THE Present State OF ENGLAND.

PART III. and PART IV.

CONTAINING;

  • I. An Account of the Riches, Strength, Magnificence, Natural Production, Manufactures of this Island, with an exact Catalogue of the Nobility, and their Seats, &c.
  • II. The Trade and Commerce with­in it self, and with all Countries traded to by the English, as at this day establish­ed, and all other Matters relating to Inland and Marine Affairs.

Supplying what is omitted in the two former Parts, useful for Natives and Foreiners.

London, Printed for William Whitwood, near the George Inn in Little Britain, 1683.

THE THIRD PART OF TH …

THE THIRD PART OF THE Present State OF ENGLAND.

WHEREIN Is set forth the Riches, Strength, Magnifi­cence, Natural Production, Manufactures, Wonders and Rarities, Progress of Learn­ing, Arts and Ingenuities, &c.

WITH A more perfect and Methodical Catalogue of the Nobility, with their Seats, than any hitherto extant.

LONDON, Printed for William Whitwood, next the George Inn, in Little Britain. 1683.

THE PREFACE.

IT is commonly said a­mong Gamesters, that the Standers by oft-times see more than the persons themselves that play.

The like may be said, as to the Writing of Books: That the Critical [Page] Reader soon discovers the Errors and Defects of the Writer.

Withall, it is a com­mon Observation, even of the Vulgar and Inferior sort of the People of France; that when any Stranger chanceth to trip or falter, either in the Pro­nunciation, or Idiom of their Language, they, instead of laughing at their failings, are still ready to help them out, [Page] and inform them bet­ter.

In our present Affair therefore, there is no more to do, than to wish the good fortune of falling in­to the hands of the most courteous and best natu­red of Readers; and in­deed, there is a kind of ne­cessity for it: for, in treat­ing of the Productions, Manufactures, Inventi­ons, and other things herein contained, there [Page] is (if not more) at least, as much need of Con­verse, as of Books; of consulting the Living, as the Dead.

Whatever then, through haste, Inadvertency, or want of convenient Assis­tance; either of Mistake, or Omission of what is most Curious or Remark­able (I say, most Curious or Remarkable; since a too particular, and Minute Account would swell each [Page] Head into a distinct Vo­lume) may have escaped in this present Work; those Gentlemen who shall think it worth their while, and will give themselves the trouble, are humbly desired, against the next Impression, if the VVork shall be thought worthy of it, to impart their Advice and Informations.

Small Beginnings oft times grow up to conside­rable Improvements: and [Page] a little Cottage may be inlarged to a Commodi­ous, if not stately Habi­tation.

ERRATA & OMISSA.

PAge 13. line II. after King, read Edward the Fourth. ibid. after to r. Alphonso. p. 19. l. 6. after from r. Bamba. l. 7. after from, r. Guinea. p. 21. l. 25. In the Blank, after in, r. Herefordshire. p. 22. l. 10. r. Vulpanser.

What other Mistakes, or Omissions have escaped the Press, by reason some Sheets were wrought off before the Author's Perusal, are submitted to the Courteous and Judicious Reader's Emendation.

THE Present State OF ENGLAND. PART III.

THE Island of Great Britain, the largest of the European Islands, and to very few Islands of the World inferiour in bigness, to none in Fertility, Power, Good Government and the Glory of its great Actions, lies between 52 and 58 degrees of Northern Latitude. England the noblest and largest part thereof, and a distinct King­dom of it self, though at present united un­der [Page 2] one Monarch, hath undergone four se­veral grand Revolutions. Not to mention the Samotheans, Albionists, and Brutus his Trojan Dynastie, whose credit depends ra­ther upon fabulous Tradition than real Hi­story, the ancient Inhabitants of this Island are scarce taken notice of by any Author of account but by the name of Britains; and the first certainly known Attaque that ever was made upon them, was by the Romans, under Julius Caesar; and after that several others by the Lieutenants of several suc­ceeding Emperors, not without a World of Bloodshed: The Natives no less stoutly resisting, than the Romans furious assaul­ting, till at length they gain'd a no less quiet than perhaps advantageous Possession among us; I mean, advantageous to this Island; so that the Losers may be said to have been the greatest Gainers, the Con­quered the greatest Triumphers: For if we consider, from the several Descriptions that have been written thereof, what bar­barous and absurd Customs the Ancient Britains had among them; we may con­clude that Civility and Arts were so much the earlier introduced by the coming in of the Romans; who also by their long Habi­tation here, and Familiar Converse with the Old Inhabitants, were of Foreigners [Page 3] become as it were Natives, of Enemies Protectors, insomuch that when they were call'd away for the Defence of their Pro­vinces Abroad, their Departure was no less regretted, than their Arrival was op­pos'd.

The next Attempters upon this part of the Island were the Saxons, who being at first Invited in for their Assistance against the Invading Picts and other Borderers, became at length themselves the greatest Invaders; and playing upon the Easie and Luxurious Temper of the Prince that first Incourag'd their coming over, they got a Footing, which by continued fresh Supplies sent over from time to time, they made so sure, that all the Force the Britains were able to make against them for several Ages, was not able to unfix it. For notwith­standing this great Opposition, in which several of the British Kings Signaliz'd them­selves, even to the Fame of Heroes, espe­cially the Great King Arthur, whose Glory nothing hath so much Eclips'd, as that his Actions (great enough in their Truth) are blown up into Storys, so Romantick and and Surpassing all Credit, maugre I say all the Force could be Mustered against them: They still Increased in Number and Strength, till in the end the Britains quite [Page 4] tir'd out, were glad to retire into the Moun­tainous and remote parts of the Land, (by which they kept themselves for many Ages a people intirely distinct, and their Lan­guage to this very day unmixt; the Root of ours being evidently the Saxon, so that the other must needs be the Ancient British) and leave all the rest to be shar'd among the new Possessors, who, there be­ing so many Proprietors in the Conquest, dealt out the British Monarchy into seven Parcels; which sevenfold Partition it may well be wondred how it could keep up so long, considering the Confusions, and as it were Civil Wars, that arose (as how could they but arise) among so many Petty Monarchs upon one Continent (that is, as to the bounds of each Kingdom) till at length one swallowing up the other, the stronger the weaker, this Seven-headed Hydra of Government came to a Period, and one bright face of Monarchy shot up again, and spread its Lustre over all this better part of Britain, which hath ever since been called the Kingdom of England, and hath so continued, with little or no Interruption, from the Raign of the Great Egbert. He it was who first reduc'd this Heptarchy into a Perfect Monarchy, though it was tending toward it sometime [Page 5] before, even to this day; and from him the Aera of our English Monarchies by Historians and Chronologers are reputed to commence: So that from the said Eg­bert, his present Majesty that now Happily Reigns, is reckon'd the fourty sixth sole Monarch of England.

But scarce was this Government well setled, when the expected Tranquility thereof was disturbed by a new Generation of Invaders, more Barbarous and Mischiev­ous, than ever any either before or since; Committers of far greater Outrages and Cruelties: Yet so often either driven out, or totally extirpated; so often bravely Conquered in the Field by the high Va­lour and Conduct of several of our English Saxon Monarchs (whose Fame stands great in History to this day for their Vertue and Gallantry, both in Peace and War) that it may well be wondred, how any one Coun­try could spare such Multitudes of People, as continually pour'd in upon us for se­veral Ages together; and how such nu­merous Forces could make such frequent Landings with so little Opposition: But then it must be considered, that we had no Summer Guards Abroad, no Squadrons of First, Second and Third Rate Frigats to Cruise about and Guard the English Coasts; [Page 6] what kind of Ships there were in those either for War or Trade, cannot be col­lected from any Account or Description we find recorded or publish'd; but thus much may well be concluded, that the best Man of War of those times was far Inferior to the meanest Merchant-Man now adays. For the space of about 174 years, viz. from 833, to 1017. was this poor King­dom harrass'd by the continual Invasions of these Northern Pirates; yet could they not in all this space catch hold of the Crown of England, till the said year 1017. and then they held it no longer than du­ring the Reign of three Kings; after which it reverted again to the Saxon Line.

The Fourth and last Invasion was that of the Normans, if he can properly be call'd an Invader, who seems to have come in with the Consent, at least if not Invitation of several of the Nobility and Prelacy; for else doubtless his claim could not have been so easily decided by the dint of one Battle, and he so readily have had the Crown put on his Head by Aldred Archbishop of York, who with several other Bishops and Noble­men, met him upon the way, and pay'd him their Allegiance; and from this Nor­man Conqueror the Monarchy of England hath been kept up in a continued, though [Page 7] not Lineal Succession to this day. Among the Prae-eminences which this Kingdom hath above all the other Kingdoms of Eu­rope, the chiefest and which most redounds to its Glory, is, that it was first Enlightned with the Knowledge of True Religion; so that whatsoever place it may claim in Europe, it deserves at least to be esteemed the first Kingdom of Christendom: And admit that Joseph of Arimathea were not the first that Preached the Gospel here, though there are not wanting Testimonies, to make it out, not altogether contemp­tible: However, it is most certain, that the Christian Religion here, is of a much elder date, than the coming over of Austin the Monk; that is, even in the very Apostles time, by the Testimony of Gildas; and as it appears by the mention of a Noble British Lady, Claudia Rufina, in one of St. Paul's Epistles; and it was not much above 100 years after e're it was own'd by publick Authority: For the first Chri­stian King mention'd in History, is our British King Lucius, who was Contempo­rary with the Emperor Commodus, also the first Christian Emperor, at least the first that publickly Profess'd, Protected and Maintain'd the Christian Faith, (for before him Philippus Arabs is said to have been a [Page 8] a Christian, and Baptiz'd) was Constantine Surnamed the Great, a Britain Born, the Son of Constantius Chlorus (who also was a Favourer of the Christians, and died at York) by the Daughter of King Coilus He­lena (a Princess most renowned for her Christian Piety, and for being the Inven­tress of the Cross. And as this Nation boasts Antiquity equal with Rome it self, for the Dawning of the Gospel's Light among us, so it claims a Prerogative of Lighting the first Lamp of Reformation to the Christian World; and highly glories in this, that there is no where to be found so excellent and moderate an Establishment of Church-Government among all the Re­formed Churches.

The Riches of the Eng­lish Nation.
And first of the Arable Pasture and Fruitage.

THe Riches of any Nation, I mean the Native and Inland Riches, (for by Imported Commodities, the Barrenest Na­tion in the World may be Rich,) consist chiefly in the Arable, the Pasturage, the Fruits, and other Plants of peculiar Use and Advantage. The Rich Veins of Earth for Mettals and other sorts of Minerals, and the Plenty of Fish and Fowl; all which things are both profitable in them­selves, and for the Manufactures they produce; and though common to this Na­tion, with the greatest part of the Earth in general, yet it will not be from the pur­pose to discover how far the English Nati­on excels in each of them, and what parts of the Nation are most peculiarly fam'd and commended for this or that Producti­on. As to the Arable, it would be in vain to particularize any one part of England more [Page 10] than another, since so great Plenty of all sorts of Corn and Grain is produced in all parts of this Nation. Nevertheless, it is worth the observing, how some Counties are more peculiarly celebrated for this or that Grain: I have heard it affirm'd, that the very best Wheat in England is from a Vale near Hessen in Middlesex, lying South­ward of Harrow on the Hill; however a­mong the four W's of Herefordshire, Wheat is one, the other three being Wool, Wood and Water. Moreover for Oates, if there be any where one sort better than another, the best Oats are said to be in Lancashire, and in greater abundance than any other County; and for Barly and Malt, Bedford­shire hath among some a particular men­tion. Moreover, for what is said in gene­ral of some places above others: It is suf­ficiently considerable which is reported of the Town of Godmanchester in Huntington­shire, in reference to the great Name that Town hath for Tillage, and its Prae-emi­nence above all the Towns of England; besides for number of Stout and Able Husbandmen, namely that the Inhabi­tans of this Place us'd in former times to meet the Kings of England as they pass'd this way in their Progress, in a kind of Ru­ral Pomp and Pageantry of show, with no [Page 11] fewer than 180 Ploughs; and in this manner King James at his first coming to the Crown of England was received in his Journey from Scotland, with 70 Team of Horses, fitted with all their Furniture to as many New Ploughs; the King expres­sing much Delight and Satisfaction at so Brave and Happy a Sight, and highly ap­plauded the Industry and well deserved Prosperity of the people of that Place. Remarkable also is the Vale of Evesham in Worcestershire, so called of one Eoves a Swinheard to Egwin Bishop of Worcester, so Renowned for its Fertility and excellent kind of Corn it yields, that it is called the Granary of those parts. The Vale of Alisbury in Buckinghamshire, is also parti­cularly taken notice of for its Pleasant Meadows and Rich Pastures. Nor are the Sheep-Pastures near Knetworth in Hart­fordshire, which is called the Garden of England, to be forgotten. Portholm Mea­dow also in Huntingtonshire is reckon'd among the Notabilia of that County. The like may be said in a great measure of the Pasturage: However there are some places so peculiarly remark'd either for the Large­ness or Richness of their Pastures, that the mention of them cannot well be omitted. The Isle of Shepey in Kent being about 21 [Page 12] Miles in compass, is without question so denominated from the numerous Flocks of Sheep which it feedeth. No less celebra­ted is Rumny-Marsh, heretofore a part of the Sea, under the Name of Romanum Mare, which by common Speech is easily corrupted into Rumnense Marshium: Of this Marsh, Twine in his Commentary, De rebus Anglicis, making a particular men­tion, thus concludes, Denique unde tot pingues peeudes, &c. Lastly, saith he, Whence so many Fat Cattle come to the Sham­bles, that not only all Kent is largely sup­plied from this place, but even the City of London also, in some measure fares the better. In the Marsh-Country of Norfolk common­ly called Marsh-Land; the Soyl is so very Mellow and Fruitful, that in a certain large Mead called Tilneysmeth, there are said generally to feed no less than 30000 Sheep at a time. Wormleighton in War­wickshire, breeds Sheep of so large a size, that there are scarce the like to be seen elsewhere. Lemster upon the River Lug in Herefordshire, feeds a Breed of Sheep which yields so Fine and Delicate a Wool, that our Noble Poet Draiton in his Polyol­bion, compares it to the Wool of Apulia and Tarentum, which hath been always ac­counted the Finest Wool of Europe. The [Page 13] Bread also of Lemster is no less noted by reason of the Fineness of its Flower, inso­much that Lemster Bread and Weably Ale are united into a Proverb, as Leigh ob­serves in his Description of England. Like­wise the Sheep of Cotswold (i. e. a place of Sheep-Cotes or Folds upon a Hill) in Glocestershire, yield so Fine a Wool, that nothing but the Spanish Wool can outvy it, and this advantage it owes to a Present that was made by King [...] to [...] King of Spain, very much to the prejudice of England, as it hath since proved. So­merton once the chief Town, as some say, of Somersetshire, and gave the denomination to the Shire, consists almost wholly, with the Country thereabout, of Grasiers and Breeders of Cattle. After the Wool of Lemster and Cotswold, that of the Isle of Wight comes next in estimation. Besides those places above-mentioned, there is one more, which for its largeness and Fruitfulness alike, is worthy to be men­tioned, viz. The Vale of the Whitehorse, which is partly in Wiltshire, and partly in Barkshire. For Fruit, there is scarce any County in England that is not tolerably well stor'd in one sort or other; but above all for Cherries, and now of late for Pip­pins, Kent bears the Name; and parti­cularly [Page 14] Tenham, which is commonly styl'd the Parent of Fruit Gardens: But the first Pippins brought over, that is about 100 years since, were Planted in that part of Lincolnshire called Holland; and about Kirton in the same Shire: Nor are our Cherries of much longer date, being first brought over from Flanders in the Reign of King Henry the Eight, and Planted in Kent, with that Success, that one only Orchard of but 32 Acnes, is said to have produced in one year, as much as yielded 1000 l. For all sorts of Apples and Pears, and for great quantity of ex­cellent Syder, which furnish London and many other parts, Worcestershire, Glocester­shire and Herefordshire, are the principal Counties.

Vines we have very frequent among us of several sorts, producing for the most part a very Sweet and Pleasant Grape, and good quantities of Wine, I have heard say, have been formerly made. At this day there are two places principally Eminent for making of Wine, viz. Claverton in Somersetshire, a Seat of Sir William Bassets, where there are said to have been made some years, no less than 40 Hogsheads of a very pleasant and palatable Wine, and in Kent belonging to Collonel Blunt. At [Page 15] Hatfield-House in Hertfordshire, belonging to the Earl of Salisbury, there is a parcel ground called the Vineyard, no doubt from the Plenty and goodness of the Vines there Planted. And in Glocestershire there are several places called Vineyards, out of which in former times, they yearly payed Rent-Wines, from the Plenty of Vines no doubt here growing. Moreover it is found in Ancient Records, that several Towns of this Shire payed Rent-Wines, as Dr. Fuller in his Worthys particularly observes.

Of other Productions.

BEsides those Beasts and Cattel which are of advantage for Food and Cloath­ing, and which no Country of Europe, per­haps of the World, bring forth more fair and large than England: There are some Beasts of service, which being common to England with other parts of Europe, are ge­nerally commended to be of a more excel­lent Kind than any, especially that which is the most serviceable of all others, viz. the Horse, with all manner of respects consi­dered, is doubtless the most noble and use­ful of all four-footed Beasts; for though the Elephant, Camel, and Dromedary, with which most places of Asia, and many of A­frica, abound, are more remarkable for vast bulk of body, especially the Elephant, and consequently more capable of carriage and bearing of great burthens; yet the same greatness of bulk renders them on the o­ther side more unfit for expedition: and for the Ass and Mule, which indeed are fairer, larger, and more numerous in Spain and other Countries of Europe, than in this Kingdom, they are not certainly to be com­par'd [Page 17] either for shape, service, or expedi­tion with the forementioned Animal; nor was ever any Grandee of Spain journying on his Mule with the Grand Pa and Spanish gravity so comely a sight, as a well accou­tred Cavalier on horseback: and of all parts of England, Montgomeryshire is commended for excellent Horses: The Truth is, the Spanish Jenet, that of Barbary Race com­monly, therefore called the Barbary: The Count of Oldenburgh's Breed in Germa­ny, have the Name before all others for Swiftness, delicacy of Shape and Neatness, of Mark or Colour; but for Courage, Ability of Body, either for Travel, Draught or Carriage, sufficient Swiftness and Agility, Tractableness for the Great Saddle and Management in War; the Horses of English Breed, are reputed hardly match­able by those of any other Country: And our Dogs much less, by the Testimony of divers Eminent Authors; Ortelius in his Thea­trum Orbis Terrarum, affirms, that there is no part of the Earth, where there are better and larger Dogs to be seen, especial­ly Hounds, he might also have added Mastives: To the same effect Cambden writes of our Dogs in general in his Hant­shire and Middlesex: Burton also in his Com­mentaries on Antoninus his Itinerary, pre­fers [Page 18] the British Hounds and Mastives be­fore those of any other Country whatso­ever. And of our Mastives a Spanish Geo­grapher of good Account, Lucas de Linda, in his Descriptio Orbis, saith, That they are the Bravest, the Largest and the Fiercest of any in the World beside: Moreover, that they were in great Request Anciently among the Romans, and made use of in their publick Games and Baitings, exhibited in their Amphitheaters, appears by this Verse of the Poet Clau­dian: ‘Magnaque Taurorum fracturi Colla Britani.

There are likewise some other sorts of Dogs of English Breed, which though not so much taken notice of by Authors, I am apt to imagine, are no less excellent and supereminent in their kind, than those above mention'd, as namely, Water-Spa­niels, Grey-Hounds, Setting-Dogs, and such like of Sport and Game. Lastly, that sort of Dogs that serve only for Show and the slightest of Divertisement; I really be­lieve that for Neatness of Mark and De­licacy of Shape, there are scarce to be found elsewhere the like to our Beagles and little Spaniels; and this will appear the more evident to those that shall ob­serve [Page 19] this one thing: namely, that where­as it is a general Curiosity (not to say Va­nity) among our English Gentry, to ad­mire and delight in Birds, Beasts, and o­ther things, brought over from France and other Foreign Parts, as Parots from [...] Monkeys from [...] we find few or none of these above-mention'd Crea­tures, but what are English, at least none so curiously Mark'd and Limb'd as ours. There is said to be bred about Portsmouth, a race of very little Dogs, which by their shape seem to be of the Species of Beagles.

As for the Cats of England, it is ob­servable, that the number of Fine Tabby-Cats that are finely Spotted, and as it were Marbled, hath very much increased of late years, whereby it may be probably conjectur'd, that some kinds of those so Curiously Cloathed Cats, have been brought hither from other parts, and par­ticularly those of Cyprus, have been ac­counted for their Marbled Coats, the choicest of all others; but setting aside the consideration of the Curious Mark or Col­our, to shew how far ours have the Pre­eminence in the exercise of that faculty which nature hath implanted in this sort of Creature, that is, the Catching of Mice and other such Vermine; there needs no other [Page 20] instance, than the History of a very Rich Lord Mayor of London, some few Ages ago, who first raised his Fortune from the Venture of an English Cat. As for the Eatable Cattle, and several Beasts of Game, some places we find there are, which claim a special Propriety to this or that particular kind. The best Oxen in England are said to be in Lancashire: In the New-Forrest in Hantshire, there is very great store of Red-Deer. A late Park near New-market in Cambridgeshire, was called Hare-Park, by reason of the multitude of Hares, Rabbetts; the best and most are said to be in Norfolk; yet I cannot think they much exceed those of Auburn-Chace (belonging to my Lord of Pembroke) in Wiltshire. The best Hogs in Hantshire. Of Birds there are few (if any) sorts wan­ting here, which are frequent in other parts of England, whether the most Curi­ous of Singing Birds, the choicest Fowl both Wild and Tame for the Table, or Birds of Game and Delight: But of some it is observ'd, that what are bred in this Coun­try, are peculiarly commendable above others, especially the Gallinaceous kind. Pliny observes of the Cock, that it is a Bold and Stout Bird, and crows in sign of Triumph immediatly after Victory, and [Page 21] doubtless scarce any Country affords so Couragious and Martial a Race of Game-Cocks as England; a right Cock of the Game seldom or never ceasing on this side Death or Victory. Nor do I remember to have read or heard Report of any Country where the Sport of Cock-Fighting, of which our Countryman Ascham hath written a Learned Treatise, is so much used as here: Thus the Dog among Beasts, and the Cock among Birds, seem proper Emblems of true English Valour: However let us not repose our chiefest glory in this Vertue alone, but strive to excel in others of a higher nature, which are proper to man alone, since Valour, we see, is a Vertue common to Man with Brute. In the Rocks of Pembrokeshire are Hawks of an extraordinary kind, but chiefly of the Species of the Faulcon: In the Forrest of Shirwood in Nottinghamshire, and in the Forrest of Dean in Glocestershire, the Hawk called the Lanar, whose Female is the Laneret, is very frequent: Near Kinsland in [...] is often seen the Hawk called Lanius, the Butcher or Murthering Bird. Along the Sea-Coasts of England, from the West as far as Dover; but chiefly upon the Sea-Coasts of Cornwal, there frequents a sort of Chough or Jack-daw, [Page 22] which is thence commonly called the Cor­nish Chough, supposed the same with the [...] of Aristotle. In New-Forrest in Hantshire chiefly breeds the Ʋpupa or Hoop. In the Fens of Lincolnshire the Attagen or Godwitt. On Newmarket-Heath and Salisbury-Plains, the Bistarda or Bustard. In the Isle of Thanet a sort of Wild-Goose, commonly called a Birgan­der, in Latin Vulpancer. In several parts of Cornwal, two sorts of Birds, rarely seen elsewhere, viz. the Puffin and the Ganet. Also in Lincolnshire the Foolish Bird called the Dottrel, is so frequent, that the people of those parts have very good Sport in the Catching of it, as Cambden relates.

The places of England most eminenly Famous for several sorts of Fish, are New-castle upon Tine for Salmon; as also Bywell in Northumberland, and the River Wye in He­refordshire, also the River Lune near Cocker­fand-Abbey in Lancashire. The Coast of Cornwall for Herrings; there being there so great a Trade of Herring-Fishing, that there is scarce the like again in any place of Europe; at Limmouth also in Dorcetshire there is taken great quantity of Herrings; at Yarmouth in Norfolk, the Herrings are very large and good, and are therefore called Yarmouth Capons. Shrewsbury and some [Page 23] other places thereabout upon the Severn, for a Fish call'd a Mort, which in Taste hath very much of the Salmon in it; Sussex in general for Carps: For Lobsters Chichester, the chief Town of Sussex, and Selsey (so called, qu. Isle of Seals or Sea-Calves) in the same County; the first for small ones, but very Sweet and well Tasted; the se­cond for those esteemed, not only because of their Goodness, but also their Fulness and Largeness; for Cockles▪ the same Sel­sey. For Oysters Colchester, the chief Town of Essex, and several places of Kent, espe­cially Whitstaple and Reculver, which for Oysters of savoury saltness, exceed all other parts of that County, especially Re­culver. There is a sort of small Fish called a Pilchard, commonly about the bigness of a Herring (though I have heard say, that in some parts of Cornwall there have been taken Pilchards an Ell long) and not much differing in shape in several places on the Sea-coasts of Cornwall. At a place called Foreditch in Kent, there are Trouts of a treble remark: First, That they equal Salmon in Largeness. Secondly, That they remain nine Months in the Sea, and three in Fresh-water. Thirdly, That contrary to the nature of all other Trouts, they have been known but once to have been [Page 24] taken in that place with an Angle, so much more cunning they are than all the rest of their kind. In the River Kennet near Hungerford in Barkshire, there is great plenty of Trouts, remarkably large and good; also the Town of Hungerford it self, Marlborough, and some other Places there­about, are noted for plenty and goodness of Cray-Fish. The River Stowr in Dor­cetshire hath a particular commendation for Tenches, as some parts of Cambridge­shire for the best Eels, and Lincolnshire for plenty of Pikes: But there is also another Stowr in Kent, which runs through Can­terbury, and is said to breed the best Trouts in the South-East of England: Yet those of Cashalton in Surry are accounted excellent Trouts. In Miander-Meer in Lancashire, there breeds a sort of Fish called a Chare, which they say is no where else to be found. Much more might be said, (but that it is not our business to dwell upon any particular, but to take a general Sur­vey of several things) of the Animals which our Country excels in above others; but to speak of the Minerals and Vegetables which this Island produceth, would re­quire each a large Volume; and though we have no Mines of Gold, yet the many Mines we have of other Mettalls, as Iron, [Page 25] Lead, Tin, Copper, &c. (and it is said some discoveries have been also made of Silver, besides Mines of Allum▪ Coal and other Minerals, would, if utmost Im­provement were made of our Trade and Manufacture, make a considerable compen­sation. The Stanneries or Tin-Mines of Cornwall and Devonshire have been famous from all Antiquity: And whereas it hath been formerly taken for granted, that the Britains were unknown to the rest of the World before the Arrival of the Romans; there are not wanting who are of Opinion, and have confirmed their Opinion with probable Evidences, that the Ancient In­habitants of this Island, long before the Romans Arrival, had Commerce with the Greeks and Phaenicians; and that because they would not admit of Strangers into their Country, therefore they made the Isles of Scilly the Mart for the vending of their Tin; whereupon some suppose them to be those Islands which the Ancients cal­led the Cassiterides, which imports as much as Tin-Isles; not as having any Tin-Mines in them, but as being the Mart, as we said before, for the Vending of that Commo­dity. And of all parts in Cornwall, Godol­phin-Hill is particularly taken notice of for its Rich and Plentiful Veins of Tin. Nor [Page 26] do the Mines of Cornwall abound in Tin only, but 'tis said there have been quan­tities of Metallick Oar that have contain'd a mixture of Gold and Silver; and very memorable is the tradition of a quantity of Silver Oar, dig'd out of a place in the Parish of Comb-Martin in Devonshire, out of which William Wimondham coin'd 270 weight of Silver for Elionor Dutchess of Bar. A place called Newlands in Cumberland, is rich in Copper Mines, and hath some store of Black-Lead; especially about Keswick. In this County also, the Stone called Lapis Calaminaris, is said to have been here first found: But much of this Lapis Calaminaris is digg'd out of Mendip­hills in Somersetshire. At Wenlock in Shrop­shire, in the Reign of King Richard the second, there was found a Rich Copper Mine. The Rich Mines of Iron in the Forrest of Dean in Glocestershire, have been an occasion of making those Woods very thin, in respect of what they have been formerly. Kent hath several Iron Mines, and also Veins of Marl. Darbyshire abounds much in Minerals, and several kinds of Stones; particularly in the Peak of Darby, there are Mines that afford plenty of Lead, likewise Stibium or Antimony, also store of Mill-stones and Whet-stones; nor less [Page 27] noted are the Lead-Mines on Mendip-hills in Staffordshire: As also those on the Hills of Richmondshire, where there are likewise Copper-Mines; near Moinglath in Denby­shire, is a plentiful Vein of Lead: So like­wise in the Abby of Fountains in Yorkshire, not far from whence in the same Shire is store of Iron: Other Mines also there are, which though not so Rich, are no less use­ful than those of Mettal; as Alom, Coal, Free-stone, Fullers-earth, Marl, with all which, take one with another, there is surely no Nation better stor'd; and indeed our Salt-pits are no other than a kind of Liquid-Mines. It is no less wonderful to observe what abundant Supplies of Fewel are yearly sent up from the Coal-Mines of Newcastle to this Vast City of London, and other parts of the Nation, besides what is Exported into Foraign parts; then it may seem hard to conjecture how this City could subsist before the discovery of this great Mine, which was not till the year 1305. Since we find by experience, up­on any occasion of the obstructing of this Newcastle Fleet, and the raising of the Price of Coals, into what great distress and in­conveniency the City is thereupon reduc'd; but then it must be considered that the City then was nothing near so large as [Page 28] now, and the Country far better stor'd with Wood; the want whereof for Firing, is not the only prejudice the Nation hath sustain'd by the vast quantity of Timber that hath been fell'd of late Ages; the number of Alehouses is also increas'd ten to one, at least within these 100 years, and pro­portionably, as may well be imagin'd, the number of Brewhouses to supply them with Drink; which Houses cannot be maintain'd and carry on their Trade, with­out a wonderful quantity of Fewel: Nor need it be wondred how other great Cities are able to subsist without the like con­venience (as doubtless there is scarce any City of the World that hath the like ad­vantage for Fewel) considering the diffe­rence of Climate, of Customs, of manner of Living, and of Diet. There are who speak of Blackheath, as a place no less sufficient­ly abounding with Pit-Coal to serve the City of London and parts adjacent, than Newcastle it self, but are willing to believe that the grand security of these Coal-pits, lies in the great prejudice to Navigation, which the breaking of them up would oc­casion, in regard this Colliers Trade be­tween Newcastle and London is the greatest Nursery of Seamen we have; which ob­jection would easily cease, could the Fish­ing [Page 29] Trade be once promoted, till when the Coal Mines of Blackheath must of ne­cessity be laid aside. There is also Sea-Coal, like that of Newcastle at Wedsborough in the East-Riding in Yorkshire: Likewise up and down in many of the Inland parts of England, there is abundance of Pit-Coal of another nature, that is too say, not Caking or Clinging together (a quantity of small Particles) into one great lump or mass, like that of Newcastle; but as it is laid on in great pieces, burning sheer a­way into Ashes, each piece like Wood. Up and down in several parts of Darbyshire and Staffordshire, there is a sort of Pit-Coal, which is commonly called Cannel-Coal, perhaps as it were Candle-Coal, because it burns clear like a Candle; this Coal is of a bright shining gloss, and with­al of so tough and solid a substance, that they frequently make thereof Standishes, Salt-Sellers, Candlesticks and other such like Utensils, which appear as it were of a courser sort of Jett. In Staffordshire, Pensneth-Chace is particularly made men­tion of for plenty of Pit-Coal. In Leicester­shire, Coal-Overton in the Hundred of West-Goscot, and other parts of the North of this County, where there is store of Pit-Coal of a Bituminous nature, very hard and [Page 30] fast: In Warwickshire, Bedworth: In Somer­setshire, Mendip-hill, and several places on the shore of the River Frome: In Rich­mondshire, the tops of certain Hills. In the Isle of Anglesey there is said to be great store of an Aluminous Matter, out of which it is thought might be made very good Alum and Copperass, but nothing of this nature hath been brought to that perfecti­on, as the Alum-works in Yorkshire, through the great Industry of Sir John Bourchier, who in the Reign of King James made away with a considerable Estate for the carrying on of this great work, in lieu whereof he obtain'd the grant of a Patent from the King, whereby he was Invested with the whole benefit of the said Alum­work, which was valued at a Thousand Pound a year; but however matters were carried, his Grandchild Mr. Richard Bour­chier, is now reduc'd to utmost necessity, receiving no relief by vertue of the Patent for the loss of the Paternal Estate: But Gesborough in this Shire is most particular­ly noted for an Alum-Mine, which some say was first found out by Sir Thomas Cha­loner Tutor to Prince Henry. As for the Stone-Quarries of England, they must in­deed be confess'd inferior to those of Italy, Greece, and other parts, for all Curious [Page 31] kinds of Marble, Alabaster and Porphyrie▪ (of Marble the Parian was Anciently ac­counted the best:) However we have many Structures both publick and private to shew, which being built of our own na­tive Free-stone, want not their State and Elegance. The principal Magazine of this Commodity, is the Isle of Portland in Dor­cetshire, which hath supplied many of the grand Buildings of England. Likewise the Isle of Purbeck in the same Shire, hath Veins of Marble, which though not con­tinued, but scatteringly here and there, as Cambden observes, yet run a great way under ground. At Edgcomb House near Plimouth in Cornwall, there is digg'd good quantity of a Stone, which is of great use and Ornament in Building; also on the Moors of the said County, there is found a sort of Stone, which is thence called the Moor-stone, of which there are frequently made Chimney-Pieces and Ornaments of Windows and Doors; besides another sort of the colour of Marble. In Nottingham­shire there is digg'd a soft Stone, at least much softer than Alabaster, with which being burnt and made into a Plaster, they generally floor their Upper-Rooms, this Plaster being well laid, as soon as it comes to be dry, proves harder than any Plaster [Page 32] of Paris, and is wonderful durable. In Herefordshire, hard by Snodhill-Castle, is a Quarry, from whence they say there is digg'd forth very good Marble. At a place called Peter's-post in Yorkshire, is a famous Quarry of Stone; also near Shirburn in the same Shire: Nor is that near Manchester in Laneashire inconsiderable; besides a Quarry of a fine Reddish-stone on the Banks of the River Irwell in the same Shire: Moreover, what we want in Alabaster, Porphyrie Marble, &c. is more than compensated to us by Stones of a greater value, particular­ly in Cornwall, there are found in great quantities Stones of a natural Smoothness, formed into Angles, and considerably large, some of the bigness of a Walnut, or thereabout, and of such a lustre, that many scruple not to call them Diamonds, and probably they might pass for such, did not the cunning Lapidary know how to distinguish the true Orient Diamond from others by its Adamantine hardness and solidity: Likewise St. Vincents Rock at Bristol affords plenty of these English Diamonds, commonly called Bristol Stones: At Shugbury in Warwickshire is a sort of precious Stone, at least by some so accoun­ted, called Astroites, from a mark it hath upon it resembling a Star. And on the [Page 33] Rocks of Guarnsey, there is a hard Stone called an Emeril. Nor are we wholly destitute of Marble and Alabaster, though doubtless short for Beauty and Fineness to those of Italy and Greece; in some parts of Staffordshire there is digg'd a sort of Ala­baster, thought to be the best in England. Fullers-Earth, Potters-Earth, Marl, Lime, Slate, Tobacco-Pipe-Clay, &c. There are large Veins in several parts, particu­larly Woburn in Bedfordshire abounds in Fullers-Earth; as also Rigate in Surry: In some parts of Wiltshire the store of Marl that is found there, gives Appellation to one of the chief Towns of that Shire, viz. Marlborough, and in divers parts of Lan­cashire, is found a Marl, which very much enriches the Land. Near Nonsuch in Surry is a large Vein of Potters-Earth. Near Walsal in Sussex, are store of Lime-Pits: And not many Miles from Pomfret in York­shire, it being averr'd by some that no less than 2000 l. a year usually made of the Lime thereabouts.

In some parts of Cornwall there is Slate of three sorts and colours, viz. The Blew, the Grey, and the Sage-colour; particu­larly at a place called Walling-slate in Corn­wall, is digg'd up great store of Slate: As also at Collyweston in Northamptonshire, at [Page 34] Pool in Dorcetshire, and in the Isle of Wight the best Tobacco-Pipe-Clay. And to the Mill-stones of the Peak before mentioned, we may add those digg'd up at Mowcup in Cheshire. There is a sort of Earth called Talcum, us'd by Painters and Colourers, of which store is dig'd up in several parts of Sussex: And the best of Saltpeter, is said to be found in Northamptonshire. Out of the Salt-pits of England is extracted so white and fine a sort of Salt, that the most refined Sugar looks not more white and fine; it is also commonly made up into Masses, in the form of Sugar-Loaves: Most of these Wiches, the most noted, are in Cheshire, all denominated accordingly, viz. Nantwich, Middlewich and North­wich; Nantwich, besides the considerati­on of its Salt-pit, which is generally called the Whitewich, is next to the City of Chester it self, the most Eminent Town of all Cheshire: Middlewich hath two Pits, between which there runs a small Brook and parts them: The Pit in Northwich is called the Black-wich; I suppose because the Salt drawn hence is Blacker and Courser than any of the rest. In Worcestershire, there is also a place of principal note for these Wiches or Salt-pits, viz. Droit-Wich, or Dirt-Wich, where there are three Wells, [Page 35] whose water from Christmass till Midsummer is of so Brackish a nature, that all that time they boil great quantities of Salt out of it in Furnaces, which for that end are erect­ed near the Wells; whereas all the rest of the year the water is so fresh, that no Salt can be extracted out of it.

As for those Plants and Shrubs which are most peculiarly of the growth of Eng­land, it would be too particular a Sub­ject for this so general a Work, to assign each its several place, as there are very many places where this or that Herb, Tree or Shrub, hath as it were its peculiar na­tivity and education: All the whole Coun­ty of Buckingham is denominated from the great number of Beech-Trees there grow­ing: The Isle of Scalny in Pembrokeshire, is almost all over grown with Wild-Time; But there are some Plants, which being of themselves not ordinary or common, or of a more than common Vertue or Efficacy, do so much the more signalize the places where they grow, especially being the on­ly noted places of their production. The Saffron about Walden in Essex, is so emi­nently reputed above the Saffron of any other parts, that that Town is never men­tioned but by the name of Saffron-Walden. Pomfret (in Yorkshire) so called, quasi Pont­fract [Page 36] or Broken-Bridge; besides its strong and stately Castle, is noted for the great quantity of Liquorice that grows there­about, (as also a sort of Plant called Skir­worts, whose Root is much esteem'd and Eaten by the Curious for a great delicacy, by reason of its Richness and high Nourish­ment:) Nor is Worksop in Nottinghamshire less eminent for Liquorice. Hallifax in the West-Riding of Yorkshire, is noted for several things which we shall have occasion to make mention of elsewhere: But among other things the Nuts growing thereabout, are by way of eminency call'd Hallifax Nuts. At Barklow in Essex, there grows in great abundance an Herb, bearing Red-Berries, called Danewort, from a Traditi­on that it sprang first from the Blood of the Danes: On the Cliffs between Deal and Dover, great plenty of Samphire grows; Westward from Dengeness in Kent, Pease spring up naturally in Clusters like Grapes, and differ not much in Taste from common-field Pease. Between Sandwich and the Isle of Thanet, a kind of Hops is observed to grow naturally among the Beach and Pebbles; Garlick is no where better nor more plentiful, than at Stratton in Cornwall: Several parts of Devonshire, and Porbery most peculiarly in Somersetshire, [Page 37] produce wild Strawberies in abundance; no less noted is Axminster in Devonshire for Hurtleberries. At Summervil near Chappel, two Mile from Blanford in Dorcetshire, on on the hither side of the River at Sturpain, there is a most plentiful production of Madder; how long this Plant hath been in England is uncertain, but it is above 50 years since a considerable quantity of it was produced at Barn-Elms in Surry; and Sir Nicholas Crisp sow'd several sorts of it, as Crop-Madder, Umber Ow, and Pipe or flat Madder at Deptford in Kent, which County affords plenty of Flax; but the best Hemp is said to grow between Bemister and Bird­port in Dorcetshire. St. Foin or Holy-Hay, was first brought out of France from about Paris, and first sow'd at Copt-Hall in Kent. Tamarisk was first brought over from Switzerland by Bishop Tindal in the days of Queen Mary (from whose displeasure he fled) and planted in his Garden at Fullham. On the top of Pendle-hill in Lan­cashire, there grows a Plant peculiar to that place called Cloudesberry, probably for that it seems as it were to come out of the Clouds. In the Fens of Cambridgeshire, there is commonly gathered an Herb call'd Water-Germander; in Latin Scordium, which being the chief Ingredient, con­sequently [Page 38] gives name to that great Alexi­pharmacon, so much known and used a­mong us called Diascordium. About Gla­stenbury in Somersetshire, there is plenty of Woad; and at Cashalton in Surry of excel­lent Walnuts.

Of the Wonders and Ra­rities of England.

THe Wonders of England consist chiefly in Stones, Caves, Lakes, Fountains, Ditches, and several prodigious Tu­muli or Hillocks cast up by Art and Labour; there was never doubtless heard of in any part of the World, so miraculous a Monu­ment of Stones, for so it is generally sup­posed to be, as that on Salisbury-Plain, within six or seven Miles of Salisbury, com­monly called Stone-henge; it appears to have been a treble row of Stones, circu­larly plac'd one within another, and rear'd streight up on end, notwithstanding they are of a prodigious bigness, that is to say, 28 Foot long for the most part, and 7 Foot broad, besides others of a vast bulk [Page 39] (though not so big as the upright ones) which lye overthwart from one to another, and are fastened with Tenent and Mortis; but the form of this wonderful Structure is very much defac'd, some of the greater Stones being either fallen, or reclining to­wards the ground, and many of the over­thwart Stones being fallen; how such huge Stones could be brought thither, by whom, and upon what occasion, is disputed by Writers; the most that hath been said on this Subject is written by Mr. Inigo Jones Surveyor General to King James, and his late Majesty King Charles the first, and Dr. Charleton, both various, and oft times contrary in their Opinions, and possibly neither of them altogether in the right: About half a dozen Mile further on the Plain towards Hungerford, I have ob­served (nor do I remember it to have been taken notice of by any one else) a Stone of a great bulk, but not above a Foot and a half in heighth from the ground, which though of the same hardness and solidity with those above mentioned, hath the top of it driven all over full of Nails of the largest size. There is also a part of the Plain between Marleborough and Caun, which being strew'd all over with Stones of a Grey colour, is therefore called the [Page 40] Grey Weathers; the least of these Stones be­ing of a considerable bigness, and some very large; those of the ordinary size seeming to be of about half a dozen or half a score Pound weight, one with another; and here and there in some odd nooks, a little out of the Road, a large Stone reared up on end, like those at Stone-henge, and sometimes not much inferior in bulk. In Staffordshire there is a Market-Town called Stone, from a large heap of Stones cast up there, as a Monumental mark of Infamy upon Wulpher the Mercian, who in this very place sacrific'd to his Heathenish fury his two Sons, Wulfald and Rufinus, for no other cause than their imbracing the Chri­stian Faith. Near Burrowbridge, a little Town in Yorkshire, there are four Stones of a very vast bulk, and Pyramidally shap'd, suppos'd to be erected by the Romans, in memory of some great Victory thereabouts obtain'd. Upon the Hills near North-Tine in Northumberland, though Boggy and full of water, there are great heaps of Stones, which some take for a Memorial of some great Battle there fought. Near Enisham in the South part of Oxfordshire, there are Stones called Roll-rich-stones, erected in manner of those at Stone-henge; which certain fabulous Traditions have rendred [Page 41] to have been men so transform'd; but more certain History delivers them the Monument of a great Battle there fought by Rollo the Dane. At Bosken in Cornwall there is another of 18 large Stones erected, and plac'd in a circular figure 12 Foot distant each from the other; a Trophy of some Roman or Saxon Victory. In the same County are other Monumental Stones called the Hurlers, which fabulous Tradi­tion will have to be the Stony Metamor­phosis of certain Humane Creatures, but common reason gives the same conjecture of them as of the foremention'd. The like may be said of two other large Stones erected in St. Clares Parish, in one where­of there is an Inscription in strange and intelligible Characters; other Remarks there are in the same County form'd by Nature only, as that Pile of Rocks one upon the other, called Wring-Cheese, near the lowest of them, having the resem­blance of a Cheese hard press'd, by the accumulation of Rocks upon it; the other is a very wonderful Rock call'd Main-Amber, near Pensans; this Rock lies upon lesser Rocks, in such an exact equilibrium, that what the push of a Finger, can stir and cause as it were to totter, not the greatest force imaginable is able to displace. [Page 42] Likewise by Helford, is a vast Rock lying on the ground, the top whereof being hollow, containeth water which ebbeth and floweth like the Sea. Three Miles from Tunbridge, on the edge of Sussex, there lye scattered up and down in a dry Sandy-ground, divers Craggy-stones of a considerable magnitude; the two biggest whereof standing close together, seem by the crease which divides them in a straight line, as if they were but just saw'd asun­der. In the same County, near Tenderden-Steeple, is a Stone, which by the falling of the Rain, palpably gathers increase of bulk. At Exmore in Devonshire, are great Stones erected, some in a Circular, some in a Triangular form, in memory doubtless of some Roman, Saxon or Danish Victory. In Westmorland, near the River Loder, there are Pyramidal Stones pitched for a Mile together, some 9, some 14 Foot thick. At Salcelds upon the River Eden in Cum­berland, is a Monumental Trophy, con­sisting of 77 Stones, called by the Inhabi­tants Long-Meg and her Daughters; one of which Stones alone, called the Long-Meg, being 15 Foot high from the ground, all the rest but 10. On the Hill called Mind­gate-Morgan in Glamorganshire, there is a Monument superscrib'd with a very fatal [Page 43] Character; for it hath been received from those that live thereabout, that whoever reads it shall die soon after, if there be not a fallacy herein, viz. That the Character is so strange and uncouth that no man is able to read it.

Some places are noted for Stones of another kind, that is to say, whose Ra­rity consists in the unusualness of their Figure. At Alderly in Glocestershire, upon the top of certain Hills are found Oysters, Cockles and Periwinkles of solid Stone; and at Puckle-Church in the same Shire, there is a Vein of Blew-stone, consisting of several Stones, Smooth, Square, and about half a Foot thick, as it were Arti­ficial and ready cut out fit for work; they lye about seven or eight one upon another, as it were in beds very near, contiguous to each other for about the length of a Pearch. And at Lassington in Glocestershire, there is plenty of that which we call the Star-stone, being of the figure of a Mullet, or what we commonly picture for a Star, of a Grey colour, and of the circumference of a single Penny, but the thickness of half a Crown; they stick together in Co­lumns of about three or four Inches long, and being singly put into Vinegar, they na­turally move and tend towards a Unition. [Page 44] Near Sayworth in Wiltshire, are Stones that have a very near resemblance of Cockles. In a Town call'd Cainsham, in the Road-way between Bath and Bristol, and in the High­way thereabout, there are Stones frequently to be seen wreathing in a Spiral form like Snails; this Town is commonly Nick-nam'd Smoaky-Cainsham upon this occasion: Some years since one of the Townsmen standing at his door with Tears in his Eyes, and be­ing ask'd by one of his Neighbours that ob­serv'd him as he pass'd by, what the cause of his Grief was, answered, That there was so great a Smoak in his house that he was not able to endure to stay within doors; When in truth he had been newly beaten by his Wife: Whereupon Travellers now and then to make themselves Sport, will ask, Whether that Town be called Smoaky-Cainsham: But the wiser sort of those that ask this question, prepare at the same instant to put on to a more than or­dinary speed, for fear of some Hostility from the good Women of the place. At Whitbay in Yorkshire, are Stones of a Ser­pentine Figure: Also in the Stone-Quarry at Kingham in Somersetshire. On Rose­mary-Topping a Hill in Yorkshire, are Stones found in the shape of Sea-winkles and Cockles: At Huntly-Nab in the same [Page 45] County, at the roots of the Rocks, are Stones as perfectly round as any Ball, in which broken, are the shapes of Stony-Serpents, all but the head. Of the Caves of England, those of principal remark are, First, Ochy-hole near Wells in Somerset­shire; it is a Cave of large extent into the earth, and in which, those that have made the farthest Incursions, are said to have discerned many Rivulets and Ca­verns, or hollow Recesses. Secondly, A Cave very much talk'd of, under an Old Castle in the Peak of Darby, commonly called the Devils Arse in Peak; there is a strange story told by one Gervasius, of a Swinherd belonging to one William de Pe­nerel, sometime Lord of the Place. This Swinherd having lost a Sow great with Pig, is said to have entred in earnest quest thereof into the mouth of this Cave, and passing through several obscure Nooks and windings, to have come at length into a spacious Field, where among a com­pany of Reapers he found his Masters Sow which had newly Pig'd; and making his Case known to the chief person in Office there, brought back his Sow, together with her Pigs, returning the same way he came. Thirdly, In the same County another Cave, called Eldenhole in the Peak [Page 46] Forrest, which shoots directly down into the Earth, and as far as 60 yards of depth is to be seen into the mouth or entrance, on the top is about 30 yards in length, and 15 in breadth, but downwards it straigh­tens into a much narrower space. Fourthly, Certain Caves called the Gyants Caves, be­tween great Badmin and Lockington, on the border of Wiltshire. At a place called Oxen­hall, not far from Darlington in the Bishop­rick of Durham, there are three Pits of an extraordinary depth, commonly called Hell-Kettles, suppos'd to be produc'd by an Earthquake, which hapned in the year 1179. And near Tilbury in Essex, there are several Pits in a Chalky ground, which are judg'd to be no less than 12 Fathom deep. Also near Feversham in Kent, there are many Pits, which being somewhat narrow at the top, and widening towards the bottom, are distinguished into several Rooms or Apartments, and supported as it were with Pillars of Chalk. At a House of the Marquess of Worcester's at Emsbury, I have been told, that at the pulling down of an old Wall, the Labourers discovered a Cavity, which upon search led to a large Cave, where there was found a Monument of great Antiquity and Riches, which by the Character, and [Page 47] some other circumstances, appears to have been the Tomb of Queen Guinever, Wife to King Arthur: Near Kirby-Longdale in Westmorland, are many deep places like Caves. Fifthly, At Aberbarry in Glamor­ganshire, there is a Cave at the bottom of a Hill, the mouth whereof is a gaping Clift or Chink, into which, when the Wind enters, there is heard a kind of har­monious noice, as it were of Cymbals: There hath been also heard from a Clift on the Sea-side, near the Island Barry, a sound as it were of Smiths at work, and this by the Testimony of Lilius Giraldus. Lakes and Fountains there are very many among us, which have something strange and extraordinary in them: Near Brereton in Cheshire, which belongs to an Eminent Family of the same Name, there is a Pool, wherein the bodies of Trees swimming are said to presage the Death of some of the Family. There are two Lakes very near to each other, hard by St. Agnes-Hill in Cornwall, of which it is credibly reported, that in the one of them Fish will live and thrive, in the other not. In Lanca­shire near Furness-Fells, there is a standing water, accounted the greatest in England, commonly called Miander-Meer, being no less than 10 Miles in length, and all along [Page 48] paved with stone at the bottom: It is said moreover, that a Fish call'd a Ohare, breeds here only, and no where else. In Huntingtonshire there are several Lakes, (and among the rest one called Wittlesmeer-Lake) which in fairest weather grow tem­pestuous, and rage with violent surges like the Sea. In Staffordshire there are two remarkable Lakes; of one, Necham delivers, That by its Roaring it foretells things to come, the other is call'd Mahal, of which the Tradition goes, That Horses when tir'd, drinking of the water thereof, be­comes fresh as ever: Of this Gervase of Tilbury makes particular mention. On the high Hills of Carnarvonshire, there are two Meers of a strange nature (if report be true) for one is said to produce a sort of Fish that hath but one Eye; the other to have a floatable Island, whereon no sooner any one sets foot, but it drives farther off from the shoar. There is also at Bala in Me­rionethshire, a Pool which never fills by Land-floods, though rising never so high, but in tempestuous weather, swelleth above its Banks. At Lynsavathan in Brecknock­shire, is a Meer which is said to have swal­lowed up a City, that once stood in the room thereof; through this Meer runs the River Levenny, keeping its own stream in­tire [Page 49] and unmix'd. At Kilken in Flintshire, is a little Well which hath a constant eb­bing and flowing like the Sea. At Giggles­worth in Yorkshire there are three small Springs, of two whereof there is nothing of observable, but the middlemost hath a constant course of ebbing and flowing four times an hour; the difference between its highest rise and lowest fall, being about eight Inches. Likewise in Derbyshire, in the Forrest of the Peak, is such another Spring ebbing and flowing 4 times an hour, observing a constant and due revolution of its tydes. On the River Ogmore in Glamor­ganshire, there is a Well which every full tyde in Summer time is almost destitute of wa­ter, but at ebb is replenish'd, many times very near, but never totally to an overflowing. Another there is at Carry-Castle in Caermar­denshire, which ebbs and flows. Another in Westmorland, near the River Loder, which ebbs and flows several times a day. At Lemington in Warwickshire, a Salt Spring ariseth at a great distance from the Sea. Near Kenet in Wiltshire, the water breaking but of certain stones, is accounted a sign of Dearth. The River Can in Westmor­land hath Cataracts, which by their fall foretell either Rain or fair Weather. The rising of a Bourn near Croiden in Surry, [Page 50] is said to presage Mortality. Near St. Al­bans in Hertfordshire, there is a Brook cal­led, which when it breaketh out, pre­sageth Dearth, or some other Calamity. In a private mans Yard at Pitchford in Shropshire, is a Well whose waters cast up a Skum of liquid Bitumen. In the North­riding of Yorkshire, are Wells called Tingtong Wells, three Miles within the earth. The Petrifying Wells and Springs of England are very many, nor is it worth the while to mention all of them, the chief are in these particular Places; at Newenham or Menham-Reges in Warwickshire: Three which are also of a Medicinal quality, as be­ing strained through Allum, at Lutterworth in Leicestershire. Near Knarisborough in York-shire, the Well-Drepa, whose Waters distil from the Rocks that hang over it. At Hodington-Hill near Oxford, upon the descent of the Hill. At Boxly Abbey near Maidston in Kent; at Egerton in the same County. Nor are those Wells and Springs to be forgotten, among the Memorabilia of Nature, whose Waters are of a Medi­cinal virtue; the chief of this nature, not only of England, but even of all Europe, for the virtue of the Waters, the Magnificence of the Structures about the Wells, and the vast resort to them; are those famous [Page 51] Bathing Wells, which give denomination to the City Bath, and which were first found out by one Bladud, who is reckoned in the Catalogue of our Ancient British Kings, and renowned in History (if it may be called History, and not rather Histo­rical Tradition) as well for Philosopher as King. Others there are, whose Waters esteemed for their Purging quality, are ge­nerally carous'd, as Ebsham or Epsone-Wells in Surry, those of Tunbridge in Kent, of Barnet in Hertfordshire, and now of late of North-hall in the same Shire. Now I can­not but fancy that there must needs be a very great advantage in this way of Phy­sick, since those who Evacuate so merrily with so much divertisement, so many as it were together for good Companies sake, no doubt find a more effectual Operation, than those who coop'd up in a Melanchol­ly Chamber, sup up a mixture of Nauseous and uncouth Ingredients out of an Apothe­caries Shop: Other places there are, not altogether of no note for their Medicinal Wells, as Luckington in Wiltshire, where there is a Well called Handcocks-Well, whose greatest Virtue consists in the Cure of sore Eyes; having also this property, that its Water is cold in Summer and hot in Win­ter: Eckington in Worcestershire, where [Page 52] there is lately discovered a Medicinal Well, accounted of great Virtue for several Distempers. Wallingborough in Northamp­tonshire, where upon the account of the Waters, Queen Mary lay for several weeks. Lenisham in Kent, six Miles from London, where in the year 1651. a Medicinal Wa­ter was found, which hath been since much frequented. Dulwich Wells within three Miles of London: And within the City several, but the most noted, that at the Postern-gate by Tower-hill, and that called Crowders-Well hard by Cripple-gate. Aleyceston in Huntingtonshire, where there are two small Springs, one whereof being fresh, is accounted good for the Eyes; the other a little Brackish, for Scabs and Le­prosy. Buxton in Derbyshire, where within the compass of 24 Foot, there arise out of a Rock from under a Square Structure of Free-stone 9 Springs, whereof one only is cold, all the rest very warm: But among all these, it would be an unpardonable oversight to pass by unmention'd, that famous Well of St. Winifrid, commonly called the Holy-Well in Flintshire, formerly much frequented, partly by way of Pilgri­mage, partly for the great Virtue it was reputed to have in the Cure of many Ma­ladies, through the easie Faith, no doubt, [Page 53] and fond Credulity of the deluded Vulgar who are always apt to pay high Adoration and ascribe miraculous Cures to the Bodies; [...]elicks, or any Memorials of persons re­commended to them for Saints; for here the Tradition goes, that the Virgin Saint Vinifrid being here Beheaded, a Fountain immediatly sprung up, as if the Earth be­wailing her Martyrdom, burst forth into a [...]ood of Tears; and the Pebble-stones at the bottom of the said Fountain being ob­served to be of a Reddish colour, we are to suppose that they retain to this day, the tincture of the Virgins Blood: Those Springs and Waters that are on the top of high Hills, must be allowed to have something of Rarity in them, in regard to those that are not sufficiently vers'd in the knowledge of natural Causes and Pro­ductions, it may seem wonderful, that the Water should rise so high above the com­mon Surface of the Earth: Particularly on the high Hills of Carnarvanshire, are two Meers: Also a Spring on the top of Moilenly­Hills in Denbyshire. Likewise among the Wonders or Rarities of England, may be reckoned those Ditches, which stand yet as Monuments of the Art and Industry of our Forefathers. First, That on New­market-heath, which is commonly called [Page 54] the Devils-Ditch. Secondly, Wansdike in Wiltshire, a work of many Miles extent, cast up in memory of a Battle between the Mercians and West-Saxons. Thirdly, Clough d'Offa, or Offa's-ditch, a work not infe­rior to the former mention'd, and much up­on the same occasion made.

Of the Populacy of the En­glish Nation.

THe Populacy of a Nation is best esti­mated from the number of its Towns and Cities: The Kingdom of En­gland proportionably to its circumference is scarce inferior to any Kingdom or Coun­try of Europe (which is also accounted the the most Populous of all the four parts of the World) except France and the Low-Countries; which last being accounted no bigger in compass than York-shire, is judg­ed to contain as many Towns and Inha­bited places, as ten times the Circuit there­of in most other Countries, and to some much superior, particularly Spain, late esteem'd the most considerable Monarchy of Christendom, and that it continues not so to [Page 55] this day, we may in a great measure im­ [...]te to the paucity of people in that kingdom; for doubtless there is nothing that conduceth more to the Strength, Grandure, Prosperity and Riches of a Nation, than the Populousness thereof, especially where Industry is in the least in­courag'd, and Idleness discountenanc'd. Wherefore that Nation that will ever hope to flourish, ought to use all means and endeavours possible for the increasing of its People, and to avoid as much as may be all occasions of Depopulation. The prin­cipal causes of the Dispeopleing of Spain, which according to the Testimony of seve­ral Creditable Authors, hath been Ancient­ly much better Peopled than at present; have been first the multitude of Monaste­ries and Religious Prisons, those Recep­tacles of forc'd Chastity, and as they are ordered Impediments of the Worlds Lawful Increase: Next the Violent Expul­sion of the Moors out of Spain, after that by a long establish'd settlement, and being habituated to the same Customs, Manners and Religion, they were become as it were one Body with the rest of the People. Last­ly, Those vast Colonies sent out of Spain to maintain and possess the ample Con­quests, or rather Ambitious and Bloody [Page 56] Invasions and Depopulations made by the the Spaniards there. The Cities and Market-Towns of England, are in num­ber 607. to which the rest of the Burrough Towns, that is, such as send Burgesses to Parliament, and all the Inha­bited Villages (whereof some are conder­able) being added, make above 10 times the number, so that all the Parishes of England and Wales, are reckon'd 9285. and doubt­less within the said circumference, which is generally computed to be about 1352 Miles, might be very well comprehended five times as many Towns or Places of Ha­bitation, if all the Forrests, Chaces, and unimproved vast Heaths and Commons, were taken in and improved to the best advantage.

It is not to be wondred at, that next to being born under a Happy Climate, the living under a Happy Government, the greatest advantage and Strength of a People, is to be numerous, proportionably to the extent of Territory they possess. Since in the first place it is apparent enough, that in a well Inhabited City, the People must needs be so much the better able to defend themselves from any Force or Op­position. Next, if it be a place of any Trade, take any particular number of what [Page 57] Trade soever, and it is not to be imagin'd that they should be e're a whit the poorer, but rather the richer, than if the Inha­bitants had been fewer: For admit them of the same Trade or Imployment, a profi­table and corresponsible Trade is the more lively and vigorously carried on by many hands; and suppose them of several Occu­pations, the circulation of Money from the one to other, helps all in general. Though 'tis true, that in a straggling Town or City, whose parts lye disjoyn'd and far asunder; the people however considerable in num­ber, cannot be so assistant to each other in mutual Aid, Society or Commerce, as in a regular and well compacted City: So likewise in a Kingdom, that Prince who hath never so large an Empire, yet if thin­ly Peopled, or divided into several parts remotely distant, and interrupted from mutual intercourse by long Voyages of Land and Sea, cannot be look'd upon as so powerful a Prince, as he that hath the like number of People in one intire and united Dominion. Certainly no Monarch of the World, much less of Christendom, (who­ever he be that hath added most to his Empire by never so many new made Con­quests) can pretend to so large a share or portion of the Earth, as the King of Spain, [Page 58] who nevertheless (as the transactions of a few late past years have made appear,) hath born but his fourth part with other Princes and States, in opposition to a Prince far inferior to him in Jurisdiction; and what should be the reason of this, but that his Dominions lye so remote from each other, and his Kingdom of Spain, which his Re­sidence there chiefly enables, is the least Peopled of all the rest, and his Viceroys of Peru and Mexico (the possession whereof hath been main occasion of Impoverishing Spain of its people) are in effect, setting aside the Title, as great Kings as himself; nor much less are those of Naples, Sicily, Millain, and what remains of Flanders, so that he seems in reality King of Spain alone, and of the rest of his Dominions, but in Title only: And to come a little nearer the matter, if all the Kings Subjects in New-England, Virginia, Maryland, &c. were planted in those unpeopled Regions of this Island (their Native Soyl) which are more than large enough to receive them, there is no doubt to be made, but that they would be more capable of serving their King, than they can possibly be at such a distance, thus transplanted to the other end of the World: To be short, no Rational man will deny, but that that [Page 59] Prince, who from a Territory no larger than the County of Kent, is able to bring 100000 men into the field, is no less Potent than he who from a Territory 20 times as large is able to raise a not much greater number; and so much the more, by how much he levies them with less Trouble and Charge. That Soveraign Conquers best, who wins the hearts of his people by Mo­deration, Justice, good Government, and wholsome Laws. He best plants Colonies, who maintains a flourishing Trade to Forraign parts; he best inlarges his Ter­ritory, who husbands his People to the best advantage, and consults best for their Preservation and Increase; hereby approv­ing himself all this while a true Christian Prince, not in Name only, but in reality no less; and upon this score, let the World judge, whether our Defensor Fidei have not a just Title to that of Christianissimus also. When as for any Potentate or Grandee of the World, Pontifical or other­wise, to grasp at Power and Empire by War, Bloodshed and Rapine, though under never so spacious a pretence, even propoga­ting the Faith it self, and at the same time to take upon him the Name of Christian, must needs be the highest affront to Hea­ven, and shame to Religion imaginable. [Page 60] The Stile of Christian Cut-throat, (for that must necessarily follow) implying a cnntradiction not to be reconcil'd by all the art of Sopistry and Jesuitism; since he that hath but heard of the Christian Re­ligion, cannot be ignorant that Peace and Charity are the very root and foundation of Christianity, and that Religion under what Title soever, which is otherwise grounded, is to be abhorr'd by all sober men. The Creator said to the Earth at the beginning, Increase and be Replenish'd: The Destroyer hath been saying to the same Earth from the beginning, from Age to Age; be ruin'd, laid wast and Dispeopled by humane Slaughter. Now how far the parallel will hold between the greater, and Man the lesser World, as to the necessity of Purging and Bleeding; and whether it be so wholsom, as some would have us think, that the superfluous blood of the World should be let out by the Phlebotomy of War, we shall wave the inquiry at this present; only I am of opinion, that it would be better to leave the Physicking of the World to the great Physitian there­of, than that man upon man should so often practice his Fatal Chyrurgery. There is sufficient reason to believe that those frequent Inundations of People, those nu­merous [Page 61] swarms of Cimbrians, Teutones, Lon­gobards, Huns, Goths and Vandals, which Scythia in former times pour'd out into the milder Regions of Europe, were not so much the Luxuriance and off-scouring of an over-peopled Nation, (since not any one denomination of Country besides, takes up so large a part of the earth, or hath so many vast unhabited Vacancies) but a kind of agreement among certain numbers of men to carve themselves out better Commons than their own Country afforded; and throw off the Scythian Frost and roughness, by the Warm Sun-shine of Gallia, Spain and Italy. Now to come closer to the design of our Discourse: Three things are to be considered. First, Whether this Nation have not been in former Ages more Populous than at present. Next, what the occasion of this Dispopulation hath been. Lastly, The means of restoration to pristine Populacy, or at least of Replenishment in some degree. The first consideration is answered by the second: There is no que­stion to be made, but that the complicated Invasions of Romans, Saxons and Danes (especially the last so dreadfully Barbarous) was the Destruction of a World of People, and the Demolishment of many Towns and Cities; and after the Norman Con­quest, [Page 62] the Bloody Civil Wars amongst us; first of the Barons, next of the two Roses: As for the Norman Invasion it self, it oc­casion'd indeed no great matter of De­vastation, since except a few inconsiderable Insurrections that happen'd afterwards, the business was decided by the dint of one Battle, and happily the Conqueror had not been sorry, had more of the English fallen in that quarrel; since, like a true Step­father and Foraign Invader, more than like a Native Father of the Country, he could find in his heart to lay waste 28 Towns and Villages, to make a large ha­bitation for wild Beasts. The last and main consideration, is how to repair this loss of People; shall we call the English of America back to their Native Soyl? or shall we invite the Industrious, or the Distressed of other Nations to come over and live among us? or shall we indeavour to People the Na­tion better with those People, if I may so call them, we have already; that is, turn Drones into Bees, and two Legg'd Cattle into Men? The first I take altogether to be Impracticable and Irrational to go about; for it would be an endless thing for such mul­titudes of People to unfix themselves from their setled Imploys and Habitations, and to be put to remove their Effects back to a [Page 63] Country now grown as strange and un­couth to them, as any other Foraign Na­tion. The second, according to my poor judgment, cannot be disadvantageous to this Kingdom, could it be well compas'd and well manag'd, so as to give no distaste to the present Inhabitants; for it hath been a general and frequent Complaint, in my hearing, among some Tradesmen of London, that Foraigners (especially these French Dogs, as they stile them) come over, settle themselves among us, and eat the Bread out of our Mouths. Nevertheless it is certain, that in many Towns of England, as Canterbury, Norwich, &c. many Families of Foraigners are well setled, exercise the Epidemick Trade of those Places peaceably and prosperously enough, and without envy or disturbance. Hospitality is a certain evidence of a good Nature and Generous Inclination; and it hath been formerly, and doubtless still is in a great measure, the particular Credit of the English Gentry, to keep Plentiful Houses, on purpose to En­tertain Strangers, give Shelter to benighted Travellers, and Succour all persons in Distress: And as among particular per­sons, no man but an Indigent Wretch, or Ill-natur'd Churl, will deny Relief to a person, that through real and remediless [Page 64] want makes application to him. So like­wise among Nations, that People that re­fuseth the Accomodation of their Country to their supplicant Neighbours, who un­justly Banished their own Native Land, or driven, out by Persecution and Tyranny, fly to them for Refuge, must needs be the Inhabitants of a Beggarly and Unhospitable Soyl, or be themselves a sort of Inhumane and Savage-Bores. Our Kingdom, God be thanked, is sufficiently Fertile; our Na­tives not accounted Ill-natured, and for Room we have not only to spare, but within the whole Circuit of England enough, as we have said before, to con­tain a far greater power of People twice, if not thrice the number: So that an ac­cession of peaceable Strangers can be no injury, may be a considerable benefit to us; so that in being Charitable to others, we shall be no losers our selves; and never was there so important and seasonable an occa­sion offered as now, for the receiving of Foraigners among us; since never did any persecuted people so want our Entertain­men and Succour, as at this time, these our Protestant Neighbours, who in their own Native Country, and among the Professors of Christianity, are denyed that Protecti­on, which living peaceably, they could not [Page 65] doubt of among the severest of Turks or Ethnicks; and all this for no other rea­son, then denying to fall down before the obtruded Idol, as the Israelites were dealt with in the days of the Tyrant Nebuchad­nezzar: But by Divine Providence it falls out happily to be at a time that England is govern'd by the most Just and Benevo­lent of Princes; who out of his Concern­ment for the Protestant Religion, and that innate Generosity and Clemency where­with he delights to oblige all mankind, hath by an Order of Councel of the [...] of September this present year 1681. pro­mised all those that shall come over, such ample Priviledges and Immunities, as will much soften and allay their present Af­flictions, and in a great measure compen­sate for their being forc'd to abandon their Native habitations. The last cannot be reasonably judg'd unfeasible, and is certain­ly the most absolutely necessary, since those many thousands of Unimployed persons, burthens of the earth, who presume they were only born to Eat and Drink, are no better than so many Ciphers, being per­fectly lost to their Country: Nay which is worse, they may justly be reckoned as so many Vermine and Noxious Animals; for Idleness it self cannot always subsist in its [Page 66] own station, but oftentimes is forc'd up­on Action, but 'tis the worst part of Action, Mischief. As admit a Nation never so thinly Inhabited, and yet a Million of those Inhabitants prove utterly useless and unprofitable, that Nation may well be said to be too Populous by that Million: Inso­much as Cut-purse, Pick-pocket, House-breaker, Highway-man, and whatever be­sides can be imagin'd mischievous, are but the several Metamorphoses of an Idle Liver; and thus Idleness tends to a more fatal kind of Depopulation: The unworking person indeed, who in some sence may be said to be no person, but dead to the service of his Country, yet is capable of being quickned and inspir'd with the life of Action; but the worker of Iniquity, who is commonly the result of the unworking Person, takes courses which tend to an irrevivable Destruction. The first is but that Malefactor in Posse, which the Thief and Robber is in Esse; and doubtless were the Potential Maleficence, which is Idle­ness, severely inquired into, and regulated by the Discipline of Law and Government, so many of the Kings Subjects would not yearly at every Session and Assize, as Essen­tial Malefactors, be made sad Examples of Justice, and cut off from the Land of [Page 67] the Living, to which in this World there is no return. But what hath been said all this while of the unworking Person, (whom to compel to work, that he may be kept from Starving, and restrain from Stealing, that he may be restrained from the Gallows, is no Injurious, but Cha­ritable part of a Magistrate) it is to be understood only of those narrow Soul'd Loiterers, who being not worth a Groat in the World, choose rather to go squan­dring up and down Beg, Filch and be Lowsy, than Honestly to get their Bread by clean­ly Industry and wholesome Labour: Whereas for him that hath enough to Live on, who shall hinder him, if he please and have the Conscience, to be Idle and good for nothing at his own Charges: As for those who are great in Money, Lands, or High Offices, great also are their Priviledges; for the World hath ge­nerally a very great favour and respect for such as flourish and are prosperous in it, (as well as contempt for the Poor and Unfortunate) and except they shall unfor­tunately happen to become Envy'd-Fa­vourites, will be apt to have a favourable excuse for whatsoever is either omitted or committed by them. However, there is a real merit that cannot be denyed them, [Page 68] which is, that they have wherewithal to be serviceable to their King and Country: A Rich man, meerly as a Rich man, must needs be acknowledged a useful person in his Generation, especially if his Heart be answerable to his Purse, or however where something is to be had, there is a possibility of obtaining: On the other side, though it be just and rational to give Law to those who will not give Law to themselves, to compel men to their own as well as the publick good, to work that they may not Starve, to do well, that they may not suffer for doing ill. It is not yet so con­sonant to reason, that any one should be forc'd to performance, though of things never so just, above Ability, or to make satisfactions out of nothing. That the Idle and Industrious alike, to satisfie the rigorous Justice of a Self-loving Creditor, should for being Idle or Unfortunate, be condemned to perpetual Idleness and Mis­fortune, and for no other cause, than not working Impossibilities, be constrain'd to lie starving and stinking to death in a loathsom Gaol, is a piece of Judiciality. I do not understand, and I verily believe, that it is no less unjust, for any one to be Cruel and Rigorous in the exacting of his Own from him that Hath not, than for [Page 69] him that Hath, to forbear the payment of what he Owes; who also, if not willing of himself, may and ought to be made so by force and rigour: Which may be in­flicted otherwise than by Confinement, for a Prison is least a punishment to those that most deserve it. To conclude, a too rigorous procedure either to Death or Im­prisonment, seems an over-acting in Justice, and as it were tending much alike to­wards a kind of Depopulation; there be­ing no great difference between not to be at all, and not to be at Liberty; the first totally, the second after a manner, depriv­ing the World of those whose Lives and Liberties might happily have been usefully enough, spar'd for the Commonwealth.

Of the Manufactures of England.

MAnufacture is to the Body Politick, what Exercise is to the Body Na­tural, viz. Prosperity to the one, Health and Soundness to the other; Ildleness be­ing alike pernicious to both, and causing to both alike Debauchery of Manners, Distemper and Beggary. There are few Nations in Europe, as well a mother parts of the World, wherein some particular Towns are not particularly Eminent for some or other Manufacture, as in Anda­lusia a Province of Spain, Corduba for the curious Dressing of Leather, which is thence called Cordovan-Leather; in Biscaia Bilboa for the making of excellent Temper'd Blades, Faenza in Italy for fine Earthen Ware, Venice for that rare sort of Drinking Glasses, which are thence called Venice-Glasses; which Art of Glass-making, is by a late Discovery from thence, Im­prov'd to a very great heigth in England, though we cannot bring Glasses to that perfection, for want of those Materials [Page 71] which are only to be had in those, viz. two sorts of Plants called Gazul and Subit, out of whose Liquified Ashes the right Venice-Glasses are blown. The most ge­neral Manufacture of England, is that which of all others is certainly the most useful and profitable, and which from Ancient time hath in a measure conduc'd to the Wealth and flourishing Estate of the Nation; that is to say, the Woollen Manu­facture, or the making of Woollen Cloths or Stuffs, which being encourag'd and rightly manag'd, is the chief prop of our Trade and Commerce, and (till the Fishery be set up, according to the Pro­posals of several Worthy Persons) the chief Support and Honest Maintenance of the Poor, whom could there be work enough found out universally to imploy, it would be a happy means to take off that Lewd and Sordid course of Vagabond Beg­ging, which introduces all those Thievish and unlawful practices, that bring so many daily to shameful and untimely ends. The first Broadcloth (so called, because of the Broad-Looms wherein it was wrought) made in England, is said to have been wrought by Jack of Newbury, in the Reign of King Edward the Third. The first famous Clothiers were the Webscloths [Page 72] and Clutterbucks in Glocestershire. For this In­genious and profitable Art or Mystery of La­nifice or Woollen-work, there is no place in England more fam'd than the City of Nor­wich, which hath for a long time flourish'd by the making of Worsted-Stuffs, which be­ing wrought here more Curiously than elsewhere, are thence called Nerwich-Stuffs; which Work hath been brought to the greater perfection, by the Industry of se­veral Dutch and French Families, who have been here planted for several years. No Nation ever loseth, but gets by the Trans­plantation of Industrious Foraigners, who by Interest and Converse, soon become one with the People among whom they Inhabit. The Stuffs here vended (the chief Trade whereof, as also of Stockings, is to London) are esteemed at 100000 l. per annum, which Stuffs are under the Go­vernment of two Companies, the Worsted Company, and the Russel Company. The Stockings at 60000 l. per annum. But there is another Town in this County, which being called Worsted, seems to have been the first noted place wherein these Stuffs were substantially made, in regard they thence took their denomination. Kidderminster in Worcestershire drives a very Trade in the making of certain Stuffs, [Page 73] which are thence called Kidderminster-Stuffs; and in the same Shire the City of Worcester it self: And also Malmsbury for Woollen-Cloth. In Warwick-shire, Coventry; In Lancashire, Manchester is much Enrich'd by the Industry of the Inhabitants, in mak­ing Cloth of Linnen and Woollen. Taun­ton in Somersetshire drives so great a Trade in Mixt and White-Serges, that there are said to be sent up Weekly to London and other places, no less than 700 pieces, a sort of them, besides a sort of course Bays; in the making whereof, there are Weekly im­ployed no less than 8500 persons. No less doth Wakefield in the West-riding of York-shire; Leeds also in the same County is accounted a Wealthy. Town, by reason of its Cloath­ing. Exeter by the quantity of Serges there made, returns to London a 10000 l. a Week. Stroud in Gloucestershire, is a Town not only full of Rich Clothiers, but is also particularly Eminent for the Dying of Cloths, by reason of the peculiar quality of the Water for that purpose: Teuxbury also in the same County, is very Rich in Clothing: Likewise Sudbury or South­bourg in Suffolk; Hadly in the same County. Reading in Bark-shire, which through the greatness of its Trade, is a very Wealthy Town; and Newbury in the [Page 74] same County. So likewise Shirburn in Dorcetshire, upon the same account: And also in Essex, Colchester, Dedham, Coxal, and other places, abound in Bays, Says, and other new Drapery. Appleby in Cumberland is no less Eminent for its strong Castle, and for being the place where the Assizes for the County are held, than for its great Cloth Manufacture; the like is Kendal in the same County.

Among the woollen Manufacture of Eng­land, may be reckon'd the weaving and knitting of Stockings, the use of which woven and knit Stockings hath not been in this Nation longer than about the begin­ning of K. James's Reign: It being ve­ry memorable what Dr Fuller relates of one William Rider, an Apprentice at the foot of London-Bridge, over against St Magnes-Church, who seeing in the House of an Ita­lian Merchant a pair of knit worsted Stock­ings, which he brought from Mantua, and taking special observation of them, made a pair exactly like them, which he presented to William Earl of Pembroke, and they are said to be the first of that sort worn in England, and thence-forward they became more and more in use; so that for many years they have been very much, and are now altogether worn, and are a great part [Page 75] of the Trade in most Places where there is any thing of woollen Manufacture, especi­ally at Norwich; yet Jersie Stockings have for a long time had a particular name. The Next Place may properly be allow'd to our making of Bone-lace, which is the chief of the Ornamentals worn in this Nation, though not so totally as before the Needle-works came in fashion, which though brought to great perfection, yet have ob­tain'd so much the less esteem, by how much those of Flanders, and the Points de Venice in Italy, and Larron in France, came more in fashion, as all foreign Artifices usu­ally (especially the French) have ever the chiefest vogue among our Gallants. So general is this Manufacture in many Parts of England, that the Poor of whole Towns are almost totally imploy'd, and in a great measure maintain'd thereby: Particularly, Honiton in Devonshire is a noted Town for his sort of Workmanship; as likewise Sa­lisbury and Marlborough in Wiltshire, Ouldny in Buckinghamshire, Amersham and Chesham in the same Shire, Blandford in Dorcetshire; which last Place hath been famous also for making of Band-strings, and now Point- [...]aces, it is said, are much made there. It is observ'd, that the only Thread made in England, till within a few years, was at Maidstone in Kent.

