THE Royal Pharmacopoea, GALENICAL AND CHYMICAL, According to the PRACTICE Of the Most Eminent and Learned PHYSITIANS OF FRANCE, And Publish'd with their several Approbations.

By MOSES CHARRAS, the Kings Chief Operator in his Royal Garden of Plants.

Faithfully Englished. Illustrated with several Copper Plates.

LONDON: Printed for John Starkey at the Miter within Temple-Bar, and Moses Pitt at the Angel in St. Pauls Church-Yard, 1678.

The Approbation of Monsieur Anthony D'Aquin, Counsellor in Ordinary to the King in his Councils, and First Physitian to his Ma­jesty.

NOT believing that it could be honourable for France, at a time when by the care and liberality of one of the most famous Mo­narchs in the World, all Arts and Sciences have attain'd their utmost perfection, that Physick, otherwise in high esteem, should be beholding to forreign Pharmacopoea's for the preparation and use of such Medicines which are daily requisite to be prescrib'd, I thought it ex­pedient, not only to cause Monsieur Charras to make such Galenical and Chymical Operations and demonstrations every year in the Royal Garden, as should be necessary for the instruction of yonng beginners in Physick; but also to give him the plat-form and design of a Galenical and Chymical Pharmacopoea, whereby the preparation of ordinary Medicines should be corrected from several faults, the number and goodness of particular reme­dies be repaid with interest to Strangers, from whose Works we have hi­therto borrow'd, and the Publick be stor'd with advantage for the ease and cure of those maladies that afflict Human Nature. And finding that Monsieur Charras has very worthily acquitted himself of his charge, and fully satisfi'd me in my design, I willingly and freely give him my appro­bation. From the Camp at Quaivrain, the 29th of June, 1676.


The Approbation of Monsieur de la Chambre, Counsellor to the King in his Councils, Physitian in Ordinary to His Majesty, and First Physitian to the Queen.

IN regard that to this present time there has been no perfect Pharma­copoea, we cannot sufficiently praise those that make it their study: And we have great reason to hope that this of Monsieur Charras will con­tribute very much to that perfection which is wanting, since that besides the diligent inquisition which he has made after what has been most ex­actly written, he has highly better'd the ordinary preparation of Remedies, added a great number of particular Receipts, and made a most necessary Ʋnion of the two Pharmacies, by a clear and intelligible explanation. So [Page] that this Work merits esteem, and cannot but be very advantageous to those who have any insight in Physick. This is the testimony which we thought our selves bound to give him in publick. From St. Germains en Laye, July 13. 1676.


The Approbation of Monsieur de Renaudot, Counsellor to the King in his Councils, and First Physitian to Monsieur the Dolphin, and Doctor Regent in Physick of the Faculty at Paris.

THE Author of this ample and Royal Pharmacopoea, has not only made a faithful Collection of the most Important Medicines; but he has set them down so elegantly, and argues with so much force and clear­ness of wit, that it may be easily discern'd that he has not only been con­tent to borrow from the most worthy Chief, and Head of Physick, the best part of the Remedies which he makes use of; but that he has also very happily employ'd his own judgment to embellish his own Work. He un­folds the difficulties which he meets with in reconciling Galenick and Chymical Medicines, which formerly seem'd incompatible, considering the different manners of their Choice, Preparation, and Composition, that there is no person who may not receive full instruction from thence, and who will not allow him to be one of the most famous Artists of his Age. This is the real opinion which I the first Physitian to Monsieur the Dol­phin, Doctor Regent in Physick of the Faculty of Paris, have of this Book, upon a serious consideration, and of which I thought my self bound to give a publick confirmation. From the Castle of St. Germain en Laye, July 10. 1676.


The Approbation of Monsieur Esprit, Coun­sellor to the King in his Councils, and First Physitian to Monsieur, the Kings only Bro­ther.

THE Galenical and Chymical Royal Pharmacopoea, is a work of a solid wit, very clear, and full of all the reflexions that can be made upon the two Pharmacies. The precepts of both the one and the other are handl'd here with so much method and order, so much neatness, and with so many learned and new Remarks, that I find nothing wanting for [Page] the absolute perfection of the work. The Author has attain'd it, by his study, by the labour of several years, and by the vast experience he has had, by the strength of his reason, and deep meditations upon the choice, preparation and composition of Remedies. So that we may say, that his Pharmacopoea is truly Royal; that there is nothing defective in it, no­thing superfluous; that the beauties of it are singular, and not to be dis­cover'd in any of the ancient or modern Pharmacopoea's, as much esteem'd, and as much in use as they are. Therefore does this Work deem to be made publick in the Reign of one of the most Renowned of our Kings, and un­der the protection of one of his most principal Ministers, so zealous in every thing that concerns the advancement of Arts in this Kingdom, and the publick benefit; to which this Pharmacopoea is absolutely necessary, and will be always very advantageous. Paris, July 12. 1676.

The Approbation of the Dean and Doctors of the Faculty of Physick in the University of Paris.

WE the Dean and Doctors of the Faculty of Physick in the Ʋni­versity of Paris, having heard the report of Mr. Anthony Mo­rand, Peter Cresse, Lewis Gallais, and Peter D'Aquin Doctors of the same Faculty, and deputed by the same to read a Book entituled Pharmacopée Royale, Galenique & Chymique, composed by Moses Charras, Apothecary, Artist of the King in his Royal Garden of Plants. That the said Work may be accompted one of the most accomplish'd pieces that has appear'd upon the subject, that the discourse is polite, the method easy, that it con­tains all the marrow of the Ancients, and the best of what has been dis­cover'd of later Ages; that the Author has inserted several learned Ar­guments, and judicious reflexions; and lastly, that he was worthy the sup­port and care of Monsieur the King's chief Physitian, by whose order he has undertaken it, and reform'd a great number of good Medicines. For these reasons, we by common consent have thought it convenient to be made publick, acknowledging that it will be very necessary for all those persons that give their minds to the study and exercise of Physick. In testimony whereof we have sign'd these presents. Paris, July 12. 1676.

A. J. MORAND, Dean.

The Approbation of Monsieur Fagon, Coun­sellor to the King, Physitian in Ordinary to the Queen, and Professor in Pharmacy at the Garden Royal.

MOnsieur Charras in this Pharmacopoea has made so exact a Collecti­on of all that the Ancients and Moderns have afforded profitable or curious in reference to Physick, that they who shall read this, may spare themselves the pains of reading any other; and they will find without all question, considering the labour of compiling, the method and neatness of the Work, that it answers to the Grandeur of the Title, and the Repu­tation of the Author. Paris, July 13. 1676.

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THE FIRST PART. Concerning the Generalities of Pharmacy.

CHAP. I. Of the Definition and Names both of the one and the other Pharmacy.

PHARMACY is the second part of that part of Physick that attends the Cure of Diseases, and teaches the Choice, Preparation and Mixture of Medicaments. This Definition might suffice, did we not know of any other Pharmacy then that of the Ancients, which is call'd Galenic. But in regard the Chymical Pharmacy of the Moderns has many perfections that are peculiar to it, and that thereby the be­nefit of the Galenic is much improv'd, it deserves to have a particular Definition. I will say then, without swerving from the first general Definition, that Chymical Phar­macy ought to be defin'd to be, An Art which teaches us to dissolve bodies, and by the same means to divide and know the parts of which they are compos'd, to the end we may separate the bad, and preserve the good, and unite them again when occasion re­quires. For,

Dividit ut purget, purúm (que) exaltet, & arctet.

The Name of Pharmacy, which is common to both, is derived from the Greek word [...]; which signifies a Medicine, in regard it is the work of both to compose Me­dicines. The word [...] is compounded of [...] and [...], as one should say, I bring a Remedy. We call the Galenic Pharmacy, which has been very ancient, that which was known and practis'd by the Greeks, Romans and Arabians, which has been very much improv'd by Galen and his Followers, and to this day is very much in esteem. We call the Chymical Pharmacy, that which was not known but to some few of the An­cients; but which at present is very much approv'd and practis'd by a very great num­ber of the Moderns, who have made it their study, and by their continual Industrie have brought to light, and unfolded many Mysteries that lay before conceal'd in riddles, and by that success have encourag'd others to follow their example.

[Page 2]The most receiv'd Etymology of the word Chymistrie, is that which is deriv'd [...], from Juice, in regard it teaches how to extract the most pure and liquid parts of Compounds, and to separate them from those parts which are more impure and gross. Others derive the word from [...], to melt or dissolve; from whence they also fetch the word [...], which some Lexicons expound to be a Melting or preparation of Gold and Silver, being substances upon which Chymistrie practises a vast number of preparations. The Name of Alchymie, which some have attributed to Chymistrie, is deriv'd from the Arabick word Al, which sometimes signifies the Excellencie of a thing, and sometimes Salt; in which sence it may signifie a dissolving or preparation of Salt, which is one of the most essential parts of Mixture.

Others have stil'd Chymistrie the Hermetic science, alledging without ground that Hermes was the Inventor thereof, to whom for that reason they gave the Name of Tris­megistus, or Thrice great. Some, not improperly, have call'd it the Art Distillatorie, in regard that it accomplishes many of its operations by Distillation. Paracelsus and se­veral others have nam'd it Spagyric Pharmacy, which is a composition of two Greek words [...], to separate, and [...], to gather together; for it separates the pure from the impure, and unites and gathers together the pure parts, when the impure are se­parated from them. I omit those other Names which others have ascrib'd to it, as Pyrotechnie, or the Art of working by Fire; the Sages or the Philosophers Art; the Se­cret Art, and many other Names, which I pass over in silence.

CHAP. II. Of the Subject, Object and End of both the one and the other Pharmacy.

ALL natural things created may be compriz'd under the Name of Medicament; and they are equally the subject, and object both of the one and the other Phar­macy: So then I say, That Medicament is the general matter that a Student in Phar­macy ought to consider, and know both externally and internally, and which he ought to understand how to prepare and mix as occasion requires for the use of Physick. The exterior knowledge of Medicament is less difficult; because, that I may speak pro­perly, it is onely superficial: Nevertheless it does not want some difficulty, in regard of the largeness of its extent, and the vast variety of mixtures which are comprehend­ed under the Name of Medicament. But the internal knowledge dives into all the parts, whereof Mixture or simple Medicaments are compounded. And this re­quires much more skill and experience than the former. Nor can it be obtain'd but by preparation, and by making an exact dissolution of all the parts, which cannot be accomplish'd without the help of Chymical Pharmacy.

Though the Body of Man be the remote object both of the one and the other Phar­macy, it ceases not however to be some part of its subject, in regard it affords parts which are in truth Medicaments, as the Brains, the Blood, the Fat, the Hair, &c. which a Student in Pharmacy ought to consider, and understand how to prepare.

The end of a Physician is twofold, to understand the internal which is the true know­ledge, and tends to the perfect preparation of Medicaments; and the external, which is the health of Man, for which the Physician chooses, prepares, and mixes all his Medicines. The first may be also call'd the Next End; the other may be term'd the Re­mote End.

CHAP. III. Of the Principles of Chymical Pharmacy.

WIthout making any stay upon the opinion of the Ancient Philosophers, who found­ed the principles of all things upon the four Elements, which they affirm'd to be Air, Fire, Water and Earth, I take part with the Chymical Authors, ancient and modern, who acknowledge no other principles than those which they meet with by Art in the disso­lution [Page 3] of all Compounds. Plants, Animals, and Minerals, are equally compos'd of these principles, and we find them very distinctly in the resolution of their parts; espe­cially of those whose substance is not extraordinarily compacted. These Principles consist in five different substances; of which the three principal are call'd active Prin­ciples; the other two of lesser note, passive Principles. The three first are called by the Names of Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, by reason of their agreement with Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury natural. They are called active, because they include within themselves, a quality, vertue or power that produces action. Salt is esteem'd to be the ground of all savours; Sulphur, of all odours, and combustibility; Mercury, of all colours. Flegm and Earth are the two last principles, which are said to be passive, as well to di­stinguish them from the former, as also for that they cannot produce any considerable action. They are also call'd Elementary principles, by reason of their conformity with Water and Earth, which were the grosser Elements of the Ancients.

In the distillation of Compounds, the insipid Flegm, which is like Water, appears usually first of all. Next to that comes the Spirit, to which we give the name of Mer­cury: In the third place appears the Oyl, which we call Sulphur. The Salt, under its own proper name, is found last of all, mix'd amongst the Earth; which remaining in the Filtre, after the separation of the Salt, is lookt upon as the last principle.

Nevertheless we find that the Salts of Animals and certain Creatures, rise in distilla­tion among the other substances, and that in Rectification they also rise first, by reason of their great volatility, and that there remains but little fixed Salt among the terre­strial part which is found at the bottom after distillation. We also find many times that the Flegm, the Spirit, the Volatile Salt and the Oyl, rise in distillation confusedly to­gether: and that you must of necessity have recourse to Rectification to separate and pu­rifie them. But though Flegm and Earth are accounted Passive principles, and have less vertue than Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, which are the Active principles; yet are they not altogether to be despis'd. For besides the necessary rank which they hold in the composition of Medicaments, they have their particular vertues and uses, when they are separated from the other principles by distillation, or any other way of prepara­tion. Which obliges me to discourse of them, as well as of the rest, according to their order in distillation.

CHAP. IV. Of Flegm.

FLegm is a principle reputed to be passive, which most usually rises first in the di­stillation of Compounds: especially of such mixt bodies, wherein it abounds. They who agree the Elements to be principles, suppose Flegm to be the Element of Wa­ter; which it most resembles, when well separated from the rest of the principles. Flegm, though to outward shew it appear thin, and almost void of any consistency, is a substance which most abounds in the composition of mixt bodies; especially of Plants and Animals.

Flegm separated from the other substances of the mixt body, doth not lose its vertue. For it curbs the activity of the Spirits, and qualifies the acrimonie of the Salts, if united to them; it also serves to dissolve them, and all watry substances. It unites with the Oyls, by the help of the Salts. It is proper in the extraction of several Tinctures, especi­ally of substances, to which it had been united. It is proper in several Fermentations, Distil­lations, Humectations, and several other Operations. It qualifies the heat of the Oyls; and binds and unites the Earth with the Salts, redressing the drieness and brittleness of the latter. It refreshes and moistens being alone; but easily receives the impressions of those substances with which it is mix'd; it easily corupts, when mix'd with moist substan­ces that are strangers to it; and hastens their corruption and dissolution. But it may be preserv'd a long time alone in a bottle well-stopp'd. It soon evaporates in the open air, but sooner in the Sun or against the Fire. It usually observes the motion and action of the Spirits, Oyls or Salts, with which it is mix'd; and from which at all times it may with ease be separated. It ascends in distillation in clear clouds, which presently dissolve into water. In that it differs from the Spirits and Oyls, whose va­pors or clouds are much thicker, and harder to be dissolv'd.

CHAP. V. Of the Spirit.

THE Spirit, denoted by the Name of Mercury, is an airy, subtle; penetrating sub­stance which usually ascends in distillation after the Flegm is rais'd. This Spirit is more or less subtle and penetrating, according to the nature of the mixt Bodies out of which it is drawn. For the Spirits of Vitriol, Salt, Nitre, and Sulphur, are much more piercing than that of Vinegar; and the Spirit of Vinegar much more penetrating than those of Guiacum and Allum: and by consequence a Spirit of more force and efficacy will act more powerfully than one which is weaker. The property of a Spi­rit is to penetrate, cut, and open compacted and solid Bodies. It eats, putrifies, breaks, dissolves, and burns certain mixt Bodies. It coagulates others, as Blood and Milk, and separates the terrestrial from the watry parts. Certain Spirits being well purifi'd from their Flegm, and mingl'd with water, will cause a heat so vehement therein, that hardly a Man shall endure his hand in it: nor is it an easie matter to keep the Vessels from breaking that contain it. The Spirit presently extinguishes the flame of the Oyls; it joins immediately to the Salt, and sometimes unites it self so closely to it, that nothing but a violent Fire can separate it. It heats of it self, but being mingl'd with a small quantity of cooling liquors, it augments their coolness, and causes them to penetrate. It dries alone, but moist'ns being mingl'd with Flegm, and helps to preserve it. It gives it its own activity and strength, according as it is mix'd with it, either in a grea­ter, or lesser quantity. It allays and qualifies the Acrimony of the Salts, and is by them reciprocally qualifi'd. It incorporates with them, and fixes their Volatility. It is us'd for Tinctures, and for diversity of colours, which it changes, and sometimes ut­terly destroys, according as it is us'd. It dissolves Minerals, and precipitates those that were dissolv'd by their Salts. It serves for the nourishment of Plants and Animals, and gives motion to the latter. It dissolves Stones, purifies the Blood; it restores and renews the radical moisture. It restores the speech to them that have lost it. It clean­ses and purges, being mix'd with its Flegm. It kills all sorts of Scurfs and Scabs; and asswages all sorts of pains caus'd by the Salts. In short, it will give considerable re­lief to an abundance of Distempers, especially those that proceed from the acrimony of Salts, if rightly order'd and prescrib'd with judgment.

I refer the Volatile Urine Spirits, to the Chapter of Salt, as being more of the na­ture of Salt, than of the acid Spirit.

CHAP. VI. Of Sulphur.

SƲlphur, acknowledg'd to be the third Principle, is a homogeneous, liquid, oylie, vis­cous and combustible substance, which in distillation ascends usually like Oyl after the Spirit; which being purifi'd from the terrestrial and salt parts, is lighter than the Flegm, the Spirits, and all the other substances, so that it swims above them all; but while it still contains those parts of Earth and Salt, it swims between the other substan­ces, or else it sinks to the bottom, according as it is more or less intermixt. Some­times also [...] happens, that one part of the Oyls swims above the Flegm, another part between it, and a third part falls to the bottom; as is often observ'd in the distillation of ponderous Woods. Sometimes likewise it happens, that the same compound Body yields Oyls distinct in colour, that swim one above another, as is observ'd in the distil­lation of Turpentine, where are to be seen Oyls of three different colours, that swim one above another; not to mention the Spirit, or rather Ethereal Oyl that swims above all the rest. The viscosity of this Principle occasions it easily to stick to those substances that rise with it in distillation; and particularly to the Salts, or to some other gross and terrestrial parts: So that there is no way to separate it truly, but by Rectification, which separates and raises it above all the other Principles. This Sulphur, being like [Page 5] Oyl, is a substance between Spirit and Salt, so that it may be united to them by Circu­lation, for the making of Elixirs, Universal Medicines, and all the rare preparations of Chymical Pharmacy. This sulphurous Principle being separated from all the rest, not only resists cold, but of it self never congeals. It is incorruptible, and so preserves those Body's that are embalm'd within it, so that they do not too excessively abound in Flegm. It mortifies the acrimony of the Salts; it unites and coagulates with them: It resists Spirits, and Aquafortis it self, that it can can do no good upon it. It cherishes the na­tural heat. It is a great Friend to the Nerves, and facilitates the motion of the Muscles: It is the Balsom of all things. It is a mollifier, lenitive, discussive, and an asswager of pain. It increases the Spirits, in Vegetals and Animals. It is as it were the Soul of Minerals: It is the matter and foundation of all Odours and scents; and keeps in the middle between the driness of Salt, and the moistness of the fluid Spirit.

CHAP. VII. Of Salt.

SAlt is the Spirit, which after distillation usually remains mixt with the Earth; which being separated, purifi'd, and dry'd, looks of a white colour, of a dry and brittle consistence. Salt is easily dissolv'd in moisture, and being dissolv'd, it indures the Oyl: It may be also join'd to the Oyl by vertue of the Spirit. Though this Salt seem to us to be very dry, nevertheless there is an internal moisture in it, which renders it apt to run with a great fire. Salt resists Fire, and is purifi'd thereby. It is incom­bustible, and may be preserv'd as long as you please without any loss, or suffering any alteration of its own nature: The taste thereof is tart and sharp, with a little bitter­ness: From whence it has been tak'n for the foundation of all savors; though the other Principles are not without them, by reason of some Particles of Salt that may remain in their substances. It is hot and penetrating; it hast'ns the running of Mettals; it helps to preserve all substances. It attracts to it self all that are volatile, and fixes them. It strongly unites with the Spirit, insomuch that if the Spirit exceed it three or four times in quantity, it ascends with it in distillation. It coagulates certain Liquors. It purges, cleanses, opens, resolves, dries up, and consumes superfluous humours. It hin­ders the consumption of the Oyl. It is the Life and Soul of all substances. Without it the Earth is barren; through the excess of it, it becomes unfruitful. It preserves Ani­mals in health and makes them fruitful. It consolidates all substances, especially Mi­nerals; and makes the Spirit corporeal by joining with it. By the way observe, that the Salt of Animals, as also of certain Vegetals, is not found among the Earth at the bot­tom after distillation: in regard that by reason of its volatile nature it rises like a kind of Spirit, among the Oyl, and with some part of the Flegm; whence it may afterwards be separated by Rectification. This volatile Salt has some of the qualities of that which I have already mention'd; but its volatileness carries it thither, where the other can­not reach of it self without the help of this. It penetrates in an extraordinary man­ner, so that neither the Eyes, nor the Nose can endure the strength of it, in any great quantity; by reason of its volatileness it cannot resist Fire, which it cannot endure, un­less mingl'd with some acid Spirit, or with some fix'd Salt that surmounts it in quantity. The volatile Salt is too smart upon the Nose, the Tongue, the Eyes and the Brain by its penetration; but it neither has the acrimony, nor the bitterness of the fixed Salt; nor does it leave any considerable heat behind it, either upon the Tongue, or any other place.

CHAP. VIII. Of Earth.

EArth is the last Principle, and the less esteem'd of all. It appears last at the end of Distillation and Calcination; and when the Salt which was mix'd with it is drawn [Page 6] out of it by Dissolution and Filtration. This Earth thus separated from all the Princi­ples is called Caput mortuum, or the Dead Head, by the Chymists, having no other con­siderable Quality but astriction and driness. This Principle however is very neces­sary in the composition of mixt Bodies: for while the Sulphur makes it tenacious, vis­cous and clammy; while the Salt makes it hard and firm; while the Spirit affords it nourishment and motion; while the Flegm is the cause of growth, and tempers all the other substances; from the Earth it receives a consistence necessary for its preservation: so that there is no substance in a mixt Body which has not its proper office, and particu­lar service. The Earth after the dissolution of the mixt Body is that which troubles all the active Principles, and must be separated from them; for when it is mix'd with them, it hinders their action; It stops the Pores, it engenders Obstructions, it incorporates with the salts and spirits, and begets stones in the bladder and reins, and very much contributes to the Original of several Diseases. The Earth separated from the other substances is often porous and very light; it easily unites it self with the substances from whence it was separated. It borrows the weight of the other Principles, especi­ally of Salt and Spirits which are the heaviest. The use of it in Physick is only exterior, where there is any occasion to close up and fortifie the parts.

CHAP. IX. Of Medicament in general.

MEdicament is defin'd to be any thing that is capable to change our Nature for the better. Medicament is divided into Internal and External; and both those in­to Simple and Compound. The Simple Medicament is that which is produc'd by Na­ture, though it be in truth compos'd of all the five Principles already mention'd. The Compound is that which depends upon several Simples different in vertue, and mingl'd artificially together. Sometimes a Compound Medicament may bear the Name of Simple to distinguish it from another more compounded, which carries the same Name-Aliment differs from Medicament in this, that being taken inwardly it nourishes and in­creases our nature: whereas Medicament can only alter it, whether outwardly ap­ply'd, or taken inwardly:

Poyson differs from Medicament in this, that it destroys our Nature: but it may pass for Medicament, in regard that Pharmacy is able to correct and tame whatever it has of wild and mischievous, and render it wholsome, as well when giv'n inwardly, as when outwardly apply'd.

Medicaments differ among themselves, either in their matter, or in their vertues.

The matter of Medicaments is taken from Vegetals, Animals, and Minerals.

By Vegetals I understand Trees, Shrubs, Brambles, Herbs with all their parts; all things that belong to, or grow upon them; and in general every thing that has a vege­tative Life, and which receiving nourishment from the Earth by some sort of Root or other, grows either above, or near the superficies of the Earth; like the real Plants whose name is common with that of Vegetals. So then we are to comprehend under the Name of Vegetals, Roots, Stalks, Bark, Wood, Boughs, Leaves, Flowers, Berries, Cods, Seeds, Gums, Rosins, Juices, Tears, Liquors, distilling Waters, Kernels, Mush­romes, as well those that grow out of the Earth, as upon Trees and other places; Wa­ter-Nuts, the excrescences of Trees, as Musseltoe, Moss, Cottons, Galls, Thorns, Sugar, Manna, and several other Plants which it would be too tedious to repeat.

By Animals I understand Fowl, Land-Creatures, Water-Animals, and such as are accustom'd to Land and Water: and not only such as are made use of whole, as Scorpi­ons, Frogs, Worms, Chestops, little Dogs, Emmets, Cantharides, Lizzards, &c. but all the parts of the bodies of Animals, which may be us'd in Physick, not excepting their excrements and superfluities, as are the brain, the fat, the blood, the hair, the dung, the urine of Men; the horn, the pizzle, the stones, the suet, the marrow, the bone of the heart of a Deer; the liver and inwards of a Wolf; the grease, milt, the yellow stones, and bone in the heart of an Oxe, the foot of an Elk, the lungs of a Fox, the brains of a Sparrow, the tooth of an Elephant and a wild Boar, the horn of a Unicorn and Rhi­noceros. The ring-bone, hoof, fat and dung of a Horse; the dung of a Mule, or Ass. [Page 7] Musk, Perles, Bezoar, Shells. The jaw of a Pike, the claws, stones, and juice of Craw-fish; the blood, and fat of a Wild Goat, and Kid. The heart, liver, trunk, head, tayl, fat and skin of Vipers; the fat, and sperm of a Whale. The liver, and fat of Eels; the bone of a Toàd, the grease of Bears: the grease, and stomach of a Capon; the feathers of a Wood-cock, and Partridges; the stinking oyl of Bezoar­stone. The grease of Hogs, Badgers, Geese, Ducks, and several other Animals. The dung of Cows, Dogs, Mice, Lyzards, their bones, their skins, their excrescences, their hair, their urine, their sweat; and in general whatever appertains to the bodies of Animals.

By Minerals I understand all Metals, Half-metals, and what belongs to Metals. All sorts of Earths, and Bole-Armoniack; all Stones, Marbles, Flints, Porphyries, Jaspers, Chrystals, Jacinths, Emraulds, Saphirs, Granats, Blood-stones, Diamonds, and all sorts of Jewels: Sulphurs, Vitriols, Allums, Sal Gem, Bay-salt, Water, Rain, Snow, Ice, Hail, Thunder-bolts, Dew, Manna of several sorts, Morter, Lime, Brick, Oyl of Naphta Amber-griece white and yellow; Jet, Sea-coal and all Bitumens. Talk, Chalk, Bismuth, Zink, and all Marcasites, the ordinary Earth, Sand, Clay; and in general whatever is drawn out of the Bowels of the Earth, or Sea; or descends from the Air, being without Life. Some there are that add to these, Corals and Spunges, which others will have to be Plants.

Here I might take a fair occasion to make a large Catalogue of all the principal sim­ple Medicaments, wherewith Vegetals, Animals, and Minerals, furnish Pharmacy; but the unprofitable confusion and perplexity, which I have observ'd in some Pharmacop [...]a's, have diverted me from it, and have made me resolve not to speak of them any other­wise in the progress of this Treatise, than as necessity shall lead me to make more particular Illustrations upon some that need a peculiar explanation.

CHAP. X. Of the Vertue of Medicaments.

THE Vertue of Medicaments may be defin'd to be a proper and inseparable acci­dent, upon which their action depends. So that we may say, that the Faculties, or Vertues of Medicaments cannot be well known, but by their action or operation. We observe three Vertues in Medicaments, the altering Faculty, the purging Faculty, and the strengthening Faculty. The altering Faculty is known by the manifest alteration which it makes in our Bodies. The purging Faculty carries away the ill humors, either by expelling them, by making the passages slippery to make them way, or by attract­ing them together, and forcing them out at the usual vents of Nature. We may com­prehend under Purgative, the Diaphoretic Faculty, which sends forth evil humours through the Pores of the Skin; and the Diuretic, which expells them by Urine. The strength­ening Faculty, or Vertue, fortifies and preserves the Body, or some one of its parts, by a specific operation.

There are three sorts of Vertues attributed to Medicament. The first sort, which by the Ancients was esteem'd Elementary, and only ought to be attributed to the Princi­ples whereof it is compos'd; that is, that it heats, cools, moistens, and dries; and, still to follow their opinion, sometimes obscurely in the first degree, sometimes mani­festly in the second, sometimes violently in the third, and sometimes to extremi­ty in the fourth. They also give to each degree, a beginning, a middle, and an end, which denotes the diminution or excess of heat, cold, moistness, or driness.

The second Qualities are the Products of the first: For the property of heat is to open, rarefie, attenuate, attract, &c. The property of cold is to thicken, to condense, to stop, to repell, &c. The property of moist is to moisten, mollifie, &c. The property of driness is to knit, hard'n, and dissipate humidities, &c.

The third Qualities are hidd'n, and we can only find them out by experience. As when a Jasper apply'd to a Wound stops the blood: when a Toad dry'd, being held in the hand, stays bleeding at the Nose, and asswages the Tooth-ach, which is also per­form'd by the Bone in the Fore-leg of the same Toad, when a Stick of Ash, boyl'd un­der a certain Constellation, stops all losses of blood; when a Hazle-Stick, gather'd in its [Page 8] proper season, heals all contusions; when the Eagle-stone hung about the neck, hin­ders abortion; and hastens and facilitates the Birth, being ty'd to the thigh: as when a straw cleaves of it self to Amber, or Spanish-wax, Iron to the Load-stone; as when certain Plants ty'd to a Horses tayl, heal the Farce: and several other effects of the same nature, of which Philosophers labour to give the natural reason.

CHAP. XI. Of Election, or Choice.

EVery Artist ought to understand the matter of which he intends to make use, be­fore he undertakes the cure. And therefore with great reason Pharmacy is obli­g'd to begin its operations with Election.

Election is the discerning and choice of a good Medicament from a bad one. We may also alleadge it to be the discerning and distinguishing of every particular Medi­cament, when there are several of a various nature mingl'd together.

The Ancients by the word Election, did not mean a knowledge as inward and se­cret as we could obtain by the help of Chymical Pharmacy, which by the means of proper dissolvents, resolves the bodies into the principles whereof they are com­pos'd, whereby we gain an inward knowledge of all their parts; but they only intend­ed a superficial knowledge of the true Character of every drug. Now both the one and the other of these two skills cannot be principally acquir'd but by the help of the Senses, which are Seeing, Smelling, Tasting, Hearing and Feeling; which are not al­wayes necessary altogether, to discern every Mixture separately, in regard there are some that may be distinguish'd only by the Sight, others by the Smell, others by the Taste; others that require a concurrence of more Senses than one towards a more per­fect▪ Election. And though that without the Tryal of fire, all the Senses together cannot furnish us with an exact knowledge of all the parts whreof mixt bodies are com­pos'd, yet they afford us enough to discern one mixt body from another, and the good from the bad; and as much judgement as is requir'd to select them for such and such occasions, or else to make a separation of them by Chymistry.

Election is made from the Essence, the Substance, or the Qualities of the mixt body. The Substance mainly conduces to the knowledge of the Essence. The Qualities assist to the knowledge of both together, adding thereto the tryal of the exterior disposi­tion of the mixt body. By Substance we understand a certain couching or joyning together, or a consistency of matter, which is found out by the mixture and the pro­portion of the five principles. Whence it comes to pass, that some mixt bodies are very heavy; others light, some close, others spungy; some coarse, others fine; some brittle, others clammy, &c.

The Sight serves to discern colours, and the various external dispositions of mixt bodies: it discovers also the internal disposition when the body is open'd by breaking, cutting, or otherwise.

The Smelling receives through the Nostrils a certain evaporated substance that rises from the mix'd body, and is carry'd to the Brain. The difference of Odours is so great, that it is impossible to relate the variety; but only by comparison we may guess by the affinity or remoteness of scent, what congruity one mixt bodie may have with another. Nor indeed are there above two differences, the one good, the other bad; though each of these may differ from their like, in the degrees of more or less.

Feeling serves to distinguish the smoothness or roughness of the mixt bodie: but the chief use thereof is to distinguish between heavy and light, hard and soft. Feeling is also to be made use of, when because there can be no positive judgement made of the exterior part, there is a necessity of breaking or cutting into the in-side. It serves also to understand the viscousness or brittleness of a mixt body.

The Taste is a Sense which is as much or more necessary than any of the rest, by rea­son of the diversity of Savours in mixt bodies; which proceeds from the various na­ture of the Salts, that are mix'd in the Composition of their Substances: and for that Savours are easie to be distinguish'd and describ'd.

Authors unanimously acknowledge nine simple Savours; of which they will have three to be hot, three to be cold, and three temperate. The tart, the bitter, and [Page 9] the salt they place in the rank of hot Savours: The stiptic or sowre, the sharp, the eager, in the rank of cold Savours: The oylie, the sweet and the insipid, they alledge to be temperate.

The Hearing is of least use in the election of mixt Bodies. For it only serves to judge of their parts when they are clos'd up in their Covers, as the Eagle-stone; or in their rinds, as Cassia, whether it be moist or dry'd up; or in their cods or husks, as seve­ral Seeds: unless we may bring it to the sound of Metals, the knowledge whereof is more useful in the course of common dealing, than in Pharmacy.

The practice of these Senses has been the rise of several general Rules, not only for the knowledge of mixt Bodies; but also for the prescription of them, which ought not to be unknown.

For it is necessary to examine the lightness of Medicaments that purge by attraction, as Agaric, Colloquintida, Scammonie, and Mechoacan; yet this Rule admits of some exception. For Jalap, Hermodactiles, and Turbith, are accounted more rosiny and best, when being dry they feel a little weighty.

'Tis necessary to examine the weight of Medicaments that purge by compression, mollifying and lenifying, as Rhubarb, Cassia, Mirobalans and Tamarinds.

The soft and smooth superficies of a Medicament, is to be preferr'd before the hard and rough. Remedies moderately hot, are to be preferr'd before cold; moist before dry. Hot and moist excel cold and dry. 'Tis also necessary to choose good Scents, and to avoid bad ones: and to act quite contrary in some Hysteric distempers of Wo­men, who cannot endure the scent of sweet odours, which are only then to be employ'd in the lower parts.

Savours perfectly sowre are naught: those whose sowreness is accompany'd with a kind of stiptickness or restringency, are less hurtful; bitter and stiptick are the least hurtful of the three. Sweet is the best of all Savours, insipid next; acid-sweet holds the third place, bitter-sweet the fourth, sweet and stiptick the fifth.

CHAP. XII. Of the Place, Number, Bigness, Neighbourhood and Time which concur to the choice of a Medicament.

AS to the Place; we must observe that Plants, which grow of themselves in a place that is free and proportionable to their nature, are to be preferr'd before those which are transplanted, and nourish'd by Art. That Plants which grow in the Moun­tains, especially those that lye to the East and South Sun, are to be preferr'd before those of the same sort that grow in Valleys. That a Plant hot and tart that grows in a moist place, has less heat and less tartness then that which grows in a dry place. That that plant, which abounds in superfluous moisture, will be far better in a dry than in a moist place.

The most part of those Rules which are observ'd in reference to the Native place of Plants, are to be follow'd in the choice of Animals us'd in Physick, and which serve us for food.

As for Minerals, there is nothing more to be observ'd, but onely to procure them from such places where they are the fairest and most pure.

As to the Number and Bigness, it is to be observ'd, That Plants accounted good, but more especially Fruits, are the better, the less their number is; but hurtful Plants and mischievous Fruits, have less malignancy, where they are most abundant. That a Fruit good of it self, is esteem'd the better the bigger it is. The contrary is to be observ'd in Fruits, and other parts of Plants, as also in Animals that are hurtful. I say nothing to Minerals at this time.

As to Neighbourhood, Misseltoe and Polypodie are to be commended that grow upon Oaks. Dodder of time, and Dodder it self that grows upon hepatic Herbs. Cham­pignons growing under rotten Trees, are to be rejected; as also Plants that grow near Houses of office, and in shady places, where the Sun cannot come; unless they be such Plants as naturally grow in shady places, as Maidenhair, Liverwort, and Harts-Tongue.

[Page 10]The Time proper for the gathering of Plants, depends upon the diversity both of them, and of their parts, as also upon the use which they are to be put to. Fair wea­ther must be always waited for. Fruits must be gather'd when they are fully ripe; as also Berries and Seeds. Herbs with their tops when they are in their full vigour, and as near as may be in the full of the Moon. Flowers, when they are in their full bud, and before they are quite blown, and before the Sun has wither'd 'em. Roots must be gather'd in the beginning of the Spring, and when the Herb begins to sprout forth. Woods must be cut after the full of the Moon. Tears, Gums, Rosins, and distilling Juices, before they are melted by the rays of the Sun, or wash'd off by the Rain. Rinds and Barks, when the Plants are full of sap.

As for their preservation, the parts of Plants and Animals must be dry'd with all convenient speed, by laying them in the Sun, which are of a compact and humid sub­stance; by exposing them to the Air and shade, which are of a thin and slender sub­stance; by keeping both the one and the other, when they are well-dry'd, close shut up in Boxes, and those Boxes in dry places, expos'd neither to the Sun, Wind nor Rain.

Rain, which we have plac'd among the Minerals, ought to be preserv'd about the Vernal Equinor; Snow and Ice in their season; the Spawn of Frogs in March. Dew and Manna in May, gather'd from wholsom Herbs. Ambergreese, Amber, Jet, Oyl of Naphta, and all sorts of Bitumens, before they are chang'd by the Sea or River-water, by the Sun or the injury of Time.

Animals, the soundest and most vigorous, are to be made choice of; whether they are to be made use of whole, or in any of their parts. I will not here speak of their Conservation, which depends upon their Preparation, of which more in due place.

CHAP. XIII. Of Preparation.

ANimals, which God has subjected to the power of Man, have those advantages wherewith Men are altogether unprovided. For besides that as soon as they are born, they are in a condition without help to provide for themselves all things ne­cessary for their subsistance; as also for their own cures, when they are sick; that nou­rishment which is proper for them is always ready, needing nothing of Art to cook it. Neither boyling nor washing are in use among them, not being accustom'd to eat more, then for those Remedies for which Nature has design'd and prepar'd them her self. But Men have need of a thousand Preparations for their necessities. For not­withstanding those advantages which they enjoy in being advanc'd to a degree little below that of Angels, to have Reason and Understanding, and to know that all things were created for their use; yet are they not able to cure their Distempers, not so much as to nourish themselves, without the Preparation of Food and Physick. For how much labour and preparation is requir'd before Corn comes to maturity? How much more before it can be made into Bread? What toyles are requisite to the making of Wine, Vinegar, Beer and Cider? What pains to provide the very Food appointed for our nourishment? We must not wonder then if Medicaments so necessary for them, have need of Preparation, or that there is a necessity for Men to have recourse to Per­sons that understand how to know, prepare, and administer them according as occasion requires.

As to the extent of the matter of Medicament, it is easie to judge that the number of Preparations cannot but be very great. And so much the more, in regard the Chy­mical Pharmacy has very much augmented those, which the Galenists have for so long time together practis'd. Now in regard it is the design of this Work to comprehend both the one and the other Pharmacy, and that they have both need of the mutual assi­stance of each other, I thought it very much to the purpose to rank them both toge­ther, seeing they both aim at the same end, which is the Health of Mankind.

Preparation, is an Artificial labour whereby a Medicament is brought to that con­dition which the use of it requires.

Medicaments are prepar'd for several purposes; sometimes to augment their Ver­tue, sometimes to diminish it; sometimes to separate some evil quality, or correct its [Page 11] malignity; sometimes to unite them with some other; sometimes to alter their Nature, or communicate their Vertue; and sometimes to accommodate them to the habit and constitution of the Patient. Whence it comes to pass that the same Remedy prescrib'd to several Persons will require several Preparations, especially when it comes to be us'd.

The Preparation of a Medicament is accomplish'd after three general manners: by adding, abating, and changing the condition of the Medicin. Oyl is added to Wax to make it softer; a Medicament is infus'd in some Liquor, to the end it may commu­nicate its Vertue. Sugar or Honey are added to Powders, for the making of Com­positions. Sulphur is added to Nitre, Nitre to Antimony; Aqua-fortis to Mercury, &c. We take away the Kernels from Mirobalans, the Earthy Substance from Scammony, the moisture from Salts, the Pith from Roots, the white of red Roses, the yellow part of Saffron, &c. The alteration of Medicaments is perform'd several ways, as we shall shew by the examples of the following Compositions.

CHAP. XIV. Of Lotion, or Washing.

MEsues, and the most part of the Ancients, have compriz'd all Preparations under four that are principal; Lotion or Washing; Trituration, crumbling, or beat­ing in a Mortar; Infusion, and Coction or Boyling; of which they have set forth seve­ral sorts. The two first are of the smallest extent; but the two latter, which are of a larger extent, will furnish us with a great number of sorts: especially in the Chymical Pharmacy, the explanation whereof deserves to be better known.

Lotion is perform'd by plunging or washing a Medicament in water, or in any other Liquor. It is either slight and superficial, to wash away the dirt, as when we wash Roots and Herbs; or internal and penetrating, either to carry along with it the more subtle parts of the Medicament, as when we wash Litharge, Antimony Diapho­retic, &c. or to carry off some Salt or corrosive Spirit, as by the fore-mention'd wash­ing of Antimony, as also of Precipitates and Magisteries: Or to take away some ill qua­lity, as in the washing of Oyls, Suets and Turpentine, &c. or to imbibe into the Medi­cament some part of the Liquor wherein it is washt, as in Galen's Sear-cloth; or to communicate some good quality to it, as by the washing of Tutia in Rose-water, Wax to whiten or blanch it, Pomatums in Aromatick-waters to give them a good scent; or to separate some internal part, as when we wash Lapis Lazuli, having first made it red­hot in the Fire.

In Washing there is an operation made use of, which is call'd Sloping by inclination, when we pour the Water gently out that swims above the Substance. This is practi­s'd not onely in Lotions, but in Tinctures, and upon several other occasions.

Washing of Aloes is an improper term; it being only a Dissolution of the more pure parts of the Aloes, to separate them from the impure. There are several circum­stances to be observ'd in the Lotion of Medicaments, according to the diversity of their Substances, which will be more seasonably treated of in the practice of Lotions, which I will shew in the following part of this Work.

CHAP. XV. Of the Purgation of Medicaments.

TO purge or cleanse, among the Apothecaries, are terms synonymous, having both the same force of signification. And I therefore treat of the Purgation of Me­dicaments next to Lotion, because Purgation takes quite away those superfluities that Lotion cannot carry off. We take from Coloquintida its grains; from Dates, Prunes, Apricocks, Tamarins, and many other sorts of Fruits their stones; from Grapes the same; from the cold Seeds, and those of Carthamum or bastard Saffron, Citrons and many [Page 12] others, their husks; from the Roots of Eringo's, Fennel, Cichorie, Asparagus, and the like, we take out the pith, and other superfluities. From green Wall-nuts the rind, and from dry ones the shells, as also from Almonds and small Nuts; we take off the su­perfluities from the Roots of Mountain Spikenard, and Couch-Grass. We make no use but of the hairy threads of Spikenard; we use the flowry tops of some Herbs, and fling away the rest; we take away the membranes and fibers out of Castoreum, as also the un­ctuous part when it is to be swallow'd. We only make use of the oylie part when we use Castoreum for Oyls and Oyntments. We only take the Body, the Heart, the Liver of a Viper dry'd, to powder; and only the Fat, to make Emplastrum de ranis. Never­theless sometimes we use the Viper whole, when we stuff them and preserve them in Spirit of Wine. We throw away the wings and feet of Cantharides. We only use the reins of the Sea-Stinc's, and throw away all the rest. We take the tart juices of Gra­nates, Barberies and Citrons, to make Syrups; or to dissolve certain Minerals. We dry the rinds of Granates. We condite, dry, distil, and make Syrup of Citron-peel: the Seeds whereof serve also for many uses; as also that of Barberies, while we throw away the rest as useless: we cast away the wooden part or rind and the grains of Cassia; and separate the inward obscure part of Rhubarb; and the cups and rinds of Acorns, reserving them for other uses. We dispoil the grains of branch'd Amomum and Car­domums of their husks. We take away the bark and woodden part of Agaric, and the terrestrial parts of Scammony, Aloes, and several other thick Juices: as also the filth that is mix'd with several other Gums, which are comprehended under the name of Juices. We separate Gold from Silver by the Inquart; we purge and purifie both in a Coppel or Ashen-pot, and by several other ways. We take away the thick of Mercury, and separate the impurities of Metals, Half-metals and Metallics; as also of Salts and Sulphurs. In short, there are few things that serve either for Medicament or Nourish­ment, which have not some parts which are to be spar'd.

CHAP. XIV. Of Trituration, or Beating in a Morter.

TRituration denotes the division of a Medicament into very small parts. The first, which better agrees with its Name, is meant of Medicaments hard and dry; the second of Medicaments moist and soft. The one and the other are serviceable in seve­ral Preparations of both Pharmacies. They are serviceable also for divers purposes; the chief of which are, to reduce a Medicament into a condition to be united and mix'd with others; or to make it more convenient and proper to be taken inwardly, or out­wardly apply'd. Trituration of dry things is variously perform'd, according to the various nature of the Medicaments. For Woods must be saw'd, cut, bruis'd, and some­times rasp'd, and then be put into a brass Morter for Trituration. Horns, Hoofs, and Bones must be saw'd before they can be broken into small pieces; or else rasp'd, ei­ther to be so made use of, or else to be beaten to powder. Metals and Metallics must be fil'd for the most part, before they can be reduc'd into powder. But the Chymists use means much more proper to op'n and divide them into parts, without any compa­rison far more fine and subtle, then they can possibly be, which are divided by any way or means of Galenic Pharmacy. The Roots of Trees being of the same nature, must be reduc'd to powder by the same method.

The dry parts of Plants call'd Herbs, as roots, stalks, leaves, flowers, dry Fruits, Berries, Seeds, Excrescencies both of Herbs and Trees with their barks, may be bruis'd in a Morter, without any preceding Preparation, but onely of being cut and broken. The same thing may be done to the tender parts of Animals, being first dry'd; as the Flesh, the Blood, and the tender bones of little Animals, and some of the greater, as the bones of the hearts of Deer and Oxen. Nevertheless upon some occasions, and for some Substances, there must be recourse to Addition. As for Example; If you were to pound the Roots of Birth-wort, Gentian, or any such-like herbs that are of a clammy Substance, though they seem to be well dry'd, they will stick to the Morter and the Pestle, unless you mix them with Almonds, or some of the cold Seeds cleans'd, or some other oylie matter, proper to divide their parts, while you pound them, without which you shall never make them fit for your use. Shavings of Ivory and Hart's horn may be tri­turated [Page 13] or beaten in a Morter among Sugar-candy alone. Camphire cannot be pulve­ris'd alone, unless you add some few drops of the Spirit of Wine, when you beat it, or some of the cold Seeds cleans'd, or a drop of some oyl. The same cold Seeds are serviceable to divide the parts of clammy Substances; among the rest also, those of the dry, but not greasie parts of Animals. They help also to reduce into powder Amber­greese, all Bitumens, and all rosiny Juices dry'd, as Scammony, Benjamin, Balsom, and the like. The heat of the Brass-morter and the Pestle help to pulverise Gum-Tra­gacanth and Gum-Arabick, as also Venetian-Talk, which will however beat much better if it be expos'd a while before a flaming fire.

Many Minerals and many parts of animals cannot be reduc'd into fine powder, till they have been first burnt or calcin'd in the fire. Precious Stones, Bole-Armoniac, Earths, Amber, the Adamant, and some parts of Animals may be reduc'd into a powder scarce to be felt, which is call'd Alkohol, being bray'd upon Porphyrie, adding thereto so much Cordial-water as will bind the powder together, and keep it from wasting in beating. When they are beaten very fine, spread them upon clean Paper, and dry them in the Sun: And this is that which the Galenic Pharmacy calls Preparing. Medicaments of a solid substance, as wood, and several compacted and fibrous parts of Plants and A­nimals, must be soundly pounded in a great Iron or Brass-morter: But those Medica­ments whose parts are thin and without fibers; require only a gentle bruising to reduce them to powder; as Aloes, Agaric, Myrrh, Amydon or dry'd flower of Wheat, Mastick, Scammony, and many others. In short, when several Medicaments are to be reduc'd to powder, which are appointed for one composition, the nature of their substance is to be regarded, and those things are to be bruis'd or beaten by themselves which ei­ther ought or may be so conveniently; and beat together those that will endure it. Thus you must first begin to powder those whose substance is most compact and solid, and then add the rest in order according to their hardness. Which I shall particularly de­monstrate how to do, when I come to speak of the particular Preparations of powders, which are to be mix'd in Compositions.

The second sort of Trituration, which is only of humid matters, is ordinarily per­form'd in a Marble or Porphyry-morter, or else of some other hard Stone, with a wood'n, glass, or Ivory-Pestle; though for some things they may be beaten in an Iron or Brass-morter. This sort of Trituration is sometimes us'd for dry Substances that will endure beating, but chiefly for moist and oylie Medicaments and Nourishments; such are Roots, Herbs, Flowers, green Fruit or newly gather'd, watry Berries, oylie Seeds and Fruits; and all the soft parts of Animals; of all which things are prepar'd some­times Conserves, sometimes Cataplasms, Poultisses and Pomatums: Sometimes they are bruis'd for Decoction, Infusion or distillation; to extract the Juice, to press out the Oyl, to extract Emulsions, to make Pastes, to be taken inwardly, or apply'd out­wardly; to make Lozenges, Trochisses, or other Medicines.

CHAP. XVII. Of Cribration, or Sifting.

CRibration, is a separation of the more fine and subtle parts of Medicaments as well dry as moist, or oylie, from the grosser. It is perform'd through Instruments pro­per for that purpose call'd Bolters or Sieves, which are compos'd of two wood'n circles, as it were, enchas'd the one within another, in the middle of which is nail'd and strain'd a hair-cloth, or a piece of silk if it be a Sieve, or a piece of Parchment with holes at an equal distance, if it be a Bolter. Sieves of single hair-cloth, such as we have describ'd, are serviceable not only to sift gross powders, but also the pulps of vi­scous and oylie Medicaments, after they have been beaten and re-beaten in the Morter. These Sieves serve also to sift Ceruss, rubbing it first upon the extended cloth, which must be of hair, and receiving the powder upon a sheet of white Paper. Bolters serve only to sift the grosser sort of Airy-substances.

There are also certain sort of Sieves, which are call'd Covers, for the sifting of Pow­ders Aromatick, Cephalick, Cordial, Digestive, Laxative, and other more precious sorts of Powder, or any that ought so to be finely pulveriz'd. These Cover'd-sieves are compos'd of three distinct parts, imbox'd or inserted together, every one of which is [Page 14] compos'd of three wood'n-circles, the middle-most receiving the upper-most and lower-most like a Box-lid. The middle-most is that wherein the linnen-cloth or silk is fix'd, through which the Powders are to pass. That part is fix'd in the lower part, which is made to receive the Powder in a skin, which serves for the bottom of it. It is also cover'd with the upper part, which embraces it like the Lid of a Box; and being cover'd as the under-most with another skin, hinders the Powders from wasting, while they are sifted.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Infusion.

THE word Infusion comprehends a great many Galenical and Chymical Preparations, which shall be explain'd hereafter. Infusion, generally taken, is a Preparation by which entire Medicaments or their parts, being cut or bruis'd, are steep'd and infus'd in some agreeable Liquor. Sometimes it is done with fire, sometimes without it, ac­cording to the thinness or solidity of the Substances which you infuse. Which also ser­ves for a Rule, as to the length or shortness of time necessary for Infusion. The vari­ety of Medicaments and the various intentions of the Physicians, oblige the Apotheca­ries to use various Liquors for Infusion; as Common-water, Rain-water, Snow-water; Sea, Mineral, Rose-water; Wine, Verjuice, Hydromel, Must, Vinegar, Beer, Milk, Whey, several Juices of Plants, Oyls, Broth, Distill'd-waters, Spirit of Wine, &c. Infusion is made to impart the vertue of one or more Medicaments to the Liquors wherein they are infus'd. Sometimes it is also made to correct the evil quality of the Medica­ment, or else to augment its vertue, as also to unite in the same Liquors the different vertues of several Medicaments, infus'd together for some particular purpose. Infu­sion is also made to separate some particular Vertue of one Medicament, from the rest which it may also have. As when by a quick Infusion we separate the pur­gative quality of Rhubarb and Mirobalans, to the end they may be purely astringent. Infusion of Senna in Fountain-water, may serve as an Example of simple Infusion, which may be done either with fire or without fire, and to manifest the communication of its vertue to the Water. The Infusion of Spurge in Vinegar to take away its purgative quality, may serve as an Example of correction. The Infusion of Rhubarb or Senna in the Juice of pale Roses, may serve as an Example of the augmentation of their vertues. The Infusion of several Medicaments differing in vertues, as must be done to make Con­fectio Hamech, may serve as an Example of the union of their vertues in the Liquor. Of all which things you shall meet with a number of Examples in the continuance of this Pharmacopoea.

CHAP. XIX. Of Humectation and Immersion.

HƲmectation or Moistning, is us'd at the beginning of Infusion, but more often pra­ctis'd for other uses. We moist'n a Medicament, to soft'n it when it is too dry, as when we moist'n Mountain French-Spikenard, or lay it in some moist place, that it may be more fit to be made clean: or as when we moist'n Tamarinds and Cassia, the bet­ter to extract the Pulp. We also moist'n certain dry Medicaments to hinder them from exhaling, while they are beat'n in the Morter, as Agaric, Saunders, Coloquinth, &c. as also to colour them; as we do by the same Saunders. We moist'n others while we bray them upon Porphyrie, to hinder the dissipation of their more subtle parts, as Coral, Pearls, and Precious Stones. We moist'n other Medicaments, to qualifie their acri­monie or their sharpness, as when we moist'n Coloquinth and Mirobalans with some drops of Oyl of sweet Almonds. We also moist'n others to assist the penetration of their vertue, as when we moist'n Senna or Rhubarb with some drops of juice of Lemmons; or as when we moist'n Stomachical, Cordial or Cephalick Medicines, with Oyl of [Page 15] Gilly-flowers, Cinnamon, Lavender, or the like. Others we moist'n to communicate to them some good quality, as when we moist'n a Medicament with some Distill'd-waters, or with some proper Decoction; or as when we cause it to receive the steam and va­pour thereof. Irroration, Inspersion and Imbibition are almost the same things with Humectation.

Immersion follows Humectation, and is either for a small time, with an intent to separate some superfluity from the Medicament, as when we soak Almonds in hot wa­ter to peel off their skins: and sometimes to take away some of their vertue; as when we steep Rhubarb a little in some Liquor to abate its purgative vertue. Or else for a longer time, to take away some evil taste from the Medicament, as when we steep green Wall-nuts in water and in several changes of water, to take away their bitterness. Or as when we steep Olives for a long time in pickle for the same purpose. Or as when we steep Quick-lime in water, to make Lime-water. Or as-when we steep the peels of Citron and of many other Fruits, to hard'n them, render them transparent; and in a better condition to be condited.

CHAP. XX. Of Nutrition.

NƲtrition is usually done by the help of Liquors: It comes something near the na­ture of Humectation. It is so call'd, because it encreases the Medicament, and furnishes it with a kind of nutriture. It is perform'd two ways; either by mixing or uniting several Medicaments into one; as when we mingle by little and little and at several repetitions, Vinegar, Oyl and Litharge, and stir them a long time together in a Morter, to make the nourish'd substance of all together: or as when we do the same thing with Saccharum Saturni, Oyl and Vinegar, or else with the tincture of Saturn drawn with Vinegar mingl'd with Oyl, to make the Liniment of Saturn. The next way is by add­ing a Juice, a Water, or a Decoction to some Medicament, to nourish and augment it, or to give it some vertue; as when we add the juice of Roses or Cichory, or some hepatic or purgative decoction to Aloes to nourish it; and afterwards over a gentle fire evaporate the superfluous moisture of the same Juices, till the Aloes becomes suffi­ciently nourish'd and charg'd. As also when we nourish Sarcocol with Woman's Milk; or else as when for the Preparation of the Sperniola, which Crollius so much commends, we feed Myrrh, Olibanum, Saffron and Camphire in powder with the Distill'd­water of the Spawn of Frogs, which is afterwards reduc'd into a kind of paste, and laid to dry of it self; repeating the same Nutriment and the same drying twenty or thirty times.

CHAP. XXI. Of Dissolution; Where occasion is taken to speak of Chymical Solution.

DIssolution, in Galenic Pharmacy, succeeds Humectation. It serves to render com­pact and thick Substances liquid or flowing, by the addition of some Liquor. Upon occasion we dissolve Electuaries, Opiates, Confections, Powders, Extracts, Salts, Syrups, and many other Preparations to render them potable. We also dis­solve Manna, Sugar, Honey, several Gums, Tears, Rosins, in proper Liquors. We dissolve Wax and divers Emplasters in Oyls to make them soft. We dissolve Gold in Aqua-regalis, or in the Spirit of Salt: Silver, Copper, Mercury in Aqua-fortis; Pearls, Corals, Crabs Eyes, and such-like Substances, in distill'd Vinegar, Spirit of Nitre, or some such acid Juice. Mars or Iron is dissolv'd in Water by the help of Tartar, as also in Aqua-fortis and corrosive Spirits. The rosinie part of Scammonie; Jalap, Agaric and Turbith, &c. Amber-greese, Amber, Gum-lack, are dissolv'd in Spirit of Wine. Gum-Saundarach in the true Oyl of Asps distill'd. In short, several other Medicaments [Page 16] may be dissolv'd in Liquors which have some correspondency with their substance.

Solution, in Chymical Pharmacy, is the division and dissolution of all the substances that compose a mixt Body. It is the foundaation of all Chymistrie, and the encourage­ment to a great number of noble Preparations which that Art puts in practice. Un­der Dissolution, you may compute several other Preparations, which may more aptly be plac'd under the title of Coction.

CHAP. XXII. Of Making hot, or Calefaction.

CAlefaction, is the beginning of all operations which are perfected by the means of heat. It differs from Coction in this, That what-ever is boyl'd has been well heated, but what-ever is warm'd has not been boyl'd. Nevertheless sometimes we are put to heat again those things which have been boyl'd. We warm Infusions, Tinctures, Decoctions, when they are cold, to the end they may be the better strain'd. We heat, Baths and Half-baths, when we have occasion for them. We warm Oyls, Oyntments, Fomentations, Epithems, Cataplasms, and Emplasters when we apply them. We warm Powder'd-Nutmegs, Line-seed, Annise-seed, and many other such Seeds, when we go about to press out the Oyl. We heat water luke-warm to provoke vomiting. We warm Iron and Brass-morters and Pestles, sometimes to melt certain Gums, as Taccamahacca, Mastic, Ammoniac, Galbanum, and the like: sometimes to pulverize others, as Tragacanth and Arabick; sometimes to pulverize Minerals, as Talk: or to dissipate the superfluous moisture of some Medicaments, and to make them fit to be pulveriz'd, as Saffron, Tabac, &c. or else to consume some adventitious moisture of Medicaments compos'd, and to restore them their consistencie and dryness; as in Extracts, Salts, and many other Preparations. We warm infus'd Dates, Cassia, and Tamarinds, the better to draw out the pulp; we warm Broth to dissolve Mama, though it may be also dissolv'd in cold Liquors. We heat the Vessel of Iron in the form of a horn, when we pour the Antimony in Fusion to separate it from the Regulus or Tinnie­dross. We heat our earth'n or glass-Vessels for fear they should break, when we pour scalding Liquors into them. We heat the neck of the Limbeck, especially in Winter, which contains the Antimony and the Sublimate, in the distillation of Oyl of Antimo­ny, to melt it when it is congeal'd there, and to make it drop into the Receiver. We heat Wax, Rosin, Suet and Tallows to melt them. We heat Sea-onions, Purslane, Burrage and Bugloss, and many other Plants, to extract the Juice.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Insolation, or Exposing to the Sun: And of the heat of Dung.

INsolation is the warming of Substances by exposing them to the heat of the Sun. We usually make use of it for the macerating of liquid Conserves, for the macerating of Flowers, or Herbs to be put into Oyls or Fats; for Tinctures, Balsoms, to dry the parts of Plants or Animals, which we intend to preserve or use; to dry Salts; to evaporate Extracts, Juices and Liquors, or to purifie them; to make Wine eager; to assist the Fermentation of Hydromel; to separate the black rind of Pepper, as they do in the Indies, when they have water'd the ground with salt-water to make the Pepper white: to dry Figs, Peaches, Prunes, and many other Fruits, in hot Countries. It is also serviceable for many other uses.

Horse-Dung being half putrify'd and well pil'd up, affords a heat more or less, ac­cording to its quantity, and according as the Substances are either deeper or shallower buried. For the heat may be greater then the hand of a Man shall be able to endure. There is no heat which can be better regulated, or be brought to that equality, as that of Dung, or which approaches nearer to the Natural heat. It is proper to digest li­quid matters, or to advance the Fermentation of those which have a natural disposi­tion [Page 17] to it. Thereby may be made a circulation of divers Substances; thereby may Tin­ctures be drawn forth, Eggs may be hatch'd, and several Distillations made.

CHAP. XXIV. Of Coction and Maturation.

THE Ancients and also the Moderns have defin'd Coction to be an alteration of a thing which ought to be boyl'd. Nevertheless I do not find this definition to be very exact, if it be not tak'n in a very general sense, which agrees indifferently with all sorts of Alterations. Since the Alteration may be observ'd in all Preparations which are made with and without Coction, and that moreover the diversity of those which are made with Coction is so great, that it is a hard thing to find a definition precise e­nough to agree with all in particular. So that without troubling my self to define it more exactly, I believe it will be enough for me to say, in dividing it, That there are several sorts of Coctions, and several degrees of every sort, according to the various Substances of the Medicaments, and the various Intentions of him that prepares them. The Ancients have set down some sorts of Coction, and among the rest Maturation, Elixation, Frying, Assation, Torrefaction, and Ustion. But in regard that besides all these, there are a great number of others which are to be known and practis'd, espe­cially in Chymical Pharmacy, I thought it requisite to discourse of every one in particu­lar, as shall be seen hereafter.

Maturation is a kind of Coction, sometimes dry and sometimes moist. For we may roast either before the fire or upon the hot Cinders green Fruits, in some measure to perfect their maturity, and make them fit to be eat'n. They may be also bak'd in an Oven, or boyl'd upon the fire in Water, in Must, in Honey, in any Juice, or in any other Liquor. There are also some Fruits, which having been gather'd green, rip'n in keeping; as Medlars, which are for that reason spread upon straw.

CHAP. XXV. Of Fermentation.

FErmentation ought to be accounted a kind of Coction, being a certain Ebullition which arises from the confus'd mixture of two Substances▪ in appearance contrary in their action; which the Chymists call Acid and Alcali. This is an Operation some­times natural, and sometimes artificial, which happens to liquid or at least to moist Substances, either by the help of some external heat, or natural heat which is rous'd in the matter it self, by the conflict of Substances which ought to be fermented, and which thereby detect an Acid; which though but small in quantity at first, becomes however powerful enough to agitate the volatile parts of the whole matter, to unite with them, and dispose them to disingage themselves from the Terrestrial and gross parts that incumber them, and to reject and throw off the one part in scum by Ebullition, and the other in Sediment by a kind of precipitation, when the matter is liquid. It becomes also sufficiently prevalent to put them into a condition of being preserv'd for some time without those Terrestreities or earthie parts; or else to be made more pure by the means of distillation, which separates and raises the Spirits above the heavy and unprofitable Flegm, which incumber'd them before; and to become at length per­fectly pure by rectification.

We have not any subject that more apparently clears this Operation then the Juice of the Grape: which deserves to be consider'd, in regard of the several changes that happ'n to it through Fermentation. Experience teaches us that it is impossible to se­parate its pure and volatile parts if they have not endur'd Fermentation. Which may be observ'd in Burnt-wine. For if we take the Juice of Grapes, and let it boyl in a Kettle to the consumption of the third part, which is the usual Rule, there will arise nothing but the insipid and unprofitable Flegm. And though in the boyling it be se­parated [Page 18] from its earthiness, partly in the scum, partly in the terrestrial matter that sticks to the sides and bottom of the Kettle like Lees, the subtle and volatile parts keep still united with the fix'd and tartareous Salt of the same Juice, and the remainder of the Flegm; nor can they be separated but by Fermentation, which afterwards happ'ns of it self, without the concurrence of any external heat; if you put the same Juice in some mea­sure clarify'd, into a proportionable Vessel, as you would do ordinary new Wine, and leave it standing six weeks or two months. For in that time the Acid, that lay hid in the proper Substance of the Juice, assisted by the nitrons parts of the Air which it has insensibly attracted, cuts and separates the thick parts of the Burnt-wine from the pure, throwing off the first by the Ebullition which it raises, partly in froth through the bung­hole of the Vessel, and partly to the sides and bottom; and uniting it self to the latter, by vertue of a particular inclination, not being able however to separate the Flegm which remains, and which will very hardly forsake it. When the Burnt-wine has thus en­dur'd Fermentation, and that it is well purg'd, if it be put into a Vessel to still, it fails not to send its Spirit first, and in greater abundance then the same quantity of ordi­nary Wine would do, which appears to have that third part of Flegm which the Burnt­wine had lost in burning. And if you continue the Distillation, after the Spirit is a­scended, the Flegm which remain'd in the Burnt-wine shall rise also like that of ordi­nary Wine when distill'd in the same manner.

This ordinary Wine is more easie to prepare then Burnt-wine; for it requires no external fire, but only that which is excited by the parts of which it is compos'd, which raise the Fermentation in it; which usually begins in the Tub, where the Juice re­mains mingl'd with the grounds and squeezings of the Skins for some days, and ends afterwards in the Vessels, when the settlings are sunk to the bottom of the Juice. There may be also a Fermentation of the Juice of Grapes in the Vessel, though the grounds be not mingl'd with the Juice; as they never do that put up white and pale Wines. Upon which subject give me leave to speak my thoughts, which are these, That Wine being compos'd of a Sulphurie and Acid Tartareous Substance, mix'd with some Flegm, some­what of fix'd Salt, and some earthy parts, is expos'd to several changes, caus'd by the disuniting of its Substances, or by the predominancy of the one above the other. Whence it comes to pass that much Rain before or during Vintage-time, makes the Wines to abound in Flegm, and consequently subject to corrupt. Wine is also sub­ject to corruption and to become fat and oylie, when the volatile Sulphur surpasses the Tartarous Acid. Which is clearly demonstrated in this, that if you put some Pints of good Verjuice into a Cask of Wine ready to turn greasie, and in some measure already become fat, and mingle them together, the Wine will come again to it self. We may observe also that green Wines, that is to say, those Wines which abound in Acid, are not so subject to corrupt, as those which want that Acid: and we find that this Acid at the latter end of the year turns to Strength.

On the other side we may well judge that the corruption which happ'ns to Wine through the want of the Acid, does not extinguish the volatile sulphurous part of the Wine, seeing that those Wines afford almost as much combustible Spirit as those which are not spoil'd.

I am of opinion also that the true and natural alteration of Wine into Vinegar pro­ceeds from no other cause, but only for that the Acid is increas'd and exceeds the vo­latile; or else because the volatile Spirits being exhal'd, the Acid manifests it self more openly, and more sensibly fixes its impression upon the tongue and the palate. Which happ'ns to those Wines which naturally abound in Tartar and by consequence in Acid, as do those of Languedoc, especially when they leave their Casks open, and that the Wines can attract the nitrous parts of the air, to encrease those Acids that make up one part of their Composition.

There is another natural Fermentation which happ'ns to Substances mix'd of Acids and Volatiles, which are of a soft, but not liquid consistency: which comes to pass by the conjunction of the Acids with the Alkali's. As we observe in Treacle and in seve­ral other Compositions; upon which I will not enlarge, for fear of making the Chapter tedious.

Artificial Fermentation is done by adding Acids to the Substances which you would have fermented. As when we put Leven to Dough, or Yest to certain Plants or bruis'd Berries in luke-warm Water, to hast'n the Fermentation, and afterwards to draw forth the Spirits and Volatil-oyls: as in the Fermentation of Cresses, Scurvy-grass, the lesser Centaurie, Juniper-Berries, and of many other parts of Plants. As for the levening of Bread, that Fermentation cannot actually separate the terrestrial parts into [Page 19] froth, or precipitate them to the bottom, as in liquid Substances, for it only op'ns and dilates the Substances; more strictly uniting the acid with the volatile, so that they may be in a condition to receive their last Fermentation in the Stomach, and to the end they may be so well subtiliz'd, that they may with more ease be convey'd to all the parts of the Body for nourishment, leaving the gross and terrestrial parts to be thrown off as real excrements.

CHAP. XXVI. Of Digestion, and Maceration.

DIgestion and Maceration are almost the same thing. They require a long time and a moderate heat for their operation. Scorpions are digested or macerated whole in Oyl of bitter Almonds, to the end that by a little and a little they may communi­cate their vertue to them. New Roses bray'd with an addition of Salt are put into a Vessel exactly stopt, and being left for some months to macerate in a Cellar, there is then an odoriferous Water, Spirit and Oyl drawn from them. The same Roses are a long time laid to macerate, sometimes in Oyl, and sometimes in Hogs-grease, for the making of Oyl, and Ʋnguentum Rosatum. Slic'd Dates are oft'n digested in Hydromel, and the pulp drawn forth to make Electuarium Diaph [...]nicon. The heads of Poppies are oft'n digested in Water to make them soft, a little before their decoction for Syrup. Lead slightly calcin'd, Minium, Ceruse and Litharge are digested in distill'd Vinegar, there to be dissolv'd by little and little, either to preserve the dissolution, or to make a Magisterie, or else that which they call improperly Salt of Saturn. Pearls and Corals are also digested in the same Vinegar distill'd, in the Spirit of Nitte or in acid Juices, to dissolve them sometimes for the making of Syrups, sometimes Magisteries, sometimes Salts, though improperly so call'd, in regard they are no more then the Salts of Vinegar distill'd. The filings of Steel are laid to digest in Spirit of Vitriol, to make Vitriol of Mars. The Spirit of Wine and the Spirit of Vitriol being mingl'd to­gether by equal weight, are put to digest in an Iron-Skellet, there to be incorporated and reduc'd to a whitish Substance, which is call'd Salt of Mars. Jalap, Scammony, A­garic, &c. are laid to digest in Spirit of Wine, there to dissolve the rosinie part, and to separate the terrestrial. Opium is laid to digest first in Water, there to dissolve the watry part, and then in Spirit of Wine, there to dissolve the rosinie part which can­not be dissolv'd in water. Several other Substances are also digested in divers other Liquors; the enumeration of which would tire the Reader.

CHAP. XXVII. Of Tincture, and Circulation.

TIncture usually calls Digestion to its assistance. It is made use of to the same pur­pose as Infusion, and chiefly to impart to some Liquor the Vertue or the princi­pal Substance of some Medicament. It is call'd Tincture, because the Liquor gene­rally becomes colour'd in the Operation. The pure and rosinie part of Benjamin is dissolv'd in Spirit of Wine, which gives it a light purple colour. Coloquinth cleans'd from its grains, cut and digested in Spirit of Wine, receives a yellow tincture, which Martin Rouland calls The gilded Spirit of Life. Aloes, Myrrh, and Saffron pulveriz'd and digested in Spirit of Wine, yield a swarthy-red tincture to make the Elixir pro­prietatis of Paracelsus. The Rose, the Violet, Rhubarb, Senna, Cassia, and many other Medicaments impart their tincture to watry Liquors, to which the addition of some Spirit or acid Juice, or some fix'd Salt, may very much conduce, as well to hight'n the colour of the Tincture, as to make them more strong of the vertue of those Substan­ces which are steep'd therein.

Circulation cannot operate without Digestion, no more then Tincture. It is u [...]d for Liquors impregnated with the Substance of Medicaments; or for those that have sub­stantial [Page 20] Medicaments seaking in them. It is done by putting the Liquors in a Vessel to circulate, being all of one plece and close stopt at the top: or else of two pieces, that is, of two Vessels fix'd one upon another, and well luted together▪ of, which the lower­most must contain the Liquor. The Circulation is made by a fire of Lamps, or a bed of cinders or sand moderately hot, or in Dung, or in the Sun. It requires most com­monly a continu'd heat for some days, and sometimes prolong'd to the number of weeks and months. By Circulation the most subtile matter ascends to the top of the Vessel, and not finding any out-let, is constrain'd to fall down again, and rejoyn with the Substance at the bottom of the Vessel, from whence it was rais'd. And thus continuing to ascend and descend in the Vessel, it makes a kind of Circulation, the Name whereof the Operation bears; and by the several penetrations and agitations of the Spirit full with the grosser parts, the first become more thin and in a better con­dition to act, when they are separated from the latter. This Operation is principally in use in Chymical Pharmacy. It wholly disposes the Liquors to the separation of their pure parts from the impure, ripening and perfecting their active principles, and ren­dring them fit to be made volatile, and to be united afterwards to other purify'd Sub­stances, if there be occasion.

CHAP. XXVIII. Of Cohobation.

COhobation is a repeated Sprinkling of the distill'd Liquor upon the Substance from whence it was drawn▪ to the end the said matter may be distill'd again. This Sprinkling is repeated seldomer or oftner, according to the diversity of Substances which are distill'd; and as the purpose of the Artist requires. It is us'd most fre­quently us'd to op'n and dissolve the parts of mixt Bodies, which you define to have di­still'd, to which the repeated Sprinkling of the Spirits already drawn forth very much conduces. This Operation may in some measure be thought to do the office of Cir­culation, by yielding at length a Liquor containing the most essential part of the mixt Body. Cohobation is chiefly us'd in the distillation of spiritful Aromatic-waters, and the distillation of their Oyls, to have them more pure and in greater quantity.

CHAP. XXIX. Of Elixation.

ELixation is the boyling of a Medicament in some Liquor different from it, accord­ing to the diversity of the Medicament, and the various intentions of the Artist. It is to endure a longer or lesser time, as the Medicaments are more or less solid. Generally Fountain or River-water is more us'd in Elixation: but sometimes Mineral­waters. Lyes▪ Rain-water, Dew, Snow and Sea-water may be us'd as well. Milk, Whey, Hydromel, Wine, Vinegar, Beer, divers Juices of Plants, Distill'd-waters, Oyls, Fats, as also the Urines of several Animals, are many times more properly ser­viceable.

The most usual intent of Elixation is to impart the vertue of the Medicaments to the Liquors: As many times it happ'ns in several Decoctions made for Apozemes, Potions, Clysters, Fomentations, Baths, &c. as also for Syrups, Electuaries, Oyls, Oyntments, &c. Sometimes it serves to take away the Crudity of the parts of Animals or Plants; to soft'n them; and not only to make the things boyl'd, but the Broth it self useful: as in the Elixation of Flesh, Roots, Herbs, and Fruits which we eat. It is useful also to take away from any Medicament or Aliment any ill taste, or ill quality, as from Colli-flowers and Champignons which are boyl'd in two Waters, the first of which is thrown away, and with it the hurtful Juice of the Colli-flowers and Mush­room▪ It also separates the earthy and gross parts of Medicaments: as in the Elixa­tion of Salts, Sugar, and Honey, to take off the scum. It serves also for the preser­vation [Page 21] of Medicaments, as Syrups, Honeys, and Robbes. Upon Elixation attend the following Operations.

CHAP. XXX. Of Ebullition, Despumation, Streining, and Filtration.

EBullition (which is a gentle seething to bubbling) is oft'n-times necessary at the end of Infusions; almost at all times in Elixations, and many times in Purifications. We boyl Decoctions of the parts of Plants and Animals, Syrups, Unguents, Electuaries, and an infinite sort of other Compositions; some more, some less.

Despumation, is practis'd in several Elixations, especially in that of Victuals, Sugàrs and Honeys. However Boyling or Ebullition always precedes▪ which separates and raises above the Liquor the gross, terrestrial and viscous superfluities like a froth.

Colature or Straining, is usually next in order to Ebullition and Despumation. But it may be done upon other occasions and at other times, like Filtration. They are both useful in each Pharmacy, in the preparation of an infinite sort of liquid matters, the dregs whereof are dispos'd to be separated, either by Rest, Digestion, Circulation, Fer­mentation or otherwise. It is useful also in the separation of filth and other impuri­ties, which are apt to be mix'd with the Liquors. It is also useful to separate the moi­sture of several Substances design'd to be dry'd. It also separates the watrie from the oylie Substances.

Liquors are strain'd through hair, through linnen, through woollen, sometimes through a loose cloth, and sometimes through [...] [...]g which we ca [...] Hippocrates Breeches. Liquors are filter'd variously: for sometimes we make use of Cotton-weeks, or Flax, or else of little pieces of white cloth as long as a Man's hand, and two or three fingers broad, which must be first wet in ordinary Water; then having wrung the moisture out, and leaning the Vessel that contains the Liquor upon one side, you must put in a third part of the length of your cloth into the Liquor you intend to filter, the other part hanging over the Vessel, so that the clearer part of the Liquor falls into another Ves­sel, which is plac'd below the former to receive the Liquor, if it be of any consequence. For by this means the Liquor distils through the cotton or cloth, and rids the Sub­stances of the greatest part of their moisture, if it be superfluous; or else the oyls that swim at the top are separated from the moisture that bears them, provided you take care from time to time to stoop the Vessel as it empties. This Filtration is oft'n made use of, for the separation of Waters us'd in the lotion of Minerals. Several Li­quors are also filter'd through a sheet of brown Paper, extended upon some clean lin­nen, or else made up like a horn, and put into a glass or white Iron-Tunnel. Some­times also Liquors are filter'd through a heap of beat'n-glass, plac'd below a glass-Tunnel. And thus Spirits of Vitriol, Nitre, Salts, Sulphur, &c. are filter'd, when they are charg'd with any earthiness, which sometimes mixes with them in luting and unluting the Vessels. This fort of Filtration is absolutely necessary for these corrosive Spirits: for they eat and penetrate paper, cloth, or cotton too soon. Filtration through brown Paper in a glass-Tunnel, is us'd for watrie Substances to separate them from the oylie, which not being able to pass through the Paper, remain in the filter, and are drawn forth and separated by putting the bottom of the Tunnel in the neck of some proper Bottle, and piercing the end of the Paper with a silver or steel Bodkin, or else with a Scewer. And these are the most usual ways of filtring and straining.

CHAP. XXXI. Of Clarifying, and Pressing forth.

CLarification happ'ns of it self oft-times to some Liquors; only by standing-still, especially after Digestion, Circulation, and Fermentation: But the most com­mon and quickest way of Clarification, especially in Galenic Pharmacy, is made by Ebulli­tion, [Page 22] Despumation, Streining or Filtration. Sometimes the whites of Eggs are also made use of; and then they are stirr'd and beat'n among the liquid matters, which are to be clarify'd, before you make them boyl; especially among Sugar, Honey, and Gellies. To which we add white Wine to clarifie them well. Sometimes we pour a little Vinegar, juice of Lemmons, Barberies, Verjuice, or some drops of Spirit of Vi­triol, or Sulphur; or else Creme of Tartar, Mineral-Chrystal, or Nitre purify'd, to make a kind of Precipitation, or at least a Separation of the gross matters from the pure liquids, and so to dispose of the first as to remain in the Filter.

Expression or Pressing forth sometimes precedes Clarification, especially in Decoctions, when they are to be separated from their grounds. There is a greater or lesser strength to be us'd▪ according to the intrinsecal worth of the Medicament, and the Nature of the Substances either thick or thin. The Expression of the Decoction of the parts of Plants in any Liquor, is generally the most easie and slightest of all, unless you meet with Laxatives or Aromatics whose vertue is very considerable. The Pressing of Plants for the Juice, must be stronger; and some Plants, especially those that are of a viscous nature, ought to be heated before. The same method is to be observ'd very near in the pressing of watry Fruits: the expression of infus'd Oyls, Unguents and watry Gums must be with an indifferent strength. The expression of oylie Fruits and Seeds, as Almonds, com­mon Wall-nuts, Filberds, Nutmegs, Benne, the great cold Seeds, those of Annise, Pop­pies, &c. requires an extraordinary strength.

CHAP. XXXII. Of Aromatization, and Colouring.

ARomatization and Colouring oft'n meet with Filtration and Clarification. They are also us'd in several other Preparations. Aromatization is useful as well to augment the vertue of the Medicaments, as also to render them more pleasing to the scent and taste. We mix in Powders Substantial-Aromatics, as Mace, Cinnamon, Cloves, Saffron, Musk, Ambergreese, and several others. They are also mix'd in Opiates, in Electuaries, Confections, Pills, Trochiskes▪ as also in Oyntments, and Em­plasters. They are also mix'd in Infusions, Tinctures, Elixirs; as also in Decoctions and Syrups. But this must be understood by the way, That the principal parts of Aro­matics, being thin and volatile, cannot long endure the fire without dissipating those parts. So that they are not to be mix'd till last of all; and great care must be tak'n to cover the Vessels at the same time, to prevent the dissipation. To which the An­cients having a great regard, were accustom'd to put their Cordial Aromatic Powders into a Cullender or Wooll'n-bag, through which they strein'd their Apozems or De­coctions, when they intended to aromatize them: being of that opinion, That the heat of the Decoction was sufficient to attract and retain the vertue as it pass'd through, and that there was no need of a stronger heat. But now we have ways more proper and convenient to aromatize all sorts of Remedies, in regard we can put into them the Oyls of several Aromatics, which Chymistrie teaches us to distil, and which contain the true sulphurie, aromatic and essential part of the Substance. These Oyls incor­porated in drops with forty or fifty times the weight of fine powder'd Sugar, are in a condition to be united and effectually mix'd in all sorts of Liquors and Medicines, and to render them more atomatical, pleasing, and of greater strength, then the Sub­stance of Aromatics us'd as the Ancients were wont to do, according to the Precepts of Galenic Pharmacy.

The Colouring of Medicaments is Natural or Artificial. The Natural is two-fold. For either it is such as Nature produces, as White in Snow or Milk, Red in Blood, Yellow in Gold, Sad colour in Lead or Antimony, &c. or such as length of time, or some other accident alters; as the whiteness of the Hair through Age, Paleness of the Face through Sickness. Artificial happens either through Fermentation, as to divers Juices; or by Digestion, as to Tinctures of Tartar and Coral; or by Agitation, as in the white colours of Pomatums, or Galen's Sear-cloth; or by the mixture of different Sub­stances: of which some may change or height'n the colour of the Medicament by its a­cidity, as divers Spirits do; others dye with their own colour, as red Sanders, Dra­gon's blood, Indigo, Verdigreece, Cochenille, Saffron, and many other things. Or [Page 23] by Washing and exposing to the Sun, and the Air: as the white colour of Wax, Oyl of Eggs, and several other things. Or by Coction, or Calcination, as it happ'ns to Mercury, Lead and Antimony. In short, the change of colour may happ'n to Medi­caments a thousand ways, fore-seen, and not fore-seen, which it would be too tedious to relate.

CHAP. XXXIII. Of Frying, Assation or Roasting, Torrefaction.

FRixion or Frying, is usually done in a Frying-pan, with the addition of some Li­quors, especially Oyl or Suet. It is done with less Liquor then ordinary boyling, and upon a quick fire for Meat; but with very little liquor and over a moderate fire for Medicaments, to prevent dissipation of their good parts. Eggs are first boyl'd in Water, and when they are hard, the yolkes are tak'n out, and fry'd over a mode­rate fire, till their oyl begins to appear in the Frying pan; then pour upon them a little Spirit of Wine, and immediately put them into a coarse Linnen-bag, and press them strongly to get out the Oyl. Mirobalans in powder must be gently fry'd, pour­ing upon them a little Oyl of sweet Almonds to temper their asperity.

Assation, is the Coction of Food or Medicaments in their proper juice, without the addition of any moisture or basting extraordinary. Thus Meat is roasted upon a Spit, or upon a Grid▪ iron. We roast Water-nuts, or Saligots, Chest-nuts, Apples, Pears, and many other Fruits and Roots in their own juice, either upon the coals before the fire, or otherwise. We bake in the Oven Squills, Onions, red Pars [...]ips, and seve­ral other Roots and Fruits without the addition of any moisture. We also bake Meat in the Oven, and dry the parts of Animals as the Blood, the Secondine, &c. and some Animals whole, as Moles, &c. We roast Coffee upon a Spit, in a Tin-box; all which several wayes may pass under the Name of Assation.

Torrefaction is an abatement of Assation; it is us'd in dry Medicaments that abound in strength. It is chiefly us'd for Rhubarb and Mirobalans beat'n to pow­der, and spread upon a silver-Plate or a thin piece of iron, set upon a Chaffing-dish. They may be also torrefy'd over a moderate fire, stirring them oft'n with a Spatula or little slice, till the powder begins to look of a darkish colour; which is a sign that the purgative Faculty is quite gone, and that the astringent only remains.

CHAP. XXXIV. Of Ʋstion, Cineration, and Extinction.

UStion or Burning has its differences and degrees, according to the diversity of the Substance of the Medicaments, and the various purposes of the Artist. The An­cients made use of this Preparation for Animals, Plants and Minerals. They burnt the Horns, the Hoofs, the Bones, the Flesh, the Feathers, the Hair and all parts, not consi­dering, that what-ever Animals have of essential in all their Bodies, consists in their volatile salt and oyl, which by Ustion are dissipated and exhal'd. I desire the Reader to take the pains to view my Preparation of Vipers, and to examine the reasons which I have to condemn in that particular the proceedings of the Ancients, as also the burning of Harts-horn and Ivory; an errour which some to this day can hardly avoid commit­ting. Indeed we burn to good purpose several sorts of Wood, as well to warm us, as to dress our Victuals, and draw out their salts: We also burn several Plants and their parts to extract the salt: But neither the salt of the Wood nor of the Plants can be drawn out by bare Ustion, which only reduces them to coals; so that it is absolutely necessary to re­duce that coal into ashes, to draw forth the Salt. And this is call'd Cineration, which is done by a long and continu'd Ustion, especially of Wood or other parts of Plants. It being certain, that in the change which Ustion makes of Wood into coal, that the flegm, spirit and oyl of the Wood are totally dissipated, if the Wood be well burnt; and that the little moisture which is drawn forth by the distillations of ordinary coals, is only borrow­ed from the Earth, or from the Substances wherewith the Colliers extinguish their coals▪ [Page 24] and that the hurtful vapours which ascend from the coals while they burn, proceed from the nitrous and sulphurie parts, and from those other Substances of which they are compos'd. You may know the nitrous and sulphurie parts, which that moisture con­tains, by the precipitation which may be made thereof, if you throw Spirit of Vitriol upon it. We may also alledge, That the hurtful vapours that proceed from ordinary coals, proceed from something else besides its own proper Substance; seeing that the coals of a fire that go out of themselves in the op'n air, is not capable of doing any harm when it is lighted again; nor need we to wonder at it, in regard those coals con­tain nothing considerable, but the terrestrial and salt part which remains in the cin­ders, after the coal is consum'd. It is also observable, that after you have drawn through a Retort the spirit and oyl of Woods by a long-continu'd fire, and violent too at the end, you shall find in the Retort the Wood converted into coal, by distillation de­priv'd of all that flegm, spirit and oyl which it contain'd; and that though you keep a violent fire to the same coals in the Retort, provided with a Receiver very well luted, they will nevern turn to cinders, but preserve their shape of coals: Nor can they be reduc'd to cinders without the help of the Air, which assists the activity of the fire, dissi­pates that part of the coal, to which Vanhelmont gives the Name of Gas, makes the coal to lose its shape, and reduces it to cinders.

