THE OFFICE OF THE Good House-wife, With Necessary Directions for the Ordering of her Family and Dairy; and the keeping of all such Cattle, as to her particular Charge the over-sight belongs. ALSO, The manner of Keeping and Govern­ing of SILK-WORMES, and HONEY-BEES; both very delight­some and Profitable.

By F. B.

LONDON, Printed by T. Ratcliffe, and N. Thompson for Richard Mills at the Pestle and [...] without Temple Bar, Anno Dom. 1672.


AMongst all the Sciences which man can attain to, either by contempla­tion or practice, there is none which more raiseth up his Spirits, ravish­eth his Senses, causeth greater admiration of the works of God and Nature▪ bringeth greater contentment or recreation to the wearyed Spirits, or which can be more pro­fitable for the life of man, than Husbandry; whereby we see the incomprehensible power and greatness of God, who of a small [...]orn, Pippin, Nut, tender Twig, & small Plant, causeth to grow up Trees, Herbs, & infinite store of Fruits; therein we acknowledge the bright shining beams of the goodness and [Page] bountifulness of the great Lord & Creator towards his Creatures, naturally and evi­dently to appear and shine; because, that of the things growing out of the Earth, he nourisheth, sustaineth and maintaineth our humane life; therein also we conceive mar­vailous exceeding pleasure to see the Trees and Herbs at certain times to spring out of the bosom and womb of their tender & na­tural Nurse. To be brief, we learn there what manner of life we ought to live, as not to be idle, but to incraase that which is ours; to contemn daintiness, pleasures, ambition, and such other vanities; and let us imitate the lives of our Fore-fathers; as of Abraham, who delighted in the life of a Shepherd; Saul, in keeping of Asses; David, in keeping of Sheep; and both of them called from the Fold, to the bearing of the Royal Scepter: Elisaeus also, and Amos, of poor Shepherds, were made Pro­phets, and faithful Interpreters of the word of God▪ To be brief, the most worthy a­mongst our Fore-fathers, even such as are [Page] renowned in Holy Scripture for their vir­tue and excellency, were first of all Labourers; and afterwards by God taken from the Plow, the Cart▪ and Feeding of Cattle, to be imployed in a more ex­cellent Calling: This Country life being not only more holy, innocent, and just, but also more pleasing and acceptable unto God, and that which receiveth more blessing than any other from him. But let us pass over the Sacred Histories, and give me leave (following the Proverb, which saith, We must learn the manners of our Pre­decessors, and practice according to the present age) to lay out unto you the wayes how a good House-wife (as to those parti­cular things belonging to her Charge) shall Order and Govern a Farm, as that it may keep and maintain with the Profit and In­crease thereof, her Husband, and all his Family, which shall be hereafter declared in this Tract of The Office of the good House-wife; who must not forget, that Woman was made for a helper, and that [Page] God doth call her to her task, which doth not consist of a few or base things, but of many and the principal matters; Yea, and the Cure & Charge of the Families health. But leaving to speak any more of her charge in particular; I could wish her to be wise, according to Sobriety & Gravity; So­briety, in not meddling above her place or reach in matters of Physick; and Gra­vity, in not having to do in the matter of Peaks and Paints, either for using or preparing them; for they argue, if not plainly prove, a light, a loose, and very sinful life. And thus good Women, having commended unto you, such ad­vice as is both delightful and Profitable, (I leave you,) hoping you will practice it accordingly.

F. B.

THE OFFICE Of the Good Housewife.

ADam our first Father was pla­ced in a Champion ground (af­ter he was Created, and fashi­oned of the Earth, of the field of Damascus) to serve his Creator; and to the end, that all his actions might redound to the glory of his Soveraign Lord, not to toil in it with pain, and grief, which shortly after were laid up­on [Page 2] him, and his posterity. This is the reason why the old Writers have call'd the Husband-mans Trade, the life of Liberty, and Innocency; for in truth, of all Arts, which respect either the profit, or health of man, Husbandry is the chief; for besides the nourishment it affordeth, it also hath a kind of con­tinual Trade, with the Earth; the common Nurse of all men, strength­ning and maintaining the powers of our bodies, and causing us to live more healthfully, and a longer time, and in­creasing abundantly our Posterities; as may be instanced in the story of Noah (writ by Diodorus Siculus) who with his Family coming out of the Ark upon the top of the Mount Cordicus, de­scended into the plain at the foot of the Mountain, in which, Noah erected a Pillar; and upon this occasion, ever after it was called, The place of Noah's coming forth of the Ark, and was in­habited by him and his Family; re­peopling [Page 3] the World in such fruitful manner, as that Ninus in Noah's life time, was able, and did leavy an Army of Seventeen hundred thousand foot­men, Two hundred thousand horse­men; besides Ten thousand and six hundred Charriots, or thereabouts. Much to the same purpose Berosus wri­teth, That in the space of 100 years, these Husband-men did increase so abundantly. That Noah One hundred years after the Flood (even when Pha­leck was born) was constrained to send Sem into Asia, Cham into Egypt, and Africk, and Japhet (whom men call Atlas Maurus, because he dyed in Mauritania) into Europe, all of them to perform the duty of husbanding the Earth, their natural Nurse, and to su­stain those their great multitudes of people, which Scithia could no longer contain; Moreover, the plentifulness and number of such as have led the hus­band-mans life, and exercised Husband­ry, [Page 4] hath been always greater, and their works more excellent than any others whatsoever. Cicero tells us, that there is no life, or manner of living more free, and more worthy a virtuous man, than the Husband-mans life; and howsoever it be, that every man in all things en­quireth after his own commodity, and frameth himself to come as near to per­fection and excellency as possibly he can; Yet the well-instructed and mo­dest housholder contenteth himself with that, whatsoever it be, that cometh of the hand and grace of God, and accoun­teth for great bountifulness and libera­lity such portion as falleth unto him. So then we are to hold our selves con­tent with such estate and condition, as the place shall afford where we must dwell and settle our habitation; and if it be not such as some curious man in his desire, or one that is hard to please, might require and look for, then we should strain our selves to mend it by [Page 5] our industry, and the means set down by many famous writers on this subject. And now having roved thus far; I come to the owner of the Farm, who I wish and desire may be a man of great knowledge, well acquainted, and given to matters of Husbandry; for whoso is ignorant of them, having had but small practice therein; as also he which doth take his chiefest delight in other things, and spendeth his time other­wayes, must of necessity commit him­self to the mercy and discretion of a Farmer, which will mock him to his face, and will impair his Grounds and House also, heaping thereto a world of quarrels and suits, which he will raise; or else he must trust to some other ac­complisher of the business, either in go­verning, or waiting and attending, and he asking councel of other the Farmers there-abouts; they will make him be­lieve things not to be so good by half as they are; and indeed we read for cer­tain [Page 6] in the Roman Histories, that the Earth was never so fruitful, as when it was allured and won by the industry of the famous Roman Citizens, and deli­vered out of the tyranous handling of gross-headed Peasants, whom we see before our eyes, (notwithstanding that they are altogether ignorant) to grow rich at our costs and charges, and to the great spoil of the Ground which they husband and till; there is nothing com­parable to the over-looking eye of a prudent and discreet Owner, and one that is accustomed to Husbandry, who looketh after, and contenteth himself with such estate as may stand with his profit, let him learn well to know & un­derstand the natures and choice of men, cattle and grounds, and let not that work happen, which he himself knows not how to do if he should stand in need, or else to give directions in, and com­mand unto others; at least let him understand the times and seasons when, [Page 7] as also the manner how things were ac­customed to be done; For the owner of a Farm that understandeth not, shall never know well what to command, and doth nothing but trouble and vex the workmen; and it is the manner of men to mock at such as command and will such things to be done, as are nothing to the purpose, but must afterwards be undone again, or else abide without any profit. Let the Owner of the Farm make his abode upon his own Inheri­tance; let him have a back Gate, that he may withdraw himself from home, and secretly return again when he plea­seth, and this will keep his People con­tinually in doing of their offices and charge; let him not go to see the town unless it be upon his earnest affairs; and let him commit his Suits to be followed [which without great loss he cannot let pass] by some faithful Attourney, to whom he shall intrust nothing but the only counterpain of his evidence; and [Page 8] being in the Town, let him not go to see any man therein, except it be in Winter, or at such time as his Harvest is in, and his Seed-time dispatcht; to the end that by one and the same means he may attend upon his Causes in con­troversie, and go about the getting in of his Debts. I wish further, that he carry himself pleasant and courteous to his folk, not commanding them any thing in his choller; for boisterous and rough language will prevail as litle with men, as with stiff-necked Jades: let him speak familiarly unto them, let him laugh and jest with them sometimes; and also either give them occasion, or else suffer them to laugh and be merry; for their uncessant pains are something mitigated, when they are vouchsafed some gentle and courteous intreatance of their Master towards them; Not­witstanding I wish him not to be too familiar with them, for the avoiding of contempt; neither would I have him to [Page 9] acquaint them with his purposes, except it be sometime to ask their councel in a matter; and let him not spare somtimes to seem to do after their advice, though he had determined the same course be­fore; For they will work with more cheerfulness, when they think that the matter is carryed according to their in­vention: Let him patiently and quietly bear the tedious and troublesom natures of his neighbours, whom he knoweth to envy and repine at him, never giving them any just occasion of displeasure, but to pleasure them to the ut most that he can, and seem to be at one with them as if he never had understood any thing to move him to the contrary, and thus he may purchase peace and rest.

Let him make choice of a Farmer or Bayliff of indifferent years, such a one as hath the report of an honest man, and his Wife to be a thrifty Housewife, and his Children well nurtured; such a one as hath no Earth near unto your [Page 10] House, who is well experienced in mat­ters and businesses belonging to Hus­bandry; one that will use to rise first, and go to bed last, which will make no bargain when he is in drink; as also that he know how to govern, and amend all such Tools as he hath the handling of, or which his folk use; otherwise, if there should but need a Handle to a Spade, or Nail to a Horse or Tumbrel, there must presently be admitted into wages a Nail-Smith for the Cart, and a Shooe-Smith for the Horse: Let this Farmer or Bayliff, have always his eyes upon his People, and oversee his Cat­tle every night; and not only when they are in the house, but also when they return from labour, or from Pasture; let him view and look well upon their countenance, gate, state, and gesture; for to know if there be any diseased or languishing: and from this care he is not to exempt himself any one day, in respect of the Oxen, Kine, Swine, and [Page 11] Sheep; for oftentimes in the Mor­ning they go to their Pasture in good state and plight, and return sick home at Evening; Let him not go to bed be­fore he have appointed every one of his people what he is to do the next day in the Morning; Above all things let him be just and true to his trust; Let him not Swear, but shew such ex­ample to his people, as thereby he may induce them to esteem highly of him, to reverence and to honour him; Let him pay them their own justly, and not to pay them any thing before hand, if it be not in case of loss or fickness; Let your Farmer or Bayliff have all ne­cessaries as he shall request of you, whether it be for the maintenance of your house, or the repairing of any o­ther things that do belong unto you▪ watch him not so near, as that he may have cause to complain; for he may wrong you in some one thing or other that you would never think of; and [Page 12] mark, That to be too much exacting upon the Farmer, doth oftentimes make him either a meer negligent, or a plain Thief.

Now to the end that his people may not live idle, and that they may not loose one small Minute of time, he shall dispose of his work so, as that they may every one have his certain time, and he shall know at his fingers ends what thing is to be done every month and time of the year.

In the Moneth of January, chiefly to­wards the end, he shall cut down his VVood and timber, which he appoint­eth for building or other work, when the Moon is decreased; for the bright­ness of the Moon maketh the VVood more tender; and the VVood which shall be cut at such time, will endure a long time without rotting: He shall Dung the Fruit-Trees, not letting the Dung touch the Roots: He shall cut his Vines in fair weather: He shall cut [Page 13] and take away the superfluous Boughs of Fruit-Trees, the Moon decreasing, He shall furnish afresh or make new his Carts, Tombrels, Ploughs, and other his Instruments necessary for Hus­bandry.

In February in the new of the Moon, he shall transplant Vines of two or three years old, he shall make ready his Garden grounds to sowe and set therein all manner of Herbs, he shall repair the Hedges of his Gardens; he shall cleanse the Dove-house, Hen-house, and o­ther places where the Geese make their haunt; because that these Fowls in the end of this Month begin to be hot, and to tread; He shall make clean the Bee-Hives, and kill their Kings; he shall give the Earth her second Earing▪ for the sowing of Beans, Pease, Barley, Oats, Hemp, &c. he shall prune and cleanse the Trees of whatsoever is su­perflous.

[Page 14] In March in the beginning of it he shall sowe Line, Woad, Oats, Barley, Pease, Fitches, and other such like kind of pulse; He shall sowe his Nur­series with Kernels of Apples; He shall plant such Herbs as are set low and close by the ground, as Sage, La­vander, Rosemary, Strawberries, Gooseberry-bushes, Roses, &c. He he shall trim up his Gardens, as well for the Kitchin as for pleasure, and shall sowe therein whatsoever necessary Seeds.