[Page 76]Besides the Cottons of Manchester, the Tickin, Pins, Points and Laces of that Place, have been thought not unworthy to be mention'd by several of England's Topo­graphers; so likewise the Gloves, Purses and leathern Points of Congleton, a Market Town of Cheshire; the Pins of Aberford in York-shire. The making of Ropes and Ca­bles for Ships was heretofore not onely e­specially eminent at Birtport in Dorsetshire above all other places, but also so highly approv'd for the goodness and curiosity of the Workmanship, that a Statute is said to have been made for a time, ordaining that no Ropes or Cables for the King's Ships should be made any where else; but that Act appears to have been long since out of date, for there are great Rope-yards be­longing to all the Ship-docks of England, particularly at Deptford there are very fa­mous and large ones.

Smiths-work, whatever it is at present, hath been heretofore peculiarly attributed to the Artists of Salisbury in Wiltshire, Bre­micham in Warwickshire, Chedder in Somer­setshire, Sheffield in Yorkshire, Malton in the same Shire, and Walsal in Staffordshire; particularly Salisbury is commended for Razors; Bremicham and Sheffield for Blades of Knives; Chedder for Teasels or Instru­ments [Page 77] used in the dressing of Cloth; Mal­ton for Instruments used in Husbandry; and Walsal for Bits and Snaffles for Horses; moreover this last Town is noted as well for Pewterers as Smiths. But by the way, the mention of Knives hath brought to mind a just occasion of admiration, that is, since the English have been observ'd, and not without just cause, to be a good stout eating People, there being more substantial Joynts of Beef and Mutton, &c. consum'd among us, than perhaps in any part of the World besides, how it should come to pass, that we should be so tardy in the Art of Knife-making; or what Invention we had in former days, to avoid those Indecencies at the Table, which the want of Knives must in all likelihood be the cause of: For it is credibly reported, that one Thomas Matthews living on Fleet-bridge, was the first that made Knives in England, which was in the 5th year of the Reign of Q. Eli­zabeth.

The best Tobacco-pipes, for neatness of shape and form, and for a curious shining gloss, are made at Ambresbury, vulgarly call'd Emsbury in Wiltshire, about a mile or two from Stonehenge; they are commonly call'd Gantlet-Pipes (having the mark of a Gantlet impress'd on the flat bottom of the [Page 78] Bowl) from Mr. Hugh Gantlet, who was the first that brought them to this perfecti­on.

There are also several edible and potable Works of Art, which may in my opinion properly enough come under the Head of English Manufactures. The Coagulation of Milk into the Consistence of Cheese, is said to have been the first Invention of the Osci, an ancient People of Italy; but whence or from whomsoever proceeding, this sort of artificial Food is the most com­mon and universal, in all Parts of the World where the most rational and civil way of Eating is in use. Of all the Shires of England, Cheshire for this kind of Edible, may, I judge, be allow'd the Bays, above all other Parts, at least of this Kingdom; and for ought I know, a true Cheshire Cheese, if rightly valu'd, may stand in competition with the Parmesan of Italy, the Angelot of France, and the Full-moon of Holland, only with this pre-eminence reser­ved to the last, that but for the bigness, it might serve as well for the Bowling-green as the Table. Suffolk in this particular challenges the next place, but doubtless in respect rather of quantity than quality; for this County furnishes with Cheeses not on­ly several other Parts of England, but also [Page 79] Spain, France and Italy; a lean Traveller may possibly be thought able to endure a long Journey better than one that's plump and fat. These are the two principal Cheese-Counties of England; but in other Counties, this Pretension is fixt to particu­lar Places, as in Somersetshire to Chedder be­fore-mention'd, the Cheeses whereof are of that repute, as to be frequently, preferr'd even before those of Cheshire; Opinion and Imagination are two great things.

In Warwickshire, Banbury hath a Name both for Cheeses and Cakes, the justifica­tion of which Name is best left to the ex­perienc'd taster of both. For Sugar'd-Cakes, Shrewsbury is without controversie allow'd to bear away the Bell from all other Places. But to save the Reputation of the Cake-makers of other Parts, this Super-ex­cellence is attributed to the nature of the Severn-water in that Place. Other Places there are that challenge their Peculiars of this nature, but the most proverbially emi­nent are the Whitepot of Devonshire, and Dumpling of Norfolk.

Nor must the Potables of England be al­together forgotten. For Ale, Derbyshire, and particularly Derby-Town; also Hull, Northdown, and Sandbitch, and Weably afore-mention'd, are most especially fam'd; [Page 80] for Sider, all Gloucestershire, Worcestershire and Herefordshire; for Metheglin, Shrop­shire, Herefordshire, and some Parts of Wales.

To the Manufactury of England, may not unfitly be added an account of those cu­rious Arts and Inventions, which are now flourishing in this Nation, whether newly, or for some Ages last past. And among these, the first and principal is the excel­lent, and by some highly applauded, and by others most condemned, Art of Print­ting. This noble Invention, in many re­spects useful, and no way so pernicious as some would have it thought, was first ex­ercis'd by William Caxton Mercer, who in the Reign of K. Edw. the IV. kept his Printing-house in Westminster-Abbey, by the permission of Simon Islip Abbot of West­minster; and the first Book set forth, some say, was Tully's Offices; others say, a Book treating of the way of playing the Game at Chess.

The next Invention appearing here among us, must be allow'd little less inge­nious than the former, but wonderfully more capable of doing mischief, I mean, the truly black Art of Gunpowder, the swarthy Invention of a swarthy Monk, and possibly by the Inspiration of the Prince of [Page 81] Darkness. Yet one thing is worthy to be observ'd, viz. that since the discovery of this gloomy Drug, whatever destruction hath been committed by whole-sale, some­thing of amends hath been made by retail: For whereas in former Times, when the Bow, Lance and Javelin were in use, Histo­ry makes nothing of 40 or 50000 slain in the Field; now that the Musket, Dragoon and Pistol came in fashion (even with the Cannon to boot) it is a great matter to hear of the fall of 10 or 20000. besides, as a Member sometimes is not ill lost to save a Man, so in greater Bodies, a House may be better spar'd than a whole Street or Town, which deliverance nothing but Gunpowder can effect. But then against this benefit may be oppos'd the springing of Mines, to blow up Castles, Forts and Cittadels, meerly for destructions sake.

It is not to be doubted, and it appears from Histories, that the Chariot hath been known in England as well as in other Parts of the World time out of mind; but the use of those portable Houses call'd Coaches, which at this day being increas'd to a vast multitude, make such a clutter in the Streets of London, to the great disturbance of the poor Foot-Passenger, is said to have first commenc'd about the year 1556. till [Page 82] when, 'tis to be presum'd, that great Per­sons seldom stirr'd out but in fair weather, whereas now all Seasons for Visits are alike; otherwise the Cavalcade of Princes and Nobles on Horseback, may doubtless afford the Beholder as comely a Spectacle as a long train of Coaches. Together with the Coach, or not long after, I guess, came in the Coaches Epitome, the Sedan, more elegantly styl'd a Chair, a much more easie sort of passage, as perform'd not by draught but carriage, and that by the more rational sort of Animal. But there is another kind of moving Domicil of much later date, call'd a Calesh, which seems like a Coach cut off in the middle, wherein commonly the Driver and the Driven is one and the self-same person.

Watches, and other horary Motions of that nature, it is certain, came out of Ger­many, and according to the best conjecture, somewhat more than a 100 years since. The principal Artists of this kind menti­on'd are Janus Torrianellus, and Cornelius van Drebble; but since all kind of automa­tous Motions by Clock-work have been wonderfully improv'd by those of our own Nation, particularly Mr Davie Mell, besides his excellent judgement and fancy in Musi­cal Compositions, and his great perfor­mance [Page 83] on the Violin, above all others of his Time, (for within these 20 years, the very quintessence of that Instruments Mu­sick hath been extracted, as being chiefly in fashion) was so prodigious an Artist in all Mechanick Motions by Clock-work, that if any one since hath equall'd him in Art, he hath at least fallen short in Fame.

But of all Inventions of this kind, the Pendulum of latest date, is also of greatest curiosity and use, being generally acknow­ledg'd the Design of Mr Hook, Fellow of the Royal Society, a Person of much Esteem among the Learned and Vertuous, for his Mathematical and Mechanick Improve­ments, however Mr Oldenburg, late Secre­tary to the said Society, made some Dispute in this Matter, as asserting it of German Original.

All sorts of Optick Glasses and Tubes, as the Telescope, the Invention of the noble Galileo, the Microscope, &c. have been of late years wonderfully improv'd, especially by the Directions of the fore-mention'd Mr Hook, Mr Flamstead, and others of this most renowned Fellowship. But the first fa­mous Artificer of these Tubes and Glasses, was Mr Reeves in Long-acre, after whom Mr Cock hath continued the Imployment with prosperous success and approbation. [Page 84] The Barometer, Thermometer, Hydroscope, and such like Contrivances, for the disco­very of the Change of Weather, have cer­tainly been the result of those unwearied Endeavours and Enquiries, that have been made into the depth of Natural Knowledg, since the foundation of this Noble Society. And among the sagacious Enquirers into Meteorological Philosophy, Dr Goad, late Master of Merchant-Taylors-School, must be allow'd a principal place.

But for the Air-Pump, the rarest Inven­tion ever found out for the proof of a Vacu­um in rerum Natura, it particularly owns the Honourable Robert Boil its Inventor, who by his many Writings and Inventions, hath been a Worthy Contributor to the Ad­vancement of Experimental Philosophy.

The Art of Torning, as it appears to have been not much less ancient in the World than Sculpture it self, so doubtless it is not very Modern in this Nation. But that curious Improvement of Torning, call'd the Rose-work, doubtless claims here but an Ages Antiquity. The first celebra­ted Person for Work of this nature, was Mr Reeve, the Brother of the above-men­tion'd Artist in Optick Glasses. And though this sort of Work hath since been very frequent among us, yet I cannot omit [Page 85] the mention of a Person, who from his own natural Fancy and Ingenuity, hath arriv'd to that perfection, as well in this as all manner of Torning else, that he is judg'd by knowing Persons not to be exceeded, if equall'd, by any that have been bred up to the Art, Mr John Gearie, living in St Anns-Lane in Westminster.

Our Sculpture in Stone appears plainly not to be of Modern Invention or Discove­ry in this Nation, by the delicate Workman­ship in several of our Cathedrals and other Churches, and in the Schools at Oxford; and at this present time it is not any way diminish'd, but rather improv'd by the Art and Industry of several eminent Men, Mr Pierce, Mr Latham, Mr Pennel, &c.

But for Carving in Wood, never was any thing in England seen more curious and exquisite, than the Workmanship of Mr Gibbons, his Majesty's Carver, and a great Contributer to the Ornaments of the Royal Palace at Windsor.

Graving in Copper seems not to have been brought to any perfection in England till this present Age. The first Person ve­ry eminent among us in this Art was Mr William Faithorn, now living in Black-fri­ers; and since there have sprung up several other ingenuous Artists in this kind, viz. [Page 86] Mr Loggan, Mr White, Mr Sherwin, and others.

The best for Etching, not only in Eng­land, but perhaps in any other Parts, was Mr Wenceslaus Hollar, who died here not many years since.

But that rough sort of Graving, or ra­ther pecking upon Copper, call'd Mezzo Tinto, hath been us'd but lately, being ei­ther the Design or Encouragement of his late Highness Prince Rupert.

There is also a peculiar Art in the graving of written Letters from the Copies of the most exact writing-Masters. The first emi­nent in this way was Mr Cocker, who was also himself a writing-Master, to whom, others that have succeeded, have not been inferiour; as Mr Sturt, who grav'd the Copies of Mr Aires; and Mr Elder, who grav'd an ingenious Piece, entituled, Bra­chyarithmia, of Mr Edw. Noon, Teacher of Writing and Accounts, at the Hand and Pen in Maiden-lane in Covent-Garden.

For Graving in Steel, never was any Man so famous in England as Mr Thomas Rawlins, last Graver of the Mint both to his late and to his present Majesty; the grand Excellency of whose Art was, his graving the Effigies of any one, true and exact upon a small Letter-Seal.

[Page 87]As for Painting, our Nation can boast nothing like the Works of the great Sir Anthony Vandike, who though born a Fo­reigner, died an Englishman. Nor hath he wanted several famous Successors; as Dobson, Fuller, Walker, Lillie, Greenhill, &c.

The first Person famous among us for Painting in Miniature, was Mr Oliver; af­ter whom, Francis Clein and his Brother John had been the Prodigies of the Age, had they lived. Mr Cooper's loss comes next to be lamented; the Persons living are Mr Gibson, Mr. Flattman, &c. For Crayons or dry Colours, Mr. Ashfield, lately deceas'd.

Scene-Paintings and Machines have not been known in England till within these 20 years; and the only eminent Men in this kind have been Mr. Streeter, and Mr. Ste­venson, some years since deceased.

In Musick, it would be too tedious to determine, whether the Improvement or Alteration hath been greater. Certain it is, that several old English Instruments are laid aside; as the Orpharian, the Poly­phone, an Instrument surely not to be de­spis'd, considering its rare Structure, and the Esteem had of it by learned and there­fore most judiciously Musical Persons of this Age, viz. Sir Francis Prujean, and Dr. Rugely. [Page 88] The Stump, whereon about, an Age ago Andrew Mark was famous for his rare per­formance. The Bandore, the Ghittern, Cittern, &c. The treble Viol also is much out of doors, since the Violin came so much in request. The Base and Lyra Viol, in the making whereof, Wroth was without dispute the best Workman that ever wrought, keep pretty well in repute, espe­cially the first, in regard it cannot well be wanted in Consort. Nor did ever any Age produce such wonderful Performers upon this Instrument as this present Age; particularly, Pol-wheel, Theodore Stephkins deceas'd, his Son Frederick, Mr. Young, Sir John Bolls of Scampton in Lincolnshire, Mr. Roger l'Estrange, Mr. Smith, Mr. Gregory, &c. The Lute is not wholly laid aside, but within these 20 or 30 years much neglect­ed to what it was formerly, notwithstand­ing the great Improvement of this Instru­ment among us within a 100 years, by reason of the diversity of Tunings receiv'd from France, some of whose best Lute-Ma­sters brought over not only these Harp-tu­nings, but themselves also, and by their active Hands and airy Fancies, oblig'd the Musick-lovers of our Nation with transcen­dant Harmony, viz. Goutier, Penel, Merceur, Mesanges, Du Faulx, &c. after whom of [Page 89] our own Nation came Mr. John Rogers, Gou­tier's Scholar, Captain Hill, Dr. No, Mr. John Hubbard, and Mr. John Wootton now living. And no less famous in their kind, that is, for Workmanship, were old Alla­by, and Walter Johnson. But the fine easie Ghittar, whose performance is soon gain'd, at least after the brushing way, hath at this present over-topt the nobler Lute. Nor is it to be denied, but that after the pinching way, some good Work may be made of the Ghittar by such as Sir Francesco Corbetto, Mr. Janvier, Signor Pedro, Mr. Wootton afore­mention'd, and the like. Nevertheless the Theorbo, which is no other than an Arch-Lute, keeping to the old Tuning, is still generally made use of in Consorts. And there are yet among the judicious, who think it the most agreeable and becoming Associate to vocal Musick, remembring how nobly it sounded in the Hands of Dr. Wilson, Mr. Henry Ferabosco, Mr. Edward Coleman, Mr. Alphonso Marsh lately decea­sed, &c. Play'd on alone, never did it speak such harmonious things in our English Climate, as when touch'd by the famous Dr. Walgrave, Physician at present to his Royal Highness, to whom Mr. Shadwell comes nearest for an excellent Hand. For Consort, our chief Theorbo-men at this [Page 90] day are Mr. Brockwell, and Mr. Flower. The Organ cannot well be laid aside, as being an Instrument of highest perfection, and the most proper of all others for Ca­thedral Service. What Antiquity it chal­lenges in our Nation is uncertain; but as no Nation can boast of greater Masters than old Bull, Tomkins, Jeffreys, Dr. Gibbons, Dr. Child, Mr. Matthew Lock, and at present Dr. Bleau, Organist to his Majesty, Mr. Henry, Pursel, Organist to the Abbey, Mr. Michael Wise, Mr. Francis Forcer, &c. so it hath been wonderfully advanc'd of late years, by the addition of several melodious Stops, the greatest Artist at present, not to mention Pease, Burral, and others of late years, being Mr. Smith, living in the So-ho. The Harpsicon is of late wonderfully im­prov'd by the Invention of the Pedal, which brings it so much nearer to the Organ, that it only seems to come short of it in Lungs. The greatest Master on it now living in our Region, especially since the decease of Mr. Thatcher, is Mr. Disnier, and the greatest Fabricator Mr. Howard. And here also may not unfitly be mention'd, that pretty Fancy of a Musical Automaton, being a kind of Harpsicon, which by a Clock-work-motion discharcheth a certain set number of Tunes, according as it is wound up to this or that [Page 91] Tune. Of this sort of Automata, there is to be seen a very neat piece of Art of Reed­work, at a House at St Mary-overs-Dock; the Artificer thereof, Mr. Thomas Hill of Westminster, being a Person of remarkable Ingenuity, as well Musical in respect of his performance, as Mechanical for making of several other Instruments. His Pitch-Pipe, for the tuning of Musical Instruments to consort; Pitch is particularly worthy note for exactness, variety and curious Work, above any thing that is to be seen elsewhere of this nature. The Harp is rather increas'd than diminish'd in repute; and though the Welsh Gut-string formerly gave place to the Irish, Wire-string, by reason of the masterly Hands of Mr. John Cob, and Mr. Lewis Williams, now the Spanish Gut-string comes up with it, through the excellent Mastery of Mr. Maurice, Mr. Evans, Mr. Bedhurst, Mr. Webster, Mr. Robert Grant, living with my Lord Mountague, and for the Outlandish way of Playing, Mr. Arn. The Violin is now of all others generally of highest esteem, and is indeed a very use­ful Instrument in Consort, and now arriv'd to that perfection of performance, that it were endless to enumerate all that have been of late accounted great Violin-Ma­sters. Wherefore let the mention of Far­mer, [Page 92] Twiss, Ailworth, Ayrs, Claiton, Tomlins, serve for all. The best Workmen for the making of this Instrument have been ac­counted Comer, Raimund, Florence Barnet. Of Wind-Instruments, the Flageolet with­in this 20 years, and since that the Flute, have been highest in vogue and frequentest in use: The chiefest Performers on it being Mr. Banister, Mr. Sutton, Mr. Young, Mr. Car, the chiefest Artisans, Mr. Scottny in Lincolns-Inn-fields. But for all sorts of Musical Instruments in general, the Violin, the Base and Lyra Viol, the Harp, the Ghit­tar, the Lute, (even the Flageolet and Flute not altogether excepted) Mr. John Shaw, living near the May-pole in the Strand, is acknowledg'd by the most skilful in Mu­sick of all sorts, to be a Workman in a great measure superiour to any that have been in this Nation. Nor have the Cre­mona Violins or Loxmollar Lutes been late­ly of such excessive prices as formerly. For Pegs for Lutes, Viols, &c. Mr. Bland is re­ported the only Man at present that serves all the Instrument-makers in Town.

It is not very many years since the seve­ral sorts of fine Varnish have come into knowledge and use among us, which give so beautiful a gloss to Musical Instruments, Cabinets, Tables, Picture-frames, and the [Page 93] like; so that many of our varnish'd Cabi­nets may vye even with those of Japan and China themselves, their ways of Varnish being now not altogether unknown unto us, whereof the rarest of all is accounted that of Ceo. The first Persons eminent for Varnishing were Mr. Lilly, and Mr. Racket, since whom it is grown very common. But that noble Lacka-varnish which imitates the Gold-colour, and hath sav'd much cost that was formerly bestow'd in the guilding of Coaches, was brought into England a­bout 30 years since, by the learned Advan­cer of Learning and all Noble Arts, and my best of Friends, Mr. Evelin, of Says-Court by Deptford.

The Bow-dy about 40 years since was brought into England by Kephler.

Our Tapistry-work, now equal to what­ever the Attalick-Court could anciently boast, was brought in hither by Sir Francis Crane, towards the latter end of K. James his Reign, by the Encouragement of that learned Prince, who gave 2000 l. toward the building of a House at Moreclack, where Mr. Francis Clein was the first Designer.

Our Vasa Fictilia, or Potters-Ware, by the Art and Industry of Mr. Doight at Ful­lam, are brought to that height of Curiosi­ty, that our common Vessels may easily out­vye [Page 94] the Dutch, and the finest▪ come not much short of China it self.

The making of Glasses is said to have been begun in England, anno 1557. about which time there liv'd at Chiddingsfold, a Person very famous for this Art, which as it grew improv'd, the finer sort were first made at Crotchet-friers; but the ma­king of the Flint-Glass, which is the finest and clearest ever made here, and very near, if not altogether equal to those of Venice, was first begun by Mr. Bishop, and since car­ried on with good success by Mr. Ravens­croft. There is now a Company of 12 Men of the Potters Trade, who are Dire­ctors of this sort of Workmanship, chiefly exercis'd at present at the Savoy-House in the Strand. But the first Glass-plates for Looking-glasses, Coach-windows, &c. in England, were made at Lambeth, now a­bout 10 years since, by the Encouragement of his Grace the Duke of Buckingham, and the Direction of Mr. Reeves afore-men­tion'd.

The first in England who cast brass Guns, viz. Cannons, Culverines, &c. is said to have been one John Oaven; after him Peter Band a Frenchman, in the first year of the Reign of K. Edw. the VI. cast iron Falcons, Falconets, Minions, &c. but [Page 95] was exceeded by his Servant Thomas John­son, who liv'd till the year 1600.

In Gunsmiths-work there hath been of late years discover'd a very large increase of Art and Ingenuity, as to the Locks and Barrels of Muskets, Carbines, Pistols, and the like. In which sort of Artifice there have been many excellent Workmen; whereof at this day, Mr. Shaw, and Gif­fard, Gunsmiths to his Majesty, and Mr. Sharp, living in Exeter-street, are esteem'd the chiefest Artists of London, and by conse­quence, in all probability, of England.

Another principal branch of Smiths-work, is the making of Locks and Keys, in which nothing, was ever seen so curious and inge­nuous, as what is done at this day by Mr. Wilkins.

Mathematical Instruments, as Compas­ses, Quadrants, Rulers, are most certainly now more exquisitely made than ever. Herein Mr. Foster in Hosier-lane, and Mr. Hays in Moor-fields, were lately the most celebrated Workmen; now Mr. Markham in the Strand, and Mr. Winne in Chancery­lane.

The Projection of Globes, Spheres and Maps, is without controversie now more exactly understood than formerly, through the Ingenuity first of Mr. Moxon, now of [Page 96] Mr. Berry near Charing-Cross, and Mr. Mor­dant in Cornhil. Nor is there without all doubt in all things of this nature, a better Graver than Mr. Lamb.

And here may not unfitly be mention'd the new Invention of an Iron Pen, which besides its lastingness, is equally fit for use with the best Goose-Quill whatsoever: By Mr. Smith, Writing-Master to Christ-Church-Hospital.

Having spoken of Printing, it will not be unseasonable to intimate how much Let­ter-founding hath been advanc'd of late. S. Henry Savil's silver Character for the prin­ting of his Chrysostom, was much admir'd at that time; but of late we have had many Books printed in very delicate Characters, both small and great, especially the fine small Greek Character, in which several Greek Poets have been printed at the Thea­tre at Oxford, is so curious, that nothing can be more, not excepting the fine small Prints of Amsterdam or Leyden.

It would be endless to reckon up all the new Allamodes of Cloths, Stuffs, Silks, Ribbands, and the like.

But of the many curious Pieces in Wax-work, Straw-work, Acupiction in Silks and Sattins, cutting of Paper, Cloth, or fine Leather, into exquisite Figures, folding [Page 97] of Napkins into the shapes of Birds, Beasts, or Fishes, tho Ingenuity of former Ages (as to most of these Artifices) hath per­haps not receiv'd much addition. Though in Wax there are to be seen very curious things of late Workmanship, which possibly have arriv'd to utmost Improvement: For Imbossment in Wax, Mr. Houseman was certainly the best Artist that hath been known in these Parts.

The rich Embroidery of former Times, as will appear to those, who visiting the Houses of the old Nobility and Gentry, be­hold the pompous Furniture left by the An­cestry of those Families, is, as I conjecture, not easily out-done, if equall'd, by any thing this Age can produce.

The Art of making fine white Thread, is said to have been brought into England about the year 1670. by Mr. Joseph Allen, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, keeping a Thread-shop in Bishopgate-street, at the Golden Anchor near Bethlehem, even to the value of 3 l. the pound, and vying with the Nuns Thread of Flanders.

The Glassen Bee-hive is mention'd by my Ingenious Friend Mr. John Worlidge of Pe­tersfield, to have been the Contrivance of Mr. William Mew, Minister of Easlington in Gloucestershire. He also mentions a wooden [Page 98] Hive of an Octangle form, with a glass Window in one of the sides. This glassen Bee-hive, I remember, about 30 years ago, was much talk'd of as a great Rarity, when the late Bishop of Chester, Dr. Wilkins, had of them in his Garden at Wadham-Colledg, whereof he was then Warden; both sorts are now sufficiently common, but they are no where to be seen better order'd and more curious than at Mr. Evelin's Paradice of a Garden by Deptford.

The Plow, though as ancient as Tillage it self; the Improvements are but of late years: The chief whereof mention'd by Mr. Blith and Mr. Worlidge, are the single wheel'd Plow and the double wheel'd Plow, and the double Plow, which is in the nature of two Plows joyn'd together. Mr. John Houghton also (worthily for his great In­genuity and Industry) a Fellow of the Roy­al Society, in that most useful Design of his, call'd, A Collection of Letters for the Improve­ment of Husbandry, inserts an Invention of Thomas Llewellin, at the George in Cateaten-street, for plowing with one Man and two Horses or Oxen, a greater quantity of Land than can be perform'd at the same time with double the number of Men and Cattel. He also in the same Sheet gives a large de­scription of a Malt-kill at Nottingham.

[Page 99]Engines of grand bulk, force and per­formance, are doubtless near as ancient as whatever Art or Invention have produc'd, being of too great necessity to be unthought of by any thinking or inventing People.

Cranes and Engines for the drawing up of Goods of great bulk and weight, such as we have at the Custom-house, and such like Places, are mention'd in ancient Authors.

Also in War, the Arcubalistae, and the Arietes or Battering-Rams, which against the Walls of besieged Towns did more than multitudes of Men.

What the Antiquity is of Corn Wind-mills, is hard to determine whether in this or any other Nation.

The Paper-Mill is certainly of no mo­dern Invention, and it may be wonder'd that in all this time Paper-making hath not been brought to a greater height in this Na­tion, it being judg'd very possible, that as good Paper might be made in England, as any is brought over from France, Holland, or any other foreign Part.

The Powder-Mill cannot be of very long standing, since it is scarce 200 years that Gunpowder it self hath bounc'd and made a smoak in the World.

Moreover, of these grand performing Engines, there is a very great number even [Page 100] of late Invention, of which I shall endea­vour to call to mind at least the most no­ted.

For the grubbing up of Stumps of Oak, there is an Engine call'd the German Devil, which Mr. Evelin in his incomparable Trea­tise of Forest-trees, affirms to have been made use of by a Noble Person of this Na­tion with that success, that by the help thereof one Man was able to do more than could otherwise have been done by 12 Ox­en. He also in the same Treatise, p. 22. gives a description of another Engine for the transplanting of Trees.

The silk-Stocking Frame is surely one of the most curious Contrivances of this Age. It is said to have been first us'd at Notting­ham, and was, as I have been told, the sea­sonable Fancy of a poor Oxford Scholar, who to inch out the slender pittance of a small Living he had thereabouts, was glad to make use of his Wives manual Assistance; but that not sufficing neither to satisfie the importunate Stomachs of an increasing Fa­mily, he prompted by Necessity, which is the Mother of Art, as ancient Authors af­firm, joyn'd his Head to her Hands, his In­genuity to her Industry, and thence brought forth this rare Device, to shorten the la­bour, and increase the profit of her Work.

[Page 101]The Saw-Mill or Engine for sawing of Timber is of Dutch Original, and about 25 or 30 years ago first brought in use among us, for so long it is since that on the Thames over against Durham-yard was first erected. The Wire-Mill of Mr. Mumma, a Dutch­man, was first set up at Sheen within these 20 years.

All the Money coin'd in the Tower of London, almost ever since his Majesty's Re­storation, hath been by an Engine or Coin­ing-Mill, brought in by the Rotiers, who thereupon became and so continue to this present, his Majesty's chief Moneyers.

The Weavers Loom-Engine hath not been in use many years in England, especi­ally the highest Improvement thereof call'd the Dutch Loom, brought in about 5 or 6 years since by Mr. Crouch, a Weaver in Bi­shopsgate-street.

A very useful Invention was that Engine call'd the Persian Wheel, for the watring of Meadows, which lye uncapably of being overflow'd. The first of these Engines brought to any considerable perfection, was erected at the end of Wilton-Garden, by the Direction of the above-mention'd Mr. Worlidge, Wood-Steward to the Earl of Pembroke, in the year 1665. who in his Sy­stema Agriculturae, takes notice of another [Page 102] Engine to the same purpose, call'd the Ho­rizontal Windmil. And in his Treatise of Sider, he describes the Ingenio or rare Si­der-Engine, a Contrivance doubtless very profitable for those that drive a Trade in the making of this Liquor.

There is also very lately found out the admirable Water-Engine, for raising of Ballas and towing of Ships. Yet as excel­lent as these Inventions are, and as useful to the Publick, by dispatching at one in­stant the tedious drudgery of many Hands, yet there are not wanting high Clamours against them, as robbing poor men of their Imployments, and consequently of their Livelihoods; so hard it is to find any Con­venience totally exempted from Cavil and Exception. Even the Quench-fire Engine, that most excellent and salutiferous Inven­tion of Sir Samuel Moreland, 'tis possible may be an Eye-sore to such Neronian Tem­pers, as love to see Towns and Cities on fire. However the World is oblig'd to this learned Mechanick, as well for this as se­veral other useful and ingenuous Contri­vances, particularly his Arithmetical Instru­ment, and his Stenterophonick or Speaking Trumpet, the chief use whereof is to treat or parly with an Enemy at a distance.

[Page 103]There is to be seen by all Lovers of Art, a rare Invention of Mr. Edgebury, call'd the Horizontal Corn-mill, upon a piece of Land at Deptford, belonging to my most Honour'd Friend Mr. Evelin junior.

It is now about 7 or 8 years, since a Print­ing-Press for the printing of Callcoes, was set on foot by Mr. Mellish; but he soon de­sisting, the Design was taken up by Mr. William Sherwin, living in Little-Britain, and ever since carried on with great vigour and success.

To conclude: There remains yet to be spoken of one rare Engine, and in some sence above all that have been yet menti­on'd, since it brings back Old Age to Youth, and makes threescore and ten ap­pear as fine and gay as five and twenty. I do not mean simply the Perruke, or Frame of Artificial formerly worn, for that may possibly be as ancient as the Emperour Ca­rolus Calvus his Time, who wanting Hair of his own, is reported to have call'd a Councel of French Barbers, to contrive an artificial Supplement of Natures Defect: But I mean, that lofty towring Structure or Machine of Hair, so heighten'd and or­namented, as it hath been by Tonsorian Art and Industry, within these last 20 years, so frounc'd, so curl'd in a 1000 [Page 104] amorous Annulets, so plump'd up, so streaming in the Air like a Ships Top-gal­lant, that certainly never any Cincinnatus or Capillatus whatsoever, could boast a na­tural Head of Hair comparable to this arti­ficial; much more may it be judg'd easily to outvye the ancient Median Cidaris, the Persian Tiara, or the now Ottoman Turbant; and doubtless had it been devis'd in Homer's Time, it would quickly have put out of countenance the best of his [...].

THE MAGNIFICENCE OF ENGLAND.

THE Magnificence of England consists in the principal Towns and Cities, Palaces Royal, and belonging▪ to several of the Nobility, Cathedrals, and other Chur­ches, Castles, Bridges, and erected Monu­ments.

The 3 principal Cities of England are London, York and Bristol. Besides which, there are many other Cities and Towns of sufficient Note for pleasantness of Situation and neatness of Building: As the Cities of Canterbury, Rochester, Exeter, Salisbury, Gloucester, Worcester, Oxford, Bath, Durham, Lincoln, Winchester and Coventry. The [Page 106] Towns of Ipswich, St Edmundbury, Maid­ston, Feversham, Kingston upon Thames, Guil­ford, Lewis, Colchester, Buckingham, Ailsbury, Reading, Cambridge, Southampton, Marlbo­rough, Warwick, Shirburn, Northampton, Lei­cester, Nottingham, Newark, Manchester, Wake­field, Boston, Stamford, Barstable, Tavistoke, Taunton, Shrewsbury, Bridgenorth, Tewksbury and Cirencester; besides several others which are to be mention'd among those Places sig­naliz'd by their several Remarks and Trans­actions.

London being at large describ'd by Stow, Howel, and others, it will be sufficient to name the Magnificences thereof, viz. The Cathedral of St Pauls, destroy'd by the late Fire, and now upon rebuilding; the state­ly Bridge over the Thames; the Royal Ex­change, splendid before, but now rebuilt far more splendid; the New Bethlehem, or Bedlam in Moor-fields; Gresham-Colledge; Sion-Colledge; the Colledge of Physicians, now a very graceful Edifice; with the Theatre for Anatomy-Lectures, at the up­per end of Warwick-lane; the Halls belong­ing to the several Companies, most of them built much more to advantage than formerly; Doctors Commons; and over a­gainst it, the Office of Armory, towards Pauls-Wharf, near which, before the Fire, [Page 107] stood Baynards-Castle, an ancient and noble House, sometime belonging to the Earls of Pembroke; the several Inns of Court and Chancery, many of them wonderfully im­prov'd both as to Structure and pleasant Permenades; the two Inns of Serjeants in Chancery-lane and Fleetstreet, the latter whereof is amplifi'd into a larger extent of Ground, and number of fair Houses; the Canal by the Fleet, cut straight along from Holborn-bridge down to the Thames at Pud­dle-Wharf, with the new built Bridge over it; the Hospitals of Sutton, call'd the Charterhouse; of Christ-Church near New-gate; of St Bartholomews near Smithfield; Bridewel, once a King's Palace, now a House of Correction; the Earl of Bridge­water's House in Barbican; the Earl of Tha­net's and the Bishop of London's Palace, commonly call'd Peterhouse in Aldersgate-street; then between Temple-bar and West­minster, a Street so full of Noblemen's Pa­laces, that there is scarce the like in any one City of Europe, especially some years since, before several of them were pull'd down, out of whose Ruines nevertheless there have sprung up so many little Towns as it were, pleasantly situate upon the Thames-side; those pull'd down are Essex-house, Exeter-house, out of part whereof [Page 108] there is built a neat Exchange; part of Salisbury-house, Durham-house, and York-house, belonging to the Duke of Bucking­ham; and now very lately Woreester-house; those standing are Somerset-house, which belongs to the Queen, and where she oft­times hath her residence; the Savoy, once a Palace, but of late years made use of for an Hospital of lame Souldiers; Bedford-house, part of Salisbury and Suffolk-house, belonging to the Northumberland Family; near Westminster is the principal Seat-Royal of England, his Majesty's most usual Place of residence, Whitehal, built by Cardinal Woolfie, a Palace more of Convenience than State, excepting the Banquetting-house, a piece of Architecture, accounted parallel to the best in Italy; and not to omit the Mag­nificences of Westminster, being so near; the Cathedral and the Old Palace, which contains Westminster-hall, the largest Room in Europe, the Parliament-house, and other Courts of Judicature; from Whitehal a pleasant Park leads to St James's, the Pa­lace and usual residence of his Royal High­ness the Duke of York; on the other side of the Park, a neat House of the Earl of Ar­lington, Lord Chamberlain of the King's Houshold; and near it Tarthall, belonging to the late Lord Stafford; over against St [Page 109] James's, on the Road towards Kensington, a noble House of the Duke of Albemarl, built by the late Lord Chancellor, Earl of Clarendon; and near it Barkley-house, New­port-house, and others.

Among the Buildings of later years, se­veral noble Piazza's or Squares, some not inferior to that of Piazza Navona at Rome. The first Covent-garden Square, grac'd on two sides with lofty Portico's, on the o­ther with the Prospect of Bedford-Garden, on the fourth with the Front of a goodly Church. Next, Lincolns-Inn Square, the largest of all. 3. Bloomsbury Square, open­ing to a fair Prospect of Southampton-house, not far from which is an elegant new built House of the Honourable Henry Mountague, late Ambassador to the Court of France. 4. Leicester Square, on the one side where­of is the Prospect of Leicester-house, ad­joyning to which is also Newport-house. 5. St James's Square, whose each side is a Pile of most splendid Edifices. Lastly, That in So-ho-Buildings, a very pleasant Square, having a large square Garden-plot, in the midst adorn'd with Fountains, Statues, &c. This is commonly call'd Kings-Square, for the Magnificence there­of.

[Page 110] York, the first City of Yorkshire, and the second of England, is a large, stately, plea­sant, rich, populous and well fortified Ci­ty. The chief Magnificences whereof, be­sides several beautiful Structures both pub­lick and private, are the Cathedral, the Great Gate, the Stone-bridge over the Ouse, having one only but very huge Arch, the Princes House, call'd the Mannour, and a famous Library.

Bristow or Bristol, qu. Brightstol or Bright­stow i. e. a splendid or illustrious Place; in the British, Caer Oder Nant Badon, i. e. the City Oder in the Valley of Badon; a large, cleanly, pleasant and well traded Ci­ty, situate some part in Glocestershire, but most in Somersetshire, and yet in a manner distinct from both, being a County of it self incorporate. It hath large Streets, and divers fair Buildings both publick and pri­vate; besides its Churches, a strong Ca­stle, the Bishop's Palace, the Tolbooth for Merchants, a fair large Key, affording a most pleasant Prospect of Ships, coming up to the very Town, and the Goutes or Sinks that carry the Water under ground, render the Streets exceeding neat and clean.

[Page 111] Canterbury, the chief City of Kent, and the Metropolitan See of all England, plea­sant both for Situation and Buildings, and of principal esteem for its Cathedral, which is accounted among the chief of the Ca­thedrals of England; besides which it hath several fair Chuches. Its other publick Buildings are the Houses of the Dean and Prebends, a noble Free-School, call'd the Kings-School, two Hospitals, the Watch-houses or Cittadels upon the Wall, which is broad enough for two Coaches to go a­brest upon it; it had also a noble Castle, but that hath been long since demolish'd.

Rochester is not only preferrable as a Ci­ty, to all the Places in Kent next to Canter­bury, for its fair Building and pleasant Situation upon the River Medway. But the chief Grandure of this City consists in its Cathedral and stately Bridge: Of which more in its due place.

Exeter is particularly taken notice of by William of Malmsbury, for the beauty of its Buildings, the richness of its Inhabi­tants, the flourishing state of its Trade and Commerce, and the confluence of Strangers thither, the greatness of its Trade and Riches, by a daily Commerce both with [Page 112] this City and other Parts of the Nation. The most eminent of its Structures, are the Wall giving entrance by six Gates, and adorn'd with divers Watch-Towers, a strong and stately Castle, and a vary noble and sumptuous Cathedral.

Salisbury Cathedral is accounted in some respects the noblest in England, at least there are very few equal to it. The City is pleasantly water'd with clear Rivulets, running through the length of each Street, and the Market-place very large and hand­som.

Glocester is pleasantly situated upon the River Severn. It hath been anciently much celebrated for its Monastery of Nuns, built by Keneburgh, Eadburgh and Eve, and is at present for its stately Minster.

Worcester hath a Wall about it, one thou­sand six hundred and fifty paces in circuit, with a seven-fold entrance of Gates, and five Watch-Towers, for ornament and se­curity: Nor is its Minster the least conside­rable among the Cathedrals of England for Structure, besides the Monuments of Anti­quity therein, elsewhere mention'd.

[Page 113] Bath, besides the Magnificence of its publick Bagno's, is sufficiently recommenda­ble for its private Buildings; the Streets thereof, when the season of the year ren­ders them least frequented, seem to repre­sent a kind of solemn and majestick Soli­tude, as may be fancy'd in several of those Towns and Cities of Italy, which consist of splendid Buildings, but thinly inhabi­ted.

Durham consists of good handsom old fashion'd Buildings; but for publick Stru­ctures besides its Church, it chiefly boasts the Castle, built there by K. William the Conqueror, which advanceth its Head lof­tily upon a high Hill.

Lincoln is also one of the noblest Cities of England. It hath at this day 15 Parish-Churches besides the Great Church, yet seems it but the Epitome of what it was anciently; for it is deliver'd to have had no less than 50 Parish-Churches, was won­derful populous and well traded, and hath been adorn'd with many fair and ample Buildings, as well Monasteries as others, as appears by the Ruines, in which something of Magnificence is to be observ'd.

[Page 114] Winchester is a City pleasantly situated in a Valley, and walled about with a strong Wall, one thousand eight hundred and eighty paces in circuit, and entred by six Gates; on the East-side runs the River, and on the West-side stands a strong Castle. It hath seven Parish-Churches, and a good old large Minster, besides the Ruines of certain Monasteries and other publick Buildings; moreover the Colledge and School may be reckon'd among the Orna­ments of this Place, though not standing in the City, but about half a mile out of the Town.

Coventry is a City particularly noted by Speed for statelyness of Building, and was encompass'd with a strong and stately Wall, which with the Walls of several other Towns was pull'd down, since his Maje­sty's Restoration. The Walls had 13 Gates for Entrance, and 18 Towers for Orna­ment; but that which was heretofore the greatest Ornament of this City, was that stately Structure of a Cross, which was among the number of those erected to the memory of Queen Elianor, and the most magnificent of all next to that of Cheapfide in London, with which it underwent the same Fate, that is, to be demolish'd by [Page 115] the zealous multitude, the most lewd re­formers of Lewdness, and the most super­stitious haters of Superstition.

Ipswich, besides that it is the Shire-Town of Suffolk, is also generally accounted the principal Town of England, and were it dignified with the title of City, would be equal to many, inferior to few of the Cities of this Nation. It hath 12 Parish-Chur­ches yet standing, besides 6 fall'n to decay, and several fair Streets full of goodly and substantial Buildings, and a very commodi­ous Haven.

St Edmondsbury in the same County, ex­cepting what it wants in ampleness of Cir­cuit, comes very near in other respects, es­pecially if we reckon the Grandeur of its once famous Monastery, of which there yet remains something of it very great and stately. But to sum up the Glory of this Place, it will be sufficient to repeat what Speed quotes from Leyland, viz. The Sun hath not seen a City (so he calls it) more fine­ly and delicately seated upon an ascent of a Hill, having a River running on the East-side, nor was there ever a more noble Abbey, either for Revenues or incomparable Magnificence, in whose Circuit appeareth rather a City [Page 116] than a Monastery; so many Gates for En­trance, and some of Brass; so many Tow­ers, and a most glorious Church, upon which attend three others, standing all in the same Church-yard, all of them passing fine, and of a curious Workmanship.

Maidston is pleasantly seated upon the River Medway, and for a meer Town, is reputed the handsomest and most flourishing of all Kent.

Feversham is also to be noted, not only for its Antiquities, but likewise for its plea­sant and commodious Situation.

Kingston upon Thames, so call'd, to di­stinguish it from the other Kingston upon Hull, stands very pleasantly, and makes a fine Prospect upon the River Thames. It hath a very fair and spacious Market-place, and hath been in former Ages a Place of no mean Repute, (at least springs from such a one) as will appear by what we shall have occasion to speak of it elsewhere.

Guilford comes here to be mention'd, only as a pleasant and well built Town; to which may be added, that for the big­ness, there is scarce any other Place to com­pare [Page 117] with it for number of fair and large Inns; so that this Town and Kingston, (Southwark being annext to London) may pass for the two chief Towns of Surry.

Lewis is esteemed worthily to stand in competition with the City Chichester it self, for largeness, populousness and fair Build­ing, at least it is far surpassing all the other Towns of Sussex.

Colchester, which Speed honours with the title of City, is pleasantly situated upon the River Coln, hath a Wall of 1980 paces in compass, raised upon a high Trench, and enter'd by 6 Gates and 3 Posterns Westward, and being also adorn'd with 9 Watch-Towers, within the circuit of which Walls there are 8 Parish-Churches, besides 2 without▪ Eastward, an old strong Ca­stle stands upon a strong Trench, and upon another Trench hard by are to be discern'd the Ruines of an ancienter Castle; and though there are some other noted Towns in this Shire, as Maldon, Chelmsford, &c. yet this Colchester, however no City, may well enough be allow'd to merit the Character it hath, viz. of Shire-Town of Essex.

[Page 118] Buckingham is pleasantly seated upon the River Ouse, with which it is altogether surrounded, except on the North-side; 3 fair Stone-Bridges, giving entrance over the River, and though but a Town, hath the credit to be both the denominating and principal Town of the Shire.

Ailesbury, of the same County, is a Town well enough for Building, and the handsomness of its Market-place; but that which makes it most perspicuous, is, that it stands in the midst of most delightful Meads and Pastures, and the whole Vale, which being one of the pleasantest and fer­tilest of England, is perhaps one of the pleasantest and fertilest of Europe, is thence denominated the Vale of Ailesbury.

Reading, a very ancient Town, and as Leland and others observe, excelling all other Towns in Barkshire, as well for fair Streets and sightly Buildings, as the Wealth of the Townsmen.

Cambridge, a Town not despicable for its own proper Buildings, were the Situation as little liable to exception, but borrowing its chief Magnificence from the lustre of those 16 Colledges and Halls, which shine [Page 119] like so many Gems about it, yet far more illustrious by those bright Lamps of Learn­ing, which from this Place have shot their Lights into the World. The most eminent Structure of all the rest in Cambridge is Kings-Colledge-Chappel; but there is now a Library building in this University, which, it is thought, will be able to compare with any of the best Buildings of this Age; but notwithstanding all, it is but the chief Town of Cambridgeshire, and not a City, though there be an Episcopal See in the same County.

Southampton, a Town, saith Speed, beau­tiful, rich and populous, and walled about with a strong Wall of square Stone, enter'd by 7 Gates, and adorn'd and fortified with 29 Towers; within the Walls there are 5 fair Parish-Churches, besides an Hospital called Gods-House; and without the Walls are to be seen the Ruines of another good­ly Church called St Maries. On the West-end of the Town, a well built Castle of a circular form, mounted upon a high Hill so steep, as not to be ascended but by Stairs, gives a fair Prospect both by Land and Sea; and lastly, Two commodious Keys for Ships, give a great ornament to the Place. This Town, though Winchester predominates as [Page 120] a City, was doubtless, as by the Name ap­pears, the ancient Metropolis of Hantshire, and is still accounted the Shire-Town.

Marlborough, one of the most considera­ble Towns of Wiltshire, which as it is in general a good tolerable well built Town, so it hath one Street above the rest remarkable for its fairness and largeness, being also ve­ry much graced with a large neat Forum or Market-place at the upper end thereof. About a dozen years ago there hapned a shrewd Fire, which burnt down a great part of this Street, which being rebuilt to ad­vantage, the Street appears much more stately than before; and that which gives the greater grace to it, is the Prospect of a fine House of my Lord Seymour's, at the Towns end, which is the more remarkable, by reason of a Mount which is ascended by a Path, which winds round about upward toward the top like a Screw.

Warwick is most pleasantly situated upon the ascent of a Hill, taking its rise from the side of a River, whose stream runs point­ing toward a stately Castle, the Seat of the famous Guy of Warwick, which having run much to ruine, was repair'd with sumptu­ous Buildings by Sir Fulk Grevil. There [Page 121] have been 6 fair Churches in this Town, viz. St Lawrence, St Michaels, John Baptist, and John of Jerusalem, St. Maries and St. Nicholas, all gone to ruine but the two last. This City, yet as the denominating and principal Town of Warwickshire, seems of equal repute with Coventry it self.

Shirburn, a Town pleasantly seated on the side of a Hill, and very well adorn'd with Structures, especially publick, as Church, Castle, and School-house.

Northampton must needs be at this day a very stately Place, for having had the com­mendation, from the chief of our English Geographers, of being worthy to be rank'd, for Circuit, Beauty and Building, with the most of the Cities of our Land. It was by some unfortunate Accident burnt almost totally down to the ground, and Phaenix-like is risen out of its ashes, much more glorious than before; and notwith­standing the City of of Peterborough stands within the County, claims to be the County Town of Northamptonshire.

Nottingham, saith our most diligent and industrious Speed, is a Town seated most pleasant and delicate upon a high Hill; for [Page 122] Building stately, and for number of fair Streets surpassing many other Cities, and for a spacious and sumptuous Market-place, and 3 fair Churches, comparing with the best. Many of the Buildings of this Town are hewed out of the Rocks, besides many strange Vaults and Caves; among which those under the Castle are of especial Note: One for the Story of Christ's Passion, en­graven in the Walls, by the Hand of David, the 2d of that Name, King of Scots, whilst he was there kept Prisoner: Another wherein Mortimer was apprehended, in the minority of K. Edw. the 3d, whence it hath ever since born the Name of Mortimer's Hole. These have their several winding Stairs, Windows, Chimnies, and Room above Room, wrought all out of the solid Rock, as other Houses of the Town also have. This Town being the Principal of Nottinghamshire, hath no City to stand in competition with it.

Newark, the next Town of Nottingham­shire, both for Reputation and Neatness. It is indeed a Town of a very pleasant Si­tuation upon the River Trent.

[Page 123] Manchester, the fairest and pleasantest, though not the principal Town of Lanca­shire, and above all things else peculiarly remark'd for its grand Church, the Col­ledge and Market-place.

Wakefield, one of the chief Towns of Yorkshire, as well for its pleasantness and goodly Buildings, as its great Market and Cloathing-Trade, and other Remarks: Of which elsewhere.

Stamford, the pleasantest Place of Lin­colnshire, next to the City of Lincoln it self, being adorn'd with 7 Churches, and an old Hospital.

Boston, the best Town of Lincolnshire next to Stamford: Which is all need be said of it at present, in regard there will be occasion to speak more of it in the next Chapter of Towns and Places eminent, &c.

Barstable and Tavestoke in Devonshire, are commended above most in the West of Eng­land for neatness, well compactedness, and elegance of Structure. Tavestoke is proba­bly enough so call'd, from the River Taw, upon which it stands, and which at Barsta­ble is said to be Navigable for great Vessels, [Page 124] both Places being well inhabited with Mer­chants, and rich trading People.

Next to Bridgewater, of all the Places of Somersetshire, not dignified with the title of City, Taunton is accounted of principal Note, and for pleasantness superior, accor­ding to the Testimony of a learned Writer in these words: Taunton qu. Thonton, from the River Thone, is a very fine and proper Town, one of the Eyes of the Shire; the Country here most delectable on every side with green Mea­dows, flourishing with pleasant Gardens and Orchards, and replenisht with fair Mannor-Houses, wonderfully contenteth the Eyes of the Beholders.

Shrewsbury, as it is the principal Town of Shropshire, there being neither City nor any other Town of Note in that Shire that can stand in competition with it, so it may be reckon'd among the pleasantest of all England, being almost surrounded with the Severn, between which and a stately Wall are most delightful Meadows; the chief Streets graceful of themselves are set out with several graceful Buildings besides the publick, among which the most remarkable are the two Gate-houses on the Bridges, the Market-place of Free-stone, a strong [Page 125] Castle mounted on a Hill, a neat School­house with a Library, 4 Parish-Churches, and 3 of them very large and goodly, be­sides the Abbey forehead, without which bears the semblance of an old Cathedral.

Besides Shrewsbury, there are many other pleasant Towns in Shropshire, among which, the chiefest in repute are Ludlow and Bridg­north. Ludlow's chief State consists in its strong Castle, and its lofty situation upon a high Hill; and proper enough is the En­comium it hath gain'd of Cambden, that it is a Town more fair than ancient. Bridgnorth also is proudly advanc'd a great part of it upon a Rock, out of which the chief Ave­nues to that upper part are cut; moreover, the Castle, the Wall, and the Severn's In­closure, give addition of State as well as Strength.

Tewksbury in Glocestershire, is a Town that might well enough be insisted on for its elegancy of Building and pleasant Situa­tion, but that other special Remarks re­quire the mention of it elsewhere.

The like may be said of Cirencester, which hath yet some Ruines left of that Beauty and Magnificence which it receiv'd from the [Page 126] Romans, of whom it was anciently one of the principal Residences.

The Palaces Royal of England are in the first place Whitehal, built by Cardinal Woolfie, and from K. Henry the 8th to his present Majesty, the principal and Imperial Residence of all our Kings. This Palace is in general rather to be commended for its large Capacity and Convenience, than for State and outward Shew; yet that part which is call'd the Banquetting-house, for its sumptuous Appearance and Regularity of Architecture, is judg'd by most of the Cu­rious, fit to stand in competition with the chief Structures of Europe.

Next, St James's, a House somewhat more sightly to view, and delicately situated in the most pleasant of Parks; it hath been usually the Residence of the Princes of Wales, but is now of his Royal Highness, the same in Effect, though not in Title.

Somerset-house is the usual Residence of the Queens of England, as it is now of her present Majesty.

[Page 127] Hampton-Court in Middlesex, hath been of late the Principal of our King's Residen­ces out of London, a brave, large, Noble House, in the midst of a most stately Park.

But at present Windsor-Castle in Bark­shire, is his Majesty's chosen Place of Plea­sure and Retirement, being besides its most delightful Situation, as being advanc'd up­on a high Hill, rising with a gradual as­cent, which affords the sweetest Prospect imaginable, a Place of great Magnificence, and now improv'd to a wonderful heighth of State and Beauty.

Other Places of Note for Royal Seats are Richmond or Sheen, Nonsuch in Surry, Green­wich and Eltham in Kent, Enfield and Han­worth in Middlesex, Holdenby in Northamp­tenshire.

The Noblemens Palaces we shall have oc­casion to give a full account of, in the Ca­talogue of the English Nobility.

The Cathedrals of England are perhaps, take them one with another, as remarkable as those of any Country whatsoever; but the most eminent (besides St Pauls) are those of Westminster, Salisbury, Canterbury, [Page 128] York, Worcester, Glocester, Chichester, Norwich, Winchester, Exeter, Wells, and Peterborough. Most of which have been already touch'd upon, in the several Places to which they belong; however it will not be improper to speak a little more particularly of them in this Place.

St Pauls, before its last fatal destruction by Fire, had nothing to stand in competiti­on but St Peters of Rome; what it will be when rebuilt, may be in some measure con­jectur'd, by the Grandure which already appears.

Westminster-Abbey is a Noble Piece of Work, and is said to have been 50 years in building, and it receives a great addition of lustre, by the addition of K. Henry the 7th's Chappel, the Workmanship whereof for curiosity of Carving is hardly to be pa­rallel'd.

Salisbury-Minster is fam'd in general for one of the stateliest of English Structures, and particularly noted for its high spired Steeple, its double cross Isles, its Windows answering to the Days, its Pillars to the Hours, and its Gates to the Months of the Year, besides a Cloister belonging to it, fa­mous [Page 129] for Largeness and fine Workman­ship.

Canterbury-Cathedral hath been famous for its rich Window, and the Tomb of Tho­mas a Becket.

That of York seems next of Note and Esteem, for an ample and stately Fabrick.

Worcester-Cathedral is by a learned Writer deservedly entitled, a passing fair Building, adorn'd with many Princely and Noble Monuments.

Nor is Glocester-Cathedral accounted in­ferior, besides the Fame of its Whispering Place.

Also that of Litchfield, before its demo­lishment, is said for elegant and proportio­nal Building to have yielded very few.

The Church of Chichester is not so large as neat, having a Spire-Steeple, which ad­vanceth it self up to a majestick heighth▪

The Cloister of the Cathedral of Nor­wich, is accounted the fairest in England.

[Page 130] Winchester-Cathedral is a brave old so­lemn Structure; so likewise is that of Lin­coln; which last is also famous for its great Bell call'd Tom of Lincoln, the biggest in England.

Exeter-Cathedral is remarkable for its brave, noble, carv'd Work, at the West­end thereof; so likewise are those of Wells and Peterborough.

In fine, There are few or none of the Ca­thedrals of this Nation, of whose Grandeur there is not enough to be said to make a Volume.

There are a number of Parish-Churches that deserve particular mention.

In London there are many, especially since the rebuilding of the City, remarkable for Beauty and State. But the chief are St Se­pulchre, and St Maries le Bow, whose Stee­ple is such, that certainly a nobler is scarce to be seen.

The Church of Covent-Garden is much admir'd, for a Fabrick of such Magnitude and State, unsupported with Pillars.

[Page 131]The like may be said of Lincolns-Inn-Chappel, which is also observable for the curious vaulted Walk over which it is built.

Likewise that round vaulted Roof of the Inner-Temple-Church, under which lye up­on the ground several Sepulchral Statues of Knights, Templars, within a four-square Empalement of Iron-work, is a Structure of that kind not to be parallel'd by any.

Nor is the new built Church of St Cle­ments to be wholly pass'd by, as exceeding much, both for the outward and inward Workmanship, and particularly the fine Fret-work on the Cieling.

The Church of Bath, though Litchfield be the Bishop's principal Seat, is by some call'd a Cathedral, and for largeness and elegance of Building may well enough be so accounted.

Of the 5 Churches of Derby, that nam'd All-Hallows, is of chief Reputel, for its Tower-Steeple, of a stately heighth, and excellent Structure, and whose Foundation was laid, and part of it built, by young Men and Maids, as appears by Letters gra­ven thereon.

[Page 132]The Church of Shirburn in Dorsetshire, is much noted for its curious Workmanship within.

The Church of Grantham chiefly emi­nent for the excessive heighth of its Steeple, which possibly gives occasion of that vulgar Report of this Steeple's standing awry, and of that fabulous Tradition of its having been, built by Hell's great Architect, who misliking something or other, gave it such a Blow with his Ruler, that it hath stood awry ever since.

St Maries of Ratcliff in Bristow, for the stately ascent to it, its largeness, curious Workmanship, embowed Arch of Stone, and its lofty Steeple, hath been accounted the noblest Parish-Church of England.

Another Church in the same City call'd the Temple, is remarkable for its Tower, which whensoever the Bell is rung, divides from the rest of the Building, with a Cleft from the bottom to the top, which gapes the breadth of three Fingers.

In Lancashire, the Collegiate Church of Manchester hath a Quire, which though not very large, is remarkable for its rich adorn­ment of Wood-work.

[Page 133]Among the Churches of Coventry, two standing near each other, viz. Trinity-Church and St Michaels, are commended for their rare Workmanship and stately heighth.

Coln, a little old Town in Wiltshire, hath nothing but its fair Church to commend it.

Also Rippon, in the West-riding of York­shire, whose three Steeples shew their lofty Heads at considerable distance, to Travel­lers approaching the Place.

Upon the Bridge of Wakefield, in the same Riding of Yorkshire, is a beautiful Chappel, erected by K. Edward the 4th, in memory of those of his Party who lost their Lives in the Battel there fought.

The Church of Boston in Lincolnshire, be­side its largeness, curious Workmanship, and its aspiring Tower-Steeple, hath this also memorable, that from the bottom to the top, the Steeple is ascended by as many Steps as there are Days in a Year.

Yarmouth-Church (for it hath but one) gives no small addition of commendation to that Town, which is reckon'd among the most considerable of Norfolk.

[Page 134] Oundale in Northamptonshire, is render'd no less memorable for its fair Church, than for its Free-School and Alms-house.

At the Castle of Warkworth in Northum­berland, there is a Chappel wonderfully hewn out of a Rock, without Beams, Raf­ters, or any thing of Timber-work.

Wrexam in Denbighshire, hath a Church, which for neat Building, and the loftiness of its Steeple, is concluded to surpass all the Churches of North-Wales.

But of all the Churches of this Island, (and they are among the 6 chief Remarks thereof) the Chappel of Kings-Colledge in Cambridge, already mention'd, is for rare­ness of Architecture and Contrivance, re­nown'd above most Structures, not only of England, but even of Europe also.

The Castles of England were in ancient Times the chief-Seats of our Nobility; but since the dissolution of the Abbeys, and the demolishment of very many Castles, in the several Wars of England, divers of the said Abbeys have become the Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen. Yet some Noblemen at this day have ancient Castles for their chief [Page 135] Seats: As Barkly-Castle in Glocestershire, gives Title to the Honourable Family of the Barklys. Skelton-Castle is the Seat of the Barons Bruse.

The chief Castles now in the several Counties, are in Cheshire, Beeston, and the Castle of Chester. In Barkshire, Windsor afore-mention'd. In Cumberland, the Ca­stle of Carlile. In Darbyshire, the Castle of the Peak. In Devonshire, the Castles of Dertmouth, and Castle-Rugemont in Exeter. In Dorcetshire, Shirburn-Castle. In the Bi­shoprick of Durham, Bernard-Castle. In Hantshire, Hurst, Carisbrook, and Saubam Castles. In Herefordshire, Bradwardin-Ca­stle, of which elsewhere. In Kent, the Castles of Dover and Queenborough, that of Canterbury being demolisht. In Lancashire, Hornby-Castle, and that of Lancaster, which is accounted one of the three chief Magnifi­cences of the Town, the other two being the Church and the Bridge. In Lincoln­shire, Belvoir and Castor Castles. In Mon­mouthshire, Chepstow and Strighal Castles. In Northamptonshire, Fotheringhay, menti­on'd upon another account, Baibroke, Rock­ingham and Maxey Castles. In Northumber­land, Newcastle, Thrilwale, Tinmouth, Mor­peth, Withrington, Warkworth and Alnwick [Page 136] Castles. In Richmondshire, the stately Ca­stle of Bolton. In Shropshire, Bishops-Castle, Clun-Castle, Shrawarden-Castle, Knocking-Castle, Whittington-Castle, Routon-Castle, Tongue-Castle, whose Bell is very loud, as in noise, so in fame, in all those Parts. The Castles of Shrewsbury, Ludlow and Bridgnorth. In Somersetshire, Dunster-Ca­stle, which was built in William the Con­querour's Time, by the Family of the Mo­huns, which flourisht from that time till the Reign of K. Richard the 2d, in very great splendor, and ever since hath continued in considerable reputation. In Staffordshire, Stourton and Dudly-Castle, with those of Tamworth, Chartly and Tutbury; to which may be added, the memory of an old Ca­stle at Stafford, now demolisht. In Suffolk, Framlingham-Castle, a Place of great State, Strength, Beauty and Convenience, and the Ruines of Burgh-Castle. In Surry, Holm, Beckworth and Sterborough Castles. In Sussex, Amberly-Castle, and that of Bo­diam, belonging to the Family of the Lewk­nors. In Warwickshire, Studly, Macstock and Ausley Castles, and the Castle of War­wick it self. In Westmorland, Whellep-Ca­stle and Apelby. In Wiltshire, Castlecomb, Yainsborough and Warder. In Worcestershire, Hertlebury, Holt and Elmesly Castles. In [Page 137] the VVest-Riding of Yorkshire, Sheafield, Co­nisborough, Tickil, Sandal, Harewood, Knas­borrow and Cawood Castles. In the East-Riding, the strong Castle of VVreshil. In the North-Riding, the Castles of Scarborough, Kilton, Skelton, already mention'd, VVilton, Kildale, Gilling, Skerry-hutton and Hinder­skell. In VVales, the most noted Castles in Caermardenshire, Carreg. In Denbighshire, the strong and almost impregnable Castle of Denbigh. In Flintshire, Flint and Har­ding Castles. In Glamorganshire, Cardiff, now belonging to the Earls of Pembroke, but once the famous Residence of Sr Marmion­with his 12 Knights, little less renown'd in Story than K. Arthur and his Knights of the round Table, and whose Effigies were late­ly to be seen in the Hall of this Castle.

The Bridges of England are not the least of the 7 Remarks of this Nation.

And first, They are remarkable for num­ber, as being reckon'd in all 875.

In the next place, They plead prece­dence in the generality with all others in Europe.

The Prime is London-Bridge, which is said to have been anciently built of Wood, and was then accounted a very stately [Page 138] Bridge; but afterwards receiv'd a far grea­ter pitch of lustre by being built of Stone, insomuch that without controversie it is judg'd the noblest Structure of that kind in Europe. It stands upon 19 Arches of Stone, which support a Street of very fair Edifices, of a quarter of a Mile in length, for so much the breadth of the Thames is account­ed in that place.

The next for Beauty and Magnificence, is that of Rochester; and after that the Bridg of Stratford upon Avon.

Among the three Beauties of the Town of Lancaster, the Bridge is one, the other two being the Church and Castle.

Over the River Ouse, which encircles the Town of Buckingham, all but the North-side, are three fair Bridges of Stone.

The same River Ouse runs through the midst of the Town of Bedford, and hath over it a handsom Stone-Bridge, with two Gates upon it.

Over the River Dee is a stately Stone-Bridge, which leads to the City of Chester. It is supported with 8 Arches, and hath at [Page 139] each end two strong Gates, from whence the Walls commence, within which the City lyes in an oblong Square.

From the River Derwent, a small Brook runs through the Town of Darby, (which lyes on the Western-bank of that River) under 9 Bridges. But the stateliest of all is that in the North-East part of the Town, upon which standeth a fair Chappel of Stone.

Over the River VVeer, with which the City of Durham is almost wholly incom­pass'd, two neat Stone-Bridges, one from the South, the other from the North-Road, lead into the midst of the Town.

The Bridge leading into VVarwick-Town, over the River Avon, is both sight­ly and strong.

But particularly sumptuous with their Towers and Gates, are those two over Se­vern, at the East and West Entrances of Shrewsbury.

That over the River Ouse at York, which stands on each side the River, hath one Arch, the largest and loftiest of any Bridge in England.

[Page 140]Several others there are, and some per­haps not unworthy of memory, but these being the very chiefest, it will not be worth the while to mention any more.

The grand Ornaments of any City are the publick Buildings thereof; and next to the Churches, Palaces and Bridges, are the Monumental Structures, that present them­selves most obviously to the view of Passen­gers in Streets and High-ways, as Aque­ducts, Arches, and the Columnal or Image­ry-Works, erected as Trophies in memory of some great Action or Person; as also Pla­ces for publick Games and Spectacles.

For Structures of this kind, never any City of the World was so famous as old Rome, whose Circus's, Amphitheaters, Co­lumns, Pyramids, Tryumphal Arches, Eque­strian Statues, &c. next to the massie Pyra­mids of Egypt, were accounted the greatest Pieces of Art and Magnificence the World ever saw. Nor are the Pyramids, Columns and Aguglia's of the present Rome, altoge­ther unmemorable.

Of Monuments of this nature in England, the Crosses erected in Streets and publick Places were the chief. And of those the [Page 141] principal were Coventry-Cross; and in this City Charing-Cross, and that of Cheapside, which last was certainly the noblest Piece of Workmanship of this nature, as well for the largeness as the curiousness of the Ima­gery that ever was seen.

Next, The Aqueducts or Conduits have been accounted no small Street-ornaments in many Towns and Cities, but the men­tion of those that were in London, may serve for all the rest.

The chief that were in London before the Fire of 66. were the Standart in Cheapside, a Structure that might have pass'd for a no­ble Piece of Workmanship, had it not stood so near so rich a Cross. Another at the lower end of Cheapside. Another in Corn­hil. That in Fleetstreet, hard by Shoe-lane end; and another in Holborn, near Holborn-Bridge, besides several others of less Note. The only Conduit lately erected, now standing, is a pretty little Structure be­tween Cow-lane and Snow-hill.

Since the Fire, other kind of Monuments have been rais'd, which add not a little to the Ornament of the City in general, and give peculiar Grace to the Places where they [Page 142] stand. The chief whereof is the Monu­ment erected where the Fire began, a Py­ramid of stately heighth and curious Work­manship.

Another Monument much of the same nature is design'd, and the Edifice rais'd some yards above the ground, at the lower end of Cheapside, at or very near the Place where the Conduit formerly stood: A ve­ry rare Design, as appears by the Model which I have often seen at the House of the ingenious Designer thereof, Mr Jasper La­tham, the City-Mason.

At the Stocks-Market is an Equestrian Statue in Stone of his present Majesty.

And another more excellent than that in Brass, of his late Majesty of happy Memory, in the Place where Charing-Cross stood.

In Covent-Garden Square is a Columnal-Dial, which only wants somewhat of Mag­nitude to make it a very graceful Ornament to the Place.

Our Theaters at present are only two, That of his Majesty's Servants, between Bridges-street and Drury-lane; and that of [Page 143] his Royal Highness's Servants, in Salisbury-street, with a majestick Front towards the Thames side.

Artificial publick Bagno's have not been known in England till of late: The only one yet built is aside of Newgate-street, a pretty well contriv'd Piece of Building, had it been more publickly expos'd to view on the Street side.

The Gates of Towns and Cities are not the least of Ornaments to the said Towns and Cities. Of the chief of them, except those in London, we have toucht in the re­spective Places to which they belong. The principal Gates of London are Ludgate, New­gate, Aldersgate, Algate, Bishopsgate and Tem­ple-bar; and the two Gates at Westminster, between Whitehal and Kings-street, most of them not inferior in Magnificence to the chief in Europe.

But to close all that hath been said of publick Ornaments, there remains one thing more, not to be neglected by any Admirer of Art, which is a Piece of Sculp­ture in Stone, representing the Resurrecti­on, over a Gate in Shoo-lane, that gives en­trance [Page 144] into a Caemetery or Burying-place, which belongs to St Andrews-Church. This Piece of Carving I have heard com­mended by the best of Artists in this way, for the noblest Piece of Workmanship in its kind that hath been seen in England.

Towns and Places of Eng­land eminent for some remarkeable Accident, Person, or Transaction.

THE principal Things that render any Town or Place remarkable, are either the Glory and Antiquity of its Original, some notable Revolution of Government, Accidents hapning there, whether prospe­rous or adverse, Battels fought, or other grand Action perform'd in or near it, and the Birth, Residence or Death of Princes, and other eminent Men.

For most if not all of those Remarks, there are many Towns and Cities of Eng­land, famous and principally of all, that which is the principal of all our Towns and Cities, London, for the most part the Seat of Kings from its Original; with which as the City Westminster is so united in Place, [Page 144] [...] [Page 145] [...] [Page 130] that it seems in a manner one and the same City, so thē mention and discourse of them cannot well be separated. Of the Anti­quity, Splendor of Government, Flourish­ing Trade, and Magnificence of Structure, in all which London hath the pre-eminence, not only of all the Places of England, but perhaps of all Europe, several have discours'd at large, besides what we may haply have occasion to touch at elsewhere.

It can't be imagin'd, but that in a City which hath been a flourishing City for so many Ages, many remarkable Accidents must have hapned, and great Actions been perform'd, in the mention whereof how­ever all possible brevity must be us'd.

King Lud, who reign'd here a little be­fore Caesar's arrival, if he were not the first Founder, as some think, he was at least not only the Enlarger, but also the Denomina­tor. For among other things he built the West-Gate, which to this day retains the Name of Ludgate; and what was before of a City, by the Name of Trinobantium, took the Name of Caer-Lud; and the present appellation of London is fancy'd by many to be deriv'd from him, as it were Luds-Town. About the year 285. here Alectus, Lieute­nant to the Emperor Diocletian, was slain by Asclepiodotus, D. of Cornwal; and together [Page 147] with him was slain his Companion Gallus, at a Brook, which from him still retains the name of Gall-brook, or Wall brook. Here Sigebert, third King of the East-Angles, who began his Reign in the year of our Lord 596. and Ethelbert King of Kent, who be­gan his Reign in the year of our Lord 562. built the Cathedral of St. Pauls in the ve­ry place, as 'tis said, where there had been a Temple of Diana. In the Reign of Ed­mund, sirnamed Ironside, this City was close­ly besieg'd by the Danes, but the Siege was soon rais'd by that valiant Prince King Ed­mund. About the year 1077. the Tower of London was built by K. William the Con­queror, whose Successour K. William Rufus built new walls about it. Anno 1135. in the Reign of K. Stephen the greatest part of this City was consumed by an accidental Fire. In K. Richard the Seconds time was the great Rencounter with Jack Straw and Wat Tiler in East-Smithfield, where in an overture of treaty Wat Tiler behaving him­self with extraordinary insolence, was in presence of the King stabb'd by Sir William Wallworth, Lord Mayor of London, with a Dagger, in memory whereof the City of London hath to this day a Dagger for its Coat of Arms. This City hath had the honour to entertain several great Kings, [Page 148] Princes, and Nobles; but the grandest transaction that London can boast of, was that most stately Cavalcade which his pre­sent Majesty made through it the 29th of May An. 1660. when he returned from a long Exile to the Government of these Kingdoms: But the year 1666. was fatal to it by reason of that most dreadful fire that consum'd all before it from Grace-Church Street to the Inner Temple, de­stroying to the number, as is generally com­puted, of 13000 dwelling-houses; and this preceded but the year before by the fiercest Pestilence that ever raged within the cog­nisance of the Weekly Bills. In this City King Stephen kept his Court at Crosby-house in Bishopsgate-street; King Edward the third in Cornhil where now the Pope-head Ta­vern stands; King Henry the eighth at Black-friers, and sometimes at Bridewell, once a Regal Palace, where also the Em­perour Charles the fifth was lodg'd when he came over into England. The Palace of St. James's, which is in the Pomaeria of London, and which was first built for a Spittle for Maiden Lepers, hath been the Birth-place of his present Majesty K. Charles the 2d, his Highness James Duke of York, Henry late Duke of Glocester, the Lady Elizabeth, the Lady Mary late Princess of [Page 149] Orange, and all the Children of his pre­sent Highness by his late Dutchess; Edgar Duke of Kendal, James Duke of Cambridg, deceast; the Lady Henrietta and the Lady Lady Katherine deceast; Mary now Princess of Orange, the Lady Anne yet unmarried; as also of two Daughters (both soon ha­sten'd to a better World) by his present Dutchess. Other persons of eminent note and immortal memory were born at London, viz. Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury in the Reign of K. Henry the 2d, by four of whese Courtiers he was mur­ther'd in Canterbury Church, Anno 1170. after a long contest with the King; Sir Jeoffry Chaucer the most famous of ancient English Poets, who flourisht in the Reigns of K. Henry the 4th, Henry the 5th, and part of K. Henry the 6th. Edmund Spencer, styl'd also the Prince of English Poets, who flourisht in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth; John Leland, Sir Thomas More, Bishop An­drews. The Tower of London is very emi­nent for the Confinement, Murther, and Execution of Illustrious persons: to men­tion all, especially those who have been meerly Prisoners, would be almost endless; but the most memorable Imprisonment was that of two Kings at one time in the Reign of King Edward the third, viz. of David [Page 150] King of Scots, and of John King of France; the first a Prisoner 11 years, the other four. Here the unfortunate King Henry the sixth, after Edward the fourth had got the Crown from him by Conquest, was basely mur­ther'd by King Edward's Brother Richard Duke of Glocester, afterward King of Eng­land. Here George Duke of Clarence, ano­ther Brother, was by the practice of the said Duke of Glocester, drown'd in a Butt of Malmsey: but the most fatal Tragedy of all was the murther of King Edward the fourth's two Sons, poor harmless children, viz. Edward commonly entitled King Ed­ward the fifth, and his Brother Richard Duke of York, and all by the order and contrivement of their Dear Uncle of Glo­cester, who, as most great persons have their peculiar Sports and Recreations, was prin­cipally taken with that of killing men, e­specially those of nearest kin; for such he chiefly markt out for death out of meer kindness to himself, that he might the soon­er obtain the possession of that Crown he had long since aspir'd to: and indeed he got it sooner, and kept it longer: (so easie it is for one witty man to delude a Multi­tude,) than a curious descanter upon the worlds affairs would have allow'd a person so getting it; however what he got by [Page 151] the death of others he lost by his own, on­ly more handsomely, not by treachery, but fairly in the field.

In Christ-church in London three great Queens had their Sepulture, viz. Margaret the Daughter of King Philip of France sir­named the Hardy, and second Wife of King Edward the second of England. Isabel the Daughter of the French King Philip the Fair, and Wife to King Edward the second of England. Joan the Daughter of the said Edward and Isabel, and married to David King of Scots.

Westminster hath been the most constant residence of the Kings of England since the Conquest, till Whitehall was built by Car­dinal Wolsey. It will be needless to men­tion all the Kings that have been crown'd and buried here, in regard since the Con­quest there are not very many who have not been buried, and fewer that have not been crown'd in Westminster Abby.

At Isleworth, now Thistleworth, a Village pleasantly situate upon the River Thames, Richard King of the Romans, and Earl of Cornwall, had a stately Palace, which was burnt to the ground in a tumultuous sally that was made upon it by certain Malecon­tents of the London Mobile.

[Page 152]In Surry are places of as eminent note as in most Counties of England. In the first place Lambeth is chiefly renowned for be­ing the principal Palace and most usual residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury, from the time of Archbishop Baldwin who first founded it, and made it his Seat in the year 596, and from whom it hath con­tinued so to this day, the most reverend and learned Prelate Dr. Sancroft late Dean of Pauls, being worthily advanc'd to this high Dignity, and having here his present residence. Here Canutus sirnamed the Har­dy, the third and last of our short-liv'd Dy­nasty of Danish Kings, ended his days of a surfeit, as most Writers affirm, by eating and drinking over freely at a Wedding Feast.

Croydon is another Seat belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury; and where the Reverend Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, late Archbi­shop, lies buried, having a most statety Mo­nument newly elected to his memory, the Artful Contrivance and skilful Workman­ship of Mr Jasper Latham, the present City Mason.

At Ockly in this County Ethelwolph Son of Egbert won a great Battel over the Danes.

[Page 153] Oatlands is not more famous for being a Royal Palace, than for the Neighbourhood of Coweystakes where Julius Caesar pass'd the Thames into the Borders of Cassibe­saunus.

Putney is chiefly considerable in story as being the Birth-place of one of the most advanced Statesmen and Favourites (for he was but the Son of a Black-smith) that our Nation hath produced, viz. Thomas Cromwell, chief Minister of State, for the time, to King Henry the eighth, and by him created Earl of Essex, who nevertheless had the ill fate, falling under his Princes displeasure, to be beheaded on Tower-Hill.

Wimbleton (where the Earl of Bristol hath a pleasant seat) still retains the me­mory of a notable defeat given by Cheaulin King of the West-Saxons to Ethelred King of Kent with the slaughter of two of his Dukes in the year of our Lord 560.

