ἘΥ [...]ΤΤΕΛΙΣΤΗΣ [...] ἘΥΛΤΤΕΛΙ [...]ΟΜΕΝΟ [...] OR, THE EVANGELIST YET Evangelizing.

Submitted to the Judgment and Censure of the Churches of England and Ireland.

By DANIEL BURSTON B. D. And Preacher of Gods Word in the City of Waterford.

Eph. 4.

11. And he gave some Apostles, and some Prophets, and some Evange­lists, and some Pastors, and Teachers.

12 For the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of the Ministery, for the edifying of the body of Christ.

13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledg of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.

Duo sunt vocabula quae non recté accepta fallunt sc. temporarium, & extraor­dinarium. Sarav. de divers. gradibus, &c. cap. 16.
Quanquam non nego quin Apostolos postea qu [...] (que) vel saltem eorum loco Evange­listas excitavit Deus, ut nostro quidem saeculo factum est, Calv. Instit. l. 4. c. 3. sect. 4.
As the primitive Churches were undoubtedly governed by the Apostles, and their immediate Successors, the first and best Bishops; so it cannot in rea­son or charity be supposed, that all Churches in the world, should either be ignorant of the rule by them prescribed, or so soon deviate from their Divine and holy pattern, King Charls the first, [...]. c. 17.

DUBLIN: Printed by John Crook, Printer to the Kings most Excellent Majestie, and are to be sold by Samuel Dancer, Bookseller in Castlestreet, 1662.

TO His EXCELLENCY JAMES Duke, Marquess and Earl of Ormond, Earl of Ossory and Brecknock, Viscount Thurles, Lord Baron of Arclo and Lanthony, Lord of the Regalities and Liberties of the County of Tipperary, Chancel­lor of the University of Dublin, Lord Lieutenant General and General Governor of His Majesties King­dom of Ireland, Lord Lieutenant of the County of Sommerset, one of the Lords of His Majesties most Honourable Privy Councils of His Majesties King­doms of England, Scotland and Ireland, Lord Steward of His Majesties Houshold, Gentleman of His Maje­sties Bed-Chamber, and Knight of the most noble Or­der of the Garter.

May it please your Grace,

THat little Presents have been acceptable to mighty Princes, is their usual Apology, who draw those precedents into examples; but it cannot be mine, in consecrating this small Tract to Your Excellencies hands: They pre­sented their Governors with what was their own, I offer to your Grace, not what is mine, but Yours: You, as his Majesties Vicegerent, are appointed to defend the faith, and under him and our Saviour, are the chief Officer, both over the Civil and Ecclesiastical affairs of this Kingdom. This Discourse concerns the faith in its visible profession, and the order settled by Christ, for the Government of his Church; and therefore it is yours by those Titles. The weak­ness of the stile, and manifold imperfections of the Com­poser, would deter me from returning you what is Yours, in such a ragged dress, and by such an unknown hand; [Page] were not I verily perswaded, that as his Sacred Majestie is Divinely chosen, like another Zerubbabel, to raise a ruined Temple, so Your Excellency is one of the most eminent of the Subordinate Rulers, to carry on that glorious work; wherein as well poor Labourers must be employed to remove the rubbish, and clear the foundation, as Master-workmen, to rear and compleat the Fabrick. Il­lustrious Sir, I humbly beg my admission into the Roll of those Gibeonites: Industry and due observance of my Su­periors directions, are my onely commendatory Letters; if their certificate may procure me the office. I wil oblige my self to what conformity they enjoyn me in my work. But where­fore this? Behold I see the Head-stone already brought forth with shouting, and hear the Inhabitants of these se­veral Kingdoms from every quarter, crying, Grace, grace unto it. Now God Almighty bless our Zerubbabel, strengthen his hands, level all Mountains before him, make him the blessed finisher of what he hath happily begun, give him and his Kingdoms peace out of this Temple, and cause its glory to exceed the glory of the former; and may your Grace live long, and long to see it; and abundantly share in the comforts of it: May you no minute of your life be unassured of your indearment to God, the King, the Church and Kingdom. Let the Everlasting eyes be always over you, to direct; and let the Everlasting arms be always under you, to uphold and protect you in all your ways: And when full of days, full of honors, full of all joy and peace in believing, you shall be gathered to your Fa­thers, may you be translated, and for ever fixed as a Star of the greatest magnitude, transcendently differing from others in glory. This the God of all blessings effectually grant, as is most affectionately implored by, My Lord,

Your most obedient Servant, and daily Orator, Dan. Burston.

To the Rigidest Dissenters of the Presbyterial Judgment.


FOr your sakes is this Treatise principally in­tended, to whom therefore but unto you, can I direct the Preface. Others, who own the truth thereby maintained, are already therein confirmed, by Arguments, which to indifferent Umpires are unanswerable. My designe is, neither to broach a Novel­ty, nor to get a Party to own an old (though by you endeavoured to be antiquated) truth: But to free it from causless opposition. How farr I have done, or come short of it, I am unfit to Judge. God and my conscience wit­nesseth, my sincere labour to do it. Arguments on both sides, I have diligently, and indifferently weighed, and never witting­ly cast the scale, where the weight of faith or reason did not carry it. Own what is of God; dispute, and shew me the er­rour of what is mine. I will more readily retract it, then I published i [...]. 'Tis truth I seek, not name, nor victory, let her triumph, I can as cheerfully follow chained to her chariot, as rid in it.

If you do prepare for opposition, be pleased to remember, we dispute about a Divine Intstiution, if we must fight, let us try it out, within sacred lists; And not disorderly skir­mish, about the vices, or virtues of men, least we elevate Gods, and Christs authority, to establish man's. Outward P [...]ety, zeal, and earnestness, in, or for a way, or profession, are no i [...] ­fallible marks of the truth of it: Fairer flowers grow oftner in the by way, then in the road. A Divine right consists in the Divinity of the instituter of an ordinance, nor is it more Di­vine, in the zeal, or less divine in the negligence of its Admi­nistrators. [Page 2] For then God were beholding to man for the cre­dit of his institutions. Besides zeal may be found in Idolaters, and persecutors; Rom. 10.2.3. For I bear them record they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge, for they being ignorant of Gods righteousness, and endeavouring to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God. Remisness may creep upon the Ephesine Angel. Rev. 2.4. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love. Whither, Timothy, or some other Bishop, was this Angel, I cannot determine; but although many of the An­cients say that Timothy and no other is meant under that deno­mination; this is most true, who ever the Angel was, he was a true, and had been an active Minister of Christ. One who had tryed those, who said they were Apostles, and were not, and had found them lyars. Rev. 2. The Pharasees in Christs time, and Monks, and Friers in ours, pretended, and do pretend, enough external holiness; and acted, and do act, too much zeal, and earnestness, in maintainance of their Traditions, and Inventions. But our Lord Jesus did not approve them, neither do you (I hope) applaud these. Do not commend in your selves, and cause, what you condemn in them, and theirs. Who estimate truth's not by their own natures, but by the moroseness, or rigidness of their asserters, and account that most true whose defenders are most precise, shall never be free of a scepticalness, and ir­resolution, of what is truth, either so long as there is hypocrisy, or selflove in the world,Nunquam rectum erit judicium, nisi quod ex veri­tate rei fera­tur; nam si­mul ac perso­nae prodeunt in medium oculos, & sen­sus, in se con­vertunt, ut ve­ritas protinus evanescat. Calv. in loc. or as Sathan can transform himself in­to an Angel of light. Our Saviours councel is most safe, viz. not to judge by the appearance, but to judge righteous Judgment. Joh. 7.26. The Pharisees had the appearance on their sides, Christ had righteousness on his, who looked at the former, censured him for a Sabbath breaker, who eyed the latter, condemned them for Judges of evil thoughts. Calvin's note upon the place, is excellent. He saith, Judgment which is not given according to the truth of things, can never be just, for so soon as persons come be­fore us, our eyes, and senses turn towards them, but truth vanisheth. Thus he. While Apostles lived, how did deceivers vye with them, in appearing Sanctity, whose hypocritical glimmerings, so dazled the weak eyes of the giddy multitude, as almost to withdraw them from truth. Take a few of the many com­plaints, of one Apostle about this matter. Rom. 16.18. For they that be such, serve not the Lord Jesus Christ, but their own bel­ly, and by good words, and fair speeches, deceives the hearts of the [Page 3] simple. Col. 2.18. Let no man beguile you of your reward in a volun­tary humility, and worshipping of Angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puft up by his fleshly mind. Indeed outward strictness may magnifie our inventions for a long time, (it enlivened, and prolonged the dayes of Monkery, beyond the age of Methusalem) the want of it may vilifie divine institutions, to prejudiced, or unexamining persons; But when once the con­trarietie of those forgeries, unto a sacred rule is evidenced then those who see and own it, shall come off with shame, and losse, and those who see, and will not own it, will run into worse extreams, they for the most part turning Atheists, and re­fuse to serve any god at all, since they may not worship their Diana's. Men naturally love their own, for it they will wrestle, fight, and lay down their lives; thus Israel of old did for Mo­loch. Ezech. 16.20, 21. Moreover thou hast taken thy Sons, and thy Daughters, which thou hast born unto me, and these hast thou sacrificed to them to be devoured; Is this of thy whoredomes a small matter? that thou hast slain my children, and caused them to pass through the fire for them? Thus Baals Priests presented him with drink-offerings of their bloods. 1 Kings. 18.28. And they cryed loud, and cut themselves after their manner, with knives and lancers, till the blood gushed out. This it seems was customa­ry with them, they did no new thing, but what was usual, or after their manner for them to do. These delusions, no doubt their faction called devotions, and I know not what moral reason can be assigned, why that Nation was so inclinable to Idola­try at every turn, unless this extraordinary Idolatrous zeal, turned their stomach against Gods true Worship, which might, and ought more temperately to be celebrated; Look we there­fore all of us, who would not be deceived to the straitness of the rule, not to the bendings of mens affections, for certainly, ei­ther to be fiery hot in a false worship, or stone cold in the true; issue forth (though at divers heads) from one, and the same Fountain of self-love, and meet at last, in one broad channel of opposition unto truth.

Mistake me not (My Brethren) as if I intended to justifie you, either in your arrogated zeal and sanctity, or in your bold charges of tepidity, and luke-warmness against our former Bi­shops. I have only argued hitherto upon your own Hypothesis, & modestly intimated, that (notwithstanding your pretended zeal) you ought to have forborn your outragious violence, in extruding of an order of Divine Institution, though your charge [Page 4] charge of personal failings in some Officers had been true. Much more should you have held your hands, when some of your Consciences could not but bear you witness, that you accused many, if not most of them falsely; for had all the Bi­shops been remiss, or luke-warm, you could have had neither occasion, nor pretence to cry out so pitiously of persecution un­der them. A cry, which formerly procured them envy, and malice; you pity and compassion, but how deservedly, im­partial Posterity may determine, when the faithful Records of those, and the immediatly following times shall exhibit, many of your loudest complainers, equally as violent, and seditious against all other Church Governments, although of their own erection.

But granting, without disadvantage to truth; that some of the Bishops were faulty; others were not so, even by the con­fession of the most Rigid of your Party; And what if more had been blame worthy, what is that to their Order? Judas be­trayed, St. Peter denied, all the rest of the Apostles forsook Christ at his apprehension, & St. Thomas doubted the truth of his Resurrection, but who ever charged their crimes upon the Apostolate?1 Sam. 2.17. Hophni and Phineas (the high Priests) were out­ragiously wicked, but who excuseth the peoples improvement of their distast against them, to an abhorrency of the offerings of the Lord? Who blames the fountain, which after long running passeth through miry, or boggy places? If the abuse, or ac­cidental corruption of things, take away their essence, and use, abolish we Preaching, the Sacraments, and the Scripture, as well as Episcopacy.Nihil boni aut liciti est omittendum propter scan­dalum accep­tum hominum pharisaico in­genio praedito­rum. Amos. cas. consc. lib. 5. ca. 11. thes. 12. 'Tis a notable case of Conscience, and well resolved by Amesius, That no good, or lawful thing is to be omitted, because men of a Pharisaical Spirit take scandal against it.

But you will say, the estate of the inferiour Clergy, and People, was corrupt under the Episcopal discipline.

I answer, your endeavours to vilifie the former are sufficient­ly known, and I doubt not, but your partiality, and unbro­therliness, (to say no worse of it) will in due time be manife­sted to the world by an abler Pen; I am resolved to deal libe­rally with you, and to argue by concession. Granting therefore, corrupt humours were formerly latent, in the body of the Mi­nistry' Yet,

First, 'twas not, because there was no rule to restrain them. View The Ecclesiastical Canons in England, A. C. 1603. Can. [Page 5] 75. And the other English Ecclesiastical Constitutions in A. C. 1640. And then judge, whether they tolerate, or prohibit vi­ces in the Ministry. Who reads them shall find our Church there­in making whips of great Cords, to drive unclean persons out of the Temple. But because the books are not in all mens hands, I will ttanscribe a passage out of the latter, worthy of golden characters, and everlasting memory; It runs thus. This present Synod straitly chargeth all Clergy men in this Church, Constituti­ons, and Ca­nons ecclesia­stical agreed upon by the Archbishops and Bishops in the year 1640 Canon. 10. that setting before their eyes the glory of God, the holiness of their cal­ling, and the edification of the people committed to their charge, they carefully avoid all excesse, and disorder, and that by their Christian and religious conversation, they shine forth as lights unto all others in all godliness, and honesty; And we also require all those, unto whom the government of the Clergy of this Church is committed, that they set themselves to encourage godliness, and gravity, sobriety, and all un­blameable conversation in the Ministers of this Church. And that according to the power with which they are intrusted, they diligently labour, by the execution of the above named Canons, and all other Ec­clesiastical provisions made for this end, to reform all offensive, and scandalous persons (if any be) in the Ministery. as they tender the welfare and prospering of piety, and religion, and as they will answer to God, for those scandals which through their remisness, or neglect shall arise, or grow, in this Church of Christ. Thus for the Canon,

2. Such corrupt humours were not broken forth into a Gangraena. Consult your own Mr. Edwards, his four years observation of the state of the Ministery, after your discipline claimed Praelacy in the Church of England, and compare it with the worst, which hath, or can be said of the Clergy, in fourscore years before, and Judge righteous Judgment.Constitutions in 1603. Can. 26.

That the people were prophane, is to be bewailed, not up­braided as the fault of a Discipline. They were so, both in Christs, and the Apostles times, and under their Government, neither was due provision wanting in our time, to restrain it, as in theirs, though succeselesly in both. Do not therefore im­pose upon weak, and crazed Judgments, that for a cause, which is none, and suppose the worst, even that too much indulgency was used towards those offenders, yet consider frail humanity, wherein thy self bears a share, call to mind the distraction, which fear of widening a Schisme, might raise, even in the most sober spirits, thou wilt find the very reason, why the power to revenge disobediennce, and prophaness, was not more vigo­rously put forth, and executed; Did'st thou, or the men of [Page 6] thy party occasion the fault, by your seditious, and heady courses? do not acts the Devils part, and accuse the faulty. our Governours faces could not be towards you, but their backs must be upon others.

There are two more grand exceptions (not for any weight in themselves, but for their prevalency upon some mens capaci­ties) against Episcopacy, the former is drawn from the Cove­nant, the latter from the Lordly titles of the Bishops. Reader lend me a little patience, while I answer both in order.

Obj. First, we are bound by a Covenant, as well to extir­pate Praelatical Episcopacy, as Popery.

Rep. I know this Covenant pretends both, unto the Word of God, and the Laws of the land, for its president and warrant, but it cites no parallel case,Philip Nyes covenant with narrative Pag. 12. either in the one, or the other; This hath not only been observed by your Covenanters, but one of the compilers of this Covenant, durst tell the world, not ma­ny years after its rigorous imposition upon the Nations, (as vouched by both those Authorities) that, We read not either in divine, or humane history, of the like extant in any age, as to the matter, persons, and other circumstances thereof. History, and Law cases, I leave to the learned in those Sciences, if any yet seek farther satisfaction in those particulars then the printed Decla­rations of the several Parliaments of these Kingdoms, against that confederacy; neither shall I trouble my self to seek after Mr. Ny's concealed other circumstances; but will endeavour to prove that both for the matter of the Covenant, and the persons of the Covenanters, there was something unpresidented, both in the Composition ard imposition of it, and consequently that it ought not to be tryed against the Praelacy, or Episcopacy of the Church of England.

I begin with the matter of the Covenant; Expect not (Rea­der) that I should load my Pen, or thy patience, with the whole bulk of itsBest re­formed Chur­ches, liberties of the King­dom, highest Judicatories, nighest con­junction and uniformity. aequivocal, Malignants, Incendiaries, evil Instru­ments, Schism. Censorious, andExtirpa­tion of Praela­cy, or Church Government by Archbi­shops, Bishops and encourag­ment to other Churches to enter into the same, or a like association or Covenant. Injurious expressi­ons; the two latter misbecoming reformed Christians of an Evangelical Spirit, and the former most necessary to be avoi­ded, in all Oaths, which exact, or expect performance. All of them vastly different from the Scripture qualifications of a Covenant. Jer. 4.2. Thou shalt swear the Lord liveth, in truth, in righteousness, and in Judgment. My intent is to keep close, and solely, to the matter of Episcopacy, covenanted against. The word Episcopacy, is of a doubtful signification, our Cove­nanters found it to be so, when to preserve their Government, [Page 7] and ministerial order, from extrusion by the Covenant, they were necessitated to distinguish betwixt Scripture Episcopacy, and Bishops, and English Episcopacy, and Bishops. But this Cobweb distinction doth not mend the matter of their Cove­nant, every one sees Passion, Self, and Faction in it, and will believe it, till the Covenanters shall soberly, and convincingly prove English Episcopacy, or our Churches retention of an or­der, distinct from, and superiour unto Presbyters, to be Anti­scriptural; the contrary is endeavoured to be evidenced by the following Treatise. And if I have successefully accom­plished it, disingaged men will soon resolve, that the matter of any Covenant approved by God in Scripture cannot be Paral­lel to this national Covenant, which forswears an order of Di­vine Institution. And if this Covenant do oblige Christs office of Legislator, or high Priest, is vainly confirmed to him by his fathers oath. Heb. 7.21. when mens subsequent oaths, may disanul the Government, and reject his instituted orders of Ministers in his Church. This single confidence of opposing, and the thrusting forth of the Church, an order divinely ap­pointed, is sufficient, not only to demonstrate the corrupt materials of a Covenant, and the incapacity of any persons whatsoever, to compose or impose it, but also to denominate it (with what ever titles byassed men apparel it) a league with hell, and death, not a Covenant with the Lord. An engage­ment not fitted to procure Christ an unity, but to nourish and foment Diabolical divisions. Neither let any imagine that these terms drop only from the pens of enemies, to the Cal­vinistical model; for learned Zanchy, (as Dr. Ferne, Ferns cer­tain conside­rations of pre­sent concern­ment, touch­ing the refor­med Church of England Pag, 107. London 1653. from Dr. Du Moulin quotes him) affirms as much, he saith, Testor me co­ram Deo, &c. Or, I protest before God, and in my conscience, that I hold them no better then Schismaticks, that account, or make it a part of the reformation of the Church, to have no Bishop's. Thus Zanchy. But leaving the matter of the Covenant, come we now.

Secondly to to the persons Covenanting. They are consi­derable either.

1. As such, as are requisite to concur in the composition, and imposition of a lawful, and obliging Covenant, & if such, or any of them were wanting in the framing of this covenant. Then,

2. As such as did compose, and impose it. We find a failer in the former, and therefore may call the persons subject, to our primary disquisition.

First, Persons deficient; the chief Magistrate is a person ab­solutely [Page 8] necessary to concur in, and perhaps to contrive a natio­nal Covenant. 2. Chron. 23.3. And all the congregation made a Covenant with the King, in the house of God, and he said unto them, behold the Kings Son shall reign, as the Lord hath said of the Sons of David. ver. 16. And Jehojada made a Covenant between him and all the people, and between the King, that they should be the Lords people. 2 Chron. 34.31, 32. And the King stood in his place, and made a Covenant before the Lord, to walk after the Lord, and to keep his Commandements, and his Testimonies, and his Statutes, with all his heart, and with all his soul to perform the words of the Covenant, which are written in this book, and he caused all that were present in Jerusalem, and Benjamin, to stand to it; Read also Ne­hem. 13.25. These were all Covenants made with, and by the consent, and contrivance of the King, or chief Governour of Judea, neither do I find any more then one called a Covenant in Scripture, which was made without, or against the King. It is recorded Hos. 10.1, 2, 3, 4. Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself, according to the multitude of hi [...] fruit, he hath encreased the Altars, according to the goodness of his land, they have made goodly Jmages; their heart is divided; now shall they be found faulty; he shall break down their Jmages, he shall spoil their Altars, for now they shall say, we have no King, be­cause we feared not the Lord, what then should a King do unto us, the have spoken words swearing falsely, in making a Covenant, thus Judg­ment springeth up as Hemlock in the furrows of the field. All the for­mer Covenants are directly contrary to our Covenant, for o [...] King not only was no party in its composition, & disowned it af­ter its imposition upon the people, but commanded all his Sub­jects upon their Allegiance not to take it, nor was this only hi [...] Judgment in the heat of the War (when that Proclamation i [...] sued) but afterwards when God by unparrelled sufferings & i [...] dignities had prepared his royal soul for celestial enjoyment with the Spirits of just men made perfect, he doth in his king Portraicture, which are the last and most spiritual breathings o [...] the soul of that incomparable Martyr, thus express himsel [...] The Presbyterian Scots are not to be hired at the ordinary rate [...] Auxiliaries, [...]. Cap. 14. nothing will induce them to ingage, till those that ca [...] them in have pawned their souls to them by a solemn league and C [...] ­venant. And again, Nor can such after contract, devised, and im­posed by a few men, in a declared party, without my consent, & without any like power, or precedent from Gods, or mans laws, be eve [...] thought by judicious men sufficient, either to absolve, or slacken th [...] [Page 9] moral, and eternal bonds of duty, which lye upon all my Subjects consciences both to God and me. The Covenant in Hosea, exact­ly agrees with ours, if which were our Covenanters President, may they know it is a Covenant signally witnessed against by the holy Ghost, and let them bewail all the Judgments, which it hath brought upon the Nations, and repent speedily of their perjury, lest it bring more. But we will proceed unto the se­cond sort of persons Covenanting, who are

2. Persons efficient. The first Movers of our Covenant were

First, The subordinate Magistrates and Ministers, both of them unqualified to make the Covenant, not onely because they were separate from the chief Magistrate, but because they were in Covenant before, and bound as fast as Religion and Law could tye them. All of them by the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, and some of them with the superadded Oath of Canonical obedience. All which Oath's, as they were taken in the name, and presence of the most high God, so they were prior and precedent to the Covenant. Now to evince the com­petency of such persons, to make a Covenant contrary to their former Covenant, must with all prove it lawful, and in the power of a Christian to free himself of the obligation of one Oath by swearing another, that he will not keep it. And then 'tis meer ignorance, and want of using his priviledge, which draws the guilt of perjury upon any called a Christian. Then Servants may desert their Masters, Subjects rebel against their Prince, notwithstanding all former contracts and Oath's, to serve and obey them, if they take a new Covenant to the con­trary. Then the Principles of reformed Protestant Divines are more perjurious, then the resolutions of Jesuitical Casuists,Azo [...] Institu [...] ­mo [...]al. To. 1. lib. 11. cap. 6. Sect. primo qua ri [...]ur Lug­duni 1602. who say, that If a man makes a promise to his neighbour, and af­terwards swear to do the same thing for a third person, his Consci­ence is bound notwithstanding his subsequent Oath to the latter, to stand to his word given to the former. And then all distinction betwixt temerarious Oaths, and Oaths made in righteousness, truth, and Judgment, may easily be removed and taken away, to the utter abolition of all faith in societies. Calvin, tells us that a temerarious Vow, or Oath is; viz.Qui vovet quod cum vo­catione sua pugnat, teme­rarius est Calv. Instit. Lib. 4. ca. 13 Sect. 3. Dico omnia non legitima, nec rite concepta vota, ut apud deum nihil sunt, sic nobis irrita esse debere. Calv. Instit. lib. 4 ca. 13, 20. Who ever vows any thing contrary to his calling, is temerarious. Now whither our Cove­nanters did Vow after that manner, let their own Consciences, [Page 10] and unprejudiced men determine. If they did, may they consider what Calvins Judgment is of such a Vow,Vota in con­siderate sus­cepta necessa­rio sunt rescin­denda. Id. ibid. or Oath: He saith. I say all unlawful or misconceived vows, as they are no­thing in Gods accompt, so ought we to esteem them unobliging. And again. Vows inconsiderately taken, not only do not oblige, but are necessary to be cancelled. And furthermore. I say there can be no obligation, where God abrogates what man confirms. Suffice this to be spoken of the first sort of persons efficient.Ego nullum fuisse vincu­lum dico, ubi quod homo confirmat, de­us abrogat. Id. ibid.