In April about St. George's day, you shall set abroad your Citron and Orange-Trees, Mirtle-Trees; as also all such other Trees as you had kept within the house all Winter, from which he shall remove Earth from foot to foot, taking from them such Roots as are put forth towards the upermost parts of the Earth, as also all super­fluous Boughs, not suffering any one [...]ranch to exceed another, either [Page 15] in breadth or heighth; He shall cut the new Vine: for at this time it endureth best to be cut, he shall be careful to to feed his Pigeons; because at this time and the next moneth they find but little in the Fields; he shall sowe Bar­ley till the end of the Moneth, and till the 8th. or 10th. of May.

In May he shall water the Trees that are newly planted, he shall shear his Sheep, fill up his Wines and Cyders, gather store of Butter, and make Cheese, Geld his Calves, and begin to look to his Bees and Silk-worms; he shall weed his Corn, he shall uncover and free the Roots of his Vines from the Earth about them, to the end that the heat may not hurt them; He shall take away all the tender branches and green Boughs, which bear no fruit.

In June he shall make ready his Threshing flore, and cause it to be throughly cleansed of Straw, Dirt and Dust, he shall cut down his Meadows, [Page 16] make and In his Hay, and crop his Vines.

In July he shall cut down his Wheat, Rie, Barley, and all other Grains that are ripe and ready to cut; he shall gather from Apple-Trees and Pear-Trees the faulty Apples and Pears, and such as do overcharge the Trees, he shall pull his Line and Hemp, and graft in the bud.

In August he shall gather such Fruits as he meaneth to preserve; he shall take away the Leaves from about such Grapes as are slow and backward, to the end they may receive the more heat from the Sun; he shall prepare his Vessels for Wine and Cyder, and other things necessary therefore.

In September he shall give his Fal­lows the last Earth; he shall sowe his Wheat, Mashline; Rie, and such like like Corn; cut down late Meadow-grounds, to have the after-crop; He shall gather Stubble for Fuel, and for [Page 17] the Oven all the Year; He shall gather the leaves of Wood, grind them and make them into Balls, and so dry them in the Sun.

In October he shall make his Wines and Cyders, and tun them into Vessels, make Honey and Wax, and drive the old Bees; he shall bestow his Orange, Citron, Mirtle-Trees and others in some covered place, to avoid the dan­ger of the vehement Cold.

In November he shall Couch his Wines and Cyders in his Cellar; He shall ga­ther Acrons to feed Swine; He shall gather such Garden-Fruit as will keep; he shall lay bare the Roots of Arti­chocks, and cover them again very well, that the Frost may not perish them.

In December he shall oftentimes visit his Field, and let out the water, which may stand in them after great Rain; He shall cause water to run through the old Meadows, and dung them if need [Page 18] be; He shall make provision of Dung, to mannure he Fallows that are broke up and Til'd; he shall cover with Dung the Roots of Trees and Herbs, which he intendeth to keep until the Spring, he shall Lop Willows, Poplars, Saplin and other Trees, to the end that their Boughs may more speedily put forth and grow so soon as Winter shall be past; he shall cut down his VVood, as well for Building as for fire; he shall also busie himself in making many In­struments and necessary things of wood requisite for houshold store, and for repairing his Teams, Yokes, Ploughs, and all other Instruments for the fit­ting and garnishing of Cattel, going to Cart or Plough, to the end that all may be in good order, when they are to go to labour; he shall also make pro­vision of Spades, Shovels, Pick-axes, Hatchets, Saws, and other Furniture, fit for a Countrey-House-store.

[Page 19] The condition and state of the House-Wife or Dairy-woman, is of no less care and diligence then the Office of her Husband; understood always that the Woman is acquitted of Field-matters, in as much as she is tied to matters within the house, as the Husband is tied to what concerneth him, even all the business of the Field; and according to our Custom of England, Countrey women look unto the things necessary and requisite about Kine, Calves, Hogs, Pigs, Pigeons, Geese, Ducks, Peacocks, Hens, Feasants, and other sorts of Beasts and Fowls, as well for the feeding of them, as for the milking and making of Butter and Cheese, and keeping of all things neat and clean about the house, getting and providing the labouring men their Vi­ctuals in due season; and furthermore they have the charge of the Oven and Cellar, and the handling and ordering of Hemp and Flax, &c. as also the [Page 20] care of looking to the clipping of Sheep, of keeping their Fleeces, of Spining and Combing of Wooll to make Cloth for the Family; of ordering the Kitchin Garden, and keeping of Fruits, Herbs, Roots, and Seeds; and moreover of watching and attending the Bees; she must be obedient unto God, and to her Husband, given to store, and lay up and keep things sure under Lock and Key, painful, peaceable, not loving to stir from home, not conten­tious, full of words and tatling, nor drowzy headed; let her dispose of all things under her charge in such sort, as that every thing may have his certain place, to the end that when they be to be used, they may easily be found and delivered; let her always have her eye upon her Maids, and be first at work, and last from it.

Of Kine.

ANd for the better keeping of Kine, let the House-Wife cause her Maids to over-look oftentimes, and see that all things be well in the Cow-house; for there is nothing that doth them so much good, and keep them so well in health and good liking, (their Meat and Fodder excepted) as the clean and neat keeping of their Houses; let them be rub'd along the back, about the neck and head, and no more, with a wisp of straw hard writhen together, at their coming from Pa­sture, and in the Morning after they have been dressed, let the holes that are in their house-flore be carefully filled up, wherein their Piss might stand and stink, and cast Sand or Gra­vel upon the flore, that they may have the faster or surer setting for their feet; let them not be put to the Bull before [Page 22] they be upon their third year, nor any longer then until their twelfth year; for if they be put too soon then they be grown up to their full strength and growth, they will bring forth Calves halfe cast, small and little, weak and feeble, and if you continue their breed­ing after twelve years their Calves will not be so strong, nor of so comely a shape; she shall make much account of the Cow, which is of a mean sta­ture, a long body, a large flank, four or five years old, of a black or brown Co­lour, or spotted with White, and ei­ther of these, a great belly, broad be­twixt the brows, a black eye, and long horns, not turning in one twards ano­ther, but of a wide and well spread shape, her Ears very hairy, a narrow Jaw, a thick and gross Muzle, wide Nostrils and snivley, little and black Lips, her Hair glistering and thick set, her Legs short, her Thighs gross and thick, and her Neck long and gross, [Page 23] her Back large and broad, her Tail long even to the heel, her Hoofs short and even, a broad Breast, a great and gross Brisket, and her Dugs great and long.

The Good House-wife must be care­ful, as well for the feeding of her peo­ple, as for the gaining of the Peny, diligently to set on work her Daugh­ters and Maid-servants, about the or­dering of the Milk, and making of Butter and Cheese. After the Milk is Milk'd it shall be set in a place where it may be cool, to the end it may keep the lon­ger, and become the thicker in short time; in as much as Cold doth thicken the Milk, as Heat doth sowr it, [...] make it to turn, she shall not let her Milk be kept long, as above a day in Summer, especially in Autumn and the Spring; but as soon as she can she shall gather her Cream, Green-Cheese, Pressed-Cheese, Whey, and other Commodities, which a good House-Wife [Page 24] is wont to raise according to the time; yet in Winter the Kine yield­ing but small store of Milk, as then being with Calf, she may gather three or four Meals together, which will not so soon be spoiled, by reason of the coldness of the Weather, which ma­keth the Milk to thicken presently; and seeing Cheese made in Winter, is not of so great price, nor so good and dainty, as in Spring, Summer and Autumn, by reason of the Grass; therefore it shall be no great matter to gather the Butter the clearer from the Cheese in Winter then at any other time. To speak any thing here of the making, keeping and ordering of Butter and Cheese, would be impertinent; for I presume there is no Countrey-House-Wife but is well acquainted therewith, and for those that live in Cities and great Towns, it matters not whether they are skilled therein or not.

[Page 25] Let the Good House-wife take care that the Kine be provided with a Bull, and that chiefly in the moneths of May, June, and July; For about this time they are set to go a Bulling, seeking for the Bull themselves, without being lead unto him; and you shall know their inclination to the taking of the Bull by the puffing and swelling of their Hoofs, as also by their continual Lowing, and by their leaping upon the Bulls back. The profit which riseth by their taking the Bull at this time is; for that they will Calve about 10 Months after, (which is the just time of their Going with Calf) and that be­ing at such time as new Grass doth draw on, it will be an occasion of en­creasing their Milk, and their Calves shall be a great deal the better fed.

The Cow that is indifferent lean, will hold her Bulling better then the fat Cow; but on the contrary, a good Bull for breed must be fat, well set toge­ther, [Page 26] and well meated for Two Months space before.

And for the choise of a good Bull, let him be rather long then high, of a black or brown hair, large betwixt the Shoulders, strong Legged, round and well trust Body, broad Breasted, short Headed, broad Brows, a fierce Coun­tenance, and terrible to fight, black Eyes, short Horns, and a long Tail full of hair.

During the time of the Cows going with Calfe, keep them from leaping of Ditches, Hedges or Bushes, and a little before the time that they do Calve, to feed them in the house, or Yard adjoyning to the house, and that with good Hay or Turnips, or such o­ther Provender as the Countrey shall afford, not milking them at all for a good space before their Calving; for the Milk that they have then cannot but be nought, and become as hard as a Stone.

[Page 27] As for Calves newly fallen, you must leave them with good Litter of fresh Straw until such time as the Cows have licked and cleansed them, and for two or three days after let the Cow be with the Calf, which doth heat and settle the Calf; after that you shall put it into some shed, providing it good Litter, and renewing the same once a day, and thence you shall bring them forth when you would have them suck; and if you see that they will not suck, or that being willing to suck, they can do nothing but offer to take the Paps, without sucking any thing, you shall look under the Tongue if they have not the Barbs, which is a whitish fleshiness growing under the Tongue, al­most after the manner of the Pip, which (if it be so) you shall take away gent­ly, (without flaying the Tongue) with a litle pair of sharp Pincers, washing the place afterwards, either with red Wine of it self, or with the Infusion of Gar­lick [Page 28] and Salt stamped therewith: For this disease will cause them to languish, unto death, by keeping them from sucking; Let them be carefully kept from Lice and Scabs, both which do hinder them from thriving, the Lice may be pickt away, and for Scabs if they have any, which you may know, if straking your hand along their Skins, you feel it, hackt and rough like a File, and the Hair stairing and standing upright; for the healing whereof you shall rub them with Butter all over where the Scab is. But as it is a great deal better to prevent diseases then to cure them: The House-wife shall cause her Calves once or twice a day to be rub'd over with wisps of Straw unbound, and suffer not their Piss to stand in Puddles under them; but let them be kept with fresh and dry Litter, cau­sing their Dung to be carefully cast out every day from among their Litter.

Of Swine, and the Office of the Hog-herd.

OF all the Cattel that serve for Food, the most ravenous, the most filthy, and the most harmful, is the Swine; and yet are they had in great estimation, and mnch commend­ed amongst us, for the sweetness of the Flesh. The ravenousness and greedy feeding of this Beast, is witnessed by the Sow, which the French King kil­led in Hunting, within whose Belly were found six Pails full of Grapes; their filthiness and stench, their wal­lowing of themselves, their eating of stinking and filthy things, as also the harm that they do, may be proved by their rooting up and undermining of Walls, the trampling about Trees, Meadows, and unsown places; for this cause in a Farm of great Revenues there will need a man only for that pur­pose, [Page 30] to govern and guide them in the Fields, even such an one as knoweth how to dress and order his Herd in good time and manner, and in cleanly sort to put the Pigs that are weaned in one place with the Bores and Hogs; and the Sows with their young ones into a second place by themselves; and fur­ther that the sick and diseased may have a fresh place by themselves, fresh Straw oftentimes given them and re­nued, doth fat them as much as their meat, and he must take care that their Troughs be always clean; and against variable weather the Hog-herd must have in store much Acrons, Beans, Crabs, wild-pears or some other rot­ten Fruit, or some manner of Pulse, or Cole-worts, or boiled Turnips to give them; and every day when they come from the Field, let the good House-wife have in readiness for them hot meat, as Whey, or the droppings of the Cheese-press, mingled with Bran [Page 31] and Water: For besides that this good attendance will cause them to make hast home, and not forsake their com­pany to run stragling abroad when the Hog-herd hath let them out of the Field; these hot Drinks and Meats do also heat the cold Meats, which they have fed upon in the Field all the day before. And Thirdly, they will rest better in the night. And Lastly, not become so subject to diseases; And let there be special care taken, that their meat be not cold nor too thin, least it cause them to have the Flux of the Belly.