At Richmond, to which in former ages the Kings and Queens of England retired for pleasure, as of late to Hampton-Court and Windsor, there deceased that victorious Prince King Edward the third, Anne the Daughter of the Emperour Charles the fourth, and Wife of King Richard the se­cond, Henry of Richmond the seventh of that name King of England, and that learned [Page 154] and renowned Princess Queen Elizabeth of happy memory.

Kingston upon Thames a very pleasant and much frequented Market Town, was pro­bably the usual place of Coronation of the Saxon Monarchs; for there was kept the Chair of Instalment: but the Kings most particularly mentioned to have been there crown'd, were King Athelstan, Edwin, and Ethelred.

Guilford a Town otherwise of especial note, is also famous for having been the Royal Seat of the English Saxon Kings.

Merton is doubly upon record, first for the untimely death of Kenulph King of the West-Saxons, who was here slain by Kine­a [...]d King Sigeberts Brother; next for the Parliament there held An. 21 of K. Henry the third, which Parliament produc'd an Act, which to this day is called the Statute of Merton.

Okeham hath its chief credit as being the native place of that famous English Philo­sopher William de Okeham. Likewise

Ripley no less by the birth of that learned Chymist George de Ripley.

In Essex, Colchester, which is the County Town, hath the honourable tradition of having been built by the ancient British [Page 155] King Coilus; but that which redounds chiefly to its honour, is, that it is said to have brought into the world three persons of immortal memory, viz. Lucius the first not only British, but European King that embrac'd the Christian Faith. Constantine the first Roman Emperour, who openly pro­professing Christianity, gave countenance and protection to the Christians of all parts, and put an end to those heavy Persecutions which they groaned under so many Ages; and if by his extraordinary bounty and mu­nificence to the Clergy, he made an inlet to that pride and ambition among them, which hath proved mischievous to Chri­stendome ever since, it was an errour on the right hand, and however succeeding otherwise, an evidence of his pious gene­rosity and zeal for Religion and Vertue. Helena the Wife of Constantius, born also in England, and, as it is generally suppos'd, in York, and Mother of the said Constantine: her fame shines bright in History for her piety in general, and particularly for the fame of her being Inventrix Crucis.

The next Town of note in this County is Maldon, a very ancient Town, and the Seat Royal of the Trinobantes, of whom Cunobelinus was King about the time of our [Page 156] Saviours Nativity; it was taken by the Emperour Claudius, and made a Roman Garison, being call'd by the Romans Cama­lodunum, rased to the ground by Queen Bunduca or Boadicia, after a mighty defeat given to the Romans in revenge of some high affronts and indignities she received from them, but was afterwards rebuilt, and is of some reputation at this day, though doubtless far short of its pristine splendor.

At Walden, famous for Saffron as is alrea­dy mentioned, was born Sir Thomas Smith Secretary to Queen Elizabeth.

Kent, as it is a large County, is enobled with very many Towns and places of note; in the first place Canterbury is a City of that eminence, that next to London there is hard­ly a City in England memorable upon so many accounts: It is said to have been built 900 years before Christ: it is the prin­cipal of the Archiepiscopal Sees of England; it was given by Ethelbert King of Kent to Austin the Monk and his Companions, upon whose preaching 10000 were baptized in one day. By the said Austin the Cathedral is said to have been founded, in which eight Kings of Kent were interred. Even the misfortunes of this City have been also memorable, for it suffer'd very much se­veral [Page 157] times by the fury of the Danes, espe­cially in the Reign of Ethelred, when 42000 of the Inhabitants were sacrific'd to their fury and revenge; it hath had the honour of the Coronations, Nuptials and Inter­ments of several great Kings and Princes. Here King John and his Queen Isabel were Crown'd, King Henry the third and King Edward the first Married: Edward the Black Prince, King Henry the fourth and his Q. Joan were Interred: and also with far more cost and magnificence that great Pre­late, and even to adoration adored Saint Thomas a Becket, of whose rich and stately, Tomb mention hath been elsewhere made.

Rochester said to be built by one Roff Lord thereof, is also a City, and not much inferiour in repute to Canterbury. Several Counties there are which have no City, the Bishops See being but in one of half a dozen Counties, but Kent is the only one County that hath two. This City was al­so miserably harrass'd by the Danes, and suffer'd very much ruine by two dreadful Fires, viz. in the Reign of King Henry the first and King Henry the second; but being very much restored by the munificence of King Henry the third, it hath continued a flourishing City ever since.

[Page 158] Maidstone, a pleasant and well-seated Town is the more memorable by the great defeat given there to the Earl of Holland, who headed the Kentish-men rising for the King, by Fairfax General of the Parlia­ment Forces.

Feversham is enobled by the Burial of King Stephen and his Queen Maud.

Dover, besides the renown of its Castle, said to be built by Julius Caesar, and the great honour of the Government thereof, hath given reception and entertainment to many great Kings and Princes.

Queenborough Castle was built by King Edward the third.

Wye, a Sea-port Town, where the learn­ed and famous J. Kemp Archbishop of Can­terbury was born.

Horsted is chiefly noted for the Monu­ment now defaced of Horsa, one of the first Leaders of the invading Saxons, the Brother of Hengift.

The like Monument was made for Cati­gern, another of the Brothers, at Circotes-house, which is standing to this day.

Black-heath hath been the place of several grand Recounters in the Barons Wars in King Henry the third's time, as also of Wat Tiler in King Richard the second's time, and of Michael Joseph and the Lord d' Au­henie [Page 159] in King Henry the seventh's time. But that which gives the greatest glory and re-renown to this place, is the memory of that grand appearance at his Majesties Re­storation, when all the Gentry and Nobi­lity of the Nation, and all the Pomp and splendor of the City of London met to re­ceive his Majesty and his two Brothers, and conduct them through the City to the Roy­al Palace of Whitehall, and even the armed part of the Nation that but lately had drawn the Sword against him, now met him with the highest acclamations of wel­come.

In Buckinghamshire, Buckingham the Shire Town was fortified by King Edward sir­named the Elder, against the fury of the Danes, and still shews the ruins of a strong and stately Castle built upon a hill.

Stony-Stratford was a Station of the Ro­mans, and by them call'd Lactorodum. Here the said King Edward the Elder ▪ gave a stop to the violent incursions of the Danes up­on those parts; and this is one of those pla­ces where the first of that name since the Conquest rais'd a stately monumental Cross in memory of Queen Eleanor.

At Chilton in this Shire was born that learned Writer in the Law Sir George Crook.

[Page 160] Amersham, so call'd qu. Agmondsham, is not only eminent by the name of the great Agmond, from whom it takes denomina­tion, but by the birth of several learned Writers, especially John, sirnamed from the place of his Nativity, Amersham; and John Gregory of the present Age, whose posthume works are worthily reckon'd a­mong the principal of English Writings.

At Windover was born Roger, thence sir­named de Windover, Historian to King Henry the third.

At Houton, Roger Goad, a man of good repute for learning.

In Barkshire are several places of note. Reading boasts the Interment of King Henry the first, in a Collegiate Church of an Abby founded by himself, together with his Queen and his Daughter Maud the Em­press. He also built here a strong Castle which was rased to the ground by King Henry the second. But this Town is yet more remark'd by the birth of William Laud, who of a poor Clothiers Son of Reading, was advanc'd to the highest Ec­clesiastical Office and Dignity of the Nati­on, viz. the Archiepiscopal See of Canter­bury: nor is it to be forgotten how man­fully this Town was held out in the time [Page 161] of the late Civil War by Sir Jacob Aston a­gainst the whole power of the Earl of Es­sex, General of the Parliaments forces for a whole twelve month's time, but at length it was taken by the said Earl. And from this place, in the Reign of King Henry the second a learned Writer, viz. Hugh of Reading, took both Birth and Sirname.

At Inglefield the Danes received a great defeat from King Ethelwolf.

Wallingford the Gallena of Ptolomy, was an ancient Station of the Romans, and the chief City of the Atrebates. From this place Richard of Wallingford took his birth, and consequently his Sirname.

Abington, besides that it was a place of much action in the time of the Civil Wars in his late Majesties Reign, gave birth to Sir John Mason, Privy Counsellor to King Henry the eighth, King Edward the sixth, Q. Mary and Qu. Elizabeth; as also to Sir John Smith, Latin Secretary and Master of Re­quests to King James.

Windsor is renowned as having been built by King Edward the third, and as the place where was first instituted that most illustrous Order of the Knights of the Gar­ter by that most victorious Prince, and of which the greatest Kings and Princes of Europe have been fellows from the first In­stitution [Page 162] to this day; and likewise for the Interment of King Henry the sixth, King Edward the fourth, King Henry the eighth, and King Charles the first, whose Body hath been since remov'd to Westminster, and in­terr'd in King Henry the seventh's Chappel. Moreover this place gave birth to a person of great fame for his learned Writings, viz. Roger hence sirnamed of Windsor.

Eaton, nearly adjoyning, and almost con­tiguous to Windsor, is a place, besides the fame of being built by King Henry the sixth, trebly renown'd for learning, first as a Nur­sery for the bringing up of Youth, being one of the chiefest Free-schools in England; secondly as a place of maintenance and en­couragement for the studious and well ad­vanc'd in learning; thirdly as the Birth­place of several learned men, particularly Samuel Collins, William Oughtred the great Mathematician, and Matthew Stokes.

At Ratcot Bridge Robert Vere Duke of Ireland was put to flight by the Duke of Glocester, the Earls of Arundel, Warwick and Derby, with the slaughter of Sir Thomas Molineux Constable of Chester. This Radcot is by some reckon'd in Oxfordshire.

Sunning is sufficiently signal in history as having bin an Episcopal See for the residence of eight Bishops, which See was translated [Page 163] to Shirbourn, and afterwards to Salisbury, where it still remains.

Wantage is enobled by the Birth of that great mirrour of a Prince, for Virtue, Learn­ing and Valour, King Alfred sirnamed the Scourge of the Danes.

Waltham in the East of this County was an ancient Station of the Romans; so like­wise Sinodum in the North.

Newbury a Town of sufficient note in this Shire, is yet more noted by the birth of Thomas Hide a learned Writer; and also by two great Fights fought in the time of the late Civil Wars between the Forces of his late Majesty and the Parliament Army under the Earl of Essex.

Spene and Pesemere, two places of no o­ther note than by the birth of two eminent Writers, the first of William Twisse, the o­ther of William Lyford.

In Hantshire, Winchester the ancient Ven­ta Belgarum of the Romans, is said to have been built by that famous Rudhudibras, great in the Catalogue of the old British Kings. It was the Seat Royal of the West Saxons, and chief Epicopal See, and still remains the Episcopal See of a great part of that which was the West Saxon King­dom. It was honour'd with the Corona­tions [Page 164] of King Egbert and King Alfred, and the Birth of King Henry the third. Here in the Cathedral built by King Kenwolf King of the West Saxons, were interred King Egbert, King Ethelwolf, King Alfred with his Queen Elswith, the first Edmund, King Edred, and King Edwy; Queen Em­ma and her Husband the Danish King Canu­tus, as also his Son Hardy-Canutus, and after the Conquest King William Rufus and his Brother Richard. Here King Athelstan kept his Mint. At St. Peters in the Suburbs of this City was born John Russel, created Bi­shop of Lincoln by King Edward the fourth, and Lord Chancellour of England by King Richard the third. This City also brought forth two persons of illustious memory for learning, viz. Lampridius sirnamed of Win­chester, a Benedictine Monk, who flourisht An. 980. and Wolstan of Winchester, a Bene­dictine likewise, & accounted in those times an eminent Poet, who flourisht An. 1000.

Southampton, built out of the ruines of the ancient Clausentium, and after many devastations reedified in King Richard the second's time, is a most pleasant and well fortified Town with a goodly Castle proud­ly advanced on a Hill. In a Maison dieu or Hospital here lies interr'd the body of Ri­chard Earl of Cambridge, who was execu­ted [Page 165] for Treason in the Reign of King Henry the fifth. In the Parish of St. Michael in Southampton was born Arthur Lake Bishop of Bath and Wells, who died An. 1602. as also Sir Thomas Lake Secretary of State to King James.

At Basingstoke John sirnamed of Basing­stoke, the first English Author of a Greek Grammar, who died An. 1252. William Paulett, Baron of Basing and Marquess of Winchester, [...] to King Henry the seventh, and Lord Treasurer to King Henry the eighth, Edward the sixth, Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, he died An. 1572. and lastly Richard White, who studying at Doway began to grow famous for Learning An. 1611.

At Andover was born Robert Thomson, a man of Military fame, who made an Ex­pedition to Spain An. 1553.

At Warblington Henry Bishop of Salis­bury in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth: He died An. 1615.

At Hide, John stil'd the Monk of Hide, an Historian, who flourish'd An. 1284.

Odiam hath its chief repute from the birth of William Lilly, the first Master of Pauls School. He died of the Plague, and was buried in the Porch of St. Pauls Anno 1522.

[Page 166] Ilchester seems by its ruins to have been a very eminent City of the Romans, and the principal of these parts in antient times.

At Wickham in this Shire was born the famous William thence sirnamed of Wickam, Bishop of Winchester, who died An. 5 H. 4.

At Okeley William Warham, Bishop first of London, afterwards Archbishop of Canter­bury in the Reign of King Henry the 7th.

In the Isle of Wight, Thomas James the chief, if not only Ornament of that Island, for eminence of Learning.

Other famous men this Shire hath brought forth; Beavise of Southampton, whose acts of Chivalrie had perhaps stood greater in real History, had they not been so much falsified by Romantick stories.

Sir John Wallop, whose valour and con­duct in Sea-affairs have kept his memory alive.

Richard Rich, Baron of Lees Abby in Essex, and Lord Treasurer of England in the Reign of King Edward the sixth, and Ancestor to the present Earls of Warwick.

And for Learning, R. Sherburn, Bishop first of St. Davids, then of Chichester, under King Henry the seventh.

John White, Bishop first of Lincoln, then of Winchester, and accounted in his time [Page 167] not the meanest of Poets, who died about 1560.

Thomas Bilson Bishop of Winchester, who died about An. 1618.

Michael Reneger.

William Alton, a Dominican, who flou­risht An. 1330.

David Whitehead, who died An. 1571.

Nicholas Fuller, who died An. 1626.

Charles Butler, who died An. 1640.

Thomas Sternhold, Groom of the Bed­chamber, first to King Henry the eighth, then to King Edward the sixth, who owes his fame in Poetry, not so much to the Elegancy of Rhimes, as to the fortune of his having been one of the first Trans­lators of Davids Psalms into English Metre; which by reason they hapned to be gene­rally sung in Churches, have been ever since preferred to several better Translati­ons.

In Bedfordshire, Bedford the County Town hath to its cost been the Scence of much action in the Civil Wars, between King Stephen and the Empress Maud; it suffer'd much havock and devastation, and afterwards fell into the hands of the Ba­rons in their Wars against King John: And lastly, was ras'd to the ground by King [Page 168] Henry the third; but being rebuilt again, hath flourished ever since in much tran­quility and splendour. In a Chappel not far from this Town the Body of the great Mercian King Offa is said to have been in­terr'd, concerning which there goes a pret­ty odd story, which it were pity to for­get, viz. that the Chappel being over­whelm'd by an Inundation of the River Ouse, upon whose banks it stood, the Lea­den incloser of King Offa's body hath been often seen of those that declin'd the sight, but never could be seen of those that sought to see it.

Dean in this Shire is eminent for the birth of Francis Dillingham, a person of good note for Learning; as likewise

Laiton Buzzard for the birth of William Sclator.

Sandy was an ancient Roman Station by the name of Selenae; and

Dunstable, another by the name of Magin­tum; however some vainly have deliver'd that it was built by King Henry the first to repress the insults of a notable sturdy Thief call'd Dun, and thereupon call'd Dunstable. This Town is moreover signal­liz'd by the learned Author John sirnamed hence of Dunstable.

[Page 169]In Suffolk, Ipsich, qu. Gipswich, from Gipsa, is said to be the Founder thereof, besides its flourishing Estate in shipping-trade, goodly buildings, populacy of inhabitants, (though much harrass't in ancient times by the Danes) is particularly noted for the birth of that great Pageantry of Fortune Cardinal Woolsy, whose father was a Butch­er of this Town.

St. Edmundbury, a Town which seems to commence its Fame from the barbarous Murther of that Royal St Edmund, King of the East-angles by the Danes; For the Ex­piation whereof Canutus erected here that Stately Monastery which was once ac­counted the most Rich and Magnificent of Europe. This place is also memorable for a Parliament here held in the Reign of King Henry the sixth.

Exning, the Birth-place of St Audri, si­ster to King Ina.

Renlisham, the place where Redwald the first Christian King of the East-angles kept his Court.

Lidgat, a place chiefly memorable for the Birth of John, thence Sirnamed Lid­gate, one of the chief of our ancient En­lish Poets.

[Page 170]In Hertfordshire, St Albans rais'd out of the ruins of Old Verulamium an ancient Roman station, is extoll'd not only for the memory of that great British Protomartyr Albanus, and that most stately Monastery erected by the Mercian King Offa, but also for two great battels here fought, the first on the 23d of May Anno 1455, be­tween Richard Duke of York and King Henry the 6th, in which the King was de­feated with the slaughter of the Duke of Somerset, the Earl of Northumberland, and the Lord Clifford, and 5000 common Souldiers: the 2d. on the 17th. of Februa­ry Anno 1460. where King Henry and his Queen Margaret had the better against the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the Earls of Arundel and Warwick. Nor is it to be omitted, that Sir John Mandevil, famous for his Travels, had here his birth.

Barnet is not more fam'd for its rich Market and the great concourse to its Wells, than for the memory of that grand Victory gain'd by King Edward the fourth on an Easter-day, being the 14th of April, An. 1471. against the Earls of Warwick and Oxford, in which Field the great Earl of Warwick was slain. But had there been no­thing else to give Fame to this Town, it must have been mentioned for the Birth of [Page 171] John Barnet, Bishop first of Worcester, then of Bath and Wells, lastly of Ely, and Lord Treasurer of England, in the Reign of King Edward the 3d.

Langly (commonly call'd Kings Langly) is of repute in History, for the Birth of Prince, Edmund thence sirnamed of Langly, fifth Son to King Edward the third, and the first interment of King Richard the second, whose body was afterwards re­moved to Westminster. Nor much less Ab­bots Langly (so is another Langly term'd that lyes Easterly) for the birth of Nicholas Break-spear, advanc't to the See of Rome, by the name of Pope Adrian the fourth, a man of true English mettal, and that would not bate an Ace of his Pontifical greatness▪ for he made the Emperour Fre­derick hold his Stirrup the better to help him into the Saddle.

Oister near St Albans is supposed by Cambden to have been the Camp of the Roman Lieutenant Ostorius. Weathamstead qu. Wheathamstead, chiefly noted for the birth of John of Wethamstead, a profound Philosopher.

Other places Hertfordshire noted for famous men.

Ware, for Richard de Ware, Treasurer of England under Edward the first, and Wil­liam [Page 172] de Ware who was Scotus his Teacher, and flourisht under King Henry the third.

Baldock, for Ralph Baldock, created Bishop of London by King Edward the first.

Rudburn, for Thomas Rudburn Bishop of St Davids, who flourisht An. 1419.

Helmstedbury, for Sir Edward Waterhouse, Chancellour of the Exchequer in Ireland un­der Queen Elizabeth.

Gatesden, for John de Gatesden, who flou­risht An. 1420.

Hamstead, for Daniel Dike.

Cottered, for Edward Symonds.

Gorham-berry, for Sir Nicholas Bacon.

Nor may we here omit other eminent men of this Shire, viz.

Sir Henry Cary, a great Souldier in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, by whom he was created Baron of Hunsden, and Lord Chamberlain.

John Boucher, Baron Berners. And of learned men,

Alexander Nequam, who died An. 1227.

Nicholas Gorham, who flourisht An. 1400.

Roger Hutchinson.

Thomas Cartwright, and

Hugh Legat.

In Norfolk, the chief City and Episco­pal See Norwich, seems to have sprung out of the ancient Venta of the Romans, and is [Page 173] chiefly Famous for its sufferings, having been sackt and burnt by the Danes in the year 1004. And in the Conquerours time reduc't to utmost exigence for siding with Earl Radulph against the said King William. The Cathedral was Founded by Herbert, who translating the Bishoprick ftom Thet­ford to Norwich, was the first Bishop of Norwich.

Thetford, the ancient Sitomagus of the Romans, is a place of much remark for an­tiquity; It was the Royal Seat of the Kings of the East-Angles, and the unfortunate place where King Edmund the Martyr was overthrown by the Danes. The Bishoprick which is now of Norwich was translated from Elmham to Thetford, in the Reign of King William the Conquerour.

Lyn, a Sea Port Town, was made Liber Burgus, and honoured with the gift of a rich Cup by King John, and had their Charter inlarg'd by King Henry the third, for their good Service against the Outlawed Barons, and in King Henry the eighth's time other priviledges were added, and the name changed from Lyn Episcopi to Lyn Regis.

Yarmouth boasts the antiquity of its foundation from the time of the Danes.

Elmham is considerable for having been a Bishops See for several Ages, first divided [Page 174] with Dunwich in Suffolk, next sole till it was translated to Thetford, thence to Nor­wich.

In Sussex the City Chichester boasts the Foundation of Cissa, the second King of the South-Saxons, and had the Bishoprick tran­slated thither in King William the Con­querours time from Selsey, which till then had been the Episcopal See.

Lewis, a Town little if ought inferiour to Chichester, is sufficiently of name in History, as having been one of the places appointed by King Athelstan, for the Coinage of his Mony, and for the strong Castle built by Earl William de Warren. Here also was a bloody battel fought between King Henry the third and his Barons, in which the King receiv'd a cruel Overthrow.

Pensey, a little Sea Town but great in Story, as the Landing place of King William the Conquerour, when by one Victorious battle he gain'd the Crown of England, with the slaughter of King Harold and his two Brothers, Leofwin and Goroh, and about 67000 men.

Hastings being the Town near which this successful held was fought, hath got­ten so much the greater name, and the very place of fight retains to this day the name of Battle-field.

[Page 175] Buckstead, a place in some respect of as great note as any hath been nam'd. For here in the thirty fifth year of King Hen­ry the eight, the first Great Iron Guns that ever were cast in England were cast by Pe­ter Baude and Ralph Hage.

In Cambridge-Shire the Town of Cam­bride is of too high a renown for its many Halls and Colledges, the habitations of the Muses, richly indow'd for the advance­ment and incouragement of Learning, to be here pass't by, and too well taken notice of, and describ'd by others to be longer in­sisted on.

Eli, the Bishops Seat and denominating City of the Diocess, is said to have been built by one Audry, who was first wife of one Tombret Prince of these parts, and af­terwards of Egbert King of Northumber­land, from whom departing, She here betook her self to a devout life, and built a most stately Monastery, of which She her self became the first Abbess.

This place is also recordable for the Birth of several Learned men, viz. Andrew Willet who died An. 1621. Sir Thomas Ridly Dr. of the Laws, who died An. 1629. Richard Parker who died here An. 1624.

Everton in this Shire gave Birth to John Tiptoft, Son of John Lord Tiptoft, Earl of [Page 176] Worcester, and Lord High Constable of Eng­land.

Triplow is memorable by the Birth of Elias Rubens a Writer of grand repute, who flourisht An. 1266.

Everden gave both Birth and Sirname to John Eversden another learned Writer.

Of this County were also Matthew Pa­ris, and Sir John Cheek, Tutor to King Ed­ward the sixth, and Richard Wethershet, who flourisht in the year 1350.

At Caxton was born William thence Sir­named Caxton, the first Printer in England.

Wisbich brought forth Richard Hocloet a man eminent for Learning An. 1552.

Linton is only note-worthy for the Birth of Richard Richardson, one of the Transla­tours of the Bible, who deceas't An. 1621.

Milton, as 'tis generally believ'd, gave birth to Thomas Goad, a Writer of good note.

Mildred brought forth Andrew Mervail Minister of Hull, a Learned Father of a Learned and Witty Son, for so was that An­drew who died but a few years since; he was a Member in the late long Parliament for the Town of Hull, a man of very acute parts, had he not fail'd in his affection to the Go­vernment, as several of his Writings testifie.

Of this County were Michael Dalton, a Learned Writer, and also Edward Norgate.

[Page 177]In Huntington-Shire, St Neots so call'd from Neotus, a Holy and Learned man, is memorable for the defeat given to the Earl of Holland by the Parliament Forces in the late Civil Wars, An. 1648. as also for be­ing the Birth-place of two eminent men, viz.

Francis White Bishop of Ely, and Hugh thence Sirnamed of St Neots, who deceas't Anno 1340.

Godmanchester, qu. Gormoncester, from Gor­mon the Dane, is concluded to have been the Old Durisiponte of the Romans, and some think from the nearness of the name, the same with Gunicester, where Macutus had his Bishoprick. At this Godmanchester was born, a man who made too much noise in the world to be forgotten; Stephen Marshal, one of the chief of those Zealous Trumpetters of the late times, who from the Pulpit stirr'd up to War and Bloodshed in the Name of the Lord.

At St Ives was born Roger thence Sir­nam'd of St Ives, who flourisht An. 1420.

At Cunnington the Learned Antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton. Moreover from Huntington the Capital place of this Shire sprung two ve­ry famous men.

Gregory of Huntington, who died An. 1610. and Henry of Huntington, renowned for his History, who flourish't An. 1248.

[Page 178]Other Celebrated men of this Shire were William Whitlesey, Archdeacon of Hunting­ton, who died An. 1375.

Henry Saltry, who flourisht 1140.

William Ramsey, a famous Poet.

John Young, and John White.

In Wiltshire, Wilton the Denominating and once the Principal Town of the Shire, is so much the more notable a place by how much the more despicable it now appears, as a strange example of the various turns of fortune, and mutations of human affairs, having only the name left of a Market Town, else but a pitiful Village, (consisting of one only Parish Church,) which is said to have been a Town of about seventeen or eighteen Parish Churches, and having no Memorial or Monument of antiquity, which hath been the Theater of so ma­ny grand Transactions. Here Egbert the Westsaxon and at last Sole Monarch of the English, encountred Bernulf, King of Mercia, and slew him in Battle; but in this very place he afterwards received a terrible over­throw from the Danes.

At Edindon King Alfred gave the Danes a very notable defeat.

Bradford is memoris'd for a bloody Bat­tle [Page 179] fought between two great Competitors in the Saxon Heptarchy.

At Woodensbury An. 590. Cheaulin King of the West-Saxons encountring the Britains who joyn'd with his Nephew Cealrick, was put to flight, and his Son Cuth slain.

Here also Ina the West-Saxon fought with Ceolred the Mercian.

Old Sarum was a place made choice of by the Romans for a strong encamped ha­bitation, as by the ruins thereof at this day appears. Here the Britains receiv'd a fa­tal overthrow from Kenrick the Saxon, be­sides what spoil was afterwards done by Canutus.

Caln is famous for that great Assembly, which put an end to the controversy about the Marriage of Priests, by reason of a disaster which happened by the fall of the Room, to the destruction of several people of all sorts.

Brokenbridge and Cosham, places doubly famous in History. First, as having been ancient Roman Seats, next, as the Courts of some of the Saxon Kings.

Crekelade, memorable for the Fame of an University said to have been anciently here erected, and from hence removed to Oxford.

Malmsbury, qu. Maidulphsbury, from Mai­dulphus, a person of renown both for Sancti­ty and Learning, is no less memorable for [Page 180] the famous Monastery there erected by the said Maidulphus, then for the birth of two great men viz. William, thence sirnamed of Malmesbury, a Celebrated Historian, and Thomas Hobbes of this present Age, and but a few years since deceast, a man of much Earning and more cunning Sophistry, for the maintenance of those principles he maintained thereby.

In Dorsetshire, Dorchester the chief Town, only boasts of some antiquity, as from the Roman name Durnovaria.

Badbury was anciently the Court of the West-Saxon Kings.

At Cern, Austin broke down the Idol of the Saxon God Hell.

Shaftsbury is fam'd for the History of the Prophesying Eagle, most probably a man whose name was Aquila. Here was enterr'd the Body of Edward the Son of Edgar, Murthered by his Mother-in-Law at Corfe Castle.

At Winburn-Minster, built by Cuthburga, Wife in second Marriage to a King of Nor­thumberland, the Body of King Ethelred was buried.

Shirburn was an Episcopal See for a long time, in the Cathedral whereof were buried the bodies of King Ethelbald and King Ethelbert.

[Page 181]In Somersetshire the principal place is the City of Bath, Brit. Akamancester, Lat. Aquâ solis & Badissa, very famous and much fre­quented for its hot Bathing-Springs, which our old British Traditions will have to be the invention of Bladud an ancient British King. Bath and Wells joyntly together make one Bishoprick.

Wells is principally esteem'd for its Ca­thedral, which is said to have been built by Inas King of the West-Saxons.

Pen now a small Village is memoris'd for a great overthrow given to the Britains by Kenwald King of the West-Saxons, and after­wards to the Danes by K. Edmund Ironside.

Bridgewater is otherwise a Town of very good note, and of memory for a notable de­feat given here to the Danes by Ealstan Bi­shop of Shirburn, An. 845.

Glastonbury, Avalonia, is principally re­nowned for its Monastery, deliver'd to have been founded by Joseph of Arimathea, the first Preacher (as some Writers affirm) of the Gospel in this Island. In the Church-yard of Glastonbury in King Henry the second's Reign, was found a Corps of a large demen­sion, which by several circumstances was concluded to be the Body of King Arthur.

Cadbury is recordable for the defeat given by King Arthur to the English Saxons.

[Page 182] Banesdown (Mons Badonicus) is a place re­nown'd for several other of King Arthurs Victories, and where King Alfred over­threw the Danes, and brought Gorrum to the Sacred Font.

Camalet a steep Hill, was doubtless some Fort or Encampment of the Romans, as ap­pears by the Coins there found; moreover on the top thereof there remains to this day the Vestigia of some noble Castle, which is said to have been a Palace of King Arthur. This Town some Writers have placed in Cornwal.

Ilchester appears also by the like demon­stration to have been a station of the Ro­mans, and is still of that repute, that it is the chief place of Gaol-delivery for the County.

In Oxfordshire, Oxford besides the glory of its famous University, and the Magni­ficence of its Stately Colledges; Here more frequent Parliaments have been call'd than in any place of England next to West­minster, and particularly the last Parliament call'd by his present Majesty, and held here in March, 1681. Here Maud the Empress was besieg'd by King Stephen, and with great difficulty made her escape in a disguise by night, and got over the [Page 183] Thames on the Ice. This place his late Ma­jesty King Charles the first made his chief Head Quarters, during the greatest part of the Civil War between him and the Par­liament, till the City was taken by Sir Tho­mas Fairfax, General of the Rebels Forces. It is moreover famous for being the birth-place of that Martial Prince King Richard the first, sirnamed Ceur de Lyon.

Woodstock, besides that it hath been an­ciently a stately Palace belonging to the Kings of England, claims a particular place in the book of Fame upon several accounts. In the first place here it was that King Henry the second built a sumptuous Bower for his Paramour Rosamund Clifford, who for her singular beauty and in allusion to her name, was styl'd Rosa Mundi. Next, it was the Birth-place of Edward the Black Prince, lastly, in the Town of Woodstock was brought up and educated that most re­nowned of English Poets Sir Geoffry Chaucer.

Islip cannot be forgotten so long as the memory of King Edward the Confessour lasts, who was here born.

In Glocestershire the City of Glocester (Gle­num, Colonia Glenum) eminent for its Cathe­dral, of which more elsewhere, is also not [Page 184] obscure in History. Here Earl Robert, Brother to the Empress Maud, was kept prisoner for some time; but much more famous, (if we may not say infamous) was the keeping of this City by the Parliament-Forces un­der Collonel Massy against his late Majesty King Charles the First, and the great Battle here fought for the raising of the Siege.

It was won from the Britains by Cheu­lin, King of the West-Saxons, An. 570. Here a Monastery of Nuns was founded by Osric King of Northumberland, of which three Queens of the Mercians were successively Prioresses, viz. Kineburg, Eadburg, and Eve. Here was born Robert called the Monk of Glocester, who flourish'd under Henry the se­cond, and also Osbernus sirnam'd Claudia­nus, a Benedictine Monk.

Alny Isle, a place near Glocester, where af­ter several bloody Battles between King Edmund Ironside and Canutus the Dane, the matter was at last decided between them by single combat, and a division of the King­dom made.

Cirencester, or Circester, a place of memo­rable note, as won from the Britains by Cheulin the West-Saxon; this City is doubt­less Ptolomies Corinium, Antonines Durocor­novium, & Giraldus his Ʋrbs Passerum, which last denomination it takes from a tradition [Page 185] of one Gurmund an African Tyrant who set it on fire, by tying to the tails of Sparrows certain combustible matter which he put fire to. It was won from the Britains by Cheulen King of the West-Saxons, next pos­sess't by the Mercians, lastly by the Danes un­der Gurmund, An. 879. But that which is to be said greatest of this for it's antiquity and remark is that, that it was anciently one of the principal residencies of the Romans, by whom it had been rais'd to a high pitch of magnificence and grandure.

At Cicester was born Thomas Ruthal, Bi­shop of Durham.

At Duresby, Edw. Fox Bishop of Hereford.

At Cam near Duresby, Edward Trotman Judge of the Common Law, who was bu­ried in the Temple Church May the 29th, An. 1643.

At Todington, Richard Son to Sir William Tracy, who flourish'd under King Henry the second. This Richard wrote a Book entit­led Preparatio ad Crucem, of much esteem in those times.

At Yate, Thomas Neal Chanter to Bishop Bonner, he was eminent for Learning and flourish'd, An. 1576.

At Westbury, John Carpenter Bishop of Worcester.

At Sudely Castle Ralph Lord Sude­ly, [Page 186] Lord Treasurer and Knight of the Gar­ter under Henry the sixth.

Other Noted men of this Shire were Tideman de Winchcomb, the Kings Physitian, Abbot of Benle, Bishop first of Landaff, af­terwards of Worcester.

John Chedworth, Bishop of Lincoln.

Anthony Fitz-Herbert, Judge of the Com­mon Pleas.

Thomas de la More, Knighted by King Ed­ward the first; he wrote the Character of King Edward the second, a Manuscript now in Oxford Library.

Sir Thomas Overbury, Son to Sir Nicholas.

William Winter, Vice-Admiral of England under Queen Elizabeth.

John Sprint, John Workman, and Richard Capel.

Tewksbury-field gave a very fatal blow to the House of Lancaster, An. 1471. in which Prince Edward was slain, and Queen Mar­garet taken Prisoner, together with the Duke of Somerset, the Earl of Devonshire, and others who were beheaded. Here was born the famous Alan of Tewksbury, who flou­rish'd under King John.

Hales, a once flourishing Abby, but chiefly to be remembred for the birth of Alexan­der de Hales, sirnamed Dr. Irrefregabilis, who died An. 1245.

[Page 187]In Worcestershire, Worcester the chief City, is questionless the ancient Branconium of An­toninus and Ptolomie, though since call'd by the Latins Vigornea, and by the Britains Caer Wrangon; some think it to have been built by the Romans for a bound to the Bri­tains. The Cathedral of St Mary in Worcester, besides the fame of its State and Beauty, is the Repository of the Bodies of King John, and Prince Arthur, Eldest Son to King Henry the seventh. But that which gives greatest re­nown to this City, is the memory of the happy preservation of his present Majesty, from being taken at the fatal Battle of Worcester, where the great Gallantry and Valour of His Majesty and his Party was utterly overpowr'd by the treble forces of the Usurpers.

At Eversham, An. 1265. King Henry the third gain'd a most triumphant Victory o­ver his Barons, with the slaughter of Simon Montford and seventeen Lords, and the taking of Humphry Bohun Prisoner.

In Herefordshire the City of Hereford, be­sides that it is the Principal City, an Epis­copal See, and noted for its Cathedral, is also memorable for the birth of Adam de Orleton Bishop of Hereford, Roger of Here­ford a Writer of Astronomy, who flou­rish'd [Page 188] under Henry the second, An. 1170.

John Davies of good repute for Poetry. And also Charles Smith Bishop of Glocester, in the reign of King James.

Bradwardin Castle gave both birth and sirname to that Thomas de Bradwardin Arch­Bishop of Canterbury, who for his deep knowledge in Theologie, and skilful manage­ment of Disputations, is stiled the profound Doctor.

At Ashperton was born John Grandison, Bishop of Exeter.

Other memorable persons of this Shire were Robert Devereux Earl of Essex, great in deeds of Arms, and a person of great power and favour with his Prince, yet brought to an untimely end.

Richard Hackluit, whose Book of Voya­ges is of good repute among the studious in Geography and History.

William Lemster, a Franciscan and learn­ed Doctor.

John Guillam the noted Herald, whose Systeme of Heraldry is accounted the best that hath been written of this Subject.

In Shropshire besides Shrewsbury the County Town, a noted Mart for Cloth and Frizes brought hither from Wales and [Page 189] sent to London and other parts of England; there are very remarkable ruins of some ancient places which were certainly Towns or Cities of great spendour or resort, as Wrocckester Ʋriconium, the ancient Ʋsoconia, of which Okenyate is a small remainder.

Oswaldstree retains its name from Os­wald the 11th King of Northumberland, who was here slain in battel by Penda King of the Mercians.

In Staffordshire the County Town Staf­ford, anciently Bitheny, from Bertelin a holy man, is said to have been built by King Ed­ward the Elder, and was made a Corpora­tion by King John.

Tamworth, was doubtless anciently a place of more spendour and amplitude than at present, for here the Mercian Kings for a long time kept their Court.

Litchfield though not the County Town, is yet the most eminent place of the Coun­ty, as being a City and Episcopal See joyntly with Coventry, the chief Church and now Cathedral, was built by the Northumbrian King Oswin, upon the Conquest he gain'd over the Pagan Mercians; and here Wulferre and Celred were interr'd; it was for some time an Arch-bishoprick by the means of King Offa, at the request of Bishop Eadulph.

[Page 190]At Bloreheath in this County, a cruel bat­tel was fought between the two Houses of York and Lancaster, in which there fell on the Duke of York's side Sir Hugh Venables, Sir William Trowthec, Sir Richard Mollineux, and Sir J. Egerton, &c. with 2400, and the two Sons taken prisoners of the Earl of Salisbury, General of the Yorkists.

In Darbyshire besides Derby the County town there are memorable;

Ripton, Ripandunum, where was interr'd Ethelbald, the 9th King of the Mercians, who was slain at Egiswald by his Subjects, and whence Burthred the last King was ex­pell'd by the Danes with his Queen Ethel­with.

At Melburn John D. of Bourbon taken at Agin Court, was kept prisoner.

Little Chester, an ancient Colony of the Romans, as appears by what Coins have been digg'd up thereabout.

In Nottinghamshire, the County Town Not­tingham, hath not wanted its share in the grand rencounters that have been in this Nation; the Castle hereof was kept by the Danes against the Mercian King Burthred, and also against the English Saxon Monarchs, Elthelred and Alfred.

[Page 191]At Newark in this County, King John who was poyson'd at Swinsted Abby, is said to have drawn his last breath.

At Stoke near Newark, Lambert Symnel's party was utterly defeated, and his uphol­ders John de la Pool Earl of Lincoln, Thomas Garadine Chancellour of Ireland, Fr. Lord Lovel and others were slain with 4000 of their men, and he himself taken prisoner, June 16th, An. 1487.

At Mansfield was born the first Earl of Mansfield in Germany, one of the Knights of King Arthurs Round Table.

In Warwickshire, the Town of Warwick is sufficiently fam'd in story over and above what is related of Guy of Warwick and his great adventures, and above all things the antiquity of the foundation is remarka­ble, if, as the tradition goes, it were built by Gurguntus, 375 years before the Nativity of our Saviour, however the Castle looks great, and savours much of Antiquity.

Coventry being joyntly one Bishoprick with Leichfield, is memorable, besides the beauty of the brave action of Countess Go­diva (the wife of Leofrick the first Lord thereof) well known in History. One of the Gates of this City is call'd Gofford Gate, which is the more notable by the Shield­bone [Page 192] of some very large beast, some say a wild Bore, slain by Guy of Warwick, some say an Elephant, with the snout whereof a pit was turn'd up, which is now Swanes Mear.

At Backlow-hill in this County, Pierce Ga­vesto [...] was taken and beheaded by a party of the Nobles.

At Wolny, An. 1469. King Edward the fourth his Forces were discomfited by his brother George Duke of Clarence, and Ri­chard Earl of Warwick, and the King him­self taken prisoner.

In Northamptonshire, the County Town Northampton hath been the Subject of many warlike bronts, An. 1106. it suffered much by the contests of the Conquerours three Sons, Robert, William and Henry, An. 1263. being held by the Barons against King Hen­ry the third; it was taken by surprize and the Walls thrown down, An. 1459. King Henry the sixth was here taken prisoner by the Earl of Warwick and March, with the slaughter of Humphry Stafford Duke of Buckingham, John Talbot Earl of Shrewsbu­ry, the Lords Egremont and Beaumont; but the greatest misfortune that e're befel this Town was in this our Age, viz. An. 1675. when by an accidental Fire it was almost all [Page 193] burnt down to the ground, yet lay it not long buried in ruin, for it was immediately rebuilt and now appears in far greater splen­dour then ever. Here Earl Rivers, Father to Edward the fourth's Queen taken at Graf­ton, was beheaded by Robin of Risdal, toge­ther with his son John.

Higham Ferrers in this County hath been honour'd with the birth of a very great Pre­late of this Nation, viz. Henry Chichly, Cardi­nal and Arch-bishop of Canterbury in the Reign of King Henry the sixth. This Chichly was the founder of All-Souls Col­ledge in Oxford.

Edgecot is signalis'd by a bloody battle fought near it on Danes More, July the 26th An. 1469. by Robin of Risdal and Sir John Coniers, against William Herbert Earl of Pem­broke who, together with his Brother Richard, the Lord Rivers, the Queens Bro­ther and Richard Woodvil, were taken prisoners, carried to Banbury, and beheaded.

At Fotheringhay Castle Mary Queen of Scots was kept a long time prisoner and was at last beheaded.

In Leicestershire, Leicester the County Town is principally famous by the tradition of its having been built by King Leir, great in the Catalogue of ancient British Kings, qu. Leir-cester.

[Page 194] Lutterworth in this County ows its chief credit to the famous John Wickleff, who was Parson of this place in the reign of King Henry the 4th.

Bosworth, a Town of no great note but for the memory of a most signal battle fought near it on Redemore, August 22d 1485. which put an end to all Controversies between the two houses of York and Lancaster, and in which fell that most Tyrannical of English Kings Richard the third, with four thousand of his men, and some say, though we are not bound to believe it, with the loss but of ten men on the Earl of Richmonds side.

Cleycester of which there are now scarce any ruins remaining, was once a famous City in the West part of this Shire, and by the Romans call'd Bennone.

In Rutlandshire some mention, as close ad­joyning, though generally affirm'd to be si­tuate rather in Lincolnshire, the Town of Stamford for the reputation of an ancient University, and said to have been founded by that Ancient British King Bladud, who found out the vertue of the Bath-Waters.

In Lincolnshire, Lincoln the chief Town and only City of this Shire, is not only e­minent for its antiquity, and for that it was once acounted one of the chiefest and [Page 195] the best traded Cities of England, and made by King Edward the third, the chief Mart for Lead, Wool, and Leather: But al­so for a great battle fought by Randolph Earl of Chester, and Robert Earl of Glocester against King Stephen, who was here taken prisoner, as also for the success of King Henry the third, who won it from the Ba­rons, it is said to have had once fifty Parish Churches.

Wainfleet had been doubtless a place of little note, but for the birth of William Wain­fleet Bishop of Winchester, who living in the reign of King Henry the sixth, with whom he was great in favour, built here a Free-School, and founded Magdalen Colledge in Oxford.

Grimsby likewise though an ancient Mar­ket Town, hath its chiefest repute from its being the Birth-place of Dr. Whitgift Arch­bishop of Canterbury in the reign of King James.

Bullingbrook is enobled by the memory of the Birth of King Edward the first, and King Henry the fourth.

Swinesstead Abby, the place where King John received from the hands of Simon a Monk thereof, that baleful potion that gave him his end at Lincoln.

Harstill laments the death of that mir­ [...]our [Page 196] of that Conjugal love Queen Eleanor, the wife of King Edward the first.

In the North-Riding of Yorkshire, York the chief of this Shire, and second City of England, was a Colony of the Romans, and a place of great account among them, and ever since to this day a splendid and flourish­ing City; several Emperours here kept their Court, and particularly Severus had a Pa­lace here in which he breathed his last. Here also Constantius Chlorus, the Father of Constantine the Great, is said to have depar­ted this life; nor does the death of these two Emperours more ennoble this Place, than the Birth of the Learned Alcuin, who was Tu­tour to the Emperour Charles the Great. Some write that it was first made an Episco­pal See by the Emperour Constantius, but this is more certain, that it was made an Archbishoprick in the year of our Lord 625.

At Leeds in the West-Riding, Oswye King of Northumberland encountred the u­nited Forces of Ethelbald, Son of Oswald King of Northumberland, Ethelbert King of the East-Angles, and Penda King of the Mercians, to all whom he gave a mighty de­feat; slew Penda and Ethelbert, and put E­thelbald to flight.

Selby, a Town of good trade and resort, [Page 197] but most memorable for the birth of King Henry the first; this is by some accounted in Lincolnshire.

Wakefield is a Town not more considera­ble for its Cloathing, than for the memo­ry of a great battle fought between the Houses of York and Lancaster, besides a de­feat given in the late Civil Wars to the Earl of Newcastles Forces by Sir Thomas Fairfax.

Pomfret Castle was built by Hildebert de Lacy, a Norman.

Hallyfax qu. Holy Hair anciently Horton, the birth-place of Joannes de Sacrobosco.

Rotheram chiefly boasts in the birth of Thomas of Rotheram Archbishop of York.

In the East-Riding Stanford Bridge from the battle, there fought, commonly called Battle-Bridge.

Drifield is remembred by the Tomb of Alfred King of Northumberland here bu­ried.

Beverly though a Town of flourishing trade, is yet more fame-worthy, as the last retirement and place of decease of the Learned John Archbishop of York in the Reign of Oswick An. 721. who was thence sirnamed John de Beverly.

Newborough Abby gives fame to it self by [Page 198] giving name to that Old English Historian William of Newborough.

Kingston upon Hull, besides the repute of its Trade and Merchandise, is honour'd with the fame of being built by King Ed­ward the first, nor are there wanting who will add the reputation of Andrew Mervail a Burgess of this place, of whom else­where.

Exeter in Devonshire is both of sufficient antiquity, for the Castle call'd Rugemont, was once the Palace of the West-Saxon Kings, and afterwards of the Earls of Corn­wal, and the Walls and Cathedral were built by King Athelstan; and also memora­ble for several transactions; here was born that most renowned Latin Poet of England, Josephus, hence sirnamed Iscanus, or Joseph of Exeter.

At Plimouth, that great Honour of Eng­land for Sea affairs, Sir Francis Drake took Shipping for the Circum-navigation of the World An. 1577.

Teignmouth is noted for the place of the Danes first arrival in England.

Hubbleston, the Burial place of Hubba the Dane.

Crediton the ancient Episcopal See of this County till it was removed to Exeter.

[Page 199] Camelford in Cornwal is guess'd by those pieces of Armour that have been digged up thereabout, to have been the place of Bat­tel where Mordred was slain, and where King Arthur received his mortal wound.

Tintagel Castle gave birth to this great Miracle of British Valour, King Arthur.

At Castle Denis the Ruins of those Trenches are yet to be seen where the Danes encamped at their first Invasion of this Land.

At Caradoc was born John Trevisa, a learned Writer; who died, Anno 1400.

St. Germains, a place chiefly fame-wor­thy for having been an ancient Episcopal See.

At Truroe was born John Arundel, a re­nowned Sea-man in the Reign of King Henry the Eighth.

Bodmin, the next place to which the Bi­shop's Chair was removed; from whence it was translated by King Edward the Con­fessor, to Exeter, where it hath remained ever since.

This County hath brought forth several learned men, viz.

Hucarius, sirnamed the Levite; who flou­rished, Anno 1040.

Simon Thurway; who flourished, Anno 1201.

[Page 200] John, Sir-named of Cornwal; who flou­rished, Anno 1170.

Michael Blawnpain; who flourished, Anno 1350.

Godfrey, Sir-named of Cornwall.

In NORTHƲMBERLAND, at a place called Otterburn, a great Field was fought between the English and Scots.

Alnwick is of note for the mighty Victo­ry which the English here gained over the Scots; and for that the Earls of Northum­berland in ancient times here kept their Court.

Emildon brought forth that great Con­tradiction of his own name for Niceties of Wit and Subtilties in School-Philosophy. Duns Sir-named Scotus.

In the Western parts of Northumberland are yet to be seen some parts of the Picts Wall.

In WESTMORLAND, The Abal­laba of Antoninus is thought to have been a place of very great note in the time of the Romans, by the antique Roman Coins that have been there found in digging, and the station of the Aurelian Maures: and it is still so considerable, that the Castle thereof [Page 201] is the place where the Assizes for the Coun­ty are kept.

Burgh, or Burgh under Stainmore, is un­doubtedly the Ruins of an eminent Town, which was called Verterae; and where a Ro­man Commander, in the declining time of the Empire, is said to have kept his station, with a Band of Directores.

Ambleside (Amboglana) not far from Wi­nander Meer, is judged the Ruins of some famous City of Roman foundation or im­provement, both by the paved ways that lead to it, and the Coins of Roman Stamp oft digged up there.

In CƲMBERLAND, Carlisle (Lu­guvallum, or Leucophibia of Ptolomie) if not illustrious in its Original, for it is delive­red to have been built by that Leil, who is great in the Catalogue of British Kings; was, at least, a flourishing City under the Romans; and being demolished by the Picts, and utterly ruined by the Danes, was re­stored by King William Rufus (who also built there a Castle:) and by King Henry the First made a Bishop's See.

The Bishoprick of DƲRHAM gained that Title and Privilege by the great fame and renown of St. Cuthbert; for the inter­ment [Page 202] of whom the Cathedral of Durham was first built by Bishop Aldwin; and af­terwards pulled down, and rebuilt by Bi­shop Careleph. The Tomb of this adored Saint was visited with great devotion by King Egfred, Alfred, Danish Guthrun, Ed­ward and Athelstan: This City was by King William the Conqueror raised to a County Palatine.

There is a place called Gallile in the West end of the Church, where is to be seen the Tomb of Venerable Beda.

Binchester (Benovium) by the Coins there digged up, seems to have been a place of great account among the Romans. So like­wise,

Chester in the Street (Condercum.)

At Nevil's Cross near Durham, the Scots were defeated by Queen Philippa, Wife to King Edward the First, by the Conduct of the Lords Piercy, Moubray and Nevil.

In LANCASHIRE, Lancaster, the County-Town, gives Title of Family from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, to four Henries, Kings of England, viz. Henry the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh.

Manchester, Mancunium, an ancient Fort and Station of the Romans.

[Page 203] Rible-Chester, from Rhibel, a little Brook near Clithero, a Town of Antiquity and Station of the Romans, as appears by the pieces of Coin and Statues there found. But that which renders it most of memory is, that it hath been reported the richest Town of Christendom.

Near Duglas, a small Brook not far from the Town of Wiggin, King Arthur is said by Ninius to have put the Saxons to flight.

At Billangho, Anno 789. Duke Wade was put to flight by Ardulph King of Northum­berland.

In CHESHIRE, Chester is famous in many respects; as, for its Minster, for its Entertainment of King Athelstan, who hence settihg forth in a Barge upon the Ri­ver Dee, was rowed by Kennadie King of the Scots, Malcolm King of Cumberland, Macon King of Man, and several Princes of Wales. By being made so great a Principality by the Investiture of Hugh Lupus, by King William the Conqueror. The Minster of this City was built by Earl Leofric to the Ho­nour of St. Werburga, repaired by Hugh Earl of Chester. And in this Minster was buried the Body of Henry the Fourth, Em­peror of Germany.

[Page 204]At Calvely was born Sir Hugh Calvely, a Soldier of great fame in the Reign of King Edward the Third. As likewise was Sir Ro­bert Knowles of this Shire.

Ecleston gave Birth to Thomas, thence Sir­named Ecleston.

Bunbury is noted by the birth of Robert Braffy; who died, Anno 1558.

Wrenbury boasts of George Patin, another learned Writer.

Moreover, the World owes to this Shire several other great men; viz. Sir Thomas Aegerton, Lord Keeper, Anno 1596. Sir Humphrey Starky, Sir Henry Bradshaw, Sir Randal Crew, and Sir Humphrey Davenport; all grand Pillars of the Law. Ralph Ratcliff, a person eminent for Learning: and Cap­tain John Smith, the first setler of the Plan­tation of New-England in the Reign of King James.

In FLINTSHIRE, The Castle of Flint; which was founded by King Henry the Second, and finished by King Edward the First, gave Reception to King Richard the Second when he came out of Ireland.

In DENBYSHIRE, Denby was walled about, and fortified with a Castle by Henry Lacy Earl of Lincoln, in the Reign of King Edward the First.

[Page 205]In CAERNARVONSHIRE, Caernarvon is memorable, as having been raised by King E. 1. from the Ruins of that ancient Ci­ty which is called by Antonine, Segontium and by Ninius, Caer-Custenith; and where, as Matthew Westminster reports, was found the Body of Constantius, the Father of Con­stantine the Great, Anno 1283.

In MERIONETHSHIRE, the princi­pal Town Harlech is only worth memory for its stately Castle.

In CARDIGANSHIRE, Cardigan the Shire-Town was walled about, and fortifi­ed with a Castle by Gilbert de Clare, who was Lord of the whole County by the Gift of King Henry the First.

In BRECKNOCKSHIRE, Hay is re­membred, by its Ruins, to have been once a place of Account; for it is reported in History to have been ruined and demolish­ed in the Rebellion of Owen Glendour. It is judged by the Coins there found to have been an ancient Seat of the Romans.

Bealt (Buelth) the Buleum Silurum of Ptolomy is famed as the Seat of Aurelius Am­brose, who possessed the whole Country, [Page 206] and after gave it to Pascentius, Son of Vortiger. And likewise for the last Prince of the Britains, who was here by Treachery slain. But Brecknock, being now the fairest Town of the Shire, carries the Name and Primacy.

In CAERMARDENSHIRE, Caermar­den, the Shire-Town, the Maridunum of Ptolomy and Muridunum of Antonine is not so note-worthy for its large Castle and strong Wall, as for being the Birth-place of that most famous old British (to give him the most favourable Title) Prophet, Merlin.

In GLAMORGANSHIRE, The chief Town, and Episcopal See, Landaff, with its Castle and Cathedral, is not so famous as the Town of Caerdiff; as having been the Seat and Residence of that renowned Fitz-Hammond and his Norman Knights; who, after the Conquest of Rhesus Prince of Wales, kept here his Court in the Reign of William Rufus, and built here a strong Castle, in the Hall whereof are yet to be seen the Ensigns of the said Fitz-Hammond and his Knights. In this Castle hath been for a long time, and is still kept the Audit for the Earl of Pembroke's Estate in Wales.

[Page 207]In MONMOƲTHSHIRE, Monmouth the County-Town is yet far more conside­rable upon several respects: first, as being delivered by Geraldus to have been the place where great King Arthur kept his Court. Next, as an Academy of Philoso­phy and Arts; giving Residence to two hundred Scholars, and Birth to Amphiba­lus, whose Disciple, our great Protomar­tyr, St. Albanus was, and two other noble persons of our first Martyrs. And likewise as the Birth-place of that noble Prince King Henry the Fifth.

In RADNORSHIRE, Radnor the ancient Magnos of Antonine, and the station of the Pacentian Regiment, and fortified with a Castle is yet inferior in beauty of Buildings to Prestain.

In PEMBROKESHIRE, though Pembroke is the County-Town, yet

St. Davids is the more remarkable, as being an Episcopal See, and once an Arch­bishoprick, translated from Isca Legionum by that great Archbishop Devi, whom we call St. David.

[Page 208]In MONTGOMERISHIRE, Montgomery is remarkable for its pleasant scituation and strong Castle, and the Title of an Earldom, first given by King James, Anno 1605. to Philip, second Son to Henry Earl of Pem­broke, and still continuing in his Grand­child Philip, now Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery.

In the Isle of ANGLESY, Beaumorris is not more noted for being the principal Town, than for the frequent transportati­on of Passengers hence to Ireland, and the fame of having been built by King Edward the First.

A true and perfect LIST OF THE NOBILITY OF ENGLAND: With their principal HOUSES, and the COUNTIES which they are in.

DUKES.
  • * HIS Royal Highness James Duke of York and Albany, and Earl of Ʋlster.
    His Seats,
    • St. James's, Middlesex.
    • Richmond, Surrey.
  • [Page 210]The Dukedom of Cumberland extinct by the death of Prince Rupert.
  • The Lord High Chancellor of England.
  • The Lord High Treasurer of England.
  • The Lord President of the Privy Coun­cil.
  • The Lord Privy Seal.
  • Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England; Earl of Arundel, Sur­rey, Norfolk and Norwich; Baron Howard Moubray, Segrave, Brewes of Gower, Fitz-Alan, Clun, Oswaldestre, Maltravers, Gray­stock and Castle-Rising.
    His Seats,
    • Norfolk House in Arundel Buildings, Mid­dlesex.
    • Arundel Castle, Sussex.
    • Albury and Waybridge, Surrey.
    • Duke's Place in Norwich, Norfolk.
    • Work-Sop, Nottingham.
    • Sheffeild-Mannor, York.
    • Graystock Castle, and Drumbugh Castle, Cumberland.
  • [Page 211] Charles Seymour Duke of Somerset, Mar­quess of Hertford, Viscount Beauchamp, and Baron Seymour.
    His Seats,
    • Marlborough House, and Allington House, Wilts.
  • * George Villers Duke, Marquess and Earl of Buckingham, Earl of Coventry, Viscount Villers, and Baron of Whaddon.
    His Seats,
    • Wallingford House, near Whitehall, Middlesex.
    • Colledge-Hill, London.
    • Buckingham House, and Whadon, Buck­ingham.
    • Bishop's Hill in the City of York, and Helm­sey Castle, York.
  • * Christopher Monk Duke of Albemarle, Earl of Torrington, Baron Monk of Polthe­ridge, Beauchamp and Teyes.
    His Seats.
    • Nun Appleton, and Burley on the Hlil, Rut­land.
    • Garrenton, Leicester.
    • Albemarle House, Middlesex.
    • New Hall, Essex.
    • Potheridge and Wenbury, Devonshire.
    • Cletherow Castle, Lancaster.
  • [Page 212]* James Scot Duke of Monmouth and Bucclugh, Earl of Doncaster and Dalkelth, Ba­ron of Tindal, Winchester and Ashdale.
    His Seat,
    • More Park, Hertford.
    • So-Ho Square, Middlesex.
  • * Henry Cavendish Duke, Marquess and Earl of Newcastle, Earl of Ogle, Viscount Mansfeild, Baron Ogle, Beutram and Bolsover.
    His Seats,
    • Welbeck Abby, and Nottingham Castle, Not­tingham.
    • Bolsover Castle, Derby.
    • Ogle Castle, Bothal Castle, Heple Tower, Northumberland.
    • Slingsby Castle, York.
    • Blore Hall, Stafford.
    • Clerkenwell House, Middlesex.
  • Barbara Villers Dutchess of Cleveland, and Baroness of Nonsuch.
    Her Seat,
    • Cleveland House, near St. James's, Middle­sex.
  • Louise Querouale Dutchess of Portsmouth, Countess of Farnham, and Baroness of Pe­tersfield.
  • [Page 213]* Charles Lenox Duke of Richmond and Lenox, Earl of March, and Baron of Set­trington.
    His Seat,
    • In Scotland.
  • Charles Fitz-Roy Duke of Southampton, Earl of Chichester, Baron of Newbury, and Heir in Succession to the Dutchy of Cleve­land.
    His Seat,
    • Nonsuch, Surrey.
  • * Henry Fitz-Roy Duke of Grafton, Earl of Ewston, Viscount Ipswich, and Baron of Sudbury; the Remainder, for want of Is­sue Male, to George Fitz-Roy, his younger Brother.
    His Seat,
    • Grafton Regis, Northampton.
  • * Henry Somerset Duke of Beaufort, Mar­quess and Earl of Worcester, Lord Herbert of Chepstoll, Ragland and Gower, Lord Pre­sident of Wales, and the Marshes thereof.
    His Seats,
    • Worcester House in the Strand, Middlesex.
    • Badminton, and Wallaston's Grange, Glou­cestershire.
    • [Page 214] Troy House, Monmouth Castle, Ragland Castle, Chepstole Castle, Tintorne Abby, and Chepstow Grange, Monmouth.
    • Swanzy Castle, Glamorgan.
    • Crickhowell Castle, and Tretonor Castle, Brecknock.
  • George Fitz-Roy Duke and Earl of Northumberland, Viscount Falmouth, and Baron of Pontefract.
    His Seats,
    • Holme Pierpoint, Nottingham.
    • Highgate, Middlesex.
  • James Butler Duke of Ormond within the Kingdom of England, Earl of Breck­nock, and Baron of Lantony in South-Wales, Lord Steward of the King's House, Duke, Marquess and Earl of Ormond in Ireland, Viscount Thurles, Baron of Arklow, and Lord of the Royalties and Liberties of the County of Tiperary in Ireland.
MARQUESSES.
  • CHarles Pawlet Marquess of Winchester, Earl of Wiltshire, and Lord St John of Basing.
    His Seats,
    • Winchester House in Lincolns-Inn-Fields, Middlesex.
    • Bolton Castle, and Bolton Hall, York.
    • Basing House, Abbtston, and Hackwood, Southampton.
    • Edington, Wilts.
    • Hooke Castle, Dorset.
  • The Marquisate of Dorchester lately ex­tinct by the death of Henry Lord Pierpoint.
  • George Savill Marquess, Earl and Vis­count Hallifax, and Baron of England.
    His Seats,
    • Rufford, Nottingham.
    • Hallifax House in St James's Square, Mid­dlesex.
  • The Lord High Chamberlain of England.
  • The Lord High Constable of England.
  • [Page 216]The Earl Marshal of England.
  • The Lord High Admiral of England.
  • The Lord Steward of the King's House­hold.
  • The Lord Chamberlain of the King's Houshold.
EARLS.
  • * AƲbery de Vere Earl of Oxford, Vis­count Bulbeck, Lord Sanford and Badlesmere.
    His Seat.
    • Bentlie, Essex.
  • Charles Talbut Earl of Shrewsbury, Wa­terford and Wenford in Ireland, Lord Talbot Strauge of Blackere, Gifford of Brimsfield, Furnival, Verdon and Lovetoft.
    His Seats,
    • Grafton, Worcester.
    • Pepperhill, Salop.
    • Alton Castle, Stafford.
  • [Page 217] Anthony Grey Earl of Kent, Lord Grey of Ruthin, Hastings and Valence.
    His Seats,
    • Wrest House, and Harrold, Bedford.
    • Burbage, Leicester.
    • Goodrich Castle, Penyard Castle, and Ecles­wald Castle, Hereford.
    • Kent House in St. James's Square, Middle­sex.
  • William Richard George Stanly Earl of Darby, Lord Stanly Strange of Knocking­mohun, and Lord of the Isle of Man.
    His Seats,
    • Knowesley, Latham Hall, Greenhalgh, Burlco Abby, Cross Hall, Pilkington Stand, and Arnshead Tower, Lancaster.
    • Betham Hall, Westmerland.
  • John Manners Earl of Rutland, Lord Ross of Hamlake, Trusbut, Belvoir, and Lord Man­ners of Haddon.
    His Seats.
    • Belvoire Castle, Lincoln and Leicester.
    • Haddon, Darby.
  • Theophilus Hastings Earl of Huntingdon, Lord Hastings, Hungerford, Botreaux, moe'ls, Newmarch and Molins.
    His Seats,
    • [Page 218]Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire.
    • Donington Park.
  • * Willam Russel Earl of Bedford, and Baron of Thornhaugh.
    His Seats.
    • Bedford House in the Strand, Middlesex.
    • Bedford House in Exon, Devonshire.
    • Woburn Abby, Bedford.
    • Cheynes, Bucks.
    • Thorney Abby, Cambridge.
  • Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Mont­gomery, Lord Herbert of Cardiff, Ross of Kendal, Par, Marmion, of St. Quintin and Shurland.
    His Seats,
    • Wilton, and Falston alias Fallersdown, Wilts.
    • Cardiff Castle, and Caerphilly Castle, Gla­morgan.
  • Edward Clinton Earl of Lincoln, and Lord Clinton.
    His Seats,
    • Sempringham, and Tattershall Castle, Lin­coln.
  • James Howard Earl of Suffolk, and Ba­ron of Walden.
    His Seats,
    • [Page 219]Chesterford, Essex.
    • New-Market, Cambridge.
  • Charles Sackvill Earl of Dorset and Mid­dlesex, and Baron of Buckhurst.
    His Seats,
    • Knoll, Kent.
    • Copthall, Essex.
    • Buckhurst, and Stoneland, Sussex.
    • Milcot House, Warwick.
  • James Cecil Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranburn, and Baron Essendyne, Under Age.
    His Seats,
    • Salisbury House in the Strand, Middlesex.
    • Hatfield, Hertford Castle, Bygrave, Chesthunt and Quickswood, Hertford.
    • Cranborne House, Dorset.
  • John Cecil Earl of Exeter, and Lord Burghley.
    His Seats,
    • Burghley, Worthrop, and Wakerley, North­hampton.
    • Snap, York.
  • John Egerton Earl of Bridgwater, Vis­count Brackley, and Baron of Ellesmere,
    His Seats.
    • [Page 220]Ashdrid, Bucks and Hertford.
    • Bridgwater House in Barbican, Middlesex.
    • Ellesmere, Salop.
    • Markingfield, York.
    • Newborough, Stafford.
  • Philip Sidney Earl of Leicester, Viscount Lisle, and Baron of Penshurst.
    His Seats,
    • Leicester House in Leicester Fields, Middle­sex.
    • Penshurst, Kent.
    • Coyty Castle, Glamorgan.
  • James Compton Earl of Northampton, and Baron of Compton.
    His Seats,
    • Castle Ashley, Northampton.
    • Compton, Warwick.
    • Cambray, Middlesex.
  • Edward Rich E. of Warwick and Holland, Baron of Leez and Kensington, under age.
    His Seats,
    • Warwick House in Holborn, and Holland House in Kensington, Middlesex.
  • William Cavendish, Earl of Devon and Baron of Hardwick.
    His Seats.
    • [Page 221]Hardwick, and Chatsworth, Derby.
    • Rowhampton, Surrey.
    • Latimers, Buckingham.
  • William Fielding, aliter de Hapsburgh Earl of Denby and Desmond in Ireland, Vis­count Fielding, Baron of Newnham, Padox, and St. Lis.
    His Seats,
    • Newnham-Padox, Warwick.
    • Martinsthorp, Rutland.
  • John Digby Earl of Bristol, and Baron of Sherborn.
    His Seats,
    • Sherborn Castle, Dorset.
    • Clevedon Court, Somerset.
  • Gilbert Holles Earl of Clare, and Baron of Haughton.
    His Seats,
    • Haughton in the County of Notting­ham.
    • Clare-House in the Town of Notting­ham.
    • Clare House in Drury Lane. Middlesex.
  • Oliver St. John Earl of Bullingbrook, and Lord St. John of Bletsho.
    His Seats,
    • Bletsho, and Melchborn, Bedford.
  • [Page 222] Charles Fane Earl of Westmerland, Baron Le Despencer and Bergherst.
    His Seats,
    • Apethorp, and Sewlhay Lodge, Northamp­ton.
  • Robert Mountague Earl of Manchester, Viscount Mandevile, and Baron of Kim­bolton.
    His Seats,
    • Kimbolton Castle, Huntington.
    • Leez Priory, Essex.
  • Thomas Howard Earl of Berkshire, Vis­count Andover, and Baron of Charlton.
    His Seat,
    • Charlton, Wilts.
  • * John Sheffeild Earl of Mulgrave, and Baron of Butterwick.
    His Seats,
    • Mulgrave Castle, York.
    • Mulgrave House near White-Hall; Middle­sex.
    • Normanby, Lincoln.
  • Thomas Savage Earl Rivers, Viscount Colchester, and Baron Darcy of Chich in Es­sex.
    His Seats,
    • [Page 223]Clifton alias Rock Savage, and Frodsham Castle, Chester.
    • St. Osith, Essex.
    • Rivers House in Queen-street, Middlesex.
  • Robert Bertie Lord Great Chamberlain of England, Earl of Lindsey, and Baron Wil­loughby of Eresby.
    His Seats,
    • Grimsthorp, and Earesby, Lincoln.
    • Chelsey, Middlesex.
    • Havering, Essex.
  • Henry Mordant Earl of Peterborough, and Baron of Turvey.
    His Seats,
    • Turvey, Bedford.
    • Drayton, Luswick alias Lowick, Thrapston, and Sudborow, Northampton.
  • Thomas Grey Earl of Stamford, and Lord Grey of Grooby.
    His Seats,
    • Broadgate, and Grooby, Leicester.
  • Heneage Finch Earl of Winchelsy, and Viscount Maidston.
    His Seats,
    • Estwell, Wy Court, and Moat, Kent.
  • [Page 224] Robert Pierrepont Earl of Kingston upon Hull, Viscount Newmarket, and Baron Pierrepont of Holm Pierrepont.
    His Seat.
    • Holm Pierrepont, Nottingham.
  • Charles Dormer Earl of Carnarvan, Vis­count Ascot, and Baron of Wing.
    His Seats.
    • Wing, and Ethrop, Buckingham.
  • Philip Stanhop Earl of Chesterfield, and Baron of Shelford.
    His Seats,
    • Bretby, Derby.
    • Shelford, Nottingham.
    • Bockton Malherb, Kent.
  • Richard Tufton Earl of Thanet, and Ba­ron Tufton.
    His Seats,
    • Thanet House in Aldersgate-Street, Middle­sex.
    • Hoathfeild, and Sylom, Kent.
    • Scipton Castle, York.
    • Appleby Castle, Brough Castle, Brougham Castle, and Pendragon Castle, West­merland.
    • Part of Bolbrook, Sussex.
  • [Page 225]* William Wentworth Earl of Stafford, Viscount Wentworth, and Baron of New Marsh, Oversley and Raby.
    His Seats,
    • Wentworth Wood-House, Fryar House, Tan­kersly, Tinsly, and Hooton Robert, York.
    • Stowel, Gloucester.
  • Robert Spencer Earl of Sunderland, and Baron of Wormleighton.
    His Seats,
    • Althrop, Northampton.
    • Wormleighton, Warwick.
  • Robert Leake Earl of Scarsdale.
    His Seat,
    • Sutton, Derby.
  • * Henry Jermin Earl of St. Albans, and Baron of Almondsbury.
    His Seats,
    • St. Alban's House in St. James's Square, Middlesex.
    • Rushbrooke Hall, Suffolk.
    • Byflet, Surrey.
    • Thafts, Norfolk.
  • Edward Montague Earl of Sandwich, Vis­count Hinchingbrook, and Baron of St. Neots.
    His Seat,
    • Hinchingbrook, Huntington.
  • [Page 226] Henry Hyde Earl of Clarendon, Viscount: Cornbury, and Baron of Hindon.
    His Seats,
    • Cornbury, Oxford.
    • Swallowfield, Berks.
  • Arthur Capel Earl of Essex, Viscount Maldon, and Baron of Hindon.
    His Seats,
    • Cashiobury, and Hadham Hall, Hertford.
    • Essex House in St. James's Square, Middle­sex.
  • Robert Brudenell Earl of Cardigan, and Baron of Stanton.
    His Seats,
    • Dean, Northampton.
    • Cardigan House in Lincolns-Inn Fields, Middlesex.
    • Stanton Brudenel, Leicester.
  • Arthur Annesly Earl of Anglesey, and Ba­ron of Newmarket Pagnel in England; Vis­count Valencia, and Baron of Mount Norris in Ireland.
    His Seats,
    • Anglesey House in Drury-Lane, Middlesex.
    • Blechington, Oxford.
    • Park-Hall, Essex.
    • [Page 227] Farnborough Place, Southampton.
    • Totteridge, Hertford.
  • John Greenvill Earl of Bath, Viscount Lansdown, and Baron of Kilhampton and Bideford.
    His Seats,
    • Stow, Wolston, Stanbury, Clifton, and La­now, Cornwall.
    • Bideford, Devon.
  • Charles Howard Earl of Carlisle, Vis­count Morpeth, and Baron d'Acres of Giles­land.
    His Seats,
    • Naywort alias Noward Castle, Cumber­land.
    • Hilderskelfe Castle, and Grimthorp, York.
    • Morpeth Castle, Northumberland.
  • William Craven Earl of Craven, Viscount Craven of Ʋffington, and Baron of Hamsted Marshal.
    His Seats,
    • Craven House in Drury-Lane, Middlesex.
    • Hamsted Marshal, and Ashton Park, Berks.
    • Combe, Warwick.
    • Winwick, Northampton.
    • Caversham, Oxford.
    • Lenwich, VVorcester.
    • Stoke Castle, Salop.
  • [Page 228] Robert Bruce Earl of Ailesbury and Elgin, Baron of Wharton and Kinloss.
    His Seats,
    • Ailesbury House in St John's, Middlesex.
    • Ampthil, and Clophil, Bedford.
    • Wharlton Castle, and Jervaux Abby, York.
  • Richard Boyle Earl of Burlington and Corke in Ireland, and Baron Clifford of Lawnsborough.
    His Seats,
    • Burlington House, Middlesex.
    • Lawnsborough, Bolton, and Barden Tower, York.
  • * Henry Bennet Earl and Baron of Ar­lington, Viscount Thetford, and Lord Cham­berlain of the King's House.
    His Seats,
    • Ewston, Suffolk.
    • Arlington House in St. James's Park, Mid­dlesex.
  • Anthony Ashley Cooper Earl of Shaftsbury, Baron Ashley of Wimborn St Giles, and Cooper of Paulet.
    His Seats,
    • Wimborn St. Giles, Dorset.
    • Kockborn House, Southampton.
  • [Page 229] William Herbert, Earl and Baron of Powis.
    His Seats,
    • Powis Castle, and Buttington, Montgo­mery.
    • Powis House in Lincolns-Inn Fields, Middle­sex.
  • Edward Henry Lee, Earl of Lichfield, Viscount Quarrendon, and Baron of Spels­bury.
    His Seats,
    • Dichley, and Lees Rest, Oxford.
    • Quarrendon, Buckingham.
  • * Thomas Osborn Earl of Danby, Vis­count Latimer, and Baron of Kiveton.
    His Seats,
    • Kiveton, Thorp Hall, Wales Hall, Harthil Hall, and Wimbledon, York.
  • Thomas Lennard Earl of Sussex, and Ba­ron d' Acre.
    His Seats,
    • Herst Monceux, Sussex.
    • Kirk Oswald, and d'Acre Castle, Cumber­land.
    • Chevening, Kent.
  • [Page 230] Lewis Duras Earl of Feversham, and Ba­ron of Holdenby.
    His Seat,
    • Holdenby, Northampton.
  • Charles Beauclair Earl of Burford, and Baron of Heddington.
    His Seats,
    • Burford House in Windsor, Berks.
    • Bestwood, Nottingham.
  • Charles Gerrard Earl of Macclesfield, and Lord Gerrard of Brandon.
    His Seats,
    • Thornhill, York.
    • Gawsworth, and Aldford, Chester.
    • Halsal, Lancaster.
    • Macclesfield House in Westminster, Middle­sex.
  • John Roberts Earl of Radnor, Viscount Bodmin, and Baron of Truro, and Lord Pre­sident of the Privy Council.
    His Seats,
    • Lauhydroek, and Truro, Cornwall.
  • William Paston Earl and Viscount Yar­mouth, and Baron of Paston.
    His Seats,
  • George Berkeley Earl of Berkeley, Viscount Durseley, and Baron of Berkeley Castle.
    His Seats,
    • Berkeley Castle, Gloucester.
    • Berkeley House near St. John's, Cranford, Middlesex.
    • Durdence, Surrey.
  • Edward Conway Earl of Conway, Vis­count Conway and Killultagh, and Baron of Ragley.
    His Seats,
    • Ragley, and Luddington, VVarwick.
    • Conway House in Queen-Street, Middlesex.
  • Eliz. Lady d'Acre Countess of Shippey.
  • Heneage Finch Earl of Nottingham, and Baron of Daventry.
    His Seat.
    • A fair House near Kensington, Middlesex.
  • Lawrence Hide Earl of Rochester, Viscount Hide.
  • James Bertie Earl of Abbington, and Lord Norris.
    His Seats,
    • [Page 232]Ricot, and Chesterton, Oxford.
    • Wytham; Berks.
    • Lindsey House in Westminster, Middlesex.
  • Thomas Windsor Earl of Plimouth, and Baron of Windsor.
    His Seats,
    • Hewel Grange, VVarwick.
    • Flanchford, Surrey.
  • Edward Wriothesley Noell Earl of Ganes­borough, Viscount Campden, and Baron of Ridlington and Limington.
    His Seats,
    • Campden House in Kingsington, Middlesex.
    • Campden House in Campden, Gloucester.
    • Exton, Brooke, and North-Luffenham, Rut­land.
  • Coniers Darcy Earl of Holderness in the parts of Eastriding, and Lord Coniers and Meynell
    His Seats.
    • Hornby Castle, Patrick Brompton.
    • Hackforth, Auderly le Miers, York.
VISCOUNTS.
  • LEicester Devereux Viscount Hereford.
    His Seats,
    • Christchurch in Ipswich, Sudburn Hall, So­ham Lodge, Suffolk.
  • Francis Brown Viscount Mountague.
    His Seats,
    • Cowdrey, Battel-Abby, Poynings, Sussex.
  • William Fiennes Viscount and Baron Say and Seal.
    His Seats,
    • Broughton, Shutford, and North-Newton, Oxford.
    • Over-Norton, Gloucester.
  • Thomas Bellasyse Viscount Faulconberg of Henknowle, and Lord Faulconberg.
    His Seats,
    • Newbrough Abby, Coxwold Hall, Oulston Hall, Aldwark, Murton, York.
    • Henknowle, Durham.
    • Faulconberg House near Pall-mall, and Sut­ton Court, Middlesex.
  • [Page 234] Charles Viscount Mordant of Avelon, and Baron of Rygate.
    His Seats,
    • Mordant House in Parsons Green, Middle­sex.
    • Rygate, Surrey.
  • Francis Viscount Newport of Bradford, and Baron of High-ercall.
    His Seats,
    • Highercall and Eyton, Salop.
  • Sarah Viscountess Corbet of Linchalde.
  • Horatio Viscount Townsend of Raynham, Baron of Lynn-Regis.
    His Seats,
    • Raynham Hall, and Stifkey Hall, Norfolk.
    • Denham Hall, Suffolk.
  • Christopher Viscount Hatton of Gretton, Baron of Kerby.
    His Seat,
    • Kerby, Northampton.
BARONS.
  • [Page 235]HEnry Howard Lord Moubray, eldest Son of the Duke of Norfolk, and bearing the Title of Earl of Arundel.
    His Seat.
    • Castle-Rising, Norfolk.
  • Elizabeth Baroness Percy, sole Daughter and Heiress of Jocelin late Earl of Northum­berland, first married to Henry Earl of Ogle, only Son of Henry Cavendish Duke of New-castle, now to the Duke of Somerset.
    Her Seats,
    • Northumberland House in the Strand, and Sion House, Middlesex.
    • Petworth Place, Sussex.
    • Alnewick Castle, Warkworth Castle, and Prudhoe Castle, Northumberland.
    • Cockermouth Castle Cumberland.
    • Wressel Castle, York.
  • George Nevil Lord Abergevenny, Under Age.
    His Seats,
    • Eridge, Sussex.
    • Abergevenny Castle, Monmouth.
  • [Page 236] James Touchet Lord Audley, Earl of Castlehaven in Ireland.
  • Charles West Lord la Warr.
    His Seat,
    • Whorwell, Southampton.
  • Thomas Parker Lord Morley and Mount­eagle.
    His Seat,
    • Hornby Castle, Lancaster.
  • Robert Sherley Lord Ferrers, Baron of Chartley.
    His Seats,
    • Chartley Castle, Stafford.
    • Staunton Harrold, and Ragdale, Leicester.
    • Ettington, Warwick.
    • Astwell, Northampton.
    • Shirley, Derby.
  • Charles Mildmay Lord Fitz-Walter, un­der age.
    His Seats,
    • Moulsham Hall, Moulsham Friery, and Bi­shops Hall, Essex.
  • Henry Yelverton Lord de Grey, under age.
    His Seat,
    • Easton Mauduit, Northampton.
  • [Page 237] Frances Lady Ward, Baroness Dudly.
  • William Lord Stourton, Baron of Stour­ton.
    His Seat,
    • Stourton Castle, Wilts.
  • Coniers Darcy, Lord Coniers.
    His Seats.
    • Aston, Aughton, Wales Manor, Hardwick, Yorkshire.
  • Henry Sandys Baron Sandys.
    His Seat,
    • Mottessont, Southampton.
  • Thomas Lord Cromwell, Baron of Oakham in England, Earl of Arglas, and Viscount Lecale in Ireland.
    His Seat,
    • Throwley, Stafford.
  • Ralph Lord Eure, Baron of Witton.
    His Seat,
    • Easby Hall, York.
  • Philip Lord Wharton, Baron of Wharton.
    His Seats,
    • Wharton Hall, Westmorland.
    • [Page 238] Aske, Healaugh Mannor, and Woburn, York.
    • Overwinchendon House, Buckingham.
  • Thomas Lord Willoughby of Parham.
  • William Lord Paget, Baron of Baude­sert.
    His Seats,
    • Beaudesert, and Seaney Park, Stafford.
    • Drayton, Middlesex.
  • Francis Lord Howard of Effingham.
  • Charles Lord North and Grey of Rolleston.
    His Seats,
    • Kirtling alias Catlidge. Cambridge.
    • Tostock Place, Suffolk.
    • Rolleston, Stafford.
    • Towting Graveney, Surrey.
  • James Brugges Lord Chandos.
    His Seats,
    • Wilton, Aconbury, and Dewswell, Here­ford.
  • Robert Carey, Lord Hunsdon.
  • William Lord Petre, Baron of Writtle.
    His Seats,
    • Thorndon, Writtle Park, Ingerston Hall, and Cranham Park, Essex.
  • [Page 239] Digby Lord Gerard, Baron of Gerards Bromley, under age.
    His Seats,
    • Gerards Bromley, Sandon, and Wislow Bridge, Stafford.
    • Dutton, Chester.
    • Woodacre Hall, Ashton Hall, and Shorton Hall, Lancaster.
  • Henry Lord Arundel, Baron of Wardour.
    His Seat,
    • Wardour Castle, Wilts.
  • Christopher Roper, Lord Tenham.
    His Seat.
    • Linksted Lodge, Kent.
  • Catherine Lady O Brian Baroness Clifton, Daughter of the Lord Aubigny, first marri­ed to the Lord O Brian Son to the Earl of Twomond, Afterwards to Sir Joseph Willi­amson.
  • Foulk Grevill Lord Brooke, Baron Brooke of Beauchamp's Court.
    His Seats,
    • Warwick Castle, Knowll, and Beauchamp's Court, Warwick.
    • Breamore, Southampton.
    • Hackney, Middlesex.
  • [Page 240] Edward Lord Montague, Baron of Boughton.
    His Seats,
    • Boughton, and Barnwell Castle, Northamp­ton.
  • Ford Lord Grey, Baron Grey of Wark.
    His Seats,
    • Wark Castle, Chillingham Castle, Dunsta­burgh Castle, and Horton Castle, Nor­thumberland.
    • Gosfield Hall, and Epping Place, Essex.
    • Ʋp Park, Sussex.
    • Charterhouse Close, Middlesex.
  • Robert Leake, Lord Deincourt, and Heir of the Earl of Scarsdale.
    His Seat,
    • Sutton, Derby.
  • John Lord Lovelace, Baron of Hurley.
    His Seats,
    • Hurley, Berks.
    • Water-Eaton, Oxfo [...]
  • John Lord Paulet, Baron of Hinton St. George, under age.
    His Seats,
    • Hinton St. George, Court of Ewick, Lenn Court, and Walton, Somerset.
    • Buckland, Dorset.
  • [Page 241] William Lord Maynard, Baron of Ea­staines in England, and Wicklow in Ireland.
    His Seat,
    • Easton Lodge and Achdon Place, Essex.
  • George Lord Coventry Baron of Alesbo­rough.
    His Seats,
    • Crombe Court, Alesborough, Severnstoke, and Feckenam Lodge, Worcester.
    • Corse Court and Cockbury, Glocester.
  • William Lord Howard Baron of Escrick.
    His Seats,
    • Wheldrake, York.
    • Tolesbury, Essex.
  • Charles Lord Mohun of Okehampton. Un­der Age.
    His Seat,
    • Boconock, Cornwall.
  • Henry Lord Herbert Baron of Cherbury in England, and of Castle Island in Ireland.
    His Seats,
    • Llymore Lodge and Llyslin, Mongomery.
    • St. Julians, Monmouth.
    • Chirbury, Salop.
  • [Page 242] Thomas Lord Leigh Baron of Stoneley.
    His Seats,
    • Stoneley and Fletchamsted, Warwick.
    • Hamstal Ridware, Stafford.
  • William Lord Byron Baron of Rochdale.
    His Seats,
    • Newsted Abby, Buluel Park, and Linby, Nottingham.
  • Richard Lord Vaughan Baron of Emlyn in South Wales, of Carbery, and Baron of Molingavin in Ireland.
    His Seats,
    • Golden Grove and Emlyn, Carmarthen.
  • Francis Smith Lord Carington Baron of Wotton in England, and Viscount Carrington of Barfore in Ireland.
    His Seats,
    • Wotton-wawen and Aln Lodge, Warwick.
    • Ledwell, Oxford.
    • Ashby-folvile, Leicester.
  • William Lord Widdrington Baron of Blankney.
    His Seats,
    • Widdrington Castle, Northumberland.
    • Blankney, Lincoln.
  • [Page 243] Edward Lord Ward, Baron of Birming­ham.
    His Seat,
    • Dudley Castle and Hinley, Stafford.
  • Tho. Lord Culpepper Baron Thoresway,
    His Seats,
    • Leeds Castle and Greenway Court, Kent.
  • Jacob Lord Astley Baron of Reading.
    His Seats,
    • Allington Castle and Maidstone Place, Kent
  • Charles Lucas Baron of Shenfield.
  • John Lord Bellasyse Baron of Worleby.
    His Seats,
    • Worleby, Lincoln.
    • Whitton, Middlesex.
  • Edward Watson Lord Rockingham.
    His Seats,
    • Rockingham Castle, VVarmington, and Stoke Albony, Northampton.
    • Great Gidding, Huntington.
  • Rob. Sutton Lord Lexington, Under Age.
    His Seats,
    • Averham, and Kilham. Nottingham.
  • Marmaduke Lord Langdale, Baron of Holme.
    His Seats,
    • Holme in Spalding-more and Dalton, York.
  • [Page 244] Charles Lord Berkley Baron of Stratton. Under Age.
    His Seats,
    • Stratton House alias Berkley House in Picca­dilly, and Twickenham, Middlesex.
  • Charles Lord Cornwallis Baron of Eye.
    His Seats,
    • Brome-Hall, and Carlford Hall, Suffolk.
    • VVilton Castle, York.
  • George Booth Lord de la mer.
    His Seat,
    • Dunham Massey, Chester.
  • Thomas Lord Crew Baron of Stean.
    His Seats,
    • Sean, Northampton.
    • Lawfield-Hall, Essex.
  • John Lord Freschevile Baron of Staveley.
    His Seat,
    • Staveley, Derby.
  • Richard Lord Arundel Baron of Trerise.
    His Seat,
    • Trerise, Cornwall.
  • James Lord Butler Baron of More-park in England, and Earl of Ossery in Ireland. Un­der Age.
  • [Page 245] Hugh Lord Clifford, Baron of Chudleigh, Under Age.
    His Seats,
    • Chudleigh, Devon.
    • Cannington, Somerset.
  • Richard Lord Butler, Baron of VVeston in England, and Earl of Arran in Ireland.
    His Seat,
    • Leyghton, Huntington.
  • Susan Lady Bellasyse, Baroness of Osgodby.
    Her Seat,
    • Osgodby, Lincoln.
  • Richard Lord Lumly, Viscount Lumly of Waterford in Ireland.
  • George Lord Carteret. Under Age.
  • John Bennet, Baron Ossulston.
    His Seat,
    • Ossulston, Middlesex.
  • [...]
  • VVilliam Lord Allington, Baron VVi­mondly, Constable of the Tower of London.
  • Thomas Thinne, Baron Thinne of VVar­mister, and Vicount VVeimouth.
    His Seat,
    • Long Leat, VVilts.
  • [Page 246] Ralph Stowel, Baron Stowel of Somerton.
    His Seat,
    • Somerton, Somersetsh.
THE ARCH-BISHOPS AND BISHOPS.
  • DOctor William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury.
    His Seats,
    • Lambeth-house, and Croydon Palace, Surrey.
  • Dr. Stern, Archbishop of York.
    His Seat,
    • [...]
  • Dr. Henry Compton, Bishop of London.
    His Seats,
    • London-house, and Fulham-house, Middlesex.
  • Dr. Nathaniel Crew, Bishop of Durham.
    His Seats,
    • Durham Palace, and Aukland Castle, Dur­ham.
  • [Page 247]Dr. George Morley, Bishop of Winchester.
    His Seats,
    • Farnham Castle, Surrey.
    • Wolv [...]sey House in Winchester, Southampton.
    • Chelsey House, Middlesex.
  • Dr. Herbert Crofts, Bishop of Hereford.
    His Seat,
    • Hereford Palace, Hereford.
  • Dr. Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury.
    His Seat,
    • Salisbury, Wilts.
  • Dr. Edward Rainbow, Bishop of Carslile.
    His Seat,
    • Rose Castle, Cumberland.
  • Dr. John Dolben, Bishop of Rochester.
    His Seat,
    • Bromley House, Kent.
  • Dr. Anthony Sparrow, Bishop of Norwich.
    His Seats,
    • Norwich Palace, and Ludham Hall, Nor­folk.
  • Dr. Peter Gunning, Bishop of Ely.
    His Seats,
    • Ely-house in Holborn, Middlesex.
    • [Page 248] Ely Palace in Ely, and Wisbich Castle in Wisbich, Cambridge.
  • Dr. Thomas Wood, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.
    His Seats,
    • Lichfiield Close, and Eccleshall Castle, Stafford.
  • D. Guy Carlton, Bishop of Chichester
    His Seat,
    • Chichester Palace, Sussex.
  • Dr. Robert Frampton, Bishop of Glocester.
    His Seat,
    • Glocester Palace, Glocester.
  • Dr. Peter Mew, Bishop of Bath and Wells.
    His Seats,
    • VVells Palace, and Banwell, Somerset.
  • Dr. John Pierson, Bishop of Chester.
    His Seats,
    • Chester Palace, Chester.
    • VVigan, Lancaster.
  • Dr. Humphry Lloyd, Bishop of Bangor.
    His Seat,
    • Bangor Palace, Carnarvon.
  • [Page 249]Dr. William Lloyd, Bishop of Peterborough.
    His Seats,
    • Peterborough Palace, and Castor, Northamp­ton.
  • Dr. Thomas Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln.
    His Seats,
    • Bugden, Huntington.
    • Lincoln Palace, Lincoln.
  • Dr. James Fleetwood, Bishop of Worcester.
    His Seats,
    • VVorcester Palace in VVorcester, and Hartle­bury Castle, VVorcester.
  • Dr. John Fell, Bishop of Oxford.
    His Seat,
    • Cuddesden, Oxon.
  • Dr. Thomas Lampleugh, Bishop of Exon,
    His Seat,
    • Exon Palace in Exeter, Devon.
  • Dr. VVilliam Thomas, Bishop St. Davids.
    His Seat,
    • Abergwilly, Carmarthen.
  • Dr. VVilliam Gulston, Bishop of Bristol.
    His Seat,
    • Bristol Palace, Somerset.
  • [Page 250]Dr. VVilliam Beaw, Bishop of Llandaff.
    His Seats,
    • Matherne Palace, Monmouth.
    • Llandaff Palace, Glamorgan.
  • Dr. VVilliam Lloyd, Bishop of St. Asaph.
    His Seat,
    • St. Asaph, Flint.