You shall find in the latter part of this Pharmacopoea, the way how to separate the Salt matter from the Terrestrial, which are the two Principles of which cinders are com­pos'd, and which remain in the Coal after the separation of the other Principles.

The strong Ustion of Minerals, ought to be refer'd to Calcination. Ustion in a lesser degree, which is not at all destructive, may in some measure be comprehended under it, though to speak properly, it onely ought to be call'd a Heating red-hot; as for Example we heat Tutia red-hot three times in the fire in a Crucible, and quench it as many times in Rose-water, to repress its acrimonie; we also heat red-hot in the fire a square piece of Steel, and quench it as often in water, to make it astringent.

Extinction or Quenching, is practis'd upon Minerals that have been heated red­hot in the fire, and are afterwards quench'd in certain Liquors. This Quenching or Extinction is made use of to abate their acrimonie, as I have said of Tutia; or to im­part their vertue to the Liquor wherein they are quench'd; as that of Steel to Water; of Bricks to Oyl, to make Philosophers Oyl: It serves also to make certain Minerals brittle, as when we quench red-hot Flints in Water. We call, but impro­perly, by the name of Extinction, that of Flowing Mercury, when we take away the fluidness thereof, by the assistance of Turpentine, or any other viscous matter. But this Extinction is not to be refer'd to those of which I have already spok'n, which must be preceded by Ignition or heating in the fire the Substances you intend to quench.

CHAP. XXXV. Of Calcination.

CAlcination is the turning of a Medicament into Lime, by the help of a violent fire; it is of great use in Chymical Pharmacy, and chiefly for Minerals, whose sub­stance is more solid than that of Plants and Animals. Calcination is divided into A­ctual and Potential: Actual Calcination is perform'd by the Fire; Potential by corrosive Spirits. Minerals require a less or bigger fire, according to the diversity of their sub­stances, and according to the various purposes of the Artist. Calcination of Lead into grey powder inclining to yellow, requires much less fire then other Calcinations of that Metal. The Calcination of Oyster-shells is much sooner done then that of Lime, which serves for building. There is less fire requir'd to calcine Antimony into a grey pow­der, then to calcine it into a white powder, which is call'd Ceruse of Antimony, or An­timony-diaphoretic; or then is requir'd to convert it into Saffron, Regulus, or Glass. The Actual Calcination of Minerals, is perform'd sometimes without addition, as the simple Calcination of Lead, Antimony and Steel, &c. sometimes by the addition of Sulphur, Nitre and Tartar, &c. The Potential Calcination of Metals, is also call'd Immersive. It is made by the means of corrosive Spirits, which penetrate and dis­solve them. So Gold is dissolv'd in Aqua-Regalis, or by Spirit of Salt well purg'd from its flegm. Silver, Copper, Mercury, Saturn, Mars, &c. by the Spirit of Nitre, or [Page 25] Aqua-fortis, or by other corroding Spirits; and so are all the rest. It is call'd Immer­sive, because the Minerals are steep'd in the corroding Liquors, to the end they may lie in soak there till they are calcin'd.

CHAP. XXXVI. Of Amalgamation, Fumigation, Cementation, Stratification.

AMalgamation, is a Potential Calcination, which is made of Gold and Silver, by the means of Quick-silver, which being mingl'd either with the one or the other of these Metals when it is melted, separates their parts, and for a time so effectually mixes it self with them, that the whole becomes an unctuous paste that may be extended up­on the hand. This paste being afterwards put into a Crucible and set upon the fire, loses its shape and consistency; for when the Mercury has forsak'n those perfect Me­tals by evaporation, they appear at the bottom of the Crucible, like Lime, much more fine then it could possibly have been made by any other Operation.

Fumigation, is also a Potential Calcination, by which the Mercurie put upon the fire in a Crucible, the mouth whereof must be somewhat streight, corrodes and reduces in­to Lime the thin plates, which hang over it to receive the vapour of the Mercury. Saturn in plates hung in that manner, so that it may receive the vapours of Vinegar set upon the fire, will be also corroded by that means, and the superficies thereof convert­ed into a white Lime, which is the true Ceruse. This Fumigation is call'd Evaporating­calcination▪ Fumigation made by the means of Sulphur kindl'd, is made use of to abate the purgative Faculty of Scammony, by the penetration of the acid of the same Sul­phur into all the parts of the Substance of the same Scammony, and by the change which it produces by the uniting it self to it. But this is no Calcinating-fumigation, like those of Mercury and Vinegar. I let alone those Fumigations which are rais'd from Aromatics, which are onely exhalations of the more odorific parts of those sorts of Substances, which never change the nature of those that receive them, no more then of their form, but only leave the scent of their odours behind them.

Cementation, is yet another sort of Calcination, whereby the imperfect Metals, which are mix'd with Gold and Silver, extended upon small and very thin Plates, are calcin'd and destroy'd, so that the perfect Metals become rid of them and absolute­ly pure. It is call'd Cementation, because of the Cement in powder, with which the thin Plates are strow'd all over, by means of the Stratification which is us'd in the Crucible, that is afterwards cover'd and luted extraordinary close; and then put in a Gradual wheel-fire for some hours, till the perfect metals are melted, which is the last period of Cementation.

Stratification, or the laying of things in rows or beds, is done by covering the bot­tom of the Crucible with a powder for Cementation, upon which are laid certain thin Plates of Gold or Silver, which must be cover'd again with the powder; then lay other thin Plates upon that powder, and then more powder upon those Plates, continuing so to do alternatively, and ending with the powder with which you began; then cover the Crucible and lute it exactly, and put it in the wheel-fire, as has been said already in Cementation. Stratification is also made use of upon several other occasions, where Cementation is not necessary.

CHAP. XXXVII. Of Fusion, Granulation, Projection, Detonation and Fulmination.

FƲsion belongs only to Metals, and Mineral Substances, which are put into a Cru­cible, and expos'd to a violent fire, till the Substance is melted. The Salts of Plants are also melted in the same fire to vitrifie them.

Granulation cannot be done without Fusion; and it is consequent to it. It is chiefly practis'd upon Gold or Silver melted together or separately. We softly pour these [Page 24] Metals into cold water when they are well melted, for then you find them in graines at the bottom of the Vessel. You may also lay some twigs of a Broom upon the top of the water, the better to divide the melted Metal, and to make the graines lesser: There are others that for the same purpose, will run them through Paper pierc'd full of holes with a Bodkin, and rubb'd with Orpiment.

Projection is made after the following manner. You must place a Crucible, or an Aludel upon a round of bak'd earth about two fingers thick, and sufficiently broad, which the Chymists call A Culotte, to set the Crucible or Aludel upon. This Round must be set with the bottom downwards upon the middle-grate of a Wind-furnace, kindling a Charcoal-fire round about the Round of bak'd earth, and the Crucible or Aludel. The Crucible being well fortify'd with its cover, and the Aludel with its stop­per. The fire must be continu'd till the Crucible or Vessel be red-hot; at what time you must throw into either an ounce of that Substance which you intend to project, making use for that purpose of a Ladle, or Iron or Copper Spatula with a long handle, able to contain as much as you are to throw in at a time, but not bigger then the cover of the Crucible or the Aludel. At the same time you must also cover the Crucible, or stop the Aludel; and when Detonation is pass'd, you may op'n them again, and throw in as much new matter as at the first time, then cover them again, and continue the same Projection till all the matter be projected, or that the Vessels are able to contain no more.

Detonation usually accompanies Projection. It is advanc'd by the Nitre, which is the most powerful agent in matters to be projected. It is also succeeded by Fusion, to which the force of the fire, and the activity of the Salt-Peter compel the Substances. The most familiar happ'ns in the Preparation of Diaphoretic-Antimony, made by Antimony and Salt-Peter: in that of Sul-Polychrestes, made of Nitre and Sulphur; and that of Flowers of Antimony, with the same Nitre. Projection ought to be made of a small quantity, and at several repetitions. For if you should put too much Substance at a time, the violent activity of the Nitre would break all the Vessels, or make the Substances run in the fire. Detonation raises the impure and volatile Sulphur from the matters, partly into the air, and partly immediatly above the more pure mass. The terrestreities are usually found mix'd with the volatile parts, of the impurities whereof they are the cause. But the principal internal Sulphur is found in the pure mass: which by reason of its weight, quits the impure parts, to descend to the bottom of the Vessel.

Fulmination, which is also call'd Fulguration, is much more violent then Detonation, especially that which is us'd to one particular Preparation of Gold. It is so call'd be­cause it acts like thunder, working its effects from top to bottom, according as the matter finds resistance at the top. Fulmination of Gold happens through the union of Aqua-regalis with it in dissolving it, as also of the Salts of the Tartar, united with it when the Gold was precipitated into Lime. Whence it comes to pass, that this Lime of Gold precipitated, retains still some particles of the Salts, especially of the Ammo­niac contain'd in the Aqua-regalis, to produce Fulmination upon the least heat that should happ'n to the Lime of Gold. And this Fulmination is no otherwise made then by the forc'd division of the Salts from the Gold by the means of the heat. There is another Fulmination less violent, which is made by the Salt of Tartar, Nitre and Sul­phur, in a certain proportion: which is not so dear as that of Gold, and is more easie to do; the description whereof is in the third part of this Pharmacopoea.

CHAP. XXXVIII. Of Reverberation, Lapidification, and Vitrefaction.

REverberation serves to open, separate and calcine the Substances of mix'd Bodies, by means of a flaming fire, that encompasses and reflects upon the matter. It also serves to take away the corrosive Spirits of Nitre, Salt and Vitriol, as also by means of the Retort to separate the volatile parts of certain Plants and of all Animals. It is two fold; one done with an open fire, which is that of Calcination; the other with a close fire; as is that of Distillation.

Lapidification is the converting of more then one Medicament into the form of a stone. Which comes to pass by the dissolving any Metal in a corrosive Spirit, and [Page 27] causing the dissolution to boyl to the consistency of stone. As when we dissolve Silver in Aqua-fortis, and boyl that dissolution to the consistency of a stone, which they call Infernal. Divers fix'd Salts are also converted into Fix'd-stones. We also turn into stone Vitriol, Alum, Salt of glass, and many other Salts of Plants, mix'd with Bole-Ammoniac, of which is made the Medicinal Stone. Many artificial Marbles and Jewels may be also made by several Preparations.

Vitrification by means of a violent fire turns some Substances into glass. It is practi­s'd upon Metals, Metallics, and several sorts of Minerals: among the rest upon Stones, Flints and Sands, as also upon the Ashes of divers Plants.

CHAP. XXXIX. Of Precipitation.

PRecipitation is effected when a Medicament, dissolv'd by any fix'd corrosive Salt, or by some acid g [...]awing Spirit, or by some homogeneous volatile Spirit, quits the dis­solvent, and precipitates or falls head-long to the bottom of the Vessel. To hast'n it, we must make use of Precipitants, which at least in all outward appearance are of a na­ture quite contrary to the Dissolvents; and which may either joyn with them or make a confusion among them, or weak'n them, and so by some means or other constrain them to quit the Body which they held in dissolution. When we have dissolv'd Pearls or Co­ral in the Spirit of Nitre, or Vinegar, we usually have recourse to some fix'd Salt, as that of Tartar, the Liquor whereof being pour'd upon the dissolution, unites with the acid Spirit which was in the dissolvent, and constrains the Substance of the Pearls and Corals which it dissolv'd, to precipitate to the bottom of the Vessel. When the flowers of Sulphur have been dissolv'd with Salt of Tartar, we must have recourse to some acid Spirit, as that of Nitre or Vinegar, or some acid Salt, as Alum dissolv'd in Wa­ter, to make the Precipitation. Mercury dissolv'd in Aqua-fortis, or in Spirit of Nitre, is precipitated by Sea-water. But because Sea-water contains in its compo­sition an acid part, which in some measure counterballances the fix'd parts, it does not act so powerfully for precipitation of Mercury as Salt of Tartar, which is void of all acid Spirit, and therefore proper to embrace the acid Spirit which dissolv'd the Mer­cury, and to compel the one to quit the other. But as it acts with more violence than Sea-salt, it leaves in the Mercury a kind of a red colour. Whence it comes to pass, that we never use any other then Sea-salt when we desire that the Precipitate should be white. However there is another white Precipitate to be made of Mercury, by precipi­tating it with Salt of Tartar, if you make use therein of Mercury sublim'd and dis­solv'd in Water of Sal-Armoniac: which after it has corrected the impressions which the Salt and the Vitriol had left in the Mercury by its sublimation, causes the Volatile Sal-Armoniac to meet with the Salt of Tartar, which is in some measure homogeneous to it. And in regard the Dissolution of Mercury sublimated in Water of Sal-Armo­niac is done without any violence, as is also the conjunction of its dissolution with that of Salt of Tartar, the white which is common to both Salts, suffers no alteration, and the acrimony of the Salts fails not to be carried away by Lotions. Tartar is also pro­per to precipitate all sorts of vitriolated Dissolutions. Bismuth dissolv'd with Spi­rit of Nitre, is properly precipitated with Sea-water: But it may be also precipitated by common-water only pour'd in a good quantity upon the Dissolution: which find­ing it self weaken'd by the Dissolvent, abandons the dissolv'd Bismuth, and gives it opportunity to precipitate to the bottom. The Dissolution of the rosinie part of Scammony, Jalap, Agaric, and the like made in Spirit of Wine, as also that of Am­ber, and several other bituminous Substances, are easily precipitated by weakning the Spirit of Wine with Water. Or else you may attain your end by drawing forth the Spirit of Wine by a soft Distillation, or else causing it to evaporate insensibly: For you shall find the rosinie or bituminous matter at the bottom, accompanied with an un­profitable moisture, distinct, which is to be thrown away.

I do not account that Precipitation of Mercury, which is commonly call'd Red-preci­pitate, to be one of these Precipitates: which is only a real potential Calcination of Mercury, by the means of Strong-water or Aqua fortis, or Spirit of Nitre, which af­terwards they evaporate without pouring any precipitating Salt upon it.

CHAP. XL. Of Sublimation.

SƲblimation is practis'd upon dry Substances, some of which are either rais'd almost altogether, or in part towards the upper part of the Vessel proper for Sublimati­on, and that by means of a gradual fire. Medicaments are sometimes sublim'd without any mixture, and the more pure parts are sublim'd like Flowers, leaving the thicker parts at the bottom. In this manner are the Flowers of Benjamin, Storax, and Ar­senic, &c. prepar'd. Thus may Sulphur be sublim'd with an addition of some other matter: and it is observable that it will almost all mount up in Flowers, unless it be extraordinarily charg'd and load'n with external terrestreities. Sublimation is also us'd to separate the volatile Substances from the fix'd; as when we sublime in Flowers the volatile part of Sal-Ammoniac, and reserve the salt part fix'd at the bottom mix'd among the acid. Mercury is also very much inclin'd to Sublimation, and to take several shapes according to the variety of the Substances with which it is mix'd, which will cause it to act as differently. However it cannot be sublimated unless it be mix'd with corrosive Substances, or at least with such as may put a stop to its fluidity; nor with­out borrowing also some particles of those forreign Substances, to elevate it self and to incorporate with them: Then it sublimes altogether, provided it be perfectly uni­ted with them, and that you have observ'd proportions in mixture and degrees of fire.

Fluid Mercury is incorporated with a certain quantity of Salt decrepitated, and Vitriol dry'd to whiteness, and it is sublimated by a gradual fire in a consistence white and corrosive, which is call'd Sublimate-corrosive; so become, by reason of the par­ticles of Salt and Vitriol which have been rais'd with it in Sublimation, and which make it a most dangerous poison. The same Mercury sublimate-corrosive mix'd and perfectly united with three fourths of its weight of fluid Mercury takes off the acri­monie of the Salts, and that little corrosion which might remain in that Mercury­sublimate, might perhaps be altogether carry'd off, by resubliming it two or three times without any addition. This Mercury so sublimated is call'd Sweet-sublimate, or Mercurius dulcis, the internal use whereof is frequent in the cure of several Distempers, especially Venereal. Mercury is also sublimated in a very red and shining consi­stency, having been formerly well united with a certain quantity of Sulphur. This Mercury so sublimated we call Cinnabar, and is usually made use of in Perfums for Ve­nereal distempers. It is useful also in painting, and to colour Spanish-wax. I say nothing of the Preparation of the Flowers of Antimony, and several other Minerals, which I refer to their proper place.

CHAP. XLI. Of Distillation.

DIstillation is an Elevation attended by a Descension of the watrie, spiritful, oylie or salt parts of mixt Bodies, separated from the gross and terrestrial by means of the Fire. The natural Ascension or Elevation is that of Rain, Dew, Mists, which ascend in vapor up into the Air, and being there gather'd in a body together fall after­wards by the force of their own proper weight, either in Springs of Water divided, or else in drops or in lesser parts, according as the vapors are more or less abounding, or that they are more or less agitated by the winds; and which in falling make a kind of Distillation. The artificial Distillation is usually made after general ways: of which the first is call'd the Streight, the second the Oblique or Lateral, the third by Descent. Both the one and the other are made into divers Vessels either of Silver, Pewter, Cop­per, Iron, Earth, Glass; and all by the means of Fire, or of some borrow'd heat. Sreight of Upright Distillation raises up the vapors high into a Vessel proper to receive them, which must be plac'd and luted above that which contains the matters. These vapors thus rais'd are converted into Liquor, and distil through the neck of the superior Ves­sel, into another set below the neck and call'd the Recipient. Oblique or Side-ling [Page 29] Distillation is made in crooked Vessels, which are call'd Cornutes or Retorts, to which are fitted Recipients bigger or lesser according to the nature of the Spirits which are to be drawn forth. These Vessels were invented for the distillation of ponderous Spi­rits, as those of Nitre, Salt, Vitriol, &c. as also for the distillation of other Spirits less weighty, as of Oyls and volatile Salts, which will not so commodiously ascend by an upright Distillation: such are the Spirits and Oyls of Woods; the Spirits, the Oyls, the volatile Salts of Vipers, Harts-horn, Ivory and many other parts of Animals; as also of certain Plants that abound in Salts and volatile Oyls; and likewise of the Spirits of Tartar, Wax, Amber, and many others. Distillation by descent is made by the putting the fire round about, and at the top of the Vessel, which contains the Substances to be distill'd, and whose orifice is below.

This fire acting upon the substances within, by degrees separates the liquid parts from the gross and terrestrial, and constrains them to descend and distil into the Vessel plac'd immediately below, and luted with the Superiour; there being however between the two Orifices of the two Vessels a little thin plate pierced through with several holes, to hinder the grosser substances from falling into the Recipient, and to give the Liquors passage, to fall into the lower Vessel. The use thereof is particularly, for thick mat­ters, especially Wood. Though this Distillation may serve for thinner Sub­stances; of which you will find examples in my Chymical Preparations.

There is also a sort of Distillation by descent, which is called per For in this place it must come from Delique, and not Deliqueo. Deliquium, or by Draining, which is only the Resolution of Salts into Liquor, and which is more Natural then Artificial. The distilling of a Vine, cut in the Spring, may be also called Distillation: also Oyl of Petrol, or Naphte, which distils from the Rocks, and the like. Hither we also refer the Natural Balsom, and other liquids that distil from Plants of themselves, or by Incision: As Turpentines, that trickle from divers Trees, Opium from Poppy, and Scammony from its Plant.

CHAP. XLII. Of Rectification.

REctification is a new purification and exaltation of the most essential part of the mixt Body, which was formerly separated by Distillation, or otherwise. It is in use for Waters, for Oyls, for Spirits and Salts, as well fix'd as volatile, distill'd or sublim'd. It is also us'd for dry Substances, as also for Tinctures. Rectification is properly a Distillation, or new Sublimation of that which had been already distill'd or sublimated; and by that means a new separation of the aquosities, terrestreities, or other impurities, which are found intermix'd in the first Distillation or Sublimation. You may repeat Rectification so often, till the matter intended to be rectify'd have at­tain'd its utmost purity. The volatile Salts rise first of all in their Rectification; the Spirits and volatile Oyls follow: the Flegm appears next, or else it remains at the bot­tom of the Vessel with the thick Oyl and terrestreities. The ethereal spirit of Wine and Turpentine ascend first in Rectification: as it happens also to several other spirit­ful Waters. The Flegm follows the spirit of Wine, if you continue the fire: if not, it remains at the bottom of the Vessel, The ethereal Spirit of Turpentine, is attended by the unctuous Substances, the first whereof are less thick and less, colour'd than the latter: but the rosinie and thick part lies at the bottom of the Vessel. The watry part of the Spirits of Salt, Vitriol and Sulphur, ascend first in their Rectification; it is follow'd by the Spirits, if the fire be increas'd and continued; if not, the Spirits re­main at the bottom of the Vessel. The Oyls ascend among their Spirits or Liquors, which were added to them to hinder their Empyreuma, or being scorch'd by the fire during their Rectification. Tinctures are rectify'd by Circulation and Filtration. Fix'd Salts are rectify'd by Calcination, Dissolution, Filtration and Coagulation. You may also mingle among them some small quantity of Sulphur, and burn it in calcining them, if you would cleanse them well from their superfluous moisture, which causes their dis­solution; and in keeping them, makes them subject to dissolve into Liquor. As many times it happens to the Salts of Plants, which were not calcinated with Sulphur. Re­gulus's are rectify'd by repeated Fusions, and additions of some little quantity of Salt-Peter. Perfect Metals are rectify'd by the Coppel, by Antimony, by Sublimate, by the Inquart, and by other ways, &c.

CHAP. XLIII. Of Extraction, Evaporation, and Exhalation.

EXtraction is a separation of the more pure and most essential parts of Medicaments from the gross and terrestrial, by the means of some proper Menstruum. Disso­lution, or at least the Addition of some other Liquor, Digestion and Filtration are al­most inseparable from Extraction, This operation is well made use of for Tinctures, Essences, Balsoms, and several other liquid Preparations; but chiefly for those that are call'd Extracts: which are of a consistence solid enough to be made into Bolus's and Pills. Such are the extracts of Rhubarb, Senna, Coloquinth, Ellebore, Aloes, and the like, which are begun by the extraction which is made of their Tincture; and fi­nish'd either by the volatile part of the Menstruum, by distillation, if it be worth while, or by evaporating the superfluous moistures over a gentle fire, or in the Sun, or in Horse­dung. Extracts also of the Juice of green Plants, is made without any other addition of forreign Liquor. For it is enough to purifie those Juices by Filtration or otherwise, and to evaporate them over a gentle fire, till they come to their necessary consistency. Such are the Extracts of Wormwood, Carduus, Centaurie, Spurge, &c.

Evaporation is the elevation and dissipation of the superfluous humidity which is to be found in any Medicament. It is usually made by the means of Fire, though some­times we also make use of the heat of the Sun; it is very often made use of in several Galenic and Chymical Preparations.

Exhalation is only practis'd upon drie things, to raise and dissipate the most volatile parts; it is made by the means of heat lesser or greater, according to the vari­ous Substance of the Medicaments. It is of use in several Galenical and Chymical Preparations.

CHAP. XLIV. Of Liquefaction, Melting, and Coagulation, Curdling.

LIquefaction or Melting is practis'd upon Wax, Suets, Greases, Rosins, Gums, But­ter, Oyntments, Emplasters, Ice, and all Substances that may be coagulated by the cold, and easily melted by heat. Metals, Metallics, and several Minerals are well coagulated by cold, and may be turn'd into Liquor by the heat of fire: But because this cannot usually be done but by a violent heat, therefore that Operation is call'd Fusion, and not Liquefaction.

Coagulation is oppos'd to Liquefaction and Fusion. And therefore it is call'd the Al­teration of a liquid matter into a solid, by the privation of heat or the separation of moisture: as when the fix'd Salts have been dissolv'd in some liquor, and we eva­porate the moisture over the fire, then they remain drie and coagulated. The same thing may befal them after they have suffer'd Fusion. It happ'ns also to Metals, and other Minerals that may be run down, as Sulphur, Alum, Antimony, Nitre, Vitriol and many others, which run with the fire and coagulate in the cold. There are also Salts which are call'd Essential, which being melted in hot liquors, coagulate in the cold, as that of Carduus. We see also several dissolutions of Metals, and of se­veral other Minerals made by strong Waters, which were very liquid while they stood upon the fire; but soon coagulated in the cold, notwithstanding the moisture which accompanys them. I pass over the Coagulation of Milk, and that which may be made by the conjunction of acid Spirits with volatile, whereof I shall shew examples in my Chymical Preparations.

CHAP. XLV. Of Fixation, Congelation, and Chrystallization.

FIxation is opposite to Volatilization, because it fixes and stops that which was of a volatile nature, and renders it altogether durable in the fire, or else able to withstand its force for a long time. And here we must observe that Acids are the most proper principal means which we can make use of to fix Volatiles. Which I do not believe happ'ns through any antipathy, or contrariety of Substance that is between them, as many Philosophers are of opinion: for if that were true, they would cer­tainly destroy one another, which never falls out. But my sentiment is this, That in regard of the great sympathy and inclination which they have, streightly to unite with their like parts, that is the cause that they joyn with so much swiftness, and with a kind of violence; and being once united, they are not parted but with great difficulty, and only when they meet with a Substance which more agrees with their Nature. On the other side their difficulty to unite proceeds from a certain disposition of the figures of their parts, which render them incapable to embody and compose a solid mass together, without making an affault one upon another. For though Acids and Volatiles seem to have chang'd their qualities in being mix'd and confounded one within another, though their activity be different, when they can act separately; yet they preserve their Na­ture and their first faculty, and fail not to demonstrate the truth thereof, when they have been frequently separated. Which may be done with mixing Salt Tartar, or any other fix'd Salt with them. For the acids are more enclin'd to unite to the fix'd Salts, then the volatile. So that joyning very close to the fix'd and adhering but very slight­ly to the volatile, they suffer the volatiles to be rais'd by the fire: and these volatiles are observ'd to have the same penetration, which they had before they were joyn'd and mingl'd with the acids and the same acids may be still constrain'd to quit those fix'd Salts, when you increase the quantity of the latter, and that the former find them­selves too strongly attacqu'd. For the fix'd Salts being in a condition of themselves to resist the violence of the fire, without the concurrence of acids, could never hinder the latter from quitting them, when they are no longer able to resist the fire, but that they must be rais'd and carried away with the acidity and force which they had before they were joyn'd together.

Congelation approaches very near to Coagulation. It happ'ns that several liquors, and several Substances liquefy'd by heat, congeal in the cold. Such are the Decocti­ons of several Meats and Fish, as also of Serpents, especially of Vipers, the Decocti­ons of Harts-horn and Elephants-teeth rasp'd, and several others; as also the Juices and Decoctions of several acid Fruits mingl'd and boyl'd with Sugar: among the rest those of Goosberries, Verjuice, Cherries and the like▪ to all which things they are wont to give the Name of Gellies. We may also rank under the Name of Congelati­ons, Water congeal'd by the cold, Suets, Greases melted before the fire, and after­wards congeal'd; as also Wax, Rosines, Oyl of Nut-megs, and several others easily melted at the fire, which always congeal in the cold; though they may be reckon'd also for Coagulations.

Chrystallization is a sort of Congelation which happ'ns to Salts, as well essential, fix'd and volatile, as also to those which are mix'd with acids; when being separated from a good part of their moisture, you let them rest in a coole place there to chrystallize; and then to be tak'n out and dry'd when you have pour'd out by Inclination the liquor that swims at the top, which is not chrystalliz'd. This Chrystallization happ'ns to Cre­mor Tartar, to the essential Salts of divers Plants, to Nitre variously prepar'd, to Vi­triols dissolv'd, filter'd and evaporated to the very Pellicula or thin skin; and to se­veral Minerals dissolv'd by corrosives. It may also happ'n to all sorts of purify'd Salts, separated from the greatest part of their moisture, in which they had been dissolv'd. We call the small skin or Pellicula, a kind of thin Film, which appears upon the su­perficies of the Salts, dissolv'd in Water, when you have evaporated the moisture over the fire, and that the greatest part is consum'd.

CHAP. XLVI. Of Spiritualization, and Corporification.

SPiritualization is the conversion of the parts of a solid body into Spirit. It is particu­larly attributed to Salts, of which almost all the parts are converted into Spirit by Distillation. Such are Bay-salt, Nitre, Vitriol, Alum, &c. Several other Medicaments are to be spiritualiz'd, especially Juices, and fermented Liquors, which render their Spirits volatile and combustible, but not acid, as are those which we draw from Salts.

Corporification restores to Spirits the same body, or at least a body very like to that which they had before their Spiritualization. For Example, The Spirit of Nitre uni­ted with Salt of Tartar, or with its own proper fix'd Salt, and set to chrystallize, re­sumes its former body. Spirit of Vitriol, after it has devour'd Iron, being dissolv'd in Water, filter'd and evaporated, resumes the form and consistency of Vitriol. There is another sort of Corporification, which in embodying of Spirits causes them to take a form quite different from that of their original. For Example, Spirit of Vinegar, having dissolv'd Pearls, Coral, Saturn, &c. incorporated, assumes the form of Salt, if you evaporate the superfluous moisture that accompanies it. And this Salt of Vi­negar will resume the shape of Spirit by Distillation, abandoning to the bottom of the Vessel the matter with which it was incorporated.

CHAP. XLVII. Of Reduction, and Mortification.

REduction is the re-establishment of mixt Bodies, or their parts in their natural Estate. As when the Spirits, united and incorporated with certain Matters, are separated from them and reduced to their former estate by Distillation. Reduction is very much practis'd in Metals: For by that means the Metals which ap­pear destroy'd, by several Corrosions, Calcinations, Sublimations, and Dissolutions are reduc'd to the same condition in which they were, before they had suffer'd any alteration.

Mortification is a change of the exterior form, and sometimes of the consistency of the mixt Body. It may be attributed to Mercury, not only then when being mingl'd and incorporated with Turpentine, or with other oylie Substances, it loses its motion and fluidness; but after it has undergone several Chymical Preparations. It may be also apply'd to Saturn or Lead in divers Preparations. It may be also attributed to Animals or Plants, not only then when motion and growth are tak'n from them with their Lives, but also when their parts are dis-joynted, and that they have chang'd con­dition and form.

There are practis'd in both the one and the other Pharmacy several other manners of preparing, of which you shall be sufficiently inform'd in the following Part of this Pharmacopoea, without giving you the trouble of multiplying Descriptions in particu­lar Chapters.

CHAP. XLVIII. Of Mixture.

NO Man can undertake the Preparation of any Medicin before he know it: No more can any Man practise Mixture before he know Preparation. For all Me­dicaments are not so simple, so known, so usual, so easie to mixe, as Water and Wine.

Mixture is then the third thing a Physician ought to know and put in practice. It is defin'd an Artificial mixture of divers Medicaments, which an Artist has chos'n and [Page 33] alter'd by Preparation; and which he unites together to make a compounded Medi­cament. And in truth when the Ancients talk'd of Mixture, they chiefly meant that Mixture which is made of several Medicaments prepar'd to make one Composition. As when to make any Electuary the Artist chooses, weighs and orders every drug; beats those things which are to be reduc'd into powder; strains the Pulps; makes the Deco­ctions, boyles the Sugar or Honey with them to a convenient consistency, then mixes the Pulps and the Powders, and makes the Electuary; and so of other compositions. But I must say, That in both the one and the other Pharmacy there are continual Mix­tures; in regard there are few Preparations that can be made up without Mixture. And though Mixture seems easie enough, and that it be truly so to them that well un­derstand all sorts of Preparations; yet it does not want its difficulties, and requires a great exactness in a thousand things which are to be observ'd. As in the ordering of Medicaments that are to be put into one Composition; the regard which is to be had to their different Substances; the Preparation which is due to them to dispose them for Mixture; the proportions requisite for Ingredients, to bring them to their just consistency, and the form which is intended to be giv'n to the Medicament; the de­grees of heat and boyling; the Vessels and Instruments to be made use of in Mixture and Boyling: the time and moment necessary, and the Vessels and place where Medi­caments are to be set up and preserv'd.

The diversity of Diseases, their complication, their accidents unfore-seen, and the necessity at all times of a quick Remedy, have constrain'd the Physicians to invent an infinite variety of Compositions. They must frame themselves to the nature and con­stitution of the Patients, and vary the applications of Medicaments, as well simple as compound, as occasion requires, to quick'n the slowness and weakness of some, and repress the violence of others. It behoves them to give them various forms and con­sistencies, to vary the taste, and to provide for their preservation, which cannot be done without making use of Mixture. So that mixture is not to be separated either from the one or the other Pharmacy: for though Chymistrie does not usually require either in Pre­paration, or in the use of Medicines, such a numerous quantity of Medicaments to be clapt together as the Galenists do; yet the Division and the Purification of the parts of Medicament, require a skill and dexterity altogether peculiar, as well for their Mix­ture as their Union. It behoves the Chymist to know the dissimilitude of Substances, and how to reduce them to a kind of homogeneousness; to make Elixirs and universal Medicines of great vertue, which are beyond the knowledge of Galenic Pharmacy: as not being accustom'd to practise Mixture, but upon Medicaments incumber'd with all the parts of which they are compos'd.

Here I might seasonably dilate upon many cautions to be observ'd in the right Mix­ture and Union of all sorts of Medicaments: But in regard that in the following part of this Pharmacopoea I am oblig'd to speak of the particular mixture of every Composi­tion, as also of every considerable Preparation, as well Galenic as Chymical; I thought it more convenient to remit the Reader thither.

CHAP. XLIX. Of the Composition of Medicaments.

THE Composition of Medicaments cannot be accomplish'd without mixture. But the word Composition implies something of well-order'd, proportionate and di­spos'd to produce those effects which are requir'd upon occasion from the union of se­veral Medicaments, tending together to one or more purposes. I will not repeat here the reasons for which the Composition of Medicaments was invented. It shall suffice me to take notice, That besides the great number of Compositions which have hereto­fore been made use of, the Physicians are at liberty every day to invent more; and that in some there may be a greater, in others a lesser number of Medicaments. I must also needs say that Preservation is one of the chief ends of Composition; never­theless many compounded Remedies us'd every day, cannot be kept long; and there­fore they are never to be prepar'd, but onely when there's occasion to use them.

It is not my resolution to insist in general upon all the compounded Remedies which the Ancients have made use of; and of which they have left several presidents. It will [Page 34] be enough for me to speak of those, which are in practice at this day. To which in­tent I will divide all compounded Remedies into internal and external. The internal are Juleps, Apozems, Emulsions, Almonds milks and creams, Restoratives Purgative potions, Altering-physick, Mixtures, Gargarisms, Prisans, divers Decoctions, Bolus's▪ Clysters, Suppositories, Pessaries, Injections, Wines, Vinegars, and divers Juices; which may be also outwardly apply'd, Robbes, Honeys compounded, Oxymels, Syrups, Loches, Lozenges, Condites, Gellies, Conserves, Electuaries, Hiera's, Opiats, Con­fections, Antidotes, Tablets, Pills, Powders, Distill'd-waters simple and compound, Feces, Extracts, Rosins, Salts fixt, volatile and essential, Chrystals, Flowers, Magi­steries, Saffrons, Oyls distill'd and press'd; Tinctures, Elixirs, Essences, Balsoms, Panacea's, Lime, Stones, Glasses, Regulus's, Sulphurs, Sublimates, Precipitates, &c. Remedies external compounded, are Baths, Half-baths as well liquid as by steam, Lo­tions, Embrochations, Fermentations, Bags and Caps quilted with Cephalic-powders, Frontlets, Sinapisms, Vesicatories, Depilatories, or Medicines to take away the Hair, Cataplasms, Epithemes liquid and solid; Suffumigations, Pomatums, Grains and Sweet Candles, Caustic-stones, Mucilages, several Balsoms, several Oyls, as well by infusion as expression and distillation; Liniments, Oyntments, Sear-cloths, Emplasters, Pastes for the Hands, Wax'd-linnen-cloths, Sparadraps, or Linnen-cloths dipt in melted-salves, certain Flowers, certain Magisteries, certain Limes, and certain compos'd stones, of all which I shall speak in their proper place.

CHAP. L. Of Fire, and its degrees.

IT was not without great reason that Fire has been esteem'd at all times the most noble of all the Elements. In regard it is the principal agent of Nature and of Art in the Production of all things: it foments, it nourishes them, and gives them growth: it comforts by its light, and penetrates by its subtlety the most compact of Substances. So that I cannot imagine, by what motive, Persons that have rendred themselves famous as well by their Chymical Operations as Writings, and who never could have any reason to mis▪ doubt the utility of Fire, should nevertheless go about to blot it out of the number of the Elements; and instead of making it the author of any considerable production, should give it the Name of Corrupter and Destroyer. For though I make no question, but that Fire being kindl'd in wood or any other com­bustible, matter and meeting with a continuity of substance upon which it can exercise its activity, will destroy, and continue that destruction, till it meet with no farther matter to act upon: yet all the World must of necessity be convinc'd, That besides the continual necessity we have of Fire, as well in the one as the other Pharmacy, as also for the support of Life, it is in our power to augment or abate its force at our plea­sure; either by laying on or taking off the wood or coals, or by opening on closing the Pipes that let in the Air and quick'n the Fire. Neither it is possible for me but to commend and seek the assistance of Fire in my Profession; and I am also forc'd to con­fess that without the assistance thereof, I had never attain'd any solid knowledge; and that what I have acquir'd would be of no use to me in the most part of my Operations, should I want Fire to begin, continue or carry them to perfection.

Under the Name of Fire, I understand not only the ordinary Fire lighted, and act­ing upon wood, coals, or any other combustible matters; but all Heat that produces action approaching next to that of Fire. And therefore I shall divide Fire or Heat into Natural or Artificial. Natural Fire is esteem'd to be that which comes from the Rays of the Sun. Artificial, is that which depends upon the skill of Men; according to the variety and quantity of the matter combustible with which they furnish it, and the more or less Air which they afford it. The one and the other Pharmacy make use of the Natural heat of the beams of the Sun in several respects: but they more fre­quently have recourse, and indeed at all times to Artificial Fire, which is able to do many things beyond the Natural heat of the Sun.

It is not necessary for me here to dilate upon the heat of the Sun, which we may seek and find to be more or less excessive, according to the Climates and Seasons, and the various occasions of it; it being also to be augmented and re-inforc'd by reflexion [Page 35] and repercussion, by the help of a Burning-mirror. I will only insist upon Artificial heat, and the several degrees of it; of which we must acknowledge two in general, one for Digestion, and the other for Separation.

Digestion makes use of several fires, of which the most simple and nearest to Natural heat, is that of Horse-dung, which may be more or less excessive, according to the quantity of the Dung, the time when the Dung-hill was made, and the depth of the Vessel's being plac'd in it. For certain it is, that a man cannot put his hand in the midst of a great Dung-hill of Horse-dung, if it have had time to rip'n; nor endure a rod of Iron that has been buried but a-while in such a muck-hill. The heat of Horse-dung is also call'd The heat of the Horses Belly.

The Fire of the Air heated by an ordinary fire kindl'd under a Vessel of Iron or Earth fit to resist fire, and clos'd in a close Furnace, capable of receiving the Vessel which contains the matters, is accounted a moderate Fire.

The fire of a Lamp, is a fire also as moderate as equal; and yet it may be encreas'd or diminish'd, according to the bigness and quantity of wicks which you light; as also according as the Vessels are to be more or less heated. The fire of Lamps is very much us'd by those that seek after the universal Medicine; and for several Operations that require continuance of time and an equal fire, either for Digestions or Fixations.

The fire of the steam of hot water is a very moderate heat, but it cannot be conti­nued so equal as that of Dung, the Lamp, or the heated Air. You may also increase the heat, by causing the water to boil. The use of it is only for Operations that re­quire not the long continuance of a fire.

The fire of Balneum Mariae, call'd the Sea-bath, is made use of by plunging the Ves­sel that contains the matters into the hot water, as into a Bath. It is useful for Tin­ctures, Circulations, Digestions, and Distillations. It is a little more hot then the evaporating Bath, of which I have already spoken. It may be so far made use of, as to make the water boil.

The fire of Cinders, improperly call'd the Cinder-bath, is somewhat hotter then all the former, if it be made as hot as it may be. The Custom is to make use of Wood-ashes sifted through a coarse Sieve, to the end they may be put into a Capsula of Iron, or of Earth able to resist the fire; and then to place the Capsula upon a Furnace pro­portionable, and to let down the Vessel containing the Medicaments into the Cinders or Ashes, so that there remain a good Thumbs-breadth between the bottom of the Chest, and the bottom of the Vessel; and that the Ashes may be heaped up round about the Vessel to the height of the Medicaments. The Vessel may be of Silver, Copper tinn'd within, Earth or Glass. The fire is lighted under the Capsula of Ashes, to heat them by a little and a little, and is continued or increased as occasion requires, either for digestion or distilling.

The fire of Sand, which bears also the name of a Bath, may be more powerful then that of Ashes. Whence it comes to pass, that it is call'd the fire of Separation, yet it may be more or less hot, as you make use of more or less fire; or according to the different weight and bigness of the Gravel; so that if you moderate the heat, it may serve in the place of Ashes.

The fire of the Filings of Iron or Steel, bears also improperly the name of a Bath. It's heat may be much more increased then that of Sand; but it is not much us'd.

The bare or immediate fire may afford much more heat then all the precedent fires. It is so call'd, because the fire immediately gives its heat to the Vessel, which contains the Matters; as also to the matters themselves, if they may be expos'd, to the fire, without being put into any Vessel. This fire is very much us'd in both Pharmacies, and chiefly for several Decoctions and Distillations; as also in Kitchins to dress Vi­ctuals, for which reasons it is accounted the most common and chiefest of all.

The fire call'd the fire of the Wheel; as when the fire is put into the Crucible, or in another proper Vessel; and then the fire is kindled round about the Vessel, making as it were a Wheel of fire, from whence it had its Name. This Wheel of fire ought to be at a sufficient distance, at first, from the Vessel, to heat it by degrees, then insensibly put a little nearer, with an equal fire round about, and then laid all together close to the Vessel; where it may be continued, or increas'd as occasion requires.

There is also another sort of Naked fire, called the fire of Suppression, which in de­gree of heat is not much unlike that of the Wheel; and which is made use of some­times the better to fix the substances, and sometimes to separate some substance, which it causes to issue forth by the side, or to descend to the bottom. The Vessel is heated by a little and a little, environing it at first, and then covering it altogether with [Page 36] kindl'd Coals, encreasing or abating the fire, for so long time, and to such a degree, as shall be requisite to perfect the Operation. Sometimes the fire of Suppression is u­sed at the end of Distillations made through the Cornute, chiefly of those that are made in the Sand-Bath; They are also at other times made use of in the middle of Distillati­ons, the better to draw forth the Spiritful Substances, or Oyl, which resist the fire that is under the Vessel.

The fourth, Naked fire, is that of the close Reverberatory, which is done by placing the Retort that contains the Substances, in a Furnace fit for the purpose, over a fire small at the beginning, then continu'd and increas'd at length to a great violence. The fire of close Reverberation, is us'd in the Distillation of several Spirits, especially those that are corrosive: It is made use of for the Distillations of several Oyls, and Salts, Volatile; who have no necessity of a fire so long, nor so great. This fire is call'd the fire of Reverberation, because it does not only strike upon the Vessel immediately, but because it reflects and strikes the heat back again from the top, and round about. There is also an open fire of Reverberation, which is made in a furnace that hath no covering.

The fifth fire, is that which they call the fire of Flame, or of Fusion: This is a fire more violent then any spoken of before: and which not only serves for the Fusion of several Metals, half-Metals, and Metallics, but also for the Calcination of them, and of several Stones.

There is a sixth fire, which is the fire of great Glass-houses, which is appointed to vitrifie the Ashes of Plants, Flints, and sandy Substances. This fire is more powerful then all the rest, because of the greatness, and thickness of the Furnace, and the quan­tity of Wood with which it is continually supply'd. It may serve to Reverberate and Calcine divers Substances. All these fires, though very much differing the one from the other, may have every one in particular their several degrees by themselves: So that every fire may be made variously great or hot, and yet not vary from its kind. We also assign to violent heats, especially to that of Reverberation, four degrees, of which the first is only made use of to heat the Vessels by degrees, and the Substances therein contained: The second is, to heat them a little more, and to make them almost red­hot: The third is, to make them altogether red-hot: The fourth, to maintain the Vessels and Substances in the same condition, as also to make them endure a continu'd fire, as violent as it can possibly be by Reverberation.

The Activity of several fires, of which Chymistry makes use to perfect her Opera­tions, would be weak enough without the assistance of the Air, which we may call as it were the soul of fire, and the grand cause of divers effects, which we expect from it; in regard, that in an equal quantity of Coal, or other combustible matter, the fire will be more or less hot, as there is more or less Air to quicken it. Whence it comes to pass, that we must observe the necessary rules for the making of Furnaces; and toge­ther with the consideration of the distances of heighth and breadth, not forget in-lets for the Air, and where to let it out again: so to make use of it as occasion shall serve, as well to encrease the Heat by opening them, as to abate the Heat by shutting them.

CHAP. LI. Of Furnaces.

A Furnace is call'd a close place, wherein the Apothecary kindles, proportions and orders his fire, for all sorts of Compositions, or Preparations, both Chymical and Galenick. Furnaces have been invented for the conveniency of the Artist; that being master of his fire, he might be able, either to increase or abate, and use it effectu­ally upon all sorts of Substances, as occasion requires.

The Structure of Furnaces, is very various, because it depends as much upon the Nature of the Substances, and the Operation there to be undertaken, as upon the Ge­nius and Skill of the Artist, who ought to understand as well how to invent them, as to build them.

The matter whereof Furnaces are composed and built, is very various; and as to that, there is as much regard to be had to their bigness, as to the place and use to which [Page 37] they are appointed. Those in great Glass-houses are built of a thick strong Stone, able to resist fire, as well because of their extraordinary bigness, as because it is requir'd that they should last long. We also cut and fit one, two, or more of those thick Stones▪ and of the same Nature, to make lesser Furnaces, appointed for other uses. Furnaces more used, are generally composed of Brick, sometimes squared and long, sometimes moulded into portions of a Circle, whereof some make a fourth, a sixteenth, and some an eighth. These Bricks are sometimes laid one upon another, without binding them with any Morter: especially when the Operation is in haste, or requires no great caution.

These Furnaces may be raised and taken down, according to a Man's pleasure. But generally they build their Furnaces with Brick, laid and bound with several sorts of Mortar, according to the diversity of the Earth, and the violence, or remissness of the heat which the Furnace is to indure.

There are also other Furnaces call'd Portative-furnaces, because they may be carry'd and plac'd where a Man pleases; which are oft-times all of one piece, but most frequently of two, three or four, joyn'd and plac'd one above another; and and may be also dis-joyn'd as occasion requires. All these Portable furnaces, as well those that are of several, as those that are all of one piece, have their place for the ashes▪ their Grate, their Hearth, their Doors, their Duomo's, their Registers, and all their other parts, like the Furnaces which are made of Brick. The materials of these Furnaces are usually a fat Earth, pounded together with the powder of pots made of Potters-earth, and Sand proportionably mix'd together, with Water sufficient to bring them to a paste. They are afterwards bak'd in a Potter's Furnace among other earth'n Pots.

All Furnaces are either op'n or cover'd: The op'n Furnaces have no Coverings, whereas they that are cover'd have their hollow Coverings like Domo's, that cover the Substan­ces therein contain'd, and prevent dissipation. The most part of Galenic Preparations or Compositions are made in open Furnaces, though the same Furnaces may serve for se­veral Chymical Preparations. The round shape is not to be preferr'd before the square as to the outward form; in regard there is little difference of the one from the other, as to the action of the Fire; however the circular figure is to be desir'd as much as possible for the interior part of the Furnace: because the heat acts therein with more liberty▪ and because therein it imparts it self more equally then in any other figure. Observe by the way, That the thickness of Furnaces is of great advantage to preserve the heat of the fire, and resist the coldness of the Air, which usually dissipates a good part of the heat of Furnaces that are too thin. The ordering of the Air is also as necessary as that of the Wood or Coal, in the government of the fire; in regard, as I said be­fore, the letting-in or keeping-out the Air, increases or abates its force. Whence it comes to pass that in the distances and proportions, which are to be observ'd in building Furnaces, to give the fire that air which is usually necessary, after you have made convenient doors in those parts of the Furnaces where the air may easily get out and in, you must have stopples of the same, to stop those out-lets, when you would moderate the power of the fire, or to op'n them when you would increase it. Which may be better apprehended in the following Examples; and first, in the descri­ption of an op'n Furnace, very convenient for daily use, and built in that manner that you shall find three different spaces; that is to say, The place for the ashes, that for the Hearth, and that whereon to place the Vessel which contains the Substances.

This Furnace must be made of Brick bound together with one sort of lute; which is usually compos'd of fat Earth, Sand, the scum of melted Iron, Hair and Horse-dung kneaded and wrought together with Water. It must have its place for the Cinders, its Grate, its Hearth, its bars of Iron, the place for the Vessel, its Doors and Regi­sters. You may also afford it a hollow round Cover, and a fourth place, which may serve for the fire of Reverberation. This Furnace is usually square, and ought to be seven and twenty thumbs-breadth or inches high, and above twenty broad for every square; so that the interior space must be twelve inches square. The place for the Cinders must be eight inches high, upon which the Grate ought to be plac'd from side to side a-cross, taking up about an inch of the thickness of the height of the Furnace. The Grate must be made of square Iron-bars ten or twelve A Lig [...] is the third part of a Barley-corn, or the twelfth part of an Inch. lignes thick; they are to be made of a length proportionable, and flat­ted at the ends where they are to be fix'd. But this flatting ought to be irregular, and only upon the two Angles, so that when the bars shall be plac'd, one of their Angles may turn directly upwards, and the other Angle tend in a [Page 38] streight line to the bottom; and the other Angles face the resembling Angles of the other bars that are collateral with them. There ought to be but the distance of four or five lignes between bar and bar, which is wide enough for the air to enter that is requisite to burn the coal; and close enough to keep the coal from running through the Grates. In the Cinder-place must be left a door about the breadth of an ordinary Brick as high as the Cinder-place in the front of the Furnace. To this door must be fasten'd a plate of iron about five or six lignes thick, about three inches broad, and eight inches long, which is to be instead of a Lintel, upon which a Brick must be laid. There you must go on and build the Furnace round about, leaving a door for the hearth as large as that for the under-room. These doors are to be directly one above ano­ther. That of the hearth ought to be six or seven inches high: and to that must be fasten'd a plate of Iron as to the door of the Cinder-place, which plate must be co­ver'd with a good Brick. About this height you must leave two holes, each so big as to put a good large wall-nut through them. These holes must be directly opposite one to the other, and every one in the middle of the sides of the Furnace. These holes must also be made quite thorough, to hold a bar of Iron, if need be, to sustain a Vessel. Then raise the building of the Furnace four inches above those holes, which is a height suffi­cient for any ordinary Furnace, and will serve for all manner of Decoctions. But if you design it for uses of more consequence, you must continue to build up the Furnace, till it be rais'd eighteen inches above the Grate, so that there may be allow'd between eight and nine inches for the height of the hearth, and that the rest may be to place the Vessel that contains the Substances. Then you must fill up the interior Angles of the Furnace with good lute mixt with pieces of Brick, so that the infide may be like a circle. But you must leave in the inside of every Angle an op'n hole wide enough to put your finger thorough. These holes must be hollow'd towards the hearth, to let in the air which is necessary to feed the fire. They are call'd by the name of Re­gisters, because they serve to govern the fire. They must have their stopples made of the same materials as the Portable-furnace, to stop them when you would abate the force of the fire. The Hearth-place also ought to be built in such manner, that it may the more and more contract it self the nearer it comes to the bottom; so that the same bottom may not be above seven or eight inches in diameter: and that as well to spare coal, as to cause the fire to extend it self towards the middle of the hearth. The in­side of the Furnace insensibly ought to enlarge it self at the top, for the conveniency of larger Vessels, of which you may have oft'n occasion to make use. These furnaces may be convenient for those Distillations that have need of a Reverberating-fire, by making on the one side a hollow notch to put in the neck of the Retort, and covering the furnace with a proportionable Duomo, that has a hole in the middle; which will serve as well as the four Registers, which will lie hid under the basis of the Duomo. By this means you may have a Cover'd-furnace, which may be of use for divers sorts of Meltings and Calcinations, if you only make two or three doors to the Cinder­place; for the air that enters in at those holes will very much enliv'n the force of the fire. This thought engages me to give you the description of three Wind-furnaces, by which the Curious may find wherewith to satisfie themselves, and be able to make those fusions of Metal, which Chymical Pharmacy may have need of.

Draw a Plat-form, and build a square of twenty inches in diameter, leave in the middle of every front of the square an overture of four inches broad: Which four overtures shall be four doors; then build up with Bricks all the four fronts of the square, reserving still the thickness of the doors: the thickness of the walls shall be the breadth of the Bricks, that is to say, about four inches; then raise the building two foot higher: but as you build, leave in every corner of the furnace a stopping-hole, beginning at the bottom, and tending upward toward the corner which is diametri­cally opposite. This hole ought to begin about the fifth inch of the building, and a­scend within two inches of the middle of the Grate. These four holes must be strengthen'd every one with a Pipe of Iron about two lignes thick, and three foot long, made like a straight Trumpet; about four inches wide at the exterior mouth, which must be turn'd downwards, but contracting and tapering to the upper part, till the hole be no bigger then to put a Man's finger in. These four Pipes are to be soder'd with Copper, and to be fix'd as you raise the furnace. Upon this Building rais'd two foot, you shall lay your flat bars of Iron, six or eight lignes thick: and four inches broad, which shall bind the four walls of the furnace. You must put the Grate upon two of these bars of Iron opposite the one to the other, the bars whereof shall be of the bigness, shape, and flatted at the two ends, like those describ'd for the former [Page 39] furnace, and are to be rang'd and fix'd in the same manner. Then continue the building above the bars of the Grate, and above the plates of Iron, as well as over all the rest, without leaving any new door; and raise it ten inches high, which will be room sufficient for the Hearth, and whereon to place the substances which you intend to cal­cine or melt. Then fill the internal Angles of the Hearth-place with Lute, well-mix'd with pieces of Brick, so that the Internal Figure may be circular, and then taper again by a little and little till it come to the door, as I have already said of the preceding Furnace. You must cause a Potter to make a Duomo Cover, all of one piece, the bot­tom whereof must rest upon the inner brims of the Superiour part of the Furnace. This Duomo ought to be about an inch and a half thick, hollowed like a Vault, about six inches in height. The Furnace ought to have one door beginning at the bottom, a­bout five inches broad, and four inches and a half high, and a stopple of the same ma­terial as the Duomo, of the same thickness, with two holes bor'd through it of an equal bigness toward the middle, somewhat long, and one by the side of the other, and so made as to receive a small pair of Nippers, to take off, and put on the Stopple as occa­sion requires.

The Duomo ought to be open in the middle of the upper part, and the opening ought to be round, about two inches in Diameter, to serve instead of a Register. You may set over the opening of the Duomo, one or two Pipes upright, the one upon the other, about five or six Ligne's thick, their hollowness being proportionable to the Over­ture of the Duomo, about three foot in height. The Coals kindl'd in a Furnace thus order'd, shall give a violent heat able to melt or calcine any Minerals, that fire has pow­er over. This furnace will plainly demonstrate the force of the Air in the operation of fire.

But you shall observe an effect much more powerful, if you build a Furnace after the following manner. Build a wind-Furnace three foot from a Well, equal in its dimen­sions, to that which I have already describ'd, excepting the Pipes at the four Corners, which you may let alone. Provide a Tunnel of white Latten, about two Inches in Dia­meter, the bottom whereof is to be five or six times as wide as the rest of the Pipe, to give the more free entrance to the Air. This Pipe ought to be very long, so that it may reach from about half a foot above the Superficies of the water of the Well, to that part of the floor upon which the Furnace is built. The upper end of the Pipe must be crooked, and somewhat Tapering, so that it may enter and fix it self in a new Pipe, which is to be of ordinary Iron well strengthen'd, and Tapering toward the head, the hole whereof must be no bigger then to admit the end of your Finger. This last Pipe must pass through a hole made on purpose under the border of the Well, level with the floor, the great hole or end being strongly riveted into the lesser end of the great Pipe of white Latten. It must be of a sufficient length, and retorted in such manner, that it may ascend insensibly, with its point ready to pass through a hole underneath one of the bars of Iron, which are placed above the doors of the Furnace, and which reaches toward the bottom of the Crucible containing the substances; which must be plac'd upon a round of Potters Earth, plac'd in the middle of the Grate. You must also make a hole, though never so small, in the Wall of the Furnaces, opposite to that where the Pipe enters: But it must be higher then the first, so that it may appear in that part, whither the wind of the Funnel shall be carry'd. This Engine produces an effect altogether extraordinary. For in the midst of that great noise which the enclo­sed air makes, in passing and repassing through the Funnels, you shall perform in less time, and with less Coals, what you should hardly accomplish with a great Fire, without the help of this, or some such like piece of Art.

The third wind-Furnace is less troublesome then the preceding: and it is to be recei­ved with so much the more applause, considering the last years success of that which I built in the Chymical Laboratory in the Royal Garden.

This Furnace must be square, two foot high, and two foot in Diameter: It must have one door to its Cinder-place, in the middle of the front-Wall, close to the floor, which serves for the Basis of the Furnace. This door must be eight inches in height, and eight inches in bredth. The Walls of the Furnace, ought to be about seven inches and a half thick, so that there may remain a void square place in the middle about nine inches in Diameter. They must be built of Brick, and good Lute: and when they shall be rais'd equally to the height of the door, you must cover the top with two good plates of Iron; then in the inner part of the Furnace, next to the Walls lay four square Bricks, every one big enough to cover all the one side, about an inch thick: thus you shall fix them streight to the Walls with the Lute of the Building; and so order it, that the [Page 40] inside of the Furnace may be square, and the four Bricks so levell'd, may be able to sustain a frame of Iron, fit to bear such substances as are to be expos'd to the fire in the Furnace. This frame is to be an inch thick, about nine inches in Diameter, and com­pos'd of a square joyn'd together with soder, or otherwise, each Bar whereof ought to be an inch thick, and an inch broad. In this square there must be a cross of Iron, in bredth and thickness equal to the Bars; so fram'd that it may rest with the half Iron, upon the square, without exceeding its thickness. This square must be fix'd upon the level Bricks: but before you fix it, provide a round Copper-pipe, soder'd with good soder being about fifteen Lignes in Diameter, and about six foot long, not compre­hending the two ends, which must be bent; the uppermost of which must be so large, as only to imbrace closely the neck of the bellows, which are to be placed above, and a little upon the one side of the Furnace. As for the other end, the lower part of its retorted point ought to taper in that manner, that it may be able to admit no more then your finger. This lower end must be an Inch longer then the thickness of the Wall of the Furnace, and so bent that it may penetrate in a direct Line cross the side-Wall of the Furnace; and that the point not entring above an inch within the inside of the Furnace, and penetrating one of the four square-Bricks, may only reach within an inch below the Quadrate of Iron, whereof I have spok'n. The principal body of the Pipe, ought to run in a Perpendicular Line, along the middle of the side of the Furnace: and there to be fix'd with Lute, as far as the height of the Furnace will permit. That which is over and above may remain bare, or else be wrapt up with some matter pro­per for its preservation. The lower end of the Pipe must be fix'd in the Wall of the Furnace; so that no outward Air may enter from thence into the Furnace.

After you have well fitted the end of the Funnel, and plac'd the Iron-square upon the four streight Bricks, then continue to carry up the building of the four Walls of the Furnace. But take care in the mean time to furnish the inside, with square upright tiles, about an inch thick, like to those below, so that there may be two rows, each of four tiles set one upon another; so that the void square of the Furnace, may be in all about seven inches in Diameter, and about fifteen inches high above the square of Iron. In the mean time, you must prepare a square piece of cast Iron, about eight or ten lignes thick, proportionable to the void space of the furnace, and which must be notch'd at the Corners, about the bredth of an inch. This square is to bear the Crucibles, and o­ther Vessels; and the Notches, or Semi-circles, are made to give requisite entrance to the wind of the Bellows, to quicken the fire of the Hearth.

Sometimes upon this Iron square, they place a round cake of furnace-earth, a good inch thick, to bear the Crucible or vessel, containing the substances. You must also get ready a square of furnace-earth▪ somewhat thicker and larger then that of Iron, without any Se­mi-circles cut in the corners, to cover the upper part of the opening of the furnace, when the Crucible is plac'd therein, and that you intend to increase the fire. At the same time you must have great double Bellows, like the Goldsmith's, which you must place at a height equal to that of the height of the Pipe; to the end you enter and joyn into it, as close as may be, the nosles of your Bellows; and look that there be not the least chink, or cleft for the wind to get out, that is to enter into the Pipe. These Bellows ought to be so plac'd, that by means of a cord fastned at one end to the upper board of both Bel­lows; and at the other, fix'd to the end of the little beam fastned above, it may be easie, by drawing a cord fix'd to the other end, to raise and let fall the Bellows-boards, which rising and falling successively like an Organ-bellows, keep a continual breath. The wind of these Bellows, and the structure of this furnace, the door being well-luted, with a little Coal cause a heat much more violent, then a far greater quantity should do in the ordinary furnaces. They that have seen the good effects and the little Coal it con­sumes, will not blame me for giving you the description and form of it.

The Athanor or Athannor, is a Furnace that cannot afford heat enough for operati­ons that require a violent fire; but very convenient for those that may be done by a moderate fire. The Name comes from the Arabians, who call the Name of an Oven or Furnace Tannaron. The Greeks have call'd this Furnace A' [...], which signifies with­out trouble. For which reason it is by others call'd Piger Henricus, or Lazie Henry. Some have giv'n it the Name of the Philosophical Furnace, or the Furnace of Secrets. This Furnace is as much us'd, as it is variously built not only for its height, breadth, and shape of the place which is to contain the coal; but also for the shape, number and use of the Furnaces, which are to be built next the Tower; and which are to be heated by its fire, as also for the manner of imparting their heat. The first design of those that invented the Athannor, was, that they might be able to heat with the same [Page 41] fire, and with little trouble several furnaces at once. Wherein they have suceeded very well by means of a high Tower, which they have furnish'd with a Grate and a Cinder-place, a door and openings necessary for the imparting of heat: and having kindl'd the fire upon the Grate, they fill the Tower with Charcoal, cover it at top, and by vertue of the Charcoal which kindles by degrees, and which may well burn with an equal heat for twenty four hours and more, they impart an equal heat at the same time to several Furnaces near the Tower: by means of the openings made upon the sides of the hearth of the Tower, and those parts which are next the Furnaces. But though their invention have been effectually commodious, yet there was afterwards a kind of Tower invented, the coals whereof fall into the hearths of the furnaces which are plac'd about it, and which contain the Substances; which by that means are more ve­hemently heated, then they would be by a heat that only came side-ways, and onely from the hearth of the Tower. I give you the figure as true as it was possible for me to do, both of the one and the other of these Athannors, and a particular Description of the latter as being less known, though much more useful. And that you may the bet­ter understand it, I will make it of one Tower plac'd between two furnaces only, of which one may serve for a Balneum Mariae, the other for the Bath of ashes or sand.

Raise the Tower and the two Furnaces upon a plain ground, which you may build of Bricks and Lute against any wall. This flat ground must take up five foot and two inches in length, nineteen inches and a half in breadth, and eight inches in height. The Tower must be rais'd and built upon this Plat-form with two furnaces, and plac'd be­tween them both. The height of the Tower must be 3 foot and seven inches, the breadth twenty six inches, and the length equal to that of the Plat-form. The height of every furnace must be twenty inches, the length eighteen, and their breadth equal to that of the Tower. First you must raise upon the Plat-form eight inches and a half of massie building for the Tower onely, according to the breadth and length already set down: Upon which Massie-building, thus rais'd, begin the outward walls with the inside of the Tower, and leave the void place for the coals. It will be also expedient at the same time to raise the two Furnaces which are to be joyn'd to the Tower and to depend upon the same Building. The Tower must have no opening before; nor must it have any open­ing in the sides, in its height above that of the Furnaces. Only it must have the two Canals appointed for the coals, separated by a partition-wall, the entries whereof must be above the Tower, and the vents must butt upon the hearth of the Furnaces. The outward-walls of the Tower must be seven inches thick; the inward not above four; but it must have six in length. After this raise the walls before and behind to the height of four inches, and at the same time the middle-wall, which must not be above a Brick broad, and six inches long. Then provide a thin piece of Iron beat'n out, about two lignes thick, and two foot four inches in length, which you shall cut in such manner, that it shall not have above six inches of breadth in the extent of four inches, which are to cover the breadth of the middle-wall, and that that which remains beyond the four inches, containing a foot in extent, may have eight inches of breadth in the end, and on the two sides contract it self like a Lozenge, to the part where the Plate is not a­bove six inches broad. This Plate must also be bent in such manner, that the part which has but six inches, being plac'd flat upon the middle-wall, and covering it ex­actly, the two wings may possess the sloping of the height of the four inches which are allow'd to the middle-wall, and butt upon the side of the Building which ought to be opposite to the Hearth of the contiguous Furnace; so that the coals may slide easily a-long that Plate into the Furnace. Then must you neatly make a half-round hole in the walls to give way to the extent of the wings, and fill up with Lute and pieces of Brick the under-part of the sloping of the wings, to prop them up and keep them from bending. Then go on, and raise all the walls of the Tower, leaving the void space requisite for the Canals, which must every one contain as much in length and breadth as the middle-wall which separates them. Then provide bars of Iron flatted and harden­ed, to correspond with the Plates; and which resting upon the walls that are next the Furnaces, may be strong enough and bow'd in such manner, that leaving an equal di­stance of four inches wide over all the upper-part of the sloping of the Plates, they may support the Building necessary to compleat the Tower, which must be in all three foot and seven inches above the Plat-form. In building the Tower, take care that the inside of the Canals be well clos'd, and that they may somewhat enlarge themselves to­wards the bottom, so that the coals at the top may the more easily slide down; and succeed to those that are burnt. You must also make two stoppers of Furnace-earth, big enough to stop the overtures of the Canals at the top of the Tower, after they are fill'd with coals.

[Page 42]The two Furnaces must have every one their Cinder-place, their Grate, their Hearth, and must be wide enough to place therein at the top the Balneum Mariae, and Sand-bath. They must have also doors to their Cinder-place and Hearth, which must be made in the one and the other, quite joyning to the Tower. The Cinder-place must begin from the Plat-form describ'd before. The door ought to be five inches high and four broad. And it must be cover'd with a Plate of hardn'd Iron, upon which you must lay a whole Brick, which will serve for a stay to the door of the Hearth, which ought to be dire­ctly over that of the Cinder-place, and is also to be cover'd with a plate of Iron and a whole Brick, as the former. You must also fixe the Grate at the same time, and to the same height, as the Plate put upon the door of the Cinder-place. The inside of the Hearth ought to be nine inches in Diameter; but the void place above, where the Baths are to be set, ought to be twelve inches in Diameter. Then go on, and continue the building of the two Furnaces to their height appointed. Nor must you forget to fill up with Lute and pieces of Brick the inward corners of the furnaces, and to taper them by little and little toward the bottom of the Hearth.

It is also requisite that those furnaces should have their holes or Registers at the four upper-corners, and their stoppers ready upon occasion to increase or abate the heat of the fire. At the same time make the stoppers for the doors of the Cinder­places and Hearths.

If you are careful to follow all the proportions which I have set down for the build­ing of this Athannor; if after you have kindled the fires in the Hearths of these furnaces, you fill the Canals of the Tower, with Coal neither too big, nor too small; and if af­ter that you stop up the upper-holes of the Tower, and the doors of the Cinder-places▪ and Hearths, you may be sure to have an equal fire, which shall continue for four and twenty hours at least. And this fire will also heat more fiercely, if you give Air to the furnaces through the Cinder-place, and Registers.

The other Athannors require not so much circumspection as this, because the Coals fall not from the Tower, but must from thence impart their heat to the Furnaces which environ it. This Tower may well be square, but it is usually the custom to make them round, to the end it may impart its heat to the greater number of furnaces. These A­thannors, are generally plac'd in the middle of the Laboratorie. This Tower has but one Canal, but it has a Cinder place, with its door, a grate, and a little door for the Hearth. There are also Plates of Iron, fit to stop the breathing-holes of the Tower, when you would hinder the Tower from communicating its heat to a furnace that has no need of it. I suppose, that by the exact description, which I have made of the preceding A­thannor, you may easily judge of the building and use of this, so that it may suffice only to give you the Figure of it.

The first furnace, of which I have given the description; may well serve for an Exam­ple of a Reverberating furnace; But because a Man may have occasion for a good quantity of Acid Spirits, and Corrosives; and for that one Retort alone requires al­most as much care and fire, as many Retorts together, I thought it my duty to impart the furnace of Reverberation, which I use my self, to distil with four Retorts at a time, which is as regular, as commodious, and certain.

These furnaces ought to be two foot and eight inches long, and two foot and six inches broad, and two foot and four inches high; The form of it ought to be four­square; The Cinder-place must be eight inches high, the door must be in the middle of the Front, six inches broad, and as many high. The Walls of the two sides must be six inches thick as far as the Cinder-place. The Walls behind and before need not be a­bove four inches thick, no more then the Walls of the sides from the Grate upward. You must have bars of Iron a foot long, of the form and bigness of those of the first furnace, and flatted at the ends, and they must be laid also five Ligne's one from the o­ther. These bars are to rest upon the inner part of the side-Walls, and are to make the Grate that is to extend from the Wall before, to that behind. Upon the door of the Cinder-place, you must fix a flat-piece of Iron, about seven or eight Ligne's thick, and lay a Brick upon the plate. There must be a door left for the Hearth, over that of the Cinder-place; they must be both alike, and both covered with a thin plate of Iron and a Brick. The Walls must be built of an equal height, for seven inches above the Grate: and there must be laid two square-bars of Iron, from fifteen to sixteen Ligne's in Diameter, which ought to be almost as long as the whole length of the furnace. These bars must be fix'd flat-ways, so that they may divide the inward bredth of the furnaces into three equal distances. These bars are to bear two Retorts each of them▪ at the time of the Distillation. Then go on, and raise equally the Walls of the fur­nace [Page 43] above the great bars, to the height of four inches, then leave two openings in the two side-Walls above the Iron bars, opposite one to the other. These openings ought to be four inches wide, and be continu'd to the height of the walls; for they are to receive the neck of the Retorts, the bodies whereof are to rest upon the bars, with their back­sides one against another. Take care to fill up the inside corners of the furnace with Lute, and small pieces of Brick, to make them in some manner circular, and so that the Hearth may slope like those of the foregoing Furnaces; and that the fire may not fall into the corners, but may always carry its force to the middle of the Grate. Then equally raise round about, all that there is to be more of wall, to the entire height of the furnace. Which done have ready a plate of cast Iron, at least half an inch thick, about two foot, and two or three inches long, and about twenty inches broad, and lay it upon the top of the furnace, to cover the void space, when you have fix'd the four Retorts. You must leave three Registers upon each side of the plate: that is to say▪ one at each cor­ner of the hinder part of the furnace, and one just opposite to every Retort; lute all the rest of the circumference of the plate, and prepare stoppers for all the rest of the Registers and doors, to use upon occasion, especially at the beginning of the Distilla­tion. Take notice also, that after you have plac'd the Retorts upon the bars of Iron, and put their necks through the openings of the furnace appointed for that purpose, you must with Lute and pieces of Brick, close all the void spaces, which the necks of the Retorts cannot fill up, so that there may be in those parts no breathing-places, but those of the Registers. In this furnace you may give to the four Retorts all the de­grees of fire requisite, and the success will answer expectation, if you observe the rules which I have prescrib'd, as I come to discourse of particular preparations. You may at the same time make use of a fire for Distillation, by vertue of a square kind of Cap­sula, made of plates of Iron rais'd like walls, which will make an enclosure of about six inches high, proportionable to the bigness of the Iron-plate, which covers the void place of the furnace. This square Capsula must be plac'd upon that plate, and fix'd with Lute to the fides of the plate, and then fill'd with Sand as much as it will hold. In this Sand you may set several Vessels, containing such substances as you would dissolve, digest, or distil; or you may make any other preparations, which the Artist must fit to the degrees and length of the fire, which the principal Distillation requires.

You may in the first furnace which I have describ'd make a great number of Distilla­tions, as well upright as oblique; but it will not serve for those that are made by de­scent, unless you change the whole order of the furnace, which engages me to give the description of another, that is proper for those sorts of Distillations; which, ne­vertheless, may be made either bigger or lesser, according to the quantity of substances you would distil.

Draw the Dimensions of a furnace, round or square, four inches thick, and twenty inches in Diameter. In the lower-part it must have a door eleven inches high, and eight broad, upon which you must fix a strong plate of Iron, as is said already. Pro­vide also a bar of strong Iron, four inches wide, in the middle whereof must be a round hole of three inches. This bar must be laid a-thwart upon the middle of the fur­nace; then provide other bars of Iron of a sufficient length, of which make a kind of a close Grate, of each side the bar of bor'd Iron; then go on with the building and raise it a foot above the Grate. Then prepare an Earthen Vessel glaz'd within, and made like a Cucurbit, with a streight neck, into which put wood, or the substance which you would distil: Then prepare a cover of Silver, Latten, or of Copper Tinn'd, so made as to cover the Orifice of the Vessel, and surround the neck, like a Capsula lid, the bottom whereof must be bor'd through with several little holes like a sieve. Then take another Vessel of glaz'd Earth, or of Glass, the mouth whereof must be so dis­pos'd, that the end of the neck of the Cucurbit, containing the substances, may with its bor'd cover enter in, yet not descend farther into the body. Then set the Vessel upon its Orifice, and put it through the hole in the middle of the bar, and so into the Vessel which is to serve for a recipient, and must be plac'd underneath. The Cucurbit must be supported by the bar of bor'd Iron: and then kindle round about it a fire, at first very gentle, only to give a soft heat to the substances, and the Vessels, then increase it by little and little, and from time to time till it cover all the Cucurbit, if the substan­ces be solid; and when you have sufficiently continu'd your fire, you shall find in the Ves­sel plac'd below, a liquor containing the most essential parts of the substance which you have distill'd. By this means you may draw forth a Spirit out of Vitrlol, having calcin'd it till it become yellow, and then putting it into the Cucurbit, in little pieces and not in powder, and a good quantity together; but this Spirit is much inferiour to that which is drawn forth by side-long Distillation.

[Page 44]I dare affirm that the two furnaces of Reverberation which I have describ'd, are very proper for the Distillation of Acid, and Corrosive Spirits; But that is no reason why I should not shew you the Structure, and use of the following furnace.

This Furnace ought to be two and twenty inches broad in the square, the walls four inches thick, so that the void space within ought to be fourteen inches diameter. This Furnace must have at the bottom, in the middle of the front, a door for the Cinder-place, four inches square, which ought to be cover'd with a good plate of Latten proportion­able; then continue the whole Structure six inches high; then fix the Grate upon Bricks of full measure, set and joyn'd to the inner-wall of the Furnace, of each side: The bars must be like to those of other Reverberating-furnaces. Then raise all the walls of the Furnace equally, nine inches above the Grate; and leave in one of the side-walls an Opening, sufficient to put through the neck of a Retort; which Opening must be con­tinu'd op'n to the top. Then raise the walls again equally one foot high above the Opening. Fill the inward-angles with Lute and pieces of Brick, as in the former Fur­naces: do the same thing to the corners all along the upper part of the two sides of of the Grate. Then provide a flat Duomo, made in such manner, as in covering the Furnace, to rest upon the inner-brims of the wall. Place the Retort containing the matters upon a Trevet, made so that the lower part of the Retort may be rais'd four or five inches above the Grate. Then with Lute and pieces of Brick stop up the void parts of the overtures of the Furnace, which were made for the neck of the Retort▪ then kindle the fire, and fill all the void space with coals from the Grate to the top▪ having first kindl'd the fire upon the Grate round about the under-part of the Retort. At the same time cover the Furnace with its Duomo, and at the same time lute all the joyntures, that the fire may have no air but through the door of the Cinder-place, and the little hole in the Duomo. Then fit a recipient to the neck of the Retort; leave the fire to it self, and do not unlute the Recipient, till four and twenty hours after­wards. You shall find the Spirit as you desire, and in the Retort a sediment depriv'd of all its Spirits.

I will not here dilate upon Portable-furnaces, the figure whereof is usually round and circular, because they have nothing in them that corresponds with the Furnaces which I have describ'd, especially the first. It will be sufficient to observe almost the same rules already set down, as well for the Cinder-place, Hearth, and place for the Vessel, as for the Doors, Openings, Registers and Duomo. I omit also Lamp-Fur­naces, and many others useful for many things, the Descriptions whereof are to be seen in several Authors. For my part I believe I have describ'd enough for any Pre­paration Chymical or Galenic, at least to serve as a rule for farther invention.

CHAP. LII. Of Lutes.

THE variety of Substances of which mixt Bodies are compos'd, together with that of the Furnaces and Vessels which are made use of in Preparation, have put the Curious upon the Invention of moulds proper for their intentions, and to satisfie the necessity of all Operations. They have found out several for the usual building of Fur­naces; some to plaister, some to cover all over the Vessels of glass or earth, which are to contain the Substances, and are for a long time to resist the violence of the fire; some to joyn the Vessels one to another; others to mend the Clefts which happ'n to Earth'n or Glass-vessels, and to make them as fit for service, as if they had never been crackt. I know very well that there is no want of Directions for Lutes in most Authors, who have treated of Chymistrie; but because I will not refer the Reader thither, as be­ing desirous that an Apothecary should find in this Pharmacopoea all things that he stands in need of, I will impart those Lutes which I have made use of, which are both secure and profitable.

If you would build a Furnace for long lasting, and make use of great Stones fit to resist fire, then for all sorts of Lute there is no better, then a good Mortar made of Quick-lime and Sand. But if you build with Brick according to the usual manner, use this following Lute.

Take three parts of that fat Earth, which the Bakers make use of for building their [Page 45] Ovens, one part of River-sand, and one part of Horse-dung, work them all well to­gether with Water, and make thereof a Mortar, to bind the Bricks, when you build any Furnaces. This Mortar may be stiffen'd with the dross of Iron and Glass pounded, as also with salt▪ Water and many other things, if you would make it more firm and lasting; but these additions are useless for an ordinary Building.

If you would raise a Furnace of one or more pieces, without Stones or Brick, or make Vessels fit to resist the fire, as Capsula's, Retorts, Aladuls, &c. Make a Paste of two parts of Potters-earth well-dry'd, two parts of brok'n Butter-pots, both beat'n into fine powder, and one part of River-sand, well wrought and incorporated together with Water. The Furnaces and Vessels made of this Paste will be good and durable, if you be careful in the first place to drie them well in the Air when they are made; and if afterwards you bake them in the Potter's Furnace. The same Paste will serve to plai­ster withal and cover all sorts of Vessels either of Earth or Glass. For it is able of it self alone to contain Substances in a violent fire, when the Vessel it covers is many times melted or brok'n. You may also make another Paste very near in goodness to this, and which will serve for many uses. Take six pound of good Potters-earth dry'd, two pound of the dead-head of Aqua-fortis, two pound of Butter-pots brok'n, one pound of dross of Iron, one pound of Glass, one pound of Brick, all beat'n into fine powder, two pound of Horse-dung dry'd and beat'n, five or six handfuls of Butter well mash'd and beat'n, work them all together with Water, and make thereof a Paste somewhat solid, which will serve you for the same uses.

You may also, for the same use, take two pound of Bricks, four pound of Potters-Earth, and a pound of Lime all beaten to fine Powder, and work them together with an equal quantity of Oxe-Blood, and water of the dissolution of the Caput Mortuum, or dead-head of Aqua-Fortis, which will serve for the same occasions as the fore-men­tion'd Lutes.

When you would strongly joyn together the Recipients to the Retort, in the Distilla­tions of corrosive Spirits; the first Lute which I have describ'd and appointed for the building of Brick-furnaces, may suffice, if it be strengthn'd with a large Linnen-cloth, bound on with pack-thred. But the Lute will be stronger if you add Butter well-mash'd and beat'n to it, and if instead of common-water you work your Lute with Ox-blood, or with the dissolution of the dead-head of Aqua-fortis. You may also make use of the last Lutes which I have describ'd: but then it will be more troublesom to unlute the Ves­sels when the Distillation is over.

Amydon, or fine Wheat-flower boyl'd in Water spread upon Paper and laid on, may suffice when you only go to fit and lute the helm of the Limbeck with the Cucurbit, or to joyn the Recipients to the helm, or to the Retorts; or to lute Vessels together that contain spiritful Substances that have no corrosion. But if you would lute them more exactly, then take the Bladder or Bowels of Beasts newly kill'd; or moisten'd in wa­ter if drie. They are very useful where the Substances are very spiritful and corro­sive. The closures and joyntures of the Vessels are to be cover'd with these Bladders or Bowels squash'd upon them, or else bound round about them with Pack-thread, leaving them to drie very well before the fire be kindl'd under the Vessel. You may also for the same purpose make use of Fish-glue dissolv'd in Spirit of Wine, or in Vinegar spread upon a Linnen-roll, and well bound upon the joyntures.

There is also another Lute very fit to plaister and cover the Retorts round about, and to make them able to withstand any sort of fire, and also to contain the matters in case the Retorts should break. Take good Potters-earth pure and well powder'd, as much Bole-Ammoniac, and brok'n Butter-pots finely powder'd; incorporate them with Quick-lime newly quench'd in a little Milk, and add thereto the liquor of the whites of Eggs, and Butter mash'd as much as will bind them all together, and make thereof a soft lute, soft enough to plaister the Retorts, three or four times, one lay above an­other, letting the lute laid on drie very well before you lay on drie any more. This lute will be the stronger if you mixe therewith a quantity of Bull's blood very hot, blend­it well with all the rest.

You may make very good Crucibles with the following Lute or Composition. Take equal parts of good Potters-earth dry'd, Stone-Allum, and false Talk, commonly call'd The Froz'n-stone, powder'd fine and well wrought together with a little Milk, and reduc'd to a consistency fit to make Crucibles; which when you have made, bake them in a Potter's Furnace among other Earth'n-pots.

If you would mend the holes and clefts in Earth'n or Glass-Vessels, and make them as good as ever they were; Take the whites of new-laid Eggs and beat them in an [Page 46] Earth'n-pan with small sticks, till they are nothing but froth. Let that scum stand still and stay till it be turn'd to a liquor; then mingle it in Quick-lime newly quench'd in a little Milk, and make a soft and close Paste to be spread upon a small piece of fine Linnen enough to cover the slit in the Vessel. Lay that upon the crack of the Vessel, having sprinkl'd the upper-part of the Linnen with Quick-lime very finely pulveris'd: at the same time lay on a new roll of equal bigness plaister'd with the same Paste upon the powder of Lime, and then powder the upper-part of the second Linnen-cloth with powder of Quick-lime again; then lay a third plaistering of the same Paste, with which you shall cover the upper part and sides of the last Linnen-roll, and then let it drie at leisure. This Lute, thus laid on, holds perfectly well, and prevents the cracks from going any farther. There are some that add Glass finely beat'n to this Paste; some mixe therewith powder of Bricks or Terra sigillata. Which things may strength'n the Lute, and are not to be rejected.

You may also very properly apply to the cracks of the Vessels, Fish-glue dissolv'd in Spirit of Wine, and spread upon a little piece of a Pig's or Oxe's Bladder, and let it drie.

You may also make a Lute very firm, and lasting in the fire for cracks of Vessels, as also to plaister and cover them. This Lute is made with two parts of Minium in fine powder; and one part of that which they call the Fat of Herrings; these things ought to be well incorporated together and spread upon fine Linnen, and laid upon the crack of the Vessel.

To stop your Bottles well and so that no vapour may go out, dissolve Fish-glue in Spirit of Wine, and make of it a kind of Mucilage, and incorporate with it a cer­tain quantity of the Flowers of Sulphur, and Mastick finely pulveriz'd, to which you may add Lime quench'd in Milk. These things must be well mix'd together, to plai­ster the mouth, as also the inside of the neck of the Bottle: which being drie, nothing never so subtle can pierce it.

There is a Lute common enough very good, which is made of equal parts of Minium, Ceruse of Venice, good Bole-Ammoniack and Gum Sandarack subtilly pulveriz'd, incor­porated with Lineseed-Oyl and reduc'd into paste. The use whereof is much the same as of the preceding.

The Hermetick or Philosophical Seal, nam'd improperly Lute, is made use of for glass-Vessels, that contain some substance, of which you would preserve all the parts. Those Vessels ought to be somewhat long-neck'd, and strong enough to endure almost a Fusion, and yet not to suffer the matters therein contain'd to be alter'd. To accom­plish this, you must bore the bottom of an Earth'n-pot able to resist fire, and cause the neck of the Vessel to enter underneath; then light a fire in the Pot round about the neck, and when it is near Fusion, with a pair of Tongs heated in the fire, squeeze it, and writh it so, that it may be so exactly joyn'd, that not the least vapour may get out.

Bottles also with short necks, strong and well-made, may be exactly stopt with a stopple of Glass, made fit and rubb'd round about with Emeril pulveriz'd, till they fill the hole of the bottle so exactly, that the vapours cannot find passage to get out. There is a way something like this, when, after you have stopt the neck of the bottle with a Cork fit and short, and that there remains a void breathing-place, you fill it up with melted Sulphur, or some one of the Lutes which I have already describ'd, and co­ver the Lute with a double piece of Oxe's Bladder, moisten'd and strongly bound a­bout the neck of the bottle. Mastic, Bole-ammoniac of the East, and Borax, finely powder'd with the liquor of the white of an Egg, will make a Lute very proper for this purpose, and for several other uses.