Let the Swine-coats be paved with Stone or Brick, with good passage for their Piss to run away; for this Beast, though he be Sluttish and Dirty, doth notwithstanding prosper best in a clean house, and that the corruption of the Air, which this Beast maketh in close places (especially when they are ma­ny in number, may not cause them to [Page 32] have any ill sent, or other Diseases; it is convenient, that there be made open Lights or Windows with Bars, and that there be shutters to stop them when it snows, or in cold Weather; the benefit of which Windows will be to let out their evil Air, and let in the good; Keep not above ten Bores for one hundred Sows, and so proportio­nably, the rest as well males as females, let them be Gelt; Keep those especi­ally for Bores which have a short and broad Head, the Snout set high and long, the Chine of the Neck large, his Feet short, his Thighs great, and all the rest gross, square and well set together, of Colour White, and full of Brisles upon his Back; And for Sows those which are long, side-belli­ed, small-headed, large-buttockt, and sides giving out, and likewise of a White Colour, of the rest make pro­vision for your house.

[Page 33] This Beast is a great Eater, and can­not endure Hunger, especially the Sows, which in this necessity have been seen to eat their own Pigs, and those of o­thers, as also Children in their Cra­dles; and therefore you must have care, that their Troughs are never empty; They are subject to many diseases, and they are known to be sick when they hang their Ears much and become slow and heavy, or when they lose their Appetite. For the better certainty, when there do not appear any of these signs, pull from him against the Hair, a handful of Brisles off his Back; if if they be clean and white at the Root, he is sound and healthful; but if they be bloody or otherwise spotted, he is sick; likewise it is commonly said, That when a Hog is sick, he will neither eat nor drink, till he knows whether he shall live or die, and therefore when he falls to his meat, you may be assured that he begins to mend.

[Page 34] The Hog by reason of his filthiness, hath (for the most part) one fault or other betwixt his skin and his flesh, how sound soever he be; and therefore it is good after he is kill'd to singe of his Hair with straw, rather then to scald them off with water; for the Fire doth draw our a great deal more easily then hot water, whatsoever is betwixt the skin and flesh; kill your Hogs in the increase of the Moon, and let them not drink nor eat the day before you kill them; that so their flesh may be the more dry; for if they drink till you kill them, the salting time will have the greater quantity of superfluous moisture to drink up; Cut out as ma­ny of the bones as you can; for that will cause the salting to be of better effect, preserving the flesh the longer from corruption.

Cover your Bacon all over with bay-salt, renewing it once in three days, and do this for a Fortnight or more, and [Page 35] then hang them up to smoke over a Wood-fire, but in any case, not too near the heat of the Fire, and when they are well smoked, which will be in Ten days time, if they have a con­stant Fire, then hang them about your Kitchin, or other convenient place where they may keep dry. The Ba­con thus salted, will be more fast, and of a better Tast then any other way; Some cut the flesh in pieces, and put it into a salting-tub, making as many beds of Salt grosly brayed, as of flesh, the one above the other, and when the Tub is almost full, they fill it up with Salt, and press all down together with weights; but this way is nothing so good, though more used by some peo­ple, and some Countries, then the o­ther.

Of Poultry, and first of Hens.

AS concerning the ordering of Poul­try and Fowls, which is the next chiefest thing that a good House-wife is to regard; There must care be had, that the Hen-house be every day made clean, even so soon as the Pullen be out, and the Dung put aside fot the fatting of the Meadows, the Baskets for them to lay in, often shaken up and refresht with new Straw and Nests, and their Pearches and Ladders scraped every Week; Their Water-pots must be kept clean, and filled with clean Wa­ter every day, and that twice in Win­ter, and thrice in Summer, and their Water must be clear always; for the filthiness of their water causeth the Pip, as well as want of water; Let there be no holes broken about the Hen-house for fear of Cats, Foxes, VVeesles, Pole-cats, Fulmers, and o­ther [Page 37] beasts given to ravin abroad in the night; as also the Kite, Hen-harrow and Owl, which sometimes will swap into the very Brood-house, to catch the Kitchin.

To every dozen of Hens, one Cock is sufficient, and he must not be of Colour White or Gray, but Red, Taw­ny, or Black, his Body well compact, his Crest or Comb very upright, Red, thick, and not notched, toothed or gasht with Cuts, and well raised Neck and high, his Bill short, thick and crooked, the Pinions and flight of his Wings great, his Ears great and very white, his Eye black in a Circle that is Red, Yellow or Azure, his Wattles of a Rose colour, standing of a White and Red mixture, the Fea­thers of his Neck long, golden and changeable, his Legs very scaly, thick and short, his Claws short and fast, his Spurs stiff and sharp, his Tail up­right, gross, thick and crooking back­ward. [Page 38] The Tawny or Reddish Hen likewise is the best, and that which hath the Feathers of her Wing Black, the stature of the Hen should be indiffe­rent, her Head great, her Comb up­right, and very Red, her Body great and square, her Neck thick, and Breast large; The Dwarf or little Hens do lay more Eggs then the other, but they are not so good to sit on Eggs, to bring forth Chickins; and if you be not dis­posed to keep a Hen to brood and bring up Chickens, you must within a day after she hath brought forth her Chick­ens▪ let her forth again to have the company of Cocks, to the end she may forget them, and begin again to lay; then take a great fat Capon, and one that is young, pull all the Feathers off his Belly, and [...]ub his Belly with stink­ing Nettles, and after deliver him the Chickens to brood and lead, and by that means they will be better defend­ed both from cold, and ravenous Birds, [Page 39] as also better fed, he must be put un­der a large Basket made with Osiers, with his brood of Chickens, and so leave him there some time, to the end he may fall in love with them, so soon as he shall be at liberty, he will bear them up, keep them, lead them, and become a more foolish doting or true lover of them, then the Hen her self would have been, when they are two days old, you must crumble them some soft Bread and Cheese, or else some Barley-meal, and Garden-cresses, or leaves of Leeks chopt very small, and a little sodden, and this will be good for them against Rheumes, and the Pip, and after this time for the space of fifteen days the Capon or leader must be kept under a Coup, and let the Chickens run in and out about the Coup, and then at the end of those days to let them run about, both leader and followers, giving them still the same nourishment to feed upon; It [Page 40] will not be good to let them go too soon into the Court-yard, or abroad, and beware that the Snake do not breath on them, or hiss at them: For the smell of such breath is so pestilent unto them, as that it generally killeth them all; to prevent which, you must burn often near unto their Coup, Harts-horn, Galbanum, or womens-hair; for the fume or smoke of these doth drive them away.

As concerning the cutting of Cock-Chickens, it must be done shortly af­ter the Dam hath forsaken them, and that they begin to Crow and be in love with Pullets; for if they scape the first year and half, there is no med­ling with them: So after you have made choice of such as shall serve for the benefit and leading of your Hens, as those which are best made, and most bold, you must cut the other; for to feed and fat either in the Coup or Chaff-house.

Of Geese.

AS the profit of them is great, so the loss also profit; because the charge of keeping and feeding them is not so costly, as their watch and ward is gainful, being indeed better then that of the Dog, as hath been shewed long ago by the Geese of the Capitol in Rome, who awakening the Souldiers and standing Watch, were the cause that the Enemy was repulsed and dri­ven back; Again she declareth when winter and hard weather draweth nigh by her continual squeaking and crying; She layeth Eggs, hatcheth Goslings, affordeth Feathers twice a year, for beds, writing, and for shafts, which are gathered at Spring and Fall: The loss and discommodity is, because they crave a keeper; for otherwise they will bruise and knap off the young Sion­ces of Trees, the Herbs off the Gar­den, [Page 42] and Shoots of Vines, as also in­jure and hurt the Corn, when it is shooting and putting forth its Stalk, as well by breaking it, as by dunging upon it, in such sort, that in Countries where Wild-Geese haunt, there is found sometimes a great piece of Corn wasted and destroyed in less then halfe a day, and the Tame-Geese do not less harm, if they be let alone and suffered to do it; for they pull up the Corn by the Roots; aud besides, where they Dung there will nothing grow for a long time after.

The best Goose and Gander is of Colour White or Gray, and the next with White and Gray, is also indiffe­rent good; notwithstanding the White doth abound more in laying of Eggs then the others, and hath also a better flesh, and it is good to make choice of such a one as hath the knee-joynts, and space betwixt the Legs great and large; The Goose layeth three times, [Page 43] she be kept from sitting and hatching; but it is a great deal better that she sit upon Eggs, because the young ones thereby brought forth, do nourish bet­ter then the Eggs, and also do increase the Flock, and at every laying time, some will lay twelve Eggs, and more sometimes, others but five at the first, four at the second, and three at the last; and these three several times come between the first of March and the last of June, and they do never forget the place you first bring to lay in; if you take not up their Eggs, they will be­gin to sit as soon as they have their full number; but it hath been credibly re­ported, That if you take away their Eggs as they be laid, they will not cease laying till they come to a hun­dred; yea so long, and so many (as some say) until their Fundament stand gaping and open that they are not able to shut it, because of the effect wrought by their much laying. The Goose is [Page 44] commonly set upon 13 or 15 which is an odd number, and when she is set, you shall place near unto her some steeped Barley, in such quantity as that she may take it out of much water; for she loveth not to leave her Eggs or young ones, and by this means she shall not need to raise her self, except a very little for to feed, for otherwise her Eggs might take cold.

The young Goslings must be kept shut up with the Dam for Eight or Ten days, and be fed within with Bar­ley-meal tempered with Honey, Bran, and Wather, and now and then with Lettices and tender Sow-thistles, after that with Wheat steeped and softened, and after that time to accustom them to the Meadows with their Dam; but let them be fed before they go thither; for they are so ravenously given, as that through sharpness in their hunger, they pull the Grass and young sprouts of Trees with such force and violence, [Page 45] that sometimes therewith they break their own Necks: They must be put up every night into the house, for fear of Foxes, Cats and Weesles.

Gosling, intended to be fatted, must be chosen either very young, when they are but a month old, or else when they are four months old, they must be put in some dark and warm place, the younger will be fat in twenty days, and the elder fat in fourty; You must give them Barley and Wheat-meal tempered with water and Honey; for the Barley maketh the flesh white, and the Wheat maketh them fat, and ma­keth a great Liver.

As for the stock of Geese that go a­broad, you shall feed them Morning and Evening with some sort of Pulse; and now and then give them some Lettices, Succory, and Garden-cresses, to get them an Appetite; and for the rest of the day send them to the Mea­dows and Water-pools, under the [Page 46] custody of some little small Jack, who may keep them for going into any for­bidden places, as also out of the Net­tles and Briars, and from feeding on Hen-bane, which some call the Goose-bane, and from Hemlocks, which set them in such a deep sleep, as that they die therewith.

Of Ducks.

AS for any great diligence to be used about this Fowl; there is no such need except it be for keeping them from Weesles, Cats, Kites, Vultures and Serpents, in the place of of their haunt, they must have some Corn cast, and the dross of the Riddle about the edges of the Pond, and in the same, to cause them to be puddling in the mire; in other points they need not much attendance, nor grea­ter care then this, to know their haunts, that so you may take their Eggs and [Page 47] put them under some Hen to sit on them.

This kind of Foul is made fat in such manner as the young Geese; that is to say, with the same food; They are profitable to keep, in as much as their flesh is very pleasant to eat, the Feathers smaller, better, and more wholsom to sleep upon, then those of the Geese, they lay Eggs in great quantity, but not so good or delicate as those of Hens.

Of Peacocks.

THe Peacock is a Bird of more beautiful Feathers then any o­ther that is, he is quickly angry; but he is as far off from taking good hold with his feet, he is goodly to behold, very good to eat, and serveth as a watch about the house; for spying strangers to come into the Courts or Yards, he faileth not to cry out and [Page 48] advertise those of the house; It is true that he is not kept with a little cost and meat, being a great eater, and quickly digesting his meat, the Cock being over rank by Nature, doth break the Hens Eggs, thereby to keep her from sitting, that so he may the more freely enjoy and use her; the Cock liveth a long time, as twenty or five and twenty years, but the Hen some­what less, both the one and the other somewhat troublesome to bring up when they are young; but there is no need of any great care to be taken of them after they have once left the Dam, except it be in keeping them from hurting the Corn; The Hen hath three several times or seasons of laying in the year, but she that is set hath but one, and passeth over the other times in hatching and leading of her young ones; She beginneth her first laying time at mid February, and layeth five Eggs one after another, at [Page 49] the second she layeth four, three; and at the third three or two; If the Cock and Hen tread not, you must bring them to it by such food and meat as will set them in heat, and for that parched Beans are very good; and to know when the Cock is in his pride and heat, you need no other sign then his viewing of himself, and covering his whole body with the Feathers of his Tail, and then we say, he wheeleth. When the Hen fitteth she withdraw­eth and hideth her self from the Cock, in the most secret place she possibly can; for he ceaseth not to seek her by reason of his excessive rankness and lustiness of Nature, and if he find her, to cause her to rise from off her Eggs, and then breaketh them. When she hath hatched her young ones, she must be diligently fed with her young ones, and kept under a Coup in some place where the Cock cannot come; for he hateth and hurteth his young ones, un­till [Page 50] they be grown to have a Coppel upon their heads; and at such time as this is growing out of them, they must be kept very warm; for then they are sick, and many die.