A SUPPLEMENT TO The Foregoing Work.

I. To the Arable and Pasturage of England.

ANGLESEY yields such plenty of Wheat, that it is call'd the Mother of Wales. In Shropshire up­on Clee-hill is the best Barley in the Shire. Sheep in the Vale of Buckinghamshire have a fine soft wool. East Kent for Corn: The Weald for Wood, Rumney for Meadow. Tenham for Orchard; Sheppey and Reculver for Wheat; Thanet for Barley. Hedcorn for fat and large Capons.

To the other Productions.

DOctor Caius the Founder of Caius Colledge in Cambridge, in a learned Treatise of his, divides the Canes Britanici, first into the Generosi, Rustici & Degeneres; the Generosi he subdivides into the Venatici Aucupatorii & Delicati: the Venatici first into the threefold S [...]gax or Hound, viz. the Terrarius or Terrare, the Leverarius or Harrier, the Sanguinarius or Bloodhound, next into the Agasaeus or Gasehound, the Leporarius or Greyhound, the Levinarius s [...]u Lorarius, the Liviner or Liemmer, the Vertragus or Tumbler The Aucupatorii in­to the Hispani [...]lus or Spaniel, the Index or S [...]tter, the Aquaticus or Water-Spaniel, the Inquisitor or Finder. Of the Delicati he makes only one sort, viz. the Meliteus seu Fotor, the Spaniel Gentle or Comforter. The Rusti [...]i into the Pastoralis or Shepherds Dog, the Vilaticus seu Cathenarius, Mastiff or Bandog. The D [...]generes into the Admo­nitor or Wap, the Ve [...]sator or Turnspit, the Sal [...]ator or Dancer.

About Sureby in Yorkshire are great store of Goats, and on the Hills towards Lan­cashire Goats and Deer.

In Cornwall on the Cliffs by the Sea-side [Page 253] are Marterns, Otters, Badgers, Foxes in a­bundance.

In the Isle of Wight are store of Goats, Rother-cattle; Horses low and small but hardy; and in most parts of Hantshire Co­nies and H [...]res particularly abound.

In the River Tiver in Cardiganshire the Beaver hath been found.

In Devonshire there are three sorts of Curlicus; the first as big as a Muscovie Duck, the second as big as an ordinary Duck, the third somewhat less. The San­derlin; a Bird about the bigness of a Snipe, of the same make, only of a lighter Grey.

In Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, near the Sea, are store of Reeves, Roughs, Gulls, and a Bird called a Stint, somewhat bigger than a Lark. Puffins and Burranets hatch in the holes of the Sea-Cliffs. Woodcocks, Sparhawks, and Fieldfares take Cornwall in their way to warmer Climates. There is also in those parts a Bird called a Spray, thought to be the Halyaetus of Pliny. Lin­colnshire abounds with God wits and Knots, besides Pewets and Dottrels aforementi­oned. And about Barton upon Humber is plenty of Mallards.

In the Calf of Man are Puffins, and also Barnacles.

[Page 254]On the Shore of Norfolk Hawks are are sometimes taken.

Turkies, or Guiny-Cocks are said to have been first brought into England, Anno 15 H. 8.

The Shoat is a Fish proper to Cornwall and Devonshire: where also, the Peal, Trout and Salmon breed in fresh Waters, but live in Salt. Sharks breed and live in the Rivers.

In Norfolk, the River Yare, by Norwich, is full of a Fish called a Ruff, very rarely found in other Rivers.

In Worcestershire, The River Severn af­fords store of fresh Water Lampreys.

About Kilgarran in Pembrokeshire, and in the River Dee in Cheshire, there is great store of Salmons.

Also Ʋsk and Wye in Monmouthshire, are full of Salmons and Trouts.

In a great Pool, near Balu in Merioneth­shire, there breeds a Fish called a Guinnind, never seen in Dee. As the Pool wants Sal­mons, which Dee abounds in.

Upon the Sea-Coast of this Shire are store of Herrings.

Carps are generally concluded to have been first brought in here in King Henry the Eighth's Reign, with several other things, unknown here before.

[Page 255]Near Bremicham in Warwickshire, are Iron-Mines; the convenience whereof▪ pos­sibly, gave beginning to the Smiths Trade in Bremicham. The same may be said of those near Sheffield in Yorkshire.

At the Head of the River Istwyd in Dar­byshire, are Veins of Lead.

In the Rocks, at the Lands End of Corn­wall, are Veins of White-Lead, and Brass.

In the West part of the Bishoprick of Durham are Iron-Mines. thereabout also, are Cole-Mines; as likewise, at Mengerfield and Westerley in Gloucestershire. Nor is Pembrokeshire destitute of Pit-Coal and Marl.

Some parts of Lincolnshire afford Alaba­ster, and Plaister of Paris.

In Flintshire Mill-stones are frequent.

And in the Isle of Anglesey, Mill-stones, Grind-stones, and a kind of Earth, out of which Allum and Copperas are extracted.

And upon the Shores of Shepey Island, Stones, from which are drawn Brimstone and Copperas.

In some parts of Derbyshire there is Lime­stone.

As also, very good in Oxfordshire, near Holton; about Hasely, and between that and Little Milton.

[Page 256]But Barrow in Leicestershire is accounted the place of England for that sort of Stone.

At Tormanton, by Sudbury, in Gloucester­shire, is a Quarry of Free-stone.

And at Eglestone, in the Bishoprick of Durham, a Marble Quarry.

On Goldcliff in M [...]nmouthshire, there is found a Stone of a Yellowish or Golden Colour.

And about Brotherton in Yorkshire, a yel­low Marle, very good to fertilize the Earth.

Upon Dartmore Rocks in Devonshire, there is some quantity, of the Magnes, or Load-stone.

Not to insist upon the several sorts of Ochre, Fullers Earth, Chalk and Gypsum, at Shotover, Ga [...]sington, Witney, and other parts of Oxfordshire; the Umber at Bladen Quarry, the Caeruleum, or Native Blue, at Blounds Court; the yellowish coloured Earth, with glittering Sparks, about Teyn­ton; the Earth called Lam, at Teinton, fit for Earthen Floors; the Terra Lapidosa, of the colour of the Turkish Rusma, in the Quarries about Thame; the Gold gritty Clay, or Pyrites aureus at Hampton-Gay; the white Clay at Shotover, used for To­bacco-pipes, and equal to Tripela for Me­dals, Galgils, Antiques, and polishing of Silver; the soft Stone called Maume, near [Page 257] Tetsworth; the Golden-coloured Marcha­site, haply the Pyrites of Kentmanus at Net­tlebed and Henly. All mentioned by Doctor Plat, in his learned and most useful Descri­ption of Oxfordshire.

In Cornwall, as well as on the Cliffs be­tween Deal and Dover, great store of Sam­phire grows; which being pickled, makes an excellent Sallad. And also of Eringus, or Sea-Holly; whose Roots Candied, are reckoned amongst the most acceptable of Sweet-Meats, in regard of their, restorative vertue. And in the most boggy Grounds of this County there is store of a Plant cal­led Ros Solis. And upon the Cliffs, and such like Maritine parts, abundance of Wild Hisop, Rosemary, Marjoram, Sage, Pelamountain. There are likewise in this County very good Chesnuts; and a kind of Berry, called Whurts, of two sorts. And, for Garlic, doubtless, this County abounds in general with this sort of Plant, for that it is much eaten by the Cornish men; whose Health and Longaevity is, by many, imputed to their frequent feeding upon this Country man's Treacle, as they call it.

Dorcetshire, especially the Isle of Portland, or thereabouts, produces a rare sort of Plant, which is accounted much of the same [Page 258] nature, if not the same, with that which the Greeks called Isidis Plocamos. But, par­ticularly, Birdport, in this Shire, is noted for the excellent Hemp growing therea­bout.

At Dengeness in Kent, Holly Trees grow thick for a Mile in length, among Beech and Pebbles.

Axholm in Shropshire is noted for a sort of Shrub called Galls, growing peculiarly thereabout.

About Keinsham in Somersetshire, great store of Percepier, or Parsely Break Stone.

Neither is Fern so inconsiderable a Plant, but that Cambden takes notice of abundance of it growing about Reading.

But in Sabernacle Forest in Wiltshire, there is a sort of Fern more remarkable than or­dinary, by reason of the sweetness of its scent.

Several Fruits, and Flowers, and other Plants have not been known in England, till of late Ages. First Pippins and Cher­ries, as hath been already intimated, and as Mr. Leonard Mascal of Plumstead King Henry the Eighth's-Gardiner observes, af­ter that, Apricots, about the fifteenth of the said King's Reign. And about the same time, Hops from Artois. Some say Apri­cots, Malacotoons and Muscmelons came [Page 259] in about the twentieth of Queen Eliza­beth. Others say, Melon-seeds were first sent out of Italy, to King James, and the Stem of a yellow Rose, which flowers from May till Christmas. Choice Flowers were first in use and reputation at Norwich, by means of the Dutch, who first brought them thither. The latest are Gillyflowers and Carnations, the Province and Red Rose, and that of Jericho: Also the Tulip (per­haps the Lilly, of the Valley) and the White-Chappel Flower. Moreover, Ar­tichoaks and Asparagus, Oranges and Le­mons, are but of late date here. As like­wise, both English and Smirna Corants; perhaps the soonest of them about an hun­dred and fifty years since. Tobacco was first brought into England by Sir Walter Raleigh, though never thought fit to be planted. About the same time came in Sugar. The first planting of Mulberries was about Anno 1609.

[...] Flax, Staffordshire, Shropshire, and the Isle of Man are particularly mentioned; and the last for Hemp. Also Tewksbury in Gloucestershire.

To the Wonders of England.

THE Monument of Stones at Stanton Drew, near Pensford, in Somersetshire, deserves a particular description, but much more that of Aubury in Wiltshire, about four Miles West from Marleborough. About this Village is cast a Ditch of a prodigious depth; viz. as deep as that of Winchester, which is the deepest that hath been obser­ved: and, not without (as usually) but within this Ditch is raised a very high Bank, or Trench, not in a form absolutely Circular, but somewhat near. Within the Trench, and answerable to the form thereof, Stones are set round, excepting those Gaps which appear to have been made by the Invasion of the Villagers upon these Stones, with Sledges, for their use in Building. Within this prodigious Round of Ditch, Bank and Stones, i [...] the Village: and two Piles of these large Stones, viz. about eighteen, nineteen or twenty Foot high, in a manner, somewhat Circular, bur pretty compact together: but the Church stands wholly without the Round of the Ditch. Moreover, there is another thing no less remarkable than the rest, [Page 261] namely, a streight Walk made by two long Tracts of Stone, about five, six or seven Foot high on either hand, of about a Mile long, leading, as an Avenue, to the said Work. And, at the beginning thereof, two other Tracts, which make another Walk, leading on the Right Hand to two other Circles of Stone, one within another, The River Kinnel running just underneath.

This Description, [...]ogether with a Deli­neation of the Stones at Stanton Drew, I received from a particular friend, Mr. John Aubrey, of the Royal Society; a person of much worth and ingenuity; but, most especially curious in the search of Antiqui­ties. And this favour is so much the greater, for that before he had designed the Description thereof himself, in a Work he intends to publish, Entituled Monumen­ta Britanica.

There are Stones near the Barrow, at Stanton Harcourt, called The Devil's Coits.

Pyramidal Stones in Yorkshire, called The Devil's Bolts.

A Stone, between Neat Enston and Ful­well, somewhat flat, and tapouring up­ward, from a broad bottom.

Snake-stones, Cockle-stones and Star-stones, at Purton Passage, over Seavern, in Gloucestershire: at Shugbury in Warwickshire: [Page 262] on the Rocks by Belvoir Castle in Leicester­shire. Cockle-stones at Sapworth, by Shar­ston, in Gloucestershire, at Witney in Oxford­shire, on the Hills by Farnham in Surrey.

Three deep Pits, near Darlington, in the Bishoprick of Durham. Hagdale Pit, near Feversham. The great Pit in the Road­way, between Feversham and Bocton. Ano­ther near Shelwich. One between Daving-Church and Stone-Church. One in the Pa­rish of Norton. One or two in a Field near Beacon-Field. Under Holm-Castle in Sur­rey, is a great Arched Vault.

Near Flamborough-Head in Yorkshire, are certain Waters called Vipsies, which flow out of Neighbouring Springs every other Year; and fall with a violent Stream into the Sea.

On Cadier Arthur Hill in Cheshire is a Spring, deep as a Well, and four square, and having no Streams; but there are Trouts found in it.

To the Medicinal Wells, already men­tioned, lately found out, may be added, that of Sellenge, and that of Egerton, near Lenham in Kent; both which were disco­vered about forty years since; and the last turns Wood into Stone.

[Page 263]At Ashwell in Bedfordshire rise so many Sources of Springs, that they soon drive a Mill.

In the midst of the River Nen, South of Peterborough, in No [...]hamptonshire, is a deep Gulf, so cold, that in Summer, no Swimmer is [...]le t [...] [...]dure it, y [...] not fro­zen in Winter.

At Lutterworth, in [...]icestershire, is a Spring, so cold, that it [...] Straw and Sticks into Sto [...].

A Valley in Fli [...]hire ▪ at the Mouth of the River, seeming to lie lower than the Sea; is yet, never overflowed.

A Spring at Chedder, near Axbridge, drives twelve Mills within a quarter of a Mile.

Several Rivers run under Ground. As,

  • Mole, in Surrey.
  • A Branch of Medway, in Kent.
  • The little River Hans, in Staffordshire.
  • The little River Alen, in Denbighshire.
  • At Asply Gowetz, in Bedfordshire, is an Earth that turns Wood into Stone.

To the Remarks of England may be ad­ded, the Artificially cast up Tumuli, or Barrows of Earth.

An innumerable Company of them on Salisbury Plain.

[Page 264]And that prodigious one called Silbury Hill, between Marlborough and Cawn.

Like which is that called Clay Hill, near Warmister. But that lies in some doubt, whether Natural or Artificial.

Likewise, divers Vestigia of Roman Camps, viz.

  • Yarnborough Castle, on Salisbury Plain.
  • Maiden Castle, about a Mile West of Dorchester.
  • Badbury Castle, in Dorsetshire.
  • Northsed, on Hounslow Heath.
  • One near Oswaldstree, in Shropshire.
  • Crednet Hill, in Hertfordshire. Where also Ariconium; now Kenchester.

To the Manufactures and Inventions of England.

MAsons, Painting and Glasing first brought into England, by Benedict, Anno 728.

Antonio Bonese, an Italian, first taught the English to spin with a Distaff, 20 H. 7.

Fine Spanish Needles were made in Queen Maries Reign, by a Negro in Cheap­side, who refused co communicate his Art; but it was afterwards taught by Elias Crouse, a German, Anno 8o Elizabethae.

In the tenth year of the said Queen, Ri­chard Dyer came from Spain, and taught his Country-men the way of making Earthen Fire-Pots, Furnaces and Transportable Ovens for baking of Earthen Ware. He had the first sole profit by Patent, Anno 1555.

Walter Rippon is said to have made the first Coach in England: for the Earl of Rut­land, Anno 1564. a hollow turning Coach: for the Queen: Anno 1585. a rare Chariot.

Others say, William Boonen, a Dutch-man, Coach-man to Queen Eliz. first brought the use of the Coach into England. And about the same time came in Long Waggons.

Making of Copperas in England was first practised by Cornelius de Vos, a Merchant, An. 1587.

[Page 266] William Saunders, a Fishmonger, was the first that brought our Caelestial and Terrestrial Globes to any considerable per­fection; but since, they have been much improved.

William Matthews, in the 5th of Queen Elizabeth, was the first rare Artist in the making of fine Knives and Hafts, which were marked with a Half Moon; and for which he had the Queens Letters Patents.

About the same time Pins, which were formerly brought in by Strangers, to the value of 60000 l. per Annum, were first made in England; and now excell all that are made in any other part of the World.

One Bourass first made the Engin for Scale-Board.

One Ross is said to have been the first that made Bandores in England: and, to this, day, that called the Ross Viol is ac­counted the choicest of all other Viols.

The ancient way among us of keeping Accounts was by Tallies; and is, in some measure, and on some occasions, retained to this day. The most considerable instance is, in the Tallies of the Exchequer. And, not only common Accounts, but the Ac­count of Time, and the Motions of the Sun, Moon, and other Planets, anciently in some parts of Derbyshire (and some say, Stafford­shire [Page 267] also) were usually notched and mar­ked out upon a piece of Wood. This sort of Calender-Log, or Wooden Alma­nack, hath scarce been taken notice of, till of late; and now some few there are who understand the way of it. The only one I have seen of them, is in the custody of Mr. John Bagford, a Searcher into Antiquities, Arts and Ingenuities, much above what might be expected from one of his Educa­tion and Literature.

An Engin for Clock-Wheels was inven­ted about a hundred years since. An En­gine for the speedy cutting down of Wheels for Watches, forty years ago, none now made after the same manner.

An Engin for drawing of Pinion Wire, of Steel for Watches, about ten years ago.

Mr. Tomakee, about ten years since, was famous for making Chains for Watches especially, as being the first. His Wife lives in Rose Street, near Long Acre.

Other late Inventions there are, not un­worthy to be mentioned. An Engin for Rasing of Glass, an Engin for Spinning of Glass, the Engin for Cutting Tobacco, the Rolling Press for Printing off from Copper Plates, Damask Linnen, and the Watering of Silks. The way of separating Gold from Silver. Enamelling in Gold, Silver and Brass; [Page 268] Boulting Mills, Dark Lanthorns, the Trum­pet-makers Trade, Cane-Chairs; a choice way of Colouring, used by Book-binders; boyling of Whalebone, making of Horn­ware. Perriwigs, Womens Masks, Busks, and Fans, and Muffs are said to have come in here about the time of the Paris-Mas­sacre.

The first pair of black Silk Stockins in England presented to Queen Elizabeth, An­no 1660.

Sir Walter Raleigh reputed by some, the first Improver of our late Models of Ships.

The best Saddle-Trees are said to be made at Burford in Oxfordshire, and some parts of the North of England. The best Riding-Whips at St Edmundbury in Suf­folk.

Besides the Fire-Engin above mentioned, there is lately brought into use a portable one, of extraordinary advantage, in re­gard it is capable of being directed into any particular Room or Chamber.

FINIS.
THE FOURTH PART OF T …

THE FOURTH PART OF THE Present State OF ENGLAND.

RELATING To its Trade and Commerce within it self, and with all Countries Traded to by the English, as it is found at this Day Established, giving a most exact account of the Laws and Customs of Mer­chants relating to Bills of Exchange, Policies of Ensurance, Fraights, Bottomery, Wreck, Ave­ridge, Contributions, Customs, Coyns, Weights, Measures, and all other matters relating to Inland and Marine affairs.

To which is likewise added Englands Guide to In­dustry, or Improvement of Trade, for the good of all People in General.

Written by a Person of Quality.

LONDON, Printed by R. Holt for William Whirwood, near the George Inn in Little Britain, 1683.

TO THE READER.

REader, wonder not that I present you with the third part of the present state of this famous and Flourishing Island, the which tho it has been already largely discoursed on in the former parts, yet it yields such Varity, if considered aright in its several Capacities, that it is a kind of Ingrati­tude to pass over in Silence the materialest part of its Glory; which has of late rendered the Brittish Empire famous throughout the known World; and caused the Barbarous Nations with admiration to bless our happy Shoars, and those whose Industries have rendered the Commodities of this Islands natural Growth valuable as the Gold of Peru, Jemms of India, Spices of Ara­bia, or Silks and Golden Woofs of Persia. No Nation is there which the Sun's large eye beholds, [Page] that ever heard of rich Albion, but were desi­rous to have Correspondence with her Merchants, and as from the Store-House of the Western World, covet a supply of all things necessary for the use of man, in Lieu whereof the Preg­nant Quarters of the Earths vast Globe, sends us yearly tributes of all that can contribute to our Temporal happiness, then take it not amiss, if after long experience I have ventured to unlock this Cabinet of rarities; and expose it to the publick view, which nought but Envy has the power to shut; and sure that cannot be con­ceived in any English brest, to stifle that whose hughest aim is at the Publick good; or if those of other Nations be ashamed to see the Glory of their native Soil, so far eclipsed by ours should endeavour it, yet let them know therein they wrong themselves by repining at the light, which like a favourable Guide to a lost Travel­ler, would put them in the right way to imitate that which through want of better Experience and Insight, they emulate; yet if any such this. Age produce, it matters not, I referring this work to stand or fall by the Approbation of my judicious Country-men, for whose Sole Benefit it was compiled by him

Who is, Reader, yours to command J. S.

A TABLE OF THE CONTENTS.

  • OF the Original of Trade, its Increase and the Method to bring it to its present per­fection, &c. Chap. 1
  • Of the Original of the Companies of London, and how and when Incorporated. Chap. 2.
  • Of the English Merchants trading into most parts, the time of their Incorporating and the Improve­ment of Navigation. Chap. 3.
  • Of Englands Trade in general, a Survey of the Weights, Measures, Coyns, Comerse of most of the Counties. Chap. 4.
  • Of the Traffick of London. Chap. 5.
  • Of the Coyns of England, settled by the Tower Standard. Chap. 6.
  • Of the Weights and Measures used in England, established by a Standard. Chap. 7.
  • Of the Trade of Scotland, as to its dependencies with England. Chap. 8.
  • A View of Ireland, and its present State and Trade. Chap. 9.
  • [Page]A View of the Ocean, and the Islands belonging to the Isle of great Britain. Chap. 10.
  • Of the Measures, Breadth, and Length of Eng­lish Cloath. Chap. 11.
  • A View of America, and its Trade with Eng­land. Chap. 12.
  • A View of Virginia, of the Trade, Names, Cu­stoms, and Government of it. Chap. 13.
  • A View of New-England, and the Trade thereof. Chap. 14.
  • A View of Maryland, the Customs and Trade thereof. Chap. 15.
  • A View of the Peruanan Provinces, their Trade and Customs. Chap. 16.
  • A View of Affrica, and of the Manners, Cu­stoms, Trade, Coyns, and Commodities. Chap. 17.
  • Of Tunis, the Trade, Manners, and Customs thereof. Chap. 18.
  • A View of Argiers, of their Trade, Manners, and Customs, and Methods for selling of Slaves. Chap. 19.
  • Of the Kingdom of Fez, and its Trade with England. Chap. 20.
  • Of the Kingdom of Morocco, the Customs, and Trade thereof with England. Chap. 21.
  • Of Nur [...]idia and Lydia, and their Trade. Chap. 22.
  • A View of Ethiopia and the Trade thereof. Chap. 24.
  • [Page]A View of Mosambique, and its Trade. Chap. 25.
  • Of Egypt, and the Trade thereof. Chap. 26.
  • Of Grand Cairo and its Trade. Chap. 27.
  • Of the Isles appertaining to Affrica, the Com­modities, Trade, Weights, and Measures. Chap. 28.
  • Of Asia, the Trade, Manners, and Customs thereof, of the Money currant, and Com­modities, Weights, and Measures. Chap. 29.
  • A View of Syria and its Trade. Chap. 30.
  • Of Aleppo, and the Trade thereof, and the Cu­stoms of that famous City. Chap. 31.
  • Of Damascus, and its Trade. Chap. 32.
  • Of Tripoly, and the Trade thereof. Chap. 33.
  • Of Palestine. Chap. 34.
  • Of America, and its Trade. Chap. 35.
  • Of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Caldea. Chap. 36.
  • Of Media, and its Trade. Chap. 37.
  • Of Persia its Trade and Commodities. Chap. 38.
  • Of Hispaan and its Trade. Chap. 39.
  • Of Tartaria its Trade, Coyn, and Customs. Chap. 40.
  • Of India, Intra and Extra Gangem. Chap. 41.
  • A View of Cambaia, and its Trade. Chap. 42.
  • A View of Goa, its Trade, Commodities and Customs, &c. Chap. 43.
  • Of Musulipatan. Chap. 44.
  • Of the City of Satagan, the Metropolis of Ben­gala. Chap. 45.
  • [Page]Of Peru, the Trade, Coyns, and Customs. Chap. 46.
  • Of Syan and Malacca. Chap. 47.
  • Of China, and their Trade with England. Chap. 48.
  • Of the Islands, in the Asian Seas. Chap. 49.
  • Of the Isles of Molucco's, &c. Chap. 50.
  • Of Javas, and the Trade thereof. Chap. 51.
  • Of other Islands in the Indian Seas. Chap. 52.
  • Of Cyprus its Trade, Growth, and Coyns. Chap. 53.
  • A Discourse of Gold and Silver, its true intrin­sick value, their Fineness and Allayes, &c. Chap. 54.
  • Of Diamonds and precious Stones, and their va­lue and goodness. Chap. 55.
  • Of the Trade of Europe, and their dependen­cies on England. Chap. 56.
  • Of Sevil in Spain and its Trade. Chap. 57.
  • Of Malaga, the Customs, Weights, and Mea­sures. Chap. 58.
  • Of Alicant, and its Trade. Chap. 59.
  • Of Madrid, its Trade and Customs. Chap. 60.
  • Of Lisbon, its Trade, Weights, Measures, and Coyns. Chap. 61.
  • A View of France, its Trade, Custom, Weights and Measures, &c. Chap. 62.
  • Of Rouen and the Trade thereof. Chap. 63.
  • A View of Paris, its Trade, Custom, and Com­modities, &c. Chap. 64.
  • Of Lyons, and its Trade. Chap. 65.
  • [Page]Of Marselia, and its Trade. Chap. 66.
  • Of Naples, and its Trade. Chap. 67.
  • Of Italy, and its Trade. Chap. 68.
  • Of Florence, and its Trade. Chap. 69.
  • Of Millain, and its Trade. Chap. 70.
  • Of the Dukedoms of Mantua and Urbin, and their Trade. Chap. 71.
  • Of Venice, and its Trade. Chap. 72.
  • Of Parma. Chap. 73.
  • Of Leghorn, its Trade, Customs, Weights, and Measures. Chap. 74.
  • Of Genoa, its Trade and Commerce. Chap. 75.
  • Of Luca, and its Trade. Chap. 76.
  • Of Rome, and its Trade, and Customs. Chap. 77.
  • Of Flanders and Holland, their Weights, Mea­sures, Coyns, Customs, Traffick. Chap. 78.
  • Of Amsterdam and its Trade. Chap. 79.
  • Of Germany, its Provinces and Trade. Chap. 80.
  • Of Stratsburg, and its Trade. Chap. 81.
  • Of Vicura, its Trade, Weights, and Customs, and Coyn. Chap. 82.
  • Of Hamburg, its Trade, Commodities, Coyns, &c. Chap. 83.
  • Of Denmark, its Trade, &c. Chap. 84.
  • Of Elsinore, and the Trade thereof. Chap. 85.
  • Of Norway, its Customs and Tade. Chap. 86.
  • Of Sweedland, its provinces and Trade. Chap. 87.
  • Of Moscovia, and its chief City Mosco, its Trade and Customs, &c. Chap. 88.
  • A View of the Kingdom of Poland its Trade, &c. Chap. 89.
  • [Page]Of Hungary, and the adjacent Provinces, their Trade and Manufacture, &c. Chap. 90.
  • A View of Greece, and its Trade, the Manu­facture and Trade of Constantinople with England. Chap. 91.
  • A View of the Islands in the Egean and Medi­terranean Sea, &c. Chap. 92.
  • Of Candia and other Islands. Chap. 93.
  • Of Zant, Zeffalonia, and their Trade, Commodi­ties, Coyn, &c. Chap. 94.
  • Of Sicilia, Malta and Sardinia, their Trade. Chap. 95.
  • Of Greenland & other Northern Islands. Ch. 96.
  • Of the Practice and Custom of Exchanges, and the Benefit thereof. Chap. 97.
  • Of four Bills of Exchange, of presenting, paying and protesting, the Laws and Customs of Mer­chants therein asserted. Chap. 98.
  • Of the Pair in Exchange, and form of English, Dutch, and French Bills. Chap. 99.
  • Ʋseful observat. on Bills of Exchange. page 300.
  • Of Letters of Credit, and why drawn. p. 312.
  • A Survey of Customs of Tonnage, and Poundage, of Wines of the Growth of France, Ger­many, Spain, Portugal. p. 314
  • Of Policies of Assurance, their Original, Legality, Nature, and Quality. p. 325.
  • Of Bottomery, the Signification of it, the Com­modity or Discommodity of it. p. 332.
  • Of the Rights, and Priviledges of Owners of [Page] Ships, and Rules to be observed by them, ac­cording to Laws Marine. p. 335.
  • Instructions to be observ'd by Masters of Ships. p. 337.
  • Of Fraight and Charter part according to Laws Marine. p. 340.
  • Of Wrecks, and Instructions for Masters and Owners in case of Wrecks. p. 344.
  • Of Averidge and Contribution, and what Goods maybe cast over-board in case of a Storm. p. 347.
  • A View of London, with the Customs, Privi­ledges and Exemptions thereof according to the Charters of several Kings of England. p. 351.
  • A Survey of the remaining Ports of England, with their Members, Creeks, &c. together with the Goods Imported and Exported. p. 358.

A Table of the Contents of the second Trea­tise, Intituled, A Discourse of Trade.

  • CHAP I. THat a small Country, and few people by Si­tuation, Trade and Policy, may be Equi­valent in Wealth and Strength to a far great­er people, and that Conveniencies for Ship­ping and Water-Carriage, do most eminently and fundamentally conduce thereunto.
  • CHAP. II. That some kind of Taxes and Publick Levies [Page] may rather increase then diminish the Wealth of the Kingdom.
  • CHAP. III. That France cannot by Reason of natural and perpetual im­pediments, be more powerful at Sea then England and the low Countries.
  • CHAP. IV. That the people and Territories of the King of England, are naturally as considerable for Wealth and Strength as those of France.
  • CHAP. V. That the impediments of Englands greatness, are Contingent and removable.
  • CHAP.. VI. That the Power and Wealth of England, has increased these last 40 years.
  • CHAP. VII. That one 10 part of the whole Expences of the King of England Subjects, is sufficient to maintain 100000 Foot, 40000 Horse, and 40000 men at Sea, and defray all other charges of the Government, both ordinary and Extraordinary, &c.
  • CHAP. VIII. That there are spare Hands enough amongst the King of Eng­lands Subjects, to earn two Millions per Annum more then they now do, and that there are also Imployments ready, proper and sufficient for the purpose.
  • CHAP. IX. That there is Money sufficient to drive the Trade of the Nati­on.
  • CHAP. X. That the King of Englands Subjects, have Stock Compe­tent and Convenient to drive the Trade of the Whole Commercial World.

THE INTRODUCTION. OR THE ORIGINAL OF TRADE, PLAINLY Demonstrating it's Increase. The Means and Methods used to bring it to the Per­fection it is arrived to at present. And of the great Benefit reaped thereby, both in General, and Particular.

CHAP. I.

THat Inland & Maritim Trade & Traf­fick are (with Gods Blessings on mens Indeavours) the chief Pillars and [...]upport of all Nations, and from whence [Page 2] they had their first rise and greatness is so evident that Arguments to prove it would be ineffectual; yet from the World's Ori­ginal it had not it's perfection, nor indeed could it till Mankind increased, and by spread­ing wide in the Earth, Peopled it's vast Immensity; nor then, for some thousands of Years was it National, but rather in se­cret between man and man, few People knowing the Benefit of any other commo­dities then what were of the native growth of those Countries they inhabited; nor so could Riches abound, for Coyn was for the most part useless, or indeed not mentioned till the days of Abraham the Patriarck; Exchange of Goods being the only Traffick▪ and consequently on that score few Traded for more then they had pre­sent occasion to use, by Reason many things were not of lasting quality, and for that they for the most part Travelled from place to place. Their chiefest Riches consisted in Cattle, but at last when they Builded Ci­ties and Towns, and found the conveni­ency of a Settlement they extended their Traffick farther, and one City Traded with another, which still spread wider; yet long was it 'er they found means to plough the Bosom of the Sea, and to hold Commerce and Traffick with remote Nations, which no [Page 3] sooner was brought to my Perfection, but Riches abounding, and Plenty Flowing in on every side, men then (and not till then) began to give their thoughts large scope, and not contented with the Portion of Earth alotted them, began to grow emulous & aspire to universal Soveraignty; as likewise to plant Colonies in (till then) unhabitable Islands▪ which had not Shipping been invented must have continued without inhabitants; as at this time (past doubt) for want of disco­very many do in the remote Seas, especially under the Artick Pole, whose extremi­ty renders them unaccessible, or at least un­habitable; and of all Nations the Greeks were the first that brought Navigation to any Perfection, by which they grew o­pulent and extended their Colonies to th [...] utmost Orient, acquiring the Empire of the then known World; their Fame growing every where great, nor could the Romans bring their Warlike Expeditions to any perfection till they were Lords of the Sea, and inriched themselves by Traffick, bringing into that one City the Stores of all Nati­ons; so that from Cottages of Shepherds, who lay'd her first Foundation, she soon became Magnificent, thrusting up her Lof­ty Spires, bedecked with Gold so high that they in a manner kissed the Clouds, and [Page 4] rendered her the awfull Mistriss of the Uni­verse; and by Trade and Industry, more then by Arms, kept up her Reputation for six hundred Years, when ranging the World to find out Countries unconquered, at last, from Gallia, or France, under the leading of Caesar, they entered Brittain; a Place then wild and rude, not knowing how to use the abundant plenty that Nature be­stowed upon them, but refusing all manner of Dainties, fed upon Roots of Herbs, and Barks of Trees; not Tilling any Ground, nor sowing Corn, otherwise then scatter­ing it on the untilled Surface of the Earth, and harrowing it over with Bushes, suf­fering their Cattle, Fowl, and Fish, of which they had store, to continue useless, scarcely knowing any shoar but their own: Their Traffick, or Merchandise, for the most part amongst themselves, and that but mean; their chief Riches consisting (as Strabo saith) in Ivory-Boxes, Sheers, Onches, Bitts, Bridles, Chains of Iron, Wreaths, Glass coloured and the like, which they usually delivered to each other as currant Coyn, for what their necessity required; but no sooner had the Romans Civilized them, and instructed them in such Arts as were most sutable to their Capacities, and might stand them in greatest stead, but [Page 5] they began to Build Houses (living before for the most in Huts, and going naked) and turned their Leather Boats into Tall Ships, Furrowing the Seas broad back, and discovering many Nations, to them, till then, unknown: So that by Traffick abroad, and Improvement at home, this Island grew famous, and spread it's Name to the ut­most Limit of the known Earth; so that being rightly termed the Store-House of the Western World, all the Neighbour-Nations Traded hither; so that those Ports and Havens that were for a long time use­less, were now filled with Ships of all Na­tions: So that Silver and Gold was had in Abundance, and Coyns in imitation of those the Romans Stamped with the Effigies of their Kings and Princes, which then were many, each County containing two or three, and they for the most part at variance a­mongst themselves, which gave the Romans an opportunity to become Conquerors at an easier rate then otherwise they could.

During the four hundred Years and odd that the Romans Governed here by their Lievetenants, and sometimes by their Em­perors in Person; Rome, and after her Constantinople, the new Seat of Empire, abounded with our Stores, so that more Tribute was pay'd by this Island then by [Page 6] France and Germany, tho Ten times as large; but the fame of Brittains Wealth proved her unhappyness, for the Goth breaking in upon the Roman Empire, whose spread­ing Top was too large to be supported by the slender Bole, her Branches was torn off on every side, so that to support their own, the Romans were forced to recall their Legions, who took with them the Flower of the Brittish-Youth, and left her open to the Picts and wild-Irish, who spoiled and wasted all her pleasant Places with Fire and Sword, and after them the Saxons (who were called in to expell them) far worse, so that of a Flourishing Island, it became for many Years a place of Ruin and deso­lation, all her Nobility Slain, and the re­sidue of her Natives forced to betake them­selves to the Fastnesses of Mountains, so that Strangers having grasped the Scepter, which then Multiplyed into seven, from thence called the Heptarchy of the Saxons Trade again ceased, all the Ships either Sunk or Burnt in the Ports; but no sooner was the Bloody Tempest over, but the wounded Island again began to lift up her Head. Forraign Nations again came in with the growths of their distant Soil, and so she again became a Store-House of Wealth; but especially, when the sole Monarchy was [Page 7] reduced under Egbert the nineteenth King of the West-Saxons—under whom things Flourished in a peaceful manner. But soon after, as if Fate had envied her happyness, the Danes (no less Bloody then the Sax­ons had been) made an Invasion, tempted by the glittering Wealth of this fair Isle, and never left off till they had grasped the Scepter, and reduced it to the obedience of Canute, under whom again she Flourished more then ever, and so continued to do (Trade increasing and Arts duly improv­ed) till the Conquest by the Norman-Duke, who for a while put a stop to her aspiring, yet soon after gave incouragements to Industry by Grants, Charters, and large immunities; and from him, through the Reigns of several Peaceful Kings, the cur­rent of her Prosperity continued. Maritim affairs being prosecuted with such Success, that our Sailers began to Plough (till then) unknown Seas, and so Succesfully that they brought home great store of Riches, open­ing a way to those that succeeded, to bring to perfection what at this day renders us happy in all temporal Blessings.

Having thus far proceeded in general to shew what Brittain has been in her infancy, I shall now proceed to give the Reader an account of such matters as have more im­mediately [Page 8] conduced to the prosperous and Flourishing Estate, wherein she has for ma­ny Years past remained, and does at pre­sent remain; which chiefly, next Heaven, we must attribute to her store of Shipping, and Expertness in Navigation, so long in­couraged by her indulgent Kings, who in Peace and War have maintained the So­veraignty of the Seas with Navies almost incredible; so that no Neighbour-Nation durst disturb our Traffick. Not to insist up­on King Arthure, who found out the Rus­sian Tracts, and passed on conquering al­most to the utmost Orient, attended by a Squadron of three hundred Ships; nor Ed­gard his Successor, who Ploughed the Bo­som of the deep with four hundred Sail, asserting his Soveraignty on the Main, to the admiration of the Neighbour-Nations. Nor was Canute the Puissant Danish King, then Reigning in Brittain, less formida­ble on his watery Empire, being proud to have annexed to his Style Lord of the Ocean. Nor Edward the Confessor, less Potent in Naval forces, as appears by the many Ships of War he set forth to give Battle to his Brother in Law Godwin Earl of Kent, who kept the Seas with a great number of Ships that spoiled and wasted the Coasts of Brittain, as appears [Page 9] in the Reign of that King; tho indeed Heaven at that time prevented the Shedding of English-Blood, by sending just as they were about to ingage a thick Fogg to co­ver the Face of the Deep, so that none could see a Ships length. By this means Seamen were brought up and fitted for Navigation, in such sort that in the Non­age of the Norman-Conquest, as is be­fore said, Traffick abroad began to Flourish; nor was Manufacture, that Sinew of a Na­tion, less regarded, People being incou­raged thereto, not only by the Princes themselves with large Indulgencies, but by such Wealthy Peers and others, as more sought the good of the Publick-Weal than their own Private interest, which ever re­dounds in the end to their profit. For tho the Poor be never so industrious, yet wanting what to Trade with, their Indu­stry will faint; but if they have imploy­ment to improve themselves, Lands, and all things else will be improved, and ad­vanced to a higher Estimate, and the growth of England be made of value equal, if not exceeding any European Commodity what­soever: So that this spot of an Island may, nay is, rightly termed the Store-House of the World, who can subsist of her self, but without whose Commodities few Na­tions [Page 10] can maintain their Grandure.

But to the purpose: The Kings after the Conquest intending to make this their constant Seat, and making little esteem of their Ancient Inheritance, the Dutchy of Normandy did not let to increase the Gran­dure of this Kingdom, by granting large Pri­viledges and immunities to those that were Industrious, but especially to the City of London, the chief residence of Royalty, named by many Kings, their Royal Cham­ber: Nor was any thing thought too dear that might conduce to her Felicity, as ap­pears by the Charter granted by King William the first, commonly called the Con­queror, which was in these words.

William King, greeteth William Bishop, and Godfry Porters and all the Burgesses within London, French, and English, and I grant you, that I will that you maintain and injoy all your Laws, that you did in the days of King Edward (meaning the Confessor's) and I will, that each Child be his Fathers Heir; and further, I will, that no man wrong you, and so God keep you.

This free concession gave scope to Trade, being much augmented by succeeding Kings, so that Tradsemen growing numerous, they so prevailed upon the Benign Boun­ty of the Reigning Princes, that they af­ter [Page 11] long Fraternities obtained at several times to be incorporate in distinct Bodies, or Companies, to Implead, or be Implead­ed as one man. The account of which as it happened in divers Kings Reigns, shall in the following Chapters be set down, be­ginning at the first of the twelve, and so to proceed in order.

CHAP. II. The Original of the Companies of the City of London, viz. the Principal twelve, of the time of their being incorporated, and by what Kings and Queens: As likewise the names of all the other Companies, as at this day they stand confirmed.

1. THe Mercers (tho then Trading for the most part in Stuffs of the Na­tive growth) were inabled to be a Com­pany, and Permitted to Purchase twenty pounds per Annum Lands, in the seventeenth [Page 12] Year of King Richard the second's Reign, Anno Domini, 1393.

2. The Grocers (tho at that time not brought to half the Perfection that now it is) called Pepperers, before were Incor­porated, by the name, aforesaid, in the twentieth Year of King Edward the third Anno Dom. 1345.

3. The Drapers for the most part Woollen, were Incorporated in the seventeenth of King Henry the sixth, Anno 1430. hav­ing been a Fraternity from the time that King Edward the third so earnestly pro­moted the Woollen Manufacture by admit­ting the Flemins and other Nations, the free use of Manual Operation within his Dominions. That so his Subjects might learn the Craft, and not be beholden to o­ther Nations, to work the growth of our own Country, and pay them extraordinary Rates, by the advance of Exportation and Importation; for what might be otherwise ordered to the Advantage and Glory of our own Nation by setting many thousands of Poor people on work, otherwise incapa­ble of getting whereby to subsist.

4. The Fishmongers (a Vocation no less advantagious to this Kingdom by their in­couragement of the Fishing-Trade, of which hereafter I shall speak) were (in [Page 13] former times) two Companies viz. Stock-Fishmongers, and Salt-Fishmongers; but in the beginning of the Reign of Henry the Eight, Anno 1509. did bear their Arms as at present they do, and in the twenty eight Year of the King, Anno 1536, were United and incorporated in one Body with­out distinction.

5. The Goldsmiths (an Ancient Craft, so I may rightly term it, for formerly those that sold worked likewise their own Plate) were Incorporated and confirmed in the six­teenth Year of King Richard the Second's Reign.

6. The Skinners had the Favour to be in­corporated in the first Year of the Reign of King Edward the third, Anno 1327. and were made a Brotherhood in the eighteenth of King Richard the Second's Reign.

7. The Merchant-Taylors had their first pattent of Arms granted by Sr. Thomas Holne Clarencieux King at Arms, being then called Taylors, and Linnen Armourers, viz. in the twenty first of King Edward the fourth, Anno 1480. and since Incorporated by Henry the Seventh, by the name of Merchant Taylors. viz. in the seventeenth of his Reign, Anno 1501.

8. The Haberdashers, or Hurrers, for­merly so called were Incorporated a Bro­therhood [Page 14] of St. Catharine in the twenty sixth of Henry the sixth, Anno 1447. and by the name of Merchants Haberdashers, con­firmed in the seventeenth Year of Henry the seventh.

9. The Salters had their Arms, and as many suppose, were confirmed in the twen­tieth Year of Henry the Eighth 1530. be­ing a Company of good Esteem.

The Iron-Mongers had the Favour to be Incorporated in the third Year of King Ed­ward the fourth, Anno 1462. at which time they were greatly increased, and the Mines of our Nation much improved.

11. The Vintners, formerly called Wine-Tunners were Incorporated in the Reign of King Edward the third, after he had Con­quered all Normandy, and by that means ingrossed most of the French Vintage; But were not confirmed till the fifteenth of Henry the sixth.

12. The Cloath-Workers had their Arms granted by Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux, in the twenty second Year of Henry the Eighth, but the time of their Incorporation uncertain.

And thus in brief, have I declared the Original of the twelve Principal Compa­nies, upon whom the greatest Stress of Trade depends, and by whose prudent Management, and Industry, Brittain Flou­rishes, [Page 15] and at this day lifts up her Head above her Neighbour Nations.

Those that remain, are these (whose names I shall only recite, because they tend not much to our purpose, the Dyers, Brew­ers, Leathersellers, Pewterers, Barbers, Chy­rugeons, Armourers, White-Bakers, Wax-Chan­dlers, Tallow-Chandlers, Cutlers, Girdlers, Butchers, Sadlers, Carpenters, Cordwainers, Painters, Curriers, Masons, Plumbers, In­holders, Founders, Embroiderers, Poulterers, Cooks, Coopers, Bricklayers, and Tylers, Bow­yers, Fletchers, Blacksmiths, Joyners, Plai­sterers, Weavers, Fruterers, Scriveners, Bo­tlemakers, and Horners, Stationers, Marblers, Wool-packers, Farriers, Paviers, Lorimors, or Lorinors, Brown-Bakers, Wood-mongers, Ʋpholsterers, Turners, Glaziors, Clarks, Wa­termen, Apothecaries, and Silk-Throwst­ers.

All of these are Fraternities, and most of them Incorporated and have Charters of Priviledge, and large Immunities, tho in the days of our Forefathers, many of them were not known, not having brought their several Trades and Crafts to perfection, for many of which they were obliged to be beholden to Strangers; but the Natives of this Kingdom being▪ naturally Ripe-wited and of a toward Genius, soon [Page 16] became Arts-Masters, and out-did their Teachers; so that at this day, no Nati­on under Heaven can exceed them (if the Materials be alike) in all respects.

But having given the Reader an account of the Respective Companies, whose in­dustry at home, improve to a Miracle, what is brought to them from distant Lands, I shall proceed to give a Relation of the Respective Merchants, whose Tra­ffick by Sea Inriches the Land, whilest the Land finds them with wherewithal to drive on their Commerce with all Nations, from whence any Valuable Merchandise is brought. But before I Lanch altogether into the Ocean, I think it would be necessary to relate the Incorporation of the Mer­chant of the Staple, who once were the chiefest boast, and most profitable to this Nation: Nor indeed less profitable to o­thers, as France, Flanders, Holland, Saxony, and many other Countries, the chief Mart being Established at Calis, a little before taken from the French, by King Edward the third, the profit of our English Wool then chiefly obliging the Flemings to side with us, against their Potent Neigh­bour.

The Merchants of the Staple having been a long while a Fraternity were In­corporated [Page 17] by the aforesaid King Edward the third, and by him indowed with ma­ny large Priviledges, tho at this day the Woollen Manufacture, being greatly increased, every one buyes his Commodity where he can find it best Cheap, so that there remaining no fixed Staple, these Merchants are not now of such Repute as formerly.

CHAP. III. Of the several English Merchants Trading into most parts, of the time of their Incorporating, and Improv­ment of Navigation.

THe English Merchants Trading by Navigation (who by visiting re­mote Countries, and Trafficking with the Inhabitants, bring in the store of the whole World) are chiefly these, and their Incor­porations mostly as followeth.

1. The Merchants Adventurers, were Incorporated by King Edward the [Page 18] fourth, from which time, they Traded with good Success, until the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, who, for a further incou­ragement to their Industry, not only confirmed them, but inlarged their Privi­ledges.

2. The Merchants of Russia or Muscovia, who having improved their Trade and Commerce in that Remote Kingdom, to the Inriching their Native Land, were In­corporated by King Edward the sixth, greatly incouraged by Queen Mary, and had their confirmation, with an Augmenta­tion of their Priviledges, from the ever fa­vourer of Navigation the Bounteous Queen Elizabeth.

3. The Merchants of Elbing, were In­corporated by Queen Elizabeth, and by her greatly incouraged; she, like a prudent Queen, and Patroness of her Country, well knowing, that by Traffick, not only her Revenues would be improved, but likewise her People be Inriched, and she rendered formidable to her aspiring Neigh­bours, tho since upon some distast, they have left Trading in that place, and Trade at Hambourg, and other free Cities and Ports.

4. The Turky-Merchants, or Merchants of the Levant, were likewise Incorporat­ed [Page 19] by the same Queen, and were con­firmed with a large addition, to their Priviledges by King James.

5. The Merchants of Spain, or more properly, Spanish Merchants, or such of our Nation as Traded to Spain, were Incorpo­rated by Queen Elizabeth.

6. The East-India Merchants were In­corporated by Queen Elizabeth, Anno 1600. from which time they have continually in­proved their Trade in those remote parts of the World, being now one of the Wealthiest Corporations in Europe; their first rise was by imploying a Joynt-stock to build Ships (of which now they have Store) and so themselves in imitation of the Porteguese, and other industrious People, Traded to the Indies, and soon found the advantage by bringing home the same Commodities which we before were behold­en to Strangers for at second Hand, and dear Rates.

7. In the latter end of Queen Elizabeths Reign and in the beginning of King James's, the Eastland, Greenland, and French Mer­chants, were setled in companies and Trad­ed with great Success, Building many Ships, and continually imploying some thousands of Persons in the Management of their Affairs, Exporting Commodities of our [Page 20] growth, and bring in those of the growth of other Countries.

8. There are likewise a Company of Virginia, or West-India Merchants, whose Industry has much improved our Colonies in America, and advance the King's Reve­nues in his Customs twenty thousand pound per Annum; which Trade into those parts has, and dayly will increase and turn to the Advantage of our Nation, and be a means of making further Discoveries in those vast Seas, in which lie hid past doubt many fair Islands, if not Continents as Rich as those which yield the Spaniard yearly so many Millions of Ducates in Gold Ore, and Bars of Silver. These and other Traders in remote parts make England Flourish, and stand the envy of her Neighbour Nations. There is likewise the Guinnie and Barbary Companies, both Rich in Shipping and Merchandise, having since their Incorpora­tion gotten great Esteem, and much improv­ed Navigation. And now, having given an account of the Constitution and settle­ment of those in general that drive on the Trade, and Commerce both by Land and Sea, before I Lanch into the Ocean, to take a view of other Countries, or to describe their Trade and Traffick I shall ex­pose to Publick view the Commodities of [Page 21] my Native Country, with all the Islands and Dominions that surround it. viz. such [...]s are subject to the Brittish Scepter; as [...]lso, in due place and order. As also of [...]he Currant Coyns, the Weights, Mea­ [...]ures, and such other Matters relating to Commerce, as are available to the Com­piling of this Treatise; and first of Eng­ [...]and and Wales.

CHAP. IV. Of England, and the Trade thereof in General and Particular, with a Survey of all the Measures, Weights, Currant Coynes, Inland Commerce, and what tends to Navigation. A De­scription of the most material Counties, and of the Trade of Wales in gene­ral.

ENgland, the Head of the Brittish Em­pire, is in every Place so admirable abounding with plenty, that to describe [Page 22] her in every part of her Trade and Beau­tiful Situation, would exact a large Vo­lum. Therefore I shall only in brief expose to view what is most material as to my purpose: And first, I shall begin with Cornwell, as being the remotest of the Eng­lish Counties, or Provinces; tho it be in it self, in many places, to appearance a Barren and Mountainous Country, yet does it pro­duce Rich Mines of Tinn, which brought to perfection, is of great esteem in all Countries. With it there is also digged Gold and Silver, tho hardly worth refining, the Earth not having heat enough to bring it to perfection; there is found likewise a Stone Transparent, naturally formed in Angles and Points like a Diamond, which was it not so common, might merit high esteem. On that Coast, Herrings and Pilch­ards are taken in great number, which not only sustain the Inhabitants, but being dryed prove good Merchandise in Spain, France, Flanders, and Italy. The Sea Coast is adorned with many Towns, of which Falmouth is chief, being capable of recei­ving many Vessels; nor is St. Ives of less note, yielding great store of Fish, not reckoned less yearly then four or five thou­sand Hogsheads of Pilchards, and five hundred Barrels of Herrings, besides some [Page 23] Tuns of Congerdoust, & great store of Ray-Fish, which imploys some hundreds of the Inhabitants, and inables them to provide plentifully for their Families, and reserve, as the old saying is, a Penny against a rainy day.

These Commodities, viz. Pilchards, are vended by the Hogshead, four of them making a Tun, as likewise by the thousand, they allowing twelve hundred small Tale to the thousand, and a Bar­rel of Herrings, commonly thirty Gallons, is sold to the Merchants for eighteen Shil­lings, twenty Shillings, or according as the fishing Season is propitious; Congerdoust is sold by the Kintale, viz. one hundred and twelve pound to the Kintale; Ray-fish are for the most part sold fresh, and that by the Dozen, at two Shillings four Pence, two Shillings six Pence, and some­times three Shillings per Dozen, but their Dozens are extraordinary large, they al­lowing sometimes sixty to the Dozen, but sometimes less, according to the Cu­stom of the Place; their Weight is one hundred and twelve pound according to the Stander, their Yard and Ell equal to those of London.

Their Bushel for Grain and Salt import­ed contains twenty eight Gallons Water [Page 24] Measure, and so proportionable the greater or the lesser Measures; but their Bushel us­ed in Publick Markets for Corns is but twenty Gallons, their Gallon agreeing with the Winchester Gallon. The Bakers in those parts are but few, and the most thing they stand in need of is Salt, Ten thousand Bushel being yearly spent in Curing their Fish.

The manner of taking Pilchards and Herrings is with Nets, but the Ray-Fish with Hooks; the first being Fished for from the first of July till the first of Janu­ary; the second, from Michalemass till Christ­mass; and the third and last, only in the Prime of Summer; sixty Boats, and about four hundred men being imployed therein.

Devonshire is no less Rich in Veins of Tin: adorned it is with many Towns and good Havens; as Exon, Dartmouth, and Pli­mouth, the latter famous for producing the worthy Sr. Francis Drake. The Sea-Ports, as the former, most Subsist by Fishery.

Dorsetshire abounds in Cattle, Fertile Pastures, and Linnen Manufacture; it's chief Towns being Dorchester, and Way­mouth.

Somersetshire is famous for the many Trading Places contained in it's Circuit, [Page 25] but especially in Bristol, the second City of England for Naval Commerce, as being stored with Merchants Trading into most parts of the known World; it abounds in Riches, and the County no less in Corn, Cattle, Wool, Woollen, Cloth Serges, and other valuable Commodities, which they Trade withal to other adjacent Coun­ties.

Darbyshire, the Head of which is the Town of Derby abounds in plenty of Corn, Leaden Mines, and other Minerals.

Wiltshire is an Inland County, but the people Frugal and industrious, their chief Commodity is Woollen-Cloth, which is dispersed all over England, and brings them a good return, maintaining at least three thousand Persons in Carding, Spining, Weaving, Shearing, Dressing, and the like; the Head of this County is Salis­bury.

Hampshire, famous for the great Trade of Hony therein, whose chief Cities are Southampton, and Winchester.

Barkshire, is famous for Cloth-working, abounding in Cattle, Rich Pastures, Artifi­cers, Fruits of all sorts, and all things else necessary for the Subsistance of man.

Surry, is no less abounding in all plenty than the former, and of greater Trade, by [Page 26] Reason of it's nearness to the City of London, that Mouth of the Nation, by Rea­son of which it's Inhabitants have the better opportunity to vend the growth of that County.

Sussex and Kent, abound in Fruits, Corn, Wood, Wax, Hony, Cattle, and all other necessary Commodities, which by Reason they border on the Sea, they have opportu­nity to dispose of at good rates.

Glocestershire, is for the most part imployed in the Woollen Manufacture, Glocester being the Head City. In it are found those fa­mous Hills of Cots-Wold on which nume­rous Flocks of Sheep Feed, and affoard the best Wool in Europe.

Oxford, is famous for her Rich Pastures, store of Cattle, and Corn, but above all for her University in her chief City of Oxford.

Buckingham, Bedford, and Hertfordshires, are adorned with pleasant Buildings, rich Pastures, store of Corn, pleasant Rivers abounding with Fish, and Forrests of Stately Oaks, with which the Wall of the Nati­on, viz. our Ships of War are made; nor is Venison in abundance wanting, nor any sort of Fowls common in England.

Middlesex, and Essex, the first famous for Buildings, and so long together con­taining [Page 27] the Pallaces of our Kings Courts of Judicature, and above all incompassing the famous City of London.

The second, for store of Cattle the many famous Ports, and the Commodity received by shipping, the Silver Thames Washing her Southern Shoar as far as the Hope, it abounding likewise in Corn, Cheese, Butter, and the like.

Suffolk and Norfolk, next take place; the first famous for Butter, Cheese, Cloath, Cattle, Corn, Wool, and what not: The second for Deer, Conneys, Sheep, Daries, and store of Corn; but above all, for con­taining the famous City of Norwich, which for Industry ought to be accounted the chief Boast of England, it being seated up­on the River Yare, from whence Yarmouth takes it's name, and thirty Miles from the Sea by Water, tho not above sixteen by Land, has little forrain Trade, save on­ly with Holland; the chief Trade being with the City of London, the chief Com­modities being Stuffs, and Stockings, which are made for the most part in the Ci­ty; it not being guessed, that less then one hundred thousand pounds-worth of Stuffs every Year are sent up to London; which Stuffs making and disposing of are under the Government of two Companies, [Page 28] the one called the Worstes Company, the o­ther the Russia Company: Those Manufactures under the Government of the Worsted Com­pany (and approved by the Wardens there­of) have a Seal affixed to each, on the one side inscribed Norwich, on the other, such letters as stand for the Wardens Names, that are at the Sealing thereof. The other Seal has on one side these words, viz. Wor­sted Reformed, and on the other in Figures containing the quantity of Yards the Piece contains. Those called the Russia Compa­ny, the Manufacture, under whose Govern­ment to be approved, by them is Sealed on the one side with these words▪ Fidelitas Artes alit.

This Suff Trade is managed by Part­ner-Ship between the London and Norwich Merchants, great quantities whereof have been, and are exported to furnish other Nations, especially Spain, and the West-In­dias. The Stockings here vended, are reckoned to amount to near sixty thousand pounds per Annum, being most knit by Children incapable of other Labour; so that at eight Years of Age, many of them will earn four pence or six Pence a day▪ these latter are not under any Governour, but have their Materials found them by cer­tain Citizens, as well of that City, as of [Page 29] London, which when made into Hose, are sent over Sea, most of them, to furnish the Neighbour Nations. The County like­wise affoards Sheep, Conies, and Kine in abundance, as also, store of Corn, especi­ally Barly; which being turned into Mault is sent up to London, as likewise into Scot­land; all Corn is sold according to the Custom of the Country by the Score, which is twenty Cooms, every Coome containing four Bushels, and to every Score one Coom is allowed over-plus. Their Weights and Measures, both dry and wet, are consistent to the London Weights and Measures. In the like manner abound Cambridgshire, Northamptonshire, Huntington­shire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Lincolnshire, noting­gamshire, Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staf­fordshire, Shropshire, Cheshire, Herefordshire, Yorkshire, the County of Richmond, Bishop­rick of Durham, Lancashire, Westmoreland, Cumberland, Northumberland. And the strong Town and Territories of Barwick up­on Tweed, all abounding in store of things necessary and convenient for the profit and pleasure of man.

In brief, England affoards more Merchan­dise than any one Nation in Europe, as Per­petuanas Bays, Says, Serges, Cotton, Wool­len, Cloath of all sorts, Kersies, Buffins, [Page 30] Mocados, Grogram, Sattins, Calimancates, Velvets, Plushes, Worsted, Fustains, Du­rances, Tukes, Cony-Skins, Squiril-Skins, Fitches, Calf-Skins, Hides.

Also by Mines it produceth, first by Tin twelve hundred thousand pounds yearly, Lead eight hundred Foders yearly, Allum eight hundred Tuns yearly, Iron of all sorts eight hundred Furnaces daily, Sea Cole yearly 50000000. Chaldron yearly, Salt 300000. Ways yearly; as likewise all manner of Grain, as Oats, Wheat, Barly, Rye, Pease, &c. likewise Linnen Cloth, Tallow, Leather, Glass, and Glasses of all sorts, Venice, Gold, and Silver, Train Oyl, Salmon, Pilchards, Herrings, Conger, Ha­berdine, Hops, Wood, Cheese, Butter, Salt-Peter, Gunpowder, Honey, Wax, A­labaster, Wools, Yarns, and the like, too many here to insert. Nor is Wales in most parts less furnished, it consisting of the Isle of Anglesea, the shires of Flint, Denbigh, Carnarvon, Merioneth, Montgomery, Car­digan, Pembrook, Carmarden, Glamorgan, Radnor, Brecknock, Monmouth, abounding in Cattle, Pastures, divers useful Manufa­ctures; nor are the industry of the Inha­bitants wanting to improve the product of their Country to the best advantage, being a frugal sort of People, insomuch [Page 31] that whereever they Plant themselves they are thrifty, and increase the smallest Stock to considerable advantage.

Thus having taken a view of all Eng­land and Wales, viz. as to Traffick, and the native Commerce, London excepted: I shall now take a view of that great Me­tropolis, having purposely reserved her for the last, she being as Crown to the rest of the Nation, and indeed the Beauty of the Universe.

CHAP. V. The Traffick of London.

LOndon, the Mistriss of Cities, is placed upon the Banks of the River of Thames, whose Silver Ebbs and Flows continually wash her Beautiful Walls, she being sup­posed to be eight Miles in Circuit especi­ally if the Liberties be included, and be­fore the dreadful Conflagration in sixty six, was adorned with one hundred twenty two stately Churches, and now not guessed [Page 32] to contain less (within the Circuit of her Liberties and all) than 5 if not 600000. Souls, she being the Center of the Nation, and chief Receptacle of all Commodities, as well of the native growth, as from all Parts of the Earth, being the residence of the Merchants and Factors of all Trading Nations, abounding in the Riches of France, Spain, Holland, Denmark, Sweedland, Russia, Italy, Turky, Arabia, China, Persia, Egypt, both the Indias, and of all other Places where any Commerce is had, or from whence any Commodities are brought. For an instance of the greatness of her Trade and Traffick, I shall only insist upon the Levant Merchants, who yearly imploy four or five thousand Sailers, besides Porters, Weighers, Bargemen, Lightermen, Car­men, Shipwrights, Cankers, and others which cannot amount to less then three thousand more, and are not adjudged to pay less than five thousand pound per Annum for Customs. The Goods they export is Cloth, Tin, &c. for which they import Silks, Cottons, Galls, Grograms, Spices, Drugs, Currans, &c. The general Traders in this City are the Companies in the [...] Chapter, who Trade for ready money by Bills of Exchange, Verbal credit; and some Trades deal one with another by Exchange [Page 33] of Commodities, by mutual allowance at such prices as the Commodity bears. The general way of buying valuable Merchandise, as to Inland Trade, is by keeping Factors in the Country, or by holding Correspondence with those that make it their business to improve Manufacture or keep Fairs and Marts, there to buy up Commodities of all sorts, when advantage offers. As for Merchandise imported from other Coun­tries, the Royal Exchange is the place most proper for Bargains, where every day, Sun­day and other high days excepted, between the Hours of 11. and 1. Merchants of all Nations meet and discourse of their af­fairs. The way of payment is, either to draw a Bill upon some Shop-Keeper, Mer­chant of London, or other Wealthy Per­son: Or upon some Correspondent beyond Sea; which Bill specifies payment upon sight, or the time in which it is to be Pay­ed (which shall be more at large demon­strated when I come to Treat about Bills of Exchange) or to take the Parties word for 3.6.9.12. Months, or a Bill under his Hand for performance, for which there is no certain rule, but as those who Trade can agree. There are likewise several Per­sons imployed that are called Change-Broak­ers, who are usually imployed to buy up Com­modities [Page 34] for Shopkeepers, as they see ad­vantage, also to make returns of money, viz. for so much money received in London or any adjacent City, Town, or Village, you shall have a Bill to receive to the va­lue of it in the Currant Coyn of France, Spain, Holland, or any other Neighbouring Country, where your Occasions require it. There is likewise an Office that if any Per­son delay, to pay a Bill he has accepted, and Trifle with him that is to receive the money, or refuse to accept of a Legal Bill, you may protest against the Party or Bill, which is entered, and may at any time be seen, that so men may be cautious in accepting Bills drawn upon any such Persons: If a Merchant fail in the World, it is no sooner known, but notice is given upon the Change.

These, and many more are the ways and Customs of Managing Trade in the City of London; but these are the Principal, and what remains shall be hereafter touched as I shall see Convenient.

CHAP. VI. Of the currant Coyns of England as they have been setled by the Tower Standard, &c.

MOney being the Life of Commerce, it will not be amiss to set down the several currant Coyns of Gold and Sil­ver, according to their true Value, and as they go currant at this day, especially Silver, but Gold not unless full Weight, by Reason old Gold is sometimes diminish­ed by keeping carelesly.

The old Gold Coyns now currant are pieces of
  • Twenty two Shillings Sterling, but currant at one pound five Shilling six pence.
  • Pieces of eleven Shillings Sterling, currant at twelve Shillings six pence.
  • Pieces of twenty Shillings Sterling, cur­rant at one pound three Shillings six pence.
  • Pieces of Ten Shillings Sterling, cur­rant at eleven Shillings six pence.
  • Pieces of five Shillings Sterling, cur­rant [Page 36] at five Shillings nine pence.
  • Pieces of two Shillings nine pence the 1/ [...] part twenty two Shillings.
  • Pieces of two Shillings six pence the 1/ [...] part of twenty Shillings.
The currant new Milled Gold.
  • Pieces of five pound, currant at five pound seven Shillings six pence.
  • Double Guinnies currant at two pound three Shillings, sometimes more▪
  • Guinnies currant at one pound one Shilling six pence.
  • Half Guinnies currant at Ten Shillings nine pence.