CHAP. LIII. Of Instruments, or Vessels requisite, as well in the one as in the other Pharmacy.

THough I might have comprehended Furnaces in the Chapter of instruments, yet the skill requir'd to make them, together with their bigness, their diversity of Materials, deserv'd a particular Chapter. Under the name of In­strument are comprehended not only the Tools, or Utensils, which both Pharma­cies make use of, but all the Vessels appointed to contain the substances to be pre­par'd, which are prepar'd, and are to be preserv'd after preparation. The Materials of Instruments are various, according to the use, to which they are design'd. Gold and Silver may serve for the Materials of some▪ but their dearness makes them not so frequently in use. Other Metals are very much us'd, as red and yellow Copper, Pewter, Lead, Steel, common Iron forg'd and wrought, as also several Metals, and Me­tallics melted alone, or mix'd together. Marble, Porphyrie, Sea-shells, divers Stones and Jewels, certain Horns, several Bones, divers Shells, as also the Eggs and Skins of some Animals; Woods, Roots of Trees, Shells of certain Fruits, Woollen and Lin­nen-Cloths, Silk, Hemp, Flax, Rind of Trees, Horse-hair, Ropes, Pack-thred, Paper; divers Earths, and Sands, Glasses, Chrystals, Bitumens; all these are instrumentally made use of by both Pharmacies, besides a thousand other things too tedious to repeat.

Several Vessels or Instruments are made of Copper or Latten; but those Vessels that are to contain such things, as are to be tak'n inwardly, must be Tinn'd, to prevent the Metals from imparting their bad qualities to them. The most usual are Basons, Caul­drons, Brass-pipes for the Mores head, for the Refrigeratory, for the Rose-water Lim­becks, or for other heads of Limbecks, Stillatories for Spirit of Wine, with their Ser­pentine, and heads; Vessels for Balneum Mariae, and evaporating Baths, Lamp-Fur­naces with their appurtenances, Cucurbits, Chafers, Platters, Posnets, Lamps, Funnels, Capsula's, Moulds, Ladles, Scummers, Spatula's, &c. Several Vessels of Pewter are us'd, as Basins, Platters, Dishes, Trencher-Plates, Cucurbits, Vessels for Digestion, heads or helms of Limbecks, plates of Iron, Pots, Syringes, Ladles, Measures, Lavers, Cap­sula's, Ewers, Bottles, Urns, Fountains, &c. Lead is very much us'd to make Instruments, as weights and boxes. Several Metals and Metallics are us'd mix'd together, for great and small Mortars and Pestles, Boylers, Horns of Antimony, Moulds, Pipkins, burn­ing-Mirrours, &c. Several Instruments of Iron and Steel, are us'd as well to contain the Matters, as for several uses; as for Boylers, Cauldrons, Capsula's, Mortars, Anti­mony-Horns, Pots, Crucibles, Plates of cast Iron, or beaten out, Frying-pans, Nip­pers, Pincers, great and small Tonges, Forks, Ladles, Hooks, Bars, Grates, Moulds, Trevets, Knives, Scissars, Hammers, Files, Rasps, Saws, Spatula's, Pestles, Funnels, Cap­sula's, Lamps, Conduits, Pipes, Rings, Irons bended round to cut off the neck of the Recipients, Compasses, &c. We use Jasper, Marble, Sea-shells, and divers hard Stones, upon which to bray several Minerals, and to pound some parts of Animals. We use them also for Mortars, Pestles, Cups, and several other Vessels appointed for several uses. We make an infinite sort of Vessels of Earth, as Crucibles, Cucurbits, Capsula's, Aladulls, Boylers, Pots, Covers, Pipkins, Plates, Dishes, Cups, Bottles, Pitchers, bend­ing-Limbecks, Chaffers, and the like. Several Vessels are made of Chrystal, as Basins, Plates, Platters, Cups, Bottles, Vases, and Capsula's, &c. But a far greater quantity are made of Glass. For besides these that I have nam'd to be made of Chrystal, which may as well be made of Glass, we make thereof Limbeck-bells, Pelicans, and many o­ther Vessels fit for Circulation, Vessels for Distillation, all of one piece, Matrasses with long Necks of several proportions and forms, Cornutes, Recipients of all sizes, some without a Pipe, some with one, two, or three Pipes; ordinary Cucurbits, others with a Pipe, or a streight neck, heads of Limbecks cover'd at the top, others uncover'd; others without a beak called blind Limbecks; Mortars, Pestles, Philosophers Eggs, Vessels to separate liquors, Pipes, Plates, Bibbers, Pots, Dishes, and an infinite sight of Vessels of all sorts and sizes.

We use Shells for cups, and to contain several Medicines. We make Capsula's, Spa­tula's,

[Page 48]Rowlers, and Pestles of Ivory, Cups, Bottles and Boxes, Ostridge-eggs. The same things are also made of Horn; Bags, budgets, and bottles are made of Lea­ther. Several boxes of Tortoise-shell; cups, spoons, boxes, and little pixes of Amber, Jet, and Mother of Pearl. We make use of Wood, and the Roots of Trees for Casks, Bathing-tubs, Covers, Buckets, Mortars, Pestles, Rowlers, Cups, Spatula's, Boxes, Presses, Cupboards, &c. We make use of Cloths for strainers, Hippocrates breeches, and long narrow bags for filtring.

We also use Cloth to cleanse the flowers of Schemanthes. We make bags and strain­ers of ordinary Linnen; we make our sieves of Linnen, Silk, and Horse-hair. We use Paper to filter several Liquors, to cover bottles, pots, and to wrap up several Me­dicines. In short, we make use of a thousand things, and a thousand inventions, for an infinite number of Vessels, and Instruments appointed for the use of Pharmacy, of the chief of which I will give you the Figure, as exact as well cut, as also of the Furnaces which I have describ'd.

CHAP. LIV. Of the manner of Cutting Glass.

THE incompatibility between the extremity of heat and the extremity of cold, joyntly acting one against the other, and the oft'n breaking of Earth'n and Glass▪ vessels, which happ'ns by the pouring any hot liquor into them when they are very cold, or any very cold liquor into them when they are very hot, has been the reason that several wary Artists have endeavour'd to remedie the exposing of their Vessels to these two combating qualities. Seeing therefore that they could make good advantage of these two opposites by cutting the necks and beaks of their Glass-vessels, they have made use of several ways to do it; of which I shall succinctly describe the most conve­nient and the most useful.

Diamonds or Emerill will serve to cut the superfluous parts of glass, when they are thin. But when you would cut off the necks of Recipients, which are usually very thick, you may scratch the place where you intend to cut, but you must make use of Fire and Water to perfect your design.

To which purpose you must make use of Iron-rings, about the bigness of your little finger, the handles whereof must be of the same metal; round and hollow well-nigh proportionable to the bigness of the neck of the Recipient which you intend to cut off. Heat the Ring red-hot in the Fire, and having put it over the neck of the Reci­pient, rest it upon that place which you intend to cut off; and when the glass is heated, pour some drops of cold Water upon it, and the neck will drop off just at that place where it was heated.

You may for the same purpose wind a wiek of Sulphur round about that part of the neck which you would have cut off, and so order it that the flame may give an equal heat round about that part; and when the part is hot enough, pour, as before, some few drops upon it, and the neck will come off.

I have done the same thing oft-times with a wiek dipt in Turpentine, by the means whereof, using it according to the method of the Sulphur-wiek, I have cut off the necks of the biggest Recipients, as well as of the less; and of all sorts of Glass-bottles.

If that part of the neck of the Recipient be not hot enough, and that instead of se­parating quite, it only begins to break, you may perfect the work by resting the end of a red-hot Iron against the crack begun, and so going round with the same Iron, till the neck falls off.

CHAP. LV. Of Weights, and Measures.

THE Physical-pound never consisted of more than twelve Ounces, taking twelve Ounces of the ordinary Pound of sixteen Ounces; and is usually known by this Character lb. The Physical Ounce is thus mark'd ℥ by the Greeks, who make it to con­sist of eight Drachms. They figure the Drachm like a figure of Three ʒ containing three Scruples. The Scruple is thus mark'd ℈, which consists of four and twenty Grains, be­ing the third part of seventy two which a Drachm ought to weigh. The Grain is thus mark'd Gr. or thus g.

Sometimes the Physical-Pound is divided into two parts, and the Half is thus mark'd ss. Sometimes it is divided into four parts, which fourth part is call'd Quartarium, known by this abbreviation Quart. j. But most usually the Pound is divided into se­veral Numbers of Ounces, which the Physicians specifie in their Bills, rarely mention­ing Half-pounds or Quarter-pounds. The mark that stands for Half a pound stands for Half an Ounce, Half a Drachm, Half a Scruple, being preceded by their several Marks.

Herbs, Flowers, and several Roots are not weigh'd in Vessels, they are only mea­sur'd by Fascicles, Manipules, or Pugiles. Fasciculus, or a Bundle, contains as much as a Man can hold under one Arm bent to the upper part of the Hip, and is thus mark'd Fasc. Manipulus, is as much as a Man can grasp in his hand, thus character'd, M. Pu­gillus, is as much as a Man can grasp with three Fingers; and is known by this Cha­racter Pug.

CHAP. LVI. Explaining several Physical Terms.

WHEN you find in any Receipt the five opening Roots prescrib'd, you must un­derstand the Roots of Asparagus, Smallage, Parsley, Fennel and Butchers-Broom.

The usual Emollient-herbs are Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Bear-foot, Groundsil, Beets, Mercury, Violets, Arrach, Pellitorie of the Wall, and Lillies.

By the five Maindenhairs, are meant Adiantum album, White-maidenhair, Adiantum nigrum or common Maidenhair, English-maidenhair, Ceterack or Spleen-wort, and Wall-Rue: to which I may add Harts-tongue.

The three Cordial-flowers are Bugloss, Burrage and Violets; to which others add Gilly-flowers and Roses.

The four Carminatives, or Wind-dissolving Flowers, are Camomil, Melilot, Fe­therfew and Dill-flowers.

The four great hot Seeds are, Anise, Fennel, Cumin and Caraway-seeds.

The four lesser cold Seeds are Parsley, Smallage, Ameos or Bishops-weed, and Dau­cus or Wild Carrot-seeds.

The four greater cold Seeds are Gourds, Citruls, Melons and Cucumbers.

The four lesser cold Seeds are Lettice, Purslane, Endive and Succorie.

The five precious Fragments are Jacinths, Emraulds, Saphyrs, Granates and Sar­donyxes.

The four Cordial Waters are Burrage, Bugloss, Endive and Succorie.

Some add to these Meadow-sweet, Blessed-thistle, Devils-bit, Sca [...]ous, Water-Germander, Sorrel, Vipers-grass and Wood-sorrel.

The Physicians prescribe several Fruits by number, with this mark No. or by pairs, mark'd thus Par.

When you find the word Ana, or the Character aa, it signifies of equal quantity.

By s. a. or ex Arte, is to be understood According to Art.

By q. s. is to be undestood, As much as is sufficient.

And for that the Apothecary ought to be the Eye of the Physician, as well in the Pre­paration [Page 50] of Remedies prescrib'd, as in the Administring thereof. It is very neces­sary for him not only to understand whatever written or printed Receipts shall come to his hands, but also to know the proportion and Doses of every Medicine. To the end that in case any mistake should happ'n by the carelessness of the Printer or Writer, or that he should not be able to read some bad Hands, he may be able to judge both of the Doses and Ingredients, make them agree with the Rules of Pharmacy, and the approbation of judicious Physicians, and prevent the ill-accidents that may happ'n by false Preparation and Administration.

I did not think it necessary to insert here several things which may be found in several Authors; among the rest, the Catalogues of several Medicaments, which being only some part either of some Plant or Animal, are to be understood such as are to be pre­ferr'd before the other parts, when the Plant or Animal is prescrib'd, without nam­ing the particular part; as the Seeds of Annise and Fennel, Roots of Orrice and Jal­lap, Flowers of Violets and Roses, Fruits of Melons and Cowcumbers, Juices of the bending Egyptian Beantree, and the under-growth of Cistus; the Wood Santalum and Guiacum, Gums Galbanum and Ammoniac; Rinds of Cinnamon and Cassia; and several other parts of Plants and Animals which are to be understood, when the Plant or Animal is prescrib'd. Such as are also Castoreum, Bezoar-stone, Musk and Civet, which are but parts or excrements; yet ought to be understood, when the Animals are prescrib'd. There are also Minerals, which being but species of themselves, yet for their excellency, retain the name of the genis. Such are Lapis Lazuli, which is to be understood under the word Lapis; Bay-salt, under the name of Salt; the Seal'd­earth of Lemnos, under the name of Seal'd-earth; the other Seal'd-earths with their additions, without which they would never be understood. They that are more cu­rious may be better satisfy'd, by reading Authors, who have reckon'd up vast number of these things; though here be no great necessity of it, in regard that use and the Ex­planation that a Man shall meet with in the Composition, may suffice. You may also find in the same Authors Catalogues of succedaneous Remedies, which would be both tedious and troublesom to enumerate. I will only say this, That you must avoid as much as possible the use of substituted Medicines, not sparing for any cost to be furnish'd with the same Medicaments which are set down in the Pharmacopoeical Com­positions, or prescrib'd by the Physicians. And then when it is impossible to have all that the Physician prescribes, then must an Apothecary be careful not only to substitute Root for Root, Wood for Wood, Juice for Juice, Rind for Rind, Herb for Herb, Seed for Seed, Oyl for Oyl, Syrup for Syrup, &c. but also to have succedaneous or corresponding Medicaments near in vertue and quality, to those whose defect they are to supply.

The End of the First Part.

The Order and Method of the Second Part.

EVERY Apothecary, who well understands the Generalities con­tain'd in the First Part of this Pharmacopoea, may easily of himself undertake several Preparations, especially if he have attain'd the true knowledge of his Profession.

Nevertheless, I will not omit from time to time to give young be­ginners, those necessary directions that concern as well the particu­lar knowledge of the principal Medicaments, that are put into Compositions, as their Preparation and just Mixture. But before I go any farther, I must advertise the Reader, once more, that there is not in this Pharmacopoea, any Receipt, nor description of any. Composition, either Internal or External, which has not been prescrib'd by Monsieur Aquin, chief Physician to His Majesty, or which he has not taken the pains to examine very carefully, and very often corrected and re­duc'd into a better regulation, then that wherein the Ancients had left it. He must al­so take notice, that instead of a great Number of certain Compositions which are now quite out of use, with which the most part of Dispensatories are pester'd, and which are more costly then profitable, he shall find in this Book, amongst the best of Compositions, and most in use, several descriptions of Remedies, as certain as full of curiosity, and which well deserve to be set down, and to be prepar'd and us'd. This Galenic Pharma­copoea shall be divided into two books; of which the first shall treat of Preparations, and Compositions Internal; and the second only of those which are accounted External. I will begin the first with the most simple Preparations or Compositions, especially those that cannot be kept any long time, and which may be suddenly prepar'd, and al­most every foot; and from thence I shall proceed to those that are of greater conse­quence, and require more exactness, and whereof the Shops are wont to be still pro­vided. I shall not make any stay upon certain things that require no great considerati­on, but apply my self to things of consequence, not omitting any thing that may serve for the instruction and advantage of the Apothecary, for whose sake I have principally undertaken this work. I shall not contradict the judgement of the Ancient or Mo­derns; [Page 52] where I shall find their practice fit to be imitated: But I shall endeavour to find out something better, and more maintainable, where experience and reason will not o­therwise be satisfy'd. Nevertheless, i [...] shall not be said, that I take delight to blame any Person in particular, it not being my humour to seek the raising of my Reputation by defaming others; being fully perswaded, that every Authour hath cordially written what he knew, and what he believ'd to be truth.

I might insert simple distill'd Waters▪ among the Galenical Compositions; but be­cause they must be attended by several compound Waters, that require more skill▪ and that both the one and the other stand in great need of Chymical Pharmacy, I thought fit to reserve them for the Third part of this Work.


CHAP. I. Of Juices.

I Shall not here stay upon Juices or Liquors which may be drawn out of Animals, as Blood, Flegm, Urine, Serosities, Sweat, &c. Nor upon those which may be drawn from their parts by assation, pressing, or otherwise, as the Gravies, and Liquors of Meats, &c. Nor upon such as are to be drawn from the stock of Mi­nerals, as Oyl of Petroleum, or Naphta, and several bituminous matters, but only upon the Juices of Plants.

The Juice is the same in Plants, as the blood in Animals: and it may be defin'd to be a liquid substance, which making a part of the composition of Plants, communi­cates to the rest of the parts, that which is necessary for their support, as also for their growth. This Juice issues out sometimes of it self, sometimes it is drawn forth by in­cision, or some other way more artful. This Juice is more or less liquid, according to the several concoctions which it has received from Nature, either in the Plant, or above or without the Plant. It is sometimes Watry, sometimes Winy, sometimes Oyly, Gummy, Rosiny, Bituminous. It is also sometimes sweet, sometimes bitter, eager, sharp, insipid. And as sometimes it has no scent, sometimes it is odoriferous, some­times it stinks, sometimes it is black, sometimes white, green, blew, yellow, red, &c. It is also more or less abounding, according to the Nature and condition of the Plant. Sometimes it is so inwardly united, and so profoundly conceal'd among the other sub­stances, as not to be perceiv'd by the ordinary senses, nor be distinguish'd but by sepa­rating it by the means of fire. Such are the Juices or Liquors which issue from the dryer sort of Woods in Distillation, as also the Juices drawn from the Horns and bones of Animals, though seemingly very dry. The Juice is also sometimes mix'd with [Page 53] substances so viscous, and tenacious, though soft, that it cannot be separated but by the means of fire. Nevertheless, these juices are not to be taken barely and purely, for that part which I have called Flegm, and which I have acknowledg'd for one of the five principles, of which every mixt body ought to be compos'd; for sometimes they them­selves are compos'd of some or other of the other principles, which is easie to prove by the separation which the Artist may make thereof.

In which respect, I am not of the opinion of those that make the Juices, which issue out of Plants of themselves, to be Excrements. For then the most essential part of the Plant would be taken for an Excrement; and if it were an Excrement, it ought to be rejected. And yet we gather very carefully, purchase very dear, and use to good advan­tage these pretended Excrements, as Myrrh, Bdellium, Tacamahacca, Storax, Benjamin, Natural-balsom, and several others which the Plants throw out of their barks, and which cannot but be accounted the best part of their composition. But now of those Juices that are to be prepar'd, and depend upon the skill of the Apothecary.

These Juices are drawn almost from all parts of the Plants; some by cutting the bark, to be afterwards dry'd in the Sun, as are the Juices of Scammony, Aloes and Pop­py: Others by bruising and pressing. Thus as well Oyls as Aqueous Juices, are drawn from several Herbs and several Flowers; several Fruits and several Seeds. Such are the Juices of Carduus, Endive, Succorie, Burrage, Bugloss, &c. for Herbs. The Juices of Roses, Violets, Peach-flowers, red Poppies, &c. for Flowers. The Juices of Mul­berries, Apples, Cherries, red Goose-berries, Barberries, &c. for Wine-Fruits. The Juices of Olives, Walnuts, Small-nuts, Almonds, Pine-apples, Pistaches, &c. for Oily Fruits. The Juices of the four greater cold Seeds, as also from the Seeds of Poppies, Danewort, Henbane, Marjoram, &c. for Oily Seeds. The other Juices are drawn by the addition of some Liquor; which cannot be avoided when the parts of the Plant are dry by accident, or that they have not moisture enough in themselves. Such are the Juices of Senna, Rhubarb, Angelica, Liquorice, Hellebore, &c. which are drawn forth by the addition of Liquor, and which being filter'd, are evaporated over a small fire; to the consistency of an Extract, of which they bear the name, and of which I shall speak in the Third Part of this Pharmacopoea.

Generally we bruise in a Marble-Mortar, or made of some hard-stone, with a Pestle of Wood, the Herbs, the Flowers, the Fruits, the Seeds, out of which we intend to draw the Juices, and then put them into a strong Cloth, or Bag, and squeeze out the Juice, either with your hands, or in a Press between two flat-pieces of Tin, Iron, or Wood. Then we let the Juice stand for some days, or else we expose it some days to the Sun; and then we pour out the clearest softly by inclination; and keep it so, or else strain it through Hippocrates breeches; or through some cloth-strainer, if the Juice be not clear enough, or if it be aqueous. The Juices of Herbs which are to be first made use of, or which ought to be clarify'd and boil'd with Sugar, or honey, or to be mingl'd and boil'd with Oyntments, and Emplaisters, have no need of all this care. But the Wine-Juices of Fruits must be well-clarify'd. For they must first be expos'd to the Sun, then strain'd, to the end that by that heat and digestion, and by that straining the gros­ser parts of the Juice may be separated from the pure. These Juices are to be run through a bag, or rather through brown-paper, and they may be boil'd up with Sugar or honey, or be kept in bottles fill'd up within a small matter of the top; which vacancy must be fill'd with Oyl of sweet Almonds, to hinder the air from getting in and putrifying the Juice. However, after that, be careful to stop the bottles well, and to keep them in a place moderately cool, to make use of as occasion serves: At which time pour away the Oyl, and make use of the pure Juice, throwing away the feces. The Juices of Roses, and Peach-flowers, require the same care as the Wine-Juices.

Take notice that in drawing forth Acid red Juices, particularly that of Granates, you must do it in Glass-Vessels, or Gally-pots, or of glaz'd Earth, have your hands ve­ry clean, and take an especial care that no Iron come near it, for fear of spoiling the colour. The Juice and also the Syrup of Kermes require the same care, for they lose their colour in Vessels of Iron or Copper.

To draw forth the Juice of certain viscous Plants, such as are Purslain, Burrage, Bugloss, and the like, the best way which I have found, is to put them whole into a Copper-Bason, tinn'd within, over a moderate Charcoal-fire, and there to keep them, stirring them from time to time, till some part of the Juice be got together at the bot­tom of the Bason. Then separate this Juice by inclination; and set the Bason again up­on the fire, and continue to keep it there and to stir the herbs, and to separate the Juice [Page 54] by inclination, till you have Juice enough. By this means you will have less trouble, have sooner done, and the Juice shall be much more pure, then by bruising the Herbs. I refer the Oylie-juices of Fruits and Seeds till I come to speak of Squeez'd-oyls.

CHAP. II. Of Infusions, and Decoctions.

I Thought it best to discourse of Infusions and Decoctions immediatly after Juices, by means whereof the more succulent and essential parts of Medicaments are im­parted to the Liquors. Besides, Decoctions and Infusions are made use of in so many Galenical Compositions, that I deem'd it convenient to give some general Rules, be­fore I go any farther. They are sometimes made use of to soft'n and boyl Medica­ments, and sometimes to take away or correct some bad quality: but their chiefest use is to communicate their Vertue to some Liquor, and to unite and assemble in one Li­quor the Vertue of several Medicaments joyn'd together.

Infusions differ from Decoctions in degree of heat, and time in boyling. For Infu­sions are oft-times made without fire: and when there is any need of it, it must be very moderate, and require a long time; sometimes for several hours, sometimes for several days. Whereas Decoctions are at an end in a quarter, half, or a whole hour, and that the longest seldom exceed five or six hours. I have joyn'd these two Prepa­rations together, by reason of the great affinity which they have one with another; and for that many times Infusions precede Decoctions.

Decoctions differ according to the Substance of the Mixt-body which you are to boyl. For such Mixt-bodies as are of a compact substance and hard to penetrate, re­quire a longer boyling, then they that are of a middling substance; and these again require more boyling then those that are of a tender substance. The same diversity of Substances requires also less or more Liquor. For there must be more for Medica­ments that require long boyling, then for those that require less: For a long Deco­ction requires much moisture. The ordinary proportion is six times the weight of Liquor to the Substance boyl'd. But if the matters be of a compacted substance, you may make use of eight, nine or ten times the weight in Liquor. And if the Substances are very solid indeed, you may advance to twelve or sixteen times the weight of Liquor. You must also take notice that Medicaments of a compact Substance will endure a more violent fire and longer boyling then those of a middling or a tender Substance: and some there are which are not put into the Decoction, till you are ready to take it off the fire. Others there are which have only need of a bare Infusion to communicate their Vertue to the Liquor. So that it is absolutely necessary for an Apothecary to know the various Substances of Medicaments, to judge by that how he ought to regulate their In­fusion or Decoction; because that Prescriptions never mention the regulation of the Decoction, nor the degrees of fire, nor the length of time requisite for the Decoction, which is all left to the prudence of the Apothecary.

And now to proceed in order; When you are to make a Decoction of several Me­dicaments, you must begin with the most solid, such as are Woods, then put in Roots and Barks, after that Fruits; next to them Herbs, Berries and Seeds; Flowers must be reserv'd to the last. You must rasp, or bruise or cut very small the Woods, Roots and Barks, slit the Fruits, chop the Herbs, and bruise the Berries and Seeds, and put in the Flowers as they are.

This Rule however is not so general but that it may have its exception. For a wood of a thin and spungie Substance requires less boyling then a wood more close and solid. Barley whole endures as much boyling as wood. On the other side Aromatic-roots and woods will not endure long boyling; but the better parts will dissipate. Barks, Fruits and Aromatic-seeds, require only a bare Infusion. Liquorice-root is put in after the Herbs. The Maidenhairs, or Capillaries, at the same time with the Liquorice or immediately after. The Cold-seeds at the same time as the Flowers. The Flowers of the Water-Lilly endure as much boyling as the Herbs.

You must observe the same order in the Decoctions of Animals; for the Horns and Bones require longer boyling then the Flesh. Beef requires more boyling then Mutton, Mutton then Veal or Capon, and both more then young Pullet.

[Page 55]These general Rules will be much more demonstrable in the progress of these Dis­courses. And though the various examples of Decoction which you will meet with, might suffice, I will not omit to give you here certain Examples, which will serve for certain Decoctions, which have been prescrib'd without putting down the Medica­ments of which they ought to be compos'd.

A Cordial Decoction.
℞. Hordei integri, ℞. Whole Barley, 
Radicum Scorzonerae, Roots of Vipers-grass, 
Borraginis, Borrage, 
Bugloss. ana.℥ j.Bugloss, ana.℥ j.
Foliorum earundem Plantarum Of the Leaves of the same Plants, 
Endivia, Endive, 
Cichorei, Succorie, 
Oxytriphylli, an.M. j.Wood-Sorrel, an.M. j.
Capilli Veneris Monspeliensis,M. ss.Maidenhair of Montpelier,M. ss.
Liquoritiae rasae,ʒ ij.Liquorice slic'd,ʒ ij.
Quatuor Seminum Frigid. maj. mundat. ana.ʒ ss.The four greater Cold Seeds cleans'd, ana.ʒ ss.
Trium Florum cordialium, ana.Pug. ss.The three Cordial Flowers, ana.Pug. ss.
Fiat ex Arte decoctum in lb sex aquae fon­tanae ad tertiae partis consumptionem. Make a Decoction according to Art in six pints of Fountain-water, till the third part be consum'd 

Wash the Barley and boyl it a good quarter of an hour in the water, then put in the Roots; which must be well-wash'd, the pith tak'n out, and the out-side par'd off, and then slic'd. Boyl them with the Barley a good quarter of an hour, then put in the leaves of the Viper-grass, Burrage, Bugloss, Endive and Succorie, well-wash'd and cut. After you have boyl'd them a small quarter of an hour, with all the rest, add the Liquorice scrap'd and slic'd, the Wood-Sorrel, and the Venus-hair slightly cut; let them boyl a little, then put in the cold Seeds well-bruis'd and the cordial Flowers, and having plung'd them into the Decoction, take the Posset from off the fire, and strain the Liquor through Hippocrates's Breeches or a Wooll'n-cloth, when it is half-cold.

A Pectoral Decoction.
℞. Hordei mundati,℥ ss.℞. Cleans'd Barley,℥ ss.
Jujubarum, Jujubs, 
Sebesten. an.No. xij.Sebestens, an.No. xij.
Passularum ab acinis purgatarum,ʒ vj.Raisins of the Sun ston'd,ʒ vj.
Ficus pingues, Fat Figs, 
Dactylos enucleatos, an.No. vj.Ston'd Dates, an.No. vj.
Foliorum Scabiosae, Of the Leaves of Scabious, 
Pulmonariae, an.M. j.Lung-wort, an.M. 1.
Hyssopi, Hysop, 
Polytrichii, Gold'n-Maidenhair, 
Florum Tussilaginis, an.P. j.Flowers of Coltsfoot, an.P. j.
Glycyrrhizae,ʒ ij.Liquorice,ʒ ij.

Make a Decoction in four pints of Fountain-water to the consumption of the third part. Boyl the Barley a good quarter of an hour in the Water, then put in the Dates, the Raisins of the Sun, the Figs, the Jujubs and the Sebestens slic'd. Boyl all these Fruits with the Barley for another quarter of an hour; then put in the Scabious; Lung­wort and Hyssop cut: boyl them another quarter of an hour; after which, put in the Liquorice scrap'd and slic'd, the Golden-Maidenhair, and the Flowers of Coltsfoot; give them a little boyling, and then take them off from the fire, and strain the Deco­ction, when it is half cold.

[Page 56]

An Opening Hepatic Decoction.
℞. Radicum quinque aperientium, ℞. Of the five Opening Roots, 
Fragariae, Strawberrie-roots, 
Bugloss. an.ʒ vj.Bugloss-roots, an.ʒ vj.
Foliorum Endiviae, Leaves of Endive, 
Cichorei, Succorie, 
Lupuli, Hopps, 
Agrimoniae, Agrimonie, 
Pimpinellae, Pimpernel, 
Cerefolii, Chervil, 
Taraxaci, an.M. j.Dandelyon, an.M. j.
Capilli Veneris Monspel. Venus Maidenhair of Montpelier, 
Polytrici, an.M. ss.Golden-Maidenhair, an.M. ss.
Seminis Apis, Seeds of Parsley, 
Milii Solis, an.ʒ ij.Gromel, an.ʒ ij.
Semin. quatuor frig. Maj. mund. an.ʒ j.The 4 bigger cold Seeds cleans'd, an.ʒ j.
Glycyrrhizae,ʒ ij.Liquorice,ʒ ij.
Florum Buglossi, Flowers of Bugloss, 
Borraginis, Borrage, 
Genistae, an.Pug. j.Broom, an.Pug. j.

Make a Decoction according to Art in lb viij. of Fountain-water, to the consumpti­on of the third part.

Wash the Roots well, take out the pith and scrape their outsides, and having bruis'd and slic'd them, let them boyl half an hour in the Water. Then take the Hopps, the Endive, Succorie, Agrimonie, Dandelyon, Pimpernel and Chervil shred, and let them boyl about a quarter of an hour with the Roots. Then add the Seeds of Parsley and Gromel stamp'd, and having let them boyl never so little, put in the Liquorice slic'd and bruis'd, and presently after the cold Seeds bruis'd and the Flowers; put them down into the Decoction, and at the same time take it off, and strain it when it is half cold.

A Cephalic Decoction.
℞. Radicum Valerianae majoris, ℞. Roots of the bigger Valerian, 
Icreos Florentinae, Florence Orrice, 
Paeoniae maris, Male-Peonie, 
Acori veri, The true Aromatical Reed, 
Visci Quercini, an℥ ss.Misleto of the Oak, an.℥ ss.
Foliorum Betonicae, Flowers of Betony, 
Salviae, Sage, 
Majoranae, Marjoram, 
Calaminthae Montanae, Mountain-Calamint, 
Chamadryos, an.M. j.Germander, an.M. j.
Seminum Rutae, Seeds of Rue, 
Paeoniae maris, Male-Peonie, 
Baccarum Juniperi, an.ʒ ij.Juniper-Berries, an.ʒ ij.
Florum Rorismarini, Flowers of Rosemary, 
Stoechados, Cassidonie, 
Lavendulae, Lavender, 
Calendulae, Marigolds, 
Lillii Convallium, an.P. j.Lillies of the Vallies, an.P. j.
Tartari crudi,j.Raw-Tartar,j.

Make a Decoction according to Art in lb vj. of Fountain-water to the consumption of the fourth part.

The Raw-Tartar is prescrib'd in this Decoction, as well to communicate to the Wa­ter the vertue of the Medicaments therein prescrib'd, as to retain in some sort their volatile parts; and to prevent dissipation during the Decoction. And though I do not contradict the opinion of those that would avoid boyling the parts of Aromatic Plants, especially in uncover'd Vessels; nevertheless I believe we may yet allow something to [Page 57] the ancient Customs, provided there be requisite care tak'n. The Roots of Peonie, Valerian, Orrice and Acorus are to be well bruis'd, as also the Misletoe of the Oak, and the raw Tartar, and then put into an Earthen glaz'd pot, with the quantity of water prescrib'd: and having cover'd the pot, boyl the Decoction over a gentle fire, during a small quarter of an hour; then put in the cut Herbs, and covering the pot, let them boil a quarter of an hour longer: then put in the berries and seeds, and cover the pot again, and after having given them four or five wambles more, put down the flow­ers into the Decoction, cover the pot, and take it off from the fire; and when it is half cold, strain it gently from the sediment.

CHAP. III. Of Juleps, and Apozems.

I Shall not go about here to set down the Juleps of Roses, and Violets of the Ancients, nor any other of the same Nature, as being now out of use; their consistency and name being now chang'd into those of Syrups. I shall only say that the name of Ju­lep has been formerly given to certain liquid compositions, made with distill'd Wa­ters, or slight Decoctions, which are boil'd with Sugar, to a consistency much thinner then that of Syrups: For they had no design to keep them, but prepar'd them as they had occasion. The name of Julep is still now-a-days giv'n to certain Remedies, which have some agreement with the Juleps of the Ancients; but they are less sweetn'd with Sugar, and less fit to keep: For usually they never put above an ounce of Sugar, or an ounce and a half of some Syrups, to six or eight ounces of some distill'd Waters, of some decoction, or some other Liquor. We never boil these Liquors with the Sugar or Syrups, but only mingle them together when they are to be given to the patient, who may drink them as their ordinary drink, abating some thing of the quantity of Su­gar and Syrups mix'd therewith. All these Juleps may be made tart with Spirits or A­cid Juices. But they will not keep above twenty-four hours in the Summer in a cool place, and not above two or three days in the Winter.

Apozems are Medicines very near the Nature of Juleps: But they admit of a great­er Number of Medicaments, which render them less pleasing. They are seldom com­pos'd of any thing but the Decoctions of the various parts of plants. And hence it is, that they have deriv'd their Name. For the Greek word [...], signifies to boil, from whence [...], Decoctum, or, a thing boil'd. I could insert here several Examples, but I refer the Reader to the Decoctions of the preceding Chapter, which may be call'd Apozems. We may add purgative Medicines to these Decoctions, and dissolve therein several Syrups, as they are intended for this or t'other Disease.

CHAP. IV. Of Emulsions and Almond-Milks.

EMulsions are liquid Medicines very pleasing to the taste, whose colour and consisten­cy is very like to that of Milk. They are usually compos'd of Seeds, or Oily Fruits, beat'n in a Marble-Mortar, with a Woodd'n-pestle, and then dissolv'd in di­still'd Waters, or in slight Decoctions, which you must strain and press out, and sweeten with Sugar or Syrups.

Emulsions are prepar'd for several purposes, especially to temper the excessive heat of the Lungs, and of all the Brest; to take off the sharpness and acrimony of the humours, and to asswage the boiling of the Blood, the heat of the Urine, and the Reins. For which reason they are us'd not only in stoppages of the Urine, and in Gonorrhea's, but also in Inflammations of the Natural parts of those that are troubl'd with Venereal Distempers. They are also successfully us'd to temper the excessive heat of the Entrails, and to pro­voke sleep and rest. Emulsions are also very proper to sweet'n the Acrimony of the Humours in Dysenteries, to asswage pains, and heal Excoriations. Of all which [Page 58] things it will be convenient to give some examples; and first, for the Distempers of the Lungs, and Brest.

Amygdal. dulcium mund.℥ j.℞ Sweet Almonds cleans'd,℥ j.
Seminum 4. frig. maj. Mundat. Bombacis, an.ʒ ij.The four greater cold Seeds cleans'd▪ Bombax, an.ʒ ij.
Contundantur in Mortareo Marmoreo Pestillo Ligneo, sensim affundendo, aqua Tussi­laginis, Scabiosae, Papaveris, Rhoeados, vel decocti hordei, Passularum Mundat. & Liquoritiae, lb j ss. Colentur & Exprimantur. Expressioni adde Syr. Violar. et Capill. Vene­ris, an. ℥ j ss. fiat emulsio pro tribus dosibus, longe a pastu sumend. Bruise these in a Marble-Mortar, with a Woodd'n Pestle, pouring by little and lit­tle upon them, Colts-foot, Scabious, wild Poppy-water, or decoction of Barley, Ston'd-Raisins, and Liquorice, lb j. ss, strain and press them out. To the liquor prest forth, add Syrup of Violets and Ve­nus-hair, an. ℥ j. ss. Make an emulsion for three doses to be taken a good distance be­fore or after Meals. 

If Acrimony of humours, boiling of the blood, want of rest and sleep, accompany Diseases of the Lungs and brest, you may add to the Emulsions two drams of white Poppy-seed, and as much Lettice-seed, and change the Syrup of Violets, and Venus-hair into those of White-poppy and Water-Lillies.

And if you would prepare Emulsions against the heat and difficulties of Urine, whe­ther caus'd by strange substances contain'd in the Reins, or in the Ureters, or in the blad­der, or through any ill temper of the parts, or through any Venereal Malignity: then observe what follows.

℞. Seminum 4. frig. maj. mundat, ℞. Of the four greater cold seeds cleans'd, 
Milii solis Gromel and 
Papav. Alb. an.ʒ iijWhite-Poppy-seed, an.ʒ iij.
Contundantur in Marmoreo Mortareo, sen­sim affundendo, Decocti Radicum Althea et Nymphaeae, lb j. ss. Colentur & Exprimantur: Expressioni adde Syrupi de Althea & Nym­phaea, an. ℥ j. ss. Salis Prunel. ʒ iij. fiant tres doses longe a pastu exhibend. Bruise them in a Marble-Mortar with a woodd'n-pestle, pouring by little and little upon them, a pint and a half of the deco­ction of the Roots of Marsh-mallows and Water-Lillies: strain and press them, add to the straining Syrup of Mallows, and Water-Lillies, an. ℥ j. ss. Sal-prunella, ʒ iij. Make three doses, to be given a good while before or after Meals. 

Emulsions against the Dysenterie may be thus prepar'd.

℞. Amygdal. dulc. excorticatarum,℥ j.℞. Sweet Almonds blanch'd,℥ j.
Seminum Sumach, Seeds of Sumach, 
Lactucae, Lettice, 
Papaveris Alb. White-Poppy, 
Cydoniorum, anʒ ij.Quinces, an.ʒ ij.
Contundantur in Mortareo Marmoreo, sen­sun affundendo, decoct. hordei mundat. Portulacae & Veronicae, vel [...]q [...]. Plantaginis, Rosarum, & Veronicae, lb j. ss Colentur & Expriman­tur: Expressioni adde Syrup. Cydoniorum & Papaveris Albi, an. ℥ j. ss fiant tres doses ho­ris commodis ogg [...]rend [...]. Bruise all these in a Marble-Mortar, pouring upon them by degrees one pint ss of the Decoction of cleans'd Barley, Pur­slain, and Speed-well, or of the waters of Plantain, Roses, and Speed-well. Strain and press them: To the straining add Syrup of Quinces and white-Poppy, ℥ j. ss make three doses to be tak'n at convenient hours. 

[Page 59]The Following Emulsions are proper to kill Worms.

℞. Nucleorum Persicorum Excorticatorum,℥ ss℞. Of the Kernels of Peaches, the Husks tak'n off,℥ ss
Seminum Citri, Seeds of Citron, 
Portulacae, Purslain, 
Contra vermes, an.ʒ ij.Wormseed, an.ʒ ij.
Contundantur in Mortareo Marmoreo, sen­sim affundendo aquarum stillatitiarum Naphae & Portulacae, an. ℥ vj. vel decocti Radicis Graminis, & Rasurae Cornu-cervi, lb j. Co­lentur & Exprimantur, Expressioni adde Sy­rupi de Limonibus, ℥ ij. fiant duae vel tres, vel quatuor Emulsionis doses, longe a pastu sumend. Melius succedent, si Lunae decursu exhibe­antur. Bruise them in a Marble-Mortar, pour­ing upon them by degrees, of the distill'd waters of Orange-flowers, and Purslain, an. ℥ vj. or of the Decoction of the Roots of Grass, and shavings of Harts horn, lb j. strain and press them out. To the strain­ing add Syrup of Lemons, ℥ ij. make two or three, or four Doses of Emulsion, to be tak'n at a good distance from Meals. They will do better being taken in the Wane of the Moon. 

Almond-Milks, Butters are easie to make; known to, and made use of by several Ladies, that regard their health, and to keep themselves plump.

The usual way is to prepare them of two ounces of blanch'd-Almonds, which must be stamp'd exactly in a Marble-Mortar with a Woodd'n-Pestle, afterwards dissolv'd in eight or ten ounces of the decoction of barley cleans'd, or in the Water where Veal or Pullets have been boyl'd. Then strain and press the whole, and add to the straining an ounce of fine Sugar, and never so little Rose-water, or if you please, Orange-flower­water. You may add an ounce of Syrup of Violets, Water-Lillies, or White-poppy instead of Sugar if there be occasion.

CHAP. V. Of Potions, Mixtures, and Bolus's.

POtions are so call'd, because they are to be drank. The Materials of them are very various, by reason of the different Indications, Judgements, and insight of them that prescribe them; for that may be call'd a Potion which is as ill prepar'd, as that which is well prescrib'd, and as well prepar'd. Besides Purgative-Potions are as well to be accompted potions, as those which are accompted Astringent or Cordial, Sudo­rific, or Diuretic, &c. As Potions are not made without liquors; those which are made use of are sometimes simple, as fair Water, Wine, Milk, Whey, &c. and sometimes waters distill'd, Infusions, Tinctures, Decoctions, Juices, &c. Sometimes several liquors are mingled, one among another. Sometimes also to these liquors are added Powders, Salts, Opiates, Confections, Magisteries, Elyxirs, Oyls, Essences, &c. Juleps, Apozems, Emulsions, Almond-Milks, and Diets, may be call'd Potions as well as Medicines. We also prepare Potions Emetick, Diaphoretic, Pectoral, Cephalic, Somniferous, Anodynes, Aperitives, Diuretics, Cordials, Stomachical, Hepatical, Splenetic, Hysteric, Vulnerary, Arthritick, Carminative, Dysenteric, and for several o­ther purposes: So that Potions may be made after a thousand fashions for every Di­sease, since we may make use of various Remedies and different Doses according to the intention of the Physician.

That which many modern Physicians call Mixture, may be reckon'd in the same rank with Potions. But Mixtures differ in this from Potions, that their use is more frequent and longer, and because there is not so much drank of them at a time; for being com­pos'd of powerful Medicines, they operate in less quantity, and work those effects by repetition, which could hardly be done at once taking. These Mixtures are usually a mixture of distill'd Waters, more or less, compounded of Elixirs, distill'd-Oyls, vola­tile, fix'd, or Essential Salts, Spirits, Tinctures, Essences, Extracts, pretious Stones, [Page 60] Syrups, and many other Remedies, well-chosen, and well-proportion'd in their Doses, which are to be taken from time to time in a little Spoon, in the Intervals between the Patients meals.

The difference of Mixtures may be very great, according to the diversity and com­plication of Diseases, and the Judgement of the Physicians, that prescribe them. Mixtures are also sometimes made of a more thick consistency, not much unlike that of ordinary Opiates, which is for the accommodation of such Patients, as cannot take Remedies in Drink. These Medicines may be compos'd of the same Medicaments made use of in the preceding mixtures, excepting the Liquors, instead whereof we put Conserves or Confections: They are given upon the point of a Knife, or wrapt up in Wafers, or otherwise.

Bolus's are internal Remedies, usually a little more solid then Opiates; invented meerly for the benefit of such Patients as cannot indure to swallow liquid drinks, or cannot away with their scent or taste. They are also profitable to make the best advan­tage for the swallowing of certain Medicines, whose weight would keep them always at the bottom of the Glass, were they mingl'd in liquor, as in several preparations of Mercury and Antimony: There may be as much diversity in Bolus's, as in Potions. They make them of Electuaries, Confections, Conserves, Pulps, Powders, Salts, Oyls, Essences, Extracts, Syrups, and an infinite sort of Medicines, of which there must be some that are solid and dry enough to thicken those that are too liquid, or too soft. Bolus's are taken usually a good while before meals, sometimes upon the point of a Knife, but generally wrapt up in Wafers, powder'd Sugar, or powder of Liquorice, Fruits roasted or raw, or some confection, or other substance that prevents the Bolus from being either smelt or tasted.

CHAP. VI. Of Gargarismes, Masticatories, and Errbines, or Tents to put up into the Nostrils.

GArgarisms, are liquid Medicines, design'd for Diseases of the Throat, Mouth, Pa­late, and Gums, as also to free the Head from excessive moisture. They are u­sually compos'd of distill'd waters or decoctions, wherein they mix sometimes Salts, sometimes Spirits, Syrups, Honeys, Vinegar, and sometimes several Juices. Gargarisms are never swallow'd, but only gargl'd and held for some time in the mouth, then spit out again, continuing the use thereof as long and as often as necessity requires. These Gargarisms are as well known, and as usual as any other sort of Medicine, and there are enough to be found in several Authours, to spare the swelling of these Sheets.

Masticatories, are also call'd Apophlegmatismes, because their chief work is to bring down flegm from the Brain. For which purpose we make use of several simple Drugs, and particularly of divers parts of Plants, as roots of Orrice, Pellitory of Spain, Cyperus, or English Galenga, true Acorus, or Aromatic-reed, Grains of Staves-acre, Cubebs, Cardamom, all the Peppers, Mustard, Rocket, Sage, Rosemary, Mastick, Time, Savory, Tobacco, &c. which Medicines being chaw'd, by their heat and acrimony have a peculiar qualitie to draw down flegm from the Brain, and to void it by the mouth. Tro­chisques may be also made thereof by pulverizing them, and incorporating them with Oxymel, or Syrup of Cassidony, to hold in the mouth, and to masticate when they are dry: or else to make thereof a kind of paste, to tye up in a Linnen-Cloth like a knot and so to champ them between the teeth.

Errhines are so call'd, as being Medicines design'd to be put up into the Nostrils. They were invented for the same use as Apophlegmatismes. But they operate with more force, because they carry their vertue directly to the Brain, through the Conduits of the Nostrils, and powerfully stir up and move the Expulsive faculty. Errhines are sometimes liquid, and proper to be snufft up through the Nostrils; sometimes in Pow­der, to be either snufft up, or blown into the Nostrils; sometimes like a thin Oynt­ment, and sometimes like a Tent small at one end. Liquid Errhines are usually made of the Juices of Marjoram, Betony, Sage, Roots of Beets, Sow-bread, Orrice, &c. Or of [Page 61] the Decoctions of the same Plants, or of Lettice, or Lillies of the Valleys. The Pow­ders are made of Marjoram, Betony, Orrice, Nicotian, Oleander, Colts-foot, white-Ellebore, and Euphorbium, upon some extraordinary accompts: Those that are made up in Liniments will admit the same things into their compositions; and must be incor­porated with Oyl of Roses or Orrice, and a little wax, or with Oyl of Laurel. The more solid Errhines are chiefly to stop bleeding at the Nose: They are usually compos'd of Balausts, or the Flowers of the wild-Pomgranate-tree, of Bole of the East, Ter­ra sigillata, Mastick, and Man's-blood or Swines-blood dry'd; or of some such kind of astringent Medicaments pulveriz'd, and incorporated with the white of an Egg or Down of a Hare, to make Tents thereof to be put up and held in the Nose. Some there are that make an addition of white-Vitriol.

CHAP. VII. Of Injections, and Pessaries.

INjections are liquid Medicines sometimes injected into the private parts of Nature, and sometimes into wounds: Clysters may be also call'd Injections. The ingredi­ents are different, according to the difference of the Distemper. Wine, Distill'd­waters, Lime-waters, Sea-waters, Spirit of Wine, Milk, Whey, Oyls, Balsoms, and several other Liquors; as also several Juices, and divers Decoctions and Infusions of several parts of Plants, and several Minerals. Usually Syringes are made use of for the application of these Injections, and they must be always warm'd before they be us'd. Sometimes several Ingredients and Preparations are dissolv'd in these Liquors, as Salts, Powders, Extracts, Syrups, Honeys, Trochisques, Gums, Elixirs, and several other things, according as necessity requires. Sometimes also we dip Tents, Feathers and Bolsters into Injections for the cure of Wounds.

Under the name of Pessaries, are comprehended all Medicines not liquid, which are put up into the Secret-parts of Women. But by the word Pessary, strictly tak'n, is to be understood a sort of solid Medicine, about a fingers length, sometimes somewhat bigger, which is put up into the Secret-parts with a Riband fasten'd to one end. These Pessaries are made pyramidical, round, close and smooth, for fear of hurting the parts. These Remedies are prepar'd for several purposes; the chief of which are to pro­voke the menstruum's, or to stop them: to hinder the falling down of the Matrix, to cure Fluxes against Nature, or to heal Ulcers, or other mischiefs that may happ'n to those parts. The Body of the Pessary is made of some slight polish'd-wood, or some piece of Linnen made up close and hard; cover'd with a kind of Sheath of Velvet, or some other Silk-stuff, the seams whereof cannot hurt. Then fill the Velvet with Cotton or Wool, that it may be as hard as if it were of Wood or Cork; and daub all the outside of the Pessary with some Liniment, or some other mixture proper for your pur­pose. Pessaries may be also made of Lead, hollow like a little Cane, and cover'd with Velvet, like the former. In all which there must be a difference observ'd between Maids and Women; as well in reference to the hardness, as the bigness of Pessaries, appro­priating the lesser and softer to the first.

Aromaticks that are sweet and free from acrimonie are very proper to render Pessa­ries effectual: whether it be to consume the vapours of the Matrix, or to op'n the passa­ges, and to provoke the menstruums: For we observe that good Smells seem to comfort that part. For which reason such Liniments where Musk, Ambergrise, Civet, and other good Smells are mix'd, are successfully us'd upon those occasions. Though you must be very careful not to let them come near the Noses of some Persons, upon whom those Sweet-smells would work a contrary effect. The Bodies of Pessaries prepar'd to stop the menstruum's, are made up with astringent powders, very finely pulveriz'd, in­corporated with Wax and Oyl of Mastick melted together, fill'd into some piece of thin Taffaty, and anointed without-side with the same Oyl. These Pessary's are very good to stop extraordinary losses of Blood, and the falling of the Matrix. If the Pessaries are design'd for the cure of any Ulcer, or any other disease in the neck of the Matrix, the Pessary must be anointed with some Linement or convenient Medicine in that part which is most able to reach it.

CHAP. VIII. Of Clysters, and Suppositories.

CLysters, call'd by the Greeks Enemata, are also Injections, and liquid Medicines, injected through the Fundament into the Intestines, for the cure or ease of several Maladies. They are call'd Clysters or Washings, because their use is to wash the Intestines.

Clysters are prepar'd for several purposes, sometimes to cool the Intestines, some­times to moist'n them; sometimes to soft'n and soak the harden'd excrements, or to stir up the expulsive Faculty, to dispel the wind, to asswage pains, to facilitate the Ex­pulsion of the Urine, to draw forth or kill the Worms, to ease Women in Labour; to provoke their menstruum's, and to appease Hysteric-passions, to asswage tormenting Gripes, and to make a diversion of Humours or Vapours, which flie to the Head, Sto­mach, Brest, Reins, or any other parts of the Body.

Clysters are usually compos'd of the Decoctions of Roots, Herbs, Seeds and Flowers, of different vertue, according to the intention of the Physician. The Decoctions are for the most part made in fair Water, but many times in Milk, Whey, Meat­broths, ordinary Spanish-wine, Urine, Oxycrat, Hydromel, and several other Li­quors. And besides the ordinary Roots and Flowers, which are boyl'd for Clysters, many times there is an occasion to mixe Laxatives, such as are Senna, Coloquintida, Rhubarb, and many others, and to dissolve therein the Strain'd-decoctions of Opiats, Honeys, Syrups, Sugar, Salts, Yolks of Eggs, Turpentine, Oyls, Extracts, and many other things, which it would be too tedious to repeat. The forms of Clysters are so familiar, that it is to no purpose to insert them.

Suppositories are solid Medicines about the length and bigness of the little Finger, round and pyramidical. They were invented for the convenience of those who have an aversion to Clysters, or of such whose Sickness and constitution will not admit of them. The ordinary ingredient of Suppositories is Common-honey, Bay-salt, Salt-gemme, or Aloes, or Coloquintida in powder, or some Hiera, or Laxative Electuary. Some­times Suppositories of Sope cut round and small at the end will suffice. Some there are that make use of Muscardins, or bits of Paste made of Gum-Tragacanth, Rose-water and Musk. So that in these things every one is at liberty to make choice of what he likes best.

CHAP. IX. Of Wines.

ALL the World knows that the Grape is the Fruit of the Vine; and that Wine is the Juice of the Grape; but this Juice would not be true Wine, did it not undergo a Fermentation; and if the subtle parts had not by that means been separated from the grosser, and by that means were not become capable of operating as they do: Not that their Fermentation gives to the subtle parts of the Wine their utmost purity. For that requires other means, as you shall hear in the third part of this Work; and there­fore I shall here at present only describe the preparation of two sorts of Wine most in use, the first of which may serve as an Example how to prepare any other.

Vinum Absinthii.Wormwood Wine.
℞. Summitat. floridarum siccarum Absin­thii majoris vel minoris Fasc. j. Incide & im­mitte in doliolum, quod pintas Parisienses quin­quaginta aut circiter contineat. Impleatur do­lium succo Racemorum recenter expresso, & re­ponatur in Cella vinaria ad fermentationem, qua per acta, quod per fermentationem deperditum est Vino suppleatur, & diligenter dolio obtu­rato, servetur Vinum.℞. Of the Flowrie drie-tops of the big­ger or lesser Wormwood, Fasc. j. Shred them and put them into a little Vessel contain­ing fifty pints of Paris, or thereabouts. Fill the Vessel with the Juice or Vine-clusters newly press'd forth, and set the Vessel into a Wine-Cellar to ferment. The Fermentati­on being over, supply the waste of the Fer­mentation with Wine: then carefully stop­ping up the Vessel, keep the Wine.

[Page 63]They that can endure the bitterness of Great-Wormwood, may make choice of it for the preservation of this Wine: But the nicer sort choose the little, whose vertues are no less then those of greater. Take the Flowerie-tops, and having weigh'd out the quan­tity prescrib'd, shred them and put them into a little Bag, which is to be so fasten'd to the bung-hole, as to hang in the midst of the Liquor. Place the Vessel in the Cellar, fill it with the Juice of clusters newly squeez'd, and let it stand for two months, during which time the Wine will ferment and be fully charg'd with the smell, taste and vertues of the Wormwood. When the Ebullition of the Wine is over, fill up with white­wine, burnt-wine, or Spanish-wine the waste of the Fermentation: Then stop up the Tub, and keep the Wine for your use.

The Juice of the New-gather'd-grapes is to be preferr'd before all sorts of Wine, for the preparation of Wormwood-wine, and of all compound Wines; because that Juice being newly squeez'd forth, by subtilizing and disengaging it self from its terre­strial parts by Fermentation, penetrates more inwardly the ingredients which are put into it; and operates more effectually then a wine could do already fermented, whose subtle parts are subject to dissipation. For this Juice loses nothing to speak of in its Fermentation with the Wormwood; but the same flegm which the ordinary wine loses in its own. And in the mean time by means of the heat which the Fermentative­spirits excite in it, it is better able to penetrate the body of the wormwood, and to charge it self with its vertue, then otherwise it would be. By this means also it may be kept a long while, provided the Vessel were full and close stopt.

Wormwood-wine is very much commended against the Diseases of the Stomach and Liver, especially proceeding from a cold cause. It dissipates wind and crudities, it helps and increases the appetite, kills worms, resists putrefaction; helps conco­ction and distribution of the nourishment, and consumes bad humours. It brings down the vapours that rise from the Matrix▪ and op'ns its obstructions, and is very proper for the Green-sickness, and to provoke the menstruums. Take three or four ounces in a morning fasting, for several days, as you find it requisite.

Vinum Stibiatum, vulgò Emeticum.Stibiated Wine, vulgarly Emetic; or apt to provoke vomiting.
℞. Vitri aut Reguli Antimonii, vel si lubet, Croci Metallorum, aut Magnesiae Opalina subtilissime pulveratorum, ℥ iij. Vini Hispa­nici. aut Vini albi generosi pintas duas Parisi­enses. In Lagena Vitrea simul collocentur, probéque obturato vase in loco temperato per [...]ctiduum macerentur, & saepius agitentur, si­mulque tandem serventur, ut usus tempore Vi­num Clarum Antimonium supernatans, per in­clinationem effundi & sumi possit.℞. Of Glass, Regulus of Antimony, or if you had rather, Crocus Metallorum, or Magnesia Opalina, finely powder'd ℥ iij. Spanish-wine or strong French-white-wine two Paris-pints: Put them together in a Glass-bottle, and the Bottle being carefully stopp'd, let them macerate eight days in a temperate place, and let them be oft'n stirr'd; and at length let them be all kept together, that when it is to be us'd, the clear wine that swims above the Antimony, may be pour'd forth by inclination, and so tak'n.

Having Glass or Regulus of Antimony, or Magnesia Opalina, well prepar'd and finely beat'n upon a mortar, it is an easie thing to prepare Emetic-wine. For it is sufficient to get a good Glass-bottle, and to put the prepar'd Antimony into it, and to pour the prescrib'd quantity of wine into it, then to stop up the Bottle, to set it in a temperate place, to shake it from time to time for seven or eight days together, and to keep the wine and the Antimony together in a Bottle well-stopp'd, to make use of as occasion serves, pouring out by inclination, and taking the clear wine that swims above the Antimony, to such a quantity as is requisite; taking care not to raise the bottom, for fear some part of the Antimony should mixe with the wine. Upon which this observation is to be made, That the prescrib'd dose of wine and Antimony need not be too religiously observ'd. For though there should be a little more or a little less of the one or of the other, it would not signifie much, since oft'n Experience teaches us that the wine takes to it self no more of the vertue of the Antimony, then it is able to receive; and that the lying with the Antimony one, two or more months, as the wine might do, renders it nothing more strong then that which has lain but eight days, if it be oft'n shak'n.

[Page 64]You shall observe also that the same powder of Antimony, upon which the wine has staid a long time, and which has imparted its Emetic and Purgative Quality to it, is still able to impart as much vertue to more new wine, if macerated with it, and that after that wine is sufficiently strong of the Antimony, and spent, the same Powder will serve again several times for the same use. And that if you be but careful always to pour out the wine gently, and to take always only the clear, you shall find very near the same weight of the powder as at the first maceration; which is more confirm'd by the trial which we make of Cups of Regulus of Antimony, which will give a Purgative and Emetic Quality to the wine, which shall be fill'd and kept in them but for some few hours: and then again bequeath the same vertues to new wine in the same space of time, and will still afford the same qualities to other wine, as long as the life of one, or several men continues to make tryal of it, without perceiving in the Cup any diminution of its weight or vertue.

Emetic Wine purges upwards and downwards ill humours, especially those that are bred in the Stomach. It operates with more or less violence according to the consti­tution of those that take it, or according to the superfluity or small quantity of matter which it meets with. And therefore it is much more proper for persons that are full of humours, then for those that are not so much troubled with them, and it is better at the beginning then at the end of a sickness, when the Patient is weak. It may be given alone from one, to two, three, or four ounces, a good distance before Meals, ac­cording to the Age, Strength, and Nature of the Disease. It may be mingled also a­mong Purgatives. Where note, that if the Purgatives are too strong and exceed in quantity the Emetick-wine, then it acts as they act, and works only downwards. But if it surmount the Purgatives in quantity and strength, it constrains them to work as that does, upwards and downwards.

Emetic-wine is never giv'n to those that are narrow-Chested, nor to those that are hard to vomit, or if there be any fear of any Inflammation of the Bowels.

CHAP. X. Of Vinegars.

VVE may say of Vinegar, that the first Original of it is the Juice of Grapes, as well as of Wine. But the Juice of the Grape must be made Wine by Fer­mentation before it can be turn'd into Vinegar. And though Vinegar may be made of Beer or Cider, as also of water; I hold, that good and true Vinegar is only to be made of Wine. Some attribute the only cause of the acidity of Vinegar to the dissipation of the volatile Spirits of the Wine. But it seems that they have not sufficiently examin'd this business. For they that know the Nature and Original of acids, and the effects which they are able to act upon Salts and Spirits, especially upon volatiles, will as much attribute to them the turning of Wine into Vinegar, as to the absence of the volatile Spirit of Wine. For although before this alteration, some part of the Spirit of Wine may chance to be dissipated, yet we are to believe, that the corruption which happens to wine, happens through the disproportion of its parts, and that the excess of the acid is the chief cause of turning wine into Vinegar. For so long as the flegm, the volatile and tartarous parts which contain the acid, keep nigh a just proportion together, the Wine continues good. But when any one of those parts predominates, there must of necessity happen some corruption, which proves to be more or less according to the Quantity and Nature of the part which predominates, which causes very great diffe­rences in the decay of the Wine. For when the Wine decays through excess of flegm, it grows greasie, and turns. But though the flegm be able to enervate the force of the volatile part of the Wine by its own corruption, and by its excess, it can­not nevertheless destroy it, as it destroys almost entirely the tartarous acid part. Whence it comes to pass, that though no good Vinegar can be made of Wines grown greasie, and turn'd; Yet in Distillation you may draw from hence as much vola­tile Spirit, as from Wines neither greasie nor sowr. And you might draw from hence altogether quite as much, but that the abundance of flegm, which caus'd the corruption of the Wine, in part takes up the place of the volatile Spirit. The excess of the volatile Spirit happ'ns very rarely to Wine, and though it should exceed the other parts in [Page 65] quantity, as it is very able to preserve it self without them, it would never corrupt them, but would make the Wine violent and reaking, so that it would be less serviceable for common use, and would intoxicate sooner: But when the Tartarous part sur­mounts, it draws to it the nitrous part of the Air, which is in some sort Homogeneous to it, and multiplying it self by a little and a little, instead of chasing away the volatile Spirit, which it has surmounted in quantity, it unites it self strictly to it, to make it in some measure conformable to its own Nature, while the flegm is no longer able to tem­per the acid which has got the upper hand of it. Vinegars by their acidity slack'n the activity of the Salts, and volatile Spirits; joyning themselves to them, and altering their action; and are successfully made use of in Distempers caus'd by the Salts, and vola­tile Spirits, or by humours that participate of their Nature, chiefly Choleric humours, to which purpose acid Fruits and Juices are usually administred with good success.

Acetum Rosatum.Vinegar of Roses.
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum exungulatarum Sic­carum, lb j. Aceti acerrimi, lb viij. Vase Vi­treo bene obturato excipiantur per quindecim aut viginti dies insolentur; deinde colentur & exprimantur. Colatura cum pari Rosarum Pon­dere in eodem vase iterum per idem tempus in­soletur, coletur & exprimatur, & servetur a­cetum.℞. Of dry red Roses, the white being nipt off, one pound; of very tart Vine­gar, lb viij. Put them into a Glass-Vessel well stopp'd; set them in the Sun for fif­teen or twenty days, then strain and press them out. Let the straining be again set in the Sun during the same time, with the like weight of Roses. Let it be strain'd and press'd out, and let the Vine­gar be kept.

Take the great buds of Provence-Roses, and cut away the white part at the bottom. Dry the red part in the hot Sun, if it may be done, at least in the Air, as soon as possi­ble may be. Take a pound of Roses thus dry'd, and put them into a strong glass-bot­tle; upon which you must pour eight pints of good Vinegar, and having stopt the bot­tle, expose it to the Sun for fifteen days or three weeks; then strain and press out the whole, and return the straining to the same Vessel, over a pound of fresh Roses; then stop up the bottle, and expose it to the Sun as long as before: then strain the Vinegar and squeeze the Roses, and keep the Vinegar for your use. You may, if you please, leave the Roses in the Vinegar, and strain it only when you have occasion for it.

Vinegar of Roses is as much us'd in Dyet, as in Physick. It cuts, cleanses, tempers, it gives an appetite, it provokes sleep being apply'd to the Fore-head, it removes the Acrimony of the fix'd Salts, it moderates the activity of the volatile, it kills the Worms, stays Vomiting, stays the Operation of Purgatives, cools Inflammations, assists Expecto­rations, and loosens Flegm, stops the Piles being taken inwardly, and applied outwardly; resists Putrefaction, and is good to smell to in noisome and Pestilential seasons. It is mix'd among several Liquors, as also in Liniments, Unguents and Emplaisters.

Vinegar of Roses may serve as an example for the making of several Vinegars, made of Flowers, as of Elder, Gilli-flowers, Rosemary, Sage, Marigolds, &c. But because these flowers do not abound so much in moisture as the Rose, you may take the pains to dry them, or at least to half-dry them, not to dissipate their good parts.

Acetum Scilliticum.Vinegar of Squills.
℞. Scillas duas molis mediocris, quarum cor­ticem externum, & cor medium cultro Arundi­naceo eximes, Laminas inter cor & Corticem existentes in partes divides, & soli per multos dies ad humidi superflui consumptionem expo­nes. Harum lb j. in lagenam capacem immit­tes, illique superfundes Aceti Albi Acerrimi, vel potius Spiritus Aceti, lb viij. Lagenam obturabis, & per quadraginta dies radiis Sola­ribus expones. Colatis deinde, & expressis Laminis, Acetum servabis ad usum.℞. Two Sea-Onions of an indifferent bigness, peel off the outward Rind, and take out the heart with a knife made of a Reed; the thin slices between the out­most skin and the heart divide into parts, and expose them for many days to the Sun, till the superfluous moisture be consum'd. Of those put a pound into a large stone-Jug, and pour upon them eight pints of very sharp White Vinegar▪ or rather Spirit of Vinegar. Stop the Jug, and set it in the Sun for forty days. Then having strain'd and squeez'd the thin slices, keep the Vinegar for your use.

[Page 66]They that have travelled into Spain and Portugal, have there met with two sorts of true Sea-Onions, one of which being white, is call'd the Male; the other being red is call'd the Female. The white is usually somewhat the lesser: it is in taste like the red one, but a little thought more tart: However the vertues of both are the same. These Squills are Onions that grow by the Sea-shore, the Root whereof is large, short, close, and bended. In the Months of August and September, they put forth a round, sleek, shi­ning stalk altogether bare, of a whitish colour enclining to Grideline, as big as a Man's finger, about two Cubits high, surrounded at the top with several little white-flowers en­clining to purple, growing like an Ear; after which follows a black-seed like that of or­dinary Onions which is ripe in October and November. The leaves of both Squills are like those of a Flower-de-luce, but bigger; they begin to sprout forth in November and December, and grow dry and die in May or June. The white is accounted better then the red because of the colour.

The drying of the slices was only intended to correct any ill quality which may be in them; for as much as all that is dissipated by the Sun, is only a superfluous moisture, void of any considerable vertue; and therefore care is tak'n to prevent that superfluous moi­sture from taking away the strength of the Vinegar, and causing it to putrifie, in regard there is flegm enough in the Vinegar without having any need to multiply it.

Dioscorides and Matthiolus most highly applaud the vertues of Vinegar of Squills, and affirm that by taking three ounces every Morning, two hours before any eating, and ta­king a little walk after it, it will preserve a Man many years in perfect health. That he shall never have any Disease in Mouth, Throat or Stomach. That he shall have a voice always clear and clean, respiration free, quick sight, hearing good, an excellent complexion. That he shall be free from Windiness: That all the parts of the body shall do their Offices: That he shall be always fit for business, never have an ill breath; shall digest whatever he eats, and turn it into good nourishment, and have a kindly eva­cuation of the Excrements. That it will recover the Pthysical, though far gone; very much help the Epileptic, abating the effects of the Disease, and quite taking them at length a­way, if the Disease be new. That it will give ease in the Gout, and diseases of the Joynts; open obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Mesentery, and other parts: and in short will procure soundness of health, and a prolongation of Life. But because our Physicians seldom prescribe this Vinegar, I have not made Tryals enough to confirm what those great Men have writt'n.

Acetum Theriacale. Treacl'd Vinegar. 
℞. Radicum Angeliae, ℞. Of the Roots of Angelica, 
Valerianae Majoris, the bigger Valerian, 
Meu Athamantici, Athamantic Spignel, 
Imperatoriae, Master-wort, 
Gentianae, Gentian, 
Vince-toxici, Swallow-wort, 
Carlinae, Carline-Thistle, 
Zedoariae, Setwall, 
Tormentillae, Tormentill, 
Bistortae, an.℥ j. ss.Snake-weed, an.℥ j. ss.
Cortices Citri sicci, Rind of dry Citron, 
Seminis ejusdem, Seed of the same, 
Baccarum Juniperi, Juniper-berries, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamoms, 
Cubebarum, an.℥ j.Cubebs, an.℥ j.
Foliorum Rutae, Leaves of Rue, 
Scordij, Water-Germander, 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan Dittany, 
Cardui Benedicti, Carduus, 
Centaurii minoris, Lesser Centaury, 
Florum Aurantiorum, Orange-Flowers, 
Rosarum rubrarum, an.M. j.Red-Roses, an.M. j.
Radices & Semina Contusa cum foliis inci­sis excipiantur Lagena Vitrea satis ampla, illisque superfundantur Aceti Acerrimi vel [Page 67]potius spiritus Aceti lb xij. Obturetur Lagena, & per dies duodecim radiis Solaribus expona­tur, sapius agitando; postea colentur & expri­mantur omnia, serveturque Acetum ad usum.The Roots and Seeds being cut, put them into a Glass-bottle, large enough and pour upon them twelve pints of the most sharp Vinegar, or rather Spirit of Vinegar, and expose them to the Sun twelve days, oft'n stirring them▪ then strain and squeeze out the ingredients, and keep the Vinegar for use

The Composition of this Treacled-Vinegar is a mixture of the vertues of several choice Medicines, really Theriacal, and able to furnish the Vinegar with all the good qualities expected from it. And to facilitate the preparation, I have thought fit to give a brief Description of the Medicaments, in the choice whereof there may be some doubt.

Authors describe several sorts of Angelica, of which the two principal are, the Bo­hemian, and that which grows upon the high Mountains of France, Spain or Italy. Some prefer the Bohemian; but that may be more for the rarity of it then for any vertue ex­traordinary above that of our Mountains; the stalk whereof is above a Cubit in height, knotted in several parts, hollow and having many Branches; the Leaves long and dent­ed, the colour dark-green, with ombels of white Flowers: The root is large▪ round, about a foot in length, divided into parts like a beard; white within, and somewhat dark without. The Seed is large and flat: It is of a thin substance; of a smell and taste very Aromatic. The Great Valerian grows in the Mountains of Pontus, as also upon some Mountains of France. It has a soft, broad, smooth Leaf, very jag­ged. The Stalk is smooth, soft, hollow, inclining to red, somewhat knotted, about two Cubits high. The Flowers are small and white▪ inclining to purple, and grow­ing in Tufts. The Root is half creeping, as big as a man's finger, having of each side and all a-long the lower part several little white Roots that run into the Earth. The taste is very Aromatical, and the scent piercing, and much like that of Nard.

Meum or Spignel, call'd Athamantic, from the Mountain Athamas in Thessalie, where it grows very plentifully, abounds also upon several Mountains of France. The Leaves are small and long like those of Anise. The Stalk is about a Cubit high, or some­times more, with ombels of flowers at the top. It hath several Roots pack'd to­gether, black without and white within, as big as a Man's little-finger, cover'd to­wards the bottom with a kind of hairy excrescence like the stalk of Sea-holly. It is of a thin substance, but of a smell and taste very Aromatic.

Imperatoria grows upon the high Mountains of France, Italy and other parts. The Leaves are broad, somewhat pointed, indented and jagged, growing from the Root by three and by three, at the end of a long tayl: They are strong and rough to handle, as is also the stalk, that inclines somewhat to red, being about two Cubits high. The Flowers are white and in ombels. The Seed in shape, taste and smell is very like to the Seseli, or Hartwort of Marseilles. It has several roots, which are neither very long nor big, lying on the ground, knotted, dark-colour'd and rugged without, somewhat green within, of a sharp taste, thin substance and very Aromatical smell.

Gentian grows upon high Mountains in moist places. The Leaves are large, broad▪ and inclining to red, somewhat resembling the leaves of Plantain; but much more like to white Ellebore. The Stalk about the bigness of a man's finger, is very smooth▪ five or six foot high, and parted by knots; whence spring forth leaves by two and two, less then those which are next the root. The Flower is yellow, the Seed flat and smooth; the Root very much like that of Marsh-mallows; but much bigger and thicker. It is also very yellow and very bitter.

Swallow-wort grows usually in Mountainy-places; the stalks are about a cubit high, smooth, round, limber, and difficult to break. The leaves are dark-green▪ long▪ pointed at the end, somewhat like those of Ivy. The Flowers are white, shall, and stinking. After which succeed round, long knobs full of red-seed, somewhat broad and downie, in shape like a Swallow. The Roots are small and odoriferous, and very much commended against Poysons.

The Carline-Thistle grows upon high Mountains. The Leaves are large, broad▪ rough, prickly, pointed, display'd, and extended like branches. It has no stalk▪ but lies upon the ground, producing a little above the Root a round, hoary, prickly head that spreads into a large Flower of a yellow colour. The Root is about tyhe bigness of a Man's fist, and somewhat more: it is about a foot long▪ and runs directly into the ground. It is somewhat dark colour'd without, and white within, of an indifferent sub­stance. The taste is not displeasing, insomuch that the Countrey-People feed upon it. The smell is very Aromatic.

[Page 68]The Plant of Zedoary is not describ'd by Authors, yet the Root is very much in use. It is somewhat inclining to red, a little flat, as long and as thick as a Man's little finger, having a kind of resemblance to ginger, but less knotty. The taste is a little bitter, but Aromatical. It is commended for a great Cordial, and good against Poyson.

Tormentil call'd Heptaphyllon, because that the Leaves grow sev'n and sev'n toge­ther, has several creeping-stalks, round and smooth. The Leaves like those of Cinqfoyle. The Flowers yellow, but very small. The Root short, as big as the little finger, black without, red within, environ'd with strings; the taste is astringent, and the smell some­what Aromatie.

Snake-weed grows generally in the Mountains; the Leaves are long, fibrous, and like those of the lesser Dock. The upper-part is dark colour'd and spotted: the Stalk is not very big, thrusting forth some kind of Leaves at the top, which is beset with little Purple-flowers in the form of a Spike, being about a cubit in length. The Root is red within, dark-colour'd without, beset with little threads; of a very compact substance▪ in taste and smell like that of Tormentil.

The Lesser-Cardamom is esteem'd the best. We have no Description of the Plant that produces it, no more then of the other Cardamoms. The form of the Cod of the Lesser is triangular, resembling that of the Fruit of Ben. The Seeds▪ are set in order and well-crowded into the Cod, within a little as big as those of Amomum, of a pur­plish colour, separated by little membrains, and filling all the Cod. Their taste is biting and very Aromatic.

The Plant of Cubebs is not well known yet: we believe it to resemble black-Pepper, and that it creeps up and supports it self upon Trees that grow next to it. They grow in Java. The Seeds of Cubebs are cluster'd together like those of Ivy, but they have a little tail which black-Pepper has not. Their taste is biting and Aromatic. You must cut off the tail with a pair of Scissers, and throw it away.

The true Dittany is no where to be met with but in Candy, upon the Mountain Ida. It has many stalks very smooth and woollie, as also are the Leaves, by reason of the cotton that covers them; they are of a round figure, about the bigness of the Nail; the Flowers are purplish, and like our ordinary Violets. They are intermix'd with the Leaves, especially at the top of the stalks like those of Scordium. Which I affirm to be true, as having oft'n had the real Dittany in flower, contrary to the opinion of several Writers, who affirm that Dittany never flowers: For which they may be excus'd, as having never seen any Dittany, but what was gather'd before the Dittany came to be in flower, and consequently took it to be always the same. And I believe it is for the same reason that you shall never find the Flowers but only the Leaves of Dittany pre­scrib'd by Physicians, which in my opinion are not to be rejected; nor are they to be separated from the Leaves, no more then those of Scordium, Calamint, Germander, Ground-Ivy and other Aromatical Herbs. The Roots of Dittany are very numerous, small-cluster'd together, dark-colour'd without. They are accounted good for no­thing: the Leaves and Flowers are very Aromatical in taste and smell.

All the Simples in this composition of Vinegar must be put in drie. You must bruise the Roses, Citron-rinds, and all the Seeds or Berries; you cut must the Herbs, and put them all into a large strong Glass-bottle, and pour out upon them twelve pints of excel­lent Vinegar, stirring the Ingredients, so that they may be equally steep'd in the Vinegar. Then stop up the Bottle, and expose it to the Sun for forty days; at the end whereof strain and press out the Ingredients, and put up the Vinegar in a Bottle close-stopp'd.

The vertues of this Vinegar are extraordinary, especially against the Pestilence and in all contagious and Epidemic Distempers. It is very good to resist Poyson and con­tagious Air, and to cure the bitings of venemous Beasts. It resists putrefaction and kills the Worms. It cuts and attenuates thick matters, and helps digestion. It is ad­minister'd both inwardly and outwardly. The dose of it is one or two full Silver-spoons full in Wine, Broth or any other convenient liquor. It is mingl'd in Potions, and also in liquid Epithems. It is put up into the Nostrils, apply'd to the Temples, to the Sto­mach and Wrists. It may be dipt in a spunge, and carry'd in a little Box with holes in it to smell to in sickness-time, or against any ill scents.

[Page 69]

Acetum Febrifugum, sive Aqua Pro­phylactica Sylvii de le Boe. The Fever-vanquishing Vinegar, or Water for prevention of Sylvius de le Boe. 
℞. Radicum Petasitidis,ij.℞. Of the Root of Butter-Bur,℥ ij.
Angelicae, Angelica, 
Zedoariae, an.j.Zeodoarie, an.℥ j.
Foliorum Rutae Hortensis,iiij.Leaves of Gard'n-Rue,℥ iiij.
Melissae, Baume 
Scabiosa, Scabious, 
Calendulae, anij.Marigolds, an.℥ ij.
Nucum jugland. immaturar. incisorum,lb ij.Green-Wall-nuts cut,lb ij.
Pomorum Citriorum recentium j.New Pome-Citrons slic'd,lb j.
Contundantur prius Radices, deinde cum reli­quis omnibus in Aceti distillati lb xij. per noctem macerentur, postea lento igne cinerum fere ad Pharmacorum siccitatem distillentur, prolectúmqu [...] [...]tum in Lagenis Vitreis as­servetur. Bruise the Roots first, then with the rest of the ingredients, let them macerate all night in xij. pints of distill'd Vinegar. Then let them be distill'd with a gentle fire of embers till the ingredients be al­most drie; keep the Vinegar so gotten, close stopp'd up in Bottles. 

The Butter-Bur grows in moist places in Mountains: in the Spring-time it puts forth a tender stalk, hollow and pithie, about a Palm and half high; having at the top se­veral flowers, small and cluster'd like those of Olives, somewhat pyramidical and fair to the sight: the Leaves come forth after the stalk is fall'n. They are fasten'd in the middle to a long tail about a cubit long, thick and full of pith. They hang like a hat turn'd the wrong way: they are large and round, and somewhat whitish underneath; upon one side cleft to the very middle; which cleft coming to close, makes the Leaf resemble a Champinion upon its stalk. The Root is large, dark-colour'd without and white within, of a bitter and unpleasing taste, and a strong and unsavoury smell.

The Roots being well-scrap'd must be well-bruis'd in a Marble-mortar with a wood'n­pestle among the green Wall-nuts, Citrons and chopt Herbs; then put them into a Glass-cucurbit of a sufficient bigness, and pour upon them xij. pints of good Spirit of Vinegar that did not yield above three pints at a distillation: then fit and lute on a head upon the Cucurbit and leave the ingredients in digestion all night, and the next day distil them with a moderate fire of embers, till the Ingredients are drie; taking care that they do not burn at last; and you shall have a Distill'd-vinegar as clear Water.

Sylvius the Dutchman extols this Vinegar for the cure of all sorts of Agues, as well intermitting as continual. He would have the patient mix it in his ordinary drink, in Distill'd-Waters, in Apozemes, in Mixtures, Potions, Broth, &c. It provokes very gentle Sweats, it qualifies and takes off the acrimonie of the Choler, it quenches thirst, corrects the bitterness of the month, and stays vomiting. It is very much commend­ed against the Pestilence, and in all Epidemic-diseases. It may be also put up the No­strils, apply'd to the Temples and Wrists; or be dipt in spunges to be smelt to for the comfort of the Noble-parts.

This Vinegar must not be us'd in Diseases occasion'd by Acids; for there you must have recourse to the fix'd or volatile Salts.

CHAP. XI. Of Robs.

THE Arabick word Rob, which the Modern still retain was giv'n to the Juices of Fruits depurated, and boyl'd to the consumption of two Thirds; or rather to the consumption of three Fourths of their moistures. The Name of Sapa is given par­ticularly to the Juice of Grapes depurated and boyl'd after the same manner. And there­fore there was no ground for them that would make the Name of Sapa common to all [Page 70] Robs. For though the Sapa be in effect a Rob, yet we acknowledg for a Sapa no other Rob then that of the Juice of Grapes. Defrutum, is a diminutive of Sapa; being only de­purated and boyl'd to the consumption of the third part. And is properly that which we call Burnt-wine. It might be an easie thing to prepare Robs of the Juices of se­veral Fruits depurated; but considering that it is not for Apothecaries to trouble their Shops with Remedies little in use, it shall suffice to set down the most necessary.

A Rob, or Simple Sapa.
℞. Succi recentis Ʋvarum albarum perfe­ctè maturarum lb xxx. Coque igne lento in vase fictili vitreato, vel in Aheneo, stanno in­tus. obducto, donec tertia tantum pars succi supersit. Si vero Defrutum optaveris, ad tertiae tantum partis consumptionem coque.℞. Of the new Juice of white Grapes perfectly ripe lb xxx. Boyl it over a gentle fire in an Earth'n-glaz'd-vessel, or a Cop­per-vessel tinn'd within, till the third part of the Juice only remains. But if you de­sire a Defrutum, boyl it only to the con­sumption of the third part.

You must not expose the Juice of the Grapes to the Sun, nor use [...] artifice to pu­rifie it before you set it upon the fire, to make a Rob or Defrutum. [...] on the con­trary you must avoid it, because that Depuration would never come to pass without the Fermentation of the Juice, whereby it would change its nature and become Wine, and would lose all its volatile Spirits in boyling. Whereas by avoiding Fermentation, those Spirits are no-where settl'd or concenter'd; so that while they are upon the fire there exhales nothing but a gross and unuseful flegm. Which may serve for an Item to those, who preparing the Defrutum or Sapa, may be ignorant of the reasons why we take the Juice of Grapes newly press'd out, and not the good Wine, which because it is more pure, they might probably think proper to be preferr'd before the new Juice.

The Juice of Grapes is differently boyl'd in Languedoc, Provence, and other places, for sometimes they only boil it to a Defrutum, and call it burnt-wine. Sometimes they con­tinue and boyl it to the consistency of a Sapa, which comes near the ordinary Syrups: sometimes till it be as thick as soft Electuaries, and this they call Raisiné, or the Grape-Confection, and use in the conditing several Fruits. In all which things they thus proceed.

They take a good quantity of white Grapes perfectly ripe, take out the stones, squeeze and press out the Juice in a clean cloth. Then for example they take about thir­ty pints of this Juice, putting it at the same time into a great Earthen Vessel well-glaz'd, or in a Cauldron, or Copper-Bason tinn'd within side; and setting the Vessel upon a moderate fire, they cause the Juice to boil softly till the third part be consum'd, which is the boyling allow'd to burnt-wine. Then they take the Vessel off from the fire, and stir the burnt-wine continually with a stick till it be quite cold; which they do to evaporate some superfluous humidity, which might remain in the burnt-wine. Then they cover thē Vessel, and letting it stand till the next day, they pour forth by inclination the clear li­quor into a proportionable Vessel, leaving the settlement at the bottom. Then they set the Vessel in the Cellar for six or seven weeks, to ferment like the new Wine. After which, to make up that little burnt-wine which the fermentation had dissipated, they fill up the Wine with other burnt-wine reserv'd on purpose, or else they put in Spanish-Wine, or good White-wine, and stopping up the Vessel, keep it in a cool place for use.

But if instead of burnt-wine, you desire a Sapa, you must boil the juice of red Grapes, till there be but a third part left; Then stir it with a stick till it be quite cold, and let it rest all night in the Vessel, the better to purifie it self from its Lees. But then instead of putting this depurated Wine into a Cask, you must let it boil again over a lit­tle fire, in the same Vessel very clean, till the half be consum'd; then take it off the fire, let it cool, and stay two or three days; then pour out the clear liquor by inclination, and leave the feces at the bottom of the Vessel as before. By this second boiling, the Juice will be reduc'd to two thirds, and will be of a consistency not unlike that of or­dinary Syrups.

You may also return the same Sapa upon the Fire again, and consume about a fourth part, over a very gentle fire, if you desire it should be boil'd to the consistency of Electua­ries; or for the preserving of Conditements. You may Aromatize these Juices thus diffe­rently [Page 71] boyl'd by mixing with them, when they are cold, some drops of Oyl of Cinamon or Cloves, incorporated with fine-powder'd Sugar.

That which they call burnt-wine in Languedoc and Province, is a preparation very like that of Spanish-wine. This Wine is to be lookt upon as an Alimental nourishment, as well as the Sapa or the Raisiné. It breeds good and quick nourishment, and is proper to restore lost strength, to fortifie the Heart, Stomach, and all the other noble parts, to create an Appetite and help Digestion. The Dose of the burnt-wine is from one ounce to four, that of the Sapa, from one ounce to two. That of the Raisiné much the same. The burnt-wine is also made use of in Clysters instead of Decoctions, chiefly in Colicks proceeding from Wind and Acids.