You must feed the young ones at first with Barley-meal, tempered with Wine, in manner of thick Pottage; and to thicken it, some put thereto soft Cheese well purged from the Whey; for Whey will hurt them greatly: Sometimes they must have Grashop­pers given them (their feet pluckt a­way) Spiders and Flies given them for Physick; for they drive away Ver­min naturally, so that there is scarce any found where they haunt. The Flesh of Peacocks is melancholy and hard of digestion; but to make it ten­der, you must kill your Peacock in Summer a day before you eat him, and in Winter four days, and hang some heavy thing to his Leggs; The Pea­cock well rosted may be kept a whole [Page 51] month, and looseth nothing either of his smell or good relish. The Dung of them is very Sovereign against the diseases of the Eyes, if it may be found; but the Peacock so much envieth the good of man, that he eateth his own Dung, for fear that any man should find it.

Of Indian Hens and Turkeys

THey may rightly be termed Cof­fers to cast Oats into, a devouring Gulfe of meat, wherein there is no o­ther pleasure to be taken, but only in their cry and furiousness when they are come to be great ones, or continual cheaping when they be little. It is very true that his flesh is fine and deli­cate, but without tast, and hard of digestion, and this is the cause why men use to powder them, Lard them much, and season them with Spices, and most commonly bake them in Pies.

[Page 52] The meat for this kind of Fowl is the same that is good for Hens, and so made, and his property is to be abroad, to feed upon Grass, Herbs and Worms; and the Farmer may well say, that looks how many Turkeys he hath in his yard, even so many Mule Colts hath he in respect of their feeding. In Winter they must be set in a warm place and dry; their Pearch not above eight or ten Foot from the ground, because they do not fly high. As concerning their laying and sitting, it is altogether like that of the Pea­cocks.

The House-wife shall not make any great account of Turkey Eggs, at least he that loveth his health shall not esteem of them for his use; For Phy­sitians hold, That Turkey Eggs in­gender Gravel, and minister cause to breed the Leprosy.

Of the Dove-house.

THe profit of the Dove-house is ve­ry great in respect of the young ones, which every year increase innu­merably, insomuch that out of some Dove-houses, you may draw ten or twelve dozen a week all Summer long; the care to be had about them, is not so great as that about other Fowls, nor the cost so great; for they get their own livings most part of the year.

Let the Dove-house be seated where the good House-wife may convenient­ly, and with ease go unto it, and with­all it would be well to be out of the noise of Folks, the dashing of Trees one against another, and the roaring of Waters, and it should be a flight shoot from any water, to the end that the old Pigeon may in her flight warm the water which she bringeth for to give her young ones, yet in Winter [Page 54] time when they do not breed, and that they lie at the Barn doors to pick up the Corn which is scattered from, or struck abroad by the Flail, let there be a water-pot set upon a Pillar of stone or wood for them to drink at, made in fashion of a Bason, divided into many partitions, that it may be easie for many of them to come to it together, either to drink, or bath themselves in.

The holes in the Dove-house should be made of Morter, tempered with straw; for they are more kind for Pi­geons then those which are made of Boards, square Tyle or Plaster, how­ever they are subject to Chinks and Vermin; and therefore if you will have them good, you must draw them over with a strong crust of Lime within and without; and howsoever you make them for matter, yet they must be made so large, as that the Pigeon may turn her self in them, without ruffling [Page 55] her Feathers, and so high, as that the Pigeon may stand upright in it, and not touch the top with her back; if either of these two points be missing, then she leaveth her hole desolate and forsaken; and oftentimes the house too. To drive away Vermin, it is good to stick some branches of Rue in the windows or doors of the Dove-house.

Upon the Pinacle of the Roof make the picture of a Pigeon, either of Wood, Potters-clay or Plaster, to draw such as fly by thither. If your Dove-house is but meanly stored, draw none of your May flight, but let them fly; for they thrive better then the latter broods, and are sooner able to get their livings; Above all things let them not be pinched of meat in the Months of April and May, because old ones are very many of them sitting, or else have hatched: Neither in the Month of June; for that is a time when they can [Page 56] get but very little meat abroad, and is call [...]d the benting Month, according to the old Verses.

The Pigeon never knoweth woe,
Until she doth a benting goe.

If you would increase the store of your Dove-house by drawing others thither, you shall lay upon the Altar within the house, or upon the Win­dows, a Loaf made of Red Earth, Cum­min-seed well bruised, Honey and Brine all well boiled together, and dryed in the Oven; for having picked upon this lump, they will never fail to return thither again; for they are much given to the pleasing of their tast; and further, by the very sent and smell of this remaining about their Bills, they will be the means to allure others along with them to their Coat, which for the aforesaid commodiies sake, they will never leave or forgo.

[Page 57] When you shall perceive that they begin to lay, cast them Morning and Evening a little clean Corn, and cause their water-pot, wherein they bath themselves, to be oftentimes made clean, and fresh water put therein; Let the Dove-house be kept very clean, and for that cause let him that hath the charge thereof, go into it once every week at least, and that in the Morning, or at the times of relief, when the Pigeons are seeking their meat a­broad in the Countrey thereabouts; for they keep their noon-tyde in the house, and at that hour he must not enter therein, he shall pare the floor, cast out such as he finds dead, make clean their holes; and if any are fallen out of their holes, let them not meddle to put them up again; if he perceive the train of any Snake or Adder, let him provide a long earthen pot, and set it upon its bottom, and put within it a Pigeon, and place it right in the train [Page 58] and walk of the Snake or Adder, and set by it some board or other, or other thing whereby she may creep up unto the top of the pot, and cast her self in afterwards and thus you may cleanse and rid the Dove-house of such Ver­min.

It is true, that Pigeous do require some cost in Winter, when through Frost or Snow, or when the Corn is shot, they cannot find any thing in the Field; but this is not above two Months continuance or thereabouts, that you need to feed them with Corn; at the end of which time they com­monly afford you a flight, and they are the most fat, tender and dainty of all the year.

You shall preserve the Dung which you take from the Pigeons, not mix­ing it with that which the Kine or Calves, &c. make; for it is very hot, and serveth to fatten and amend the Fenny and wet places of Corn-ground, [Page 59] or of your Meadows, or young Plants and tender Herbs, and to refresh and relieve all Trees subject to coldness and moisture.

Of Gardens.

IT is requisite that we should now de­scribe the manner of ordering the Garden, wherein the good House-wife must have a good share in the over­sight, we will begin therefore with the Kitchin-garden, which should be se­parated from the Garden of pleasure by the intercourse of an Alley of the breadth of three Fathoms, or else by a Wall or Hedge; both which Gardens must be in some plain plot of ground, as it were a little hanging for the con­venience of the Rain-water that shall fall therein; and likewise for the be­nefit of their labour, it must be cast into squares, very equal and uniform, by the side of the Kitchin-garden; It were necessary to have a Garden for [Page 60] Hemp, Flax, saffron, Turnips, Pars­nips, and other things of profit and good Husbandry; and on the other side of the Garden of pleasure, another Garden for Pease, Beans, Rice, Millet, and such other things; for they serve greatly for the keeping of a Family.

The enclosures of the Garden must be such, as the commodity and ne­cessity of the place doth require; that is to say of Walls, if the Revenues of the Farm will bear it, or of a strong and thick Quickset Hedge, if there want either Stone, Brick, or Revenues to build the Wall withal. Some there be that enclose their Gardens with Banks, but nothing to their profit; for the moisture of their Gardens which should serve them, is thereby con­veyed away and taken from them; for this way doth no where hold good, but in Fenny and Marsh grounds.

[Page 61] The ground of the Gardens must be good, of his own nature free from stones, well broken and dunged a year before it be digged to plant in, and after it hath been digged and dunged or marled again, you must let it rest and drink in its Dung or Marl. As concerning the nature and goodness of it, the stiff Clay or sandy ground are worst of all, but it must be fat in hand­ling, Black in Colour, and which crumbleth easily in the breaking or stirring of it with your fingers, and be­cometh small with labouring, and ge­nerally all grounds that are good for Wheat are good for Gardens; it is re­quisite also (to the end it may bring forth green Herbs in abundance) that it be reasonable moist; for neither that which is very dry, nor that which is subject to much wet, is good.

Notwithstanding if the grounds be­longing to the Farm, happen not to be such, you must remedy it as well as [Page 62] you may; the stiff Clay and sandy pla­ces must be amended by Dung and Marl, and would be cast three foot deep, the watry places will be made better, if you mix with it some sandy or gravelly ground, and therewithall cast it round about with Ditches, there­by to draw and drein out the water an­noying the Garden. Thus the good Husband shall do his endeavour to a­mend, and make his ground more fruitful; Let the Dung which he lay­eth upon it be either of Sheep, Swine, Horses or Pigeons, according as the nature of the ground shall require, and the elder it is, the better also; in as much as in time it looseth his filthy stink, and whatsoever other evil qua­lity, and getteth a new kind of rotten­ness which is more soft and more easie to be converted into the substance of the Earth, whereby good earth is made better, and the naughty amended. This is the cause why such as have [Page 63] writ of Husbandry in Latine, do call Dung Laetamen, and French men call it Letiere; because it maketh the ground merry, that is, when it is once mingled and incorporated therewith.

If it be possible let not your Gardens be on that side the house the Barn or Thrashing-flore is, to the end that the Herbs and Flowers may not be hurt by the Dust, Dirt, small Straw or Chaff, which might be blown from the Thrashing-flore unto the Garden by the wind; for such Chaff having taken hold upon the leaves, doth pierce and fret them through; and being thus pierced, they burn and parch away pre­sently.

As there are two times in the year to sowe Herbs, so there are two sea­sons to bring into order and dress Gar­dens, that is to say, Autumn and the Spring; Let your ground be digged and manured in November, which you intend to sowe in the Spring; and dig [Page 64] in the Month of May such other grounds as you intend to sowe in Autumn; to the end, that by the Cold of Winter, or by the Heat of summer, the Clods may be apt to turn to dust, and become short and brittle, and all unprofitable Weeds may be killed.

The time of Sowing.

ALl Seeds which are for the store of the Kitchin-garden must be sown and removed in the increase of the Moon, as namely from the first day unto the sixth; and for those that are sown in the decrease, they either come up slowly, or else be nothing worth; besides that, although you sowe in the increase of the Moon, it sometimes falleth out, that notwithstanding your Seed be fat, full, make a white Flower, and be nothing corrupted or hurt, yet some evil constellation (which the Gardeners do call the course of the [Page 65] Heavens) do hinder them, that they profit not, nor thrive any thing at all.

If you are disposed to sowe Seeds in Summer, it must be in the increase of the Moon of July and August, and in Autumn in the increase of the Moon of September and October; as also for the Spring in February and March: In pla­ces naturally Cold, or which receive no great Heat from Sun-beams, the sowing in the Spring time must be toward the latter end thereof, and that in Autumn hastened and early performed; and on the contrary, the sowing of Seeds in the Spring time, in a hot place, must be early, and the sowing in Autmn late. Seeds grow best when they are sown upon warm days, or days that are neither hot nor cold.

Colworts, Spinage of all sorts, with Succory, Garlick, Leeks and Onions are sown in Autumn, and live all Winter.

[Page 66] Colworts, Rocket, Cresses, Co­riander, Navets or Turnips, Radishes, Parsnips, Carots, Parsley, Fennel, and other Herbs, whose Roots are good in Pottage, are sown in Autumn; and in the Spring, notwithstanding they grow better being sown in July in hot Countreys, and in August in Countries indifferent hot, and in Sep­tember in cold Countries.

Lettice, Sorrel, Purslane, Cucum­bers, Gourds, Savory, Hartshorn, Thrick-madam, Beets, and other ten­der Herbs, as also Artichokes are sown in the Spring, and for the most part also those of March and April grow more early then those of February, ac­cording to the diversity of the time.

So soon as the ground is full of Seeds in all places, you must be careful to water it if the place be dry of its own nature, that so the Seed may not be hindred of his sprouting by too much dryness, or that the Herb already [Page 67] sprung, may not die. The best water to water Pot-herbs withall, is Rain-water, if it fall in the night, or in such a time as it may not heat the Herbs; for it washeth and cleanseth them from the Dust, and Vermin that eateth them, especially if the Rain come driving with a Northern wind; for want of this the River or Brook-water is best next, being a little warm, and instead of this Well water (drawn in the Morning, and put into a Barrel, or some other thing of Receit, that so it may take the heat of the Sun-beams) may serve; for cold, and Salt-water is an enemy to all sorts of Herbs; The time to water them, is the Evening and Morning, not the mid-day, for fear that the water being heated by the Sun, and the surface of the Earth (being hot) might burn them at the Root.

Cutting of Herbs is profitable for them, at such time as they be some­what [Page 68] what grown, to make them keep their greenness the longer, and to make them more beautiful and tufted, to keep them from seeing, and also to gike them somewhat a more plea­sant smell, then they had in their first stalk; but all Herbs must not be cut at all times; for such as have a hollow stalk, as Onions and others, if they be cut when it raineth, the blade or stalk of the Onion is filled full of wa­ter, and rotteth, and this is the cause, why Herbs of such nature are not to be cut, but in a fair and dry time.