The Silver currant Coyns are pieces of

  • Five Shillings Sterling.
  • Pieces of two Shillings six pence Ster­ling.
  • Pieces of twelve pence called Shil­lings.
  • Pieces of six pence Sterling.
  • Pieces of thirteen pence half penny Ster­ling.
  • Pieces of nine pence Sterling.
  • Pieces of four pence half penny Ster­ling.
  • [Page 37]Pieces of four pence Sterling.
  • Pieces of three pence Sterling.
  • Pieces of two pence Sterling.
  • Pieces of one penny Sterling.
  • Pieces of a half penny Sterling.
  • Piece of a half penny of Copper.
  • Pieces of one farthing of Copper.

The Account thus, four Farthings make a Penny Sterling; twelve Pence make a Shilling Sterling; five Shillings make a Crown; four Crowns make twenty Shil­lings, or one Pound; tho some there be that Reckon by Marks, Nobles, and Angels, which is only in the remote parts of the King­dom. A Noble is six Shillings and eight pence, a Mark thirteen Shillings and four pence, an Angel is two Crowns, or Ten Shillings.

CHAP. VI. A view of the Weights and Measures used in England, as they are Esta­blished by Standard, and confirmed by the Laws of the Nation, and by Parliament.

THe usual Weights that pass through­out England, are Troy Weight, and Averdupois-Weights; the former consisting of twelve Ounces, each Ounce to consist of twenty Penny Weight, the Penny Weight to consist or twenty four Grains; and this Weight is commonly used in Weighing of Bread, Gold, Silver; all Physical matters, as Electuaries, Powders, and the like; eight pounds of this Weight being reckoned to Weigh a Gallon, and from thence Multi­plyed to any greater Measure; four Gal­lons making a Peck, four Pecks a Bushel, and [...] Bushels a Quarter. Wet Mea­sures are likewise derived from this Weight, both at Land and Sea, viz. twelve Troy Ounces is a Pint of Liquids, eight Pints a Gallon; which of either Wine, Beer, [Page 39] or Ale, is eight pounds Troy, according to the Standard of the Exchequer, and Acts of Parliament of the XI. and XII. of Hen­ry the seventh. And by this Rule the Coop­ers make their Casks for all vendible As­size, vix. a Hogshead to contain sixty three Gallons, a Tearce eighty four, a Pipe one hundred twenty six, a Tun two hundred fifty two Gallons; as likewise all Casks made for packing up Fish, as a Salmon Butt to contain eighty four Gallons, the Barrel twenty four, a Herring Barrel thirty two, an Eele Barrel forty two, a Sope Barrel thirty two Gallons, the lesser Casks to be divided accordingly.

The other Weight, viz. Averdupois, wherewith is Weighed Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Wax, all manner of Grocery, and indeed most Commodities vended in England; it consists of sixteen Ounces to the pound, and is called Garbel, by Reason a Draught or Wast is allowed to every weighing: Seven pound of this Weight is accounted to weigh a Gallon of Wheat, and so Multi­plyed to fifty six pound the Bushel; seven pound Averdupois, is one hundred and two Ounces of Troy; from whence it is accounted that a Bushel of Wheat must weigh one hundred and twelve pound, and a quarter four hundred forty eight pounds [Page 40] Averdupois, and so consequently fourteen pound Averdupois is sixteen pound eleven Ounces Troy; and as one penny Sterling is the twentieth part of an Ounce Troy, so seven pound twelve Shillings Sterling is eighty four Ounces, a half and two penny Weight of Troy, and six pound eight Shil­lings Sterling, is eighty two pound ¾ Ounce, and one penny Weight; and from these two are the Weights of Houshold, Wheat­en and White Bread Calculated.

The Weigh of Cheese is by Averdupois, and runs thus. The Weigh of Cheese one hundred and twelve pound Averdupois, and the two hundred containing two hundred twenty four pounds, consists of thirty four Cloves, every Clove being seven pound. The Weigh of Suffolk Cheese is two hun­dred fifty six, and the Weigh of Essex Cheese three hundred thirty six pound A­verdupois.

A Sack of Wool was accounted three hundred fifty four pound Averdupois: two Weighs of Wool make a Sack, and two Sacks a Last.

The last of Herrings is ten thousand, every one thousand to contain ten hundred, and every hundred sixscore, that is, before they are Barrell'd. Lead is sold by the Fod­der, containing nineteen hundred and ½ at [Page 41] one hundred and twelve per cent. Averdu­pois. This Weight likewise of sixteen Ounces to the pound is made three several Quintars for Weighing several sorts of Merchandise; the first is of fivescore pound just to the hundred, and called one hun­dred Sutle, whereby fine Commodities as Spices, Drugs, and the like are sold, which are accounted by the pound, and to which over and above is allowed by the Seller four pound, upon one hundred and four pound taken from the overplus, derived from the Weights of Antwerp for Spices, and called by the name of Tret. The second of the Quintars is one hundred and twelve, viz, fivescore and twelve to the hundred, by which all Gross Commodities are weighed.

The third is sixscore to the hundred, by which Tinn is weighed to his Majesties Farmers, and some other few Commodi­ties; and is called by the name of the Stan­nery hundred. From this Averdupois Weight, by division the Weight called the Stone, which is twofold, the long, and the short; the long is accounted four pounds Averdupois, and the short eight, but in this there is no certainty, for it differs accord­ing to the Customs of Counties and Markets. There is an other thing in use called a Tod, some places seven pound, [Page 42] others eight, and some again ten, being altogether variable. They have likewise a Clove of twenty pound, twenty eight pound, thirty two pound, and the like. There are likewise in most Markets for weigh­ing of Flesh Stillyards used, but without the Approbation of the Buyers; they being unin­telligible to many, and oftentimes false; first invented for the Weighing Hay, and Straw, for which uses indeed they are only proper.

Averdupois consists of sixteen Ounces, every Ounce consisting of eight Drams, and every Dram of sixty Grains; so that by it the Raw-Silk of Persia, and Turky, are sold, but then twenty four Ounces are allowed to the pound, or a pound and an half, &c.

Thus having distinguished these Weights which are of such use in this Nation, it is not amiss that I shew you what accord the one hundred and twelve pound Suttle has with other Nations, and Places of Traffick, as for the Equality of Weight tho they differ in number.

In Europe, it agrees with the Weights of Mersella, the Venetia Sotile, the Ve­netia Gross, Sicilia, Lisbon, Florence, Anvers, Lions, Sevil, Dantzick, Bruges.

In Africa, and Asia, with the Weights [Page 43] of Aleppo, Aleppo, Tripoly, Syria, Tri­poly, Barbaria, Alexandrio-Zera, Alexan­dria, Forfar, Forfar, Scio, Constantinople, Rhodes, Acria, Babylon, Balsola, and Ormus. And thus you see, Reader, the Industry and Im­provement of the English Nation, which now I must leave, and take a View of Scotland.

CHAP. VIII. A view of Scotland, and the Trade thereof in General, together with the Coyns, Customs, and Increase of that Ancient Kingdom.

SCotland (by Reason of it's continuing a distinct Kingdom for so many hun­dred Years, even till the happy Union by King James, and indeed does yet in most things, unless the Prerogative Royal) is thought worthy to be Treated of seperate­ly, tho indeed, the North part of Brittain, and only seperated from England by the Rivers Tweed, Salway, and the Cheviot-Hills. [Page 44] It's chief City is Edenburg, which contains the Kings Pallace, the Courts of Justice, & con­sists of one great Street, of a Mile in Length; into which all the Petty Streets and Lanes open. The next chief Cities and Towns are Glasgow, (the See of an Arch­Bishop, and an University) St. Andrews, Sterling, Perth, Aberdeen, Dondes, St. John's Town, &c.

The currant Money consists of Gold and Silver, and are as followeth.

  • Pieces of twenty two Shillings Ster­ling.
  • Pieces of eleven Shillings Sterling.
  • Pieces of five Shilings six pence Ster­ling.
  • Pieces of two Shillings nine pence Ster­ling.
  • Pieces of four Shillings four pence ⅜ Sterling.
  • Pieces of one Shilling one half penny Sterling.
  • Pieces of nine Shillings six pence, be­ing ⅔ of the thirteen pence half pen­ny. One Mark.
  • Pieces of four pence half penny Ster­ling.

[Page 45]But note that thirteen pence half penny Sterling, is accounted a Scotch Mark, or thirteen Shillings four pence Scotch; six-pence three-farthings, a Scotch Noble, ac­counted six Shillings and eight pence; twen­ty pence Sterling is accounted a Mark and a half Scotch, or one pound Scotch, of twenty Shillings Sterling is eighteen Scotch Marks; so that Strangers unacquainted with their Money hearing them discourse about it think them far Richer then they are.

They have other Pieces of Copper Mo­ney of small Value, as Babaes, Bodles, hard Heads, and the like; but indeed they have Principally the money of England, which is currant in that Kingdom, and of late have abounded in Silver. The chief Commodi­ties of the Country are Cloath, Free­zes, Fish, Hides, Salt, Lead Ore, Tallow, Grain of all sorts, Feathers, Iron, Allum, Seacoal, commonly called Scotch-Coal, and are divided into two parts, viz. The Highland, and Lowland, which are divided into Sherifdoms, and Fifes.

They have an Exchange in imitation of [...]urs at London, but especially used for the Exchange of monies with England.

The keeping of their accounts, divers ways; some keep them according to the Method of England, others according to the [Page 46] Ancient use and Custom of their own Na­tion, which is in Marks valuable as a­foresaid.

Their Weight for weighing Merchandise is but one, and with that they buy and sell throughout the Kingdom; it contains sixteen Ounces to the pound, and one hundred of those pounds make their Quintal; which in England is one hundred and eight pounds Averdupois; and one hundred pound London Suttle Weight makes ninety two of theirs, or one hundred and twelve English one hundred and three and a half of Scotch; their Measures for Linnen, Stuffs, Cloath, or Silk, is the Ell which is wanting of ours, inso­much that it differs from our Yard four per cent. that is, four Yards in a hundred Ells, so that seventy five Yards, or sixty Ells English make seventy two Scotch, but in Tale to every hundred they Reckon six-score. In Measure for Corn, Coals, Salt, Wine, Beer, Ale, Oyl, and the like, they come near at one with ours.

Their Navigation is but small, for the most part Trading with England, and Ire­land, yet are they a People frugal and much bent to improve the growth of their Country.

And thus having taken a view of Scot­land, and the Trade thereof I must pass [Page 47] over into Ireland the third Diamond in the British Diadem.

CHAP. IX. A view of Ireland, and of the Trade, Manners, and Present State of that Kingdom.

IReland, is divided into four Provinces, viz. Lempster, Munster, Connought, Ʋl­ster, and Meath, and is four hundred Miles in Length, and two hundred in Breadth, the chief Cities and Towns are Dublin, Kinnsail, London Derry, Limrick, Cork, Waterford, Armah, Dungannon, Marleburg, Phillips-Town, Kildare, and Tradah.

This Kingdom abounds in Navigable Ri­vers, store of Fish, Cattle, and Hides; which are Transported into Spain, France, and Italy; Salmon are caught in such a­bundance in July, and August, that many Servants in the places of that Fishery, Covenant with their Master upon their be­ing hired, that they will not feed upon [Page 48] Salmon, but only so many days in a Week. These they Salt and Barrel up, sending them into all the Neighbouring Countries, where they are received as good Mer­chandise; the Herring Fishery is likewise used and improved by them, as likewise Pilchards, which are taken in August, Sep­tember, and October; and Transported into Spain, France, and the Streights of Gibral­tar: they have store likewise of Butter, Cheese, Calves-Skins, and other necessary Commodities: Their Corn for the most part is the same with ours, yet in value not the same, for a pound Sterling Irish, is worth, according to the Intrinsick value, no more then fifteen Shillings English, and the Shilling consequently but nine pence Sterling, six pence Irish but four pence half penny Sterling. The Exchange is pra­ctised in the City of Dublin, but of little use as to any Transmarine Places, un­less England, and there Principally London and Bristol, commonly running at eight pence upon the pound, or at most but one Shilling, which is but five pound per cent.

The Weights and Measures are (or for the most part) consistent to those of Eng­land, and in fine it is a Country exceeding fertil, abounding in all things necessary for the use of man, which would turn to great [Page 49] advantage, were the Inhabitants but Industri­ous, especially in fitting out Ships for Na­vigation; but they for the most part roave abroad, improving other Countries, and neglecting their own. Their chief Mer­chandise are in Fish, which they send into France, Spain, England, Scotland, and other parts of Europe. And thus I shall leave this Kingdom and return, or rather Sail round Brittain, to take a View of the Islands of the Sea, or Ocean Islands.

CHAP. X. A view of the Ocean Islands, and of their Trade, viz. such as are Sub­ject to his Majesty of great Bri­tain.

THe Ocean Islands are scattered in the British Sea like so many Pearls to a­dorn the Imperial Diadem, and are first, the Orcades, or Isles of Orkney, thirty two in number. The chief of which is Pomonia, which abounds in Mines of Tinn and Lead: [Page 50] The next Hethy; and the other (there be­ing only three of them of note) Shethland bearing Fruit-Trees of strange kinds. Es­pecially those whose Blossoms dropping into the Warter become Flying Birds.

The next are the Islands of the Hebrides, in number forty four; the chief whereof is Illa, abounding with store of Venison. And Jona, famous for the Sepulchers of the Scottish Kings; as likewise Mulla, where the Redshanks inhabit, once so fearful to England; the rest are of little note.

The Islands called the Sorlings are one hundred forty five: The Principal are Ar­math, Agnes, Samson, and Scilly, after which name all the rest are called. The Inhabi­tants thereof Trade in Fishery, sow Corn, and addict themselves to Manufacture.

The Isle of Man, is a square Island, be­ing ten Miles in Length, and as many in Breadth; the growth of it is Flax, Hemp, Oats, Barly, and Wheat, having store of Cattle and other Merchandise brought in thither by Shipping; the chief Towns are Ballacury, Russin, or Chasteltown.

The Isle of Anglesey, is accounted a Shire of Wales; and by some called the Mother of Wales, being twenty four Miles in Length, and seventeen Miles over; Fruitful [Page 51] it is, even beyond report, in Corn, Fruits, Cattle, Fowl, and Fish; improved by se­veral Profitable Manufactures: The Inha­bitants making great store of Butter and Cheese, and send out of it yearly three thousand Head of Cattle: It's chief Town is Beaumaris, very Commodious for Ship­ping.

Jersey is a fair Island, in Compass twenty Miles, peopled with Industrious Inhabi­tants, yearly improving their Commodi­dities and vending them to good advan­tage. Trading with England and France especially, famous for the many fine Or­chards and Gardens: the chief Towns and places of Traffick being St. Mallo, and St. Hillary; the former being nightly Guard­ed without the Walls. From this Island twenty Miles distant is Guernsey, Sur­rounded with spacious Harbours; and in every part Fertile, stored with Cattle, and lying Commodious for Shipping, Facing the Coast of France; and hath for it's chief Town St. Peters.

The last of the Isles Surrounding Bri­tain, is the famous Isle of Wight, which is twenty Miles long, and twelve over, and abounds with all things wherewith England is stored, divided from Ports­mouth but by an Arm of the Sea, lying [Page 52] most Commodious for the Reception of Shipping; and for it's chief Towns has Yarmouth, New-Port, and Bra­dring.

And thus much for the Islands of the Sea, surrounding Britain: And now I shall only take a short Survey of some things further appertaining to the Trade of Britain, and so Lanch into the Ocean, and take a view of the remotest Parts of the World, especially such as are Traded to by the English. What more remains, is an account of such Com­modities of English-growth and Manufa­cture, as are Exported, being Staple Commodities, and the common Cargo of outward bound Vessels.

CHAP. XI. A further Account of the Measures of England, with a true Proportion of the Weight of English Cloths.

FIrst, for the Breadth, Measure and Weight of English-Cloath, that chief of Staple-Commodities, Kent, York, and Redding Cloaths are six quarters and a half broad, and ought to weigh eighty six pounds; the Cloath in the Peice are in length thirty, and thirty four Yards. Suffolk, Norfolk, and Essex Cloaths of seven quarters wide, are eighty pounds Weight, twenty nine and thirty two Yards in Length. Worcester, Coventry, and Hereford Cloaths of six quar­ters and a half, are in Weight seventy eight pound, and in Measure thirty, & thirty three Yards. Glocester, Oxon, and Wiltshire, and Summersetshire Cloaths, of seven quarters wide weigh seventy six pounds, and in length twenty nine, and thirty two Yards. Suffolk Sorting Cloaths of six quarters and a half wide, ought to weigh sixty four pound, and to be in length twenty four and [Page 54] twenty six Yards. All sorts of Cloaths that are six quarters and a half wide, ought to weigh sixty pound, and be twenty four and twenty six Yards in length; broad and narrow Yorkshire of four quarters wide, weigh thirty pound, and in length are twenty four, and twenty five Yards. Broad-Cloath of Taunton, Dunstable, and Bridg-Water of seven quarters, weigh thirty pound the Cloath, and in Measure are twelve, and thirteen Yards. Devonshire Kersies, and Dossens of four quarters, weigh thirteen pounds, in Mea­sure twelve, and thirteen Yards. Chequer Kersies, Grays, Striped and Plain of four quar­ters are in Weight twenty four pound, in Mea­sure seventeen, and eighteen Yards. Ordinary Penistons or Forrests of three quarters and a half, in Weight twenty eight pound, in Measure twelve and thirteen Yards. Sort­ing Peniston of six quarters and a half are pounds thirty five, Yards thirteen and fourteen. Washers of Lancashire and others the Cloaths are seventeen pounds in Weight, in Measure seventeen and eighteen Yards. This Custom of assizing Cloaths at a cer­tain Weight was first imposed for the pre­venting defrauds in making slight sleasy, or imperfect Cloaths, and if any of the aforesaid Cloaths prove otherwise then is specifyed, [Page 55] the maker, or seller, ought to allow accord­ing to the want, either in Width, Length, or Weight, and for so refusing, may be sued for a defraud.

To bring this to perfection the Weight of Wool is thus, the Sack of Wool doth contain three hundred sixty four pounds, the Tod twenty eight pound, thirteen Tods being accounted to a Sack; every Tod being four Nales, and every Nail, seven pound: The Sack of Wool is imputed to finish four Standard Cloaths, of twenty four Yards each in length, & six Yards & half quarter wide, of sixty pound Weight, commonly called Sorting Cloaths. In the Weight it is to be noted whether the Cloaths are thick Mill'd, well scoured, and throughly dryed, that the same be Measured by the Yard, and that an Inch be allowed to every Yard: And thus much for Woollen Manufacture.

And now I am entering on Ship-Board, to view the World, and to pass the unfa­thomed Paths of the Deep. It will not be amiss to give a more full tho brief account of the Measures whereby such things are Measured as are sent on Board for the Sub­sistance of those that go down into the Deep, &c. as thus, the English Measures for all Grain according to the Statues in that case made and provided are the Pint, Quart, [Page 56] Pottle, Gallon. A Gallon being eight Pints, four Quarts, two Potles; the Peck two Gallons, the half Bushel, two Pecks, the Bu­shel, two half Bushels, the Strike two Bushel, the Cornock two Strikes, the Quarter, two Cornocks. The Weigh either of Corn or Salt is forty six Bushels; and the Last is eighty Bushels. Note in Salt Water Measure is allowed, viz. five Pecks to the Bushel. Liquid Measures thus, the Ale Firkin to contain eight Gallons, Kil­derkin sixteen, and the Barrel thirty two. A Beer Firkin ought to contain nine Gal­lons, the Firkin eighteen, and the Barrel thirty six; the Kilderkin of Wine ought to be eighteen Gallons, the Barrel thirty one, the Hogs-Head sixty three, the Tertian eighty four, the Butt, or Pipe one hundred twenty six, the Tun two hundred fifty two. A Runlet of Oyl ought to be eight Gallons and a half, a Hogs-Head sixty three, a Pipe one hundred twenty six, and the Tun one hundred fifty two; tho as to Oyl in the Measure thereof, the Custom of London differs from the Statute, allowing but seven pound to each Gallon, and by that means the Tun is reduced to one hundred thirty six, and so at this day 'tis sold; and thus far having proceeded to give those that are desirous to Trade, or Traffick, [Page 57] either by Land, or Sea, an insight into most of the English growth, and Manufa­ctures; I shall now hoise up Sail and bear before the Wind, not intending to cast Anchor till my adventurous Bark arrive in the late discovered America, to take a View of the Trade and Traffick thereof, and from thence into Affrick, so to Asia, and then to Europe, all along observing the Cities, Towns, Ports, Havens, Bays, either in Continent or Island; in whatso­ever place the English have any Traffick of note; or any other European Navi­gators.

CHAP. XII. A View of America, of it's Pro­vinces, and the Trade thereof.

AMerica, the so long unknown Part of the World, was first discovered by Columbus, a Genoese, at the charge of Ferdi­nand and Isabella, King and Queen of Castile; who setting sail from Sevil, after sixty three days, discovered that vast Con­tinent, [Page 58] which was seconded by Amerious Vesputius, a Florentine, at the charge of Emanuel King of Portugal, who making a perfect Discovery of that Golden place, had the Honour to have it called by his Name. The next that made any considerable discovery, was Sebastian Cabbot, a Native of Bristol, being furnished out for that purpose by our King Henry the seventh; and since him several of our English Navigators have improved his Dis­covery, as Sr. Francis Drake, Willowby, Candish, Burroughs, Forbisher, Davis, &c.

This Immensity is for the most part possessed by the Spaniards, and divided in­to two parts, viz. Mexicana, and Perua­na; and the former again divided into these following Provinces, viz. Mexico, Nica­ragua, Quivira, Jucutan, Florida, Virginia, New-England; Nurembega, Nova Francia, Corterialis, and Estotilandia.

The Commodities of Mexico (now cal­led Nova Hispania, the Residence of the Spanish Viceroy, and Arch-Bishop) are Gold, Silver, Sugar, Tobacco, Ginger, Tallow, Hides, and Spices; and above all, in that Province grows a Tree, called both by the Spaniards, and Natives, a Mettle Tree, the Leaves of which make Confections, Pa­per, Mats, Flax, Mantles, Shoes, Girdles, [Page 59] Cordage, and Saws, and out of the Root Issues a Juice, which being boyled is perfect Sugar; & from the Top-Branch, a Gum distills Excellent against Poysons, or Infectious Vapours. This City was taken by the Spaniards, under the Leading of Harnando Cortes, Anno 1521.

Quivira, is accounted the second Province, situate on the Western part of Ameri­ca, first Peopled with Spanish Colonies, under the leading of Vasques Anno. 1540. It abounds chiefly in Cattle; several wh [...] addict themselves to the bringing them up being Masters of 30000. Head and upwards, which serve the Inhabitants with their Milk for Drink, their Flesh for Food, and their Skins for Cloaths. They have likewise some Gold, but of small value, and not worth refining.

Nicaragua, is on the South-West of Mexico, and has for it's chief City Nova-Granada. It's Commodities chiefly consist­ing of Balsom, Cotton, Wax, and Hony.

Jucutan, discovered Anno ▪ 1517, has for it's chief City Champechio; this Province yields Wood for dying Rich Colours, and likewise store of Deer and Cattle, al­most like Elks.

Florida was discovered by Sebastian Ca­bot Anno 1467. which at that time it was pos­sessed [Page 60] by the Spaniards, with whom the French made War till they consumed each others people, to that degree that it was abandoned by either Nation, but since re­peopled by the Spaniards, who have built there several strong Forts. The Commo­dities are Gold Ore, some Veins of Silver, some Spices, and Woods of value. And thus much of those Provinces the Spaniards possess. Now I shall come to Treat of Virginia and New-England possessed by the English.

CHAP. XIII. A View of Virginia, and of the Trade, Manners, Customs, and Government thereof, and of the Commodities of that Colony.

VIrginia being discovered by Sir Wal­ter Raleigh, Anno 1584. had it's name from our Virgin Queen; it lying in height thirty five degrees North Latitude, and extends to thirty eight and a half, being planted by the English only from 37 to 34 degrees, under the Protection and Supream Authority of his Majesty of great Britain, & [Page 61] having the Bay of Roanoake, and Cape Florida to the Southward, and Mary-land to the Northward. The main entrance out of Virginia into the Sea, is about 10 Leagues; the Country is full of Navigable Rivers, stored with Fish, and some of them abounding with Oysters, Crabs, and Sturgeon, many of the Rivers being 7, 8, 9, or 10 Miles over, running 140 and 150 Miles up in the Country, so that Ships Anchor with great Security, no Trade be­ing permitted but with England. So that as soon as any Vessel arrives, the Master, or Captain, resorts to the Governour, to give him an account from whence he came, his Residence being for the most part at Jame's City lying 40 Miles up Jame's Ri­ver; and round about the English Colony, the Indians Inhabit, whose Treacheries prove too often fatal to our Country-men, as the several Massacrees they have made can te­stifie. Their Courts of Judicature chiefly consist of 4 quarterly Courts, the Go­vernour and his Council being Judges, to try and determine, as well in matters Criminal, as Suits between man and man, and every year once an Assembly meet in imitation of our Parliament, to settle weigh­ty Affairs. Their Laws are the same with ours, as likewise what Monies they have [Page 62] are of English Coyn. The Soil is every­where Fertile, and the Woods abound with Oaks of divers sorts, Black Wall-nuts, Chess-nuts, Ash, Pine, Day-Wood, Cedar, Saxafras, Mulbury, Small-nuts, Wild Grapes, and the like. The Weather is much like ours, only in the Summer continues a Month longer hotter, and are troubled with Flashes of Light'ning, dismal Claps of Thunder, and now and then a Hur­ricane. The days are about an Hour and an half shorter in Summer, and so much longer in Winter. All sorts of English Fruits and Cattle thrive there, and their chief Com­modities▪ amongst themselves are Horses, Oxen, Sheep, Hogs, Turkies, Geese, & Ducks. Corn of which they have store, and their Woods abound with Hairs, Roacoons, Pos­sums, Squirrils, Wild-Cats, Foxes, Bears, Wolves, Elks, and in remote Parts some Lyons are found.

Their Corn called Indian Corn or Maiz they buy and sell by the Barrel, which Bar­rel contains 5 Bushels, Winchester Measure, and the Indians sell their Corn, Pease and o­ther Commodities of the like nature amongst themselves by the Baskets, each Basket containing half a Bushel.

The chief Commodities they Trade with our Merchants for, except Tobacco, of [Page 63] which I shall speak anon, are Hides, Otter, Beaver, Muskats, Bear, Dear-Skins, Saxa­fras, Black-Walnut-Tree-Planks, &c. with them and Tobacco 40 or 50 Ships are year­ly Loaden; no Customs being lay'd upon any thing imported, or exported; but in England they pay five per cent. for all they carry over, and 2 pence per pound for eve­ry pound of Tobacco brought from thence, and so proportionably for other Goods.

The Commodities carryed from England thither, are Linnen, and Woollen-Cloath, Nailes, Iron wrought into Tools, Sope, Starch, Gunpowder, Shot, Wine, Strong-Water, Brandy, Sugar, Spice, and the like; and when any one comes over with Servants to Inhabit, as a Planter, he has 50 Acres of Land allotted him, to manure even where he will choose, unless in such Places as are before in Possession; and for that Parcel of Land, he pays 12 pence per Annum quit Rent.

The manner of planting, and bringing to perfection their Tobacco, accounted by them the Staple Commodity of the Colo­ny is thus; in January they sow the Seed, which is smaller than Mustard-Seed, and when it comes up, they take up the Plants, and place them upon little Hills, which is usually done in May, 4 or 5000. Hills be­ing [Page 64] contained in one Acre, every Hill con­taining a Plant, the which when it is about 2▪ Foot high, they Crop to give more Nourishment to the Leaves, which Leaves are a Foot or two Foot long, and some a Foot broad▪ and when they are at the big­est they cut them up Stalk and all, and hang them up in Sheads to dry, which done they strip them from the Stalks, and so bind them up in Handfuls for pack­ing in Casks, or make them up in Rolls. An Acre of good Ground is reckoned to bear 1500 Weight of Tobacco, not less then 17000. Hogs-heads, being reckoned to be Shipped yearly for England, Scot­land, and Ireland. Their Servants for the most part consist of Negroes, which they buy of the Merchants, that bring them thither.

CHAP. XIV. A View of New-England, and the Trade thereof.

NEw-England has for it's chief Town or City Boston, where all their Trade Centres, especially that which accrues by Navigation; a place which contains about 1500 houses Built of Brick and Timber; in it is a State House, and Congregational Meet­ing-Houses; the Inhabitants for the most part being Presbyterians, and Independants; and are supplyed with great Quantities of Fish from Marblehead, and other places. As for Fowl, they Trade with the Indians, as likewise for Muscat, Beaver, Otter, &c. for which they deliver them Strong-Waters, Shagged-Cloath, Beads, Looking-Glasses, and the like; and thither likewise are brought Provisions from St. Martins, Long Island, Road Island, Shelter Island; and other places, they all being little spots, standing in the Sea, and have their Trade chiefly consisting in Provision. The chief Roads for the safe Riding of Shipping are [Page 66] Boston, Charlestown, Salem, and Pascata­qua.

A Mint they have, in which they Coyn English money, as 12 pence, 6 pence, 3 pence, and smaller piece, both Silver and Tinn. The Reason of setting it up, was upon the spreading of many adultera­ted Pieces of Eight amongst them, brought from Peru; but notwithstanding the Eng­lish Coyn, Mexico, and Sevil Royals, go currant at a Crown apiece.

Their Accounts are kept after the Itali­an Fashion, by such as understand the way, and those that do not keep them as in old England.

Their Weights are Averdupois, and Troy; the former consisting of 16 Ounces the pound, and the latter of twelve; their hundred Averdupois is 112 pounds, and by that they weigh all their gross Com­modities, using Troy only for Silk, Gold, and Silver. Their Measures are likewise consistent with ours.

Their chief Merchandise consists in Hogs, Oxen, Fish, Flower, Pease, Kell, or Rice, Biskets, Beaver, Muskat Skins, Otter, Pipe-Staves, Masts, and the like; and some Tobacco, for which they receive in exchange English Linnen, and Woollen-Cloath, Iron-Tools, Stockins, Shoes, Thred, [Page 67] Buttons, Ribons, Lead, Puter, Tinn, small Ordnance, Gunpowder, Shot, Strong Wa­ters, Wines, Oyls, Fruit, Salt, and the like; not taking any Customs for ought imported, except Wines, and Strong Wa­ters, and for that not above 30 or 40 Shil­lings per Tun; Consolage they take none, their Factorage is from 5 to 10 per cent. for Sails and returns only, and that not fixed, but as the Trader, and the Factor can agree. Sugars they have likewise, which they sell in Casks, and have not many Ships belonging to the Plantation.

Their chief Fishing consists in dry Cod, and poor Jack, which every Spring and Fall, they take by Hooks, and sell by the Quintal, or hundred Weight, each for 28. or 30 Royals, sometimes more, tho some­times they Barrel them up; their Fraight per Tun from thence to London, is 3 pound, 3 pound 10 Shillings, and sometimes 4 pound. They have likewise an Office of Assurance, now much in request, both by the Inhabitants, and such as Trade thither. And thus much for New-England.

CHAP. XV. A View of Mary-Land, and of the Customs and Trade thereof.

MAryland is upon the main Continent of America, being an English Colo­ny, lying between 38 and 40 Degrees North Latitude, bounded on the North by Virginia, and on the South by New-England; the great Ocean on the East, and on the West the River Pattowmeck, and was first a Colony of English, Anno 1633. and for the better Increase of Trade, tolerate the Christian Religion of what Profession so­ever; and is held by a Governour, or Proprietor, in Fee of the Crown of Eng­land. It abounds with fair Rivers, stored with Fish, and Commodious for the receipt of Shipping.

The usual way of Trading is Goods for Goods, and the chief of their Commodi­ties is Tobacco; their Weights, and Mea­sures are consonant with those of England, without any Tret or over allowance; some Beaver, Otter, and other Furs they have, [Page 69] which the English that Trade thither purchase, and the Inhabitants receive them for Tobacco, and Strong-Water of the In­dians. Mulberry Trees are there in Abundance, and some Silk. Their Customs or Taxes are but seldom taken as to the Subjects of England.

The greatest abuse that Merchants re­ceive, is the Packing of Tobacco; which loose Packed, or either too dry or wet put up, often deceives their Expecta­tions; therefore the only way to discover such Frauds, is by weighing it. A full Hogs-Head, well Packed, will hold 400 Weight, and never less than 300.

For their Commodities, they receive Cloath-Hangings, Stuffs, all manner of I­ron-Ware, Strong-Water, Wine, and the like; and what they Trade with the Na­tive Indians for, they deliver them Coats, commonly called Match-Coats, made of coarse Shagged-Cloath, viz. Dutch-Duffields, or English Hogbays, either Red or Blew.

The new Netherlands, a place Situate in 41 Degrees North Latitude, upon Hudson's River, is Inhabited by a Colony of the Dutch, who have Incroached upon the English Trade with the Natives for Beavor, Otter, Elk-Skins, Bears-Skins, Dear-Skins, and the like; for which they [Page 70] deliver them Iron Instruments, and Shag­ed Cloath, and sometimes Guns, Powder, and Rapier-Blades, the fatal Execution of which they have twice felt by two Massa­crees, Committed upon them by the Indi­ans, to the loss of half their Colony. Their chief Town is New-Amsterdam, indowed with many Priviledges, as the old the better to draw People thither.

Corterialis, Nurembega, and Nova Fran­cia, are accounted Mexican Provinces, and for the most part possessed by the French, and some few Portugals. Their Trade is small, consisting only of Skins, and Furs.

Estotiland, or New-foundland, discover­ed 1527 by the English, in Winter is so Extream cold, that it is not inhabited but by some few Natives, and all the advan­tage (which indeed is considerable) that the English Reap thereby, is their Fishing Trade; the Fish in England being known by the Name of Newland Fish, and is taken in such abundance, that with them are furnished most parts of Europe. The manner of the Fishing thus:

The Ships sometimes 40 Sail depart from our Coast, about the end of Februa­ry, and about the middle of April arriv­ing there, they unrigg their Ships, and go­ing on Shoar Build Huts; and in Shallops, [Page 71] with Hooks and other Tackling, take sometimes 30 or 40 great Fish in an Hour, that is one Shallop, which they slit and dry upon Rocks, and Sandy-Banks; after which they Salt them, and in such manner con­tinue till September; when loaden with their Fish they return and dispose of them in Spain, France and other Places to good advantage, selling them either by the hundred Weight, or by Tail; and many times they sell them before they have caught 'em; that is, Bargain for the deli­very of them when taken; and of late there is an Art found of making Oyl commonly called New-Land Oyl.

CHAP. XVI. A View of the Peruanan Provinces, and of their Trade and Customs.

THis South part of America, is divided from the North part, by the Streights of Darien, a Neck of Land of 10 Miles over; and consists of these Pro-Provinces, [Page 72] viz. Castella-Aurea, Guinnia, Peru, Brasilia and Chile.

Castella Aurea, takes its Name from the abundance of Gold that is found therein, and was first discovered by the Spaniards: The chief Cities are Portabel, and Panama, at which two Places the Viceroy makes his Residence as he sees fit, and at the Latter of which the Spanish Plate-fleet for the most part is Loaded. It abounds with standing Pools and deep Waters, and the chief Com­modities are Spices, Drugs, Gold Ore, and Silver. About it are several small Islands, of which the chiefest are, St. Antonio, and St. Vincent, situate against Cape Verd.

Guinnia is situated under the Equinoctial Line, being fruitful in all parts, abound­ing with rate Fruits, and so Incompassed and branched with great Rivers, that in Winter time many of the Inhabitants dwell in Trees for fear of Inundations, often cau­sed by the overflowing of the Ri­vers. Of this Countrey our famous Sir Walter Reighley made the first effectual Sur­vey, and gave Name to the great River Arinoque calling it Ralinia, a River naviga­ble for 1000 miles, and for Shallops and Wherries 2000. The chief City of this Pro­vince is Manoa, otherwise called the Gold­en City, of the abundance of Gold that is [Page 73] found therein, most of the Trade consist­ing of Gold-Ore.

Peru is for Gold, the richest Province of America: The Mines being more plentiful then Mines of Lead and Iron in Eng­land, and the Riches thereof may be Con­jectured by this: When Piscario the Spanish Captain subdued it, and took the King Pri­soner, he proposed his Ransom, and deli­vered to the treacherous Spaniard upon so­lemn Promise for his Life and Liberty, as much refined Gold and Silver as amounted to ten Millions, but perfidious as he was, when he had Possession of the Treasure not­withstanding his Oath, he slew him. The chief City is St. Michael's, inhabited by the Spaniards; the Soyl brings forth all man­ner of Fruits, as likewise store of To­bacco; but one thing is more admirable, on the Banks of the River Riolaplata grow Figtrees, one side of which bear Figs in Winter, and the other in Summer, and this River is 130. miles over, and 2000. in length; and in it are many Islands.

Brasile is abounding with Cattel, Corn, and has in it some rich Mines of Gold and Silver; but especially Red-Wood by us, called Brasile Wood, the Trees of which are so large, that a dozen Families will make themselves Huts and dwell in the [Page 74] Branches of one Tree. It was first disco­vered and peopled by the Spaniard, but now the Dutch have got strong footing in it, and derive a great Trade form thence, e­specially in dying-Woods.

The manner of getting the Gold in these remote Parts of the World, are by Mining, or Washing and Fishing; As thus, they first search the ground, and finding it stockt with Ore, they dig into the Mountains, and still as they go under-prop, or Arch, so that a Mine sometimes is a Furlong under ground; their Earth they wash through Sieves, and the Mold separated, the Gold appears. Silver run in Veins or Sprigs, and therefore is got more easily. As for the Fishing for Gold, it is thus: They turn the Course of small Rivers or Brooks, at the bottom of the Golden Mountains; or with such things as take up Ballast in the Thames, drag up the Sand, and then sift it. The Gold which is found in the Rivers is washed from the Mountains, by the fierce Rains which in those parts are frequent.

As for the Islands in these and the Virgi­nian Seas, they are many; as the Isles of So­lomon, by some taken for the Land of O­phir; the Isle of Margarita, in which is found many precious Stones, though void of any other Commodity; the Island of Tre­nidado [Page 75] abounding in choice Tobacco; the Island of Baccaloes, discovered by Sebastian Cabot, whose Rivers abound in Fish, and the Land with Trees bearing Fruit; the Isle of Beriguen, of which the chief City is St. John's, inhabited by the Spaniards, the Island a­bounds with Gold, viz. the North part of it, and the South part is as much famed for fertility; the Island of Jamiaca, now an English Colony taken from the Spaniards, Anno. [...] abounds with all manner of Plen­ty, as Sheep, Oxen, Corn, Hens, Geese, Ducks, Fruit-Trees, Sugar, Tobacco and the like, and is governed by a Governour, under his Majesty of Great Brittain; the Weights, Measures, Monies, Laws and Re­ligion, are the same with ours, and has of late been much increased by the Trading of English Merchants thither for Pepper, and other valuable Commodities.

Cuba, Luca and Hispaniola, abound in Gin­ger, Cassia, Mastick, Almonds, Cinnamon, Sugar, Brass, Gold, and Corn, which are brought thence, and dispersed all over Eu­rope, and in the latter, the Land is so fertile that it will produce Herbs, and Roots in sixteen days after setting or sowing, fit for use.

Barmudos is a fruitful Island, abounding with Orange-Trees and other Fruits.

[Page 76] Barbados is an Island possessed by the Eng­lish, containing in length 28. miles, and in breadth 18. and according to Compu­tation consists of 126000. Acres of good Land, being naturally fortified with Rocks and Shelves: accommodated with several Bays and Harbours, for the safety of ship­ping, the Principal of which is called Carlile Bay, and is Guarded by Forts and Plat­forms, containing a large Town called St. Michael's, being a place of great Trade, before which 500. Ships may safely Ride. The next Town of Note, is Charles Town, situate on Oysten-bay, about two Leagues from the former, the Houses are built af­ter the English fashion, of Timber, Lime and Brick, and round this Island lye other small Islands, Maevis, Monsirat, Antego, and St. Christophers, many of them inhabited by the English, others by the Dutch, French, and Native Indians; the Island of Barbados is divided into 11. Parishes, or petty Shires, out of which are chosen two Freemen Plan­ters, to joyn with the Governour and his Council, which are 7, to discuss all impor­tant Matters, and to make such Orders, as are necessary for the well regulating the Plant [...]tion, and the better to quell any In­surrec [...]n that may be made by the Slaves, which are [...]ccounted at least 60000. a stand­ing [Page 77] Militia of two Reigments of Horse, and five of Foot, are in readiness upon all Oc­casions, and all their Laws and Customs are Regulated by those of England. Their Re­ligion, according as they profess them­selves, is Protestant. Their Coyns there Cur­rent are of divers Nations, as English, Spa­nish, French and Dutch, upon which they set a passable Value not Coyning any them­selves. Their Accompts are most commonly in Muscavado Sugar, according to which all other Commodities are Regulated, their Interest by reason no Law restrains it, is unreasonable, as sometimes thirty Per Cent. Their Measures for the most part Concord with those of England, only they allow but five score to the Hundred, not 112. The growth of the Island is Tobacco, Sugar, Indico, Cotton-Wool, Log-Wood, Lig­num Vitae, &c.

The chief Season of exporting Sugars, and other Commodities of the Native growth, is from January to September, or October. Wines are imported in abundance, and are sold in publick as in England: So that there is not less then 2400. Tuns of all sorts spent Yearly, besides Spirits, and other Liquors. From this Island they transport to Virginia and Barmudos, a Liquor made of the Su­gar Canes, &c. called Rum, and for it re­ceive [Page 78] Pork, Fish, Flower, Bisket, Pipe Staves, and the like: The Apparel of the Planters, is the same with what is worn in England; as for Customs they have none, save only for Wines and other Liquors, which are Rated at a certain quantity of Muscavado Sugar, and further are obliged to pay half a pound of Powder, for every Tun upon Entery.

Factorage or Factory-Provision is 10. per cent. 5. per cent. for Sail, and 5. for re­turn, as also 3. per cent. for Store-House Room; if any one will export Corn, or a­ny manner of Provision being the growth of the Island, they must ask the Governours Con­sent; 200. English Vessels and upward Trade hither Yearly; and the usual fraight to London is 4. and 5. per Tun, when Ships are Plenty, 3. pound, when scarce, 6. or 7. pound per Tun: There is no publick Assurance-Office, nor Exchange, unless sometimes in Sugar, for which Mony is received in Lon­don. And thus much for Barbados.

The main Land about 100. Leagues from this Island, is called Guinia, lying South­wardly, and containeth a Colony of English planted within the River of Serenam.

Cracus lyeth 4. Leagues from the Sea­side, and is very fruitful, having a Port, whose entrance is Guarded with two Forts [Page 79] each containing 14. pieces of Cannon, and in it are several Plantations of Coquo, some belonging to the Spaniards, and some to the Indians, the latter being obliged to work for the former 3. days in the Week. And thus much for America, in particular, and indeed in general: for this new World, as it is Termed, yields little more then here I have set down; and indeed in Riches may Compare with any of the other three Parts, did the Inhabitants know how to improve the growth of the Islands and Continent accordingly; but indeed the Spaniards po­ssessing the greatest part, use their utmost diligence to keep out other Nations, and will instruct the Natives in nothing that is Curious, lest they should leave off to La­bour in the Mines; but thus much concern­ing America. The Customs, Situation, and Manners thereof, in the exactest Method.

CHAP. XVII. A view of Africa, and of the Man­ners, Customs, Trade, Weights, Mea­sures, Coyns, and Commodity there­of.

AFrica, one of the quarters of the World, is bounded on the North with the Mediterranean Sea, on the West with the Atlantick Ocean, on the South with the South Ocean, and on the East with the Red-Sea; and is in a manner an Island, being tyed only to Asia, with a Neck of Land of 20 Leagues over, and contains these Provinces, viz. Barbery, Nu­midia, Lybia, Negrita, Ethiopia Interior, and Ethiopia Exterior, Egypt; and the Islands of the Sea.

The Account of the Trade, and Com­merce of the Principal Cities, and Towns, but especially from whence any Commo­dities are brought and Traded for by the English Merchants I shall lay down as fol­oweth.

CHAP. XVIII. A view of Tunis, the Trade, Man­ners, and Customs thereof.

BArbary being divided into four King­doms, viz. Tunis, Argier, Fess, and Morocco, I shall take them in order, and first of Tunis.

Tunis is Situate near unto the great Lake, which Extends almost to the Port of Goletta; and is founded on the ruins of Carthage, being in compass within the Walls 4 Miles, and accounting the Sub­urbs 7 Miles in circuit; and is very Popu­lous, owning for Supream Lord, the Grand-Signeour, who governs it by a Bassaw; the Inhabitants being Mahumetans; the Houses are Builded of Square Stone, and for the most part flat. A Port it has large and Commodious for Shipping.

Their Money in Gold is mostly the Spa­nish Doller or Royal, the Venice Chiqeen, the Spanish Pistolet, which they pass from one to another at full value, unless dimi­nished, or light Weight in Silver, they [Page 82] have the Spanish Royal, and the Asper.

Their Accounts are for the most part kept in Dollers, and Aspers.

Their Weights are the Cantar of 100. pounds, yet in Weight are found to ex­ceed our 112, two pounds, each of their pounds being divided into 16 Ounces, and so into less, by division, viz. Each Ounce into 8 Tamins; and by this Weight, are all their Merchandise Weighed, except Silver, Gold, Pearl, &c. which are Weighed by a Cariot Weight, which is half an Ounce Troy, or Mittagals much of the same Proportion. In Weight of Cloves, and Nutmegs, they allow 5 pounds per cent. Tret or over-plus, besides the Weight of the Bags.

Their Measures for Silk, Cloath, and the like, are the Pike; there being 3 sorts of them, the first called the Cloath Pike, is 26 Inches and a half English; the second, the Gray, which is a 16th. part less, by which they Measure Silks, Sattins, Velvets, &c. The third is the Linnen Pike, and is ¼ part less then the Silk Pike.

Their dry Measures are the Coffice, con­taining about 10 of our Bushels. The Weab 18 of which make a Coffice, and the Saw of which 12 make a Weab.

Their Liquid Measures, are the Wine [Page 83] Meeter, and Oyl Meeter, the former be­ing near 2 English Gallons and a half, and the latter near 5.

The chief Commodities are Hides, Wax, Oyl, Honey, Wool, Corn, Raisons, Dates, Anniseeds, Estrich Feathers, Sponges, Lemons, Oranges, Almonds, and Olives. For which they receive of such Merchants as Trade thither, English, and Venice, Cloath, Lead, Deal-Boards, Shot, Perpetu­anos, Spanish Wool, Tartar, Allum, Iron, Madder, Safaparilla, Pepper, Ginger, Saf­forn, Cinamon, Nutmegs, Cocheneel, Gold Thread, Sea-Horse-teeth, Cotton, Yarn, Venice-Pepper, French-Canvas, Gulmak, Damask, Sattain, and the like.

Their Customs upon Goods imported, unless Lead, Shot, and Iron, are 9 per cent. on the Real Value; and before any Goods can be delivered, an exact Account must be taken thereof by Officers appointed for that purpose; other charges of Goods im­ported, besides fraight (of which no cer­tainty) is 8 per cent. more, viz. 2 per cent. consolage. 5 per cent. provision and Broak­age, and one per cent. for petty Charges; the Customs on Goods, that are exported (Honey, Wax, and Wool, liable to no Customs, excepted) is 5 per cent.

The Counterban, or Goods prohibited [Page 84] to be exported, are Pease, Corn, Oyl, Beans, Butter, Hony, Dates, &c. tho often a Licence for Exporting the same, is secretly procured. And thus much for Tunis, in the Description of which I have describ­ed the Trade of all the Cities of that King­dom, as centering in this.

CHAP. XIX. A view of Argier, and of the Trade, Manners, Customs, Weights, Mea­sures thereof, and their way of di­viding Prizes, and selling Slaves in the Publick Market.

ARgier, that Piratical Kingdom so dan­gerous to Merchants Trading in the Mediterranean, contains as her Principal Cities Argier and Tremesin, the for­mer giving name to the Kingdom which is but small in compass.

The City of Argier, the common Re­ceptacle of Turkish and Moorish Pirates, is imagined to contain 90000 Souls, in [Page 85] which there are several that protest a­gainst the Thieving Trade, and hold some Commerce with Merchants of divers Na­tions.

Their chief Commodities are Oyls, Al­monds, Rasins, Figs, Dates, Castile-Sope, Brass, Copper, Barbary Horses, Estrich Feathers, Hony, Wax, and Drugs.

Their Coyn is the Double, accounted of equal Value with our 12 pence or 2 sin­gle Spanish Ryals; 4 Doubles are account­ed a Ryal and 8/8 called by them the Olian, 5 Doubles and 35 Aspers is a Pistol Spa­nish, 7 Doubles are accounted a Sultany, or Cheeque of Barbary Gold, and 50 As­pers make a Double. And these are the currant Monies of the Kingdom of Ar­gier.

The Weights are the Rotolos, or 100 pound, which makes 120 pound English, the 10 pound of the small making 6 in gross; some Commodities they likewise weigh by the Cantar; as Iron, Lead, Yarn, Wool, which Cantar is 150 Rotolos; Figs, Dates, Sope, Butter, &c. are weigh­ed by a Cantar of 166 Rotolos: Almonds, Cheese, Cottons, &c. they weigh by a Cantar of 110 Rotolos, Brass, Copper, Wax, and Drugs, by a Cantar of 100 Ro­tolos, Flax, by a Cantar of 200 Rotolos.

[Page 86]Gold, Silver, Pearl, and precious Stones, are weighed by the Mittigal, which is 72 Grains English, and is worth 9 Doubles. The Sultanie Cheeque, or Hunger Weighs 52 Grains English, being equally Valued with Angel Gold, and by the Ounce Troy, in England is worth 3 pound 11 Shil­lings.

Their Measures of Length are two Pi­cos, viz. the Turkish, and the Morisco Picos.

The former is divided into 16 parts and every ⅛ part, is called a Robe, and is 131/1 [...]2 part of the English Yard, and the Custom is an Inch allowance to every Yard, and by these they Measure Silks, Woollen Cloath, and Stuffs.

The dry Measure is a Tarry, which be­ing well heaped, makes 5 Gallons English, and by this they Measure Salt, Corn, and other Commodities.

They make their Accounts in Doubles, Aspers, Osians, and Sultanies.

Their Customs are 10 per cent. and so in all other cases, as at Tunis, when any Ship enters and cast Anchors, her Sails or Rud­der is demanded to prevent the passing off without paying such Customs, and then not to Sail without leave from the Duan, which is the Bashaw, and his Assembly [Page 87] who Regulate all affairs, which were usu­ally these. To the Kiffa 28 Doubles, to his Chiouse 4 Doubles, to his Almia 8 Doubles, to the Bashaw Sorman, 2 Doubles, to the Draggerman 8 Doubles, to the Sackagy 8 Doubles, and for the Consuls Duty 24 Doubles.

The Piratical Trade is thus, 2 or more set out a Vessel of Prizage, or Free booty to Prey upon Merchants Ships, the which when they have taken and brought into the Port, the Owners divide the Spoil by Lot, mak­ing the Partitions or Dividends as even as possible; as for the Captives they do the like, and if there happen to be an odd man, they either cast Lots for him, or sell him in the Market; and divide the Money, the manner of selling of them is to carry them into the Market, and place them in Stalls like Beasts, where the buyer Views and handles them; but especially their Hands, by which he is satisfyed, whether they have been Inured to Labour or not, as likewise in their Mouths, to see if they have good Teeth to bite Biskets as hard as deal Boards; and according to their Youth, Healthy Complexion and Ability of Body, they go off to the Buyer, he being ever after acknowledged for their Patron. And thus much for this Piratical Government, [Page 88] too well known to Merchants, and Say­lors who Trade in the Mediterranean.

CHAP. XX. A view of the Kingdom of Fess, and of the Trade, Customs, Weights, Measures and currant Coyns there­of.

THis Kingdom takes it's name from the Metropolitan City, viz. the City Fess, being the Goodliest City in Barbary; adorn­ed with 700. Moschs or Temples, of which 50 are Beautifyed, with Pillars, Jasper, and Alabaster, the chief of which called Ca­rucen, and Seated in the Heart of the Ci­ty contains a Mile in compass, consisting of 190 Arches, and is born up by 2500 Mar­ble Pillars, hung all about with Silver Lamps, and hath 31 Gates, and all things else porportionable, and the City computed to contain 8600 Families.

The Commodities in General are Dates, Almonds, Figs, Rasins, Hony, Olives, Wax, [Page 89] Gold, Hides, Furs, and a sort of Cordi­vant Skins, Cotton, and Wool very fine, which is dispersed into Spain, Italy, France, and England; and of late the Inhabitants have found out the Art of making Cloath.

The Principal Money of this Kingdom, is the Xerif, or Gold Ducate, and account­ed worth 10 Shillings Sterling; and is di­vided into 8 equal parts.

The Weights are two, one used for weighing Gross Commodities, called the Rotolos, 64 of which are computed to Ballance our 100 Averdupois, and 100 Rot­tolos go to the Cantar. The other is the Mittigal used in weighing Gold, Pearl, Sil­ver, Musk, and the like; and agrees with those of Tunis, and Argier.

The long Measure is the Cavado, of which 12 are Accounted to a Cane, and 181 or 182 Cavados to make 100 Yards English.

The Customs are 10 per cent. to all Strangers, but to the Natives 2 per cent. and for what soever they hand, they must pay, whether sold or not, which makes Mer­chants sell their Wares on Shipboard, for the most part where Customs are Payed only for what is sold. And thus much for Fess, and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. XXI. A view of the Kingdom of Morocco, the Trade, Currant Coyns, Weights, Measures, and Customs thereof.

THis Kingdom as the former takes it's Name from the chief City and Cen­ter of it's Trade, and is very Beautiful; tho Inferious to Fess; in it is found a Burse, and Exchange, formerly much frequented by Merchants, but now for the most part taken up by Artizans. The Commodities vended there are the same with those of Fess, except Sugar, in which it more abounds.

The Coyns are the Xerif, and Ducate of Gold, valued as those of Fess. The Weights are 2 several Quintals, the one agreeing with the Canter of Fese, and the other with the Quintal of Sevil, and indeed in all things according with Fess, as being now reduced under one Government. Their Religion, if so it may be Termed, is Mahu­metisme, and of late they have not any con­siderable Trade with the English Mer­chants; tho 'tis not doubted, but the ef­fects [Page 91] of the League, between his Maje­sty of great Britain, and that Emperour may be a means to revive it, as like­wise to inrich our Garrison of Tangier, by rendering it a Publick Mart, it being the Key of Barbary.

CHAP. XXII. A view of Numidia, and Lybia, and their Provinces; with the Trade, Currant Coyns, Manners and Customs.

NƲmidia is bounded on the West with the Atlantick Ocean, on the East with Egypt, on the North with the Mountain Atlas, and on the South with Lybia. The Country on the North part abounds with plenty, but the South by Reason of the Excessive heat, is most desert, the Inhabi­tants build but few Houses, but in great Companies pass from one place to another, living sometimes in Woods, sometimes in Caves, according as Heat and Cold affects [Page 92] them. The chief Trade is among them­selves, for Dates, Hides, Furs, and Fruits of all sorts; Cattle they have, but have not the Art of improving them, their Coyns are few, but those they have are of Brass and Silver; their Weights and Measures for the most part Equallizing those of Fess, and Morocco; tho they are little in use, few Merchants Trading with them.

Lybia is bounded on the East with Ni­lus, on the West with the Atlantick Ocean, on the South with Negrita, and on the North with Numidia; and is Barren for the most part by Reason the heat is Excessive; their Trade, Coyn, Weights, and Measures, are not worth mentioning; by Reason their Commerce is little, no Merchants caring to deal with the Natives, they being in a manner Savages.

CHAP. IX. A View of Negrita, or the Land of Negroes, with the Trade, Currant Coyn, Weights, Measures, and Cu­stoms.

THis Province is Inhabited with Negroes, or Blackamoors. Bounded on the West with the Atlantick Ocean, on the East with Ethiopia Superior, on the South with Manicongo, and on the North with Lybia, containing a large Tract of Land, and is fertilized by the overflowing of the River Niger, or Sanaga; and is under the Re­gency of 3 Kings, who have of late made 3 Kingdoms of 5, as Tombutue, Berneo, and Gouga. Each having many famous Havens, Commodious for Shipping.

The City Tombutue, from whence that Kingdom has it's Name, is Situate beyond the River Niger; and is Traded to by the English, French, and Dutch; and with­in four Miles of it is the City Gouga, which is likewise a place of great Trade, but as for Berneo, the Inhabitants thereof are for [Page 94] the most part Breeders of Cattle, and Hunters of Wild-Beasts.

The Commodities of these Countries, are Corn, Sugar, Cattle, Rice, Fruits, Gold Sands, and Ingots; which they expose to Sail for Cloath, Callicoes, Copper, Basons, Iron­work, Guns, Shot, Glass, Beads, and the like; but Principally Salt, of which Com­modity that Country is deficient; but the chief Maritim parts are Guinny, and Benin, first discovered by the Portugals, and for the abundance of Gold the Country af­foards called the Golden Coast; the Ru­mour of which spreading wide in Europe, the English soon found it out, and after them the Dutch: and now the French have some Trade there. The manner of Trad­ing thus: The Ships coming into the Road cast Anchor, and the Merchants or Factors going on Shoar, declare what Wares they have on Board, to the Persons called Tol­kens, or Brokers, which live in little Huts along the Coast, and when the Moors come down with their Gold, they are in­formed by them that such and such Com­modities are to be had, upon which taking Boat together they come on Board, and laying by such things as they like, propose what Gold they will give for them, which if accepted the Bargain is made; and [Page 95] they return with their Goods on Shoar.

The Customs are various. Particular Officers, being set in every Port, to take an Account of what is bought and sold; and every one that comes to buy, tho he buy nothing, must pay a small Stipend for his Person; upon his returning from on Shipboard, and to prevent defraud, there is still a Son, Brother, or Kinsman of the Kings, to whom the Port belongeth, to see the Toll be duly taken; and he that buyes Commodities under the value of 2 Ounces of Gold, makes his price for Customs as he can, but he that buy's above which they call a Benda, pays to the Value of an An­gel in Gold for every Benda.

As for Coyns they have none, the Trade among themselves being for Gold-Sands, or Ingot by Weight, the fineness of which they try with Artificial Needles, in number 24; in some Places they melt their Gold, and draw it into Wire, and so cut into small pieces, the better to di­vide it as occasion requires, and in other places they have pieces of Iron, which goes Currant instead of Mony.

Their Weights consist of Copper, the greatest of which is a Benda, containing 2 Ounces Troy, a Benda offa, or half a Benda. The Asseva which is two Pesoes [Page 96] and a half, the Egebba, or 2 Pesos which is half an Ounce, and so lesser tell they come to Drams, and Scruples of Troy Weight, but their pound is found the ¾ part of an Ounce heavier than ours.

Their Measures for Cloath is a Jactam, accounted 12 Foot English, which they di­vide into two parts; as for their Wool­len Cloath, they cut it into long Slips, and make Girdles of it.

Formerly the Trade in those parts was very advantagious, but of late (one Na­tions striving to outvye each other) have given them an insight into the true value of Gold, and of such Commodities as they receive for it.

The Sugar Trade which is considera­ble, is ingrossed by the Portugals at a certain Annual rate, and no other Nation suffered to deal therein, the Sugar made there being Transported to Lisbon, is from thence dis­percsd throughout Europe. And thus much for Negrita, and the Guinny Trade.

CHAP. XXIV. A View of Aethiopia Superior, and Inferior. But of the last especial­ly, and of the Trade thereof, &c.

THe Superior Ethiopia, otherwise called Abasine, is a Plentiful Country Go­verned by Prester John, and the Inhabi­tants for the most part Christians; it abounds in Cattle, Fruits, and Minnerals, but be­ing an Inland Province, yields little. Trade to Merchants.

The Inferior Ethiopia is bounded on the West with the Ethiopian Ocean; on the East with the Red-Sea, and contains Pro­vinces or divisions, Ajan, Zanbiar, Mono­motapa, Caffaria, and Monicongo.

Ajan is chiefly Traded to by the Por­tugals, and yields store of Cattle, Wax, Hony, Corn, Gold, Ivory, &c.

Zanibra contains 15 Towns, from which 15 Petty Kingdoms take their Names, and was first discovered by the Portugals; a­bounding in Ivory, and Gold, the chief Town being Mosambique, where they have [Page 96] a Castle, and ingross the Trade for the most part.

Monomotapa is almost invironed round with Water. And is stored with Gold Mines; and Elephants of which 5 or 6000 are yearly killed for their Teeth.

Manicongo was discovered by the Portu­gals Anno 1486. And for a long time yielded them 30000 Slaves yearly, which they carryed to Brasile to dig in their Sil­ver Mines.

The Principal Port, and Center of all their Trade, being at Mosambique. I shall not instance the Trade thereof, because that in View of that, all the Trade of the Provinces is Comprehended.

CHAP. XXV. A View of Mosambique, and of the Trade thereof.

MOsambique is for the most part inha­bited by Portugals, and has in it a strong Castle, wherein lives the Portugal [Page 97] Captain, who has a grant of free Trade for himself, either in the Country, or in the Indies, which is not above 16 days Sail from thence; but when there, they must stay near 5 Months 'er they can re­turn, or lose their Season; by Reason of the Mouson, as they call it, or Trading-Wind Blows all one way for so long. As for his Place it is very advantagious, yet of but 3 Years Continuance, at the Expiration of which he is obliged to go into India, and serve under the Vice-Roy.

The Commodities are chiefly Ingot, and dust Gold, or Sand Gold; which is found in abundance, there being sever [...] Rich Mines adjacent, as well in the Islands, as on the Continent, where the King of Portugal keeps Factors to manage the trade, who barters, and sends Merchandise from one place to another, and so increase in the growth of each Province; nor is it less commodious for the reception of the Portu­gal Fleet, either in their way to or from the Indies. There is found likewise Ele­phants Teeth, Ebony, Ambergrease, &c. and from thence they carry Slaves to India.

Their Coyns of which there are but few, are the same with those of Portugal; as also are their Weights and Measures, a description of which I shall give, when [Page 98] I come to take a View of the Trade of the Kingdom of Portugal.

CHAP. XXVI. A View of Aegypt, and the Provin­ces thereof, as also of the Trade, Commodities, Coyns, Weights, Mea­sures and Customs.

ON the East Egypt is bounded by the Red Sea, on the South with Aasia on the West with Cyrene, and on the North with the Mediterranean Sea, and Watered with the Fruitful River Nilus; which di­viding it self into 7 Channels, and about the middle of June. Annually overfloweth it's Banks, and continues so to do for 4 days, laying all under Water; by Reason of which the Towns are seated upon Hills; and during the Inundation, their Com­merce is by Skiffs and Boats.

This River is in Length 3000 Miles, and when it over-flows not, it portenteth some fatal disaster to the King or King­dom; [Page 99] and by this means the Land is Fer­tilized, for as for Rain there is none. The chief Places of Traffick are Alexan­dria, a famous Sea-Port, founded by A­lexander the great, and Cairo commonly cal­led Grand-Cairo, and in these Center the Trade of the whole Country. Therefore o­mitting Places of lesser note, I shall on­ly take a View of these two Cities, and their Commerce, with such as Trade in those parts, and first of Alexandria.

Alexandria first founded by Alexander the Great, in Expedition to Conquer the World, is the chief Maritim City of Egypt, and from all parts of the Kingdom are thi­ther brought Flax, Hemp, Hony, Wax, Rice, Balsoms, Dates, Drugs, and Spices; and the Country in general produceth a­bundance of Palm Trees, besides hither are brought the Plenty of Arabia, India, and Persia; as Spices, Drugs, Silks, &c. so that the Custom-House is accountable yearly for great Summs of Gold.

The nature of the Palm Trees that grow in that Country is this, they always grow in Cupples twisted, or twined, viz. Male and Female, the Female Palm only bears Fruit, and that not without the Male, for if the Male Palm be cut away, the Fe­male will not bear; the Fruit is Cods with [Page 100] Seed, and pleasant Juice, the Pith of these Trees is excellent in tast, and very nou­rishing; of the Leaves, they make Fans, Mats, and Baskets; of the outward Husks of the Cod Cordage, and of the inward Brushes; the Fruit they bear is like a Fig which serves the Inhabitants for Meat green, and dryed for Bread.

The Weights used here are four sorts, first the Quintar of Zera, second the Quin­tar of Forfor, third the Quintar of Zaidin, the fourth the Quintar of Mina; the first is found to be English 112 pounds, the second 93 pounds English, the third 134 pounds English, the fourth the 167 pounds English, Averdupois Weight.

The Measures are two-fold, viz. the Pico Barbaresco, which is used for the Mea­suring of Cloath, both Linnen, and Wool­len, and is in Length 25 ⅞ English Inches; and the Pico Turchesco, with which is Mea­sured Silks, fine Stuffs, Cloath of Gold, &c. and is found to be 22 ¼ English Inch­es; as for wet and dry Measures, they are of little use, the Customs being to sell by Weight for the most part.

CHAP. XXVII. A View of Cairo, and the Trade, Weights, Measures, and Customs thereof.

CAiro is a famous City, Situate in the vast Plain beneath the Mountains of Mucatun, and not above 2 Miles from the Bank of Nilus, adorned with many state­ly Buildings, as Pallaces, Colledges, Tem­ples, and the like; and has in it a large Burse, or Exchange of 3 Story high, the first of which consists of Ware-Houses, for Gross Goods; in the second, is laid up Musk, Amber, Silks, Spices, and the like; and in the third the Merchants who have Ware-Houses, there lodg with their Reti­nues; which Merchants are of 6 sorts, first the Native Egyptians; secondly the Arabi­ans, or Moors; thirdly the Merchants of Europe Christians; fourthly the Turks; fifthly the Jews, and sixthly the Christians of Affrica, as, Greeks, Armenians, &c.

The Lord of this City, and Country is the grand Signeour who governs by his Ba­shaw [Page 102] or Vice-King. The Commodities Traded for by the Europian Merchants, are Flax, Rice, Balsoms, Puls, Fruits, Cot­tons, Sugars, Hemp, and the like; which according to the overflowing of Nilus the Soil yields in plenty, or Scarcity, so that when they have a plentiful Year; they make a Feast to Nilus, or the River God; as they Term him, and exceedingly Rejoyce thereto.

The yearly Revenue of this Kingdom, accrueing by Customs, and other ways a­mount to 3 Millions of Sheraffes, each valued at 8 Shillings Sterling, one Million of which is sent to the grand Signeur, one for maintaining the forces of the Kingdom, and the other to enable the Bashaw to keep his Court.

The Customs are either payed in Species or compounded for at 10 per cent. only Money entred pays but one and a half per cent. but outward all Commodities pay 11 per cent. which is accounted the Soldan's Custom.

The Customs of Alexandria are farmed by the Jews at 20000 Medins per diem, which according to computation, amounts to 55000 pounds per Annum Sterling.

Their Weights and Measures, are the same with those of Alexandria. [Page 103] The Currant Coyns in Egypt, are Spa­nish Royals of 8 which they call Piastre, and Dollers the Meden the Asper the Sol­tana, Xeriffe, and Cheqeen, the value of each as before recited.

Their Accounts are variously kept, some in one sort of Coyn, and some in ano­ther. The chief Trade driven here by the European Christians, is by the French, and Venetians; the English having of late declined it, as having the growth of the Country or the same Commodities, at cheaper Rates in India, and Aleppo. And thus much for the Continent of Egypt.

CHAP. XXVIII. A View of the Isles of the Sea, ap­pertaining to Africa, with their Commodities, Trade, Weight, Mea­sures, &c.

THe Isles are these, viz. Madagascar, Zocotara, St. Thomas, the Canary I­slands, the Islands of Assores, or Tarceras. [Page 104] The first abounds in Ginger, Cloves, and Silver Mines, and was discovered by the Portugals Anno 1506. The money in use amongst the Natives are Glass Beads of Cambaia, which passes currant amongst them; their Weights and Measures are few, and those uncertain.

The second lyeth in the Mouth of the Red Sea, 10 Degrees Northward from the Equator, and yieldeth Cattle and Corn, but the chief thing Traded for is Aloes, which are sold by the Quintar, which Averdupois English is 93 pound.

The third lies under the Equinoctial, in which is a Colony of Portugals; the chief Commodity it yieldeth is Sugar, of which so much is made, as ladeth yearly 50 Ves­sels of good Burthen; their Weights and Measures being the same with those used at Lisbone, as indeed wherever the Portu­gals Plant themselves they impose their own Weights and Measures on the Inhabitants.

Fourthly the Canary Islands, which are 7 in number under the Protection of the King of Spain, are very Fruitful, abounding in Sugar-Canes, and those Birds we call Ca­ [...]ry Birds; and in Canary Wine, which takes it's name from the Islands, of which 4 or 500 Tuns are yearly exported, and dispersed over Europe. There is likewise [Page 105] Wood of Excellent use for Dyers.

Hither the English trade, and for the growth of the Island Exchange Says, Serge, Bays, Linnen, &c.

Their Weights, Measures, and Coyns, are the same with those of Sevil; of which in order I shall speak.

Fifthly the Islands of Assores, or Tarce­ras, directly under the Meridian, were first discovered by the Flemings, and a­bound in Cattle, Corn, Wood, and the like; but are of little use, some for Har­bouring, and re-victualling of Ships in their Voyage to the East-Indies, as are ma­ny other small Islands, lying in that vast Ocean. And thus much shall suffice for Africa and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. XXIX. A View of Asia, and of the Trade, Manners, and Customs thereof to­gether with the Description of their Currant Coyns, Weights, Measures, &c.

ASia Earths third Portion, is divided from Africa by the Red Sea, and Egyp­tian Isthmus, and from Europe by the E­gean Propontis, and Euxian Sea, by Palus Meotis, Tunais, Duina, &c. and is divid­ed into these Regions or Provinces, viz. Anatolia, Syria, Palestina, Armenia, Arabia, Media, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, Per­sia, Parthia, Tartaria, China, India. And the Islands of the Sea.

Anatolia, or Natolias, is bounded on the East with Euphrates, on the West with Thracius Bosphorus, Propontis, the Helle­spont, and Egean, on the North Propontis, Euxinus, and on the South bounded with the Rhodian, and Lycian Seas.

In this Province Smyrna, is the chief Ci­ty of Trade, therefore passing over those of less note, I shall Center the Trade of [Page 107] the whole Province, in that one City.

Smyrna, the City to which the Church of which St. John directed his Revelation, is Seated at the Bottom of a Gulgh, called the Gulph of Smyrna; where resides an English Consul, and the like for the French, and Venetians. The Principal Trade having been lately removed from Scio thither, by Reason of the advanta­gious Harbour for Shipping. This City is under the Government of the Grand Sig­neur, and is Inhabited by all Nations, but especially Traded to by the English, French, and Venetians. The Commodities found there, which are brought by the A­rabians, Persians, and other Merchants of Asia, and sold to the Christian Traders in that Port, are Cotton Wools, Galls, Anniseeds, Wax, Cordovant, Cottons wrought Grogram, Yarn, Cute, Carpets, Grograms, Chamblets, Mohairs, Fruits, Drugs, and store of Persian Silk; which is brought on Camels, and Dromidaries by Land; for which they receive of our Mer­chants in Exchange Suffolk, Essex, and Glo­cester Cloaths, Yorkshire, and Hampshire Kersies, Lead, Tinn, Pepper, Calicoes, In­dico, Cloves, Cinnamon, and the like; which Spices were formerly the growth of those Countries; but in the intestine Wars, the [Page 108] Trees for the most part destroyed, and now supplyed by our Merchants being brought from India.

The Venetians Trade with them for Pep­per, Cloath, wrought Silk, Velvets, and the French bring thither, Cloath, Paper, and Bullion, the latter of which they con­vert to Coyn, Stamped with the Effigies and Motto of the Grand Signeour for the most part, and the same with what is currant all over his Empire; which when I come to take a View of Constanti­nople, and the Trade thereof, I shall de­scribe.

The Weights in use, is the Quintar, which contains 100 Rotolos, or 24 Oaks, which are found to be 400 Drams. They have likewise the Lodoro, being 176 Drams, and the Pound Averdupois, has appeared to be 148 Drams, and the Quintar of 42 Oaks to be 119 pound English, tho some­times but 117.

Their Measures are two, viz. one for Linnen, and the other for Woollen, to which as before in the Weights, I shall re­fer the Reader to those of Constantinople, they being in effect the same.

The Custom-House of Smyrna, is for the most part farmed of the Grand Signeour, and three per cent. only taken of the English [Page 109] Merchants, unless upon Extraordinary oc­casions; and altho there has been an Edict, Published by the Grand Signeour, that no Goods paying in one Port of his Domini­ous, and brought into an other Port, shall pay any more duty, yet it is not observed, but the Merchants are obliged to compound with the Customers upon that occasion. But this Custom of 3 per cent. is only to the English, by virtue of their Treaty, for the French, Dutch, and Venetians pay 5 per cent.

The charges of the Port for Ships, before they can be cleared, are sometimes pay'd in Commodities, and sometimes in Money, as they can agree; and the most part are thus. To the Cadie 5 Pico of Venetian Cloath, and Cony Skins to leave it. To the Cadies Servant, 3 ½ Picos English Cloath, to the Cadies Caya, 3 Picos of what Cloath he shall chuse, to the Cadies Scrivan, a Chicquen in Gold. To the Cadies Page, 2 ½ Dollars, to the Mosier Bashaw, 1 ½ Picos of Cloath, to the Cadies Janizaries, a Chicquen in Gold; all of which is commonly accounted to be worth 68 or 69 Dollars. But to conclude, the Trade of this Port, is most in request for the abundance of Cotton; which grows in the adjacent parts, after this manner [Page 110] about the Spring of the Year, it is sow­ed and comes up with a Slender Stalk like Wheat; but strong as a Cane, and bears a Bearded Head, exceeding hard, but when Ripe it opens of it self, and yields both Seed, and Cotton, the first of which they Preserve to Sow again, and the lat­ter they sell to the English and French to the quantity yearly of 20000 Quin­tals.

CHAP. XXX. A View of Syria, and the Trade thereof.

SYria is bounded with the Mediterranean Sea on the West, on the East with Euphrates, on the South with Palestine, and on the North with Cilicia, and contains 3 Provinces, viz. Phaenicia, Caelosyria, and Sy­rophaenicia.

In Phaenicia, are Principally found the Ci­ties of Acria, and Sidon, where the chief Trade and Commerce is with the Vene­tians, [Page 111] and French, who Traffick with the Inhabitants for Corn, Galls, Wool, and Wax, and in the lieu thereof give them Spices, and Europian Cloath.

Their Weights are the Cantar of Acria which makes 603 pound English, and the Rottolo which is 4 pound 5 ½ Ounces Eng­lish, and 650 Drams. Their Measures are the Brace, with which they Measure their Cloath, and other Commodities. Their Coyns, especially theirs of Sidon, and the Ryals of 8/ [...] Spanish, and Chickqeens of Gold, the Ryal going currant for 70 As­pers, and the Chickqeens at 108, but seldom continue long at a setled value; and thus much for the Province of Phaenicia.

Syrophaenicia, contains the City of Baruti, formerly called Julia Felix, once a City of great Trade, but of late reduced to strait­er Limits and little Trade; all they have with Europe, is from the Venetians. Their Commodities are Wax, Drugs, some Silks, and such like Commodities common to Asia.

Their Weights is the Cantar, contain­ing 100 Rotolo's, each Rotolo being accounted 502 pound English.

Their Measure is the Pico, 100 con­taining 86 Venetian Braces.

Their Trade for the most parts is with [Page 112] the Merchants of Arabia, Persia, and Turky, who bring thither their Merchandise, at certain Seasons, when the Carravan sets out, not otherwise daring to venture for fear of the Rovers that Rob in great Troops.

The chief Metropolis of Caelosyria, is Da­mascus; which is the Principal Scale of Trade in that Province. Therefore so that in describing the Trade of that, the rest will be included.

CHAP. XXXI. A View of Damascus, of the Trade, Weights, Measures, and Currant Coyn thereof.

DAmascus is Accounted the Head of Syria, and is pleasantly Seated; abounding in all manner of plenty, as Grapes, Corn, Cattle, Cottons, Saffron, Steel, Raw Silk, Oyl, Honey, Wax, Balsom, Almonds, Dates, and Rice, which are all the growth of the Country, and brought thither by [Page 113] the Merchants; as the chief Mart for which they receive (but mostly of the Veneti­ans) Woollen Cloath, Tinn, Quick-Sil­vet, Lead, Latten Wire, Plates, Brim­stone, Allum, Beads, Bracelets, Looking-Glasses, Canvas, Furs, Sugar, Paper, Vel­vet, Taffata, Damask, Coral, Beads, and the like; for which besides the above­mentioned Wares, at sundry Seasons, they receive Ginger, Cloves, Mace, Sandals, Incense, Myrrh, Nutmegs, Indico, Gal­lingal, Long-Pepper, Mirobulans, Armoni­ack, Alloes Epatica, Cardimon, Turbith, Sanguis Draconis, Sugar Candia, Worm-seed, Zedoaria, Spicknard, Cinnamon, Tu­tia, Benjamin, Assa Faetida, Manna, and Champhir, which are sold by the Cantar of Damasco, or the Rottolo; some Musk, Ambergrease, and Pearls, are found there likewise.

Their Weights are the Cantar, and Rot­tolo, the former making 600 Venetian pound Sotile, and 380 pound Gross, which is accounted 416 pound Averdupois.

The Measure of length is the Pico, and is accounted 27 Inches, with which they Measure their Cloath, Stuffs, and Silks, and to each Measure allow the vantage of a Hands breadth; and in all Weights Tare of the Casks, Bags, or packing Mats. Their Coyn [Page 114] is the Asper, they have likewise Currant, the Chickqeens of Gold, and some few Ryals. And thus much for Damascus, so famous of old, as is mentioned in Holy Writ.

CHAP. XXXI. A View of Aleppo, and the Trade thereof, with the Descriptions of the Weights; Measures, Manners, and Customs of that famous City.

ALeppo formerly called Aram Sobab, is Seated on a fair and fertile Plain, and Beautifyed with many stately Buildings; each Street being nightly shut up with Folding Gates, and the Merchants Caves or Ware-Houses, fortifyed with Iron Gates, the Trade of Tripoly being by the General consent of the Merchants removed hi­ther, Merchants of all Nations making it now their Scale of Trade, tho an Inland City being Seated about 100 English Miles from the Sea; so that from the port of [Page 115] Alexandretta, or Scanetaroon, the Merchan­dise coming by Shipping, are Laden on Ca­mels, and conveyed thither; that Country being in Subjection likewise to the Grand Signeur.

The Commodity brought by the Mer­chants of Persia, Arabia, and India, are Drugs, Gems, Spices, Silks, &c. and the growth of the Country affordes Grogo­rams, Galls, Grogram Yarn, Cotton, &c. there is likewise found Silk of Tripoly, Ba­cai, Bedovin, and Damasco.

