may swime above the water? And Pliny writeth, how in the Lake Vadimon, there be Islands full of Grass, and covered over with Rushes and Reeds, that float up and down. But I leave it unto [Page 91] them that dwell nearer unto this place, and better know the nature of this Lake, whether this old Distichon of Necham be true or not

Ditatur fluviis Albania, saxea ligna
Dat Lomund multa frigiditate potens.

With Rivers Scotland is enrich'd,
And Lomund there a Lake
So cold of nature is, that Sticks
It quickly Stones doth make.

Round about the edge of this Lake there be Fishers Cottages, but nothing else memo­rable, unless it be Kilmaronock, a proper fine house, sometimes of the Earls of Glencairn, (which they had by the Marriage with the Heiress of Dennistoun) the east side of it, which hath a most pleasant Prospect into the said Lake. But at the confluence where Levin emptieth it self out of the Lake into Clyde, Al-Cluyd. standeth the old City called Al-Cluyd. Bede noteth, that it signified (in whose Lan­guage I know not) as much as The Rock Clyde. True it is, that Ar-cluyd signifieth in the Brittish tongue, upon Clyde, or upon the Rock; and Clyde in ancient English, sounded the same that a Rock. The succeeding Posteri­ty called this place Dunbritton, B. Royal. that is, The Bri­tans town, (and corruptly by a certain trans­position of letters, Dubarton) because the Brittains held it longest against the Scots, Picts, and Saxons; for it is the strongest of all the Castles in Scotland by natural situation, towring up on a rough, craggy, and two-headed Rock, at the very meeting of the Ri­vers [Page 92] in a green Plain. In one of the Tops or Heads abovesaid, there standeth up a lofty Watch-tower, or Keep: on the other, which is the lower, there are sundry strong Bul­warks: between these two Tops on the north side, it hath one only Ascent, by which hard­ly one by one can pass up, and that with a labour by Degrees or Steps, cut out aslope traverse the Rock: In stead of Ditches on the west side, serveth the River Levin; on the south, Clyde; and on the east a boggy Flat, which at every Tide is wholly covered over with Waters; and on the north side, the ve­ry upright steepness of the place, is a most sufficient defence. Certain Remains of the Brittains, presuming of the natural strength of this place, and their own man-hood, who, as Gildas writeth, gat themselves a place of Refuge in high Mountains and Hills, steep and naturally fenced, as it were with Rampires and Ditches, in most thick Woods and Forrests, in Rocks also of the Sea, stood out and defended themselves here, after the Romans departure, for three hundred years, in the midst of their Enemies. For in Bedes time, as himself writ­eth, it was the best fortified City of the Brit­tains. But in the year 756. Eadbert King of Northumberland, and Oeng King of the Picts, with their joint Forces, enclosed it round about by Siege, and brought it to such a desperate Extremity,R. Hoveden. that it was rendred unto them by Composition. Of this place, the Territory [Page 93] round about it, is called the Sheriffdom of Dunbarton, and hath had the Earls of Lennox this long time for their Sheriffs, by Birth­right and Inheritance.

As touching the Earls of Lennox Earls of Len­nox. them­selves, to omit those of more ancient and ob­scure times, there was one Duncan Earl of Lennox, in the Reign of Robert the Third, who died, and left none but Daughters be­hind him: of whom one was married to Al­lan Stuart, descended from Robert, a young­er Son of Walter the Second of that Name, High Stewart of Scotland, and Brother like­wise to Alexander Stuart the Second, from whom the noblest and Royal Race of Scot­land hath been propagated. This sirname Stuart was given unto that most noble Fami­ly, in regard of the honourable Office of the Stewart-ship of the Kingdom, as who had the Charge of the Kings Revenues. The said Allan had Issue, John Earl of Lennox, and Robert, Captain of that Company of Scottish men at Arms,A Troop of Scots in France. which Charles the Sixth, King of France, first instituted, in lieu of some Recompence unto the Scottish Nati­on, which by their Valour had deserved passing well, of the Kingdom of France; who also by the same Prince, for his vertues sake, was endowed with the Seigniory of Aubigny in Auvergne. Iohn had a Son na­med Matthew, Earl of Lennox, who wedded the Daughter of James Hamilton, by Marion [Page 94] Daughter to King James the Second; on whom he begat John Earl of Lennox: he taking Arms to deliver King James the Fifth, out of the hands of the Dowglasses and the Hamiltons, was slain by the Earl of Arran his Uncle on the Mothers side. This John was Father to Matthew Earl of Lennox, who ha­ving sustained sundry Troubles in France and Scotland, found Fortune more friendly to him in England, through the favour of King Henry the Eight, considering that he bestowed upon him in marriage his Neice, with fair Lands. By the means of this hap­py Marriage, were brought into the world Henry and Charles.

Henry, by Mary Queen of Scots, had Issue James the Sixth, King of Brittain, by the propitious Grace of the Eternal God born in a most auspicate and lucky Hour, to knit and unite in one Body of an Empire, the whole Island of Brittain, divided as well in it self, as it was heretofore from the rest of the World, and to lay a most sure Foundation of an everlasting Security, for our Heirs and the Posterity. As for Charles, he had Issue one only Daughter Arbella, married to the Earl of Hertford in England, who above her Sex, so embraced the Studies of the best Li­terature, that therein she profited and pro­ceeded with singular Commendation, and comparable with the excellent Ladies of old time. When Charles was dead, after that the [Page 95] Earldom of Lenox whereof he stood En­feoffed, was revoked by Parliamentary Au­thority, in the year of our Lord 1579. and his Uncle by the Fathers side, Robert Bishop of Caithness, had some while enjoyed this Title (in lieu whereof he received at the Kings hands, the honour of the Earl of March.) King James the Sixth conferred the honourable Title of Duke of Lennox, D. Lennox. upon Esme Stuart, Son to Iohn Lord D' Aubigny, younger Brother to Matthew aforesaid Earl of Lennox, which Lodowick Esme his Son, after him did enjoy. For since the time of Charles the Sixth, there were of this Line, Lords of Aubigny in France, Lords of Au­bigny. the said Robert before named, and Bernard or Eberdard un­der Charles the Eighth, and Lewis the Twelfth, who is commended with great praise unto Posterity by P. Jovius, for his noble Acts most valourously exploited in the War of Naples, a most firm and trusty Companion of King Henry the Seventh, when he entered into England, who used for his Emprese or Devise, a Lyon between Buckles, with this Motto, Distantia Jungit: for that by his Means the Kingdoms of France and of Scotland, se­vered and dis-joined so far in distance, were by a straighter League of friendship conjoyn­ed: likeas Robert Stuart, Lord D' Aubigny of the same Race, who was Marshal of France under King Lewis the Eleventh,Paradine. for the same cause used the royal Arms of France, with [Page 96] Buckles Or, in a border Gules: which the Earls and Dukes of Lennox have ever since born quarterly with the Arms of Stuart.

The Dukes of Lennox were also heretably great Chamberlains of Scotland, and High-Admirals, and had several Regalities, and the Baillerie of Glasgow. The Race of the Earls and Dukes of Lennox aforesaid, being extinct, by the death of Charles Duke of Lennox, and Richmond, Ambassador for King Charles the Second in Denmark, about the year 1672, his Estate in Scotland did fall to the King by Succession, who bestowed it on his Son Charles, by the Name of Charles, Lennos Duke of Lennox, about the year 1675, who enjoyeth that honour. Lord George Dowglass, one of the younger Sons of William Marquess of Dowglass, Collonel of the Scottish Regiment, and Mareschal of the Camp in France, thereafter Lieuetenant General in Brittain, was by King Charles the Second, be­fore the year 1677, created Earl of Dunbar­ton, E. Dunbarton. whose Son doth enjoy that Title.

CHAP. XVIII.
STIRLING.

UPon Lennox North-eastward,The Shire of Stirling. border­eth the Territory of Stirling, so na­med of the principle Town therein: for fruit­ful Soll, and numbers of Gentlemen in it, [Page 97] second to no Province of Scotland. Here is that narrow Land or Streight, by which Dunbritton Firth and Edinburgh Firth, pier­cing far into the Land out of the West and East Seas, are divided asunder, that they meet not one with the other.

Which thing Julius, Agricola, who march­ed hitherto and beyond, first observed; and fortified this Space between with Garisons, so as all the part of Brittain, on the east and south side was then in possession of the Romans, and the Enemies removed and driven as it were, into another Island, in so much as Tacitus jud­ged right truly, There was no other bound or li­mit of Brittain to be sought for. Neither veri­ly in the time ensuing, did either the Valour of Armies, or the Glory of the Roman name, which scarcely could be stayed, set out the Marches of the Empire in this part of the World farther, although with Inrodes they other whiles molested and endamnaged them. But after this glorious Expedition of Agrico­la, when himself was called back, Brittain, as saith Tacitus, become for-let, neither was the Possession kept still thus far: for the Ca­ledonian Brittains drave the Romans back as far as to the River Tine: in so much as Ha­drian, who came into Brittain in person about the fortieth year after, and reformed many things in it, went no further forward, but gave commandment that the God Terminus, God Terminus which was wont to give ground unto none, [Page 98] should retire backward out of this place, like as in the East on this side Euphrates. God Terminus. Aug. de Civ. Dei l. 4. c. 29. Hence it is that S. Augustine wrot in this wise: God Terminus, who gave not place to Jupiter, yield­ed unto the will of Hadrianus, yielded to the rashness of Iulian, yielded to the necessity of Jo­vian, in so much as Hadrian had enough to do, for to make a Wall of Turff between the Rivers Tine and Esk, well near an hundred Miles southward on this side Edinburgh Firth. But Antoninus Pius who being adopted by Hadrian, bare his name, stiled thereupon Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius, under the conduct of Lollius Vrbicus, whom he had sent hither Lieutenant, repelled the northern Enemies back again beyond Bodotria, or E­dinburgh Firth, The Wall of Antoninus Pius. and that by raising another Wall of Turff, namely, besides that of Ha­drianus, as Capitolinus writeth: which Wall, that it was reared in this very place whereof I now speak, and not by Severus (as it is commonly thought) I will produce no o­ther Witnesses, than two ancient Inscripti­ons digged up here; of which the one fast­ned in the Wall of an house at Calder, be­longing to the Laird of Keir, Chief of the sir-name of Stirling: near to the place where the Wall was built, sheweth how the second Legion Augusta, set up the Wall for the space of three Miles and more: the other, now in the house of the Earl Marshal at Dunnotire, which implyeth, that a Band of the twentieth [Page 99] Legion Victrix raised the Wall three Miles long. But see here the very Inscriptions them­selves, as Servatius Riheley a Gentleman of Silesia, who curiously travailled these Coun­tries, copied them out for the Author Cam­den. ‘IMP. CAESARI
T. AELIO HADRI­ANO
ANTONINO.
AUG. PIO. P. P.
VEXILLATIO
LEG. XX. VAL. VIC. F.
PER. MIL. P. III.’
‘IMP. CAES. TIT. —IO AELIO
HADRIANO ANTON.
AUG. PIO. P. P. LEG. II. AUG.
PER. M. P. III. D. CIX VIS.’

At Calder where this latter Inscription is extant, there is another Stone also erected by the second Legion Augusta, wherein within a Lawrel Garland, supported by two [Page 100] little Images resembling Victory, are these Letters. ‘LEG.
II
AVG.
FEC.’

And in a Village called Miniabruch, out of a Ministers house, there was removed this Inscription into a Gentlemans house, which is there new built out of the Ground: ‘D. M.
C. JULI.
MARCELLINI
PRAEF.
Cohors prima Hamiorum. COH. I. HAMIOR.

[Page 101] But when the northern Nations in the Reign of Commodus, having passed once over the Wall, had made much waste and spoil in the Country, the Emperor Severus repai­red this Wall of Hadrian. Howbeit after­wards the Romans brought oft-times the Country lying between under their subjecti­on. For Ninius hath recorded, that Carau­sius under Dioclesian, strengthened this Wall another time, and fortified it with seven Castles. Lastly, the Romans fenced this place (when Theodosius the younger was Em­peror) under the conduct of Gallio of Ra­venna. Now, saith Bede, they made a Turff Wall, rearing it not so much with Stone as with Turfs, (as having no cunning Artificer for so great a piece of Work) and the same to no use, between two Firths or Arms of the Sea, for ma­ny miles in length: that where the fense of Wa­ter was wanting, there by the help of a Wall, they might defend there Borders from the Inva­sion of enemies: of which work, that is to say a very broad and high Wall, a man may see to this day, most certain and evident Remains.

This Wall began as is generally believed, at the River Aven, Ninius. that goeth into Edinburgh Firth, and having passed over the River of Carron, reacheth unto Dunbarton: but Bede affirmeth, that it beginneth in a place called Pen-vael, that is in the Picts Language, as much as the head of the Wall; in the Brittains tongue Pen-Gual, in English Penwalton, in [Page 102] Scottish Cevall: all which names no doubt are derived from Vallum in Latine: and he saith, that place is almost two Miles from Abercur­vig or Abercurving; Abereorn. and it endeth as the com­mon Sort think, at Kirk-Patrick, the native Soil as some write of Saint Patrick the I­rish-mens Apostle) near unto Clyde, accord­ing to Bede at Al. cluid; after Ninius at the City Pen Aloloyt, which may seem all one.

Now this Wall is commonly called Gra­hams Dyke; Grahams dyke. either of Graham a Warlike Scot, whose Valour was especially seen when the breach was made through it, or else of the Hill Grampie, at the foot whereof it stood. The Author of Rota Temporum calleth it the Wall of Aber. corneth, that is, of the mouth of the River Corneth: where, in Bedes time, there was a famous Monasterie standing, as he hath recorded, upon English Ground, but near unto that Firth or Arm of the Sea, which in those days severed the Lands of the English and the Picts.

Hard by this Wall of Turff, what way as the River Carron crosseth this Sheriffdom of Stirling, toward the left hand are seen two Mounts cast up by mans hand, which they call Duni-pacis that is,Duni-Pacis. Knolls of peace. Near to this place is Kilsyth, which belonged to an ancient Cadet of the Family of the Living­stons, who in the year 1606, was a Lord of the Session, and his Successor was by King Charles the Second, in the year 1661, creat­ed [Page 103] Viscount of Kilsyth, V. Kilsyth. which Dignity his Son now enjoyeth: (here the Marquess of Montross obtained a signal Victory.) And almost two Miles lower, there is an ancient round Building four and twenty Cubits high, and thirteen broad, open in the Top, framed of rough Stone without Lime, having the upper part of every Stone so tenanted into the nether, as that the whole work still rising narrow by a mutual interlacing and clasping, upholdeth it self. Some call this the Temple of God Terminus, Arthurs Oven. others Arthurs-Oven, who father every stately and sumptuous thing upon Arthur. Others again, Julius Hoff, and sup­pose it to have been built by Julius Cesar. But I would think rather that Julius Agricola built it, who fortified this frontier part, were it not that Ninius hath already informed us, that it was erected by Carausius for a tri­umphal Arch. For he, as Ninius writeth, built upon the Bank of Carron, a round house of polished Stone, erecting a triumphal Arch in memorial of a victory: he re-edified also the Wall, and strengthened it with seven Castles. The mid space between Duni-pacis and this Building, on the right hand Bank of Car­ron, there is yet to be discerned a confused face of a little ancient City: where the vul­gar people believeth there was sometimes a Road for Ships, who call it Camelot, by a name that is rise in King Arthurs book; and they contend, but all in vain, to have it that [Page 104] Camalodunum which Tacitus mentioneth. But it would seem rather by the name of the Ri­ver Carron running underneath, to have been Corta Damniorum, Corta Damnio­rum. which Ptolomy mention­eth in this Tract. And now take with you that which George Buchanan that excellent Poet, wrot of the limit of the Roman Em­pire at Carron.

Roma securigeris praetendit maenia Scotis,
Hic spe progressus posita,
Buchananus Scotus.
Carronis ad undam
Terminus Ausonii signat divertia regni.
'Gainst warlike Scots with Axes armed,
A mighty frontier Wall
The Romans rais'd: and limit there,
Which Terminus they call,
Near Carron Stream now past all hope
More Brittish ground to gain,
Marks out the Roman Empires end,
Whence they to turn were fain.

In this Territory of Stirling on the East side, there sheweth it self Castle Callender, belonging to the Barons of Livingstoun, which with the Lands of Almond, were purchased by James, second Son to Alexander the first Earl of Linlithgow, who by King Charles the First, was created Lord Almond, and then Earl of Callender in the year 1641,E. Callender. he was Lieutenant General to the Parliaments Army, his Successor by entail is James, Brother Son to George now Earl of Linlithgow: mention hath been made of the Earl of Linlithgow in Lith­gow Shire. The Family of the Barons F [...]ing [Page 105] dwelling hard by at Cumbernald, which they received at the hands of King Robert Bruce, for their Service valiantly and faithfully per­formed in defence of their Country: where­by also they attained unto the hereditary Ho­nour to be Chamberlanes of Scotland: and the favour of King James the Sixth, honour­ed this House with the Title of Earl of Wig­toun. E. Wigtoun. About the year 1606, his Predecessor had that Title with the Lordship of Galloway, in the Reign of King David Bruce, which they resigned to the Earl of Dowglass, who, and his Successors, amongst other Titles, were designed Earls of Wigtoun, till the Forefaul­ture in the Reign of King James the Second, and the Dignity was vacant, till conferred by King James the Sixth as said is: the Heir of this Family is Iohn Earl of Wigtoun. In a place near adjoyning standeth Elphingstoun, which likewise hath his Barons, advanced to that Dignity by King James the 4th. of whom is descended Iohn now Lord Elphingstoun. L. Elphing­stoun. And where Forth, full of his windings & crook­ed Cranks, runneth down with a rolling pace, and hath a Bridge over him, standeth Stirling, commonly called Striviling, B. Royal. and Stirling Burgh; where on the very brow of a steep Rock, there is mounted on high, a passing strong Castle of the Kings, which King James the Sixth beau­tified with new Buildings, and where of a long time the Lords of Areskine Earls of Marr have been Captains, unto whom the Charge and Tuition of the Princes of Scotland, during [Page 106] their Minority, have been at other times com­mitted. Whereas some there be, that would have the good and lawful money of Eng­land, which is called Sterling money, to take the name from hence, they are much deceived: for that Denomination came from the Ger­mans, of their easterly Dwelling termed by English men Easterlings, whom King John of England first sent for, to reduce the silver to the due fineness and purity: and such Monies in ancient writing are ever more found by the name of Easterling.