2. Persons absolutely resolved, ere they composed that Co­venant, took it themselves, or imposed it upon others to make a Schism, not only from Episcopacy, which the Covenant ab­horred, but from Presbytery, on whose favour it seemed to be framed; and therefore they procured the Covenant to be writ­ten in such an ambiguous style, as it might equally patronize their new fangled notions, as Presbytery. Thus the Dissenting Brethren maintain against the Assembly,Reply of dissenting Brethren to the Assembly before the Committee for accomada­tion. Pag 89. before the Committee of Lords and Commons for accomodation. And were never (that I hear of) checked by that Committee, or by the Parlia­ment; contrariwise their papers are licensed by the Parliament to be Imprinted. They say, Whereas the conformity sworn in the Covenant, is now urged upon this occasion, and continually upon the like, turned as that great Argument against us in Pulpits, Pres­ses, and ordinary Treaties, as if what we desired were contrary there­unto: This Argument cannot hold against us, without an affixing of an interpretation upon that part of the Covenant, and that accor­ding to our Brethrens Principles only, who when we took this Na­tional Covenant were known to be of the same Principles we are now of. And yet this Covenant was professedly so attempered in the first framing of it, as that we of different judgments might take it, both parties being present, at the first framing of it in Scotland. I shall not aggravate this confession, let the sober Reader resolve how farr a Covenant thus attempered and framed, either obligeth the Conscience, or complies with the sin so heartily bewailed. Isa. 59.12.13. For our transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our sins testifie against us, for our transgressions are with us, and as for our sins we know them. In transgressing and lying a­gainst the Lord, and departing away from our God, speaking oppres­sion and revolt, conceiving, and uttering from the heart words of falsehood. This shall suffice in answer to the first popular Objection against Episcopacy. Proceed we to the

2 Obj. Some will say they are not simply enemies to Episco­pacy, though attended with some superiority over, and di­stinction [Page 11] from Presbyters. But this offends them, the former Bishops were Lord Bishops; and the present succeed them in those titles, which is most intolerable! It being so directly contrary to our Saviours express command; Mat. 20.25.26. But Jesus called them ( [...]) unto him, and said, you know that the Princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them but it shall not be so among you.

Res. I answer; the Relative pronounce ( [...]) or them, is diligently to be observed, which refers to [...], or the ten, mentioned in the foregoing verse, whose affectation, or assum­tion of any honorary title, is not recorded, but that they had indignation against their two fellow Apostles, or St. James and St. John; i. e. they were passionately distasted against the presum­ptuous request of those two Apostles, to have the chief places in Christs Kingdom bestowed upon them; wherein though the two Apostles were faulty, yet our Saviour compassionating their frailty, blames their brethrens indignation against them, by an illustration of the tens too nigh compliance with Gentile tyrants, in that their rage and passion. Whence we may ob­serve, that though the illustration speak of tyranical civil rule, yet the proposition illustrated relates unto Christs condemna­tion of Spiritual tyranny or rancour, and sensoriousness of Spi­rit of some Apostles towards others. Neither can we but by enforcing more from the Illustration, then is in the Proposition (which is irreconcileable to solid argumentation) infer any thing from this Text, against the present Titles of our Bishops.

But some will reply, and say, St. Luke repeating the same History, speaks of the Apostles coveting a Title, or who should be greatest. Luk. 22.25.

I answer, First, probably St. Luke doth not cite one and the same History, or refer to one and the same time, which St. Mathew for St. Mark: Mar. 10.41.42. aswell as St. Mathew assigns the indignation of the ten, for the occasion of Christs in­junction; whereas St. Luke saith it was the contenti [...]n of the twelve; how ever more particularly to explain St. Lukes testi­mony, we say.

Secondly, Christs condemning the affectation of greatness in in the Apostles, either condemns all assumption of honorifick Titles, and exercise of authority and dominion simply and abso­lutely▪ or limitedly, and under some qualification. If it be affir­med that he doth intend the former, I demand whither this [Page 12] be a particular precept, concerning only those times, and A­postles, or a general rule equally concerning them, and all succeeding Ministers and Christians. It being well known that many of Christs exhortations unto, and reproofs of his Apo­stles, concern all Christians, as represented in them: Allow the former, it is misalledged to disprove the present Titles of Church-officers; it being a particular case, and not to be drawn into president to the prejudice of any persons, whom it doth not nominate. Grant the latter. First, so far as concerns Apostles, or Ministers; it at once abrogates their power to exercise any Authority, or rule in the Church, or ac­cept any name, or title, not given them by Christ, during the time of his Legislation, or continuance upon earth; whereas no­thing is more plain, then both their exercise of Authority and Rule, read the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles to the Corinthi­ans, and unto Timothy; and their acceptation of new titles, the words [...], and [...], all con­taining honourable titles, common to Church-officers, and ci­vil Magistrates do as plainly evidence; they being never used of them in the Gospels, or before Christs ascension, but fre­quently in the Epistles, or afterwards. Do any say the holy Ghost imposed those names, which is all one as if Christ had given them ere the Ascension? I answer, this will not remove the inconvenience and contradiction, for if the former Scrip­ture had absolutely excluded Honorifick Titles; the holy Ghost could not have admitted them afterwards without in­consistency of his manifestations. Secondly, so far as it con­cerns the generality of Christians, it rescinds the tyes of al civil Authority, and prohibits the Christian Magistrate to re­ceive any honorary Titles, not expresly allowed him by the mouth of Christ, while upon the earth, then both which no­thing is more contrary to Scripture for Government, see Rom. 13.1. Let every soul be subject to the higher power, for there is n [...] power but of God, the powers that be (the power which then was, w [...] cruel, and persecuting Nero) are ordained of God. 1 Pet. 2.13. Subm [...]t your selves to every Ordinance of man for the Lords sake. whither it be to the King, as supreme. For Titles see Luk. 1.3 there St Luke calls Theophilus [...]. i. e. the best, the most po­tent Theophi­lus. most excellent Theophilus. Act 25.21. Nero is called Augustus, [...]. i. e. the di­vine, vene­rable, or to be worshiped. or sacred. Act. 26.25. there St. Paul calls Festus, The same word which is used by St. Luke of The­ophilus. most noble: We conclude therefore tha [...] Christs words, whither recorded by St. Matthew, or by St Luke, are not to be taken s [...]mply and indefinitly.

Are they then to be taken limitedly, and under some qualifi­cation? they are so, but to find out and assign their bound, would cost much, and difficult inquiry. Did not other Scrip­tures tell us the Apostles aimed at Christs temporal Kingdom in this world, and the destruction of the present Jewish Policy. Luk. 24.21. But we trusted that it had been he who should have redeemed Israel, &c. Act. 1.6. When they therefore were come to­gether, they asked of him, saying, Lord, wilt thou at this time re­store the Kingdom unto Israel? This no doubt was in their eye in the objected Text, neither am I the first, or single person,De terreno Christi regr [...] somniabant. Whitak. con­trov. to. 2. cent. 4 quas. 1. S. 1. who so conjectureth. Learned Whitaker saith. In this their demand they dreamed of Christs Kingdom upon earth. This was it which Christ condemned in his Apostles, but this is not con­demnable in the Titles of our Bishops; the Apostles sought an arbitrary power, and ambitious Titles, in the destruction of the then Civil Government: Our Bishops receive a limited and legal Title, and authority, for the support and maintenance of the now Civil Government. Such props whereunto they are,Vid Zanch. Conf [...]ss fi [...]ei ca. 25. Apho­ris. 25. as our late and never to be forgotten experience sufficient­ly learns us, that they cannot be removed, but the other im­mediatly tumbles with them.

Their Titles then of Lords, are not reverseable by this Text, no more then an extreme prejudiceth a virtuous mean, neither to deal plainly are such their Titles proveable, or dis­proveable by Scripture, because they are of another nature, and triable at another barr, which whether it give sentence for,By strictly ecclesiastical, I understand what belongs to a Minister, by reason of his order, not what belongs to him by rea­son of his de­gree dig­nity, or juris­diction, or what belongs to him in the Church, not wha [...] bel ngs to him in the Comm [...]n­wealth. or against them, let the objector consider.

That Church-officers, and Church-members, where the state is Christian, are considerable in a double capacity.

First, in a Sacred, or strictly Ecclesiastical, wherein no trusts not conceded, no Titles not imposed by Scripture, are assume­able by them.

Secondly, In a Civil and Political, In which respect, unless we will introduce Papal exemption, or quaking Anarchy; Church-officers must do those duties, and discharge those trusts which the Laws, or customs of the Nations wherein they live, expect, and require from persons of their Estates, Inte­rests, or Qualities. That Christian Bishops may where the estate is Christian lawfully concern themselves in Civil matters; and have done it many hundred years ago, by, and under the authority of the Supreme Magistrate, without any enter-fear­ing with their Spiritual offices, is at truth so fully a tested by [Page 14] all sorts of testimony, as the Scriptures, the Fathers, and Calvin himself: all quoted by Bishop Davenant in his eleventh question of his Theological determinations, as more need not to be added. That this doth not thwart St. Pauls injunctions against being intangled with the affairs of this life. 2. Tim. 2.3. may be easi­ly evidenced. This text is sometime urged upon all men, ex­citing them to forsake the world, and turn Monks and Hermits, so by many blind Zealots in the Papacy; Other times it is ur­ged against some men, or Bishops, commanding them ot relinquish their Revenues and Jurisdiction, thus by many im­petuous Presbyters. The former notion is more ingenious, and carries less partiality with it then the latter, that inviting all men to a voluntary beggery, and levelling community, this extorting honours and estates from some men, therewith to a­dorn and inrich their ambitions, or malevolous enemies.

But neither of them are true; for had a total abdication of the affairs of this life, been negatively, and at all times, and in all cases enjoyned unto all men, we should not so often meet with the distinctions betwixt poor and rich, bond and free, ser­vants and masters, suhjects and Kings inserted in the New Testa­ment, nor was it a particular command to Church-officers, since St. Paul spends not a small part of the Epistle to Timothy, to shew him how oeconomically a Bishop ought to govern his own house; and how Politically he ought to proceed in the ex­ercise, and infliction of Church-censures. See 1. Tim. cap. 3. and cap. 5. Beza eying the design of Monkery, who principally urge the text in vindication of their single life, tells them, and experience confirms, that a Soldier (the metaphor of whose calling the Apostle follows in this text) is not absolutely de­barred from marriage, many of them marching with their wives in company. But marriage draws along with it, if not all, yet the greatest and sorest affairs of this life. 1 Cor. 7.33. But he that is married careth for the things of this world how he may please his wife. The truth therefore is, Civil Affairs are no more interdicted to a Bishop then to a Soldier, to neither of them indefinitely, and absolutely, to both of them casually, and upon speciall occasions, so far forth as they are inconsistent with their callings, and avert them from their duties, and no otherwise, or longer. This will be greedily devoured by some, who will forthwith say, we grant all required by Antagonists. May they therefore digest our meaning, which is, that by things inconent with a calling, and avertent [Page 15] from duty, we understand all, and only such things as are sing­ly and absolutely of that nature, such things as at no time, in no capacity can be, a duty incumbent upon the person concerned. A Soldier hath several duties (to omit all others) as a Soldier, as Victualling, Training, Scouting, Resting, Charging, Re­treating, Fighting, to enjoyn him fighting where any of the rest is, his duty, and to say he were no Soldier, what ever else his ne­cessary occasions were, because he is not alwaies actually ingage­ed in fighting with his enemies is such an absurdity as cannot impose upon any men, who have not made total shipwrack of their understandings. Church-officers are Men, Subjects, Christians, as well as Church-officers. In all these respects they have several and distinct duties, and they (as other men) have their circumscribed and strict limits, they can be in no more places, or ingaged upon any more actions then one at one time; therefore to urge the performance of all those duties upon them at once, and to affirm they totally renounce one duty when they discharge another, is to charge St. Paul with deserting Gospel-preaching, when he shut the opened door upon himself at Troas, and went thence to compose the schism at Corinth. 2 Cor. 2.12, 13. Furthermore when I came to Tr [...] ­as to preach Christs Gospel, In loc. and a door was opened unto me of the Lord; I had no rest in my Spirit, because I found n [...]t Titus my brother, but taking my leave of them, I went from thence into Macedonia. Beside, to keep to the Point in hand, our Adver­saries will not say that an estate in this world doth necessarily and unavoidably work those effects of inconsistency with the Ministerial calling, avertency from its duties. Since then they would not so undefatigably labour to work themselves into the affections, and respects of rich men, and neglect no oppor­tunity to enrich themselves. Neither can they with any fore­head affix the same ill consequents to Civil authority, and grandeur, since both of them rightly managed have (as Spiri­tual) an influence to incourage virtue, and discourage vice. In a word intangling with the affairs of this life, principally con­sists in a heady, arbitrary, and illegal intermedling with secular matters out of our callings and places; whereof if the late Scottish Presbyters (who arrogantly, and without any, unless it were an extraordinary call, interposed in almost all Civil, Martial, and Criminal matters, generally without the autho­rity, many times without the consent, and sometimes against the peremptory command of the Civil Magistrate) are not of [Page 16] all men in the world (hardly the Pope excepted) the most highly and notoriously guilty, I shall be content to incur any just censure from the worst of Readers. That our blessed Sa­viour did refuse to divide the inheritance betwixt the dissenting brethren, flowed from a Political, not Moral incapacity; as appears by his own quaery. Luk. 12.14. [...], or man who made me a Judge? whereas had such civil actions been morally inconsistent with his office, he should ra­ther have used a positive negation, that he could by no means meddle with such concernments, then a quaery, which puts his refusal upon a civil defect, or his not being appointed to be a Judge; which fully imports, that if he had been legally constituted, and placed in that office, no bar in his sacred fun­ction could have hindred him from deciding their difference St. Paul and Sylas are called Lords at Thyetyra Act. 16.30. Sir: what shall I do to be saved; the word rendred Sirs is [...], Lords, and is the most significant name in the New Testament to ex­press the power, and the authority of the most high God. It originally denoting a Lord from selfe proceeding authority and essentiality. In both which respects, none but Jehovah, eminently, and transcendently a Lord. And therefore he is ca [...] ­led, 1 Tim. 6.15. [...]. or the only Potentate; and King of Kings, and Lord o [...] Lords. But derivatively, it is a title elsewhere in Scripture gi­ven to Magistrates. Act. 25.26. [...], or ha­ving nothing to write to my Lord ('tis there used of the Rom [...] Emperour) & to Ministers,Concerning titles of ho­nour given to Christ [...]an Bi­shops before Papal usurpa­tion, read Bp. Downhams defence, lib. 3. ca. 6. Lon­don. 1611. as to St. Paul and Sylas in this Text And in the Old Testament of the Translation of the Seventy 'tis given to Eli by Hannah. 1 Sam. 1.15. [...], or not so m [...] Lord. And to Elijah by Obadiah. 1 King. 18.7. [...]; or art thou my Lord Elijah? who incontinently owns [...] ­hab, by that title V. 8. [...], or go tell thy Lord, & But waving these and all other, both Old and New Testame [...] instances, we shall confine our observation strictly to this ti [...] given by the Goaler to St. Paul and Sylas; which though [...] had proceeded from the custom of the place, or the urbanity o [...] the Speaker; the Apostles ought to have rejected, or at le [...] St Luke should have entered their dissent, or his censure [...] their consent to receive it; if such Honorifick titles had be [...] simply, and absolutely inconsistent with their Ministerial vo [...] ­tion. But none of these are done, the title stands fair upo [...] the holy Record, as due unto, and deserved by the Apostle [Page 17] And might they receive such titles from an inferiour person, what valid reason can be given, why their Successors may not receive the like, by the Authority of the Civil Magistrate, es­pecially since they receive them for a Civil and most impor­tantly necessary end, which is unremovable, while Pastors en­joy any titles to temporal possessions, or while their flocks have any desire to swallow, or devour them. The not distin­guishing betwixt these two several capacities in Church-offi­cers, hath nurst the cavil against our Bishops titles; not that they were never separated until now, for they are distinct in their natures, nor that the Bishops were not careful to maintain them distinct in their administrations; for when did any Bi­shop derive, or challenge his power to preach, ordain, confirm or censure ecclesiastically as a Lord of Parliament, or when did he derive his Civil honours from the Episcopal Institution. His relation to the Church and consecration by former Bishops, made him a Bishop, but his Princes favour, and his interest in the Kingdom made him (as every other) Lord. Neither ought he to be sent to his Bible, to prove his Title, which he (as all of like dignity) holdeth by his Princes munificence, and the Law of the Land. Besides as Lord Bishop, de hath not more power in the Church, nor would he have less then if he were not a Lord, because he holds his Bishoprick, and his Lordship by a different tenure, the one under King Christ, the other under his lawful Sovereign. He may be as others are a Lord, and not a Bishop, and he may be a Bishop and not a Lord, only a Bi­shop he must be, if he lawfully do Episcopal works: A Lord he may be, if his Prince allow him that Title. Furthermore, let it be well observed, this distinction is not only fitted to se­cure the honour of Bishops, but 'tis necessary to be continued for the indemnifying of the Civil Interest of the meanest Mini­ster; for otherwise if any Honours, Manours, or Lands de­scend to a Minister after he hath received holy orders (as who can with any modesty deny that many Ministers sprout from ho­nourable, or worshipful stocks) he ought not to own them, but suffer them to fall into the Kings hands, or Escheat into the Lord Paramount, or come to the next heir, lest by reason of those Honours, Mannors, or Lands, he rransgress the rule of Christ in the objection, by becomming a Baron, Lord, or Land­lord, and so exercise Jurisdiction and authority over his fel­low Subjects, Suiters, or Tenants. And finally; the London Presbyters when they found their ordination by Lord Bishops [Page 18] to be objected by the Independent, or Brownistical faction, as rendring their Ministry invalid, or at least their present stan­ding Antichristian. They are necessitated to keep at the same guard to maintain their own order, as the Bishops do to pre­serve their honour. And give it the world under their hands, that The Lordly titles of the Bishops were meer civil additaments annexed to their Bishopricks by Kingly favour, not essential ingredi­ents to their office. Thus they. But I remember I am not to write a history of former times, or to give a reason of other mens actions, but of mine own. A controversie there is as the world knows betwixt us (for I must acknowledge,Jus divin. 2 par. pag. 24. London 1654. and do here­by profess my self to be Episcopal) my desire is, and I hope it is also yours, that it may be ended; you pretend a divine right for your discipline, the Bishops do the same for theirs. What way is there to compose the difference? but either with the Socinian to cut the knot and deny all divine right, or fairly to unty it; by declaring whose the Divine right is; both of you cannot have it, necessary therefore it is to settle it with one; least while we fight, & destroy one another for the shadow, we loose the substance. Our late hazard whereof, I hope you have both seen & lamented. This discourse hath no other errand, then to present Christs Institution to you both, and shew you the first formed Church, whereunto all succeeding Churches ought to conform. I have sailed directly up to to the Fountain head, not lay at Anchor, and rid in the Channel of after practise; If there the water flow sweet and calm, do not trouble or seek to draw them into a new course, who ever digged it; what is first is truest, if what you have opposed come up nighest to the prime verity, do not kick against the pricks, or fight any lon­ger against God, or it.