Rob Cydoniorum.A Rob of Quinces.
℞. Succi Cydoniorum ad maturitatem ver­gentium, lb xviij. Coque igne lento in vase fictili vitreato, donec Tertia tantum pars super­fit. Refrigeratum Rob, quiete & decantatione fecibus liberatum, Oleorum Cinnamomi & Cary­ophillorum ana guttis tribus, Saccharo pul­v [...]izato exceptis, Aromatizetur & servetur.℞. Of the Juice of Quinces enclining to be ripe lb xviij. Boyl them over a soft fire in an Earth'n glaz'd-Pot, till only the third part remain. When the Rob is cold, and freed from its feces by settlement and inclinati­on, take of Oyl of Cinamon and Cloves, an. three drops, mix'd with powder'd Su­gar, and Aromatize it, and then keep it for use.

Take a good quantity of Quinces half ripe, rasp them one after another into Earthen Pipkins, all but the inward hard Core. Let them settle two or three days, then squeeze them through a new strong Cloth, gently at first, afterwards very strongly. By that means you will have a Juice of Quinces very clear. Of which take eighteen pints, and put them into an Earth'n glaz'd Pipkin, or into a skillet of Copper Tinn'd, and let them boyl over a gentle fire, till two thirds are consum'd. Then let them cool, and set the Rob aside in the skillet for two or three days; then pour the clear Liquor into another very clean Vessel, and add to it the Oyls of Cloves and Cinamon, incorpora­ted with an ounce of fine-powder'd Sugar, to mix them the better together, and when they are well mingl'd, put them up into a bottle well-stopp'd, and keep them for use.

The Rob of Quinces is indu'd with all the principal vertues that are attributed to the pulp of the Quinces. It is recommended to fortifie the Stomach, to help the weakness of retention in the Stomach, and Intestines. To create an Appetite, and help Digestion. It is giv'n with success in Diarrhea's, Dysenteries, Lienteries, the Choleric Disease, and Internal Fluxes of Blood.

Rob Mororum seu Diamorum.Rob of Mulberries, or Diamorum.
℞. Succi Mororum Rubi Humilis ar­v [...]sis,℞. Of the Juice of Mulberries, of the low-field Bramble.
Succi Mororum mori arboris nigrae semi-ma­turorum,Of the Juice of Mulberries of the black Tree, half-ripe.
Mellis Narbonensis despumati, an. lb iij.Of clarify'd Honey of Narbonne, an. lb iij.
Coquantur igne lento in vase fictili vitreato ad debitam consistentiam, illisque permisce­antur Spiritus Vitrioli vel Sulphuris, gut­ta, xx.Boyl them over a gentle fire in a Glaz'd Earth'n Vessel, to a due consistence, and mix with them twenty drops of Spirit of Vitriol or Sulphur.

This Rob may be made with these two Juices, or with either of the two separately without any addition of Honey; but besides that the Honey increases their detersive and cleansing quality, it makes the Rob more delightful, and fitter to be preserv'd for a longer time. The two sorts of Mulberries must be gather'd before they come to their maturity; that the Rob may be more detersive.

You must squeeze out the Juice through a strong Cloth, let it settle two or three days; then pour the clear Liquor by inclination into another vessel, weigh the quantity pre­scrib'd [Page 72] and boil it over a small fire in a glaz'd Earth'n-pot, with the Honey clarify'd be­fore, to a consistence like that of Syrups. Then let the Rob cool, scum it well, and add to it the Spirits of Vitriol or Sulphur, and so put up it in a glass-bottle, or a gally-pot well-stopp'd for your use.

This Rob is chiefly for the cure of Ulcers and Inflammations in the Mouth, Tongue, and Throat. For it is very proper to qualifie the Acrimony of the humours, to cleanse, stop up, and consolidate; sometimes this Rob is taken alone by the spoonful. But it is most frequently mix'd in cooling and detersive decoctions.

Rob Baccarum Sambuci.Rob of Elder-Berrier.
℞. Succi Baccarum Sambuci, tribus die­bus per residentiam depurati, lb vj. Aut quan­tum libuerit. Coque igne lento in vase fictili vitreato, ad duarum▪ partium Consumptionem. Adde si volueris Sacchari vel Mellis despumati portionem aliquam.℞. Of the Juice of Elder-berries cla­rify'd by three days settlement, six pints; or as much as you please. Boil them in a glaz'd Earth'n-Pipkin over a soft fire to the consumption of two parts. Add if you please some little quantity of Sugar or cla­rify'd Honey.

You must take the Elder-berries when they are fully ripe, take from them all their little stalks, squeeze them through a strong Cloth, and draw out their Juice; let them settle for three days, separate them from their feces, and boil them over a soft fire in an Earthen-Vessel well-glaz'd, to the consumption of two thirds, or to the consistence of a Rob. Let it cool, and take off the scum if there be any. To make the Rob more plea­sant and fit to keep▪ longer, you may add a third or a fourth of its weight of fine Sugar, or clarify'd Honey.

This Rob is very much commended for the cure of Diseases of the Brain, particu­larly of the Epilepsie and Palsie. It is accounted a Specifick against Hysteric Passions, and for Dysenteries. It may be tak'n alone in a spoon fasting, or mix'd in Potions. The dose is not certain: but you may take from half an Ounce to an Ounce at a time.

The other Robs which are prepar'd of the Juices of several Fruits merit no farther mention here, because they are converted into Syrups, which the sweetness of the Sugar renders more pleasing then all the Robs that can be prepar'd.

CHAP. XII. Of Sweet-Meats.

THE difficulty of accommodating Medicines to the taste of Patients, and the de­sire of pleasing them, and to have at all times ready some parts of Plants of which they may stand in need, have been the principal occasions of inventing Sweet-meats. It happ'ns also that the liking which Patients take to them when sick, gives them a desire to continue the use of them when they are well.

And the healthy themselves have so far tak'n their part, and made Sweet-meats so common, that there is no good City, where there are not some who make it their Trade and Calling to make all sorts of Sweet-meats. But though it be not the Apothecaries bu­siness to make for the healthy, yet they are oblig'd for the benefit of the sick to condite several sorts of Plants which are not within the knowledge or practice of the ordi­nary Comfit-makers.

If all the parts of Plants were to be had at all times, or if they were all of an equal perfection, there would be no great trouble to make provision of any Sweet-meats, nor need we make any conditement but upon occasion. But as they must have time to grow, increase, come to perfection, and then decline again, we must choose the best time for the vertues or qualities of the Plant which we intend to candie. Herbes, Fruits, Stalks, Flowers and Seeds cannot be fit but in their Season. Roots that may be had at all Seasons of the Year, yet are not fit to be condited till the Spring of the Year, when they begin to put forth their Leaves: for then they possess to themselves all that the Plant has of vertue; besides that they are then more tender and more juicie [Page 73] then at any other Season. Sometimes the Flowers are condited before they are blown; Seeds and Fruits half ripe: And sometimes we stay till every one of these comes to their perfect maturity. Sometimes the Roots, Flowers, Fruits, and other parts of Plants are condited whole, sometimes cut in pieces, either for convenience, or to se­parate what is to be thrown away. Sometimes they are to be reduc'd into a paste, and boyl'd with Sugar or Honey. But Sweet-meats are so common that I think I need not give many Examples thereof.

Radices Eringii conditae.Eringo-Roots condited.
℞. Radicum Eringii mundatarum & in partes dissectarum quantum volueris: coque ad mollitiem in aquae communis sufficiente quanti­tate; in decocto dissolve Sacchari albissimi pon­dus Radicibus aequale: Coque ad Syrupi crassio­ris consistentiam; despuma, calidúmque Syrupum Radicibus in vase fictili vitreato positis super­funde. Post dies aliquot decantatum Syrupum ad priorem consistentiam recoque, calidúmque radicibus superfunde. Idque ter, quatérve re­pete, & tandem ita Syrupum coque, ut in de­bita consistentia possit in posterum cum Radici­bus asservari.℞. Of these Roots as many as you please; wash them well, then take out the pith and the outside, then boyl them in fair Water till they are sufficiently tender. Then take them out of the Water, lay them upon a white Linnen-cloth, and drie up the moisture as much as may be. Then weigh them, and take the same weight of fine Sugar, and boyl it with the Decoction of the Roots, scumming it from time to time, till the Sugar have acquir'd a consistency a little thicker then that of ordinary Syrups. Then put the Roots into a Pot of glaz'd­earth, and pour the Syrup upon them fiery hot; some few days after pour this Syrup by inclination into a Bason, and re­boyl it over a soft fire, till it have acquir'd its first consistency; then pour it hot a se­cond time upon the Roots. A while after boyl the Liquor a third time, and pour it upon the Roots again. Repeat this again if need be; and at length so boyl the Sy­rup that it may be kept for the future with the Roots.

Eringium or Sea-Holly is a Plant well-known: the Roots whereof must be gather'd in the Spring-time, when the Herb begins to appear.

Eringo-roots are opening and diuretic. They are also great friends to the Stomach, Liver and Spleen. They are sometimes mix'd in Opiates and other Medicines.

The Example of this Root may serve for the conditing of Succorie, Burrage, Bugloss, Comfrey, Elecampane, Satyrion, Scorzonera or Vipers-grass, and several others; from all which you must take off the small rinds and superfluities. They may be condited whole that have no pith, or are not very big; and cut into slices those that are over­large.

Cortices Malorum conditi.Citron-Peels condited.
℞. Corticum Malorum Citreorum in frusta [...]blonga incisorum quantum libuerit, per dies quindecim Aquae marinae committantur; edu­cantur, postea ex illa aqua, & in Fontanam ejiciantur, in eáque saepius renovata relinquan­tur, donec salsedinem deposuerint. Bulliant tandem leviter in nova aqua, ut siquid supersit salsedinis auferatur. Tunc in recenti aqua ad sufficientem teneritatem coquantur, deinde lin­teo mundo quantum fieri potest exsiccati in vase novo fictili vitreato ordine collocentur. Illis saccharum in proprio Corticum decocto ad de­bitam consistentiam coctum calide superfunda­tur, illius (que) coctio & superfusio repetatur, ut in superiori Radicum Eringii conditurâ di­ximus.℞. Of the Peels of Citrons as many as you please; cut them into long slices about an inch or an inch and a half broad: range them one by one in a clean Barrel, cover them with Salt-water, and leave them in that Water for fifteen days, or longer if you please; then take them out, and steep them in Fountain-water for several days, shifting and re-shifting the Water, till you can perceive nothing of saltness in them. Then boyl them gently in Fresh-water, to take away any thing of Salt that might remain. Then throwing away that water, boyl them in fresh-water, till they are suffici­ently tender. Then take out the Peels out of [Page 74] the water, and with a Linnen-cloth dry them as well as you can. Then weigh'em, and take twice the weight of fine Sugar, and boyl it in the last Decoction of the Peels to the thick­ness of Honey. Then having laid the Citron­peels one by another in an Earth'n-glaz'd­pan, pour the Sugar upon them scalding­hot, so that they may be altogether well­cover'd▪ leave them so for some days, and then pour out the Syrup by inclination in­to a Bason, and repeat Coction and Super­fusion as is directed in the Conditing of Eringo's.

The difficulty of conditing Citron-peels without causing them to lose their shape, or so as to keep them from falling to pieces or into paste, is the reason that we are forc'd to make use of Salt-water, which preserves their Rinds entire, fair and transparent.

If you would preserve these Peels dry, take them out of the Syrup, let them drain; then boyl fine Sugar in the Water to the consistency of a solid Electuary; put in the Peels, and let them boyl till the Sugar be again gently boyl'd to the consistence of a so­lid Electuary. Then take out the Peels, letting the Sugar drain off, and lay the Peels upon twigs in a Stove, to be there entirely dry'd.

You may make good use of the first Syrup which serv'd to condite the Citron-peels, being very much esteem'd under the Name of The Syrup for preserving the Citron­peel, the vertues whereof are very near as good as those of the Peel, to strength'n the Heart, Stomach, and all the Noble-Parts.

You may also boyl in the Water new Citron-peel, till it be almost reduc'd into paste; beat it afterwards in a Marble-mortar, and pass it through a Hair-Sieve, adding thereto the weight of it in powder-Sugar; then boyling it over a gentle-fire in a Glaz'd-earth'n­pipkin, and at the end putting a little Juice of Citron, to give it a pleasing acidity.

[...]n the same manner Quinces, Pears, Apples, Abricots, Peaches, Plumbs and many other Fruits may be reduc'd into Pastes of the like nature. In the same manner may the Stalks of Lettice separated from their Rind, the pulpie-part of Melons, long-Gourds, Cucumbers, Hartichoak-bottoms, and many other pithie parts of Plants be condited. You may also put them into Salt-water and condite them whole, as I have directed for Citron-peel.

You may also make use of a clear Lye instead of Salt-water to condite green Almonds. And though they become extraordinary pale, yet by boyling them afterwards in fair Water, they recover a colour more green then that which they had before, and you may then preserve them drie or liquid, without fear of altering their colour. Condi­tements in Honey are not so much us'd as those in Sugar, as being more acceptable in all Sweet-meats: besides that Honey is not so proper for dry Sweet-meats. And though in Languedoc and Provence during the cold weather they preserve Almonds dry with Honey, and to make a Sweet-meat sometimes red, sometimes white, which they call Nogat, or Tourron; yet it is not a Sweet-meat that can be kept long: for the Honey will give and at length dissolve altogether, when the moist air has had time to pe­netrate it.

The preserving of Olives is very different from all others; especially because it is done without either Sugar or Honey. Their Preparation consists chiefly in taking a­way their natural bitterness, to render them pleasant to the taste, and in preserving them long in their beauty and goodness. They that regard not their beauty, only slit the green Olives in two with a Knife, and bruise them gently, and soak them in fair Water, which they shift oft'n till their bitterness be almost all tak'n away. Then they put them into Pots of Glass or Earth-glaz'd with some small bunches of Fennel, or some pieces of dry Citron or Orange-peel, and cover them with a Water indifferently salt, wherein they keep them to eat, as they have occasion. But they that desire to preserve the colour of their Olives, and to keep them entire, make use of a Lye made of the ashes of Oak-wood, Vine-branches or the like: or else of Quick-lime, steeping their Olives therein four and twenty hours, or till they have quite lost their bitterness. Then they put their Olives into an indifferent Salt-water, adding to them sweet Fennel, Citron or Orange-peel cut into little slices, or some such other Aromatic, as they shall like best. They also pour in as much good Oyl upon the Water as may swim about a fingers-breadth above it, the better to preserve the whole.

CHAP. XIII. Of Gellies.

WE give that now-a-days the Name of Gelly, which the Latins call'd Gelatina. Gelly is usually made of Juices extracted by pressing, or by decoction of several Fruits. They are also made by the long boyling of different Animals, or of their parts. These Juices must be clarify'd by Despumation or otherwise, and be sweeten'd with Sugar, to make them pleasing to the Palate. They must be also boyl'd to the consi­stency that a Gelly ought to have, which is not to be too fluid when it is cold, and not to stick to the Trencher or Plate when you drop a few drops to try the consistency. Gelly is so nam'd, because it is transparent like Ice, and because it congeals in the cold, and melts in the heat. However it differs from Ice, because it never becomes hard like that, but remains always soft, unless it freeze in extremity of weather.

Gellies are so common among the Ladies, that I shall only give you the Examples of two or three made by Decoction.

Gelatina Cydoniorum.Gelly of Quinces.
℞. Cydoniorum ad maturitatem acceden­tium, lb viij. in frusta incide cum Cortice & Seminibus, & in aquae communis lb xx deco­que ad dimidiae circiter partis consumptionem: decoctum cola & Cydonia exprime. Colaturam Ovi albumine cum Sacchari lb vj. clarifica; & clarum liquorem ad Mivae consistentiam co­que, Pixidibúsque ligneis vel Vasis vitreis, aut fictilibus vitreatis reconde.℞. Whole Quinces not fully ripe, and cut them into five or six slices, and weigh out eight pound, and boyl them in twenty pints of Water, to the consumption of half. Strain the Decoction, and squeeze the Sediment well; and when it is almost cold, clarifie it with the white of an Egg, with six pound of fine Sugar, after the ordinary manner. Then boyl the clear liquor over a gentle-fire, to the consistency of a Gelly. Then take the Skillet from the fire, and when the Gelly is half-cold, Aromatize it with four drops of Distill'd-oyl of Cloves, and two drops of Oyl of Cinamon, incor­porated first with fine powder'd-Sugar. The whole being well mix'd, and the Gelly well scumm'd, pour it out into Glasses, or Glaz'd-pots, or else into Woodd'n-Boxes or Moulds, moisten'd before-hand. The Latins call the Gelly of Quinces Mivam Cy­doniorum.

This Aromatization is to be preferr'd before that of the Ancients, who direct you to put Cinamon, Cloves, Cardamoms, Saffron, Trochisques of Gallia Moscata, Gin­ger, Mastich, lignum Aloes, and Musk in powder ty'd up in a knot, and to steep them in the Gelly while it boyles; not considering that besides the harsh and unpleasing taste which the grosser part of all this Mixture of Drugs would give the Gelly, their Aro­matick and volatile part would dissipate, and leave nothing behind but the ill-qualities of the Terrestrial. You may also, besides the Oyls of Cloves and Cinamon pre­scrib'd for Aromatization, add some drops of the Essence of Musk and Ambergrise, for those that love sweet Scents. There are some that take out the Seeds from the Quinces when they make the Decoction for the Gelly. Others on the contrary make use of the Seeds, Cores and Rind, reserving the pulp of the Quinces to condite, or to make Mar­malate.

You may also make a Gelly of Rennettings or other good Apples, cutting them into quarters, boyling them in Water almost to a mash, and straining the Decoction through hair-sieve without pressing the Apples. For this Decoction thus strain'd through the Sieve reverst, and re-passt through a Bag, mix'd with the weight in Apples of very fine Sugar, and boyl'd over a gentle fire to a due consistency, makes a Gelly as pleasant as sightly, to which you may add at the end of the Decoction some drops of the Juice of Citrons well­clarify'd [Page 76] to give them a sharp taste. You may also cut the rind of candy'd Pome-Ci­tron into small pieces, and lay at the bottom of the Glasses or Boxes where you put your Gellies, which being pour'd hot upon these pieces, will become by that Mixture much more acceptable then without it.

Gelatina Cornu Cervini.Gelly of Harts-Horn.
℞. Rasurae Cornu Cervini lb ss, Aque com­munis lb vj. Coque lento igne, in va [...] ▪ fictili vitreato, ad duarum partium consumptionem. Cola & exprime, Colaturam clarifica Ovi al­bumine cum Sacchari optimivj. Vini albiiiij. Succi Citrij. Et coque igne lento ad Gelatina melior is consistentiam.℞. Half a pound of the havings of Harts­horn, and boyl it over a gentle fire in six pints of Fountain-water in a glaz'd-earth'n Pipkin to the consumption of two thirds of the Water. Strain out the Decoction, squeezing the Harts-horn well; then clarifie the straining with the white of an Egg, ad­ding six ounces of fine Sugar, four ounces of white Wine, and one ounce of Juice of Citrons. After which boyl the clarify'd Li­quor over a gentle fire, to the consistency of a Gelly, rather too soft then too strong, which you must empty hot into Glasses or Pots, and there let it cool.

You may Aromatize this Gelly with some half a drop of the Essence of Citron, Cloves or Cinamon, incorporated with fine powder'd Sugar.

This Gelly of Harts-horn is never prepar'd but upon occasion. For it cannot be kept above four or five dayes in Winter, and two in Summer; and then you must keep it in a Cellar. Some nice Persons may disapprove the boyling of the Wine and the Gelly, believing that the Spiritous part dissipates in boyling. But in regard the Gelly cannot be clarify'd without the Wine, there is no care to be tak'n for the dissipation of the Spirit, so much the rather because that the Gelly being most frequently prepar'd for those that are in Fevers, we may be glad of the dissipation of those Spirits.

Gelly of Harts-horn may be call'd a Medicinal-nourishment: For it breeds good nou­rishment, and strength'ns the Heart and Stomach. It is us'd in all sorts of Fevers, especially the putrid, and in all Epidemic-diseases; and is highly approv'd in all weaknesses, and want of retention in the Stomach and Bowels.

In the same manner may be prepar'd Gelly of Vipers, and of the parts of other sorts of Animals.

CHAP. XIV. Of Conserves.

ROOTS, Herbs, or Flowers are usually the foundation of all Conserves. Their preparation therefore not being very difficult, and requiring no tedious Dis­courses, I will only give you two or three Examples, by which you may prepare all sorts of Conserves.

Conserva Radicum Helenii.Conserve of Roots of Elecampane.
℞. Radicum Helenii recentium mundatarum quantum libuerit; coquantur ad mollitiem in sufficiente quantitate Aqua Fontanae; deinde pinsentur, & per Cribrum inversum trajician­tur. Decoctum coquatur lento igne cum Sac­chari duplo Radicum pondere, ad Electuarii solidi consistentiam. Illique tantisper refrige­rato, trajecta pulpa permisceatur; refigera­táque conserva vase idoneo recondatur.℞. What quantity you please of the new Roots of Elecampane, wash them well, and cleanse them from their little rind, and from all superfluities; cut them into great pieces▪ boyl them in six times their weight in Wa­ter over a moderate fire, till they are suffici­ently tender. Then bruise them in a Marble­mortar with a woodd'npestle, and strain the pulp through a Hair-sieve revers'd. In the mean while boyl twice the weight of fine Su­gar in the Decoction of the Roots, to the consistence of a solid Electuary; and when it is half cold, incorporate the pulp therein, and put up the cold Conserve in fit vessel.

[Page 77]Some let the Decoction be quite cold before they incorporate the pulp. Others put it hot into the pot, to the end there may be a crust proper to preserve the Conserve. However you must not cover the pot till the Conserve be quite cold, for fear the super­fluous moisture which rises with the Conserve, not finding vent, should fall upon the Conserve and putrifie it.

This Conserve, as also that of many other Roots may be done without boiling the Roots, as also without boyling the Sugar. For you may stamp the raw Roots in a Marble-Mortar, press the pulp through a hair-sieve revers'd, and incorporate it with twice as much the weight of fine-Sugar in powder, and the Conserve shall be made. But besides that the raw Roots are more difficult to stamp and strain, and more fibrous then those which are boyl'd, the Conserve is also more displeasing and coarse. In the same manner may be prepar'd the Conserves of all pithy Roots.

Conserve of Elecampane, cuts, and powerfully loosens Flegm from the Lungs, the Reins and Stomach, it serves for expectoration, helps Digestion, and creates an Appe­tite. You may take it alone, or mix'd in Opiates, Loches, or Tablets: you may take from half an ounce to an ounce.

Conserva Rosarum mollis.Soft Conserve of Roses.
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum recentium exungula­tarum, lb j. Sacchari Albissimi, lb ij. Fiat ex arte Conserva.Take one pound of red Rose-buds, cut off the white part at the bottom with a pair of Scissors. Stamp them exactly in a Marble-Mortar, mixing with them by degrees, two pound of fine powder'd Sugar.

This mixture will make a body not unlike that of a soft Electuary, of a dark red co­lour and pleasing to the taste. You may at the latter end add some drops of Spirit of Vitriol or Sulphur, which will heighten the colour of the Conserve, and make it look more red. After this you may put it up in a bottle well-stopp'd, and expose it to the Sun for several days, stirring the Conserve from time to time with a woodd'n Spatula, the better to unite the Roses with the Sugar, and to consume the superfluous moisture.

But if you desire a Conserve of Roses more pleasant, and more sightly, this is the way. Give a gentle wamble to about a pint of Rose-Water, and having tak'n it off the fire, cast into it a pound of large red Rose-buds, clean'd as before, and having well-steep'd them, strain the Liquor through a clean Linnen-Cloth, squeeze the Roses with your hands, and beat them well in a Marble-Mortar. In the mean while boil two pound of fine Sugar in the Water where the Roses were steep'd, to the consistence of a solid E­lectuary, and when it is well boil'd, mix the Roses therein perfectly well-stamp'd; stir them for some time the better to make the mixture, and to evaporate the superfluous molsture. Then put them up in a pot, and cover them well, when they are quite cold. This way makes the Roses very tender, and makes them fit to be the better and more easily stamp'd. The Rose-Water increases the good Scent and vertue of the Conserve: and the mixture of the Roses with the Sugar becomes more exact. The Conserve is more sightly, and retains its vertue and its beauty longer, then by the ordinary preparations.

There is also another preparation of Conserve of Roses not inferiour to this, which is done by putting the Rose-buds cut into a glass-Cucurbit, in Maceration in Balneo Ma­riae, between luke-warm and boiling hot; keeping them there till they are sufficiently tender, boyling the Sugar with the Rose-Water, and observing the same Method, as for the former Conserve.

The principal use of Conserve of Roses, is to stop defluxions from the Brain falling upon the Lungs. It is also good to stay coughing and spitting of Blood: to streng­then the Stomach, Heart, and Brain, to stay vomiting and loosness of the Belly; to keep the Breath sweet, to provoke sleep; to which purpose it is usually apply'd in a frontal to the Forehead. This Conserve is to be tak'n fasting from one dram to two, often mix'd with Confections, Powders, Essences, and other Conserves. Sometimes it is outwardly apply'd upon the Heart and Stomach in a solid Epitheme, alone, or mix'd with other Medicines.

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Conserva Rosarum solida.Solid Conserve of Roses.
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum mundatarum, & ad Solis Radios celeriter siccatarum, ℥ j. in Pul­verem subtilem redigantur, postea irrorentur dragma Semis Spiritus Sulphuris. Tunc ℞. Sacchari Albissimi, lb j. Aquae Rosarum, ℥ iiij. Coquantur simul ad Electuarii solidi consisten­tiam. Deinde pulvis Rosarum immisceatur, & ubi fere refrixerint, formentur Tabellae vel Rotulae ad usum.Take an ounce of red-Roses cleans'd, and hastily dry'd in the Sun, powder them very fine, and sprinkle them with half a drachm of Spirit of Sulphur in some glass-Vessel, mixing them well with a woodd'n Spatula. Then boyl a pound of fine Sugar in four ounces of Rose-Water to the con­sistency of a solid Electuary, and incorpo­rate the Roses therein, being tak'n off the fire, stirring them well with a woodd'n-Pe­stle. And when you observe a film upon the Conserve, pour it out upon a sheet of Paper, or a Pewter-platter to make Tablets thereof.

This is call'd hard Conserve of Roses, which will be of a good colour, and grateful to the taste; the vertues whereof are much the same with those of the liquid Conserve. It is also very convenient to carry in the Pocket.

They are deceiv'd who think that the Roses ought to be dry'd in the shade to make them look the fairer. For experience and reason have taught me, that red Roses so dry'd are never sightly in colour, but become very brown. And therefore it is not without cause, that you are here directed to dry them hastily in the Sun. For being suddenly dry'd they look fair and are full of vertue, because the red-Roses abound in superfluous and viscous moisture, which is not easily separated, unless it meet with some powerful Agent to constrain it; such as is the Sun by means of his heat. Where­as if you dry them in shade only, the action of the Sun being too weak, and slow, the Roses in that space of time, wither and turn black. However, you must be careful to take them out of the Sun, when they are sufficiently dry; for after that, the Sun does but burn them, and make them change colour.

You must be careful also to put the Roses in a Glass-bottle well-stopp'd to preserve them in their vertue and beauty, which you may do for a year or two together.

Conserva Violarummollis.Conserve of Violets liquid.
℞. Violarum recentium mundatarum lb ss. Sacchari Albissimi, lb j. ss. Fiat ex arte Conserva.℞. Half a pound of new Violets very clean, and beat them exactly in a Marble-Mortar; and when they are well-beaten, boil over a soft fire in six ounces of di­still'd Water of Violets, a pound and a half of fine Sugar, to the consistency of an Electuary. Then take the Sugar off the fire, and when it is half-cold, mix the stamp'd Violets therewith.

At the same time pour this Conserve into a pot, that the film or crust may grow o­ver it, which will very much preserve it. And when it is cold cover the pot very close, and keep it for your use.

This Conserve may serve as an example for those of Burrage, Bugloss, Water-Lillies, and such-like flowers as abound in moisture.

The moisture of the Violets is the reason of putting more Sugar into Conserve of Violets, then into Conserves of Flowers less moist. And the method of boiling the Su­gar is much better, then to mingle the Violets in powder with the Sugar: in regard the Flowers seem better mix'd in the boil'd Sugar, and for that by putting the Conserve hot into the Pot, the crust that grows over it resists the penetration of the Air, and makes the Conserve keep much longer.

Conserve of Violets is very cordial; It is very much esteem'd in Diseases of the Liver and Spleen. It qualifies the Acrimony of the humours, and makes them slippery. It is admirable in Diseases of the Breast, and to cool the boyling of the Blood.

CHAP. XV. Of Syrups.

JUleps were the fore-runners and the occasion of the invention of Syrups. For the Ancients finding, that the superfluous moisture of Juleps hastn'd their putrefaction, bethought themselves of consuming it by boiling, and to reduce them to a thicker con­sistency, giving them the name of Syrups. The word Syrup is deriv'd from [...], to draw, and [...], which signifies Juice.

All Syrups are pleasant Compositions, made of Waters, Juices, Tinctures, or Decocti­ons boyl'd with Sugar or Honey, to a consistency somewhat thick, and fit to keep. The Juices that compound Syrups, are usually drawn from several parts of Plants, sometimes by expression, sometimes by the impression of their succulent substance into any Liquor. They may be also drawn from the parts of Animals, as Syrup of Tortoises. Tin­ctures, Infusions, or Decoctions, made use of in the composition of Syrups, are as so many means, to impart the virtues of different Medicines to the same Syrups.

Besides the design of long-keeping, our Artists had a desire to have the vertue of one or more Medicaments clos'd together in a small Room. But the number of Syrups is so great, that should we prepare them all, the shops would not be big enough to hold them. For which reason I shall not fill this Volumn with Syrups that may be let alone, as being out of use, or such as may be prepar'd when prescrib'd. I shall only there­fore here set down such Syrups, the use whereof is confirm'd by the practice and pre­scriptions of the Physicians, and which deserve to be prepar'd for their vertues, and ad­vantages which the sick receive thereby.

Syrupus e Succo Citri.Syrup of the Juice of Citron.
℞. Succi acidi recentis defaecatissimi Malo­rum Citreorum, lb iij. Sacehari Albissimi, lb vj. Fiat ex arte Syrupus.Take three pints of the Juice of Citron extreamly well purify'd, and put it into a Glass, or glaz'd Earth'n▪ Vessel, then dis­solve therein six pound of fine Powder Su­gar; stirring it all the while till the Sugar be wholly incorporated with the Juice.

Continue stirring as well when it is off, as when it is upon the fire.

Make use of no Vessels for the Preparation of this or any other Syrup compos'd of Acid Juices, but such as are made of glass, or glaz'd Earth.

There is another way of making this Syrup, by taking six pound of white and dry fine Powder Sugar, clarifying it with the white of an Egg, and six pints of Fountain­water, and then boyling it over a fire, to the consistency of a solid Electuary; and after that, when it is off from the fire, pouring into it three pints of Juice of Lemons, well­clarify'd, and stirring the Syrup with a Woodd'n Pestle, till it be almost cold.

The Ancients believ'd that the quantity of the acid Juices of Fruits in Syrups, ought to be greater then that of the Sugar, and that the same Juices requir'd a longer boiling, as well to consume one part of their moisture, which they thought superfluous, as also to make a consistence necessary for the Syrups which were compos'd of them. For this reason they boil'd their Juices a long time. I confess that the acid Juices evaporated in a glass-Vessel in Balneo Mariae, do lose of their aquosity, and that the Juice which remains in the Vessel, is more acid, then the Juice before the watry part was eva­porated.

But besides that, there is no need of so much Acidity, they lose of their beauty, and become less cooling by being boyl'd. Moreover the watry part is not unprofitable in the composition of these Juices, in regard it is very refreshing, and for that by the means thereof, the acids are more conveniently convey'd to the remote parts, without any offence to the parts, by reason of their Acrimony.

And for as much as the Syrups, which are only compos'd of acid Juices and Sugar, re­quire not a consistency altogether so thick as that of other Syrups, they must not be kept [Page 80] so long upon the fire, for fear of changing their quality. This Syrup may serve for an example for all Syrups compos'd of the acid Juices of Fruits, and Sugar.

Syrup of Citrons cools and moistens very much, it quenches thirst, and sensibly cools the heat of choleric-Fevers. It strengthens the Stomach and Bowels, weak'nd by the hot intemperature of humours, it resists putrefaction and contagious Air. It is good against Worms, Poyson, and Pestilent and Epidemic Diseases. The Dose is usually from half an ounce to an ounce, in a glass of Ptisan, or some other Liquor. It serves as a foundation for some compositions, and is mix'd in Potions and other Medicines.

The Syrups of Granates, red-Currans, Barberries, Verjuice, and the like are pre­par'd after the same manner.

Syrupus e Succo Oxytriphylli.Syrup of the Juice of Wood-Sorrel.
℞. lb iiij. Succi Oxytriphylli depurati, Sacchari Albissimi, ana. Fiat ex arte Syrupus.Take four pints of the Juice of Wood-Sorrel well-purify'd; pour them into a glass-Cucurbit, cover it with its Alembic slightly luted, place it in Balneo Mariae, and distil with a moderate fire about half the moisture. Then take away the Cucur­bit, and let it cool. That done, pour out the acid Juice, which remains by Inclina­tion, and pass it through a brown-Paper, to separate the Terrestreities gather'd in Distillation. Then weigh out two pints of this clarify'd Juice, and dissolve there­in four pound of fine powder'd Sugar, and give the whole a little wamble over the fire. Take it off, scum it, and put up the Syrup, when it is cold.

You may also clarifie the fine powder'd Sugar with the white of an Egg and fair Wa­ter, boil it to the strong consistency of a solid Electuary, and afterwards incorporate the Juice of Wood-Sorrel prepar'd as I have said, and make a Syrup as you do of the Juice of Lemons.

Wood-sorrel, otherwise call'd Oxytriphyllum, and Allelujah, is a Plant well-known. If the Juice were as acid as that of Citrons, two pints of Juice would be enough for the four pound of Sugar prescrib'd. But because it is much less acid, and much more wa­try, there is a necessity of separating by distillation one part of its aquosity, to make its acidity somewhat like that of the Juice of Citrons.

The Syrup of Allelujah cools very much. It is very useful to quench thirst, to cool the heats of the Stomach and Liver. It is very much commended in Burning Fevers, Malignant and Epidemic Distempers. It comforts and strengthens the Heart, and cures the Inflammations of the Mouth, Tongue, Palat, and Throat. The distill'd-Water of the Juice may be very properly mix'd with the Syrup, or you may drink the Water a­lone. The Dose is the same with that of the Syrup of Citrons.

Syrupus Cinamomi Regius.Royal Syrup of Cinamon.
℞. Aquae Cinnamomi stillatitiae supra no­vum Cinnamomum electum cohobatae & ite­rum distillatae, lb j. Sacchari Albissimi in aqua Melissae soluti & in Electuarium solidum cocti, lb ij. Fiat ex arte Syrupus.Take two pound of very fine Sugar, and boil them in eight ounces of Balm-water, to the consistence of a solid Electuary, and when it is almost cold, mix it with the Ci­namon-water, and put up the Syrup in a bottle well-stopp'd.

The Preparation of the Cinamon-water, which is the foundation of this Syrup, is to be seen in the Third Part of this Pharmacopoea, whither I refer the Reader.

Cinamon is the Rind of a tree, as big as an Orange-tree, which grows in the Island of Ceylon in the East-Indies. The branches spred out of the body very streight, thick, in good order, and without knots. They cut those branches from the Trunk, when the [Page 81] Tree is in sap, and take off the Rind, which is the true Cinamon, which at first is flat, without colour, and having little taste or smell: but as it dries it rolls up like a Parch­ment, and losing its superfluous moisture, which stifled the best part of its good qua­lities, recovers its pleasing and penetrating smell, and its no less agreeable and biting taste. The best is of a pale purple brisk colour, smooth within and without, and of a substance indifferently compact. It is not subject to rott'nness, for it will keep a long time, provided it be well put up. The Wood is without any considerable vertue, no more then the Flowers which are white and sweet-scented, and follow'd by a Fruit in shape and bigness much like an Olive, which are full of a green, sharp, bitter-oylie Liquor, but little regarded.

The Syrup of Cinamon is a Cordial that operates quickly. It is administred suc­cessfully in weaknesses and sounding fits, to recall the dissipated Spirits. It very much strengthens the Stomach, and the Brain, and all the Noble-parts. It stirs up the Ap­petite, helps Digestion, expels Wind, sweetens the Breath, facilitates the Travels of Women, provokes the Menstruums, and remedies Obstructions of the Matrix. You may take from two drams to an ounce, either in a Spoon, or mix'd with Opiates, or other Medicines.

Syrupus Coralliorum.Syrup of Coral.
℞. Coralliorum rubrorum in subtilissimum pollinem supra Porphyritem redactorum, ℥ iiij. Succi Berberini defacatissimi, lb iij. In Cucurbit [...] vitream immissae in Balneo Cinerum horis quadraginta stent, per vices Spatulâ ligneâ agitando; Deinde filtretur Liquor, & cum Sacchari Candi subtiliter pul­verati duplo pondere fiat in Balneo Mariae mo­deratè calido ex arte Syrupus.Take four ounces of red-Coral well-cho­sen, break it upon a Porphyrie-stone till it be reduc'd to perfect dust, moistning it now and then with Rose-water. When it is dry, put it into a glass-Cucurbit, and pour upon it three pints of Juice of Bar­berries well-clarify'd; put the Cucurbit in a Bath of Ashes moderately hot, for forty hours, stirring the Ingredients from time to time with a Woodd'n-Spatula. Then filter the Liquor through a brown-Paper; weigh it, and having return'd it into a glass-Cucurbit very clean, and set the Cucurbit upon a luke-warm Balneo Mariae, dis­solve in this Liquor double the weight of fine Sugar-candy finely powder'd. When the Syrup is cold put it carefully up in a glass-bottle.

Coral, call'd also Lith [...]dendron, or the Petrify'd Tree, is tak'n by some for a Mineral, by reason of the hardness of its substance resembling that of stone; but it may pass for a Plant among those that consider how it grows like a Plant in the bottom of the Sea. Nevertheless, we are not to credit those who have affirm'd that Coral fructifies, and brings forth Berries, for which they took the Grains of Coral rounded about. No more then to those that believ'd that Coral was soft in the place where it grows, and that it grows red and hard, when it is tak'n out of the Sea, and expos'd to the Air. For they that fish for it have assur'd me, that it neither bears Berries, nor Seed, and that it is of the same colour, and as hard at the bottom of the Sea in every part of the Plant, as when it is drawn up. I confess there are three sorts of it, red, black, and white; but without question, the red surpasses all the rest in vertue. It must be of a lively colour, pure and clean, solid, weighty, smooth, and easie to break.

The Syrup of Coral is commended against all weaknesses of the Stomach, Liver, and Bowels, and for the cure of Diseases that proceed from thence, particularly to stay Vomitings, Diarrheas, Dysenteries, Lienteries, Hepatic Fluxes, to stop the loss of Blood in Men and Women, at Mouth, Nose, or any other part. The Dose is from half an ounce to an ounce, to be tak'n alone in a spoon, or with other convenient Liquors.

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Syrupus Cydoniorum.Syrup of Quinces.
℞. Succi Cydoniorum purissimi, Succhari Albissimi, ana. ℞ iiij. In vase fictili vitreato, lento igne, ad Sy­rupi Consistentiam coquantur. Remotus ab igne & semi-refrigeratus Syrupus si libuerit aro­matizetur Oleorum Cinnamomi & Caryophillo­rum an. guttii, Saccharo pulverato prius ex­ceptis.Take equal parts, viz. four pints of Juice of Quinces well-clarify'd, and four pound of Sugar, and put them together into a pot of glaz'd Earth, and boil them over a soft fire to a good consistence of a Syrup. Then take the Syrup off the fire, and aro­matize with Oyl of Cinamon and Cloves, ana two drops, incorporated with an ounce of fine powder'd Sugar.

If you would prepare a Syrup with less Juice of Quinces, and by consequence less astringent. You may prepare this Syrup in the same manner as that of Lemons, and put but one pint of Juice of Quinces to two pound of Sugar. But because astriction is chiefly expected from the fore-going Syrup, the quantity of the Juice must be equal to that of the Sugar, according to the prescription. For thereby the Juice finding it self concenter'd and despoil'd of the greatest part of its superfluous moisture in the boil­ing, which was necessary to bring it to the consistency of a Syrup, renders it more astrin­gent, and fit for the use to which it is design'd.

The vertues of it being to restore the weakned force of the Stomach, to stay vomi­ting, to help Digestion, to create an Appetite, to digest bad humours, and to fit them for expulsion. It strengthens the Bowels, and is us'd with success in Lienteries, Diar­rhoea's, and all sorts of Fluxes of the Belly, caus'd by acrimonious humours, or weak­ness of the Parts. The usual Dose is an ounce. It may be tak'n alone, or mixt in Poti­ons, or in a Ptisan to drink at any time.

Syrupus Antepilepticus, D. D. D'Aquin. Syrup against Epilepsie, D. D. D'Aquin. 
℞. Visci Querci ℞. Misletoe of the Oak, 
Radicis Paeoniae majoris, Roots of bigger Piony, 
Seminis ejusdem, ana.℥ ij.Seed of the same, an.℥ ij.
Radicis Valerianae majoris, Roots of the bigger Valerian, 
Angelicae, Angelica, 
Imperatoriae, Masterwort, 
Iridis Illyricae, Illyrian Orrice, 
Dictamni Alb. ana.℥ j.White Dittany, an.℥ j.
Foliorum Betonicae, Leaves of Betony, 
Ruta, Rue, 
Florum Lillii convallium, Flowers of the Lilly Convally, 
Tilia, & Linden-tree, and 
Lavendula, an.M. j.Lavender, an.M. j.
Tartari Alb. Monspeliensis pulversati,℥ jss.White Tartar of Montpelire pulve­riz'd.℥ j ss.

Bruise the Misletoe, as also the Roots and seeds of Piony, beat the Tartar in a Mor­tar, shred the Leaves of Betony and Rue, and put them together with the Flowers into a Matrass of a sufficient bigness. Then pour upon them three pints of the distill'd Wa­ter of black-Cheries, and as much of the Water of the Flowers of the Linden-Tree, and stopping up the Matrass keep it twenty-four hours in a luke-warm Balneum Mariae; then let the Bathe boyl two or three hours. After which having drain'd and squeez'd the whole, clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg, mixt with four pound of Sugar, and boyl it to the consistency of a Syrup, which done, aromatize it with Oyls of Cinamon and Lavender, an. three drops, and keep the Syrup in a Glass-bottle.

[Page 83]This Syrup is not only proper for the Epilepsie for which it is design'd, but for all Diseases of the Brain. The usual dose is one ounce alone, or in some Cephalic-liquor. It may be mingl'd also in Potions, Opiates, and many other Liquors.

Syrupus Hydragogus, D. D. D'AQUIN. A Syrup to draw forth watry humours, by Monsieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Radicum Mechoachan, ℞. Roots of Mechoacan, 
Ireos Nostratis, French-Orrice, 
Ebuli Recentis, Vulgar Dwarf-Elder, 
Medullae Seminis Carthami, The Pulp of the Seed of Carthamum, 
Folliculorum Sennae Orientalis, Seed-Bag of Eastern Senna, 
Foliorum Soldanellae siccorum, an.j ss.Dry-leaves of Sea-Bindweed, ana.℥ j ss.
Turbith Gummosi, Gummie-Turbith, 
Hermodactylorum, Hermodactyles, 
Jalapae, Jalap, 
Rhei Electi, an.ʒ vj.Pick'd Rhubarb, an.ʒ vj.
Radicum Valerianae major. Roots of the Bigger Valerian, 
Eringii, Eringo's, 
Enulae Campanae, Elecampane, 
Assari, Asarabacca, 
Corticis Rad. Capparis, The Bark of the Root of Capers, 
Tamarisci, Tamarisk, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow-Saunders, 
Seminis Ebuli, Seed of Dwarf-Elder, 
Baccarum Juniperi, an.℥ ss.Juniper-Berries, an.℥ ss.
Foliorum Ceterach, Leaves of Ceterach, 
Agrimoniae, Agrimonie, 
Chamaedryos, Germander, 
Florum Genistae, an.M. j.Flowers of Broom, an.M. j.
Limaturae Chalybisnodulo inclusae, Filings of Steel ty'd in a Bag, 
Tartari alb. Monspel. contusi, an.ij.White Montpelier-Tartar, an.℥ ij.

Break the Yellow-Saunders, bruise the Roots, Barks, Berries and Seeds, beat the Tar­tar in a Mortar, shred the Senna-bags, put the Filings of Steel in a little Linnen-cloth slightly ty'd, and having put them all into a Cucurbit of Earth well-glaz'd within, mingle the Flowers with the rest. Then pour upon them two pints of Succorie-water, and of the Juices of the Roots of Elder, and Leaves of Chervil well-clarify'd, of each three pints, so that the Ingredients may steep in the Liquors; cover the Cucurbit, and set it over hot embers for four and twenty hours; at the end whereof boil the whole for an hour and a half. Then drain and squeeze them strongly out, and having clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg with 4 pound of fine Sugar, boil it again over a soft fire to the consistency of a Syrup, adding at the end of Tartar-vitrioliz'd and Sal-Po­lychrestes, ana ℥ ij. When it is cold, aromatize it with three drops of Distill'd-oyl of Cinnamon incorporated with an ounce of fine-powder'd Sugar.

Eastern-Senna is accounted the best; the Leaves are like those of bastard-Senna, but more pointed and longer. The least bruis'd, the freeest from sprigs and dead leaves is always the best: it ought [...] be of a pale-green colour, soft to feel, of a strong scent, but not displeasing. The Flowers are small and yellow, like those of Bastard-Senna. The Seed-bags are the Cods, which the Plant produces, flat, light, like a half-Moon, broad and long, about half a finger's breadth, of a pale-green colour inclining to red. They contain the Seed, pale-green, long and flat, resembling a Heart. But the Bags are more purgative then the Leaves, and more proper to purge Waters.

Turbith is the Bark of a Milkie-root, which is chos'n by its weight, dark-colour'd without, white within, and clean from its pith, which is hard and fibrous. The mark of Gum is but fictitious and added to it; for that little Gum that is in it cannot be perceiv'd till the Turbith in powder has been macerated in Spirit of Wine, and so dis­solv'd and separated from its grosser parts.

Mechoachan is a great and almost insipid Root, of an ash-colour without, whitish within, brought in slices from New-Spain, where it grows in the Island of Mechoacan. The newest is to be chos'n.

[Page 84]A Hermodactyle is a little Root made like a Heart, reddish without and very white within; of a heavy and close Substance, but easily powder'd, about the bigness and somewhat resembling Anacardium, or the Roots of Satyrion: The whitest, fullest grown, and without Worm-holes is to be chos'n.

Jalap grows in New-Spain. A Root about the bigness of Mechoachan. It is brought to us in little round pieces, of which the newest, most weighty, and gummy are the best.

The best Rhubarb is of a firm-wheighty Substance, spotted with red when it is brok'n, of a bitter-astringent taste, and a good scent.

They that will be so curious as to examine the qualities and quantities of all the Sim­ples prescrib'd by the Chief Physician to his Majesty of France, for the Composition of this Syrup, will have no reason to question the vertue thereof in purging serous humours from all parts of the Body, particularly Hydropical, for the cure whereof it was chiefly study'd.

It may be giv'n alone from one ounce to two in proper Liquor.

Syrupus Anti-Nephriticus, D. D. D'AQUIN. A Syrup against Gravel, and pains in the Kidneys, by D. D'AQUIN. 
℞. Radicum Altheae, ℞. Roots of Althea, 
Ononidis, Rest-Harrow, 
Fragariae, Straw-berries, 
Bardanae, Burdock, 
Nymphaeae, Water-Lilly, 
Quinque Aperientium, an.j ss.Five Openers, an.℥ j ss.
Fructuum Alkekengi, Fruit of Alkekengi, 
Cynosbati, an.iij.Sweet-Bryer, an.℥ iij.
Seminum Bardanae, Seeds of Burdock, 
Milii Solis, Grommel, 
Sileris montani, Lovage, 
Quatuor Frig. major mundat. Four Greater Cold-seeds cleans'd, 
Nucleorum Mespillorum & Persicorum, an.j.Kernels of Medlars and Peaches, an.℥ j.
Foliorum Saxifragae, Leave of Saxifrage, 
Pimpinellae, Pimpernel, 
Cerefolii, Chervile, 
Virgae Aureae, Gold'n-Rod, 
Hyperici, St. John's-wort, 
Capilli Veneris, an.M. j.Maidenhair,M. j.
Tart. albi pulverati,ij.White Tartar pulveriz'd,℥ ij.

After you well wash'd and cleans'd all the Roots from their external and internal su­perfluities, and bruis'd and slic'd them well, put them into an Earth'n-pot glaz'd within­side, with two ounces of Montpelier-Tartar pulveriz'd; and having pour'd upon them ten pints of the Distill'd-water of Pellitory of the Wall, let them boil over a soft fire for the space of a good hour: After which add to the Decoction the Fruits of Sweet-Bryar and Alkekengi well-cut, and boil them a quarter [...] an hour among the Roots; then add to them the Seeds of Burdock, Grommel and Lovage, slightly pounded, and the Leaves of Chervile and St. John's-wort cut. Boil the whole about a quarter of an hour, after which put in the Maidenhair; and having put them down into the Decocti­on, cover. the Pot, take it off the fire, and when the Decoction is half-cold, drain and squeeze it out. Then clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg with four pound of fine Sugar, and boil them over a soft fire to the consistence of a Syrup. When it is cold, aromatize it with six drops of Distill'd-oyl of Anise, incorporated with an ounce of fine-powder'd Sugar, and put up the Syrup in a Bottle well-stopp'd.

The Diuretic vertues particularly known to belong to every one of the Simples made choice of for the Composition of this Syrup, demonstrate the good effects which may be expected from their union. Nor can we otherwise believe but that this Syrup will give considerable ease to those that are troubl'd with Gravel in their Reins, Ureters or Bladder, or any thick or viscous flegm, which stopping the Urinary-pipes, stops the ordinary course of the Water; or to those that are subject to relapse into these Distem­pers. [Page 85] For prevention whereof, let them continue the use of this Syrup for several days, taking every morning an ounce in three or four ounces of white-wine. In the pains take from an ounce to two ounces in Emulsions or any other Liquors.

Syrupus de Absinthio.Syrup of Wormwood.
℞. Summitatum Absinthii majoris Scca­rum, lb ss. Rosarum rubrarum exungulatarum, Tartari albi Monspeliensis, an.ij. N [...]dis Indicae, ʒ iij. Succi Cydoniorum nondum perfectè matu­rorum, Vini albi austeri, an. lb iij ss.℞. The tops of Wormwood gather'd when it is in flower, and dry them, half a pound; red-Roses cleans'd from their white bottoms, two ounces; Indian-Nard three Drachms: put them all into a Vessel of Earth glaz'd within-side, having a narrow mouth, and then adding two ounces of Montpelier-Tartar, pour upon them of the Juices of Quinces not perfectly ripe, and austere white-wine, of each three pints and a half. Then with a woodd'n-Spatula thrust down the Wormwood, Roses and Spikenard into the Liquors, and having cover'd the Vessel, set it upon hot embers for 24 hours. Then boil the Ingredients gently till the Liquors be a third part consum'd. Drain and press out the Decoction, and clarifie it with the white of an Egg and four pound of Sugar, and boil them over a gentle fire to the con­sistence of a Syrup a little thicker then or­dinary. Let the Syrup cool, and then mix with it half a Drachm of Oyl of Worm­wood, incorporated with two ounces of powder'd Sugar; or else with two ounces of the tincture of the tops of Wormwood drawn with the Spirit of Wine. Then keep the Syrup in a Bottle well-stopp'd.

Here give me leave to answer the objections some have made against the preparations of this Syrup. For they say, That in the Decoction of the Wormwood, Roses and Spikenard, their volatile parts dissipate with the spiritous part of the Win [...]; and that to preserve them, the Infusion and Decoction of this Syrup must be made in a Cucurbit of glass, cover'd with its Head in a Sand-bath, and that the ten first ounces of the Di­still'd-waters must be kept a-part, as also the two next pints that follow, continuing the Distillation till there remains but one pint of moisture in the Cucurbit. Then, say they, that which remains in the Cucurbit must be prest out, and the Liquor clarify'd and evaporated till it be reduc'd to four ounces; that those 4 ounces must be dissolv'd with 2 pound of Sugar, and the ten ounces of the first Water reserv'd a-part, and that after they have boyl'd a very little while, the Syrup is made: Only the two last pints of the se­cond Water must be reserv'd to mingle with the Syrup, when occasion requires.

The dissipation of the volatile parts of the Wormwood, Roses, and Spike­nard with the Wine, seems at first a specious Argument. But upon examina­tion, we shall sind that the Remedy propos'd is worse then the mischief sought to be prevented, besides the trouble of the Preparation. For, besides that the volatile parts, the loss whereof is so much fear'd, are not such as the design of the Syrup requires, which is principally to strength'n the Stomach, Liver and Bowels, which is the office of the material and grosser parts of Medicaments, and chiefly of their fix'd salt, you shall find a greater dissipation of the good parts in the preparation of these Au­thors, then in that of the Ancients. For though they keep the first ten ounces of the Distill'd-water; they take away two pints of that which follows next, the vertue whereof is no more to be found in the Syrup. Then again, they dissipate many of the conside­rable parts by clarifying the rest of the Decoction, and causing it to evaporate to four ounces, whereby it is impossible to concenter the vertues of so many ingredients, espe­cially for one Syrup. Then the boyling, how soft soever, which afterwards they allow the Syrup to unite the four ounces of the first Water; carries off the most subtle parts [Page 86] of the Spiritous-water, which they took so much care to preserve. Whereby the defi­ciency of their Preparation easily appears.

Yet I must confess the Ancients might have done better with less trouble, had they gone according to the prescription here set down. For though we cannot boast by this means to preserve all the Spiritous parts of the Wormwood, Roses and Spike­nard, no more then those of the Wine; nevertheless a good part are retain'd, and the addition of the Distill'd-oyl of Wormwood sufficiently supplyes the defects of those Spirits which the Wormwood lost in Distillation. Besides all this, the green-sowre­wine, which we use instead of the ripe-wine prescrib'd by the Ancients, the unripe Quinces, and the Tartar being order'd as we have done, the Acid part which abounds in all these, uniting with the fixt Salt of the Tartar it self, will stop the motion of the greatest part of the volatile Spirits which were subject to dissipation, and enable them to resist the heat of the Infusion and Decoction. And these volatiles thus retain'd, find­ing themselves joyn'd to the terrestrial and fix'd parts of the other Medicaments, will be able to second and assist their operation: which they will do more powerfully, when they meet with the sulphurie parts of the Distill'd-oyl of Wormwood.

But to satisfie those who believe that all the spiritous part of Wine is absolutely necessary in this Syrup, and fear that the Coction may have dissipated some parts; That dissipation may be supply'd by adding to the Syrup, boyl'd a little more then or­dinary and cold again, two ounces of the Tincture of the tops of Wormwood, drawn with the Spirit of Wine. Which re-inforc'd by the Oyl, will render the Syrup much more effectual.

If the Greater Wormwood be too bitter, you may may make use of the Lesser for Persons that are more nice, observing still the same Preparation.

Spikenard is brought from the East-Indies. It is a Root that shooteth up many hairy­spikes set together of a brownish-colour. There is nothing appears above the ground but the stalk, for the spikes grow even with the Earth, about an inch and a half long, of a strong scent, like that of Galingale, the taste whereof is bitter and biting.

Syrup of Wormwood strength'ns the Stomach and Liver, creates an Appetite, helps digestion, kills Worms, corrects the acidities of the Stomach, expels winds, fortifies the Bowels, stops Looseness, and is profitable in Hysteric-distempers. The dose is one or two spoonfuls in a morning fasting, either unmix'd, or in Wine, or any other pro­per Liquor. It is also us'd in Potions, Opiates, Pills, and several other Medicaments.

Syrupus de Althaea. Syrup of Marsh-mallows. 
℞. Radicum Althaeae,ij.℞. Roots of Marsh-mallows,℥ ij.
Graminis, Meadow-grass, 
Asparagi, Asparagus, 
Glycyrrhizae, Liquorice, 
Ʋvarum passarum, Raisins of the Sun, 
Cicerum rubrorum, an.j.Red Cich-pease, an.℥ j.
Summitatum Althaeae, Tops of Althea, 
Malvae, French-Mallows, 
Parietariae, Pellitorie of the wall, 
Pimpinellae, Pimpernel, 
Adianti vulgaris, Common Maidenhair, 
Capilli Veneris Monspeliensis, an.M. j.Monpelier-Maidenhair, an.M. j.
Quatuor Semin frigid. Minorum, & Four Lesser Cold-seeds 
Majorum, an.ij.Greater, an.℥ ij.

Wash and cleanse the Roots of Althea, Asparagus and Meadow-grass, from their dirt, pith and strings, slice them well; and having boil'd the Grass-roots a good quar­ter of an hour first in 8 pints of Water, put into the Decoction the slic'd-roots of Al­thea and Asparagus, and let them boil soundly for half an hour; then add the dry Raisins cut, and the▪ Cich-pease whole; when they have boil'd a little while, put in the tops of the Mallows, Althea, Pellitorie and Pimpernel slightly shred, and boil them about a quarter of an hour among the rest: after that add the Liquorice slic'd, and the Maidenhairs cut, and when they begin to boil, put in the Cold-seeds: thrust them down into the Decoction, and take the whole off the fire, and let them drain a quarter of an hour afterwards. Then clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg and four pounds [Page 87] of Sugar, and let them boil over a moderate fire to the consistence of a Syrup, a little more then ordinary. Stir the Syrup softly from time to time, the better to evaporate the superfluous moisture, and put up the Syrup when it is quite cold.

This Preparation differs from that of Fernelius and some other Writers; the quan­tity of the Roots and Raisins being here chang'd from half an ounce to an ounce; the Plantain is left out, and eight pints of Water prescrib'd instead of six. All which quantities are too small for four pound of Sugar. And Plantain known to be an astrin­gent herb, is not to be admitted among opening, slippery-making Roots. And ten pints of Water are but little enough to extract the vertues of so many Medicaments, and yet retain the just consistence of a Syrup.

Some think this Preparation impossible, by reason of the viscosity of most of the par­ticular Ingredients; but they that observe my method, will find not only the possibility, but the success which they suspect.

The Cich-pease are prescrib'd whole, because their opening quality abounds enough without-side without being brok'n: which if they should be, their terrestrial part be­ing op'n, might prevail above their aperitive Faculty.

Some would have the Roots, Herbs, and other Ingredients put into a little Bag, and so boil'd, believing their Mucilaginous part would remain in the Bag; by which means the Syrup would be less viscous, and more easily prepar'd. But the difference of the Substances requires different degrees of boiling; and therefore it would be ill-done to boil them one among another equally, whereby the vertue of the one might be dissi­pated before the vertues of the other were fully imparted to the Liquor: besides that there be others whose terrestial parts would remain in the Syrup, especially the Cich­pease. And then again, though all the Ingredients were of the same nature, it would be a difficult thing for them, being so stopp'd up, to communicate their vertue equally; which in regard it could not be done otherwise then by squeezing the Ingredients, would render the Syrup more mucilaginous.

Syrup of Althea is very much esteem'd for discharging the Reins and Ureters of gra­velly-flegmatic and tenacious Substances. For it moderately op'ns and makes all the passages slippery; tempers the shapness of them, as well as of the Urine it self: and cools the heat that burns in the passages. It is no less commended in Diseases of the Brest, and Gonorrhea's. It is to be tak'n fasting, alone, or in Decoctions, Emulsions, Whey, White-wine, &c. The usual dose is an ounce, though you may take two up­on occasion.

Syrupus Aperiens Cachecticus, D. D. D'Aquin. A [...] Opening Syrup against ill-habit of Body, by Monsieur D'Aquin. 
℞. Radicum Apii, ℞. Roots of Parsly, 
Foeniculi, Fennel, 
Petroselini, Stone-Parsly, 
Rubiae Tinctorum, Dyers-Madder, 
Aristolochiae tenuis, an.ij.Thin-Birthwort, an.℥ ij.

Wash and cleanse the Roots of Parsly, Fennel, Stone-Parsly, Madder and Birth­wort, and having bruis'd them and put them into an Earth'n-vessel glaz'd within, with a streight mouth, moist'n them with Vinegar of Squills, and having cover'd the Pot, keep them in maceration 24 hours in some hot place, as over a Baker's Oven; then let them boyl over a gentle fire in eight pints of water, where Steel has been quench'd, to the consumption of the fourth part. Then

℞. Foliorum Arthemisiae, ℞. The Leaves of Mugwort, 
Absinthii, Wormwood, 
Agrimoniae, Agrimonie, 
Pulegii, Penny-royal, 
Chamaedryos, an.M. j.Germander, an.M. j.
Rutae,M ss.Rue,M ss.

Shred them and put them in, and when they have boyl'd about a quarter of an hour among the Roots, add thereto

[Page 88]

Injice, Epithymi, Dodder of time,
Florum Matricariae, Flowers of Featherfew,
Chaemomillae, Camomile,
Hyperici, an.P. ij.St. John's-wort, an. Little Hand­fulls, ij.

After some few bubblings, take it off the fire, strain and squeeze out the whole; clarifie the straining with five pound of Sugar, and boyl them over a gentle fire to the consistence of a Syrup.

Si purgante [...] cupias, If you desire it purgative, boyl it still to the consistence of a soft Electuary. Then 
℞. Rhabarbari electi minutim incisi, ℞. Choice Rhubarb small cut, 
Foliorum Orientalium, an.ij.Indian-Leaves, an.℥ ij.
Radicum Jalapa, Roots of Jalap, 
Mechoachana, Mechoachan, 
Hermodactilorum, & Hermodactyles, and 
Brioniae albae contusarum, an.j.White Bryony bruis'd, an.℥ ij.
Tartari Vitriolati,ʒ vj.Tartar-vitrioliz'd,ʒ vj.

Infuse all these in a Glaz'd-earthen-vessel for four and twenty hours over hot embers in three pints of Balm-water, and let them boyl about a quarter of an hour. Strain and press out the Infusion, and clarifie the Liquor. Then mixe it with the Syrup boyl'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary, and boyl it again to the consistence of a Syrup. When it is cool, aromatize. it with four drops of Oyl of Cinamon incorporated with half an ounce of fine Sugar, or with as much of the Tincture of Saffron; then put it up and stop it well.

This Syrup is a collection of choice Medicaments, which has had good success in opening obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Mesenterie and Matrix. It purges gently viscous and tenacious humours, which are the original of Cachexies, Dropsies and quo­tidian Agues. It is very proper to cure pale Complexions, and against suppression or irregularity of the Menstruum's. And though the Chalybeat-water does but a very little matter augment the vertue of the Syrup, yet you may re-inforce it with Tin­cture, Salt or Vitriol of Mars, if th [...] be occasion.

Either of these Syrups the first or [...]e Purgative, may be tak'n alone, or mix'd with Distill'd waters or White-wine, or any proper Decoction, from one ounce to two.

Syrups de Arthemisia. Syrup of Mugwort. 
℞. Radicum Apii, ℞. Of the Roots of Parsly, 
Foeniculi, Fennel, 
Petroselini, Stone-Parsly, 
Enulae Campanae, Elecampane, 
Ireos Nostratis, French-Orrice, 
Paonia, & Peonie, and 
Rubia major, an.j.The Bigger Madder, an.℥ j.
Foliorum Arthemisia, Leaves of Mugwort, 
Pulegis, Peny-royal, 
Calamintha, Calaminte, 
Origani, Organy, 
Melissa, Balm, 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan-Dittany, 
Sabina, Savine, 
Persicaria, Arsmart, 
Majorana, Marjoram, 
Chamadryos, Germander, 
Chamapityos, Ground-Ivy, 
Hyssopi, Hyssop, 
Hyperici, St. John's-wort, 
Ruta, Rue, 

[Page 89]

Matricaria florida, Double Featherfew, 
Centaurii minoris, Lesser Centaurie, 
Betonicae, Betonie, 
Prassii albi, an.M. j.White-Horehound, an.M. j.
Seininum Anisi, Seed of Annise, 
Foeniculi, Fennel, 
Dauci, Wild-Carrot, 
Petroselini, Stone-Parsley, 
Ocymi, Basil, 
Ruta, an.ʒ iij.Rue, an.ʒ iij.
Tartari albi Monspeliensis,ij.Tartar white of Montpelier,℥ ij.

Wash, cleanse and bruise all the Roots, and infuse them with the Tartar pulveriz'd four and twenty hours over hot embers in an Earth'n-glaz'd-vessel well-cover'd, in three pints of clear Hydromel newly made. Cut the Herbs and bruise the Seeds, and put them in another Earth'n-glaz'd-pot by themselves in ten pints of the same Hydromel, covering the Pot and setting it upon hot embers for twelve hours. Then boyl the In­fusion of the Roots over a gentle fire for half an hour. Having so done, mixe the In­fusion of the Herbs with it, and boyl both together for a good quarter of an hour. Af­ter that take the Decoction from the fire, and when it is half-cold, strain and squeeze it well, and having clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg in five pounds of Sugar, boyl them over a moderate fire to the consistence of a Syrup, and aromatize it with six drops of Distill'd-oyl of Cinamon, incorporated with an ounce of fine powder'd Sugar. But this mixture must not be made till the Syrup be quite cold.

Hydromel is preferr'd before Water and the powder'd Tartar added, as well the better to penetrate the Ingredients, as to bind their volatile parts, and to hinder dis­sipation during the Decoction. The Aromatization of the Syrup with Oyl of Cinamon is beyond the method of the Ancients, who were wont to boyl the Cinamon in their Decoctions, not considering that the sulphurie and volatile parts of the Cinamon dissi­pate in boyling, and leave in the Decoction only some terrestrial parts of the Ci­namon, inferior to the smell and sharp and penetrating taste of the Oyl of Cinamon.

The Preparation of this Syrup is different from those which may be met with in se­veral Pharmacopoeas: But you will find that the change is much for the better, and that I have observ'd the best rules of Pharmacy.

This Syrup is chiefly made use of in the Diseases of Women: to op'n obstructions of the Matrix, to dispel Wind, to repress vapours and to quiet suffocations, as also to provoke and regulate the menstruum's, and evacuate the impurities of the Matrix. It is good against obstructions of the Spleen, Liver and Bowels, as well for Men as Women. The dose is from one ounce to two, alone, or in White-wine, in Open­ing-waters or Decoctions. It is also sometimes mixt i [...] Pills, Opiates and other Me­dicines.

Syrupus de Cichorio compositus cum Rhabarbaro. Syrup of Cichorio compounded with Rhubarb. 
℞. Hordei integri, ℞. Whole Barley, 
Radicum Apii, Roots of Parsly, 
Foeniculi, Fennel, 
Asparagi, Asparagus, 
Tartari albi crudi, an.ij.Raw white Tartar, an.℥ ij.
Foliorum Cichorii, Leaves of Cichorie, 
Taraxaci, Dandelion, 
Endivia, Endive, 
Sonchi Levis, Smooth Sow-thistle, 
Lactuca Sativa; & Gard'n-Lettice, and 
Sylvestris Spinas in dorso ferentis, Wild-Lettice with prickles, 
Hepaticae, Liverwort, 
Fumariae, Fumitorie, 
Lupuli, an.M. j.Hopps, an.M. j.
Capill. Ven. Monspeliensis, Venus-Hair of Montpelier, 
Polytrici, Gold'n-Maidenhair, 

[Page 90]

Adianti vulgaris, Common-Maidenhair, 
Ceterach, Spleenwort, 
Glycyrrhiza, Liquorice, 
Baccarum Alkekengi, Alkekengi-Berries, 
Seminis Cuscutae, an.ʒ vj.Dodder-seed, an.ʒ vj.

First boil the Barley whole with the Tartar beat'n to powder in ten pints of Water for half an hour, then adding the Roots of Parsly, Fennel and Asparagus, well-cleans'd from dust and pith, and slic'd or bruis'd, let them boil another half hour; next put in the Alkekengi-Berries bruis'd, and the Herbs cut, and boil them a quarter of an hour among all the rest: After that put in the Liquorice cleans'd and slic'd, the Dodder-seed, and the Maidenhairs, and having let them boil a little while, take the the Decoction from the fire, and when it is half-cold, strain and press it forth. Cla­rifie it with the white of an Egg with six pound of Sugar, and boil it over a moderate fire to the consistence of a Syrup between soft and solid.

Interim, In the mean time, 
℞. Rhubarbari electi incisi,vj.℞. Of choice Rhubarb cut,℥ vj.
Tartari albi Monspel.j.White Tartar of Montpelier,℥ j.
Spica Narda,ʒ vj.Spikenard,ʒ vj.

Infuse them in three pints of the Distill'd-water of Succorie in an Earth'n-glaz'd-pot, narrow-mouth'd and well cover'd over hot coals for 24 hours; then let them boyl a few bublings, and having strain'd and press'd the whole, and clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg and four ounces of white Sugar, put this to the Syrup, while it is hot; and if it be not then thick enough boyl it on to a good consistence, and put it up when it is quite cold.

Some there are that reserve a part of their Decoction to infuse the Rhubarb and Spikenard into it. But considering that a Liquor charg'd with the vertue of so many Ingredients is not in a condition to receive a new that of the Rhubarb and Spikenard, and that of necessity it must leave a good part in the Sediment, certainly the Succorie­water here prescrib'd, is much more proper at this time, not being pester'd with any other qualities than what is natural to it.

There is no Syrup more in use in all places then this of Succorie-compos'd: Though by what miscarriage I know not, none of the Pharmacopoea's have yet agreed in the Composition. But this you may be certain is right: and by the way take notice, That the Tartar is added here also for the better penetration of the simples, to impart their vertue to the Water more effectually, and to stop the dissipation of their volatile parts.

The remarquable vertues of this Syrup, have caus'd some to give it the Name of The Balsom of the Liver and Spleen, the obstructions whereof it powerfully op'ns, as also of the Pancreas and Mesenterie. It is recommended against the Jaundice and Cachexies; as also to soft'n and discuss the hardness and swelling of the Belly which happ'ns to little Children through obstructions caus'd by the Worms. It is successfully us'd in Apo­zems appointed to prepare bad humours for digestion, especially choleric ones, and to open the passages necessary for their evacuation. It is purgative, compounded with Rhubarb, for which reason it is giv'n sometimes alone to little Children, some­times mix'd with Purgative infusions, especially in Diarrhea's, Lienteries, Dysenteries, and other choleric Distempers that harrass the Intestines. And it has this good qua­lity, that as it purges the ill humours, it strength'ns all the lower parts of the Belly. The dose is from one ounce to two.

They that desire a simple Syrup of Succorie may prepare it with equal parts of fine Sugar and Juice of Succorie depurated by settlement, clarify'd together with the white of an Egg, and boyl'd to the consistence of a Syrup.

[Page 91]

Syrupus Roborans. A Strength'ning Syrup. 
℞. Rhabarbari elect. incisi,iiij.℞. Choice Rhubarb cut,℥ iiij.
Baccarum Myrti contusarum, Mirtle-berries bruis'd, 
Rosarum Rubrarum exungulatarum, an.iij.Red-Roses cleans'd, an.℥ iij.
Tartari Alb. contusi,j.White-Tartar bruis'd,℥ j.

Slice the Rhubarb, bruise the Berries, beat the Tartar in a Mortar, and put them with the Roses cleans'd from their whites, into a Glaz'd-earth'n-pot with a narrow mouth, in six pints of Water wherein Steel has been quench'd. Cover the Pot, and set it over hot embers for 24 hours; then let them boil a little; which done, strain and press the Sediment strongly. Clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg and four pound of Sugar, and boil them up over a soft fire to the consistency of a Syrup.

Though the Purgative-vertue of Rhubarb may not seem necessary for the purposes of this Syrup, yet it had been ill-left out; in regard it may, as it were, insensibly evacuate some ill-humours, while it's more terrrestial parts assisted by other Medicaments, for­tifie the parts that were weaken'd and relax'd. The purpose of the Tartar is the same as before.

This Syrup is highly esteem'd for the strength'ning and restoring the Stomach and Liver debilitated. It is very much us'd in the cure of Diarrheas, Lienteries, Dysen­teries, and Hepatic-fluxes; it creates an Appetite, and helps Digestion. It is good to help the retentive Faculty of the Stomach, and in losses of Blood. You may take it fasting, alone, or mix'd with proper Liquors. The usual dose is an ounce, which you may enlarge to two.

Syrupus Myrtinus. Syrup of Myrtle. 
℞. Baccarum Myrti, ℞. Myrtle-Berries, 
Mespillorum ad maturitatem vergentium, & Medlars near ripe, and 
Radicis Symphiti majoris, an.iiij.Root of Greater Cumfrey, an.℥ iiij.
Suntali Citrini, Yellow-Saunders, 
Fructuum Oxyacanthae recentium, Fresh-Barberies, 
Granorum Sumach, Seeds of Sumach, 
Balaustiorum, & Double Flowers of wild-Pome-granates, And 
Rosarum rubrarum mundatar. an.ij.Red-Roses clean pick'd, an.℥ ij.

Take the Myrtle-Berries dry, the Medlars when they are almost ripe, bruise them well, as also the Sumach-seeds, the Barberries, the Pome-granate flowers, the Yellow-Saunders, and the Roots of great Confrey, and putting them all together with the Roses clean-pickt into an Earth'n-glaz'd-pot; pour upon them three pints of fair Wa­ter, and of the Juice of Quinces and wild-Pears, of each two pints. Thrust down the Ingredients into the Liquors, cover the Pot and set it four and twenty hours upon hot embers, at the end whereof boyl the Infusion a good quarter of an hour, and when it is half-cold, strain and squeeze it strongly out; and having clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg with five pound of the finest Sugar, boyl them over a moderate fire to the consistence of a Syrup.

Syrup of Myrtles cools, dries and binds, for which reason it is successfully made use of to stay thin Defluxions upon the Lungs, and to stop the coughing which pro­ceeds from thence. It is also very proper to stay Loosenesses, Spitting and vomiting of Blood, and all other internal Haimorraghia's. It stops the excessive flowings of the menstruum's, and all want of retention in the Stomach and Bowels. It is highly esteem'd for the cooling of Inflammations, and healing Ulcers of the Mouth, Tongue or Throat. It is tak'n alone from one ounce to two, or else in Distill'd-waters or pro­per Decoctions.

[Page 92]

Syrupus Jujubinus. Syrup of Jujubs. 
℞. Jujubas,No. lx.℞. Jujubs,No. lx.
Hordei mundati, Barley pickt, 
Glycyrrhizae, Liquorice, 
Capilli Veneris Monspel. an.j.Venus-Hair of Montpelier, an.℥ j.
Violarum recentium,M. j.Fresh-Violets,M. j.
Seminum Malvae, Seeds of Mallows, 
Cydoniorum, Quinces, 
Papaveris albi, White-Poppie, 
Melonis, Of Melon, 
Lactuca, an.ʒ iij.Of Lettice, an.ʒ iij.

Put the pickt Barley with six pints of Water into an Earth'n-glaz'd-pot, and let it boyl over a gentle fire for a good half hour; then put in the Jububs slic'd, and let them boyl a good quarter of an hour; then add the Liquorice scrap'd and bruis'd, the Venus-Hair cut, and the Seeds bruis'd, and let them bubble a while. Then add the fresh-Violets, thrusting them down into the Decoction, at the same time taking off the Pot from the fire; and when the Decoction is somewhat cool, strain it, and having clari­fy'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg with three pound of fine Sugar, boyl it over a gentle-fire to the consistence of a Syrup.

Should the Decoction of the Ingredients prescrib'd for the making of this Syrup be made without regard had to the viscosity of the Seeds, and without following exactly the order to be observ'd in the boyling, it would be so clammy that the Syrup could never keep long. Much less would it keep, and much more irregular would the con­sistence be, if as the Ancients did, you should add Gum-Tragacanth. For two drams of that Gum were enough to make it as thick as a Loohc, and keep it from being trans­parent. But observing my method, the vertue which is requir'd in the Ingredients, will not fail to remain in the Syrup, and the consistence will be proper.

Syrup of Jujubs is chiefly made use of for Persons that are troubl'd with a dry cough, and are troubl'd with hot and thin Defluxions upon the Aspera Arteria or Rough Ar­terie, or upon the Lungs; for it thick'ns thin flegm, and qualifies the acrimonie thereof, and helps to expectorate. It is tak'n from half an ounce to an ounce, alone, or else in Pectoral-Ptisanes, Juleps, Apozems, or mix'd with Looches.

Syrupus Florum Tussilaginis Simplex. Simple Syrup of Flowers of Colts-foot. 
℞. Florum Tussilaginis recentium,lb j ss.℞. Fresh Flowers of Colts-foot,lb j ss.

Put the Flowers into an Earth'n-pot glaz'd within, having a streight mouth; and covering the Pot, set it upon hot cinders for twelve hours, at the end whereof give the Infusion some few bubling-boilings, strain it and press it out. Then putting the like quantity of fresh Colts foot Flowers into the same Pot, pour upon them the strain'd Liquor. Cover the Pot and set it upon the hot embers, as long as before; then letting the Infusion boyl a little, strain it, squeeze it, and clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg with four pound of fine Sugar, and let it boyl over a soft fire to the consistence of a Syrup.

The Syrup of Flowers of Colts-foot is highly extoll'd to cut and loos'n tough-flegm from the rough Artery and Lungs, for which reason it gives great ease to those that are Asthmatic, and such as cannot freely breath. It is tak'n alone by intervals fasting, from two drams to half an ounce. It is also mix'd in Looches, and Pectoral Ptisanes.

Syrupus de Tussilagine Compositus. Compound Syrup of Colts-foot. 
℞. Radicum Tussilaginis,lb ss.℞. Roots of Colts-foot,lb ss.
Foliorum & florum ejusdem, an.M. iiij.Leaves and Flowers of the same, an.M. iiij.
Capilli Veneris Monspel.M. ij.Montpelier Venus-Hair,M. ij.
Glycyrrhizae.j.Liquorice,℥ j.
Aqua Fontanae,lb viij.Fountain-water,lb viij.

[Page 93]Gather the Roots toward the end of Winter, the same Flowers and Leaves, when they are shot forth. Dry the Roots and Flowers, and keep them till the Leaves are ready. Then bruise the Roots well, and boil them for half an hour in eight pints of Fountain-water. Then adding the Leaves cut, let them boil a quarter of an hour with the Roots. Then put in the Liquorice scrap'd and bruis'd, the Venus-hair cut, and the Flowers. Give them a gentle boiling, and at the same time take off the Decoction from the fire. Strain it and press it when it is a little cool. And having clarify'd the Li­quor with the white of an Egg with five pound of the finest Sugar, boil it to the con­sistency of a Syrup, a little thicker then ordinary, by reason of the viscosity of the Colts-foot.

The different substance of the Ingredients that compound this substance, require different spaces of b [...]ling: so that we cannot either infuse or boil them all together at the same time, unless we should despise the principal rules of Pharmacy, which teach us to begin our Decoctions and Infusions with the most solid Medicaments.

The same vertues may be attributed to this Syrup, as to the former; only we may believe that it acts with more force, by the Conjunction of the Roots and Leaves of Colts-foot, the Liquorice, and the Maiden-hair. But in lieu of that, it is somewhat more unpleasant. The Dose and use is much the same.

Syrupus Antiasthmaticus, D. D. D'AQUIN. An Anti-Asthmatic Syrup of Monsieur D' AQUIN. 
℞. Hordei Mundati,℥ ij℞. Pickt Barley,℥ ij.
Radicum Petasitidis, Roots of Butter-Bur, 
Enulae Campana, Elecampane, 
Apii Parsley, 
Faeniculi Fennel, 
Liquoritiae, & Liquorice, and 
Ʋvarum Damascenarum Mundatarum, an.℥ j ss.The best and biggest sort of Rai­sins of the Sun, an.℥ j ss.
Dactylos EnucleatosNo. xij.Ston'd Dates,No. xij.
Jujubas, Jujubs, 
Sebesten, ana.No. xxx.Sebestens, an.No. xxx.
Foliorum Tussilaginis, Leaves of Colts-foot, 
Pulmonaria, Lungwort, 
Summitatum Hyssopi, Tops of Hysop, 
Prassii Albi, White Hore-hound, 
Capill. ven. Monspel. an.M. j.Montpelier Maiden-hair, an.M. j.
Seminum Anisi, Seeds of Anise, 
Bombacis, an.℥ ss.Cotton-Tree, an.℥ ss.
Florum Tussilaginis, Flowers of Colts-foot, 
Pedis cati. an.M. ss.Cats-foot, an.M. ss.

Boyl the pickt Barley half an hour in nine pints of Water, then adding the Roots cleans'd and cut, boil them half an hour longer: next put the Dates ston'd and cut, with the Jujubs, Sebestens, and Raisins ston'd, and having boyl'd them among the rest, for a quarter of an hour, put in the Herbs shred, and let them boil another quarter; add then the Liquorice and Seeds bruis'd, the Maiden-hair and Flowers, and after some few bublings, take the decoction from the fire. Strain it being somewhat cool'd. Then cla­rifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg and five pound of fine Sugar, and boil it over a gentle fire to the consistence of a Syrup.

This Syrup is very proper to cut and loosen cold, viscous and tough flegm, from all the parts serving to respiration. It principally helps those that are Asthmatick, and those that are troubled with inveterate Coughs, for it opens the passages and removes the flegm that stops them. It may be call'd the Balsom of the Brest, and particularly for old Men. Take a spoonful at a time every foot by night or day, so that you may be said to be fasting, and continue it as occasion requires.

[Page 94]

Syrupus Resumptivus, sive de Testu­dinibus. The Resumptive Syrup, or Syrup of Tortoises. 
℞. Carnis Testudinum Nemoralium,lb j.℞. Of the flesh of Wood-Tortoises,lb j.
Cancrorum fluviatilium℥ viij.River-Crabs,℥ viij.
Hordei Mundati, Pickt Barley, 
Carnis Dactylorum & Pulp of Dates, and the 
Passularum Damascenarum, an.℥ ij.Fairest largest Raisins of the Sun, an.℥ ij.
Jujubas & Jujubs, 
Sebesten, an.No. xij.Sebesten, an.No. xij.
Glycyrrhizae rasae & contusae,℥ j.Liquorice scrap'd and bruis'd,℥ j.
Nucleorum Pineorum, Pine-Kernels, 
Pistaciarum Mundatarum, Pistaches cleans'd, 
Seminis Bombacis, Seed of the Cotton-Tree, 
Melonis, Melon, 
Cucumeris, Cucumber, 
Citrulli, Citrulls, 
Florum Nymphaeae, & Flowers of Water-Lilly, and 
Violarum, an.℥ ss.Violets, an.℥ ss.
Seminum Lactucae, Seeds of. Lettice, 
Papaveris Albi, an.ʒ ij.White-Poppy, an.ʒ ij.

Take the flesh of Wood-Tortoises, parted from the Bones, the Skin, and the Entrails, and the River-Crabs; put them into a glaz'd Earth'n-Pot, with two ounces of pickt Barley. Pour upon them six pints of Fountain-water, and having cover'd the Pot, boil the whole over a gentle fire for two hours. Then add the Fruits cleans'd and cut, and boil them with the rest for a quarter of an hour. After which, put in the Pine-kernels, the Pistache's, and the Seeds bruis'd, next to them the Liquorice and the flowers of Nymphaea, and lastly, the Violets; and having given them some few Bublings, take the Pot from the fire, and when the Decoction is somewhat cool, strain and clarifie it with the white of an Egg and three pound of Sugar. Then boil it to the consistency of a Syrup. And when it is cold aromatize it with six drops of Oyl of Anniseed, incorpo­rated with an ounce of fine powder'd Sugar.

This Syrup is not so much in use; whether it is for the difficulty of getting Wood-Tortoises, or for the aversion that several sick people have to those sort of Animals; or else for that it will not keep long: as being only to be prepar'd upon occasion and for particular Patients.

However, the vertues of it are very considerable to restore strength to Persons wast­ed, and extenuated by long sickness: It helps the Ptisical, and those that labour under a Marasmus, for it moist'ns, and cools, and extinguishes preter-natural heat. It is to be taken between Meals in a spoon, from half an ounce to an ounce, continuing the use of it for a good while and often. It may be also mix'd in Juleps or Emulsions.

Syrupus Nymphaeae.Syrup of Water-Lillies.
℞. Florum mediorum Albissinorum Nymphaeae, lb ij℞. The middle whitest flowers of Water-Lillies. lb ij.

Take only the white part of the Flowers of Nymphaea, and weigh out two pound, and having put them into an Earth'n-pot glaz'd within, with a narrow mouth, pour upon them nine pints of boiling Water; thrust the Flowers down into the Water, and ha­ving cover'd the pot, set it upon hot embers for twenty four hours: then letting the in­fusion buble a-while, strain it out, and pour it hot upon the same quantity of fresh Flow­ers of Nymphaeae, put into the same pot; and having cover'd it, repeat the same infusion, boyling and straining; then clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg, and four pound of Sugar, and boil it to the consistence of a Syrup, adding at the latter end of the boyling four ounces of clarify'd Juice of Granates. This Syrup may be a little better boyl'd then ordinary to prevent the viscosity of the infusion from spoiling the Syrup.

[Page 95]Syrup of Water-Lillies cools and moistens very much, for which reason the use of it is very proper, as well in continu'd as intermitting Fevers. It qualifies the boiling of the choler, and appeases the pains that proceed from thence, particularly those of the Head. It quenches thirst and allays Venereal desire. It provokes a soft sleep, and is good against the heat of the Reins, and Genitals. It thick'ns the humours, and takes away their acrimony. It may be tak'n alone from half an ounce, to an ounce and a half. But usually it is mix'd with distill'd waters, Emulsions, or in Decoctions, like a Julep.

Syrupus Papaveris Albi.Syrup of white-Poppies.
℞. Capitum Papaveris Albi ad maturita­tem vergentium, sed adhuc virentium in­cisorum, lb iiij.℞. Of the heads of White-Poppies enclining to ripeness, but yet green, and cut, lb iiij.
Capitum papaveris Nigri ejusdem maturi­tatie. lb ij.Heads of Black-Poppies of the same ripeness, lb ij.