About two Miles hence, the Banock-burn run­neth between exceeding high Banks on both sides, and with a very swift Stream in Winter, toward the Forth: a Burn most famous for as glorious a Victory as ever the Scots had,Battle of Ba­nock-burn. what time as Edward the Second King of England, was put to flight, who was fain to make hard shift, and in great haste and fear, to take a Boat and save his life: yea and the most pu­issant Army which England had before sent out, was discomfited through the valiant prowess of King Robert Bruce, insomuch as for two years after, the English came not into the Field against the Scots. About Stirling, Ptolomy seemeth to place Alauna, Alauna. which is ei­ther near the little River Alon, that here en­treth into the Forth; or else by Alloway, an house and ordinar Residence of the Areskins, who by Inheritance are the Sheriffs of all this Territory without the Burgh; but have been of a long time Earls of Marr, from a [Page 107] country in Aberdeen Shire to be described after. The Sheriffship of this Shire belongs to the Earls of Callender. Sir William Alexander was the Kings Lieutenant in Nova Scotia, and had Precedency of all those Baronets: he succeeded Sir Archibald Aitchison as Secre­tary of State to King Charles the First, and is so designed in the Kings Letter, anent the Baronets November 17. 1629. Amongst the Commissioners for continuing the Parliament August 4. 1631, is William Viscount of Stir­ling, principal Secretary,E. Stirling. he was created Earl of Stirling anno 1633, his Heir doth reside in England.

To conclude this Chapter, take here a Description of the principal Seal of the Burgh of Stirling, which carries on the one side a Bridge of seven Arches, with a Cross mount­ed on the the middle, and armed men on each side of the Cross, with this Inscription, ‘Hic armis Bruti, Scoti stant hic Cruce tuti.’

And on the other side a large strong Castle in a Wood, with this Motto, ‘Continet hoc in se Nemus & Castrum Striv­lingnense. Which two Inscriptions they give us in Eng­lish thus,

The Brittains stand by force of Arms,
The Scots are by this Cross preserv'd from Harms.

[Page 108]
The Castle and the Wood of Stirling town,
Are in the compass of this Seal set down.

Which agreeth well with what Buchanan said, that the River Carron was the Bounda­ry of the Roman Conquests, and Stirling the Limits of the Brittains and Scots. However it be, the Seal and Inscription must be very old, when special notice is taken of a Wood at Stirling, whereof there is but small Re­mains; and at this place, doth the River Forth admit of a Bridge, which is the secure Passage betwixt the South and North of Scot­land.

CHAP. XIX.
CALEDONIA.

WHatsoever part of Brittain lyeth northward beyond Grahams Dyke, or the Wall of Antoninus Pius be­fore named, and beareth out on both Seas, is called by Tacitus, Caledonia, likeas the people thereof Brittains inhabiting Caledonia. Pto­lemy divideth them into many Nations, as Caledonii, Epidii, Vacomagi, &c. who were all of them afterward, for continuing their ancient manner and custom of painting their Bodies, named by the Romans and provin­cial people, Picts: divided by Ammianus [Page 109] Marcellinus into two Nations, the Dicalido­nes and Vecturiones: howbeit in the approved and best Writers, they go all under the name of Caledonians; whom I would think to have been so called of Kaled, a Brittish word that signifieth Hard, and in the plural Number maketh Kaledion, whence the word Caledo­nii may be derived, that is to say, hard, rough, uncivil, and a wilder kind of people, such as the northern Nations for the most part are; who by reason of the rigorous cold of the Air, are more rough and fierce, and for their abundance of Blood, more bold and ad­venturous. Moreover, beside the position of the Climat, this is furthered by the na­ture and condition of the Soil, which riseth up all throughout, with rough and rugged Mountains; and Mountainers, verily all men know and confess to be hardy, stout, and strong. But whereas Varro alledgeth out of Pacuvius, that Caledonia breedeth and nourish­eth men of exceeding big Bodies, I would un­derstand the place rather of Caledonia the Re­gion of Epirus, than this of our; although ours may also justly challenge unto it self this commendation. Among this was the Wood Caledonia, termed by Lucius Florus, Saltus Ca­ledonius, that is,Caledon For­rest. the Forrest of Caledonia, spreading out a mighty way, and impassible by reason of tall Trees standing so thick, di­vided also by Gramp Hill, now called Gra­nizbain, that is, the crooked bending Mountain. [Page 110] That Vlysses arrived in Caledonia, (saith So­linus) appeareth plainly by a votive Altar, Ulysses his Altar. with an Inscription in Greek letters; but I would judge it to have been rather erected to the ho­nour of Vlysses, than reared by Vlysses him­self. Martial the Poet likewise in this Verse,Caledonian Bears. maketh mention of Caeledonian Bears, ‘Nuda Caledonio sic pectora praebuit urso.’

Thus yielded he his naked Breast,
To Bear of Caledonian Forrest.

Plutarch also hath written, that Bears were brought out of Brittain to Rome, and had there in great admiration; whereas notwith­standing Brittain for these many Ages past, hath bred none. What Caledonian Monster that should be, whereof Claudian wrote thus,

—Caledonio velata Britannia monstro,

With Monster Caledonian Brittain all attir'd

To tell you truth, it is uncertain, that it nourished in times past,Caledonian Bulls. a number of white wild Bulls, with thick Mains in manner of Lyons, (but in these days few) and those very cruel, fierce, and so hateful of Mankind, that for a certain time they abhorred whatsoever they had either handled or breathed upon: yea, they utterly scorn the forcible strength of Dogs; albeit Rome in times past, wonder­ed [Page 111] at the fierceness of Scottish Dogs, that it was thought there, they were brought thi­ther within Iron Grates and Cages. But this term and name Caledonii grew so rise with Roman Writers, that they used it for all Brittain, and for all Woods of Brittain whatsoever. Hereupon Lucius Florus writ­eth, that Caesar followed the Brittains unto the Caledonian Woods, and yet he never saw them in his life: hence also Valerius Flaccus writeth thus to Vespasian the Emperor,

—Caledonius postquam tua carbasa vexit Oceanus:

that is, the Brittish Ocean.

Hence likewise it is, that Statius versified thus unto Crispinus, Son of Vectius Volanus Proprietar of Brittain, about the time of Vi­tellius.

Quanta Caledonios attollet gloria campos,
Cum tibi longavus referet trucis incola terrae?
Hic suetus dare jura parens, hoc cespite turmas
Affari, ille dedit, cinxitque haec moenia fossâ:
Belligeris haec dona deis, haec tela dicavit,
Cernis adhuc titulos: hunc ipse vacantibus armis
Induit, hunc regi rapuit thoraca Britanno.

How much renowned shall the fields
Of Caledonia be?
When as some old Inhabitant
Of that fierce Land to thee
[Page 112] Shall in these Terms report and say?
Behold, thy Father oft
Was wont in judgment here to sit:
Upon this Bank aloft
To th'armed Troups to speak; also
'Twas he that wall'd this Fort,
That built thus strong, and it with Ditch
Entrenched in this sort.
By him to gods of War, these Gifts
And Arms were consecrate,
The Titles (lo) are extant yet;
Himself this brave Brest-plate
In time of Battle did put on,
This Cuirace finally,
In Fight he pluckt by force of Arms
From King of Brittainny.

But in these, and in other things I may say,

Crescit in immensum facunda licentia vatum.

Poetical licence is boundless.

For neither Caesar, nor Volanus so much as ever knew the Caledonians. In Plinies time as himself witnesseth, thirty years almost after Claudius, the Romans with all their warlike Expeditions, had discovered no farther in Brittain, than to the Vicinity of the Caledo­nian Wood. For Julius Agricola under Domi­tian, was the first that entered Caledonia: whereof at that present,Galgacus the Brittain. Galgac was Prince, (who is named Galauc ap Liennauc in the [Page 113] Book ofTriadum. Triplicites, among the three Wor­thies of Brittain) a man of a mighty Spirit and stout Stomack: who having put to flight the ninth Legion, in exceeding heat of Cou­rage, joyned Battle with the Romans, and most manfully defended his Country so long, until Fortune rather than his own Valour, failed him: for then, as he saith, These nor­thern Brittains, beyond whom there was no Land, and beside whom none were free, were the ut­most Nation verily of this Island: like as Ca­tullus called the Brittains the utmost of all the World, in that Verse unto Furius,

Caesaris visens monumenta magni,
Gallicum Rhenum, horribiles & ulti­mosque Britannos.

Great Caesars Monuments to see
In his Memorial,
The Rhene in Gaul, and Brittains grim,
The farthest man of all.

In the days of Severus▪ as we read in Xi­philinus, Argetecox Argetocoxus. a petty Prince, reigned over this Tract; whose Wife being rated and reviled as an Adulteress by Julia the Em­press, frankly and boldly made this answer: We Brittain Dames have to do with the bravest and best men, and you Roman Ladies with e­very lewd base Companion secretly.

The Author Camden is at great pains to [Page 114] perswade, that the Walls were built betwixt the two Firths of Edinburgh and Dunbartoun, and the Actions in these places had by the Romans, was against native Brittains pas­sing under different names by Ptolomy, and other names by Ammianus Marcellinus, and the Country by Tacitus, called Caledo­nia, and the People by the approved and best Writers called Caledonians, and in aftertimes by the Romans and Provincial Brittains cal­led Picts. But he will by no means, allow the Scots to be comprehended under these Northern unconquered Nations, who made Opposition to the Romans, and to pass under the name of the caledonians, and others as he owns the Picts were: albeit there is the same Authority to join the Scots with the Picts in these Martial Feats against the Ro­mans, from the Latine Authours themselves, and from Gildas and Bede the most ancient Brittish and Saxon Writers, who join the Scots and Picts in these Actions: and that the Seas which the Roman Enemies were driven over, were the Firths of Edinburgh from the East, and of Dunbartoun from the West, and not over the Sea to Ireland, which made some late Writers imagine, against the express Opinion of Bede, that the Scots du­ring these times, were not setled Inhabitants in Brittain, but only as Auxiliaries to the Picts, made Incursions from Ireland which they inhabited, and were beat back over [Page 115] the Seas to Ireland. But in Vindica­tion of the ancient settlement of the Scots in Brittain, before the Romans and Saxons came to fix their Residence in this Island, and their early Conversion to the Christian Religion: much hath been said in these Books published by Sir George Mackenzie, in the year 1685, in Answer to the Bishop of St. Asaph and Dr. Stillingfleet, to which the Reader is referred. There is also now in the Press, the Manuscript of the judicious and learned Mr. Thomas Craig Advocat, to justifie the Soveraignty of the Crown of Scotland, and the Independncy of its Church from the See of York.

CHAP. XX.
FIFE.

IN this large Country of the Caledonians, beyond the Territory of Stirling before mentioned, are two Countries or She­riffdoms of less note;The Shires of Clackmannan and Kinross. Clackmannan, over which a Knight sirnamed Monteith of Carsse; and Kinross, over which the Earls of Mor­toun were Sheriffs. The Sheriffship of the first, viz. Clackmannan, was purchased by Bruce of Clackmannan, and the Lands and Sheriff­ship of Kinross, by Sir William Bruce.

Fife, Shire of Fife. a most goodly Country, wedged as it [Page 116] were between the two Arms of the Sea, Forth and Tau, shooteth out far into the East. This Land yieldeth plenty of Corn and Forrage, yea and of Pit Coals: the Sea, besides other Fishes, affordeth Oysters and and Shell-fish in great abundance, and the Coasts are well bespread with pretty Townlets, replenished with stout and lusty Mariners. In the south side hereof by Forth, first appeareth west­ward Culross, B. Royal. which gave the Title of a Ba­rony to Sir I. Colvil, L. Colvil. created Lord Colvil of Culross, about the year 1604, and is the last in the Decreet of Ranking, except the Lord Scoon; his Father was a Lord of the Session and Commendator of Culross; and King Charles the Second, when in Scotland, creat­ed Sir Robert Colvil of Cleish, Lord Colvil, his Successor is Robert Lord Colvil. Near to Culross, to the north-west is Kincardine, whereof Edward Bruce of Carnock, was cre­ated Earl by King Charles the First, anno 1648,E. Kincardine. his Brother Alexander succeeded him in his Dignity, who was one of the Commis­sioners of the Thesaury to King Charles the Second, his Son is Alexander Earl of Kincar­dine, Culross, and these places adjacent, al­beit surrounded with Fife and Clackmannan, yet make a part of the Shire of Perth. Then standeth Dumfermling, B. Royal. a famous Monastery in old time, both the Building and Burial place of King Malcolm the Third, which gave both name and honour of an Earl unto [Page 117] Sir Alexander Seton a most prudent Counsel­lor, whom James King of Great-Brittain, worthily raised from Baron of Fivie, to be Earl of Dumfermling, E. Dumferm­ing. and Lord Chancellor of the Realm of Scotland: of the Succession of this Earl, mention is made in the Descrip­tion of the Family of Seton in East-Lothian. Then Kinghorn standeth hard upon the Forth, B. Royal. from which place Sir Patrick Lyon Baron Glames, received at the bountiful Hand of K. James the 6th, the Title and honour of an Earl,E. Kinghorn. anno 1606. After this there is upon the Shore Dysert, B. Royal. situat on the rising of an Hill, from whence there lyeth an open Heath of the same name, where there is a good large place which they call the Cole-plot, that hath great plenty of an earthy Bitumen, and partly burneth to some damnage of the Inha­bitants. William Murray of the Bed-chamber of the Family of Tullibardine, was by King Charles the First,E. Dysert. created Earl of Dysert, whose Daughter and Heiress Elizabeth, Coun­tess of Dysert, is Dutchess of Lawderdale, by Marriage with John late D. of Lawderdale: and by a former Marriage, her Son Sir Leonald Talmash L. Huntingtour residing in England, is to succeed her as Earl of Dysert. Her second Son of that Marriage, was Thomas Talmash, who attended his Majesty in his Expedition to Brittain, in the year 1688, who for his Va­lour in the Wars, and Reduction of Ireland, was advanced to be General Major, and [Page 118] thereafter Lieutenant General: which Of­fice he did worthily discharge in Flanders, and in the Summer 1694, being chief Com­mander in the Attempt upon Brest, was un­fortunatly wounded, whereof he died after his landing in England. Unto it adjoineth Ravens-Heugh, as one would say, the steep hill of Ravens, the Habitation of the Barons Sin­clar, L. Sinclar. whose Successor is Henry Lord Sinclar. Above it the River Levin hideth himself in the Forth: which River running out of the Lake Levin, wherein standeth the Castle of the Dowglasses, which belonged to the Earls of Mortoun. Sir Alexander Lesly General of the Scots Forces, was by K. Charles the 1st, created Earl of Levin anno 1641,E. Levin. whose Successor is David now Earl of Levin, second Son to George Earl of Melvil, begotten on Lady Katherine Leslie, Grandchild and Heiress to the said Earl of Levin: which River, hath at the very mouth of it Weyms Castle, the Seat of a noble Family, bearing the same sir­name. The Laird of Weyms is in the Rolls of Parliament 1617, one of the Commission­ers for the Shire of Fife; he was thereafter made Lord Weyms, and in the Parliament Rolls 1633, is ranked after the Lord New­burgh, and before Ashtoun of Forfar, and in the same year created Earl of Weyms, E. Weyms. whose Grandchild Margaret now Countess of Weyms, was married to Sir James Weyms, who by K. Charles the 2d. was made Lord Burntisland, L. Burntisland. [Page 119] from a Burgh Royal of the same Shire,B. Royal, and hath a Son Lord Elcho to succeed her in that Dignity. From hence the Shore draweth back with a crooked and wiuding Tract un­to Fife-ness, that is, the Promontory or Nose of Fife. B. Royal Above it Saint Andrews, an Archi­episcopal City, hath a fair Prospect into the open main Sea: the more ancient name of the place as old Memorials witness, was Regimund, that is, Saint Regulus Mount: in which we read thus, Oeng or Vng King of the Picts, granted unto God and Saint Andrew, that it should be the chief and mother of all Churches in the Picts Kingdom. Afterward there was placed here an Episcopal See, the Bishops whereof like as all the rest within the King­dom of Scotland, were consecrated by the Arch-bishop of York, (as is asserted by the English Historians) until at the Intercession of King Iames the Third, by reason of so ma­ny Wars between the Scottish and English men. Pope Sixtus the fourth, ordained the Bishop of Saint Andrews to be Primat and Metro­politan of all Scotland; and Pope Innocenti­us the eighth, bound him and his Successors to the imitation and precedent of the Metro­politan of Canterbury, in these words: That in Matters concerning the Archiepiscopal state, they should observe and firmly hold the Offices, Droits, and Rights of Primacy, and such like Legacy; and the free Exercise thereof, the Ho­nours, Charges, and Profits: and that they [Page 120] should endeavour to perform inviolably the lau­dable Customes of the famous Metropolitan Church of Canterbury, the Arch-bishop where­whereof is Legatus natus of the Kingdom of England, &c. Howbeit before that, Lau­rence Lundoris and Richard Corvel▪ Doctors of the Civil Law, publickly professed here good Literature, laid the Foundation of an University: which now, for happy increase of Learned men, for three Colledges and the Kings Professors in them, is become highly renowned. Hard by there loseth it self into the Sea Edan, or Ethan, a little Ri­ver which springeth up near Falkland (a place from which Carry an English man, had the Designation of Viscount from King James the Sixth,V. Falkland. and is so marked in the Rolls of Parliament 1621; his Successor is Anthony Viscount of Falkland, a Member of the House of Commons in the current English Parlia­ment,) it belonged anciently to the Earls of Fife, and was a retiring place of the Kings, when residing in Scotland, and is very well Seated for hunting Pleasures, and Disports; sometimes it was reckoned amongst the Burghs Royal, and is the Seat of the Stewartry of Fife; this River hath its Course under a con­tinued Ridge of Hills, which divide this Country in the midst, by Struthers (a place so called of a Reed plot) a Castle of the Ba­rons Lindsey of whom is descended Iohn Lord Lindsey, created by King Charles the [Page 121] First, anno 1633, Earl of Lindsey. And in anno 1641, was Lord High Thesaurer, and after the Forfaulture of Lodowick Earl of Crawford, and by vertue of a former Entail, the Honour, Dignity and Precedency of the Earl of Crawford, was declared in Parlia­ment to belong to him and his Successors, and since ratified in Parliament anno 1661; he was by King Charles the Second, resto­red to be Thesaurer, from which Office he had been removed in the year 1649: his Son William now Earl of Crawford, was President of the Parliament 1689, and 1690, and one of the Commissioners of the Thesaury: the secondary Title belonging to his eldest Son, is Lord Lindsey. Eden also runneth by Cowper a notable Burgh,B. Royal. where the Sheriff sit­teth to minister Justice.