How Mahumetanisme, and Papal tyranny at first invaded the Church, needs no declaration, but least they, or a worse mis­chief at last overspread those Kingdoms, let me beseech you in the bowels of our dear Lord, to beware of dividing novelties, and to walk close by the footsteps of the ancient Shepheards, and observe their tracks; Schism of all storms is the sorest, and beats fiercest against the Ark of the Church, oh get a safe har­bour so soon as you can, for if it bluster and rage till their strength is over, your weather-beaten souls will run a shore any where. Remember the shipwracks in Julian the Apostates dayes, or if you please look but upon our own coasts for these last twenty years. I would not reproach you, suffer me i [...] [Page 19] faithfulness to your souls, and to the Churches peace, to mind you what brambles have grown under your shadows, out of which have come fire to destroy the Cedars of your Libanon; doth not Independentisme Anabaptisme, &c. call you father? though as if they were by-blows, you are ashamed to own them for your children. Do they not plead your Principles, use your engines against Episcopacy, to batter your discipline? And say nothing but your tithes, and secular advantages, with­hold you from walking up a brest with them, unto your first and most righteous pretensions: you account it a dart through the liver of Episcopacy, that whereas St. Jerom saith it was ecclesiastically instituted in remedy of Schism and division, contrari­wise it hath not repressed, but encreased them. And consequently it is not of Divine Institution; But were his opinion, and your in­ference true (as they are both most false) how strongly doth this battering Ram recoyl against your discipline? View it but since it was, or aimed to be Paramount in the Church of England. What innumerable Sects have issued from it? Where was Jndependentisme, Anabaptisme, Socinianisme, Fami­lisme, Ranting, Seeking, Quaking, till you opened the bot­tomless pit of Schism, and let forth those Locusts? you would have your party to esteem your earnestness against Episcopacy, to be an effect of Gods raising your spirits, & perswade tractable & preingaged persons, that such strict men as you are, cannot be acted by a sinful impulse; whereas many, if not most of the heads of the forenamed Sectaries,All his lat­ter scriblings. are equally as blameless in their lives, and as bitter in their words against your Discipline, as you are severe in your lives, or sharp in your tongues against Episcopacy: Did the wrath of man work, or infallibly express the righteousness of God, how sinful will your cause be found? For what scoff, taunt, reproach, did you at any time cast up­on Episcopacy, which these Phanaticks have not retorted upon your Discipline, with advantage of greater rage and bitter­ness, if it be possible? Who sees not the spirits of Penry, and Barrow revived inCretensis, and defence of the Apology against A. S. John Goodwin! Retortion of the Sme­ctymnuan ar­guments. Saltmarch, Uniformi­ty examined &c. Dell, and your demy-martyrsUniformi­ties deformity Burton and John Lilburn? Is not every Independent, and Anabaptist confession of their faith so many several admonitions to you? Did not your dissenting brethren cen­sure your godly discipline in the Assembly Reasons against the Presbyterian government, pag. 4. S. if not upon this ground. pag. 7. S. 2. It brings &c, pag. 23. S. now it is granted. oft-times for worse then Episcopal, and sometimes for worse then Reason a­gainst subor­dination of standing Sy­nods S. it is proved from what the Pre­byterian. Papal; so certain and undeniable a truth it is, that those who spurn against the right will submit to no other, but their own wrong way.

Do you say this was not the fault of your Discipline, but of factions, ungodly, and unruly men, and although poor you, have sate beside the saddle in England, yet your brethren ride in state in other places.

Res. This triple cord hath no strength, a small twitch will break it asunder, the blamelesness of the rule is equally plea­ded by Episcopacy, confirmed by a Divine right, and uninter­rupted Ecclesiastical practise for above 1600 years, whereas you have no Divine right for your new coined government, and the right you have hardly exceeds the age of one man. All which time it hath incessantly been opposed by the contrary practise of all other Churches: All which I doubt not to prove by the present Treatise, and that which shall shortly fol­low it (if God will) concerning the Apostles. But your oppo­sites were factious, good words brethren; clear your selves ere you charge others, Episcopal men will hear you, and tell you other mens turbulency against you, is a just punishment of your factiousness against them. Your plea hangs totteringly now by one slender thread, viz. your prevalency in other places; Be it so, consider when, how, and in what you prevailed: A good cause may be unfortunate, when the worst is crowned with success, Pompey is vanquisht when Cesar is victorious, & Josiah is slain when Pharaoh Necho triumph't. Where the cause is naught, the means to effect it perjurious and indirect, its success is at best but prosperous villany. I have read, and who hath not, how G, and S. obtained what they have, were you treading in their steps, in the five years after 1640. what argument could you have had, suppose you had prevailed to prove the goodness of the cause, which Mahomet may not en­force in verification of his Alchoran; certainly wresting of Scripture, and a conquering arm of flesh, are the main staies of that abomination. Moreover let it be noted, his disciplinari­ans contend with those, whom they account Infidels, you, with those whom you dare not deny to be Christians;12. Consi­derable cau­tions very ne­cessary to be observed in and about a reformation, according to the Word of God Cant. 12. you may remember how Iohn Goodwin concludes his cautions about a reformation according to the Word of God; Is it not even thus? When either the Alchoran of the Turks, or the Missal of the Papists shall appear to be according to the Word of God, then may your reformation hope to partake of the same honour also. Thus he.

'Twas not the least stumble, which I received ere I fell final­ly from a good opinion of your discipline, to be told to my [Page 21] head by one of your most eminent partizans, that the Church of England should never come under any other Discipline but yours, un­less she first waded up to the knees in bloud; Sirs, is this Christi­an meekness? Is this Christs way to call sinners to repentance? know you what you say, or of what spirit you are, when you rage after this manner? Will Christ allow a bloody revengeful Spi­rit in Presbyters, when he check't it in his Apostles? We read in Scripture, that our Saviour came to save mens souls, where read ye that he came to destroy them? we read that he founded his Church in his own blood, where read you that he intends to propagate it with the bloud of other men? We read that he gave his back to the smiters, and was meek and gentle, where read you that he commends rage and violence to his Dis­ciples? If you, or any else think his patience towards, and prayers for his enemies, is no pattern for your imitation, yet consider his tremendous application to his Apostles, of the ma­sters severity against the unmerciful servant; Mat. 18.35. So likewise shall your heavenly father do unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses. Si enim hostes extra­neos, non tan­tum vindices occultos agere vellemus, de­esset nobis vis numerorum & copiaram? plu­res nimirum mauri & marco-n ami ipsi (que) Parthi, vel quantaecun que unius ta­men loci, & suorum finium gentes, quam totius orbis? Externi sumu & vestra om­nia implevi­mus? urbes, insulas, castel­la, municipia, conciliabula, castra ipsa, tribus, decurias, palatium, senatum forum? sola vobis relinquimus templa. Cui bello non idonei, non ptompti fuissemus? etiam impares coptis, qui tam libenter trucidamur? si non apud istam disciplinam magis occidi liceret, quum occidere. Potuimus ac inermes, nec re­belles, sed tantum-modo discordes, solius divortii invidia, adversus vos dimicasse; Tertull. Apol. advers. gent. cap. 37. Are there any o­ther Scriptures which allow, and commend bitterness among Christians, certainly the Primitive Church never took them to be part of the Canon; otherwise Tertullian most vainly, treche­rously, and unworthily did betray the truth, by glorying of the rea­diness of the professors of his time, to suffer martyrdome under perse­cuting heathens, when yet they were of sufficient force to fight with them, and put it to the hazard of a victory, whereof the Christians might have been assured, if it had been Gods pleasure to ingage them in a war. What will the same Scripture justifie of your slaugh­tering of your brethren for doing the will of God, which would not admit Primitive Christians to slay heathens for op­posing it? Cusanus was then in the right, when he said, the Scriptures are alwaies to be interpreted according to the Churches current practise Wherein though he meant the Roman Court, she may as justly claim that priviledge as any other party what­soever, she being both the oldest, and greatest faction in the Christian world. Besides (brethren) where is the liberty, and tenderness you plead for in the day of your own distress? Can you destroy your brethrens bodies, and not persecute their consciences: Are your imprisonments, and banishments, [Page 22] if not as evil doers, yet as busie bodies, more precious in the eyes of the Lord then the death of your brethren, who do their duties, and are ready to give an account of the faith, and hope which is in them, with meekness and wisdom? Lay to heart what mischiefs your fury, and great hatred hath already done in those kingdoms, before you think of doing more? how many habitations hath it made desolate, and without an Inhabitant? how many antient and famous Cities and Towns hath it defa­ced? what orders in the Church and Commonwealth hath it confounded? and how many burning and shining lights in both, hath it barbarously and brutishly extinguished? What is all the bloud already shed in England, and Scotland nothing? will nothing satisfie your horse-leech appetite, but a second open­ing of all the veins of the kingdom that you may drink the bloud of Kings, Captains, and mighty men? believe it sober Christians think, that a sea of penitential tears will not wash a­way the scandal, which you, and the men of your confederacy, or Covenant have brought upon the reformation, by unparal­lelled villany in 1648. they fear least that very action caused the Protestants in Piedmont and Poland to stink in the nostrils of their Princes, and that those poor souls are now crying under the Altar unto the Lord, to require their blood at your hands. The perclose of your Covenant, alaruming all Papal Princes to keep strict watch over their subjects of the reformed profession, since therein by way of prayer you say,Read the Covenant. That the Lord would bless your desires, and proceedings with such success, as may be deliverance and safety to his people, and encouragement to other Christian Chur­ches groaning under, or in danger of the y [...]ke of Antichristian tyran­ny, to joyn in the same, or like association or Covenant. And since the murder of our late gracious, now glorious Sovereigne, is alledged by the principal Parricides to be pursuant to the Cove­nant, Because the preservation of the Kings Majesties person and au­thority (were alledged by them to be inconsistent) together with the liberties of the kingdom, Read the Covenant. and the preservation, and defence of the true religion. But 'tis time to close this Paragraph, let me only tell you, if I had no other motive but the opposition of your Spirits unto Scripture rule, it would have spurred me on to study and publish this discourse; but I had another incitation previous, and more prevalent, take it, as I shall not fear to give it, at Gods tribunal another day.

Aboue four year since, having not long before received Presbyterial Imposition of hands; Providence cast me into the company of one of the chief of that Presbytery, we being pri­vate, he and I only in company, he delivered me an open book into my hand, with a leaf turned down, against the argument for the imparity of Ministers, drawn from the divers instituti­ons of the twelve Apostles, and seventy Disciples, which he willed me to read, consider, and give him my thoughts upon it, I did all but the latter, which strook me into horror and amazement; I could as easily have given him an Empire, as my present thoughts upon it, for neither of them were in my power; but God made a way for me to escape the tentation, other bre­thren coming in to visit him in the mean time, diverted us in­to other discourses; neither did he again require it at any time afterwards. Who was the author of this book I know not, it was a small imperfect piece in 16. without either be­ginning or ending; which I only saw at that time, for one quarter of an hour, and never afterwards. But though I was free of him, I could not so rid my thoughts of it; many were the reasonings, and searchings of my Spirit why it was proposed unto me, and what use I was to make of it, now it was propo­sed. Sometimes I feared it was offered to try my resolution, or irresolution in my late engagement, but I soon overstrid this block, not finding any cause for its laying before me, either in my intentions or actions, because what I had done hitherto was in the simplicity of my heart, and I alwaies went with the for­wardest in obedience to the commands of that Society. Some­times I doubted, least it were a Sathanical illusion to unfix my thoughts, since it perpetually haunted me for many moneths, [...]nd I did a thousand times adjure it, to surcease its solicitati­ons ere I set Pen to paper. But it would not leave me, and at last I could not leave it. This wondrously perplexed me, how to dismiss it I could not tell, and how to follow it, I saw not, but over innumerable precipices; Episcopacy being then [...]hrown out, and the extruding force, being as to humane ap­ [...]earance more united than ever; for this cause I fasted, pray­ [...]d, and wept before the Lord, beseeching him to clear up his mind unto me, and resolve me whether he would have me to desist, or go forward, my will being prest to yield obedience ei­ther way, according to the intimation of his pleasure. I pre­tend no revelation, only took the ordinary way, to quiet and settle my Spirit, but the more I fasted, and the more I was re­solved, [Page 24] that a necessity was laid upon me to study this contro­versy, and wo was me if I did not do it. Whether this resolu­tion were a return of prayer, or an answer to the prepossession of my Spirit, the righteous God will one day make manifest, for though I know nothing by my self, yet am not I hereby justified, but he that judgeth me is the Lord. However resolved I was, and am I hope (in his strength) to set upon it. But where to make my approach, cost me some time and study; I diligently read o­ver what ever I could buy, or borrow, concerning the argu­ment, and after much observation, saw the main hinge of the controversy, hung upon the explication of the Evangelists pro­per office and work, the Wight Divines in answer to the argu­ments of the late King Charles of blessed memory, particularly un­to that which concerned Timothy, and Titus, say. And first t [...] that of Timothy, and Titus, we grant that Timothy and Titus had authority and power of ordaining Presbyters, and Deacons, and of exercising censures over Presbyters and others, though we cannot say they had this power as the Apostles substitutes or successors in the Episcopal government, but as extraordinary Officers, or Evangelists, which Evangelists were an office in the Church, distinct from Pastors and Teachers, Thus they; whereby it appears, that the Evan­gelizate of Timothy and Titus, is the only reserve, encouragin [...] Presbyters not to quit the field, & yield an entire victory to Epi­scopacy. This their main strength is assaulted by this discourse with what success, time & impartial Judgments must determine I arrogate nothing to my self, being but a commanded man who fights under the banner, and conduct of the captain of th [...] Lords host, even our Lord Jesus Christ our Legislator, high Pries [...] Apostle, and Bishop of our profession; his is, and his alone be th [...] glory of what is effected, the shame mine, of every failer a [...] miscarriage, whereat how numerous soever they be, let not t [...] adversary triumph; for I am certain the work shall be accom­plished, though not by me, yet by others more able and wo [...] ­thy, that Gospel ordinances may regain their antient credit, an [...] be effectual to their former, and most glorious ends of perfec [...] ­ing of the Saints, working in the Ministry, and edifying of the bo [...] of Christ, not any longer be subjected to the designs, or pass [...] ­ons of corrupt men; and be continued or rejected, so far a [...] they carry on, or hinder Schismatical, Papal, or Machivili [...] projects. That Episcopacy is of a thriving genius, appears h [...] an acknowledgment of Mr. Baxters, when Presbytery had i [...] greatest hopes of being settled, Episcopacy had visibly th [...] [Page 25] least hopes of being restored in the Church of England, ('twas at Richard Cromwels entrance upon the pretended Protectorian Government, & the book is dedicated unto him) he saith. It is ea­sie to see, that Episcopacy is neither such an upstart thing, Five dis­putations. dis­put. 3. or an Episcopacy desirable for the reformati­on, preserva­tion, and peace of the Churches S. 14. London. 1659. nor defended with such contemptible reasons, as that the controversie is like to dye with this age, undoubtedly there will be a learned and godly party for it, while the world endureth, unless God make by Illumination or Revelation, some wonderful change upon the sons of men. That I think few men do expect. And certainly we should do the best we can to prevent a perpetual dissention in the Church. Were there not one praelatical man now alive, it were easie to foresee there would soon be more. Thus he.

Some may object, my former contrary engagement to dis­ [...]nable me from this service.

But therein they shall only repeat my own objections to, and against my self; I thought, and do think my self un­fit for this imployment, for that and many other reasons. I know my understanding is little, my acquired parts are nothing, and my means to require them but one remove from nothing. I see prejacent difficulties, great, and wel-high insuperable, this controversie being the Acheldama, and Golgotha of Polemick Divines, what, whereof the false re­ports of the wicked spyes concerning the land of Canaan, is exactly verified. Namely it eats up its Inhabitants; God knows I did not go upon this errand, without many cold sweats and shrinkings, I often wished some body else had been sent, and was ready to say to God, with Moses, Lord, send by the hand of him whom thou wilt send. But go I must, I found no remedy, my comfort was, and is, I did not seek it; But if a necessity be laid upon me, and against my will, a dispensation is committed to me. Who am I to resist God? were past opposition a ba [...]re against all future submission to truth. Christ would never have prayed for Peter after he had denied, and forsworn him, nor would the other Apostles have received him into their society, much less would the ho­ly Ghost have made him his mouth in his life time, and he being dead, yet speak to the Church in his writings. Indeed Christ after his Resurrection bids the women go and tell Peter what they saw, but although that relation primarily belonged unto him, yet if it do not secondarily import our Saviours readiness to receive others guilty of [Page 26] Saint Peters fault, I know not how to make sense of what St. Paul saith Rom. 15.4. For whatsoever things were written afore time, were written for our learning, that we through pa­tience, and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. We read that Saul the persecutor, became St. Paul the preacher, and God raiseth up Barnabas to work the brethrens affection to him, who before refused to joyn themselves unto him Act. 9.26.27. Would men of greatest graces consider how many Talents are forgiven them, they would never rigourously exact pence from their delinquent brother, who professeth penitence. St. Pauls expressions to the high flown Corinthian Church, is worthily remarkable. 1 Cor. 5.9, 10, 11. Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the Kingdom of God? be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor Idolaters, nor Adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of them­selves with mankind, nor theeves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners shall inherit the kingdom of God? And such were some of you; and were God as man is, inex­orable for one or many faults, all men might be damned, and deprived of the glory of God, because all men have sin­ned, and come short of it. Let not therefore those sins which drave me to the Lord to seek his pardon, be accounted un­pardonable by men: Must we not all stand at Gods judgment seat? who art thou that judges another mans servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth; yea he shall be holden up, for God is able to make him to stand. Would I cover my sin with Ad [...]m I could retort this objection, and say, the worst which can be charged upon me will come far short of their crime, who so­lemnly took their corporal oaths to defend Episcopacy, and yet were the most active enemies to extrude it; that I now say truth, I dare refer me to the judgment of any moderate Rea­der. And I could say more, but these Fig-leaves are too dry and rotten to cover a sinful nakedness, they have sinned, and I have sinned, our sins do not extenuate one anothers, the Lord grant us all repentance unto life. Let the righteous smite me, it shall be a kindness, and let him reprove me, it shall be an excellent oyl, which shall not break my head, for yet my prayer shall be in their ca­lamities. Let Gods ordinances be precious, I cannot be too vile, for I seek not my own honour, but theirs.

Thus I have given a faithful, and free account of my motives and ends in this great undertaking. All which I commend (Dis­senter) to thy serious perusal, and consideration; look off the [Page 27] man and view the arguments; consider not who speaks, but what is said. If that satisfie thee, know 'tis no dishonour to stoop to truth, who ever deliver, or defend it. If thou art un­satisfied, answer plainly, candidly, and fully to the whole argu­ment, my reply shall either be a friendly submission to thy judg­ment, or a fair reason why I cannot. Passion, strife of words, personal invectives, and domineering over mangled sentences, will do no business, and hath undone too much already; my re­solution is, hath been, and shall be to avoid them, if thou wilt do the like, what ever thou dost shall be welcome, since it can bring nothing but my conviction of an error, or confirmation in the truth. Upon these terms I bid thee heartily, otherwise eternally farewel.

Dan. Burston.

THis page being otherwise vacant, I have since the press was delivered of the rest, judged it convenient to transcribe the following acknowledgement of Mr. Calamy Mr. Jenkyn, Mr. Love, and forty nine more Presbyters (thirteen whereof were members of the Assembly) of the province of London (as they were then pleased to phrase it) confirming my charge, pag. 18, 19. of the fruitless, but passionate attempts of Presbytery to extrude Episcopacy, A testimony to the truth of Jesus Christ, subscribed De­cemb. 14. 1647 and printed at London by A.M. for Tho. Underhil, 1648 with the Midwifery of Schisms, Heresies, and Divisions into the Church of England, viz. Insteed of an establish­ment of faith and truth, we swarm with noisome errors, heresies and blasphemies, instead of unity and uniformity, in matters of Religi­on, We are torn in pieces, with destructive schisms, separations, di­visions, and sub-divisions; instead of true piety, and power of godli­ness, We have opened the very floodgates to all impiety and prophane­ness; instead of submitting to the Government of Christ, We walk in a Christless looseness and licentiousness; instead of Reformation, We may say with sighs, what our Enemies heretofore said of us with scorn, We have a deformation in Religion; and in a word, instead of ex­tirpation of heresie, schism, prophaneness, &c. We have such an impu­dent and general inundation of all those evils, that multitudes are not ashamed to press and plead for a publique, formal, and universal tolera­tion: This book came lately to my hands, and against the fore­quoted passage, was smartly written in the margin, Fructus hu­jus Parliamenti Amoenissimus, or, The most pleasant fruit of this Parliament.

To the judicious, and un­prejudiced Reader.

Dear Sir,

THou hast read a large Epistle, dedicated to another sort of men, and maist perhaps question why I stumble at the threshold, and neglect to salute thee. Wilt thou know the reason? 'Tis neither out of carelesness, nor incivility, but de­signedly, and of set purpose, because this whole Book is a kind of Preface, unto a following discourse, unto which thou shalt find herein a frequent reference, namely the tract concerning A­postles.

What is writ, read freely. I will not forestal thy judgment, by telling thee several, learned, godly, and judicious persons have encouraged me in this designe, though I could do it truly, and name time, place, persons and expressions. Thou art at thy liberty; carry thy censure along with thy judgment, I am not so in love with error, as to make my self a party, when thou impleadest it.

Let me be thy remembrancer in one thing: This Tract to such as I presume thou art not (men byassed, or unexercised in this con­troversie) carries a face of novelty; the Method, and perhaps some forms of speech, are different from what generally in these latter times are used upon this subject, Respite therefore thy censure, till thou hast read over the whole; where I am singular, bid me freely to stand forth and produce my reasons. Where others stand with me, observe who they are, of what perswasion they are, and whether I had not reason to alledge them, in confutation, or confir­mation, if not of somewhat mentioned in this Tract, yet of some other thing, which thy reason may induce thee to beleeve, may be hereaf­ter more fully handled.

I have in this Tract primarily endeavoured to evidence, and evince Scripture matters, by Scripture testimony. But least I should be thought to wrest them to my own, or any novel interpretation, I have [Page 30] very frequently cited the consent of Authors, both Ancient and Mo­dern, the most unquestionable, and approved to my observation, when I first entered upon this task, I soly kept my self to Gods Word, and Presbyterian Authors, that by the former I might be the better enabled equitably to reprove, or approve of the latter. But after­wards when the substance of this Tract was finished, which was nigh three years since, I did upon advice of learned friends, enter up­on the filling up the vacant Margent, and swelling the bulk of this book, as they now more appear; the most of my quoted Authors I have diligently perused, and faithfully examined. And for the rest, I d [...] every where (to the best of my remembrance) acknowledge my debt t [...] my Creditors, from whom I have borrowed them, and with whose stock I have traded.