And this is the chief Scale of Trade, for our English Levant Merchants; all other of his Majesties Subjects, being prohibit­ed to Trade thither: and by what is vend­ed there yearly, the Reader may Judge of the profits accruing thereby, viz. 6000 Cloath and upwards, of several sorts 600 Quintals of Tinn, and not less then 100000, Ryals of 8/8 in ready Money, besides Lin­nen, Stuffs, Furs, and other things of English growth, for all which they have large re­turns.

The next who Trade to Aleppo of note are the Venetians, who bring thither Wire, Latten, Plates, shaven Latten, wrought Silk, Steel, Ryals of 8 Chickqueens of Gold, Crystal, Looking-Glasses, Damask, Quicksilver, Paper, and the like; for [Page 116] which they receive all sorts of Cotten, both in Wool, and Yarn; as likewise Grograms, Mohaires, Drugs, Spices, Gems, Calls, Indicos, and the like; and upon the same Score, the French Trade thither, all of them having Consuls, or Vice-Counsuls Resident in Aleppo, Alexandretto, or some place adjacent to manage their affairs.

The Weights of this place, are the Rot­tolo, Dram, and Wesno; by the latter of which little other Commodities then Per­sian Silk is sold.

The Rottolo is 12 Ounces, the Dram, the 60 part of an Ounce; and 3600 is ac­counted to the Wesno, yet for Silver, Gold, and Gems, they have other Weights; as the Mitigal and Carat, the former of which is 1 ½ Drams, which is Carats 24 English, or Grains 96, &c.

All sorts of Indico is there sold by the Churl, which is accounted 27 ½ Rottolos, of 720 Drams, Churls, 2 make a Chest, 327 pounds neat Indico being allowed to a Churl; 3 Ounces for dust, 3 Ounces for Single shirt, and 6 Ounces for double shirt, being over and above allowed to the Buyer.

Silk of all sorts hath allowance, from Heads of Skeins, if coarse 100 in 130 Drams per Wesno, if fine yet 60 Drams; [Page 117] Musk sold by the Mittigal, out of the Cods, gives no allowance, but in the Cod [...]0 per cent. Drugs of the proper growth of the Country, are sold by the Rottolo of 720 Drams; and is exempted from Custom, but as for Drugs of Forrein growth they are weighed by the Rottolo of 600 Drams, as Camphir, Alloes Socotrine, &c. and pay large Customs, even as the Buyer can agree; Silks of the growth give no allowance in Tare, as being fine and clean, Opium is allowed 10 Drams in the 100.

Spices of all sorts are sold by the Rot­tolo 720 Drams, but if ungarble, that is unseparated the good from the bad, 32 Drams in the 100 are allowed, that is 132 for 100, but if Garbled 10 Ounces only. Galls are allowed for dust, and defect 2 per cent. Aloes Epaticum, Aloes Socotrina, Assa­faetida with the Skins, as also Bedellium allow 20 in the 100 for waste. Cinnamon, Cubebs, Cassia Fistula, Oculus Indi, Galbanum, Maces, Opium, Rhubarb, Manna, &c. al­low 10 per 100. Camphora, Lignum Alloes, and Nutmegs allow 5 per 100.

The Measure used here is the Pico, ac­counted 27 English Inches.

The Coyns found currant, are those common throughout the Ottoman Empire, viz. the Soltany which 80 Medines 120 [Page 118] Aspers and 16 Shillings English. The Ly­on Dollar, which is 50 Medines, 80 Aspers, and 10 Shillings English, the Ducat which is 40 Medines, 60 Aspers, and 7 Shillings 6 Pence English. Ryals of 8/ [...] have passed 6 ½ per cent. better then Lyon Dollars 1 ½ Ryals 8/ [...] hath passed for a Soltany.

Their Accompts are kept in Dollars, and Aspers, which go currant amongst the Christian Merchants; 80 Aspers being ac­counted to the Dollar, and 1250 Dollars accounted 312 pound 10 Shillings Sterling.

The Customs pay'd by the English, are 3 per cent. tho sometimes more, but as it was agreed between the Mustapha A­ga, the Receiver of Customers; and the English Consul I shall set down for the better Instruction of Young Factors, and so con­clude the Trade of Aleppo.

The Customs thus, Kersies rated at Medines 14 3/2 per Peice at 3 per cent. Broad Cloath at 120 Medines per Cloath at 3 per cent. Cony-Skins the Bundle containing 50 Skins, at 14 Dollars. Tinn rated at 50 Rotolo's per chest, and 32 Dollars is 137 ½ Dollars. Indico at 587 Medines per chest. Galls at 12 Dollars per Rottolo. Grograms the Bale at 33 Dollars. Fidales per Quin­tal at 33 Dollars. Cotton Wool, per cent. 33 Dollars. Quilt per Baile 50 Dollars. [Page 119] Battanos per Bale 80 Dollars, Corduvants per Bale 80 Dollars, Turmerick per Roto­lo 80 Medines, Gum Dragant per Bale 60 Dollars; all Spices, as Cloves, Mace, Nut­megs, Cinamon, &c. pay 21 per cent. but are rated at 14 per cent. less then the same Cost; as Commodities of India, viz. Nut­megs valued at Medines 6; Cloves per Rottolo at 160, Mace per Rottolo 220, Ci­namon per Rottolo at 30 Medines; Pepper is charged but with half Custom, and con­sequently rated at half less then it cost; and thus much for the Trade of Aleppo.

CHAP. XXXIII. A View of Tripoly, and the Trade thereof.

THis City, to distinguish it from that Piratical City in Barbary bearing the same name, is called Tripoly of Syria; and was formerly the Scale of Trade, but it has been of late removed to Aleppo, as is be­fore mentioned; so that now it has little [Page 120] Trade with Europe, except what the Vene­tians find there. The Commodities vended, are Cotton in Yarn and Wool, Drugs of several sorts, Corn and some Spices. The Weight used there, is the Rottolo, of 100 pound; which has been found to be 416 pound Averdupois; allowing 52 Drams to the Ounce. The Monies currant, are As­pers, Dollars, Lyons, and Soltinies; the Common Money of Syria; and thus much for the Trade of that Region.

CHAP. XXXIV. A View of Palestine, and the Provin­ces, Trade, Weights, Measures, Customs, and Currant Coyn thereof.

THe Provinces of Palestine are 4, viz. Galilea, Judaea, Idumea, and Samaria. In these Provinces, the chief Cities are Ga­za, and Tyrus; which at present afford but little Trade, and what is afforded, is carryed on by the Venetians; the Com­modities of the former are Cottons in [Page 121] Wool, and Yarn; several sorts of Drugs, and Spices. The Coyns currant there are those of Turky, the Weights used are the Rottolo, and Cantar, 100 Rotolo's going to the Cantar.

The latter, viz. Tyrus, formerly very famous for Navigation; as appears by the Description of that City in Holy Writ, but now wants that Trade, being Subjected by the Turks; so that what Trade remains is amongst themselves, or such Neighbours as do not make any great advantage there­of; their Weights, Measures, and Coyns, are those used throughout the Turkish Dominions.

CHAP. XXXV. A View of Armenia, and the Pro­vinces thereof, together with the Trade; as likewise of Arabia, the Provinces, and Trade thereof.

ARmenia is bounded on the East with Media, and the Caspian Sea, on the West with the River Euphrates, and the Euxian Sea, on the North with Tartary, and on the South with Mesopotamia; and divided into 3 Provinces, viz. Georgia, Colchis, and Turcomania; and is in Subjecti­on to the Grand Signeour, and abounds in Cattle, Fruits, Corn, and such like; but has little Commerce with Merchants, e­specially by Navigation.

Arabia is divided into 3 parts, viz. Arabia Desarta, Arabia Petrosa, and Ara­bia Faelix. The first of which is bounded on the East with the Persian Gulph, on the West with the Red Sea, on the North with Mesopotamia, and on the South with the Arabian Ocean; and is memorable for nothing more, then the Children of Israels [Page 123] wandering in it 40 Years, in their Journey out of Egypt to the Land of Promise; be­ing altogether Barren; nor is the second less sterile, so that the Inhabitants live up­on Robberies, and Spoil of such Merchants Goods as pass through upon Camels to Aleppo, and other Places.

Arabia Faelix differs from the former, as being Fertile even beyond Expression, exceeding the Richest Country in Asia in it's abounding with Balsoms, Mirrh, Frankincense, Gold, Pearls, Spices, Man­na, and Drugs of most sorts which are carryed by the Merchants to Aleppo, and other Mart Cities and Towns, and from thence dispersed over the known World.

The chief Towns are Medina, and Me­cha, famous for being the one the Birth place, and the other the Burial place of the Impostor Mahomet; as also Aden.

The Weights and Measures, are the same with those of Morocco, and Tunis; and their Coyns are the Asper, the Soltany, and Chequin, &c.

CHAP. XXXVI. A View of Assyria, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, &c.

ASsyria is bounded on the North with Armenia, on the East with Media, on the West with Mesopotamia, and on the South with Persia; and is famous for its Metropolis, the great City Ninive; which is now ruined by War, but is a Pro­vince where at present little or no Trade is driven, and therefore I shall the more lightly pass it over.

Mesopotamia is in subjection to the Otto­man Empire, and has for its chief City Carumite, the Seat of the Turkish Bashaw, but is of little note as to Trade.

Chaldea is famous for comprehending the great City of Babylon, now called Bagdet, Builded first by Nimrod, and afterwards inlarged, to the circuit of 60 Miles, by Semiramis whose Walls were 200 Foot high, and 75 Foot broad; and is saluted by the River Euphrates, and at this day keeps Cor­respondence with Aleppo, by Carravans, and [Page 125] Camels; so that it retains a considerable Trade: and what is worthy of note, their advice to and from distant places, is re­ceived by the means of Pigeons, which is in this manner effected; When the Hen sits, they carry the Cock a days Journey, and then fast'ning a Letter about his Neck, let him go, who immediately Flyeth Home, and there the Letter is received by such as watch his return, and so by degrees bring them to such perfection, that in 24 Hours, a Letter will be carryed 100 or 150 Miles. The Commodities of this Place, are the same with those of Aleppo, and their Weights, the Dram, Mittagal, Rottolo, and Cantar; the Rottolo being 1 pound 10 Ounces English.

Their Measure is the Pico, which is found to be 27 Inches English, and their Coyns those usual throughout the Turkish Empire, and therefore 'tis needless to repeat them.

CHAP. XXXVII. A View of Media, and the Provin­ces thereof, as also of their Trade, Weights, Measures, and the like.

MEdia is bounded on the West with Armenia, on the South with Persia, on the North with the Caspian Sea, and on the East with Parthia; the chief Cities are Tauris, Sultania, and Derbent; of which the former is the Metropolis, and commonly made the Summer Seat of the Per­sian Sophy, and is conjectured to contain 100000. Inhabitants; the Trade thereof consists chiefly in Raw-Silk, of which there is store; which is Traded for by our English Merchants, and others, and what remains is sent to Aleppo, viz 2000. Summs yearly; the City affords likewise rich Carpets, and some Drugs, Spices, Cottons, Galls, Allum, and the like; it being now in the Subjection of the Persian Monarch.

The Weights and Measures, are for the most part the same with those of Babylon, [Page 127] viz. the Rottolo, Cantar, and Pico; the Country round about is very Fertile in Corn, and plants, as also in the produ­cing all manner of necessaries, for the pro­duction of Cattle.

CHAP. XXXVIII. A View of Persia, The Province [...], Cities, Trade, Weights, Measures, and Commodities thereof.

PErsia is bounded on the East with the River Indus, on the South with the main Ocean, on the North with the Caspian Sea, and on the West with Tygris, and the Persian Gulf; and is divided into 11 Provinces, viz. Persis, Susiana, Carama­nia, Gedrosia, Drangiania, Arica, Arachosia, Parapomisus, Saccha, Hircania, and Ormus; all large Provinces.

Persis has of late changed it's name to that of Far, and is bounded with the Per­sian Gulph, Caramania, Susiana, and Media; and abounds in rich Merchandise, especi­ally [Page 128] Silk, Drugs, and some Spices.

Casbin is now accounted the chief Ci­ty of Persia, and lately the residency of the Sophies, and is adorned with many stately Edifices, but chiefly Beautifyed with the Bussars or Exchanges, which are ma­ny, and stored with Rich Commodities; as Jewels, Drugs, Spices, Silks, either in Damasks, Velvets, or Raw; where like­wise the Merchants of several Nations Trading thither, meet in the same man­ner as at London. Their Weights, Mea­sures, and Coyns, agree with those of His­phan; of which in order I shall Treat, and therefore refer the Reader to View them there.

Balsara is Seated on the Persian Gulph, upon the mouth of Euphrates; and con­tains the Commodities of Arabia, Turky, India, and Persia, by Reason of it's com­modious Situation, and is in Subjection to the Grand Signeour, as reduced to his Obedience by force of Armes, Anno 1550. And pays Customs to his Intendant or Vi­zar Bashaw 5 per cent. upon Cloaths, Silks, and the like; but to every 100 a Tare, or allowance of 3 pound is Customary, and their Weights is generally the Wesun ac­counted 16 of them to the Cantar of A­leppo.

[Page 129] Casan is frequented by the Merchants of India, and the Commodities for the most part consist of the Manufacture of the Ci­tizens, as Shashes, Turbants, Girdles, Velvets, Sattins, Dammask, Ormustus Carpets, &c. and thither are brought Diamonds, Pearles, Rubies, Turquoisies, Spices, &c. and a Law there is, that all Persons a­bove the Age of 6 Years shall give up their Names to the Magistrate; and with a Satisfactory account by what means he or she get their Livings, and if they be found in a false Tale, they are either Bat­tooned, or put to some Publick slavery for a time.

Caramania is a Fertile Province, as to ne­cessary Provisions, and other ways only worthy of note, for the Cloath of Gold made there; as for Gedrosia, Drangiana, Arica, Arachosia, Parapomisis, Saccha, and Hircania, they are of little note as to Trade, and therefore I shall pass them over.

Ormus the last Province of Persia, is exceedingly in request, abounding in Com­modities of Value, and is divided by an Arm of the Sea, of 12 Miles over from the Continent, and is much frequented by Merchants, Trading in those parts. The Commodities are chiefly Carpets, Tape­stry, [Page 130] Shashes, Grograms, Mohairs, Turky Camlets, Arabian Drugs, Indian Gems, and Spices, it being the Principal Mart, or Magazine of all the Eastern Commodities; for in April and September, the Carravans come thither strongly Guarded from A­leppo, Syria, and other Countries, taking Ship at Balsara, and bring all manner of Rich Commodities, that are to be found in the Traffick of the Mediterranean. The most advantagious Sea-ports in those parts are Jasques, and Gombroue, where the English Ships Trade for this Kingdom, as likewise the Camels, and Drommidaries of the Indian, and other Merchants that Travel by Land. Their Weight is the Dram, 96 of which make a pound Aver­dupois. Their Measures are the Coveda, short and long; the former is accounted 27, and the latter 37 Inches, and are used in measuring the proper Manufacture of Persia.

The Monies currant are the Bessee of Cop­per, which is 4 Cosbags, the Shahee of Sil­ver, which is 2 ½ Bessees, 29 Cosbegs, or 4 pence Sterling; the Abashee of Silver, which is 2 Mamothis, 40 Cosbegs, or 16 pence Sterling; the Mamothis which is 2 Shahees, 29 Cosbegs or 8 pence Sterling, The Asar of Gold which is 20 Shahees, [Page 131] or 6 Shillings 6 pence Sterling. The Toman of Gold which is 10 Asars, or 3 pound 6 Shillings 8 pence Sterling, as al­so the Larrees, which are reckoned at 10 pence Sterling.

CHAP. XXXIX. A View of Hispahan, and of the Trade thereof.

HIspahan formerly called Hecatompolis, from it's 100 Gates, is one of the Principal Cities of the Persian Domini­ons; Beautifyed with Red Marble-Walls, of prodigious height, stately Buildings, as Palaces, Seraglio's, and the like; adorn­ed with Ivory, Ebony, Alabaster, and Car­pets of Silk and Gold. The Inhabitants do all their business on Horseback, unless such as are Slaves; and the City abounds in the stores of India, Arabia, Turky, Rus­sia, and China, which for the most part are brought thither upon Dromidaries; and again disposed of to such Merchants as Trade thither.

[Page 132]The price of Carriage is thus, 100 Maunds of Wares from Sciras to Hispahan cost 70 Sehids, and from Hispahan to Casan 60 Sehids, from Hispahan to Ormus, by Sciras 120 Sehids; and lastly from Hispahan to Tauris 40 Sehids.

The Weights are the Dram, the Mit­tigal, and the Maund, or Maundshaw, 100 of the first make 66 ⅔ of the Second, and of the second 1200 maketh the third: the Mea­sures are the Cavedo, long and short, and are as in the foregoing Chapter; as also the Coyns currant here agree with those of Ormus. Silks are found here in abun­dance, both wrought and Raw. And thus much for Persia, and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. XL. A View of Tartaria, of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Currant Coyns, and Customs thereof.

TArtary the next division of Asia, is bounded on the West with Muscovia, on the South with the Caspian Sea and Hill [Page 133] Taurus, on the East with the main Oce­an, and on the North with the Frozen Sea, and is divided into 5 Kingdoms or Provinces, under the Subjection of the great Cham, viz. Precopensis, Asiatica An­tiqua, Zagathai, and Cathaia; but for as much as the last Province, is only abound­ing in known Trade, and yields the Com­modities of all the rest: I shall only in­sist upon it, and in the Description of the Trade of Cambalu, lay down what ever is to be found in that vast Country.

Cambalu is the Metropolitan of Cathai, through which Runs the River Po [...]sanga and is in circuit accounted 28 Miles, a­dorned with stately Pallaces, and other Edifices, being the Seat of the great Cham; who maintains 5000 Astrologers or Wizards, and 12 or 14000 Horse for his ordinary Guard. The Merchants that Trade thither, have their Caves or Store-Houses in the Suburbs, which are in great number.

The Commodities of the Country are Rice, Grain, Ruhbarb, Coral, Silk, Wool, Hemp, and the like; they have likewise Silver Mines, and some yielding Gold Ore, yet their Coyn for the most part is made of the inmost Bark of a Mulbery Tree cut round, stamped with the Princes Seal, [Page 134] and upon pain of Death, none dare Coyn any other, or refuse to take it, tho in some places they have pieces of Coral, twigs of Gold, and Salt Loaves which go at certain rates in Exchange; but the mo­ney is as aforesaid, and those Merchants are obliged to take it for their Richest Commodities, and put it away again for such as the Country affords; they have Spices, Gems, and Drugs; but not of natural growth, but are beholden to the Arabians and Indians for them; their Coun­try by Reason of the long continuing cold, not being capable of producing them.

Their Weights are those used general­ly throughout the Provinces, viz. the gross Cantar, and the small Cantar; the former of which is only used in weighing Gross Goods, and is accounted 268 pound English, the small Cantar is 103 pound English.

All their Grain, and other such like Commodities, they vend by a Measure, called the Chistetto which makes 8 ½ Staios Venice.

The Measure for Silks, Stuffs, and Cloath is the Pico, 100 of which make 126 Braces Venice. And thus much for Tartary; which is mostly Inhabited by Thieves and Rovers; who rather live [Page 135] by Spoil then Trade, being morose, Savage people, fit for so cold and Barren a Coun­try, as for the most part. Therefore leav­ing this Frozen Clime, I shall pass into India far more Fruitful and Commodi­ous.

CHAP. XLI. A View of India, intra, & extra Gangem, of the Provinces, Trade, Customs, and valuable Commodities thereof.

INdia is bounded on the West with the River Indus, on the East with China, on the North Tartary, and on the South with the Ocean; and is divided into 2 parts, viz. India Intra Gangem, and In­dia Extra Gangem; the first contains nine Principal Kingdoms, viz. Narsinga, Mala­var, Ballasia, Cambaia, Mandao, Bengala, Aristan, Canora, and Dellia; and the se­cond 7 Kingdoms, viz. Macin, Aracan, Chambaia, Couchin-china, Barma, Siam, and [Page 136] Pegu. The whole Country taking its Name from the River Indus, which runs 1000. Miles ere it meets the Sea.

As for the Trade of the Indies, I shall briefly lay it down in the Description of the Principal Scales of Traffick, and first of Diu.

Diu is an Island lying about 20 Leagues distant from the River Indus, and is un­der the protection of the King of Por­tugal, the Portugals indeed being the first Discoverers of those Tracts; and have a very good Haven for Shipping, whither resort the Merchants of Arabia, Turky, Persia, Armenia, &c. bringing the Richest Commodities of the growth of those Na­tions, as likwise all the Banians, Gusrates, and Rumos; that Trade in Cambaia, and from thence to the Red-Sea and Meca, bring thi­ther their Merchandise.

The Commodities this place affordeth, are Cotton of Linnen of sundry sorts, which there are called Jorims, Sluyers, and Lamparads, and are in England called Cal­lico's; also there are abundance of Cocus-Oyl, Indian-Nuts, Butter, Pitch, Tar, Sugar-Candia, Iron, excellent Leather Ar­tificially wrought with Silks of all Colours; Chests, Cupboards, Boxes, of curious work inlay'd with Mother Pearl and other rare divices.

[Page 137]As for the Weights, and Measures of this place, I refer the Reader to the De­scription of Goa, and the Trade thoreof; and thus much for the Town and Island of Diu.

CHAP. XLII. A View of Cambaia, of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, Com­modities, and Customs thereof.

CAmbaia giveth a Kingdom its Name, being the Metropolis of Cambaia; and is vast in circuit, adjudged to contain no less then 800000. Inhabitants; Seated up­on the River Indus, being a City of the greatest Trade in those Parts, and thi­ther resort Christians, Persians and Arabians; and there both the English and Dutch have Factories. But the Natives who are called the Gensurates, and Banians, are the Richest Merchants, and greatest Traders; as like­wise of late grown so Politick, that they have an insight into-most Commodities.

[Page 138]The Commodities this City and Coun­try afford are Callico's of all sorts, Corn, Rice, Butter, Oyl, rich Carpets, fine Chests, Cupboards, Carved and Imbellished with Mother Pearl, Plates of Silver, Ivory, and the like; there are found in this Country many precious Stones of great va­lue, as Rubies, Jacinths, Chrisolites, Amber, Jaspar, Spinals, Granads, and Agats, as likewise several Rich Drugs, as Opium, Camphora, Bangue, and Sandal-Wood; as also Sugars and Indico in abundance. The like Commodities are likewise found in Bi­anny, Fetterbarre, Shersky, and Labore. In this Tract is the famous Port of Surrat, which at this day the Dutch make their chief Scale of Trade, and whither all the Commodities of these Countries are brought, especially those Subject to the Scepter of the great Mogul.

The currant Coyns are Mahomodies tho very Scarce, and are each accounted 12 pence Sterling, the Casanna Ruppy Esteem­ed worth 3 Shillings 3 pence Sterling, the Jaquire Ruppe, 5 of which make 6 Casanna Ruppies, the Saway Ruppy valued at 11 Shil­lings 3 pence Sterling, the Honde Ruppy valued at 2 Shillings 3 pence. In which and the Casanna Ruppy, the Merchants of Gusurat keep their Accounts. They have [Page 139] likewise smaller pieces, which are ac­counted 34 to the Mahmudy, and the Sahhee, which is accounted 10 Cosbegs; tho in some places they differ in value, tho the difference is inconsiderable.

The Weights used throughout the Mo­gul's Dominions are 3, one proper for Silk, and the other for all other Merchandise, viz. the pice which in Silk is accounted 5 ½ Mittigals, a Mittigal being about 13 Troy penny Weights, and the Sear small and great, which vary much, viz. the Sear of Surrat is 18 Pices Weight of Copper-money, and accounted 13 ½ Ounces Aver­dupois, the Sear of Agra called the Sear. Acoberg is 30 Pices and 22 Ounces Aver­dupois. The Sear of Agra, called the Sear Janquery 36 Pices and 26 ⅔ Ounces Aver­dupois; and so in several other places va­ry according to the Custom of the place. They have in use likewise 2 Maunds, a Maund small of Surrat, being 40 small Sears of that place and 33 pound Averdu­pois, the other is 40 great Sears, which makes 54 ⅜ pound English, and these are Multiplyed into a Candil of Surrat, and Cambaia which contains 20 Maunds.

The Measures at Cambaia & Surrat are two, viz. the Cavado, long & short, the last of which is used in Measuring of Silks, and is 27 Inch­es [Page 140] English, the first is used in Measuring of Woollen Cloath, and is 35 English In­ches; but in Agra, Labore Dilli, and Brampore, the short Cavado is found to be 32 Inches; as for Concave Measures, none are found in the Moguls Country, their Liquids as well as Grain, and other dry Com­modities being sold by Weight. And thus much for Cambaia and the Trade there­of.

CHAP. XLIII. A View of Goa, the Trade, Commo­dities, Weights, Measures, Coyns, and Customs thereof, and of the Pearl Fishery.

GOa is a famous City at present, the Seat of the Portiguize Vice-Roy and Arch-Bishop; and is Seated in an Island to which it gives Name, and is the chief Mart or Scale of Trade on that part of India; for hither resort Merchants who bring the Commodities of Persia, Arabia, Armenia, Cambaia, Pegu, Siam, Bengalia, Malacca, [Page 141] Java, Molucco, and China; a Port it has, Capacious for the Reception of Shipping, but those of great Burthen are obliged to Anchor at Bardes, some Miles short of Goa, by Reason of the Shallowness of the Wa­ter, where are purposely Built Sore-Hous­es, for the reception of such Merchandise as are brought thither, which are set to Sail in the chief Street every day, from 7 to nine in the Morning, in the nature of our Fairs in England; during which time a great concourse of Merchants and others buy up what Commodities they like best, or can agree for; and in this place all the Natives of one Craft live in distinct Streets, being injoyned under severe Penalties, not to Marry out of their own Trade, nor put their Children to any other Trade. Their Winter which consists only in terri­ble Rains, begins about the last of April, and continues till September.

The Commodities of the growth of this Island, consist only in Palm-Trees and Co­cus; but hither are brought Silk, Spices, Jewels, and all the Manufactures of India, Arabia, Persia, Armenia, &c.

The Weights used here, are the Quintal and Rove, the proper Weights of Portugal, and are used in weighing most European Com­modities. They have likewise a Maund of 12 [Page 142] pound Averdupois; another Weight they have proper to the Weighing of Pepper, which is here found in abundance and near­ly corresponds with our neat hundred.

Their Measure for Grain, and the like, is the Medida of which 24 make a Maund, and 20 Maunds are 14 Bushels English. Their Measure of Length is consistent with those of Lisbon, to which I refer the Rea­der.

As for their Coyns, they are two sorts, good and bad, so that when Merchants Trade, they as well include in their Bar­gain, what Coyn they shall receive or pay, as what Goods they buy or sell.

The common Money is the Pardus Xe­raphin, worth 300 Res of Portugal, or 3 Testons, which are valued at 4 Shillings 6 pence Sterling, one Pardus is worth 4 good Tangas, and one good Tangas is worth 4 good Ventins or 5 Badoves, a Ventine good is worth 18 bad Basarucos or 15 good ones, 3 Basarucos good, are 2 Res of Por­tugal. There are currant likewise the Per­sina Larins of Silver worth 110 Basarucos, also the Pagode of Gold worth 10 Tangas, and is accounted 8 Shillings Sterling, the Ve­netiander of Gold worth two Pardus Shera­phin, the St. Thomas of Gold worth 8 Tangas, the Royal of 8/ [...] called Pardus d' Reales worth [Page 143] 440 Res of Portugal; as for the Larins of Per­sia, they continue not at any setled price, but rise & fall, as the trade increases or decreases.

All the money received in way of Trade, passes through the Hands of the Sheraffs; a kind of Officers, who for a small consi­deration for telling each Summ, are bound to make it good, either in Tale or good­ness, &c.

Having thus far proceeded, I shall now give the Reader a Relation of the Pearl-Fishery; a View of which may be both pleasant and profitable to the Reader, as thus.

When the time of this Fishery draweth near, which is about the middle of March; the Boats go out, and let down their Di­vers to find where the Beds of Oysters lye, by Reason they continue not always in one place; which being found, the Gal­lies Armed, that are appointed to defend the Fisher-men from Rovers, Anchor, or Cruse at a distance from the Shoar, and then the Fisher-men set up a kind of a Wooden Village to contain their necessaries, and to Lodg in till the time of Fishing be over, and then put out their Boats or Barks, in each of which is 10 men at least, who moor­ing by their Anchors, fasten a great Stone, or Iron Weight to the end of a Rope, and [Page 144] then one of them Stripping, has his Ears and Nose stopped with Wool, dipped in Oyl, and sometimes a Sponge dipped in Oyl in his mouth, and a Basket fast'ned to his left Arm, or about his Neck; he gets astride upon the Stone or Weight, and with it Sinks to the Bottom, his Companions hold­ing one end of the Rope, by which when he has filled his Basket, they draw him up, he giving them notice when to do so by pulling the Rope, and when he is come up, another is ready to go down; and so take it by turns till their Bark is full of Fish; which then they carry to Shoar and lay on heaps, every Boats heap by it self, and so continue diving, for the most part in 14 or 15 Fathom Water, till the middle of April, or sometimes till the latter end; by which time those they first took are opened by the heat of the Sun, which drys away the moisture; and then each Boats Crue and such others as they have to help them fall to searching for the Pearls, but find them not in every Shell, nor at all times of the same perfection; when the Pearls are gathered, there are certain Persons that View and sort them, dividing them into 4 distinctions, and accordingly set Prices on them, as they are in Largeness, Beauty and Goodness, which they discern by a small in­strument full of holes.

[Page 145]The divisions of Pearls are these: The first, second, third and fourth sort, viz. the round Pearl which they call the Aja, or Ʋnja of Portugal, the wrinkled Pearl cal­led the Aja of Bengala, the third sort cal­led the Aja of Canora, and the 4 or worst sort are called Aja Cambaia; and when they are thus divided, great is the striving amongst the Merchants, who shall make the best purchase; for note that none are allowed to Fish for them, but such as will pay tribute and acknowledgment for so do­ing, and indeed few there are that are ex­pert therein. And thus much for the Pearl Fishing. As for the manner of their Sail and the Prices they are sold for in India, I shall speak hereafter.

As for the Coast of Malabar, it abounds with Pepper which is bought up by the Portugals, six months before it's Ripe, and when it comes to perfection, stored up till the Arrival of their Ships; and to this Coast are accounted these places, viz. Romes, O­nor, Barsellor, Mongalor, Cananor, Calicut, Granganor, Cochin, Coulon, and Cape de Co­mery.

CHAP. XLIV. A View of Musulipatan, the Trade, Commodities, Weights, Customs, and Coyns thereof.

MƲsulipatan is the chief Town upon the Coast of Chormandel, where the Eng­lish have setled a Factory; as likewise at the Towns of Petipoly and Armagon in the same Tract, all depending upon the former; the Port and Situation being Commodious, both for the Reception of Shipping; and Temperate for English Bodies being East­ward; the Natives are very Industrious in Manufacture, and the Soil yields plen­ty in abundance, and abounds with most Commodities of India; from this Coast there is found driven a great Trade into Bengala, Pegu, Siam, and Malacca. In this place it is that the fine Cottons of divers colour sare wrought, and dispersed not only all over India, but throughout the World.

The Weight used on this Coast is the Candile, which in the Weight of Gross [Page 147] Goods is found to be 20 Maunds, each Ma­und being Accounted 26 pound 14 ½ Ounces English. As for Measures I find not any, they usually weighing both dry and Liquid Commodities; the Customs were once 12 per cent. but now reduced to 4. The cur­rant Coyns along this Coast is the Pagode of Gold, the Mahomudy and Fanan of Sil­ver, the Pagode being valued at 15 Fanans, or 8 Shillings English, a Fanan is 9 Cashees, which are accounted 6 pence ¾ Sterling, they have likewise Ryals of Spain and o­ther Coyns, the Mamody is as is before re­cited 12 pence English.

CHAP. XLV. A View of Satagan, the Metropolis of Bengala, the Trade of that Coast and the River Ganges, and the Commodities, Weights, Customs, &c.

THis Coast beginneth where the before-mentioned endeth, through the middle of which runneth the famous River Gan­ges, [Page 148] making a large Bay or Gulph, called the Bay of Bengala; and is under the Pro­tection of the great Mogul, whose Coyns are currant in those Parts. As for the Ri­ver Ganges, the Natives and many other of far Countries, imagine it to be of that Virtue, that it can cure many distempers, and by Drinking and Bathing therein, make them capable of obtaining Paradice, which Superstitious conceipt, brings many from di­stant Places on Pilgrimage; which Creates a great Trade in Satagan, the chief City on this Coast, which is Seated on a River some distance from Ganges, up which the Tide runneth 100. Miles, and more, so swift that Boats drive with incredible speed without Sails or Oars; at the entrance of this River, is a place called the Butter, where Merchants Build Booths of Straw and Branches of Trees, against the com­ing in of the Ships, and furnish them with all manner of Merchandise, by Reason the Ri­ver will not admit of Ships of great Burthen so high as Satagan, the which sheds when the Ships depart, they set on fire and remove their Goods to Satagan; nor are the Commodities vended her a few, for no less then forty Ships of Divers Nati­ons, find sufficient to Load them and some to spare.

[Page 149]The chief Commodities found on this Coast are Rice, Cloath of Cotton of di­vers sorts, Lacca, Sugar, Mirabolans, Long-Pepper, Oyl of Zerseline, &c. and from this City the Merchants Trade to Pegu, Mu­sulipatan, and Summatra; and for the most part to avoid being incommoded by the heat, they meet and Trade in the Night, and what Goods are bought here by the Natives, are carryed up the River in Boats, and sold in other Cities and Ports.

In these parts the English-East-India Company has Factories, and greatly improve themselves thereby; the Portugals likewise in this Tract have 2 small Forts, but no considerable Trade, that Nation of late much declining in matters of Navigati­on.

The Weights and Coyns are much the same with those of Musulipatan.

Having thus far proceeded, it will not be amiss to give the Reader an Account of a strange Custom used in this Tract, which is, that if any Debtor break the day of payment by him consented to, his Credi­tor goes to the Principal Bramen, or Arch-Priest, and procures of him a Rod, with which he makes a circle round his debtor, charging him in the Name of the King [Page 150] and the said Bramen, not to depart out of it till he has satisfyed the debt, which if he does not, he must either starve there or by coming out forfeit his Life to the Laws of the Country; but this is on­ly amongst the Natives.

CHAP. XLVI. A View of Pegu, and the Trade, Cu­stoms, Weights and Coyns, of the Coast thereof.

PEgu is divided into two parts. In the one the King and his Nobles reside, in the other the Artificers, Merchants, and Mariners; that wherein the former reside is called the New-Town, and where the latter Inhabit the old-Town; about which is a Moat of exceeding breadth, in which are many Crocadils kept purposely, and all the Walls Beautifyed with Turrets, Guilded with Gold; the Streets are fair, and set on each side with rows of Palm-Trees, to keep off the Sun from such as [Page 151] Pass through them; and upon the Arrival of the Ships, by the help of the Monson or Trading Wind, great is the concourse of Merchants, who come from the Coast of Cormandel and other Places, bringing Pointados, wrought Cotton, and other Merchandise from Maecca, whence come se­veral great Ships laden with Damasks, Woollen Cloath, Velvets, and Cheqens. From Malacca Vessels Arrive laden with Pepper, Porcelan, Sanders, Camphora, and other Rich Commodities. There Arrives several Vessels likewise from Sumatra, with Pepper, and other Commodities, who for the most part Anchor in a Port called Cosmia, not far distant from the City; as for the Customs they are narrowly look­ed into by Broakers, who are imployed for that purpose, and have two per cent. out of all Commodities, paying Custom for their own share, and are bound to sell the Merchants Goods for them, and to make good what debts they contract, or false money they take upon that occasion, and in their dealings they are very Just; as likewise they are bound to find Lodgings and Ware-Houses for Merchants; their con­tracts are made in Publick, yet in such a method that none but the parties concern­ed can tell what is done, for by putting [Page 152] their Hands under a Carpet, and squesing such and such Joynts, they know each o­thers meanings without speaking a word, which is registred by the Broaker, if they come to a conclusion, in Leaves of Trees, used there instead of Paper.

When a Merchant-Stranger comes thi­ther, the Governour sends several Maids to him, to take his choise, which done he must agree with her Parents; and then she serves him, during his stay for both Wife and Servant, and when he departs, pay­ing what he agreed for, she returns home, and if afterward she be marryed, and he comes to that place, he may have her dur­ing his stay, her Husband not in the least making a Scruple thereof, and when he departs, he may send her to her Hus­band.

The Native Commodities in this Tract, are Gold, Rubies, Spinals, Saphirs, Sil­ver; which are digged at a Place called Caplan. There is likewise store of Benja­min, Long-Pepper, Lead, Rice, Niper-Wine, and Sugar, the growth of the Country not being liable to Custom.

The currant Coyn of this coast is the Gausa, made of Copper and Lead, and is Coyned by any that list, so they state it to a certain Weight, which if it be not, [Page 153] it is soon discerned by the Broakers or Tellers who reject it, and that Weight is called a Biso, and is accounted for ½ Ryal of 8/8 or 2 Shillings 6 pence Ster­ling.

CHAP. XLVII. A View of Sian, and Malacca, and of their Trades, Commodities, Coyns, &c.

FIrst in the Tract or Coast of Siam, are found the Cities of Tenaserim, and Pattana, in the last of which an English Factory is Established; but Siam is the chief, and was before it's being reduced by the King of Pegu, who besieged it with a Million and 400000. men, the chief Ci­ty of these Parts of India, and to it as yet Merchants Trade from Couchin-Chi­na, Macan, Cantor, Malacca, and Cambaia; as likewise from the Islands of Sumatra, Banda, and Borneo; and has divers Com­modities brought from the Inland Cities of [Page 154] Martavan, and Tenaserim, and is Situate on the famous River Menan, which runneth athwart India, and arises from the Lake Chiama; which every March overfloweth its Banks for 100. Miles, during which time the Commerce and Correspondence is held by Boats.

The principal Commodities are Cotton, Linnens of all sorts, distilled Liquors, by the Natives called Nipe, it being extract­ed from Cocos, as likewise Benjamin, Lack, and precious Wood called by the Portu­gals Palo-Dangula, and Calamba, mak­ing Rich Perfumes, and is Weighed often against Silver and Gold, and the Wood Sapon used by Dyers; Camphora, Bezora-Stones and Gold in abundance, as like­wise some Diamonds of great value, al­so Nutmegs, Mace, and other Spices.

The Coyns currant in this Tract, are the Tail, valued at 4 Ticals, or 18 Shil­lings Sterling; a Tical is Accounted 4 Mals, or 4 Shillings 6 pence Sterling, &c.

Malacca is Situate between Siam and Pe­gu, and is Subject to the Portugals, as Con­quered by them Anno 1511. and has it's Walls saluted by the River Gasa, 10 Miles broad, and abounds with the Commodities of China, Mul [...]oco's, Java, Sumatra, Banda, [Page 155] Siam, Pegu, Bengala and the Coasts of Chor­mandel, brought thither by Ships that carry back the Commodities of the growth of this Tract; as likewise Ships from Lisbone come yearly hither, and lade rich Merchandise. Here it is observed that the Trade-Winds continue West, and North-West from the end of August to the end of October; and in November, the Northen and North-East­terly Winds begin to blow, which conti­nue so to do till the beginning of April; and from May to the beginning of August, the South and South-West Wines Blow.

The Weights on this Coast, are the Cattee Babar, and the Pecul; but in Ma­lacca only the former, which is divided in­to 2 parts, viz. the great and the small, making the first 200. Cattees, reckoning each Cattee at 21 pound Averdupois, and the last 100. Cattees, which make 295 pound English. The Pecul is 100. Cattees of China, and is accounted 132 pound Eng­lish. The Cattee as aforesaid used in this Tract is Accounted 21 pound Averdupois, but sometimes varies. By the great Babar, they commonly weigh Cloves, Nutmegs, Pepper, Saunders, Indico, Allum, Sanguis-Draconis, Palo-Dangula, and Comphora; and by the lesser Quick-Silver, Copper, Vermillion, Ivory, Silk, Musk, Amber, [Page 156] Lignum Aloes, Tinn, Lead, Verdet, and Benjamin. As for Measures they are rare­ly used, and indeed so uncertain, that I shall pass them over. The Coyns are those for the most part common in In­dia, as Mahomoodies, Portugal-Rees, &c.

CHAP. XLVIII. A View of the Kingdom of China, the Trade and Commodities there­of.

CHina is a large Kingdom, bounded on the West with India, on the North with the Wall of China, extending in Length 1000. Miles to keep out the Tar­tars, on the South with the Ocean, and on the East with Mare del Zur, and is a very Fertile Country; Temperate and Healthful, which renders it Populous, it has great Commerce within it self, by the advantage of the many Navigable Rivers, tho their Goods are carryed for the most part in Boats made of Cane.

[Page 157]The Commodities it yieldeth are Wool, Rice, Barly, Oyl, Wine, Flax, Cottons, and Raw Silk; which they work into many curious Textures; here are wrought likewise many rare Stuffs, & are found all sorts of Mettals to be brought from Japan; as Gold, Silver, Copper, &c. Fruits, Wax, Sugar, Honey, Ruhbarb, China-Roots, Purslaine-Dishes, commonly called China-Dishes, Champhir, Ginger, Musk, Civit, Amber, and all man­ner of Spices, and Salt; which last is said in one City only, viz. Cantor to yield Custom to the Prince yearly 180000. Du­cats.

This Kingdom is divided into 15 Pro­vinces, each Province containing 2 King­doms, in all which as Writers affirm are contained 1597 Cities, and great Walled Towns 1154. Castles, and 4200. Burroughs without Walls Garrisoned with Souldiers; besides Villages Innumerable. The chief City being Quinsay-Pequin, walled about 100. Miles, and has in the midst of it a Lake of 30. Miles compass; in which are 2 Islands, and in them Pallaces and other fair Buildings, for the King and his No­bles, the said King Stiling himself the Child of the Sun. And upon the Rivers which Issue from this Lake, are found 12000. Bridges, it being reckoned that the [Page 158] King can make 10000. Sail of Ships, and Barks of his own which he keeps on the Rivers to Transport his Armies in time of War; the Natives for the most part Trade up and down the Rivers, and are so cauti­ous, that they will not suffer any Stranger to inspect their Affairs, so that their Weights, Measures, and manner of Traf­fick are not effectually known, tho the Portugals, Dutch, and Neighbouring Islanders, have of late obtained the favour of some small Commerce at Canton, Meccan, and Nanquin; but upon such strict conditions, that in some places it is Death for them to abide a Night, either in the Town or Suburbs, but must at aset Hour retire to their Ships; and the better to discover it, they have Notaries to take the Names of all that enter the Gates in the Morning, the which if the Persons owning them, do not come to see them Blotted out at the time prefixed, and afterwards be found, tho not in the City, it is present Death, except the Factor for the Portugals, who is permitted to live in the Suburbs. And to Maccan the Portuguese have a Ship of 1500. Tuns, that comes yearly from the In­dies; bringing Oyl, Drinking-Glasses, Look­ing-Glasses, and Velvet, for which they receive of the Chinois, the growth and Ma­nufacture of their Country.

[Page 159]The Weights, Measures, and Coyns, that are used in the Places where Trade is permitted, are known to be these.

The Weights for fine Goods are the Valls and Tay, 99 Valls making a Tay of Maccan; and a Tay or Tayle is 1 Ounce and 11/16 Averdupois. Their Weights for Gold, Silver, Musk, Amber-Greece, &c. are the Tays or Tayels, by some called Tans, Mass, Condreens, Cash, Avons; which are usually marked with Ciphers for distinction sake, 10. Avos is one Cash, 10. Cash one Condreen, 10. Condreens to one Mass, 10. Mass to one Tay, and 16. Tays or Tayles to on Cattee, the Tay be­ing as aforesaid.

All Gross Goods are weighed by Cat­tees, Peculs, and Rotolos; 10. Cattees making 1. Pecul, 1. Pecul 128 Rotolos of Portugal, which Pecul is Accounted 131 pound ¼ Averdupois, tho here as in other Places the Weights vary.

The Coyns currant for the most part are Spanish Rotolos of [...]/ [...] which they cut into several parts, and so pass them away by Estimate.

The Measures in use are the Covid of Maccan, used by the Portugals in the Mea­sure of Stuffs and Silks, and is Account­ed 3. Quarters of a Yard and 2 1/ [...] Inches [Page 160] and a Covid used by the Chinois, called the Covid of Chinchoses, which consists of 12 Inches, also an other Covid they have of 14 6/5 Inches. And thus much for Chi­na, and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. XLIX. A View of the Islands, found in the Asian Seas, and of their Trade and growth.

THe Asian Islands of note are Japan, Zeilan, Moluccos, Java's, Summatra, Borneo, Celebs, and Cyprus; all abounding in rich Commodities. Of the Trade of which in brief.

Japan is Situate a small distance from the main Land of China, and is in length 600. miles, but not above 90. over in the broadest, yet obeys many Soveraigns; every King or Lord, having Power and Authority over the lives and Estates of his Subjects; the chief Towns on this I­sland are Osacaia, Bunguin, and Meaco; [Page 161] being Havens or Ports for the recepti­on of such Vessels as come to Trade thi­ther.

The chief Commodities consisting in Silver and Rice, of the latter there is found such abundance, that the chief Soveraign has 2 Millions of Ducats yearly, accruing by that Commodity; and in Fiando one of the Islands appertaining to Japan, the English have setled a Factory. The Weights in use are the Pecul and Cattee, the Pecul consisting of 100. Cattees, each Cattee being 21 Ounces which renders the Pecul in Cira 131 pound English, the Measures of length are the Inchin or Tat­tamy, which is 2 ⅛ English Yards, their concave Measures are the Cocas, which is a Pint English Winchester Measure, 3 of which is a Gant, 100. Gants are an Ickgoga, 100. Icklogags are one Ickmagog, and 1000. Ickmagogs are one Mangoga. Their Coyns are the Tale, Mass, and Condery. The Tale is 5 Shillings Sterling, the Mass which contains 10 Conderies, is 6 pence Sterling; they have 2 Barrs of Gold cur­rant likewise amongst them, which are called Ichebo, and Coban; the former of which is Accounted worth 30 Shillings Ster­ling, and the latter 34 Shillings 6 pence Sterling.

[Page 162] Zelan is a fair Island, in the Gulph of Bengala, and is so Fruitful, that the Trees have continual Blosoms, green and ripe Fruit on them; and is a Portugueze Facto­ry, tho under the obedience of the great Mogul, and in it are found Nutmegs, Clove, and Pepper Trees good store, and likewise Cinnamon, the primest sort growing in Groves, it also yieldeth many precious Stones, as Rubies, Topaz, Garnati; Spinals, and on the Coast store of Pearls are got­ten by Fishing. There are likewise found some Mines of Gold and Silver, Iron, Brimstone, and Flax growing; and in the Woods is a Beast found, whose Bones are much of the nature of Ivory. Their Weights, Measures, and Coyns, are ei­ther those of Portugal or India; the Na­tives being a People of great Subtlety, and in Body the most Active in Asia.

CHAP. L: A View of the Isles of Molucco's, also the Trade, Weights, Measures, and currant Coyns there in use, and of the other adjacent Islands.

THese Islands commonly called the I­slands of Moluccos's, are 5 in number, viz. Molucco the chief, Tarnate, Tider, Ge­lolo, and Macian. There are likewise not far distant Benda, and 70 other Islands, all of which yield Spices, as Nutmegs, Cloves, Mace, and some Cinnamon, all growing in them; there is also in this Gulph or Sea Amboina, where the Barbarous Dutch com­mitted Inhumane Cruelties on the English Factors, &c. and afterwards contrary to their contracted agreement, cut down and killed all the Clove Trees, in the Island of Polerone, purchased of them by the English.

The common Coyn in Moluccoes, Amboi­na, and Benda, is the Spanish Rotolo ½, what otherwise they Barter for is in Commo­dities.

[Page 164]Their Weights are the Babar and Catte, the Amboinian Babar being 200. Cattes, or English 625 pound, and is Accounted the great Babar, and in some Islands they have a Babar 10 times as much as the Amboinian Babar.

A Cattee is near 6 pound English, and 10 Cattes of Mace are Accounted a small Babar, and valued at 10 Ryals of 8, yet the small Babar of Nutmegs is 100. Cat­tes, and valued as the Mace.

The Measures of Length are the Cubit, and Fathom, and Concave Measures for Grain and Pepper; the Canton which is near 3 Quarts English, and the Quoian, which is 800. Cantons. The chief Trade of these Islands, being of late Ingrossed by the Dutch; who have of late been found Superiour to the Portugals, who first Dis­covered them, and held for many years the Principal Commerce with the In­dians.

CHAP. LI. A View of the Java's, and the Trade of that Tract, of the Weights, Mea­sures, Native Commodities, Coyns, &c.

THe Java's are two Islands, viz. the great and the less, the greater be­ing in circuit 3000. Miles, and the lesser 2000, and by Reason of their nearness to the Equinoctial are exceeding Fruitful, and have for their chief Cities Paluban, Pe­gar, Agaim, Balambua, Basnia, Samara, Limbrie, and others; but the chief Scales of Trade are at Sunda, Calapa, Bantum, Jacatra, now Battavia, and Japarra; in the last 3 of which the English have Facto­ries.

The Commodities with which these I­slands abound, are Cloves, Nutmegs, Mace, Pepper, Indian Nuts, Rice, Cattle, &c. the Pepper is Accounted the best in India; and grows in such abundance, that yearly the English buy up great store, the Islands not being judged to produce less then 10 [Page 166] or 12000. Quintals; each Season there is found likewise Camphora, Frankincense, Benjamin, and precious Stones; amongst which some Diamonds of great value, for which Commodities the Natives receive Callicoes of divers Colours, Cotton, Cloath, Silks, Stuffs, Glasses, Knives, and the like; in Sunda the principal Mart of Java major, their Principal money is small Copper pieces, hung upon Strings called Caix's, and are told out by the 100, or 1000; 200 being Accounted a Satta, 5 Sattas be­ing a Crusado of Portugal, or in English money, valued at about 6 Shillings. But the European Merchants keep their Accounts for the most part in Ryals of 8/ [...] Spanish and pence, 60 pence going to the Roto­lo 9/ [...].

The Weights of Bantam, Jucatra, Jap­parra, and at Sunda are the Pecul, Cattee, and Babar, the Cattee contains 20 Ounces, and 100. Cattees are a Pecul, or 125 pound English, a Babar is 330. Cattees of 20. Ounc­es and supposed to make good Weight 412 pound Averdupois.

Their Concave Measure is the Timbam chiefly in use for Rice and Pepper; and is Accounted 10. Sackfuls, or to contain 5 Peculs in Weight, so that each Sack is reck­oned at 62 ½ pound Averdupois 2 Sacks [Page 167] making a Pecul. As for Measures of length, they are rarely used here, and those that are, are consistent with those of England, Portugal, and Holland.

CHAP. LII. A View of the Trade of Summatra, and other Islands, lying in the Indi­an Seas.

THis Island was formerly called Trapro­bana, and then Esteemed to be the larg­est in the World; being in length 700. Miles, and in breadth 200. Miles, and is divided by the Equator, one half lying be­yond, and the other on this side the E­quinoctial; which renders it exceeding Fer­tile and Healthful, so that there are found many Rich Commodities of the Native pro­duction, as Pepper, Ginger, Aloes, Raw Silk, Cassia, Gold, Silver, Brass, and Drugs of Divers sorts; there is likewise found a Brimstone mount that continually Burns, as likewise 2 Fountains yielding the one Balsamum, and the other Oyl; yet not a­ny considerable store.

[Page 168]The chief Cities of this Island are Da­ren, Pacen, and Andryede; the whole be­ing divided under many Kings, and the chief Ports are Achin, Ticko Jambe, and Priuran; in most of which the English have Factories.

This Island standing not above 20 Miles from Malucca, a great part of the Na­tive Commodities are carryed thither, that Island being in the possession of the Portu­guize, tho of late much infested by the Dutch, who have got Footing, and Built some For­tresses on the Sea Coast. In this Island of Summatra upon its first Discovery, the Islanders had a Barbarous Custom to eat man's Flesh; and hoard up their Sculls, which they passed from one to the other as currant Coyn, he being counted the best man that had most Sculls by him, but of late they have in imitation of the Europe­ans, Coyned money both Gold and Silver, as the Mass worth about 12 pence Sterling, the Tale which is 16 Masses, and the Cat­tee which is 8 Tales, or sometimes 7 ½ Tales is Accounted a Cattee, and these Coyns are currant throughout the King of Achin's Dominions, who is the most Potent Prince in the Island. Tho at Jambe Ticko, and Priaman; the European Coyns are most in use, and the Accounts are for the most [Page 169] part kept in Spanish ℞ 8/8 and for their better Conveniency they divide them into 60 Deniers or pence.

The Weight used in this Island is the Babar, tho it varies according to the Cu­stom of the place where it is used; but in the English Factories, the Babar is found to consist of 200. Cattees, each Cattee con­taining 29 Ounces Averdupois, by multi­plying which the Babar must contain 360 pound English Sotile Weight.

The Isle of Borneo stands in this Tract, and is crossed by the Equator, being near 2200 Miles in circuit, and is Fruitful e­ven to a wonder, abounding with Spices and other Rich Commodities, as Nutmegs, Mace, Cloves, Agrick, Sweet-Woods, Cam­phora, Diamonds, Gold, and the Bezoar-Stone, as likewise Cattle, and Fruits of strange tasts, and shapes in abundance, and has for it's Metropolis the City Borneo; Seated in a Marsh, after the nature of Ve­nice, from which the Island takes its Name.

The Isle of Celebs is likewise a fair and Fertile Island lying in the same Tract and divided by the Equator, as the 2 former, and abounds with the like Rich Commo­dities, and has for its chief Ports Durati, Mamaio, Tubon, Maccasar, &c. and is di­vided [Page 170] under many Princes or Petty Kings, and is a Factory of the English.

The Weights used in most Ports are the Ganton, Zicoyan, and Mass. The former being used both for a Weight and a Mea­sure, and is in Weight counted 5 pound Averdupois, and in Measure 2 Gallons Eng­lish, the Mass Weight is 4 Gantons or 200 pound English, a Zicoyan is 20 Masses or 400 pound English; and in Measure pro­portioned by the Ganton. The currant Coyns are the Mass, Cupan, and Tail; the Mass is 4 Cupans or 4 Shillings 10 pence Sterling or thereabouts, a Tail is 16 Masses, and Accounted worth 15 Ryals of eight, and is valued at 3 pound 14 Shillings 8 pence, or 3 pound 15 Shillings Sterling, &c.

And now I might proceed to describe the other Islands in the Indian Ocean, but they being so many, that it would be too tedious, as likewise to little purpose, by Reason they yield nothing but what has been al­ready lay'd down; many of them uninhabi­ted, and but few of them containing any European Factories, or Traded to; therefore I shall pass them over; they being Ac­counted, besides what I have named, no less then 126000. whose small spots bespangle or rather stud the vast Ocean.

[Page 171]This East Country Trade is now car­ryed on by the English, Dutch, and Portu­gueze, to the Inriching of each Nation, and of late mightily improved, and would be raised to a greater advantage, did not one Nation strive to outvie the other, by giving the Natives their own Prizes, for Commodities of the growth of those Coun­tries; and by that means make them sensi­ble of their value, of which if they had been at first kept in Ignorance, the Euro­peans might have made their one Markets in each Port where their Factories are set­led, and for little or nothing brought the Wealth of India into London, Amster­dam, and Lisbon; but passing this Emula­tion over that cannot be now redressed, I shall describe the pleasant Isle of Cyprus, so famed for it's stores and Commodious Si­tuation, and then leave rich Asia, and return to take a view of Europe. No less abound­ing with all things necessary for the plea­sure and profit of men.

CHAP. LIII. A View of the Isle of Cyprus, the Trade, Growth, Weights, Mea­sures, and Currant Coyns thereof.

CYprus so Famous in History, feigned by Poets of old, to be the residence of the Goddess Venus, is Situate in the Syrian Sea, and is a Part of Asia, being in length 200 Miles and in breadth 65, abounding in plenty of Cattle, Corn, Oyl, Wine, Sugar, Cottons, Honey, Wool, Turpentine, Allum, Verdigrease, Grograms, Salt, and abundance of other Commodities; but e­specially in Cyprus Wood, and has for it's chief Cities Paphos, Famogusta, Nicotia, Lescara, Salines, &c. in which the Eng­lish have a Factory for the Cotton Trade, the English Consul Resident in Aleppo, be­ing imputed Consul of Syria and Cyprus, and hath under him a Vice-Consul, that manages the Trade of this Island for the English, who bring hither in exchange the Growth of our Country, and such o­ther Commodities as are Vendible and most coveted by the Natives. Hither it is the [Page 173] Levant Merchants Trade for most part of their precious Commodities. As for the Coyns in use they are those of the Grand-Signior, and in the same their Accounts are kept, for a View of which I shall refer the Reader to the Description of the Trade of Constantinople.

The Weight most in use is the Dram, of which 750 make a Rotolo, 100 of which make a Cantar greater by 4 in the 100 then the Cantar of Aleppo, and at Famo­gusta there is a Cantar in use that is great­er then the common Cantar of Cyprus by 4 in the 100; and consequently larger then that of Aleppo 8 per cent. tho sometimes the Weights vary, yet not much.

The Measures of length are two sorts, viz. the Pico and Brace, the former is Accounted 26 ½ Inches, and by this they Measure Woolen Cloath, Silk, and the like, the Brace for Linnen Cloath is 1/ [...]6 long­er then the Pico.

Their Concave Measure for Wine is the Cuss, 7 of which make 6 Fletchers of Venetia, or a Candy Barrel; so that a Cuss and half, and a Zant Jarre are equal in quan­tity; the Oyl that is found here is sold by the Rotolo, each Rotolo being Accounted 1000 Drams. Corn of which there is store is sold by the Moose, 2 and a half of which [Page 174] weigh one Staio of Venetia; by this Mea­sure Salt is likewise sold. They have like­wise a Measure for Grain called a Cossino: And thus much for Cyprus, and indeed for all Asia; this being the last place I intend to visit in this part of the World, and from whence I intend to Sail for Europe; only by the way I shall give the Reader an insight into the goodness, and as near as possible the true Value of Silver, Gold, and precious Stones; which will not be a­miss, seeing I so lately left the Coasts where those things which are so generally coveted are acquired.

CHAP. LIV. A Description of Gold and Silver, their Intrinsick Value: The means to find out their Fineness and Allays, after the best and most exact Me­thod.

THe Weight used in England for Sil­ver and Gold, is the Troy pound con­sisting of 12 Ounces, and each Ounce again divided into 150 Carots, and from thence [Page 175] into 480 Grains, each Ounce of Silver fine being according accounted worth 5 Shillings 2 pence of our money, and so more or less according to the addition or diminu­tion of allay. The pound Troy of fine Gold is Accounted worth 36 pound, the Ounce 3 pound or if very fine something more, or again less as the Allay is, as thus: The Ounce of fine Gold is valued at 3 pound, 33 Kes fine at 2 pound 17 Shillings 6 pence, 22 Kes fine at 2 pound 15 Shillings, 21 Kes 2 pound 12 Shillings 6 pence; the Ounce of 20 Kes fine is worth but 2 pound 10 Shillings, and so losing value 2 Shillings 6 pence per Ounce, as it wants a Carot in fineness in 24, or the Troy pound. Now to know the goodness or fineness of Gold and Silver upon the Touch-Stone, by way of Essay, is to procure Needles of Gold and Silver, and Copper Allay sutable to any sort of Gold and Silver in Allay, and to be of 4 sorts, viz. the first of fine Gold and Silver, the second of Gold and Copper, the third of Gold Silver and Copper, and the fourth of Sil­ver and Copper only; the first for the try­al of Gold, and the latter for Silver, and of these Mixtures make 24 Needles differing in fineness from each, as thus; The first must be all fine Gold without any Allay, viz. 24 Carots, the second 23 Carots of fine [Page 176] Gold and one of Silver, the third 22 Carots of Gold and 2 of Silver, and so one Carot worse till there remains but one Carot of fine Gold in Mixture, with 23 Carots of Silver. And by this Rule the Gold and Copper, and Silver and Copper must be Allayed; and each Needle marked of what fineness it is. And by this means you may know the fineness of any Ingot or Piece of Gold or Silver; as thus, touch the said In­got or Piece of Gold or Silver upon your Touch-Stone, and by it the Needle you think is nearest it in fineness; and if that suit not with it, try another till it suits with it, which when wet, will appear, and so by the mark of your Needle, you may be assured of the fineness of the Silver or Gold so touched, which is a better, easi­er, safer, and surer way then to try it by Fire. And thus much for Gold and Silver, as to their Tryal of fineness.

CHAP. LV. A Treatise of Precious-Stones, how to know them and their true value, viz. Diamonds, Rubies, Saphyrs, &c. as also the goodness and worth of Pearles in General.

THe Weight usual in India for Diamonds and Precious Stones, were brought thither by the Portugals, called the Mange­ar or Fanan, which differs not much from the Carot, whereof 150 Carots make an Ounce Troy; and is divided into 64.33.16.8.4.2.1. ½ ¼ ⅛ 1/16 Parts. The Mangelue or Mangear is near or altogether 5 Grains Weight, or 2 Tars ⅔ Accounted the ⅔ of 1 Carot, so that 4 Grains and 4 Tars weigh a Fanan, the Fanan being somewhat above 2 of our Carots, for 11 ¼ Fanans are 1 Mittigal. and 6 Mittiglas and ½ make the Ounce Troy; this Fanan in many parts of India goes currant for a Coyn, being E­qually valued with a Spanish Ryal; and thus having laid down the proportion of the Weights, I shall first begin with the Dimonds, the chief of Precious Stones, [Page 178] then to know a good and true Diamond take this rule. A good and right Diamond is fast and no ways porous, so that it will re­sist the Fire, and after several hours con­tinuance therein, come out bright as at first; and in choice of such a one▪ it must be nei­ther Brown, Yellowish, Blewish, nor a Dullish-Black, but of a good Water-Chri­staline; not wanting any corner when Po­lished on a Mill, nor be too thick nor too thinn, but so as it may be set firm, and to good advantage in a Ring, or Collet without being upholden by Velvet, and such a Diamond weighing 1 Carot is worth 35 pounds Sterling or upwards.

Note when you have found out the true value of a perfect Diamond or Diamonds, this Rule is to be observed. Suppose a Dia­mond weighing a Carot Weight be worth 40 Ducats more or less, then the 4th. part being ten Ducats is the price of a Diamond weighing half a Carot, so the Diamond weighing a Carot is worth but the 4th. part of the value of one weighing 2 Ca­rots, viz. 40 Ducats, and that weighing 2 Carots worth 160 Ducats; and so if there be over Weight by Grains, you must di­vide all into Grains, and then a Diamond weighing 3 Grains is worth but the 4th. part of that weighing 6. And this is a Ge­neral [Page 179] Rule, not only for Diamonds but all manner of precious Stones, according to Equality in goodness, as for Example a thick Table Diamond of the goodness a­foresaid weighing 1 Grain is worth 1 pound 17 Shillings 6 pence, weighing 2 Grains is worth 7 pound 10 Shillings, weighing 3 Grains is worth 16 pound 17 Shillings 6 pence, weighing 1 Carot is worth 30 pound, and so proportionably to 8 Carots, yet there are some Diamonds imperfect, and not of any Extraordinary value, which are called Brut Diamonds, Naifs, Rocks, and flat-Stones, which are bought and sold at uncertain rates.

The Ruby is found in Zeilam in India, and called commonly the Carbuncle, try­ed in the Fire to know its perfection, the which if it abide and come out Burning like a Cole and of a high Colour, it is Ac­counted perfect; a Stone of which perfecti­on weighing but one Carot or ½, a Fanan is valued at 30 Fanans in Callicut, and in­crease in value as the Dimonds according to their Weight; there is another sort on­ly called a Ruby, found in a River in the Kingdom of Pegu; but it will not indure the Fire, but looseth it's Colour▪ when put to the Tryal; there are likewise several sorts of Rubies as the Carbuncle, Ballas, [Page 180] Spinal, Garnat, and Rubas; but this Ruby of Pegu is accounted the next in value to the Carbuncle, and a Ruby square table-wise, perfect, and of high Colour of 16.18.20. or 24. Carots in Colour, weigh­ing a Fanan is worth sometimes in the In­dia's, 100. Ducats, and in England weighing 11 ½ Carots, and of 20 Carots in Colour perfect and without Blemish, is worth 350 pound Sterling or rather more.

Saphyrs are found in Zeilam, Calucut, Ba­singer, Canoner, and Pegu, and those are accounted best that are of a pure Azure or Sky-Colour, and in that hardness excelleth all other Stones the Diamond excepted, and according to their Colour are held in Esti­mation; as for example, Saphyr weigh­ing one Carot is worth 2 Fanans, one weighing 2 Carots is worth 5 Fanans, one weighing 3 worth 10 Fanans, and one weighing 4 Carots worth 15 Fanans, and so Proportionably each Fanan being Ac­counted 2 Carots; after this manner Tur­quoise, Topaze, Berrils, Crysolites, Jacynths, Amathists, and other precious Stones are known and valued every one according to their goodness and Weight; as for Pearls, how they are taken, I have before set down, and now I shall as far as is necessary make a report of their true value [Page 181] according as they are in goodness.

The Rule to value Oriental Pearls, from a Grain in Weight to what bigness any will afford, is by the Colour, Round­ness, Pear-Fashion, or Oval; and that is in all parts perfect, as to Water and Gloss, without Knobs, Specks, Yellowness or other imperfections, and a Pearl of this perfection weighing a Carot is worth a Ducat in India. But before I proceed fur­ther, as to their value it will not be a­miss to relate how they are sold, by those that have the disposing of them, viz. the Indians sell them by Sieves of Latten full of holes in number 12, one bigger then the other as to their holes, and according to the largeness or smallness, the price is re­gulated; for those of the 10, 11, and 12 Sieve are seldom capable to be holed, and therefore are called Seed-Pearls; most fit for Apothecaries, to be used by them in their Physical Preparations; but the others for the use of Ladies, and others to adorn themselves withal; and for the price of all large Pearls, they are valued as is said by Weight and fairness, as Diamonds and o­ther precious Stones, tho seldom before they be holed for fear of their breaking in the holing; as thus, a Pearl of one Grain is worth 7 pence, of 2 Grains 2 Shillings [Page 182] 6 pence, of 3 Grains 5 Shillings 7 pence, of 1 Carot 10 Shillings, and so in pro­portion to those of greater Weight, as for Seed-Pearls, the smallest of which are Ac­counted 4500. to the Ounce, and the larg­est 400 or 450 to the Ounce, and com­monly divided into 6 parts, the Prizes are these: The 6th. or smallest sort 4500 are commonly sold for 2 pound 4 Shillings the Ounce, the 5th. sort are sold for 1 pound 6 Shillings the Ounce, the 4th. sort at 10 Shillings the Ounce, the third sort at 18 Shillings the Ounce, the second at 1 pound 6 Shillings, and the first at 1 pound 15 Shillings. But note that the first is termed the sixth sort, and so Consequently the sixth the first; the Rag Pearls which are sold likewise by the Ounce, according to their bigness are divided into thirds, se­conds, and firsts, an Ounce of which con­taining 350 Pearls, is Accounted worth 1 pound 18 Shillings, an Ounce containing 250 Pearls is Accounted worth 3 pounds, an Ounce of 150 worth 4 pounds, and so according to their lesser quantity or num­ber, in making the Ounce, all sorts of half round Pearls of pure Water, and Gloss are Accounted worth a round Pearl of half the Weight. And thus much for Gold, Silver, precious Stones, and Oriential [Page 283] Pearls; with which I shall return to Europe, as the common Receptacle of those rich Commodities, which were of little value to the Indians, before the European Navi­gators set Prizes thereon, and by that means taught the Natives how to Esteem them; for in the first Discovery of the In­dies by the Portugals, they bought them for Beads of Glass, and such like Trifles, but now they are not purchased; but at Extra­ordinary rates.

CHAP. LVI. A View of Europe of it's Provinces, Trade, Manners, Customs, Growth, Weights, Measures, Currant Coyn, &c.

THe first that offers it self on the Con­tinent of Europe is Spain, invironed on all sides with the Seas, unless that part towards France; which is bounded by the Pyraenaean Hills, and the Fortress of Pampe­lona on the North-West, and Perpegana on the South-East, and is divided into 12 Pro­vinces, viz. Leon and Oviedo, which are [Page 184] one, Navar, Corduba, Galicia, Biscay, To­ledo, Murtia, Castille, Portugal, (now an in­tire Kingdom) Valentia, Catalonia, and A­ragon; and in General abounds with Wines, Sugars, Oyls, Mettals, Liquorish, Rice, Cork, Silk, Wool, Oranges, Rosin, Steel, Almonds, Raisins, Lemons, Anchoves, An­niseeds, Figs, Soda, Barrilla, Honey, Wax, Shumack, Iron, Tuny-Fish, Saffron, Soape, and Carianders; so that into the Trade of 3 or 4 of the Principal Cities and Ports, I shall reduce the whole Trade of the King­dom and it's Provinces.

Passing over Leon, Ovideo, and Navar, as Provinces little adddicted to Commerce, I shall proceed to Sevil, the chief City of Trade in the Province of Corduba, and in­to the Trade of that City reduce the Trade of that Province, which is Account­ed the most Fertile Province of all Spain.

CHAP. LVII. A View of Sevil, the Trade, Weights, Measures, Customs, and Currant Coyns thereof.

THis City is Situate in the Province of Corduba, and accounted 6 Miles in compass, adorned with many stately Build­ings, and is an Arch-Bishop's Sea, account­ed next to Toledo the richest in Spain; through it runs the River Baetis dividing it into 2 parts, over which is a Stately Bridg, which renders the City very Commodious for Trade, and from hence it is for the most part, that the Spanish Fleet sets out for the West Indies, and at their return unlaid their rich Commodities, as Silver, Tobacco, Ginger, Cottons, Sugar, Ferrinand, Bucque-Wood, and Wood of Brasil, Sarsafrax, Galbanum, and other Drugs of great va­lue; and for the King of Spains use, are in these parts brought up and kept 30000. Gennets; nor are bare Customs of this City Accounted to amount to less then half a Million of Gold yearly.

The Merchants generally keep their [Page 186] Accounts in Maruedies, of which 375 are Accounted to a Ducat of Exx 11 Ryals, every Ryal being 37 Maru, and some Strang­ers residing there keep their Accounts in Ryals of 34 Maru.

The Coyns currant are the Ducats of Gold of Sevil, and are as aforesaid valued by the Spaniards worth 375 Maru, or 5 Shillings 6 pence Sterling, as likewise the Ryal of Castile which is worth here but 34 Maruides and valued at 6 pence Sterling, a Dobra currant is of Carlin Coyn 81/87 Ma­ruedies.

A Dobra of Castile is valued at 375 Mar. or a Ducat in Gold, the Castilian of Mer­chandise is worth 485 Mar. or 7 Shillings Sterling.

Their Weights are the 3 Kintars, the first consists of 112 pound, and is divided into 4 Roves of 28 pound a Rove, the second is 120 pound, composed of 4 Roves of 30 pound each, and the third being the greatest, is composed of 4 Roves of 36 pound the Rove, and accordingly con­tains 144 pound, and is the common Kin­tar of Sevil, and 100 pound Weight of this place has often made 102 pound of London.

Their Measure of Length is the Vare, 100 of which have been found to make 74 Ells of London.

[Page 187]The Measure by which Oyl is sold is the Rove, 64 of which make a Venetian Mia­ra and 40 or 41 of the said Roves make a Pipe, the Rove being 8 Somers, a Somer containing 4 Quartiles, a Quartile being the [...]/6 part of a Stoop of Antwerp, and 2 Pipes or 81 Roves are 25 or 26 Florence Bar­rils, or 252 English Gallons, tho in Sevil the Gage of Pipes are Accounted but 118 Gallons the Pipe.

Corn is Measured by the Caffise, which is 28 Satos of Florence; from Sevil it is that the fine Spanish Wool is brought, as also Cordavant-Leather; in these parts, but especially at Almeria, great store of Raw Silks are gathered, it being the prim­est of all other, and is Accounted worth by the pound Morisco 18 Shillings Flo­rence, or 1020 Maruedies, which amount to 30 Ryals. And thus much for Sevil and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. LVIII. A View of Malaga, the Trade, Cu­stoms, Weights, Measures, and Coyns thereof.

MAlaga is Situate in the Province of Granado, on the Shoar of the Me­diterranean Sea, being Accommodated with a commodious Haven for the reception of Shipping, being very Fruitful in every part of it's Territories, abounding in Wine and Raisins known by it's Name, as likewise many delicate Fruits, Corn, Cattle, and what else can make a Country desirable; they have likewise store of Sugar, Almonds, Oyls, &c. for which they pay Customs outward, tho they be Commodities of the natural Growth, viz. 7 per cent. Cochineel and such like Commodities pay outward 10 per cent. and all other Commodities of the Growth but 5 per cent. and those that are carryed from Port to Port 2 pound per cent.

The Weights of Malaga is the 100. di­vided into 4 Roves of 25 pound each, and to every pound 16 Ounces, and the 100 [Page 189] pound of Malaga, called commonly the Kintar of Malaga, is found to make 112 pound 5 Ounces English, tho sometimes less according to the nature of the Com­modity.

Their Concave Measures are the Rove and Somer, the first making 8 of the last, so that 25 Roves go to a Pipe, which con­tains 100 English Gallons, by these only Wine and Oyl are Measured; as for Grain it is Measured by the Hanock, which is divided into 12 Almodos, and is 12 Gal­lons English weighing upon the Strike 129 pound.

The Measure of length is the Vare of 27 ⅞ Inches.

The Coyns currant are Ryals, to one of which is computed 34 Marnedies or 6 pence Sterling, and Pistolets of Gold, each being worth 23 ½ Ryals, that is, the single Pistolet, the double Pistolet which are here likewise in use being worth 27 Ryals.

CHAP. LIX. A View of Alicant, and of the Trade, Measures, Weights, Coyns, &c.

ALicant is Situate on the Banks of the Mediterranian, in the Province of Murtia, and is by Reason of it's commo­dious Haven of late become a great Scale of Trade in those parts, affording deli­cate Wines and other Commodities in much request, being of late the Scale to the City Valentia, and affords of its Na­tive growth Liquorish, Rasins, Wines, So­da-Barrilla, Sugar, Drugs, Bass-Mats, Ropes, Sope, Anniseed, and many other Merchantable Commodities; which are Traded for by our English Merchants, and bought partly for money and partly for Commodities of the growth of our Nation.

And at Alicant the Merchants keep their Accounts in Livers, Solds, and Deniers, 12 Deniers making a Sold, and 20 Solds a Liver, which is Accounted worth 5 Shil­lings Sterling, the Sold being Accounted 3 Pence, and the Denier a Farthing.

The Weights in use are the Cargo and Rove, 10 of the latter making the former, [Page 191] and of these Roves there are two sorts, one computed 18 Ounces, and the other 12 to each pound, and by that means tho one be reckoned 36 pound, and the other but 24, yet in Weight they are equal as to the number of Ounces; and by these are sold Pepper, Rice, Almonds, Cloves, Cin­namond, and the like; by the Cargo is weighed all Gross Commodities, it con­taining 280 pound English. There is sometimes used a Quintal of 96 pound A­verdupois, and by it Drugs are weighed.

The Measure of Length is the Vare, which wants a ⅙ part of the English Yard. The Liquid Measure for Wine is the Can­tar, which is about 3 Gallons English, and the dry Measure for Corn is called the Chaffise, and is near 3 Bushel English.

The Customs for the most part are rat­ed at 11 Deniers per centum Livers, and is payable at 8 Deniers to the Duana and 3 Deniers to the Sisa, payed as well by the Buyer as Seller as often as Goods are bought, sold, or bartered; for so that the Buyer and Seller pay between them 9 per cent. And thus leaving Alicant, I return to take a View of Madrid, Accounted the Principal City of Spain.

CHAP. LX. A View of Madrid, of the Trade, Coyns, Weights, and Measures there­of.

MAdrid is Situate in the Provinces of Castill, and of late become famous, for being the place where for the most part the Spanish Court resides; and in it the Mo­nies that are dispersed over Spain have their Original. This City abounds with all manner of Commodities, that either Spain, India, Barbary, Arabia, Persia, Egypt or other Countries affoard; as Spices, Gold, Silks, Drugs, Stuffs, Jewels, Drugs, and the like. The Native Commodities of this Province are Honey, Allum, Wine, Oyl, Fruits, Salt, &c.

The Measures and Weights are those common throughout Spain, but by Reason all the Coyns of the Kingdom Center here, I think it not amiss to set down their Names and true values.

1. The Ducat of Castil is worth 375 Maruedies.

2. The Castiliano 485 Maruedies.

[Page 193]3. The Florin of Castile is worth 265 Maruedies or near 4 Shillings Ster­ling.

4. The Ducat Count or Quento of Marue­dies is a Million.

5. The Count or Quento of Maruedies is Ducats 2666 2/3 [...] and at Dobra is accounted worth 2739 [...]/73 Dobras, the which accord­ing to computation amounts to 733 pound 6 Shillings 8 pence Sterling.

6. The Ryal Single of Castile is worth 34 Maruedies or 6 pence Ster­ling.

7. The Quento of Mar is worth 3258 Ryals and 3 Maruedies.

8. The Crown of Castile is worth 323 Maruedies.

9. The Ducat of Spain is 5 Shillings 6 pence of our money, the Ryal is 6 pence and the Maruedie about the bigness of one of our Farthings.

In this City when they give money up­on Exchange, they commonly agree to be repayed in Ducats of Gold, or to the same value in Gold or Silver, for the most part by Weight to prevent the taking base money, with which Spain abounds, so that should they not take this course, they would often lose 4 or 5 per cent.

In this Province are yearly 4 Fairs or [Page 194] great Marts, viz. at Medina Del Campo which lasts 50 days, at Medina de Riosecco which lasts 30 days, at Medina del Campo again which lasts 50 days, and lastly at Villa Lyon which lasts 20 days.

These Fairs, viz. the 3 first are Fairs of Exchange: And when they make pay­ments they make them in Banco not say­ing forth, and they are to remit in Ducats de Oro, in Oro Largo and forth of Banco, and when they agree forth of Banco, and for ready money there is got 1 per cent. and when they agree for Ducats of Gold or the worth of them, it is understood that the worth if the payment be not pay­ed in Ducats, is to be payed in Maruedies at 375 to the Ducat. And thus much for Spain and the Trade thereof. And now I shall take a View of the Trade of the King­dom of Portugal in her chief City, viz. Lis­bon one of the 3 chief Scales of Europe.

CHAP. LXI. A View of Lisbon, the Metropolis of Portugal, of the Trade, Growth, Weights, Measues, Coyns, and Cu­stoms thereof.