Now where the shore turneth inward a Front northward, hard by the Salt water of Tau, there flourished in old time two good­ly Abbeys, Balmerinoch, built by Queen Er­mengard, Wife to King William, Daughter of Viscount Beaumont in France. King James of Great Brittain, advanced Sir James El­phingston of Barntoun, L. Balmeri­noch. to the honour of Baron Balmerinoch, about the year 1604, being mentioned in that Parliament, one of the Com­missioners for the Union with England: he is placed in the Decreet of Ranking, after the L. Abercorn, and before the L. Tullibardine; he was a Lord of the Session, & Secretary & thereafter [Page 122] succeeded to the L. Fyvie to be President of the Session, anno 1605, whose Grand-child is John L. Balmerinoch. The other Abbey is that of Lindoris, Founded among the Woods by Da­vid E. of Huntingtoun, & is the Barony of Sir Pa­trick Lesly created L. Lindoris about the year 1604, and placed in the Decreet of Rank­ing immediatly after the Lord Roxburgh, L. Lindoris. and before the Lord Lowdoun, his Successor is Iohn Lord Lindoris. Between which stand­eth Banbrich, the Habitation of the Earl of Rothes, strongly built Castle-wise.

Near to these places on the Confines to­ward Perth-shire, is Balvaird, which belongs to the Murrays, ancient Cadets of the Lairds of Tullihardine: their Successor was created L. Bal­vaird L. Balvaird by K. Charles the 1st. after the year 1641, his Grand-child hath succeeded to the Digni­ty of Lord Scoon, and Viscount Stormonth by entail, Sir David Murray the first Lord and Viscount, being a younger Brother of the Laird of Balvaird.

The Governour of this Province, like as of all the rest in this Kingdom, was in times past a Thane, that is in the old English tongue, The Kings Minister: as it is also at this day in the Danish Language: but Malcolm Can­more made Macduff who before was Thane of Fife, E. Fife. the first hereditary Earl of Fife; and in consideration of his good desert and singular service done unto him, granted that his Po­sterity should have the Honour to place the [Page 123] King, when he is to be Crowned in his Chair, and to lead the Vant-guard in his Army; and if any of them should happen by casualty to kill either Gentleman or Commoner, to buy it out with a piece of Money. Not far from Lindoris, there is to be seen a Cross of Stone, which standing for a limit between Fife and Strathern, had an Inscription of bar­barous Verses, and a certain priviledge of Sanctuary, that any Manslayer Allied to Mac­duff Earl of Fife, within the ninth Degree, if he came unto this Cross, and gave nine Kine with anColpindach [...]. Heifer, should be quit of Man­slaughter. When his Posterity lost this Ti­tle and Priviledge, is uncertain; but it appear­eth, that King David the Second, gave unto William Ramsey this Earldom, with all and e­very the Immunities and Law, which is called Clan-Mac-Duff: and received it is for certain, that the Linage of the Weymesses and Dow­glasses, yea and that great Kindred Clan-Hatan, the Chief whereof is Mac-Intoshech, descend­ed from them. And the most learned Sir John Skeen of Currie-hill Clerk of Register, in his Treatise de verborum significatione, in­forms, that by an Indenture at Perth the pe­nult day of March 1371, betwixt Robert Stu­art Earl of Monteith, and Dame Isabel Coun­tess of Fife, Daughter and Heir to Duncan Earl of Fife. The Countess is obliged to re­sign her Earldom in the Kings hands, in fa­vours of the said Earl for new heretable In­festment thereof to be given to him; which [Page 124] Earl being afterwards designed of Fife and Monteith, was thereafter Duke of Albany, and affecting the Kingdom, with cruel Ambition, caused David the Kings eldest Son to be most pitifully famished to death, which is the highest extremity of all misery. But his Son Murdac suffered due punishment for the Wickedness both of his Father, and his own Sons, being put to death by King James the First for their violent Oppressions, and a Decree passed, that the Earldom of Fife should be united unto the Crown for ever. But the Authority of the Sheriff of Fife belongeth in right of Inheritance,E. Rothes. to the Earl of Rothes, the Heir of which Family, was Iohn Earl of Rothes: who after he was High Commission­er for King Charles the Second to the Parlia­ment, and Conventions of Estates, and en­joyed several other honourable and profitable Employments, was made Chancellor anno 1668, in which Office he continued till his death, in anno 1681, and was shortly before created Duke of Rothes: D. Rothes. which Dignity is extinct, by default of Heirs male of his Bo­dy, but his eldest Daughter Margaret Coun­tess of Rothes, being married to Charles Earl of Haddingtoun, hath Iohn Lord Leslie, who is to succeed in the Dignity of the Earl of Ro­thes, and Thomas who hath succeeded his Fa­ther in the Dignity of the Earl of Hading­toun.

Since Printing of the former Edition, se­veral Lords were created in this Shire, some [Page 125] whereof have already been mentioned, and al­so others to be mentioned, viz. Sir Michael Bal­four of Balgarvie by K. James the 6th, created L. Burghlie July 16, 1607, whose Successor is John Lord Burghlie. L. Burghly. And by the same King, Sir Robert Melvil, first of Murdocairny, and thereafter of Burntisland, who had been The­saurer Deput, and Thesaurer, before the year 1592, and an extraordinar Lord of Session anno 1594, was created Lord Melvil about the year 1617, to whom succeeded Robert his Son: he is ranked in the Parliament 1633, after the Lord Deskford and before Carnegie, and is amongst the Commissioners for holding that Parliament, who had been admitted an extraordinar Lord of Session up­on the dimission of his Father, and then by entail, the honour fell to the Laird of Raith, descended of the eldest Brother, and the only Male representative of the ancient Family of the Melvils: George Lord Melvil his Son, is the 4th. Lord, who was sole Secretar of State to, and created by Their Majesties Earl of Melvil, E. Melvil. Lord High Commissioner to the second and third Sessions of this current Parliament 1690, and now Lord Privy Seal: his Son Alexander Lord Raith, was constitute Thesaurer Deput anno 1689. Mr. John Lind­sey of Belcarras, was a Lord of the Session, and one of the Octavians of the Thesaury, & Secre­tary before K. Ja. his Succession to the Crown of England: his Grand-child Alexander about the year 1633, was created Lord Belcarras [Page 126] by King Charles the First, and afterward Earl of Belcarras by King Charles the Second when in Scotland: E. Belcarrras. his Son is Colin Earl of Belcarras. The Viscount Fentoun, of whom before, was created by King James the Sixth about the year 1617, Earl of Kelly, E. Kelly. and is in the Rolls of Parliament 1621, next after the Earl of Roxburgh, and before Buckcleugh, whose Successor is Alexander Earl of Kelly. Sir John Living stoun of Kinnaird Baronet, was by K. Charles the First, made Lord Newburgh, and Earl of Newburgh by King Charles the Second,E. Newburgh. whose Male Successor is deceased lately in England, without Issue Male. Sandilands Laird of St. Minnans, was by King Charles the First,L. Abercrom­by. advanced to the Title of L. Abercromby, in the year 1648, whose Honour is not now claimed by any. Lieutenant General David Lesly, Son to the Lord Lindoris, was creat­ed by King Charles the Second,L. New-wark. Lord New-warkî he had been Lieutenant General to the Scots Army, and at Philiphaugh, surprised and defeat the Marquess of Montross: he was General of the Army at Dumbar and Wor­cester: his Son being deceased without Heirs Male, the Grand. child is married to Mr. Alex­ander Anstruther, a younger Son of Sir Philip Anstruther of that Ilk. Beside the Burghs Royal mentioned in this Shire, there are also others, viz. Innerkeithing, Kirkaldy, Anstruther Easter, Burghs Royal and Wester, Pitttenweem, Crail and Kil­renny, all lying on Forth from the West to the East.

CHAP. XXI.
STRATHERN.

AS far as to the River Tau, In Perth-shire which Bound­eth Fife on the North-side, Julius Agricola, the best Proprietar of Brittain un­der Domitian the worst Emperour, marched with victorious Armies in the third year of his warlike Expeditions, having wasted and spoiled the Nations hitherto. Near the out­let of Tau, the notable River Ern interming­leth his Waters with Tau: which River be­ginning out of a Lake or Loch of the same name, bestoweth his own name upon the Country through which he runneth, for it is called Strathern, which in the ancient Tongue of the Brittains, signifieth the Vale along Ern. The Bank of this Ern is beautified with Dry­mein Castle, belonging to the Family of the Barons of Drummond, advanced to highest Honours, ever since that King Robert Stewart the third; took to him a Wife out of that Li­nage: for the Women of this Race, have for their singular Beauty, and well favoured sweet Countenance, won the prize from all others, insomuch as they have been the Kings most a­miable Paramours. Baron Drummonds Suc­cessor was created by King James the Sixth, Earl of Perth about the year 1605, and so designed from the head Burgh of the Shire:E. Perth. of whom is descended James now Earl of Perth: [Page 128] his great Grand-child, who was an extraordi­nar Lord of the Session, Justice General, and Chancellor to K. Ch. the 2d. & K. Ja. the 7th. James a Son of this Family, was created by K. Ia. the 6th. Lord Maderty, L. Maderty. and is in the Rolls of Parliament 1617, after the Lord Garlies, and before the Lord Kintail, whose Successors se­cond Son L. General William Drummond, was by King James the Seventh, about the year 1686, created Viscount of Strathallan, V. Strathallan. to whom his Son William now Viscount of Strathallan succeeded, and also is Heir to his Uncle the Lord Maderty. Upon the same Bank, Tullibardine Castle sheweth it self aloft, but with greater jollity, since that by the propitious favour of King James the Sixth, Sir John Murray created Baron of Tullibardine, before the Lords Colvil and Scoon, was rai­sed to the Honour and Estate of Earl of Tul­libardine anno 1606. By an unprinted Act anno 1612, there is a Ratification to the Master of Tullibardine of the Lands of the Earl­dom of Athol, who was the Earl of Tullibar­dines eldest Son, (Earls eldest Sons at that time, being designed Masters and not Lords;) this Master, afterward William Earl of Tullibar­dine, having married the Heiress of Stuart Earl of Athol, his Son John succeeded to the Dignity of Earl of Athol, and his Uncle Sir Patrick Murray by Resignation, became Earl of Tullibardine, whose Son James Earl of Tullibardine dying without Issue, his Estate [Page 129] and Dignity fell to his Cousin Iohn Earl of Athol, Son to the Earl of Athol before named, who liveth, and was to King Charles the Se­cond, Lord Justice General, and thereafter Lord Privy Seal; and extraordinar Lord of the Session, and before the year 1677, cre­ated Marquess of Athol; M. Athol. he retains the sir­name of Murray, and carries, the Arms of Stuart Earl of Athol quartered. Upon the other Bank, more beneath Duplin Castle, sometime the Habitation of the Barons Oli­phant, L. Oliphant. reporteth yet what an overthrow (the like to which was never before) the English men that came to aid King Edward Balliol, gave there unto the Scots; insomuch as the English Writers in that time do write, that they won this Victory not by mans hand, but by the power of God: and the Scottish Wri­ters relate, how that out of the Family of the Lindseys, there were slain in the Field four­score persons, and that the name of Hays had been quite extinguished, but that the chief of that House left his Wife behind him great with Child. The Precedency of Oliphant is transmitted to Dowglass Lord Mordingtoun as Heir of Line, of whom before: and Charles Lord Oliphant, residing in the Shire of Bamff, as Heir-male, doth also claim the Preceden­cy. The Lands of Duplin were purchased by Sir George Hay of Kinfauns, a Lord of the Ses­sion, and Clerk of Register, and thereafter in the year 1622, made Lord Chancellor: [Page 130] September 25 1629 George Viscount Du­pline is one of the Commissioners for hold­ing of the Parliament: in a Roll of the No­bility about that time, he is ranked last Vis­count, after the Viscount of Drumlanrig, and in anno 1632, created by King Charles the First Earl of Kinnoul, E. Kinnoul. to whom he con­tinued Chancellor till his death, and was suc­ceeded by John Spotswood Arch-Bishop of St. Andrews, the Earl of Kinnoul his Successor resides in England. Not far from it standeth Innermeth, L. Innermeth. well known by reason of the Lords thereof, the Stuarts out of the Fami­ly of Lorn: this Dignity at present is claim­ed by none. Inch Chafra, that is in the old Scottish tongue, the Isle of Masses, hereby may be remembered when as it was a most famous Abbey of the Order of Saint Augustine, found­ed by Gilbert Earl of Strathern, about the year 1200.

When Ern hath joined this Water with Tau in one Stream, so that Tau is now be­come more spacious, he looketh up to Aber­nethy seated upon his Bank, the Royal Seat in old time of the Picts, and a well peopled City: which, as we read in an ancient Frag­ment, Nectane King of the Picts gave unto God and St. Brigid until the day of Doom, together with the bounds thereof, which ly from a stone in Abertrent, unto a stone near to Carfull, that is, Loghfoll, and from thence as far as to Ethan. But long after, it became the possession of the Dowglasses Earls of Angus, who are cal­led [Page 131] Lords of Abernethy, and there some of them ly entered.

Malisse Earl of Strathern, in the time of King Henry the Third of England, married one of the Heirs of Robert Muschamp, a po­tent Baron of England. Long afterward Ro­bert Stuart about the year 1360, was E. Then David a younger Son of K. Robert the 2d. whose only Daughter given in Marriage to Patrick Graham, Stuart Earl of Strathern. b [...]gat Mailise or Melasse Graham, from whom King James the First took away the Earldom as Escheated; after that, he understood out of the Records of the Kingdom, that it was given unto his Mothers Grand-father, and the Hirs Male of his Body. This Territory, the Barons Drum­mond, Earls of Perth, govern hereditarly by Seneschals Authority, as their Stewartries; as the Lords of Doun (now Earls of Murray) are hereditary Stewarts of the Jurisdiction of Monteith. L. Doun.

Monteith hath the name of Teith, a River which also they call Tai [...]h, and thereof this little Province they term in Latine Taichia; upon the Bank of which lyeth the Bishoprick of Dumblain, which King David the first of that Name erected. Sir Thomas Osburn The­saurer of England, was by King Charles the Second, before the year 1677, created Vis­count of Dumblain, V. Dumblain. who is now Duke of Leeds in England, and President of the Coun­cil: the Dignity was conveyed to Peregrine his 2d. Son, who now by the death of his elder [Page 132] Brother, is Marquess of Carmarthan. The Laird of Dincrub, was by King Charles the Second when in Scotland, L. Rollo. created Lord Rollo from his sir-name, whose Successor is Andrew Lord Rollo. At Kilbride, that is Saint Brigids Church,Earls of Mon­teith. the Earls of Monteith had their prin­cipal House, or Honour. This Monteith reacheth unto the Mountains, that enclose the East-side of the Loch or Lake Lomund. The ancient Earls of Monteith were of the Family of Cumming, which in times past be­ing the most spread and mightiest House of all Scotland, was ruinated with the over-weight and sway thereof:Graham E. of Monteith. but the later Earls were of the Grahams Line, ever since that Sir Mai­lise Graham attained to the Honour of an Earl.

The Author beginneth the Description of the Grahams of Monteith, before the Grahams of Montross, it seems in regard they did first attain to the Degree of Earls. William Earl of Monteith descended of these Earls, was by King Charles the First made President of his Council: and being served Heir to David Earl of Strathern, who was Son to King Ro­bert the first of the Stuarts, was by Patent from that King, Ratified and Approven in his Title and Dignity of Earl of Strathern. April 13. 1632, amongst the Commission­ers for holding the Parliament, is William Earl of Strathern, Graham E. of Strathern. President of the Council, ranked before the L. Privy Seal; it is report­ed, that being vain of the Title of Strathern, joyned with the general error of Historians, [Page 133] of David Earl of Strathern's being a Son of the first Marriage of King Robert the Second, a Decreet of Reduction and Improbation was obtained at the Instance of Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, Barroner, Kings Advocat, and that Earl and his Successors appointed to use in time coming,E. Monteith, or Airth. the Title of Earl of Mon­teith, or Airth: His Grand-child, William Earl of Monteith lately deceased, did convey his Estate and Dignity to the Marquess of Montross, descended of the same Stock of Grahams at Kincardine not far off, who had many noble and valiant Progenitors; and in late times, Iohn Earl of Montross, Chancellor to King James the Sixth was the first, who as Great or High Commissioner, did repre­sent the Kings person in the Parliament 1604, as distinguished from several Noblemen and Gentlemen, appointed Commissioners by the King under the quarter Seal, to meet at the Dyet of Parliament, and to continue the same to a furder time, and to see the Solem­nities constituting the Parliament performed, the first day of its sitting; which Form was constantly observed, till the year 1640. This Earls Grand-child James, was famous in the late Wars in Scotland, M. Montross. and was created Mar­quess by King Charles the first: George Wishart Dr. of Divinity, and afterward Bishop of Edinburgh, did write his Actions; his Great Grand-child is James Marquess of Montross. Near these places is the Abbacy of Cardross, [Page 134] which by K. Ja. the 6th, was erected in a tem­poral Lordship,L. Cardross. to Henry Erskin a Son of the E. of Mar, he is ranked in the Rolls after the Lord Blantyre, the Great Grand-child is Da­vid Lord Cardross.