All that I have written (Judicious Reader) doth earnestly effl [...] ­gitate, and patiently await thy serious censure; I am free in wha [...] I write, and dare tell thee (even when the pen is in my hand ready t [...] subscribe my name) that granting the reasons to be equal, I can bet­ter bear thy reproach, then the applause of other men. I am

Thine to love, and admire thee at a distance. Dan. Burston


AN Evangelist is a Scripture Native, who tra­vailing through manifold Translations,The questi­on stated. re­tains his name invariably in them all, and from first to last, from Original Greek to our Mother Tongue, he parts with neither sense, nor sound, only stoops to Transcri­ption in a more familiar Character. Ca­stalio, who Translates the Bible by Ovids Metamorphosis, and justles out almost all Ecclesiastical words, to place Classical in their rooms, as Legates for Apostles, Common­wealth for Church, Genii for Angels, vouchsafes the Evange­list to retain his name, in Eph. 4.11. But although universal consent meet in the Evangelists name (whether names are not now affixed as an Index unto things, or men mufling their eyes with passion, or partiality, will not, or cannot see to what [...]age they point, or a rending from the love of God, immediat­ly divorceth from his wisdome, or some other, and more se­cret cause, the indubitate effect of an inraged deity, actuates our distempers, 'tis most certain that) his office is the common anvile whereupon our flaming controversies are incessantly, and alternately hammered. I dare not, neither need I walk in the sparks of those fires, for a written word is the only di­rective [Page 32] beam in this way, which as the Sun is all mens light, but who walks by it is my part to enquire, the readers to judge.

Begin we from his Definition, which is the only sure foun­dation to a well built discourse.Presbyteri­an definitions of the Evange­list force into the discourse.

An Evangelist is

But hearken! what Stentorean voice pierceth mine ear? with what noise and clamour am I told this foundation is already laid? Can the man do any thing but what is already done, who comes after Calvin, Beza, Faius, Zanchius, Aretius, Polanus, Bucanus, Ʋrsinus, Paraeus, Wollebius, Spanhemius Maretius, and the Presbyterian Divines of the Province of Lon­don? All which have unannimously, and according to Scrip­ture defined this officer.

Sir who ever you are, I hear! I hear! and beseech you to forbear your vociferation; your face and name, indeed I know not, but think I apprehend your tribe, by the precise recital of your Genealogy. The numerousness of the names I allow, but must dispute the quality of the Definers; whether they be all of sufficient age, to depose in this matter; or whether they be not all of a party, and packed to give testimony in pre­judice of truth. Certainly the smooth chin of your Patriarch Calvin, brings him under a shrewd suspition of non-age, especi­ally since he (the Evangelist) pretendeth to very great Antiqui­ty: And if Calvinists may be credited in their writings against Episcopacy, hath left his Church station for as much above fifteen hundred years, as Calvin is aged, above one hundred. And for the rest, Beza, Faius, Zanchius, &c. Are they not all confederates with Calvin? May not Theophrastus and Bombast, as well be accounted distinct persons in Paracelsus his name, or th [...] most tedious Welch Genealogist be metamorphosed into [...] many several shapes, as he reckons Aps in his pedegree, a [...] the major, if any part of them be dogmatically diverse from Calvin. For he contrived a newA very strange thing sure it were, that such a dis­cipline as you speak of, should be taught by Christ, and his Apostles in the Word of God, and no Church have found it out, or received it, until this pre­sent age. Hookers pre­face to his Eccles. Policy Sect. 4. module of Divine Worship, (to whose establishment his opinion of the Eva [...]gelist, gave the greatest assistance) and they as his officious Heralds proclaimed it to be a second Dianas image, let down from Jupiter: No wonder then if they all agree, but it were indeed admirable (i [...] prudent men had not long since observed, how God hath mingled a spirit of perversness, and contradiction among the heads, and leaders of that party) that there should be one dis­senting brother. Our business is not to dispute their unity (ere we close the examination of their Definitions, we shall [Page 33] shew how well they hang together) but to examine their seve­ral Definitions, which phrase witnesseth sufficiently against their boasted unanimity, for to what purpose is there any more then one, if they be all agreed in a Definition.Calvins De­finition.

'Tis time to hear themselves speak, Calvin begins thus.

By an Evangelist, I understand those who being less then the A­postles in dignity, are next unto them in office, and therefore supplied their places, such were Luke, Timothy, Titus, and such like, Per Evan­gelistas eos intelligo, qui quum dignita­te essent Apo­stolis minores, officio tamen proximi erant, adeo (que) vices eorum gerebant, quales fuerunt Lucas, Timotheus, Titus ac re­liqui similes. Fortasse etiam, 70. discipuli quos praeter duodecim Christus designavit. per­haps also the seventy Disciples, whom Christ chose in the second place after the Apostles. He proves his whole Definition, and the comprisal of Luke, Timothy and Titus therein, by Eph. 4.11. in Margin. Eph. 4.11. the Evangelizate of the seventy, by Luk. 10.1. in margin. Calv. Instit. lib. 4. ca. 3. Sect. 4 Ge­nevae. 1592. Luk. 10.1.

Beza and Faius, thus. They bear the name of Evangelists, Beza and Fai­us their defi­nition. whom the Apostles used as companions, and fellow-helpers, hecause they (Apostles) alone, could not supply all Churches upon all occasi­ons, such were Timothy, Titus, Sylvanus, and others: Evangelista­rum nomine intelliguntur ii quibus comiti­bus & [...] utebantur A­postoli, quod ipsi omnibus rebus, & ecclesiis, non possent soli sufficere. Cujusmodi erant Timotheus, Titus, Silvanus, & alii; Erat autem officium eorum peragere inchoatum, vel aliter ab Apostolis demandatum opus, in constituendis ecclesiis, ut praesertim ex epistolis ad Timotheum, & Titum liquet, quorum etiam munus temporarium fuit. Evangelistas autem alia angustiori significatione vocamus quatuor illos quorum opera usus est dominus, ad evangelicam historiam scriptis tra­dendam, & ecclesiae christianae primordia describenda. Thes. Theol. in schol, Geneven, sub Beza & Faio proposit. & disputat. disputat. 72. Genev. 1586. Their of­fice was, to perfect what was begun, or do other work committed to them by the Apostles, in constituting Churches, as eminently appears by Pauls Epistles to Timothy and Titus: Their charge was tempo­rary. In a more restrained sense those four are Evangelists, whom the Lord imployed to write the Gospel, and register the birth of the Christian Church.

This Definition or description, brancheth forth into many more particulars then Calvins, but hath less root of Scripture-proof; Indeed it makes a braving flourish of three whole E­pistles, but cites no one, either chapter or verse, neither is the word Evangelist any more then once used in all those Epistles; where we doubt not to prove, that it signifies no such officer as they here describe. Time was, when Rome her self could not have passed into the Church with so much new doctrine, unquestioned by her faithful Centinels; how leasurely did she [Page 34] ascend, and climb most steep rocks of rugged opposition, by the space of a thousand, and some hundred years ere she reached the estimation of an infallible chair; whose arbitrary Traditions (such they are, although she call them, till she prove them A­postolical) and the sacred Oracles ought to be embraced by all Christians, with a like veneration and pious affection: But Ge­neva, well fare her heart, quietly sets down in it, in less then half a Century. A main argument against the worlds univer­sal decay, and clear justification of the scandalized Paradox that the present is every way superior to the precedent age.Zanchius his definition.

Evangeli­stae, qui ab e­vangelio vel praedicando, vel conscri­bendo, ita no­minati fue­runt; proinde etiam novum est nomen, novi testamenti temporibus re­servatum. Qui autem evan­gelistae voca­rentur, brevi­ter dicam quod sentio, e­doctus e sacris litteris. Illi mihi fuisse vi­dentur, qui ab Apostolis aut secum assumpti, ex revelatione Christi, aut aliquo missi, cum ipsorum authoritate, vel praedi­cabant evangelium, modo hic, modo illic, nempe ubi jam ecclesiae non erant abapostolis fun­datae. vel evangelicas historias, summam (que) doctrinae evangelicae literis commenda­bant, juxta priorem sensum Apostolus scribens 2. Tim. 4. ait opus fac evangelistae i. e. praedi­ca evangelium, fuerat enim Timotheus, a Paulo creatus episcopus. Et sic etiam Act. 21. Philippus diaconus vocatur evangelista, juxta alteram significationem intelligo Marcum, & Lucam, proprie fuisse evangelistas, Mattheum, & Johannem, & Apostolos, & Evangeli­stas; ne (que) haec species ministerii, si proprie loqui velimus, locum jam habet in ecclesia, et­si enim multi sunt, qui singulari gratia donati praedicant evangelium, aut etiam evangelicam doctrinam in libris propagant, hoc tamen non faciunt autoritate accepta immeditate ab Apo­stolis ut Marcus, & Lucas, Timotheus, Titus, & alii, aut ab ipso Christo, ut Mattheus, & Johannes, sed accepta a magistratibus; aut ecclesiis. Zanch. in quart. praecept. Neo­stadiis Palatinat. 1577. Zanchius thus. Evangelists are so denominated from writing, or preaching the Gospel; their name is new, and reserved to new Testament times. What they were I shall briefly teach others, as I have learned out of holy Writ. They were in my opinion, either such as the Apostles took with them, by the Revelation of Christ, or sent forth with Apostolical Authority to preach the Gospel, now here, now there, where the Apostles had not founded Churches. Or they were Gospel-writers. According to the former sense, the Apostle writing to Timothy, 2. Tim. 4. saith, do the work of an Evangelist, that is, preach the Gospel, for Timothy was before ordained bishop by St. Paul; In this sense also, is Philip the Deacon an Evangelist, Act. 21. In the latter sense, Mark and Luke were properly Evangelists; Matthew, and John, both Apostles and Evangelists. To speak pro­perly, this officer doth not now continue in the Church, for although many endued with special grace, do preach the Gospel, or defend its doctrine by their writings, yet they do it not by authority immediat­ly derived from the Apostles, as Mark, Luke, Timothy, Titus and others, or from Christ himself, as Matthew, and John, but by au­thority derived from the Magistrates, or Churches.

Aretius thus.Aretius his definition. Evangelists obtain their name from preaching the Gospel, they were next to the Apostles in office. inferiour in dignity, not necessitated to preach every where, Evangeli­stae ab evange­lii praedicati­one, nomen habuerunt; Apostolis proximi of­ficio, dignita­te inferiores: non incumbebat iis necessitas ubique docendi, nec instituebant novos caetus, sed Apostolorum doctrinam conservabant, & in certis ecclesiis docebant. Ʋt Philippus in Caesa­rea. Act. 8. ult. Timotheus, 2 Tim. 4. juebtur docere evangelium. Alias significat scriptores Evangelii, quo sensu, quatuor tantum habemus Evangelistas. Aret. problem. loc. 62. Ex­ [...]us. per Johen. le Breux. 1617. neither did they institute new churches. but were conservators of the Apostles doctrine, and taught in certain Churches. Thus Philip at Caesarea, Act. 8. the last vers. and Timothy, 2 Tim. 4.5. is bid to preach the Gospel; otherwise it signifieth Gospel writers, in which sense we have onely four Evan­gelists.

Polanus thus. Evangelists were next unto the Apostles in office, Polanus his definition. and as their companions, and fell w labourers, did supply their places, their work was in the Apostes company, Evangelistae fuerunt, qui ab Apostolis officio proxi­mi erant adeo que vices eorum gerebant veluti Apostolorum comites, & [...], qui una cum Apo­stolis, ac jussu illorum evangelium praedi [...]abant apud questis. Quales fuerunt Lucas, Marcus, Timotheus, Titus, & Philippus Act. 21, 8 Polan. Partit. Theol. lib. 1. pag. 226. Genevae 1626. or by their command to preach the Gospel any where, such were Mark, Luke, Timothy, Titus, and Philip. Act. 21.8.

Bucanus thus. Evangelists were the Apostles companions, Bucanus his- definition. fel­ [...]ow-labourers, and Colleagues, not ordained by Christ himself with­ [...]ut an intervenient humane Ministry, but chosen by the Apostles, Evangelistae comites [...], & [...] Apostolorum, non ab ipso Christo. i. e. nullo hominum interveniente ministerio, sed ab Apostolis ipsis electi, aut assumpti; ut vices eorum in rigando, & superstruendo, & ei quod susceperant o­peri perficien­do, & evangelio praedicando, modo in uno, modo in alio loco, quasi subsidiarii, & veluti s [...]cun­darii quidam Apostoli, non in una tantum ecclesia, sed in pluribus ecclesiis g [...]rerent, & pasto­rum oppidatim constituendorum & ordinis sacrorum in ecclesiis ad quas missi fuerunt instituen­di, jus, & protest [...]tem haberent id (que) tanti sper dum ab Apostolis revocarentur, quales fuerant Timotheus, Lucas, Marcus, Tychicus, Titus, Philippus, & alii Sive ex illis 70. discipu­lis quos dominus designaverat, sive ex alis asciti. Angustiore significatione, quatuor illi spiri­sancti amanuenses quorum opera usus est dominus, ad evangelicam historiam Christi scrip­tis tradendam, & ecclesiae Christianae primordia describenda, quorum duo Marcus, & Lu­cas, Apostolorum comites, & evangelistae, duo vero alii, Mattheus, & Johannes, Apostoli, & E­vangelistae fuerunt. Bucan. loc. com. loc. 42. qu. 17. Genevae. 1630. or [...]aken with them, as a kind of auxiliary, or secondary apostles, to sup­ [...]ly their places in preaching the Gospel, sometime in one place, other while in another; and in watering what was planted, and building [...]pon the foundation laid by the Apostles, not in one, but in many Churches; for the accomplishment of which task they had a right and [...]ower (till they were recalled by the Apostles) to appoint, and put pa­ [...]ors into holy orders in every city. Such were Timothy, Luke, Mark, Iychicus, Titus, Philip and others, whether of the number of the se­venty desciples, whom our Lord ordained besides the twelve, or chosen out of others. In a stricter signification, the four Gospel-writers were Evangelists, but so as Mark, and Luke were Apostles companions and Evangelists, Matthew and John both Apostles and Evangelists. In proof of all this he cites in his margin. Tit. 1.5. Act. 16.3. 2 Tim. 4.5. v. 11.12. 2 Cor. 8.23. Act. 21.8. Luk. 10.1.

Ursinus and Pareus their definition. Ʋrsinus and Pareus, thus. Ministers mediatly called, were first Evangelists, who were the Apostles helpers, and by them sent to teach divers Churches. They quote no Scripture for this definition, as neither did Polanus before,Mediate vo­cati sunt pri­mo evangeli­stae, qui erant adjutores Apostolorum & mittebantur ab Apostolis ad docendum varias ecclesias. Catechis. Ʋrsinc-Parean. part. 3 quaes. 103 Francofurti. 1621. nor doth Wollebius, nor Maresi­us, after them.

Wollebius his definition. Wollebius thus. Evangelists were the Apostles companions, and supplies. Evangeli­stae Apostolorum comites, & succenturiati. Wolleb. compend. Theol. lib. 1. ca. 26. Londi­ni 1647.

Spanhemius his definition. Spanhemius thus. Evangelists were Apostolical men, who either besides the Apostles laboured by Divine inspiration, and conduct in Gospel-writing, Evangeli­stae fuerunt viri Apostolici qui vel praeter Apostolos; e­vangeliis scripendis manum divina inspiratione & ductu admoverunt; Vel Apostolis vica­riam operam in constituendis, sive gubernandis etiam ecclesiis praestiterunt, quales fuerunt, Sy­las, Timotheus, Titus, & alii. Spanhem. disputat. Theol. disput. de ministerii ecclesiast. v [...] ­cat. Genevae 1652, or they were vicar-Apostles, in constituting and go­verning Churches, such were Sylas, Timotheus, Titus and others. His proofs are Eph. 4.11. 1 Cor. 12.9, 10.

Maresius his definition. Maresius thus. The four Gospel-writers, are by way of eminency called Evangelists, and not only they, but those also whom the Ap­stles elected, Evangeli­stae dicuntur non autem [...], quatuor illi spiritus sancti amanuenses, in historia Christi descri­benda, sed eti­am comites, & [...], Apostolorum, ab illis electi, & assumpti; & subinde huc, illuc, emis­si, ad opus quod ipsi caeperant rigando, & superstruendo, peragendum; quales Timotheus, Titu [...], Marcus, Lucas, & alii, sive ex 72. discipulis, quos Christus designavit ad tempus, sive ali­unde asciti. Mares. System. Theol. loc. 15. Sect. 47. Groningae 1656. and took into fellowship, as their companions, and fellow labourers to travel hither and thither, to finish the work begun by th [...] Apostles, in watering what the Apostles had planted, and raising the superstructure where they had laid the foundation, such were Ti­mothy, Titus, Mark, Luke and others; whether of the number of th [...] seventy two Disciples, commissionated by Christ for a time, or chose [...] elsewhere.

The Presbyterian Divines of the province of London thus. E­vangelists properly so called, were men extraordinarily employed in preaching the Gospel, without any settled residence upon any one Charge, Jus divin. 2. part pag. 68. London. 1654. they were comites & vicarii Apostolorum (or the Apo­ [...]tles companions and vicars) and they had curiam vicariam omni­um Ecclesiarum (or the vicariate charge of all the Churches) as the Apostles had curam principalem, (or the principal charge.) And they did as Ambrose saith, Evangelizare sine cathedra, (or preach without a chair, or episcopal residence.)

These names counted, beginning at Calvin, The excep­tions are two­fold against this Jury of definers. & ending with the London Presbyters, number more then a Jury, upon whose verdict the Evangelists cause is by many taken for adjudged, by more it is thought to be misjudged; I am of the latter opini­on, and shall take leave to speak somewhat in arrest of Judg­ment; Reader thy Reason and conscience are the upper bench of my appeal, my exceptions are

1. They have not proceeded according to their evidence.First they have not pro­ceeded accor­ding to their evidence.

2. They are not agreed in their verdict.Secondly they are not agreed in their verdict. We shall prosecute these in order.

First, They have not proceeded according to their Evidence; The crime is hainous, proved, it will lye heavy upon their memory, unproved, it will as much oppress our reputation.The first exception charged, and proved in nine particu­lars. 'Tis in vain to word it, either in a complement to our Reader, or an Apology for the attempt, the dye is cast, the charge is given in, we are bound to see the issue, and abide the Judg­ment. We impeach first the fore-man Calvin, who ranks the Evangelist next in office,First Ex­cept. the E­vangelists were not next in order to the Apostles though inferiour in dignity to the A­postles. Aretius and Polanus dutifully observe, and write after his copy; but what Scripture guided their Pens? what text did they lay before them to write by? Indeed Calvin cites Eph. 4.11. where, if there it be proved, either the textual or­der and method, obviates it to all capacities,Calvins ci­ted text doth not prove it either. at first view and reading, or the Apostles scope showing more closely, reserves it to the search of more piercing Judgments. Any of these (confessedly) is sufficient, but the former (as being less liable to dispute) is rather to be expected in such positive determinati­ons; for where the intricasie, or darkness of allegations, in­forceth a Judge to fetch a compass, and arise gradually to the pitch of resolution, the principles of ordinary prudence require more suspensness, and wariness, though his decisions be pro­bable deductions, not peremptory conclusions. But Calvin de­fines resolutely, let us see whether the order of the words, or [Page 38] the writers sense, or either of them will warrant it.

First in or­der of the words tran­slated.First, the Grammatical order of the words, exemplified in our translation, leads in the Prophet before the Evangelist, and im­mediately following upon the heels of the Apostles. We there read. And he gave some Apostles, and some Prophets, and some E­vangelists, &c. Calvin saith the Evangelist, and St. Paul saith the Prophet is next to the Apostles. We trust the reader will not be long resolving which to credit, for unless the Prophet be the E­vangelists copula, and knot of conjunction with the Apostles; Prophets, not Evangelists, are next Apostles. And Calvin defining the contrary, inverts St. Pauls order, which is not only his, but the holy Ghosts also: Definitions, or descriptions (such Calvins most properly is) ought to explicate things, or persons by certain properties, or distinctively operative powers, known, or acknow­ledged to be theirs, by artists skilled in their appendant sciences. But this Definition, or description, contrary to all rules of art or reason, waves what is acknowledged, elects new Prin­ciples, and proceeds contrary unto them. That the Evangelist is the news-bringer of Christ & his righteousness, unto unbeleevers the notation of the word, many plain Scriptures, and the unani­mous exposition of the godly and learned Antients, do abun­dantly testify and irrefragably prove. But this is too short for Calvins purpose, a new house must have a new foundation; what hath been said is not worth observing; the Evangelist is an officer next Apostles, and a text where the holy Ghost placeth Prophets next Apostles proves it.

Protestants complain bitterly against Papal tyranny, in lock­ing up the sacred oracles, under an unknown tongue from the people. Contrariwise, they expose that treasury unto vulgar inspection, and assign many fair reasons for their so doing. Bu [...] if they take such a wide liberty to sense, and interpret it contra­ry to the holy Ghosts express method, and to the ordinary in­terpretation of words of the most plain and univocal significati­on (such the words separating the stations of Church-officers in this text are) where is the reformation? Doth not their ty­ranny exceed Pontifical, indifferency being umpire? For Pa­pists, beside a long prescription of many years corrupt custom, outing the people of this priviledg, add a seeming reason to wit least ignorants should wrest those same hard things in Scripture, unto their own destruction: A reason though plausible, yet no more conclusive, or rational, then an obstinate debarring of all men from tasting of those meats, or drinks, wherewith some [Page 39] overgorging their stomachs, do or may surfet. But Protestants though they importunately plead Gods design to familiarize his revealed will unto the meanest capacities, that all men may [...]now the things which are freely given them of God; And though [...]hey professedly maintain the evidence, perspicuity, plainness, [...]nd facility of holy Writ to be understood; and its necessity [...]o be observed and practised (by all who can read, and under­ [...]and it, or have it read, and commended to their understand­ [...]gs by others) and that those main wheels give motion to these [...]sser ones, of their indeavours to translate, and transcribe them [...]nto maternal languages: Yet by their expositions, they do e­ [...]nally obscure, and hide them from common observation, in a [...]ulgar, as in a forren Dialect, for not to go beyond our Tedder, [...]ay not a private English Christian as easily translate the origi­ [...]al, as suppose this translated text, approximates the Evange­ [...]sts to the Apostles, because he there reads in plain English, [...]nd he gave some Apostles, and some Prophets and some Evan­ [...]elists.