Of setting and removing Pot­herbs.

TO give the greater scope and liberty to Herbs, and to make them greater, you must remove them when they have four or five leaves out of the ground, and this may be done at any time; but especially see that the season be inclining to moistures and Rain, and they must be set in ground that is well furnished with fat, with­out any amending of it with Dung, if the time fall out dry, you must wa­ter them after they be new set in due time, not staying long, and set them thin, that so they may have their Earth lightned when need requireth, for thereby they will grow better and fairer.


[Page 70] Slips for the Garden of sweet and fragrant Herbs may be gathered at all times, and they would be of young sprigs of a year old, taking part of the old wood, and writhing that to put it into the Earth, or else cleave it be­low, and put in the cleft an Oat, and round about it two or three more Oats, rather then Dung; for Herbs that are removed do not require Dung at their Roots; but rather they have need that the lowest parts of their Roots should be a little steeped in water.

Of gathering and keeping Seeds, Roots, and Flowers.

ROots for the most part are gather­ed when the Leaves are fallen off Flowers, as Borage, Bugloss, all good, and Marygolds when they are throughly open; Flowers must be gathered to be kept while they are shut, Leaves and whole Herbs when they are grown to the full, Fruits when they turn Yellow, and are grown to their perfection, Seeds when the Herbs are all laid and dry; and it must generally be observed in all manner of gather­ing, as well of Herbs, Flowers and Roots, as of Fruits and Seeds, that it be done in a fair and clear weather, and in the decrease of the Moon.

Such Herbs as are to be kept must first be made very clean; and dryed in the shadow, which is the best means to keep them stronger in their [Page 72] virtues and qualities and after put them up in bags of Leather, and not of wo­ven stuff of wooden Boxes, that so they may not loose their virtue, as we see it put in practice by fine Herbs, which are kept to be used in Winter; wherefore me thinks, that the Apo­thecaries fail much in their way, which hang their Physick-herbs in the Roof of their house, whereby they spend their force, and become laden with Dust, Cobwebs, the Dung of Flies, and a thousand other filthy things.

The best way to dry flowers will be in a temperate place, and to turn them oft, to the end they may not corrupt; having a continual care, that they may not loose their colour or smell, and when they are dryed, put them into an earthen Vessel. Seeds must be kept in Bags, or Boxes well stopt and kept in dry places; and where there is no water shed; for Seeds are mightily spoiled with moisture. The [Page 73] Seeds of Chibolds, Onions, and Leeks, as also of Poppey, are kept in their rinds and heads: For to keep Roots you must observe two ways; for ei­ther they are to be kept new as they are yet green, or else they are to be kept dry; for to keep them new you must lay them in Sand or Gravel very thin, in some place under the Earth, and a little covered, or else to bury them under the Earth in the Garden, as I have seen it done to keep them the greatest part of the Winter. To keep them dry, after they are gathered, you must wash them with clear water, and after take from them all the small Fibres and Hair-threds that hang a­bout them, and then dry them either in the shadow of the Sun-rising, if they be but small and thin, as are the roots of Fennel, Succory, Parsly, Spe­rage and such like; or in the South Sun if they be gross and thick, as those of Daffodils, Gentian; Sow-bread, [Page 74] Water-lilly, Briony, and such like, after they are dried, and thus prepared, hang them in some high and upper room, open towards the Sun when it is in the South, and where neither smoke nor dust, nor the Sun-beams may any way hurt them.

The Garden of Pleasure.

THe most pleasant and delectable thing for recreation belonging to a Farm, is the Flower-gardens; it is a commendable and seemly thing to behold out of a window many Acres of ground well husbanded, whether it be Meadow, Pasture or Arrable; but yet it is much more to behold fair and comely proportions, handsome and pleasant Arbors, as it were Clo­sets, delightful Borders of Lavander, Rosemary, Violets, and other such like, to hear the ravishing Musick of [Page 73] an infinite number of pretty small Birds which continually day and night do chatter and chant their proper and natural branch Songs, upon the Hedg­es and Trees of the Garden, and to smell so sweet a Nose gay so near at hand, seeing that this so fragant a smell cannot but refresh exceedingly, when going out of your Bed-chamber in the morning after the Sun-rise, and whiles the clear and Pearle-like Dew doth Perch upon the Grass; you may hear the mellodious Musick of the Bees, which busying themselves in gathering the Thime, do fill the Air with most acceptable sweet and plea­sant Harmony, besides the Borders and Rows of Thime, Balm, Rosema­ry, Marjerome Cypres, Sothern-wood, and other fragrant Herbs, the sight and view whereof cannot but give great contentment unto the behol­ders,

[Page 74] The Garden of pleasure must be cast and contrived close to the one side of the Kitchin-garden, as before hath been said, but so as that they be sun­dred by the intercourse of a large Alley, and also a hedge of Quickset, whose ground must be of a like goodness, and have the like labour, Tilling and Hus­banding that the Kitchin-garden hath bestowed upon it.

The Garden of Pleasure shall be set about and compassed with Arbors made of Jessamin, Rosemary, Juniper, Cypress-trees, Ceders, Rose-trees, and others, first planted and pruned; as the nature of every one doth re­quire, and after brought into form and order with Willow or other poles, as may serve for the making of Arbors, the ways of Alleys must be covered with Sand well beat, or paved with Stone or other like thing.

The Garden shall be divided by a large Alley or Walk into two equal [Page 75] parts, the one shall contain the Herbs and flowers used to make Nose-gays, as March Violets, Provence-gilliflowers, Purple-gilliflowers, Indian-gilliflow­ers, small Panuces, Yellow and White Gilliflowers, Marigolds, Daffadils, Can­terbury-bells, Purple-Velvet-Flower, Cornflag, Lillies, & other such like, and it may be called the Nosegay-garden.

The other part shall have all other sweet smelling Herbs, whether they be such as bear no Flowers, or if they bear any, yet they are not put in Nosegays a­lone, but the whole Herb with them, as Sothernwood, Wormwood, Jessamin, Marjerome, Balm, Mints, Peniroyal, Rosemary, Hysop, Lavander, Basil, Sage, Savory, Rue, Tansey, Thime, Camomil, Nept, Sweet-balm, all good, and others of like nature, and this may be called the Garden of Herbs, of a good smell, the greatest part of which sweet Herbs, as also Nosegay-flowers, though they grow naturally, [Page 76] and of their own accord, without any labour or travel of the Gardiner, yet such of them as stand in need of dressing and ordering, shall be sown, planted, removed, gathered and kept no other­wise then the Pot-herbs, but yet not­withstanding regard must be had of the nature of every particular one, but (because this tract is only directed to the good House-wife) I shall leave the particular ordering, sowing setting, and planting of all to the judgment and good discretion of the Gardiner.

And now having delivered the man­ner and form of the Garden of plea­sure, I should withall speak of the manner of bestowing the Herbs and Flowers therein, in proportions of di­vers fashions, or in Laberinths or Ma­zes; but in this course I cannot set down any universal prescript or order, seeing they depend partly upon the Spirit and invention of the Gardiner, and partly upon the pleasure of the [Page 77] Master and Lord, unto whom the ground and Garden appertaineth the one whereof is lead by the hops and skips, turnings and windings of his Brain, the other by the pleasing of his Eye, according to his best fancy, and therefore I shall here omit them, and proceed to instrust the good House-wife in what month, and time of the month divers sorts of Seeds may be sown.

A Table to know the best time to sowe divers sorts of Seeds.

He that will sowe seeds must know that
  • Some may be sown at all times of the Month and Moon, as
    • Asparagus
    • Coleworts of all sorts
    • Spinage-Lettice
    • Parsnips
    • Radishes.
  • Others in a certain Month and time of the Moon, as in February the Moon being
    • New
      • Thime
      • Garlick
      • Burrage
      • Bugloss
      • Marjerome
      • Purslane
      • Radish
      • Rosemary
      • Sorrel
      • Double Marigolds
    • Full
      • Anise musked
      • Violets
      • Blites
      • Skirworts
      • White Succory
      • Fennel
      • Parsley.
    • Old
      • Cole Cabal
      • White Cole
      • Green Cole
      • Cucumbers
      • Hartshorn
      • Spinage
      • Cabage-lettice
      • Mellons
      • Onions
      • Parsnips
      • Burnet
      • Leeks.
  • [Page 79]Sow in Mar. the ☾ be­ing
    • New
      • Garlick
      • Burrage
      • Bugloss
      • Marjerome
      • White Poppy
      • Purslane
      • Radish
      • Sorrel
      • Thime
      • Violets
    • Full
      • Musked Anise
      • Blites
      • Skirworts
      • Succory
      • Fennel
    • Old
      • Cole Cabage
      • White Cole
      • Green Cole
      • Cucumbers
      • Hartshorn
      • Spinage
      • Hysop
      • Gilliflowers
      • Cabage-letice
      • Melons
      • Onions
      • Burnet
      • Leeks
  • Sowe in A­pril the Moon be­ing
    • New
      • Marjerome
      • Thime
      • Violets
    • Full
      • Apples of love
      • Marvelous Apples
    • Old
      • Artichocks
      • Cabbage Cole
      • Gilliflowers
      • Parsnips
  • Sow in May the Moon being
    • Old
      • Blessed-Thistle
  • In June the Moon be­ing
    • New
      • Gourds
      • Radishes
    • Old
      • Cucumbers
      • Mellons
      • Parsnips
  • In July the Moon be­ing
    • Full Old
      • White Succory
      • Cabbage-lettice
  • In August the Moon being
    • Full
      • White Succory
  • [Page 80] Some seeds grow best being new, as
    • Leeks
    • Cucumbers
    • Onions
  • Other Seeds there are which grow best be­ing old, as
    • Coriander
    • Parsley
    • Savory
    • Beets
    • Cresses
    • Spinage
    • Poppy
  • These m [...]st be preserved from Cold.
    • Lettices.
    • Artichocks
    • Cabbage-cole
    • Dyers-grain
    • Mellons
    • Cucumbers

It is good to plant and gather Grafts in the last of the Moon, and to graft two days after the change,

Note that seeds must be gathered in fair weather in the wain of the Moon, —kept
  • Some in
    • Boxes of Wood
    • Bags of Leather
    • Vessels of Earth
  • Others as
    • Onions in their Husks.
    • Leeks in their Husks.
    • Chibolls in their Husks.

THE Silk-worm, And the Government of them.

THE good House-wife must not make less ac­count of the Silk-worm then of the Honey-bee; for besides the pleasure which she may conceive of the sight of the marvelous industry of this little Creature in making and [Page 82] spinning of Silk, she may also reap an incredible profit of so excellent a work, which honoureth and maketh men glorious, attired with the pomp of this workmanship and piece of cun­ning skill; in so much as we see Kings, Princes, Knights, Gentlemen, and other personages clothed and apparell­ed with the travel of these pretty Creatures; and which is more, the Silk serveth not only for the apparel­ing of men, but also for a singular re­medy to comfort the Heart that is sick, to rejoyce and recreate all the heavy and troubled spirits, as we may well perceive by that famous confecti­on, called of the Physitians Alkermes; which being for the most part com­pounded of the decoction and infusion of Silk in the Juice of Kermes, being taken inwardly, is a Sovereign re­medy in faintings and swouning; wherefore the good House-wife shall make great account of these Creatures, [Page 83] to the end that she may reap profit of the sale of the Silk, which she shall gather from them yearly; which pro­fitable practice is well known amongst the good Wives of forreign Coun­tries, from whence we have such great quantities of Silk brought into Eng­land

And for the making of her best com­modity hereof she must choose out a convenient place for the keeping of them, and it must be rather high then low, in a good Air, without moist­ness, and so provided of Windows, as that the Sun may come in at them Morning and Evening, if it seem good to those that have the charge of them. The Windows must be such as will shut close, either glased or paper-windows, to the end that when it raineth or bloweth, in cold weather or in moist, they may be kept very close and fast shut; for who so faileth to go­vern, and provide for them in this [Page 84] manner, without doubt these pretty Creatures (being tender at all times) cannot escape but die, when cold weather cometh. There must like­wise be Nets hanged before the VVin­dows, to the end that when the Paper-windows are opened, the Sparrows, Swallows, and such like hurtful Birds, may not get in to feed upon these VVorms: Neither Cock nor Hen must come in here; for they would so ravenously feed upon them, as that they would be ready to burst. The walls and floor must be very clean, and free from holes or crevises, by which Rats, Mice, or other like Vermin may enter and get in to kill and spoil these little things, either night or day. In it there must be Tables or Shelves for them to abide upon, and they must be kept upon Sheets of Paper, the edges turn'd up, that they may not creep away.