Before I end the Description of this Coun­try of Strathern, which is so famous for the Roman Actions there, and several noble and antient Families inhabiting it. I return to the Cross of Macduff before mentioned, placed in the Limits of Fife and Strathern, of whose Inscription Sir John Skeen took notice, that the Priviledges of Clan Macduff were expressed in barbarons Verses, whereof he gives a short hint in his de verborum significatione; of which Mr. James Cunninghame has given a more full Description in Print, the Inscription as it is set down by him, is thus,

Maldraradrum dragos Malairta largia largos
Spalando spados sive nig fig knippite gnaros
Inscription of Macduffs Cross.
Lorca lauriscos lanringen louria luscos
Et Coluburt [...]s sic fit tibi bursca burtus
Exitus et blaradrum sive lim sive iam sive labrum
Propter macgidrim et hoc obla [...]um
Accipe smeleridem super limpide lampida labrum.

But one Dowglass in New-burgh, near to Cross Macduff, had by him a Version, which seems to be much more probable, and agree­able to the Matter, which reads thus,

Ara, urget lex quos, lare egentes atria lis, quos
Hoc qui laboras, haec fit tibi pactio portus,
Mille reum Drachmas mulctam de largior agris
Spes tantum pacis cum nex fit a nepote natis
[Page 135] Propter Macgidrum, & hoc oblatum accipe semel
Haeredum, super lymphato lapide labem.

Here seems to be wanting a Line of the In­scription, which is lost, or could not be read by the Translater, which probably related to Macduffs leading of the Van of the Kings Ar­my, which Inscription is thus paraphrased in English Rhime,

All such as are within the ninth Degree
Of Kindred to that antient Thane Macduff,
And yet for Slaughter are compell'd to flie
And leave their houses, and their houshold Stuff;
Here they shall find for their refuge, a place
To save them from the cruel blood Avenger:
A priviledge peculiar to that Race,
Which never was allow'd to any Stranger.
But they must enter Heir, on this condition
(Which they observe must, with a faith unfeignzied)
To pay a thousand Groats for their Remission,
Or else their Lands and Goods shall be distrenzied.
For Saint Macgidders sake, and this Oblation,
And by their only washing at this Stone,
Purg'd is the Blood shed by that Generation:
This priviledge pertains to them alone.

In this Country about mid-way betwixt Dumblain and the Castle of Drummond, is the house of Ardoch, belonging to Sir William Stirling Barronet, where there is large Vesti­ges of a Roman Camp, enclosed on some sides with treeple Trenches, wherein at several times, Roman Medals have been found, and from that there is a great Mercat-Road lead­eth towards St. Iohnstoun or Perth, Calseyed in many places, and thence through Strath­more [Page 136] toward Angus. This incampment is believed to have been made by Iulius Agri­cola, being near to the Grampian Hills where he defate the Scots and Picts.

Within this Camp there was found a squair Stone, which is yet kept at the Castle of Drummond, and may be seen there, where­on is engraven the Inscription following, ‘DIS MANIBUS
ANTONIUS
DAIMONIUS
COHORTIS I.
LEGIONIS
XVII. HISPANORUM
HEREDES.
F. C.’

Mr. Adair in his Map of Strathern, hath printed this Inscription with some small dif­ference, whee rhe hath also a draught of the Roman Camp before mentioned.

CHAP. XXII.
ARGATHELIA: OR, ARGILE,

BEyond the Lake Lomund and the west part of Lennox, The Shire of Argile. there spreadeth it self near unto Dumbarton Firth, the large Coun­try called Argathelia, and Ar. Gwithil, that is Near unto the Irish; or as old Writings have it, the edge or Border of Ireland: for it lyeth toward Ireland, the Inhabitants whereof, the Brittains term Gwithil and Gaothel. The Country runneth out in length and breadth, all mangled with fishful Pools, and in some places with rising Mountains, very commo­dious for feeding of Cattel; in which also there range up and down wild Kine and red Deer: but along the Shore it is more un­pleasant in sight, what with Rocks, and what with blackish barren Mountains. In this part, as Bede writeth, Brittain received after the Brittains and Picts, a third nation of Scots, in that Countrey where the Picts inhabited: who coming out of Ireland, under the leading of Reuda, either through friendship, or by dint of Sword, planted their seat amongst them which they still hold. Of whom, their Leader they are to this very day called Dalreudini: for in their language, Dal signifieth (a part.) And [Page 138] a little after, Ireland (saith he) is the pro­per Country of the Scots, for, being departed out of it, they added unto the Brittains and Picts, a third Nation in Brittain. And there is a very great Bay or Arm of the Sea, that in old time severed the Nation of the Brittains from the Picts, which from the West breaketh a great way into the Land, where standeth the strongest City of all the Brittains even unto this day, called Alchith. In the north part of which Bay, the Scots aforesaid when they came, got themselves a place to inhabite. Of that name Dalreudin, no Remains at all are now extant; neither find we any thing there­of in Writers, unless it be that same Dalrie­ta. For, in an old Pamphlet, touching the division of Albany, we read of one Kinnady (who for certain was a King of Scots and denyed the Picts) these very words; Kinna­dy two years before he came into Pictavia (for so it calleth the Country of the Picts) entred upon the Kingdom of Dalrieta. Also in an History of latter time, there is mention made of Dalrea in some place of this Tract, where King Robert Bruce fought a field unfortunatly.

That Justice should be ministred unto this Province by Justices itinerant at Perth, when­soever it pleased the King, King Iames the Fourth by Authority of the States of the King­dom, enacted a Law. But the Earls them­selves have in some cases their Royalties, as being men of very great Command and Au­thority, [Page 139] followed with a mighty Train of Retainers and Dependants, who derive their Race from the ancient Princes and Potentates of Argile, by an infinite descent of Ancestours, and from their Castle Campbel, took their sir­name:E. Argile. but the Honour and Title of Earl was given unto them by King James the Second, who, as it is recorded, invested Colin Lord Campbel, Earl of Argile, in regard of his own vertue, and the worth of his Family: whose Heirs and Successors standing in the gracious favour of the Kings, have been Lords of Lorn, and a good while General Justices of the Kingdom of Scotland, or, Justices or­dained in General, and Great Masters of the Kings Royal Houshold. Archibald Earl of Argile, by King Charles the First, created Marquess of Argile, was forefaulted by King Charles the Second, and his Son Arch­bald Lord Lorn, restored to the Dignity and Precedency of the Earl of Argile: who there­after in that same Kings Reign, upon very nice & slender Grounds, was also forefaulted; which Forefaulture was particularly taxed as a Reproach to the Nation in the Claim of Right, or Instrument of Government anno 1689, and by a special printed Act of Par­liament 1690, his Son Archbald Lord Lorn now Earl of Argile restored. Since the print­ing of the first Sheets of this Book, he hath presented a Letter from the King to the Lords, nominating him an Extraordinar Lord of the [Page 140] Session, in place of the Duke of Hamilton de­ceased, and is accordingly admitted. From Melfort in this Country, did John Drum­mond of Lundie, first married to the Heiress of that Family, and Brother to James Earl of Perth, by grant from King James the Se­venth, take first the Title of Viscount, and thereafter of Earl,E. Melfort. and was Thesaurer De­pute to King Charles the Second, and Secre­tary to him and King James the Seventh. The head Burgh of this Shire is Inerara, B. Royal. a Burgh Royal.

CHAP. XXIII.
CANTIRE.

LOgh. Fin, In the Shire of Argile. a Lake breeding such store of Herrings at a certain due season, as it is wonderful, severeth Argile from a Promon­tory, which for thirty Miles together grow­ing still toward a sharp Point, thrusteth it self forth with so great a desire toward Ireland (betwixt which and it there is a narrow Sea, scarce thirteen Miles over) as if it would conjoyn it self. Ptolomy termeth this, the Promontory Epidiorum, between which name, and the Islands Aebudae lying over-against it, there is, in my conceit, some affinity. At this day it is called in the Irish Tongue (which they speak in all this Tract) Can-tyre, that is, The Lands Head; inhabited by the [Page 141] Mac-conells, a Family that here swayeth much, howbeit at the pleasure and dispose of the Earl of Argile: yea and other times they make out their light Pinnaces and Gal­lies for Ireland, to raise Booties and Pillage, who also hold in Possession those little Pro­vinces of Ireland, which they call Glines and Rowts. This Promontory lyeth annexed to Knapdale by so thin a Neck (as being scarce a Mile broad, and the same all Sandy) that the Mariners find it the nearer way to convey their small Vessels over it by Land. Which I hope a man may sooner believe, than that the Argonauts laid their great Ship Argos upon their Shoulders, and so carried it along with them five hundred Miles, from Aemonia unto the Shores of Thessalia. L. Kintyre. This place gave first the Title of Lord to a Brother of the Earl of Argiles, as hath been said, and there­after when Argile became Marquess, he was designed Earl of Kintyre.

CHAP. XXIV.
LORN.

SOmewhat higher toward the North ly­eth Lorn, In the Shire of Argyle. bearing the best kind of Barley in great plenty, and divided with Leave a vast and huge Lake: by which standeth Berogomum a Castle, in which some­time was kept the Court of Justice, or Ses­sion: [Page 142] and not far from it Dunstaffage, that is, Stephens Mount, the Kings House in times past: above which Logh Aher, a Lake in­sinuating it self from out of the Western Sea,Lochaber: windeth it self so far within Land, that it had conflowed together with Ness, ano­ther Lake running into the East Sea, but that certain Mountains between kept them with a very little Partition asunder. The chiefest Place of Name in this Tract is Tar­bar in Loch Kinkeran, where King James the fourth ordained a Justice and Sheriff, to administer Justice unto the Inhabitants of the out Islands, but now the Shires of Argile and Tarbat are joyned in one These Coun­tries and those beyond them, in the year of our Lords Incarnation 655. the Picts, held: whom Beda calleth the Northern Picts, where he reporteth,Lib: 3: cap: 4: that in the said year Colum­bane a Priest and Abbot, famous for his Mon­kish profession and life, came out of Ireland into Brittain, to instruct these in Christian Religi­on, that by means of the high rough Ridges of the Mountains were sequestred from the South­ern Countries of the Picts: and that they, in lieu of a Reward, allowed unto him the Island Hii, over against them, Bed: Hist: Ec­clesiast: S. G: Mackenzie against St: A­saph, and Dr: Stillingfleet. now called I-Comb-Kill, a famous Monastry and Nursery of the Christian Religion over Britain. The Lord of Lorna in the age aforegoing were the Stuarts: but now, by reason of a Female their Heir, the Earls of Argile use this Title in their Honourable De­signation.

CHAP. XXV.
BRAID ALBIN, OR, ALBANY.

MOre inwardly,In Perth Shire where the uninhabi­table, lofty, and rugged Ridges of the Mountain Grampius, begin a lit­tle to slope and settle downward, is seated Braid-Albin, that is, The highest part of Scotland: for they that are the true and right Scots indeed, call Scotland in their Mo­ther Tongue, Albin; like as that part where it mounteth up highest, Drum Albin, that is, the Ridge of Scotland. But in an old Book it is read Brun Albin, where we find this Written: Fergus filius Eric, &c. That is, Fergus the Son of Eric was the first of the Seed or line of Chonare, that entred upon the King­dom of Albanie, from Brun-Albain unto the Irish Sea and Inch-Gall. And after him the Kings descended from the Seed or Race of Fer­gus, Reigned in Brun-Albain or Brunhere un­to Alpin the Son of Eochall.

But this Albanie is better known for the Dukes thereof, than for any good Gifts that the Soil yieldeth.D: of Albanie: The first Duke of Alba­nie was Robert Earl of Fife, whom his Bro­ther [Page 144] King Robert the third of that Name, ad­vanced to that honour: yet he (ungrate­ful person that he was) pricked on with the spirit of ambition, famished to Death his Son David, that was Heir to the Crown. But the punishment due for this wicked Fact, which himself by the long sufferance of God self not, his Son Mordac, the second Duke of Albanie, first designed in his Fathers time, Sir Murdac Stuart of Kinclevin suffered most grievously, being condemned for Treason and beheaded, when he had seen his two Sons the day before executed in the same manner. The third Duke of Albanie was A­lexander, second Son to King James the se­cond, who was also designed Earl of March, Marr, and Garioth, Lord of An­nandale and of Man, was by his own Brother King James the third outlawed, and after he had been turmoiled with many Troubles, in the end, as he stood by to behold at Justs and Tourneament in Paris, chanced to be wound­ed with a piece of shattered Launce, & so di­ed. His Son John, the fourth Duke of Albanie, was called home & made Regent and Tutor to King James the fifth, taking contentment in the pleasant Delights of the French Court, after he had Wedded there the Daughter, and one of the Heirs of John Earl of Anverne and Lauragveze, died there without Issue: Whom in respective reverence to the Blood Royal of the Scots, Francis the first King of [Page 145] France gave thus much honour unto, as that he allowed him place between the Archbi­shop of Langres, and the Duke of Alenson, Peers of France. After his death there was no Duke of Albanie until that Queen Mary conferred this Title upon Henry Lord Darn­ly, whom within some few days after she made her Husband: likeas King James the sixth granted the same unto his own second son Charles being an Infant, during the lifetime of Prince Henry his elder Brother, to whom he succeeded as Prince and Steward of Scot­land, and to his Father as King of Great-Britain, and first of the Name of Charles: King James, the seventh did enjoy the Title of Duke of Albany during the lifetime of his elder Brother.

There inhabit these Regions a kind of People, rude, warlike, ready to fight, quar­rellous and mischievous: they be common­ly termed Highlandmen, who being indeed the right Progeny of the antient Scots, speak Irish, and call themselves Albinich; their bodies be firmly made and well compact, able withal and strong, nimble of Foot, high min­ded, inbread and nuzzeled in warlike exer­cises, or Robberies rather, and upon a dead­ly feud and hatred, most forward and des­perat to take revenge. They go attired Irish-like, in stript or streaked Mantles of divers colours, wearing thick and long Glibes of Hair, living by hunting, fishing, fowling [Page 146] and stealing. In the War their Armour is an Head-piece, or Morion of Iron, and an Habergeon, or Coat of Mail: their Wea­pons be Bows, barbed or hooked Arrows, and broad Back Swords: and being divided by certain Families or Kindreds, which they term Clans, they commit such cruel Outrages, what with Robbing, Spoilling and Killing, that their Savage Cruelty hath forced a Law to be enacted, whereby it is lawful, That if any person, out of any one Clan or Kindred of theirs hath trespassed ought, and done harm, whosoever of that Clan or Linage chance to be taken, he shall either make amends for the harms, or else suffer Death for it; when as the whole Clan commonly beareth Feud for any hurt received by any one Member thereof, by execution of Laws, order of Ju­stice, or otherwise. Sir John Camphel of Glenur­chie Baronet an antient and powerful Cadet of Argile, descended of one of the Heiresses of Stuart, Lord Lorn of whose Lands he en­joyes a part, and their Arms quartered, and of other great Families, and from whom many Noblemen and Barons derive their Pedegree, was by King Charles the second, about the year 1677.Earl of Braid-albine. Created Earl of Brade Albine, and is one of the present Commissioners of their Majesties Thesaury, he is Hereditary Baillie of Broad Albine.

CHAP. XXVI.
PERTHIA: OR, PERTH Sheriffdom.

OUt of the very bosome of the Moun­tains of Albany, The Shire of Perth. Tau the greatest River of all Scotland issueth: and first run­reth amain through the Fields, until that spreading broad into a Lake full of Islands, he restraineth and keepeth in his course. Then gathering himself narrow within his Banks into a Channel, and Watering Perth, a large, plentiful and rich Countrey, he taketh in unto him Amond, a small River coming out of Athol.

This Athol, that I may digress a little out of my way, is infamous for Witches and wick­ed Women: the Countrey, otherwise fertile enough, hath Valleys bespread with Forrests: namely, where that Wood Caledonia, dread­ful to see, for the sundry turnings and win­dings in and out therein, for the hideous hor­rour of dark Shades, for the Burrows and Dens of Wild Bulls with thick Manes (where­of I made mention heretofore) extended it self in old time far and wide every way in these parts. As for the Places herein, they are of no great account, but the Earls thereof are very memorable.

[Page 148] Thomas, a younger Son of Rolland of Galloway, Earl Athol. was in his Wives Right Earl of A­thol, whose Son Patrick was by the Bissets his Concurrents Murdered in Feud, at Had dingtoun in his Bed-chamber, and forthwith the whole House wherein he Lodged burnt, that it might be supposed he perished by ca­sualty of Fire.

To the Earldom there succeeded David Hastings, who had Married the Aunt by the Mothers side of Patrick; whose Son that Da­vid surnamed of Strathbogie may seem to be, who a little after, in the Reign of Henry the third King of England, being Earl of Athol, married one of the Daughters and Heirs of Richard, base Son to John King of England, and had with her a very goodly inheritance in England. She bare unto him two Sons, John Earl of Athol, who being of a variable disposition and untrusty was hanged up aloft on a Gallows fifty Foot high; and Da­vid Earl of Athol, unto whom by Marriage with one of the Daughters and Heirs of John Cummin of Badzenoth, by one of the Heirs of Aumer de Valence Earl of Pembroch, there fell great Lands and Possessions. His Son Da­vid, who under King Edward the second was other whiles amongst English summoned to the Parliaments in England, and under King Edward Baliol made Lord Lieutenant General of Scotland, was vanquished by the valerous Prowess of Andrew de Murray, and [Page 149] slain in Battel within the Forrest of Kelblen, in the year of our Lord 1335: And his Son David left two young Daughters only, Eli­sabeth Wedded unto Sir Thomas Piercy, from whom the Barons of Burrough are descended: and Philip, Married to Sir Thomas Halsham an English Knight. Then fell the Title of Athol unto that Walter Stuart, Son to King Robert the second, who cruelly Murdered James the first, King of Scotland, who for this execrable cruelty suffered most condign punishment accordingly: in so much as Ae­neas Sylvius, Ambassadour at that time in Scotland from Pope Eugenius the fourth, gave out this Speech: That he could not tell whe­ther he should give them greater commendations that revenged the Kings Death, or brand them with sharper Censure of Condemnation, that distained themselves with so hainous a Pari­cide.