Secondly,Secondly or originall. Will not the translation bear the Evangelists next­ness to the Apostles, the original sinks deeper from under it. We there read. [...]. Here each officer hath his prefixed article, which elsewhere is allowed, either to distinguish one person, or thing [...]rom another, or to demonstrate the writers singular intentives [...]pon what he handles. Give we it which of those two signifi­cations we please in this text, any of them will strongly main­tain the exactness of its order. Besides St. Paul (as foreseeing and intending to silence all after disputes) doth not trust it [...]ngle upon the article, but double rayles the station of each of­ficer, as well with the particle [...], as with the before mention­ed Article. I know this particle is very often used, and accor­ding to the several exigencies of the places, it becomes Poly­semous, or of divers significations. But this text will only ad­mit it to have a discretive signification; for instance, 'tis some­times in other places rendred adversatively. But, First best expositors, shut the door of this text against it, unanimously [...]ranslating it, by autem vero, so the vulgar, Beza, Piscator. Se­condly, an adversative reddition,In loc. would be inconsonant to the Apostles scope, which is, the enumeration of the Christian Church-officers; who though they are distinct, are not oppo­site, because all are instituted by one Christ, all are related to one Church, and all even by the assignation of this text, have [Page 40] common works appointed to them, even the perfecting of the Saints, the work of the ministry, and the edifying of the body of Christ. Thirdly, Grammar rules, and the authority of all Idoneous Authors, with one mouth reclaim against the treble adversativeness of any particle unto it self, without an interve­nient redditive, but such were the adversativeness of this Par­ticle, if that were its signification in this Text. Sometimes a­gain this Particle [...], is rendred causally, (these two are its most, and most usual significations, besides the signification which we insist upon, and only can pretend any tolerable title, to a place in this Text) but neither will the Text admit there­of, because the subject of the discourse i. e. Church-officers have a preassigned causality, namely, Christs ascending, descen­ding, and giving gifts unto men; the declaration of the effects of which cause, is this 11. and the following verses. It is therefore most manifest, that nothing can be more notoriously convicted of error and falsehood, by the literal exposition of Scripture (which if it be not the only, ought to be the most general, and is the most safe way of expounding Scripture) then this Presbyte­rial notion of the nextness of the Evangelists to the Apostles Examin we it either by the Translation, or original Text, and that no criticisme can avoid the exactness of its order. I am not ignorant that there are some, who undervalue what they do not understand, and to spiritualize their own barbarisme explode all literal senses, especially when squared by Grammati­cal rules, whom though I can pass by in their own persons, and leave them vainly to bark against an unreachable Moon, ye [...] least their error creep into the affections of some ingenious, bu [...] less wary Christians, let them know Grammatical criteria's, ne­ver more duly take place, then in the decision of questions [...] ­bout the order, proper, and most usual significations of word in a sentence. And that of all other, Presbyterians have leaf cause to disallow them, unless being Posthumous babes of ig­norance, or born since the death of their learned fathers, Cal­vin, Beza, Piscator, &c. they are unacquainted with thei [...] critical eminencies: But enough of this digression, and since 'tis needless to return where we began it, proceed we to what remains.

Secondly it is not prove­able by the scope of the text.Secondly, the Evangelists nextness to the Apostles, is equal­ly disprovable by the scope of the Text; as by the Gramma­tical order of the words. It concerns the Churches uni­ty, when gathered, and governed, by all officers of Christs [Page 41] appointment. The London Ministers call the Text (deserved­ly) the great Charter of the Ministry. Calvin saith,Jus divin. 1. part. p. 39. penitus sa­crum, & spi­rituale regi­men, quod po­steri Hierar­chiam dixe­runt. Calv. instit. lib. 4. ca. 6. sect. 10. Hierarchi­am revera non delinea­vit, sed Hie­roduliam A­mes Bell. e­nerv. To. 1. pag. 136. Amstelod. 1628. it entirely de­scribes the Churches sacred and spiritual government, which men of after times called Hierarchy: Calvin grumbles, but Amesius scolds out right at the word Hierarchy, he saith, in truth it doth not describe an Hierarchy, but an Hieroduly. Which with Reverence to his Revera, is a fond, unnecessary, and dangerous distinction. 'Tis a dangerous distinction. For Christ hath appointed a government in his Church: A government indeed subserving his Authority, and securing the peace and welfare of the governed; but if therefore it loose its denomination, and must be termed servitude, then tyranny is the only govern­ment. 'Tis fond, and unnecessary, for since the Church hath, and ought to have a Government, it must not only be inoffen­sive, but most proper, to call it an Hierarchy, or holy Govern­ment; For Hierarchy, as dangerous as the unlearned account it, in its Greek attire is in an English habit, no other then a holy Government. Besides, Calvin admitting of sacrum regimen, over nicely distanceth himself from those who call it Hierarchy, for he saith the same in Latin, which they do in Greek; yea scrupulous Amesius can stretch his gullet to swallow sacrum re­gimen (sure there is some charm in that word against Hierarchy) for a little above in the same Page, he saith.Totum sa­crum ecclesiae ministerium, & regimen a Christo insti­tutum. Ames. ubi supra. The Text represents the whole holy Government, and Ministry instituted by Christ. Sure­ly did these men conscientiously consider, what a laughing stock they make themselves and their cause, unto cunning men: how far they encourage the most pernicious, and unreasonable He­reticks, to be perpetually babling against truth; what an un­welcome sight 'tis, to an eye compassionately affected towards the healing of the gaping wounds among Christians; and how dreadfully distracting, and obstructive it is to those hearty pray­ers, and sincere endeavours, which pious men would otherwise use, and improve with God, and Christian Princes, to bring a­bout that most blessed and desirable work of their closing, and binding up: They would never, while pretending reformati­on only of what is amiss, so furiously, and fruitlesly, attempt to make breaches in what is already so well said, or done, as when they have struggled till they are weary, they must say, or do the same things, or nothing. But I list not to enlarge a com­ment upon this scurvy text. Amesius (as appears by what of his hath been already quoted) senseth the holy Text of the Gospel, ministry. And in this scope of the Text we have the concur­rent [Page 42] suffrage ofin 4 praec. Zanchius, in loc. Aretius, in loc. Marlorate, in loc. Fulk, in loc. Piscator, loc. com. loc. de mini­sterio q. 2 Tom. controv. pag. 530. sect. secundo re­spondeo Gene­vae. 1610. Bucanus, and (g) Whitaker. And doth i [...] treat of Church-work? and mention what hands are to be im­ployed in that service? must not each officer abide in his ap­pointed station? how else can the work go forward? or if it do go forward, how can it agree with the holy Pattern? o [...] shall we charge the Apostle with a slippery memory, forgetting when he comes among men, though he had been in the Mount with God, the form, and fashion of that Tabernacle which the Divine Majesty intends to pitch among them? what is, if this be not an injurious reflection upon the blessed Spi­rit who moduled the plat-form? as charging him with neg­lect, and carelesness, in the choise of his imployed instrument to prepare and sort the materials, he laying third for second, and second for third. Briefly, will it not be so far from car­rying on the Apostles designed ends of peace and unity, as a [...] once to distract the then present Church, whose officers were otherwise marshalled, and to perpetuate future disquiet an [...] vexation unto all succeeding enquirers, after the work, and office of the Prophets and Evangelists: Besides, if those Pro­phets and Evangelists, were not throughly mortified from their corrupt affections, and had a self-denying Spirit, which the [...] could, from time to time, entayle upon their Successors, what a present and dangerous occasion of emulation, and jelou­sie, did this mislocation insinuate into their Spirits. Which whatever their gifts or graces were, could not be easily over­come and mastered, since some of the Apostles strived for supe­riority, or who should be greatest; Mar. 9.34. When the [...] were all of one order, and when they had no such plea for it▪ as God hath set some Apostles by such a name, others by ano­ther in the Church.

First Obj. Scripture terms are not alwaies exact­ly marshalled.What hath been said is lyable to many objections; we must answer them, ere we can proceed to the remaining exceptions. The Objections are four in number.

Obj. 1. Scripture terms are not alwaies exactly marshalled, what goes first in the nature of things, comes behind in the or­der of story, and contrariwise.

Ans. by a distinction.I answer, Scripture although it be undivided in its Au­thor, is yet capable of distinction, according to the several matters, or things whereof it treateth, in reference unto some of which, the objections are of force; unto others, it is of no vali­dity, for instance:

First, It historically registers, civil or mixt actions,First where the objection lyes. and tran­siently observes, or occasionally exhorts unto remote acts of Faith in particular converts. In which cases the holy Ghost directed his Pen-men to use a running stile, either because those matters are not treated of professedly, but relatively to some other subject; or their exact knowledge is not of absolute ne­cessity to salvation: or they do not concern the Church in any essential part; or other Scriptures deducing them from their first causes, observe the proper order.

Secondly,Secondly where not. It directs in things absolutely necessary to salvati­on, and for the regular, and peaceable Government of the Church in her, proper, and abstracted nature. Of this latter kind, is the instanced Text, Or it is not the great Charter of the Ministry, and doth not entirely describe Church Government, and the Ministry, Particular­ly not in Eph. 4.11. according to the forecited opinions of the London Mini­sters, Calvin and Amesius. But being so, (we argue from their concessions in this Paragraph) the objection cannot be allowed to take place against the exactness of its order. Because, First,First be­cause it would disturb the Churches peace. If the disposition of the ranks of Church-officers, were left to uncertain, and fallible conjecture (and they must be so unless Scripture ascertain them) it were impossible for the several or­ders of Ministers, to satisfie their consciences in the orderly dis­charge of their offices; or for private Christians to reap any certain, or durable comfort by their Ministry, since variety [...]f doubts, or distresses might arise in their consciences, when they might not know to whom to apply themselves for redress. Besides Sathan, and seducers, could never want a gap, through which they would bring dreadful, and endless confusions into Christian societies; for could loose professors once compass this point, that Scripture hurls together matters of Faith, and order so confusedly, as what is first, what second, could not be distinctly, and determinately resolved; they would weather all opposition against their turning Scepticks, or Seekers (a fa­vourable term bestowed by this complemental age upon wan­drers from the true Religion) and never set down under any Ministry, or close with any Religion, till they have found one exactly complying with their wild and irregular fan­cies. So that the widest divisions among pretended Chri­stians (though all professe and are called by Christ unto unity) could be no matter of admiration, and amazement unto so­ber men, rather it were a wonder they are no more, nor more gaping, since each crazed brain, is left to the conduct of [Page 44] his own conjecture, in what order to beleeve and o­bey.

The rule therefore which constitutes this objection, and is so common in mens mouths upon sundry occasions, is not gene­rall nor frequently, and without evident necessity (such as contradictions to other Scriptures, reason, sense, historical veri­ty, &c.) to be at all used. But on the contrary, this must ob­tain the repute of an undoubted axiome in Theology, that should the recital of the aforesaid Ecclesiastical matters, be preposte­rous in one Scripture, some other text must be extant, whence the Church assisted by the holy Ghost, may certainly and unerringly de­termine their due location, and reiglement. But there is no ne­cessity of recurrence to this rule in this case, since no text puts the Evangelist in other order, then third from the Apostle, and next to the Prophet.Secondly it contradicts another Text. And since, Secondly, St. Paul else­where professedly treating of the Essence, Unity, and Govern­ment of the Church, adjoyns Prophets, not Evangelists to the Apostles. His words are. 1 Cor. 12.28. And God hath set in the Church first Apostles, secundarily Prophets, &c. In this Text the holy Ghost (as it were foreseeing the froward opposition of unruly men, against Christs instituted orders of Ministers) interposeth his Authority, and infallibility, so expresly, as they would beleeve any discreet man spake orderly, who upon the least deliberation used the like form of expressions, and that it were the rashest act of most insolent immodesty to question it, for to what purpose serve these numeral distinctions, first, secon­darily, thirdly, if not to give each officer his due rank and diffe­rence? what! would the Holy Ghost have us to remember where, and in what he forgets himself? Be it as far from any sober mind to think it, as it is from the holy Ghost to do it. Besides were the Presbyterian location of the Evangelist justifi­able by some hitherto unalledged Text; yet to a diligent con­siderer of the Apostles earnestness, and particularity of expres­sion in these two Texts (Eph. 4.11. 1 Cor. 12.28.) the one mark he levels at in both; to wit, Church unity and edificati­on, (the ablest marshals to array her Officers) and whether any other Scriptural order, or recital of things in the same or a like manner, as in these Texts, is adjudged by godly and learned expositors, or can be proved by any other judicious persons to be preposterous and alterable, the difficulty will be insuperable, let his will be never so forward, convincedly to perswade his own Judgment, (much less other mens) that the Apostles or­der [Page 45] in such concealed Text is to be preferred to it in the two o­ther. Furthermore, Thirdly,Thirdly it makes the A­postle loose his end in the ranking of those officers. St. Paul in this Epistle to the Corinthians, takes just occasion to reprove the pride and haugh­tiness of the Prophet, and gives rules for the avoidance of those crimes and prevention of like checks for the future, 1 Cor. 14. per tot. And in the aforementioned Text, 1 Cor. 12.28. As it were of set purpose to humble, and moderate the Prophets Spirit, he placeth his charisma, or the gift of Tongues in the lowest classe of extraordinary donations, saying after that mi­racles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. In the arrogant abuse of this gift, subserving it to private ostentation, not publick edification, the Prophet was most grievously peccant, he speaking with tongues, that his parts might be magnified, not that the consciences of the people might be instructed; wherefore as I said the Apostle to humble him, placeth his admired gift, upon the lowest seat in the Church, as upon a Stool of repentance. Wherein did St. Paul act (not to say spiritually, and specially directed by the holy Ghost, which notwithstanding was most true) but rationally, and out of a prudent intention, to bring the Prophet to the knowledge of himself and duty, how weakly doth he defeat his design of the expected success, if while humbling the gift, he exalt the receiver to an undue place, and preheminency. For was it a sin in the Prophet to be proud of a real gift; And was this a fit way to correct him, by perching him upon a place assigned to another, and his superiour officer? would he abuse Gods gift, to pride and vain glory, and would not he make the same misimprovement of the Apostles mistake? But why do I say mistake, who could know the Evangelists proper place if St. Paul did not? Is it not he? who sent forth, or took with him more who are accounted Evangelists by modern Divines, (and they have drawn the Catalogue far larger then any of the Anti­ents) then all the rest of the Apostles? And who only of all the Apostles, useth the word Evangelist in his writings: Nei­ther doth any other Scripture writer use it except St. Luke, who once gives Philip that title. Act. 21.8. but even then (and he never useth it in any other place) he brings St. Paul unto, and leaves him at Philips house; consequently he could not chuse but be very well acquainted with his office, and order in the Church. Moreover in this Epistle to the Corinthians St. Paul calls himself, a wise master builder, 1 Cor. 3.10. but wherein did his skill, or care answer that title, if in laying the founda­tion [Page 46] stones where ought to be, and he seemingly useth most di­ligence, he heedlesly misplaces two of the first three. We hope the ingenuous Reader is satisfied (if not by what we have said, yet because the Apostle hath asserted it twice) in the exactness of the Apostles order, and location of Prophets, not Evange­lists next to the Apostles; neither need any more be added, but (if it be possible) to stop the mouth of gainsayers, we add; Fourthly the generality of learned men,Fourthly Presbyters ac­knowledg the Apostles order to be exact. Presbyters and others acknowledge it. The major part of the Definers,Immediat­ly preceding their definiti­on of the Evangelist. as Calvin, Beza,, Faius, Zanchius, Bucanus, Wollebius, Spanhemius, and Maretius, define Church-officers in the Scripture order, first Apostles, secondly Prophets, thirdly Evangelists. Indeed to make way for the Evangelists vice-Apostolate, either they assign the Prophet no ordinary office-work, or what is by far inferiour, to what they allow to the Evangelists, but with how little rea­son they do it, we doubt not to render evident, ere we con­clude all our exceptions against their Definitions. Others o [...] the Definers (out of an undoubted consciousness of the weak reasons for, and the strong testimony exhibited by the fore­mentioned Texts, against the Evangelists nextness to the A­postles) take no notice of the Textual order, but upon their own Authority, some thrust the Prophet before the Apostles, sosame page with their Defini­tions of the Evangelist. Ʋrsinus, andsame page with their Defini­tions of the Evangelist. Pareus,; others place him in the rear of the Evangelists, sosame page with their Defini­tions of the Evangelist. Polanus, andAdvice to Parliament a­bout Church Government title of the of­ficers of the Church. our Assembly: Ano­ther makes him lag behind Teachers, sosame page with their Defini­tions of the Evangelist. Aretius, Henderson, though none of the Definers, yet a famous Presbyter, and the more illustrious by the reflection of the bright beams of his royal Antagonist, allows all the rest of the officers mentioned, Eph. 4.11. to be duely ranked, but strikes the Prophet quite out of the Catalogue:First Paper passing be­twixt the king and Mr. Hen­derson at Newcastle to the argu­ment brought by your Ma­jesty. he saith. In the Ministry of the new Testament, there is a comely, beautiful, and divine order, and sub­ordination, one kind of Minister being placed in degree and dignity before another, as the Apostles first, the Evangelists, Pastors, and Doctors in their own ranks. Thus he. But proceed we to some closer proof, Beza saith. The Prophetick order is joyned to the A­postolick in Church Government. Our Sacatia, ours by profession though not by birth, in his tract of the diverss degrees of Mi­nisters,Ordinem adjunctum A­postolico in ec­clesiis admini­strandis Bez. ad Eph. 4.11. placeth the Prophet third from the Ap [...]stles. Beza never Thanks him for countenancing the Presbyterian notion about the Evangelists so far, but checks him roughly, and tells him, I do not assign the Prophet the third degree, as thou dost, but the se­cond degree as the Apostle doth.

Piscator saith. The five terms of Apostles, Prophets, &c, Non terti­um ut tu, sed secundum gra­dum cum Apo­stolo assignem. Bez. cont. sa­vat. cap. 1. S. denique, quod sacrarum quinque gene­ra, & quasi ordines. Pis­cat. Anal. ad Eph. 4.11. are five kinds, and as it were orders of officers. Our learned Whitaker and (a) Zanchius are more positive, Zanchius saith plainly, they are five orders, and (b) Whitaker saith, certainly the Apostle doth describe those kinds of Ministries in order, which Christ instituted to teach his Church. Our Rigid English Presbyters, who stood by the location of the Evangelist; according to the former Defi­nitions, till they had effected the temporary extrusion of Epis­copacy: when that work was over, they forced him to take a­nother, and lower seat: God permitting Independency by a just law of retaliation, to vex them welnigh to the extermination of the Presbyterian Government, which a wrong extent of the Prophetick office clamourously, and impudently asserted,Zanch. in 4. praec. pag. 662. as Presbyters had before served the Bishops, with the like con­cerning the Evangelist. The case was in short thus:Certa genera ministeriorum, quae Christus ad ecclesiam suam docen­dam instituit, descripsit or­dine. Whitak. cont. To. 2. pag. 530. se­cundo respon­deo. the Inde­pendents shrouded their gifted and unordained brethren, under the lap of the Prophets mantle, Liberty of Prophesie being the In­dependent Shibboleth, as parity of Ministers, had been before the Presbyterian. Whereat the London Ministers enraged, say, The Prophets were Church-officers, not only preferred before Pastors, and Teachers, but also before the Evangelists; suffice this in answer to the first. We proceed to the second objection.

Obj. 2. Prophets mentioned, Eph. 4.11. and 1 Cor. 12.28. were either foretellers of future events by Divine Revelation, o [...] men extraordinarily raised to reform the Church:Jus divin. 1 par. p. 97. Which being true; the Evangelist may retain all allowed him by the former Definitions,Obj. 2. The Prophets were predicters or extraordina­rily raised re­formers. without any of the surmized inconvenien­ces, since to foretel future events, or reform a corrupt Church-state, required a more extraordinary assistance, then any of the works assigned to the Evangelist.

1 Ans. I grant the New Testament speaks of Prophets, of ei­ther sort, of the former Agabus, &c. of the latter,1 Ans. by con­cession, that the word may elsewhere b so interpreted John the Baptist, though his work was not only, yea not principally the regulation of things amiss in the Jewish Paedagogy, and their reduction to the antient standard of discipline, but the intro­duction of a new order, and form of worship under the King­dome, and Government of the Messias, whose forerunner he was.

2 Ans. I deny,2 Ans. by ne­gation that it doth not so signifie in these texts. that Prophets in either of those latitudes are spoken of in these Texts, particularly.

[Page 48] First they were not perdi­cters because. First their as­signed works are of another nature.1. First not foretellers of future things, for these rea­sons.

First, Because both Texts treat of a gathered, and governed Church, and of her officers, unto whom works of another, and di­verse nature are assigned, even perpetual, ordinary, and yet conti­nuing works, but prediction is discontinued, or rarely found in the Church at this day: The work of our Prophet registred, Eph. 4.11. Is the perfecting of the Saints, the work of the Mini­stry, and the edifying of the body of Christ, till we all come in the u­nity, &c. Indeed in 1 Cor. 12.28. mention is made of some ex­traordinary gifts. But, First there is no mention made of pre­diction. Secondly what are mentioned are seated apart, and distinct from the Prophet, and might as well be the gift of Teachers, as of Prophets: For some of the lower order o [...] Church-officers received those miraculous effusions of the hol [...] Ghost, and wrought by them. So Philip, Act. 8.6. who thoug [...] called an Evangelist, Act. 21.8. was no more then a Presbyte [...] he being expresly excluded from imposition of hands, whic [...] was a distinct act of the Apostolick office. Act. 8.14, 15. An thus the seventy Disciples, Luk. 10.19. Thirdly, who ever re­ceived those gifts, the holy Ghost in enumerating them sep [...] rate, and distinct from officers, wills us to consider in what n [...] tion they received them, least confounding gifts and office [...] First we make both temporary, when only one was. That n [...] office instituted by Christ in the Primitive Church was temp [...] rary, shall be proved in the seventh exception, but that gift [...] were temporary, appears both in their present disuse: And in that those officers who exercised them once, could not alwaie [...] do it, although the occasions were the same. St. Paul, wh [...] one while cured multitudes of diseased persons, by handkerchief and aprons taken off from his body and put upon theirs. A [...] 19.12. Another time adviseth Timothy to a physical care o [...] his bodily health, least he should prejudice it by over much in­tentiveness upon the best things. 1 Tim. 5.24. And is forced to leave his dear companion Trophimus sick at Miletum, while he travails elsewhere. 2 Tim. 4.20. Secondly, we maim the ye [...] continuing officer, of a part of his office; when he is to do the same works of perfecting the Saints, &c.