LIsbon is the Metropolis of the Kingdom of Portugal, commodiously Seated up­on the Banks of the River Tagus, the City and Suburbs being 10 Miles in compass, and not imagined to contain less then 38000. Families, Beautifyed with 67 Tow­ers placed upon the Walls and 22 Gates; all the Houses being Built Magnificent, and indeed the People given to great In­dustry, but especially to Navigation, as appears by the many Discoveries they have made; they being the first that Dis­covered the Eastern Tract even to the In­dias, and there by Trade and force got Foot­ing, and shewed the way to England and Holland; who have now brought it to per­fection, even to the great Inriching either Nation, and of all the Commodities brought from India, and other parts of the World by the Portugals, this City is the Scale, for [Page 196] hither come yearly the Spices of Arabia, the Silks of Persia, the rich Commodities of China, and the Gold, Silver, precious Stones, and Spices of India; and especially Pearls, the Fishery thereof remaining for the most part in the right of the King of Portugal, which being brought to Lisbon, and after­wards dispersed throughout Europe. To this City Flows the Trade of the whole Kingdom and also that of Spain; from which Kingdom it is now separated as formerly.

The Weights of this City, and conse­quently of the whole Kingdom are Prin­cipally the small and the great Cantars, the Latter of which is divided into 4 Roves, and each Rove contains 32 Reals which is 128 pounds, at 14 Ounces per pound, and of Flo­rence Weight is computed 149 pound, their small Quintar for Pepper and Ginger is be­tween 110 and 112 pound English, the Rove or Quartern being 27 ½ and sometimes 27 [...]/4 pound, but the great Quintal is 15 or 16 per cent. more than our 112 pound.

The Quintar commonly called the King's Quintar used in his Contractation House for weighing the Spices and Drugs of India is 114 pound English, and the great Cantar of Lisbon is mostly computed 130 pound Eng­lish, &c.

[Page 197]The Measures of length used in this Ci­ty are the Coueda, which is the third part of an English Yard, and the Ware which wants but a Nale of an English Ell; by the for­mer they Measure Woollen Cloaths, &c. and by the latter Linnen, &c.

The Concave Measures of Lisbon is the Alquire, 3 of which are found to make an English Bushel, and 5 a Spanish Han­nep. They have an other Measure by which they meet their Salt called Muy, which is 60 Alquires, and 2 Muys and 15 Alquires are a Tunn Bristol Water Mea­sure.

The Custom inward is 23 per cent. that is, to the Dechima 10, to the Sisa 10, and to the Consolado 3, and outward Merchants pay only 3.

The Coyns are the Croisado of Gold, computed to be worth 400 Reas. The Ducat of Portugal which is ten Reals and accounted 5 Shillings Sterling or the Croi­sado. The Ryal which is 40 Reas and ac­counted 6 pence Sterling. The Golden Mirle which is worth 1000. Reas and ac­counted 2 5/2 Ducats, the Ducat is 2 ½ Ryals or 15 pence Sterling. The Vintin which is 20 Reas or 3 pence Sterling, the single Ryal of Spain which is 2 Vintines; there are likewise the Coyns of Spain pas­sable [Page 198] in this City, but seeing they are not the proper Coyns of Portugal, I shall pass them over as having already mentioned them in the Description of the Trade of that Kingdom. And now leaving Portugal, I shall pass into the Kingdom of France, and in viewing the Trade of some Cities there­of, give a Summary account of the whole Kingdoms Commerce, both Inland and by Navigation.

CHAP. LXII. A View of France, the Provinces, Trade, Customs, Weights, Mea­sures, and Currant Coyns, reduced in­to the view of the Principal Trad­ing Cities of that Kingdom.

FRance is a large and Fertile part of Eu­rope, bounded on the North with the Brittish Ocean, on the West with the Aqui­tanian Sea, on the South with the Medi­terranian, and on the East with the Pirenae­an Hills and River Rhine; and is divided in­to several Provinces, the Trade of which I shall instance in these following Cities, [Page 199] viz. Burdeaux, Rouen, Paris, Lyons, and Marselia, of these in order.

Burdeaux is Situate on the Banks of Ge­ronde, being the Principal City of the Province of Aquitain; and is placed in a very Fruitful Soil, especially for Wines: The Principal Vineyards of France being accounted in its Neighbourhood; of the Grapes therein growing, are made Whitewines and Claret in abundance; and of late all Palled Wines and such as other­wise are foul & not Merchantable, they Lmi­beck off into Brandies, which for the most part is vended in England, and Holland. They have likewise several Vineyards yield­ing Grapes that make Sweet-Wines, com­monly called high Country Wines, the which lest it should hinder the Sail of the other, they prohibit to be sold in their City till Christmass day; when the high Country Merchants bring it in, and sell it to Strang­ers there resident; and such is the Custom of the place, that that Vessel or Lighter that first sets her Head on Shoar, is accounted free from Impost or Custom, yet must in lieu thereof for that day give Wine on Free-cost, to such as come on Board to Drink it. To this City it is that our Eng­lish Merchants Trade, and from whence they yearly bring 20000 Tuns of Whitewine, [Page 200] Claret Sweet, and Brandy Wines in times when no prohibition is layed, this City formerly for many Years having been English; there are found great quantities of Prunes of the Neighbouring growth, and some other Commodities, tho these are the chief, and to this place monies are remitted, for which mostly the Inhabitants Trade not as in other places ef Traffick, freely bartering Goods for Goods. Their Ac­counts are kept for the most part in Li­vers, Sold's, and Denies; as indeed through­out the Kingdom. Their Weight is the pound, 100 of which are reckoned a Quin­tar, or 110 English, 90 ¾ pound being 100 pound English. Their Measure of length is an Auln accounted 42 English Inches, their Wines are computed by Hogs-Heads and Tearces, viz. Claret and White­wines, and their Brandy by Punchings of no certain Gauge.

CHAP. LXIII. A View of Rouen, and the Trade thereof.

ROuen is the Principal City of Nor­mandy, being the Parliamentary Seat of that Province, and is Seated on the Banks of the River Sein; all its Territo­ries being Fertile, and it abounding with rich Merchandise, as well of other Nati­ons as the Growth of the Kingdom of France, and is visited by most of the Mer­chants of all the Northern Kingdoms Trading in the Growth of France; the place affording of natural Growth and Native Manufactury, fine and coarse Linnens, Buck­rams, Paper, Cards, Wine, Stuffs, Combs, &c. for which the Inhabitants or such French Merchants as send their Commodities thi­ther to be vended, receive of the English Kersies of Devonshire and Yorkshire, Bays of Coxal, Cottons of Wales, Pepper, Gauls, Yarn, Tinn, Lead, Fish, &c. but of late they have got a Custom to Trade for Sterling, many Commodities being allowed at no other Exchange.

[Page 202]Their Accounts are kept in Solds, Li­vers, and Deniers. As for Weights here is principally found the Kings Beam called the Viconte, which exceeds our long hun­dred, viz. 112 pound 14 per cent. so that it makes English, 126 pound, tho sometimes less. Their Measure of length is the Auln, accounted 46 Inches or somewhat more, by which they Measure Woollen, and Linnen Cloath, and in this Measure they allow 24 for 20 called the Merchants Auln; this City affords great store of Canvas for the Sails of Ships and such like uses, which is likewise Measured by the Auln, and has al­lowance as aforesaid, tho not unless great quantities are bought. In this City 3 Fairs are yearly held, at 2 whereof Liberty for 15 days is granted to buy and Transport all Commodities of the growth Custom-free, provided the Commodities be laden and fallen down the River, to a Place limited within 15 days after, or else to pay Custom as at other times, the first of which be­gins the 3d. day of February and ends the 18th, the second begins on Whit-Monday and lasteth 15 days, the third begins on the 23 day of October and continues 8 days only, and is not Custom-free as the for­mer.

As for the Concave Measures they are [Page 203] few, and such as are common throughout France, and of which I shall hereafter speak. Therefore in this Chapter I willingly Omit them.

CHAP. LXIV. A View of Paris, the Metropolis of France, and of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, Customs, exchan­ges, and Commodities there Vend­ed.

PAris is the Principal city of France, and is accounted 10 Miles in Circumference, being Situate on either side the River Sein; that River Gliding smoothly through it, thereby rendering it more Commodious for Traffick; tho through the Sloath of the Inhabitants it is not improved to the ad­vantage it might be, yet here are found Commodities of the growth of the whole Kingdom, as likewise of most Nations tho in no abundance.

The Commodities exported hence are Linnens, Paper, Cards, Combs, Stuffs, Thread, Plushes, &c. for which they re­ceive [Page 204] English Cloath, Stockings, Lead, Tinn, Bays, old Shooes, Silks of Italy, and some Indian Commodities. The Inhabi­tants are for the most part Gentry, and therefore not addicted to Manufa­cture.

The Weights of Paris are the Quintal, which is accounted 100 pound Gross, but found to make 100 pound of London Suttle 2 per cent. more or less, and is of Lyons Weight of 16 Ounces 116 pound, and Venetian Sottle 144 pound, 100 Sottle in Venice making Sottle of Paris Weight but 62 [...]/2 pound of 15 Ounces to the pound, the Cargo or great Quintal of Paris is 300 pound of Troy Weight, yet makes in Florence 487 pound. The Concave Mea­sures for Wine is the Cistern, which con­tains 8 Pints or a French Gallon, 96 of which are accounted a Tun.

The Measures of length are two, one for Linnen, and the other for Silks, and are much about the length of the vantaged and unvantaged Aulns, but seldom used in Gross, by Reason in this City Silks, Stuffs, &c. are sold by Weight, which to the buyer is advantageous by Reason he cannot be imposed on with slight Silks, and Stuffs, but that what it wants in goodness will be made out in Measure.

[Page 205]This City is the chief Standard of Coyn for the whole Kingdom; therefore in this I shall give a particular account of most French Coyns currant; first the Denire, 2 of which make a Double, and twelve a Sold, and 20 Solds a Liver, by some cal­led a Frank, and in these three, viz. Solds, Deniers, and Livers, the accounts of that Kingdom are for the most part kept. There are Peices of 8 Solds, each Piece being the 1/ [...] part of a Silver French Crown, 64 Sold's being accounted a French Crown, and 4 Sold's which is of 3 Livors Turnois Pieces of 21 Solds, 4 Deniers being the 1/8 part of the said Crown commonly called Testons, and the ½ and ¼ thereof, and as the Quar­ter Crowns were at first raised from 15 Solds to 16, and thereby the 60 Solds to 64; so in the like proportion, were the Testons raised; the Golden Coyns are the Crown of 3 Livers or 60 Solds, the Crown of the Sun being 3 Livers 16 Sold or 76 Solds, and the Pistol, each Liver being ac­counted 12 pence Sterling; there are like­wise Crowns of 6 Shillings Sterling, but these monies, as indeed most Forrain Coyns, do rise and fall according to the Plenty and Scarcity of Silver and Gold, or more pro­perly at the pleasure of the Prince whose proper Coyns they are. As for the Ex­changes [Page 206] I shall refer them till I come to Treat in General of the nature of Ex­changes.

CHAP. LXV. A View of Lyons, and the Trade thereof, &c.

LYons was once the famousest Mart of France, and a great Scale of Trade, but by Reason of its Incommodious Situ­ation, in wanting a Port or Navigable Ri­ver for great Ships, it has given place to the Haven Towns, yet continues some Trade, especially Inland, being Seated on a Fruitful Soil, Fertilized by the Branches of the Rivers Rhoan and Soame, the chief Manufactory of Silks in the Kingdom of France being setled in it, which when wrought is sent through Europe, the Inha­bitants having Commerce with Marselia, the chief Port for the residence of Ship­ping. Here Exchanges are practised, the Bankers or Merchants of Venetia, Florence and Naples, having Factors resident in Lyons for that purpose, and hither it is that the [Page 207] English Merchants bring Lead, Tinn, Bays, Cony-Skins, &c. to Exchange for the growth of the Province; the Accounts are kept as in other parts of the Kingdom. The Coyns currant being the same with those of Paris.

The Fairs are 4, in which all payments either by Exchange or Merchandise are made, and all payments run from 3 Months to 3 Months, if agreed to in a Publick place or Burse appointed for that purpose; the first of these Fairs begins immediately after the Octaves of Easter, the second, the first Monday after the Assumption of the Bles­sed Virgin, the third the day after All Souls, the fourth the day after Epiphany, each continuing 15 days; all Exchange business is done, and all Bills of Exchange are made and dated in one day, and within 2 days following, they settle the rate of Exchange, and by these Fairs they limit their payments, and the time allowed in their Bills from hence to Venice, Florence, and Rome, is com­monly 30 days, to Naples and Valentia 25 days; and so consequently according to the distance of the place it is payable at, tho agreement be made for longer time it is of­ten granted.

The Weights most in use is the Kings Beam of the Custom-House, and the 2 [Page 208] Town Beams, the King's Beam is found to be 100 pound the Quintal, and is greater then the largest of the Town Beams by 8 per cent. and by the Weight thereof all Cu­stoms are Proportioned. This large Town Beam for Gross Goods is accounted like­wise 100 pound of 16 Ounces to the pound, the third Weight is known by the name of the pound of Mark, and is only used in weighing of Silks containing 100 pound of 15 Ounces, being the least of the three.

The Measure of Lyons is the Auln which is 46 English Inches, 7 of them being found to make 9 English Yards, and 100 pound of London Suttle is found to make in Lyons 96 2/2 pound Silk Weight, and one Liver or pound Sterling of London is 10 Livers Tur­nois. And thus much shall Suffice for Lyons and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. LXVI. A View of Marselia, the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, and Cu­stoms thereof.

MArselia is a fair Port, and the prin­cipal Place of Trade in Provence, whither resort many Merchants; and from which Port the Ships Sail that maintain the Trade with Turky, Barbary, Spain, Italy, Flanders, and England, tho in­deed not much, the French Nation not affect­ing Navigation, but rather choose to improve the growth of their own Country, for which they have brought home to 'em, the Com­modities and growth of all Nations. The Exchange that is wanting here, is supplyed by the currant and intercourse of Lyons, it be­ing Governed thereby in matters of Trade.

And hither the English bring Bays, Cloath, Lead, Tinn, Herrings, Pilchards, Newland-Fish, Affrican Hides, Wax, Calves-Skins, Salmond, &c. and in Exchange receive Oyls, Wines, Verdigreese, Paper, Linnen, and other Manufactures, & at this Port they have free Licence to Transport Spanish Ryals of 8/8 [Page 210] which are found in abundance, and by that means preserve their Trade with Turky, and other Places of Traffick in the Medi­terranean, from whence they bring Silks, and some spices; but of late have not been so venturous as formerly, for fear of the Pirates, by whom they have sustained with­in a few Years dammages to the value of 3 Millions of Crowns, which has much im­paired their Traffick in those parts.

The Accounts here are kept in Deniers, Solds, and Livers, and in Ryals of 8, which sometimes are Inhaunced to a ¼ part more then their true value.

The Weight is Originally the pound of 16 Ounces, 100 of which make the Quin­tal, and 3 Quintals the Cargo, the Quintal is found to make English 88 ½.

The Measure of Length is the Cane, which they divide into 8 Palms, which are found to be 2 ⅛ English Yards.

The concave Measure is the Mine, of which the Sack of Leghorne makes 1 [...]/3.

The Customs outwards are 1 ¼ per cent. and inwards 3 ¼ per cent. this is meant of Com­modities of the growth of the Country, but if Pepper, Ginger, Indico, and such like Commodities be imported; they pay the Kings Customs, which are 15 per cent. And thus I shall conclude the Trade of [Page 211] France, and proceed to take a View of Italy and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. LXVII. A View of Italy, and the Trading Ci­ties thereof, together with their Manner of Traffick, Weights, Measures, Coyns, &c.

ITaly is bounded with the Alps, the Ioni­an, Tyrrhenean, and Adriatick Seas, and is exceeding Fertile lying in a Temperate Clime, and is divided into 10 Provinces, viz. the Kingdom of Naples, the Dukedom of Florence, the Dukedom of Millain, the Dukedom of Mantua, the Common-Wealth of Venice, the Dukedom of Ʋrbin, the Prin­cipality of Parma, the estate of Genoa, the estate of Luca, and the Papacy. Of the chief City or Town of Trade of each in order.

CHAP. LXVIII. A View of the City Naples, and the Trade thereof, together with the Weights, Measures, Coyns, Cu­stoms, &c.

IN Describing the Trade of this City from whence the Kingdom takes its Name, I shall lay down what is found of value or Merchantable throughout the Pro­vince.

The City of Naples is a fair City and accounted 7 Miles in compass, formerly called Parthenope, and is now Governed by a Vice-Roy to the Behoof of the King of Spain, and yieldeth divers Mettals brought from adjacent Mines; likewise Saffron, Raw and wrought Silk, Oyls, Anniseed, Brim­stone, Argals, Corn, Cattle in abundance and other things of value; for which they receive out of England Bays, Says, Serges, Cloath, Lead, Tinn, Herrings, Pilchards, and Newland-Fish. There is found like­wise the growth of Spain, Portugal, and many East-Indian Commodities, and it was formerly a City of great Traffick. The [Page 213] Country generally abounds in Mulberry-Trees, and other pleasant Fruit-Trees.

The Weights of this City, and conse­quently of the whole Kingdom, are the Roto­lo and Cantar, 100 of the former making the latter, which is accounted 196 pound English Averdupois Weight, as likewise in Goeta they have a Cantar, by which all Gross Commodities are weighed which is reckoned 254 pound of Leghorn.

The Measure of Length is the Cane di­vided into 8 Palms, nine of which Palms make the Auln of Lyons, and the Cane is 18 ½ English inches.

The Concave Measures of Naples are the Salmo and Staio, by which they Measure Oyl, Wine, Corn, &c.

The Customs are for some Commodities 2 ½, for other 4 ½ per cent. more or less, as the Vice-Roy gives order to these that are appointed to receive them, the King of Spain receiving yearly for Customs upon the Oyls of Gallipoly, adjacent to this Kingdom one hundred thousand Ducats.

CHAP. LXIX. A View of the City of Florence, the Trade thereof, Comprehending the whole Trade of the Florentine Dominion.

THe City of Florence gives name to the Provence or Dukedom of Florence, and is a very fair City, Seated near the Ri­vers Arne and Chian, Beautifyed it is with many stately Edifices, and much addicted to Merchandizing; the Duke being accounted the richest and chiefest Merchant in Italy, and is now more commonly known by the Ti­tle of great Duke of Tuscany. The Com­modities are very rich, the famous Port of Leghorn being Governed in Trade by this City and Pisa. For hence for the most part come the Merchandise that are there found, as Marble, Rice, Wines, Oyls, Silks Raw, and wrought, Sattins, Taffatas, Velvets, Grograms, Plushes, Stuffs of curious Tex­ture, for which they receive of our Mer­chants, Pepper, Mace, Cloves, Indicoes, Callico, Lead, Tinn, Cloath, Bays, Says, Serges, Perpetuanos, &c, the Inhabitants for [Page 215] the most part being very rich by Reason of the great Banks maintained in this Ci­ty, where is practised exchange from all parts.

Their accounts are kept in Livers, Solds, Deniers, 12 Deniers making a Sold, and 20 Solds accounted a Liver, and some in Crowns, 7 ½ Livers making a Crown; they have currant in Trade, the Florence Ducat worth 7 Livers, each Liver accounted 9 pence Sterling.

The Weight is the Quintal or 100 pound of 12 Ounces the pound, and is found to make 98 pound English. The Measure of Length is the Brace, 100 of which has been known to make 49 Ells English, and the Cane which is 4 Braces, but all wrought Silks are here sold by the pound.

Wine is sold by the Cogno, which is 10 Barrels, 40 Metadels, 20 Flasks, and each Barrel to weigh 120 pound.

Oyl is sold by the Orcio, which is a Bar­rel, and accounted 85 pound Weight, Grain is sold by the Moggio, which is 24 Staios, each Staio accounted 5 pound, Salt is sold by a Staio of 72 pound. And thus much shall Suffice for Florence.

CHAP. LXX. A View of Millain, of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, Customs, and Commodities thereof.

THe City of Millan being the Center of the whole Dukedom, in all re­spects, I shall only insist upon it.

Then this City is the fairest of Lomber­dy, being seven Miles in compass, and Fur­nished with all Commodities of the growth of the Dukedom, nay of all Italy, being now in Subjection to the Spanish King; the chief Commodities are Oyl, Wine, Rice, Corn, Raw Silk, which is wrought by the Inhabi­tants into curious Fabricks, Chambets, Fu­stians, Gold Thread, and Iron; which are dispersed over all Italy, Savoy, France, Flan­ders, Holland, England, &c.

Their Accounts are kept in Deniers, Solds, and Livers, which are in effect Pence, Shillings, Pounds, &c. and their other cur­rant Coyns are the Ducat of Gold, which is worth about 100 Solds of that money, the Crown of Gold of the Sun, which is worth 97 Solds. The Italian Gold Crown which is worth 5 Livers.

[Page 217]The Ducat of Gold of 5 Livers, and 18 Solds is worth 6 Livers Imperial, the Du­cat Imperial is esteemed worth 4 Livers. The Ducat of Millain or Imperial of 4 Livers is accounted in exchange 101 Solds the Ducat, and sometimes in Merchandise 110, and in way of Trade the Coyns of Spain, and France, are here Currant.

The Weight used here is the pound, 100 of which make a Quintal, which is account­ed 70 pound English.

The Measures of Length are the Bra­ces, one for Cloath, and the other for Silk, the 100 Braces of the last containing 43 Ells of London.

The Customs for the most part the same with the other Cities of Italy.

CHAP. LXXI. A View of the Dukedoms of Man­tua, and Urbin, and of their Trade, Weights, Measures, &c.

OF the Dukedom of Mantua, the Ci­ty of that Name is the chief, and is a fair and strong Place, on 3 sides invi­roned with a wide Lake, through which runneth a Stream or River into the fa­mous River Poe, and is surrounded with pleasant Pastures and Fruitful Gardens, Or­chards, and Vineyards; but the Trade as to Merchandise, is inconsiderable for want of a Harbour or Haven, for the re­ception of Shipping; only here are found several Fabricks of Silk, as Taffatas, Sattins, &c. also Watered Chamblets; the Accounts are kept as in Millain, and their money much the same unless the Ducatoon which is 115 Solds of Mil­lain.

The Weights of Mantua are the Peso, which is 25 pound, and the Quintal which is 100 pound, making English 71 pound A­verdupois.

[Page 219]The City of Ʋrbin from which the Dukedom takes its Name, is Seated un­der the Appennine Hills, and has 2 famous Sea-Ports, viz. Pisauro, and Fano, where formerly our Merchants held considerable Commerce, but of late it is decayed, yet some Trade is still held there, especially by such as go Trading Voyages; who there find the growth of most Parts of Italy, for which they exchange Cloath, Tinn, Spices, and some Drugs. Their Accounts are kept in Deniers, Solds, and Livers, and the rest of the Coyns those for the most part currant throughout Italy.

The Weights are the pound, and the Quintal, 100 of the former making the lat­ter, and is found to be 77 pound of London Averdupois. The Measures of length are the Braces, one for Cloath, and the other for Silk, 94 of the former making 100 of Venice, but the Venice Brace for Silk renders the Ʋr­bin Brace for Silk 102 or 103, &c.

CHAP. LXXII. A View of the Common-Wealth of Venice, and of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Customs, Coyns &c.

THe City of Venice gives Name to the Territories, and has been and yet is famous for Trade by Navigation, being so Commodiously Seated for the reception of Shipping, that nothing can be more; as thus, it is Seated at the bottom of the A­driatick Sea or Venetian Gulph, upon 72 Islands 5 Miles distant from the main Land, and is defended against the rage of the Sea by a Bank of 20 Leagues, through which are cut several passages for Boats, but no Ships are capable of passing but at Mala­mecco, the mouth of which is guarded with strong Castles; and at the Castles of Lio, the Sea runs through most of the Streets, so that the commerce is held by Boats and Bridges, 12000 of the first, and 4000 of the last; and as for the Inhabitants they are naturally addicted to Merchandise, and once made their City the Store-House of [Page 221] the Commodities of India, Persia, Arabia, Egypt, and Greece, being both Politick and Powerful at Sea, so that for those Com­modities, most European Merchants Traded thither as the Principal Mart of the World, but of late the English, Dutch, and Portugals have found the way to purchase them at the first hand, and by that means much im­paired the Traffick of that Common-Wealth, yet still they have Factories at A­leppo, Constantinople, and Alexandria, and Trade in Silk, Spices, Drugs, &c. but the chief Commodities found here are Cloaths of Gold and Silver, Wine, Oyl, Woollen Cloath, Paper, Anniseeds, Agal, Looking-Glasses, Drinking-Glasses, and Quick-Sil­ver, for which the English Merchants Trading thither, exchange Bays, Furs, Perpetuanos, Lead, Tinn, Cloves, Nut­megs, Pepper, Ginger, Serges, Says, Woollen Cloath, Herring, Pilchards, Sal­mond, and Newland Fish, Indico, &c. and serves for a Mart to Austria and upper Germany.

The Weights of Venetia are 4, the first and greatest is called the pound Gross, and 100 pound with which they weigh Wool, Brass, Iron, Copper, Flesh, Fish, and other Gross Commodities. The second is the Golden Weight in use for weighing Gold, [Page 222] Silver, Precious Stones and Pearls only, and is called the Mark consisting of 8 Ounces, and each Ounce of 144 Cariots; the third is applyed to the Weight only of Gold and Silver Thread; the fourth is the pound Sut­tle, with which are weighed Silks, Drugs, Spices, Cottons, Cotton-Yarn, viz. by the 100 Weight composed of the Suttle pound, 100 pound Gross being of this Sut­tle pound 158 pound, and so on Proporti­onablely; but in Gold and Silver Thread 100 pound Gross is Suttle, but 116 pound 8 Ounces, the Mark of Gold 8 Ounces, and from these our English Traders have derived their Weight commonly called Venice Weight, 100 pounds of Venice Sut­tle make of London Weight 64 pound, and Gross 106 pound.

The Liquid Measures for Wine are the Amphora, the Bigonsa, the Quart, the Sachio and Lyre, viz. the Bigonsa 4 of them make the Amphora, and each Bigonsa is 4 Quarts, and 1 Quart is 4 Sachi, each Sachi being 4 Lyras, and each Lyra a pound Weight, tho in Gross the lesser Measures hold not out; as for Oyl it is sold both by Weight and Measure, the Weight is called the Staliero, and the Measure the Miaro, and is 40 Mire which is Gross Weight, 120 pound, one Mire by Weight is 30 pound 3 Ounces, [Page 223] and by Measure 25 pound. Corn is sold by the Staio, each Staio being Gross 132 pound of Venetian Weight.

The Accounts are kept several ways ac­cording to the Pleasure of the Merchant, as sometimes in Ducats, and Grosses, ac­counting 6 Livers, and 4 Solds to a Du­cat or 24 Grosses, others again in Solds and Grosses.

As for their Exchanges, to their great advantage in way of Trade, they make a difference between their money payed for Merchandise, and that returnable upon Bills, the disproportion being between 20 and 21 per cent. their Customs are Extraordinary, especially upon the English Trading to Zant for Currans, which is in Subjection to that Seignory, both upon Goods imported and exported, the which has caused the decay of Trade, and was the main Reason of re­moving the Scale of Trade to Leghorn, a place no ways so Commodious nor abounding in Commodities of the Native growth.

CHAP. LXXIII. A View of the Principality of Par­ma, and of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Customs, &c.

PArma the chief City of this Principali­ty gives it a Name, and is a pleasant Ci­ty abounding with all the Commodities of Italy, as Silks, Stuffs, Oyl, Wine, Cop­per, Rice, Corn, &c. and as for the Weight used in the City, it is the pound of 12 Ounces, 100 of which make about 60 Suttle English. The Measure of length is the Brace, concording with the Brace of Flo­rence. The Coyns are Deniers, Livers, and Solds, in which their Accounts are kept. But having thus far proceeded, I shall here take a View of the famous Port of Leghorn, and of the Trade thereof.

CHAP. LXXIV. A View of Leghorn, the Trade, Cu­stom, Weights, Measures, and Coyns, &c.

LEghorn the Principal Port, and Scale of Trade in the Mediterranean Sea, is Si­tuated on a large Plain, and accomodated with a good Harbour for the reception of Shipping, so that almost the whole Scale of Trade is removed from the City of Ve­nice thither; it is now a part of the Floren­tine Dominion, having some time past been purchased by the Duke of Tuscany for 120000 Ducats of the Genoese, and from him received large Priviledges and Immuni­ties, being inlarged by a new City Build­ed to the old, and by Reason of the small Customs taken there; it is of a Nest of Pirates, Murtherers, &c. who formerly In­habited it, become famous throughout the World; in this Port the great Duke keeps his Gallies, and here are found all the sorts of Commodities Italy yields, the Trade of it being as aforesaid regulated by Florence and Pisa, and to this Port are brought the [Page 226] Commodities of England, Spain, France, Holland, India, Arabia, Persia, Egypt, and other Countries.

The Accounts of Merchants in Leghorn, are kept in Livers, Solds, Deniers, 12 Deniers being a Sold, and 20 Solds a Li­ver, and their other monies are the same with Florence, except Quadrins and Cra­ches, 8 Craches being accounted worth 6 pence Sterling, and of Quadrins 60 to a Liver, tho sometimes a different value is fixed upon the Mony of either place, but it continues not long.

The Weights are the same with Flo­rence, viz. the pound of 12 Ounce, 100 of which make a Quintal, which is compu­ted to make 75 pound English, and by this they weigh their Gross Commodities. An other Quintal they have of 150 pound, which makes of London Weight 113 pound, as also an other of 160 pound making with us 121 pound, by which they weigh Fish, woolls, &c. The Kintar of Allum is at Leghorn 150 pound, but in England found to make but 143 ⅞ pound, the Kintar of Sugar 15 [...], the Kintar of Fish 160 pound, and make Eng­lish Weight proportionably.

The Measures are the Brace and Cane, 4 of the former making one of the latter, each Brace being 23 Inches English, 100 [Page 227] Braces making 60 Yards or 48 Ells.

The Concave Measures for Corn and Salt, are the Stare, the Sack, and the Sal­mo, 3 of the first making one of the second, and 3 ⅔ of the second making one of the third, which is a London Quarter; they have a Measure likewise called a Maggio, which contains 8 Sacks.

The Custom of this Port is, that any Merchant may Land his Goods without paying any Custom, so be they are sold with­in a Year; but if not, he must pay Custom; but if for the better disposal of Commo­dities, they are sent into any other part of Tuscany, they must pay Custom at Pisa.

CHAP. LXXV. A View of Genoa, the Weights, Mea­sures, Coyns, and Trade thereof.

THe Metropolis of the Republique of Genoa, is the City of Genoa from whence the Territories have Name, and is 8 Miles in compass, being Commodiously Situate for Commerce, and has been for­merly a City of great Trade; but of late [Page 228] the Citizens are turned Userers, which has put a stop to their Navigation, and the Excessive Customs upon Goods imported, deters Merchants from Trading thither to any purpose. The Merchantable Wares that are found in this City are Silks, Stuffs, Damasks, Drugs, Wine, Oyl, and some Fruits, for which they receive the growth of the Countries, whose Merchants Trade thi­ther. Their Accounts especially as to Mer­chandise are kept in Deniers, Solds, and Livers, 12 Deniers being a Sold, and 20 Solds a Liver, which is 16 pence Sterling. Their other Coyns for the most part Con­cord with those of Florence.

The Weights are the pound of 12 Ounc­es, and Quintal, 100 of the former mak­ing the latter, which is accounted the Quin­tal Suttle, the Gross Quintal being 150 pound, and makes Suttle Weight of Lon­don 105 pound, and by the Gross Quintal are sold Anniseeds, Honey, Rice, Brass, Lead, Tinn, Sope, Wools, and other Weighty Commodities.

The Measure of Length is the Cane, found to make 9 Palms or 4 Braces of Florence, which is used in the Measuring Stuffs and Silkes, and for Measuring of Linnen, the Cane is 10 Palms, 100 of which Palms have rendered 27 English [Page 229] Yards, and consequently one Cane of Genoa is 2 ⅞ Yards English.

Corn is sold by the Mine, each Mine paying Custom 6 ½ Solds, and Weighs 270 pound, 2 ½ of which are found to be a Harwich Quarter.

Oyl is sold by the Barril, 7 ½ of which make a Neapolitan Butt.

Wine is sold by the Mesorole, 5 of which make a Botta Dimena of Na­ples. All Goods entering the River or Port pay Consolato of the River 6 Denier per Liver, which is payed by the Buyer, if a contract be not before made with the seller for the discharge thereof. And thus much for the Republique of Na­ples.

CHAP. LXXVI. A View of Luca, and the Trade there­of.

LƲca is the principal City of the Re­publique, and is Situate on the River Serchio, being 3 Miles in compass, and so adorned with Trees; that such as pass a [Page 230] far off think it to stand in a Wood. The most Merchantable Commodities here found are Silks, as Damasks, Sattins, Taffatas, &c. which are here made and sent to other Cities of Italy, and for them have return­ed the growth of most Countries.

Their Accounts are kept in Solds, De­niers, and Livers of Picoly as in Florence, and their monies for the most part the same, it having formerly been a City of considerable Trade, but now of little note.

The Weights are two, the one the Bal­lance Weight, by which all Goods are bought and sold, the other the Weight by which Merchants pay their Customs, be­tween which there is observed 12 per cent. difference, the Ballance Weight, the pound containing 12 Ounces, the 100 thereof has been found to make of Lyons Weight 72 ½ and the Customers Weight 81 ½ the Mea­sure of length is the Brace, which is 23 English Inches, 100 Braces of this Place be­ing found to make 50 English Ells. As for Liquid or Concave Measures, they use not any in way of Merchandise. Therefore I shall pass them over.

CHAP. LXXVII. A View of the Papacy, and the Trade thereof.

THe Papacy containeth several stately Cities, but none of any considerable Trade as for Merchandise therefore I shall Summ up all in Describing, the Trade of Rome, once the Mistriss of the World, but now her Splendor is much abated.

Rome is Situate on the Banks of Tiber, adorned with 750 Towers placed on her Walls, and is accounted to contain 466000 Families, and in it are found these Merchan­dise, viz. Corn, Oyl, Wine, Gloves, Al­lum, Lutestring, Kid-Skins, and curious Fabricks of Silk, for which they receive from England Lead, Tinn, Bays, Says, Stuffs, Pilchards, Herrings, Newland Fish, Calves-Skins, Salt, Salmon, Tallow, Wax, &c. which are for the most part Landed at Civitaveccia, and from thence carryed up the River Tiber in Boats to Rome.

The Coyns here and through the Pa­pacy, are the same that are currant in most parts of Italy, the Pope having so ordain­ed, that his Incomes may be the more.

[Page 232]The Accounts are kept in Crowns, Ju­lios, or Paulos, Baiochos, and Quatrins, the Weight is the Quintal or 100 pound which makes 80 pound English, tho some­times they weigh by a Quintal of 160 pound, and 150 pound, according to the fineness or Grosness of the Commodity.

Their Measures of Length are 2, one for Linnen and the other for Woollen, the one a Brace, and the other the Cane, 30 Canes making 100 Braces. Corn is sold by the Rugio, which is 7/18 Mine of Genoa. And thus much shall suffice for Rome, and indeed for all Italy, from whence I must pass into Flanders and take a View of the Trade thereof.

CHAP. LXXVIII. A View of the Trade of Flanders, and Holland, of the Weights, Measures, Coyns, Customs, Commo­dities, and Traffick of them, re­duced into the View of Antwerp and Amsterdam.

THo Flanders and the Netherlands are divided into 17 Provinces, viz. 4 [Page 233] Dukedoms, as Limburg, Luxemburg, Gel­derland, and Brabant, 1 Marquisat, 7 Ealr­doms, as Artois, Flanders, Hanault, Nemurs, Zutphen, Holland, and Zealand, 5 Borro­nies, as Westfriezland, Ʋtretch, Overysel, Machlin, and Groving; yet the Trade of all these may conveniently be reduced into what is found in Antwerp and Amsterdam, the one famous for having formerly been the chief Scale of Europe, and the other for the present commerce held there. Of these in order.

Antwerp is Situate upon the River Scheld, that River sending forth eight Channels to Water the City by running through her Streets, and has been formerly accounted a great Scale of Trade, insomuch that all European Merchants brought their Commo­dities thither to vend, the acquirement of which Trade was principally by the means following, first by Reason of 2 free Marts, yearly holden for 45 days, in which no Person Trading there could be Arrested in his Goods or Person for Debt or other­wise, secondly by Reason the Portugals dis­covering the East Indias Anno 1500. di­verted the course of Trade driven by the Venetians from Alexandria, and the Red-Sea to Lisbon; and so kept a Factory at Antwerp, and exposed to Sail all Indian [Page 234] Commodities which drew most of the Trading Nations of Europe to Trade thi­ther, exhausting the Trade of Bruges where the English Merchants Adventurers before resided; the third and last cause was the Wars between Charles the fifth Empe­ror, and the French, which obliged the Nobility, and Gentry for safety to re­move their Families thither, who after­wards being taken with the pleasantness of the place would not remove, but Built them stately Houses, and made that City for the most part the Place of their resi­dence.

The cause of the decay of Trade in the City of Antwerp, was the Wars with Spain, in which Merchants were Pillaged, their Ships taken, &c. the Abridgement of Pri­viledges, and the Trade which the English and Dutch found in the East-Indies, bring­ing home in their own Bottoms, what be­fore they were obliged to the Portugals for; but as it is at this Day, a pretty Trade is driven in the City, most of the Neigh­bouring Countries bringing in their Growth and Manufacture.

The Commodities found in Antwerp, are Wines, Silks, Arras-Hangings, Spices, Drugs, Fruit, store of Corn, Woollen Cloath, some Oyl, and the like; brought out of [Page 235] its Neighbourhood, and the Adjacent Pro­vinces.

The Accounts of Antwerp are kept in Livers, Solds, and Deniers, which they reckon Pounds, Shillings, Pence, 12 De­niers making a Sold, and 20 Solds a Li­ver or pound Flemish, tho worth no more then 12 Shillings Sterling, or as they com­pute it 240 Grosses, 12 Grosses being a Sold, and according to these Values on Coyn they make their Exchanges. The other currant Coyns are Doits, 4 of which make a Stiver, and 10 Stivers make 1 Shilling Sterling. 2 Blanks make a Stiver, and half 6 Stivers make the Flemish Shilling, 28 Stivers make a Guilder, which is 3 Shil­lings 4 pence Flemish, so that 100 pound Flemish is found to make but 50 pound English, &c.

The Weight is the pound of 16 Ounces, 100 of which pounds make their Quintar, and the Quintar found to be 104 pound English. So that from this allowance or over Weight, many imagine that the Tret of London had its Original.

The Measure of length is the Ell, 100 of which are found to make 60 London Ells in the Measure of Linnen Cloath. They have likewise an Ell for Measuring of Silk, which is 1 ½ in the 100 less then the Cloath Ell.

[Page 236]Beer is sold by the Barrel, which in Brabant and Flanders, is accounted 54 Stops, each Stop being 2 Quarts English.

Their Corn they sell by the Vertules 23 ½ of which are a Last of Amsterdam, and 10 ¼ Quarters London Measure.

Wine is sold by the Ame, the Stop and the Butt, 1 Ame making 50 Stops, and one Stop 6 pound, so that the Butt is 300 Stops or 6 Ames, the Wine Stop being accounted 3 ⅓ Quarts of London Wine Measure.

The Exchanges are very great, by Reason most of the Bills of Spain are drawn upon the Merchants and Traders of Antwerp, for the disbursement of mo­ney, for the maintainance of the Army, that is for the most part kept on Foot in the Provinces.

CHAP. LXXIX. A View of the City of Amsterdam and of the Trade, Coyns, Weights and Measures thereof.

AMsterdam is a fair City, and Seated on the River Tay, which on the North side of it Flows like a large Sea, when on the South the River Amster running through 3 Lakes▪ enters its Streets and falleth into the River Tay aforesaid.

And by the addition or a new City to the old, it is become Commodious and strong; and by the advantage of the Ri­ver passing through all Land-carriage is saved, the Boats in the 5 Principal Streets coming up to the Doors, especially where the Merchants Ware-Houses are. The Inhabitants are generally Prompt to Navi­gation, and have so improved themselves thereby, that most of the Citizens are Merchants, and have Vessels of their own, or venture in other Vessels, wholly relying [...]pon the advantage that Accrues by Trad­ing in forrain Countries, as wanting Land to improve their Stock at home, so that [Page 238] of late it has been observed they put out their Money to Interest in England and France, to more considerable interest then it will allow in their own Country; 4 or 5 per cent. being great interest there, which is so ordered that by such means, People may be the willinger to venture in way of Trade by Merchandise, which returns them for the most part 50. per cent. and all charges pay'd.

The Commodities found in Amsterdam, as Silks, Cloath, Woollen, and Linnen, Stuffs, Drugs of all sorts, Spices, Dies, Oyls, Allum, Brimstone, Gold and Silver-Thread, Wines, and indeed all sorts of Commodities that are found of any use in the known World, but the chief Com­modities that the Country affords, which may properly be called the Growth or Manufacture, are Cattle, Butter, Cheese, Flax, Corn, Linnen Cloath, Coarse Wool­len Cloaths, Tapestry, Pictures, and all sorts of Fish, but especially Herrings, of which they make an Extraordinary advan­tage, imploying in the Season for that Fishery 6000 Persons.

The Weight commonly used in Amster­dam is the pound of 16 Ounces, 100 of which make 107 of Antwerp, and of Lon­don 110.

[Page 239]The Measure of length is the Ell, 134 of which make 100 Yards of London, or 100 London Ells make 167 1/ [...] Ells of Am­sterdam.

Their Concave Measures are for Corn, the Last, the Barrel, the Muyden, the Sack, the Archeteling, and the Sheple; as thus, 24 Barrels make the Last, each Barrel con­taining 1 1/ [...]2 Muydens, a Muyden containing 1 2/24 Sacks, each Sack being 3 Archetelings, or 3 21/29 Shepels 108 Shepels, making the Last.

The Measures for Wine, Oyl, Beer, and other Liquids, are for the most part the same with those of England; and therefore I shall pass them over.

The Coyns in which the Accounts are kept, are the same with Antwerp, viz. Li­vers, Solds, and Deniers, the Liver or Pound Flemish being 12 Shillings Sterling, 6 Florins make the Flemish pound at 20 Sti­vers per Florin, so that 120 Stivers are the Flemish pound or 12 Shillings Eng­lish, 5 Stivers being 6 pence Sterling or 5 Solds Turnois, a Gross is 6 Deniers, a Carolus Gulden is 20 Stivers or 2 Shil­lings Sterling, or 2 Sols Turnois. And besides these all the currant Coyns of Eu­rope pass here according to their true va­lue, as they again may be payed for Mer­chandise [Page 240] to the Merchants of the Coun­tries, to which they are proper. And thus much for Antwerp and Amsterdam, as also for all the Provinces and Cities of the Netherlands, the Trade of which being in­cluded in what I have lay'd down; so that from hence I shall pass into Germany, to take a View of that large Empire, the Trade of which I reduce into a few heads, or deliver it in the Description of the Trade of the Principal Cities.

CHAP. LXXX. A View of Germany, its Provinces, and the Trade thereof.

HAving thus far proceeded, as I hope, to the content of the Reader, I shall Survey the Empire of Germany, which is bounded on the North with Denmark and the Danish Seas, on the East with Prusia, Poland, and Hungary, on the South with the Alps, and on the West with France and Belgium, and abounds in Silver Mines, Cop­per, Lead, Tinn, Iron, Corn, Wine, Al­lum, Quick-Silver, Linnen, Woollen, Silks, Stuffs, Cattle, Corn, and other Commo­dities [Page 241] all of its own Growth and Manu­facture.

The Cities and Towns of the Empire, may by good Right be divided into 3 parts, as first the Hans-Towns, which enjoy large Privileges and Immunities, and are com­puted to be about 70, which for the most par are accommodated with Navigable Ri­vers, and abound in rich Manufactures. Secondly those called the Imperial Cities, which are imputed free Cities, by Rea­son of their great Priviledges, above the rest in Coyning money, barring any acknow­ledgement of Subjection unless to the Em­peror, whom they only do acknowledge for their Protector, and in lieu of it pay an annual Tribute, being 60 odd in num­ber. And thirdly those that are under the Subjection of the Electoral Princes, which are commonly called Principalities.

The Rivers by which these Towns for the most part are inriched are 4, viz. the Danube which running 1500 Miles receives about 58 Navigable Rivers, and at last disimbogues it self into the Euzine or Black-Sea. The River Rhine which after passing through Germany, and Belgia for 800 Miles falls into the German Ocean, the River Albis which is large and Navigable for near 400 Miles, and the River Odera, which passing [Page 242] 300 Miles through the Country falleth into the Baltick Sea.

There are likewise several other Rivers of note, that greatly contribute to the Fertilizing the Country, but these being the chief, I shall pass over the rest, un­less the Description of some Cities require the mentioning of them.

CHAP. LXXXI. A View of Strasburg, and the Trade thereof.

STrasburg is an Imperial free City, Seat­ed upon a fair Plain, about a furlong from the River Rhine, over which they have lay'd a Bridge, and a Channel cut which conveys Ships and Boats to the City, which is 8 Miles in compass, adorned with many stately Buildings; and amongst the rest a Cathedral, whose Steeple is for cu­rious Architect accounted one of the 7 Wonders of the World, and by Reason of the Generosity of the Inhabitants towards Strangers, there is great resort thither, especially of Lutherans, Calvinists, &c. but above all it abounds in Handicrafts or Ar­tizans [Page 243] who find great incouragement, and by their Labour is the common Stock improved; tho since its falling into the Hands of the French King, they have not proceeded with such Alacrity as formerly, by Reason of the little assurance they have of keeping what they acquire by their La­bour.

The Commodities Traded for hither are Linnen Cloath, Iron, Diaper, Rhenish Wine, Copper, Wax, and Hemp, for which they receive out of England Tinn, Lead, and Woollen Cloath; out of Spain Fruits▪ Wines, Oyls, Salt, and Wool; and out of Italy Silks, both Raw and wrought.

The Weights are two, viz. the Gross and Suttle, where upon Tryal it has been found, that the 100 pound Suttle of London has made Incirca 70 in 71 of the Gross of Stras­burg, which Gross Weight is 16 Ounces to the pound, and the Suttle but 12 Ounces, by the latter of which all Indian Com­modities are weighed, as Nutmegs, Cloves, Cinnamond, Drugs of all sorts, Indicoes and rich Dies. The Measure of length is the Ell, which is about 38 English Inches; as for Concave Measures they use but few, and those the same with other Cities of the Empire, of which anon I shall have occasion to speak.

[Page 244]The currant Coyn is the Bobemico, Gross, or Blaphace, which is 3 Crutfers, one Crutfer being 2 pence, one penny 2 Hel­lers, and one Heller 2 Orchines. And in these Coyns all the Accounts are kept.

CHAP. LXXXII. A View of Vienna, and of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, &c.

VIenna is one of the fairest and strong­est Cities of the Empire, and for the most part the Imperial Seat, having on the North of it the River Danow; which di­viding into 3 Streams causes, as it were, an Island ere it again unites; and over the Streams are 3 Stone Bridges of 15, 29 and 57 Arches, all the Streets are adorned with stately Buildings, and in the City many Merchants reside, who have their Factories in Venice, Florence, Genoa, &c. and by that means it abounds in rich Com­modities of all Nations, especially Sattins, Damasks, Taffatas, Velvets, Cloath of Gold and Silver, Drugs, Spices, Wool, Lead, Iron, Copper, Flax, Wine, Oyl, Wax, [Page 245] Tallow, Furs, and the like; which is dis­persed into the Neighbourhood to supply the Towns and Cities of less note.

The Weight is the pound, which in the Sale of some Commodities is divided in­to 32 Coets, and in others into 128 Quints, and by some again into 512 Fennings, of this pound 100 makes the Quintar, which in London is found to make between 122 and 123 pound.

The Measures of length are 2, one for Linnen, and the other for Woollen, the 100 Yards of London, are found to make 103 Ells of Vienna Linnen Measure, and of the Woollen Measure 113 Ells.

The Coyns currant are the Rhenis Guilder worth 28 ½ Silver Missens Gross, or 36 ½ Lubeck Shillings, 7 ½ of which make one of our Shillings, the Imperial-Doller which is worth 33 Lubeck Shil­lings, the common Guilden worth 28 Lu­beck Shillings, and the French Crown worth 44 Lubeck Shillings, &c.

By Reason of the Emperors residing here, there is a great Exchange, which is by Rix Dollars of 8 Shillings Flemish, and by Du­cats of Gold of 12 Shillings Flemish.

CHAP. LXXXIII. A View of Hamburg, of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, and Commodities thereof.

HAmburg is an Imperial City, Seated on a large Plain, and has on the South side the River Elve, being Accom­modated with a fair Haven, cross which is cast a Chain to hinder Ships from entering without Licence; and on the North-East side, some distance from the Walls of the City runs the River Alster, and is adorned with many fair Buildings, fortifyed with strong Walls, Ditches, and Bulwarks. The Trade at present is very considerable, by Reason of the residence of our Merchants there, and the Factories held in other parts, it being the Key as it were of that part of Germany, whither the Inland Towns bring their Commodities to vend, as Quick-Silver, Stuffs, Silks, Cloath, Wine, Wax, Cor­dage, Corn, and the like; most Ita­lian Commodities are found here, and great quantities of the Growth of Spain, and here the English vend Cloath, Iron, Tinn, Lead, Drugs, Spices, and the like, [Page 247] receiving for them the Growth and Manu­factures of the Empire.

The Weight is the pound; 120 of which are accounted the Quintar, which is divided into 3 parts or denominations, viz. the 12 Stone of 10 pound to the Stone, 300 pound are accounted the Skip pound, which is the second, & that which is call'd the third, is 20 Lispound of 15 pound to the 300, which may be said to be one Quin­tar of 120 pound, and another of 300 pound.

The Measure of length is the Ell, by which all Woollen, Linnen, and Silks are Measured, 100 of which are accounted t [...] make in London 48 Ells for Linnen, and th [...] 100 Yards of London to be 162 or 163 of Hamburg Yards. The Concave Measure is the Scheple 90 of which make the Last of Corn in this place, tho 83 are found to do the same at Amsterdam, or to produce 10 Quarters of London Measure.

The Merchants exchange for London by the pound Sterling, and from all other places upon Rix Dollers of 50 Shillings Lapisto or 54 Stivers. A Doller is here not­ed to be worth 3 white pence, each white Penny to be 18 Shillings, each Shilling 12 pence, and each penny two Hellers. And thus much for Hamburg and of the Empire.

CHAP. LXXXIV. A View of Denmark, and of its Trade, together with the Commodities, Weights, Measures, and Coyns thereof.

DEnmark is bounded on the East with the Baltick Ocean, on the West with the German Ocean, on the North with Sweeden, and on the South with the Ger­main Empire; and contains Cimbrick Cher­sonese, the Islands of the Baltick, and part of Scandia, which are divided into seve­ral Provinces; the which for Brevities sake I shall pass over, and reduce their Trade into the 2 Principal Cities. And of the Islands I shall treat in their order. And first of Copenhagen, and the Trade there­of.

Copenhagen is the Metropolis of Denmark, and the Seat of the Danish Kings, for the most part, being Commodiously Seated on the Sea-shore, and provided of a safe and goodly Haven, for the reception of Ship­ping, being strongly Fortifyed and Beau­tifyed with a Castle and other stately Edifices, which are for the more part possessed by Merchants that Trade there, [Page 249] for the Growth and Manufacture of the Kingdom, which chiefly consists in Hides, Tallow, Fish, Bucks-Skins, Armour of all sorts, Furniture for Shipping, Corn, Cat­tle and the like; for which they receive Drugs, Spices, Tinn, Lead, Gold, Silver, Silks, Woollen and Linnen Cloaths, &c.

The currant Coyn is the Dollar and Shil­ling, one Danish Shilling making one Lu­beck Shilling, and 66 Danish Shillings ac­counted to the Dollar, which is 5 Shillings Sterling.

The Accounts in this City are kept by Merchants, in Marks of 16 Shillings Da­nish.

The Exchanges are practised by Rix Dol­lars, to the value as aforesaid.

The Weights and Measures of this Kingdom; I shall Summ up in the next Chapter, by Reason the difference of Weights and Measures in this City, and the rest little or nothing vary.

CHAP. LXXXV. A View of Elsinore, and the Trade there­of.

ELsinore is Situate upon the Straight leading to the Sound, and greatly frequented by Seamen; by Reason of the Extraordinary passage through the Straight, for which every Vessel pays to the King of Denmark a considerable Summ for permis­sion, no Ships being otherwise capable to pass by Reason of the Castles that Guard that pass on either side, viz. Coronsburg, and Elsburg, the latter being in the Kingdom of Norway; on the East side of the Sealand near to Elsinore, the King has a Pallace for his Summer Recreation, which has a Prospect over the Sea, and 'tis reported that this Tole or Duty arising upon the passing and repassing over Ships into the Sound and Baltick, amounts to more then all the Crown Revenues besides. The Commo­dities vended here are for the most part Fish, Cattle, Corn, Oyl, Beer, Cordage, Masts, Sails, and the like, for fitting out, and revictualling Ships, for which they re­ceive the Growth of England, Holland, Ger­many, [Page 251] and France; the Monies currant here are the same with those of Copenhagen.

The Weights are as in Copenhagen, and in most parts of the Kingdom, the great and shall 100, the former being accounted 120 pound to the 100, and the latter 112 pound, being accounted 12 Stone of 10 pound to the Stone; they have likewise a Skip-pound of 32 Stone of 10 pound the Stone, or 20 Lispound of 16 Mark pound is a Skip-pound, and 20 times pounds 16 are 320 pound.

The Measures of the Kingdom in General are for Length, are the Ells for Woollen, Linnen, and Silks, 160 of which are ac­counted to make the 100 Ells English. As for Concave Measures they are little in use unless for Corn. The Trade of this King­dom by Navigation is but small, they sel­dom Sailing out of their own Seas, or at most, no further then the German, British, and Mediterranean Seas or Oceans. Therefore I shall desist from any further Survey thereof, and pass over the Staight to take a View of the Kingdom of Norway, now Subject to the Danish Scepter.

CHAP. LXXXVI. A View of the Kingdom of Norway, and the Trade thereof.

NOrway is bounded on the West and South with the Ocean, and on the East and North with Lappia, and the Dofrine Mountains, and abounds in Firr-Trees, which are brought into England in abun­dance and serve for Masts, Boards, and Building Houses; the other Commodities are Stock-Fish, Furs, Train Oyl, Cor­dage, some Rossen and Sail-Cloaths. The Towns by Reason of the coldness of the Clime and Dampness caused by the Sea are but few, the chief being Nidrosia and Ber­gen, once a famous Mart, but now reduc­ed to nothing in respect of Trade, the Trade that it had having passed through several Cities, is at last setled in Amster­dam, and what Trade does remain is from the Ships that pass this way to Mosco­via.

The Weight most in use is the pound, 100 of which renders 92 London Averdu­pois Weight, tho of late they have got a Custom to Weigh in a String, which is [Page 253] very uncertain, rendering sometimes more, sometimes less. Their Measure of Length and Concave Measures, the latter of which is for the most part used in Measuring of Salt, are agreeable to our Yard and Bu­shel.

The Commodities vended here are Bays, Says, Linnen, Wine, Spices, Sugars, Gun­powder, Lead, Tinn, Iron, and such like. And thus much may suffice for Norway, leaving which I shall proceed in this Nor­thern Tract, and take a View of Sweed­land, the Trade of which I shall reduce into the Principal City of that Kingdom, viz, Stockholm.

CHAP. LXXXVII. A View of Sweedland, of its Pro­vinces, and Trade reduced into the Trade of the City of Stockholm.

SWeedland has on the East Muscovia, on the West the Dofrine Hills, on the North the Frozen Ocean, and on the South the Baltick, and contains 5 Provinces, viz. Goth­land, Sweeden, Lappia, Bodia, and Finland, in the former of which is found Stockholm, [Page 254] the Metropolis of the Kingdom; and Seated in a Watery Marsh in the nature of Venice, and is much frequented with Merchants, being for the most part the Regal Seat, so that to it Flow all the Commodities of the Kingdom; which are chiefly Buck-Skins, Goats-Skins, Ox Hides, Barly, Tallow, Malt, Tar, Pitch, Rosin, Furs, Lead, Cop­per, Silver, Iron, Wax, Honey, and the like; and for its advantageous Situation, it is much Traded to, having a Channel capable of receiving Ships of any Burthen; and so well guarded with Castles of Extraordi­nary Strength, that no Ship can pass in nor out without lieve first obtained; the Build­ings are pleasant to behold for their Anti­quity and fine Devices; a place being pur­posely erected in the Principal Street, for the conveniency of Merchants, and the lay­ing up such Commodities, as they either have to vend or have purchased; so that in this City are found the Growths and Manu­factures of almost all Nations.

The currant Coyn of this Kingdom is the Dollar, which is divided into 8 Marks, and each Mark into 2 Clippings, each Clipping being accounted 9 ½ Stivers Fle­mish, and in exchange the Dollar is only used.

The Weight is the pound 116 of which [Page 255] is found to make the 100 pound of Lon­don; they have likewise 2 Skip-pounds, the one the proper Skip-pound of Stock­holm, which is 320 pound of the before mentioned pound, the other is 340 pound and proper to Dantzick. Of which in order I shall come to Treat.

The Measure of Length is the Ell, 166 of which are 100 Yards of London Measure, sometimes more sometimes less; for this is the Rule, they take a Piece of Rope, and Measure it by the bigness of a mans Head, which they call their Ell, so that according to the largeness or small­ness of the Head, by which they take their Measure, the Measure is found to consist.

Their Concave Measures are of little use, unless for Corn and Mault, and those are Measured by a Loop, 23 of which make a Last in Amsterdam, and in London 10 Quar­ters. And thus much shall Suffice for Sweed­en, and the Trade thereof.

CHAP. LXXXVIII. A View of Moscovia, and the Trade there­of, reduced into the Trade of Mosco, the Principal City of that large Domini­on.

MOscovia is bounded on the West with Lituania and Livonia, on the East with Tartary, on the North with the Fro­zen Ocean, and on the South with the Cas­pian Sea, the Ottoman Empire and Palus Maeotis, and is Branched with many large and Navigable Rivers, as Tanais, Duino, Boristhenes, Onega, and Volga, and is divided into 9 Provinces, as Novogradia, Valadomi­ra, Plescovia, Rhesen, Servia, Parmia, Can­doria, Petrosa, and Moscovia; from whence all the Country takes its Name.

These Provinces abound in Corn, Cat­tle, Furs, Hides, Flax, Hemp, Whales, Grease, Canvas, Ropes, Cavier, Tallow, Honey, Wax, Venison, Flax, Hemp, and Fish. The Trade being begun by the English about the Year 1575 in general, tho before some Vessels of Private Mer­chants had Traded thither, and found out the Commodities since so much sought af­ter; [Page 257] and upon the increase of Trade in these parts, a Society of Merchants in London, are incorporated by the Name of Muscovia Merchants, having setled a Facto­ry at Archangel.

Mosco the Metropolis of Moscovia, is Seated on the River Mosca, which falls in to Tanais; this City is reckoned 6 Miles in compass, and is for the most part the imperial Seat, being much Beautifyed since it was Burnt by the Tartars, upon their invading the Moscovite Empire; and here the English Merchants find kind enter­tainment, unless in Troublesome times, as of late it happened upon the murther of the Czar, in which general Calamity ma­ny suffered in their Goods; but now things are again reduced to a quiet and setled con­dition, so that Trade again begins to Flo­rish, the Country affording great store of Furs, as Beaver, Otter, Sables, White, Black, Red, and Dun Fox-Skins, with many others of the like nature; which are sold by the Timber, Weight, or Tale, be­ing highly valued of late by the Natives, who perceiving the desire Merchants have for them, learn thereby to set prices on them accordingly.

The Merchants Accounts are kept here Divers ways, as those of England in Ru­bles [Page 258] and Pence, called by the Natives Mus­kofkins, 200 of which make a Ruble, which is rated at 2 Rix Dollars, the Dutch by Rubles, Grevens, and Muscof­kins, 20 pence being accounted to the Gre­ven, and 10 Grevens to the Ruble which is only an Imaginary Coyn.

The currant money is the Capeck worth a Stiver Flemish, and something more in value then an English penny, 10 of which make a Greven, whi [...]h is worth 12 pence Sterling, and the Ruble 10 Shillings Ster­ling, 3 Capecks is called an Altine, by which name all receipts of Bargain, and contracts are made, 33 Altines and one Capeck making the Ruble.

At Archangel there is exchange practised, and the price of monies Russ as the Plenty or Scarcity will allow, for sometimes the Rubles in exchange pass for 11 Shillings 6 pence Sterling, the Receipts being in August, to return in London about the lat­ter end of December.

The Weight most in use is the Pood, by which all fine Goods are weighed, as Silk, Beavor, Wool, and the like; but for Gross Goods they have a Weight cal­led a Berzovet accounted 10 Poods or the Russ Ship-pound computed to be 360 pound Averdupois, so that all Goods bought by [Page 259] this Weight, are accounted to be 10 per cent. profit, so that many have reck­oned the Goods so bought to pay the Fraight with over Weight; and all Goods bought by the Pood are reckoned 10 per cent. less.

The Measure of Length is called the Archin, and is accounted 28 English Inch­es, so that the 100 Archings are suppos­ed to produce Incirca 78 Yards of London Measure.

Oyl they sell by the Barrel, each Bar­rel being accounted ½ a Hogshead, and Tar by the Hogs-head; as for Concave Measures I observe, they are but rarely in use by way of Trade, by Reason of the small quantities of Commodities the Empire affords, that are proper to be Measured thereby. Therefore I shall put a conclusion to the Trade of Moscovy, and proceed to a View of Poland.

CHAP. LXXXIX. A View of the Kingdom of Poland, to­gether with the Trade, Weights, Mea­sures, and currant Coyns thereof.

POland is bounded on the East with Bo­risthenes, on the West with Vistula, on the North with the Baltick Ocean and Sinus Trinicus, and on the South with Hun­gary; and is divided into 10 Provinces, viz. Luconia, Lituania, Volinia, Samogita, Podolia, Russia Nigra, Prussia, Podtasia, Masovia, and Poland; these Provinces are Branched with several Navigable Rivers Vistula, Reuben, Bog, Mimel and others, and has for its Metropolis Cracovia. Into which I shall reduce the Trade of this King­dom.

Cracovia is the Metropolis of Poland, Situate on the Banks of the River Vistula, which is Navigable for near 400 Miles, being as it were incompassed with distant Mountains, and fortifyed with strong Walls and fair Buildings; being the Seat of the Kings of Poland, and is found to produce the Commodities of the whole Kingdom, as Tar, Rosin, Pitch, Hemp, [Page 261] Wax, Honey, Barly, Oats, Amber, Tal­low, and Hides, which Commodities are sent up the River; and distributed to such Merchants as come to Trade for the Growth of the Kingdom. There are likewise found Furs of divers sorts, some Minerals, and the like; for which the Inhabitants re­ceive the Commodities of divers Nations which are brought both by Land and Sea.

The Coyns of this City, and consequent­ly of the Kingdom, are the Ducat of Gold called the Polander; which is accounted 70 Polish Gross. The Silver Guilden which is worth 30 Polish Groshe or 2 Shillings Sterling, a Dollar in Specie is worth 4 Polish Groshes, but in all contracts of buy­ing and selling, the Doller is accounted 36 Groshe, a Crietszar is worth 3 Pot-chanels, 18 Deniers make one Groshe, a Groshe of Poland or Bohemia is worth 7 Whites, 16 Whites make one Ort, 4 0rts make a Dollar, and a Dollar is accounted 4 Shillings 4 pence. The Weight is the pound, 136 of which is accounted the Quin­tar, which is found in London to render 114 pound, and the 100 of London yield­eth 120 of Cracovia, but the common pound is reduced to a Stone of 40 pound, 10 of the said Stones being accounted the [Page 262] Skip-pound. The Measure of Length is the Ell, 20 of which are 10 English Ells, but their Linnen they sell by the Shock, the Shock being 57 ½ English Ells.

And to this City it will not be amiss to add Elbin, once a Scale of Merchandise, where the English Merchants had a Facto­ry, being here known by the Name of the Merchants of Elbin, but since this City has fallen into the Hands of the King of Poland, it has lost the great Trade it had upon the Abridgement of the Liberties and Priviledges it enjoyed, during its being in the possession of the Teutonick Knights, so that now it only is famous for what it has been, and not for what it at present remains, the Trade being dispersed into several Eastland Cities, or Hans Towns, but from Danzick especially are brought Soap-Ashes.

The Weights are the Pound and Stone, 40 pound making the Stone, and 40 of those Stones make the Ship-pound, which is 400 pound, and 100 pound of London is found to make 120 of Elbin. Their Last of Wheat is reckoned to weigh 5200 pound. Their Measure of Length is the Ell, 163 of which make 100 London Yards. In this Tract is found Coninsberg, Rhiga, Stetin, Stralesond, and Revel, from the former [Page 263] of which the Amber is brought, as for the rest they little differ in Commodities and manner of Trade from Cracovia: Where­fore for Brevities sake, I shall pass them over, and take a View of Hungary and the Trade thereof, &c.

CHAP. XC. A View of Hungary, and the adjacent Provinces, and of their Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, and Commodities of the Growth and Manufacture.

THe Kingdom of Hungary is bounded on the East with Transilvania and Valachia, on the West with Austria, on the South with Sclavonia, and on the North with Poland, and is of it self exceeding Fertile, abounding in Cattle beyond credit, but by Reason of the continual Wars with the Turks, it standing as the Bulwark of Chri­stendom, no great matter of Trade relating to Merchandise is found there; the little that it consists in, is Hides, Tallow, Wax, Honey, Copper, Tinn, Corn, Wool, Fruits, Fish, Skins, and some Silver Mines, which (since the ci­vil Disenssions caused by the continual Ban­dying [Page 264] of the two parties under pretence of Religion, and the incouragement of those intestines Broyls by the Grand-Sig­neour) have been thrown in many of them, and thereby render useless Buda, and many of the Principal Cities being now in the Hands of the Turks, and is so Seated upon the River Danube, that it hinders the free Commerce by Boats and great Vessels; that was formerly very advantagious to the Hungarians; so that leaving its to reco­ver its Trade, by Submiting to its right­ful Soveraign the Emperor of Germany, and not longer trust the Flattery of the perfideous Ottomans. I shall take a View of Dacia and Sclavonia.

Dacia, is bounded with the Euxine, on the East, and on the West with Hungary, on the North with the Carpathian Moun­tains, and on the South with Greece, and is divided into these Provinces, viz. Tran­sylvania, Moldavia, Servia, Valachia, Russia, Bosna, and Bulgaria, all subjected to the Grand-Seigniour, and are Branched and Fer­tilized with these Rivers, viz. Danubius, Alata, Salvata, Cockle, and Morus, besides others of lesser note.

The Commodities found in the several Provinces are Cattle, Wax, Honey, But­ter, Cheese, Tallow, Wool, Silk, Cloath, [Page 265] Mines, of Gold and Silver, Salt-Pits, Wines; and Mountains of Brimstone, which Commodities they send to Constan­tinople, Aleppo, and other Marts of the Turk­ish Empire, and receive in exchange the Commodities of all Nations, as for Weights and Measures, they are rarely in use, they selling and buying for the most part by those of the Marts, whether they resort with their Commodities; their Coyns are those currant throughout the Ottoman Em­pire. Of which I shall come to speak, in the View of Constantinople.

Sclavonia is bounded on the South with the Adriatick Sea, on the North with Hun­gary, on the West with Italy part, and on the East with the River Drinus, and a Line that passes from thence to the Sea; and is chiefly divided into 2 parts, viz. Illyria and Dalmatia, the name of the former being lately by the Turks, changed into that of Windismark, the which abounds in Butter, Cheese, Cattle, Corn, Oyl, Wine, Hemp, Wool, Wax, Honey, Tallow, Iron, and the like. Of Dalmatia, Rhagusa is the Prin­cipal City, so that I will not be amiss to reduce the Trade of that Province, which is not Extraordinary into its Metropolis.

Rhagusa formerly called Epidaurus, is Seated on the Adriatick Shoar, and was [Page 266] once a Common-Wealth of great Traffick, and the first in those parts that Furnished out Ships of War of considerable force, with which they awed their Neighbours, and gave Laws in those Seas, but since the English and Dutch Navigators have turned the currant of Traffick another way, and drained those parts of the Commerce that was wont to Flow in upon them like the Ocean. The Inhabitants are no ways considerable, yet the Commodities of the Province are found there, as Honey, Wax, Horses for War, Hides, Tallow, Silver, and Gold unrefined, some Amber, Corral and the like, but of small value; for which they receive of those English, that make Trading Voyages, Hampshire Carsies, and other Coarse Cloath, Lead, Tinn, and such like; and that mostly for provision.

The Coyns in use here is the Gross, 59 of which are accounted a Sultany, or 8 Shillings Sterling.

The Weight is the pound 100 of which make 80 pound English, which is the Quin­tal of Rhagusa. Their Measure of Length is the Brace, according with the Venetian Brace, thus, 100 Braces of Rhagusa of the Cloath Brace, are 120 in Venice of the same, and of the Silk Brace 116 of Venice make the 100 of Rhagusa. And thus leaving Hun­gary, [Page 267] Dacia, and Sclavonia, I shall pass in­to Greece, and take a Survey of the Trade of that once famous Empire.

CHAP. XCI. A View of Greece and of the Trade there­of, Comprized in the Trade found at the famous City of Constantinople, to­gether with the Weights, Measures, Cu­stoms, and Coyns thereof.

GReece famous for being once Mistriss of the Vniverse, is bounded on the South with the Ionian Sea, on the North with the Mountain Hemus, on the East with the Hellispont, Aegean Sea, Propontis, and the Thracian Bosphorus, and is Ferti­lized by these considerable Rivers; viz. Ce­phius, Erigon, Alicmon, Sirmon, Alicus, and Nisus, and is divided into 8 Principal Pro­vinces, viz. Peloponnesus, Achaia, Epirus, Al­bania, Macedonia, Thessalia, Migdonia, and Thracia, all of them replenished with Cities of note; but seeing their Trade Cen­ters in Constantinople, thither I shall re­fer it.

The famous City of Constantinople, once [Page 268] the Seat of the Roman Eastern Empire, and now of the Ottoman Emperor, for the most part is Seated upon a large Stream, that passeth from the Euxine to the Medi­terranian Sea, commonly called the Black and White Seas, so that by such means Ships from either Sea have a free passage, which causes a quicker return then otherwise could be made, by Reason from one part or other the Wine rarely fails: It Fronts likewise Asia, receiving most of the Commodities by Sea and Land that are found in that large quarter of the World, and stands as it were the Bulwark of Europe, lastly founded by Constantine the great, and made the Seat of the Roman Empire as aforesaid, being taken after a long Siege by the Turks Anno 1453, who ever since have possessed it, it being Build­ed in a Triangle, having the 2 large Angles Bordering on the Sea, and the other stretch­ed into the Land, and is incompassed with a Triple Wall, upon which are divers Towers, and the Walls themselves Guard­ed by deep Ditches, and Cannons all a­long the works to the Sea; the Buildings for the most part are very stately, but especially the Grand-Signeours Pallace, on the point of the Angle, being surrounded with a Wall of 3 Miles in compass, and [Page 269] strong works furnished with great and small Artiliry.

This City is the common Mart for all Commodities of the Empire, receiving & dis­persing inwards and outwards the growth of each Province: And hither the Merchants of London first began to Trade Anno 1586, and in a short time found such incourage­ment upon Queen Elizabeths sending an Ambassador to mediate on their behalf; that they soon obtained to be incorporated by the said Queen, and growing in Trade, were confirmed by King James, with an Augmentation of their Priviledges, and then by King Charles the first, under the Title of the Merchants of England, Trading in the Levant Seas, or Levant Merchants, up­on whose account a Leiger Ambassador re­mains at Constantinople, to protect the Com­panies Factories, and take care that right be done them, who before his departure from England, is always approved of by his Majesty, but himself and retinue have their charges defrayed by the Company, which Honourable trust now remains in the right Honourable the Lord Shandois, they have likewise several Consuls to protect their Factories throughout the Empire, who keep Janizaries, Druggermen or Interpreters, Secretaries, and Ministers, [Page 270] with other the like necessary attendants in Sallary, being permitted free exercise of Religion: And hither it is at present that the English are found the Principal Trad­ers, tho the Venetians, French, and Dutch, by sundry devices have indeavoured to in­sinuate themselves, into the good opinions of the Turkish Merchants; who are ac­counted 4 kinds, viz. the Native Greek, the Turks, the Armenians, and lastly the Jews. The chief Commodities found here are Grograms, Mohairs, Chamlets, Persian-Silk, wrought and unwrought Gold, Car­pets, Anniseeds, Cumminseeds, Cottons, Galls, Pepper, Jndico, Nutmegs, Cinamon, Mace, and Drugs, these last being the Commodities of the East-India's, are brought cheaper and better from thence, therefore not Traded for by the English at Constan­tinople, but rather carryed by them thither, and exchanged for the Growth of the Em­pire, as likewise Lead, Tinn, Cloath, Furs, as Martins, Cony-Skins, Sables, Titchues, and the like; at the change of every Am­bassador, the Company make a present to the Grand-Signeour, which is levyed by the Company themselves by way of im­position, the like are the French, and Dutch obliged to do upon some occasion, and for the support of their Factories and Ambas­sadors.

[Page 271]The Accounts are kept in Dollars and Aspers, a Dollar being computed 80 Aspers, tho sometimes in way of Merchandise 100 Aspers are accounted to the Dollar, and and 120 Aspers to the Sultany.

The Coyns currant in this City, and consequently throughout the Empire are the Sultany of Gold, agreeing with the Venice Chequin, or is as aforesaid 120 As­pers, the German Dollar, the Ryal of 8/8 Spanish, currant at 80 Aspers; the Lyons Dollar is currant at 75 Aspers, the German Sesetine at 70 Aspers, and indeed any Coyn if found good Gold or Silver is currant in Constantinople, and most parts of the Empire; a Policy used to procure plenty of Coyn, for the maintainance of the Jan­izaries and others, in pay of all Nations.

The Weights are the Grain, 4 of which make a Quillat, a Dram which is 16 Grains of which all greater Weights are composed by Multiplication: as a Yursdrome is 100 Drams, and found to be 1 pound Sotile of Venice, or 72 Mittigals: a Lodero is 176 Drams, or 19 ½ Ounces Averdupois: an Oake is 400▪ Drams accounted 2 pound 11 ½ Ounces: 100 Lodero's are accounted 24 Oaks; and compose the Quintar of Constan­tinople, which has been found to render be­tween 118 and 120 pound English Suttle. [Page 272] A Batman is 6 Oaks, or 16 ⅓ pound Eng­lish, by which all Silks are bought, and according to these all other Weights of the Empire are regulated.

The Measures of Length are the Pico's, which are 3. The first for Cloath which is accounted 26 ½ Inches.

The second for Grograms, Chamlet, and such like, containing 24 Inches, so that 24 of these Pico's are found to make 16 Eng­lish Yards. The third is the Linnen Pico, which is the former doubled. To none of these is any advantage allowed as in Eng­land.

The Concave Measure is called the Kil­low, by which for the most part Corn is Measured, 8 ⅔ of which are observed to make the London Quarter, Wines, Oyls, and almost all Liquids are sold by the Me­ter, weighing 8 Oaks, and is about ⅔ of an English Gallon, as indeed most Commodities are sold by Weight.

The Customs payed by the Italians, French, and Jews, outward and inward are 5 per cent. the Turks themselves pay nothing, the Eng­lish and Dutch pay 3 per cent. inward, and the like outward, which is payed in Specie, unless the Merchant does compound with the Customer for money; and further it is to be observed, that, besides these Customs, [Page 273] there is by agreement payed 1 ½ per cent. up­on all pondrous Commodities, and 1 up­on all Measurable Commodities, which is to be defrayed between the buyer and sel­ler, but if a Turk be one, his part is remit­ted, and this is levyed for the Maintain­ance of a Hospital founded by Sultan Ach­met, which duties are farmed by an Emine or Farmer call'd the Grand-Seigenors re­ceiver, and are most commonly payed the one half in Aspers, of 80 Aspers to the Dollar, and the other in Sultanies of Gold, or otherwise as the Merchants and Cu­stomer can agree. And thus having at large described the Trade of this great City, I shall proceed to take a View of the Islands of note, lying in the Egean, Ionian, Mediterranian, and Adriatick Seas.

CHAP. XCII. A View of the Islands in the Ionian, Ege­an, Mediterranean, and Adriatick Seas; with a Description of the Trade, Weights, Measures, Coyns, and Commodities of the Growth and Manufacture of the most con­siderable of them.

THe Islands in these Seas are many, therefore I shall only name those of little note and insist upon the chief.

First then there is found the Island of Te­nedos, abounding with Wines.

The Isle of Samothracia, commodious for the Harbouring Ships.

Lemnos from whence comes that Antidote, called Terra Sigilata, or Terra Lemnos, then Scio or Chios, abounding in Trees, from which they distill Mastick, which Commodi­ties the Grand Signeour claims as his right.

Next the famous Island of Rhodes, which by Reason of its commodious Situation in the Ocean, is found to be a Place of great resort. In the chief City from which the Island takes name, is a considerable Mart, affording Corn, Wines, Oyls, Rasins, Wax, Honey, Cotton, Cordovants, Cotton Wools, [Page 275] and Cotton Yarn, Dimities, Vermilions, Damask, Stuffs, Silks, and the like; be­ing the Commodities of divers Islands in those Seas, and here some Factories are maintained; and the Accounts kept in Aspers of Turky, and the other Coyns for the most part the same. The Weight is the Rotolo, 100 of which makes the Quintar or 536 pound English. The Measure of Length is the Cane, which is found to be 84 Inches of English.

The next Island that offers, is the fa­mous Island of Candia, which cost the Turks so dear a purchase. Therefore I shall not think it amiss to describe its Commodities, Weights, and Measures.

CHAP. XCIII. A View of the Isle Candia and other I­slands.

THe Isle of Candia is Seated in the Mouth of the Egean Sea, and is now in sub­jection to the Grand-Signeor, being ex­ceeding Fruitful and affords considerable Commodities, as Muskadels, Fine-Sugars, Gums, Honey, Wax. Dates, Oranges, Li­mons, [Page 276] Olives, Rasins, Corn, Cattle, Fish, and the like; containing several Cities of note as Candia; from whence the Island has its name, Canea, Rhettmio, Sittia, and Suda, being a Haven capable of receiving 1000 or 1500 large Vessels, and before the Ve­netians lost it, their Coyns were currant throughout the Island, and their Weights the Quintars Suttle and Gross. The Gross 100 of Candia rendering 110 of the like Gross Weight of Venice, or 118 English pound, and 100 pound Suttle of Candia, 114 pound of Venice Suttle, or 76 pound English. The Measures of Length are the Pico's, one for Cloath, another for Silk, and their Measure for Wine called the Me­stach; but the Turks have since their con­quest made some alteration in the Weights, Measures, and Coyns which as yet are not come to my knowledge, I not having been there since the reduction.