After some few years passed between, this honour was granted unto John Stuart of the Family of Lorn, the Son of James, surnamed The Black Knight, by Joan the Widow of King James the first, Daughter to John Earl of So­merset, and Niece to John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, whose posterity at this day en­joy the same. The eldest son of Tullibardine being descended of the Stuarts of Athol, Marquess Athol whose successor is John Marquess of Athol, as hath been said. Lord Charles Murray second Son to the Marquess of Athol, was by King [Page 150] James the seventh,Earl Dunmore. Created Earl of Dunmore, and Sir Robert Nairn of Stra [...]hurd, one of the Lords of Session, was by King Charles the second, about the year 1681. Created Lord Nairn, Lord Nairn. his only Daughter to be Married to a younger Son of the Marquess of Athols, by vertue whereof William Lord Murray is now Lord Nairn. The Marquess of Athol is He­retable Sheriff of Perth.

This River is increased by receiving the River of Bra [...]n, which having given name to a Strath through which it passeth, loseth its name by augmenting of Tau at Dunkeld, Burgh-Royal. which was adorned by King David the first with an Episcopal See. Sir James Galloway Master of Requests to King James the sixth, and King Charles the first, was by the latter Created Lord Dunkell, Lord Dunkell. about the year 1646. whose Grand Child is Forfeited for oppo­sing their Majesties in the Highlands by force of Arms.Gillichrankie. In these bounds lyes Gillichrankie, a place remark [...]ble for the Defeat of the Kings Forces, under the Command of Ge­neral Major Mckay, by the late Viscount of Dundee and his Associats, but himself was killed in the Action, which fell out the 27th of July 1689.

Most Writers grounding upon the signifi­cation of that Word, suppose Dunkeld to be a Town of the Caledonians, and interpret it, The Mount or Hill of Hazeles, as who would have that name given unto it of the Hazel­trees [Page 151] in the Wood Caledonia, from hence the Tau passeth forward to the old Castle of Kincleiven, where it is much augmented by the River Ila, a very pleasant and large River, and thence goeth downward by the Carcass of Bertha, a little desolat City, re­membring well enough what a great loss and calamity he brought upon it in times past, when with an extraordinary swelling Floud, he surrounded all the Fields, laid the good­ly standing Corn along on the Ground, and carried headlong away with him this poor City, with the Kings Child and Infant in his Cradle, and the Inhabitants therein. In steed whereof in a more commodious place, King William builded Perth, Burgh-Royal. which straightways became so wealthy, that Necham, who li­ved in that age, versified of it in this man­ner:

Transis ample Tai per rura per oppida, per Perth,
Regnum sustentant istius urbis opes.
By Villages, by Towns, by Perth,
thou runn'st great Tay amain,
The Riches of this City Perth
doth all the Realm sustain.

But the posterity ensuing call it of a Church founded in honour of Saint John, Saint Johns Town: and the English whiles the Wars were hot between the Bruces and [Page 152] the Balliols, Fortified it with great Bul­warks, which the Scots afterwards, for the most part overthrew, and disman led it themselves. Howbeit it is a proper pretty City, pleasantly seated between two Greens: and for all that some of the Churches be de­stroyed, yet a goodly shew it maketh; ranged and set out in such an uniform man­ner, that in every several Street almost there dwell several Artificers by themselves, and the River Tau bringeth up with the Tide Sea Commodities by Lighters. King James the sixth having erected it to the Title of an Earldom, Created James Ba­ron Drummond Earl of Perth, of whom in Strathern.

Unto Perth these places are near Neigh­bours, Methven near to which runneth the river of Almond, which passing downward fal­leth in Tau, near to the place where the an­tient Town of Bertha stood. Margaret an English Lady, Widow unto King James the fourth, purchased Methven with ready Mo­ney for her third Husband Henry Stuart de­scended of the Royal Blood, and for his Heirs; and withal obtained of her Son King James the fifth for him the dignity of a Ba­ron,L. Methven. since extinct, and was one of the Ti­tles of the late Dukes of Lennox. More be­neath is Ruthven, a Castle of the Ruthvens, whose name is of damned Memory, consi­dering that the three Estates of the King­dom [Page 153] hath ordained, that whosoever were of that name should forego the same, and take unto them a new: after that the Ruthvens, Brethren in a most cursed and horrible Con­spiracy, had complotted to murder their So­veraign King James the Sixth, who had cre­ated William their Father,E. Gowry. Earl of Gowrie, and afterward beheaded him, being lawfully convicted, when he would insolently pre­scribe Laws to his Soveraign. But of men condemned to perpetual Oblivion, I may seem to have said overmuch, although it con­cerneth Posterity also for a Caveat, that wick­ed Generations be notified as well as noi­som Weeds and venemous Plants. Sir Tho­mas Ruthven of Freeland, descended of this Family, was created by King Char [...]s the se­cond while in Scotland, L. Ruthven. Lord Ruthven, whose Son is David Lord Ruthven, and in anno 1689, was appointed by their Majesties, one of their Privy Council, and one of the Com­missioners of the Thesaury.

As for the Country Gowrie aforesaid, fa­mous for the Corn-fields, and singular ferti­lity of the Soil, it lyeth more plain and flat along the other Bank of Tay. In this Tract o­ver against Perth, on the farther side of Tay▪ standeth Scoon, a renowned Monastery in old time, and of reverend respect for the Coro­nation therein of the Kings of Scotland: since that time, King Kenneth having hard by, put the Picts for the most part to the sword, pla­ced [Page 154] a stone here enclosed within a Chair of Wood, for Inaugaration of the Kings of Scot­land, that had been transported out of Ireland into Argile: which Stone Edward the First, King of England, caused to be conveyed un­to Westminster: touching which, I have put down this Prophesie so rise in every mans mouth, since it hath now proven true and ta­ken effect, as very few of that sort do.

nI faLLat fatuM sCotI qVoCVn (que) LoCatVM
InVenIent LapIDeM regnare tenentVr IbIDeM.

Except old Sawes be vain,
And Wits of Wizards blind,
The Scots in place must reign,
Where they this Stone shall find.

Scoon gave the Title of Baron to Sir Da­vid Murray Comptroller, whom King James for his good service, advanced to that ho­nour, and is the last in the Decreet of Rank­ing, after the Lords Torphichen, Pasley, New­bottle, Thirlestane, Spenzie, Roxburgh, Lin­dores, Lowdoun, Dirleton, Kinlos, Abercorn, Bal [...]crinoch, Murray of Tullibairn. Colvi [...] of [...]u [...]ross: he was afterward created by that same King Viscount of Stormonth, V. Stormonth. which is the upper part of the Country of Gowry, and is in the Rolls of Parliament 1633, before the Viscount Air, who being descended of the Lairds of Balvaird, the Dignity of V. Stor­month did fall to their Successors, of whom [Page 155] is descended David now Viscount Stormonth, as hath been said.

Where Tay now grown bigger enlargeth himself, there appeareth over it Arrol, which was the Habitation of the noble Earls of Arrol, E. Arrol. who ever since the Bruces days, have been by Inheritance the Constables of Scotland: and verily they deduce an ancient Pedegree from one Hay, a man of exceeding strength and excellent courage, who together with his Sons, in a dangerous Battle of Scots against the Danes at Longcartie, caught up an Ox Yoke, and so valiantly and fortunatly with­all, what with fighting, and what with ex­horting, re-enforced the Scots at the point to shrinke and recule, that they had the day of the Danes: and the King, with the States of the Kingdom, ascribed the Victory and their own Safety, unto his Valour and Prowess: whereupon in this place, the most battle and fruitfull Grounds were assigned to him and his Heirs; who in testimony hereof, have set over their Coat a Yoke for their Crest, over their Arms, Three Escutcheons Gules in Ar­gent. Of this Family is descended John now Earl of Arrol. Near to which lived Sir George Kinnaird of Rossie, Privy Counseller to King Charles the Second,L. Kinnaird. created Lord Kinnaird about the year 1683, Patrick Lord Kinnaird in his Son. Touching Huntley Castle that joyneth unto it, I have nothing to write, but that it hath given Title to a very Potent, Great, and honourable Family, whereof [Page 156] I am to speak hereafter. But I think ra­ther, the Title of Earl of Huntly was taken from a place in the Merse, called by that name, which is a part of the Barony of Gor­don, the ancient Inheritance of this Family. Huntly Castle, is one of the Dwelling Houses of the Earl of Strathmore, and now passeth under the Name of Castle-Lyon, well planted and pleasantly situat in the Carse of Gowry.

In the Description of this Kingdom, the following Method had been more agreeable to the Situation of the Country, and there had been less disjunction of the Countries describ­ed; to have begun with the Country of the Merse, and then East, Mid, and West-Lothi­an, and to have subjoyned the Shires of Pee­bles, Selkirk, and Roxburgh; and in the end of Roxburgh, to have added the Selgovae, viz. Liddesdale, Eusdale, Eskdale, Annandale, and Nithisdale; and to have gone to Galloway, Carrick, Kyle, Cunninghame, Isle of Arran, Cliddesdale, the Shire of Stirling, Lennox, Argyle, Kintyre and Lorn, these three in one Shire; & to have begun the description of Caledonia with that part of Perth Shire called Brade-Albion, which joineth Lorn; and then to have added Athol and Perthia, and in the third place Strathern, which compleats the Shire of Perth; and Fife, Kinross and Clackmannan bor­dering with Strathern, and then to proceed to the Country of Angus, or Shire of For­far, which is divided from Fife by the River Tay: the ordinar division of Scotland in pub­lick [Page 157] Acts and Letters, being by south and be north Tay.

CHAP. XXVII.
ANGUSIA, or ANGVS.

BY the out-let or mouth of Tay, The Shire of Forfar. and more within, beside the River North-Esk, An­guis, called by the natural and true Scots Aeneia lyeth, extended with goodly fields bearing Wheat and Corn of all kinds plentifully, with large Hills also and Pools, Forrests, Pastures, and Meadows, and also garnished with many Forts and Castles. In the very first entry into it; from Gowry, stand­eth Glamis a Castle, and the Barony of a Family sirnamed Lyon, which arose to ho­nour and reputation, ever since that Sir J. Lyon standing in the high favour of King Ro­bert the Second, received this and the Dig­nity of a Baron with the Kings Daughter for her marriage Portion, and therewith as I find written, the sirname of Lyon, with a Lyon in his Arms, within a Treassure Floury, as the Kings themselves do bear, but in different colours: Likeas Sir Patrick Lyon, Lord Gla­mis, was advanced by King James the Sixth of that name,E. Kinghorn. to the honour of the Earl of Kinghorn. This Title was changed by Pa­trick the present Earl,E. Strathmore. from Kinghorn to Strath­more, as being the largest Strath in Scotland, [Page 158] running through Perth Shire and Angus, where the said Earls Estate for the greatest partlyes.

Not far hence standeth Forfar, B. Royal. where for the administration of Justice,L. Gray. the Barons Grays are hereditary Sheriffs, who being descended from the Grays of Chillingham in the Country of Northumberland, came into Scotland with King James the First, at his return out of England, of whom is descend­ed Patrick now Lord Gray; upon the first of whom named Andrew, the King of his boun­teous liberality, bestowed the Segniory of Foulis, together with Helen Mortimer in Mar­riage for his Advancement. Ashtoun an Eng­lish Gentleman,L. Forfar. was created Lord Forfar, a­bout the year 1633, by King Charles the First: and Archibald second Son to the Earl of Angus, and Brother to James Marquess of Dowglass, was by King Charles the Second, created Earl of Forfar, E. Forfar. about the year 1651.

Hard by the mouth of Tay is situat Dundee, B. Royal. sometimes called Alectum: others term it in Latine Taodunum, a Town verily of great re­sort and Trade, and the Constable whereof by a special priviledge, was Standard bearer to the King of Scots. Hector Boetius. Hector Boetius who was here born, expounded this name Dundee by way of allusion, to Donum Dei, that is, Gods gift This Hector, in the reflourishing time of Learning, wrote the Scottish History ele­gantly, and that out of such hidden and far fetched Monuments of Antiquity, that Pau­lus Jovius wondered in his Writings, there [Page 159] should be Records extant for above a thou­sand years, of these remote parts of the World, Scotland, the Hebrids, and the Orcads: con­sidering that Italy the Nurse of fine Wits, for so many Ages after the Goths were cast out, was defective of Writers and Records. The ancient Family of the Scrymsours of Dudup, Constables of Dundee, was first cre­ated by King Charles the first, Viscount of Dudup, E. Dundee. and by King Charles the Second Earl of Dundee: and by gift of last Heir and Re­cognition, being carried to Charles Maitland of Haltoun, came afterwards to be at the Kings disposal, who gifted the same to Col­lonel John Graham of Claverhouse, who by King James the Seventh,V. Dundee. was created Vis­count of Dundee, and opposing their Maje­sties in Arms, was killed at Gillichrankie in Athol, in July 1689: and both he and his Brother David also present at that Action, were forefaulted in Parliament 1690.

From hence standeth within sight Brochty-Craig, which being a good Fortress, was with the English Garison Souldiers, manfully defend­ed & made good for many Months together, what time as in their affectionat love to a perpetual peace, they desired and wished for a Marriage, between Mary Heir apparent of Scotland, and Edw. the 6th. K. of England; and upon promise thereof, demanded it by force of Arms: and in the end, of their own ac­cord, abandoned the said place: Then there lyeth full against the open Ocean Aberbroth, B. Royal. [Page 160] short Arbroth, a place endowed with ample Revenues, and by King William dedicated in old time to Religion, in honour of Thomas of Canterbury; beside which, theRed-head, a Promontory. Red-head shooteth into the deep Sea, and is to be seen a far of. Hard by Southesk voideth it self in­to the Ocean; which River flowing amain out of a Lake, passeth by Finnevin Castle, well known by reason of the Lindseys Earls of Crawford keeping Residence there; of whom is already written. And downward on the same River standeth Kinnaird, the Inheri­tance of the Carnagies, who amongst other Families, by being Members of the Colledge of Justice, have raised their Fortunes, and ad­vanced into great Honours. Robert Carnagy of Kinnaird in the year 1553, is marked in the Sederunt of the Lords of Session. And about the year 1561, under the designation of Sir Robert Carnagy of Kinnaird, admitted Or­dinary Lord of Session; Mr. David Carnagy of Coluthy I suppose his second Son, was a Lord of the Session, and one of the Octavians; he dyed in the year 1598, his Son Sir David, Carnagy of Kinnaird succeeded, of whom fre­quent mention is made in the Acts of Parli­ament of King James the Sixth; he was by that King created Lord Carnagy after the Lord Binnie, and is so ranked in the Rolls of Par­liament 1617. In the Books of Sederunt July 5th 1616, David Lord Carnagy is admitted an Ordinary Lord of Session: in the year 1633, [Page 161] by King Charles the First, he was created Earl of Southesk, E: Southesk. his great Grand-child is Charles Earl of Southesk. Sir John Carnegie of Ethie, younger Son to the before named Mr. David Carnagie of Colluthy, and Brother to David Earl of Southesk, was by King Charles the First, created Lord Lour, and thereaf­ter by that same King Earl of Ethie: E: Ethie. his eld­est Son David, exchanged the said Titles with these,E: Northesk. of Earl of Northesk and Lord Rosehill, as being more agreeable to the Title of Earl of Southesk, the Chief of the Family. David Earl of Northesk, is great Grand-child to the first Earl. Then upon the said River stan­deth Brechin, B: Royal. which King David the First a­dorned with a Bishops See. Patrick Maul of Panmure of the Bed-chamber, of an anci­ent Family, was created by King Charles the First,E: Panmure. about the year 1646, Earl of Panmure, Lord Maul and Brechin, immediatly before the Earls of Selkirk, Tweeddale and Northesk; whose Grand-child is James Earl of Pan­mure. And at the very mouth thereof standeth Montross; B: Royal. as one would say the Mount of Roses; a Town in times past called Celurca, risen by the fall of another Town bearing the same name, which is seated be­tween the two Esks, and imparteth the Title of Marquess to the Family of the Grahams: M: Montross:

Not far from hence is Boschain, belong­ing to the Barons of Ogilvy, of very antient Nobility, lineally descended from Alexander Sheriff of Angus, who was slain in the Bloo­dy [Page 162] Battle at Harlaw against the Mac-Donald of the out Isles. In this Shire is also Airlie, which was the first Designation of the Lord Ogilvie of Airlie, Andrew Lord Ogilvie was created by King Charles the first,E: Airlie: anno 1633, Earl of Airlie, whose Son is James Earl of Airlie.