We are therefore yet to expect a proof, that this Prophet mentioned, 1 Cor. 12.28. was a foreteller of things to come, and long enough we may expect it: since St. Paul a little after in the same Epistle, assigns him another work; 1 Cor. 14.3. [Page 49] He that prophesieth speaketh unto men, unto exhortation, edification, and comfort. These are not only distinct from prediction, but are ordinary, and continuing office-works; In doing whereof (let it be noted) the Prophet was to wait for a May, or permit­tance from the Church. 1 Cor. 14.31. ye may all prophesie one by one, that all may be edified, and all may be comforted. But how may all Prophesie? even in subjection of Spirit unto their fel­low Prophets. ver. 32. And the Spirits of the Prophets are sub­ [...]ect unto the Prophets. Which being understood, either of the Prophets power over his own Spirit, that he might, or of his Brethrens power over him, that he must be subject in speech, [...]n silence, denies he had the same impulse with old Testament Prophets: All which were Predicters, and never less able to command themselves, or liable to be commanded by others, [...]hen in that action. See Jer. 6.11. Amos. 7.12, 13, 14. Se­ [...]ondly Inspiration, or the gift of foretelling things to come,2. Predi­ction was a gift promiscu­ously bestow­ed upon both sexes, both men and wo­men, but wo­men are pro­hibited to prophesie in the sense of those texts. [...]as promiscuously bestowed, both upon men and women, [...]ithout distinction of Sex; when Philips daughters are called [...]rophetesses, Act. 21.8. I hope we do not take them for Church-officers, or of the order mentioned 1 Cor. 12.28. (since [...]hen the rule could not have been given. 1 Cor. 14.34. Let [...]our women keep silence in the Churches, for it is not permitted them [...]o speak, but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith [...]he law) but that they were inspired by hymne, spiritual song, or [...]therwise, to foretel future events, and probably St. Pauls ha­ [...]ards and sufferings at Jerusalem. Certainly blessed Anna was [...]uch a Prophetesse, her Prediction concerning our Lord Jesus then newly born, is recorded. Luk. 2.36, 37, 38. And there was [...]ne Anna a prophetess, she coming in at that instant, gave thanks [...]ikewise unto the Lord, & spake of him to all them that looked for Re­demption in Jerusalem. Besides St. Paul. 1 Thess. 5.20. gives [...] general Caveat, not to quench the Spirit: But if Prophets, and Prophesies in the objected Texts, must be interpreted by Pre­dicters, and prediction; he transgrest his own order, when he [...]mposed silence upon women in the Church,3. Presby­ters deny these prophets to have been Predicters. since they recei­ved, and might exercise that gift as well as men.

Thirdly, Presbyterian commentators, will neitheir allow the Prophets mentioned in these Texts to be Predicters, nor their work to be prediction. The London Divines say▪ the Pro­phets both in this place (they mean 1 Cor. 14.3.) and where ever else in Scripture mentioned, were an order of Ministry, Jus divin. in part pag. 96. not only gifted brethren, but constituted officers in the Church, thus 1 Cor. 12.28. [Page 50] God hath set in his Church, first Apostles, secondarily Prophets, thirdly Teachers. Transit a primo gradu ad prophetas quo nominenon intelligit eos, qui dono vati­cinandi polle­rent sed qui singulari, non modo interpre­tandae, sed in­praesentem u­sum prudenter accommodan­dae scripturae, gratia polle­rent, nam pro­phetiam pre­fert omnibus aliis donis; quia plus aedi­ficationis affe­rat, quod elo­gium in rerum futurarum praedictionem minime competeret, deinde cum definit prophetiae munus, (vel sal­tem tractat quod precipue agere debeat) docet eum incumbere in consolationem, exhortatio­nem, & doctrinam. Haec autem a vaticiniis sunt distincta, sunt ergo nobis propheta hoc loco, primum eximiis scripturae interpretes, deinde non vulgari prudentia, & dexte­ritate praediti ad circum spiciendam praesentem ecclesiae necessitatem, ut apposite loquantur. & sint hac ratione quasi divinae voluntatis internuncii. Calv. in 1 Cor 12.28. Thus they. Calvin saith, The Apostle passeth from the first degree to Prophets, by which name he doth not under­stand foretellers of future events, but men enabled by special grace to interprete, and wisely accommodate Scripture unto present occasions, for he prefers prophesie to all other gifts, as more edifying then they; which commendation prediction doth not deserve. Furthermore when he defines the prophets work, (or at least handles what he ought prin­cipally to do) he saith he must use his whole endeavour to comfort, ex­hort, & instruct; but these are distinct from prediction. We understand therefore by prophets in this place, chiefly excellent interpreters of Scripture, secondly men indued with a more then ordinary prudence & dexterity, to speak appositely to the Churches present necessities, & be as it were the messengers of the divine will. Thus he. This is ge­nerally the Protestant opinion, hence Whitaker replying to Bellarmine, who censeth Prophets in these Texts, as the first member of the objection doth, saith in scorn.Mit­to hic quam cite, Bellarminus per prophetas eos intelligit, qui futura praedicant. Whitak. controv. To. 2. pag. 530. I let pass how Clerk-like Bellarmine understands foretellers of future events by pro­phets. and this shall suffice in answer to the first member of the objection.

Secondly, these Prophets were not extraordinarily raised reformers.2 they were not extraor­dinarily rais­ed reformers. Because

Because somewhat was amiss, both in the Prophets, and in the Church whereof they were officers, but the Apostle orders the reformation of both.

First, That somewhat was amiss in the Prophet1. Some­what was a­miss in the Prophet. appears (be­side what hath been already instanced) in the many Apostoli­cal cautions, and rules given for the regular administration of his gifts, 1 Cor. 14. per tot. for instance a prophetical gift, a choise, though not the only one, was the gift of tongues, com­pare Act. 2.4. with ver. 17.18. you will find the gift of tongues conferred upon the Apostles, to enable them to Pro­phesie. And Act. 19.6. speaking with tongues, and prophe­cying, or gift and office are coupled; now in the misimploy­ment [Page 51] of this gift, he Corinthian Prophet was delinquent, and is therefore reproved by the Apostle. 1 Cor. 14.5.6. ver. 14. ver. 23. ver. 26.

Obj. Is it said the Apostle perpetually, or very frequently, di­stinguisheth in that Chapter betwixt tongues and prophe­sie.

Sol. I answer to grant it no more is gained, then that, First they were diverse actions, which is no bar to their performance by one and the same person at several times. Secondly, though the actions were, and might sometimes be diverse, yet they were not alwaies so, nor did the distinction consist in the sepa­rate nature of the things, but in the several capacities of the hearers: For the Linguist might at once speak with tongues, and prophesie unto intelligent persons, while at the same time he scattered his words in the air, and was a Barbarian to the ignorant. Thirdly, a nigh observer will easily discern the A­postle evidencing in this seeming opposition, the subserviency of tongues unto edification, which is the Prophets principal work, thus who speaks with tongues ought to accommodate his discourse to the capacity of his hearers. 1 Cor. 14.15. is to pray that [...]e may interpret. 1 Cor. 1 [...].13. and a rule is given that others should do it, if the Linguist do not, or cannot. 1 Cor. 14.27.

Secondly, the Church of Corinth as well as the Prophet, [...]ood in need of reformation, but the Apostle leaves it not un­ [...]o the Prophet, but takes course about it himself;2. The Corinthian Church wan­ted reforma­tion, and St. Paul not the Prophets gives orders about it. whether in grosser misdemeaners, that they might be speedily punished, 1 Cor. 5.3. or in slighter offences; that they might be tolera­ted until his coming, 1 Cor. 11.34. now had either of these things belonged to the Corinthian Prophets cognizance, either the Apostle would not have intermedled at all, or given the special reason why he thus of necessity invaded the Prophets priviledges, that they might be preserved to him and his Suc­cessors for the future; and these acts not hang upon the file, as presidents to his prejudice. Thus we dismiss the second objection. The third enters.

Obj. 3. The dissenting brethren, reduce Prophets, and Evan­gelists to a parallel order, 3. Obj. the prophetical and evangeli­cal order were paralel. wherein they followReason of dissenters pag. 116. Bul­linger, whose words upon the Text are. Apostles, Prophets, Ʋnicae functionis vo­cabula, & quamvis va­ria in eundem recidunt. Bullinger ad Eph. 4.11. and Evangelists, are names of one function, and though various, meet at last in one order, office, or officer.

First the works assign­ed to the E­vangelist will not admit the Prophet to a parity.First, Ans. This plaister is not broad enough to cover the sore, for were Prophets and Evangelists of the same order, both of them did, or might perform the same Office-works: But the former Definitions assign the Evangelist such works as the Prophet, could not do any paralel, or equal to them. For were the Evangelists the Apostles vicars over all Churches, the Pro­phets whatsoever office they bare in the Church must of necessity be inferiour to them.

Secondly, our Assembly disallow the parity.Secondly, Our Assembly urged by the dissenting Brethren, there­in dissenting from themselves) to prove by Scripture, the sub­ordination of their several Courts, to wit, Consistories, classes, Provincial Synods and general Assembly's; because as they say, the inferiority, and superiority of officers were so distinguished in the Apostles time, as they prove by this text, Ephes. 4.11. The Assembly calling to mind the dissenters former assertion, a­bout the parallelness of the orders,Ans. to diss. p: 14. London 1648. betwixt the Prophets and the Evangelists, shape them this answer: That for ought there appears, the Evangelist might as well be of a parallel order with Pastors and Teachers, as with Prophets. The consequence whereof must be both a plain denyal of the objection, which the assembly also doth in the forecited place; and (whereof perhaps they were not a­ware) a direct confutation of Calvines (and consequently of their own) opinion of the Evangelists nextness to the Apostles; This text being singly alledged by him in proof of that notion, for were the Evangelists next to the Apostles, so as to apply their places, in constituting, or governing all, or many Churches; no question can be made whither they and Pastors be of a parallel order, unless Pastors as well as Evangelists, be extraordinary: and this text treat onely of extraordinary Officers, for the yet con­tinuing Pastor (or Presbyter, for of him onely Calvinists under­stand that term) is not as they say, the Evangelist was, next i [...] office to the Apostles, and doth not supply their place in con­stituting, or governing all, or many Churches. But if he be, then the middle wall betwixt ordinary and extraordinary officeers is taken down, and all offices are laid in common.

This notion therefore about the parallelness of the orders, betwixt the Prophets and Evangelists, will not unty, but more in­tangle, the knot of this difficulty, concerning the Presbyterian lo­cation of the Evangelist, however it adviseth to a true exposition of the five terms Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, &c.The five terms, Apo­stles, Pro­phets, &c. ex­pounded. we shall do it, or endeavour to do it, with all possible brevity, and plainness.

First. Negatively, shewing what they were not.First ne­gatively they were not seve­ral orders.

Secondly, Positively declaring what they were.

First, Negatively, they were not several orders of teaching Church-officers. The affirmative is maintained by Beza, Zan­chius, Piscator, Because and Henderson (as we have before heard) but o­ther reason, either there, or elsewhere in their writings, besides their bare say-so, they do not give. This might be turned off, with as bare and peremptory a denyal; but we study the Rea­ders satisfaction,First, ascen­ded Christ ra­tified only two orders of officers. and will assign reasons why we cannot even orders, with the terms Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists &c.

First, Ascended Christ [...]atified those, and only those orders of teaching Church-officers, whom he constituted while de­ [...]cended, because he who ascended is also the same who descen­ded,See my reasons for Christs sole Legislatorship pag. 83. &c. and in both capacities, He gave some Apostles, &c. Eph. 4, 8, 9, 10.11. But descended Christ appointed only two orders of teaching Church-officers, The twelve Apostles, Mat. 10.1. and the [...]venty Disciples, Luk. 16.1. Now if the number be augmented after the Ascension, how can he who descended,Dandi vo­cabulum in­nuit, non esse hoc inventum mandatum sed sacrosanctam Christi insti­tutionem, quod regitur eccle­sia verbi prae­dicatione ne­que enim Apo­stoli, se ipsi crearunt sed e­lecti fuerunt a Christo. Calv. ad Eph. 4.11. and he who ascended be the same. This no doubt Calvin eyed when he saith, The word give intimateth this is not an invented command, but Christs holy institution, that the Church be governed by preach­ing of the Word, for neither the Apostles created themselves, but were elected by Christ. Thus he. But certainly to vary the or­ders of teaching Church-officers, by making them more or less, [...]ccording to the several states of Christs ascending, and descen­ding, must imply the addition of power in one state, which he wanted in another, and consequently that he who descended, and he who ascended is not the same in power, and virtue; [...]either will this text be of any force against the Nestorians, (though Jerom use it) to prove that the Son of God, and the [...]on of man are not distinct persons, but both one, because St. [...]aul saith, he who descended, and he who ascended is the same. But [...]ather those hereticks are in the right,Vid. Est­thium in loc. since the highest refor­mists (or those who would be accounted such) vary, and alter the orders of Church-officers according to those several estates of Christ. Besides this confining the teaching Ministry unto two orders is not my private inference from those Texts, Da­masus Bishop of Rome (St. Jeroms contemporary) gives this ve­ry reason for the unchairing of the Chorepiscopi, or Rural Bi­shops. He saith, Those Chorepiscopi are prohibited as well by this [Page 54] sacred See (Rome) as by the Bishops of tbe whole world, Chorepisco­pi tam ab hac sacra sede quam ab epis­copis totius or­bis prohibiti sunt, nimis e­nim eorum in­stitutio impro­ba est & pra­va quia etsi de summo sacer­dotii ministe­rio aliquid presumant; om­ni tamen au­thoritate ca­rent nam non amplius quam duos ordines inter dicipulos domini esse cognovimus i. e. duodecim Apostolorum, & septuagin­ta duorum dis­cipulorum. Ʋnde iste ter­tius processe­rit ignoramus & quod rati­one caret ex­tirpare neces­se est damasus apud feruti­an. 1. libro decret di­stinct. 68. for their in­stitution is overmuch improbous, and wicked, because although they presume to do somewhat appertaining to the chief Sacerdotal Mini­stry, yet they want all authority. For we have not known any more then two orders among the disciples of the Lord. i. e. the twelve Apostles, and seventy two disciples, whence the third proceeded we are ignorant. And what is void of reason of ne­cessity must be extirpated.

Secondly, Every here mentioned work of perfecting of the Saints, working in the Ministry, and edifying of the body of Chr st which contain a compleat discharge of the whole office of Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers, or St. Paul would ne­ver have said, that Christ gave the officers for that end, were done by one or other of those two orders, even Apostolical, or Presbyterial. The Apostles personally discharged them all, the word [...] rendred perfecting, is a Metaphor translated from the natural to the mystical body; properly it signifies the concinnation, compactness, apt, and orderly disposition of all the members, in a compleat and perfect body, and their setting in joynt, when any of them are dislocated by casual vio­lence, tralatiously as in this Text it imports the gathering, go­verning, forming, and reforming of the Church. Thus to per­fect the Saints was the Apostles work. Act. 1.26. Act. 2.42. Act. 6.1, 2, 3. Act. 8.14, 15, 16.. Act. 14.23. Act. 16.4. 1 Cor. 5, 3. 1 Cor. 11.34.3. Epist. Joh. v. 10. Neither was this alone an Apostolical work, for so was the work of the Mini­stry, Act. 20.24. And so was the edifying of the body of Christ. 1 Cor. 3.10. The four remaining terms; Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers, are so far from constituting several or­ders, or relating to special, and distinct works, as the work denominating them are not proper, or distinct, either to the A­postolical, or Presbyterial order, but common to both. Th [...] Apostles Prophesie, Act. 2.18. which to the end 36. so did Presby­ters. Act. 15.32. This Text concerns Judas and Sylas, whose Presbyterate shall be evinced in the fourth exception. The Apostles Evangelized, Rom. 1.15. Rom. 15.20. 1 Cor. 1.17. 1 Cor. 9.16. So did Presbyters. Act. 8.1. v. 5. v. 35.. This concerns Evangelist Philip, whose Presbyterate shall be mani­fested, in the explication of my own definition of the Evange­list. The Apostles fed. 1 Cor. 9.7. 1 Pet. 5.1. so did Presbyters. Act. 20 28. This concerns the Ephesine Elders, whose Presbyte­rate will be readily granted by Presbyters. The Apostles taught, [Page 55] 1 Tim. 2.9. This Text concerneth one and the same persons, with Act. 20.28.In omnibus his diversis nominibus, si­mile, & prope unum doctrinae officium, vide­tur fuisse tra­ctatum Paul. ad Augustin. inter opera Augustin. To. 2, Epist. 58. Basileae. 1556. This no doubt occasioned Paulinus St. Augustines contemporary, & writing to him to say, That alike, & almost one office of teaching, seems to be handled in all these divers names.

Thirdly, the Church at Jerusalem, convened in a Synod, is comprized in Apostles, Elders and Brethren. Act. [...]5.2. v. 4. v. 6. v. 22. Act. 16.4. This was the first Church formed by our Saviour, and at this time not only fully constituted, but assembled for the exercise of the highest act of Ecclesiastical po­wer. And she may rather be presumed to be a pattern unto all other Churches, then to derive an example from them, and al­ [...]er hers, according to the diversity of their constitution; which she must do, or continue incompleat, if Apostles, Prophets, Thirdly the Church of Je­rusalem Syno­dally conve­ned, is com­prized in A­postles, El­ders, and Brethren. Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers, were so many several orders. [...]esides, let it be noted, this Synod, at Jerusalem, was conve­ [...]ed long after the Apostles had received the gift of Prophesie. [...]ct. 2.18. And after St. Peter had Evangelized to Cornelius, and his gentile relations. Act. 10. which notwithstanding, and although in all probability others of the Apostles, especially [...]. Paul and Barnabas had done the like works, yet no mention [...] made of Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, or Teachers, distinct f [...]om Apostles and Elders.

Fourthly, who ever Apostolized, Prophesied, Evangelized, [...]r did any other work, relative to the perfecting of an old,Fourthly the same works done by the same, or diverse persons in di­vers places. did not diver­sify the orders of the work­men. or [...]thering of a new Church, he did not receive a new order to [...]o, or by doing of those works, because order preceeds of­ [...]ce, and who ever did these works, he was an officer before he did them: Neither did he ascend any step, or degree above his brethren and fellow-officers, ordinarily officiating in consti­tuted Churches; Because, either those officers had done the [...]me works in the Churches where they were settled, or others [...]hose descendants they were, had done them at the first settle­ment of those Churches; And because such new Apostles, and Pro­phets, and Evangelists would become settled officers, have their limits, do the common works of Governing, Feeding, and Teach­ing, when their converts were gathered into a Church. In­deed the table must be spread for Christ, by Apostolizing, Pro­phesying, or Evangelizing, ere we entertain him, or he us, by feeding and teaching, but 'tis equally certain that the former must end in the latter, when, and so soon as the Church is con­stituted; Besides for this purpose it is very observable, that they who in Scripture are called Evangelists, were in orders, [Page 56] or made Ministers ere they were called Evangelists. Thus Timo­thy was ordained by St. Paul, and did Apostolical works a [...] Ephesus, long, and long before he is enjoyned to do the work o [...] an Evangelist. Thus Philip was ordained an officer in the Church of Jerusalem (but he was a Presbyter, not an Apostle, a [...] shall appear largely in the following part of this discourse) ere he did Evangelize at Samaria & Caesaria. Act. 8. And for doing whereof he is called an Evangelist, Act. 21.8. Those two Evange­lists being of different orders, or of the Apostolical and Pres­byterial, makes it manifest that the Evangelizate was no distinct order, for although the Apostles might have done its distinct acts had it been an order, because the Apostolate was the highes [...] Ecclesiastical order, and every superiour order, eminently (a [...] least) contains the inferiour in it. Yet Presbyters could no [...] have done them, because if the Evangelizate was any order, i [...] cannot be denyed to have been superiour to the Presbyterate Neither could any presbyter be admitted to do its distinct acts without a down-right overthrow of all formal difference, be­twixt the orders. If any unsatisfied Reader shall yet persist i [...] his opinion, that the Evangelizate was a distinct order, we de­sire him to shew us its formal difference both from the Apo­stolate, and from the Presbyterate. And what other works the Evangelist could do distinct from those enumerated in this text viz. the perfecting of the Saints, work of the Ministry, and edifying of the body of Christ. All which we have already proved to have been done by Apostles & presbyters: we may be, & have somtimes been told, that Timothy and Philip, after their former ordinations received new commissions authorizing them to be Evangelists. But we dare not beleeve it, since Timothy's order (ere he wa [...] bid do the work of an Evangelist) was so high and eminent, th [...] Evangelizing must be an undervaluing to him, if it placed hi [...] in a new and distinct order or office, because he was before appointed by St. Paul to do Apostolical works, or the distinct works of the Apostolical office at Ephesus; which was the place whereunto the command was sent him to do the works of a [...] Evangelist. And since Philip, after the mention made of him, Act. 6. is not noted in Scripture to have received any new or­der, or commission to do the works received Act. 8. And for doing which (as hath been said) he is called an Evangelist, 2 Paper for your Ma­jesties defini­tion of the E­piscopal go­ [...]ernment. Act. 21.8. the Wight Divines do voluntarily allow us, that, Apo­stles, Prophets, Evangelists, &c. are distinguished by their callings, and commissions, but not by their works; which they endeavour [Page 57] to prove by this text, or Eph. 4.11. But without success; [...]either are they, nor any of their partizans like to be successeful [...]n it till it shall be Scripturally evidenced, that Christ did Commissionate distinct orders of Church-officers; and did not [...]ppoint every of them their proper and distinct works, which [...]f proved, will destroy the very nature and essence of order, which consists in the distinct and separate works, or trusts com­mitted to the ordained. And as for the Wight Divines allega­ [...]ion of the aforesaid Eph. 4.11. in proof of their notion, we [...]ope enough hath been, and will be said in this, and the [...]ollowing reasons, why the Evangelizate was neither a distinct order, or degree of, and in Ecclesiastical offices, to convince [...]ny impartial Reader, of its unaptness to maintain their cause, [...]r disserve our opinion.