Gather the heads of both the Poppies before they be ripe. Throw away the tail, and the small Crown upon the top of every head. Cut them, and put them into an Earth'n-pot glaz'd within, and pour upon them fifteen pints of boiling water, cover the pot, and set it upon the hot Embers for four and twenty hours, then having boyl'd them a quarter of an hour, strain and press them out; Clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg, and six pound of fine Sugar, and boil it to the consistence of a Syrup.

The use of Syrup of white-Poppy is very frequent, being very proper to ease pains and stay defluxions, which interrupt sleep. It takes away the acrimony of the hu­mours; and by insensible transpiration expels thin, sharp, and corroding humours. It mortifies acids, stops the violence of Coughing, allays the motion of Flegm, and gives great help to those that spit blood. The Dose is from half an ounce to an ounce in proper Liquors.

This Syrup is to be in every thing preferr'd before the Diacodium of the Ancients.

Syrupus Papaveris Rhaeados.Syrup of wild-Poppy, or Corn-Rose.
℞. Florum Papaveris Rheaedos recentium, lb j.℞. Flowers of wild-Poppy, new-ga­ther'd, lb j.

Put them into a glaz'd Earth'n-pot, and pour upon them four pints of boyling foun­tain-water, cover the pot and set it for 6 hours over hot embers; then having caus'd them to boyl a little while, strain and press them, and pour the liquor upon the same quantity of Poppy-Flowers put into the same Vessel; let them macerate and boyl as before; then strain and press them again, and having clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg, with four pound of Sugar, boyl it up to a Syrup somewhat thicker then ordinary, by reason of the excess of superfluous moisture in the Flowers of red-Poppy.

The Syrup of the Flowers of red-Poppy, is commended in Diseases of the Brest, more especially in Pleurisies, chiefly where sharp, acrimonious, and thin humours are to be staid and carry'd off. It hinders the coagulation of the blood, it assists expecto­ration, expels choler by transpiration, and causes sleep. The Dose is from half an ounce to an ounce, or an ounce and a half at most, either alone, or in distill'd-Waters, Decoctions, or mix'd with other Syrups.

Syrupus de Rosis siccis.Syrup of dry Roses.
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum exungulatarum siccarum, lb j.℞. Red Rose-buds pick'd and cleans'd from their white bottoms and dry'd, lb j.

Put them into a glaz'd Earth'n-pot, and pour upon them six pints of boiling foun­tain-water, cover the pot, and keep it upon the hot ashes one or two hours, and having [Page 96] giv'n the infusion two or three bublings, strain and press it forth. Clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg, and four pound of fine Sugar, and boyl it to the consistency of a Syrup, adding toward the end one dram of Spirit of Sulphur or Vitriol.

Syrup of dry-Roses fortifies the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, and Bowels. It stays Vo­miting, and all want of retention upwards or downwards. It is also very proper to stay defluxions that fall upon the Brest, to cleanse and heal little Ulcers in the Mouth and Throat, and to stop internal Bleedings. The Dose is from half an ounce to an ounce, ei­ther alone, or in Gargarisms, Juleps, or common drink.

Syrupus Florum Tunicae sive Caryo­phillorum hortensium.Syrup of Clove-gillow­flowers.
℞. Florum Caryophillorum hortensium pur­pureorum mundatorum. lb iij.℞. Clove-gillow-flowers pick'd and cleans'd, lb iij.

Take only the red part of the body of the Clove-gillow-flower, cutting off the white bottom with a pair of Scissors; Weigh out three pound of the Flowers thus cleans'd, and having put them into a Vessel of Earth glaz'd within, with a streight mouth, pour upon them nine pints of boyling Fountain-water. Thrust down the Flowers with a Woodd'n Spatula; cover the Pot and set it upon the hot embers for six hours, at the end whereof let the infusion boyl a little, then strain and press the Flowers, and pour the hot Liquor upon the same quantity of fresh Flowers, put into the same Vessel. Mace­rate, boil, strain, and press them as before. Then clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg, with six pound of fine Sugar, and boyl it in the same Vessel over a gentle fire to the consistence of a Syrup.

Syrup of Gillow-flowers is as odoriferous as pleasing to the taste. It is very good to strength'n the Heart, Brain, and all the noble parts. For which reason it is highly com­mended against the Palpitations and Faintings of the Heart, weaknesses of the Stomach, Pestilential Air, Malignant Fevers, and Epidemic Diseases; as also to quick'n the Spi­rits, and strength'n the Memory. It may be tak'n in several Liquors, or in your usual Drink, or mix'd with Opiates, and several other Medicines. The Dose is from half an ounce to an ounce.

Syrupus Melissophylli Compositus. Compound Syrup of Balm. 
℞. Radicum Scorzonerae, ℞. Roots of Vipers-grass, 
Dictamni Albi, White Dittany, 
Buglossi, Bugloss, 
Pentaphylli, mundatarum, an.℥ ij.Cinque-foil well-pickt, an.℥ ij.
Tartari Albi pulverati,℥ j ss.White Tartar pulveriz'd,℥ j ss.
Foliorum Melissae recentis,M. iij.Leaves of fresh Balm,M. iij.
Menthae, Mint, 
Scabiosa, Scabious, 
Succisae, an.M. j.Devil's bit,an. M. j.
Seminum Citri, Seeds of Citron, 
Ocymi, Basil, 
Oxalidis, & Sorrel, and 
Cardui Benedict. an.ʒ iij.Carduus Benedictus,an. ʒ iij.

Cleanse the Roots, and having bruis'd them in a Marble-Mortar, put them together with the white-Tartar into a glaz'd Earth'n-Vessel, in eight pints of Fountain Water▪ and let them boyl gently for a good half hour; then add the herbs cut, and the seeds bruis'd, and let them boyl a good quarter of an hour with the Roots. After that, strain and press out the liquor, clarifie it with the white of an Egg, with half a pint of Juice of Balm, and four pound of fine Sugar, and boyl it to a Syrup. When it is cold aromatize it with four drops of distill'd Oyl of Balm, or with Oyls of Citron, and Orange-peels, ana Gut. ij. incorporated with fine powder'd Sugar.

The several parts of Plants so judiciously elected that makes up the composition of this Syrup, evidently demonstrate its efficacy to strength'n the Heart, and to defend it, as well as the rest of the Noble Parts against Pestilential Air, and Diseases. It pre­vents [Page 97] the putrefaction of the humours, keeps them from engendring. It cherishes the the Natural heat, creates an Appetite and helps Digestion. The dose is from half an ounce to an ounce, either alone or mixt with Potions, Opiates or other Medicines.

Syrupus de Stoechade correctus. Syrup of Cassidonie correct. 
℞. Florum Stoechadis Arabicae siccorum,iiij.℞. Drie Flowers of Arabian-Cassidonie,℥ iiij.
Summit. sicc. Betonicae, Drie tops of Betonie, 
Salviae, Sage, 
Thymi, Thime, 
Calaminthae, an.j ss.Calamint, an.℥ j ss.
Florum Calendulae, Flowers of Marigolds, 
Rorismarini, Rosemary, 
Lavendulae, & Lavender, 
Lillii convallium, an.j.Lilly of the Vallies, an.℥ j.
Seminum Rutae, Seeds of Rue, 
Paeoniae, Peonie, 
Dauci Cretici, an.℥ ss.Cretan Wild-carrot, an.℥ ss.
Tartari albi pulverati,j.White Tartar pulveriz'd,℥ j.

Cut the Herbs, bruise the Seeds, beat the Tartar in a mortar; and having mix'd them with the Flowers and put them into a glass-Cucurbit, pour upon them four Pints of good Spanish-Wine, and as much of the distill'd-water of flowers of the Tilet-tree. Fit an Alembic to the Cucurbit, and a small Recipient to the Beak of the Alembic, all well-luted. Let the Ingredients macerate cold for four and twenty hours. Then place the Cucurbit in a Sand-Bath, and with a moderate fire draw forth by Distillation 2 Pints of Sulphurie-Aromatic-Water, and put it up in a Vessel well-stopp'd. After that, let the Vessels cool, and having unluted the Alembic, strain and press out all that re­mains in the Cucurbit; and having clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg with four pound of fine Sugar, boyl it over a gentle-fire to the consistence of a solid Ele­ctuary: and when it is almost cold, mix and incorporate with it the two Pints of re­serv'd Aromatic-distill'd-water, together with distill'd Oyls of Rosemary, Lavender, Cinnamon and Cloves, of each two drops mix'd with an ounce and a half of fine­powder'd Sugar, and put it up in a Glass-bottle well-stopp'd.

The addition of some Cephalics, and of certain distill'd Oyls instead of some Aro­matics, the leaving out the drie Raisins, and the new way of Preparing this, may per­haps surprise those who had rather err with the Ancients, then either to seek for, or follow a better method.

But certainly this Method must be approv'd by those who shall take the pains to compare this Preparation with those which are to be found in several Dispensatories.

For they shall find here no Ingredients but what are proper to second the intention for which they are prescrib'd, and whose vertues could not be better embody'd toge­ther then by this Preparation. I say they must acknowledg, That the most effectual vertues of the parts of Plants here prescrib'd, consisting of a volatile Sulphur, there was no better way to separate them then by Distillation, while that which is more fix'd, is incorporated in the liquor that remains at the bottom of the Cucurbit. So that by this Preparation all the pure parts of the Ingredients, as well fix'd as volatile, are united to­gether, and embody'd in the Syrup.

Syrup of Cassidonie is very proper to fortifie the Brain, Stomach, and all the Noble parts. It is chiefly made use of in Apoplexies, Palsies, Epilepsies, and other cold Diseases of the Brain. It attenuates thick humours, cuts and loos'ns clammy and vis­cous flegm: op'ns obstructions, especially of the Brain: by little and little it con­sumes cold Rhumes; it heats and strength'ns the cold parts, and gives great ease to those that are troubl'd with the Asthma's. The dose is usually from half an ounce to an ounce, alone or mix'd with proper Liquors.

[Page 98]

Syrupus Lientericus D. D. D'AQUIN. A Syrup against the Lientery, by Mon­sieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Summitat. Absinthii Majoris, ℞. The tops of the bigger Wormwood, 
Rosarum Rubrarum Exungulatar. an.M. iij.Red-roses pickt, an.M. iij.
Limaturae Chalybis Nodulo inclusae,ij.Filings of Steel ty'd up in a little cloth,℥ ij.
Rhei Elect. & Chosen Rhubarb, and 
Corticis Myrobalanorum Citrinorum, an.j ssRind of yellow-Mirobalans, an.℥ i ss.
Tartari Alb. pulverati,j.White-Tartar pulveriz'd,℥ j.
Santali rubri contusi,℥ ss.Red Saunders bruis'd,℥ ss.

Bruise the Wormwood, cut the Rhubarb, red-Saunders, and the bark of the Miro­balans, and loosely tye up the filings of steel. Then put the whole into an Earth'n-pot glaz'd within, with a streight mouth; and having pour'd upon them three pints of the Juice of Plantain, and as much of the Juice of Roses, cover the pot, and set it upon hot embers for four and twenty hours. After which, boyl the whole over a little fire, for a good quarter of an hour; then strain and press out the Liquor, clarifie it with four pound of good Sugar, and boyl it to the consistency of a Syrup.

This Syrup is very powerful to stay Lienteries, for which purpose it is particularly prescrib'd. It strengthens the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, and all the Bowels. So that it is proper against all defects of the retentive faculty, either upward or downward, and against all Diseases that proceed from feebleness of the Bowels. It qualifies the acri­mony of the humours, and stops internal Fluxes of Blood. The Dose is from half an ounce to an ounce and a half, alone or mix'd in proper Liquors, and may be taken se­veral days together if occasion require.

Syrupus Chalybeatus Aperiens Ca­tharticus D. D. D'AQƲIN. A Chalybeat opening purging Syrup of Monsieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Limaturae Chalybis in Nodulo laxo & su­spenso ligatae,vj.℞. Filings of steel ty'd in a loose hanging knot,℥ vj.
Radicum Foeniculi, Roots of Fennel, 
Ciehorei, & Succory, and 
Rubiae Tinctorum, an.iij.Dyers-Madder, an.℥ iij.
Tartari Albi contusi,ij.White Tartar bruis'd,℥ ij.

Cleanse and bruise the Roots, beat the Tartar in a Mortar, and put them together in­to an Earth'n-pot glaz'd within, with a streight mouth, and let the steel hang down, ty'd in a linnen-cloth. Then pour upon them nine pints of boyling-water, wherein a good piece of red-hot steel had been quenched seven times at least, and covering the pot, set it upon the hot embers for twelve hours; which done, let them boyl for a whole hour.

Addetisque,Then add,
Foliorum Rutae,Leaves of Rue,
Agrimoniae, &Agrimony, and,
Capill. Ven. Monspeliensis, an. M. iij.Maiden-hair of Montpelier, an. M iij.

Boil the whole again to the consumption of the third part, strain and press them and keep the straining.

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Interim, In the mean while, 
℞. Foliorum, Sennae Orientalis mundato­rum,vi.Take Leaves of Eastern Senna well­pickt,℥ vj.
Seminis Carthami contusi,iiij.Seed of Spanish Saffron bruis'd,℥ iiij.
Tartari Vitriolati,j.Tartar Vitrioliz'd,℥ j.

Macerate them apart in another Vessel for twelve hours, in four pints of steel-water, pour'd boyling hot into the Vessel. Then give them a gentle boyling, and strain and press out the Liquor. Clarifie this Liquor with the white of an Egg, and half a pound of Sugar, and set this clarify'd Liquor by it self. Then clarifie the Liquor of the first De­coction with the white of an Egg, with six pound of fine Sugar, and boyl it to the con­sistence of a solid Electuary. At which time, add the purgative infusion clarify'd and boil it to a good consistency of a Syrup. Which being cool may be aromatiz'd with six drops of Oyl of Cinamon, incorporated with an ounce of fine Sugar.

They that will be careful to prepare this Syrup, and make trial of its virtues, will ac­knowledge that it was not without reason, that his Majesty's first Physician commanded me to insert the Receipt into this Pharmacopoea.

This Syrup is very proper to open Obstructions of the Spleen, Liver, Mesentery, and Pancreas, as also those of the Matrix, and to loosen and carry off the viscous and tartarous matters, that caus'd the Obstructions. It is made use of with success to cure Cachexies, Dropsies, retentions of the Menstruums, and the Jaundies. The Dose is from half an ounce to two ounces, giv'n alone, or mix'd with proper Liquors.

Syrupus Anti-Scorbuticus, D. D. D'AQUIN. An Anti-Scorbutic Syrup of Monsieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Radicum Filicis Maris, ℞. Roots of Male-fern, 
Angelicae, Angelica, 
Eringii, Eringo's, 
Raphani Rusticani, an.iij.Horse-radish, an.℥ iij.
Corticum Citri, Peels of Citron, 
Aurantiorum, an.ij.Oranges, an.℥ ij.
Foliorum Melissae, Leaves of Balm, 
Fumariae, Fumitory, 
Scolopendrii, Spleenwort, 
Cocleariae, Scurvy-grass, 
Becabungae, Brook-lime, 
Nasturtici Aquatici, Water-cresses, 
Nummulariae, Money-wort, 
Mentae, an.M. iij.Mint, an.M. iij.
Seminum Nasturtii hortens. Seeds of Gard'n-Cresses, 
Cardui Benedicti, Carduus Benedictus, 
Citri, an.j.Citron, an.℥ j.
Florum Tunicae & Clove-gillow-flowers, 
Genistae, an.M. j.Broom-flowers, an.M. j.
Tartari Alb. contusi,ij.White-Tartar beaten,℥ ij.

Bruise the Roots, and boyl them over a soft fire, with the Tartar powder'd, in nine pints of steel'd-water. Add then the Herbs cut, and the Seeds bruis'd, and let them boyl all together for half an hour, then put in the flowers, and having thrust them down into the Decoction, take it off from the Fire, and strain and press out the Ingredients when they are half-cold. Clarifie the Liquor with the white of an Egg, and six pound of fine Sugar, and boyl it up to the consistence of a Syrup. When it is quite cold, aroma­tize it with three drops of Oyl of Cinamon, and as much Oyl of Cloves incorporated with an ounce of fine-powder'd Sugar.

The little skill which the Ancients had in Scorbutic Diseases, is the reason that speci­fick Remedies for those Diseases are so rare in Dispensatories, and that several Physici­ans find them so difficult to cure. For which reason his Majesty's chief Physician thought fit to communicate to the World this Receipt, the Ingredients whereof being as exactly [Page 100] chos'n as dos'd, cannot but produce good effects, as well for the ease as for the cure of these Distempers, which are very frequent in the Northern Countries, especially in Sea-Towns.

This Syrup effectually purifies the Mass of the Blood, quick'ns its circulation, encreases the spirits that enliv'n it, to the want or numness whereof, we have good reason to at­tribute all the symptomes that accompany Scorbutic Diseases. And because these Di­stempers are a long time a-growing, and for that the whole Mass of the Blood is in­fected, it will not be amiss to continue the use of this Syrup, not only to get the upper hand of the Distemper, but to prevent its return. You may take one or two spoon­fuls at a time, Evening and Morning, and also between Meals.

Syrupus Violatus Violaceus.Syrup of Violets Violetted.
℞. Florum Violarum recentium emundato­rum, lb iiij.Take four pound of Violets deep-co­lour'd, newly gather'd and very clean.

Put them without bruising into a fine tin-vessel large and deep enough, with a fit cover, and pour upon them three pints of boyling Fountain-water, Which make eight pints Physic measure. Paris-measure; let the flowers soak well in the water, and ha­ving cover'd the Vessel, set it six hours in a warm Balneum Mariae, and then strain and squeeze the Infusion strongly, and pour it hot upon four pound of fresh Violets, put in clean into the same Vessel, cover'd and kept as long in Balneo Mariae as before. Strain and squeeze the infusion, and you shall have a tincture altogether Violetted, charg'd equally both with the colour, smell, taste, and vir­tues of the Violets. Put this tincture into a Bason of fine Tin, large and deep, and set the Bason over a moderate fire, with double the weight of fine Sugar in powder, stir the whole with a Woodd'n-spatula, till all the Sugar be dissolv'd, and continue the Ba­son upon the fire, till the Syrup has only boyl'd two or three simpers. Take the Bason off the fire, and when the Syrup is quite cold, scum it, and put it up.

For the better keeping of it, cover the top of it, with fine-powder Sugar, which with the superficial moisture of the Syrup will make a kind of a crust that will preserve the Syrup two years together, provided the Pots were dry when the Syrup was put up, and that they be well-cover'd.

I confess that Syrup of Violets violetted, is so common in Shops; and so frequently made by the Ladies, that it might seem superfluous to insert it here; but not having met with any true Preparation yet, I thought fit to set down this Preparation, which experience will make you confess to be the better, and much supe­riour to any other.

Some there are that add a spoonful or two of Juice of Citron, that the Violet co­lour of the Syrup may look a little more red. But beside, that those acids will hinder the Syrup from keeping long, that addition is altogether needless, in regard the colour of the Syrup will be better without it, and those acids may alter the quality of the Violets.

Syrup of Violets thickens thin humours that fall from the Brain upon the Lungs, and corrects their acrimony. It cools the heat of the Liver and Stomach, as also of most Fevers, particularly choleric, adding some drops of spirit of Sulphur or Vitriol, or some other acid, and mingling it with Fountain, or River-water, or with some other proper Liquor. The pleasant taste of it makes it as much in use among those who are in health as among the sick; It is taken alone from half an ounce to an ounce, or else mingl'd in Juleps, Apozems, Emulsions, Looches, and many other remedies.

Formerly they made a laxative Syrup of Violets, compos'd of several infusions of whole Violets; but the Syrup prov'd very unpleasing, ineffectual, and more fit for Cli­sters then to be swallow'd, and therefore not fit for this place.

Syrupus de Pomis simplex. Simple Syrup of Pippins. 
℞. Succi Pomorum redolentium depu­rati,lb ij.℞. The Juice of fragrant Apples clari­fy'd,lb ij.
Sacchari Albissimi,lb iiij.The whitest Sugar,lb iiij.

[Page 101]Having press'd out the Juice from the Apples, set it in the Sun to clarifie, then pour it out by inclination and filter it. That done, put the Juice and the Sugar toge­ther over a small fire, and there incorporate them to the consistence of a Syrup.

The Syrup may serve as an Example for several simple Syrups whose foundation is the Juice of any Fruit, such as are Cherries, Barberries, Red-Currans, Respiss, Granates, Verjuice, &c.

You may also make the Syrup of Apples without fire, if when you have par'd the Apples you cut them into thin slices, throwing away the cores, and lay the thin slices in a new Hair-sieve, set in a silver or white-earth'n-bason, covering the Pippins with their thickness in Sugar, and continuing these layers of Pippins and Sugar till the Sieve be full. For then covering the sieve with another Plate or Bason, and leaving the whole two or three days in a cool place, you shall find in the lower Bason a very pleasant Syrup, well-colour'd and of a good consistency. This Syrup thus made without fire undergoes no alteration, being endu'd with all the good qualities that can be expected.

Syrup of Pippins is accounted a very high Cordial, and very proper against Palpi­tations of the heart, especially when they proceed from melancholie-vapours rising from the Spleen. It is also very proper to comfort all the Noble Parts, quench thirst, and qualifie the heat of Choleric-Fevers. It is to be tak'n by respites of time, either alone or mix'd with Decoctions or other proper Liquors.

Syrupus de Pomis Compositus. Syrup of Pippins compound. 
℞. Succi Pomorum redolentium,lb iiij.℞. Juice of fragrant Pippins,lb iiij.
Borraginis, & Of Borrage, and 
Buglossi depuratorum, ij.Bugloss clarify'd, ij.
Folliculorum Sennae Orientalis incisorum,℥ iiij.Seed-bags of Senna of the East cut,℥ iiij.
Tartari albi Monspeliensis contusi,℥ ij.White Montpelier-Tartar bruis'd,℥ ij.

Bruise the Pippins in a Marble-mortar with a Wood'n-Pestle, squeeze out the Juice, and having expos'd it for some days to the Sun, filter it; cut the Senna-Seed-bags, and put them into a Glaz'd-earth'n-pot with two ounces of Tartar pulveriz'd; pour up­on them the purify'd Juices: coyer the Pot, and set it upon the warm embers for 24 hours: then letting the Infusion simper a while, strain and press it out, and having cla­rify'd the Liquor with four pound of very white Sugar, boyl it up to a Syrup. When it is perfectly boyl'd and quite cold, mixe with it the Tincture of two drams of Saffron in powder, extracted with three ounces of Distill'd-oyl of Balm.

I have said already, that for the more easie extracting the Juices of viscous Plants, you must put them whole into some Vessel, and having set them for some time over a moderate fire, pour out the Liquor at several times by inclination; which method must be us'd for extracting the Juices of Borrage and Bugloss here mention'd; and the Juice will be clear enough: though if you would have it clearer you may expose it to the Sun, and filter it.

The Ancients ty'd Saffron in a little Linnen-bag, and soak'd it in the Syrup during the Decoction, pressing it out from time to time, and leaving it in the Syrup when it was put up in the Pot, not considering that the long boyling of the Saffron, though ty'd in a Bag, could not be done without a manifest dissipation of the most volatile parts; that by those reiterated expressions a good part of the terrestrial and unprofitable part of the Saffron pass'd through the cloth, mix'd with the Syrup, and made it muddy; and that at length being left among the Syrup in the Pot, not being able to impart that vertue to it which it had lost, it occasion'd its putrefaction. Whereas the Tincture communicating the most essential parts of the Saffron to the Syrup, contributes to its preservation and beauty.

Some there are that propose the Extract of Saffron, which is better then the Knot. But because the Tincture is the base of the Extract, and for that the Tincutre cannot be reduc'd into an Extract without some dissipation of the subtle parts of the Saffron, there is more reason to make use of the Tincture.

The principal qualities of the compound Syrup of Pippins, are gently to purge choleric and melancholy humours: for which reason it is made use of in Distempers caus'd by those humours, particularly in Madness and Hypochondriac passions. It is [Page 102] good also in Quartan-Agues, and to purge sharp and scalding humours that cause the Scurf and Itch, and most Diseases of the Skin. It may be tak'n alone from one ounce to two or three. But more frequently dissolv'd in Liquors, as the Decoctions of Apo­zemes, Tinctures, and Laxative Infusions.

Syrupus Florum Persicorum.Syrup of Flowers of Peaches.
℞. Florum Persicorum recentium quantum libuerit.℞. Of the Flowers of Peaches as much as you please.

Bruise them in a Marble-mortar with a Woodd'n-pestle, and squeeze out the Juice in a Press, and having purify'd it by standing, and clarify'd it with the white of an Egg and an equal weight of Sugar, boyl it over a gentle fire to the consistency of a Syrup.

The Preparation of this Syrup is not only easie, but keeps within it all the most considerable qualities and vertues of the Flowers; which is chiefly in their Juice.

For more exactness you may dry the Sediment, burn and reduce it to ashes, and by Lixiviation, Filtration, Evaporation and Chrystallization extract the Fix'd-salt that re­mains behind, and mixe it with the Syrup when it is boyl'd.

This Syrup is principally commended to purge the serosities that trouble the Brain, Nerves, and Muscles, and which not only cause Rheumatisms, but the Apoplexie, Palsie, Convulsions, and other Diseases of the Brain. It also purges choleric humours, op'ns obstructions, cuts the thick matters in the Mesenterie, Pancreas, Liver and Spleen. It is very proper also to kill Worms, and resist the putrefaction of the hu­mours. The dose and administration is much the same with those of Compound Syrup of Pippins.

Syrupus Rosatus Solutivus.Syrup of Roses Solutive.
℞. Succi defaecatissimi Rosarum pallidarum, Sacchari albissimi pulverati, an lb viij.℞. Of the purest Juice of pale Roses, The finest powder Sugar, an. lb viij.

Gather your Roses newly blown betimes in the morning, bruise them in a large Marble-mortar with a Woodd'n-pestle, and having press'd out the Juice, fill it into Bottles; stop them and expose them to the Sun for some days: and when the grosser part of the Juice is fall'n to the bottom of the Bottles, pour the Juice into a wooll'n-Bag to strain it. Then weigh out eight Pints of this clear Juice, and put it into a Glass-Cucurbit, with the same weight of fine-powder'd Sugar. And having fitted a head to the Cucurbit, and fix'd a Recipient to the beak of the Alembic, distil out a­bout three pints of good strong Rose-water. Then let the Bath cool, and having un­luted the Alembic, you shall find in the Cucurbit a fair Syrup of Roses, fragrant, plea­sing and full of vertue. Pour it out by Inclination into a Pot, leaving at the bottom of the Cucurbit that little feces which remains.

Though that the Purgative-quality of the Roses consists chiefly in their fix'd-salt, and some small portion of their less volatile Sulphur, which a moderate boyling can­not much diminish; nevertheless it is convenient to preserve and save as much of all the good parts of the Medicament, as much as may be. And therefore you need not won­der that you meet not here with that lofty, long and troublesome way of the Ancients, who in the composition of this Syrup repeat infusion to the ninth time. Not consider­sidering that by that great and unprofitable cost, the Roses lose their most Spiritous and fragrant part, and that a great part of the infusion is wasted in the Strainers, Vessels, and other Instruments us'd in the preparation; and that in the end they will have a Syrup less pleasant, but not so efficacious, as this which is here prescrib'd; the preparation whereof seems to me to be most fit to be observ'd, since that together with saving a good part of the Rose-water, you have a Syrup, wherein are all the qualities of the Roses that can be desir'd.

Syrup of Roses solutive purges very gently all the serosities contain'd in the Bowels, or dispers'd into several parts of the body. It is very useful in Epidemic Distempers. Yet there are several Women and Virgins that cannot abide the use of it. The Dose is much the same with that of the compound Syrup of Pippins, or Peach-flowers.

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Syrupus Rosatus Compositus cum Senna & Agarico. Compound Syrup of Roses with Senna and Agaric. 
℞. Foliorum Sennae Orientalis mundatorum,iiij.℞. Leaves of Oriental Senna cleans'd,℥ iiij.
Agarici electi incisi,ij.The best Agaric cut,℥ ij.
Tartari Albi contusi,j.White-Tartar powder'd,℥ j.
Succi Rosarum Pallidarum depurati,lb vj.Juice of Pale-Roses clarify'd,lb vj.

Put the Senna, Agaric, and Tartar into an Earth'n-glaz'd-pot. Pour upon them six Pints of the Juice of Pale-Roses clarify'd, and having thrust the Ingredients down into the Juice, cover the Pot and set it 24 hours upon hot embers; then letting the infusion boyl a-while, strain it and press it forth: and having clarify'd the Liquor with the white of an Egg and four pounds of fine Sugar, boyl it over a gentle-fire to the consistence of a Syrup. When it is quite cold, aromatize it with six drops of Distill'd-oyl of Anise, and two drops of Oyl of Cloves, incorporated with an ounce and a half of fine powder'd Sugar.

This Syrup purges much more then ordinary Syrup of Roses; it purges Choler, Flegm and Melancholy. It kills and expels Worms. It op'ns the Passages; it cuts, attenuates, and loos'ns tough and viscous humours; and draws flegm from the remote parts. The dose is from one ounce to two. It is to be administr'd like other Purgative Syrups.

According to this method you may prepare a Compound Syrup of Roses with Senna and Rhubarb without Agaric, not so proper to purge flegm, and draw it from the remote parts, but to purge gently choleric humours and strength'n the parts. But in regard this Syrup is not much in use, you may supply its defect by adding to Syrup of Roses solutive an Infusion of Senna and Rhubarb, when occasion requires. The pro­portion of Senna and Rhubarb must be equal to that of the Senna and Agaric prescrib'd above.

Syrupus Emeticus. An Emetic Syrup. 
℞. Vitri Antimonii abs (que) additione parati, & Nitro correcti,iij.℞. Glass of Antimony prepar'd without addition, and corrected with Nitre,℥ iij.
Succi Cydoniorum purissimi,lb vj.Of the purest Juice of Quinces,lb vj.

Powder the Glass of Antimony very small. Put it into a Glass-Cucurbit; and hav­in pour'd upon it six Pints of Juice of Quinces very well clarify'd, cover the Cucurbit, and let them macerate for 24 hours in a Bath of ashes moderately hot; filter the liquor through a sheet of brown Paper, and return it into the same Cucurbit, with two pound of fine Sugar; then boil it in the Ember-bath hotter then ordinary, to the consistence of Syrup. When it is quite cold, aromatize it with two drops of Oyl of Cinamon in­corporated with half an ounce of fine-powder'd Sugar, and keep the Syrup in a Bottle close-stopp'd.

Thought the Antimony be the foundation of this Syrup, and that Vitrification and Correction be Chymical Operations, and beyond the verge of Galenic Pharmacy; never­theless it is here very properly made use of, and this Emetic Syrup with as much reason here inserted. Nor is it to be wonder'd that six Pints of the Juice of Quinces should be prescrib'd to extract the vertue of three ounces of prepar'd Antimony, or that the Proportions of Liquors us'd in Infusions or Decoctions according to the Rules of ordi­nary Pharmacy are not here observ'd: For the Antimony thus prepar'd being in a con­dition to act in a very small dose, is as able sufficiently to impart its vertue to a good quantity of Liquor, which Liquor being afterwards united with the Sugar, and there concenter'd by boyling, renders the Emetic Syrup no less pleasing, then powerful to operate in a much less dose then Emetic Wine, or any other Liquors, wherein usually several Preparations of Antimony are infus'd, but not concenter'd.

This Syrup is call'd Emetic, because of its effects, which are chiefly to excite vomit­ing, to empty the Stomach of ill-humours which are sometimes too obstinately fix'd. And it is observable that Syrup after it has provok'd vomiting, many times procures some stools, proceeding either from the Excrements of the Stomach or Bowels. It happ'ns also sometimes that some Persons never vomit, but that this Syrup works alto­gether [Page 104] downward, which is so much the less trouble. There is no Preparation of An­timony that works with more gentleness or less trouble then this Syrup: It may be giv'n to all Ages and Sexes, sucking Children and old Men, in distempers caus'd by plenitude, particularly when there is a collection of bad humours in the Stomach. The dose is from two drams to an ounce, or at most to an ounce and a half for very strong Bodies. It is giv'n alone, or mix'd in white Wine, Broth, or any other proper Li­quor. It is also mix'd with Purgatives diminishing the dose, and proportionating it to that of other Remedies.

Syrupus de Rhamno Cathartico.Syrup of Purging-Thorn.
℞. Baccarum Fruticis illius qui nomen fert Spinae Cervinae, aut Infectoriae, seu Rhamni Cathartici, quantum libuerit.℞. Of the Berries of the Shrub call'd Hart's-Thorn, Stayning-thorn, or Pur­ging-Thorn, as much as you think fit.

Put them to macerate into a Glaz'd-earth'n-vessel over hot embers for two or three hours, stirring them every-foot with a woodd'n-pestle. Then, having press'd them out, take six Pints of their pure Juice, and four pound of Sugar, and boyl them toge­ther over a soft fire to the consistency of a Syrup. Take it off the fire, scum it and let it cool, and aromatize it with four drops of distill'd-Oyl of Cinamon, and as much Cloves incorporated with an ounce and a half of fine Sugar in powder, and put up the Syrup well-stopp'd.

The Purging-Thorn is a low shrub, the trunk whereof is about as big as a Man's­leg; from whence grow several thornie-branches, with leaves like those of the Crab­tree. The Berries are as big as Juniper-berries well-grown; green at first, afterwards when they are ripe, black and shining. These Berries grow in clusters, having five or six Seeds within, long and triangular, the Juice whereof is somewhat dark greenish and bitter.

This Syrup powerfully carries off the serosities of all the habit of the Body. It is us'd in Cachexies, and in diseases of the Joynts, but particularly for the cure of watry Dropsies and Rheumatisms. The usual dose is from half an ounce to an ounce. It is tak'n alone or mix'd in Decoctions, or other proper Liquors.

I could here add several other Preparations of several other Syrups; but I am per­suaded that the Preparations and Rules already set down will afford instruction suffici­ent to any Apothecary to prepare the rest which are here omitted.

CHAP. XVI. Of Honeys.

I Thought fit to treat of Honeys immediately after Syrups, because that their Pre­paration and their consistency are not much unlike the one to the other. The ex­traordinary sweetness, the pleasing taste of Sugar, the plenty of it and its aptness to suck up forreign moisture, are the reasons that Honey is now-a-days less in request then formerly. For though that Honey may be said to be a collection and an extraction of the most pure parts of Flowers, Fruits, and other parts of Plants, and that the Dew and Influence of the Stars may very much contribute to its composition, and that there may be reason enough to prefer it before Sugar, which is the Juice of only one single Plant: nevertheless it is now-a-days less us'd then Sugar. So that we prepare for the Shops not above five or six sorts of Honeys, the most part whereof are appointed for Clysters: Two sorts of Oxymels, and one Hydromel.

'Tis true that good Honey is oft'n made use of, and preserv'd likewise before Su­gar in the Compositions of several Medicaments, and particularly of certain Opiats, which are to keep long, as Treacle and Mithridate; because the parts of Honey are more united and more viscous then those of Sugar, and because it is more fit to bind the Ingredients with which it is mix'd, and to resist putrefaction longer then Sugar.

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Mel Rosatum.Honey of Roses.
℞. Succi Rosarum Rubrarum, Mellis optimi, an. partes aequales.℞. Of the Juice of Red Roses, The best Honey, an. equal parts.

Bruise the Fresh red-Roses in a Marble-mortar, squeeze out the Juice and expose it to the Sun in Bottles for some days to purifie, then pass it through a Wooll'n-bag, and having mix'd it with equal parts of pure Honey, clarifie both together with the white of an Egg: scum it when it is cold and put it up.

Red-Roses are of an earthy and compact substance, so that they will endure a longer and fiercer boyling then other Roses, without endangering the dissipation of their good parts.

You may instead of the Juice make use of the Infusion of Red-Roses, two or three times repeated, and prepare it like the Infusion of the Flowers of Nymphaea for the Syrup. You may also use Honey of Roses laxative with the Juice of Pale Roses, ob­serving the same method set down for Syrup of Roses solutive.

The Honey of Roses first mention'd, cleanses, closes and fortifies: therefore it is us'd for all diseases of the mouth, tak'n alone or in Gargarisms. It is also mix'd in Loti­ons and Vulnerarie Injections. It serves also in Opiates to cleanse and whit'n the Teeth; and is frequently us'd in astringent and cleansing Clysters. The proportion of Honey of Roses in Lotions, Injections, Gargarisms or Clysters, is two or three ounces to a Near as big as our whole Pint. Chopine of liquor, Paris-measure.

Mel Anthosatum.Honey of Rosemary-flowers.
℞. Florum Recentium mundatorum, lb ij.℞. New Flowers of Rosemary clean-pickt, lb ij.

Bruise the Flowers well-pickt and cleans'd in a Mortar with a woodd'n Pestle, and pass them through a Hair-sieve; then incorporate them with treble their weight of good Honey hot and scumm'd, without the addition of any other Liquor. When it is cold put it up.

The Flowers of Rosemary are of a Substance very thin and full of moisture, so that if they should be boyl'd in Water or in the Honey, their better part would be lost: and if the Honey should be charg'd with any extraneous moisture, by increasing the moisture of the Flowers, it would occasion putrefaction.

Anthosate-Honey thus prepar'd enjoyes all the vertues of the Rosemary-flowers, and is of a due consistence, and may be as well swallow'd as dissolv'd in Clysters.

You may prepare a Honey with a Decoction of Rosemary-leaves, and use it in Cly­sters instead of Anthosate-Honey: But it is better to mixe the Leaves of Rosemary in the Decoction of Clysters, then to pester a Shop with a Honey so little us'd; besides, the apprehended danger which the heat of the pure Decoction of Rosemary-leaves may cause to the Bowels.

Honey of Rosemary-flowers prepar'd as above, may serve instead of conserve of Anthos or Rosemary-flowers prepar'd with Sugar. It may be swallow'd in all cold Diseases of the Brain: It strength'ns the memory, and disperses the Vapours that cause Vertigo's. It is also us'd in cold diseases of the Stomach and Intestines; particularly in windy Colicks and fits of the Mother, swallow'd or tak'n in Clysters.

Mel Mercuriale.Honey of Herb-Mercury.
℞. Succi Mercurialis quiete defacati, & Mellis optimi, an. partes aequales.℞. Of the Juice of Mercury softly purify'd, and The best Honey, an. equal parts.

[Page 106]Clarifie them with the whites of Eggs according to Art, and boyl them to the consi­stence of a Syrup somewhat thicker then ordinary▪

There are some that instead of drawing forth, and depur [...]ting the Juice of Mercury, only make a kind of Decoction; and they boyl the Honey as if they made use of the Juice, but they use a greater quantity of the Decoction.

Honey of Mercury mix'd with Clysters mollifies and soaks tough matters, that settle in the Bowels. It loosens the Belly, and provokes the Menstruums. It is very much us'd in Hysteric Distempers, and in all sorts of Colicks. The Dose is from one ounce to three, in proper Liquors or Decoctions.

Mel Violatum.Honey of Violets.
℞. Violurum recentium, lb iiij.Take fresh Violets, lb iiij.

Boyl them for a good hour in twelve pints of fair-water; strain the Decoction, squeezing the Violets. Then in the strain'd Liquor boyl four pound of new Violets, proceeding as before. Boyl yet four pound more of fresh Violets in the Liquor, and ha­ving strain'd and press'd the Decoction, and mix'd the Liquor with twelve plnts of good Honey, clarifie it with the whites of Eggs; boyl it to the consistence of a Syrup somewhat thicker then ordinary, scum it, and put it up.

The volatile part of the Violets, which is subject to dissipation, is very useless in Honey of Violets, which is only for Clysters, whose principal vertue is to moisten, and render the Bowels slippery. The Dose and use of Honey of Violets, are the same with those of Honey of Mercury.

Mel Vulvariae.Honey of stinking Arrache.
℞. Foliorum Vulvariae, Fasc. ij.Take of the Leaves of stinking Arrache, two little bundles.

Cut them and boyl them in sixteen pints of Fountain-water, to the consumption of the third part, and having strain'd and well press'd the boyl'd Herbs, boyl the same quantity of fresh Arrach in the Liquor, proceeding as before; then having mingl'd six­teen pints of the best Honey with the Liquor, clarifie it with two whites of Eggs, and boyl it to a just consistence. Scum the Honey and put it up.

Though Honey of Arrach be not so much in use, it deserves to be plac'd among the Honey's. For it is very effectual in Hysteric-distempers; above all to appease the violent commotions of the Matrix. It is also very useful in windy Colicks. The dose in Clysters is from two ounces to three.

Mel Nympharinum. Honey of Water-Lillies. 
℞. Florum Nymphaeae, rejectâ parte interiore luteâ,lb viij.℞. Of the Flowers of Water-Lillies, leav­ing out the yellow inside,lb viij.
Aquae Fontanae,lb xvj.Fair Water,lb xvj.

Boyl them over a gentle-fire to the consumption of the third part. Strain and press out the the Liquor: boyl the same quantity of fresh Flowers again in the Water. Strain and press out the Liquor, and having mix'd with it sixteen pints of the best Honey, cla­rifie it with whites of Eggs, and boyl it to a just consistency.

Honey of Water-Lillies is onely made use of in Clysters: It moist'ns, mollifies and cools the Bowels exceedingly. The dose is the same with that of Honey of Violets.

Oxymel Simplex.Simple Oxymel.
℞. Mellis optimi, lb iiij.℞. Of the best Honey, lb iiij.

[Page 107]Put it into a glaz'd-Earth'n-pot, let it boil some few bublings over a gentle charcoal­fire; when it is a little cool scum it.

Addetisque,Then add,
Aceti Albi Optimi lb ij.Of the best White-wine Vinegar, lb ij.

Boyl both together to the just consistency of a Syrup.

It is not necessary to boyl Water with the Honey, as some pretend to raise the scum, for it may be scumm'd without any addition. Nor is the Water e're a jot more necessary to qualifie the sharpness of the Vinegar, in regard that sharpness is not only the thing we desire, to maintain the effects expected from the Oxymel; but always remains last in the Decoction of the Vinegar. Besides, we must believe, that the Water which they would add, can be but a trouble, and that in the consumption which is to be made of it, it would but help forward the dissipation of some volatile part of the Honey.

This Oxymel is good to loosen tough and viscous flegm, as well in the Mouth and Throat, as in the Stomach and other parts of the body, where it may stick. It may be taken in a spoon a little at a time. But it is better in Liquors to make Gargarisms, ad­ding more or less of the Liquors, as you desire the operation stronger or weaker; For the Liquors abate its activity. It is also mix'd with Looches and Syrups to abate its activity, and to assist them to cut and loosen flegm from the Lungs and Stomach. The Proportion of this Oxymel in Liquors, is from an ounce and a half to two ounces, in a pint of a detersive decoction, or in some proper distill'd-water.

Oxymel Scilliticum. Oxymel of Squills. 
℞. Mellis Optimi,lb iiij.℞. Of the best Honey,lb iiij.
Aceti Scillitici,lb ij.Vinegar of Squills,lb ij.

Let them boyl gently, and scum them, then boyl them over a very gentle fire to a just consistence.

The Preparation of Vinegar of Squills is already set down in the Chapter of Vinegars.

You may guess at the vertues of the Oxymel, by what I have spoken concerning the qualities of the Vinegar.

Hydromel Vinosum. A Winy Hydromel. 
℞. Mellis Albi Optimi,lb iiij.Take of the best white-Honey,lb iiij.
Aquae pluvialis circa veris Aequinoctium collectae,lb xx.Rain-Water sav'd at the time of the ver­nal Aequinox,lb xx.

Boil them gently together in a Copper-Vessel tinn'd within, stirring them from time to time, till the third part of the moisture be consum'd, or rather, till an Egg being cast into the Hydromel will not sink but swim at top. The Hydromel being thus boyl'd and settl'd, pour out all the clear Liquor into a small Cask, and put it in the Sun, or else in some hot place, for forty days, or else till the Fermentation be over. Fill up the waste of the Fermentation, or what the Cask wants of being full, with other Hydromel, or good Spanish-wine; and having stopp'd up the Vessel, set it in a Cellar, or some very cool place.

By this means, the Hydromel will have a taste like that of Malmsey, which having left its earthy parts and being exalted by Fermentation, will yield an inflammable spirit, like to that of Wine.

Sometimes we make compound drinks of Pectoral decoctions, sweeten'd with Honey, scum'd, clarify'd, and boyl'd to a thinner consistency then the preceding Hydromel, and which bear the name of Hydromel, because Water and Honey are their foundation; but these Hydromels are seldom prepar'd but for present use.

[Page 108]Winy Hydromel is a Medicinal nourishment, as pleasing as profitable. It comforts and strengthens the Noble Parts, and affords good nourishment, being made use of by the healthy as well as by the sick.

CHAP. XVII. Of Looches.

LOoches are Internal compositions, of a consistency between Syrups and soft Electu­aries, and chiefly appointed for Diseases of the Lungs. The Greeks call them [...], and the Latines Linctus, or Lambatives. The Name of Looch, though Ara­bian, has been always most in use. They are made thicker then Syrups, to the end that staying in the Throat, their vertue may have time to penetrate into the Brest, through the rough Artery, and to be imparted to the parts that want it, there to concoct and di­gest the flegm, and fit it for expectoration, to stop and thick'n the Rheum when it is too thin, and to cut and attenuate flegm that is tough and obstinate. Nevertheless though they are much in use, they are seldom prepar'd, but when prescrib'd, in regard the Medicaments that compose them are ready at all times, and for that their mixture is not difficult. However, I will produce two Receipts, the composition whereof may be kept for some time, if you please, or be prepar'd upon occasion.

Looch Sanum Reformatum. A sound reformed Looch. 
℞. Hordei Mundati,℥ j.℞. Pickt Barley,℥ j.
Radicum Petasitidis, & Enulae Campana, an.℥ ss.Roots of Butter-bur, Elecampane, an.℥ ss.
Passulas Damascenas Mundatas, Large Ston'd Raisins, 
Ficus recentes siccas, New dry Figgs, 
Dactylos-pingues Enucleatos, Fat Dates ston'd, 
Jujubas, Jujubs, 
Sebesten, ana.No. xij.Sebestens, an.No. xij.
Foliorum Hyssopi, Leaves of Hysop, 
Calaminthae, Calaminth, 
Capil. Ven. Monspeliensis, Venus-hair of Montpelier, 
Adianti Vulgaris, an.M. j.Common Maiden-hair, an.M. j.
Seminum Malvae Seeds of Mallows, 
Althaeae, Marsh-mallows, 
Bombacis, & Cotton, and 
Papaveris albi, an.ʒ ij.White-Poppy, an.ʒ ij.

Boyl the pickt-Barley in a glaz'd-Earth'n-pot, over a soft fire, in six pints of Foun­tain-water, for half an hour; then add the Roots cleans'd and bruis'd, let them boyl with the Barley a good quarter of an hour; after that, put in the Fruits cleans'd and slic'd, which must boyl a little while with the rest; which done, put in the Hysop, Ca­lamint, and cold seeds bruis'd. After they have boyl'd a little while, take off the De­coction from the fire, and when it is half-cold, strain it and press it lightly; and having clarify'd it with the white of an Egg, with two pound of fine Sugar, boyl it to the consistency of a Syrup, a little thicker then ordinary. The Syrup being half cold,

Permisceantur, Add thereto, 
Pinearum, & Amygdalarum dulcium emundatarum contusarum & per cribrum trajecta­rum, an.ʒ vi.Kernels of Pine-Apples, and Sweet Almonds cleans'd, beaten to powder, and sifted, an.ʒ vj.
Glycyrrhizae mundatae, Liquorice cleans'd, 
Gummi Tragacanthi, & Gum-Tragacanth, 
[Page 109] Arabici, & Radicis Ireos subtiliter pulveratorum,an. ʒ iij.Arabic, and Root of Orrice beaten into fine pow­der, an.ʒ iij.

Incorporate them with the Syrup, and when all the Ingredients are cold, aromatize it with Oyls of Annise, and Fennel, of each three drops, mix'd with an ounce of fine powder-Sugar; then put up the Looch in a Gally-pot well-stopp'd.

The pickt Barley being put into the Decoction, is the reason why fine-Sugar is pre­scrib'd instead of Pennets, usually prescrib'd in the common Receipts of this Looch, whose Foundation is the Decoction of Barley. The Roots of Butter-bur, and Elecam­pane augment the cutting quality of the other Ingredients, and facilitate expectoration. The Seeds of Mallows, Marsh-mallows, Cotton, and white-Poppy, serve to thick'n and stop thin defluxions from the Head upon the Brest, and producing the same effects, as the seeds of Fennel and Line, prescrib'd in other Receipts, do not give the Looch that unpleasing taste or smell as they do. You may leave the Liquorice out of the Decocti­on, in regard it is mixt in Powder to a sufficient, quantity in the Looch. Lastly, the distill'd Oyls of Annise and Fennel are better then the Seeds boyl'd in the Decoction, that destroys their Volatile and Sulphury part, which is the principal.

This Looch cannot but be of great virtue to thick'n and stop thin defluxions from the Head upon the Lungs, as also to cut and loosen those that are already got into the Muscles of the Larynx, to cleanse and mollifie the parts that serve for Respiration.

It may be taken in the Day and Night-time, every foot, about the bigness of a little Nut at once, with a little stick of Liquorice scrap'd and bruis'd at the end. These Medicines must be kept a long time in the Mouth, and swallow'd slowly.

Looch Pectorale. A Pectoral Looch. 
℞. Mucilaginis Gummi Tragacanthi in A­qua Rosarum extractae, ℞. Mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth, ex­tracted in Rose-water, 
Sacchari Candi, & Penidiati, pulveratorum, an.ij.Sugar-Candy, and Penedite, pouder'd, an.℥ ij.
Liquoritiae,℥ ss.Liquorice,℥ ss.
Ireos Florentiae,ʒ ij.Florence-Orrice,ʒ ij.
Radicis Enulae Campanae,ʒ j.Root of Elecampane,ʒ j.

Put a dram of Tragacanth powder'd into a dish with 2 or. 3 ounces of good Rose-wa­ter, set it over hot embers, stirring them from time to time with a Woodd'n-Spatula, till the Gum-Tragacanth be well dissolv'd, and reduc'd into a white-Past. Powder the Sugar-candy, and Penidiate in a Marble-mortar with a Woodd'n-Pestle; and adding to them the Mucilage, the powders of Liquorice, Orrice, and Elecampane, unite them together with equal parts of Magisterial Pectoral Syrup, and Syrup of white-Poppies, and reduce them to a consistency between a Syrup and a soft Electuary, which you may, if the Physician thinks fit, aromatize with distill'd Oyls of Annise, and Fennel, an. two drops, incorporated with half an ounce of fine powder'd Sugar.

The Vertues of this Looch come very near to those of the sound Looch. Neverthe­less, you may change, increase or abate any of the Medicines, according to the con­dition of the Disease, and the Patient who is to make use of the remedy

There is a preparation of Cassia with Sugar, to which the Ancients have given the name of a Looch, but it is rather to be put among the soft Electuaries, then among the Looches.

CHAP. XVIII. Of Tablets, or Solid Electuaries.

THE use of Tablets so nearly resembles that of Looches, that they may well be rank'd in the next place; and so much the rather, because that Tablets are frequently prepar'd for diseases of the Brest, and are more frequently us'd then Looches. Tablets are sometimes more, sometimes less compounded, and their composition is different, according to the purpose for which they are compound­ed. Sugar is the ingredient most plentifully us'd in their composition; as well to please the taste of the Patient, as to bind and incorporate the other Drugs, which could not be reduc'd into a Solid form by the Sugar, did it not exceed them in quan­tity: unless you make use of the mucilages of Gum-Tragacanth; for they are able to bind several Medicaments without any mixture of Sugar. Tablets are made of a solid consistence, that they may be the more easily carry'd about in the Pocket, and that they may be held a long time in the Mouth, and that they may not be so soon dissolv'd as Syrups or Looches.

For the Preparation of Tablets, we use to dissolve Sugar in some Liquor, to cla­rifie or scum it if there be occasion, to boyl it to the consistence of a solid Electuary, and to mixe with it while it is hot, sometimes Powders, sometimes Conserves, Con­ditements, Confections, Fruits beat'n in a mortar, distill'd Oyls, and sometimes Salts and Spirits, The proportion of the Powders to the Sugar cannot be well-limited, be­cause of the various nature of the Powders, and the various purposes for which the Tablets are made. We use to put three ounces of Powder to one pound of Sugar, for solid Purgative-Electuaries. We also put sometimes the same quantity of Powder to every pound of Sugar for Pectoral Lozenges. But most frequently an ounce, or an ounce and a half serves turn, especially if the Medicament be of a strong scent or taste, or that operates in a small quantity. An ounce or an ounce and a half of Pow­der serves turn to a pound of Sugar for Cordial Lozenges; and almost the same pro­portion holds for Stomachical, Aperitive, Hepatic-Tablets.

But there must be great care tak'n in reference to Pulps, and other soft or liquid Sub­stances, which are to compound Lozenges, which are usually mix'd when the Sugar is boyl'd. For besides that they may occasion some augmentation of the quantity of the Powders, you may either boyl the Sugar the more before the mixture, or slack'n boyling upon the fire after the Ingredients are mix'd, to consume the superfluous moi­sture that may be therein. In all which things the Artist must be guided more by his judgment then by any Rules that can be prescrib'd.

Saccharum Rosatum. Sugar of Roses. 
℞. Sacchari albissimi contusi,lb j.℞. Fine white Sugar grosly-beat'n,lb j.
Aquae Rosarum fragrantissimae,iiij.The most fragrant Rose-water,℥ iiij.

Pour the Rose-water upon the Sugar, and boyl them in a Posnet over a soft fire to the consistence of an Electuary. Take the Skillet from the fire, stir the Sugar with a Spatula, and when it begins to coagulate, pour it out upon a sheet of white Paper, or upon a Tin-dish to make Tablets. You may also mixe with the same boyl'd Sugar an ounce and a half of red Roses pulveriz'd, sprinkl'd with some few drops of Spirit of Sulphur or Brimstone. And these Tablets are call'd Conserve of drie Roses, or the Rock-Conserve.

Sugar of white Roses is detersive with a little astriction. It is very much us'd in all diseases of the Brest, as well for its pleasant taste, and ease which it gives: You may take it day and night at all hours. Sugar of Roses is also mix'd in Powder with Asses, Goats or Cows-Milk, and tak'n in a morning fasting. The dose is from two drams to an ounce, according to the quantity of Milk and the Palate of the Patient.

Tablets of red Roses are more binding. It is good to strength'n the Ventricle and the Liver, and to stop thin Rhumes that fall from the Head upon the Lungs. They are tak'n after the same manner as ordinary Sugar of Roses.

[Page 111]

Tabellae de Althea Simplices & Compositae. Simple and Compound Lozenges of Marsh-mallows. 
℞. Pulpae Radicum Althaeae per setaceum tra­jectae,iiij.℞. Of the Pulp of the Roots of Althea pass'd through a Hair-sieve,℥ iiij.
Sacchari solidi,lb j ss.Loaf-Sugar,lb j ss.
Aquae Rosarum,vj.Rose-water,℥ vj.
Fiant ex Arte Tabellae. Make Lozenges according to Art. 

Choose out large well-grown Roots of Marsh-mallows, wash them and take off the rind, and having cut them into thin round slices, boyl them over a soft fire with Foun­tain-water in an Earth'n-glaz'd-pot, till they be very tender. Then bruise them in a Marble-mortar with a woodd'n-pestle, and pass four ounces of the pulp through the wrong side of a Hair-sieve. Put a pound and a half of fine Sugar with six ounces of Rose-water into a Skillet, and boyl them to the consistence of a solid Electuary, wherein you must dissolve the pulp; then setting the Skillet over the fire for a very small time to evaporate the superfluous moisture, make your Lozenges.

Quod si compositas volueris, If you desire them compounded, 
℞. Pulpae praedictae,ij.℞. Of the fore-said Pulp,℥ ij.
Seminis Papaveris alb. contusi, Seed of white Poppy beat'n, 
Pulveris Ireos Florentiae, Powder of Florence-Orrice, 
Diatragacanthi frigidi, & Glycyrrhizae, an.ʒ iij.Cold Diatragacanth, and Liquorice, an.ʒ iij.
Sacchari albissimi in Aqua Rosarum soluti, & in Electuarium solidum cocti,lb j.Whitest Sugar dissolv'd in Rose-water, and boil'd to the consistence of a solid Ele­ctuary,lb j.

Boyl the Sugar and the Rose-water to the consistence of a solid Electuary: take the Skillet from the fire, and first mixe the Pulp prescrib'd, after that the Powders; and make your Lozenges of what form or bigness you please.

You may mixe with the Powders a dram of Magisterie of Sulphur. You may also in the same manner make several other Pectoral-Lozenges.

Talbets of Althea are us'd to remedie old and new Coughs, and in all diseases of the Brest; especially to carry off the acrimony of the humours, and to stay Defluxions. They are to be tak'n at all times, like Tablets of Sugar of Roses.

Succus Liquoritiae Niger. Black Juice of Liquorice. 
℞. Extracti Liquoritiae consistentiae mollio­ris, ℞. Extract of Liquorice of a softer consi­stencie, 
Sacchari opt. pulverati, ij.Fine-powder'd Sugar, ij.
Gummi Arabici soluti & colati℥ j.Gum-Arabick dissolv'd and strain'd,℥ j.
Mucilaginis spissioris Gummi Tragacanthi in Aquae Rosarum extractae,j ss.Thicker Muscilage of Gum-Tragacanth, extracted with Rose-water,℥ j ss.

Beat them and incorporate them well together in a Marble-mortar with a woodd'n­pestle, and make them into Rolls, Tablets or Lozenges as you please.

The Gum-Arabick must be pass'd through a Hair-sieve, being first powder'd and dis­solv'd in Rose-water.

I have plac'd this Composition among the Tablets, as well for its Consistency, as for the Form of making it up.

There are several Preparations of the Black Juice of Liquorice, as well in Spain as in several Towns in France; and the quick vent there is for it, causes the Women to deal in it. But I take the Receipt which I have set down to be superiour to theirs, in re­gard it contains all the vertue and good taste that can be expected.

The use of it is too familiar to want directions.

[Page 112]

Succus Liquoritiae Albus. White Juice of Liquorice. 
℞. Pulveris Liquoritia mundatae, ℞. Clean-powder of Liquorice, 
Radicis Ireos Florentiae,ʒ vj.Roots of Florence-Orrice, an.ʒ vj.
Amyli,ij.Flower of Wheat pounded,℥ ij.
Sacchari opt. subtiliter pulverati,lb j.The best Sugar finely-powder'd,lb j.
Moschi Orientalis, Oriental Musk, 
Ambragrisea, an.Gr. iij.Ambergrise, an.Gr. iij.

Incorporate all these together with a muscilage of Gum-Tragacanth extracted in Rose-water, mixing and beating them together in a Marble-mortar with a woodd'n­pestle into a solid paste. Make them up into Rolls or Tablets, and drie them by the fire upon a white sheet of Paper.

This Composition is improperly call'd by the Name of Juice of Liquorice; since there is nothing but the Powder of Liquorice in it. But in regard that custom has prevail'd to continue the Name, we thought it convenient to place it here.

This Juice of White Liquorice is more pleasing then the Black, but much inferior to it in vertue. Yet it is as much or more in request, because of its acceptable taste and smell.

Manus Christi Perlata. Manus-Christi Pearl'd. 
℞. Succhari albissimi in frusta dissecti,lb j.℞. Finest white Sugar brok'n into pieces, 
   lb j.
Aqua Rosarum fragrantissima,iiij.Fragrant Rose-water,℥ iiij.

Boyl them together over a moderate fire to the consistence of a solid Electuary, and when they are half-cold, incorporate with them half an ounce of Oriental-Pearl, and make up your Tablets according to Art.

These Tablets are call'd by the Name of Manus-Christi or Sugar of Roses Pearl'd, by reason of the Ingredients whereof they are compos'd. Their principal vertue is to comfort and fortifie the Heart and Noble-parts: they may be tak'n alone, at any time; but their chief use is in Juleps and Cordial-Potions.

Tabellae Cachecticae, D. D. D'AQUIN. Tablets for those that are troubl'd with an Ill-habit of Body, by D. D. D'AQUIN. 
℞. Diaphoretici mineralis, & Oculorum Cancrorum praeparatorum, an.℥ ss.℞. Diaphoretic-mineral, and Crabs-Eyes prepar'd, an.℥ ss.
Margaritarum praeparatorum,ʒ ij.Pearls prepar'd,ʒ ij.
Salis Martis,ʒ ss.Salt of Steelʒ ss.
Olei Cinnamomi stillatitii,Gut. ij.Distill'd oyl of Cinnamon,Drop ij.
Sacchari opt. pulverati,viij.Double-refin'd Sugar powder'd,℥ viij.

Dissolve over hot embers a dram of Gum-Tragacanth in four ounces of Orange­flower Water, and reduce it into a muscilage, wherewith to unite and bind all the In­gredients prescrib'd. Then beat them into a thick paste, to make your Tablets of the weight of two drams each for a dose, and dry them in the shade.

These Tablets are of incomparable vertue to op'n gently all obstructions of the Bowels, particularly of the Spleen. For which reason they are giv'n with great success in Hypochondriac distempers and Cachexies: as also to cure the Green-sickness, and difficulty of making Urine▪ They may be tak'n when you drink Mineral-waters, if they do not pass through quickly as they should. The dose is one Tablet in a morning fasting, two hours before you eat any thing else.

[Page 113]

Tabellae Cardiacae.Cordial Lozenges.
℞. Sacchari albissimi in Aqua florum Aran­tiorum soluti, & in Tabulati solidiorem con­sistentiam cocti, lb j.℞. Double-refin'd Sugar dissolv'd in O­range-flower Water, and boyl'd to the constency of a solid Electuary, lb j.
When the Sugar is boyl'd, take it off the fire;and when it is half-cold,
Permisce, Mingle with it, 
Confectionis Alkermes perfectae,j.Confection of Alkermes perfect,℥ j.
Corticis exterioris Citri minutissime incist, & Antimonii Diaphoretici, an.ʒ ij.Outward-peel of Citron cut very small, and Diaphoretic Antimony, an.ʒ ij.
Olei Cinnamomi stillatitii pauco Saccharo excepti,Gut. j.Distill'd-oyl of Cinnamon mix'd with 2 drams of fine-powder Sugar,Drops j.

Mixe them well together, and pour out the whole upon a Plate of fine Tin, or upon a sheet of white Paper to ma [...]e your Tablets of what bigness you please.

These Tablets are admirable to cherish the Natural-heat. They restore an extraordi­nary vigour immediately to all the parts, [...]allying the scatter'd Spirits. They power▪ fully strength'n the Heart and Brain. They are an incomparable preservative against Pestilential air, they correct ill-smells of the Mouth and Breath. They are useful to those that are in want of a Provocative to Venerie. They may be tak'n at any time, but especially fasting, from a dram to two. But you may take half an ounce when you de­sire a more powerful operation, especially they that have weak Backs, to whom they will be of more force by adding half a dram of Amber-grise and a scruple of Musk.

Tabellae Stomachicae. Stomachical Tablets. 
℞. Sacchari albissimi,lb j.℞. Double-refin'd Sugar,lb j.
Aquae Stillatitiae corticum Citri,iiij.Distill'd-water of Citron-peels,℥ iiij.

Boyl them over a moderate fire to the consistency of a solid Electuary.

Deinde adde, Then add, 
Nucem Moschatam Saccharo conditam con­tusam, & per Cribrum trajectam, Pulpae Pistaciarum,ʒ vij.One Nutmeg condited with Sugar, pow­der'd and pass'd through a Sieve, Pulp of Pistaches,ʒ vj.
Corticum recentium exteriorum Citri, & Arantiorum minime incisorum, Cinnaniomi electi, & Macis subtiliter pulveratorum, an.ʒ ij.New outward Citron and Orange-peels cut very small, Choice Cinnamon, and Mace finely powder'd, an.ʒ ij.

Beat the Nutmeg in a Marble-mortar with a woodd'n pestle and six drams of pulp of Pista­ches, and pass them through the wrong side of a Hair-sieve; cut the peels very small, powder the Cinnamon and Mace. Then put in first the Nutmeg and Pistaches, after that the Peels, then the Powders; and when they are all well-incorporated make up your Tablets.

These Tablets are of a most pleasing scent and odour. They are call'd Stomachical, because of their incomparable vertue to strength'n the Stomach, to increase the Ap­petite and facilitate Concoction and Distribution of the Nourishment. They are marvellously effectual to expel Wind and hinder the putrefaction of the Humours. The dose is two drams fasting and just after meals, the use whereof you may continue as you see cause.

[Page 114]

Tabulae contra Vermes. Lozenges against the Worms. 
℞. Rhabarbariel [...]cti, ℞. Choice Rhubarb, 
Seminum Citri mundatorum, Seeds of Citron Cleans'd, 
C [...]ra Vermes, Worm-Seed, 
Portulacae, Purslane, 
Caulium, & Genist [...] subtiliter pulverati, an.ʒ iij.Coleworts, and Brome finely powder'd, an.ʒ iij.
Mercurii dulcis pulverat.ʒ ij.Sweet Merc [...]y powder'd,ʒ ij.
Sacchari Albissimi pulver [...].xvj.Double refin'd Sugar powder'd,℥ xvj.

Beat all the Ingredients into fine powder, mixe and incorporate them very well to­gether with mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth drawn with Orange-flower Water, and hav­ing reduc'd the whole into a paste somewhat solid, make up your Tablets each weigh­ing a dram, of which give one or two to a Child in a morning, fasting, and three or four at a time to Persons of riper Years.

These Lozenges kill Worms in the Stomach and Bowels. They may be tak'n at any time in a morning fasting, but the best time is the three last days of the Moon.

Tabellae de Croco Martis Simplices. Single Lozenges of Crocus Martis. 
℞. Cr [...]ci Martis Nigri, junctione Sulphuris cum Chalybe c [...]de [...]te parati, & subtiliter pulverat.j.℞. Crocus Martis prepar'd by applying a a Cake of Brimstone to Steel sodering hot and powder'd,℥ j.
Pulveris Cinnamomi elect.ʒ ij.Powder of pick'd Cinamon,ʒ ij.
Sacchari optimi pulver [...].iiij.Double-refin'd Sugar powder'd,℥ iiij.

Incorporate them in a Marble-mortar with Mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth, veduce them into an indifferent thick paste to make your Lozenges, each of the weight of two drams or there­about, which are to be dry'd in the shade.

These Tablets are chiefly against the Retention or Irregularity of the menstruums, drinking after it three or four ounces of white Wine or some Hysteric-water, and waking upon that for half an hour, not eating any thing in two hours afterwards. It may be tak'n for several days, and the use of it renew'd upon occasion.

Tabellae de Croco Martis Compositae. Compound Tablets of Crocus Martis. 
℞. Croci Martis Aperientis,ʒ ij.℞. Opening Crocus Martis,ʒ ij.
Cinamomi acutissimi, The most biting Cinamon, 
Rhabarbari Electi, Chos'n Rhubarb, 
E [...]c [...]lar [...] [...]ry [...]i [...], & Croci opt. subtiliter pulverat [...]rum, an.ʒ ij.Hard'n'd white Juice of Bryony-root, and The bestSaffron finely-powder'd, an.ʒ ij.
Sacchari Albissimi in Aqua Art [...]misia s [...]lut. & in Electuarium s [...]lid [...] c [...]cti,ix.Double-refin'd Sugar dissolv'd in Mug­wort-water, and boyl'd to a solid Electary,℥ ix.

When the Electuary is half-cold incorporate the powders, and make up your Tablets, each weighing about two drams.

These Tablets are highly esteem'd for provoking the menstruums, and freeing the M [...]tri [...] from impurities. They op'n the obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, and all the Bowels, and are an excellent Remedy against the Green-sickness, Cachexies, Jaundice, Dropsies; as also Lienteries. For by opening obstructions, they facilitate the distri­bution of the Nourishment. The dose is from two drams to half an ounce. They must be tak'n in a morning fasting, drinking after them two or three ounces of Wormwood­wine, or else as much Mugwort-water, and walking upon that for half an hour; it may be tak'n for fifteen days together, and longer if necessity requires. Two hours after the Patient is at liberty to eat.

[Page 115]

Tabellae Magnanimitatis. Lozenges of Magnanimity. 
℞. Pulpae Pistaciarum. ℞. Pulp of Pistaches, 
Radicum Satyrionis conditarum, Condited Roots of Satyrion. 
Conservae Florum Rorismarini, & Confectionis Alkermes cum Ambra & Mosco paratae, an.℥ ss.Conserve of flowers of Rosemary, and Confection of Alkermes prepar'd with Amber and Musk, an.℥ ss.
Truncorum Viperinorum, & Hepatum, Bodies of Vipers, and Livers, 
Margaritarum Orientalium praeparatarum, an.ʒ iij.Oriental Pearls prepar'd, an.ʒ iij.
Seminis Erucae,ʒ ij.Seed of Rocket, 
Renum Scincorum, Reins of Land-Crocodiles, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamoms, 
Radicis Galangae, an.ʒ j.Root of Galanga, an.ʒ j.
Caryophyllorum, Cloves, 
Cinnamomi, Cinnamon, 
Macis, Mace, 
Ambrae Griseae, an.ʒ ss.Ambergrise, an.ʒ ss.
Moschi Orientalis,℈ ss.Oriental Musk,℈ ss.
Sacchari in Aqua Florum Arantiorum so­luti, & in Electuarium solidum cocti,lb j.Sugar dissolv'd in Orange-water, and boyl'd to a solid Electuary,lb j.

Beat the Pistaches, Satyrion-roots and Conserve of Rosemary-flowers in a Marble­mortar; and strain the Pulp through the wrong side of a Hair-sieve. Pulverize the Bodies and livers of Vipers, and Land-Crocodiles; the Root of Galanga, the Cardamoms, Cloves, Mace, Ambergrise and Musk, mixe them with the prepar'd Pearls, and when the Su­gar boyl'd in Orange-flower Water to a solid Electuary is half-cold, incorporate the Pulp, Confection and Seeds; and make your Lozenges about two drams each.

These Lozenges are highly esteem'd for those that are cold in the act of Venerie. Take one or two at a time at Night or Morning, drinking after it two or three ounces of Spanish-wine. They may be eat'n also in the Day-time between Meals, one Lozenge at a time, using them as long as necessity requires. In the mean time the Patient must take care to keep a good Diet, and to avoid melancholy.

CHAP. XIX. Of Powders.

THE Name of Powder is giv'n to dry Substances, when either by Art or Nature they are reduc'd into distinct particles, one from the other. This Natural redu­ction happ'ns to Wood through rott'nness, as also to several Roots, and to Lime after it is burnt. But these Natural Powders are not the subject of this Chapter, which is to treat only of Artificial Powders, whose Substance may be divided into smaller or grosser parts, according to their diversity, and the necessity of the Apothecary. The way to make this Reduction I have spok'n of in the Chapter of Trituration. The ne­cessity of Powders is allow'd both by the Galenic and Chymic-Pharmacy, without which the most part of Medicines are not to be prepar'd; but setting aside particular Pow­ders prepar'd for particular Medicines, in this Chapter I shall only treat of those that go under the general Name of Powders, and are so acknowledg'd to be, as being most usually prepar'd and kept.

[Page 116]

Pulvis Viperinus.Powder of Vipers.
℞. Corpora Viperina cute spoliata, Capite & Cauda mutila, exenterata, servatis Corde & Hepate, & in umbra siccata, quantum li­buerit.℞. The Bodies of Viper's flea'd (the Head and Tail cut off, the Entrails tak'n out, reserving the Heart and Liver) as many as you please.

Wash the Bodies, Hearts and Livers with white Wine, and hang them up to dry in the shade. When they are perfectly drie, cut them very small with a pair of Scissors into a large Brass-mortar, and having beat'n them to powder, sift them through a Silk­sieve, and keep the powder for your use.

The great applause that the greatest number of Naturalists have giv'n to Vipers, the gross mistakes of the Ancients, as well in relation to the parts of their Bodies, as the nature of their Venome, and the great use that has been made of them for this many Years, and particularly in this Age, have encourag'd me briefly here to describe the principal markes that distinguish them▪ from other Serpents, and give us an assur'd knowledg of them.

The Viper's Head, considering the proportion of her Body, is flatter and larger, then the Head of any Serpent. The end of the Snout turns up like a Pig's. The length of the Body is not above half an Ell, and the bigness not above an Inch. It has two large Teeth, crooked, hollow, transparent and very sharp, about 2 The twelfth part of an Inch. Lignes long, and as big as a little Pin towards the point, and a little more to­wards the bottom, which other Serpents have not. They are strongly joynted into the foremost bones forward from the Scull, flexible in their joynting, and fix'd upon each side of the upper-Jaw. Below adjoyning to the root of these great Teeth, are others much a-like in shape and figure, but slenderer and much looser. These great Teeth lie generally bow'd toward the Throat of the Viper, but she can raise them, and make use of them to bite when she pleases, either in revenge or to kill her prey. The bottom of these great Teeth is environ'd with a little bag, contain­ing, to the quantity of a drop, a Juice slimy, yellow, insipid and harmless, which proceeds from a great number of slimy-kernels, which the Viper has incluster'd behind each Eye toward the Temples, which is let out and kept in, as in a Receptacle, to discharge the superfluities of the Brain, to moist'n the Ligaments that belong to the Articulati­on of the great Teeth, and to preserve their flexibility, and to nourish the other Teeth. The Viper has but one row of Teeth upon each Jaw, whereas other Serpents have two. The neck is not so long, and less thick; the Tail is also shorter then that of o­ther Serpents, especially that of the Female. The Viper has no stinking smell in any part of her Body, whereas the inwards of other Serpents are so noysom as not to be endur'd. The Viper creeps very slow, nor can it shoot forwards as other Serpents do; though it be very quick and nimble to bite Man or Beast when provok'd. Some have vainly affirm'd that being hung by the tail it cannot rear it self. But though it cannot do it so quickly as other Serpents, however it will be sure to raise it self, and lay hold upon the Pincers with which you hold her by the tail. The Teeth of the Male are like those of the Female in number and shape, contrary to the opinion of the An­cients, and his Natural-parts doubly cover'd with hard and sharp points. The Female has also a double Matrix, though the first entrance be not so. The upper-part of the Body of both are of two colours, the ground whereof is generally of a grey, more clear or more dark, or else of a yellow more inclining to gold'n, or to red. This Ground is very proportionably variegated with long spots of a brown colour inclining to black. The long Scales a-thwart the Belly, which serve them to creep withal, are of the colour of polish'd Steel. The Viper also differs from other Creatures in this, that she brings forth her Young-ones alive, whereas other Serpents lay Eggs, which they sit upon and hatch.

This Powder is very much enliven'd with the volatile Salt, wherewith the Vipers abound, which enables it to force its vertues through the Pores, though never so close­shut, to the most remote parts of the Body. It is a singular Medicine to cure Scabs, Itches and Erysipelas; and particularly the Leprosie. It restores plumpness of Body to Persons wasted with long Agues and tedious Diseases. It gives remarkable relief to the Ptisical and Consumptive, preserves the Natural-heat, assists Concoction, and distribution of the Chylus. The use of it is very wholsom in Epidemic distempers, and [Page 117] to prevent and overcome Venomes that act by a malignant occult quality, particularly that of the Viper, and all sorts of Serpents. It is to be tak'n fasting in Broths, Wine, or any other Cordial Liquor; or else incorporated with some Syrup, or in some Con­fection like a Bolus. It may be also mix'd in Opiates, or in liquid or solid Ele­ctuaries, as also among other Powders. The dose is from ten to twenty or thirty grains, as also to a dram. It works insensibly, not provoking Sweat, unless the dose be great. It may be also tak'n for a good while together.

Pulvis Comitissae Cantii, seu de Chelis Cancrorum. The Countess of Kent's Powder: or, The Powder of Crabs-Claws. 
℞. Extremitatum nigrorum pedum majorum Cancrorum marinorum,iiij.℞. The black extremities of the feet of large Sea-Crabs,℥ iiij.
Oculorum Cancrorum fluviatilium, River-Crabs-Eyes, 
Margaritarum Orientalium, & Eastern-Pearls, and 
Coralli Rubri praeparatorum, an.j.Red-Coral prepar'd, an.℥ j.
Succini Albi, White Amber, 
Radicis Contrayervae, Root of Contrayerva, 
Viperinae, seu Spanish-Counterpoyson, an.ʒ vj.
Contrayervae Virginianae, an.ʒ vj.  
Lapidis Bezoar,ʒ iij.Bezoar-Stone,ʒ iij.
Ossis è Corde Cervi,iiij.Deer's Heart-bone,℈ iiij.
Croci,ij.Saffron,℈ ij.

All these being finely powder'd, let them be sprinkl'd with an ounce and a half of Spirit of Honey, and mix'd with Gelly of Vipers. Make up your Trochishes, dry them in the shade to be powder'd when use requires.

Take the Sea and the River-Crabs in the Month of June, while the Sun is in Cancer. Take and cut the Flesh from the extremities of the Claws, bruise the Claws and Crabs-Eyes in a Brass-mortar first, then grind them upon a Porphyrie, moist'ning them with some Cordial-water; and spread the Powder upon clean Paper, to be dry'd in the shade. Prepare the Pearl, Coral, and Amber-grise in like manner. Beat the Bezoar in a Brass-Mortar, and mix all the Powders. Then in a glaz'd-Earth'n-pot over a very gentle fire, boyl four large Vipers, well prepar'd, in a pint of Balm-water, till the Broth be re­duc'd to the consistency of a Gelly. Strain it and press out the Vipers. Then put the Powders into a great Marble-Mortar; and when they have suckt up the Honey pre­scrib'd, add at several times the Gelly of Vipers, till the whole Mass be become thick and solid enough to make Trochishes, to be dry'd and us'd as before.

The Gelly of Vipers, is not only to unite and bind the Powders together, and reduce them to a proper Paste and fit solidity, but to impart to the Composition, the Cordial, and Poyson-resisting vertue of the Vipers, though the Ancients neglected the Gelly of Vi­pers, and refus'd it as Impertinent.

I might have plac'd this Composition in the Chapter of Trochishes, but I thought fit to imitate the English, from whence first it came, and who gave it the name of Powder.

This Powder is very famous, and in high request in England, against Epidemic Di­stempers, particularly against the Small-pox, and Measles. It is also highly commend­ded for the Plague, as well to preserve, as cure. For it strength'ns the Heart, and all the Noble-parts, against the malignity of these Diseases, against Pestilential-Air, and preserves them from all sorts of Infection. Nor is it less esteem'd in France, by Persons that know the vertue of it, and who have often try'd it with good success. The Dose and manner of using it, is the same with that of the Spi­rit of Vipers.

[Page 118]

Pulvis Aromatici Rosati. Powder of Aromatic Rosatum. 
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum exungulatarum sicca­rum,ʒ xv.℞. Dry red-Roses cleans'd from their white bottoms,ʒ xv.
Glycyrrhizae Rasae,ʒ vij.Scrap'd Liquorice,ʒ vij.
Cinnamomi Acutissimi,ʒ v.Quick-biting Cinamon,ʒ v.
Ligni Aloes, Lignum Aloes, 
Santali Citrini, ana.ʒ iij.Yellow Saunders, ana.ʒ iij.
Caryophyllorum, Cloves, 
Macis, Mace, 
Nardi Indicae Indian Spikenard, 
Gummi Arabici, Gum-Arabic, 
Tragacanthi, an.ʒ ij ss.Tragacanth, an.ʒ ij ss.
Nucis Moschat [...], Nutmegs, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamom. 
Galangae, an.ʒ j.Galanga, an.ʒ j.
Ambrae-Griseae,ij.Amber-grise,℈ ij.
Moschi Orientalis,j.Oriental Musk,℈ j.

According to the general Rules of Trituration, bruise and pound the Wood first in a brazen-Mortar, then add the Galanga, Liquorice, and Spikenard: which must be beaten for some time with the Wood: next add the Cinamon and Gums; Lastly, the Cloves, Nutmegs, Cardamoms, Mace, and Red-Roses: beat them among the rest, and sift the Powder through a fine silk-sieve. Then beat a-part in a little Mortar the Amber-grise, and Musk, mixing with them, never so little Oyl of Nutmegs, to prevent them from sticking to the Mortar, and having sifted them through the same sieve, mix them with the rest of the Powders; which will be then fit to be put up for use.

Were there a greater quantity of Gum-Arabic, and Tragacanth in the Powder, the best way would be to beat them apart in a large brazen-Mortar heated, but being so little, they may be conveniently enough beaten with the rest. It is not worth while to stand to cut the Woods, or the Spikenard, when you may do as well by beating them in the large Mortar, with the rest of the Drugs.

This Powder is highly esteem'd for strength'ning the Brain, and Stomach. It dissipates the superfluous moisture of the Entrails, resists Putrefaction, creates an Appetite, stays Vomitings, and want of retention in the Intestines, and is very proper to stren­gth'n and restore such as are newly recovered from sickness. The Dose is from half a scruple to half a Dram in Wine, Broth, or any Cordial-Liquor. It may be reduc'd into a soft or solid Electuary, with a proportionable quantity of Sugar, or mixt with Opi­ates, Potions, or other Medicines.

Pulvis Diarrhodon emendatus. The Powder Diarrhodon, reform'd. 
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum exungulatarum,j ss.℞. Red Roses cleans'd,℥ j ss.
Santali Citrini, & Yellow-Saunders and 
Rubri, an.ʒ iij.Red, an.ʒ iij.
Ligni Aloes, Lignum Aloes, 
Cinnamomi, Cinamon, 
Rapontici, Rhubarb of Pontus, 
Nardi Indic [...], Indian-Spikenard, 
Rasurae Eboris, Shavings of Ebony, 
Ossis e corde Cervi, The bone of a Deers-heart, 
Crooi, Saffron, 
Mastices, Mastick, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamom, 
Gummi Tragacanthi, & Gum-Tragacanth, and 
Arabici, Arabic, 
Succi Glycyrrhizae, Juice of Liquorice, 
Seminis Anisi, Seed of Annise, 
F [...]niculi, Fennel, 
[Page 119] Ocymi, Basil, 
Melonum, & Melons, and 
Cucumeris, mundatorum, & Cucumbers, cleans'd and 
Margaritarum praeparat [...]rum, ana.ʒ j.Prepar'd Pearls, an.ʒ j.
Ambrae-grisiae,Gr. viij.Amber-grise,Gr. viij.
Moschi Orientalis,Gr. iiij.Oriental Musk,Gr. iiij.

Make a Powder according to Art.

They who will compare the Receipt of this powder, with that which is to be found in several Dispensatories, under the name of an Abbot, will find that the Doses are re­form'd; that the Yellow-Saunders is put instead of the White, the shavings of Ivory▪ in the stead of Spodium or burnt-Ivory, Rhaphontic instead of Rhubarb, and that several Seeds are left out, which gave more trouble to the Artist, then vertue to the Medicine. There is no question, but that Yellow-Saunders is better than White, and that Rhubarb whose purgative vertue is not proper upon this occasion, ought to give place to Ra­phontic, whose qualities agree with the purposes for which this powder was design'd. There is nothing superfluous in this powder, and the Doses and proportion of the In­gredients are such, that the effects cannot but be answerable to what Writers have at­tributed to this composition.

This powder is of great use to fortifie the Stomach, create an Appetite, and expel Wind. It is particularly appointed for maladies of the Liver and Spleen, Jaundies, Ptisicks, difficultness of the Intestines, Weaknesses and Faintings of the Heart. It also consumes the superfluous moistures of the Stomach. The Dose and manner of using this powder is the same with the preceding.

Pulvis Diamargariti Frigidi. Powder of cold Diamargaritum. 
℞. Margaritarum Orientalium praeparata­rum,℥ ss.℞. Oriental Pearls prepar'd,℥ ss.
Rosarum rubrarum exungulatarum, Red-Roses cleans'd, 
Florum Nymph [...]ae, & Flowers of Water-Lillies, 
Violarum, an.ʒ iij.Violets, an.ʒ iij.
Ligni Aloes, Lignum-Aloes, 
Santali Rubri, & Saunders Red, and 
Citrini, Yellow▪ 
Radicis Tormentillae, Roots of Tormentil▪ 
Dictamni Albi, White Dittany, 
Pentaphylli, Cinqu [...]foyl, 
Baccarum Myrti, Myrtle-berries, 
Gran [...]rum Kermes, Graines of Kermes, 
Seminis Melonum excorticati, Seeds of Melons husk'd, 
Endivi [...], & Endive, and 
Oxalidis, Sorrel, 
Rasurae Eboris, & Shavings of Ebony, 
Cornu Cervi, Harts-horn, 
Coralli Albi, & Coral White, and 
Rubri pr [...]paratorum, an.ʒ ij.Red prepar'd, an.ʒ ij.
Ambrae-Grisiae, & Amber-grise, and 
Foliorum Auri, an.ʒ ss.Leaves of Gold, an.ʒ ss.
Moschi Orientalis,Gr. iiij.Oriental Musk,Gr. iiij.

Make a Powder according to Art.

There is no composition in request, the Receipt whereof varies more in all Dispen­satories then this Powder, that bears the name of no Authour. However, I am per­swaded that this very Receipt is not inferiour to any of the other, as well for the choice as for the Doses of the Ingredients. This Powder carrie [...] the name of Pearls, which are the foundation of it, and are us'd in greater quantity here, then any other of the Ingredients. It is call'd cold, because it admits of many cold Ingredients, or else but moderately hot, and to distinguish it from another which is nam'd the hot, [Page 120] which is not now in use. The preparation of this Powder is like the former.

The principal use of cold Diamargaritum is to strength'n the Noble-parts, restore their languishing force, to cure fainting and Swouning-fits, in Fevers, and other Disea­ses. It is giv'n to Asthmatic, and Consumptive persons, and to those that are wasted and brought low by long sickness. The Dose and manner of using, are the same with other Cordial-powders, which I have already set down.

Pulvis Laetificans. A Powder creating Chearfulness. 
℞. Semini [...] Ocymi Caryophyllati, ℞. Seeds of Clove-Basil, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Zedoariae, Zedoary, or Set-wall, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow-Saunders, 
Caryophyllorum, Cloves, 
Corticis exterioris Citri sicci, Outward peel of Citron, dry, 
Galangae, Galanga, 
Macis, Mace, 
Nucis Moschatae, Nutmeg, 
Storacis Calamitae, an.ʒ ij ss.Calamite Storax, an.ʒ ij ss.
Rasurae Eboris, Shavings of Ivory▪ 
Seminis Anisi, Annise-seed, 
Thymi, Thyme, 
Epithymi, Dodder of Thyme, 
Margaritarum Orientalium praeparat, Oriental Pearls prepar'd, 
Ossis é corde cervi, an.ʒ j.Deer's Heart-bone, an.ʒ j.
Ambrae-Grisiae, Ambergrise, 
Moschi Orientalis, Oriental Musk, 
Foliorum Auri et Leaves of Gold, and 
Argenti, an.℈ j.Silver, an.℈ j.