As touching the Earls of Angus; E: Angus: Gilchrist of Angus, renowned for his brave exploits under King Malcolm the fourth, was the first Earl of Angus that we read of. About the year 1241, John Cummin was Earl of An­gus, who died in France, and his Widow (haply inheritrix to the Earldom) was married to Sir Gilbert Vmfranvill an English­man. For, both he and his Heirs successive­ly after him, were summoned to the Parlia­ment in England (until the third year of King Richard the second) by the Title of Earls of Angus. Howbeit the Lawyers of England refused in their Brieves and Instru­ments to acknowledge him Earl, for that Angus was not within the Kingdom of En­gland, until he had brought forth openly in the face of the Court, the Kings Writ and Warrant, wherein he was summoned to the Parliament by the name of Earl of Angus. In the reign of David Bruce, Thomas Stu­art was Earl of Angus, who by a sudden sur­prise won Berwick, and straightways lost it; yea, and within a while after died miserably in Prison at Dunbritton. But the Douglasses, Men of invincible Hearts, from the time of King Robert the second, when VVilliam first E. [Page 163] of Douglas married Stuart Heiress and Coun­tess of Angus, Douglass E: Angus: of which marriage was George Douglas Earl of Angus, who married King Robert the Thirds Daughter, have been Earls of Angus, and reputed the chief and principal Earls of Scotland, and to whom this Office belongeth, to carry the Regal Crown before the Kings, at the solemn As­sembly of the Kingdom. The sixth Earl of Angus out of this stock, was Archibald, who espoused Margaret, Daughter to Henry the seventh King of England, and Mother to James the fifth King of Scots, by whom he had Issue Margaret Wife to Matthew Stuart Earl of Lennox; who after her Brothers de­cease (that died Childless,) willingly resigned up her Right and Interest in this Earldom, unto Sir David Douglass of Pittindreich, her Uncles Son by the Fathers side, and that with consent of her Husband and Sons; to the end that she might bind the surer unto her self, by the link also of a beneficial demerit, that Family, which otherwise in Blood was most near; what time Henry her Son went about to Wed Mary the Queen: by which Marriage King James the sixth, the mighty Mo­narch of Great-Britain was happily born to the good of all Britain; and from these Earls of Angus & Douglass, the Marquess of Douglass is lineally descended. From an Abbacy in this Shire James Elphingstoun second Son to Secre­tary Elphingstoun Lord Balmerinoch, was created by King James the sixth Lord Couper, L: Couper: [Page 164] but dying without Issue, the Title and Dig­nity is confounded in the person of the now Lord Balmerinoch. The Sheriffship of this Shire being at the Kings disposal, Patrick Earl of Strathmore is Sheriff.

CHAP. XXVIII.
MERNIS: OR, Shire of KINCARDIN.

THese Regions were in Ptolomy's time inhabited by the Vernicones, The Shire of Kincardin: the same perhaps that the Vecturiones mention­ed by Marcellinus. But this their name is now quite gone, unless we would imagine some little piece thereof to remain in Mer­nis. For many times in common speech of the British Tongue, V. turneth into M.

This small Province Mernis lying on the North-side of the North-Water of Esk, abut­ting upon the German Ocean, and of a Rich and fertile Soil, lieth very well, as a plain and level Champion. But the most memo­rable place therein is Dunnotyr, Dunnotyr Castle: a Castle ad­vanced upon an high and unaccessible Rock, whence it looketh down to the underflow­ing Sea; well fensed with strong Walls and Turrets, which hath been a long time the habitation of the Keiths of an antient and very noble Stock; who by the guidance of their Vertue,E: Mareschal: became Hereditary Earls Ma­reschals [Page 165] of the Kingdom of Scotland, in the Reign of King Robert Bruce and Sheriffs of this Province; of whom is de­scended William now Earl Mareschal. In a Porch or Gallery here, is to be seen that an­tient Inscription formerly mentioned, of a Company belonging to the twentieth Legi­on, the Letters whereof the right Noble and Honourable Earl George, Commissioner to the Parliament 1609, a great lover of An­tiquity, caused to be Guilded. Somewhat further from the Sea standeth Fordon, John de For­don: gra­ced in some sort and commendable in regard of John de Fordon; who being born here, diligently and with great pains Compiled Scoti Chronicon, that is, The Scottish Chro­nicle: unto whose laborious studies the Scottish Historiographers are very much in­debted: but more glorious and renowned in old time,St: Palladius: for the Reliques of St. Palladi­us, bestowed and shrined sometime, as is ve­rily thought, in this place; who in the year 431, was by Pope Coelestinas appointed the Apostle of the Scottish Nation. In this Shire the Laird of Arbuthnet of that lik, of an antient Family, was created Viscount Arbuthnet by King Charles the first,V: Arbuthnet: about the year 1641, whose Great Grand-Child is Ro­bert Viscount of Arbuthnet. As also, Sir Alexander Falconer one of the Lords of Ses­sion, was by King Charles the first, anno 1648, L: Halcartoun: Created Lord Halcartoun, whose Grand-Child is now Lord Halcartoun. Also [Page 166] Lieutenant-General Middletoun, of an antient Family designed by that Surname, was by K. Charles the second appointed Commissio­ner for holding the Parliament 1661, and Created at that time Earl of Middletoun, E: Middletoun his Son is Charles Earl of Middletoun, who was first Secretary of Scotland, and then of En­gland, to King Charles the second, and King James the seventh. In this Shire is Inverber­vie a Burgh-Royal.B: Royal:

In the antient times the Countrey Horestia did comprehend both Angus and Mernis: in this matter I must be allowed to differ from the Learned Author, who places the Horesti in the Countrey of Eskdale, See Chap: 8: pag: 49: a small and inconsi­derable Countrey, surrounded with others, and not bordering on the Sea, whereas Tacitus in the Life of Agricola, Describing his War in our part of Britain, saithTacitus vit: Agric: c: 22: Tertius expedi­tionis annus no­vas gentes ape­ruit: vastatis us (que) ad Taum (aestuarii nomen est) nationibus Agricola in fi­nes Horesto­rum exercitum deducit: ibi ac­ceptis obsidibus praefecto circum­vehi Britanni­am praecepit, &c. The third year of the War Agricola discovered new Nations which he conquered even to the River Tau. And after this he adds, Agricola having beat Galgacus near to the Grampian Hills, brought back the Roman Army to the boders of the Horesti, and having recei­ved Hostages from them, he ordered the Com­manders of the Roman Fleet to sail about the Isle. The chief part of this quotation is on the Margin, in the words of the Author, which is only applicable to the Mouth and Firth of Tay, and the Countrey of Angus and Mernis situat thereupon, where the Roman Navy hath Landed their Men, and in [Page 167] the which station remained to receive them at the end of the expedition, and from this Port to the Grampian Hills, through the large Countrey of Strathmore, they have marched their Army and Carriages, and by the same Way returned them to their Ships, of which great ways there are certain Vestiges remain­ing; but there is no direct continued way betwixt the Grampian Hills and Eskdale, nor could any army with such great Carriages march betwixt these places,Sir George Mc­kenzies Answer to the B: of St: Asaph, pag: 77. 78, 79: nor thereafter be Embarked at Eskdale. See more of this in Sir George Mckenzies Answer to St. Asaph.

CHAP. XXIX.
MARRIA: OR, MAR.

FRom the Sea in the Mediterranean, In the Shire of Aherdene: or In-landparts above Mernis, Mar enlar­geth it self, and runneth forward three­score Miles, or thereabout: where it lieth broadest VVest-wards, it swelleth up with Mountains, unless it be where the Rivers Dee, which Ptolomy calleth Diva, and Don make way for themselves, and infertile the Fields. Upon the Bank of Don, Kildrum­my standeth as a fair Ornament to the Coun­trey,E: Mar: being the antient Seat of the Earls of [Page 168] Mar: and not far distant from it the Ha­bitation of the Barons Forbois, L: Forbois: who being issued from a Noble and Antient Stock, as­sumed this Surname: whereas before time they were called Bois, after that the Heir of that Family had manfully killed a Savage and Cruel Bare, of whom is Descended Wil­liam now Lord Forbes. But at the very Mouth of this River, there be two Towns that give greater Ornament, which of the said Mouth, that in the British Tongue they call Aber, borrowing one Name, are divid­ed asunder by one little Field lying between: the hithermost of them, which standeth nearer to Dee Mouth, is much ennobled by an Episcopal Dignity (which King David the first Translated hitherto from Murthlake a little Village) by fair Houses of the Ca­nons, an Hospital for poor people, and a free Grammer School; which William El­phingstoun, Bishop of the place, in the year 1480. consecrated to the Training up of Youth, and is calledB: Royal: New Aherdene: The other beyond it, named Old Aherdene, is most famous for the taking of Salmons.

It is almost incredible what abundance of Bede, and our Writers called them in Latin Isicii: Salmons as well these Rivers, as others also in Scotland on both sides of the Realm, do breed: this Fish was altogether unknown un­to Pliny, unless it were that Esox of the Rhine: but in this north part of Europe, pas­sing well known, shining and glittering (as he [Page 169] saith) with his red bowels: in Autumn they engender within little Rivers, and in shallow places for the most part, what time they cast their Spawn, and cover it over with Sand: and then are they so poor and lean, that they seem to have nothing else in a manner, but their small Bones. Of that Spawn in the Spring next following, there comes a Fry of tender little Fishes, which making toward the Sea, in a small time grow to their full big­ness: and in returning back again to seek for the Rivers wherein they were bred, they strive and struggle against the Stream, and look whatsoever lyeth in their way to hinder their passage, with a jerk of their Tail, and a certain leap (whence happily they had their name Salmons) to the wonder of the Behold­ers, they nimbly whip over, and keep them­selves within these Rivers of theirs, until they breed: during which time it is enacted by Law, they should not be caught; name­ly, from the Feast of the Assumption of our Lady, to the Feast of Saint Andrew in Win­ter.: and it should seem they were reputed among the greatest Commodities of Scotland, when likewise it was ordained that they should not be sold unto Englishmen, but for English Gold, and no other contentation. But these Matters is left for others.

To come now unto the Earls of Marr. Earls of Marr. In the Reign of Alexander the Third, William Earl of Marr, is named among those that were sore offended and displeased with the [Page 170] King. Whiles David Bruce reigned, Donald Earl of Marr, Protector of the Kingdom, was before the Battle at Dyplin, murdered in his Bed by Edward Balliol, and the English­men that came to aid him: whose Sister Isobel, King Robert Bruce took to be his first Wife, on whom he begat Marjory, Mother to Ro­bert Stuart King of Scots. Under the same David there is mention also made of Thomas Earl of Marr, who was banished in the year 1361. Likewise in the Reign of Robert the 3d, Alexander Stuart is named Earl of Marr, who in the Battle at Harlaw against the Islanders, lost his life in the year 1411. In the days of King James the First, we read in Scoto Chro­nicon thus, Alexander Earl of Marr, died in the year 1435, the base Son of Alexander Stu­art Earl of Buchan, Son to Robert the Se­cond King of Scots; after whom, as being a Ba­stard, the King succeeded in the Inheritance. John the second Son of King James the Se­cond, afterwards bare this Title; who being convict for attempting by Art Magick, to take away the King his Brothers life, was let blood to death: and after him, Robert Coch­ran was promoted from a Mason to this Digni­ty, by King James the Third, and soon af­ter hanged by the Nobility: since which time, this honourable Title was discontinued, until that Queen Mary adorned therewith, James her Bastard Brother: and not long after, when it was found that by ancient Right, the Title of Earl of Marr appertained to John [Page 171] Lord Ereskin; in lieu of Marr, she confer­red upon him the Honour of Earl of Murray, and created John Lord Ereskin, a man of ancient and noble Birth, Earl of Mar; afterward Regent to King James the Sixth, of whom is descended John now Earl of Marr. Forbes Lord Pitsligo, was by King Charles the First,L: Pitsligo. created Lord Pitsligo anno 1633; whose descendant doth still enjoy the Title. And Fraser of Stony-wood or Muchill, was at the same time, created by King Charles the First,L: Fraser. Lord Fraser, whose Successor is Lord Fraser. Sir John Keith of Keith-hall Knight, Mareschal, and Son to the Earl Mareschal, was by King Charles the Second, about the year 1677,E: Kintore. created Earl of Kin­tore, from a Burgh Royal,B: Royal. and was Thesaurer Deput to K. Char. the 2d, and K. Ja. the 7th, his eldest Son is designed Lord Inverurie, B. Royal. from another Burgh Royal,B: Royal. both lying in this Shire. Sir George Gordon of Haddo, Baronet, a Lord of the Session, was admi­ted President anno 1681, and constitute Chancellor the year following, and created Earl of Aberdeen shortly thereafter.E: Aberdeen. James L. Gordon second Son to the Marquess of Huntly was created by K. Char. V: Aboyn. the 1st, V. of Aboyn, & thereafter Charles his fourth Son, was creat­ed Earl of Aboyn by King Charles the Second,E: Aboyn. anno 1661; his Son is Charles Earl of Aboyn. Creighton Laird of Frendraught, descended of the L. Creighton, Chancellor to King James the Second, was by King Charles the First, cre­ated [Page 172] Viscount of Frendraught about the year 1641,V: Fren­draught. whose Successor is Lewis Viscount of Frendraught. In this Shire is the River Ythan, from which King Charles the First, after the year 1641, gave the Title of Lord Ythan to Lieutenant General King, L: Ythan. of whom none is descended claiming the Title. John Earl of Arrol, is by the Kings Nomination, Sheriff of this Shire.

CHAP. XXX:
BUCHANIA, OR BVQVHAN.

THe Taizali mentioned by Ptolomy, In the Shire of Aberdeen. in ancient times inhabited which is now Buquhan, in Latine Boghania and Buchania, above the River Don, beareth forth toward the German Sea. Some derive this latter name à Bobus, that is, from Oxen and Kine; where­as notwithstanding the Ground serveth bet­ter to feed Sheep, whose Wool is highly commended. Albeit the Rivers in this Coast every where breed great store of Salmons, yet do they never enter into the River Ra­tra, as Buchannan hath Recorded. Neither let it be offensive if his Testimony be cited, although his Books by Authority of Parlia­ment in the year 1584, were forbidden: be­cause many things in them contained, are to be dashed out. Who also hath written, That [Page 173] on the Bank of Ratra, there is a Cave near un­to Stangs Castle, the nature whereof seemeth not to be passed over. The water distilling by drops out of a natural Vault, presently turneth into Pyramidal stones; and were not the said Cave or Hole otherwhiles rid and cleansed by mans labour, the whole space as far as up to the Vault, would in short time be filled there­with. Now the stone thus engendered, is of a middle nature, between Yce and hard Stone: for it is brittle and easy to crumble, neither groweth it ever to the solidity and hardness of Marble. Concerning those Claik-geese, which some with much admiration have believed to grow out of Trees; both upon this Shore and elsewhere; and when they be ripe, to fall down into the Sea, it is scarce with the la­bour to mention them. That there be little Birds engendred of old and rotten Keels of Ships, they can bear. Witness, who saw that Ship wherein Francis Drake sailed about the World, standing in a Dock near the Thames; to the outside of the Keel, whereof a number of such little Birds without Life and Feathers stuck closs. Yet it would be thought, that the Generation of these Birds, was not out of the Logges of Wood, but from the very O­cean, which the Poets termed the Father of all things.

A mighty Mass likewise of Amber, as big as the body of an Horse, was not many years since cast upon this shoar. The learned call [Page 174] it Succinum, Glessum, and Chryso Electrum: and Sotacus supposed, that it was a certain juice or liquor which distilleth out of Trees in Britain, and runneth down into the Sea, and is therein hardened. Tacitus also was of the same Opinion, when he wrote thus: I can verily believe, that likeas there be Trees in the secret and inward parts of the East which sweat out Frankincense and Balm, so in the Islands and other Countries in the West there be Woods and Groves of a more fatty and firm Substance, which melting by the hot Beams of the Sun approaching so near, runneth into the Sea hard by, and by force of Tempest, floateth up to the hoars against it. But Serapio, and the Philosophers of later times write, that it ariseth out of a certain clammy and bitumin­ous Earth under the Sea, and by the Sea­side; and that the Billows and Tempests cast up part thereof a land, and a Fishes devour the rest.

In the Reign of King Alexander the Se­cond, Alexander Cummin rose up to the ho­nour of Earl of Buquhan, Cummin E. of Buchan. who married the Daughter and one of the Heirs of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester in England, and his Niece by a Son, brought the same Title unto Henry de Beaumont her Husband: for he, in King Edward the Third his days, had his place in the Parliament of England, by the name of Earl of Buquhan. Afterwards Alexander Stuart, Son to King Robert the Se­cond, [Page 175] was Earl of this place;Stuart E. of Buchan. unto whom suc­ceeded John, a younger Son of Robert Duke of Albany, who arriving in France with seven thousand Scottish men, to aid Charles the Se­venth, King of France, bare himself valiant­ly, and performed singular good Service a­gainst the Englishmen, and that with so great Commendation, as having victoriously slain Thomas Duke of Clarence, Brother to Henry the Fifth King of England, at Baugie, and discomfited the English, he was made Con­stable of France. But in the third year fol­lowing, when the fortune of War turned, he with other most valiant Knights, to wit, Archibald Dowglass Earl of Wigton, and Duke of Tourain, &c. was vanquished at Vernoil by the English, and there slain. Whom, not­withstanding as that Poet said,

—aeternum memorabit Gallia cives
Grata suos, titulos quae dedit & tumulos▪

France thankfully will ay recount,
As Citizens of her own,
On whom both Titles glorious,
And Tombs she hath bestown.

And whereas under the Kings, K. Charles the Sixth and Seventh, France was preserved, and Aquitain recovered, by thrusting out the English, the Frenchmen cannot chuse but ac­knowledge themselves much beholden to the [Page 176] fidelity and fortitude of the Scots. But af­terwards, King James the First gave the Earl­dom of Buquhan unto George of Dumbar, moved thereto upon pity and commiserati­on, because he had deprived him before of the Earldom of March by Authority of Par­liament, for his Fathers Crime: and not long after, James the Son of James Stuart of Lorn, sirnamed the Black-Knight, whom he had by Queen Joan Sister to the Duke of Somerset, and Widow to King James the 1st obtained this Honour, and left it to his Po­sterity: but for default of Heirs-male, it came by a Daughter marryed to Robert Dow­glass, a younger Brother of Dowglass of Loch­levin, to the Family of the Dowglasses, and so to James Ereskin eldest Son of the Earl of Marr Thesaurer,Ereskin E. of Buchan. by his second Wife, Daugh­ter to Esme Duke of Lennox, of whom is descended the present Earl.