Fifthly, When any setled Church sent forth any of her offi­ [...]ers to constitute a new Church,5. When some officers went abroad to constitute a new church, others of the same orders, staid at home to preserve the old one. she kept others of the same [...]rder at home to preserve her self. Thus the other Apostles [...]ent forth St. Peter, and St. John to settle a Church at Sama­ [...]ia, among Philips converts, themselves remaining and con­ [...]nuing in the mean time at Jerusalem. Act. 8.14, 15. Thus [...]ucius, Simeon, and Manaen, emitting St. Paul and Barnabas, to [...]vangelize to the Gentiles, themselves staid at home with the Church at Antioch. Act. 13.1, 2, 3. The ground of this practise is [...]vident in reason, for otherwise the Church would be alwaies [...]lanting, never planted, the enchurching of one would be the [...]nchurching of another people. Christian religion (as 'tis [...]aid of the Sea) would loose as much at one place, as she gained [...]t another. A planted Church must have her officers con­ [...]tantly residing, to dress, feed, and govern her; that vineyard [...]ould be soon over-run with weeds, if at any time she wanted [...]hose spiritual Husbandmen. A propagated Church must also [...]ave her affixed officers; but they are not of a different, kind [...]rom officers in constituted Churches: because the ministry is but one, & new Ministers are made by old ones, in virtue of Christs promise successively to continue the same Ministry unto his church. Whence it follows, that the ministers whether in a con­stituted, or propagated Church are both of one order, and na­ture, because both are derived from one original, but being of different growth's, they fall under answerable denominations. These are hopeful grafts, while they are fruit-bearing trees; these Apostolize, or Prophesy, they feed; these Exangelize, they teach; their root is one, their fruit one, but their plantations are several.

6. Bullinger reduceth the three first terms to one order, and St. Paul re­duceth the o­ther two unto one other or­der.Sixthly, Bullinger, as hath been instanced, saith the three first titles are names of one function, which must be the Apostolate, since the Apostles are first named, the Presbyterate of the other two, may not be questioned, since the Apostle comprehends both un­der the one name of Teachers. 1 Cor. 12.28. Suffice this in de­monstration of the reasons, why the five terms do not compre­hend an equal number of Church-officers of several or­ders.

Secondly, Negatively, The five terms do not constitute, a like number of degrees, or dignities, of officers of fewer or­ders.

2. Neg. they were not several de­degrees. The. AbsurdityThe affirmative is Calvins, and the general Presbyterian opi­on. But therein their wariness, or (shall I call it) their wili­ness is remarkable; to call them several orders, would too grosly exceed the number of Christs instituted orders, and too suddenly engage them upon the dispute of the nature, and diffe­rences of those orders (the assured break-neck of their cause) but to call them several degrees, or dignities, would furnish impudent wranglers with a sophistical distinction to oppose truth, and perswade easie and tractable Readers, that there is some notorious official difference betwixt the past, and pre­sent Church-officers, because their leaders say, one is of one degree or dignity, the other of another, and because them­selves know not what degree, or dignity means, or wherein their diversitie from order consists. But Calvin, and the rest, instead of avoiding, rush at another door into the same inconve­nience of exceeding the number of Christs instituted orders: For when order and degree, are used of men in societies (as here) concerning their functions, employments, or honours, differencing them one from another, they import one, and th [...] self same thing; who is so of a different degree, is also of a dif­ferent order, and contrariwise, hence the promiscuous use of these two words, for one and the same thing, is very frequent in most polite and accurate authors. I am well acquainted with the usually assigned difference,Vid. Cice­ronis opera passim. betwixt order and degree, Order being restored to a distinct power in special acts, degree to su­periority without power. But those Figleaves will not cover the Definers nakedness, because though they call the Evangelizate a degree, yet they allow the Evangelist distinct acts of office, as the incarnate change of all Churches, ordination of Ministers, exercised of Censures in,Dange­rousness of the affirma­tive. and o [...] all, or many Churches. Whereby as they make the office a distinct order, so it is a [Page 59] question not easily resolved, whether they might not more safely, and agreably to their own principles, have called Apo­stles, Prophets, Evangelists, &c. several orders, rather then seve­ral degrees, extend they degrees, either to somewhat diffe­rent from order, or to an higher step in the same order.

If they accept it in the former latitude;

Then Christs Legislative power is impaired, and the new Testament Church-state is not introduced by one Legislator, but by many Legislating Commissioners; Because the Evange­list, who according to Beza, Faius, and Spanhemius, founded, or instituted Churches, were not of the same order with the A­postles, and consequently acted under another order and com­mission, then that which Christ gave to his Apostles.

If they take degree in the latter signification. Then,

First, the Apostolate (to which the first word in the cata­logue or Apostles appertaineth) was both the highest order and degree in the Church; but if Prophesying, Evangelizing, Teaching, and Feeding, altered the degree or order of those who discharged them, then the Apostles so oft as they wrought any of these works, descended into a lower state or condition, then that wherein Christ had constituted them.

Secondly, all the former Definitions are faulty, and vicious in the non-assignation of the Evangelists order, whether it were the Apostolate, or the Presbyterate; or wherein his de­gree differed from other officers of the same order.

Thirdly, the distinct and separate Definition of the Evan­gelist, as neither an Apostle nor a Presbyter, but inferior to the one, and superiour to the other in Office-works, is intro­ductive of a third order, for such inferiority, and superiority are the plainest, and most visible characters of order and subor­dination. Hence the Wight Divines tell us roundly, that E­vangelizate was a distinct office.

Fourthly, the Diana of Presbyterianisme, 1. Paper. Sect. to that of Timothy and Titus. or the parity of all officers of the same order is in danger to be despised, and her magnificence destroyed, for every degree hath respect to supe­riority, and inferiority. This is not only ours, but the joynt opinion of Calvin, and Aretius, who say, The Evangelists were inferiour unto, and less then the Apostles.

The Reader is now expectant to hear what we think of these five terms, and wills us not to take shelter at the safe, and usu­al retreat of hazardous undertakers, viz. a denyal of the veri­ty of the opinions of other men. We are content to endea­vour [Page 60] his satisfaction, upon condition he do not condemn our labours till himself have done better, and allow a probability unto our opinion till he give us one more probable. Upon those terms we say.

Thirdly. Positively they were several denominations confer­red upon, or taken by Church officers, relatively to their la­bours in several parts,3. Positive­ly, they were denominati­ons conferred upon, or ta­ken by Church-offi­cers, relative­ly to their la­bours in seve­ral parts, or places of the Catholick Church. and places of the Catholick Church. They must concern Church-officers, because none else could be Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, &c. They must denominate, not constitute officers, because all so denominated (except A­postles, which term is primitive) were in orders before. The first Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, and Teachers in the Catholick Church, were Apostles, and Elders in the Church at Jerusalem. They were conferred upon them, or taken by them, relatively to several performances of the same work in divers places: Because 'tis one Christ preached, the same Sacraments administred, the like orders of officers ordained, in a constitu­ted, or to be constituted Church.

The Apostle in this Text assignes three works to the Ministry or perfecting of the Saints, work of the Ministry, and edifying of th [...] body of Christ. These refer to a treble Ministerial act of office.

First, Church propagation, and Government.

Secondly, due consideration, and respect to the subject so to be propagated and Governed.

Thirdly, the conservation of both in order and unity.

All these are link't one within another, and orderly draw the interpretation of the five titles mentioned in that Text after them.

Apostles who.That the Church be propagated, and Governed, presuppo­seth according to Christs promised perpetual presence with his Ministry, Mat. 28.19, 20. and St. Pauls assignation of the end of the gift, and continuance of the Ministry, Eph. 4.13. Till we all come in the unity of the Faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the ful­ness of Christ. That there be a Power in old officers to derive their order unto successors in planted Churches, to preserve them, and to transfer them unto others of the same order, to concinnate, perfect, put new converts into, and govern them according to Gospel order. This is the first link of the chain Apostles. See 1 Tim. 14, 15, 16. Act. 8.14, 15.

The Church is a building of God, her materials are Jews and Gentiles, first Jews, then Gentiles, the conversion and en­churching of the Jews in a Gospel-state, tacks the Prophet to the Apostles. The Jews were acquainted with many Prophe­sies, forerunning, and pointing at the present dispensation. A Messiah even when he came they did earnestly expect. Joh. 1.21. And they asked him, what then? Art thou Elias? And he saith I am not. Art thou that Prophet? And he answered no: But the Messias being come, they were prejudiced against him, be­cause the humility of the Carpenters Son did not answer to their carnal, and pompous expectation of the Son of David; Those high thoughts his Ambassadours must bring down; the readiest way to do which, lay in a right exposition of old Testament Prophesies, and solid proof of their accomplishment in Christ. upon this account John the Baptist is called a Prophet. Luk. 1.76. Mat. 11.9. Luk. 6.26. Besides, the Apostles receiving the gift of Tongues, Act. 2.4. maintain it to be an accomplish­ment of an old Testament-prophesie, relating to the dayes of the Messias, and enabling them to Prophesie. Act. 2.18. And [...]n my servants and handmaids, I will pour out in those dayes of my Spirit, and they shall Prophesie. That is, as their following discourse interprets it, not foretel some new thing, but evi­dence Christ already come, to be the promised Saviour. Act. 2.22. ad fin. 36. Thus Judas and Sylas, sent by the Apostles and Elders of the Church at Jerusalem, with decrees for determination of the question about the abolition, or retenti­on of Mosaical rites and ceremonies, are called Prophets, Doctores in ecclesia Hiero­solymitana a qua mitteban­tur cum man­datis ipsorum muneri conve­nientibus. Bez. ad Act. 15.32. while exhorting the people (who before scrupled it) to con­sent to the abrogation of some of them, and observation of o­thers, according to the tenour of those decrees. Act. 15.32. And Judas and Sylas being Prophets also themselves, exhorted the Brethren with many words, and confirmed them. Beza upon the Text observably saith, They were teachers of the Church at Je­rusalem, by whom they were sent with instructions suitable to their work. Aretius saith, They were able interpreters of Scripture, because a Prophet is not only a foreteller of future things, Idonei scriptu­rae interpretes nam propheta non solum is est, qui vaticinatur, sed prophetarum interpres, apposite docens, & enarrans scripturas; fecerunt autem hoc, non semel aut iterum, sed diu multumque, nam de illis dicit, quod illic commorati sunt, non alia de causa, quam quod seditionem, & desidia orta ex illa quaestione componerent, quod & feliciter effecerunt. Aret. in loc. but an interpreter of Prophets appositely teaching, and expounding Scriptures. [Page 62] This they did not once or twice, Doctores ec­clesiae praediti singulari dono interpretendi scripturas propheticas. Piscator in loc. but long and often, for 'tis writte [...] that they tarried there long, for no other cause then the quieting of the sedition, and dissention occasioned by that question (to wit, about Circumcision and Ceremonies) which they happily effected. Pi­cator more succinctly saith, They were Teachers of the Church en­dued with an excellent gift of interpreting prophetick writings. We have added the exposition of these Authors at large, con­cerning the Prophet with respect to some Readers, who perhaps will receive it from them, though they would have scrupled, scorned, rejected it, coming from us; This age be­ing so quarrelsome, that truth dares not travail abroad, with­out some noted mans pasport.

We have done with Apostles and Prophets, the Evangelist comes next to hand, of whom we say, the conversion, and en­churching of the Gentiles, clasps him to the Prophet. (Poor souls) they had never heard of Christ, that there was, or was to be a Saviour, was altogether news to them. This news mu [...] be brought them by some messenger, and what name is so [...] greable to his errand,Evangelists who. as an Evangelist. 'Tis true, explaining [...] old Testament Prophesies, might in some cases be useful to th [...] Gentiles; It would convince them of the antiquity of Christi­an Religion, and enable them to answer to their unconverted neighbours, objecting the contrary. And 'tis as true, that preaching unto Jews may sometimes be called Evangelizing▪ some of them might be ignorant, others might be negligent to consider of old Testament Prophesies, ushering in the good ti­dings of a Mediatour. But 'tis most certain, that primarily▪ properly, and of strict necessity, the explication and applicatio [...] of such Prophesies, belonged unto the Jews, they would n [...] otherwise (though the Gentiles might) beleeve the Gospe [...] And that Evangelizing comes up nighest to its original signif [...] cation, when intimating news of good things, to those who ha [...] not a hint of it in a before beleeved promise. And that it i [...] more frequently used in the new Testament, of preaching to the Gentiles, then of preaching unto the Jews. Besides this exposition both justifies the Apostles order in Eph. 4.11. and exactly agrees to the manner of the manifestation of the mystery of our Redemption, to the Jew first, and after to the Gentile. Rom. 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God unto salvation, unto every one that beleeveth, to the the Jew first, and also to the Greek. Our Saviour was primarily sent to the Jews. Mat. 15.24. But he answered, and said, I am [Page 63] not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. To them first [...]nd exclusively for that time) he sent his Apostles, Mat, 10.5. [...]hese twelve Jesus sent forth and commanded them, saying, go not [...]to the way of the Gentiles, and into any City of the Samaritanes [...]ter ye not. So Luk. 24.27. And that repentance, and remission o [...] sins in his name should be preached unto all Nations, beginning at [...]erusalem. Besides when the Apostles had received the larger [...]fusion of the holy Ghost, after our Saviours Ascension, they make the first publication of both at Jerusalem. Act. 2.14. But Peter standing up with the eleven, lift up his voice, and said, ye men of Judea, and all that dwell at Jerusalem, be this known unto y [...]u, and hearken unto my words. Act. 3.26. unto you first, God [...]ving raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning a­ [...]ay every one of you from his iniquities. In this course also the di­ [...]ressed teachers proceeded. Act. 11.19. Now they that were [...]ttered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen, tra­ [...]iled as far as Phaenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the Word unto none but the Jews only. Thus also did St. Paul, and [...]rnabas. Act. 13.46. Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and [...]d; It was necessary that the Word of God should first have been [...]ken unto you, but seeing you put it from you, and judge your selves [...]worthy of of everlasting life, lo we turn to the Gentiles. Pastors who. Suffice [...]is in explication of the word Evangelists.

The work of Pastors was in a constituted Church; The [...]hurch gathered, whether out of Jews or Gentiles, must af­ [...]erward be kept together, the evil spirit dispossessed, and fallen [...]om heaven (or the hearts of men) like lightning, will endea­ [...]our recovery, and repossession of his old habitation; and that [...]ith success unless the Church have constant Pastors to feed and [...]ourish her up in the Word of life, to lead her sheep into [...]een pastures, to provide them a safe fold against Wolvs, to have [...]medies in readiness for cure of all contingent diseases; and [...] all things, and at all times, to lead and look to them as a [...]ook of Gods, purchased with the blood of Christ, and commit­ [...]ed to their charge.

The office of Teachers concerned the Propagation,Teachers who. and succes­sion of members in constituted Churches, that Pastors might have a [...]waies a flock to oversee, and look after. Gods Covenant is [...]ade with the faithful and their seed, the latter of which must [...]ant, ye many of the former being babes, and children in un­derstanding may want instruction, therefore there must be a [...]nccession of Teachers, [...] or Catechists. Thus I think St. [Page 64] Paul expounds this word,Illos dicit doctores qui in ecclesia li­teris, & lecti­onibus retinen­dis pueros im­buebant, more synagogae, qui­a traditio il­lorum, ad nos transitum fe­cit. Ambros. ad. 1 Cor. 12.28. both Rom. 2.21. Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest thou not thy self. [...], thou that preachest, a man should not steal, dost thou steal, &c. and Heb. 4.12. For when for the time ye ought to have been teachers [...] ye have need that one teach [...] you again, which be the first principles of God, and are become such as have need of milk, not of strong meat. To be sure the Commen­tary going under the name of St. Ambrose, doth so, it saith, The Apostle calls those teachers, who after the manner of the Synagogue, did instruct youth in reading, and learning,, because their Tradition is passed over unto us. This also is Beza's opinion, as may be read by the learned Reader in the Margin. This affirmative exposition of the terms, though we beleeve it contain nothing contrary to the Analogy of Faith,Doctorum munus est ver­bum dei sim­pliciter enar­rare, ut verus sensus eruatur & catechume­nos praesertim instituere B [...]z. confess. fidei Excus. per. Eusta­thium Vigon. An. 1583. repugnant to the Apostles me­thod, or defective of a full dicharge of all the mentioned works of perfecting of the Saints, &c. yet we deliver it only, as our probable opinion, and are contented it hold our Readers be­leif no longer, then till he can relieve it with a better. I the negative we are positive, that the five terms do not const [...] tute so many several orders, or degrees of Church-officers: Because the whole Ministry in the first formed Church, were either Apostles or Presbyters; neither can the or­ders be any more, and must be as many in every Church formed since according to her pattern. Nor let the distinct enumera­tion of those several terms of Apostles, &c. puzle any sober Rea­der, since those terms were used, either because the works giving Church-officers those denominations, were done in that order, first, second, third, &c. or because every officer of the same order, though he might have right, yet in fact did not d [...] all those works, some went from place to place, to conve [...] men, and settle new Churches, others officiated in settle [...] Churches, to confirm, and continue Christians in the Faith; some Apostolized, others Prophesied, some Evangelized, o­thers fed and taught: But because some did, or might do all those works, the terms Apostles, Prophets, &c. do not include so many several orders or degrees of officers, and because o­thers did only some of them, therefore distinct and discretive denominitions were necessary; those denominations rather relating to the Church in several capacities, then to several sorts of officers. Thus have we finished our answer to the third objection, the fourth begins.

Fourthly,4. Obj. the text to be sensed by gifts not by offi­cers. The Papists (to dint the edge of a Protestant ar­gument against Papal tyranny, who (Protestants reflecting up­on the aforesaid scope of the Text, as concerning Church-offi­cers, do conclude the Pope is no new Testament officer, be­cause he is not named therein) do object and say; the Text doth not treat of Church-officers, but of several Charismata,Bell. de Rom. Ponti. lib 1. ca. 9. Sect. potest etiam respon­deri. Esthius ad Eph. 4.11. or extraordinary gifts, personal to the first Church-officers.

Sol. I cannot see wherein this objection will avail the Pres­byterian cause, their Patriarchs so directly affirming the con­trary, but because it is a principal way of arguing with some men, to heap together what ever may be said to the contrary of a malignant truth, whether it make for or against them, I am willing to enter into a consideration of, and make answer unto that objection.

First, I answer by concession; the word gift is twice used,1 Ans. the word gift is granted to be used several times in that Chapter. and is the translation of two several Greek words, in the prece­dent part of the Chapter. We read ver. 7. of the gift of Christ. [...] that word is variously interpreted. First of whole Christ, and all his benefits. Joh. 4.10. Rom. 5.15. 2 Cor. 9. [...]5. Secondly, of extraordinary spiritual gifts. Act. 8.20. Act. [...]0.45. Act. 11.17. Thirdly, of office-work. Eph. 3.7.8. Two of these significations conclude peremptorily against Bel­ [...]armin, and Esthius, the middlemost only favours them, and nothing but a strong byass in the scope of the Text can carry it to their opinion. Besides [...] is rendred gifts. ver. 8. And he gave gifts. &c. This word is frequently used elsewhere, but never to my remembrance in the same sense, as in this Text, here it signifies Gods gifts unto man, elsewhere it signifies mans gifts one unto another: So Mat. 7.11. Luk. 11.13. Phil. 4.17. Consequently it can speak nothing, but what the scope of the Text before us puts in its mouth. Further­more to grant all which may be granted; [...] is rendred grace [...].7. which elsewhere is promiscuously sometimes translated gifts, 2 Cor. 8.4. Sometimes grace; but when 'tis used of the Ministry (as here) it commonly denotes their office, so Rom. 5.15. 2 Cor. 3.10. Gal. 2.9. Aretius makes [...] of equal force with [...] in this Text, but were that granted, (which must be freely given, since it can never be gained by force) yet the Text is not necessarily, and unavoidably to be sensed by gifts, for [...] as well signifies office, as gifts. Seevid. a Lap. in locum. Rom. 12.6, 7.Chrysostom. Lombard. Thomam. a Lap in loc. & Smectymn. pag. 19. Lon­don. 1654. 1 Tim. 4.14. Wherefore,

2 answer, his verse, or he five terms therein are not to be ex­pounded by gifts.Secondly, we deny that [...] though it had been used, or [...] & [...] which are used, can sense the five terms, Apo­stles, Prophets, &c. by gifts, not by Church-officers.

First because the terms are elsewhere distinguished from ex­traordinary gifts, 1 Cor. 12.28. there as here, Officers are named in official terms, as Apostles, Prophets, Teachers, and be­sides which we have not here, miracles, gifts of healing, & diver­sity of tongues are added; which latter were extraordinary gifts received, and acted by Church-officers. And unless the former were official terms, their distinct enumeration were su­perfluous.

Secondly, the works mentioned in this Text are not of an extraordinary, or temporary nature concerning non-converts, or unbeleevers (the grand, if not the sole end of Gods collati­on of such extraordinary gifts. 1 Cor. 14.22.) but of publick, and perpetual advantage to Christian societies, to wit, the per­fecting of the Saints, &c.

Thirdly, are Apostles, Prophets, and Evangelists, &c. extraordi­nary gifts? So also are Pastors and Teachers, since the Text al­lows us to give that term no more to one then to another, and since they all have one assigned Legislator, as also yet durable and continuing works.

Fourthly, the ministery is a gift, but of another nature then the gifts in question, that is the publick gift to the whole Church, these were personal gifts, to particular men.

Third Par­ticular ans. to Esthius. In loc.Third Ans. Esthius is so violently born down the stream of antient Expositors, running in the other channel, as he cannot take hold of any one of his opinion; Indeed he snatcheth at St. Ambrose, but incontinently takes off his hand, confessing he in­terprets it (as we do) of Officers, and leaves us to take hi [...] word against that Father: A Lapide concurs with his fellow Jesu­ite, and Esthius, but in like manner urgeth it upon his own au­thority, acknowledging that St. Ambrose, and St. Anselm (no o­ther Father or Antient writer being quoted by him) were of the other Judgment.