In the Ionian Sea are also found the Isle of Cerigo, abounding with Marble, the Strophades or Strivalia, the Cursalari Islands, and Corfue, the last of which abounds in Wax, Honey, Oyl, and Wine, Stuffs, Silk-Fabricks, &c. There is likewise found St. Mairo, Ithaca, Zeffalonia, and Zant, the 3 latter of which are famous for the Cur­rans found growing there in abundance, and [Page 277] from thence dispersed throughout Europe, but mostly spent in England, wherefore I shall somewhat inlarge in describing the Trade thereof.

CHAP. XCIV. A View of Zant, Zeffalonia, and Ithaca, together with their Trade, Commodities, Weights, Measures, Coyns, &c.

THe Commodities that these Islands prin­cipally afford are Honey, Wax, Oyl, Wine & Currans, being Subject to the Signeo­ry of Venice; and hither it is that the Eng­lish Trade for Currans, now being of great use; and from whence they yearly bring 3000 Tuns or upward, which at first they bought for small matters, but the Veneti­ans seeing that Fruit so much coveted, be­gan to inquire into the use they were put to, the which when they found, and there­upon imagined the English could not Sub­sist without them, the better to recover the lost Trade of Venice; that State im­posed a Tax of 5 Ducats upon every 1000 Weight, which is since Augmented, not­withstanding the Custom payed in England [Page 278] with this Proviso; that the Currans be laden in a Vessel that comes purposely to lade that Commodity, but if She Landeth her outward Fraight in Venice or ⅔ part thereof, and then goeth to Lade at any of these Islands, the Customs then are mo­derated.

For the Growth of these Islands; the English Merchants Exchange Cloath, Per­petuano's, Serges, Lead, Tinn, Herrings, Newland-Fish, and Pilchards, tho the great­est Trade is for Spanish Ryals; all the o­ther money currant amongst the Islanders, being the same with that of Venice. The Natives keeping their Accounts as in Venice, tho Merchants Strangers often keep theirs in Dollars, which are those Ryals of 8/8 and Gassets 80 to the Dollar.

The Weight is the pound of 12 Ounces, 100 of which pounds make the Quintar, and agrees with Venice, thus the 100 pound Suttle of Venice make but 63 ½ pound of these Islands, and the Gross hundred of Venice renders but the common 100 pound. Currans are bought by the 1000, which 1000 Weight is reckoned to make 1070 pound English, tho of late by the careles­ness of the Factors, or defraud of the Island­ers, it is found much less.

The Measures of Length are the two Brac­es, [Page 279] the long and the short, the long is for Woollen and Linnen Cloath, and the short for Silks, the former being found 27 Eng­lish Inches, and the latter to be 6 in 7 per cent. lesser.

Oyl is sold by a Measure called the Li­ver, and is computed to weigh 13 pound English, 10 of which make a Candia, Bar­rel. Wine is sold by the Jar 3 ½ of which make the Candia Barrel. Corn they sell by the Bechelo 3 of which are accounted the Starro, and should weigh 44 pound, &c.

The Customs raised upon the Commo­dities of these Islands yearly, are between 40 and 50000 Chequins of Gold; which are the Income of the Signory of Venice.

The Islands found in the Adriatick Sea are Absertides, Cherso, Vegea, Grissa, Leli­va, Cursola, Brassia, Lissia, and Zara, which yield Wine, Corn, Oyl, Cattle, and the like; but enjoy at this Day little or no Trade, except Zara the chief of them. And therefore I shall pass them over, and enter the Mediterranean, to take a View of the Islands Seated therein.

CHAP. XCV. Of the Islands in the Mediterranian Sea, and the Trade of the Principal of them.

IN the Mediterranian Sea are found these Islands viz. Sicilia, Malta, Corsica, Sar­dinia, Majorica, and Minorica, of the chief of which in order.

Sicilia is the chief of these Islands, com­puted 700 Miles in circuit; Fertilized with many Navigable Rivers, and adorn­ed with many fair Cities, and is divided in 3 Provinces as Vallis-de-Nota, Masara, and Mona. In this Island is found the Flaming Mount Aetna, and Mount Hiblia, in which is found great store of Honey, but for Brevities sake, I shall reduce the Trade of this Island into that of Messina the chief Port thereof, which stands oppo­site to Regio in Calabria, the Island being divided from Italy by a narrow Frith or Channel, commonly called the Fare of Mes­sina, and formerly accounted dangerous for Sailors, by Reason of a Rock on the one side, and a Sand on the other, known by the names of Scylla and Charibdis.

This City for some Years past, has been [Page 281] Garisoned by the French, which put a stop to Inland Commerce, by Reason that the other Cities were in possession of the Spani­ard, but since their abandoning it, the Trade is again returned, many Merchants of note residing there, and by Reason of its Com­modiousness for the reception of Shipping, it has acquired a great Trade, so that hi­ther are brought the Commodities of the whole Island, as Wines, Oyls, Wax, Ho­ney, Saffron, Sugars, Corral, Agates, Pu­mice, Corn, Cattle, Hides, Skins, Cavear, Tuny Fish, and the like; so that altho Pa­lermo is the chief City and residence of the Spanish Vice-Roy, yet this is the chief Scale of Trade.

The Merchants keep their Accounts in Ounces, Tarries, and Grains, one Ounce making 30 Tarries, and 1 Tarry 20 Grains, and by the same they account their mo­ney, viz. one Ounce or 30 Tarries is 5 Florins or Carlins, 12 Carlins making the Florin, one Tarry is accounted 12 Solds, 6 Deniers, or one Carline, the Carline being 10 Grains or 12 Livers, one Grain is 6 Pi­cholis, and is 7 ½ Dew money of Siciliano, one Pancto is 8 Picholis, and the Ducat of Gold is worth 13 Tarries, and this money is cur­rant throughout the Island.

The Weights of Messina are two, viz. [Page 282] the Gross Cantar, by which they weigh all manner of Gross Commodities, the small or Suttle Cantar 10 pound less then the former, and is 100 Rotolo's of 30 Ounces, or 2 ½ pound Siciliano pounds, the former having been found to make 196 in 198 pound English, 20 Peso's being accounted the Suttle Cantar, and 22 the Gross Can­tar.

The Measure of Length is the Cane, di­vided into 8 Palms or 81 ½ Inches London Measure.

The Concave Measures are the Salmo and Tomelo, 16 of the latter making the former, which is accounted 11 ¼ Staio's of Florence, Oyl is sold by the Cantar, which is 2 ¾ Barrels Florence, and hath been found to render in Weight 180 pound English.

The Custom of this place and of the I­sland in general, is for the most part 9 and 10 per cent. upon all Sollid goods, but Fish and other Edible Commodities pay 12 per cent. and all Commodities of Weight imported, whether they are sold or not sold; pay 3 per cent. at Messina, and remov­ing from Ship to Ship, pays 3 per cent. and sometimes 3 ¼, all Merchandise conveyed out of the Island at the Port of Messina, pay 6 ⅓ per cent. unless when the fair is, and [Page 283] then according to a Custom granted, some Commodities pay less then other some, as for instance, Silk pays but 3 per cent.

The Islands of Malta, Corsica, and Sardi­nia, afford store of Oranges, Limons, Citrons, Honey, Wax, Oyls, Figs, Rasins, Wines, Honey, Allum, Box-Wood, Iron, Hides, Cheese, Cattle, and the like; but are not much Traded too. And therefore I shall forbear to describe them further.

Majorica and Minorica, the former 300 Miles in circuit, and the latter 250 are Seated in the Mediterranean, 9 Miles distant from each other; and abound in Corn, Oyl, Wine, Fruits, Drugs, which are yearly lad­ed for England and other Countries; but especially Oyl. Their Monies are for the most part those currant in Spain. Their Weights 2, viz. the Rotolo and Cantar, 100 of the first making the last called Bar­baresco, which there is 117 pound making in London 110 pound, they have likewise another Cantar of 104 pound, called the Cantar of Majorica, they likewise sell some Commodities by the Cargo, as Pepper Gin­ger, Cinnamond, Nutmegs, Rice, and the which Cargo is 3 Cargo's, of 104 pound. The Measure of Length is the Cane, found to make 67 in 68 London Inches. The The Oyl Measure is the Quartano, 12 of [Page 284] which make the Odor, and 212 that of 126 Gallons which is a Tun of Oyl, according to London Gauge, and the Customs and o­ther charges are reckoned to 2 pound 7 Shillings 6 Pence per Tun.

In this Sea are the Islands of Javisa, afford­ing store of Salt, as also the Isles Lipara Promentary, Pantcleria, Caprea, Ischia, Pro­gitue, Elba, Gages or Cales, with some o­thers of smaller note, affording Cattle, Corn, Olive, Oyl, Wine, Gapars, Cave­re, Oranges, Limons, Citrons, Fish, and the like; most of them in the possession of the Spaniard. And thus leaving the Me­deterranian, I shall enter the North Oce­an, to take a View of the Islands not as yet mentioned in this Treatise.

CHAP. XCVI. A View of Greenland, and the Whale Fishe­ry, with an account of several Islands in the Northern Seas.

GReenland or Gronland is Seated under the Frozen Zone; doubtful whither an Island or a Continent, by reason part of those Seas are not Navigable upon the account [Page 285] of the Mountains of Ice that Float there­in, and for that none ever yet passed o­ver Land to the extent of that dismal Coun­try; where from the 14 of October to the 12 of February no Sun appears, but the Moon shines as in England, and for 3 Months and a half, in Summer time they have no Night, as for humane Inhabitants there are none; yet the Woods and Caves a­bound with Bears, Foxes, and Dear, and the Voyages the English make thither, are upon the account of the Whale Fishery, Whales in abundance being found in those deep Seas, the Ships seting out in May, and Arriving in June at Green-Harbour and Bell-Sound. They set up their Caldrons Pres­ses and other necessaries, then put again to Sea, and when they perceive the Whales coming by the rising of the Water, they send out Skiffs with Hasping-Irons and Ca­bles; when the men therein taking their advantage strike the Whales, who no sooner find themselves wounded but Plunge to the Bottom, those in the Boat giving them Rope, and by their Sinking know where they will rise; and give notice to the Ships who stand off for fear of being overset, when they rise with horrible Bellowing, they make towards the Shore spouting Blood and Water; the Reason of their so doing [Page 186] is to indeavour the rubing out of the I­rons upon the Sands, but in vain for then by force of Cables they draw them on shoar, and their cut out their Pulps, of which they make the Oyl, and their Fins, of which our Whalebone is made by drying and prepar­ing; so that sometimes one Whale is found to yield 3 Tuns of Oyl, and half a Tun Weight of Whalebone. Here it was that several Persons were left a whole Winter (the Ship going away during their Hunting up in the Country) and lived in a Hutt upon Bears-Flesh, Venison, Wild-Foxes, Birds, and the Greens or pressings of the Whales, till next year the Ships came a­gain, and fetched them off. For 7 Months, all the Seas are Frozen over, and the Country is covered with Mountains of Snow.

In this Tract is Nova Zembla, where the Pole is elevated 76 degrees, and whither the Dutch yearly resort to Fish for Whales, and such other Fish as yield matter for Oyl. It abounds in Dear, Wild-Foxes, and the like as Greenland; and in it likewise not long since several Dutchmen were forced to Winter, & suffered great Extremity by Rea­son of the excessive cold. There are found likewise Sr. Hugh Willoughby's Island, called Queen Elizabeths Foreland; likewise Freez­land, [Page 287] Iceland and others of lesser note, but by Reason of the excessive cold, few of them are Inhabited, and the chief Com­modities they yield are Ling, Cod, and Fish Oyls.

And thus according to my promise hav­ing taken Survey of the Trade of all the known part of the Ʋniverse, as near as can be gathered from long experience and cre­dible Authority, I shall return with Joy to Tread my Native Soil, and there take a View of what yet remains in relation to Trade and Commerce. And first I shall be­gin with Exchanges, that one necessary part of all Navigational and Inland Com­merce.

CHAP. XCVII. A View of the Practice of Exchanges in Ge­neral, and the advantage accruing there­by.

THat Exchanges are a Principal part of Merchandise, it is most certain, and has been so found for 200 Years p [...]st, tho not brought to perfection till of late Days. The places most apt for Exchanges are [Page 288] those where many Merchants of divers Nations reside; and have frequent meetings in relation to Trade, and Prizes of Com­modities, whose returns are Subject to great Exchanges, which are ever advantageous to the place where they are Practised. Now some places there are that have Exchanges in themselves, yet are compelled to de­pend upon other places; having only cer­tain times or Fairs appointed by the Cu­stom of Exchangers, in which, or to which Bills of Exchange are either expired, re­newed, or dated, one of which is Placentia; and indeed all Towns in Countries where there is more then one Exchange establish­ed, the Metropolis or Principal Exchange gives Rules, and Rates to the rest; provid­ed the Coyns be of equal value and good­ness, nor indeed tho many places have at­tributed the name of Exchanges, yet that Exchange remains not so much in Esse as in the will of the Merchants, Bankers, and Exchan­gers, in whose Power it is to assign the place as they think convenient; and for the most part pitch upon Principal places, where their Bills are sure to have a quick dispatch. Now there are several Cities that exchange in one and the same Monies, Coyns, and Denomination; as Naples, Lechie, Bar­ry, the two latter included in the former, [Page 289] Palermo, and Messina, comprehended in Si­cilia; Valentia, Saragosa, and Barselona in Cattalonia; Sevil, Alcala, and Medina-del-Campo in Castilia; Frankford, Colona, Norem­burg, and Augusta in Germany, with many other of less note. But exchange now from a Plain and easie Method is reduced to so many mysterious Points, that it is extraor­dinary difficult to understand it aright in all places, therefore I shall only lay down such Particulars as chiefly concern English Merchants; and are conducing to the Trade of the Brittish Empire. The first thing then that is to be observed, is the true value of the Coyn of the City, or Port where you make your exchange, which is not to be taken according to the value of the Coyn as it is currant, but according to its Weight and fineness, and so the return may be proportionable; but if Bills are drawn to pay a Merchant residing in any place where the Coyn is currant, and he dispo­ses of it for Commodities of the Growth, or Manufacture of the Country, then it matters not how the Coyn has been in­haunced above its true value, by Reason it is currant, tho perhaps should the Coyn be carryed into an other Kingdom, it might redound to the loss of the receiver a third part; and this equallizing Coyns of divers [Page 290] Nations by Ballance I called a Par, by which all Coyns of Silver or Gold espe­cially, are reduced to an equal value; as for example, Placentia exchanges with Lon­don one Crown of currant money there for 1 Shilling 6 pence ½ ob. Sterling, Lyons the Crown currant for 2 Shillings 8 pence Sterling, Rome exchanges her Ducat 87 ½ pence Sterling, Genoa her Crown of Gold at 83 pence Sterling, Millain her Crown of Gold 84 pence ½ ob. Sterling, Venice her Ducat at 60 pence Sterling, Florence her Crown at 80 pence, Luca her Ducat at 67 pence Sterling, Naples her Ducat at 66 ½ pence Sterling, Lechy her Ducat at 6 pence Sterling, Bary her Ducat at 62 pence Ster­ling, Palermo her Ducat at 78 pence Ster­ling, Messina her Ducat at 72 pence Ster­ling, Valentia her Ducat at 72 ½ pence Ster­ling, Saragosa her Ducat at 73 pence Ster­ling, Barsalonia her Ducat at 72 pence Ster­ling, Sevil her Ducat at 72 pence Ster­ling, Lisbon her Ducat at 69 pence Ster­ling, Bolonia her Ducat at 67 pence Ster­ling, Bergamo her Ducaton at 67 pence Ster­ling, Frankfort, Noremburg, Augusta, and Viena (in all which Cities one and the same Coyn is currant) Exchange their Florin at 50 pence Sterling; all these Cities and Towns London exchanges within broken numbers [Page 291] (that is by pence) at the rates aforesaid, and so Multiplies into greater Summs as occasion requires, but with Antwerp and Collen, Amsterdam, &c, in whole number, as one pound Sterling for 34 ½ Flemish Shillings, and proportionable for greater Summs.

Again in London and throughout all Eng­land Exchangers and Merchants keep their Accounts in Pounds, Shillings, Pence, and cast them up as is done in other places, by Solds, Livers, and Denire, viz. 12 pence to the Shilling, and 20 Shillings to the pound, and are found to exchange with Transmarine Cities thus, viz. to allow 64 pence Sterling, for the Crown of Placentia 64 pence Sterling, for the Crown of Ly­ons 66 pence Sterling, for the Ducat of Rome 65 pence, for the Crown of Gold of Genoa 64 2/4 pence, for the Crown of Gold of Millain 50 pence, for the Ducat in Ban­co of Venice 61 pence, for the Crown of Florence 53 ½ pence, for the Ducaton of Luca 50 pence, for the Ducat of Naples 50 ½ pence, for the Ducat of Lechy 51 pence, for the Ducat of Bary 57 ½, for the Du­cat of Palermo 56 ½, for which Ducat of Messina one pound Sterling, for 34 ½ Shil­lings Flemish, with Antwerp and Collon 57 ½ pence, for the Ducat of Valentia 59 [Page 292] pence, for the Ducat of Saragosa 64 pence, for the Ducat of Barselona 59 ½ pence, for the Florin of Frankford 52 pence, for the Ducaton of Bergamo 53 ⅓, for the Ducaton of Bolonia 53 ½ pence, and for the Ducat of Lisbon 53 ½. And thus the currant Ex­change is setled, and continues unless in times of War, when Princes to Inrich their Cof­fers, make an Inhaunsment upon the cur­rant Coyns in their respective Domini­ons, and at other times when the Banker or Exchanger takes the advantage of the Par­ties necessity, upon whose Accounts the ex­change is to be made.

The Terms of paying Bills of exchange in London with other Cities, are commonly these. To Venice at 3 Months after date, and so upon return to Antwerp at one Month after date; and so back to Genoa at 3 Months, and so back to Lyons for the Fair, and so from Fair to Fair as the Custom of that City is; to Pisa at 3 Months after date, and so back to Placentia, from Fair to Fair according to the Custom of the place; to Florence at 3 Months after date, & so upon return to Rou­en and Paris at one Month after date, and so back; and these Bills are currant money, insomuch that many Millions are pay'd by Bills without telling any money, Merchants passing the Bills to one another by assign­ment [Page 289] as currant Coyns, of which Bills their Presentations, Intimations, Accepta­tions, Protests, and Returns, I shall in the following Chapter, expose to the View of the Reader.

CHAP. XCVIII. A Discourse of the Forms of Bills of Exchange, how they ought to be drawn, presented, payed or protested in default; with a caution against delays, and the danger thereof, according to the Law and Custom of Merchants.

A Bill of Exchange in it self is held so excellent a speciallity, and carries with it not only as it were a command­ing Power to pay; but is for the most part ob­served and satisfyed with all due regard, tho drawn by a Servant upon his Master, such a high esteem being ever had for the quality thereof, that nothing in the way of Trade can be more, for upon it depends the reputation of the Drawer & Accepter: So that those who fail in the payment of accepted Bills, wound their credit by suffering Pro­test to be made, which soon gets Wind [Page 294] and spreads wide upon the Exchange, and not only so but obliges the Acceptor to pay the char [...] of the Protestant return, and cal [...]s into question the credit of the draw­er.

Of bills of exchange there are two sorts, as [...] and Inland, viz. the former drawn upon [...]. Merchant Banker, &c. Liv­ing beyond the Seas, the second upon a Merchant Banker or other Person living in the same Country, tho distant from the place where the Bill is drawn; as to make a Bill payable at London, for money taken up at Bristol; each having equal force ought to have due observance alike.

As to an Exchange, four, three or two Persons may make it thus, 2 at the place where the money is taken up, and 2 at the place were it is payable, first the deliverer, secondly the taket, thirdly the Person that is to take the money, and fourthly the party upon whom the Bill is drawn. 3 Persons thus, first the taker, secondly the deliverer, and thirdly the Person on whom the Bill is drawn.

2 Persons, first the Drawer, and second­ly the Party on whom it is drawn, the for­mer making his Bill payable to himself or order, which may of Exchange is very advantageous as well to Merchants as other Traders.

[Page 295]There is another sort of Exchange cal­led a dry exchange, which is practised thus, if a Person have occasion for 100 pound, he goes to a Banker who takes a Bill of Exchange of him to be payed at Lyons, or Paris at double or treble Usance; tho the Drawer has no Correspondence in either of the Cities, then the Bill growing due, the Banker receives a Protest for non-pay­ment, upon which the Drawer in London must pay the money with costs, which is a Trick to evade the Statute against Extor­tion.

There is likewise a feigned Exchange which is thus, the Banker agrees to lend me money upon Bill of exchange payable at Amsterdam, yet between our selves it is payable here, which if I pay at the time appointed, I receive my discharge accord­ing to agreement, but if I make default, then the Banker Writes to his Friend at Amsterdam, who sends him a Bill of Ex­change for the like Summ owing him here, so that I who borrowed the money, am obliged to pay the cost of the exchanges and other charges.

Another Exchange there is called the petty Exchanges as thus, to exchange 20 Shilling in Silver, for 21 Shillings in Brass or Copper, which is the most inconside­rable. [Page 296] And thus much for the several sorts of Exchangs.

CHAP. XCIX. Of the Pair in Exchange, and the Forms of English, Dutch, and French Bills of Exchange.

THe Pair is nothing more then an E­qualizing or reducing Coyns of several Kingdoms, to an equal value, let there be never so much difference in the Pieces, &c. By which means a Bill may be drawn to pay a just Summ in any place where Ex­change is made, either by Tale or Weight, as from Middleburrough, Lisle, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam: For our pound Sterling is returned or exchanged 33 ½ Shillings Fle­mish, which make 10 Guilders at 2 Shil­lings Sterling; each Guilder or 10 Livers Turnois, and so in other Countries, our Pence according to reckoning and Equali­ty are exchanged.

The Form of an English Inland Bill.

[Page 297]At six Days sight, pay this my first Bill of Exchange to Mr. William D. or assigns. Two hundred pounds Sterling, for the value here Received of Mr. Richard W. Make good payment and put it to Account as by advice.

Your loving Friend Samuel G.

And so the second and third Bill, the first not pay'd, and if he that doth under-Write the Bill, doth make himself Debtor, then he under-Writes, And put it to my Account; but if he ought to pay it then he Writeth, And put it to your Account; and sometimes they Write, And put it to the Account of such a one, meaning him.

The Form of an Outlandish Bill in English thus.

At Usance pay this my first Bill of Exchange to Mr. Peter Vandrome M. or order 200 pound Sterling at 36 Shillings 8 pence Flemish per pound Sterling, for the value here received of Mr. James G. Make good payment, [Page 298] and put it to Account as per advice.

Your loving Friend Charles B.

And so the second and third at double or treble Usance, if the first be not pay'd, or if it be, so be it that the party to whom it is directed, owe the Drawer so much money as is required.

The Form of a French Bill from Paris.

A Double Ʋsance payez, per Caste, per Miere de Change a Mons'r Autwaine D Ou a son order trees Centz Escus a Cinquante deux de­niers, Sterlins pour Escu Valleur recu de Mon­sieur Francivis G. & Passez compt Suivant l' advys de.

Ʋre tres humble Serviteur. Frances R.

And so the second or third as aforesaid

The Form of a Dutch Bill is thus.

Op uso betaelt desen myne Ersten Wisselbrief Aen Sr. Jan E. Ost order Hondret pouden Sterliuex, Valuta Van Sr. Robert L. Stelt op myn reckoning als per advys.

Martin R.

If any Bill be negotiated by Exchange or the money taken in, and so to be Assign­ed over to another Man, the Assignment must be Written on the back side of the Bill thus.

Pay the Contents on the other side here­of to Mr. James K. or Assigns for the value received of Mr. William G. London 6 No­vember 1682. Arthur N. and if James K. do likewise Assign the same Bill for his ac­count, then it requires to be Written only thus.

Pay the contents hereof to Mr. Thomas L. And so in effect upon all Bills.

CHAP. XCX. Several useful observations to be carefully noted, in the Management of Bills of Ex­change.

OBserve to note in your Book the Name of the place of aboad of the Person who presents the Bill, keep Cop­pies of the Bills sent to get accepted, make the direction of Bills on the inside, and all for the Reasons following.

First by knowing the place of Aboad of him that presented the first Bill, he may be the better excused, if he except against the second Bill from the same Hand, before the first be satisfyed.

Secondly by taking Copies of Bills sent to get acceptance, you may know how Ex­changes go in all places, and at the same time to know without any great trouble, on whom you are to call for your money, and what Day.

Thirdly to make the direction of Bills on the inside, will give larger Scope to Write this Assignment on the back side.

4ly. Every Person who receives a Bill to get it accepted, whether for himself or [Page 301] another must, tho some hold the contra­ry, present the said Bill in due time; that the Person who is to accept it, may order his affairs accordingly, and not be surpriz­ed with the presentation of a Bill, just when it becomes due.

5ly. If a Bill be protested after accep­tance, it does not clear the party who was faulty in non-payment, but renders him lyable to pay the charges; and exposes him to an Action at Law, to which before he was not lyable, nor is the Drawer cleared, but obliged to see the Bill satis­fyed.

6ly. Times of payment are according to the distance or Custom of the places, where the Bills are drawn, & were payable, as has before been briefly touched, as from London to Antwerp, Midelborrough, Rotterdam, Lysle, Rouen and Paris, at a Months Usance.

7ly It is dangerous to draw a Bill payable to the bearer, by Reason if a Bill should happen to be lost, any Person might bring it for acceptance or payment, therefore the safest way is to make it payable to a particular man, or his order; for otherwise if it should be payed to the wrong party, and the Bill received, he on whom it is drawn, is not lyable to pay it again unless a Fraud be proved.

[Page 302]81y. A Bill of Exchange is held so Au­thentick, that it requires no witness, nor is it requisite that any Person unless the Per­son that receives it be present at the Writ­ing thereof, or that any one be present, when the party who accepts it under-writes his name, for if any Person either Draw­er or Subscriber should deny his Hand, it may be easiely proved by comparing his Letter or Books of Account, and if that be proved his credit is inevitably ruined.

9ly. If you receive an Outland Bill pre­sent it presently, and if it be refused pro­test without delay, and send it back to the Drawer with Protest, which will be for the advantage of both. Twenty four Hours is the longest time, that you are obliged to give any Merchant to consider whether he will or not, and after that, it is at your pleasure whether you will protest or give longer time, and after protest advice ought to be given to the Drawer by the first Post.

10. If a Bill be drawn on two Persons, and not to them or either of them, but joyntly, yet if one do accept it and the other refuse it the Bill ought to be pro­tested.

11. If a Bill be presented to any Per­son, and he by word of mouth, desires [Page 303] it may be left in his Hands, and does Ver­bally accept it, altho he afterwards refuse to Subscribe it, yet such an acceptance is valid, and he may be Sued upon due Protest, tho Protest must not be made till the money becomes due.

12. If a man accept a Bill for part and not for the whole, alledging he has no more in his Hands; the Person to whom the money is payable, may receive the part and give an acquittance for so much as he receives, but must enter Pro­test for non-payment of the rest, and send it away as soon as the party refuses to ac­cept for the whole.

13. The Drawer is Master of the Bill till it becomes due, and may Countermand it by sending an Express to the party, who has accepted it not to pay it without fur­ther order, which order must be made, and passed before a publick Notary, and noti­fyed to the party that hath accepted the Bill, but if the money be pay'd it is past re­covery.

14. A Bill of Exchange may be pay'd at Usance single, double or treble, that is length of time according to the quality of the Person; the occasion or difficulty of passage by Reason of different Seasons, but general Usance is accounted a Month from [Page 304] the Date of the Bill, each month tho dif­ferent in number of Days being accounted, the Month required on that occasion.

15. A Bill payable at Days sight, is from the Day after it is accepted, else Pro­test ought to be made. If an accepted Bill be lost, yet it will not Bar the payment, but may be Sued for as if the Bill were in be­ing, nor is the party who accepted it bound to pay a second Bill, before the first be dis­charged, unless the second Bill be directed to the party who lost the Former in lieu thereof.

16. When a Bill is accepted, there is no revoking it, but it must be either payed or Protested; tho sometimes it hap­pens that the Acceptor and the Party to whom the Bill is payable, do conclude upon longer time then the Bill specifies, or to take it by Parcels; yet if he doubt the honesty of the Acceptor, the Presentor must nowithstanding make Protest, or the Acceptor may refuse further payment, and yet not lye lyable to be Sued.

17. If a Bill be directed to a party, and he be out of Town, not leaving any Warrant of Attorney, to impower his Wife or Servants to accept it; and another Mer­chant to support the Drawers credit, will accept and pay it, yet Protest must be made against the party on whom it was drawn for non-acceptance.

[Page 305]18. In some cases half Usance is allow­ed, especially in Inland Bills, which is ac­counted 15 Days.

Note that all Bills must be Protested 3 Days after they become due, it being dangerous to exceed that time, altho one of the Days happened on a Sunday, yet tho the 3 Days are expired, 'tis not at all unne­cessary to Protest.

19. Bills payable at a fixed Day, are not meant one, and the same Day if they come from any place where the new Style is practised, because the old and new ad­mits of ten Days difference. As for Example, if a Bill be dated new Style payable on the 10 of March, it is not payable till the 10 of March old Style, which is the 20th. of March new Style.

20. A Wife or a Servant cannot accept a Bill of Exchange, unless the Husband or Master impower them by a Warrant of At­torney so to do, or that formerly they have accepted Bills with his good liking, and by him discharged.

21. If a party on whom a Bill is drawn, live at a distant City or place of Exchange, from him that is to receive the money, he must go himself or send the Bill down to some Friend to get it accepted, which if not accepted, Protest must be entered, if it [Page 306] be a place of Exchange, or by the help of a Letter of such refusal, from the Friend who endeavoured to get it accepted, Protest may be made at London, tho the party live at Southampton, but if accepted and your Bill returned when it becomes due, if it be made payable at london, you must expect there your money, or enter Protest for non-payment.

22. If a Merchant that accepted a Bill prove non-Solvent, and absent himself from the Exchange; you must before the Bill be due, cause demand to be made by a Notary for better Security, and in default thereof cause Protest to be made, and send away the Pro­test by the next Post to the Drawer of the Bill, who must defray the charges of such Protest, and all Protests must be made be­tween Sun and Sun, that is, between Sun Rising and Sun Setting; other Hours being accounted unseasonable, and held amongst Merchants Illegal.

23. If a Protest be returned to the Drawer or Indorser, he must get an able man to under-write the Protest, and ob­lige himself to make speedy payment with Costs and Rechange, but if the Protest be returned for want of payment, and you have had Security already upon the Protest for non-acceptance or want of better Se­curity, then upon receipt of your Protest [Page 307] [...]or non-payment, you may only acquaint the Drawer or party that took up the money, and tarry out the proportion of time, at which the Bill was made payable, to be accounted from the time it fell due, before you demand your Principal money, with the Rechange and charges of the par­ty who drew the Bill or his Security, which according to the Law of Merchants, they are bound to satisfy either joyntly or severally.

24. When you have an accepted Bill protested for want of payment, keep the Bill, but send away the Protest, by which means the money is recoverable of the Draw­er.

25. If a Bill be delivered to a party to be accepted, and yet by the carelesness or otherwise of the party that received it in order to accept be Lost, then must he who brought it demand a note under the Hand and Seal of the Merchant, &c. who received the Bill for the payment of the money, at the Day specifyed in the Bill, upon a second Bill if it come to hand, or if not upon the note it self, and if such note be refused to be given, then the party who should receive the mo­ney upon the lost Bill, must enter protest and send it away, and when the money be­comes due upon the lost Bill, he must make [Page 308] demand of it, and for non-payment enter Protest a second time, and send it away, or if he have a note, yet if it be not payed at the time therein limited, he must Protest as upon a Bill of Exchange.

26. If a Person send a Bill to a Friend of his to get it accepted, tho drawn upon no particular Person, but a Blanck left to put in the parties Name that will accept it, it is according to the Law of Merchants suffi­cient.

27. If a Bill be drawn by one Merchant upon another, upon the account of a third man; he upon whom it is drawn has liber­ty to chuse whether he will accept it upon the account of the third Person, or on his account who drew it; but then he must go before a Publick Notary, and declare his intent, of which the Notary must make an Act indue Form to be sent away to the party whom it concerns; and he must also cause an Act to be made for payment there­of when it becomes due, declaring that he will pay it for the Honour of the Drawer, but upon no other account then is the Draw­er accountable to him for the Summ specifyed in the Bill.

28. If a Bill be drawn upon a Merchant, who after acceptance for want of money, or otherwise fails to pay it when due, another [Page 309] Merchant for the Honour of the Drawer may pay the Bill, yet Protest must be made against him that made default, and sent a­way, and the safest way in that case is to have the receipt for discharge of the Bill Writ­ten under the Protest, and to keep the ac­cepted Bill as an Evidence against him who failed in the payment thereof.

29. If a party dye between the time of acceptance, and the time money becomes due upon a Bill, you must go to the place of his last aboad, when the money becomes due, and demand it of the Executors, and if payment be refused, you must Protest as you would have done if the party were living.

30. If the party dye to whom a Bill is payable before it become due, altho the Will be not proved, nor Letters of Administra­tion taken out, yet you must demand the money when due, offering at the same time Security to save the Payer harmless from the Executors or Administrators, and if upon such offer payment is refused, you must Protest for non-payment.

31. If a Bill be drawn upon a Person, and upon inquiry no such Person can be found, you must have your Bill Protested in due Form.

32. If when you go to get your Bill [Page 308] [...] [Page 309] [...] [Page 310] accepted, no Person can accept it be at home, and that at 2 or 3 goings, you must enter Protest, either for non-acceptance or non-payment; either at his dwelling House or Lodging in his absence, which accord­ing to the Law of the Merchants is suffici­ent, for he ought at Seasonable times to attend his own business, for there is no avoiding Protest, whether absent or pre­sent.

33. If the Figures and words at Length in a Bill of Exchange disagree, then you ought to be guided by the words at Length and not by the Figures.

34. If a Name be mended or words in­terlined, and the Bill be accepted, tho it is a foul fault in the Drawer, yet it is not an excuse sufficient for the Acceptor to refuse payment, but if the party who accepted alledge that it has been mended, or interlined since he accepted, he must prove it, the which if he do he may re­fuse payment, till a second Bill comes to Hand.

35. If a Bill be made payable Positive­ly to a Person by name, then an Assignment will not be available; for it must be the very man spec [...]fyed to whom the Bill must be pay'd, lest by paying to a wrong party, you are obliged to pay it again in your own wrong.

[Page 311]36. If a Bill come to any party to get it accepted, and by an oversight it be not di­rected to any Person by name, yet in the Letter of credit, the party to whom it was intended be mentioned; then must it be presented in order to its being accepted, and if the party for want of his name on the Bill refuse to accept it, then Protest must be made for the Drawers Omission; and he is lyable to pay the charges.

37. If a Bill be accepted, and protested for non-payment, yet if the Drawer do satisfy the contents of the Bill, he that ac­cepted the Bill is discharged, as to the party to whom the Bill was due, but must nevertheless stand ingaged to the Drawer; and if a Bill be by one Person Assigned over to another, if the first Person be sa­tisfyed, the Bill becomes useless, nor can it by Law be recovered.

And thus much for Bills of Exchange, and now I shall only proceed, to give the Reader an insight into the nature of Letters of Credence, and so conclude this one great and necessary part of Merchants affaires.

CHAP. CXI. Of Letters of credit, and to what intent they are drawn.

THere are divers sorts of Letters, that pass between Merchants and Merchants, or Merchants and their Factors. As Letters of Commission for buying and selling, Let­ters of advice, Letters of Fraight, and Let­ters of Credit; the latter of which are properly such as are Written to furnish mo­nies by Exchange, upon the credit of him that Writes them, so that by virtue of the Letter or Letters so Written, the Mer­chant or Banker that Writes the Letter or Letters, are bound as firmly, as if they had given Bond to satisfy by Bill of Ex­change; or otherwise any Summ or Summs of money, taken upon them by those Per­sons specifyed therein. And these Letters are two sorts, the one General and the o­ther special.

The first is when I Write my open Let­ter to all Merchants, &c. who shall Furnish such and such Persons upon my Letter of credit, wherein I do bind my self, that what Monies shall be delivered unto such and such [Page 313] parties therein specifyed, within the time limited at such and such rates, or as the Exchange is currant; I will repay by Bills of Exchange or otherwise: and if any one should refuse to pay Bills for monies receiv­ed upon his Letters of credit, yet those Letters being produced, and proved to be his, are as binding as Hand and Seal, and stand as good in Law.

The special Letter of credit, is directed to a peculiar Person, and is of force equal with the former; as for the Forms of the General Letters of credit, they are vari­ous and sutable to the occasion of the Wri­ter, but the form of a special or particular Letter of credit may run thus.

Sr. My last unto you was of the 10th. of December, wherein I Wrote to you what was needful, in answer unto yours of the 4th. of the same Month; this serves chiefly to desire you to furnish and pay unto Mr. W. B. English Gentleman, to the value of 3000 Crowns, at one or more times, according as he shall have occasion, or desire the same of you; taking his Receipt or Bills of Exchange for the monies, which you shall so furnish him with, and put [Page 314] it to my Account, and this my Letter of Credit shall be your sufficient Warrant for so do­ing. Vale.

yours Timothy L.

And thus I shall conclude my discourse of Exchanges; only by the way, note there is in use the old Style and new Style, the former being only practised or held in England, and other his Majesties of Great Brittains Dominions, in Hamburg, Strasbourg, and some other parts of Germa­ny; and the latter in all other parts of Christendom.

CHAP. CXII. A Survey of the Customs, commonly called Tonnage upon Wines of the Growth of France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, &c. also upon Beer, Perry, Cider, Vinegar, Rape, &c. together with the nature of such Customs or Tonnage, declaring where they are due and where not.

THe Wisdom of the Nation assembled in Parliament Anno 1660, having tak­en [Page 315] into their consideration the condition of Merchants Trading into Forrain parts, that they were frequently Robbed, and spoiled by Pirates and Picaroons, and Ships of War of divers Nations, under pretence of Letters of Reprizal. They the better to prevent such outrages, thought it con­venient to Grant his Majesty a Subsidy of Tonnage and Poundage, payable upon all Merchandise imported or exported, unless Herrings and some other Fish therein ex­cepted. The better to inable his Majesty to maintain at Sea several Ships of War, for the securing and convoying Merchants Ships to and from the divers Ports and Places, whither they are bound or have a­ny Commerce, and to over-awe and keep un­der such Pirates and others, as would o­therwise grow numerous, and obstruct all Naval Commerce, the Principal Commo­dities paying Tonnage and Poundage, com­monly called Customs. I shall here recite, and for the rest, refer the Reader to the Book of Rates, rated by the advice and approbation of most of the eminent Mer­chants of England; and since published and confirmed by Parliament.

As for Tonnage every Tun of Wine of the Growth of the French King or Crow [...] of France, that shall come into the Port of [Page 316] London or the Members thereof by way of Merchandise; being the proper Goods of a natural Born Subject, pays eight pounds 10 Shillings the Tun; or being the proper Goods of an Alien or Stranger, it pays 10 pound, and so lesser or greater quantities proportionably; but into any other Port of England, the Native pays 20 Shillings less, and the Stranger the like per Tun.

Muscadels, Malmasies, Cutes, Tents, A­licans, Bastards Sacks, Canaries, Mallagoes, Maderoes, and other Wines; of the Growth of Levant, Spain or Portugal, or any of the Islands or Dominions belonging to them, or any of them which shall be brought in­to the Port of London, as Merchandise, &c. by a Native, shall pay the Summ of 7 pound 10 Shillings the Tun, a Stranger nine pound, and into any other of his Majesties Ports 20 Shillings less, the Pipe or Butt, by either Native or Alien, for Rhenish Wine of the Growth of Germany; also note that always the Stranger pays 30 Shillings in the Tun more then the Native is to pay, the Ancient duty of Butlerage which is 2 Shillings in the Tun; and in these Duties or Customs is included, the Duty formerly of 20 Shil­lings per Tun, upon all Wines of the Growth of the Levant, by Strangers known by the name of Southampton Duties, for which sort [Page 317] of Wines the Stranger is to pay to the use of the Town of Southampton, 10 Shillings for every Butt or Pipe, as for prize Wines they pay no Customs.

Note that if any Wines be imported, and within a twelve month exported; they are not lyable to pay the Additional Duty, or if it be pay'd it is to be returned, viz. 4 pound every Tun of French Wine, and every Tun of Wine of the Growth of Ger­many or Madera, 3 pound brought into the Port of London, as in Statute 12 of Car. 2, it more at large appears.

And all such Wines as are Landed at a­ny of the out-Ports, and afterwards brought into the Port of London by a certificate, shall pay so much more Custom as was pay'd short of the Duty in the Port of Lon­don.

For every Tun of Beer to be exported in Ships, English built, must be pay'd 2 Shil­lings, and for every Tun exported in any other Ship 6 Shillings. If at any time there shall chance Goods to be exported or im­ported, not mentioned in the Book of Rates, agreed on by the commons, Intitled the rates of Merchandise, and that by such omission there is no set value on them, then it shall be Lawful for the Customer in being to levy twelve pence in the pound, [Page 318] upon such Goods according to the true va­lue: which value is to be given by the Mer­chant or owner upon Oath, before the Cu­stomer, Collector, Comptroller, Surveyer, or any two of them.

If Vineger, Perry, Rape, Cider, or Ci­der-Eager, be imported by a Native from Forrain Parts, he pays 6 pound 10 Shil­lings the Tun, but by an Alien only 6 pound, but if they shall again export any such Liquids, then 3 pound 10 Shillings the Tun shall be repayed to the Native, and 4 pound 15 Shillings to the Alien. There is likewise imposed on Wines, Vine­ager, Cider and Beer 10 Shillings per Tun, and on Brandy and Strong-Water 20 Shil­lings per Tun. For Coynage-Duty, and the money that arises by this Duty, is to be payed at the Custom-House, to the Collectors and other Officers, to be by them kept a­part from other monies; and payed quar­terly into the Exchequer without Salary or Fee, and if neglect be made in the pay­ment of this Duty, the Goods are Forfei­table; but note if that within a twelve-month, they are Transported, then the mo­ney so pay'd is to be returned according to Statute the 18 of Car. 2. There is like­wise an Excise or Impost upon Forrain Li­quors imported, viz. upon Beer or Ale, [Page 319] six Shillings the Barrel, Cyder or Perry the Tun 10 Shillings, Brandy or Strong-Waters perfectly made 8 pence the Gallon, and by the 15 of Car. 2, if any of these Goods be Landed before these Duties are payed, Warrant Signed, and in the ab­sence of the Officer, they are forfeitable. And thus much for Tonnage, the next thing then that I come to Treat of is Poun­dage.

CHAP. CXIII. A Survey of the Custom commonly called Poundage, according to the Book of Rates, and such other Customs and Priviledg­es, as are for the profit of the Mer­chant.

POundage is a Custom Established by Act of Parliament made in the 12 of his now Majesty, whereby the Book of Rate called the Rates of Merchandise, is approved and confirmed, that is a Subsidy granted to his Majesty of the 20 part of all Goods im­ported or exported, viz. 1 Shilling in the pound, according as they are Rated in the said Book, and for Goods not found Rat­ed [Page 320] in the aforesaid Book, according to the value Sworn to by the Merchant, as it is mentioned in the foregoing Chapter. As likewise a Subsidy of Woollen Cloaths or old Drapery; agreed on by the Commons-House in Parliament, assembled and Signed by the Hand of their Speaker, an account of which take as followeth.

Every Native shall pay for each short Cloath containing in Length not above 28 Yards, and in Weight not exceeding 64 pound, White or Coloured, by him to be Shipped or carryed out of the Kingdom, 3 Shillings 4 pence, being after the Rate of 2 Farthings ½ Farthing the pound Weight, and after the same Rate for all other sorts of Cloath of greater Length and Weight, not allowing above 28 Yards, and 60 pound to a short Cloath, viz. for every pound Weight over and above 64. pound 2 Far­things and ½ Farthings, and for all other lesser Cloaths to be allowed to the short Cloath; but note if a Stranger do export any short Cloath containing 28 Yards, and in Weight not exceeding 64 pound, either White or Coloured, he shall pay 6 Shillings 8 pence, besides the old Duty of one Shilling 2 pence, and after the same Rate for all short Cloaths, and Cloaths of greater Length and Weight; for a de­scription [Page 321] of the several sorts of which, I refer you to my Observations upon Woolen Manufactory, in the 11 and 12 Chapters of this Treatise.

Salt out of Scotland into England pays a ½ penny the Gallon, all Logwood imported pays 5 pound the Tun.

The Parliament taking care that Ships of force should be imployed by Merchants, have imposed on all Merchandise imported or exported, from and to the Mediterra­nean Sea beyond Malaga, in any Ship not having 2 Decks and 16 Guns, allowing two men to each Gun, for such default one per cent. on all Merchandise that contrary to the express words of the Act, shall be import­ed or exported, Ships laden or half laden with Fish only excepted.

There are likewise divers Duties paya­ble Aliens for Goods imported in Aliens Ships, commonly called Navigation Duties, by the Act of Navigation made in the 12 of Car. 2.

And note that in all cases where Petty Custom inwards is payable, it is understood of the fourth part of a Subsidy, according to the Book of Rates of 5 pound per cent. and is called Parva Customa, granted to King Edward the first; the Merchants Strangers agreeing to pay to him and his Heirs 3 [Page 322] pence in the pound, for every pounds worth of Goods, imported or exported.

There is another Custom called the Ali­ens Custom, for all Fish, Oyl, Blubber, Whale-Bone or Whale-Fins, not being caught in Vessels of which the English are Proprietors; they are to pay double Cu­stom. There is likewise an Impost to be payed for several sorts of Salt-Fish or dry­ed Fish, not imported in English Vessels be­longing to English Proprietors, or not hav­ing been taken in such, as appears at large in the Statute of the 15 of Car. 2, intitled an Act of Trade.

Likewise all sorts of Forrain Coyn, or Bullion of Gold or Silver, may be export­ed without paying any Duty or Fee for the same, entry being first made at the Cu­stom-House, as also Precious Stones and Pearls of all sorts.

Any Person may import from any part beyond the Sea in English Ships, Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmegs, Mace, &c. into England, Wales, Guernsey, Jersey, &c. paying the Customs always, provided they before the lading thereof, give notice to the Commis­sioners or Farmers of the Customs, how much they intend to lade, and the name of the Vessel in which they design to import it, and procure a Licence under their Hands, [Page 323] or any 3 of them, if Goods are Wreck­ed and the Lord Seises them, yet they ought not to pay Custom, unless in some Extra­ordinary cases. Upon the exporting and importing of most Commodities, Fees are claimed over and above Custom. In the Port of London, the Members and Creeks there­unto belonging, viz. to the Officers of the Petty Custom outwards of the Subsidy outwards, Petty Customs inwards Subsidies inward, great Customs, Clarks Fees, in­wards and outwards the Kings Waiters being 18 in number. The Register of the Kings Warrants. The Usher of the Custom-House. The Saugers of French Vessels chief Search­er, and the Kings 5 under-Searchers in the Port of London, and his 2 Searchers in the Port of Graves-End, were likewise entered in a Table which was setled and allowed of by the Commons Assembled in Parliament, and signed by their Speaker; at which time the Question being put, that for all such Goods as payed not one pound Custom in­wards or outwards, there should be but half Fees taken for Cocquets, Debentures, Warrants, Fransieres, Certificates, &c. and it was resolved Affirmatively.

Societies or Companies that Trade in one Joynt-Stock, and make but one Single-En­tery, tho the Adventurers are many, yet [Page 324] the Fees do not hinder, but the Officers and Weighers may receive such Gratuities, as the Master or Merchants will allow them out of their free Will.

All Goods valued in the Book of Rates at 5 pounds, and paying Subsidy but 5 Shillings, or under, shall pay no Fees.

If any English Merchant shall Land Goods out of one Ship into another (altho the Receipt of the Subsidies be distributed into several Offices) yet he shall pay but for a Single-Entry.

The Goods appertaining to Partners, are to pass as if they appertained to one single Person. Fish taken by the English men in English Bottoms, whether inward or outward pay no Fees.

Post-Entries under 5 Shillings inward pass without Fees, but if above 5 Shillings and 40 Shillings, then pay 6 pence, but exceeding 40 Shillings then full Fees.

The Merchant for all Goods that are opened, and not entered above 10 Shillings Custom shall pay Fees; he shall likewise pay for weighing all Goods short entered above 20 Shillings Custom, but if duly entered, then he is to be at no charge.

Note that the Merchant is to be allow­ed for Tare, viz. abated in the Customs; which Tare upon all Commodities to which [Page 325] it is allowable is setled by the Customers, and fixed in a Table not to be any ways altered, without the consent and appoint­ment of the Commissioners-Farmers, such under-Officers as they shall impower, as the General Surveyers of the Ware-House, &c. And thus much shall Suffice as to Cu­stoms and order of Fees upon the Subsidy of Poundage; untill I come to speak some­what more of the Priviledges and Customs of the City of London; and now I shall proceed to give the Reader an insight into the nature of Policies of Assu­rance, now greatly in Request amongst Mer­chants.

CHAP. CXIV. Of Policies of assurance, their Original, their Legality, Nature, Quality, and of the great Incouragement they give to Navi­gation, &c.

MOst are of opinion that this way of insuring, was first invented by the Romans, and Suetonius will have it that Clau­dius Caesar was the first contriver thereof, and by that means so incouraged Merchants, [Page 326] that they ventured into the till then sup­posed innavigable Seas; proposing to themselves that if they escaped with their Lives, tho both Ships and Goods were lost, they should not be much indammaged.

All assurances are either Publick or Pri­vate, the first are those that are entered in the Office or Court of Assurance, for the Conveniency of Merchants kept upon the Royal Exchange in London; where any one may have knowledge of what Cargo is in­sured and of the Premio. The last is in Pri­vate between man and man, and not enter­ed in the Office, and are of equal Validity at common Law, but by the Statute of the 43 of Elizabeth, only those that are enter­ed in the Court of Assurance can be tryed and determined there, the other being left to the common Law only. These Assuran­ces are divers of sorts, some being made for places general, others certain; those upon certain places or Ports are made upon Goods laden, which if they miscarry before they are safely Landed at the place agreed on, the Insurer must make good as far as he has insured, but upon certain notice of their safe Arrival, he may demand the Premio a­greed on, and the Policy is then void, and the like upon Goods inward bound, or ac­cording as the Merchant and Insurer can a­gree.

[Page 327]A General Ansurance is when a Ship goes a Trading Voyage, taking in at one Port and vending at another; so that the Insurer is lyable to any damage she sustains till she returns in safety to the Port from whence She sets out, that is in her Cargo only, unless the Ship and her Appurtenances are insured, which are frequently included, tho then the Premio runs higher.

Goods sent by Land may likewise be in­sured, tho that seldom happens; or if any Person fears being taken by the Turks or Moors, he may insure his Person of a cer­tain Premio, and then if he be taken, the insurer is obliged to Ransom him: that is, pay so much money as is insured, some­times the Assurers insert in their Policies lost or not lost, that is, when Ships have been a long time abroad, and no advice of their being in any Port, but then the Premio runs high as 30, 40, and sometimes more per cent. for if the Ship be lost at the time the Poli­cy is Subscribed, yet so much as is insured must be made good, but then it must be contrary to the knowledge of him that in­sures, or otherwise it will be accounted a Fraud.

If any Person assures a Rotten Vessel for more then She is worth, and then going out of the Port or Harbour, She Privately [Page 328] causes to be Wrecked or Sunk, if it can be proved it is a Defraud, and he who Sub­scribed the Policy, is not bound to make satisfaction, but it is observed of late that seldom any one Person will insure a whole Ship; but Subscribe 50 pound, 100 pound or more at a certain Premio, currant at the time of assuring; which when the adven­ture is Born they receive; but if a loss hap­pens, the Premio is deducted together with the usual Abatements; so that the insured seldom receives more then 80 pound in the 100 pound, and many now adays are so adventurous, that they will ensure against Heaven and Earth; Stress of Weather, Storms, Enemies, Pirates, Rovers, and all other Casualties. If a Merchant ensures a Ship, he only names in the Policy of such a Burthen, then if She be lost the Insurers are bound to make the Ship only good, and not the Wares: If the Wares be insured it matters not whether each particular is mentioned in the Policy, but in general up­on the chief Commodities, and all other Commodities laden or to be laden for the ensured.

If a Ship be Ensured and take Fire 'ere She break Ground, the Assurers in such a case are not lyable to make Restitution, unless the words be in the Policy at such [Page 329] a Port, or from such a Port, unless She had first broken Ground, and had been forced back again by Storm.

If a Ship be Ensured and prove Leaky, and the Master for preservation of the Car­go, lade it into another Ship, and that Ship be lost, the Ensurer is not bound to make the Cargo good, unless in the Policy it is mentioned, untill the Goods by the said Ship or any other should be safely Landed at such a place, naming it.

It is held that if a Person Ensure more Goods then he has on Board, and several Persons Subscribed the Policy, yet the first Subscribers are only bound to pay the loss if they miscarry, and those that Subscribed over and above the value of the Goods, remitting their Premio 10 Shillings per cent. reducted for their Subscriptions are discharged: If a Cargo be Ensured to such a Port there safely to be unladed, and her Cargo is sold on Board, the Property be­ing altered, if the Ship afterwards miscarry, the Ensurer is not obliged to make it good, if the buyer agrees for the Fraight to be car­ryed to any other Port.

If Goods be Ensured, and the Ensured contrary to the knowledge of the Ensurer, Lades prohibited Goods, by which the Ship may become forfeited, then the Ensurer [Page 330] is not lyable to make good the Cargo, unless after the lading of such Goods they are prohibited.

If any Goods be damaged in the Ship by neglect of the Master or Mariners, the Ensurer is not bound to make Satisfaction. And further 'tis always expedient to prevent differences that may arise between the En­surer and the Ensured, that the Bills of lading consist of three parts, one to be sent over Sea, the other left with the Master, and the last with the Lader.

This Office or Court of assurance, was erected by the Statute of the 43 of Eliza­beth, Chap. 12, whereby the Judges or Com­missioners appointed to determine differen­ces arising, were the Judges of the Court of Admiralty, the Recorder of London, two Doctors of the Civil Law, two Barristers, eight discreet Merchants or any five of them, and that they or the Major part, should have Power to hear, examine, order or decree all such causes in a Summary way, without pleading or expence, and to have Power to Summon Parties to Examine up­on Oath, commit to Prison upon disobedi­ence, or the like; but this way being found tedious, because so many parties as made a Court, were not at all times to be Conve­ned, it was taken into consideration, and [Page 351] in the 12 of Car. 2 Chap. 23 Enacted that 3 Commissioners should make the Court viz. a Doctor of the Civil Law, a Bar­rister of 5 Years standing, and a Merchant, &c. who have Power to Act in all cases, after their being Sworn before the Lord Major; and if the Witness refuse to come upon the first Summons, and tender of reasonable charges, upon the second Sum­mons they may imprison them for such their contempt, or give costs, and commonly differences come to an Issue in a Fort­night, their proceedings being as well out of Term-time as it.

The Judgments are there given upon mature deliberation, by Persons well Skil­led in Marine affairs; and if the Sentence be supposed unreasonable, then the Lord Chancellor or Lord Keeper, may upon an appeal determine the same; tho no appeal from thence can lye before the whole mo­ney is deposited, and the full cost payed to the appelled. So that it prevents the trouble of taking up the Party by Execu­tion, against whom the Decree has passed, and a further advantage is, they may in this Court decree against 20 Ensurers at once, which at common Law must be Sued di­stinctly, tho the Execution cannot lye a­gainst Body and Goods, but against either as at Common Law.

[Page 332]And lastly if a private Policy of assu­rance, be lost, and no Entery be found, it is like a Burnt Deed, unless strong Evi­dence be produced; as likewise a Copy of the same: but if it be a Publick Policy, then the Entery is sufficient Testimony for this Court to take Cognizance of.

CHAP. CXV. The Original of the word Bottomery, and the Signification thereof, together with the Commodity and Discommodity accruing thereby.

FOenus Nauticum or Bottomery, is by the Dutch called Bomery, Bodmery, or Boddemerii; from the Keel or Bottom of a Ship, the Part being taken for the Whole, and was called by the Ancient Britains Bodo or Bo­dun, the bottom of a Ship, Signifying the bottom or the Cargo therein contained, the which as Land is mortgaged for certain Sums of Money taken up thereon, and is bound to satisfy the same at return, with such interest as is agreed on the Statute of usury, in that case being excluded by Rea­son of the Hazard the Lender runs; for [Page 333] in many cases money is taken up thus. I lend 100 pound upon a Ship, to receive 150 if the Ship arrives safe at such a Port, but if She chance to Miscarry, my money is lost, and many times Masters of Ships could not set out, if they did not in this nature take up Monies; for which them­selves, their Ship or Cargo become Pledges; but some Persons have taken hold of this occasion to Bar the Statute of usury: thus they get the Party to feign he has a Ship bound for Amsterdam or any such Port, making a special obligation to pay the mo­ney again at so much per cent. at a reason­able time Granted for the return of the Ship; and if She do not in that time return the money to be pay'd notwithstanding, but certain it is if a Person have 500 or 1000 pound lying by him, and knows of an ingenious Merchant or Master of a Ship, who is fitting out for a Voyage, and is Slen­derly stocked, and he lends him this money to buy such Commodities as will vend in the places whither he is bound, running the Risque to have nothing, if the Ship miscarry, and 30 per cent. Interest, if She re­turn safe, it is altogether as profitable for the merchant as Master; as to take up mo­ney at Brokerage, and to Ensure his Ship or Cargo. And if the Merchant or Ma­ster [Page 334] makes double return of the said mo­ney he gets sufficiently, as well as the Venturer, and this cannot be accounted usury.

There is yet another way both profita­ble and Honourable, as thus, suppose a Per­son puts a stock into the Hands of a Com­pany or Society, which is termed a per­petual stock, the Principal being never to be recalled, tho it may be often sold for good advantage, but he that put it in or buys it receives still his dividend, which produces sometimes twenty and sometimes more per cent. and the Hazard only is if the proportion of the stock that goes out be lost, he must abate, un­less by remitting the dividend he will keep up the stock. And 100 pound in the East-India Company has been of late sold at 180 or 190 pound.

CHAP. CXVI. Of the Rights and Priviledges of Owners, and Proprietors of Ships, according to the Laws Marine and Common, together with di­vers Rules to be observed by such as are Partners in Ships, fitted out upon Fraight or otherwise.

IF there be several Partners, or Owners of a Vessel, and one refuses to Furnish her out, according to his proportion, or to suffer her to go the Voyage intended by the other, he must sell his part, the which if he refuse to do or to set a price thereon, the other Partners may set her out, and refuse to let him have any part of the profit accruing thereby; only if the Ship be lost, they must make good his part according as it shall be valued; but if it happen the Major part of such Owners re­fuse to set out any such Vessel, wherein they have equal propriety, they cannot be compelled, but then such Vessel is to be valued and sold, and the like where any of the partners prove deficient or unable to set her forth.

The Master is to be chosen by the Own­ers, and so he had need, for they are ly­able [Page 336] to the Merchants for all dammages, he or his Marriners shall suffer or cause to be done in any Port, Haven, or on the main Ocean; both by the Law Marine and common Law of England, and they must sue the Master for reparation.

If a Ship be broken up with an intent to convert her Timber to other uses, and then the parties mind alter, and they will have her rebuilt with the same; the pro­perty by that means is altered, and the Partnership dissolved: If a man take Planks of another mans to mend his Ship, yet the property remains in the owner; but if a man take Timber designed to Build a Ship, and build a Ship, the property of the Ship shall remain in him whose Timber it was, and not in the Builder: But if the Timber was not designed for the Building a Ship, it is otherwise; if a Master of a Ship take up monies for refitting or victualling his Ship, & there be occasion for so doing, the owners must pay it, but if there be no oc­casion, they are not bound so to do.

If a man gets possession of a Ship, hav­ing no Title thereto by the Law Marine, he shall pay dammages; such as shall be prov­ed to be sustained by the unjust detaining of it from the right owner. If a Ship is Fraighed out, and in any Port an Imbargo [Page 337] is lay'd thereon, it Bars not the Owners from the Recovery of their contract for Fraight: If any one shall be killed by a fall on Shipboard, in a fresh River, being within the Body of a County, the Ship is accounted a Deodand, and becomes Seisable, tho in such cases it is not strict­ly observed; but if any one fall and be killed on the Ocean, it is otherwise, for there by Reason of storms or the like, it is supposed such Accidents cannot be a­voided.

CHAP. CXVII. Ʋseful Instructions to be observed by all Ma­sters of Ships, in the Management of their affairs, and the preventing the Penalties they may incur through Ignorance, &c.

IF a Master of a Ship be intrusted with Goods, and they be imbeselled either in Port or upon the main Ocean, he's Respon­sible to the Owners or Merchant, and must make them good; nay if a Ship be Fired by carelessness, the Master lies lyable to make both the Ship and Fraight good, nay tho Goods sustain any other dammage, by the neglect of the Master, he is bound to [Page 338] make them good, for he is Exercitor Na­vis, and is either by the Marine and com­mon Law, lyable to answer for the neglect or Misdemeanour of his Mariners; but if a Ship be taken by an Enemy, founder, or be lost in a Storm, the Master is not lyable to make satisfaction. If a Master send off his Boat to receive Goods at a Wharf, and they be imbeselled, he must make them good. If a Master lades Goods on Board any of the Kings Enemies Ships, tho his own be Leaky, and by that means such Goods are seised, he becomes lyable to make satisfaction to the Owner, nor at his Pe­ril ought he unknown to the Merchant or owners to Ship prohibited Goods; and if when he is home-ward laden, he enter or lye by in any Creek, unless driven in by Tem­pest, and by that means the Cargo becomes Seisable, he shall answer it to the Owner, by Reason he ought to have entered one of his Majesties great Ports; nor must he Sail with false Colours, carry false Coc­quets or other Papers, for if by such means the Goods are involved in Trouble, lost, or the like, he lies lyable to make Restitution. He must not lade the Ship a­bove the Birth-mark, set Sail with insuf­ficient Rigging, stay in a Port, unless up­on an extraordinary occasion, if the Wind [Page 339] stands fair for his prosecuting his Voyage, unless it be Tempestuous Weather; or re­fuse in any Port to pay due Custom, by which any damage may befall the Merchant or Owners, upon pain of his making satis­faction for the same: if he sends Goods to a Wharf in close Lighters, and send his Mariners to watch them; then if they be im­bezled, he is bound to make them good, but on the contrary the Wharfenger must be accomptible. If when a Master brings a Ship into any Port, and through his neg­lect She suffers damage, he is lyable to ans­wer for it. A Master may sell or impawn part of the lading for money, to mend on refit the Ship, if She be in any danger, but may not do it to defray any charges of his own: no Master is to import or export any Commodities from any of his Majesties Plantations, but in English or Irish bottoms, or bottoms belonging to the Natives of those Plantations, and that in such a case, the 3 Fourths of the Mariners be likewise English upon pain of Forfeiting the Ship and Goods. These and many Obligations are binding upon a Master, both by the Laws-Marine, and Common. The Mari­ners being accountable to the Master, the Master to the Owners, and the Owners to the Merchant, for all damages sustained by [Page 340] neglect of their respective duties or Breach of contract.

CHAP. CXVII. Of Fraight and Charter part, according to the Laws, Common, and Marine, with use­ful observations thereon.

FRaight is commonly agreed on between the owners and the Merchant, by a Writing of Charter-party, wherein are concluded the particulars of the contract; and if there be no such Writing but only earnest given, then if the Merchant recant 'tis held by some, nay and often observed that he only loses his earnest, and that if the owners recant they lose double earnest; tho many learned in the Law are of opi­nion, that an Action for dammage, if any be su­stained by such revocation will lye; if a Merchant should hire a Vessel, and not have his Goods ready at the time appointed, and the Vessel lose the Season of the Passage, or a Ship hired be unfiting to Sail, so that the Merchant must either lose the passage of his Goods, or lade them on another Vessel, dammage may be recovered by an Action at common Law.

If a contract be made to such a Port, the [Page 341] Fraight full laden, and the Ship has broke Ground; altho the Merchant revoke his intentions, yet the Fraight is by the Law Marine due. If in a Voyage a Ship without the neglect of the Master be disa­bled, he may lade the Goods on Board a­nother Vessel, and if that Vessel be cast a­way, he is not lyable to make satisfaction, if he can prove his own Ship was in a sinking condition, had not the Goods been taken out of her; but if this latter appear not he is lyable, unless both of the Ships are cast away: If a Ship be laded in Gross, and no particular number of Tuns mentioned, yet the Merchant shall pay the Summ agreed for. If Pirates set upon a Ship and take part of the lading, yet if the other part be carryed safe to the Port concluded on in the Charter part, Fraight for the whole is due.

If any one Fraight prohibited Goods with­out the knowledg of the Master or Own­ers, and they be seized in any Port, or the Ship be detained, the Merchant shall pay Fraight notwithstanding. If a passenger die in the Ship, and none claim his Goods in a Year and a Day, they shall be divided be­tween the Master, his Mates, and the Cloaths are to be brought to the Ship-Mast head, and after an appraisement made to be [Page 342] distributed amongst the Mariners, as a re­ward of their care for seeing the Body put into the Sea; if Fraight be contracted for Transporting of a Woman, and She by the way be delivered, there is no Fraight due for the Infant.

If the owners Fraight out a Ship, and af­terwards take into it Goods secretly con­trary to the knowledge of the Merchant, by the Law Marine he loses his Fraight, and if in such a case any of the Merchants Goods be cast overboard in stress of Wea­ther, the owner must make them good, but this is only when a full Fraight is a­greed for, but if the owner be not privy to such Goods bringing in, he is not lyable for the defaults of others to the damage a­foresaid.

By Law the lading of a Ship is tacitly bound for the payment of Fraight, if a Ship put into any Port then that in which She was Fraighted for, and there receives damage, the Owner or Master shall answer the same to the Merchant; for the Charter party ob­liges the owners to deliver them safe at the Port therein mentioned, unless Ene­mies or Storms prevent it, and if a Ship suffer damage by Reason of defect in Tack­ling, the Owners or Master are bound to make it good.

[Page 343]If Goods are sent aboard in general it must be specifyed so much, or such Goods as are accustomed for such a Voyage. If a Ship be Fraighted for so many Tuns, and She will not bear them, then there is no more Fraight due, then the Ship is com­puted to be of Burthen, or for so many Tun as are sent on Board; but if a Ship be Fraighted by the great, and no certain Burthen mentioned, then the Summ agreed upon must be pay'd, or if a Ship be Fraighted for 200 Tuns over or under, 5 Tuns are the allowance either over or under and no more.

If Wines be Fraighted, and by the way a great part of them Leak out, yet the Fraight is due, the defect being in the Cask; tho some are of opinion, that unless eight Inches of Wine be left in each Cask, it is in the Election of the Fraighter, whe­ther they will pay Fraight or throw the re­mainder up to the Master for his Fraight. If a Ship be taken in War, and afterwards retaken and proceed on her Voyage, the property is not altered, but when the Voy­age is performed the Fraight becomes due. If any one contract with a Mariner for Fraight, who is not impowered by the own­ers, and loss happens, that Mariner is Sub­ject to an Action only, and the Master or Owner free: If a Ship agree for so much [Page 344] per Month to be pay'd at her return, and She upon her return be cast away, yet the Fraight is to be pay'd for so many Months, as She was abroad on that occasi­on, as Mariners that dye at Sea, &c.

CHAP. CXIX. Of Wrecks what may properly be termed such according to the Laws Marine, and Common, with Instructions for owners and Masters in case of a Wreck.

A Wreck is properly when a Ship is cast away, and no live thing escapes to Shoar; and then those upon whose Grounds the Goods are cast by the Sea, ought unless they are Perishable to keep them a twelve-month, to see if any will claim them; and if any do take such Goods, and contrary to the known Laws convert them to their own use, they are upon Conviction of the same, to pay four times the value to the owner, and as much to the King; but if the Goods are Perishable, then the Sherif, Cor­roner, or Bailif, in whose Jurisdiction they are found may sell them, but must be accoun­table for so much money, to those that can make out the Goods were theirs; and to pre­vent such Wrecks as much as may be, all [Page 345] Fisher-men upon severe Penalties are forbid to Fish with Lights in the Night. But if Goods Wrecked be not owned or Sued for within a Year and a Day, they fall to the King's Exchequer by the Law of Oleron, and the Islue must be tryed before the Judges of the Wrecks; always provided this Law do not extend to Pirates, Sea-Rovers, Ro­bers, Turks, or Enemies to the Christian Faith, and if any who unjustly detains any such Wrecked Goods, shall refuse to deli­ver them, or satisfaction to the full value, he shall be Imprisoned, and if a Lords Bailiff be therein found to offend, the Lord is ob­liged to deliver his Balif's Body to the King. And as for Custom, Wrecked Goods rarely pay any, but if the Ship be cast away, or all the Goods or the Major part of them saved, in such a case they pay an easie Custom, as the Labour of saving them was more or less difficult, and in that case light Goods as Silver and Gold, according to value shall pay less then heavy and Gross Goods. All Wrecks of Whales or great Sturgeon are properly the Kings.

There are other sorts of Wrecks as Flotsam, Jetsam, and Lagan or Ligan; the former is when a Ship is Sunk, and the Goods are found Floating on the Sea. The second is when a Ship is about to sink, and to endea­vour [Page 346] to save her, the Goods are cast into the Sea; notwithstanding which the Ship Perish­es, and the third is when Goods are cast o­ver to lighten the Ship and She perishes not, but a Buoy is fixed to note the place, that so they may be possibly recovered, especially such Goods as sink down-right, in these cases the King shall have Flotsam, Jetsem, and Lagan; provided the Ship perishes, or when the owners of the Goods are not known; but when the Ship Perishes not they belong to the Merchant, who upon proof will re­cover them. These three are commonly the Kings grant, within the high and low Wa­ter marks by prescription, as it appears by those in the West Countries, who prescribe to have Wrecks as far as they can see a Humber Barrel.

If a Ship be ready to Perish, and all the men for preservation of their Lives escape in their Long-Boat; yet if the Ship drive afterward into any Port, it is no Wreck; and the like if a Ship be taken by Pirates, and after taking out the Men and Goods turned it a Drift.

All owners claiming Wrecks, must make their Proof by their Cocquets or Marks Personal, Testimony upon Oath or the Books of Entery in the Custom-House, and if any such Wreck belongs to the King, the [Page 347] party must Sue out a Commission to hear and determine, and that by the Oaths of twelve men, or else he may bring his Acti­on at Law, and make his proof by Verdict, but let him be careful that such his Action be brought within a Year and a Day, or it will not lye; all Flotsams, Jetsams, and Legans appertain by grant of Charter to the Lord high Admiral, and must be decided if found upon the high Sea, in the Court of Admi­ralty. Wrecked Goods tho such as are pro­hibited, are not Forfeitable, by Reason they were not brought in but by the Wind and Tide, contrary to the will of the Owner, as by Law is supposed.

If the Wreck happen by the negligence or fault of the Master, he is lyable to make Satisfaction, but if otherwise the Owners and Fraighters sustain the loss.

CHAP. CXX. Of Averidg and Contribution, according to the Law Marine, if Goods are cast overboard in a storm, &c. and what Goods may in such a case be Ejected, and what not.

IF when a Ship is Fraighted, and at Sea a storm arises, the Master if he finds the Ship in danger, may by the consent or ra­ther [Page 348] by consulting his Mariners throw such heavy Goods overboard, as may tend to the Lightning or saving the Ship, and if the Mariners refuse to consent, then it is Law­ful for him to command it to be done; always provided that he throw over the coarsest Goods, and those that are most Ponderous, and in that case the rest of the Goods in the Ship, shall contribute to those thrown over­board; the Sailers Cloaths and Provision ex­cepted. If they are thrown over before half the Voyage is made, then the contribution shall be according to what the Goods cost, but if when above half the Voyage then proporti­onable to what those that remain are sold for. But upon the arrival of the Ship at the Port intended, the Master and Part of his Crue must swear that such Goods were thrown over for the preservation of the Ship, and the rest of the Goods; and if af­terwards the Merchant bring his Action a­gainst the owners or Master, they may plead the special Matter, which will remain in Bar to the Plaintifs proceedings; but if any of the Ships Tackling be lost, no Ave­ridge or Contribution shall be made, unless the Masts be cut by the Board, &c. or if a­ny Goods be secretly brought into the Ship, contrary to the knowledg of the Master and Purser, be ejected, no contribution shall be [Page 349] made: And by the Law Marine, the Master may refuse (in case of ejection) to deliver the remainder of the Goods before the Con­tribution is setled, or if in a storm part of the Goods are dammaged, without any neg­lect of the Master or Sailers, such Goods for so much as they are dammaged, ought to come into the contribution.

If two Ships meet and strike each other, and if it can be proved that either of them did it willfully or by carelesness, then that Ship shall satisfy the damage received by the other, but if either Ships crew Swear their inno­cency, then the dammage is to be Levyed proportionable between them; if any Eje­ction of Goods happen by the indiscretion of the stowers in lading the Ship above the Birth mark, or the like; then the Master or Owners ought to make satisfaction. If when a Vessel is entering a Port or otherwise part of the Goods be put into a Lighter or Ship-Boat, and the Boat be cast away, there Contribution must be made; but if the Ship be cast away, and the Lighter or Boat saved, then no Contribution; for note where the Ship at any time Perishes, tho a great part of the Goods be saved, yet they allow no Contribution.

If a Ship be taken by Pirates or Enemies, and the Master contracts with them for [Page 350] the dismission of the Ship at such a Summ of money, and till the same be pay'd yields himself Prisoner, in that case Contribution must be levyed upon the Ship, and lading for the Ransom of the said Master; and so where a Pirate by consent takes part of the Goods to spare the rest, Contribution must be made, but if he takes them by force or at his own pleasure, then no con­tribution is to be made, unless the Mer­chants yield so to do after the Ship is Robbed, but if taken by an Enemy, Letter of Marque or Reprisal the contrary. If Jew­els be on Board in a Box and not discover­ed, and they be cast overboard, Contribution shall be for no more then they appeared, viz. a Parcel. If any thing in a storm be cast into the Sea, and afterward recovered, then Contribution shall be made for no more then the damage sustained. The Ma­ster and Purser in case of a storm shall con­tribute towards Goods Ejected, for the pre­servation of the Ship and Passenger for such Wares as they have; and if they have no Wares, then for their Cloaths, Rings, &c. according to estimation.

Contribution is to be pay'd for a Pilots Fee, for bringing a Ship safe into any Harbour where she is not bound.

If the Master of a Ship, after he has [Page 351] received his Complements, takes in Goods contrary to the knowledge of the Mer­chant, and part of the Merchants Goods in case of a storm are thrown overboard, then the Master is lyable to make Satisfaction.

If Contribution be setled, and the Mer­chant will not consent to pay it, the Ma­ster may refuse delivering the Goods, and if an Action be brought, he may Barr the Plaintif by pleading the special matter, yet in a storm there are some Ladings, which ought not to be ejected. As Pieces of Or­dnance, Ammunition, or Provisions for the relief of a City Besieged, or in danger so to be, for there the Law implyes, that the Subject ought to prefer the good of his Prince, before his own life.

CHAP. CXXI. A View of the Port of London, and of the Customs, Priviledges, Exemptions, and Revenues of that great City according to the Charters, Grants, &c. of several Kings of England.

SEeing the Port of London is the Princi­pal Port of this Kingdom, it will not be amiss to set down the Priviledges and Customs thereof, and what Revenues by [Page 352] way of Exportation and Importation, ac­crues to the Honourable City in order to support its Grandure.

First then the Port of London, as by Ex­chequer setled and declared, extends from the Promontory or Point, called the North Foreland, in the Isle of Thannet. Thence Northward to the Nase Point beyond the Sunfleet upon the Coast of Essex, and so continues Westward up the River of Thames; and the several Channels, Streams, and Rivers falling into it to London-Bridge. The usual known Rights, Liberties, and Priviledges, to the Ports of Sandwich and Ipswich, and their Members excepted, and in regard that Ships did formerly come up to the Port of London, and unlade in seve­ral obsure Creeks at Staires, to defraud his Majesty of his Customs, it was there­fore ordained, that a Commission should be forthwith Issued out of the Exchequer, to af­fix and nominate all such Wharfes, Keys, and other places as his Majesty by virtue of such Commission should appoint, in pursu­ance of which his Majesty has been pleased to Nominate and Constitute as Lawful Keys, Wharfs, &c. these following for the Land­ing of Goods, Merchandise, &c. viz. Brew­ers-Key, Chestors-Key, Wool-Dock, Porters-Key, Bear-Key, Wiggons-Key, Youngs-Key, [Page 353] Ralphs-Key, Smarts-Key, Lyons-Key, Buttolf-Wharf, Hammons-Key, Cocks-Key, Fresh-Wharf, Billingings-Gate, and the Bridge-House. The former of the two latter being appointed a common open place for the Landing or bringing in of Fish, Salt, Vi­ctuals, or Fuel of all sorts, Fruit of all sorts, Grocery excepted; all Native Mate­rials for Building, and for exporting the like, but no other Merchandise; and the latter, viz. the Bridge-House is appointed for the Landing of Corn for the City store, tho under pretence of the same several Persons at this Day Landed their proper Corn; moreover there are these Keys, viz. the Custom-House Key, some Stairs on the West side whereof are declared not to be places for Lading or Shipping of Goods. Sabs-Dock has a pair of Stares not held Law­ful for the Landing or lading of Merchan­dise. The like has Dice-Key, Summers-Key, and Gaunts-Key; tho otherwise allow­able. Therefore it is to be supposed those Stairs that are accepted against were built for Conveniency, since the declaring them free places of lading, and Landing Mer­chandise.

These Keys, Wharfs and Docks, yearly produce a great Income to the City of London, by Scavage, Portage, Packing and Water-Bailage.

[Page 354]As first Scavage being an Ancient Toll or Custom, taken by the Majors, Sherifs, &c. for Wares shewed or offered to Sail within their Precincts, consists of two parts, viz. that which is payable by the Denizen, & that which is payable by the Alien or Strang­er; and that all Persons Subject to such Duties, may not be imposed on by such as take them, there are Tables mentioning each particular set up and approved of by the Lord Chancellor, Treasurer, President, Steward, and two Justices of the Common-Pleas; and by them Subscribed or some four of them at least, and are to be levyed on Goods inwards and outwards.

As all Goods mentioned in the Table of Scavage, and not included in the Table of Rates, shall pay after the rate of one penny in the pound, according as they are expres­sed or valued in his Majesties Book of rates, and all others not expressed therein, shall pay the same rates, according to the true value.

All private Bulks of eight Inches square, are by the third Article annexed to the Book of rates; reputed Timber and valu­ed at 3 pence the Foot, 50 Foot being accounted the Load, valued at 12 Shillings 6 pence, and the duty for one Load is one half penny and half a Farthing.

[Page 355]Package is another duty, which is like­wise [...]itted and [...]ted in a Table called [...] of Pa [...] Duties, and all the [...] [...]ies the [...] mentioned pay one [...] [...]ording as they are