From Buquhan, In the Shire of Bamff. as the Shore bendeth back­ward, and turneth full into the North, lyeth Boena, andB: Royal. Bamff a small Sheriffdom, also Ajuza a little Territory of no especial account, and Rothamay Castle, the dwelling place of the Barons of Salton, L. Abernethy of Salton. sirnamed Abernethy. Be­neath these lyeth Sirathbolgy, that is, the Vale by Bolgy, the Habitation in times past of the Earls of Athol, who of it assumed their sir­name; but now the principle Seat of Mar­quess of Huntly. For this Title King James the Sixth conferred upon George Gordon, Earl of Huntly, Lord Gordon and Badzenoth, a man of [Page 177] great Honour and Reputation for his ancient nobleness of Birth, and the multitude of his Dependants and Followers; whose Ancestors descended from the Setons, by Parliamenta­ry Authority, took the Name of Gordon, (when as Sir Alexander Seton had taken to Wife the Daughter of Sir John Gordon Knight, by whom he had a large and rich Inheritance) and received the Honour of the Earl of Huntly at the hands of King James the Se­cond, in the year 1445: his Successor George Marquess of Huntly, D: Gordon. was by King Charles the Second about the year 1683, created Duke of Gordon. In this Shire also did reside the Ogilvies of Findlater, of whom Walter Ogil­vie was by King James the Sixth created Lord Deskford: and in the Rolls of Parlia­ment 1633, he is Ranked immediatly after the Lord Cranstoun, and before the Lords Melvil, Carnegy and Ramsey; his Son James was created Earl of Findlater by King Charles the First anno 1633, who marryed his Daugh­ter,E: Findlater. and Heiress to Ogilvie of Inch-martine in Perth Shire, an ancient Family of that sir­name; the Son of the Marriage, is James now Earl of Findlater, who doth compet with the Earl of Airly, both for the Antiquity of his Family, and Precedency as an Earl: his se­cond Son Sir James Ogilvie, is designed of O­gilvie, from a Barony which belonged to their Family purchased by him, he is his Majesties Sollicitor, and a Member of this present Par­liament, [Page 178] for the Royal Burgh of Cullen. B: Royal. In this Shire, Ogilvie of Dunlaguse, afterward designed Sir George Ogilvie of Bamff, Baro­net, descended of the Ogilvies of Boyn also in this Shire, who are Cadets of Findlater, was by King Charles the First, anno 1639, created Lord Bamff, L: Bamff. whose Successor is George Lord Bamff. Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth, in Right of his Mother Abernethy, Daughter to the Lord Saltoun, was by Grant of King Charles the Second, declared Lord Saltoun, and approven in Parliament 1670, upon the death of Alexander Abernethy last Lord Saltoun of that sirname, whose Grand-child is William Fraser now Lord Saltoun; he carries the Arms of Abernethy, L: Saltoun Fraser. quartered with the Arms of Fraser. His Majesty hath nominat the forementioned Sir James Ogilvie, Sheriff of Bamff.

CHAP. XXXI.
MORAVIA: Or, MVRRAY.

THe Vacomagi remembred by Ptolomy, The Shire of Elgin. anciently inhabited on the further side of Crantzbain Mountain, which as it were in a continued Range, by Hills hang­ing one by another; driveth out his Ridge [Page 179] with many a winding as far as to Murray Firth▪ where now lyeth Murray, in Latine Moravia, celebrated for the Fertility, pleasant Situation, and commodity of fruitfull Trees. By this Province, Spey a famous River, maketh his Issue into the Sea, wherein he lodgeth, when he hath watered Rothes Castle, whence the Family of the Leslys took the Title of Earl,E: Rothes. ever since that King James the Second confer­red the Honour of Earl of Rothes upon Sir George Lesly, of whom in the Shire of Fife. Concerning this Spey, the Poet Necham hath thus written.

Spey loca mutantis praeceps agitator arenae,
Inconstans certas nescit habere vias.
Officium lintris corbis subit, hunc regit audax
Cursus labentis nauta fluenta sequens.

Spey raising heaps of sand amain,
That shift oft-times their place,
Inconstant he doth change eft-soons,
And keeps no certain race.
A Panier serves here for a Boat,
Some ventrous Swain it guides,
Who followeth still the Rivers course,
Whild down the Stream it glides.

The River Loxa mentioned by Ptolomy, which now is called Losse, hideth himself in the Sea hard by,B: Royal. near unto which Elgin ap­peareth, in which and in Forres adjoyning,B: Royal. J. of Dumbar of Cumnock, descended from [Page 180] the Stock of the Earls of March and Murray, hath his Jurisdiction as Sheriff by Inheritance, whose Descendent is Alexander Dumbar of West-field, Dumbar of Westfield She­riff of Murray. Sheriff of Murray; his Prede­cessor Sir Alexander Dumbar of West­field, Sheriff of Murray, was Son to the last Dumbar Earl of Murray, whose Son James Dumbar, married one of the Heiresses of Pa­trick Dumbar of Cumnock, descended of the Earls of March, by which Marriage, their Suc­cessors had the Barony of Cumnock, and were designed Lairds of Cumnock, till they sold these Lands about the year 1600, which now be­long to the Countess of Dumfreis, and then they resumed their former designation of West-field and Sheriff of Murray. But where Losse is now ready to enter into the Sea, he findeth a more plain and soft Soil, and spreadeth abroad into a Meer full of Swans, wherein the Herb Olorina plen­tifully groweth, he hath Spiny Castle stand­ing upon it, whereof the first Baron was Alexander, of the Linage of the Lindseys now extinct.L: Spenzie. Likas Kinloss also a neighbour by, sometime a famous Monastery (some call it Kill-flos, of certain Flowers miraculously there springing up on a sudden, when the Carcase of King Duff, murdered and hid­den in the same place, was found) had for the Lord thereof Edward Bruce▪ a Lawyer, and a Commissar of Edinburgh, afterward a Lord of the Session, and Commendator of Kinloss, and Ambassador to Queen Eliza­heth, [Page 181] and afterwards Master of the Rolls in England, and of the Kings Majesties Privy Council, whom King James the Sixth creat­ed Baron Bruce of Kinloss, about the year 1604, whose Son was created Earl of Elgin by K. Ch. the 1st. anno 1633, and a Lord Baron in York Shire:E: Elgin. and his Son Rohert was by K. Ch. the 2d, created Earl of Ailshury in England, whose Son doth succeed him in both Dignities. In this Shire also, Sir Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, an ancient Cadet of the Earls of Sutherland, L: Duffus. was created Lord Duffus in the beginning of the Reign of King Char­les the Second about the year 1651, whose Son is Alexander now Lord Duffus.

Thus much for the shore. More inward, where now standeth Bean Castle, (thought to be Banatia that Ptolomy mentioneth) there was found in the year 1460, a Vessel of Marble artificially engraven, and full of Ro­man Coin.B: Royal, and Shire of Nairn. Hard by is Nardin or Nairn, an hereditable Sheriffdom of the Camphels of Lorn, designed of Caddel, Sir Hugh Camphel of Caddel is the present Sheriff: and Alexander Campbel his eldest Son, is one of the Com­missioners for that Shire in this current Par­liament: where there stood within a Bi­land, a Fortress of a mighty hight, built with wonderful Bulwarks, and in times past de­fended by the Danish Forces against the Scots.

A little off is Logh-ness, a very great Lake, as reaching out 23 miles in length, the Wa­ter whereof is so warm, that even in this cold [Page 182] and frozen Climat it never freezeth: from which, by a very small Isthim or partition of Hills, the Logh Lutea or Louthea, which by Aher letteth it self forth into the west Sea, is divided. Near unto these Loghs, there stood in old time two notable Fortifications, the one named Iuverness, B: Royal. the other Innerlo­thea, according to the names of the said Loghs.

Iuverness had for Sheriff thereof by right of Inheritance,The Shire of Iuverness. the Marquess of Huntly, who is of great command hereabout▪ now at the Kings disposal, Lodovick Grant of Freuchie, commonly designed Laird of Grant a Privy Counseller, and one of the Commissioners for the Shire, is Sheriff thereof.

Under the reign of Rohert Bruce, Thomas Randolph his Sisters son, who in his Coun­tries behalf, undertook exceeding great pains and most grievous Quarrels, was highly re­nowned by the Title of Earl of Murray. E: Murray. Un­der King Rohert the Second, John of Dum­har took to Wise the Kings Daughter, to make amends for her devirgination, received this Earldom of Murray with her in Marriage. Under King James the Second, William Creighton Chancellor of the Realm, and Ar­chihald Dowglass, were at great variance and eager contention about this Earldom; when as against the Laws and ancient Customs, Dowglass who had married the younger Daughter of James of Dumhar Earl of Mur­ray, Dumbar E. of Murray. was preferred to the Earldom before Creighton, who had wedded the elder, and [Page 183] that through the powerful Authority that William Earl Dowglass had with the King; which was so great, that he advanced not only him to the Earldom of Murray, but also another Brother to the Earldom of Ormond; and made two Cousins of his Earls, the one of Angus, and the other of Morton: but this greatness of his not to be trusted upon, be­cause it was excessive, turned soon after to his own confusion; under King James the Fifth, his own Brother whom he appointed his Vicegerent in the Government of the Kingdom, enjoyed this honour: and James the base Son of King James the Fifth,Stuart Earl of Murray. recei­ved this honour of Queen Mary his Sister: but he requited her ill, when joyning with others of the Nobility and Nation, she was deposed from her Royal Estate and Kingdom; a President prejudicial to Kings and Princes, which notwithstanding was re­venged; for shortly after he was shot through with a Bullet: his only Daughter brought this Title unto her Husband Sir James Stu­art of Down, who was also of the Blood-Royal from the Dukes of Albany: who be­ing slain by his Concurrents, left his Son James to succeed him in this honour. Sir James Stuart of Down, first created Lord Down by King James the Sixth about the year 1581; the Successor of the Lord Down and Earl of Murray, is Alexander Earl of Murray, who was Secretary to King Charles the Second, and King James the Seventh, and [Page 184] by the latter, was sent Commissioner to the Parliament 1686.

CHAP. XXXII.
LOQHUABRE.

WHatsoever beyond the Nesse bendeth to the west Coast,In the Shire of Inverness. and adjoineth to the Lake Aber, is thereupon cal­led Loqhuabre, that is in the ancient tongue of the Britains, the mouth of the Lakes, as what lyeth toward the North is commonly called Ross.

Loqhuabre is full of fresh Pastures and Woods, neither is without Iron Mines, but not so free in yielding of Corn, but for most fishful Pools and Rivers, searce inferior to any Country thereabout. At Logh-Lothy, Innerlothy senced with a Fort, and well fre­quented with Merchants, was of great name and importance in times past, but being razed by the Piracies and Wars of Danes and Nor­wegians, it hath lien for these many Ages so deserted, that there remained scarce any shew of it. Loquhabre hath had no Earls, but about the year of our Salvation 1050, there was a Thane over it of great fame, and much spoken of, named Banquho, whom Macbeth the Tyrant,Banquho Thane of Lo­quhabre. when with Murder and Blood­shed he had usurped the Crown, being fear­ful and suspicious, caused to be made away; [Page 185] for that he had learned by a Prophesy of cer­tain Wise-Women, that his Posterity when the Line of Macbeth was expired and extinct should one day obtain the Kingdom, and by a long successive Descent reign in Scotland, which verily hath fallen out accordingly: for Fleanch the Son of Banquho, who un­known in the Dark, escaped the Trains laid for him, fled into Wales, where for a time he kept himself close: and having taken to Wife Nesta the Daughter of Griffith ap Lew­ellin, Prince of North-Wales, begat Walter; who returning into Scotland with so great Fame of his Fortitude, repressed the Rebel­lion of the Islanders, and with as great Wis­dom managed the Kings Revenues in this Tract, that the King made him Seneschal, whom they commonly call Stewart of the whole Kingdom of Scotland, whereupon this name of Office imposed the sirname of Stuart unto his Posterity: who spreading through­out all parts of Scotland into a number of no­ble Branches, after many honours heaped upon them, have flourished a long time, and from out of them three hundred and twenty four years ago, Robert Stuart by Marjory his Mother, Daughter to King Robert Bruce, obtained the Kingdom of Scotland: and James Stuart of that name, the sixth King of Scots, by Margaret his great Grand-Mother, Daughter to King Henry the Seventh (the Divine power of that most High and Al­mighty Ruler of the World so disposing) a­scended [Page 186] with the general Applause of all Na­tions to the hight of Monarchial Majesty, over all Britain and the Isles adjacent. In the Shire of Inverness, Aeneas Macdonald Laird of Glengarie, L: Macdonald. was by King Charles the Second created Lord Macdonald, about the year 1661, the Patent being granted to Heirs-male of his Body, doth not descend upon his Successor the Laird of Glengarie.

CHAP. XXXIII.
ROSSIA.

THe Province Ross, The Shire of Ross. so called by an old Scottish word, which some interpret to be a Promontory, others a Biland, was in­habited by the people named Cantae (which term in effect implieth as much) in the time of Ptolomy. This extendeth it self so wide and large, that it reacheth from the one Sea to the other, what way it beareth upon the Vergivian or western Ocean, by reason of huge swelling Mountains advancing their heads aloft, and many Woods among them: it is full of Stags, Roe-Bucks, Fallow-Deer, and wild Fowl; but where it but­teth upon the German Sea, it is more love­ly bedeck'd with Corn-fields ane Pastures, and withall much more civil: in the very first entrance into it, Ardmanoch no small Territory, whereof the second Sons of the [Page 187] Kings of Scotland bear the Title,L: Ardman­noch. riseth up with high Mountains that are most trusty preservers of Snow: as touching their hight some have reported strange Wonders; and yet the ancient Geometers have written, that neither the depth of Sea, nor hight of Hills, exceed by the Plumb-Line ten S [...]adia, that is one Mile and a quarter; which notwith­standing, they that have beheld Tenariff a­mongst the Canary Islands, which is fifteen Leagues high, and sailed withal the Ocean near unto them, will in no ways admit for truth. In this part standeth Lovat Castle, and the Barony of the worthy Family of the Fra­sers, whom for their singular good service for the Scottish Kingdom, King James the 2d. accepted into the Rank of Barons, whose Descendant at present is Hugh Lord Lovat, L: Lovat. and whom the Clan-Ranalds a most bloody Generation, in a Quarrel and Brawl between them, had wholly destroyed every Mothers Son; but that by the Providence of God, fourscore of the principal persons of this Family, left their Wives at home all great with Child, who being delivered of so many Sons, renewed the house, and multiplied the name again. But at Nesse-mouth, there flourished sometimes Chanonrie, otherwise called Fort­rose, a Burgh-Royal,B: Royal. so called of a rich Col­ledge of Chanons, whiles the Ecclesiastical State stood in Prosperity, in which there is erected a See for the Bishop of Ross. In this Country resided the Laird of Kintail, [Page 188] or Mckenzie; in an unprinted Act of Par­liament 1593, Colin Mckenzie of Kintail, is mentioned: and in the Convention of Estates 1598, the Laird of Mckenzie is a Member: amongst the Commissioners under the Great Seal, for holding the Parliament 1607, Ken­neth Mckenzie of Kintail, is mentioned: and also amongst the Commissioners for hold­ing the Parliament 1609, Colin Mckenzie of Kintail, is named: and also in a Sederunt of the same Parliament, the Laird of Mcken­zie is ranked inter Barones and Commissioners of Shires. It seems shortly after tha [...] time, and before the year 1612, the foresaid Colin was created Lord Kintail; for in the Rolls of Parliament 1617, Kintail is ranked after Garleis and Madertie, and before the Lord Cranstoun and Carnagie, and the Lord Cran­stoun is the last Lord in the Rolls of Parlia­ment 1612: in like manner in the Rolls of Parliament 1621, Kintail is after Garleis and Cowper, and before Cranstoun and Carnagie. Colin Lord Kintail December 3. 1623, by K. James the Sixth,E: Seaforth. was created Earl of Sea­forth, his Grand-nephew is Kenneth Earl of Seaforth.

Hard by is placed Cromarty, The Shire of Cromarty. where Vr­quhart a Gentleman of noble Birth, by here­ditary Right from his Ancestors, ministred Justice as Sheriff to this Sheriffdom: and this is so commodious and safe an Harbour for any Fleet, be it never so great, that both Sailers and Geographers name it Portus salu­tis, [Page 189] that is, the Haven of Safety. Sir Roderick M [...]kenzie, a Son of the Laird of Kintail, was married to the Heiress of Mcleod of the Lews, of which Marriage was Sir John Mac­kenzie Baronet, who married Dame Marga­ret Ereskin, one of the Daughters and Co­heirs of Sir George Ereskin of Innerteil, one of the Lords of Session, and Grand-child to the Lord Ereskin: Sir George Mckenzie of Tarbat Baronet, their Son, was a Lord of the Session, by the first nomination and set­tlement of the Judicature by King Charles the Second after his Restauration in anno 1661, in the year 1678, he was by the same King appointed Justice General; and thereafter in the year 1681, constitute Lord Register, and continued in that Office during the Reign of King Charles the Second, and King James the Seventh: and in the year 1685, was created Viscount of Tarbat, V: Tarbat. Lord Mcleod and Castle-haven, and is present Lord Regi­ster to his Majesty King William: and he ha­ving purchased the Lands of Cromartie, and Sheriffship thereof, procured the enlarge­ment of this Shire by Act of Parliament, as did Sir William Bruce the Shire of Kinross.

Above it is Littus Altum, whereof Ptolo­my maketh mention, called now as it seem­eth, Tarharth: for there indeed the Shore riseth to a great hight, enclosed on the one side with Cromer, a most secure and safe Ha­ven; and on the other with Colnius, now [Page 190] Killian the River, and thus much of the pla­ces toward the East Ocean. Into the West Sea the River Longus mentioned in Ptolomy, at this day named Lough Longus, runneth: then the Cerones anciently dwelt, where now is Assinshire, a Country much mangled with many In-lets and Arms of the Sea, inbosom­ing it self with manifold Commodities.