Make a Powder according to Art.

It imports not to know the Name of the Inventor of this Powder, the Receipt whereof agrees indifferently well in most Dispensatories. You may follow this which I have here set down; the Preparation being the same with the former. You must know, that though the Leaves of Gold and Silver may contribute some vertue to this, and other compositions; yet they are here chiefly us'd for Ornament. For which rea­son they are not usually pulveriz'd and jumbl'd with other Ingredients, but cut in little distinct bits, for beauty's fake, as Pills, and Cordial-Opiates are wrapt up in them to take away the ill tast.

This Powder is highly esteem'd to correct the cold and moist temperature of the Sto­mach and Liver, to help Digestion, and restore the Appetite. It is also very proper a­gainst Weaknesses, and Palpitations of the Heart, to restore a good habit of Body, and to bring a good colour into the Face, to keep the Breath sweet, restore decay'd Strength, and dissipate Melancholy that proceeds from an Internal or no real cause. The Dose is the same with the preceding Powders.

Pulvis Diatrion Santalon. Powder of the three Saunders. 
℞. Santali Citrini, ℞. Saunders Yellow, 
Albi, et White, and 
Rubri, Red, 
Seminis Violarum, Seeds of Violets, 
Rosarum Rubrarum Exungulatarum, an.℥ ss.Red Roses cleans'd, an.℥ ss.
Rapontici, Pontic Rhubarb, 
Rasurae Eboris, Shavings of Ivory, 
Succi Glycyrrhizae, an.ʒ ij.Juice of Liquorice, an.ʒ ij.
Gummi Tragacanthi, [...]t Gum Tragacanth, and 
Arabici, Arabic, 
[Page 121] Seminum Endiviae, Seeds of Endive, 
Portulacae, & Purslain, 
Melonis excorticati, an.ʒ j.Melons husk'd, an.ʒ j.

Make a Powdor according to Art.

They that desire to make the Powder more red, beginning with the Saunders, must moisten them with Rose-water, and beat them a long time, and moisten them often, till they are sufficiently colour'd, and when they are dry, add the other Ingredients, and perfect the Powder, which must be sifted through a fine silk sierce.

I am of opinion that the Amydon, or flower of pounded Wheat, together with some part of the Seeds were with judgement left out; for besides that the Amydon signifies nothing, the excess of Seeds might cause putrefaction in the powder.

This powder is highly commended against Diseases that proceed from weakness, or ill habit of the Liver; to temper the heat of the Entrails, to digest and discuss matters gather'd together at the end of Agues. It is also very proper in faintings of the Heart, Jaundies, and Ptisicks. It is giv'n inwardly in Potions, Opiates, and Electuaries, and outwardly apply'd in Epithems, Frontals, and Liniments.

Pulvis Pannonicus. The Hungarian Powder. 
℞. Boli Armenae, & ℞. Bole Armonack, & 
Terrae Lemniae, an.℥ j ss.Lemnian Earth, an.℥ j ss.
Margaritarum Orientalium, Eastern Pearls, 
Lapidum Hyacinthorum, Stones, Jacinths, 
Smaragdorum, Smaragds, 
Saphyrorum, et Saphyrs, and 
Rubinorum, et Rubies, 
Coralli Albi, et White-Coral, & 
Rubri, praeparatorum, Red prepar'd, 
Radicum Tormentillae, Roots of Tormentil, 
Doronici, et Doronicum or Wolfs-bane, and 
Dictamni Albi, White Dittany, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow Saunders, 
Rasurae Ʋnicornis, et Shavings of Unicorns-horn, and 
Eboris, an.℥ ss.Ivory, an.℥ ss.
Corticis Citri exterioris sicci, et Dry outmost Citron-rind, and 
Seminis Acetosae, an.ʒ iij.Seed of Sorrel, an.ʒ iij.
Cinnamomi acutissimiʒ j.Biting Cinamon,ʒ j.
Caryophyllorum et Cloves, and 
Croci, an.ʒ ss.Saffron, an.ʒ ss.
Folia Auri purissimi,No. xxv.Leaves of purest Gold,No. xxv.

Rasp the Ʋnicorns-horn, and Ivory; beat the Pearls, Stones, as also the Coral, and Bole-Ar­monac in a Mortar, then grind them upon a Porphyrie-stone, till the Powder is not to be felt, moistning them now and then with Rose-water: make them into Trochiskes and let them dry in the shade. Beat the Ʋnicorns-horn and Ivory, in a great Brazen-Mortar, with the Saunders and the Roots; then put in the Cinamon, dry Citron-Peel, and then the Cloves, and Sorrel-seed, and sift them them through a silken sierce. Dry the Saffron and beat it apart; then having mix'd all the Powders with the Stones, Corals, Bole-Armonac, and Terra-sigillata, cut the Leaves of Gold in small bits. Mix an ounce and a half of this Powder with twelve ounces of fine Sugar dissolv'd in Rose-water, and you may boyl it up to the consistence of a solid Electu­ary, and make it into Tablets.

Unicorns-horn is reckon'd among the number of Medicaments, which being but a part of a mixt body, bears the Name of the whole; so that when the Unicorn is only set down, the Horn is only prescrib'd. This Creature is by the Greeks called [...], by the Latins, Ʋnicornis. Writers vary very much about the description of this Animal. The most part make it in the body to resemble a Horse, and that he has one horn wreath'd like a Periwinkle-shell, sometimes longer, sometimes shorter, fix'd at the upper part of the fore-part of the Head; streight and pointed at the end. However, none [Page 122] of them affirm that they have seen the Creature which they describe, nor do they say where he is bred. And therefore some question whether the Unicorn spoken of in the old Testament, were a Beast like that which our Naturalists have describ'd under the shape of a Horse, and whether it did not mean the Rhinoceros, by that which our In­terpreters call a Unicorn, though the streight and twisted shape, and white colour which the Naturalists attribute to the Unicorn's-horn, is nothing agreeable to that of the Rhino­ceros, which is not twisted, but crooked from the bottom, with the end turn'd upward; and besides is of a brown colour. But among all these contests of Natural Philoso­phers, my thoughts are that there is no such Unicorn in the World as they have de­scrib'd; but that this white, hard, heavy, twisted horn, hollow within, and from one to two ells long, which we use in Physic, is the horn of a great Fish which is found in Groynland, which the Islanders call Narwall. This horn serves him as a defence against other Fish, and to kill the greater Whales, of which he is so fearless, that he will endea­vour sometimes with a great impetuosity, to bore a hole in a great ship. The horns of this great Fish were formerly very rare, and the Fish that bare them very little known. But the frequent fishing in those Seas, have rendred them less rare in England, Holland, Germany, Denmark, and other places; and without seeking any farther, I have one by me at this present, longer and bigger then that in the Treasury of St. Dennis.

The rarity of this Horn was the reason that it was so much esteem'd in former times, and that they attributed such extraordinary vertues to it, as well in resisting poy­son, as against the Small-pox, Measles, and all Epidemic Distempers. Insomuch, that we see in the Cabinets of great Persons long pieces of this horn adorn'd and enchac'd in Gold, as being still esteem'd a most precious rarity, and of an inexhaustible ver­tue, that imparts it self without wast to all Liquors wherein it is infus'd, like Regulus or Glass of Antimony. But though the volatile salt with which this horn abounds, may produce the effects expected from it; yet the vertue once imparted to any Liquor by the horn is lost for ever to that part; as it happens to Harts-horn or Ivory, whose parts are much of the same nature with this Unicorn's-horn, which being boyl'd or in­fus'd loose all their vertue.

Doronicum is a Plant which many of the Ancients describ'd under the name of Aco­nitum Pardalianches, Plantaginis folio, the Leaves being like Plantain, but yellower. The Flowers are like those of the Corn-Marigold. The Root here prescrib'd is knotty and bearded, of a sweetish tast, and viscous substance. It kills Leopards, Wolves, and Dogs, and the most part of four-footed Beasts, though it is not hurtful to Man, but rather a great Antidote against Poysons.

This Powder is very much us'd in the North-parts, especially in Germany, where it is us'd in Malignant Fevers, and all Epidemic Distempers, and against all sorts of Poy­sons. It prevails wonderfully against the Small-pox, for it expels the malignity forth, and strength'ns the Noble-parts. They usually dissolve it in some Cordial-water, sweetn'd with Syrup of Gillow-flowers, Lemons or Granates, and take it fasting from half a scruple to half a dram. The Tablets tak'n one in a morning fasting, produce almost the same effect against Pestilential-Air.

Pulvis Antipilepticus, D. D. D'AQUIN. An Antipileptic Powder by Monsieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Radicis Paeoniae maris, in eunte vere, & decrescente Luna col­lectae, & ℞. Roots of Male-Piony gather'd at the beginning of the Spring, in the de­crease of the Moon, and 
Seminis ejusdem, Seed of the same, 
Radicis Dictamni albi, Roots of white-Dittany, 
Visci Quercini, Misletoe, 
Rasurae Cranii Hominis violenta morte perempti, Shavings of a Man's Skull that dy'd a violent death, 
Ʋnicornis, Of Unicorn's horn, 
Eboris, Of Ivory, 
Ʋngulae Alcis, an.j.Hoof of an Elke, an. [...]
[Page 123] Margaritarum Orientalium, Oriental Pearls, 
Lapidum Hyacinthinorum, & Jacinth-Stone, and 
Coralli Rub. praeparatorum an.℥ ss.Red Coral prepar'd, an.℥ ss.
Seminis Ocymi Caryophyllati, Seeds of Clove-Basil, 
Florum Tiliae, Flowers of Tylet, 
Betonicae, Betony, 
Lillii Convallium, an.ʒ ij.Lilly Convally, an.ʒ ij.
Ambrae-Grisiae,℈ ss.Amber-grise,℈ ss.
Orientalis Moschi,Gr. vj.Oriental Musk,Gr. vj.
Folia Auri purissimi,No. xv.Leaves of finest Gold,No. xv.

Procure the Ingredients true, take only the end, or tip of the Elk's-Horn, and rasp it, and prepare the Powder as before.

The Elke by the Latins call'd Alce, is a Creature that breeds in the Woods of the Northern Countries, particularly in Norway, as big as a large Horse, of a fallow co­lour, and somewhat shap'd like a Hart, but bigger and fuller-body'd. He has a Leg long and slender, and a foot cloven like the Hart; but his Horns are flat and broad, like those of a fallow-Deer's, and hairy toward the lower end. Some Natural Philoso­phers report this Beast to be so swift, that it were impossible to take them, did not they that hunt them observe the time, when they are troubled with the falling-sickness, which oft-times happens, and then take them before they have strength enough to put their left foot in their Ears. For if they give them time, they immediately recover, rise, and run for their lives. Which is the reason that the Elk's-Hoof is said to have power a­lone to cure the Epilepsie, being either tak'n inwardly, or hung about the Neck of the Patient.

Children born in the Southern Countries are more subject to Epilepsies, then those that are born in the Northern Climates; and more subject to Worms, which oft-times cause their Epilepsie. These Epileptic Powders are of great use, both for little and great. They prevail greatly against the Apoplexy, Palsie, and all Diseases proceeding from abundance or over-flowing of humours in the Brain. The same Dose as of other Cordial Powders is usually given in Cephalic Waters. They may be also mix'd with Opi­ates, Tablets, or other Remedies.

Pulvis contra Rabiem.A Powder againg Dog-madness.
℞. Foliorum Rutae,℞. Leaves of Rue,
Salviae Minoris,Lesser Sage,
Absinthii Vulgaris,Vulgar Wormwood,
Hyperici,St. John's-wort,
Centauri Minoris, an. partes ae­quales.Lesser Centaury, an. equal parts.

Gather all these Herbs about the Full of the Moon in June, when every one of them flourishes in its greatest vertue; and in fair Weather, make them up into little bundles, bind them about with Paper, and hang them in the Air out of the Sun to dry. When they are quite dry, beat them in a large Brazen Mortar, and sift the Powder through a silken sierce.

This Powder was invented by Monsieur Pirou, and the Receipt is in a Treatise of the biting of a Mad-dog, writt'n by Monsieur Palmerius, a Physician of Paris, who affirms that he has often try'd it, and seen the wonderfulHydr [...]ph [...]bia, a Di­stemper occasion'd by the biting of a mad-dog. effects of it, and that they that us'd it, had been cur'd of the * Fear of Water, so that they never had the Distemper; and that they that had it, had been freed from it by taking this Powder, provided they had [Page 126] not been bit in the Head, in the parts above the Teeth, or that they had not wash'd the part bitt'n with Water; in which cases he believes there is little hopes of cure.

Though the being plung'd into Sea-water, is accounted an infallible remedy against the biting of mad creatures, and that those who are near it, generally have recourse thereto: Yet this Powder deserves to be prepar'd for those that live at a distance from it. And I have had the opportunity formerly to prepare it exactly at Mr. Noel Si­mard's in Blois, where I was a witness of the great vent he had for this Powder, espe­cially into the Countrey, and have heard the great applause that was given to it. He or­der'd it to be taken mix'd with half a dram of Powder of Vipers, in half a glass of good White-wine, in the Morning fasting, repeating the Dose for nine days one after ano­ther, and sometimes fifteen, for more security; and he assur'd me, that all that had tak'n it were cur'd. Monsieur Palmarius advises to augment the Dose for strong Per­sons; which I am perswaded may be done, there being no Ingredient in this pow­der, to hinder the augmentation of the Dose. There are some that advise the Patient, at the time of taking this powder, to lay bruis'd Parsley upon the place bitt'n, which is no bad counsel.

Pulvis pro Dentifricio. A Powder for a Dentifrice. 
℞. Radicis Ireos Florentiae, ℞. Root of Florence-Orrice, 
Lapidis Pumicis, Pumice-Stone, 
Cornu Cervi, ustorum, Harts-horn burnt, 
Coralli Rubri praeparati, Red-Coral prepar'd, 
Ossis Interioris sepiae, The inner-Bone of the Cuttle-fish, 
Cremoris Tartari tenu issime Pulveratorum, an.℥ j.Creme of Tartar very finely pulveriz'd, an.℥ j.
Moschi Orientalis, Civet, an.℈ ss.Oriental Musk, Civet, an.℈ ss.
Oleorum stillatitiorum ligni Rhodii, Caryophyllorum, Distill'd Oyls of Lignum Rhodium. Cloves, 
Cinamomi, an.Gut. ij.Cinamon,Drops ij

Mix them all well, and keep the Powder for use.

You must be careful to reduce all the Ingredients into an impalpable powder, for fear of fretting the Gums. You may easily incorporate the Musk pulveriz'd, the Civet, and the distill'd Oyls, with the rest of the powders, without any fear of their being too clammy. No less easie will it be to reduce this powder into an Opiate by the mix­ture of equal parts of Syrup of Mulberries and Kermes, to give it the consistency of an Opiate.

I know there is no want of powders and Opiates to whit'n the Teeth. But not to slight private Receipts, nor such as are in the Dispensatories, I dare be confident that this is as good as any to cleanse and whit'n the Teeth, whether made use of in powder or reduc'd to an Opiate. For it not only cleanses and whitens the Teeth, but fast'ns them, and keeps them from Rotting. The Syrups must be mix'd with the Powders in a Marble-mortar.

Pulvis alius compendiosior ad idem. A more compendious Powder for the same. 
℞. Lachrymarum elegantium Sanguinis Draconis, & ℞. The Neat Tears of Dragon's Blood, and 
Aluminis Romani usti, subtilissime pul­verat. an.ij.Roman Alum burnt, most finely pow­der'd, an.℥ ij.
Moschi Orientalis,Gr. iiij.Oriental Musk,Gr. iiij.

Mix them occording to Art for use, or else reduce them into an Opiate with equal parts of the aforesaid Syrups mingled with the Powders.

[Page 127]This powder, though compos'd of fewer Ingredients, is not inferiour to the former, though not so cheap, because of the dearness of the Dragon's Blood in Tears. The richer sort, that value not expence, may add powder of Pearls, which will make the O­piate and powder never the worse.

The use of this powder is to rub the Teeth gently, Morning and Evening, or at any other time.

Pulvis Cephalicus Odoratus. An Odoriferous Cephalic Powder. 
Radicis Ireos Florentiae,viij.℞. Root of Florence-Orrice,℥ viij.
Santali Citrini,iiij.Yellow-Saunders,℥ iiij.
Florum Lavendulae, Flowers of Lavender, 
Rosarum Rubrarum, & Red Roses, and 
Summitat. Majoranae, an.iij.Tops of Marjoram, an.℥ iij.
Styracis, Storax, 
Benjonis, ana.ij.Benjamin, an.℥ ij.
Takamahackae Odoratae, Odoriferous Takamahacka, 
Florum Lillii Convallium, an.j.Flowers of Lilly of the valleys, an.℥ j.
Caryophyllorum,ʒ ij.Cloves,ʒ ij.
Laudani, Laudanum, 
Acori Veri, et The true sweet smelling flag, or Acorus, and 
Cyperi Rotundi, an.ʒ j.Round-rooted Cyperus, an.ʒ j.

Make them into a Powder thicker then ordinary; to which for the richer sort add of Musk, Civet, and Ambergrise, of each ten or twelve Grains.

This powder is usually apply'd, as well outwardly, as inwardly, which is the reason you need not beat them very small. The principal use of it is for Quilted▪ caps; the vertue of it is to strength'n the Brain. It may be also sow'd up in little cushions, or bags, and worn▪ upon the Stomach or Heart, carry'd in the pocket, [...]aid upon the pillow in Bed, or put among cloths and linnen in Chests, for the same purpose.

Pulvis contra Vermes. A Powder to kill Worms. 
℞. Seminis contra Vermes, ℞. Wormseed, 
Citri mundati, Seed of Citron cleans'd, 
Genistae, Broom's 
Portulacae, Purslain, 
Caulium, Coleworts, 
Rhei Electi, Choice Rhubarb, 
Scordii, Water Germander, 
Centauri minori, Lesser Centaury, 
Radicis Gentianae, Root of Gentian, & 
Rasurae Cornu cervini, an.j.Shaving of Harts-horn, an.℥ j.

Reduce them all into a very fine Powder to be kept for use; when you use it, add some few Grains of Mercurius Dulcis.

This powder contains a collection of all that Physic has of specific against the Worms. The Dose is from half a scruple to half a dram, and as far as a dram, for those that are of Age. It may be giv'n in Wine, in Scordium, or Water-Germander, Purslain, or Orange-flower-water, or in a rosted Apple, in some Syrup, or Conserve. It may be mix'd in Opiates and Potions. It may be giv'n with some grains of Mercurius Dulcis, but then care must be tak'n that the Mercury be well mix'd, and that it do not sink to the bottom of the Glass, If their be occasion, this Powder may be made pur­gative, by mixing with it some Grains of Rosin of Scamony or Jalap; which oft-times succeeds very well, the Worms being thereby carry'd away which the powder has kill'd. The three last days of the Moon are to be made choice of, if possible to give this, and all other Remedies against the Worms, as proving then most successful.

[Page 126]

Pulvis Digestivus. A Powder for Digestion. 
℞. Pulveris Viperini, ℞. Powder of Vipers, 
Seminis Faeniculi dulcis, Sweet Fennel-Seed, 
Anisi, & Seeds of Anise, and 
Coriandri, an.j.Coriander, an.℥ j.
Dauci, & Wild-Carrot, and 
Ameos Creticorum, an.℥ ss.Bishops-weed of Candy, an.℥ ss.
Corticis exterioris Citri sicci, Outward rind of Citron dry'd, 
Cinnamomi acutissimi, an.ʒ iij.Sharp-biting Cinnamon, an.ʒ iij.
Caryophyllorum, Cloves, 
Macis, an.ʒ j.Mace, an.ʒ j.

Make all these into powder to mixe with equal or double the weight in Sugar.

This Powder is not unpleasant, half a spoonful or a spoonful may be tak'n just after meals as long as necessity requires. It cherishes the Natural-heat, fortifies the Stomach, helps Concoction, expels wind, preserves the Appetite, and restores it to those that have lost it; corrects the noysom steams of the Stomach, and the ill-smells of the Mouth. The adding of two drams of Ambergrise to this Composition will increase all its vertues.

Pulvis contra Abortum. A Powder against Abortion. 
℞. Margaritarum Orientalium praeparatarum, ℞. Oriental-Pearls prepar'd, 
Rasurae Ʋnicornis, & Shavings of Unicorns-horn, and 
Eboris, Ivory, 
Succini albi, White Amber, 
Coralli Rub. praeparatorum, Red-Corral prepar'd, 
Mastiches, Mastick, 
Seminis Plantaginis, Seed of Plantain, 
Granorum Kerme [...] Grains of Kermes, 
Santali Rubri, Red-Saunders, 
Terrae Lemniae, & Seal'd-Earth, and 
Radicis Tormentillae, an.℥ ss.Root of Tormentil, an.℥ ss.
Macis,ʒ j.Mace,ʒ j.
Caryophyllorum,j.Cloves,℈ j.

Make all these into a powder according to Art, mixing therewith six Leaves of pure fine Gold. When the Patient takes it, sweet'n it with an equal or double weight of Sugar.

This Powder has been giv'n to strength'n the Infant in the Womb, and to prevent Women from crying out before their time.

It is to be tak'n fasting, in an Egg, in Broth or some Syrup or astringent Confecti­on, and the use of it may be continu'd as occasion requires. During which time it is necessary for Women that take it to keep their Bed. The dose is from half a Scruple to a Scruple, to those that are to continue the use of it. But half a dram or a whole dram may be giv'n to strong Women, if there be occasion, and when the danger is great. The same dose may be giv'n against weaknesses, and want of Retention in the Stomach; as also in case of Diarrheas, Dysenteries, Lienteries, and other Diseases that proceed from weakness of the Stomach. The Preparation is the same with the rest.

Pulvis ad difficilem Partum. A Powder for Women in Child-birth. 
℞. Testiculorum Equi in clibano, ex Arte sic­catorum, ℞. The Stones of a Horse bak't in an Ov'n according to Art, 
Cinnamomi acutissimi, Sharp-biting Cinnamon, 
Nucleorum Dactylorum, Date-Kernels, 
Boracis, Borax, 
Croci, & Saffron, and 
Foliorum Sabinae siccorum, an.ʒ ij.Leaves of Savine dry'd, an.ʒ ij.
Trochiscorum de Myrrha,ʒ j.Trochishes of Myrrh,ʒ j.

Make them into powder according to Art.

[Page 127]Put the Horse's Stones into a Glaz'd-earth'n-pot with a Cover well-luted on, set the Pot in a Baker's Ov'n when the Bread is tak'n out, and let it stand till the Stones are so drie that they may be powder'd. These Testicles thus dry'd may be kept in a Box close shut, to be made use of as occasion requires: for they may be left out as well as the Trochiskes of Myrrh and the Savine, where the Persons are too nice, or where there is not so much strength requir'd in the Operation.

Pulvis Hystericus. A Hysteric Powder. 
℞. Verrucarum ad genua Equorum enascen­tium Verno tempore avulsorum, aut sponte procidentium,j.℞. The Warts that grow within-side of a Horses Leg, cut away or falling off of themselves in the Spring-time,℥ j.
Assae Faetidae, Assa-fetida, 
Cornu & Ʋngulae Hirci, an.ʒ j.Horn and Hoof of a Goat, an.ʒ j.

Reduce all these into a gross powder. Cast about a Scruple of this Powder upon live-coals, to sit and receive the smoak into the parts affected, through a Tunnel.

This Powder is the most quick and certain Remedy that is against Suffocations of the Matrix.

Pulvis Jovialis Hystericus. Hysteric Powder of Jupiter. 
℞. Magisterii Jovis Anglici, aut Bezoardici ejusdem, ℞. Magisterie of English-Jupiter, or Bezo­ardic of the same, 
Matris Perlarum, & Mother of Pearl, and 
Coralli Rubri praeparat. an.ʒ j.Red-Coral prepar'd,ʒ j.
Olei stillatitii Succini rectificati,j.Distill'd Oyl of Amber rectify'd,℈ j.

Reduce these into powder, and mixe them for your use.

This Powder cannot be too much commended, for the great help it gives against the most violent and most desperate suffocations of the Matrix, and for preventing its re­turn. The dose is a Scruple in Hysteric-water, in the height of the Fit: and it may be tak'n three mornings after, to prevent its return.

Look for the Preparation of Magisterie and Bezoar of Jupiter in the third part of this Pharmacopoea.

Pulvis Sperniolae Crollii. Powder of Frogs-Tedders, by CROLLIUS. 
℞. Myrrhae electae, ℞. Choice Myrrh, 
Thuris masculi, an.ij.Male-Frankincense, an.℥ ij.
Croci opt.℥ ss.The best Saffron,℥ ss.

Gather the Sperm of Frogs in the Month of March, three days before the new Moon, at what time the Sperm stinks least, and is most proper to be distill'd. Distill it in Balneo Ma­riae through a Glass-Alembic: Or rather at the same time gather a greater quantity of Frogs-Sperm, and put it into a trasparent Linnen-cloth; hang up the Bag and set a Vessel for the liquor to drop into it. Put the Liquor into a Glass-bottle, and set it in the Sun to puriefi, pouring out from time to time the liquor that is clear, and changing the Bottles, and putting the Liquor still in the Sun till it be all perfectly clear. Then powder the Myrrh, Frankincense and Saffron very fine, put the Powders mix'd together into a Plate of glass or white Earth, and having moisten'd them with the Frog-water, and reduc'd them to a paste, spread them in the Plate cover'd with a clean Paper and drie them in the shade: when the paste is drie, moist'n it again with the same Li­quor, and drie it again, and repeat the same Preparation twenty or thirty times over; and the more the better. At last reduce the mass into a very fine powder, and add to it three drams of Cam­phire powder'd with some few drops of Spirit of Wine: Keep this Powder in a Glass-bottle very well stopp'd.

[Page 128]This Powder is an excellent Medicine to stop internal Haemorraghia's; for the cold­ness of the Frog-water coagulates the Blood. It also stays Vomiting and Spitting of Blood, and Bleeding at the Nose. It stops the progress of hot Gouts, and asswages their pain. It cools the Inflammation of Erisipela's, applying it soak'd in Vinegar up­on the part. In two hours it mortifies a Whitlow, much more if it be steep'd in the Sperm­water. It stays the Fluxes of Blood in Women, being tak'n in Plantain-water. The Water of Frogs-Sperm alone asswages of the Gout, mix'd with a little Alum. The Dose of the Powder is from three to five Grains in proper Liquors.

Pulvis Dysentericus. A Powder against the Dysenterie. 
℞. Terrae Lemniae, ℞. Seal'd-Earth, 
Boli Armenae, Bole-Ammoniac, 
Rosarum Rubrarum, Red-Roses, 
Balaustiorum, Pomegranate-Flowers, 
Radicum Tormentillae, & Bistortae, Root of Tormentil, and Snake-weed, 
Lacrymarum Sanguinis Draconum, Tears of Dragon's blood, 
Coralli Rubri praeparati, Red-Corral prepar'd, 
Lapidis Haematites, an.j.Blood-Stone, an.℥ j.
Seminum Portulacae, Seeds of Purslane, 
Plantaginis, & Plantain, 
Sophiae Chirurgorum, &℥ ss.Flixe-wood, 
Caryophyllorum, an. Cloves, and 
Macis, an.ʒ ij.Mace, an.ʒ ij.

Reduce all these into powder according to Art.

This Powder is not only highly commended against the Dysenterie, but against all de­fects of Retention in the Intestines and Stomach. The Dose is from one Scruple to one dram, or two when giv'n to strong Constitutions. It is giv'n in Wine, or in some a­stringent Water or Decoction. It may be also tak'n like a Bolus in some Syrup in an Egg, or some astringent Confection. For the Rich you may add six Grain of Amber­grise, and half a Grain or a Grain of Laudanum, if you desire more powerfully to stop the motion and acrimonie of the Humours: It may be tak'n oft'n, if occasion re­quires, but still fasting.

There are some that beat Rye-flower in a Mortar, with Juice of ripe Elder-berries, and make a Cake of it, which they drie in an Ov'n and reduce to powder, the use whereof is much the same with this Dysenteric-powder.

Pulvis contra Haemorrhagiam. A Powder against a violent Flux of Blood. 
℞. Lapidis Haematitis, ℞. Blood Stone, 
Nuclei Lapidis Aetitis, Kernel of the Eagle-stone, 
Terrae Vitrioli, post distillationem remanentis, lotae, Earth of Vitriol that remains after di­stillation, washt, 
Boli Armenae, Bole-Armonac, 
Thuris masculi, Male-Frankincense, 
Caudae Equinae, Smooth-leav'd Horse-tail, or Joynted-Rushes, 
Centinodiae, Knot-grass, 
Terrae Lemniae, Seal'd-Earth, 
Cornu Cervi usti, & Hart's-Horn burnt, 
Gypsi, ana. partes aequales. Parget, ana. equal parts. 

Reduce all these into a powder for use.

This Powder is not to be tak'n inwardly. However it failes not to stop the blood of Wounds, Veins or Arteries apply'd alone, or incorporated with the white of an Egg or Vinegar, being bound upon the place with a Fillet. It stops Defluxions upon the Eyes, [Page 129] being steept in the white of an Egg or Vinegar, and apply'd to the Temples. This Powder deserves to be prepar'd, and to be kept always in readiness upon all unexpect­ed occasions.

Pulvis Diatragacanthi Frigidi, Correctus. The Corrected Powder of Cold-Diatragacanth. 
℞. Gummi Tragacanthi electi,ij.℞. Choice Gum-Tragacanth,℥ ij.
Arabici opt.ʒ x.Arabick the best,ʒ x.
Glycyrrhizae, & Liquorice, and 
Amyli, an.℥ ss.Flower of Wheat, an.℥ ss.
Seminis Papaveris alb.ʒ iij.Seed of white Poppy,ʒ iij.
Quat. frigid maj. mund. an.ʒ j.Four greater cold cleans'd, an.ʒ j.

Pulverize the Gums in a large Brass-mortar heated, as well as the Pestle, in such a quan­tity that you may be sure to have the Dose prescrib'd when they come to be sifted. Bruise one part of the Seeds with the Liquorice, another with the Amydon, another with the Gums, after they have been sifted: by which means you shall re-sift the whole Powder again with the Seeds.

We find in other Receipts of this Powder three ounces of Penidiate, more Cold-Seeds by half, as also Camphire, which are all left out. They that know that Sugar boyl'd in Pennets and mix'd in Powders, presently causes their putrefaction, and that it reduces the powder to a kind of paste, cannot think it amiss to leave it out: besides that its vertue is not considerable, and for that this Powder is never us'd but mix'd with Sugar, or with Compositions mix'd with Sugar. Nor can they disapprove the a­batement of some part of the Cold-Seeds, to prevent it from rendring the Powder greasie and clammy. Especially considering that if you design to keep the powder, 'tis better not to put the Seeds in at all till you are just going to use it.

This Powder stops Defluxions from the Brain upon the Brest, thick'ns the thin hu­mours, smooths the roughness of the Aspera Arteria and the Lungs, and is of great use in all Diseases of the Brest. You may make Tablets thereof by adding an ounce and a half or two ounces of this Powder to a pound of Sugar boyl'd to a solid Electuary. It is also mix'd in some sort in Looches to remove in some measure the sharpness of Laxatives. It is never giv'n alone, and therefore it is needless to limit the Dose, which must be regulated by that of the Compositions wherewith it is to be mix'd.

If you would make this Powder more detersive, and more effectual to unloosen flegm and facilitate expectoration, add to it the double of its weight of Orrice finely-pow­der'd; and by adding as much Sugar-candy powder'd as there is Gum-Tragacanth, you have the Simple-powder of Diaireos. Remember however that it is not good to put Sugar in Powders till you are ready to make use of them.

Pulvis Sternutatorius. A Sneezing-Powder. 
℞. Foliorum Marjoranae siccorum, ℞. Flowers of Marjoram dry'd, 
Salviae, Sage, 
Betonicae, Betonie, 
Florum Lillii Convallium, an.j.Flowers of the Lilly of the Vally, an.℥ j.
Radicum Ireos Florentiae, Roots of Florence-Orrice, 
Ellebori albi, White Ellebore, 
Pyrethri, Pellitory of Spain, 
Seminis Nigellae Romanae, an.ʒ ij.Seeds of Roman-Nigella, an.ʒ ij.
Summitat. Pulegii Regalis, & Serpilli, an.ʒ j.Tops of Penny-royal, and Mother of Thyme, an.ʒ j.

Make a Powder according to Art.

This Sneezing-powder produces good effects in Apoplexies, Epilepsies, Lethargies, and other Diseases of the Brain that proceed from a cold cause: For it op'ns the pas­sages for the cold humours that besieg'd it, excites and enliv'ns the Natural-heat, and enables the parts to expel superfluities, that hinder'd them from performing their ordi­nary functions.

[Page 130]In extraordinary drowsinesses and sleepy-Lethargies, two drams of Euphorbium may be added to the Composition of this Powder. But not unless there be very great ne­cessity, for fear the extraordinary operation of the Euphorbium cause so violent a de­fluxion of Rhume as will be difficult afterwards to stop.

Pulvis Cornachinus. The Cornachine-Powder. 
℞. Scammonii purissimi sulphurati,ij.℞. The purest Scammony sulphurated,℥ ij.
Antimonii Diaphoretici,j ss.Diaphoretic-Antimony,℥ j ss.
Cremoris Tartari,℥ ss.Creme of Tartar,℥ ss.

Reduce them all into a fine powder for use.

This Powder was call'd Cornachine, by reason that Cornachinus a Physician of Pisa was the Inventor, and has made a great Commentary upon it. The wonderful effects of it have been the reason that some Persons have attempted to alter the Composition by adding or abating. For some, instead of preparing Scammonie with the vapour of Sulphur, imbibe it several times in Tincture of Roses sharpen'd with Spirit of Wine or Spirit of Sulphur, reduce it into a paste with Oyl of sweet Almonds, and dissolve the Creme of Tartar in a Decoction of Mechoacan, and chrystallize it to put it into this Powder. But not to find fault with their good Intentions, this I can be bold to say, That upon an infinite company of Tryals I have made, I dare affirm that this Powder prepar'd as here prescrib'd, failes not to answer full expectation. And therefore 'tis a vain thing to keep such a stir about the preparation of Scammonie; it being enough to spread it upon a piece of paper, and hold it over a little burning-Sulphur. Which done, do but prepare the Powder right and observe the Doses, and you need not fear the working.

Some call it The Earl of Warwick's Powder; others Antimony-diagridiated; others Powder of Three.

This Powder operates, quickly, safely and pleasingly. It gently purges superfluous Humours from the Bowels, and roots up the cause and matter of Agues, and many other tedious Diseases. The Dose is from half an scruple to half a dram, and some­times to a whole dram. It is to be tak'n in a morning fasting, in white Wine, in Broth, or some Hepatic-decoction. It may also be tak'n in the Yolk of an Egg, in a little Syrup, or in some Confection.

Pulvis Nephriticus. A Nephritic-Powder. 
℞. Oculorum Cancrorum Fluviatilium, ℞. River-Crabs Eyes, 
Ossium petreorum Percarum, & Stony-bones in the heads of Perches, and 
Asellorum minorum, Lesser Whitings, 
Millipedarum siccarum, Dry'd Cheslops, 
Sanguinis Hirci praeparati, & Goats-blood prepar'd, 
Seminis Milii Solis, an.j.Seeds of Gromel, an.℥ j

Grind the Crabs-Eyes and Fish-bones upon Porphyrie, moist'ning them with Turnip­water, observing the preparation of Precious-Stones. Take the Blood of a young Goat bred upon the Mountains, and there having fed upon Aromatic-herbs, drie the Blood in the Sun, spread upon Plates, till it be fit to be pulveriz'd with the Cheslops and Gromel-seed. Then sifting all the Powders together, the powder is finish'd.

The Ingredients of this Powder are very diuretic: the principal vertue whereof con­sists in the volatile-salts wherewith they abound. And it is observable that there is nothing ac [...] in the whole Composition. For the mixture of acids among fix'd or vo­latile Salts many times does but increase the Stone, by reason that by their proporti­onal conjunction the Stones are form'd in the Body: so that there is nothing but the predominancy of the volatile or fix'd Salt above the acid, or of the acid above the fix'd or volatile Salts that oppose the growing of the Stone in the Body, or dissolve them when they are come to a Substance. The Dose of this Powder is from a scruple to half a dram. It is tak'n usually in white-Wine; and the use of it may be continu'd as occasion requires.

[Page 131]They that will be careful to prepare this Powder, need not care for that which goes in most Dispensatories under the Name of Lithontripon, or Lithontripticon, which is only a numerous collection of Medicaments much differing in quality, some of which are more proper to coagulate and shut up, then to dissolve and op'n.

CHAP. XX. Of Opiates, Electuaries, and Confections.

THE Name of Opiate, by right, ought not to be giv'n but to soft Compositions, where Opium is an Ingredient. But many times Confections, Antidotes, and E­lectuaries are comprehended under that Name; so that there are some Compositions call'd Opiates, wherein there is no Opium at all; as well as the Names of Electuaries, Antidotes and Confections, to Compositions where Opium is mix'd. But not to exa­mine the Liberties which the Writers have tak'n, I will only say, That Opiates, Con­fections, Antidotes and Electuaries, are internal Remedies variously compos'd of Pulps, Powders, Liquors, Sugar, and Honey, and most frequently reduc'd to a soft consi­stency to be put up close in Pots for use. Only solid Electuaries are to be excepted, of some of which I have spok'n in the Chapter of Tablets, having reserv'd the rest to be here inserted among Purgative-Electuaries.

It is a difficult thing to prescribe any just proportion for the Pulps, Powders, Sugar, or Honey, which must compose these Opiates and Electuaries; or to give a general Rule for the quantity of Liquor necessary to suck up the vertue of divers Medicaments, boyl'd or infus'd therein; as for the boyling of the Sugar or Honey; in regard the quantity of the one or the other may be augmented or abated, according to the na­ture of the Ingredients, the purpose of the Physician, and the Palate and constitution of the Patient. For though the most usual proportion for Opiates, soft and solid Ele­lectuaries Laxative, be about three ounces of Powder to a pound of Sugar, or Honey, and an ounce and a half or two ounces of Powder for Confections, or solid Cordial-Electuaries; this proportion is not always to be observ'd. For regard is oft'n-times to be had to the price, scarcity or nature of the Ingredients of the Powder, or the quantity or thickness of the Pulps which are to be made use of in the stead of Sugar or Honey, to the palate and constitution of the Patient, to the hardness of the Compo­sition, or the easiness or difficulty to give them their due consistence; or to the making the Composition more purgative or Laxative. Wherein there is a great exactness to be observ'd, especially in the Doses of Laxatives and Narcoticques. For therein you must observe to a grain the quantity of Powder which an ounce of Ele­ctuary can contain. To which purpose the Apothecary mu [...] be very careful justly to weigh every thing, and to make a true mixture, so that all the parts of the Composi­tion may equally partake of the Powder and the Ingredients that compose it. Which ge­neral Rule may suffice to those who will take the pains to observe my Method in the particular Preparation of these sorts of Compositions, whereby they will find the rea­sons wherefore the proportions are not always to be the same.

Theriaca Andromachi Se­nioris. The Treacle of Andromachus the Elder. 
℞. Trochiscorum Scilliticorum,xij.℞. Trochishes of Squils,℥ xij.
Viperinorum, Of Vipers, 
Magmatis Hedychroi, The Dregs of Hedychroum, 
Piperis longi, Long-Pepper, 
Opii Thebaici, an.vj.Theban-Opium, an.℥ vj.
Rosarum Rubrarum, Red-Roses, 
Succi Glycyrrhizae, Juice of Liquorice, 
Seminis Buniadis, Seed of wild Navew, 
Scordii, Scordium, 
Opobalsomi, Opobalsamum, 
[Page 132] Cinnamomi & Agarici, an.iij.Cinnamon and Agaric, an.℥ iij.
Costi, Costus, 
Nardi Indicae, Indian-Spikenard, 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan-Dittany, 
Rhapontici, Rhaponticum, 
Radicis Pentaphylli, Roots of Cinqfoyle, 
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Prassij Albi, White-Hore-hound, 
Stoechadis Arabicae, Arabian-Cassidonie, 
Schoenanthi, Sweet-Rush, 
Seminis Petroselini Macedonici, Seed of Macedonian Stone-Parsly, 
Calaminthae Montanae, Mountain Calamint, 
Cassiae Ligneae, Cassia-Wood, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Piperis Albi, White Pepper, 
Nigri, Black, 
Myrrhae Trogloditidis, Ethyopic-Myrrh, 
Thuris Masculi, Male-Frankincense, 
Terebinthinae Chiae, an.j ss.Turpentine of Chio, an.℥ j ss.
Radicum Gentianae Roots of Gentian, 
Acori veri, True sweet-smelling Flag, 
Meu Athamantici, Athamantic-Spignel, 
Valerianae majoris, Bigger Valerian, 
Nardi Celticae, Celtic-Spikenard, 
Amomi Racemosi, Amomum with Clusters, 
Chamaepityos, Ground Pine, 
Comae Hyperici, Hair of St. John's-wort, 
Seminis Ameos, Seeds of Bishops-weed, 
Thlaspeos, Treacle-Mustard, 
Anisi, Anise, 
Foeniculi, Fennel, 
Seseleos Massiliensis, Hartwort of Marseilles, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamom, 
Malabathri, Indian-Leaf, 
Comae Polii montani, Hair of Mountain-Poley, 
Chamaedryos, Germander, 
Carpobalsami, Berries of the Balsom-Tree, 
Succi Hypocistidos, Juices of the Excrescence of Cistus, 
Acaciae verae, Of true Acacia, 
Gummi Arabici, Gum-Arabick, 
Styracis Calamitae, Mountain-Calamint, 
Terrae Lemniae, Lemnian-Earth, 
Chalcitidis, Chalcitis, 
Sagapaeni, an.j.Sagapenum, an.℥ j.
Radicum Aristolochiae tenuis, Roots of thin Birthwort, 
Comae Centaurii minoris, Hair of the Lesser Centaurie, 
Seminis Dauci Cretici, Seed of Cretan-Wild-Carrot, 
Opopanacis, Opoponax, 
Galbani, Galbanum, 
Bituminis Judaici, Bitumen of Judea, 
Castorei, an.℥ ss.Castoreum, an.℥ ss.
Mellis opt. despumati,lb xxviij.The best clarify'd Honey,lb xxviij.
Vini Generosi,q. s.Strong Wine,q. s.

I have here inserted this Receipt of the Treacle of Andromachus the Father, not only in reverence to Antiquity; but because I am verily perswaded that if care be tak'n rightly to choose all the Ingredients that compound it, and to make a more methodical Preparation then the Ancients did, that the Medicine may prove of great vertue.

I have deliver'd my thoughts upon this particular Receipt in the Treatise of Treacle, which I have printed at Paris in the Year 1668. whither I might refer the Reader. But to spare him that pains, I will here epitomise in a few words the Observations which I there made upon this Treacle Methinks that in the Preparation of Trochiskes of Squils he [Page 133] has done very well to imitate Zwelfer, to make use of the Root of white-Dittany pul­veriz'd instead of the Vetches, in regard that all Physic acknowledges the Cordial­vertue of this Root, and that it is very proper to make the Squills sit for Trochiskes. Whereas the Vetches are of a very gross substance, have no Cordial-vertue, and are seldom us'd but in Cataplasmes; and never in any other internal Remedies then Trochiskes.

In the second place I am absolutely constrain'd to disallow of the ancient preparation of Trochiskes of Vipers, which was prescrib'd in that manner, because they had then no true knowledge of the Nature of Vipers, nor of their Venome, and because that the Havock which Hannibal's Vipers made in the Roman Ships, gave them occasion to think, very impertinently, that all the parts of the Vipers were venomous, and that it was impossible for them to have their Cordial and poyson-resisting vertue, without o­vercoming by some Preparation that ill imagin'd-Venome, and of which they were so afraid in their ridiculous preparation of the viperine salt. And this was that which oblig'd them to whip them, before they cut off their Heads, and their Tails, and not to make any use at all of their Hearts, and their Livers; as also to boyl the Trunks flea'd, and quite dis-embowel'd in Water with Salt and Dill, till the flesh came from the Bone; and to mix the same flesh, so boyl'd, with a fift part of Bisket-bread powder'd, to make Trochiskes: Not considering that the provocation of the Vipers by whipping could not but alter and deprave all the parts of their bodies, so far it was, from sending to the Head, as they pretended, a Venome which is not to be found in any part of the bo­dy, when the Viper is dead, nor when it is living neither, nor of which you can observe any ill effect, if she be not provok'd when she bites. Neither had they consi­der'd that the Heart and the Liver have as much vertue as the flesh, or that the addition of Salt and Dill, are no way necessary; in regard the flesh of those Ani­mals have no Venome; that they only serv'd to make an impression of heat and Acri­mony; and that the Salt was opposite to their precepts of making choice of the breeding­place of the Viper, directing that no use should be made of those that bred upon the Sea­shore, by reason of the Salt things upon which they fed. Nor did they observe that they could not boyl Vipers in Water, till the flesh came from the bone, but that all the best part of their Juice and vertue must go into the Broth, as they might have seen by boyl­ing their ordinary food. And lastly, they did not foresee that the Addition of a fift part of the Bisket-bread powder'd, void of any vertue, could not but be a burthen to the Viper's flesh, which was already depriv'd of its best parts; and that that quantity of Bread made up a moyety of the substance and weight of the Trochiskes when they were dry.

They who would not fall into these errours, and who in some measure to be conform­able to Andromachus, would prepare Trochiskes, must not forget to make use of the Hearts and Livers of the Vipers, with their bodies dry'd in the shade, and reduc'd into fine powder. Let them then make a paste, somewhat solid, of this powder, with Malm­sey, wherein they have dissolv'd never so little Gum-Arabic powder'd, and make it into flat, thin Trochiskes, which they must dry in the shade, and afterwards anoint with Bal­som of Peru, as well for their preservation, as to give them a fragrancy.

If any object, that Andromachus never knew that the Vipers-bone was us'd in Tro­chiskes; I answer, that if he had perfectly well known the parts of which they are compos'd; or if he had understood as I do, that there is both a volatile salt and oyl in the bone, and that more plentiful then in the flesh, he would not have omitted the use of them, and never have crumm'd his Bread into Trochiskes. I am perswaded also, that if he were now alive; if he had been present at all the truths which I have discover'd, and had been convinc'd of the truth of the reasons which I have deliver'd in my Book of Experiences upon the Viper, he would infallibly have for saken his own preparati­on, and have adher'd to mine, and caus'd them to change their opinion, who innocent­ly lead him into a mistake.

In the third place, forasmuch as most of the Ingredients that make up the compositi­on of Trochishes of Hedychroum, are also us'd in the composition of Treacle; and for that these drugs cannot be beaten apart, nor the Trochiskes be made and dryed in the Air, without a great loss of their weight, as also of their vertue, considering also af­ter all this, that the same Trochiskes are to be powder'd themselves among other Me­dicaments of the Treacle; It may not be amiss to let the making of Trochiskes alone, dispensing the proportion of Drugs requir'd for their composition, among the Ingre­dients prescrib'd for the composition of the Treacle; and so to powder the whole to­gether, as things appointed for one and the same composition.

[Page 134]In the fourth place I cannot allow the opinion of the Ancients in the mixture of the Medicaments of the Treacle, whereby they direct the dissolving the Gums in Wine, to strain them through a cloth, and to boyl them afterwards to a consistency somewhat thick, to mix them afterwards in the composition; since there are several good reasons opposite to that Method. 1. Because there is no necessity to dissolve and strain the Gums which should be pure. 2. Because we cannot dissolve them in Wine, strain them, and boyl them to that consistency which they direct, without a great dissipation of the volatile parts whereof they plentifully consist, and wherein lyes their principal vertue. 3. Because by that means the spiritous part of the Wine dissipates, and the watry and Terrestrial part only remains. 4. Because that after the dissolution and straining of the Gums, though you may have augmented the weight, yet it is impossible regularly to observe the dose which the Author hath prescrib'd. And lastly, because that after you have put in the Gums very pure, by beating them among other Medicaments, the Powder becomes much better, by reason the viscous parts of the Gums stick to the light and dry parts of the other Ingredients of the Powder, which otherwise would be subject to dissipate, and by this means unless the Powder be too fatty, it beats better, and is made with less wast of its quantity and vertues.

As for the Opium, had it we in Tears that were pure, such as distills from the heads of the Poppy in the Country of Thebes, and such as Andromachus might have had in his time, it would be enough to beat it among other Ingredients, like the Gums in Tears. But by reason of the impurity of that which is brought to us, it is very proper to pre­pare it in extract, according to the method which I shall prescribe when I come to speak of extracts; and to dissolve these Extracts in a little Wine, like that of Liquorice, and the Juices of Acacia, or the undergrowth of Cistus, as also Chalcitis, or the Stone that tryes Brass, and to strain through a Cloth these Extracts or Juices dissolv'd, to separate and cast off the impurities, to the end they may be mingl'd afterwards in the whole mass of the Treacle.

In the fifth place, I see nothing that should oblige us to imitate the Ancients in the despumation of Honey, by adding Wine to it; as well to prevent the spiritous part from flying away in the Ebullitions necessary for the despumation, and to the end the grosser part of the Wine may not remain among the Honey; as for that it is impossible that the Honey should be kept so long upon the fire, till the forreign moisture be consum'd, without a remarkable dissipation of its Aromatic parts, which are not the least. And for as much as we never put into Treacle any Honey but what is perfectly fine, I can find nothing more proper then to allow it a small Ebullition without any Addition, and after it is taken off the fire and cool, to scum it, and strain it through a hair-sieve. In regard that little boyling is sufficient to put it into a condition to suck up about two pints of Wine, which are enough for the dissolution of the Juices prescrib'd for this quantity of Treacle, and to give all the Ingredients mix'd and united together, the con­sistency of an Opiate.

As for the Opo-Balsamum, or the Oyl of Nutmegs, which may be us'd in its stead; one part of the one or the other may be very properly mix'd with the dry Medicaments, when you make the powder without any fear that it should be too fatty. The surplu­sage must be incorporated with the Turpentine.

The Trochiskes of Squills must be beaten among the rest of the Ingredients, which are to be pulveriz'd. The Saffron dry'd in a Stove, or by a moderate fire, may be beaten apart or with the rest of the Ingredients.

The Extracts being made and dissolv'd in wine, as also the Juices and the Powder being ready, the Turpentine must be melted with the Opo-Balsamum, or the Oyl of Nut­megs, in Balneo Mariae, or over a very moderate fire. Fill three or four pints of Ho­ney, scum'd and warm'd, into a large bason, mix therewith the Powder'd Saffron, if it were beaten apart; if not, mix therewith some part of the Powder, stirring the whole with a large woodd'n-Spatula; then add some pints of warm Honey; and after that put in some part of the dissolv'd Extracts and Juices, and continue adding successively, sometimes the Powder, sometimes the Honey, and sometimes the dissolv'd Juices and Extracts, till the mixture of all things be perfectly compleated. After that, mix the Turpentine, and the rest of the Opo-Balsamum or Oyl of Nutmegs incorporated: Stir the whole as long as you can, till the union and mixture of the whole be perfectly com­pleated.

When the composition is quite cold, put it up into an Earth'n-Vessel glaz'd within, a third part larger then to contain the quantity of the Treacle, that it may have suffici­ent room to swell, which the Treacle will do during Fermentation, which you may [Page 135] hasten by putting the Vessel into a warm place. Stir the Treacle with a woodd'n Spatu­la twice a week, about a quarter of an hour together every time, for the two first months, and repeat the same stirring once a Week for the next four months; which make in all six months; the time which all Writers judge necessary for the Fermenta­tion of this Treacle. By this means you shall not only make a perfect Union of the substances, but also of the vertues of all the Medicaments, and then you may safely make use of this Treacle.

The considerable quantity of Opium in this composition, is the reason that it sensibly shews its Anodyne, or pain-easing, thickning, soporiferous qualities, especially when it is new, though the force of the other Medicaments is not diminish'd, which serves as a curb to its operation. Treacle being compos'd of a great quantity of hot Medica­ments, ought to be very much esteem'd for the cure of cold Diseases, and of all those where the Natural heat is feeble and languishing, especially among the rest, of Palsies, Epilepsies, Convulsions, and all cold Diseases of the Head. It is proper against all Weaknesses, and want of retention in the Stomach, and Intestines; against the Di­arrhea, Dysentery, Lientery, Morbus Cholera, and all sort of Cholicks; against Agues, and particularly the Quartan; against the Worms, against all sorts of poyson, the Pe­stilence, Small Pox, the Measles, and all Epidemic Diseases; against the biting of mad­dogs, and all sorts of Venemous Animals; against want of sleep, and griping pains in Children; against Hysteric-passions, the Jaundies, and an infinite sort of other Diseases.

It is tak'n in Bolus, and you may drink a little Wine after it if you please, or else dissolve it in Wine, or in Cordial-water. The Dose of it for Children, is from one grain to three or four, and sometimes six: For grown people, from a scruple to a dram; and two drams for strong constitutions, and upon urgent occasions. It may be laid upon the Stomach or Heart, like an Emplaister, or Epitheme, as well to strengthen, as to resist any malignity, and to kill Worms. It is also to be laid upon Carbuncles, and Buboes Pestilential or Venereal. It is also to be mix'd with Spirit of Wine, and with Oyls and Oyntments, to be laid to the Chine of the Back, and upon the weaken'd parts. It is also laid to the wrists, and soles of the Feet in the fits of intermitting Agues, and par­ticularly the Quartan. It is mingl'd in Opiates, and in divers potions. It is giv'n as an infallible remedy to hinder the too great effect of purgative Medicines, and all sorts of superpurgations.

But because the mixture of so many several Ingredients in one only composition, has for a long time displeas'd many Persons who are able to judge; and for that they have believ'd with good reason, that there might be a Treacle compos'd of fewer drugs, and more effectual then that of the Ancients. And for that I am well inform'd that several Physicians, but more especially Apothecaries, have earnestly wish'd that such a one might be invented and publish'd; Monsieur D'Aquin the King's chief Physician has been pleas'd to give me the Receipt of a Treacle order'd according to his own way, to impart on his behalf to publick view; wherein you shall find Medicaments, not only well-dos'd, and well-proportion'd, but also admirably well-chosen, and which will cer­tainly work all the good effects which can be expected from an excellent Treacle, provi­ded you take care to have sound and good Ingredients, and prepare them well, and ob­serve the method which I shall set down.

Theriaca Reformat D. D. D'AQUIN. A Reform'd Treacle of Mon­sieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Truncorum, Cordum, & Hepatum Viperi­norum siccorum,xxiv.℞. The Bodies, Hearts, and Livers of Vi­pers dry'd,℥ xxiv.
Trochiscorum Scilliticorum, Trochiskes of Squills, 
Extracti Opii Thebaici, an.xij.Extract of Theban-Opium, an.℥ xij.
Radicum Contra-yervae, Roots of Spanish Counter-poyson, 
Viperinae Virginianae, Virginian Vipers-grass, 
Angelicae, Angelica, 
Valerianae majoris, The greater Valerian, 
Meu Athamantici, Cretan Spignell, 
Gentianae, Gentian, 
Aristolochiae tenuis, Slender Birthwort, 
Costi, Costus, 
[Page 136] Nardi Indicae, Indian-Spikenard, 
Nardi Celticae, Celtic-Spikenard, 
Cinnamomi, Cinamon, 
Olei Nucis Moscatae per expressionem Extracti, Oyl of Nutmegs prest, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan-Dittany, 
Folii Indi, Indian-Leaf, 
Scordii, Water-Germander, 
Calaminthae Montanae, Mountain-Calamint, 
Polii Montani lutei, Yellow Mountain-Poley, 
Chamaepityos, Grand Pine, 
Comarum Centaurii minoris & Hyperici, Hair of the Lesser Centaury, and St. John's-wort, 
Florum Stoechadis Arabicae, Flowers of Arabian Cassidony, 
Granorum Amomi Racemosi, & Berries of Amomum, and 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamoms, 
Seminis Petroselini Macedonici, Macedonian Stone-Parsley, 
Ameos, Bishops-weed, 
Seseleos Massiliensis, Seseli of Massilia, 
Myrrha Troglodytidis, an.viij.Aethiopian Myrrh, an.℥ viij.
Resinae Styracis electae purissimae, The purest Rosin of Storax, 
Opopanacis, Opopanax, 
Sagapeni, Sagapen, 
Castorei, an.iv.Castoreum, an.℥ iv.
Extracti Mellaginei Granorum Juniperi,lb lxxij ss.Mellaginous Extract of Juniper-berries,lb lxxij ss.
Vini Malvatici,lb j ss.Malmsey-wine,lb j ss.

There is no need of preparing Trochiskes of Vipers for this Treacle, it being e­nough to hang up the Bodies, Hearts, and Livers of the Vipers, to dry in the op'n Air out of the Sun, and to take the weight prescrib'd. The Trochiskes of Squills are pre­par'd with the Powder of the Root of White-Dittany, as I shall shew in the Chapter of Trochiskes. Draw the Extract of Opium according to the method which I shall give in the Chapter of Extracts in the Third Part of this Pharmacopoea, and reduce it into an indifferent solid consistence.

The Root of Contra-yerva, or Spanish-Counter-poyson, grows in Charcis a Province of Peru. It is smaller then that of Orrice, reddish without, white within, knotty and fi­brous. The smell is like that of Figg-leaves. The word which signifies in Spanish, Counter-poyson, comes from the Spanish Yerva, by which name the Spaniards call white-Hellebore, with the Juice whereof the Spanish Huntsmen are wont to poyson their Ar­rows in the Countrey where the Contra-yerva grows. The tast of the Root is Aroma­tic, accompany'd with a kind of Acrimony.

The Virginian Vipers-grass, is a kind of Contra-yerva, which grows in that part of Virginy possess'd by the Spaniards in the Northern Tract of America; it is very Aroma­tic, and much esteem'd in England against Poysons, and all sorts of Venomes. For which reason it is added to the Root of Contra-yerva of Peru, in the Countess of Kent's Pow­der, to which these two Roots do give its principal vertue.

What I have already said of the Roots of Angelica, Spignel and Gentian, speaking of Theriacal Vinegar, needs no repetition.

I cannot change my opinion as to what I have already said of slender Birthwort, in my Discourse upon Treacle. And say moreover, that for this, or the Treacle of An­dromachus, you are to use no other Birthwort, then that which by Writers is call'd Pistolochia, Polyrrhizon, or the bushy-rooted Birthwort, because it is of a slenderer sub­stance then all the rest, and in particular more abounding in vertue, then the Clematitis, or Spanish climbing Birthwort, which Matthiolus, and some others, his followers take for the slender Birthwort.

For it is not enough, that Dioscorides, Matthiolus, and Theophrastus, knew but three sorts of Birthwort, the long, the round, and the Clematitis: That the Clematitis has a slenderer Root then any of the three; That Matthiolus believ'd that it was to be made use of in the Treacle before the long or the round, and that it has in some places been [Page 137] put into the Treacle instead of the slender Birthwort; it ought also to have been in­quir'd whether there were no other sort of Birthwort in Europe; whether the Clema­titis, had any other more evident marks of slenderness, then all the other Birthworts; and whether it surpass'd them in vertues, that we might certainly know it to be that to which Andromachus has giv'n the name of slender? Then it might have been seen that there are several other sorts of Birthwort, besides the three of Dioscorides, Matthiolus, and Theophrastus, and the Clematitis which Matthiolus, and some others take for the slender Birthwort: that instead of being slenderer then the rest, the stalks thereof are thicker and higher; the Leaves, Flowers and Fruits, larger and bigger, and the Roots much longer then those of all the other sorts of Birthwort, and in par­ticular much bigger then those of Pistolochia or Polyrrhizon, or bushy-rooted Birth­wort, of which all the parts are much more slender, then that of Clematitis, and all the other sorts. It might have been observ'd that the bushy-rooted Birthwort, which I have made choice of, has a taste, smell, and colour, both External and Internal, much more like to those of the long and round Birthwort, then to that of the Clematitis; which on the contrary differs much from the rest, especially in taste and smell. As for the vertues, though that Matthiolus believ'd that it was to be made use of in the Trea­cle, for the slender Birthwort, in regard the Clematitis was the most slender that he knew, you shall find nothing in better Authors to support his opinion; On the contrary, you shall find, that the Clematitis is inferiour to the bushy-rooted Birthwort in vertue.

We shall find in Dioscorides, upon whom Matthiolus grounds his writings, that after he has extoll'd the vertues of the long and round Birthwort, at last, says he, Clematitis is thought to have the same effects, but it is inferiour in vertue. But he does not say, as his Commentator does, that it is to be put into the Treacle. We shall find that Ruellius, af­ter he had extoll'd the vertues of the Birthworts, and above all, those of the bushy­rooted, concludes in these words: That which is call'd Clematitis is thought to work the same effects, but more slowly. We may find in Daleschamp, that Clematitis is proper for the same uses that all the other Birthworts are, but that it is inferiour in vertue. And the same Authour citing Galen, where he speaks of Birthworts, saith, that the Clematitis is much more odoriferous, for which reason it is us'd in fragrant Oyntments; but that in Physic the Operation is less effectual then that of the rest. And the same Authour, quoting Aegineta, puts Clematitis among the Medicaments that evacuate Choler, which is no effect expected from the vertues that Treacle ought to have. You shall meet with Clusius also citing the same Galen to the disadvantage of Clematitis; as also Bauhinus, speaking by the mouth of Dioscorides, and saying, Clematitis is thought to do the same, but it is inferiour to the forementioned in vertue. And the same Bauhinus urging Galen, thus says; That which is call'd Clematitis is more fragrant, therefore it is us'd in Oyntments, but in Physic it is much weaker. You may find in Lobel, the same Citations of Dioscori­des and Galen, to the decrying of the Clematitis. In particular he speaks thus,

Polyrrhizae Aristolochiae, &c. The Roots of bushy-rooted Birthwort, not mention'd by Dioscorides, and unknown to his Commentator, Rondeletius brought into use, utterly neglected through ignorance of the Plant, and yet to be preferr'd before the other two, as well for its plea­sing Acrimony, as for its more effectual operation in Physic, and therefore by Andromachus and Galen, recommended as more fit for Treacle; For he that observes the tast and savour shall find the Clematitis, much more ineffectual, which the Latins took to be the slender Birth­wort, mention'd by the ancient Writers of Treacle. Afterwards you shall find him thus dis­coursing. Not less known, nor less common is the Clematitis, which grows of it self in the cold Fields and Vineyards in the other parts of France, in all Italy, Germany, and Flanders. It grows like a Vine-Branch, about a Cubit long, with a yellow Flower, the stalk about a Cu­bit in length, the Fruit oblong, about the bigness of a small Egg, with a broad seed within, the Root small and fragrant. This is of less vertue then the rest, and less in use, unless it be with the omniscient Apollo, and Matthiolus, that follow the Rabble of vulgar Apothecaries; who when they never saw the long and bushy-rooted, and were perswaded that there was no Plant wanting in Italy, were easily perswaded that the Clematitis was the true long Birthwort.

I need not here recite what Dodoneus has written of the climbing the bushy-rooted Birthwort, as being conformable to Bauhinus, Daleschamp, and others. Nor is it ne­cessary to search for any better or more certain Authorities, to maintain what I have said for the bushy-rooted Birthwort. And therefore I will say no more, but that I had done ill not to have chosen it for the slender Birthwort of Andromachus, and for that which is to be us'd in Treacle, or had I taken it for the Plant to be us'd in the absence of the other. For which use they that chuse the Clematitis, honour it beyond its deserts; [Page 138] all its parts being very far from Tenuity or slenderness, and therefore both in that, and in its vertues inferiour to the Pistolochia, or bushy-rooted Birthwort.

Having gather'd this Birthwort in the beginning of the Spring, when it begins to sprout up, wash it and cleanse it from all its superfluities, and hang it up in an Airy place out of the Sun, to dry, and so to be afterwards mix'd with the other Ingredients.

As for Costus, I believe the three sorts which Authours have describ'd, may be re­duc'd into one. And I follow Clusius in this, who says, I am of this opinion, that there is but one sort of Costus. And Bontius, a Dutch Physician, affirms the same thing after Gar­cias ab Horto. For though Dioscorides, and several others after him, have describ'd three sorts of Costus, the Arabian, Indian, and Syriac, and that they have strain'd themselves to give several shapes to these sorts of Costus, and beyond whatever Dioscorides has written, upon whom they all depend. Nevertheless, it is certain, that in Europe we see but one sort of Costus, which is generally receiv'd and approv'd by all, and which has, as it were in contraction, all the marks which Dioscorides has giv'n to all the three sorts, except some kind of sweetness, which length of time may have in some measure dissipated. For the taste of a Plant fresh-gather'd, is different from that which has been kept a­long time.

The Costus which is brought to us, is a good thick Root, of the bigness of a Man's fist, and sometimes twice as big, and might well be a foot long, if it were brought to us intire; the outside is of the colour of Ashes, the inside is white, enclining to the co­lour of Box. It is very fragrant, and at first taste is somewhat sweet, but afterwards it tasts bitter with a kind of Acrimony, but altogether Aromatic. Costus is rather light then ponderous, not being of a very compact substance. If we might take Costus for the rind of a shrub resembling Elder, as some would have it to be, we should then choose that sort of Costus which is call'd Corticosus, or Barky; which is a Bark white all over, very fragrant, and of an Aromatic taste, having the resemblance, but not the taste nor colour of Cinamon. This Barky Costus seems to me not to differ much from the true Costus, either in vertue or good qualities.

Few Persons in France can aver that they have seen in the Indies the true Plant of Spikenard, which grows in great abundance in Java. Bontius says, that it grows upon the Mountains about fourteen leagues from Batavia, and that there is no going thither for fear of Tygers and Thieves, which are very numerous in those parts. I can safely say, that I my self have gather'd the False Nard upon the Mountain Genevre, upon the Borders of the Dauphinate, next to Piemont, and found the Ears, or Spikes, crouded to­gether in a round cluster, underneath and next the superficies of the Earth, having little Roots very slender underneath; the whole very much resembling the figure of the true Indian-Nard, describ'd by Matthiolus and others. The Ears or Spikes of the False Nard are somewhat bigger then those of the Indian-Nard, the hairy fibers scat­ter'd, and standing like bristles, and of a brown colour. They have almost no smell or taste; in the middle is a woody part that serves all along for a foundation to the hairy part. The Ears of the true Indian-Nard are somewhat less, having no woody part; the fibers are of a yellow colour enclining to purple: it begins from the little Root, and being knit together, forms a kind of a Spike, or Ear, which keeps a-long time, very like to that of Cyperus; the taste is very Aromatic, with some bitterness and acri­mony, drying the Tongue and leaving behind it a kind of pleasing scent. The little Roots of Spikenard under the Ear, are to be thrown away as of no use. The fairest are to be chosen which must be gently shak'n in the hand to shake off the dust; and the inner part must be drawn out at the upper part of the Ear or Spike, which is usually more pale then all the rest, which must be thrown away: the Spike thus cleans'd is to be made use of. You may also cut them before you go about to bruise them, according to the opinion of some. But it is better to let cutting alone, since the hair may be bruis'd, and reduc'd to Powder without it, among the other Ingredients.

Cinamon well-chosen, as I have already given directions, needs no other Pre­paration.

The prest Oyl of Nutmegs, abounds so much in vertues, that we need not look after Natural Balsoms, for the most part sophisticated to put into Treacles, or any other in­ternal compositions. I reserve the Preparation thereof, to the Chapter of Oyls drawn by the Press.

It is not without reason that I have said, That the most part of Balsoms which are sold for natural, are sophisticated: For we may be sure that the real Balm of Judea would be excessively dear, could we be assur'd that it were right; and that if we had [Page 139] not great cause to believe, that that which is brought to us is no other then a suppos'd Balsom. As for the Balsom of Peru, though it is probable, that we may have it right from thence, because it is more plentiful and cheap; yet it is very liable to be coun­terfeited, and I could give the Description of one that has been tak'n for true by many Apothecaries and Druggists of France, who having found there the principal markes which the right one ought to have, and finding it to be at a high rate, have purchas'd considerable quantities of it: though I make no question but the cunningest of them all was deceiv'd. But I rather choose to omit this Description, then to give any one the least occasion to cheat. I give this advice to those that may or have been couz'n­ed, and who because they may have this counterfeit Balsom at four Livres the pound, prefer it in the ancient Treacle before the press't Oyl of Nutmegs that costs three or four times as much.

Cretan-Dittany is a Plant which has a great number of stalks covered with a white woolly down, and very much tufted; the leaves are also round and thick, the flowers are purplish, and very like those of Violets, but of a more clear Violet-colour, and appear among the leaves at the tops of the stalks; the seed lies in the cup of the flower, when the flower is gone. You must endeavour to get fresh Dittany, gather'd when it was in flower, if it may be had; otherwise you must be content with the leaves well cleans'd.

The Indian leaf, call'd Malabathrum, is not a leaf without a root growing upon the water, like the Sea-Lintel, as some Writers would have it to be; but it is the leaf of a great Tree growing in the Country of Cambaya, and in several other parts of the Indies. The ends of the boughs which are often fixed to the leaves apparently de­monstrate, that it is a Tree which bears them. This leaf is very large, and resembles that of the Citron-Tree; of a pale green colour, having three strings separated by equal Intervals, running along from one end to the other of the leaf. The upper part is smooth and shining, the under part rough; the taste of it is Aromatical, partici­pating of Nard, Mace, Cloves and Cinamon. It differs very much in smell, taste, bigness, and the disposal of the ribs from the Laurel-leaf, for which some have tak'n it without any ground at all. The leaves which are whole and green are alwayes the best.

The true Amomum is well known, and is brought to us in bunches, about the length of three or four Thumbs: This bunch has a rib that serves for support to the husks, which are round, and as big as stones of Grapes of the colour of white Ashes, smooth, and thicker cluster'd then usually Grapes are, being fix'd against their Basis like the Grains of Pepper. The bunch is in part cover'd with six leaves like the Pomgranate­leaf, of which three are longer and grow farther out then the other three, which in­ter-divide them. The shells are full of a purplish-seed, almost square, and very like in all things to the seeds of Cardamoms: These grains, or seeds, join'd together make a round Figure, separated nevertheless by very thin skins, but so close thrust together, that the entire little Globe seems to be composed but of three parts, though the seeds may be easily separated by pressing them between your Fingers: the husks and the skins must be thrown away, there being nothing to be made use of but the purplish well-grown seeds, rejecting those that are black and wither'd. The taste of these grains, is tart, piquant, and very Aromatick, and remains a good while in the Mouth.

The smaller Cardamom here prescrib'd, is the most excellent of all; The seeds of it are four-square, in little triangular husks, of the colour of white Ashes, like the husks of Amomum; the seeds are also of the same colour and taste, and divided into three parts by very thin skins. They are to be chosen and cleans'd like those of Amo­mum.

The seed of Macedonian Parsley is of a pale green colour, small, somewhat long­poynted and flat, of a sharp and very Aromatic taste and of a pleasing smell. They must be very well cleans'd from dirt and other superfluities.

The seed of Ameos, or Bishop's-weed, is between that of common Parsley and Smal­lage; it is almost round, and very like to that of Sand-dust, of which it bears the Name. We have two sorts brought us, the taste of which is very Aromatic and bitter. But the Ameos of Creet, the taste and smell whereof participates of those of Time and Basil, is to be prefer'd before the other. This seed is to be cleans'd like the former.

The seed of Sesili, or Hart-wort of Marseilles, is alittle smaller then that of wild-Fennel, and very like it in Figure. It is of a pale green colour, of a sharp Aromatic [Page 140] and somewhat bitter taste. It must be chosen new and well-grown, and must be well cleans'd.

Myrh is a Rosiny-Gum, which being new is of a yellow green colour, enclining to red, fatty, fragrant, sharp, biting and very bitter; being full of whitish spots when it is broken, like the spots upon a Man's Nail. It must be chosen very pure, and as transparent as may be; and the bigger Tears are to be prefer'd before the lesser.

We may be certain that the Tree which produces Storax, yields abundance of Tears. But I cannot believe that the Storax which is brought to us, or which they pretend to bring hither out of the East is the right Storax. The high price which it has been sold for those many years, has encourag'd the wickedness of those Cheats; and the tryal I have made thereof has so far convinc'd me as not to trust them any more.

It is not with Galbanum, nor salt Ammoniac that these Tears are to be counterfeited, as some have thought in regard the strong and noisome scent of the one and the other, could never compose that sweet and pleasing scent which they are careful to give to these Tears which are vended for Storax. But most certainly they are counterfeited with some white Tears of Benjamin, or with some Rosiny Gum without scent, or which is easily out-scented by the Storax. To which purpose I have thought fit to publish what I have experimented, which is, that having Storax in Tears, whose smell, taste, colour, and figure, were such as are requir'd in true Storax, I undertook to soften one Tear in my hand intending to incorporate it afterwards with other drugs of a re­sembling substance. I was astonish'd when I found all the good scent of the Storax to be lost in my hand; and that same Tear was not fit to impart any thing of good scent or ver­tue to an Aromatic Balsom which I was making. Thereupon, trusting neither to the Sto­rax made up like bowls, which is encreas'd with liquid Storax, nor to that other Storax sold in Shops, light, and very full of Saw-dust, I chose a Storax of a delicious scent, full of Grains, or little Tears, and free from dirt, out of which I extracted the Gum in the following manner.

Having put eight ounces of this Storax into a Skillet, with twelve ounces of good White-wine, I stirr'd the whole gently with a Spatula, and when I found that the Storax was sufficiently dissolv'd, I presently pour'd it out hot as it was, into a close-woven strong linnen-bag, and having bound it hard just above the ingredients, I prest it between two hot plates, and drew out two ounces of pure Gum, as fair as it was fragrant, and which is in every thing superiour to the sorts of Storax in tears which are brought to us. I made use of this Gum in my Balsom with great satisfaction, and use it upon several other occasions for Medicines, both Internal and External. They that meet with such Storax as I have describ'd, may take my advice, and purifie it by this means.

Opopanax is a Gum dissolvable in any watry Liquors, which flows after incision from one of the Fennel-like Plants, call'd, All-heal, or Panax Heracleum. It comes out of the Plant liquid and white, but by degrees it becomes white and of a Gold-colour with­out-side. Opopanax is to be chosen new, in pure drops, fat, and white, at least with­in, of a sharp bitter taste, and a strong scent. Sagapenum call'd also Serapinum, because it smells somewhat like the Pine, is a Gum dissolvable in moist Liquors like Opoponax. It proceeds also from one of the Ferula's, or Fennel-like Plants, of a sharp and some­what bitter tast, of a strong and unpleasant smell, white without and within, while it is new, but afterwards it grows somewhat reddish without; and in time it be­comes of a dark colour, both within and without, like other Gums, especially those that are of a watry substance. The purest and the newest drops are to be made choice of.

I cannot be beaten out of that rational opinion that the Bags or Cods, which the Castors carry in that part, where we see the Testicles of all other four-footed Animals, contain the true Castoreum that is to be put into this Treacle, and into all other Me­dicines where Castoreum is prescrib'd. Nor is it to be wonder'd that while I acknow­ledge the principal matter contain'd in the Bags for the right Castoreum, I have tak'n the whole for the real Testicles, as well in regard of the scituation of those bags, as for the Apellation of Fibri Testes, or Castor-stones, which many Writers have given them. Considering also, that when I had discover'd the real Testicles, serving to Generation, their smalness, and their privation of scent, caus'd me to neglect and throw them away, as altogether useless in Physic; especially when upon examination of the Cods that con­tain the Castoreum, I observ'd their figure, both external and internal, accompany'd with several Fibers and Membranes, as also a substance very conformable to that of the Testicles of other Animals, which may be pulveriz'd when they are dry. The unctu­ous [Page 141] part contain'd in a little distinct Vesicle in the same principal Tunicle that con­tains the Castoreum, not being capable to divert us from that thought, especially taking the Castor for a kind of amphibious creature, that may be term'd a Monster, as being one half like a Land-Animal, the other like a Fish. I am perswaded also that they who should see these Bags scituated as they are in the body of the living Animal, as also out of the body, and dry'd, as they are sold to us, would absolutely take them for the real Testicles, unless they had examin'd things so strictly as the Gentlemen of the Academy-Royal, in their Anatomy of a Castor some years since, of which they have set forth a very exact description. But it is not the name of Testicles improperly given to these Purses, that hinders them from the true Castoreum, or from being put into the Treacle, and indeed as being to be preferr'd far before the true Testicles.

As for the choice of Castoreum, and the place where those Animals are tak'n that carry it, though most Writers prefer those of Pontus, I make no question, but that the Castors which are taken up and down upon the Rivers of France, Swedeland, Poland, Germany, Canada, and over all the West-Indies, may be every jot as good. For I could never observe any difference but only between the true Castoreum, and the counter­feit, which is not interdivided within with Fibers and Membranes, and is nothing but a mixture of certain stinking Gums, mingl'd with Powder of Castoreum, and the unctuous Juice which is found in the common, and principal Vesicles that enclose the Castoreum, which together make a tenacious mass, very much unlike the fleshy-sub­stance of the true Castoreum, which may be easily reduc'd to Powder, and is only to be us'd in Treacle.

If France did not produce Saffron endow'd with all the good qualities that can be ex­pected, we should be oblig'd to Forraign Countries. But because we have very good, with which we also furnish Germany, Swedeland, Poland, and other parts, we should do ill not to make use of it. Of all the Saffron that grows in France, that which grows in those Provinces that lye most to the South, seems to be preferr'd before any other, because of the Nature of the soyl. For all Aromatic Plants, that grow in such pla­ces, are to be preferr'd before those that grow toward the North. The yellow part upon which the hair of the Saffron grows, is to be clipp'd off with the point of a pair of Scissors, and that part of the Hair is to be made use of which is of a scarlet­colour.

Celtic-Spike, call'd by the Latins Spica Celtica, grows upon the Pyrenean-Mountains, and upon the Mountains of Tyrol in Germany. It is a small Plant but very Aromatic, which is brought to us in little Sheaves or Bundles, having no appearance of any Spike, but in its Root. I suppose also that the name of Spike was giv'n to it, because it smells very like to Spikenard. The vertue of the whole Plant is concenter'd in the Root. The Leaves, the Flowers, the strings, and all the other superfluities are to be thrown away. The Roots also must be spread in a moist place, and must be moisten'd them­selves to make them less brittle, before you make them clean. Otherwise when you go about to pick out the superfluities with the point of a Pen-knife, the Root would break if it were too dry.

As for the Preparation of the Extract of Juniper-berries, I refer you to the Chap­ter of Extracts in the third Part of this Pharmacopoea.

As for the mixture of all the ingredients for this Treacle, you must observe the same method, as for that of the Ancients; only I will say this for the Extract of Juniper-ber­ries, that it does not only perform the same thing as the despumated Honey, for the mix­ture and preservation of all the ingredients, but it very much augments the vertue of the Treacle, which is nothing inferiour to that of the Ancients, and works in all re­spects much more powerfully; there being in the whole composition, not one ingredient but what is chosen with Judgement. The Dose and use of the ancient Treacle may serve as a rule for this.

Theriaca Diatessaron. Diatessaron Treacle. 
℞. Radicum Gentianae, ℞. Roots of Gentian, 
Aristolochiae rotundae, Round Birthwort, 
Baccarum Lauri, Laurel-berries, 
Myrrhae Electae, an.ij.Choice Myrrh, an.℥ ij.
Mellis opt. despumati, & The best clarify'd Honey, and 
Extracti Baccarum Juniperi, j.Extract of Juniper-berries, j.

Make an Electuary according to Art.

[Page 142]This Treacle was invented particularly for the Poor. It is call'd Diatessaron, because it consists but of four Ingredients that make up the Powder; which being mix'd with the Honey and Extract, make a very Soveraign remedy against Poyson.

The Preparation of this Treacle is very easie; for there is no more to do, but to mix the Powder of the four ingredients, with the Honey and the Extract, and then to put up the composition for your occasions.

This Treacle is not to be despis'd; it is good against all contagious Diseases, biting of venemous Beasts, the Apoplexy, Convulsions, and all cold Diseases of the Head, as also against Worms, to fortifie the Stomach, and open all Obstructions of the Bowels. The Dose is the same with the other Treacles.

Mithridatium Damocratis. Damocrates's Mithridate. 
℞. Myrrae Troglodytidis, ℞. Aethiopian Myrrh, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Agarici, Agaric, 
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Cinnamomi, Cinamon, 
Nardi Indici, Indian-Spikenard, 
Thuris Masculi, Male-Frankincense, 
Seminis Thlaspeos, an.ij ss.Treacle Mustard-seed, an.℥ ij ss.
Seseleos Massiliensis, Hartwort of Marseilles, 
Opobalsami, Opobalsamum, 
Schoenanthi, Camels-Hair, 
Staechadis Arabicae, Arabian Cassidony, 
Costi, Costus, 
Galbani, Galbanum, 
Terebinthinae Chiae, Chio-Turpentine, 
Piperis longi, Long-Pepper, 
Castorei, Castoreum, 
Succi Hypocystidis, The juice of the Undergrowth of Cystus, 
Storacis Calamitae, Calamite Storax, 
Opopanacis, Opopanax. 
Folii Indi, Indian-Leaf, 
Cassiae Ligneae, Cassia-Wood, 
Polii Montani, Mountain-Poley. 
Piperis Albi, White-Pepper, 
Scordii, Water-Germander, 
Seminis Dauci Cretici, Seed of Cretan wild-Carrot, 
Trochiscorum Cyphaeos, Trochiskes de Cyphi, 
Bdellii, an.℥ j ss.Bdellium, an.℥ ij ss.
Nardi Celtici, Celtic-Nard, 
Gummi Arabici, Arabian Gum, 
Petroselini Macedonici, Macedonian Stone-Parsley, 
Opii Thebaici, Theban-Opium, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamom, 
Seminis Feniculi, Fennel-seed, 
Radicis Gentianae, Root of Gentian, 
Rosarum Rubrarum, Red-Roses, 
Dictamni Cretici, an.ʒ x.Cretan Dittany, an.ʒ x.
Seminis Anisi, Anniseed, 
Radicis Acori Veri, Roots of true Acorns, 
Ari, Wake-Robin, 
Valerianae majoris, The bigger Valerian, 
Sagapeni, an.ʒ vj.Sagapen, an.ʒ vi.
Meu Athamantici, Athamantic Spignel, 
Acaciae Verae, True Acacia, 
Ventris Scinci, The belly of the Land Crocodile, 
Seminis Hyperici, an.ʒ v.Seed of St. John's-wort, an.ʒ v.
Mellis Opt. xix.The best clarify'd Honey,lb xix.
Vini Opt.q. ss.The best Wine,q ss.

[Page 143]I have inserted this Receipt for Mithridate, that I might not be complained of for omitting so famous a Composition. And though there be as much reason for the re­formation of this Mithridate, as for that of the ancient Treacle; yet I thought it not necessary for the latter, since the reformation of the Treacle may serve for both, at least may serve as a good assistance to ingenuity.

A smaller quantity of Opium is here prescrib'd than for the Mithridate, and the Trochiskes of Vipers and Squills are quite left out.

Agaric is an Excrescence growing like a Mushroom, upon the Trunks or upon the bigger boughs of old Trees. There are two sorts, the Male and the Female. The Male is yellowish, heavy and compact, and more fit for Dyers than for Physick. That which is call'd the Female is most sought after. The best is found upon the Larch­tree, by the Latines call'd Laryx. The Ancients talk'd of Agaric growing in a Pro­vince of Sarmaria call'd Agaria, either from the Agaric, or else from the River Aga­rus that waters it. We at this time make use of that Agaric which grows upon the high Mountains of the Dauphinate, which are the ancient Alpes, or upon the Mountains of Trent; though we are not to despise that which comes from the East, or from any other place, provided it have the principal Marks which are to be sought for in Agaric, which are whiteness, lightness, cleanness, bigness, friability, penetra­ting scent, and extraordinary bitterness. Agaric is one of those Medicines that purge with violence and by attraction. So that it may be as well left out of the Mithridate as out of the Treacle; by reason of the opposition of its vertue to the Cordial, and Alexipharmacal Quality of the other Medicines.

Ginger is very well known; and though there are reckoned two sorts, Male and Fe­male, yet Physic makes no difference, but only chuses the newest and the best grown, white within, which is brought from the East-Indies; that which comes out of America not being so much in esteem, principally because of its dark colour.

Male Incense call'd Olibanum is well known in Shops; it is a Gum which must be cho­sen in large Tears; white, pure and weighty, of a sharp and bitter taste, and of a penetrating smell. I know not why they should give it the name of Male, but only to distinguish the large and fair Tears from the common ones.

Writers describe Opobalsamum to be a thick whitish transparent juice or Liquor, in smell resembling Turpentine, but much more pleasing. It ought to distil forth after incision made in the Dog-days, of the Branches of a Shrub call'd Balsamum, the wood whereof is call'd Christo-Balsamum, the Branches whereof are brought to us in streight pieces, but very brittle, and unequally knotted. The Bark of the wood is somewhat reddish without, but greenish within, and the wood underneath is whitish and full of pith. This wood when it is new, being broken, yields a smell very like to that of Opobalsamum, the taste whereof is bitter and somewhat tart. The most esteemed Plant of Balsom grows in Judea, and Arabia Felix, and by cultivation in the Gardens of the Grand Signior in Aegypt. It also grows in Peru, but inferiour in goodness and beau­ty. There is no Opobalsamum properly of Judea, which is not very dry; so that we cannot observe the essential Marks which Authors ascribe to it; which are, that if you put a drop into water or Milk, it seems as if it would presently dissolve in those Li­quors, but it afterwards swims a-top, and you may gather it together with a straw or a Needle; and that if you pour a drop upon a piece of Cloth, you may take it off a­gain without leaving the least spot or stain. The same Writers represent Opobalsamum to us, to be so penetrating, that the force and sharpness of the smell is hard to be en­dured; so that not meeting now-a-days with any of these qualities, we have great reason to question whether we have the right or no, and to be sorry that a Liquor so famous should be so little known to us. Which confirms in my opinion, that it is better to make use of press'd Oyl of Nutmegs both in Treacle and Mithridate, and in other Medicines where Opobalsamum is prescrib'd, than to make use of impos'd Opo­balsamum which we have so much reason to question. So much the rather, because that press'd Oyl of Nutmegs is of a nature between Gummy and Oyly, and pressed from a Fruit very aromatical and full of vertue; and for that its taste, smell, and pene­tration render it worthy of so good a place.