[Page 85] The careful House-wife as soon as Spring draweth near, and that she shall see that the Mulberry-tree beginneth to bud, shall bring forth her Eggs that she hath kept all VVinter, and set them where the warmth of the Sun may come to them; and if she see that the Mulberry-tree is slow to bud, there shall be fresh Dung laid to the Roots thereof, during the new Moon of March, thereby to bring it forward; for other­wise for lack of the leaves of the Mul­berry-tree; if it should happen the VVorms should be bred or hatcht, you must for their food have recourse to the Heart of the Thorn, Elme-leaves, the tender tops of Nettles, and others, all which will but keep them alive; and as concerning making choice of such VVorms as are to be breeders, you must take the seed, which being bathed in Wine, falleth to the bottom; and doth not float above; the time of breeding then is about the fifteenth [Page 86] or twentieth of April, from the fourth unto the tenth day of the Moon, but never in the decrease; for then they will bring forth their Silk at such time as they are strong, in such sort as that their ends and husks will be greater, harder, and more finely haired then any other that are bred at another time: For these that are bred in the decrease of the Moon are always feeble, and yield no profit; the way to make them hatch is, after that you have wa­tered and bathed them in the VVhite-wine, rather then warm water, to lay them near the fire till they are a little warm; then lay them betwixt two Pil­lows, made likewise something warm, and so as they hatch and come out of their Eggs, to take them gently away, and put them upon Mulberry-leaves, and to lay them upon Boards or Papers that have been rub'd over with VVormwood or with Sothernwood, or some such like Herb, and give [Page 87] them fresh Mulberry-leaves Evening and Morning, increasing them every day as the VVorms shall grow greater and greater, unto the fourth change; for then they will stand in need to be fed at noon also, because then they eat more then they were wont; but be cateful, that when they mew or change, you must give them sparingly; for then they are weak and feeble, and in any case let not the leaves be moist, wet or rotten, and if it should fall out, that they are wet when they are ga­thered, you must wipe them through­ly with clean linnen, and dry them a little at the fire if need be. They must be gathered of old Trees rather then young ones, and not to gather them in the Morning when they are wet with the Dew or other thing, un­til the Sun hath gone over them, and be sure to pick the bad from the good be­fore you give them to the VVorms. These little Creatures must not be [Page 88] touched with your hands, but as little as may be; for the more they are handled, the more they are hindred; because they are very exceeding tender and dainty, especially at such time as they cast their sloughs or claing; yet notwithstand­ing they must be kept clean and neat, and all their little Dung taken from them once in two or three days, the place where they are kept, must be perfumed sometimes with Frank­insence, Garlick or Onions; that you may minister matter of pleasure to these little Creatures, and if they are weak and sick, these smels refresh and re­cover them again. You shall take notice that they are wont to sleep, especially at such times as they cast and change: After they have cast and changed the fourth time, they eat better then ever they did, until such time as their bodies begin to shine, and that they make shew of the Silk that is in their bellies; which if it be to come white [Page 89] from them, their heads will look as if they were Silver; if Yellow, their heads bear the Colour of Gold, if Green or Orange Colour, their heads foretel the same. Thus they feeling them­selves well filled and fed, do seek out some resting place for the purpose to fasten themselves unto, and there or­derly to avoid their Silk, every one shutting up himself in his scale or husk, which they make or build up in three days at most.

When you perceive them begin to spin, and fasten themselves to the Paper or other thing that they are kept on, You must make them little Coffins of Poper, putting but one in each Pa­per, and so pin them up about the Room to the hangings or other things convenient; when they begin their work, they are so eager, as that they go mad till they be packed up in their little Clews and Bottoms, where they are so inclosed that a man would think [Page 90] they would be stifled they have finish­ed their work in two or three days more or less, as the weather is cold or hot at that time. When any begin to spin, mark the Paper-coffins, when you pin them up, with the day of the Month; for in six days you may wind off their Silk, though they lie thus in their husks, for the most part twenty days more or less, according to the softness or hardness of their Bottoms of Silk, and then (if you do not wind off their Silk before) they will eat their way out.

As concerning the choice of their Husks or Cods, the Orange-coloured are the best, and not the Yellow, and least of all the White or Green. When you go about to wind your Silk, you must have in readiness a Reel, and then after you have pulled off all the loose Silk, till you come to the hard bot­tom, find out an end, which you may do by drawing two or three ends toge­ther [Page 91] till they run single, and so do by the rest, and you may wind 10 or 15 Husks together, and your best way to wind is out of water a little warm, and wherein some Gum-Arabick hath been soaked. After this manner you may wind so much Silk off the Husks, that the Worms will drop out into the water, and the Gum'd water gives the Silk an excellent gloss; Take the Worms out of the water, and lay them on sheets of Paper to dry, keeping them safe from Rats, Mice, and other Vermin, and then make choice of the best for breeding, which are the grosest and blackest; for those are the strong­est, and afford better Eggs then any of the other; you must take more fe­male-then males, and for the knowing of the one from the other, the Eyes of those Creatures do sufficiently testi­fie thereof; for the females have thinner Eyes, and not so black as the males; but this is known best when the become [Page 92] Butter-flies, which will not be till the middle of July, or after; and then as soon as they come forth out of their Husks, they will couple, and lay their Eggs, one will lay about 200 Eggs, which will stick to the Paper as they are laid, and there should be kept with­out stirring all Winter, till brooding time come again, and you must be sure to keep them from the Winter-frosts.

As concerning the diseases where­unto these little Creatures be subject; when they have not been so carefully looked unto as they should, to be kept clean, when the cold Northern-wind, or the hot Southern-Sun hath molested them; as also when they have eated too much, then they become sick, wherefore keep them very cleanly, stop the Windows and holes by which the cold winds do enter and get in, and carry Coles of fire that smoke not, into their Rooms, setting thereup­on [Page 93] Frankinsence, (for they so love this smell, as that it presently cureth them) and also besprinkle them with a little Malmsey, or Aqua-vitae. And if they have been troubled with too great heat of the South Sun, then sprinkle on them some Rose-water; if they have over-eaten themselves the contrary dyet will cure them, as the keeping them two or three days with­out eating any thing; if there be any of them that ure spotted with duskish, blewish, or yellowish Colour, and there appear withall upon their Bel­lies a certain humour that doth wet them, they must be speedily taken from out of the company of the rest, and carried out, and in the Morning before the Sun rise, set the whole and sound in the air for some small time, and after put them in their places a­gain, and sprinkle them with good and strong Vineger, and rub their Rooms with Wormwood or Southernwood, [Page 94] and also to give them air, and let them feal the force of the Sun, provided that the Beams thereof do not touch them, and so fit the Windows, that the Morning air may season and send his breath throughout the whole house, And as for those that are sick, keep them upon Papers by themselves, and now and then sprinkle on them some Rose-water, or Aqua-vitae, and rub their Papers with Wormwood, as before.

The pleasure in the keeping, tend­ing and observing this little Creature, is not to be conceived, but by those that have had the government of them. As concerning their shapes, first their Eggs are laid all round together upon the Paper, and in such order that none are laid upon another, and they are about the bigness of a Turnip-seed, or small white Beads, which within a week after they are laid do turn Yel­low, and in a week more they are Brown, [Page 95] and the week after they are a Dun Co­lour, which Colour they hold all Win­ter till the latter end of April, at which time or beginning of May they will hatch and bring fourth young, as hath been shewed before. When they are hatcht they are black and no bigger then the end of a small Pin; when they they are about a fortnight old, their heads begin to be white, and a fort­night or three weeks after that, they cast a slough or skin, and the bodies begin to be white, and so at every time they cast, their Colour doth change, until such time as they begin to spin, and then you may perceive them to be clear, and shine of such Colour as the Silk will be that they spin.

From the time that they are hatcht to the time of their spinning, will be about seven weeks, and after that they never eat any more; for after the Silk is wonnd off, and the Worms come out of the bag, in a short time they [Page 96] come to be Butter-flies, as you have heard before, and then after they have coupled and laid their Eggs, there is no more care to be taken of them, for then they pine away and die.

OF THE Hony-Bee, And the Government thereof.

IF the greatest part of the profit of a Farm depend upon the keep­ing of Cattle: I dare be bold to affirm, that the fruitfulest thing that can be kept about a Countrey-house, is Bees; indeed there is some pains and care to [Page 98] be taken in choosing, feeding, watch­ing, and keeping of them clean in their Hives; but withall, what so rare and singular commodity have we as the Wax, and the Honey which we enjoy by their admirable workmanship, both profitable and pleasant for the use of man; Let not it then seem strange, if I advise the Housholder to be careful to keep Bees about his Farm, and with­all teach him in a few words what should be the ordering and governing of them and their Hives, and what time and hour it is good to gather Ho­ney and VVax.

The Housholder therefore shall first make choice of some fit and secret place in his Garden of pleasure, for the keeping of his Bees, in the bot­tom of some Valley if possible, to the end they may rise on high to fly abroad to get their Food, and also when they be laden, they may descend the more easily downward with their load; but [Page 99] especially let the place be open to the South Sun, yet where they may be shaded sometimes, and that by some wall, ramport, or house-side, that they may be defended from winds and tem­pests, and so also that they may sly sundry and several ways, for to get di­versity of Pastures, and so return again to their little Cottages laden with their Composition of Honey.

And it is convenient to have them where there is good store of Thime, Organy, VVinter-savory, VVild-thime, Rosemary, Sage, Gilliflowers, Violets, VVhite-lillies, Roses, Saffron, Beans, Mellilot, and other sweet Herbs and Flowers, wherein there is no bit­terness, and also Fruit-trees, Peach-trees, Pear-trees, Apple-trees, Cherry-trees, and other such like.

The place must be closed in with a strong Hedge or good wall, for fear both of Beasts and Thieves; for Kine and Sheep do eat up their Flowers, [Page 100] and beat the Due off from the Flow­ers, which should load them; but of all tame Beasts there is none that doth so damnifie these little pretty wretches as Swine and Goats; for the Goats wast their Food, and jump against their houses, yea, and oftentimes beat them down; the Swine, besides the wasting of their Food, rubbing against their Hives, do overturn them, and the seats whereon they be set; Sheep in like manner loosing some of their locks of VVooll upon the Hedges, are the cause that the silly poor Bees now and then become entangled therein, when they labour to get their Food, and so leave their Carcasses for a pledge; Hens likewise have a glutronous appe­tite towards them, Snakes and other like venomous Beasts sometimes take up their Inns in their Hives; but to take away this casualty at once and for ever, you must plant Rue round about them in good quantity; for [Page 101] such Beasts cannot abide this Herb. Their place also must be far from the Dunghils, and all dirty or miry places which might hurt them with ill smells; for they are deadly enemies to all fil­thiuess and uncleanness; but let their places be as near as you can to some little Brook of water, naturally and of it self continually running, and this Rundle must have by the edges thereof Stones or Boughs of Trees for the Bees to light upon.

But whatsoever the place be, whe­ther in the Garden of pleasure or else where, it must not be hem'd in with very high walls on every side, unless you leave slits or holes in the walls a­about four foot from the ground, that the Bees may pass the easier in and out.

The place and standing for the Bees being thus appointed, the next thing is to provide for Hives; the best are those which are made of Boards, wide [Page 102] enough, but not very long; and they must be made so, that one or two of the Boards may be lifted up when the Honey is to be taken, or the Hives to be made clean; There are some Hives made of Sallow or Willow twigs; and some of Straw, but not so convenient as the former; they must be wide be­neath, and narrow above, drawn over and drest on the outside with Lime and Oxe-dung mingled together, that so they may continue the longer; they must be set upon Boards fitted for the purpose, and that near unto some wall or house-side, but not close to it, that so there may be a space left, for one to go about them and make them clean, or else upon some Vault of Stone or Brick to the height of three foot, and as much in breadth laid over with mor­ter on every side, and planed so, that that neither Rats, Mice, or other Vermin may clime thither to hurt them. The Hives shall be so set, [Page 103] as there may be a certain distance betwixt one and the other, that when need shall require to look unto any one, for the making of it clean, or any other thing. You may not shake or disturb the adjoyning Bees, who do greatly fear when they are touched, least their workmanship of Wax (which is very weak and easie to be spoiled) should be stirred or broken. The Hives must have some covering or shelter of Boards or other thing besides the shade of Leaves and Boughs, which may serve to preserve them against cold, Snow, Rain and heat, although heat do not so much hurt unto Bees as cold. There­fore behind the Bees as they stand, there must be some building, or at least a wall, which may be to them instead of a Sunny-bank against the North-wind, and keep the Hives in a mode­rate warmth, and mark it well that you put the fore-part of the Hive, where the Bees come forth, something [Page 104] more towards the East then the South; to the end that in the Morning the Bees for their earlier coming forth may have the Sun warm upon them for their better awakening. The holes by which they pass and repass, must be very lit­tle, that they may may not give place for the entrance of much cold, and they will be big enough, if so be there may but one Bee pass at a time; but according to the quantity of Bees in the Hive, you must have more or less holes, three holes will be sufficient for the fullest Hives. It would be con­venient that they be sheltered with Boards in Winter, made with Win­dows to open and shut, that you may close them up in Snowy or very cold weather.

I will say nothing here of the ingen­dring of Bees, whether it be by the coupling of Males and Females toge­ther, as we see in other kind of Crea­tures, or by the corruption and rotting [Page 105] of the Belly and Entrails of a young Bullock; (whereof Virgil speaketh) but I will describe them as they are already ingendred, as what be the pro­perties of such as are fit and like to make good Honey.