As for the Earls of Ross, Earls of Ross. it is full of diffi­culty to set them down in order successively out of Writers. In the Reign of King Alex­ander the Second, we read that Ferquhard flourished and enjoyed this Title, but for default of issue Male, it came by a Daughter to Walter Lesly, who for his noble feats of Arms, courageously atchieved under Lewis the Emperour, was worthily named the Nohle Knight: he begat Alexander Earl of Ross, and a Daughter married unto Donald Lord of the Islands Hebrides. This Alexan­der had issue one only Daughter, who made over by her Deed, all her own Title and Right unto Robert Duke of Albany; where­at the said Donald of the Islands being high­ly incensed, and repining, Stiled himself in the Reign of James the Third, King of the Islands, and Earl of Ross; having with Fire and Sword, laid waste his native Coun­try far and near. At length, the said King James the 3d, by Authority of Parliament in the year 1476, annexed the Earldom of Ross to the Crown, leaving only to him the Title of Lord of the Isles, so as it might not [Page 191] be lawful for his Successors, to alienat by any means from the Crown, either the Earl­dom it self, or any parcel thereof; or by any device to grant the same unto any person, save only to the Kings second Sons law­fully born: and so Charles afterward King, during the Life-time of his elder Brother Prince Henry, enjoyed the Title of Earl of Ross. This Country hath lately been erected in a Sheriffdom, the Sheriffship whereof is at the Kings disposal: and David Ross of Balnagoun is present Sheriff, lineally descended of Hugh Ross of Rarichies, lawful Son to Hugh Earl of Ross, and Brother to Earl William the last of that sirname, and to Eupham Queen of Scotland Dingwal was the Seat of the Earls of Ross, B: Royal. and is now a Burgh Royal. Andrew Keith one of the Commissi­oners, sent anno 1589, to treat a Marriage betwixt King James the Sixth, and Anna then Princess of Denmark, afterwards Queen, was created Lord Dingwal. L: Dingwal. In the Rolls of Parlia­ment 1621, the Lord Dingwal is Ranked af­ter the Lord Holy-rud-house, and before the Lord Garleis, who behoved to be of a latter Creation, I suppose of the sirname of Preston of the Family of Craigmiller, of whom per­haps the Duke of Ormond is descended. In this Shire is also Tayn a Burgh Royal.B: Royal.

CHAP XXXIV.
SUTHERLAND.

BEyond Ross, The Shire of Sutherland. Sutherland looketh toward the East Ocean, a Land more meet to breed Cattel, than to bear Corn; wherein there be Hills of white Marble, (a wonderful thing in this so cold a Climat) but of no use almost, considering excess in Building, and that vain ostentation of Riches, is not yet reached to these remote Regions. Here is Dunrobin, a Castle of very great Name, the principal Seat of the ancient Earls of Suther­land, Earls of Su­therland. descended of the Family of Murray: among whom, one William under King Ro­bert Bruce is most famous, who married the Sister of the whole Blood to King David, and had by her a Son, whom the said David de­clared Heir Apparent of the Crown, and compelled his Nobles to swear unto him Al­ledgeance: but he within a little after de­parted without Issue, and the Earldom in the end came by a Daughter and Heir heredi­tarily unto Adam Gordon, one of the Line of the Earls of Huntly, of whom is descended George, present E. of Sutherland: this Dignity by the Decreet of Ranking anno 1606, being placed after the Earls of Argile, Crawford, Er­rol and Marshal; the Earls of Sutherland have quarrelled that Ranking, and claimed Precedency of these other Earls by Citations [Page 193] in Processes & Protestations in Parliament, & in the last Session of Parl. 1693, the said E. did by Petition, apply to the Parliament to have his Precedency declared, which was remit­ted to be judged by the Lords of Session, be­fore whom the Process at his Instance against these Earls is depending. This Country was in the year 1633, Erected in a Sheriff­ship, to belong heretably to the Earls of Sutherland, who also have there the Jurisdi­ction of Justiciar and Admiral: and because there are but few of the Heretors who hold of the King, and not of the Earl, by particu­lar Priviledge they are allowed to Choise their Commissioners to represent them in Par­liament, such as are not free Tennents hold­ing of the King, but only Vassals holding of the Earl. Dornock is now become a Burgh Royal,B: Royal. and Seat of the Sheriff.

CHAP. XXXV.
CATHANES.

HIgher lyeth Cathanes, The Shire of Caithness. butting full upon the said East Sea, bending inward with a number of Creiks and Compasses, which the Waves as it were indent: in which dwelt in Ptolomy's time the Catini, but writ­ten falsly in some Copies Carini, among whom the self fame Ptolomy placeth the River [Page 194] Ila, which may seem to be the Wifle at this day. The Inhabitants of this Province rai­sed their greatest Gain and Revenues, by Grazing and raising of Cattel, and by Fish­ing: the chief Castle therein is called Gir­nego, in which the Earls of Caithness for the most part make there abode: the Bishops See is in Dornock, a little mean Town otherwise; where also King James the Fourth appoint­ed the Sheriff of Caithness to reside, or else at Wike as Occasions shall require,B. Royal. for the Administration of Justice.

The Earls of Caithness in antient times,E. Caithness. were also Earls of the Orcades, but at last they became distinct, and by the eldest Daughter of one Malise, given in Marri­age to William Sinclar the Kings Pantler, his Heirs successively came to be Earls of Caith­ness, and do still enjoy the same Honour, of whom is descended George now Earl of Caith­ness. E. Caithness. The Earl of Braid-Albion having pur­chased the greatest part of the Estate of Caith­ness, is Sheriff of this Shire.

CHAP. XXXVI.
STRATH-NANERN.

THe utmost and farthest Coast of all Britain; In the Shire of Sutherland. which with the Front of the Shore looketh full against the North Point, and hath the midst of the greater [Page 195] Bears Tail, which as Cardan was of Opini­on, causeth Translations of Empires, just over head, was inhabited as we may see in Ptolomy, by the Carnabii, among whom he placeth the River Nabeus, which names are of so near Affinity, that the Nation may seem to have drawn there Denomination from the River that they dwelt by: neither doth the modern name Strath-Navern, which signifieth the Valley by Navern, jar altoge­ther in sound from them. The Earl of Su­therland is Superior of this Country, and his eldest Son is designed from it Lord Strathna­ver. The chief Inhabitants here are the Mackeys, who were designed from their Lands of Fare; but about the year 1625, Sir Do­nald Mackey was designed of Strathnaver, and made a Baronet, & in the year 1631, was created Lord Rae, from a place belonging to him in the Country of Caithness, holding of the King; he was imployed by Gustavus K. of Sweden in his Wars:L. Rae. George Lord Rae is his great Grand-child; of whose Grand-uncle by the Mothers side: Lieutenant General Hugh Mackey, descended of the same Stock and Linage; it is reasonable to make mention, he was one of the Captains of Dowglass Re­giment, who for his Service to the Veneti­ans, did from them receive a Medal of con­siderable value; he continued in that Regi­ment and the French Service, till they had made their Conquests of some of the u­nited Provinces in the year 1672: and then [Page 196] being imployed by the States, he was at the Siege of Grave made Lieutenant Collonel, and thereafter Collonel; in the year 1685, his Regi­ment & others were called over to England by K. Ja. the 7th, to oppose the D. of Monmouth, when he was made General Major; in the year 1688, he did attend and assist his Ma­jesty in his Expedition to Britain, and in an­no 1689, was sent to command the Forces in Scotland, where albeit he had not good Suc­cess at Gillicharnkie, yet by his great Fidelity and Diligence, he settled Garisons at Inverlo­chy and other places of the High-lands, which laid the Foundation of the settlement of these Countries, and then was appointed to Com­mand in Ireland, where with great Courage, amongst the first to encourage the Souldiers under him, he Waded through the River, whereby they gained the Town of Athlone, & did signalize his Courage and Conduct at the Battle of Aghrim, and in the other parts of that War, till the Reduction of the whole Kingdom; which by the acknowledgement of his Fellow Great Captains and Command­ers, was in a great measure due to him; for which Service, he was made Lieutenant General: and with the Duke of Wirtem­berg, having Commanded at Steenkirk, was near the beginning of that Action, unfortu­natly slain with James Lord Angus, and Sir Robert Dowglass of Glenbervie, both Collonels and Heirs of these two noble Families of the [Page 197] Dowglasses, and representing the Valour of their many Predecessors the Dowglasses, the last of whom slain in Flanders, was L. Ja. Dow­glass Mareschal of the Camp, Grand-Uncle to the Lord Angus of the first Marriage, imme­diat elder Brother to the last Duke Hamilton: in which Action also, were many other brave Scottish Officers concerned, and of them a great part killed, or wounded; and a­mongst the rest, Lieutenant Collonel Aeneas Mackey Uncle to the Lord Rae, was wounded, who succeeded as Collonel to the Lieutenant General his Uncle, to whom both he and Collonel Robert the younger Brother, were Disciples in the War, and in recompense of the Dangers undertaken, and Wounds they re­ceived, are advanced to the Commands they now worthily Exerce. The Country it self is for the Soil nothing fertile, and by reason of the sharp and cold Air, less inhabited, and thereupon sore haunted and annoyed with most cruel Wolves; which in such violent rage, not only set upon Cattel, to the ex­ceeding great damnage of the Inhabitants, but also assail men with great danger; and not in this Tract only, but in many other parts likewise of Scotland, in so much as by vertue of an Act of Parliament, the Sheriffs and Inhabitants in every Country, are com­manded to go forth thrice a year a Hunting, for to destroy the Wolves and their Whelps. But (if in this so northerly a Country, this be any comfort to speak of) it hath of all [Page 198] Britain again, the shortest night and the long­est day: for by reason of the position of Heaven, here distant from the Aequinoctial Line 59. Degrees and forty Minuts, the longest day containeth 18 hours and 25 Scruples: and the shortest night not above five hours and 45 Scruples: so that the Pane­gyrist is not true in this, who made report in times past, That the Sun in manner setteth not at all, but passeth by, and lightly glanceth upon the Horizon; happily relying upon this Authority of Tacitus, for that the extream Points and plain Levels of the Earth, with their shade so low, raised up no darkness at all. But more truly Pliny (according to true rea­son) where he treateth of the longest days, according to the inclination of the Suns Circle in the Horizon. The longest days (saith he) in Italy are 15 hours, in Britain 17, where the light nights do prove, that undoubtedly by experience, which reason forceth credibly, that in Mid-summer days, when the Sun approacheth near to the Pole of the World, the places of the earth under the Pole have day 6 Months, though the Light having but a narrow compass, the night contrarywise when he is far remote in middle Winter.

In this utmost Tract, which Ptolomy ex­tendeth out far East, whereas indeed it bear­eth full North (for which Roger Bacon in his Geography taxed him long since) where Ta­citus said, That an huge and enorm space of Ground, running still forward to the farthest [Page 199] Point, groweth narrow like a Wedge. There run out three Promontories mentioned by the old Writers, namely Berubium, now cal­led Vrdehead, near to Bernswal a Village: Virvedrum now Dunsby, otherways named Duncansbay, which is thought to be the most remote Promontory of Britain. Orcas now named Howburn, which Ptolomy setteth over against the Islands Orcades, as the utmost of them all: this also in Ptolomy is called Tarve­drum and Tarvisium, and so named as is con­jectured, because it is the farthest end of Britain: for Tarvus in the British tongue, hath a certain signification of ending.

CHAP. XXXVII.
The Stewartry of ORKNAY, and the other Northern and Western Isles.

I Do not design to treat particularly con­cerning the Isles of Scotland, The Stewartry of Orknay. where I can find little to my purpose of Jurisdiction, Nobi­lity, or Burghs Royal: and as to these, I leave the Reader to Straloch and Scots-Tarbat, who made very particular Descriptions of them, published in Latine at Amsterdam in the year 1654; and to Mr. Adairs Geography not yet fully ended, which is expected will be exact in relation to them: only something I would add first concerning the Northern Isles, cal­led the Orcads and Shotland, who have been [Page 200] longer in the possession of the Kings of Den­mark and Norway, than any other of the Scot­tish Isles. In the year 1320, amongst the Barons of the Kingdom of Scotland, who in the Reign of King Robert Bruce, wrote to Pope John, E. Orknay. is, Magnus Comes Cathaniae & Orcadiae. To these Earls succeeded the Sin­clars Earls of Orknay, the last of whom was William Sinclar Earl of Orknay, and Chancel­lor to K. James the Second, whom in the year 1456, resigned the Lordship of Nithsdale to the King, and in place thereof, got the Earldom of Caithness. King James the 3d, got a further Right to these Isles, by his Marriage with the K. of Denmarks Daughter; which Right was renewed and became compleat, and absolute by K. James the Sixth, his Marriage with the Princess of Denmark; by which King, Robert Stuart Earl of Coldinghame, descended of a natural Son of King James the Fifth, was cre­ated Earl of Orknay; his Successor Patrick E. of Orknay, anno 1614, was foresaulted These Countries were erected in a Stewardship, and the Rents thereof managed by a Steward named by the King, and payed in to the Ex­chequer: to represent this Stewartry two Com­missioners are sent to the Parliament, and Kirkwal is the head Town thereof,B. Royal. and Burgh Royal: there was also here a Bishop, last of the Province of St. Andrews, and a Commissar or Official under him.

As concerning the Western Isles common­ly called the AEbudae, The Western Isles. and the Hebrides; they [Page 201] were the ancient possessions of the Scots, in their first inhabiting from Ireland, as doth appear from our Historians, and particularly Chronicon de Melross, that in the year 1098, Magnus the Son of Olavus, King of Norway, added the Isles Orcadae and Menaniae to his Kingdom, which happened by the Wars and Divisions after the Death of Malcolm Can­more, betwixt Donald Bain his Brother, and Duncan his Bastard Son, who usurped the Crown, and were expelled, and Edgar his eldest Son alive, settled on the Throne; since which time, there were Feudatory Kings or Princes of the Isles, generally depending on the Kings of Norway, and sometimes upon the Kings of Scotland, till the year 1263, or 1263. that the Danes in the Reign of Alexander the Third, were defeat at the Battle of Largs in Cunninghame, and driven out of the Isles as hath been said. Donald Earl of Ross, in the Reign of King James the Second, with the Earls of Dowglass and Crawford, joyned in Arms against the King; and doing the like against King Iames the Third, (de­signing himself King of the Isles) was in the year 1476 Forefaulted, and the Earldom of Ross annexed to the Crown, to be enjoyed by the second Sons of the Kings of Scotland, lea­ving only to him the Title of L. of the Isles, as hath been said before: which is the only Dig­nity of L, I have observed to have been taken from the Isles. These Isles had also a Bishop, [Page 202] who was called Sodorensis, from his Seat and Church in the Isle of Man; bnt since that Isle did belong to the English, his Seat hath been at Icolmkill, he was of the Province of Glasgow, and had likewise an Official or Com­missar under him.

I shall conclude this Treatise with a Note of the Charter by King Malcolm the Fourth anno 1159, at Rokesburg, confirming a Char­ter granted by King David the First, his Grand-Father, of the Abbacy ofSelkirk Seleschirke, which is narrated to have been Founded by him, when he was Earl, in the Life of his Brother King Alexander the First, who died in the 1124: and that King David by the Advice of John Bishop of St. Andrews, tran­slated the Abbacy from this place toKelso Kelcho; which Robert the succeeding Bishop of St. Andrews, in whose Bishoprick it was granted, the Abbacy freedom from all Epis­copal Service; and that the Abbots might be ordained by any Bishops in Scotland or Cum­berland. The Witnesses to the Kings Char­ter, are Herbert Bishop of Glasgow, William Bishop of Murray, Gregory Bishop of Dun­keld, William and David the Kings Brothers, Ada his Mother, Jeffery Abbot of Dumferm­ling, Osbert Abbot of Jedworth, Amfrid Ab­bot of Newbottle, Ailvred Abbot of Stirling, Walter Cancellarius, Robert Prior of St. An­drews, Matthew Arch-Deacon of St. Andrews, Thor. Archi-Diacon. Laodoniae, Herber. Camera­rius, [Page 203] Nic: Clericus, Ric: Cappellanus, Walterus Cle­ricus Cancellarii, Joannes nepos Episc: Roberti,

Godredus Rex Insularum, Cospatricius Comes, Ferteth Comes, Dunc: Comes, Uthredꝰ filius Fergu­sii, Gilbertꝰ de Vmfravil, Will: de Somer­vel, Ric: de Morevil, Ranulphus de Soulis, Da­vid Olyphard, Ric: Cumin, Robertus Avenal, Will: de Morevil, Will: Finimund, Walterus Corbet, Asketi de Ridala, Henricus de Perth, Vlphus filius Maccꝰ.

This Charter is special, both because of the Antiquity related to, and the great num­ber of famous and considerable Witnesses, and especially of the King of the Isles, (whom I just now mentioned) before four Earls, and albeit the Earl of Angus be only designed by his Earldom, yet the other three were certainly Cospatricius Earl of Dumbar, or March, Ferteth Earl of Strathern, who was Father of Gilbert before mentioned, and Duncan Earl of Fife, and Vchtred was Lord of Galloway, and Father of Rolland. This Note I took from the Principal Charter, which if I had at hand, I would have inserted the Tenor, and the Initial Let­ters as they are Gilded, containing the Effi­gies and Regalia of the Kings David and Malcolm.

This Charter is again confirmed by King William, formerly mentioned the Kings Brother, to whose Charter the Witnesses are Joceline Bishop of Glasgow, Earl Da­vid my Brother, Archibald Abbot of Dum­fermling, [Page 204] Hugo Cancell, Simon Archi-Diacon. Glasc. William Morevil Constab. meus, Robert de Londonys, Rolland filius Vthredi, William de Linddeseys, Malc. filius Comitis Dunecani, Phil. de Vallonys, Allanꝰ filius Walteri Gervosius de Avenel, Constab: de Rockesburg, Walter Corbet, Ranulphus de Soules, Herb. de Maxhwill, Tho. de Colvil, Rob. de Phil. de Setune, Herb. Ma­resc. Earl David was Earl of Huntingtoun in England, and Garviath or Garrioth in Scot­land, of whom our Kings are Lineally de­scended: as also Allan the Son of Walter, of whom before concerning the Stuarts of Scotland. Amongst these Witnesses are also the Predecessors of the Earls of Crawford, Nithsdale, and Winton.

And now having gone through the whole Countries of Scotland, according to the Me­thod of the Author, I conclude.

FINIS.

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