The word Schoenanthos is Greek, and signifies the Flower of a Reed, which is the best part of that Plant; for though the taste and smell of that Reed assure us, that it is not void of vertue, yet we must believe that the Flower has something more of con­siderable in it, for beauty, taste, and smell being that of all Flowers, which longest pre­serves all its good qualities, notwithstanding its smallness and thinness, so that ha­ving been kept several years, it still fills the Nostrils with a strong scent, and the mouth [Page 144] with a sharp and Aromatic tast. The odoriferous Reed that bears this Flower grows in Nabatea a Province of Arabia, where it is so plentiful, that they littre their Ca­mels and other Cattel with it. The hight of this Reed is about a foot, the Root small slender and full of knots. The Plant is tufted and compos'd of several cluster'd rows, of a pale green colour, intermix'd with some long streight leaves, and pointed like the Reeds, near to the points whereof are to be found those little Flowers, which are of a whitish colour enclining to Purple, dispos'd in double ranks.

The Flowers of the Odoriferous Reed are not to be made use of till they are very well cleans'd; which I do thus. After I have sifted through a coarse Sieve the dust which is usually found among these Flowers, I spread them upon a sheet of Paper, then I lay upon them a new coarse coarse cloth well scatter'd with hair, somewhat longer and bro [...]der then my hand. Then taking up the piece of cloth you shall find many Flow­ers sticking to the cloth, which mustbe pickt off and kept a-part: And this must be done till you have as many flowers as you stand in need of.

Galbanum, is a Gum dissolvable in watry Liquors, like Opoponax and Sagapenum; it also flows after incision from one of the Ferula's or Fennel-leav'd-Plants, call'd Fennel-Gyant. The biggest Tears are to be chosen, pure, white, thick, of a sharp and bitter taste, and a strong and unpleasing smell.

Of all the Turpentines that flow from several Trees, and which we acknowledge for liquid Rosins, that which flows from the Turpentine-Tree is esteem'd the best; It ought to be transparent, of a whitish colour enclining to green, of an indifferent strong smell, and not displeasing. The best Turpentine is brought from the Island of Chio; it is usually not so thin as those of Venice, and other places.

The long Pepper consists of many small grains, as it were set together in Rows, and not op'n and separate; of an Ash-colour, when it is ripe. The Leaves are like those of the long Pepper, but of a paler green, and thinner; longer-pointed, and with a shorter foot-stalk. The taste of long-Pepper, is like that of black-Pepper, but more moderate in heat and dryness; it ought to be new, and well-grown, and the foot-stalk ought to be cast away.

The Juice of the undergrowth of Cistus, is drawn from a small excrescence, rising from the Male and Female Cistus, Ledum, or sweet Cistus, with upright stalks co­ver'd thick with Leaves, scarce a foot high; that with Sea-Purslain Leaves is of a yel­lowish colour. The roots are as big as two or three thumbs, sometimes a finger, sometimes the whole hand in length, somewhat bigger at the top then bottom, and representing a Pomegranate-flower at the top. They grow and flourish toward May. They are ten­der and Juicy, and yield a black acid Juice, which is depurated by being boyl'd over a small fire, in an Earth'n-glaz'd-Vessel, to the consistence of an Extract somewhat solid, call'd Juice of Hypocistis.

The Tree call'd Cassia Lignea, is almost like to that which bears the Cinamon, and they grow together in the Island of Ceylon. These two Barks, though born by different Trees, are boyl'd and dry'd after the same manner, and their taste and scent is almost alike; their colour, shape, and thickness, differ almost in nothing, but the Cassia Lignea is of a fatter, more muscilaginous substance, which dissolves by chewing in the mouth, whereas the Woody-part of Cinamon will not dissolve, though you chew it ne­ver so long.

The seed of Cretan-Daucus, or Wild-Carrots, is to be preferr'd before any other; it is long like that of Cummin-seed, but not so big: the colour is white with a Velvet superficies, the taste and smell are pleasing enough; however it is somewhat sharp, and hot, but very Aromatic.

There are two sorts of Mountain-Poley, one whose flowers, and all the upper part of the Leaves and Stalks is of a Gold-colour, the other white. Both the Plants are cover'd with a tufted Cotton, especially the yellow; whose taste and smell are very Aromatic, so that they fill the mouth at the same time with a mixture of several Aromatics. The yellow-Poley is to be preferr'd before the other.

The true Carpobalsamom is extremely scarce, or to say more truly, it is not to be had now-a-days, according to those marks which Authours give of it. For they describe it to be fix'd to the Plant with a cup; to be large, weighty, picquant and sharp in taste, cover'd with a small Membrane of a deep yellow-colour, inclining to red; lin'd within, with other Membranes thicker then that without, and which contains with­in a yellow Honey-like substance, with a pleasing scent like to that of Opobalsamum. But the Grains that we meet with in shops, have none of these marks: and though time might wear away some of these marks, yet it could not annihilate them all. [Page 145] Which makes me to doubt of their Legitimacy, and to substitute Cubebs in their place.

Cubebs, for colour, form and bigness, are very like black Pepper-corns, except that they have a little footstake which fastens them to a rib like the bunch of a Grape: Their taste is biting and glowing, very bitter, but very Aromatic: They grow in the Island of Java upon Shrubs that climb upon other Trees like Ivy. Some Authors have written, that the Inhabitants boyl them before they will suffer them to be transported, fearing they might be sown, and grow in some other place: But the little vent they have for them, and the small price they are at, utterly destroys the vanity of such a conjecture. They are good to heat and fortifie the Stomach, to open obstructions of the Spleen, to correct the cold intemperature of the Matrix, and to excite Venery.

Trochiskes de Cyphi, you shall find in the Chapter of Trochiskes.

Bdellium comes from Bactriana, where it is produc'd by a black Tree as big as a white Olive-tree, the leaves whereof are like to those of an Oak. Bdellium is a Gum, to which Authors have ascrib'd for marks to be clear and yellow, like Wax or strong Glue, to be bitter, fat, and to smell like Ʋnguis Odoratus, when it is burnt.

The true Acorus is brought us from Lithuania; it is a Root that crawls upon the Earth, and is nourish'd by certain strings that belong to it: It is very knotty, about a finger in bigness; of a white inclining to flesh-colour, of a biting and bitter taste, of a thin light substance, of a strong scent, but very pleasing.

The true Acacia is the thick juice of the fruit of a great Thorn-tree that grows in Egypt, the Flowre whereof is white, and the fruit contain'd in Husks like Lupins. This juice is of a high colour, and beautiful red, of a compact substance, but which will easily break by striking upon it, when it is very dry: It is brought to us in Bowls done up in thin Bladders; it must be clear, and shine within when it is bro­ken. The taste should be styptic, stinging, and very Aromatic.

The Sea-Scinkes, are little Animals like to Lizards, or rather like to little Cro­codiles, by which name they are call'd; they live part in the Water, part upon the Land: They go upon four legs very short, and very small; their Snouts are more pointed then a Lizards, and their Tails are thin and short: They are beautiful to look upon, being cover'd with scales dispos'd in a wonderful order of Silver-colour, sometimes dark'nd to a Gold-colour, especially upon the Backs. They are never so big as Crocodiles, and they breed in Egypt upon the Red Sea; in Lybia, and in the Indies: The reins or the belly of these Scinkes are chosen for Mithridate, though the other parts have their vertues also.

For the mixture of this Treacle, it is the same with that of Ancient Treacle.

As to the Vertues of Mithridate, they are almost the same with those of Treacle, though somewhat inferiour in all things, particularly against the bitings of Serpents, to which the flesh of Vipers is principally necessary; as also to asswage pain, and pro­cure rest: but then it wants that quantity of Opium which is in the Treacle.

Confectio Alkermes Regia. Royal Confection Alkermes. 
℞. Succi Pomorum redolentium, ℞. Juice of fragrant Apples, 
Aquae Rosarum fragrantissimae, iss.The most fragrant Rose-water, iss.
Serici crudi mundati & minut. incisi,lb j.Raw Silk cleans'd and cut small,lb j.
Omnia Matratio bene clauso excepta horis 24 in Balneo Mariae digerantur: Te­pide deinde sericum torculari exprima­tur; Liquor vero cum sacchari opt. lb ij. ad Electuarii solidi consistentiam, coquatur. Ab igne tunc removeatur E­lectuarium & in illo succi recentis Ker­mesini spissioris lb j. dissolvatur & post­modum promisceantur, Put them together into a Matrass well stopt, and digest them for twenty four hours in Balneo Mariae: Then squeeze the warm Silk in a Press, and boil the liquor to the consistence of a solid Electuary with lb ij. of the best Sugar: Then take the Electuary from the fire, and dissolve therein lb j. of the new thicker juice of Kermes: after that mix therewith, 
Margaritarum Oriental. praeparat. Oriental Pearls prepar'd, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow Saunders, 
Cinnamoni Acutissimi, an.j.Biting Cinamon, an.℥ j.
Ambrae Grisiae cum olei Cinnamomi Stillatitii Gut. iij. pulveratae,℥ ss.Ambergrise pulveriz'd with three drops of distill'd Oyl of Cinamon,℥ ss.
[Page 146] Lapidis Lazuli usti, loti, & laevigatiʒ ij.Lapis Lazuli burnt, wash'd, and made smooth,ʒ ij.
Foliorum Auri,ʒ j.Leaves of Gold,ʒ j.
Moschi Orientalis,ʒ ss.Oriental Musk,ʒ ss.

Many Writers have attributed great vertue to raw Silk. But though the use there­of had been at all times unknown in Physic, my judgement is, that it is too fragrant, that it has too much beauty, that it affords too many conveniencies to humane Life, that there are too many wonders in the first Original, progress, labour and metamorpho­ses of the worm which produces it, to be despis'd. And so much the rather, for that we know that all the parts of Animals, as also of their Excrements and Producti­ons, are impregnated with a volatile Salt; and because I am so far convinc'd of the extraordinary vertues of Volatile Salts, that I may be bold to call it the right hand of all Physic. For which reason, and for the continual use which several great and famous men have made of raw Silks in their Medicines, I say that it was not without sufficient grounds prescrib'd among those other ingredients that make up this Composition.

That is call'd Raw Silk, which was never boil'd, but is still as it were in the grain, out of which the worm has been but newly taken, four or five days after that little Artist has finish'd its work. For at that time this Silk is very pure, provided you take away the outward wrapping and the inward tunicle of the grain, which is next the worm. This Silk thus cleans'd will not fail to impart its vertues to this Confection, or where-ever else it shall be prescrib'd.

For the methodical preparation of this Confection, you must pulverize apart the yellow Saunders and the Cinnamon very finely, and prepare the Pearls upon Porphyrie. You must heat red-hot and three times quench the Lapis Lazuli in Rose-water, where it must also soak for 24 hours, then prepare it upon Porphyrie like the Pearls. Powder the Ambergrise and the Musk together, mixing therewith three drops of Oyl of Cinna­mon, which will hasten the pulverization, and prevent them from sticking to the Mor­tar; and when they are pulveriz'd, mix them with the other Powders▪ In the mean time having taken away all the superfluities of the raw Silk, put it into a Matrass, and pour upon it the juice of Apples clarifi'd, and the Rose-water prescrib'd, and ha­ving stopp'd the Matrass keep it four and twenty hours in Balneo Mariae lukewarm. Then having strain'd and strongly press'd out the Silk, dissolve in the Liquor two pound of fine Sugar, and boil them together in a glaz'd earthen Pipkin, over a mo­derate fire, to the consistence of a solid Electuary, when you have taken it off the fire mingle with it a Pint of the press'd grains of Kermes, new and perfectly ripe. After which add thereto by degrees the Powders, and last of all the Leaves of Gold, and having put up the Confection in a Gally-Pot close stopp'd, keep it for your use.

You might melt the Ambergreese in a small part of the hot Syrup, with which it is to be incorporated, but it could not be well done, without some dissipation of the sweet odour, as also of the vertue of the Ambergreese, besides that the beauty of the colour of the Confection would be quite spoil'd. And therefore the best Preparation of Ambergreese upon this occasion is to powder it. You will find in this Receipt the weight of the Pearls, yellow Saunders, Cinnamon and Ambergreese augmented beyond what you shall find in the most part of other Receipts: But besides that these ingre­dients are not to be spar'd in a Composition so highly esteem'd, the increasing of the quanitty of the Powders serves to render the Confection much better then it is wont to be.

As for the leaves of Gold, I should have agreed with them, who affirm that these leaves afford no considerable vertue to this Confection, nor to any other Compositions, because the Gold cannot communicate its vertue without having been first digested in the Stomach, and there chang'd its nature; and I should have thought that this Gold in leaf had rather been for ornament then for any vertue, had not the following Rela­tion caus'd me to alter my opinion.

Monsieur Peter Couder, Apothecary at Milhau in Rouvergue, a very honest man, and very skilful and knowing in his Art, and my very good Friend assur'd me, that some years since he was sent for to a Lady of very high Quality, aged about threescore years, whose Face was extreamly full of red Pimples and Pustulas, and who was troubl'd with a stinking breath; and that by the advice of several famous Physicians, he gave her for her ordinary Diet, Pullets that had been shut up in a Chamber eight days, and were fed with a Paste made of Vipers, boil'd in a little water with Wheat in an earthen glaz'd Pot [Page 147] cover'd, continuing to feed the Pullets in the same manner, till they were good to eat: That the Lady having dyeted six months upon these Pullets, he dyeted her with Capons for the other six months, which besides the Paste of Vipers with which they were cramm'd, were also fed with Leaves of Gold mix'd among their Food; and that the Lady having continu'd the use of those Capons, at the end of the last six months found her self perfectly cur'd of both her Distempers, insomuch that having liv'd from that time to the Age of fourscore years, her body being entomb'd and tak'n up again four years after she was buried, was found to be as entire, as when she was first laid in her Grave.

In the mean time Monsieur Couder, resolving to search in the Capons-dung, for about eight marks in Leaves of Gold, which they had swallow'd from time to time, carefully caus'd the Dung to be swept together, and calcin'd the Excrements, and made use of Quicksilver to make an Amalgama of the Gold if there were any, and after he had ex­hal'd the Quicksilver Amalgama'd with the Gold, and had afterwards forc'd it to fusion with the addition of a little Borax, he recover'd about two marks in Gold, which had the weight, but the colour was much paler then that of ordinary Gold.

Upon which my judgement is this, that this great diminution of weight and change of colour, could not happen to the Gold, but that some of its parts were chang'd into the proper substance of the Capons, and that this could not happen, till the Gold was dissolv'd in the Capons Stomach, by the operation of their volatile Salt, joyn'd with the acid Liquor which is naturally in that part, doing almost the same thing which a Regal-Water would have done. So that we cannot but think that Leaves of Gold in Compositions cannot but be very commendable and useful; for besides the beauty and the conceit which they may put into the Head of the Patient, they may add their vertue to that of the other Ingredients.

They that live far from the places where Grains of Kermes grow, may make use of a trusty Friend, to send them the Syrup of Kermes prepar'd after my Method; with which they may at any time make the Confection. You may also make a Confection without Amber or Musk, chiefly for Women that are afraid of sweet scents.

This Confection is without question one of the best Cordials that ever Galenic Phy­sick invented. For it repairs and recreates the Vital and Animal Spirits; it ceases Palpitations of the Heart, and Swounding-fits. It fortifies the Brain and all the No­ble Parts very much; It is an Enemy to putrefaction, re-establishes the languishing and decay'd strength, drives away melancholy and sadness, and restores and preserves both body and mind in a good estate. It is taken upon the point of a Knife or dissolv'd in Wine, or in Broth, or in any Cordial or Cephalick Liquor. It is also mingl'd among Opiates or Electuaries both soft and solid. The usual Dose is from one Scruple to one Drachm. It is also mixed in Epithemes prescrib'd for the Heart and Liver.

Confectio de Hyacintho▪ Confection of Jacinths. 
℞. Lapidum Hyacinthorum, ℞. Jacinth-Stones, 
Coralli Rubri, Red-Corral, 
Boli Armenae, & Bole-Armoniac, and 
Terrae Sigillatae, an.ij ʒ ij.Seal'd Earth, an.℥ ij ʒ ij.
Granorum Kermes, Grains of Kermes, 
Foliorum Dictamni Cretici, Leaves of Cretan-Dittany, 
Radicis Tormentillae, Root of Tormentil, 
Seminis Citri Mundati, Seed of Citron cleans'd, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Myrrhae Troglodytidis, Aethiopian-Myrrh, 
Rosarum Rubrarum, Red-Roses, 
Santalorum omnium, All the Saunders, 
Ossis e corde Cervi, The Bone of a Deers heart, 
Rasur ae Cornu Cervi, & Eboris, Shavings of Harts-horn, and Ivory, 
Seminis Acetosae, Seed of Sorrel, and 
Portulacae, an.ʒ vj.Purslain, an.ʒ v ℈ j.
Lapidum Saphyrorum, Saphyrs, 
Smaragdorum, Smaragds, 

[Page 148]

Topaziorum, Topazes, 
Margaritarum Oriental. Eastern-Pearls, 
Serici Crudi, Raw-Silk, 
Foliorum Auri, Leaves of Gold, and 
Argenti, an.viij.Silver, an.℈ viij.
Moschi Orientalis, Oriental-Musk, 
Ambrae Grisiae, an.Gr. xx.Amber-grise, an.Gr. xx.
Syrupi Florum Tunicae,lb vjviij.Syrup of Clove-gillow-flowers,lb vi ℥ vii.

Make a Confection according to Art.

The great vent which several Cities have for this Confection, Alkermes, Treacle, and some other compositions of the same Nature, has not been sufficient to satisfie the Avarice of certain Jumblers, who not content to foist into this composition several In­gredients altogether unuseful, in the place of the true ones, which are usually dear, make use of a Syrup extraordinarily boyl'd, to one entire pound of which they add an ounce, or at most an ounce and a half of Powder: for which they by their good wills would only take the Bole, if the Saffron-colour, the taste of Myrrh, and the beauty of the Gold-Leaves, were not requisite for them to conceal their cheat. So that we need not wonder that they sell this confection and several others so cheap, and yet they make more profit far, then they who compound the Medicines right. They never seek after the true fragments of Jacinths or other precious Stones, the Oriental Pearls, nor the Bone in the Deer's-Heart; but being perfect cheats sell for considerable rates, that which is good for nothing but to fill their own Pockets.

But to make it as it should be, make choice of the true fragments of Jacinths, Saphyrs, Emraulds, Topazes, and Oriental Pearls, which you shall find among the Lapidaries, together with red-Corral. You may prepare all these things together, or a-part up­on Porphyrie; in the same manner you may prepare the Eastern-Bole, and the Terrae Sigillata; bruise together in a Brass-Mortar, the bone of the Deer's-Heart, the Shavings of Harts-horn, and Ivory, the Sandals, the Root of Tormentil, the Grains of Kerms, the Cretan-Dittany, the Red-Roses, the Myrrh, the Seeds of Citron, Sorrel, and Pur­slain. Beat the Saffron apart, being dry'd before; beat also the Musk, and Amber­grise apart, adding to them some part of the Citron-seed reserv'd for that purpose: then mix all the Powders except the Saffron, which must be first put into a Marble-Mor­tar, there to be mix'd with a wood'n-Pestle, in some ounces of the Syrup prescrib'd, the consistence whereof ought to be no thicker then that of ordinary Syrups; then add thereto by degrees the other Powders, joyning them, and intermixing with them toge­ther, at several repetitions all the Syrup, the quantity whereof ought to be but four times the weight of the Powder, whereas if it had been to have been boyl'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary, the Powders would have suckt up six times as much in weight of Syrup, by reason of the dryness of the most part of the Ingredients. And therefore care must be tak'n, that neither the Physicians nor the Patients be deceiv'd in the little Doses of this Confection, because of the small quantity of Powder which they contain, when the Syrup is more boyl'd then it should be. When the Powders and Syrups are mix'd toge­ther, add the Leaves of Gold and Silver, and put up the Confection in a white-Earth'n-Pot well-stopp'd.

Some may wonder that Syrup of Clove-Gillow-flowers is here prescrib'd, instead of Syrup of Lemons, which all Writers prescribe. But when they shall find by experience, that this last being made use of fails not to work upon the Earths and Stones at the same time, to raise a great effervescency, and to cause the Electuary to swell, so as to make it run over if the pot be not very large, and by degrees to dark'n the colour, especially if you put in any Ir'n Spatula; they will without doubt approve this change, in regard that Syrup of Gillow-flowers being very proper to strength'n the Heart, the Brain, and all the Noble-parts, and to second the good effects of this Composition, is also as fit to unite and embody all the Ingredients, imparting at the same time, its lovely purple-co­lour, and its delightful smell, without the fear of any effervescency, or alteration, which the acid of the Syrup of Lemons causes to the Earths and Stones, and at the same time to the whole confection.

If it be objected, that the Acid of the Syrup of Lemons serves to open the Stones, consi­dering that the Juice of Lemons, which is the foundation of the Syrup, is able to dissolve them; I answer, that that Juice making but a third part of the Syrup, and being very much [Page 149] weak'n'd by the addition of the Sugar, can act but very feebly, nor touch any more then the superficies of the fragments, and so the success would answer but ill to the intentions which they might have, considering also that the sole Preparation of the Stones upon the Porphyrie, reduces them to that condition wherein they ought to be, to qualifie in the Stomach the sharpness of the acids, which they meet with there.

The bones of Deer's-hearts are not so scarce, but that you may meet with them with little pains and expence; but if they were not to be had, you might in their place use the Harts-horn, when the Velvet-Head begins first to appear, and which are much better then the bones of the Hearts of Oxen, which some commend in their room.

The Shavings of Harts-horn is here very properly preferr'd efore Harts-horn burnt; because the Shavings enjoy all the good parts, which the Harts-horn looses in Ustion. For it not only contains the muscilaginous and Cordial part, which it affords to Gelly's, but the volatile Salt, Spirit, and Oyl, which we draw forth by distillation, all which parts vanish in Ustion.

As for the Philosophical Ustion of Harts-horn, which some have allow'd, I cannot think any better of it; for though it be done with a heat less violent, yet the most part of the Juice is thereby lost, and a good part of the volatile salt, Spirit and Oyl which it contain'd before.

The vertues of Confection of Jacinth are very little inferiour to those of Confectio Hamech. It has this also particular, that it closes more, and that it is more proper to kill Worms.

It is tak'n in Bolus alone, or mix'd with other Powders, or Opiates, or else dissolv'd in Wine, or in Broth, or in some Cordial Liquor. The Dose is from a Scruple to a Dram, and sometimes two. It is also outwardly apply'd in liquid and solid Epithemes.

Electuarium Diascordium E­mendatum. A Reform'd Diascordium E­lectuary. 
℞. Scordii, ℞. Water-Germander, 
Rosarum Rubrarum Exungulatarum, & Red-Roses cleans'd from their Whites, and 
Boli Armenae, an.℥ j ss.Bole-Armenian, an.℥ j ss.
Resinae Styracis, Storax, 
Cinnamomi, Cinnamon, 
Cassiae Ligneae, Cassia-Wood, 
Foliorum Dictamni Cretici, Leaves of Cretan-Dittany, 
Radicum Tormentillae, Roots of Tormentil, 
Bistortae, Snakeweed, 
Gentianae, Gentian, 
Galbani, Galbanum, 
Succini, Amber; 
Terrae Lemniae, an.℥ ss.Lemnian Earth, an.℥ ss.
Extracti Opii, Extract of Opium, 
Piperis Longi, Long-Pepper, 
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Seminis Oxalidis, an.ʒ ij.Sorrel-seed, an.ʒ ij.
Mellis Rosati colati, & in Electuarii mollis consistentiam cocti,lb iijiiij.Honey of Roses strain'd and boyl'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary,lb iij ℥ iiij.
Vini Malvatici,ij.Malmsey,℥ ij.

Make an Electuary according to Art.

It was well done to make use of Red-Roses cleans'd in this Electuary, and to put in Honey of Roses, instead of common Honey, to preserve the room of Conserve of Ro­ses, which Fracastorius, Authour of this Electuary had prescrib'd. The reason of this change was, for that though Conserve of Roses may be beaten, and pass'd through a sieve turn'd the wrong way, it has however those thick parts that will make the body of the Electuary seem to be ill united, and will remain at the bottom of the Mortar, when you dissolve the Electuary in any Liquor. Whereas the dry Roses pulveriz'd [Page 150] with other Ingredients, cause the body of the Electuary to seem more uniform, and will preserve their vertue a longer time, by means of the Honey which encloses it. On the other side, the Honey of Roses being impregnated with the vertue of the Red-Ro­ses, is at least as proper for mixture, union, and preservation of the Powders, as com­mon Honey, and fortifying the vertue of the Red-Roses, renders the Electuary more o­doriferous and pleasant, then otherwise it would be.

With as good reason is the quantity of the Water-Germander augmented, as well because it is a Plant that abounds in vertue, as for that it gives the name, and serves as a foundation to the Electuary, and therefore ought not to be less in quantity then any other of the Ingredients us'd in the Powder.

The Rosin of Storax, is here preferr'd before Storax in Tears, for the reasons giv'n in the Reformation of Treacle.

The Gum-Arabic is left out, which could only serve as a Glue to the Electuary, and Amber is put into its place, whose Cephalic, Cordial, and Hysteric vertues are esteem'd by all Authors.

The Preparation of this Electuary will be found to be very easie, if after you have well-chosen and cleans'd all the Ingredients, without taking care to dissolve any Gum in Wine, according to the custom of the Ancients, you reduce them only into Powder in a great Brass-Mortar, among the other Ingredients, and having pass'd them all through a silk-sieve, and dissolv'd the two drams of Extract of Opium, in two ounces of Malmsy, or good Spanish-Wine, you incorporate the whole with Honey of Roses clarify'd and boil'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary.

This Electuary is very little inferiour in vertue to the Treacle, and indeed is to be preferr'd before it in Diseases, where too much heat may be dangerous. It is particularly us'd in Malignant Fevers, in all Epidemic Diseases; and is very much commended not only as a cure, but a preservative against the Pestilence. It is very much esteem'd a­gainst the Worms, and against all putrefaction, against Windy-Cholics, want of re­tention in the Stomach, against Diarrhea's, Dysenteries, and all the difficulties of the Intestines, to stop Fluxes, to asswage Pains; the ordinary Dose being from one Scruple to one Dram. It is tak'n in Bolus, or dissolv'd in Wine, Broth, or any Cor­dial-Liquor.

Opiata Salomonis. Salomon's Opiate. 
℞. Citri Saccharo conditi,viij.℞. Citron condited with Sugar,℥ viij.
Conservae Oxytriphylli, Conserve of Wood-Sorrel, 
Florum Rorismarini, & Flowers of Rosemary, and 
Buglossi, an.ij.Bugloss, an.℥ ij.
Mithridatii veteris,j.Of Mithridate,℥ j.
Rosarum Rubrarum Exungulat. siccarum, Red-Roses dry'd and cleans'd, 
Radicum Enulae Campanae, & Roots of Elecampane, and 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan-Dittany, 
Seminis Contra-Vermes, Wormseed, and 
Citri mundati, Seeds of Citron cleans'd, 
Cardui Benedicti, Carduus Benedictus, and 
Rasurae Cornu Cervi, an.℥ ss.Shavings of Harts. horn, an.℥ ss.
Corticis Citri sicci, Dry'd Citron-rind, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow-Saunders, 
Radicis Gentianae, Root of Gentian, 
Ossis e Corde Cervi, an,ʒ ij.Bone of a Deer's-heart, an.ʒ ij.
Cinnamomi, Cinnamon, 
Macis, Mace, 
Caryophyllorum, & Cloves, and 
Cardamomi minoris, an.ʒ j.Lesser Cardamoms, an.ʒ j.
Grana Juniperi in Aceto scillitico per noctem infusa,No. xxiv.Juniper-berries infus'd a whole night in Vinegar of Squills,No. xxiv.

Make up the Opiate with Syrup of the Juice of Citrons.

Foubert was the first that publish'd this Opiate, and would have you to believe that one Salomon was the first that made it. It is so set down in Reneus and Bauderon. The [Page 151] quantity of the Ingredients is however different in some things. Particularly the Bone of Deers-heart is not mention'd in any of the Editions of Bauderon, whether it were to spare cost, or out of inadvertency, I will not determine. No matter who was the Authour of this Opiate, but we may be assur'd that it ought to have its place in this Pharmacopoea. It may be also observ'd, that this Receipt is somewhat different from the rest, but the alterations are certainly for the better.

The Sugar in Powder is here very unnecessary, because all the Ingredients are to be incorporated with Syrup of Citron, which has in it self Sugar enough without needing any more in the Opiate. Red-Roses dry'd are to be preferr'd before the Conserve, for the reasons giv'n in the Diascordium. The Conserve of Wood-Sorrel is preferr'd be­fore Sorrel, because it is a Cordial incomparably much better. The dry Root of Ele­campane is put instead of the Conserve, but in lesser quantity, out of regard to the Sugar, which makes at least two thirds of the Conserve; as also to the moisture and weight of the Roots, when it is us'd instead of the Conserve. The Leaves of Cretan-Dittany, much augment the force of the Opiate. The flowers of Rosemary and Bugloss, will become almost impalpable in beating in the Mortar.

To prepare this Opiate, cut the dry Citron-peel, and beat it in a great Brass-Mortar with the Saunders, then add the Roots of Elecampane, Dittany, and Gentian, the bone of Deer's-heart, the shavings of Harts-horn, and mingling by little and little all the Seeds, and other Ingredients which are to be pulveriz'd, and also the infus'd Juniper­berries infus'd the night before in Vinegar of Squills. Pass the Powder through a silk­sieve; Bruise the Citron-rind condited in a Marble-Mortar with the Conserves of Rose­mary and Bugloss-Flowers, and pass them through a hair-sieve, the wrong side uppermost. Then moist'n this Pulp with about twice as much the weight of Syrup of Citron, such as is sold in the Shops, in which mixture incorporate the Mithridate, and by little and little, and alternatively the Powders, and the rest of the Syrup, the proportion whereof may be three times the weight of the Powder, though the Authour prescribes no more then to give the Opiate its due consistency. There is no fire to be us'd for the mixture of this Opiate, which is to be put up close in a white Gally-pot for use.

This Opiate is good against the Pestilence, and all Epidemic Diseases. It strength'ns the Heart and Stomach, kills the Worms in the Stomach and Bowels, resists putrefaction, stays Vomiting, creates an Appetite, and helps digestion. It is much us'd in Languedoc. The Dose and manner of taking it is the same with Diascordium, and Confection of Jacinth.

Antidotum Orvietanum. An Orvietan Antidote. 
℞. Radicum Scorzonerae, ℞. Roots of Vipers-grass, 
Carlinae, Carline-Thistle, 
Imperatoriae, Masterwort, 
Angelicae, Angelica, 
Bistortae, Snakeweed, 
Aristolochiae tenuis, Thin Birthwort, 
Contra-yervae, Contra-yerva, 
Dictamni Albi, White-Dittany, 
Galangae, Galanga, 
Gentianae, Gentian, 
Costi, Costus, 
Acori veri, True Acorus, 
Seminis Petroselini Macedonici, Seed of Macedonian Stone-Parsley, 
Foliorum Salviae, Leaves of Sage, 
Rorismarini, Rosemary, 
Galegae, Goats-Rue, 
Cardui Benedicti, Blessed Thistle, 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan-Dittany, 
Baccarum Lauri, & Juniperi, an.j.Berries of Laurel, and Juniper, an.℥ j.
Cinnamomi, Cinamon, 
Caryophyllorum, Gillow-flowers, 
Macis, an.℥ ss.Mace, an.℥ ss.
Viperarum siccarum cum cordibus & Hepa­tibus, & Dry'd Vipers with the Hearts and Li­vers, and 
[Page 152] Theriacae Veteris, an.iv.Old Treacle, an.℥ iv.
Mellis opt. despumati,lb viij.Best clarify'd Honey,lb viij.

The good effects that the Orvietan well-prepar'd has formerly produc'd, has giv'n occasion to divers cheats, to use all their endeavours to make the World believe, that either they or some of their Predecessors have been the sole inventers thereof, and that only they had the true Receipt. Insomuch that several of these Impostors have over­spread Provinces and Kingdoms, and under the fraudulent appearance of some good success, by pantalooning and buffooning it, before the credulous people in public places, have caught them by their Money, and got considerable sums together, by the extraordinary vent of their suppos'd Orvietan. Considering the great quantity whereof, it was impossible for them to have found the necessary Ingredients, or to have had time to make a just Preparation, if they had either been willing, or had been able. Whence it has come to pass, that in several places they have not been able to secure themselves upon their Stages from the Poysons that have been brought them, by Persons that were not of their own confederacy, no more then from the bitings of Asps and Vipers, with which they had not been before familiar. Had these Impostors met with distrust­ful persons that took delight to discover their Impostures, they had not over-run so ma­ny Countries, nor cousen'd such a World of people; nor would they have had such ea­sie Licenses to prepare and sell unpunish'd a Medicine that ought not to pass the hands of any but Men of credit and understanding.

All the Leaves and Roots must be dry'd and pulveriz'd together in a great Brass-Mortar, beginning with the most solid. Pass them through a silk-sierce cover'd, and having scumm'd the Honey, without any addition of moisture, add some part of the Powder to it, and continue to mingle alternatively sometimes the Honey, and some­times the Powder, till the whole be incorporated, and reduc'd to the consistency of a soft Electuary, which you must let alone to cool, and then put up in a Pot close stopt for your use.

The proportion of Honey is larger here then for the Treacle of the Ancients, be­cause there is neither Oyl of Nutmegs, nor Balsom, nor Turpentine, nor any other juice to officiate for the Honey; and for that otherwise, the dryness of the Powders would predominate over the Honey, suck up the Moisture, and drying the Electuary, would give way for the Air to enter and corrupt the whole Mass.

Orvietan thus prepar'd is of great efficacy against all sorts of Poysons, against the Small-pox, Measles, and all sorts of Epidemic Diseases. It is also proper against all cold Diseases of the Brain and Stomach, and against all Windy-cholicks. The Dose is from a Scruple to a Dram, and sometimes to two, for strong persons. It may be tak'n upon the point of a Knife, or wrapt up like a Bolus, or dissolv'd in Wine, or some Cor­dial Liquor.

Electuarium de Satyrio. Satyrion Electuary. 
℞. Radicum Satyrii succulentarum in aqua Naphae ad mollitiem coctarum,iv.℞. The Juicy-roots of Satyrion boyl'd ve­ry soft in Orange-flower-water,℥ iv.
Radicis Eringii conditae, Root of Eringo's condited, 
Pistaciarum mundatarum, Pistaches cleans'd, 
Confectionis Alkermes cum Moscho & Ambra, an.ij.Confectio Alkermes with Musk and Am­ber, an.℥ ij.
Nucis moschatae conditae, Nutmegs condited, 
Zinziberis conditi, an.j.Ginger condited, an.℥ j.
Renum Scincorum, Kidneys of Land-Crocodiles, 
Priapi, & Pizzle, and 
Testiculorum Cervi, Stones of a Deer, 
Pulveris Viperini, an.ʒ vj.Powder of Vipers, an.ʒ vj.
Ambrae Grisiae, Ambergrise, 
Seminis Erucae, Seeds of Rocket, and 
Fraxini, Ash, 
Piperis longi, & Long-Pepper, and 
[Page 153] Cardamomi minoris, an.ʒ j ss.Lesser Cardamoms, an.ʒ j ss
Moschi Orientalis,ʒ ssOriental Musk,ʒ ss
Oleorum Cinnamomi, & Oyls of Cinnamon, and 
Caryophillorum, an.gutt. vj.Cloves, an.drops vj.

We shall meet within several Dispensatories several Receipts of Diasatyrion, or Ele­ctuaries resembling it in name and qualities. But you shall hardly find one whose In­gredients are more proper to produce the Effects expected from such a Composition, or whose quantities are more regular.

Take the Roots of Satyrion well grown, casting away the Fibers and wither'd parts. Cleanse them from their Rind and all superfluities, and boil them gently in Orange­flower water, in a glaz'd earthen-Pot cover'd, 'till they are sufficiently tender; then bruise them in a Marble Mortar, and pass them through a Hair-Seve turn'd the wrong­side uppermost. In the same manner beat and fift the condited Eringo-Root, the Pi­staches, the Nutmegs and the Ginger; Rasp the Harts-Pizzle, cut the Stones small, being both dry'd by fire in a Chimney, and beat them in a Brass-Mortar with the Pep­per, Cardamoms, Seeds, Scinc's reins, and Vipers dry'd; and pass the powder through a silk-Sieve cover'd; bruise the Musk apart, mixing with it never so little Sugar candy'd; and the Ambergreese also apart, mixing with it some drops of Oyl of Cloves; then mingle the Pulps with the Confection of Alkermes, all the Powders and Oyls, in a Marble-Mortar with a wooden-Pestle, adding as much Syrup of Gillow­flowers as is requisite to give the whole a due consistence of an Electuary: Then put it up close for use.

This Electuary is very proper to restore decay'd strength; it fortifies and heats those that the Latins call frigidos & maleficiatos, frigid and bewitch'd: It multiplies Seed, and provokes and disposes people to Lust. It may be us'd by both Sexes; but the Musk and the Ambergrise must be left out, when giv'n to Women that cannot away with sweet scents; the Dose is from one dram to two. This Electuary is to be tak'n fast­ing Morning and Evening in Bolus, drinking after it a Glass of Spanish-wine, where­in you may also dissolve the Electuary. It may be used as often as occasion requires; and if it be extraordinary, take half an Ounce.

Philonium Magnum. The great Philonium, or Pain­asswager. 
℞. Seminis Hyosciami, & ℞. Seed of Henbane, and 
Papaveris Albi, an.ʒ v.White Poppy, an.ʒ v.
Extract. Opii,ʒ ij ss.Extract of Opium,ʒ ij ss.
Cassiae ligneae, Cassia-wood, 
Cinnamomi, an.ʒ j ss.Cinnamon, an.ʒ j ss.
Seminis Apii, Seed of Parsley, 
Petroselini Macedonici, Macedonian stone-Parsley, 
Feniculi, Fennel, 
Dauci Cretici, Cretan wild Carrot, 
Costi, Costus, 
Myrrhae, Myrrh, 
Castorei, an.ʒ j.Castoreum, an.ʒ j.
Croci, Saffron, 
Pyrethri, Pellitory of Spain, 
Nardi Indicae, an.j.Indian Spikenard, an.℈ j
Mellis optimi despumat.ix.Best clarify'd Honey.℥ ix.

Wonder not that Euphorbium is left out of this Composition; especially since the Ancients made use of it, pretending it was a true Corrector of Opium. But they that understand the nature of Euphorbium, and know that it is a Gum very hot, ve­ry biting, and very violent in its operations, when it is us'd but in a small quantity, will never question but that it has great need it self of being corrected, and finding that it is never to be mix'd but among Remedies that may temper its heat, qualifie its acrimony, and refrain its violence will never use it at all in any Remedies whatsoe­ver to be taken inwardly. Its extraordinary concussion of the brain, caus'd by the [Page 154] least particle of Euphorbium taken at the nostril; and the violent and long continu­ed sneezings which it provokes, are enough to make any person fear the violence of a Gum so terrible to those who have beheld its effects. And the more reason they will have to fear them, when they consider that Euphorbium is one of the most violent Purgers that are to be found amongst simple Drugs, so that the weight of two grains will make an extraordinary havock. The heat of Costus, or of any of the other ingre­dients that make up this Opiate, is inconsiderable to that of this Gum. And it is no wonder that Opium so often us'd to stop the violent effects of purgative Medicines, is not powerful enough to tame the violent effects of Euphorbium. Nevertheless there is some probability that the apprehension which the Ancients had of the coldness of Opium, mov'd them to have recourse to extraordinary hot Remedies, to counterbal­lance that vainly imagin'd coldness; not considering that all the parts of Opium, ex­cept the earthy, are hot, as they will find that examine them.

Pulverize those Ingredients that are to be pulveriz'd, and pass them through a silk'n-Sierce cover'd. Dissolve the Extract of Opium in about an Ounce of good Malmsey, and having incorporated it with a small quantity of scumm'd Honey warm, add by degrees sometimes the Powder, and sometimes the Honey, till the whole be dispens'd, and that all the Ingredients are well mix'd and united together. Then when the Opiate is cold put it up in a white earthen Pot.

Philonium appeases all inward pains that happen to the Stomach, Belly, Hypochon­drium's, Liver, Spleen, Reins, and Matrix, especially proceeding from a cold cause. It dissipates the Hiccup and Ventosities, moderates the violence of Coughs; is highly esteem'd against Dysenteries, and internal fluxes of blood; it remedies difficulties of Urine; it relieves against Pleurisies, stops Fluxes, restores the weak and languishing. A­bove all things, it is highly commended against Cholicks. It may be taken in Bolus, or dissolv'd in Wine, or in Cordial water. The Dose is from half a Scruple to half a Dram. It is commonly made use of in Anodyne Clysters, from half a Dram to two. It is also us'd in Narcotick Liniments, mix'd with Ʋnguentum populeum, or other Medicines.

Electuarium de Baccis Lauri. Electuary of Laurel Berries. 
℞. Baccarum Lauri, & ℞. Laurel Berries, and 
Foliorum Rutae siccorum, an.ʒ x.Dry'd Leaves of Rue, an.ʒ x.
Sagapeni, Sagapene, 
Opoponacis, an.℥ ss.Opoponax, an.℥ ss.
Seminis Ameos, Seeds of Bishops-weed, 
Cumini, Cumin, 
Nigellae Romanae, Roman Nigell, 
Ligustici, Libistick, 
Carvi, Caraway, 
Dauci Cretici, Cretan wild Carrot, 
Acori veri, True Acorus, 
Origani, Origany, 
Amygdalarum amararum, Sweet Almonds, 
Piperis longi, Long Pepper, 
Nigri, Black Pepper, 
Mentastri, Wild Mint, 
Castorei, an.ʒ ij.Castoreum, an.ʒ ij.
Mellis opt. despumat. triplex pondus. Of the best despumated Honey, treble the weight. 

The Berries of Laurel must not be inferiour in quantity to the Leaves of Rue, be­cause they are the foundation of the whole. The quantities of the Sagapenum and Opoponax are alike, because they are alike in qualities. The rest require no alte­ration.

The Preparation of this Electuary is very easie. For having pulveriz'd the Gums among the dry Ingredients, and pass'd the whole through a silk'n Sierce cover'd, in­corporate the Powder at several intervals, by little and little, with three times the weight of warm purifi'd Honey: And put up the Electuary when it is cold.

[Page 155]This Electuary is very much recommended for the ease and cure of windy Cholicks, and particularly the Iliac passion. It is proper in all difficulties of Urine, and against Hysteric passions. The Dose is from a scruple to a dram, and sometimes to two: For Clysters it is generally prescrib'd from half an Ounce to an Ounce in proper Deco­ctions.

Electuarium Micleta. Electuary of Micleta 
℞. Mirabolanorum Citrinorum, ℞. Mirabolans yellow, 
Chebulorum, Chebula, 
Indorum, Indian, 
Bellericorum, & Bellerica, and 
Emblicorum mundatorum, an.ʒ v.Emblica, an.ʒ v.
In pulverem redigantur & leviter torrefi­ant, deinde Reduce them into Powder, and parch them, then 
℞. Seminum Nasturtii, ℞. Seeds of Cresses, 
Anisi, Anise, 
Cumini, Cumin, 
Carvi, Caraway, 
Feniculi, & Fennel, 
Ameos, an.ʒ iij.Bishops-weed, an.ʒ iij.
Terantur, pauco aceto irrorentur, & sic­centur, tunc Bruise them, sprinkle them with a little Vine­gar, dry them, then 
℞. Spodii ex Ebore, ℞. Spodium of Ivory, 
Balaustiorum, Pomegranate Flowers, 
Sumach, Sumach, 
Mastich. Mastich, 
Gummi Arabici, an.ʒ ij ss.Gum Arabic, an.ʒ ij ss.

Take away the Kernels from the Mirabolans, and make use of the dry pulp that co­vers them, which you must pulverize, and lightly parch in an Iron-Skillet or Pan over a small fire, stirring the Powder often with a Spatula. Pulverize the Seeds grosly, and sprinkle them with good Vinegar, and then having dry'd them, pound them out­right in a large Brazen Mortar among the Pomegranate Flowers, the Spode, the Su­mach, the Gum Arabic, and the powder of Mirabolans, and pass them all through a silk Sieve. Pulverize the Mastich apart, which must be chosen in tears, which may be easily done, by adding some few drops of water to keep it from sticking to the Mortar and Pestle. Mix the Powders very well, and incorporate them at several re­petitions with four times as much the weight of warm Syrup of Mirtles, and the Electuary will be well made, and fit to be put up in a proper Pot to be kept for use.

The Spode which is but calcin'd Ivory, is not to be made use of in Compositions, which require the principal parts of the Ivory, that consist of its volatile salt, spirit and oyl, which are wholly dissipated by Calcination: But the principal operation of this Electuary being founded only upon the astringency of the Ingredients that com­pound it, and the terrestrial and restringent quality of the Ivory remaining after Cal­cination, it may be here prescrib'd well enough to the purpose.

This Electuary is very binding, and proper for the cure of Dysenteries, and all sorts of Fluxes of the belly; it serves to stay all internal Fluxes of blood, as also of the Hemorrhoids; it is also good to stay vomiting, and the inordinate flowing of the Menstruums, the Whites, and old Gonorrheas, difficult to cure. The Dose is from half a dram to two drams. It may be taken upon the point of a Knife, or in Bolus; or else dissolved in red Wine, or some astringent Liquor. It is also prescrib'd in astringent Clysters from half an Ounce to an Ounce.

[Page 156]

Electuarium Aperiens Catharticum D. D. D'AQUIN. An opening purging Electuary of Monsieur D'AQUIN. 
Foliorum Sennae Orientalis Munda­torum,ʒ iiij.℞ The cleansed leaves of Oriental Sen­na,ʒ iiij.
Diacrydion, Diagridion 
Trochischorum Alhandal Trochisks of Alhandal, 
Agarici Electi, Chosen Agaric, 
Rhabarbari, & Rhubarb, and 
Seminis Violarum, an.j ss.Seeds of Violets, an.℥ j ss.
Sagapeni, Sagapeni, 
Myrrhae, Myrrhe, 
Ammoniaci, an.℥ j.Ammoniac, an.℥ j.
Antimonii Diaphoretici, Diaphoretic Antimony, 
Mercurii dulcis, & Mercurius dulcis, 
Pulveris trium Santalorum, an.ʒ vj.Powder of the Three Saunders, an.ʒ vj.
Salis Martis, & Salt of Iron, 
Tamarisci, an.℥ ss.Tamarisks, 
Mellis opt. absque Liquoris additione despu­mati,lb vj.The best Honey despumated without the addition of vj.

After you have carefully chosen and cleansed all the Ingredients of this Electuary, and got the Sagapenum, the Myrrhe, and Ammoniac in pure tears, pulverize the Gums among the other dry Medicaments. But if you find them a little too clammy, mix no more then the Powder can well bear without being too viscous, and reserve the rest of the Gums to melt in a great Brass-Mortar heated; and there incorporate them first with some small portion of the despumated Honey prescribed for the Electuary, then mix the Salts, and continue adding by degrees, sometimes the Honey, sometimes the Pow­ders, till all the Ingredients are perfectly well united, adding at the latter end the Mercu­rius dulcis, and the Diaphoretic Antimony: by this means the Electuary will be well made and fit to be put up in a close Pot.

Monsieur D'AQƲIN gave me the Receipt of this Electuary to impart it to publick view, as a Remedy very proper to open obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Mesentery and the Matrix, and at the same time to void the tenacious humours that ga­ther in those parts, for want of their wonted passage. The good effects of it will also appear if it be rightly administred in Cachexies, Quartane Agues, Hypocondriac di­stempers, and Dropsies; and particularly in the Diseases of Women, as the Green-Sick­ness, retention of the Menstruums, and in all the Maladies and Symptoms that proceed from obstructions of the Matrix. The dose is from two drams to half an ounce; and to six drams to Hydropsical persons that are of age, where a less dose does not work effectually. It may be given in Bolus, dissolv'd in proper Liquors, or mix'd with o­ther Medicaments. But then regard must be had to the nature of the purgative Medi­cines with which it is joyn'd, and the Dose of this Electuary must be proportion'd ac­cordingly.

Electuarium Catholicum dupli­cato Rhabarbaro. Catholicon, or universal purging Ele­ctuary with a double quantity of Rhubarb. 
℞. Polypodii Quercini contusi,viij.℞. Polypody of the Oak bruised,℥ viij.
Seminis Feniculi,℥ j ss.Fennel-seed,ʒ j ss.
Coquantur igne moderato in aquae communis lb viij. ad dimidiae partis consumptionem; colentur & exprimantur; colatura cum sac­chari opt, lb iiij. coquatur ad Electuarii mol­lis consistentiam: ab igne remotis adde Pul­parum Cassiae & Tamarindarum Orienta­lium inspissatarum, an.iiij.Boyl them over a moderate fire in lb viij. of common water, to the consumption of the half part, strain and press them. Boyl the strain'd Liquor with lb iiij. of the finest Sugar, to the consistence of an Electuary: when they are taken off the [Page 157] fire, add to them Pulps of Cassia and thicken'd Oriental Tamarinds together, an.℥ iiij.
Deinde sensim permisce Pulveres sequentes. Then by degrees mingle the following Powders. 
℞. Rhabarbari Electi, & Foliorum Sennae Orientalium mundatorum, an.iiij.℞. Choice Rhubarb and Leaves of Orien­tal Senna cleansed, an.℥ iiij.
Seminis Violarum & Seeds of Violets and 
Anisi, an.ij.Anise, an.℥ ij.
Glycyrrhisae rasae,j.Scrap'd Liquorice,℥ j.
Seminum quatuor frig. maj. mundat. an.℥ ss.The four greater cold Seeds cleansed, an.℥ ss.

You will find that this Electuary differs in many things from that of the Ancients, as also of the Moderns: But the difference seems to be very rational. In the first place the quantity of Polypodie prescrib'd by the Ancients, is remov'd and added to the De­coction; that by imparting to the Electuary the vertue of all the Polipody to prevent an inconvenience, which is, that the Polipody being of it self very dry, and being moisten'd with the Decoction that remains among the Sugar, swells and becomes by that means thicker than the rest of the Electuary, and is less pleasing to the tast and more difficult to be dissolv'd.

The taking quite away the two drachms of Sugar candi'd, and so much Sugar pennet, as the Ancients had prescrib'd in this Electuary, will be no wonder to those, who shall consider how little they avail in so small a quantity. Whereas the Rhubarb doubl'd in its quantity renders the Electuary not only more effectual, but answers the proportion of the Powders, and supplies the place of the Polipody cut off. Nor must we disap­prove the choice here made of Violet-seed, instead of the dry'd Flowers; in regard this Seed contains the principal vertue of the Plant: whereas the Flowers together with their colour have lost whatever they had of good. Upon which take this advertisement, that certain Violet-flowers, which they dry in great quantities in Languedoc, and which they sell for Violet-flowers are no other then the Flowers of that Plant which Authors call Viola Tricolor or Flos Trinitatis, in English Pansies, or Hartsease, whose quantities are very different from the true Violets.

There are some that beat the Rhubarb a-part, but there is no necessity for that, in re­gard it may be very well beaten among the other dry ingredients. The Liquorice must be scraped, and the Senna and Annise very well cleans'd, and beaten all together with the Rhubarb, the Violet, and cold Seeds, and passed through a silk'n-seirce. The Powder being made, bruise the Polipody very well, and boyl it over a moderate Fire in lb. viij. of Water, as prescrib'd, adding at the last the Fennel bruis'd. Then strain the Decoction, and press out the sediment. Take sixteen ounces of good Cassia and ex­tract the pulp, and pass it through a hair-sieve revers'd, to get four Ounces, which you must reserve. Moisten with the Decoction, six ounces of Oriental Tamarinds, and having held them for some time over the hot Embers, beat them in a Marble-Morter with a Wooden Pestle, and pass the pulp through a hair-sieve revers'd, repeating the same operation till all the pulp be pass'd through, except two ounces of Lee's. Then evapo­rate the moisture of the pulps, stirring them from time to time with a wodden Spatula till they are sufficiently thicken'd. Then boyl the Sugar with the rest of the Decoction, to the consistence of a soft Electuary, and having put the pulps into a Bason, pour upon them some part of the Syrup, and having incorporated them together, add at several repetitions, sometimes Powder, sometimes Syrup, till all the ingredients are perfectly mingl'd. And when the Electuary is cold put it up in a Syrup-pot.

This Electuary is called Catholicon, because it is an Universal purger of ill humors out of the body; as being compos'd of Medicaments of which some are proper to purge Flegm, others Choller, and others Melancholly; for, though I do not believe that a­ny simple or compound Medicament is able to purge Choler, or any other single hu­mour, and separate it from the rest which are in the Bowels and Stomach, yet may we be­lieve this Electuary to be an Universal Purger very effectual and very gentle. Which makes it often us'd in continu'd and intermitting Agues, in Dysenteries, Diarrheas, and defects of retention in the Stomack and Bowels. It may be given to all Ages and Sexes, particularly to Women with Child; because as it gently purges off the ill humors, it strengthens all the parts and leaves no bad effects behind it. The Dose is from two [Page 158] Drachms to an Ounce. It is giv'n in Bolus, or dissolv'd in some distill'd water or pro­per decoction. It may be also mix'd with other Medicaments, or dissolv'd in Glisters, and then the Dose is from an Ounce to an Ounce and a half.

Electuarium Lenitivum. Lenitive Electuary. 
℞. Hordei Mundati, ℞. Cleans'd French Barley, 
Polypodii Quercini, Polypody of the Oak, 
Fol. sennae Oriental. mundat. Cleans'd leaves of Oriental Senna, 
Passularum purgatarum, an.ij.Ston'd Raisins, an.℥ ji.
Jujubarum, Jujubs, 
Sebesten, Sebesten, 
Tamarindorum, & Tamarinds, and 
Prunorum Dulcium enucleatorum, an.j.Sweet Prunes ston'd, an.℥ j.
Mercurialis,℥ j ssHerb Mercury, 
Violarum recentium, & Capill. Ven. Mon­speliensis, an.M j.Fresh Violets, and Venus-hair of Mont­peliter, an.M j.
Glycyrrhizae,℥ ssLiquorice,℥ ss
Coquantur ex arte in Aquae communis lb ix. In Colatura expressa dissolve, Boil them according to Art in lb ix. of ordinary water: in the Liquor strain'd and press'd, dissolve 
Sacchari optimi,lb ix.Of the best Sugar,lb ix.
Coque ad Electuarii mollis consistentiam: ab igne remotis adde, Boil them to the consistence of a soft E­lectuary: Take them off the fire, and add, 
Pulparum Cassia, Pulps of Cassia, 
Tamarindorum, Tamarinds, 
Prunorum Dulcium, Sweet Prunes, 
Conservae Violarum, & Conserve of Violets, 
Pulveris Sennae mundat. an.vj.Powder of Senna cleans'd, an.℥ vj.
Rhei Elect. & Choice Rhubarb, and 
Seminis Anisi pulveratorum, an.℥ j.Anniseed powder'd, an.℥ j.

In regard it is uncertain who was the Author of this Electuary, it happens that the Receipts of it are very various in dispensatories, and that the quantities of the In­gredients are ill proportioned. For they that understand the nature of the Ingredients of this Electuary and their preparation and proportion, can never think six ounces of Sugar, set down in several receipts, enough for the Pulps and Powders in this Electuary; and that there was reason to augment it too two pound. They will also acknowledge that the Rhubarb is added with as good judgment, to make the Electuary more effectual, though left out by others.

Boyl the cleansed Barley in the water for a good hour, together with the bruis'd Po­lypody; then add the Fruit, cleans'd and cut, and then the Mercury, which must boyl with the rest above a quarter of an hour; then put in the Senna, Liquorice, Venus Hair, and Violets, and having giv'n them some bublings, take the Decoction from off the Fire, and when it is half cold, strain and press is forth, and having added to it, two pound of Sugar, boyl them together to the consistence of a soft Electuary, and when it is off the Fire, incorporate by little and little the Pulps, Powders, and conserve of Violets stampt in a Marble-Mortar and pass'd through a hair-sieve, and when the whole is well mix'd and cold, put it up.

The vertues of this Electuary are very near the same with those of Catholicon, but somewhat inferior: However it is more proper to soften and make the passages slippery. The dose and manner of taking are almost the same with those of Catholicon; but it is more commonly us'd in Glisters then otherwise.

Electuarium Lenitivum, pro Clysteribus. Lenitive Electuary for Glysters. 
℞. Polypodii Quercini contusi,lb iij.℞. Polypody of the Oak bruis'd,lb iij.
Foliorum Malvae, Leaves of Mallows, 
[Page 159] Altheae, Marsh-Mallows, 
Violanae, March-Violets, 
Parietariae, Paritary of the Wall, 
Mercurialis, & Mercury, and 
Senecionis, an.M iiij.Groundsel, an.M iiij.
Florum Camomil. & Flowers of Camomil, and, 
Melilot. an.M ij.Melilot, an.M ij.
Coquantur ex Arte in aquae communis lb xxx. Colatura cum mellis communis lb xxxx. coquatur ad Electuarii mollis consistentiam; deinde dilue Boil all these according to Art in lb xxx. of ordinary water; boil the strain'd Liquor with lb xxxx. of common Ho­ney to the consistence of a soft Ele­ctuary; then mix 
Pulpae prunorum dulcium,lb iiij.Pulp of sweet Prunes,lb iiij.
Cassiae, & Cassia, and 
Tamarindorum, ij.Tamarinds, ij.
Postmodum adde pulveres sequentes, Then add the following Powders, 
℞. Radicum Brioniae, ℞, Roots of Briony, 
Hermodactylorum, Hermodactyles, 
Liquiritiae, Liquorice, 
Foliorum Sennae Orientalis, Leaves of Oriental Senna, 
Summitatum Gratiolae, Tops of Hedg-Hysop, 
Seminis Violarum, & Seeds of Violets, and 
Anisi, an.xx.Anise, an.℥ xx.
Rhabarbari, & Rhubarb, and 
Agarici, an.ix.Agaric,℥ ix.

This Electuary, which may be call'd Lenitive for Glysters, will work good effects, and may be long kept, if following this Receipt, you are careful to prepare it right­ly. I know there are some persons that do not so much regard it; who rather chu­sing to sell bad Glysters then good, make up their Lenitive with the worst Ingredients in their Shops, insomuch that they will put in the Sediments of the Infusions of their Roots, mingling the Pulp of Prunes with a little Honey, and giving that the Name of Lenitive Electuary. But these bad Examples are to be laid aside, as well for the easiness of the preparation, the smalness of the expence, as for the good which they may do, and the facility of being detected by the colour and consistence, wherein it very much resembles Catholicon.

Bruise the Polypody, and boil it in the water for a good hour; then boil the Herbs, being cut, for half an hour, after which add the Flowers; and having let them bub­ble a while, strain and press out the Decoction; wherein having dissolv'd the Honey prescrib'd, and having pass'd them through a Hair-Sieve, boil them over a moderate fire to the consistence of a soft Electuary: Scum it, and when it is half cold, mix the Pulps first by degrees, and then the Powders, observing the same method as for other soft Electuaries. When it is cold, put it up close.

The use of this Lenitive is so familiar, that I need not insist upon it; being only us'd in Clysters, to which purpose it is dissolv'd in some proper Decoction with Ho­neys, Sugar, Oyls, or other Remedies. The Dose is from half an Ounce to an Ounce, and sometimes to an Ounce and a half.

Electuarium Diaprunum, Simplex & Compositum. Electuary of Prunes, Simple and Compound. 
℞. Pruna Damascena recentia & matura,No. C.℞. Damasus Prunes new and ripe,No. C.
Coquantur igne lento in Aquae,lb iij.Boil them over a soft fire in three pints of water, 
Deinde per Cribrum inversum trajician­tur, & pulpa igne lento inspissetur & servetur. Then pass them through a reverst Sieve, and thick'n the Pulp with a gentle heat, and keep it. 
In decocto prunorum leviter coquatur, In the decoction of the Prunes gently boil 
Seminis violarum contusi,j.Violet-seed bruis'd,℥ j.
[Page 160] Colatura cum Sacchari opt. lb ij. ad Ele­ctuarii mollis consistentiam coquatur, Boil the straining with two pound of the best Sugar, to the consistence of a soft Electuary, 
Parum refrigerato permisce, When it is a little cold, mix 
Pulpa praedict. prunorum,lb j.Of the foresaid pulp of Prunes,lb j.
Pulpae Cassiae, & Pulp of Cassia, and 
Tamarindorum, an.j.Tamarinds, an.℥ j.
Et tandem sequentia pulverata, And then these following powders, 
℞. Rhabarb. Elect. & ℞. Choice Rhubarb, 
Seminis Violarum, an.j.Violet-seeds, an.℥ j.
Rosarum rubrarum exungulatarum, Red roses cleans'd from their white bottoms, 
Santali Citrini & Rubri, Sanders Yellow and Red, 
Rasurae Eboris, Shavings of Yvory, 
Succi Glycyrrhizae, an.ʒ vj.Juice of Liquorice, an.ʒ vj.
Sem. 4. frig. mag. mund. an.ʒ j.Four cold seeds cleans'd, an.ʒ j.
Quod Compositum sive Laxativum fieri po­terit, si Electuarii cuique librae adhuc Calenti, Diagridii subtiliter pulverati ʒ ss permisceatur. Which may be made Compound or Lax­ative, if to every pound of the Ele­ctuary yet warm, you add half a dram of Diagridion finely pulveriz'd. 

The Dose of Rhubarb and Violet-seed was judiciously augmented, to render it a little more purgative. The seeds of Endive, Barberries and Purslane, were on pur­pose left out, as useless; as also the Gum-Tragacanth, which was only a Glue to the Electuary: The yellow Sanders was preferr'd before the white; as also the shavings of Yvory before Spodium, for the reasons already recited. The rest of the Ingredi­ents were not chang'd, but their Dose only augmented, to the end the just proportions of Powder might be found in the Electuary, which must be thus prepar'd.

Having put the Prunes into an Earthen-glaz'd Pot, boil them over a soft fire in three pints of water, till they are very soft; then leave the Decoction in the pot: pass the Prunes through a Hair-Sieve reverst, to get the Pulp, the superfluous moisture whereof you must evaporate in a Dish over a soft fire, stirring it from time to time with a Spa­tula, till it be conveniently thick. In the mean time, prepare an ounce of Cassia, and an ounce of Tamarinds, as I have already directed, and mix them, and set them by with the Prunes: Then gently boil the Violet-seed bruis'd in the reserv'd Decoction of Prunes, the Liquor whereof must be afterwards strain'd; and having added there­to two pound of good Sugar, boil them over a soft fire to the consistence of a thin E­lectuary. When it is half cold, mix first the Pulps, and then the Powders; and when the whole is well incorporated, and cold, put up the Electuary for use.

If you would prepare a Compound Diaprunum, and more Laxative, mingle half a dram of Diagridion finely powder'd with every pound of Electuary warm, and take care that the Union and mixture be very exactly made.

Simple Diaprunum is rarely prescrib'd, as being not purgative at all; but the Com­pound is us'd to purge choleric Serosities: It is us'd in continu'd and intermitting A­gues, that proceed from superfluity of choler; it is also prescrib'd in diseases of the Breast, the Kidneys, and Bladder; for it makes the passages slippery, and gently carries away the matters there detain'd, and tempers the heat of the parts where they were lodg'd. It is sometimes taken alone, sometimes mix'd with other Purgatives in Bolus, or dissolv'd in Medicines, or other proper Liquors. The Dose of the Laxative is from one Dram to five or six, and sometimes to an Ounce for strong Constitutions. The Simple Diaprunum is giv'n from two Drams to an Ounce, in Diseases that require not much Purgation.

Electuarium Diaphoenicum. Electuary of Dates. 
℞. Pulpae Dactylorum in Hydromelite cocto­rum, per cribrum inversum trajectae & in­spissatae, & ℞. Pulp of Dates boil'd in Hydromel, pass'd through a Sieve reverst, and thick'nd, and 
Penidiorum recenter paratorum, ss.Penedice newly prepar'd, an,lb ss.
[Page 161] Amygdalarum dulcium excorticatarum,iij ss.Sweet Almonds, the skins tak'n off,℥iij ss.
Turbith electi,iiij.Chosen Turbith,℥ iiij.
Diagrydii,j ss.Diagrydion,℥j ss.
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Piperis Albi, White Pepper, 
Macis, Mace, 
Cinnamomi, Cinnamon, 
Foliorum Rutae siccorum, Dry-leaves of Rue, 
Seminis Feniculi, Fennel-seed, 
Dauci, an.ij.Wild Carrot-seed, an.℈ ij.
Mellis Despumati,lb ij.Clarifi'd-Honey,lb ij.

I know no ill qualitie in the Dates, that should oblige Mesue and his Disciples to seek for a Corrective, and to macerate them three days in Vinegar before you put them in­to the Electuary. This Correction is as needless as that of Coriander in Vinegar: But the Ancients have fallen into many such Errours, for want of understanding the parts that compose mixt Bodies: But our Moderns are become more Judicious. Fernelius was the first that rejected this Maceration, and directed the boiling them in Hydro­mel; which others induc'd by reason of sense imitated. The other Medicaments are well chosen, and well proportion'd in the Receipt which Fernelius has given of this Electuary.

Having cleans'd the Dates from their inward skin and stones, weigh out about seven Ounces; and having cut or bruis'd them in a Marble-Mortar, boil them over a gen­tle fire in a glaz'd Earthen-pot in two pints of Hydromel, till they are sufficiently ten­der: then beat them in a Marble-Mortar with a Wood'n-Pestle, and pass the Pulp through a Hair-sieve reverst, and set it aside. Peel off the Almond-skins with the point of a Knife: Pulverize together, in a great Brass-Mortar, the Turbith, Ginger, Pepper, Mace, Cinnamon, Leaves of Rue, the Fennel, and wild Carrot-seed, mixing therewith as many peel'd Almonds as the Powder will bear, without growing too fat. The Scammonie must be powder'd apart in the same Mortar, mixing some Almonds with it. Sift both the Powders through a Silk-Sieve; and having well mix'd them, set them aside. Those Almonds that remain'd must be beaten in a Marble-Mortar with the Dates, and pass'd through the same Sieve: Then take two pints of Honey clari­fi'd and boil'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary, the Pennets and the decoction of Dates, and boil them together over a gentle fire, to the consistence mention'd; and when it is half cold, mix the Pulps with it by degrees. You may also set the whole over a very soft fire, and stirring it gently with a Wood'n-Pestle, evaporate the su­perfluous moysture; then taking it off the fire, mix the Powders by degrees, as before.

This Diaphoretic purges alike both Flegm and Choleric Humours: It is useful in con­tinu'd and intermitting Agues; as also against pains in the Stomach that proceed from abundance of Humours. It is very proper to carry away Hydropical Humours, and the Serosities which cause the Sciatica, Rhumatismes, and defluxions upon the Eyes, upon the Teeth, and upon other parts. It may be taken in Bolus, or dissolv'd in Li­quors, or mix'd with other Remedies. The Dose is from one Dram to half an Ounce, and sometimes to a whole Ounce for strong Constitutions.

Benedicta Laxativa. The Blessed Laxative. 
℞. Turbith Electi, ℞. Chosen Turbith, 
Radicis Esulae minoris aceto praeparatae, an.ʒ x.Roots of Pine-spurge prepar'd with Vinegar, an.ʒ x.
Hermodactylorum, Hermodactyles, 
Diagrydii, Diagrydion, 
Rosarum Rubrarum, an.ʒ vj.Red Roses, an.ʒ vj.
Caryophyllorum, Cloves, 
Spicae Nardi, Spikenard, 
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Macro-Piperis, Long Pepper, 
[Page 162] Amomi, Amomum, 
Cardamomi minoris, Lesser Cardamom, 
Seminum Apii, Seeds of Smallage, 
Petroselini, Parsley, 
Carui, Caraway, 
Feniculi, Fennel, 
Asparagi, Asparagus, 
Rusci, Butchers-broom, 
Saxifragiae, Saxifrage, 
Milii solis, Gromel, 
Sal Gemmae, Sal Gemmae, 
Galangae, Galanga, 
Macis, an.ʒ j.Mace, an.ʒ j.
Mellis opt. despumat & cocti,lb ij ss.The best Honey despumated and boil'd,lb ij ss.

Make an Electuary.

Though the smalness of the Root of Pine-spurge may dishearten Apothecaries that complain of their time and pains, it is however to be preferr'd before the Roots of any of the other Spurges, especially the bigger, whose ill qualities are publisht by Mesue, and other Authors. The use which I have made all my life, and which I have seen made with good success for this Composition, and the frequent experience and advantage I have made of the Extract drawn from this Plant, without adding any Cor­rective, confirm me in the Opinion of not imploying any other Root, but that of Pine-spurge.

And though I find no necessity of preparing the Root with Vinegar, yet out of Re­verence to Antiquity, I think that after you have well wash'd and cleans'd these little Roots, instead of steeping them 24 hours in Vinegar, as some do, it will be enough to sprinkle them only, so much as will serve to moisten them; for should they be soak'd in Vinegar, their Milky Juice, wherein resides their chiefest vertue, being there­by dissolv'd, there would only remain the Terrestrial and unprofitable part: But ob­serving my Method, the Roots being impregnated with the vertue of the Vinegar, will preserve all their good qualities.

They that consider how little ten drams of Powder'd-Sugar will advantage this Composition, will think it but reasonable to leave it quite out, and approve the Pre­scription of two pound of despumated Honey, instead of a pound and a half; in re­gard that there being no Liquor prescrib'd in this Electuary, a pound and a half of Ho­ney will not be enough for the quantity and driness of the Powders.

Pulverize all the Ingredients together in a large Brass Mortar, beginning with those which are hardest, and sierce them through a Silk-sieve, but beat and sift the Scammony apart, and mingle it afterwards with the Powders: Then take two pound of fair Honey clarifi'd, and boil'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary; and having heated it a little, incorporate the Powders with it, as already directed, and when the Composition is cold, put it up.

The Blessed Laxative purges Flegme and Serosities, but particularly those of the Joynts. It is also very much recommended to carry off the impurities of the Reins and Bladder, as also of the Matrix. The Dose, and manner of taking, is very near the same with that of Diaphoenicon, but it is more commonly us'd in Clysters, then tak'n inwardly.

Electuarium Caryo-Costinum. Electuary of Cloves and Costus. 
℞. Costi, ℞. Costus, 
Caryophyllorum, Cloves, 
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Cumini, an.ʒ ij.Cumin, an.ʒ ij.
Diagrydii, Diagrydium, 
Hermodactylorum, an.℥ ss.Hermodactyles, an.℥ ss.
Mellis opt. despumat.viij.Honey despumated,℥ viij.

In most Dispensatories, we meet not with above six ounces of Honey prescrib'd, [Page 163] with an equal proportion of Powder: But because this Composition is not much us'd, because all the Ingredients of the Powders are heating and unpleasnt, and for that the whole becomes dry if long kept, it was thought convenient to augment the Dose of Honey to a fourth part: And as for the Wine, because they that prescribe it would have it boil and consume with the Honey, you cannot think that any thing else will remain but the flegmatic and terrestrial part. So that it is better to leave it quite out; since it suffices to take very pure Honey, boil it a little, and scum it off the fire; and when it is half cold, to incorporate the Powders with it, observing the same Rules as for other soft Electuaries.

This Electuary is proper to purge Choleric and Melancholic Serosities. It is us'd in Cachexies, in Maladies that proceed from Viscosity of Humours: It opens Obstructi­ons, and dissolves Tumours in the Bowels: It is often us'd to purge the Gouty, espe­cially when the Humour of the Gout is cold. The Dose is from two drams to half an ounce in Bolus, or dissolv'd in proper Liquors.

Confectio Hamech Correcta. Confection of Hamech Corrected. 
℞. Polypodii quercini contusi, ℞. Polypody of the Oak, bruis'd, 
Passularum mundatarum, & Raisons ston'd, and 
Prunorum Damascenorum, an.iiij.Damask Prunes, an.℥ iiij.
Coquantur ex arte in seri lactis vac­cini lb xij. In decocto percolato, & calido in­funde super calidos Cineres per horas 24. Boyl them in an Earthen-Pot, in twelve pints of Whey made of Cows-milk. In the strain'd and hot Decoction infuse over the warm Embers for 24 hours, 
Mirobalanorum Citrinorum, Of Mirobalans yellow, 
Chebularum, Chebula, 
Indorum contus. Indian bruis'd, 
Seminis Violarum contus. Violet-seed bruis'd, 
Coloquintidis minutim incis. Coloquintida shred small, 
Agarici contus. & Agaric bruis'd, 
Foliorum Sennae mundat. an.ijLeaves of Senna cleans'd, an.℥ ij.
Foliorum Absinthii, & Leaves of Wormwood, and 
Thymi, an.j.Thyme, an.℥ j.
Rosarum Rubrarum, Red-Roses, 
Seminis Anisi, & Anise-seed, and 
Feniculi, an.ʒ vj.Fennel-seed, an.ʒ vj.
Bulliant deinde lento igne per semihoram; & semirefrigerata, manibus diligenter fricentur, colentur & fortiter exprimentur; Colaturae adde succi Fumariae depurati lb ij. Sacchari & Mellis Norbonnensis an. lb iij. & coque ad E­lectuarii mollis consistentiam. His refrigeratis adde, Let them boyl over a soft Fire for half an hour; and being half cold, rub them well between your hands, then strain and press them out hard. To the straining add lb ij. of clarifi'd Juice of Fumitory, of Sugar and Honey of Narbon, an. lb iij. and boyl them to the consistence of a soft Electuary. To these when they are half cold, add 
Pulparum Cassiae, Pulps of Cassia, 
Tamarindorum & Tamarinds, and 
Mannae electi, an.iiij.Choice Manna, an.℥ iiij.
Illisque tandem permisce Pulveres sequen­tes. To all which, lastly, add the following Powders. 
℞. Rhei Electi, ℞. Pickt Rhubarb, 
Agarici albissimi, Whitest Agaric, 
Foliorum Sennae mundatorum, & Leaves of Senna cleans'd, 
Diagrydii, an.jss.Diagrydion, an.℥ jss▪
Myrobalanorum Citrinorum, Mirobalans yellow, 
Indorum, Indian, 
Emblicorum, & Emblic, and 
Bellericorum, Belleric, 
Epithymi, & Epithyme, and 
Seminis Fumariae, an.j.Seed of Fumitory, an.℥ j.
Cinnamomi, Cinnamon, 
Gingib. & Ginger, and 
Seminis Anisi, an.ʒ iij.Anise-seed, an.ʒ iij.

[Page 164]The diversity of Receipts, the ill-proportion'd Quantities, the ill Method which the Ancients prescrib'd for this Composition, have a long time troubl'd the minds of the Apothecaries, especially those who believing it a Crime not to follow punctually the Traditions of their Ancestors, durst not make use of Understanding Physitians, who were able to prescribe any thing more just. For they might well believe, that a great number of Drugs, of a various substance and quality, requir'd diversity of Infusion, and boiling; and that various means and different times were to be made use of, to extract and impart their vertues to the Confection. They might also have consider'd, that it was impossible to continue an Infusion of Medicaments in Whey for five days, but that it must grow sowre, and receive a notable alteration. But they that will stick to this Receipt, and carefully observe the directions for prepa­ration, will find that there is no Ingredient but what is good, and well proportion'd; and that the vertue of every one in particular, will not fail to shew it self in the En­tire Composition.

Confectio Hamech purges Flegm, and both sorts of Choler, particularly salt and sharp Humours: For which reason it is prescrib'd for the cure of Scurfs, Itches, Ere­sipela's, Cankers, and corroding Ulcers; as also for scald Heads, and other Diseases caus'd by sharp and burning Humours. It is good against the Worms; as also in Ve­nereal Distempers, and Quartan Agues. The excessive bitterness, is the reason that it is rather giv'n in Bolus, then dissolv'd in Liquors. The Dose is from a dram to half an ounce, and sometimes an ounce for strong Constitutions.

Hiera Picra Galeni. Galen's Hiera Picra. 
℞. Cinnamomi Elect. ℞. Choice Cinnamon, 
Mastiches, Mastich, 
Asari, Asarobacca, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow Saunders, 
Croci, an.ʒ vj.Saffron, an.ʒ vj.
Aloes Succotrina,xij ss.Aloes Succotrine,℥ xij. ss.
Mellis despumat. & cocti,lb vviij.Honey despumated and boil'd,lb. v. ℥ viij.

The high value which Galen put upon this Composition, and its extraordinary bitter taste, caus'd him to give it the Name of Hiera Picra, or Holy Bitter. You may either keep the Powder apart, or mix it with Honey, and reduce it to an Electuary.

Bruise the Saunders, Asarabacca, Cinnamon, and Spikenard, cleans'd and cut in a large Brass-Mortar, and sift them through a Silk-sieve. Beat the Saffron apart, having first dry'd it in a Paper before the fire: Beat the Aloes in a great Mortar, mixing with it some few drops of Oyl of sweet Almonds: Afterwards mix the Powders together, and incorporate them with the Honey moderately hot, and put it up when it is cold.

Some use but three times the weight of the Powders in Honey: But Experience tells us, that the dryness of the Powders requires more; besides, that the Honey qualifies the excess of the bitterness of the Composition.

This Hiera is very proper to loosen thick and viscous humours from the Stomach; to open the obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, and Mesentery: It keeps the Belly free, causes the Haemorrhoids to flow, provokes the Terms of Women, dissipates the vapours of the Matrix, and cleanses the impurities thereof. The dose is from half a dram to two drams: It is tak'n rather in Bolus, then dissolv'd in Liquors, by reason of its bitterness: It is us'd in Wind-expelling and Hysteric Glysters, from half an ounce to an ounce; and sometimes put into Suppositories, to render them more effectual.

Hiera Diacolocynthidos. Hiera of Coloquinth. 
℞. Colocynthidos mundat. ℞. Coloquinth cleans'd, 
Agarici Elect. Choice Agaric, 
Staechados Arabicae, Arabian Cassidony, 
Marrubii Abbi, White Harehound, 
Chamaedryos, an.ʒ x.Germander, an.ʒ x.
Opoponax, Opoponax, 
[Page 165] Sagapen, Sagapen, 
Seminis Petroselini, Stone-Parsley-seed, 
Radicis Aristolochiae rotundae, Root of round Birth-wort, 
Piperis Albi, an.ʒ v.White Pepper, an.ʒ v.
Cimamomi, Cinnamon, 
Spicae Nardi, Spikenard, 
Myrrhae, Myrrh, 
Folii Indi, Indian-leaf, 
Croci, an.℥ ss.Saffron, an.℥ ss.
Mellis despumati & cocti,lb iiij.Honey despumated and boil'd,lb iiij.

This Hiera takes its Name from the Coloquinth, which is the principal purging In­gredient, whose vertue is augmented by that of the Agaric, Opoponax, Sagapen, and Myrrh. The other Ingredients are put in chiefly to expel Wind, open Obstructions, and fortifie the parts against the violence of the Purgatives.

In the Composition of this Hiera, the Ancients are no more to be follow'd, then in that of Treacle; I mean, as to the dissolution of Opoponax and Sagapen in Wine, for the reasons already alledged: Nor is it necessary to reduce the Agaric or Colo­quinth into Trochisques, under pretence of Correctives, of which there are enough in this Composition. It will be sufficient to beat and pass them among the other Ingre­dients through a Silk-sieve, beginning the Powder with the Birth-wort and Spikenard, which may be beaten sometime together, adding some part of the Gums; proceeding next with the Cinnamon, the Pulp of Coloquinth cut, the Agaric, adding to them also some part of the Gums, and then all the rest of the Drugs, and the remainder of the Gums. Beat them all into a very fine Powder, because of the Coloquinth, which would stick to the Stomach or Bowels if it were too big. The Powders must be incorporated with the warm Honey, as before.

There are great vertues attributed to this Hiera, of which the chief are to cure Epi­leptics, Mad-men, and those that are troubl'd with Vertigo's, and continual diseases of the Head. It is accounted an Excellent Remedy against: Asthma's, Pleurisies, and for those that have lost their Voice: But there is some probability of its being too hot to be us'd in these distempers, unless their causes be judiciously consider'd. It is also made use of in Convulsions and Lethargies, to dissipate the pains of the Joynts and Kid­neys, and those that are caus'd by Rheumatismes, and the Gout; to asswage pains of the Stomach, and qualifie the sowrness that ingender there; to loosen and carry off melancholy humours, and to ease the pains of the Intestines and Matrix, caus'd by Slimy and tartarous humours. The dose, and manner of taking, are like those of Hiera Picra, as well to be tak'n inwardly, as to be dissolv'd in Glysters.

Electuarium de Psyllio Correctum. Electuary of Flea-wort Corrected. 
℞. Polypodii quercini ss.℞. Polypody of the Oak bruis'd,lb ss.
Passularum Damascenarum purgatarum, Foliorum Sennae Orientalis mundatorum, & Seminis Violarum contus. an.iij.The fairest Raisins of the Sun ston'd, Leaves of Oriental Senna cleans'd, and Seed of Violets bruis'd, an.℥ iij.
Epithymi, & Tartari Albi Monspeliensis contusi, an.ij.Epithyme, White Tartar of Montpelier bruis'd, an.℥ ij.
Coquantur in succorum depuratorum Apii, Boil them in the clarifi'd Juices of Par­sley, 
Borraginis, Borrage, 
Buglossi, Bugloss, 
Endiviae, & Fumitariae, ij ss.Endive, and Fumitory, ij ss.
Deinde colentur & exprimantur: Then strain and press them: 
In majori parte colaturae infundantur, In the greater part of the straining infuse 
Seminis Psyllii integriiij. & ex illis ex­trahatur ex arte Muscilage, & serve­tur, Of Flea-wort-seed whole ℥ iij. and out of these extract a Muscilage, and set it aside, 
Reliqua Decocti parte humectentur, With the other part of the Decoction moisten, 
[Page 166] Tamarindorum Oriental.x. & Medulla librarum duarum Cassiae Orientalis, quorum pul­pa extrahatur & igne lento inspissetur, ita ut uniuscujusque pulpae inspissataevij. super­sint. Of Oriental Tamarinds ℥ x. and the pulp of two pound of Cassia Oriental; the pulp of which is to be drawn out, and thick'nd with a slow Fire, so that of each pulp thus thickn'd ℥ vij. may remain. 
Servato vero Mucilago cum Sacchari opt. lb iiij. igne lento ad Electuarii mollis consisten­tiam coquatur, semique refrigeratis Pulpae & Pulvis sequens permisceantur. Let the reserv'd Mucilage be boil'd to the consistence of a soft Electuary, over a soft Fire, with lb iiij. of the best Sugar, and when they are half cold, add the Pulp and Powder following. 
℞. Diagrydii elect,iiij.℞. Choice Diagrydium,℥ iiij.
Rhabarbari opt. & Seminis Violarum, an.ij.Rhubard choice, and Violet-seeds, an.℥ ij.
Rosarum Rubrarum, Red-Roses, 
Liqueritiae mundat. Cleans'd Liquorice, 
Santali Citrini, & Rasurae Eboris, an.j.Yellow Sanders, and Shavings of Ivory, an.℥ j.
Sem. quat. frig. maj. mund. The four greater cold Seeds cleans'd, 
Anisi, Seeds of Anise, 
Foeniculi, & Papaveris Albi, an.ʒ ij.Fennel, and White Poppy, an.ʒ ij.

Electuary of Flea-wort is not mention'd in all Dispensatories, but those Descripti­ons which we meet with are very unlike, confus'd, irregular, ill proportion'd and intri­cate, some being swell'd with four Compositions of Troquishes to no purpose. Which oblig'd Monsieur the Kings first Physitian to prescribe and order this for the public good.

First, boyl the Tartar and Polypody well bruis'd in the clarifi'd Juices for an hour; afterwards the Raisins cut and Violet seeds bruis'd, a quarter of an hour, then boyl the Epithyme and Senna, for a quarter of an hour longer among all the rest. That done, in­fuse the Flea-wort seed in about two thirds of that Liquor four or five hours over a very soft Fire in a glaz'd Earthen Pipkin, stirring it often with a Wooden Spatula, the bet­ter to draw forth the Mucilages, and when they are sufficiently thick, strain them through a strong Cloth, and press out the Sediment. Moisten the Pulp of Tamarinds and Cassia prescrib'd with the rest of the Decoction, and having beaten them in a Mar­ble Mortar, pass them through a hair Sieve, to get the Pulps, which after you have mingl'd together, set them over a gentle Fire, and evaporate their superfluous moisture, stirring them often with a Spatula till they are sufficiently thick'nd. Then boyl the Mucilages and Sugar prescrib'd to the consistence mention'd. But look well to the viscous substance of the Mucilages, which will make you think the Sugar is boyl'd e­nough when it is not: Yet have a care of boyling it too much, lest you lose the lubri­city of the Mucilages.

The preparation of the Powder is the same as before.

This Electuary is very proper to purge Choleric and Serous Humours: It is profit­able in all sorts of Agues, against Diseases of the Head, and Vertigo's proceeding from Choleric Humours; It helps against the Jaundice, and all Diseases of the Liver and Spleen: It is to be taken as other Laxative Electuaries: but the Dose is less, viz. from a dram to half an ounce, because of the larger quantity of the Scammony.

Electuarium Anti-hydropicum D. D. D'AQUIN. An Electuary against the Dropsie, of Monsieur D'AQUIN. 
℞. Rhabarbari elect. ℞. Choice Rhubarb, 
Foliorum Sennae oriental mundatorum, Leaves of Oriental Senna cleans'd, 
Seminis Genistae, Broom-seed, 
Radicum Brioniae, Roots of Briony, 
Jalopae, Jalap, 
Mechoacan, Mechoacan, 
Scammonii, Scammony, 
Gummi Guttae, & Gum Guttae, or, Gutta Gamba, and 
[Page 167] Trochiscorum Alhandal, an.j.Trochisks of Alhandal, an.℥ j.
Extracti totius Esulae, Extract of the whole Spurge, 
Opopanacis, Opopanax, 
Sagapeni, Sagapen, 
Ammoniaci, & Salis Martis, an.ʒ vj.Ammoniac, Salt of Steel, an.ʒ vj.
Elaterii,℥ ss.Elaterium,℥ ss.
Succorum Radicis Ireos nostratis, & Juices of the Root of French Orrice, and 
Radicis Sambuci ad extracti mollioris con­sistentiam inspissatorum, j.Root of Elder thick'nd, to the consi­stence of a soft Extract, j.
Extracti mollioris granorum Juniperi, & Syrupi de Rhamno Cathartico, j ss.Soft Extract of Juniper-Berries, and Syrup of Purging-Thorn, j ss.