There are many sorts of Bees; for some are of a golden Colour, clear, shining and bright, others blackish, rough and hairy, some great, some small, some thick and round, and o­thers spare and long, some wild and some tame; but if you would buy or gather swarms to keep for their Ho­ney, look and take good heed that they have the Marks following, as that they be little ones, somewhat long, not hairy, golden coloured, shining and sparkling like Gold, spotted a­bove, gentle and loving. For the greater and longer that Bees are, the worse they are. And if they be cruel they are nothing worth; not­withstanding [Page 106] that their Choler and ma­lice is easily helped if they be well marked and fruitful, by seeing them oft; for in your oft going to them they become tame; but because one cannot perceive whether they have all these marks aforesaid, if he see them not: If you buy them, before you bargain you must open the Hives, and see if they be well replenished or not, and if you cannot look up high enough, you may guess what they are by consi­dering if there be good store at the mouth, and whether you hear a great noise and huzzing within; and if they be all retired to rest, if you blow into the Hive, you will presently perceive whether they be many or few, by the noise which they will make when they feel the breath. It is good to buy them as near unto your abode as you can, and not in other Countries far off; for the change of their Pasture Air and [Page 107] Countrey doth astonish and amaze them; besides also, the farther they are carried, the more they are pained in their Hives; but if they cannot be had but by seeking far for them, it will be best to carry them away in the Evening or before day, and rather in Spring then in Winter, and then to be born between two men, and when they are brought to the place of their abode, you must not open them till next day at night, to the end that af­ter they have rested all night, they may be the fitter to come forth peace­ably in the Morning; There is no such careful heed to be taken in the choo­sing of those which are given, nor of those which are taken out of the Fields or Woods; although I could advise the contrary, seeing the charges and pains are as great about the bad as the good; notwithstanding when one ta­keth them out of the Fields or [Page 108] VVoods, it is not possible to make such choise as he would, and therefore must be content with such as come next to hand. The manner used in some Countries to gather them is thus. VVhen you have found out any place where store of Bees do use and keep, (which is commonly in in Woods and Forrests where Herbs do abound, and Trees of sweet smell and near some small River or Fountain) you shall use diligence to find out the place of their abode, which you may easily learn by watching their return from water, whether it be near or far off, then afterwards in the beginning of the Spring, with Thime and Balm bruised, with other such like Herbs as Bees love, annoint and rub a Hive well, so that the smell and Juice there­of may remain behind; after that make the Hive clean, and sprinkle it with a little Honey, and having thus handled [Page 109] it, set it down in the Woods or Forrests, near unto the Springs where the Bees do most use, and af­ter they have once found it out, the Hive will quickly be full of Bees.

The good Housholder having provi­ded Hives and fit places, and also ha­ving bought or gathered good store of Swarms of Bees to replenish his Hives, shall be careful to afford them a more diligent and attentive kind of Govern­ment, and ordering then unto any kind of Cattel; Because the Bee is more discreet and industrious then any other kind of living Creature: For she hath a kind of wisdom coming near un­to the understanding of man; and therefore look then for a more careful manner of usage and carriage towards her from them that are her Governours and cannot abide them to be sluttish and negligent, nor to be nigardly or [Page 110] filthily intreated. It must therefore be his condition that shall have the charge of them, to consider their man­ners, and manner of living, and accor­dingly to frame himself thereunto in the best sort that may be. They have a King whom they obey as their Sove­reign in all things, accomplishing and fulfilling, whatsoever he shall give them in charge, whether it be to go forth, or to return home, or to stay within, and they attend him always in companies wheresoever he be, they comfort him, if at any time he be sick; and do keep about him if he cannot fly, not one of them is negligent and sloth­ful, but every one ready and quick to any kind of work; some gather and bring home what they get and suck from Flowers and sweet smelling Herbs and Leaves, unto those which stay with­in the Hive making Honey; others are busie in making Combs, and building [Page 111] of little Cabbins. Some make Honey, and others attend other matters and vo­cations; some lay their hands to the softning of Wax, and temper it so well, as that making thin Leaves thereof, they therewith build up and frame them Cels and Cloisters; others with great labour do sunder the gross and drossy substance, and make ready a place for every sort of Honey; some of them with their pains and dili­gence do keep clean the Hives; which notwithstanding are never defiled by any of their own Dung; for always in fly­ing abroad they void their excriments; some there are which ordinarily do no­thing but keep watch and ward, to the end that to the uttermost of their power they may withstand whatsoever thing may annoy or hurt them. They car­ry out such as die within their Hives; but then their King dies, they stir him nor from his place; but croud­ing [Page 112] one upon anothers back about him, they seem to lament and mourn, as they make shew by their noise and humming, and that so vehemently, as that if their Keeper do not look un­to it, and take him from under them, they will suffer themselves rather to die for hunger, then forsake him. To be brief, every one of them is so diligent at his work, as they cannot bear it, that any should be in their company that should not be occupied in doing of something; and this is the cause why they drive away the drone which will never work, neither is good to any thing else, but to wast and devour the Honey. They hate a­bove all things evil scents: They ne­ver fly against the light, nor unto any flesh, or blood, or fat; but content themselves with Leaves and Flowers only, which have a sweet smelling Juice; They take delight in pleasant [Page 113] Songs and Voices, whereon it cometh to pass, that if they be scattered abroad, they will be called together at the delightful ringing of some Bason or small Bells. To be brief, their fashion and manner of living is as it were won­derful in nature: But to give over all further describing of them, I will con­tent my self in delivering the conditi­ons and duties required about their or­dering and governing.

He therefore that hath the charge and over sight of the Bees, must be careful first of their Pastures (whereof we have made mention before) then he shall diligently look unto their Hives twice or thrice a Month, be­ginning at the Spring, and continuing till November; for there is not that time in the year, wherein they stand not in need of something, and if they be well ordered, they will continue ten years: They must be opened a­bout [Page 114] the Month of March, and the Honey-combs made clean with a very strong and solid Feather, when as they cannot be come by with the hand, that so whatsoever filth is gathered there in the time of Winter, may be cast out, and the Spiders Webs; which spoil all the Combs, may be taken away, Af­terwards he shall smoke them all with Oxe-dung burnt; for this Dung by a certain affinity is gratefull and well liked of Bees; but in the mean time before he handle the Hives, be sure that he hath not been drunk the day before, and that for the present he come not near them without being washed, made clean, and well appa­ralled; in like manner he must abstain from all meats that are of strong smell, as are all Salt-meats and Soused-meats, and all things being strong of scent, as Garlick or Onions, or such like things; and let him carry in his mouth some [Page 115] thing that hath a good smell; for by this means they will love him so well, as that he may handle their Hives at his pleasure, and the little pretty Birds will never hurt or annoy him. In the Spring when they begin to multi­ply, and increase, and to cast their Swarms, which so soon as they can fly, desire nothing more then to fly a­way, and not to abide with the old ones, and much less to become Sub­jects unto them, then it will be neces­sary to keep watch very diligently, and that from seven or eight a Clock in the Morning till two or three in the Afternoon, that so they may not fly unto some other place; wherefore if you can discern and spie out their Kings, it will be good to take their Wings from them, if they make shew of themselves oftentimes, and seem as though they would fly together with their company, as also to cast dust [Page 116] them or water; for by these means they will be kept from going away, so that then they will not go out of their own Yard, nor out of the limits of their own Kingdom; neither will they suffer their Troop to go far from them, or else it will be good after they are come forth, to astonish and occupy their minds with the sounding of Ba­sons, Brass-pans or Kettles, ringing forth softly; for by how much you sound the stronglier, by so much they mount the higher into the Air, and stray the farther off; but if it be a gentle and low sound, they in like manner do stay and keep themselves near at hand, and below; If you see them begin to knit and hasten themselves to the Bough of a Tree, or to any bush near the ground, sound your Pan or Bason more gently, and then having got a Hive well prepared (as before is shewed in taking of Bees in the Forrest or Wood) [Page 117] shake them all therein, and cover them so close with a sheet or other linnen cloth, that they may not get out again, and at night when they are all got up into the top of the Hive, (as by that time they will) remove your Hive, and set it upon the board or seat of Stone or Brick, where it shall continue, If they rest themselves in such a place as where you cannot come at them with your hand, then take a Pole and tye to the end of it a Hive, ordered as be­fore, and sprinkled with good Wine, and hold it near unto the Bees, and thus they will not fail to go into it. Another way, and which is the best in my opinion, is thus. When you see that the young Kings shall be come forth with their young Train, which within a day or two will all become to­gether at the mouth of the old stock, and shew by sufficient signs and tokens that they are desirous of some place [Page 118] of their own, and peculiar to themselves, then set a Hive ready drest before them, and they will go into it, and rest con­tented therewith, and abide therein.

It is to be known when this young Host will come abroad, by the noise and humming which they will make in the Hive three days before that they purpose to come abroad, as if a Camp of Warlike men would rise up and re­move; And to know when they make this noise, he must lay his Ear at Even­ing to every Hive, that so he may hear the noise and humming when they make any. And yet indeed this noise and humming is sometimes a sign and token of some fight or strife raised be­twixt them, as where there are more Kings then one, which must be well prevented; otherwise by such civil Wars and deadly fights, all the whole Troop and Company will quickly be overthrown and brought to nothing; [Page 119] but this intended Combat is quickly taken up with a Bowl of boiled Wine set unto them, or else some Honied VVine or other such liquor; which by its sweetness is familiar to Bees for these will appease their fury; but yet if you perceive, that these fights and skirmishes are not thus ended, you must make hast to kill the Kings of the Bees, which are the cause of such se­ditions and tumults, These poor Crea­tures are so inraged with love towards their King, that for to defend him, they willingly cast and expose their own lives into open hazard against all his Enemies, which come to assail him, besides other incredible obey­sance, which they continually yield un­to him.

At this time of the Spring it like­wise sometimes cometh to pass, that by reason of the hardness of the winter past, or of some disease or sickness, [Page 120] there is great want and scarcity of Bees in old stocks, and this must be reme­died by putting a new Swarm into that hive, killing the young King, that so his Subjects may content themselves to live peaceably under the old; but if you have not a Swarm, then the next way is to put the Troops of two or three such diminished stocks into one, bedewing or sprinkling the same be­fore with some sweet Liquor, and after to shut them up in the same Hive, and set something within it for them to eat, until they be well wonted unto it, and so to keep them three days closed up, giving them a little fresh Air at some small and little holes.

If Rainy weather continue long, that the Bees cannot go out of their Hives to seek pastures, and to bring home food unto their young brood, you must not fail to help them with some provision of honey, untill such time [Page 121] as they shall be able to fly abroad to get their own living, and to work their Honey combs off, for otherwise you shall quickly make an end of them, as it oftentimes comes to pass. All the Summer they must gather Honey (whereof we will speak hereafter) and at the same time every ten days their Hives must be opened and smoked with Oxe-dung, and afterwards be cooled by watering the empty parts of the Hive, and likewise be made clean, and all Grubs taken out of them if any be therein. In some fair day a­bout the end of Autumn, you must make clean their Hives; but see that it be hot and calm weather; and all the Winter you must not open nor touch them; but keep them close within till the Sun-beams break forth again for their comfort, stopping with­out whatsoever clefts and holes you find, with Morter and Neats-dung [Page 122] mixed together, so that you leave none open, but only a way for them to pass in and out; and also though their Hives stand under Covert, yet cover them again with Hackles made of straw, or some such like thing, that as much as is possible they may be kept from cold and winds, which they fear and abhor more then any other thing, and you shall likewise provide, in case of a hard Winter, to make provision of Juice of sweet Balm, Honied-water, Sugered-water, Milk, or other Liquor, which may be convenient for them, in which Liquor you must steep pure and clean Wooll, whereupon the Bee sitting, may suck out the Juice or Li­quor that is therein.

In the Combs are found Drones like unto Bees, but greater, which (al­though they be unprofitable, because they gather no food or sustenance, but [Page 123] eat up that which others bring in) yet do serve for something, for they hatch the young brood, whereupon come the small Bees, and therefore you must not kill them at all, but keep a certain number; to the end that the Bees may not grow slothful and idle.

And to the end that they may not endure hunger in Winter, and that they may not eat up the Honey they have made, and which is best untaken from them, it will be good to give them some dry Figs stampt or tempered in water, or boiled Wine, and likewise some Raisons stamped and sprinkled with water, or else some Curranes stampt with good Wine; or else to cast then in at the door of the Hive some sweet Liquors with Siringes, as Milk, and especially Goats-milk, as the best of all the rest, to bear out the scarcity and poorness of the time until Spring.

The diseases of Bees and their remedies.

THe Bee is subject unto the Plague, in which case there is no more Sovereign a Medicine for them, then presently to carry them far off; they are troubled with the Flux of the Bel­ly in the beginning of the Spring, when the Spourges are in the flower, and the Elme-trees bring forth their Seed, where they are given to feed greedily, and with great Stomacks, having fasted all Winter, and they be so desirous to eat of these new and young Flowers, as some folk are to eat of new Apples, and thereupon they die quickly, if it be not speedily fore-seen. For this cause you must quickly help this Flux of the Belly, with the Rinds or Seeds of Pomgrannets dried, pounded and [Page 125] serced, and afterwards mixed with Honey, and sprinkled with sweet VVine, or with Honied-water, where­in hath been boiled Rosemary, or with Marselles Figs, which have been boiled long in water.

Bees ore often sick when there is great store of Flowers; for the Bees thereupon labour rather to make great store of Honey then any young Bees, and so it cometh to pass that many die of excessive toil and travel; where­fore when in the Spring time the Mea­dows and Fields are full of Flowers, it will be good every third day to stop up the places whereat they go in and out of their Hives, leaving only a few little holes, but such as the Bees can­not go out at, that so they may be turned from making of Honey, and also when they perceive that they can­not fill up all their waxen Chambers [Page 126] with Honey, they may apply them­selves to fill them with young Bees.

They fall into a Consumption and dry all away when they have indured a very great heat or cold, and it is evi­dently derceived; for it is often seen, that one beareth out of the Hive the body of another that is dead, and and some of those that are within a Hive become pensive and sad after the man­ner of a general mourning, which when it happeneth to them, they must have meat made of Honey, boiled and beat­en with Galls or dry Roses.

Sometimes there is such store of Combs made, as that for want of Bees they stand empty, whereupon it co­meth, that they rot and destroy the Honey by their rottenness, and the spoil of the Honey causeth the Bees to [Page 127] die; for to remedy this you must put two Swarms into one Hive, or else cut away the putrified Combs with a very sharp Knife or other well whetted Tool.

The gathering of Honey, for which there is so much labour taken all tbe year, is chiefly effected at three seve­ral time, as shortly after the Spring, all the Summer, and in the beginning of Autumn; but there cannot any prefixed day or certain time be ap­pointed for the same; seeing it de­pendeth upon the finishing of the Combs, for if you draw them out be­fore they be throughly wrought, the Bees will grow malecontented, and cease to work any more, by reason of the thirst which they endure. The time of gathering Honey is known by the Bees ceasing to make any great noise, but turning the same into a soft and low [Page 128] buzzing; as also if the holes which are above are stopt with VVax, and if the Bees drive out the Drones, which are like unto Bees, but a greater beast, and altogether unprofitable, and with­out taking any pains; for they gather no Food, but eat up that which others bring in. The Hour of taking the Combs is most commonly in the Mor­ning or Evening; For it is not good to disquiet or trouble them in the heat of the day: The Hives must not be wholly emptied, and so all the Fruit taken out, but there must be left a­bout a fifth part as well in Spring as in Summer; but in Autumn two parts must be left, and a third taken; for by this means you shall not much dis­content them, but shall leave behind abundantly behind for them to feed upon, The gathering of Honey most commonly used and reasonable, is but to take the ripest Combs, and those [Page 129] which are best perfected, and with all of them unto two thirds; If the Hive be but halfe full of Honey, then but the halfe of that to be taken; and if it be under halfe full, then proportiona­bly; you must make them come forth with the smoke of Neats-dung, or of Galbanum, or wild Mallowr, and with the Juice of this Herb annoint his face and hands which shall gather the Honey, to keep him that he be not stung; or which is better, let him have a thin hood to compass and go over his face, head and neck, and Gloves on his hands; and by this means he shall see at his pleasure what he goeth about to do, and yet be free from the danger of the Bees stinging; but notwithstanding that you take from their work of Honey and VVax; yet you should not kill them, nor drive them far away if it be possible, but keep them to draw more profit [Page 130] out of them afterwards, and when there is no hope of good of them by by reason of their oldness; even then you must not use any ingrateful cruelty towards them, as murtherously to massacre them instead of recom­pence.

In the Countrey of Tuscany in re­membrance of the beautifulness of this poor Creature, it is forbidden upon a great penalty to kill Bees, so long as possibly by any means they may be kept alive; when you are to take out any of their Combs; therefore, you must smoke them in such sort, that they may withdraw themselves into the top or covering of the Hive, and not to come forth, or else you shall make them come forth; the covering of the Hive being taken away and a Sack tied to the mouth of the Hive, so smoking the Bees, they will betake [Page 131] themselves into the Sack, which must be tied and laid upon the ground until such time as the Honey be taken away at leasure; After this, the Hive must be set to the mouth of the Sack, and the covering put upon it again, that so the Bees may return and enter [...] their house again to begin th [...] work anew, or else to set near unto the Hive you intend to geld, another empty Hive, which shall be perfumed and hang'd about with sweet smelling Herbs, to intice them thereunto

The Combs being taken away, shall be carried to the place where you in­tend to make the Honey, and stop­ing the Windows of this place, pre­vent the coming of Bees thereinto; for they will busily seek the Treasure that they have lost, and therefore to cut off all means of entrance for them into this place, you must there raise [Page 132] a smoke, which may drive away [...] which shall assay to come in.

You must drein your Honey the same day that you have taken out your Combs, although they be warm and somewhat hot; and for the doing thereof the Combs must be set one a­gainst another in a Willow or Osier basket, wrought very clear, and fashio­ned like unto an Hypocras bag; After that you have cleansed away from the Combs the Seed of the young brood, and all manner of other filth, let the Honey run through the basket into a bason, then put it into an Earthen Vessel, which must for some small time be left open, till it hath done boil­ing and casting forth of its froth; this done, the pieces and lumps of Combs shall be taken out of the basket and pressed, and there will Honey come out of them, but not so good as the [Page 133] former, which must be put by it self, that the pure, and that which is indeed very excellent, may not be corrupted thereby; [...] that the Combs are throughly pressed and washed in sweet water, they shall be cast into a Copper or Brass Kettle with some water, and so set upon a soft fire to melt; this Wax thus melted shall be strained, let­ting it run out into water, and then being melted again with water, you shall make it up into what form you will

The good Farmer maketh gain of every thing, and I dare boldly say, that there are few things found about a Countrey-house which are of greater increase and advantage then Honey. Again we see what Traffick the Spaniards make with it, who through the barrenness of their Countrey, having no other means to inrich themselves, [Page 134] do keep a great number of Bees. In like manner do the Inhabitants about Narbone, who send amongst us great quantities of Honey, which we make serve for our use; but I would advise such as make a Traffick hereof, that they would not gather any Honey but that which is good; For the labour and cost is no less to nourish and keep bad Bees, then those which are good.

The marks therefore of good Honey are, that it be of a Yellow Colour, pleasant smell, pure, neat, and shining in every part, sweet and very pleasant to the Tast, and yet notwithstanding this having a certain kind of acrimony of shardness, of an indifferent consi­stence betwixt thick and thin, hanging together in it self it such sort, as that being lifted up with the fingers end, it keepeth together in manner of a direct line, without any breaking [Page 135] assunder; it must not be long in boil­ing, and yield but small store of Scum when it doth boil, and that which is gathered in Spring and Summer is much better then that which is gather­ed in Winter.

Honey the newer it is, the better it is, clean contrary to Wine, which is more commended when it is old then when it is new; this also is to be mar­ked in Honey, that as Wine is best at the Mid-Cask, and Oil at the top, so Honey is best towards the bottom; for by how much Honey is more firm and heavy, so much it is the better as being the sweeter.

The use of honey serveth for many things, it prolongeth life in old Folks, and in them which ate of a cold Complexion; that it is so, we see that the Bee which is but a lit­tle [Page 136] Creature, feeble and weak, liveth Nine or Ten years by her feeding upon Honey: To be short, it pre­serveth and keepeth from putrefa­ction and corruption, which is the cause that we have so many Compo­sitions made therewith, as Honey of Violets, Roses, Rosemary-flow­ers, Mirtles, Bugloss, and such like. We have have here in England a Drink made of Honey, which is far more pleasant, and more wholsom then many mighty Wines, and it it is called Mead, or rather Metheglin, this kind of Drink is very good against Quartain Agues, ill dispo­sitions of the body, Diseases of the Brain, as the Falling-sickness, Apo­plexy and Palsey, in which cases Wine is forbidden.

[Page 137] The Countrey-men of Provence, and the Italians, do make March-panes of Honey, and Almonds, &c. which are singular good for them to eat which are in a Consumption; as also to cause spetting, many other Vertues there are in Honey, which I shall here omit, and conclude with the discourse of an ancient Gentle­man, who lived a retired life in a small Cottage in Kent, to some strangers who visited him, wherein I shall a lit­tle further acquaint you with the Com­mon-wealth of Bees, which is nei­ther impertinent to the matter in hand nor tedious to make you weary. It follows thus.

Gentlemen I have for the space of twenty years past dwelt in this place, taking no delight in any thing, but only in keeping my Bees, and observing them, and this I find, which [Page 138] had I not seen, I should hardly have believed, that they use as great wit by indution and art by workmanship, as ever man hath, or can, using between themselves no less justice then wis­dom, and yet not so much wisdom as Majesty, insomuch as thou wouldst think that they were a kind of people, a Common-wealth for Plato, where they all labour, all gather Honey, fly altogether in a Swarm, eat in a Swarm, and sleep in a Swarm, so neat and finely, that they abhor nothing so much as uncleanness, drinking pure and clean water, delighting in sweet and sound Musick, which if they hear but once out of Tune, they fly out of sight,, and therefore are they called the Muses birds; because they follow not the sound so much as the consent; they live under a Law, using great reverence to their Elder; as to the wi­ser.

[Page 139] They choose a King, whose Pal­lace they frame, both braver in shew, and stronger in substance, whom if they find to fall, they establish again in his Throne, guarding him continual­ly with no less duty then devotion, as it were for fear he should miscarry, whom they tender with such faith and favour, that whithersoever he flyeth they follow him, and if he cannot fly they carry him; whose life they so love, that they will not (for his safe­ty) stick to die; such care have they for his health, on whom they build all their hope, if their Prince die, they know not how to live, they languish, weep, sigh, neither in tending their work, nor keeping their old society; and that which is most marvelous, and almost incredible; if there be any that hath disobeyed his Commandments, either on purpose or unwittingly, he killeth himself with his own Sting, [Page 140] as Evecutioner of his own stubborn­ness.

The King himself hath his Sting, which he useth rather for honour then punishment, and yet albeit they live under a Prince, they have their Privi­ledge, and as great Liberties as streight Laws.

They call a Parliament, wherein they consult for Laws, Statutes, Pe­nalties, choosing Officers, and crea­ting their King, not by affection, but reason not by the greater part, but the better, and if such a one by chance be chosen as is bad, then is there such ci­vil War and dissention, that until he be pluckt down, there can be no friend­ship

Every one hath his Office, some trimming the Honey, some working [Page 141] the Wax, some framing the Combs, and that so artificially, that Dedalus could not with greater art or excellency bet­ter dispose the orders, measures, pro­portions, distinctions, Joints and Circle; divers hew, others polish, all are careful to do their work so strongly, as they may resist the Craft of such Drones as seek to live by their labours, which ma­keth them to keep watch and ward, as living in a Camp to others, and as in a Court to themselves, such a care of chastity, that they never ingender, such a▪ desire of cleanness, that there is not so much as meat in all their Hives; when they go forth to work they mark the wind, the Clouds, and whatsoe­ver doth threaten either their ruine or Reign, and having gathered out of every Flower Honey; they return laden in their Mouths, Thighs, Wings,, and all the body, whom they that tarried at home receive readi­ly, [Page 142] as easing their backs of so great burdens.

The King himself not idle, goeth up and down intreating, threatning, commanding, using the Councel of a Sequel, but not loosing the dignity of a Prince, preferring those that la­bour to greater authority, and punish­ing those that loiter with due severity; all which things being much admira­ble, yet this is most, that they are so profitable, bring unto man both Ho­ney and Wax, each so wholsom, that we all desire it; both so necessary that we cannot be without them. Here is a Common-wealth which oftentimes calling to my mind, I cannot chuse but commend above any that either I have heard or read of, where the King is not to talk of, where there is such homage, such love, such lobour, that I have wished oftentimes rather be a Bee, then not be as I should be.

[Page 143] In this little Garden with these Hives, in this house, have I spent the better part of my life, yea and the best, and thus contented with a mean E­state, and never curious of the high Estate, I found such quiet, that me thinks he which knoweth least, liveth longest; insomuch that I choose rather to be an Hermit in a Cave, then a Councellor in the Court.


Books Printed for Richard Mills, at the Pestle and Morter, without Temple-Bar,

Pandion and Amphigenia, or the History of the Coy Lady, adorned with Skulptures, qy John Crowne in large Octavo Price 3. s. bound,

Divine Contentment; or a Medicine for a discontented man, and a Confession of Faith and other Poems upon several subjects, by Edw. Manlove of Ashbourn in the County of Darhy Esq [...]. s. bound,

Chausers Ghost, or a piece of Antiquity, containing Twelve pleasant [...]ables of Ovid, with the History of Prince Corniger, and his Companion Sir Crucifrag, by a lover of Antiquity, 1. s. bound.

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