Evaporate the Juices of the Roots of Orrice and Elder over a soft fire, to the con­sistence mention'd: Pulverize in a large Brass-Mortar the Rhubarb, Jalap, Mechoa­can, Briony, Broomseed, Trochisks of Alhandal, Senna, and the Gums all together; all but the Scammony, and Gutta-gamba, which must be pulveriz'd apart; and having mix'd all the Powders together, and added to them the Salt of Steel, moderately the Syrup of purging Thorn; then incorporate, first by degrees, the Juices and Extracts thick'nd, and after that the Powders, as before directed for soft Electuaries.

They that understand the particular vertues of the Ingredients of this Electuary, can­not but acknowledge that they are all judiciously chosen, and that they must be very effectual for the purposes for which this Electuary is design'd, which are for the cure of the Dropsie, and particularly that which is call'd Ascites, when the water is got be­tween the Flesh and the Skin, where it will not fail to succeed, provided the Liver and Spleen, and other principal Bowels, are not too much corrupted; and that the Patient stick close to the Remedy. The dose of this Electuary is from one dram to half an Ounce: It may be dissolv'd in White-wine, or some opening Liquor, but the best way is to take it in Bolus, by reason of its bitterness.

Electuarium Diacarthami. Electuary of Bastard-Saffron. 
℞. Medullae seminis Carthami, ℞. The Pulp of Carthamus-seed, 
Pulveris Diatragacanthi frigidi, Powder of cold Diatragacanthum, 
Hermodactylorum, & Diagrydii, an.j.Hermodactyls, and Diagrydion, an.℥ j.
Turbith Electi,j ss.Choice Turbith,℥ j ss.
Zinziberis,℥ ss.Ginger,℥ ss.
Mannae granulosae,ij ss.Manna in Grains,℥ ij ss.
Mellis Rosaticolati, & Carnis Cydoniorum conditae, an.ij.Honey of Roses strain'd, and The condited substance of Quinces, an.℥ ij.
Sacchari solidi in aqua soluti, & in Ele­ctuarium solidum cocti,xx ij.Sugar dissolv'd in water, and boil'd to the consistence of a solid Electuary,℥ xx ij.

This Receipt of Diacarthanum is somewhat different from those which are to be found in many Dispensatories; sometimes under the Name of Arnoldus de Villa Nova, Nicholas the Florentine, and sometimes without a Name; in some there is Sugar-Can­dy, but less Manna, less Scammony, and less fine Sugar; in others, no Sugar-Candy, but more Scammony, more Manna, and Sugar; in others, more Powder of Diatraga­canth, less Carthamus-seed, less Ginger, and Mel Rosatum. Therefore I have here produc'd a Receipt, wherein the Sugar-Candy is omitted as useless, and the quantity of the Manna augmented, as also in some small measure that of the Sugar, to supply the defect of the Sugar-Candy, and to keep a due proportion with the Scammony, and other Ingredients.

Neither what Holy Writ delivers to us concerning Manna, white, sweet, and like Coriander-seed, which God rain'd down from Heaven to feed the Israelites, nor what we have spoken other-where of a certain sort of Manna, which being rais'd in Sum­mer from the vapours of the Earth, and digested in the Air, is condens'd by the [Page 168] cold, and shews it self in certain hot Countries, before Sun-rise, upon Plants, Trees, Rocks, and upon the Earth it self, as in some parts of Provence and Languedock, and melts and disappears when heated by the Rays of the Sun, cannot convince me to be of the Opinion of those, who would have the Manna which we make use of, to be a Honey of the Air, or a kind of Dew, since Reason and Experience testifie the contrary.

For if Manna were a Dew rais'd from the vapours of the Earth, and condens'd by the Cold, as they assure us, it would certainly melt, and be dissipated by heat, which our Manna does not, but rather condenses and dries in the Sun. Moreover, it would be certainly found upon all Plants, Trees, Rocks and Earths where-ever it were ex­hal'd, whereas it is only found upon the ordinary Ash, call'd in Latine, Fraxinus; and upon the wild Ash, in Latine, Ornus; and upon some of those Trees but very little, upon others none at all. Nor should we meet with such large Tears, nor so long, and some that shew the very print of the leaf upon which they grew. Nor should we find the leaves of Ash so often mix'd with it; nor could we keep it whole years together, as we often do upon occasion.

As little prevails with me what sundry Greek, Arabian, and Modern Authors have written, that the Manna which is brought to us in such quantities, grows in the King­dom of Naples, and particularly in Calabria; and that it is a white, sweet juice or li­quor, condens'd by the Beams of the Sun, and distils either voluntarily, or by Inci­sion from the branches, boughs, and very leaves also of common and wild Ashes, before and during the Dog-days. And that the other Manna, less plentiful, grows about Briancon in the upper Dauphinate, distilling from the Trees of that Country; that both the one and the other Manna ceases not to distil, though you cover the Boughs with Linnen, or any other stuff: And that if Manna were a Honey of the Air or Dew, it were impossible to gather it, or to keep it without melting or dissipating, nor to ga­ther it in the heat of the Sun, as they do that Manna which is brought to us: For all Manna of the Air that appears in the morning condens'd by the cold, vanishes when it feels the heat of the Sun.

Alcomarus, a Neapolitan Physitian, well insighted into these truths, has wrote largely and very much to the purpose upon this Subject, in a Treatise which he printed in the year 1561. whose Reasons are maintain'd by Costaeus in his Commentaries upon Mesue.

Joseph Donzellus, a Neopolitan Physitian likewise, in his Pharmacopeutial Theatre, printed at Naples in the year 1667. confirms what Alcomarus has wrote before him, when he tells us, that Manna is a juice which distils from the Ash, condens'd by the heat and benign temper of the Air, and that it ought to be rank'd in the number of Gums that distil from Trees, dissolve in moisture, and coagulate with heat, being far different from the Arabian Manna, which is only a Dew that melts with heat: And describing that Manna that grows in Calabria, which is that which we every day make use of; and discoursing with Battista Ferrarius, a Physitian of the Country, he speaks that which I thought fit here to Epitomize.

There are three sorts of Manna in Calabria; the first call'd Manna di Corpo, the se­cond Manna Forzata, or Forzatella, and the third Manna di Fronda. These Manna's are no Dews, but a juice that distils from the common Ashes, call'd Fraxini, or the wild ones call'd Orni; these Manna's are gather'd in a hot settl'd season, when no Rain falls; and they begin to distil when the Sun enters into Cancer, which is about the twen­ty first of June. The first and fairest Manna issues forth voluntarily, from the body or biggest branches of the Tree, in a Chrystalline liquor, forming it self into Tears big­ger or lesser, as the part of the Tree is more or less full of it. They are careful to ga­ther this Manna the next day after it is distill'd forth; for in that time it hardens by little and little, and becomes white; but if it should rain in the night, or any Mists should rise, it would melt and come to nothing. They begin to take it off from the bark of the Tree with a thin-pointed knife by Sun-rise, putting it, as they gather it, into glaz'd Earthen-pots; then spreading it upon white paper, they expose it to the Sun, till it cease to stick to the fingers, least the Manna should dissolve by the means of any su­perfluous moisture, and lose its whiteness. This gathering continues from the twenty first of June, till the latter end of July.

The second call'd Forzata, or forc'd, is drawn forth in the Month of August, when the first Manna ceases to flow voluntarily; for the Country-people would the bark of the Trunks, to the wood it self, with very sharp Instruments; and so from Noon, till ten a Clock at Night, you shall see the Manna flow from those wounds, so that you shall sometimes see it clotted together at the bottom of the Tree like little sticks of Wax: They never gather it till the next day after Incision. This is not so well esteem'd, as [Page 169] being more yellow then the first, and apt to turn brown, being kept any time, though nothing less purgative.

The third is call'd Manna di Fronda, or of the Leaves, flowing voluntarily from the leaves of the Ash like little drops of water, as appears like a kind of sweat upon the nervous part of the Leaf, during the heat of the day, and extends it self all over the Leaf, though the drops are bigger at the stalk, then at the end, or point. These drops harden, and become white in the Sun, and are somewhat bigger then Grains of Wheat. In August the great leaves of the Ash will be so loaden with these drops, as if they were cover'd with Snow: They do not labour so much to gather this Manna, because of the dissiculty to separate it from the Leaves, though it be no less purgative then the o­ther.

These Truths are confirm'd also by Mr. John Ray, of the Royal Society of Lon­don, in his Catalogue of English Plants, printed at London in the year 1670.

Besides all these, Mounsieur Nicholas Marchand, a Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Herbalist to the King, and Director of the Plantation of the Garden-Royal, has confirm'd all these things to me, as one that has been an Eye-witness, to the end I might be able to speak with more assurance. I have also understood the same thing from several other persons who have liv'd several years in Calabria, that there is no reason in the world to question it.

The Diagrydion must be bruis'd apart, mixing some of the Carthamus-seeds with it, and pass'd through a Silk-sieve. The Turbith, Hermodactils, Ginger, and the rest of the Carthamus, must be beaten together in a large Brass-Mortar; and being pass'd through a Silk-sieve, must be mingl'd with the Diagrydion and Diatraga­canth newly prepar'd. Beat the condited substance of the Quinces in a Marble-Mortar with a Wooden-pestle; and having pass'd it through a Hair-sieve revers'd, mix it with the Mel-Rosatum, and Manna; then having dissolv'd the Sugar in six ounces of water, and boil'd it to the consistency mention'd, put the Honey, the Pulp of Quinces, and the Manna into it; and having giv'n them a soft boiling, to evaporate the superfluous moisture of the Honey of Roses, and Quinces, take them off the fire, and stir the whole with a Wooden-pestle; and when it begins to coa­gulate, mingle the powders as exactly as you can; and when all is incorporated, take out the Pestle: Then having separated the Mass in the Bason, take it in your hands, oyl'd before with Oyl of Sweet-Almonds, and spread it upon a sheet of white paper a little oyl'd, and make a kind of a Cake about half the thickness of your lit­tle finger, which you shall cut into Tablets of half an ounce a-piece; and when they are cold, put them up in a Box.

These Tablets are proper to purge Flegm, and a yellow Choler; for which reason they are useful in Diseases that proceed from the abundance of those humours; as Palsies, Epilepsies, and most Diseases of the Brain; Rhumatismes, Gouts, and Quoti­dian Agues. They are to be taken in distill'd waters, or proper Decoctions. They may be also made up in Bolus, or eaten alone, or mingl'd with purgative Syrups. When they are given alone, the Dose is from two drams to six.

You may keep apart the Powder of this Electuary, and give it from half a dram to a dram, or a dram and a half.

Electurium de Citro Solutivum. Solutive Electuary of Citron. 
℞. Foliorum Senna Orientalis mundatorum,ʒ vj.℞. Leaves of Oriental Senna cleans'd,ʒ vj.
Turbith electi,ʒ v.Choice Turbith,ʒ v.
Corticis Citri Saccharo conditi, Citron-rind condited with Sugar, 
Conservae florum Buglossi, & Violarum, Conserve of Flowers of Bugloss, and Violets, 
Pulveris Diatragacanthi frig. & Powder of cold Diatragacanth, 
Diagrydii, an.℥ ss.Diagrydion, an.℥ ss.
Seminis Feniculi dulcis,ʒ ij.Sweet Fennel-seed,ʒ ij.
Zinziberis,ʒ ss.Ginger,ʒ ss.
Sacchari opt. in aqua Buglossi soluti, & in Electuarium solidum cocti,ix.Fine Sugar dissolv'd in Borage-water, and boil'd to a solid Electuary,℥ ix.

[Page 160]This Electuary bears the name of Citron-rind condited, though it afford it no pur­gative vertue, and only serves to strengthen the Stomach, and the Noble parts, during the Operation of the purgers. The Prescription differs in several Dispensatories; but this is approv'd as well by Du Rencri, and the Compilers of the Pharmacopaea Londinen­sis, so that I thought it not convenient to alter it.

This Electuary may pass for an Universal Purger, for it purges flegm, and also both cholers, strengthening the parts withal: the Purgatives are sufficiently corrected, so that this Electuary is often given in Tertians, and half Tertians; to cleanse the Sto­mach from its impurities, to discharge the Hypochondriums, restore the Appetite, and a good habit of body, and to fortifie the bowels. The manner of taking and dose of this Electuary are very near alike.

Electuarium do Succo Violarum. Electuary of Juice of Violets. 
℞. Seminis Violarum, & Diagrydii, an.j.℞. Violet-seeds, and Diagrydion, an.℥ j.
Liquoritiae & Rosarum Rubrarum, an.℥ ss.Liquorice and Red-roses, an.℥ ss.
Seminum quat. frig. maj. mundatorum, an.ʒ ss.The four greater cold seeds, an.ʒ ss.
Succi recentis Violarum,ix.New juice of Violets,℥ ix.
Sacchari optimi,lb j ss.Finest Sugar,lb j ss.

Pulverize the Violets, Liquorice, Red-roses, cold Seeds, and Diagrydion, as be­fore: Dissolve the Sugar grosly powder'd in a Copper-Skillet tinn'd within, in nine ounces of Juice of Violets newly press'd out, and boil them together over a soft fire to the consistence of a solid Electuary: Then take the Posnet from the fire, gently stirring the Sugar, till it begins to coagulate, at which time incorporate the Powders with all the care and exactness that may be.

This Electuary is chiefly to purge such persons as have a nice and tender Breast, and subject to Inflammation. It is also proper for those whose Liver and Entrails are heat­ed: For the Juice of Violets, assisted by the oyliness of the Seeds, qualifies the Acri­mony and sharpness of the Diagrydion, and prevents it from heating the parts, while it carries away the ill humours: The dose and manner of taking, is much the same with that of Diacarthamum.

Electuarium de Succo Rosarum. Electuary of Juice of Roses. 
℞. Succi Rosarum depurati & Sacchari opt. j ss.℞. Juice of Roses clarifi'd, and the finest Sugar, j ss.
Coquantur igne moderato in Electuarium solidum, cui semi-refrigerato permisce pulverem sequentem. Boil them over a gentle fire to a solid Electuary; and when they are half cold, mingle the following Powder therewith. 
℞. Scammonii Elect.ʒ ix.℞. Chosen Scammony,ʒ ix.
Trium Santalorum, & The three Sanders, 
Mastiches, an.ʒ iij.Mastich, an.ʒ iij.
Subtiliter pulverizentur & Saccharo ex Arte permisceantur. Beat them to a very fine powder, and mix them according to Art. 

The Prescription of this Electuary differs as much in most Electuaries as that of Diacarthanum; for some augment the Saunders, others the Scammony; others abate the Juice of Roses, others put in Spodium instead of Mastich, others prescribe Cam­phire, and every one pretends to Reason; but not to blame others, I believe this not to be inferiour to any of them.

You must be careful to have your Juice of Roses perfectly well cllrifi'd; and having boil'd it as directed, take it from the fire, and stir it gently with a wooden-pestle till it begin to coagulate, at what time mix the Powders, as before.

[Page 171]This Electuary is chiefly recommended to purge cholerick humours; but that hin­ders not but that it may also purge other humours that may be mingled therewith. The dose and manner of taking this Electuary is the same with those of the precedent Ele­ctuaries.

I could have swell'd this Chapter with a great many more Electuaries, with which Di­spensatories are full cramm'd. But believing that the instructions which I have giv'n may serve as a sufficient rule whereby to undertake and accomplish any other that may be prescrib'd, I thought fit to forbear, leaving every one to prepare such remedies, and to follow such directions as he likes best.

I might have added a Chapter of Junkets or Sweet-meets, call'd in Latin Tragemata, or Bellaria; but their consistence is almost the same with solid Electuaries, as also their foundation, which is Sugar. But because they are not much us'd in Physic and may be prepar'd at any time with proper Powders, Sugar, and Mucilages of Gum-Tragacanth, I am unwilling to enlarge too far.

CHAP. XXI. Of Trochisks.

IN imitation of the Greeks, all those who have written of Pharmacy, have giv'n the name of Trochisks to a dry Composition, the chief Ingredients whereof are usually reduc'd to a fine powder, then being incorporated with some liquor, are made into a mass, of which are form'd certain small Cakes, to which you may give what Figure you please, being then to be dry'd out of the Sun, or at distance from the Fire. However you may add several pulps and viscous matters to the composition of Trochisks, but there is no reducing those substances into a mass, or to the shape and driness of Trochisks, un­less you mix powders very finely beaten among them. They are also call'd Pastils, Rolls, Cakes, and Lozenges. Trochisks were invented, as well to preserve a long time the vir­tue of certain Medicaments, as to unite together the vertue of several. To which pur­pose having finely powder'd the Ingredients which are to be powder'd, they are to be incorporated with some juice, syrup, or other viscous Liquor, to make thereof a solid paste, out of which are form'd little Trochisks, flat, round, triangular, square, long or otherwise; which being spread upon paper, and dry'd out of the Sun, and at a distance from the Fire, to the end they may be dry'd in all parts alike, may be put up in Boxes or Pots for use.

Formerly a great number of Trochisks were prepar'd, as appears by the ancient Di­spensatories which are full of them. But because the Moderns have rejected so great a number, we thought it convenient to satisfie our selves with those which are only in use.

Trochisks are prepar'd for several purposes, some to close and bind, some to forti­fie the parts, some to cut and purge, some to cleanse and incrassate; whence it comes to pass that they are prescrib'd in all Diseases of the Breast and Lungs. Others for Dis­eases of the Eyes, and were call'd Sief by the Arabians. Others which are particularly call'd by the name of Pastils, were invented for Perfumes, which are usually compos'd of odoriferous Gums, mix'd with Woods, or other Aromatic Drugs pulveriz'd and in­corporated with Mucilages of Gum-Tragacanth.

Trochisci de Agarico. Trochisks of Agaric. 
℞. Zinziberis albi contus.ʒ ij.℞. White Ginger bruis'd,ʒ ij.
Vini albi,iiij.White-Wine,℥ iiij.
Infundantur frigide horis viginti quatuor, & colentur: postmodum, Let them infuse cold for twenty four hours, then strain them: afterwards. 
℞. Agarici electi in pulverem redacti,lb ss.℞. Choice Agaric reduc'd into Powder,lb ss.
Pr [...]dicto liquore humectetur & ex illa fingan­tur Trochisci in umbra siccandi. Moisten it with the foresaid Liquor, and make of it Trochisks to be dry'd in the shade. 

[Page 172]To prepare these Trochisks right and to have them white, you must stay for fair warm and dry weather, and be careful to pick your Agaric very clean and very white through all its substance, very light and very brittle, & to reduce it into powder with a very small Rasp: In the mean while infuse coldly two drams of white Ginger, very well cleans'd from its Bark, and well bruis'd, for four and twenty hours in four ounces of white Wine; then having strain'd the Infusion, moisten the Powder of Agaric with the Infu­sion, and beating them together in a Marble-Mortar with a wooden-Pestle, reduce it into a solid mass; and make of it little Trochisks, which you must spread upon white paper in a hair-Sieve revers'd, and dry in the shade in the open Air.

They that undertake to prepare these Trochisks right, fail in the preparation; for instead of preserving their white colour, they so order it that they are of a very dark colour, which happens either because their Agaric is not well chosen, or because the Ginger was infus'd warm, or because the paste was too moist, or because the Tro­chisks were expos'd to the Sun or Fire.

Some there are that add to these Trochisks, Sal gemmae as an incentive, and Ginger in substance as a corrective; and make use of simple Oxymel instead of an Infusion of Ginger to reduce Agaric into paste. This preparation might be admitted, if you could preserve the white colour of the Agaric, which is very much to be regarded.

The principal use of Trochisks of Agaric, is to purge Phlegme, though at the same time they also purge other humours, when they are mix'd with it. They cut and loosen viscous and tenacious humours, and open obstructions of all the Bowels. They are prescrib'd to carry off old pains in the Head, to heal distempers in the Eyes, Ears and Teeth; to cleanse the Stomach, Reins, Liver, Spleen and Matrix; to kill Worms and to ease the pains of Asthmaticks, and those whose viscous matters stop the Conduits of Respiration. Their dose is from one scruple to a dram. They are seldom giv'n alone, being more frequently prescrib'd in infusion then in substance; unless when they are to be put into Pills or Opiates, or other such-like Compositions.

Trochisci Alhandal.Alhandal Trochisks.
℞. Pulpae Colocynthidis electa & mundat [...] quantum libuerit, forcipe minutim incide, gut­tis aliquot Olei Amygdalarum dulcium irrora & in subtilem pulverem redige. Ex pulvere Mucilagine Gummi Tragacanthi excepto fac Massam, ex Massa Trochiscos in umbra siccan­dos. Siccos iterum subtiliter tere, nova Gummi Tragacanthi mucilagine excipe, no [...]os Trochiscos singe in umbrâ sicca & ad usum serva.℞. The choicest [...]ulp of Coloquintida, cleans'd as much as is fit, cut it very small with a pair of Scissers, moisten it with some few drops of Oyl of sweet Almonds and reduce it into fine powder. Of the powder make a Mass with Mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth, of the Mass Trochisks to be dry'd in the shade. When they are dry powder them again, and mix them with more Mucilage of Tragacanth: Make new Trochisks; dry them in the shade, and keep them for use.

Choose out the Apples of Coloquinth very white and well grown; and throwing away the grains cut the pulp very small, and having slightly moisten'd it with some drops of Oyl of sweet Almonds, bruise it in a Brass-Mortar, and poss it through a Silk-Sieve. In the mean time pulverize one or two drams of Gum-Tragacanth very white, and infuse it upon hot Embers in five or six ounces of good Rose-water till it be altoge­ther dissolv'd and reduc'd into a thick but soft Mucilage: Then put the powder of Coloquinth into a Marble-Mortar, and having moisten'd it with some part of the Muci­lages beat it together with a woodden-Pestle, and reduce it to a mass somewhat solid, of which you shall make little Trochisks, and dry them in the shade. When they are dry pul­verize them again; and having pass'd the powder through a Silk-Sieve, incorporate it with new Mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth, for a mass to make Trochisks like the for­mer; which are to be dry'd in the shade and put up for use.

Some add Gum Arabic and Bdellium to the Tragacanth, to extract Mucilages neces­sary for the composition of these Trochisks. But the principal intention of them that added them being only to stifle and abate the violent operation of the Coloquinth, and to separate all the small parts from it, by beating and rebeating it, and passing it twice through the sieve, the Gum-Tragacanth may very well suffice alone, and the two other Gums may be very well omitted.

[Page 173]These Trochisks purge flegme, and thick, and viscous humours, particularly of the Brain, Brest, Flesh, and Joynts; so that they are often prescrib'd in Epilepsies, Apo­plexies, Vertigo's, and old diseases of the Head; against Asthma's, and Coughs, stop­page of the Lights, Sciatica's, Rhumatisms, and all Maladies of the Joynts; but parti­cularly against Dropsies, especially that call'd Ascites, Colicks caus'd by vis­cous and tenacious humours. Their excessive bitterness is the reason that they are ne­ver prescrib'd but in Bolus. Their violent operation also causes them to be seldome prescrib'd, but only to be mix'd with gentle Medicines. However the infusion of these Trochisks is given alone, made in white Wine for those that cannot endure the bitterness of the taste; and it succeeds very well. The usual dose is a scruple of Trochisks bruis'd, infus'd in four ounces of white Wine, the liquor whereof must be drank pass'd through coarse paper, and the dose repeated three times for three several days. But when these Trochisks are given in their proper substance, the dose is from a grain to seven or eight, or at farthest ten for very strong Constitutions, and in extraordinary Diseases; especially in those where nature is over burthen'd and is not able to help her self.

Trochisks of Alhandal are put into several compositions, especially Pills; and they may be us'd where-ever Coloquinth is prescrib'd in substance, and so much the ra­ther, because the Coloquinth being there finely powder'd is less apt stick to the Sto­mach and Intestines.

Trochisci Bechici Albi. White Trochisks against Coughs. 
℞. Sacchari albissimi subtiliter jss.℞. Finest white Sugar finely powder'd,lb jss.
Amyli, Amylum, or Starch of Wheat, 
Ireos Florentiae, Florence Orrice, 
Liquoritiae mundatae subtilissimè pulverat. an.j.Liquorice cleans'd finely powder'd, an.℥j.
Ambrae Griseae, Amber-greese, 
Moschi Orientis, iiij,Eastern Mosch, iiij.

Pulverize very finely a dram of Gum-Tragacanth very white, dissolve it upon hot Embers in five or six ounces of good Rose-water, and reduce it to a mucilage, and set it by. Choose out the best Liquorice, and scrape off the rind, so that nothing appear but what is very yellow; pulverize it very finely apart, as well as the Amydon or Amylum, the Florence Orrice, and the fine Sugar. Pulverize together the Musk and the Amber­greese, mixing therewith about two drams of Sugar-Candy to facilitate the division of the parts. Then mix all these powders in a Marble-Mortar, and having incorporated them with as much of the mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth as is requisite to reduce them into a paste somewhat solid, form it into Trochisks, or little sticks to be dry'd in the shade and kept for your use.

Some call these Trochisks by the name of Juice of white Liquorice; the Receipt whereof is not to be found in the Dispensatories. Sometimes also they alter the Ingre­dients, mixing therewith Sugar Candy, or Penedite; and increasing or abating the quantity of the rest.

These Trochisks are us'd against salt and sharp defluxions that fall upon the Brain and upon the Lungs. They give ease to them that are troubled with violent Coughs, or suf­fer any oppression upon their Lungs; they may be taken at any time, holding them in the Mouth till they melt. They are also good to preserve the Breath sweet and grate­ful to the smell.

Trochisci Bechici Nigri. Black Trochisks against Coughs. 
℞. Succi, sive extracti Liquoritia inspissat.℥ ix.℞. Juice or Extract of Liquorice thick­en'd,℥ ix.
Pulveris Ireos Florentiae, Powder of Flurence Orrice, 
Amyli, & Wheat-Starch, and 
Liquoritiae mundat, an.ij.Liquorice cleans'd, an.℥ ij.
Cinnamomi acutissimi,ʒ j.Biting-Cinnamon,ʒ i.
Sacchari albissimi, Sugar refin'd, 
Candi, & Candy, and 
Penidiati pulveratorum, j.Penidiate pulveriz'd, of each,lb j.

[Page 174]Make a solid Paste of all with Mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth, extracted with Hysop­water, and form it into Trochisks to be dry'd in the shade.

These Trochisks are call'd black because of their dark colour. They are not so plea­sing as the preceding. They that would prepare them well, should make use of Extract of Liquorice prepar'd as I shall direct in its proper place. But they that will not take that pains, must take good Liquorice, and having dissolv'd it in som Pectoral-water, and filter'd it, must evaporate it afterwards to the consistence of an Extract.

These Trochisks are much us'd in Diseases of the Lungs, especially where there is any occasion to cut and loosen Flegm, and to hasten expectoration: They are to be taken as the former, but less at a time.

You may add to the composition Eastern-Bole, Terra-Sigillata, and Poppy-seed, or Extract of Opium, if you would make them more fit to stop defluxions from the Brains upon the Lungs: and make them like to Trochisks of Terra-Sigillata, or Karabe. These Trochisks may be prepar'd at any time; and therefore it is better to prepare them of­ten, then let them be spoyl'd.

Trochisci Albi Rhasis. White Trochisks of Rhases. 
℞. Cerussae aquâ Rosarum lotae,ijss.℞. White-lead wash'd in Rose-water,℥ ijss.
Sarcocollae lacte muliebri nutritae & siccatae,ʒ vj.Sarcocol moisten'd with Womans-milk and dry'd,ʒ vj.
Amyli,℥ ss.Pounded Wheat-flowre℥ ss.
Gummi-Arabici, & Gum-Arabic, and 
Tragacanthi, an.ʒ ij.Tragacanth, an.ʒ ij.
Camphorae,ʒ j.Camphire,ʒ j.

Choose out good Ceruse of Venice, and bray it upon Porphyrie with Rose-water, as you grind Pretious-stones; and when it is reduc'd into a Powder not to be felt, extend it upon White-paper and let it dry. Then beat the Sarcocol very fine, being moisten'd with Womans-milk, and having reduc'd it into a Paste, extend it and expose it to the Air to be there dry'd, then beat it and sierce it through a silk-sive. Beat the Gums apart in a brass mortar hot, and pass the same through a silk-sieve. Pulverize also the Camphire apart, adding never so few drops of Spirit of Wine: then beat the Amylum and prepar'd Ceruse, and having mix'd them with the other Powders, pass the whole through a Silk-Sieve, and having put the Powder into a Marble-Mortar, moisten it with-Rose-water, and having reduc'd it into a solid Paste, make thereof little Trochisks to be dry'd in the shade, and kept for use. But because these Tro­chisks being dry are almost as hard as a stone; by the conjunction of the caseous part of Womans-milk, and the Sarcocol with the dry Ingredients that make the Powder; It will do better to keep the Powder when it is made, then to form it up into Tro­chisks; in regard it will easily keep so, and that it is an easie thing afterwards to put Rose-water or Womans-mik to it, when you have occasion to use it.

You may also moisten the Sarcocol with Rose-water; if you prepare the Powder in Winter, for then the Milk will grow sowre and corrupt before the Sarcocol be dry.

The Arabians call these Trochisks by the Name of Sief, and the Latins and French have given them the name of Collyrium, as being chiefly proper for Diseases of the Eyes, of which they qualifie the Inflammations, cleanse the Ulcers, and stop and dry up the deflu­xions. They are also us'd in Injections for Inflammations and Ulcers of the Ureters and Bladder, particularly in Gonorrheas. For which two sorts of uses the Powder is dis­solv'd in distill'd waters, or in decoctions or other specific Liquors. The Dose is half a dram, or at most a dram of Trochisks or Powder to four ounces of Liquor: The Dose is also to be vary'd, when you mingle with it Turbith prepar'd, Salt of Saturn, Magnesia Opalina, Aloes, Vitriot, &c. according to the intent of the Physician.

Trochisci Aliptae Moschatae. Odoriferous Musk Trochisks. 
℞. Labdani purissimi,iij.℞. Of the purest Ladanum,℥ iij.
Resinae Storacis,jss.Gum-Storax,℥ jss.
Benjonii,j.Benjamin,℥ j.
Ligni Aloes,ʒ ij.Ligni Aloes,ʒ ij
Moschi Orientalis,℈ ss.Oriental-Musk,℈ ss.

[Page 175]The lignum Aloes must be pounded apart in a great Brass-Mortar, and pass'd through a silk'n sieve. The Ambergriese must be also powder'd apart, mixing with it never so little Oyl of Nutmegs; and the musk, by mixing with it never so little Sugar, can­dy'd. It may be also ground with the powder of Lignum Aloes. Could you get Lau­danum very pure, you might melt it in a great hot Brass-Mortar, as well as the puri­fi'd Rosin of Storax, and the Benjamin if that were in Tears; and then there would be no need of Rose-water or mucilage of Gum Tragacanth, for these melted Gums would easily suffice to bind together the powder of Aloes, Musk and Ambergriese, and which is a Bitumen easie to melt. But the impurities of Ladanum and Benjamin oblige us to beat and sift them through a silk-Sieve, and to make use of some moist or viscous mat­ter, to unite the whole mass for to make the Trochisks. Prepare the Rosin of Storax as I have directed before; and incorporate it with the other Ingredients pulveriz'd in a marble-mortar, heated before, using therein as much mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth as is necessary to reduce the whole into a gentle Paste, to make the Trochisks which are to be dry'd in the shade.

The name of Alipta Moschata was giv'n to these Trochisks, because of the mixture of odoriferous and musky Drugs in the composition. The Camphire prescrib'd in other Dispensatories is omitted; by reason that its displeasing smell would surmount the scent of all the other Ingredients. However it may be added in the preparation of these Trochisks, when they are for Women that do not love sweet smells.

These Trochisks are very much esteemed for their fragrancy. They are good in the sickness-time against the pestilential air. But they are more frequently us'd to strengthen the brain and the noble parts. They may be carry'd in a small Box with holes, or burnt upon a Coal like a perfume to perfume a Chamber, Linen or Cloaths. They may be also pulveriz'd and mix'd with Rose-water, or Orange-flower water, and pour'd upon a hot Chasing-dish to perfume Bed-chambers or Dining-rooms.

Trochischi Galliae Moschatae. Trochisks of Gallia Moschata. 
℞. Ligni Aloes optimi,ʒ v.℞. The best Lignum Aloes,ʒ v.
Ambrae Griseae,ʒ iij.Ambergriese,ʒ iij.
Oriental. Mosc.ʒ j.Oriental Musk,ʒ j.

With mucilage of Gum-Tragacanth extracted with Rose-water, make up these Tro­chisks, and drye them in the shade.

The Ambergriese and Musk must be ground upon Porphyry; and the Lignum Aloes finely powder'd. But be careful to moist'n the ends of your Fingers, with never so little Oyl of sweet Almonds, when you make up the Trochisks, to make the Paste stiff, and the Trochisks little, that they may be soon dry, and lose as little as is possi­ble of their scent and vertue.

These Trochisks are commended by all Authors to strength'n the Brain, the heart, the Stomach, and all the Bowels, to stay vomiting, to facilitate transpiration, and keep the breath sweet. They are to be held in the mouth, and there gently dissolv'd: or else pulveriz'd and put with Rose-water or Orange-flower water upon a Chasing­dish of dying Embers, to receive the Vapours, or to perfume Chambers, Linen or Cloaths. You may add to the Paste of these Trochisks some small quantity of Wil­low-Coal powder'd very fine, and form them into Bracelets or Beads, to be dry'd, strung, and worn, or else to be laid among Cloaths.

Trochisci de Karabe. Trochisks of Carobs. 
℞. Karabes,j.℞. Carobs,℥ i.
Cornu-cervi usti, Harts-horn burnt, 
Gummi Arabici, Gum Arabic, 
Tragacanthi, Tragacanth, 
Acaciae verae, True Acacia, 
Hypocistidis, Undergrowth of Cystus, 
Balaustiorum, Pomegranate Flowers, 
Mastiches, Mastich, 
Coralli Rubri, Red Coral, 
[Page 176] Gummi Laccae, Gum-Lac, 
Sem. Papav. nigri, an.viij.Black Poppy-seed, an.℈ viij.
Thuris, Frankincense, 
Croci, an.ʒ ij.Saffron, an.ʒ ij.
Extracti Opii, Extract of Opium, 

Bruise the Pomegranate Flowers, the true Acacia, and the Undergrowth of Cystus in a great Brass-Mortar, if they be dry, with the Poppy-seed. Bray the red-Coral up­on Porphyry, together with the Harts-horn burnt, and the Carobs, moistning them in water of Mouse-ear, Rupture-wort, or some astringent Water. Beat the Gum-Tragacanth in a Brass Mortar heated. Beat the Mastic, the Gum-Lac, the Frankin­cense and Saffron apart, and sift them through a silk-sieve, as you must do the rest of the Powders. Incorporate the Extract of Opium with about an Ounce of mucilage of Flea-wort, and having mix'd all the Powders therewith, beat them together in a great Mortar, adding as much mucilage as is requisite to reduce the whole into a so­lid paste, which is to be form'd into little Trochisks, and dry'd in the Sun.

These Trochisks are good against all internal fluxes of blood, and particularly against spitting of blood; for Ulcers in the Lungs, Dysenteries, and Cholicks. They are to be finely powder'd, and given in astringent Waters or Decoctions, at a di­stance from eating. The Dose is from a Scruple to a dram.

The Harts-horn burnt may pass well enough here, because there is nothing requir'd but the astringent quality which remains in the earthy part after ustion. The ustion of the Coral is altogether to be rejected, as not to be done without altering its good qualities: and the burning of the Poppy-seed is altogether erroneous, as destroying altogether the vertue of the seed.

Trochisci Gordonii. Trochisks of Gordonius. 
℞. Seminum quatuor frig. maj. mund. ℞. Four greater cold Seeds cleans'd, 
Papaveris Albi, White Poppy-seed, 
Malvarum, Seeds of Mallows, 
Bombacis, Cotton-tree, 
Portulacae, Purslain, 
Cotoneorum, Quinces, 
Myrthillorum, Myrtles, 
Gummi Arabici, Gum-Arabic, 
Tragacanthi, Tragacanth, 
Nucleorum Pineorum mund. Pine-Kernels cleans'd, 
Pistaceorum, Pistaches, 
Sacchari Crystallini, & Crystall'd Sugar, and 
Penidiati, Penidiate, 
Glycyrrhizae mundat. Liquorice scrap'd, 
Hordei mundat. Barley cleans'd, 
Amygdalarum dulcium, Sweet Almonds, 
Mucilagin. sem. Psyllii, an.ʒ ij.Mucilage of the seed of Fleawort, an.ʒ ij.
Boli Armenae, Bole Armeniac, 
Lachrymarum sang. Draconis, Tears of Dragons blood, 
Rasurae Eboris, Shavings of Ivory, 
Rosarum rubrarum, & Red Roses, and 
Myrrhae electae, an.℥ ss.Choice Myrrhe, an.℥ ss.

Pulverize apart the Bole Armoniac and Dragons-blood in Tears; mingling with them as much of the cold Seeds as the powder will bear. Beat together in a great Brass-Mortar the shavings of Ivory, the Liquorice, the Parsley, the Myrtles, the Myrrhe, the red Roses, the Mallows, Quince, Purslain, Poppey, and Cotton-seeds; you may also mix the Gum-Arabic and Tragacanth together, and as much of the cold Seeds as the powder will bear, and having sifted them through a silk-Sieve, and the Sugar Candy and the powders pulveriz'd, then cut very small the Pine-Kernels, the Pistaches, and the Almonds with a Shoemakers Knife, then beat them in a Marble-Mortar with a wooden-Pestle, till the whole be hardly to be felt. Then mix all the powders, and incorporating them with the cold Seeds, the Almonds, the Pine-Kernels, [Page 177] and the Pistaches beaten, add of the Muscilage of Flea-wort and Hydromel, as much as will suffice to reduce them into a good Paste; of which when the Trochisks are made, dry them in the Sun. But in regard these Trochisks are not to be kept, by reason of the unctuous Seeds and Fruits that compound them, and are onely to be made when occasion requires; therefore the best way is not to make them into Tro­chisks, but to administer the moist Mass, when it is fully prepar'd.

Gordonius the Author of these Trochisks extols them for the cure of Ulcers in the Reins; and for those that piss Blood, as also for the Diabetes, the Strangury, Go­norrheas and Ulcers of the Bladder and Ureters. The Dose is from one Dram to two mix'd in Hydromel, in Milk, or in some proper distill'd-water, or Decoction. It is also used for Injections into the natural parts of men or women, mix'd in the same manner. These Trochisks are also proper for the most part of Diseases of the Breast, as well to stay Defluxions, as to qualifie their Acrimony.

Trochisci de Rhabarbaro. Trochisks of Rhubarb. 
℞. Rhabarbari optimi,ʒ x.℞. The best Rhubarb,ʒ x.
Amygdalarum amararum excorticata­rum,℥ ss.Bitter Almonds peel'd,℥ ss.
Rosarum rubrarum exungulatarum,ʒ iij.Red Roses cleans'd,ʒ iij.
Radicis Rubiae Tinctorum, Root of Dyers-Madder, 
Spicae Nardi, Spikenard, 
Absinthii Majoris, The bigger Wormwood, 
Asari, Asarabacca, 
Seminis Apii, & Seeds of Parsley, and 
Anisi, an.ʒ j.Anise, an.ʒ j.

Take off the skins of the Almonds with the point of a Knife, beat them in a large Brass-Mortar with the Rhubarb, Madder, Asarabacca, Spikenard, Wormwood, Ro­ses, Parsley, and Aniseeds, and sift the Powders through a Silk-sieve, and mingle them afterwards with Juice of Eupatorium or Agrimony depurated and reduc'd to the Consistence of Honey, beating the whole for some time together, to unite the Ingredients the better, and bring them into a kind of a solid Paste, and make it into little Trochisks; which must be dry'd in the shade, and so kept for use.

These Trochisks are us'd at the end of long sicknesses, especially the Jaundise, Dropsies, and Cachexies. It serves also for the cure of those that are troubl'd with Pains, Swellings, and Obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, and Mesentery. They are given in Powder in white-Wine, or in some other proper Liquor, from a Scruple to a Dram. They may be also mix'd in Tablets, Opiates, and Potions.

Trochisci de Capparibus. Trochisks of Capers. 
℞. Corticis Radicum Capparum, & ℞. Of the Rind of Caper-Roots, and 
Seminis Agni Casti, an.ʒ vj.Seed of the Chaste Tree, an.ʒ vj.
Gummi Ammoniaci,ʒ iiij.Gum-Ammoniac,ʒ iiij.
Amygdalarum amararum mundatarum, Bitter Almonds peel'd, 
Seminis Nigella, Seed of Fennel Flower, 
Nasturtii, Cresses, 
Summitatum Calamintha, Tops of Calamint, 
Radicum Acori veri, Roots of true Acorus, 
Aristolochiae Rotundae, Round Birthwort, 
Cyperi, Cyperus, 
Foliorum Ruta, & Leaves of Rue, and 
Scolopendrii siccorum, an.ʒ ij.Spleenwort dry'd, an.ʒ ij.
Succi Eupatorii ad mellaginem inspis­sati, q. s. Juice of Agrimony, q. s. 

[Page 178]Having press'd out and depurated the juice of Agrimony, boil it over a soft fire to the consistence of Honey. Then beat together in a great Brass-Mortar the Caper-Roots, the true Acorus, the Cyperus, the Birth-wort, the Seeds, the bitter Almonds, the Ca­lamint, Rue and Spleen-wort, according to the method of Trituration, and sift them through a Silk-sieve. Then heat the Brass-Mortar and Pestle; and having melted the Gum-Armoniac, and mix'd it with some part of the juice of Agrimony, incorporate the Powders with it by degrees, adding as much juice of Spleen-wort as is necessary to make a paste solid enough to make up the Trochisks, which are to be dry'd in the shade and kept for use.

The Trochisks are proper to cut and attenuate thick and tartarous humours, and to open the obstructions of the Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, and Mesentery, as also to soften their hardnesses, and those of all the lower part of the belly; and to dissipate the flatuosities of the Hypochondrium and Intestines. They are to be given in powder mix'd in convenient Liquors, or among other Medicins like Opiates or otherwise. Their Dose is from a Scruple to one Dram.

Trochisci de Myrrha. Trochisks of Myrrh. 
℞. Myrrhae Electae, ℞. Choice Myrrh. 
Lupinorum Excorticatorum, an.ʒ v.Lupin's shal'd, an.ʒ v.
Foliorum Rutae siccorum, Leaves of drye Rue, 
Dictamni Cretici, Cretan Dittany, 
Mentastri, Wild Mints, 
Pulegii Regalis, Penny-Royal, 
Seminis Cumini, Cumin-Seed, 
Radicis Rubiae Tinctorum, Root of Madder, 
Assae Fetidae, Assa-Fetida, 
Sagapeni, Sagapene, 
Opoponacis, an.ʒ ij.Opoponax, an.ʒ ij.

Beat all together the Lupines cleans'd from their Hulls, the Madder-Roots, the Leaves of Rue, wild-Mint, Penny-Royal, Dittany, Cumin-Seed, and Myrrh. Chuse out the purest drops of Assa Fetida, Sagapene, and Opoponax, and melt them by degrees in a brazen-Mortar heated, mixing therewith about an Ounce of the juice of Mugwort, wherein the powders are to be incorporated, so that the whole may be reduced into a paste, fit to be made up in Trochisks; which must be dry'd in the shade and kept for use.

These Trochisks are highly recommended against the Retention of the Menstruums. For they subtilize the blood, and hinder the coagulation. They also cut thick and vi­scous matters that cause Obstructions, and by that means they open the passages of the Matrix. They bring away the After-birth and dead Child. They are to be pow­der'd and given in a Decoction of the Berries of Juniper, or some other Hysterical Plant. Their Dose is from one Scruple to a Dram. They may be also powder'd and incorporated with Oyl of Petroleum or Amber, and ty'd in a knot to be held to the Nose against Hysteric Vapours.

Trochisci Diarrhodon. Trochisks of Roses. 
℞. Rosarum rubrarum recentium exungula­tarum,j.℞. New Red-Roses cleans'd from their bottoms,℥ j.
Rasurae Eboris, Shavings of Ivory, 
Santali Citrini, & Saunders Yellow, and 
Rubri, & Red, and 
Radicis Liquoritiae mundat. an.ʒ iij.Root of Liquorice cleans'd, an.ʒ iij.
Mastiches electae,ʒ ij.Chosen Mastich,ʒ ij.
Croci,ʒ j.Crocus,ʒ j.
Camphorae,gr. xij.Camphire,gr. xij.
Aquae Rosarum, q. s. Rose-water, q. s. 

[Page 179]This Receipt is not inferiour to any that are to be met with in any Dispensatories, though the difference be great, as well in reference to the ingredients, as the quan­tities: Beat together in a great Brass-Mortar the shavings of Yvory, Sanders, and Li­quorice, and sift them through a Silk-sieve: Triturate the Mastick and the Saffron seve­rally apart, as also the Camphire, observing what I have formerly directed. Chuse out the large buds of fresh Red-roses, and having cut off the ungulous part or bot­toms with a pair of Scissars, beat them in a Marble-Mortar with a Wood'n-pestle, till they are almost impalpable; then mixing the Powders therewith, beat the whole for some time, adding as much Rose-water as is necessary, to make the Mass solid enough for the forming of little Trochisks to be dry'd in the Sun.

These Trochisks strength'n the Stomach very much, as also the Liver and Bowels: They dissipate the pains and old maladies thereof, and are giv'n with success in Dy­senteries and Cholical Passions. Their dose and manner of taking are very little diffe­rent from those of the Trochisks preceding.

Trochisci de Camphora. Trochisks of Camphire. 
℞. Rosarum Rubrarum mundatarum, & ℞. Red-Roses cleans'd, and 
Mannae Calabrinae, an.℥ ss.Calabrian-Manna, an.℥ ss.
Santali Citrini, Yellow-Saunders, 
Liquoritiae mundatae, Liquorice cleans'd, 
Rasurae Eboris, an.ʒ iij.Shavings of Yvory, an.ʒ iij.
Semin. quat. frig. maj. mundatorum, The four greater cold seeds cleans'd, 
Gummi Arabici, Gum-Arabic, 
Tragacanthi, Tragacanth, 
Nardi Indicae, Indian-Spikenard, 
Ligni Aloes, Lignum Aloes, 
Croci, an.ʒ j.Saffron, an.ʒ j.
Camphorae,ij.Camphire,℈ ij.

Beat together in a great Marble-Mortar the Yellow-Saunders, Lignum-Aloes, Liquo­rice, shavings of Yvory, the Spikenard, the Red-Roses and Spikenard, and sift them through a Silk-sieve. Beat apart the Manna and Camphire, adding at last never so small a drop of Spirit of Wine. Make choice of Manna in Tears; and having beat it in a Marble-Mortar with a Wood'n-pestle, add thereto about an ounce of Muscilage of Flea-wort; and mixing the Powder therewith by degrees, and what is wanting of the Muscilage, beat the whole to a solid Paste, fit to make little Trochisks, and dry them in the shade.

These Trochisks are prescrib'd in Burning-Fevers, to quiet the boiling of the blood and choler, to moderate the heat of the stomach and liver, and to quench inordinate thirst. They are prevalent also against the Jaundice, Ptisic, and Hectic-Fevers. Their dose and manner of taking is the same with the former: They are also put into Hy­steric Glysters, from one to two drams, pulveriz'd and mingl'd with proper De­coctions.

Trochisci Hedychroi. Trochisks of Sweet Perfumes. 
℞. Mari, ℞. Herb Mastich, 
Amaraci, Sweet Marjoram, 
Aspalathi, Thorn-Bush, 
Asari, an.℥ ss.Assarabacca, an.℥ ss.
Shoenanthi, Camels Hay, 
Calami Aromatici, Aromatic Reed, 
Costi, Costus, 
Xylo-Balsami, Xylo-Balsamum, 
Opobalsami, Opobalsamum, 
Cinnamomi, an.ʒ vj.Cinnamon, an.ʒ vj.
Myrrha, Myrrh, 
Folii Indi, Indian-leaf, 
Nardi Indicae, Indian-Spikenard, 
[Page 180] Croci, Croci, 
Cassia Ligneae, an.j ss.Cassia-wood, an.℥ j ss.
Amomi,iij.Amomum,℥ iij.
Mastiches electae,ʒ ij.Choice Mastich,ʒ ij.

Having well chosen and cleans'd all these Ingredients, beat them together in a Brass-Mortar; and having sifted the Powder through a Silk-sieve, incorporate them with good Malmsey, till the Past is become solid enough to make little Trochisks, which are to be dry'd in the shade.

Marum, or Herb Mastich, grows in certain Islands near Toulon in Provence, and is planted also in Gardens. This Plant is very much about the bigness of Thyme, which it resembles, having several little round branches, somewhat woody, cover'd with a kind of Hoary Down, toward the top especially: The leaves are green, somewhat inclining to white, very small, and pointed like the Head of a Pike: The tops are tusted like those of Lavender, full of little Purple-flowers very odoriferous: The tast of it is sharp and biting, and leaves a bitterness in the mouth: The flowry tops are only made use of in these Trochisks.

Aspalathus is the wood of a Thorn-tree, or Bush, ponderous, massive, and unctuous; somewhat sharp and bitter to the tast, of a purplish colour, and somewhat spotted; in vertues, tast, smell, and figure, much resembling Lignum-Aloes, but that Lignum Aloes is of a browner and duller colour: And indeed, when Aspalathus is not to be had, Lignum Aloes may be very well us'd in its stead. The newest Calamus Aromaticus is the best, in regard it is subject to rot if it be long kept.

These Trochisks are good to expel Venom, and for the cure of all those Diseases for which the Ancient Treacle is prescrib'd: They are to be taken and dos'd like other Theriacal Trochisks.

Trochisci Cypheos. Trochisks of Cyphi. 
℞. Pulpae Ʋvarum Damascenarum, ℞. Pulp of the fairest and largest Rai­sins, 
Terebinthinae Chiae, an.j.Chio-Turpentine, an.℥ j.
Myrrhae electae, Choice Myrrh, 
Schoenanthi, an.℥ ss.Camels Hay, an.℥ ss.
Cinnamomi,iiij.Cinnamon,℈ iiij.
Calami Aromatici, Calamus Aromaticus, 
Bdellii, Bdellium, 
Spicae Nardi, Spikenard. 
Cassiae Ligneae, Cassia-wood, 
Cyperi, Cyperus, 
Granorum Juniperi, an.ʒ j.Juniper-Berries, an.ʒ j.
Aspalathi,gr. 54.Aspalathus,gr. 54.
Mellis optimi Malvatico diluti tantillum. Of the best Honey mix'd with Malm­sey, never so little. 

Reduce into very fine Powder, in a Brass-Mortar, the Myrrh and Bdellium among the Camels Hay, the Cinnamon, Acorus Verus, Spikenard, Cassia-wood, Cyperus, Juniper-berries, and Aspalathus, as also the Saffron, if you cannot beat it apart; and having separated the skins and the stones of the Raisins from the Pulp, pass it through a Hair-sieve revers'd, without any addition of Wine, or any other moisture. The Tur­pentine being of a consistence solid enough, needs not to be dry'd over the fire; but rather that way is to be avoided, for fear of dissipating its best parts, which are its spi­ritous and Aethereal Oyl: Nor will there be any need of Honey or Oyl, since the Tur­pentine, and the Pulp of Raisins, will be sufficient to mix the Powders, if rightly or­der'd; and the Trochisks will be the better, and drier.

The vertues of these Trochisks are very like to those of Mithridate: And their dose is from one scruple to one dram, in some proper Liquor.

[Page 181]

Trochisci Scillicitei. Trochisks of Squills. 
℞. Scillae pane prius involutae & in clibano coctae,lb j.℞. Of Squills first wrapt in Dough, and bak'd in an Oven,lb j.
Radicis Dictamni Albi subtiliter pulve­rati,viij.Root of white Dittany finely powder'd,℥ viij.

Chuse out well-grown, firm, weighty Squills, of a moderate bigness, tak'n out of the Earth when the leaves are past, and wrapping them up in a piece of Paste made of Wheat-dough, about a finger thick, put them into a Bakers Oven among the Houshold-bread, and leave them there till the Bread be bak'd; then draw them, and when they are cold, take them out of the Paste, and peel off the red skins, which will be almost dry; and only reserving the thin slices, throw away the Core, and the Root: Then weigh out the quantity of the slices prescrib'd, and beat them in a Mar­ble-Mortar with a Wooden-pestle, mixing by degrees the Powder of the Root of Dit­tany sifted through a Silk-sieve; and having beaten the whole together, and reduc'd it into a Mass, fit your Trochisks, make them up, and dry them in the open Air.

Wonder not that the Chiches which the Ancients made use of in these Trochisks are omitted, in regard they have not any good qualities to second the vertue of the Squills, nor of any ingredients in the Treacle, for which these Trochisks are princi­pally prepar'd: But the Dittany is well prescrib'd in the room of them, as being not only fit to give a body to the Squills, but also to impart its cordial and Alexi­pharmacal vertue to the Trochisks, and consequently to the Treacle.

Nor can I hold with Swelfer who prescribes the Juice or Pulp of Squills in the Treacle, instead of the Trochisks. For it is not to be thought that the baking of the Squills wrapt up in Dough, can cause any dissipation of their vertue; in regard it is apparent, that they abound in superfluous moisture, which it is very convenient to a­bate, and that the baking is as it were a maturation of its parts, by which their A­crimony is manifestly carry'd off.

Whereas he says, it is a difficult thing to make Trochisks of eight ounces of Dit­tany, and twelve of Squills, by reason of their superfluous moisture; I can affirm, that I have several times experimented the contrary, and that they may be easily dry'd in the Air, without the help of Fire or Sun's heat.

As to the diminution of the substance of the Squills in drying, I confess with him, that it is great enough, but not so much as he would make us believe; for out of the twelve ounces of Squills, and eight of Dittany, there remains ten of Trochisks well dri'd: Nor is the vertue lost, but concenter'd with that of the white Dittany. The white Squills are the best, if they can be had.

The use of the Trochisks is in Treacle; their vertue is Alexipharmacal, to which the Root of Dittany contributes very much; but their chiefest vertue is to cut and attenuate viscous and tenacious humours: For which reason they are prescrib'd with success against Apoplexies, Epilepsies, and Diseases proceeding from abundance of Flegm: They may be taken like other Trochisks.

Trochisci Viperini.Trochisks of Vipers.
℞. Truncorum hepatum, & Cordum Viperi­norum in aere libero extra solis Radios sic­catorum quantum libuerit.℞. Of the Trunks, Livers, and Hearts of Vipers dry'd in the op'n Air out of the Sun, as much as you think fit.

To prepare these Trochisks right, if the Winter have been mild, take up your Vi­pers at the end of April, or beginning of May, never minding the Sex; for the Males are as good as the Females, whatever the Ancients or Moderns have written, since they are most extraordinarily active, vigorous, and fleshy; and in some respect they may be preferr'd before the Female which are full of Eggs, that suck and emacerate them. They alledge frequency of Coition, which is not to be heeded, as proceeding from an abundance of Spirits, and is a mark of the vigour and good Constitution of the Creature. Casting therefore away the drooping Vipers, and such whose Eggs are grown big, chuse out those that stir most, and are most vigorous; and without [Page 182] whipping or provoking them, cut off their heads close to their necks and their tails, close to the place where their Excrement comes out: Strip off their skins; and having tak'n out all their Entrails, except the Heart and Liver, dry them in the Air; and when they are dry, after you have cut them very small, beat them in a great Brazen-Mortar, and fift the Powder through a Silk-sieve. In the mean while, put a little Gum-Arabic powder'd into a large three ounces of excellent Malmsey, of which take a sufficient quantity to incorporate the Powder of Vipers; and then beating the whole together in a Marble-Mortar with a Wooden-pestle, reduce it to a uniform and solid Paste, fit to make Trochisks; upon which you may set your Seal, and then dry them in the shade, anoynting them afterwards with Balsom of Peru, to give them a pleasant scent.

The Trochisks thus prepar'd, may be kept much longer then the Powder, because that the dissolution of Gum-Arabic in Malmsey, renders the Trochisks compact, clo­ses the Pores, and hinders the penetration of the Air, to which the Balsom contri­butes not a little.

These Trochisks are very prevalent against Poysons, particularly against the biting of Serpents, and all sorts of venomous Animals: They are often prescrib'd in malig­nant Fevers, and Epidemic diseases, and all such as proceed from the corruption of the blood: They are particularly prescrib'd for the Composition of Treacle, to which they serve for a Foundation, though the Vipers dry'd, with their Hearts and Livers may very well suffice, without the trouble of making Trochisks. Their dose is from half a scruple to half a dram, though you may give a dram to persons of a strong Constitu­tion. They are tak'n in Wine, or in Cordial Waters, or Decoctions, or else mingl'd in Potions, Opiates, or other Remedies.

CHAP. XXII. Of Pills.

PIlls are so call'd from their round figure, like to that of little Balls. They are also call'd Catapotia, because they are usually swallow'd whole. They were invented to comply with those that could not swallow dissolv'd Medicines, or were only for a small dose; as also to be provided of a Remedy, that by staying long in the Stomach, might have time to draw off the bad humours from the remote parts. Pills are also made for several uses; some to purge, some to fortifie the Brain, Stomach, or some other part; sometimes for diseases of the Breast; sometimes they are compos'd of pain-asswa­ging, and sleep-procuring Medicines; sometimes of Hysterics, Openers, and Anti­nephriticks. Laxative Pills have usually Aloes for their Basis: As for Coloquinth, Scammony, Agaric, Turbith, Hermodactiles, Senna, Rhubarb, and other Laxatives, they are variously prescrib'd; as also several Gums and Spices, according to the pru­dence and intent of the Physitian. Anodynes, and sleep-procurers, have generally Opium for their Foundation, which is many times attended with ingredients that tend to the same end, but always of Aromatics proper to fortifie the Noble parts during the operation of the Pills. Aloes is also the Foundation of fortifying Pills.

The bitter and ill tast of Pills, and their unpleasing smell, forces us to cover them with Gold or Silver, to wrap them up in Sugar, or in Wafers, or in some sweet-Meat. They may be also made bigger or lesser, in compliance with the Pa­tients desire.

There are several ways to make Pills, according to the variety and nature of the Ingredients that compose them. Hard and dry Ingredients are to be finely powder'd; fat Gums are to be dissolv'd and melted; Juices are to be depurated and thick'nd. The Mass is also [...]riously made up; for sometimes you must incorporate the Medicaments pulveriz'd in a great heated Mortar, by beating them together without any addition of Liquor; and sometimes you must make use of Syrups, Honeys, Juices, or any other Liquor. The mass of all sorts of Pills ought to be beaten a good while in a great Brass-Mortar, to the end the Union of the Ingredients may be the better made: For which reason some have deriv'd the name of Pill from Pila, a Mortar, as if it were never to be beaten enough. Yet there are Pills prepar'd of Extracts that have no oc­casion to be beaten at all.

[Page 183]The Mass of Pills must not be so solid as that of Trochisks: For it ought to be of such a consistence that you may roll up the Pill with your Fingers, being anointed be­fore with some Oyl to keep the Pills from sticking to them. All which things may be better understood by the particular Preparation of the Masses of Pills which follow.

Pilulae de Hiera simplices. Simple Hiera-Pills. 
℞. Cinnamomi electi, ℞. Choice Cinnamon, 
Santali Citrini, Yellow Saunders, 
Asari, Asarabacca, 
Spicae Nardi, Spikenard, 
Croci, Saffron, 
Mastiches, an.ʒ iij.Mastich, an.ʒ iij.
Aloes succotrinae elect.ʒ L.Aoes succotrine,ʒ L.

Beat in a great Brass-Mortar the Saunders, Spikenard cleans'd and cut, the Asara­bacca and Cinnamon. Triturate the Mastich apart, mixing therewith never so small a drop of water. Beat the Saffron also apart, being dryed before: unless you think it better to triturate it in a small Brass-Mortar heated, where it will dry at the same time. Make choice of the purest Aloes succotrine, of a good scent, shining, transpa­rent and of a purplish colour; and mixing with it some few drops of Oyl of sweet-Almonds, beat it to powder in a large Brass-mortar heated, and sift it through a Silk-sieve, as you must all the rest of the powders, which must be well mix'd toge­ther; and having put them into a large Brass-mortar heated, incorporate them with as much Mel Rosatum as is requisite to reduce the whole into a mass indifferently solid; which must be beaten in a Brass-mortar heated for a good while, till you perceive that all the Medicaments are exactly mix'd. After which having taken the mass out of the Mortar, make it into a kind of a round Loaf, a little high, and lay it two or three days in the air; then wrapping it up in a Skin a little oyl'd, keep the mass for use. When you have occasion for it, make the Pills of what bigness you please, as the Pa­tient desires; anointing your Fingers with Oyl of sweet-Almonds, when you roll up the Pills. Then roll them up in Leaf-gold or Silver, in powder, Wafers or other­wise.

These Pills purge gently choleric and flegmatic humours of the Stomach and Inte­stines. They keep the Belly open, and help the retention of the Menstruums. Their Dose is from a Scruple to half a Dram: though you may give a Dram at a time, and more, if you desire they should work more strongly. But because they ought to work slow and moderately, and are to be repeated more then once, the best way is to take the lesser Dose. They are taken just before meals, and are therefore call'd the Gor­mandizing Pills. You may also take them rising, or going to Bed, or at any hour.

Pilulae de Hiera cum Agarico. Hiera Pills with Agaric. 
℞. Specierum Hierae simplicis jam prae­scriptae,℥ j ss.℞. The Powders of simple Hiera already prescrib'd,℥ j ss.
Agaric. Trochiscati,℥ ss.Agaric Trochiscated,℥ ss.

When you have prepar'd the Powder appointed for the last Pills, it is but mixing half an Ounce of Trochisks of Agaric with an Ounce and an half of the same Pow­der, observing the same Preparation.

These Pills work more strongly then the simple Pills, as well in cutting the Humours, as in drawing from the remote parts. For while they cut and loosen the thick Flegm from the Stomach, they also draw the same from the Head, and carry it down­ward. You may take these Pills like the former just before Meals in a small Dose. But it is better to augment the Dose from one Dram to four Scruples, and take them rising or going to Bed a good while after Supper, when there is a necessity of an entire Purgation.

[Page 184]

Pilulae de Agarico. Agaric Pills. 
℞. Agarici Albissimi, ℞. Of the whitest Agaric, 
Turbith Electi, Choice Turbith, 
Specierum Hierae Simplicis, an.℥ ss.Powders of Simple Hiera, an.℥ ss.
Trochiscorum Alhandal, Trochisks of Alhandal, 
Sarcocollae, an.ʒ ij.Sarcocoll, an.ʒ ij.
Radicis Ireos, Orrice-Root, 
Foliorum Prassii Albi, Leaves of white Hore-hound, 
Myrrha Electae, an.ʒ j.Choice Myrrh, an.ʒ j.

Chuse out your Agaric very clean, white, light, and brittle; new Turbith, cleans'd from its Heart, and white within; beat them together in a large Brass-Mortar, some­what heated, with the Orrice-Root, the Trochisks of Alhandal, the Myrrh, the Sar­cocol, the white Hore-hound, never minding the fatness of the Gums; for without that be, they cannot hinder the waste of the Powder. Sift the Powder through a Silk­sieve; then mixing with it the Hiera-powder, make it into a solid mass with Burnt­wine, and then beat the mass till the mixture be exactly made.

The Mass of these Pills must be somewhat softer then that of the Hiera, especially if you intend to keep it long; because the most subtle parts of the Burnt-wine being subject to dissipate, the Mass will become dry in a small time; which if not foreseen, you must be forc'd to beat the Mass again, and moisten it with more Burnt-wine: wrap it up in an oyl'd-piece of Leather, like the former.

These Pills purge very strongly thick Flegm out of the Stomach, and the lower part of the Belly; as also from the Brain: They disburthen the Lungs, and give ease to the Asthmatic, and those that are troubled with old Coughs, through toughness of Flegm. The dose is from a scruple to a dram, as also to four scruples, for them that are of a strong Constitution. They are to be taken after the first sleep, or early in the morning.

Pilulae Aggregativae sive Polychrestae. Aggregative, or Polychrest Pills. 
℞. Aloes Succotrinae ℞. Aloes Succotrin, 
Turbith Electae, Choice Turbith, 
Diagrydii, an.ʒ vj.Diagrydion, an.ʒ vj.
Rhabarb. Elect. Choice Rhubarb, 
Myrobalanorum Citrinorum, an.℥ ss.Yellow Mirobalans,℥ ss.
Trochiscorum Alhandal, Trochisks of Alhandal, 
Agarici Albissimi, Whitest Agaric, 
Polypodii, Polypody, 
Myrobalanorum Chebulorum, Indorum, an.ʒ ij.Mirobalans Chebulae, Indian, an.ʒ ij.
Rosarum rubrarum mundat. Red-roses cleans'd, 
Mastiches, Mastich, 
Epithymi, Epithyme, 
Zinziberis, Ginger, 
Salis Gemmei, & Sal-Gemmae, 
Seminis Anisi, an.ʒ j.Anniseed, an.ʒ j.
Succorum Eupatorii & absinthii ad mella­ginem inspissatorum, an.℥ ss.Juices of Agrimony and Wormwood, thick'nd to the substance of Honey, an.℥ ss.

These Pills are call'd Aggregative, or Polychrest, because they congregate and purge several bad humours together, drawing them from all parts of the body.

Pulverize together in a great Brass-Mortar the Turbith, Rhubarb, Polypody, Miro­balans, Trochisks, Ginger, Roses, Agaric, Epithyme, Anise, and Sal-Gemmae, and sift them through a Silk-sieve: Pulverize the Diagrydion apart, mixing with it some few drops of Oyl of Sweet-Almonds. Pulverize also the Mastich apart, mixing with it never so small a drop of water. Press forth the Juices of Agrimony and Wormwood, [Page 185] clarifie them and thick'n them to the consistence of melted Honey, or of a soft Ele­ctuary. Beat the Aloes apart also, and having mix'd all the Powders very exactly to­gether, make them up into a Mass with the thickn'd Juices, and Syrup of pale Roses, beating all together in a large Marble-Mortar, till the Ingredients are perfectly mix'd.

I am not of their opinion that would have the Juices of Wormwood and Agri­mony dry'd, till fit to be powder'd, and so sifted among the other Powders. For be­sides that they may be exactly mix'd according to my method, I see no reason to dry them so; since it cannot be done without a considerable waste of their vertue. Con­sidering also that having consumed all the moisture of those Juices, you must not only be constrain'd to make use of some alien moisture to give the Mass its due Con­sistence, but also put that whose moisture is consum'd to no purpose into the Com­position. For you must multiply the Dose of the Syrup of Roses, of which the les­ser quantity is always to be preferr'd before the greater, unless you intend by aug­menting the quantity and weight of the Mass, that we should proportionably in­crease the Dose of the Pills. Nor is it to be wondred at, that instead of two Drams of each of those Juices we have set down half an Ounce, having a regard to the moi­sture that remains in them, after they are only boil'd to the Consistence of Honey.

These Pills purge universally all the ill humours of the body. They are prescrib'd for the Cure of Diseases of the Head, Stomach, Liver, and all the Bowels, the Ob­structions whereof they open, and cary off all the ill humours. They are prescrib'd also in long and complicated Agues, and in several obstinate Diseases. Their Dose and manner of taking is the same with Agaric-Pills. They are also to be kept in an oyl'd Skin.

Pilulae de Ammoniaco Quercetani. Ammoniac Pills of Quercetan. 
℞. Extracti Aloes Succotrinae cum succo Ro­sarum parati,iiij.℞. Extract of Aloes Succotrine prepar'd with Juice of Roses,℥ iiij.
Gummi Ammoniaci purissimi,ʒ vj.The purest Gum-Ammoniac,ʒ vj.
Myrrhae elect.℥ ss.Choice Myrrh,℥ ss.
Pulveris Diatrion Santalon, Powder of the three Saunders, 
Mastiches elect. an.ʒ j ss.Mastich chosen, an.ʒ j ss.
Croci, Saffron, 
Salis Fraxini, Salt of Ash, 
Absinthii, an.ij.Wormwood, an.℈ ij.

Reduce into very fine powder apart the Myrrh, the Mastich, and the Saffron. After which having moderately heated a large Brass-Mortar and Pestle, melt therein the Gum-Ammoniac, and having soften'd it with never so little Vinegar of Squills, add thereto the Extract of Aloes prepar'd, as directed in the Third Part of this Phar­macopoea among the Extracts. Then add the Salts of Wormwood and Ash, the Myrrh, the Mastich, and the Saffron pulveriz'd, and mix'd with the Powder of Saun­ders, and as much of the pale Roses as is necessary. And to make the mixture more exact, beat the whole Mass in the same Mortar, till the Mass be rather a little too soft then too hard, as being apt to dry if kept too long.

These Pills are highly commended for the purging of ill humours from all parts of the body. They are administred with good success in Obstructions of the Liver, the Spleen and Mesentery, and long Agues that proceed from thence. They are effectu­al in Cachexies, and particularly to carry off the impurities of the Matrix, and to give the retain'd Menstruums the ordinary course. Their Dose is from one Scruple to two: And sometimes to a Dram for strong Constitutions. They are to be taken in a morning fasting, and may be re-taken and continu'd as occasion requires.

Pilulae Cochicae. Cochiae Pills. 
℞. Specierum Hierae simplicis, ℞. Powders of simple Hiera, 
Turbith electi, Choice Turbith, 
Trochiscorum Alhandal, Alhandal Trochisks, 
[Page 186] Diagrydii, an.℥ ss.Diagrydion, an.℥ ss.
Olei Stillutitii Stoechados, vel Distill'd Oyl of Cassidony, or 
Lavendulae,℈ j.Lavender,℈ j.

Make up the Mass with Juice of Wormwood, thick'nd to the Consistence of Honey.

There are several Receipts of these Pills under the Names of Great and Lesser, which differ very much as to the Ingredients and Doses. Cassidony is prescrib'd in some, omitted in others, as also the Turbith. The Powder of Hiera is sometimes in a lesser, sometimes a greater Dose. But the distill'd Oyls of Cassidony or Laven­der are quite left out, while they only use Syrup of Cassidony or Wormwood to incorporate all the rest. But we thought that the distill'd Oyls of Stoechas, or Worm­wood would afford more vertue then the five Drams of dry Stoechas, serving to no other end then to swell up the Mass of the Pills. We thought also that it was to no purpose to vary the Doses of the dry Medicaments, of which these Pills are com­pos'd, in regard they all tend to one end, and help to assist one another. We have also chosen the liquid Extract of the Wormwood before the Syrup, the better to fortifie the Stomach and Liver, during the Operation of the Pills, and more proper to make them keep.

These Pills purge very powerfully all ill humours. And they deserve to be us'd as well for the easiness of their Preparation, as for the good Effects which may be expected from them, by cleansing the Head, Stomach, and all the Bowels from their superfluities: And they are to be taken in the morning fasting, or after the first sleep.

Pilulae de Cynoglosso. Pills of Hounds-tongue. 
℞. Myrrhae electa,ʒ vj.℞. Choice Myrrh,ʒ vj.
Olibani,ʒ v.Olibanum,ʒ v.
Radicis Cynoglossi siccae, Root of Hounds-tongue, 
Seminis Hyoscyami Albi, Seed of white Henbane, 
Extracti Opii, an.℥ ss.Extract of Opium, an.℥ ss.
Croci, Saffron, 
Castorei, Castor, 
Resinae Styracis, an.ʒ j ss.Rosin of Storax, an.ʒ j ss.

Gather the Root of Hounds-tongue in the Spring-time, when it begins to put forth its Leaves, and having cleans'd and dry'd it, powder it very finely with pure Castor and the Henbane-seed; beat the Saffron apart, as also the Myrrh and the Olibanum; and having prepar'd the Extract of Opium somewhat soft, heat a large Brass-Mortar with a Pestle, and melt the Rosin of Storax therein; and having incorporated the Extract of Opium with it, add the Powders thereto, mixing as much Syrup of Cassidony, as will serve to reduce the whole into a Mass somewhat soft, which must be beaten a good while in the Mortar, to make the Mixture perfect. Then put up the Mass in an oyl'd Skin.

Criticks make Objection against this Preparation, because of the Seeds of Hen­bane. I confess the whole Plant of Henbane is accounted very Narcotic, and that of all the sorts they never use in Physick any but that which bears the white Seed. I know likewise that the Roots of Henbane eaten, deprive men for a time of their sense and reason: But besides that the Seed is that part of the Plant which operates most gently, and for that the use of it is very frequent in Perfumes to be held in the Mouth for the Tooth-ach, the quantity here prescrib'd is so small, and so well cor­rected, that there is no fear of any ill Effect.

These Pills are very much commended for stopping the Defluxions from the Brain upon the Breast and lower parts, as also upon the Eyes and Teeth. They ease the pains thereof, procure sleep, and carry off the Acrimony of the Humours that interrupt it. They are to be taken at a distance from eating-time, and at any hour as occasion serves. The ordinary Dose is from two Grains to ten. You may also dissolve a Scruple or half a Dram in Glysters to give ease in Dysenteries, or violent Cho­licks.

[Page 187]

Pilulae Foetidae. The Stinking Pills. 
℞. Sagapeni, ℞. Sagapen, 
Ammoniaci, Ammoniac, 
Opoponacis, Opoponax, 
Bdellii, Bdellium, 
Trochiscorum Alhandal, Alhandal-Trochisks, 
Seminis Rutae, Rue-Seed, 
Aloes Succotrinae, Aloes Succotrine, 
Epithymi, an.ʒ v.Epithyme, an.ʒ v.
Turbith electi,℥ ss.Turbith elect,℥ ss.
Diagridii, Diagrydion, 
Radicis Esulae aceto praeparat. Spurge-Root prepar'd with Vinegar, 
Hermodactylorum, an.ʒ ij.Hermodactyles, an.ʒ j.
Zinziberis,ʒ j ss.Ginger, 
Cinamomi, Cinamon, 
Spicae Nardi, Spikenard, 
Castorei, an.ʒ j.Castoreum, an.ʒ j.

Cleanse and wash the Spurge-Root, and having sprinkl'd it slightly with Vinegar, dry it, then beat it in a great Brass-Mortar among the Turbith, the Hermodactyles, the Ginger, the Cinamon, the Spikenard, the Castor and the Trochisks, to which you may add the Bdellium, and some small part of the Gums which are to be in tears. Beat the Saffron apart as also the Diagrydion and Aloes as before directed. Then draw forth and depurate about four ounces of the Juice of Leeks, and having mingl'd them with their weight in Honey, boyl them together to the consistency of a soft Electuary and take off the Scum. Then heat the great Brass-Mortar and Pestle, and having melted the Gums which were not put into the Powder, and incorporated the weight of Honey pre­par'd, add the Powders by degrees, and as much Honey as is necessary to reduce the whole Mass to an indifferent consistence; and beat it a good while in the Mortar.

Euphorbium is known to be so violent and mischievous in its operation that no man can wonder I should leave it out in these Pills, though I find it in all the Receits of the fe­tid Pills in other Dispensatories. We had also the more reason to omit it, in regard we do not find that these Pills have any want of Ingredients conducing to the purposes for which they were design'd, which are to purge vigorously and carry away ill Hu­mours, as consisting of Trochisks of Alhandal, Diagrydion, Spurge-Roots, Hermo­dactyles and Aloes, whose vertues are corroborated by the Opoponax, Sagapen, Ammo­niac and Bdellium; which at the same time serve also as Correctives to those violent Purgers.

Fetid Pills are chiefly commended for the purging of thick and viscous Flegm, and to remedy those Diseases that proceed from it, as Gouts and Rheumatisms, and all Diseases of the Joynts. These are also good against Diseases of the Stomach and Intestines, which proceed from the same Humours. They are also prevalent against the Leprosie, and all deformities of the Skin, but particularly to provoke the Menstruums, to cleanse the Matrix, and dispel the vapours thereof. Their Dose is from a scruple to a dram. They are taken as other Pills; and sometimes ty'd up in little knots to smell to, to re­press the Vapours of the Matrix.

Pilulae Ruffi. Ruffins Pills. 
℞. Aloes Succotrinae electae,ij.℞. Aloes Succotrine,℥ ij.
Myrrhae,j.Myrrhe,℥ j.
Croci,℥ ss.Saffron,℥ ss.

Pulverize the Aloes, Myrrh and Saffron, every one apart, and having mix'd the Powder in a great Brass-Mortar, reduce it into a Mass with as much good Malm­sey as shall be needful to bring it to a good consistence, and after you have beat'n it a good while put it up.

Some have giv'n these Pills the name of Pestilential, others have call'd them Com­mon Pills. They gently and as it were insensibly purge off the Impurities of the Sto­mach, they prevent the putrefaction of Humours, for which reason they are very much [Page 188] commended in the Sickness-time, and against Epidemic distempers. They may be ta­ken before Dinner, or going to Bed, or in the Morning fasting. Their dose is diffe­rent, according to the intention for which you take them: For if it be only to keep the Belly open, the dose is from a scruple to a dram; but if it be for stronger Opera­tion, you may give a dram, or a dram and a half to persons of a strong Constitution, to be taken after the first sleep, or in the Morning early.

Pilulae Aureae. Golden Pills. 
℞. Aloes Succotrin. ℞. Aloes Succotrin,ʒ v.
Diagrydii, an.ʒ v.Diagrydion, 
Rosarum rubrarum mundat. Red-roses cleans'd, 
Seminis Apii, an.ʒ ij ss.Parsley-seed, an.ʒ ij ss.
Mastiches, Mastich, 
Seminis Anisi, Anniseed, 
Feniculi, an.ʒ j ss.Fennel-seed, an.ʒ j ss.
Trochiscorum Alhandal, Alhandal Trochisks, 
Croci, an.j.Saffron, an.℈ j.

Beat together the Parsley, Anise, and Fennel-seeds, with the Trochisks of Alhandal, and Red-roses, and sift the Powder through a Silk-sieve. Pulverize a-part the Diagrydion, Mastich, and Saffron; then having well mix'd all the Powders, incorporate them with as much Syrup of Roses as is necessary to make the mass of a good consistence, which must be beaten a good while.

The Epithete of Golden is given to these Pills, because of their colour; they purge gently Flegmatic and Choleric humours from all parts of the body; they are pre­scrib'd to cure the Diseases of the Stomach and Intestines, especially when they are replete with Wine: Their dose is from a scruple to a dram, to be tak'n after the first sleep, or early in the morning.

Pilulae sine quibus. Pills without which I would not be. 
℞. Extracti Aloes Succotrinae cum succo palli­darum Rosarum parati,ʒ xiiij.℞. Extract of Aloes Succotrin prepar'd with Juice of pale Roses,ʒ xiiij.
Diagrydii,ʒ vj.Diagrydion,ʒ vj.
Agarici Albissimi, Whitest Agaric, 
Rhabarbari electi, Choice Rhubarb, 
Foliorum Sennae mundat. an.℥ ss.Leaves of Senna cleans'd,℥ ss.
Rosarum rub. exungulatarum, Red-roses cleans'd, 
Summitatum Absinthii, Tops of Wormwood, 
Seminis Violarum, Seeds of Violets, and 
Cuscutae, Dodder, 
Mastiches, an.ʒ j.Mastich, an.ʒ j.

Bruise in a great Brass-Mortar the Rhubarb with the Senna, the Agaric, the Red-Roses, the Wormwood, the Dodder, and the Violet-seeds: Pulverize a-part the Diagrydion, and the Mastich; and having depurated about four ounces of the Juice of Fennel, and boil'd it to an Electuary with its weight in fair Honey, heat the great Brass-Mortar and Pestle; and having melted the Extract of Aloes therein, and incor­porated it with some part of the Syrup of Fennel, put in the Powders by degrees, ad­ding thereto as much of the Syrup of Fennel as is needful to reduce the whole to a suffi­cient mass, and beat the whole a good while in the Mortar.

These Pills are variously prescrib'd in several Dispensatories, especially as to the quantities of the Medicaments: But they that will take the pains to consider this Receipt, must acknowledge that it is not inferiour to any of the rest, provided it be well prepar'd.

The good effects which these Pills have wrought, have won them the Title of Sine quibus esse nolo, Without which I would not be. They purge Flegm wonderfully, and both Cholers; they are very prevalent against Diseases of the Head, especially those [Page 189] of the Eyes and Ears: They are to be taken after the first sleep, or in the morning fast­ing. Their dose is from a scruple to a dram, and sometimes to four scruples.

Pilulae de Rhabarbaro. Rhubarb-Pills. 
℞. Specierum Hierae picrae,ʒ x.℞. Composition of bitter Hiera,ʒ x.
Rhabarbari Electi, Rhubarb chosen, 
Myrobalanorum Citrin. Yellow Mirobalans, 
Trochiscorum Diarrhodon, Trochisks of Roses, 
Succi Absinthii inspissati, an.ʒ iij.Juice of Wormwood thick'nd, an.ʒ iij.
Succi Glycyrrhizae, Juice of Liquorice, 
Mastiches, Mastich, 
Seminis Apii, Parsley-seed, 
Faeniculi, an.ʒ j.Fennel-seed, an.ʒ j.

Beat in a large Brass-Mortar the Rhubarb, Mirobalans, Parsley and Fennel-seeds, the Trochisks, and the Juice of Liquorice, if dry; and having sifted the Powder through a Silk-sieve, and mix'd the Powders of Hiera with it, incorporate them in the great Marble-Mortar, with the Juice of Wormwood boil'd to the consistence of Ho­ney, and as much Syrup of Fennel as is needful to reduce the whole mass to a good consistence, and then beat it a good while in the Mortar.

There is as much difference in the receipt of these Pills, as in any other that are met with in Dispensatories; which diversities require an Examination of this, the Ingre­dients whereof being as well chosen as proportion'd, I make no question will not fail to produce the good effects expected from them.

These Pills gently purge gross and viscous humours. It is often prescrib'd for the cure of long and painful diseases; for they open the most obstinate obstructions of the Liver and Spleen; they work good effects at the beginning of a Dropsie, and are of great advantage at the end of Tertian and Quotidian Agues. Their dose is from a scruple to four, taken in the same manner as Pilulae sine quibus.

Pilulae Stomachicae. Stomach-Pills. 
℞. Aloes Succotrinae elect.j ss.℞. Aloes Succotrine chosen,℥ j ss.
Rosarum rub. exungulat. & Red-roses cleans'd, and 
Mastiches elect. an.℥ ss.Choice Mastich, an.℥ ss.

Pulverize the Aloes, Red-roses, and Mastich a-part; then mix them well, and in­corporate them in a great Brass-Mortar with as much Syrup of Wormwood [...] is ne­cessary to reduce them to a mass of a reasonable consistence, and put it up, being suffi­ciently beaten together.

There are several Receipts of Stomach-Pills to be met with in Dispensatories, but the plainest of all seems to be the best.

These are call'd Stomach-Pills, because they cleanse the Stomach from all fowlness, strengthening it, and rendring it capable to perform all its Functions. They are also call'd Pills before Meat, because they are usually taken before Meals, and require no Regiment at all. They cause but little Evacuation at a time, and are therefore giv'n i [...] a small dose, from one scruple to half a dram. You may take them as often as you find occasion.

Pilulae Hystericae. Hysteric-Pills. 
℞. Facularum Brionia, ℞. The Faecula, or white Juice of Briony, 
Myrrhae Electa, Choice Myrrh, 
Vitrioli Martis, Vitriol of Iron, 
Salis Arthemisia, an.ʒ ij.Salt of Mug-wort, an.ʒ ij.
Castorei electi, Choice Castor, 
[Page 190] Rutae, Rue, 
Camphorae, an.℈ ij.Camphire, an.℈ ij.
Extracti mollioris Aloes cum succo Arthe­misiae parati,ʒ x.Soft Extract of Aloes prepar'd with juice of Mugwort,ʒ x.

Beat the Castor cleans'd, together with the Rue and one part of the Myrrh, the rest of which must be beaten, as also the Camphire, mingling with the latter a drop or two of Spirit of Wine, the more easily to powder it. You must have the Extract of Aloes ready, as I shall direct in due place, and when it is brought to a consistence somewhat soft, put it into a great Brass-Mortar; and having mix'd with it the Vitriol of Mars, the Salt of Mugwort and the white juice of Briony pulveriz'd, with the rest of the Pow­ders, reduce the whole into a Mass, which must be carefully beaten in the same Mortar for a good while. If the Extract of Aloes should want moisture to suck up the Pow­ders, supply the defect with honey of stinking Arrach, adding what is requisite.

The Extract of Aloes should be prepar'd with juice of Roses, according to some Re­ceits of these Pills; but we thought it more convenient to make use of Juice of Mug­wort, to avoid the contrary effects which the sweet scent of Roses might produce in some Women.

You shall find in the small quantity of Drugs which compose these Pills, more satisfa­ction as to the purposes, for which they were invented, then in any other Receits. For it is not generally the great number, but the choice of the Ingredients that makes the goodness of the Composition.

These Pills are not only Specificks to suppress the Vapours that rise from the Matrix, and to calm the disorders and symptoms that many times happen; but also to carry off its impurities, and to provoke the Menstruums retain'd; to which purpose they must be taken for several days. The Pills must be taken in a a morning fasting, drinking af­ter them three or four ounces of Mugwort-water, and walk gently upon it for an hour, not taking any thing in two hours after. The Dose is not above half a dram, because of the continuance in taking.

Pilulae Mesentericae, D. D. D'AQUIN. Mesenteric Pills of Monsieur D. D. D'AQUIN. 
℞. Extracti Aloes cum succo Fumariae parati, & ℞. Extract of Aloes prepar'd with Juice of Fumitory, and 
Gummi Ammoniaci elect. an.j.Gum-Ammoniac, chosen,℥ j.
Croci Martis aperientis, & Opening Crocus-Martis, and 
Diagrydii, an.℥ ss.Diagrydion, an.℥ ss.