Fourth par­ticular answer to Bellarmine.Fourth Ans. Bellarmine foreseeing the inability of this com­ment to encounter the force of the opposite argument brings it into the field as a rear guard, which he never draws up, or en­forceth, but outfaceth the truth with this bravado in the front: Although the Pope be not litterally mentioned, Bellar du bi supra. he is specially intended in the first clause; And he gave some Apostles: Whence I collect that, First, the sensing of this Text by gifts is a Jesuitical shift, to [Page 67] salve the honour of the Popes lost Apostolate. Secondly, Bellarmine in the double answer, enterseers, and contradicts himself, for if the Pontificate be expresly placed in the term Apostles, then the Text doth not treat of extraordinary gifts, but if the text do treat of such extraordinary gifts, then his holy­ness must go seek another Scripture to confirm his Apostolate, and support it from falling out of the Church together, and ceasing with those gifts. We are now got out of the fourth, and last Objection, and enter upon the second Exception a­gainst the Presbyterian Definitions.

Second Except. Evangelists did not officially supply the A­postles places,Second ex­ception, the Evangelists were not the Apostles sup­plies. nor doth the so often mentioned Text in the Epistle to the Ephesians (for all Calvin saith it) prove it. It barely mentioning the name Evangelists, without any word, or title of their Office.Because the text quoted to prove it doth not prove it. Their foundation being thus demo­lished, we might surcease all farther troubling our selves with their superstructure, and leave it to fall of its self; but because all look not so low as the bottom, and ground of things, and because this building hath a gay, but deceitful aspect, we will come a little closer, and view, and examine it more narrowly:3. Their rea­sons for it ex­amined. The whole pile of the Evangelists supply of the Apostles places, stands upon those two slender pillars.

First, a supposition of their distinct works, the Apostles being presumed to plant, the Evangelist to water Churches;First Rea. the Apostles planted, the Evangelist watered Churches. see most of the fore cited Definitions.

Secondly, a meer conceit of their distinct titles, they allow­ing the Apostles their name and title, without alteration, but do esteem the Evangelist to be the Apostles companions, or vicars;Second Reas the E­vangelists were the A­postles com­panions and vicars. see also the Definitions.

We will try whether those pillars be built upon the rock, or upon the sand, our search shall begin with the first of them, which is,

First, Apostles and Evangelists did distinct works,Their first reason confu­ted. or the A­postles planted, and the Evangelist watered Churches. There is some ambiguity in the term planted, 'tis borrowed from husbandry,First in one sense the A­postles did not plant the Church. and originally notes the sowing of the first seed of a vegetable, be it herb, flower, grain, &c. or the immediate entrance upon a country improvement. In this sense we deny that either the Apostles, or the Evangelists planted the Church, for Christ the chief husbandman, first took in that vineyard, and appointed the Apostles, and all other Ministers to be but labou­rers, and servants under him to dress, and look after it.

But beside this, to plant hath a derivative signification, so 'tis used of the taking up,Secondly in another sense the Apostles planted the Church, but they did not do it singly. and spreading into many places, what be­fore grew in one place. In this sense we confess the Apostles planted Churches. But, First, this in strictness of speech is ra­ther propagation, then plantation. Secondly, this was no di­stinct work peculiar to the Apostles, for even in the Apostles times, the Evangelists thus planted, or constituted Churches; as we have already heard, from Beza, Faius, and Spanhemius, in their Definitions. And also much of that work, call it by what name you will, hath been done since the death both of the Apostles, & of the supposed Evangelists, as will soon appear by a search after the originals of most Churches now in being. Let me add, much, if not most of that work remains undone untill this day, the greatest part of the world being unconverted, and must for ever continue so, if propagating Churches, were the distinct and incommunicable work of the first Church-officers: So that no present Church-officers have a power to preach unto the Turks, Jews, Tartars, Persians, and other numberless uncon­verted Nations in the four quarters of the world, and to settle them in a Church estate upon their conversion. I am not now to be told, that the first Officers were builders, present Offi­cers are conservers, and maintainers of Churches, or what vast difference these terms are conceived to put betwixt them. But let it be told me never so often, I shall never take it for a truth; till it shall be proved that Christ was not our Legislator; that he did not promise a perpetual presence to an Apostolical suc­cession of Ministers: That no Church hath been formed out of a before unconverted people, since the death of the twelve first Apostles. That never any more like Churches shall be formed hereafter: And that the building Apostles preached another word, administred other Sacraments, exercised constantly, and officially other censure, then conserving Ministers, can now preach, administer, or exercise. This first reason therefore, for the Evangelists supply of the Apostles places, as their inferi­ours, because the Apostles planted, and the Evangelist watered Churches, is no reason. Proceed we to their

Their se­cond reason invalidated.Second, or the distinct titles betwixt the Apostles, and the Evangelists, these so far as concerneth the Evangelist, are twofold.

  • 1. Vicars.
  • 2. Companions.

Evangelists were not the Apostles vi­cars.First Vicars. It seems the Apostles were Parsons, and the E­vangelists Vicars in the Catholick Church. This is affirmed by [Page 69] the London Presbyters, as we have beforeheard in their Definiti­ons. But they bring no Scripture for it, neither is it agreeable to any of those sound words, unless it be one of those prophane no­velties, prophesied of, and prohibited by the Apostle, 1 Tim. 6.10. Do Presbyters mislike our diligence in medling with their work, and say they can do it better; we will not an­swer it with another question, why 'tis left undone? But are content to await their leisures till they can, or will do it. And as a spur to their future diligence we make this serious proffer. Let them give one clear and full Scripture instance (one is not much in a business of this weight, and easily produced, if all Scripture be so plain, as they boast it is, for their notions) proving the vicariate unto the Apostles, of those who did the works mentioned in their Definitions: And by what authority the Apostles made them their vicars, theirs be both truth and- victory. Till which is done, we say the notion is novel, and censure it as such; suffice this for the Evangelists first supposed title. Proceed we to the

Secondly. Companions. The Apostles companions distinguished. The Evangelist they say accompanied with the Apostles: And it may be granted, for the Apostles had companions of several sorts; what they were perhaps may not be unworthy of our inquiry and observation, as also whether the Evangelists accompanied with the Apostles, as inferiour to them in dignity, but next unto them in office. I observe the Apostles had beside companions on the road, two sorts of compa­nions in the work.

First, Ministers. Such was John-Mark to St. Paul, First into Ministers, who did no para­lel works, which those mentioned of the Evange­list. and St. Barnabas, Act. 12.25. And Barnabas and Saul returned from Je­rusalem, when they had fulfilled their Ministery, and took with them John whose sirname was Mark. Act. 13.5. And when they were at Salamis, they preached the Word of God in the Synagogues of the Jews: And they had also John to their Minister. In the former of these two Texts, we have the assumption of John-Mark by the Apostles; In the latter, we have the quality wherein they received him, namely to be their Minister. Now whether Mark and his like, ministred to the corporal necessities of of the Apostles (as some think they did) Scripture is silent,Vid. a La p. in loc. and it contributes little to the clearing up of their Church-office, whe­ther they did, or did not. But this we may probably collect out of the story of the aforesaid John-Mark. The Apostles in their travails took some choise, and hopeful persons to accom­pany them, to Minister unto them, and observe their waies, [Page 70] who were a kind of seminary, or nursery of Apostles, planted, with designed successors. The Apostles imitating Moses therein, who in like Manner assumed Joshua, who according­ly is called his Minister. Exod. 14.13. Deut. 1.38. Josh. 1.1. These Ministers afterwards as occasion offered, the Apo­stle assumed into a partnership, or refused them. Thus John-Mark the Minister having justly distasted St. Paul by leaving, and not going with him, and Barnabas, unto the work at Pam­philia, (Act. 13.13. Now when Paul, and his company loosed from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphilia, and John departing from them, returned to Jerusalem.) after his coming back to them at Antioch, for this very reason is adjudged by St. Paul (though Barnabas resolved the contrary) not fit to be received into a fur­ther fellowship with them. Act. 15.37.38. And Barnabas determined to take with him John whose sirname was Mark: Bu [...] Paul thought it not good to take him with them, who departed from them from Pamphilia, and went not with them to the work. This occasioned a paroxisme, and violent feaver-fit of contention be­twixt the Apostles, which proceeded to the breach of the present association. And Barnabas holds his former resolution and assumes Mark: But St. Paul choseth Sylas. Act. 15.39.40. And when the contention was so sharp betwixt them, that they de­parted asunder one from another: And Barnabas took Mark, and sayled into Cyprus: And Paul chose Sylas, and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God. Now that St. Paul withstood Marks re-admission; evidenceth that those Mi­nisters (while such) stood in the nature of Candidates for office; and might upon their good or evil behauiour be elected, or re­jected. Otherwise St. Paul could not so resolvtely have op­posed Mark, and rather chosen to break with Barnabas, then t [...] close with him. Besides some new honour was derived unto Mark, by his readmission and reassumption; because if at his return, he had been of an equal order with St. Paul, and Barnabas, his proffering himself to the work had been suffici­ent satisfaction, especially when Barnabas was satisfied. This gradual assent of Ministers, is farther confirmed by Timothy, who is called St. Pauls Minister. Act. 19.22. So he sent into Ma­cedonia two of them that ministred unto him, Timotheus and E­rastus, but himself abode in Asia for a season: Which Timothy, he the same Apostle afterwards exhorts to abide at Ephesus, and take an Apostolical charge of that Church, 1 Tim. per tot. But we read not either of Timothy, or Mark, doing, or being desi­red [Page 71] to do any works of that kind, while they were but Mini­ [...]ters to the Apostles:Exam. Concil. Trid. 2 par. Ex­am Can. 2 de sacro ordene non quod ae­quales esset ho­noris gradus, sed communis omnium opera, quo minus ex­cusabilis fuit postea, cum. sanctam voca­tionem desere­ret. Cal. ad Act. 13.5. That Mark while a Minister to St. Paul and Barnabas was initiated, and entred into an inferiour degree of office in the Church, Chemnitius assents. Calvin concer­ning the same saith, he was made a Minister, not that the de­gree of honour was equal, but because the work of all of them was [...]ommon, whereby Mark was afterwards less excusable when he de­serted his holy vocation, Beza saith the word Minister, strictly [...]ignifies an under-Rower, the Apostles as it were sitting at the stern. Besides it doth not savour of a Christian, much less A­postolical spirit for any one to call his fellow labourer in the [...]ame work his Minister. St. Paul useth another kind of lan­ [...]uage concerning them, 2 Cor 8.23. Whether any do enquire of Ti­ [...]us, he is my partner and fellow-helper concerning you, or our brethren [...]e enquired of, they are the Messengers (or Apostles) of the Churches, [...]nd the glory of Christ. This leads us to the consideration of the,Subservien­tem ad ver­bum subr emi­gem, Aposto­lis viz. quasi gubernacula obtinentibus. Beza ad loc. [...] Second sort of Apostles companions, or partners, who were men assured, and ordained by the Apostles into their whole work, and office. Thus Sylas by St. Paul, Act. 15.39, [...]0. After which assumption both are joyntly ingaged in con­firming of the Churches. Act. 16.4. And as they went through [...]he Cities they (i. e. Paul and Sylas, read the context) delivered [...]em the decrees for to keep, that were ordained by the Apostes and [...]lders at Jerusalem. Secondly, into partners who did like work with those menti­oned in the Definitions, but were not Evangelists in the sense of those Definiti­ons. This Sylas did not do in virtue of his first [...]mission from Jerusalem, but in the authority of his new assum­ption, recorded but five verses before; the mention whereof [...]ere an insignificant copiousness, and wast redundancy of words, if it did not raise Sylas to an higher order, or farther impower him for the work, because long before he had travai­led in company with St. Paul, & needed not now so solemnly be said to be taken with him; Most certain it is, while St. Paul & Sy­ [...] continued together, Sylas is not scripturally excluded from doing of any work, or bid stand by while St. Paul acted single, nei­ther is he called by any distinct, or inferiour title to St. Paul. Suppose Evangelist, or other: But on the contrary both he and St. Paul are directed in their journeying, and work by one spirit. Act. 16.6, 7. conjoyned in the subscription of several Epistles. 1 Thess. 1.1, 2. 2 Thess. 1.1. the end and occasion whereof we dispute not till provoked by some adversary: and the one is acknowledged by the other to be his fellow-labourer in plan­ting the Corinthian Church. 2 Cor. 1.19. such a part­ner was Titus, he is so called 2 Cor. 8.23 and his discharge [Page 72] of Apostolical works at Creet is evident by Titus 1.5.

Reasons why they were no E­vangeltsts.This second sort of Apostles companions, or Partners, are they whom our Definers account to be Evangelists, but they give no reason for it, neither peradventure can any be given, but the following reasons oppose it.

First the Evangelist was a distinct order, and su­periour to Prophets.First, if companions, partners, and suppliers of the Apo­stles places, in constituting of Churches, ordination of Mini­sters, &c. were Evangelists as Evangelists are Presbyterially defi­ned to be distinct from, and inferiour to the Apostles; then of necessity the Evangelists were a distinct order, and superiou [...] to Prophets, the dangers and inconveniences whereof, have been sufficiently shewed already.

Secondly, if such Companions, Partners, and Suppliers of the Apostles places did the aforementioned works,Secondly, the Evangelist is assigned such works as ne­cessarily raise him to the A­postolical or­der. they were not only next Apostles, but of the Apostolical order, because what ever was officially Apostolical is thereby allowed unto them, consequently they were not Evangelists in the sense of the Definers. This is manifestly provable,

First, by Scripture, which perpetually mentioneth the Ap [...] ­stolate, as distinct from, and superiour unto all other Mini­sters, Luk. 19.1. Luk. 10.1. 1 Cor. 12.28. Eph. 4.11. B [...] distinction of order consisteth in distinct works, whereas the Apostles wrought no higher, yea no other works in respect of their offices, then those allowed by the Definitions unto the E­vangelists, viz. of planting, and governing Churches. Beside [...] we have exactly searched the new Testament, for the origina [...] of Church-officers, to the joynt mission of St. Paul and Barna­bas, and observe where any pairs are solely mentioned, wherea [...] one is called, or reputed to be an Apostle, the other is likewise so styled, or by his name, and concurrent operations is adjudge to be an Apostle: For instance, Christ sent forth the Apostle two, and two by themselves, Mar. 6.7. And he called unt [...] him the twelve, and began to send them forth two by two, and gave them power over unclean spirits. The seventy Disciples he likewise sent forth in couples by themselves, Luk. 10.1. After those things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two, and two before his face, into every City, and place whether he himself would come: neither do we any where read of his blending of any two, or more of those diverse orders. After the Ascension this order also continues. Thus St. Peter, and St. John (both Apostles) are emitted by the other Apo­stles at Jerusalem, to constitute a Church at Samaria; Act. 8. [Page 73] 14, 15. I list not to ingage upon a curious speculation, why Christ yoked his Disciples at their work, what is most obvious, takes best with me; to wit, he did it that the burden might lay the steadier, and be born the easier upon conjoyned shoul­ders, that couples drawing together might mutually assist one another, and rid and dispatch more work then one could do alone; our enquiry is after the order of such associates, which Scripture hitherto makes parallel, and

Secondly, reason votes with it; to what purpose serves order, or wherein doth diversity of order consist, but in the separate and divers actions of men of several orders;Ʋbi primo occurrit a li­quid additum alteri, ibi in­cipit esse orde Durand. ad lib. 4 sentent. quaest. 24. quantum ad primum Lug­duni 1560. who is chief where all command? Joseph had been Pharaoh, or more then he, un­less the King had reserved the Throne out of his large grant of power unto that Favourite. Gen. 41.41. To question whether two legal discharges of the same distinct acts, be of one, and the same order, is, if not to deny order, to exclude them both from being members of it, for there is the same reason to ad­mit, or exclude both. I know either order Apostolical, and Presbyterial, did common works, as Preach, Baptize, &c. In doing whereof, neither encroached upon the others orders or [...]ounds, because both did them of official right.Barnabas objected to be an Evangelist. But this is no [...]eason to continue the surmized difference, and diversity be­ [...]wixt the Apostles and the Evangelists, because the Evangelists are not limited to such common works,By Calvin and Maresius. but impowered to or­dain Ministers, and exercise the censures, which works are purely, and properly Apostolical.Non autem Barnabas, ut multi perpe­ram volunt colligere, ex Act. 13.2. Act. 14.14. cum tamen co­mes fuit addi­tus Paulo, ceu Evangelista, Paulus enim praeibat in lo­quendo, unde synecdochi [...] ambo Aposto­lorum nomine exprimuntur. Mares. system. Theol. loc. 15. Sect. 44. And let it be noted also [...]hat several of the Definers say, they did those works in or over, all, or many Churches.

This might suffice to be spoken in this point, but Presbyters knowing how much the whole weight of their cause resteth up­on this, how weak soever pillar; labour might and main to uphold it, with what props, or shows of reason, or conjecture, we wil now examin. All consent to the parity of joyntly emitted Officers, till the Apostolate of St. Paul and Barnabas. In whom if we will credit those who have made themselves our adver­saries, the antient order is inverted, St. Paul being an Apostle, Barnabas being an Evangelist. This they affirm with some heat, and fume forth into reviling terms against those, who with Scripture affirm the contrary. Thus Maresius, he saith. Barnabas was no Apostle, as many would foolishly, or perversely [...]ollect from Act. 13.2. Act. 14.14. whereas he was added to St. Paul, as his companion, or an Evangelist; for Paul was most for­ward [Page 74] in speaking, and both were called Apostles, synecdochically, because one was an Apostle. Quum Lucas Barnabam cum Paulo A­postolum vocat nominis signi­ficationem lon­gius extendit, quam ad pri­marium ordi­nem quem insti tuit Christus, in sua ecclesia proprie enim loquendo, e­vangelista fuit non Apostolus. Calv. ad Act. 14.14. Calvin saith, whereas Luke calleth Barnabas an Apostle, he stretcheth the signification of the word beyond the order instituted by Christ, for to speak properly Barnabas was an Evangelist not an Apostle. 'Tis hard to judge which doth more ap­parant injury, to truth or St. Luke; Calvin who saith he speaks improperly in calling two Church-officers by the same names, when both were coupled in performance of the same works: Or Maresius, who sliceth the Evangelists single words in pieces, and makes him, when no reason can be alledged moving him thereunto, to wrap up (what one would think he intended for) the plainest historical narratives, in such perplexed folds of figures, as 'tis very difficult (if not impossible) to under­stand his meaning. If he writ the Acts at this rate, they are not, as he designed his Gospel to be, an instruction for Ca­techumeni, young raw Christians, to use, for the confirmati­on of their Faith.Exceptions against their manner of speaking. Luk. 1.4. That thou maist know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed [...] wherein thou hast been Catechised.) but an exercitation for criti­cal Grammarians to abuse, to a perpetual wrangling, and arbi­trary abounding in their own sense. And it may equally be said of Scriptures, as of Aristotles Book of natural Principles, they were published, as if not published. 'Tis a maxime with Civilians, not to distinguish where their law doth not distinguish, and ought it not to be so among Divines? Admit the contrary, when you charge sacriledge upon the Papists, for stealing the Cup from the Laity (Scripture admitting them to a participation of both elements 1 Cor. 11.26, 27, 28.) how readily may they answer, both elements are mentioned in Scrip­ture Synecdochically. And the Laity ought so to interpret i [...] because their Church (which knows the figures in Scriptur [...] as well as any private men) hath determined that they have [...] right, and doth admit them to participate only in one; o [...] when you say, St. Peters now claimed Jurisdiction over the rest of the Apostles, is of a latter date then the Apostles time; be­cause the ten as the greater number, and evidentially of the power in the major part sent him, with St. John, to perfect the Church-plantation begun by Philip at Samaria; Act. 8.14, 15. they may retort the argument, and say the ten in St. Peters ab­sence (a known Jesuitical contrivance, to rebate the edge of Pro­testant instances against St. Peters being at all, or so long as they say he was at Rome) sent St. John, but St. Peter returning in the [Page 75] mean time (least so eminent a service should be done without his concurrence) accompanied St. John upon his own authority. And they are both said to be sent Synecdochically, because one was; or finally when those stains of Christian religion, who pre­tend love to God, but are envious, malicious, and uncharitable; towards their brethren, are reproved for their hypocrisie, and unnaturalness, they may plead Christs reduction of all the commandements unto two, one of love to God, the other of love to our neighbour, but the latter is to be understood Synecdochically, the former of loving God, which according to his own na­ture, is spiritual, and invisible, being the only law perfor­mable by the new creature. But 'tis lost time to trample any longer in this mire; examine we upon what mistakes those Au­thors lead, and leave their party in it. Calvin saith.Calvins reason expen­ded and ex­ploded. Otherwise the word Apostle is stretched beyond Christs primary institution, and order. Whereby if he understand (I know not what else he can understand, or be understood to mean) that Christ strictly confined the Apostolick office in its institution, unto the num­ber of twelve, so that never one more was to be added to it: it equally oppugneth St. Pauls Apostolate, and both he and Bar­nabas are called Apostles improperly, the word being stretched beyond Christs primary intendment, for the number of the Apostles was compleat, Mathias being surrogated into Judas his stead, long before St. Pauls conversion.Nisi forte quia Paulo additus fue­rat ut collegae utrum (que) in pa­ri officii gra­du statuimus. Ita Apostoli titulus vere in Barnabam competet. Calv. ad Act. 14.14. Besides what ever Calvin meant by this proof of Barnabas his Evangelizate, he did not long continue to have a value for it, and gives sufficient rea­son why any one of an ordinary capacity should slight, scorn, and reject it, for in the following words, he adds, Ʋnless because he was added to St. Paul as his collegue, we set hoth in the same degree of office, and so the title Apostle will truly agree to Barnabas. These are Calvins reasons for Barnabas his Evangelizate. Maresius saith, Paul was most forward in speaking. But this is a meer cracke of words, weak, and frivolous, because, First, forward­ness or backwardness of speaking, is no argument of the impa­rity of Church-officers; If it were, not Christs commission,Maresius his reason is no reason. and ordination pursuant to it, but a natural fervour, and readiness of utterance would constitute the highest order of Church-offi­cers. Secondly, Maresius his argument for St. Pauls Aposto­late, rather then Barnabas's; or his forwardness of speaking is retorted upon St. Paul, by the Sect-masters at Corinth to prove him no Apostle. 2 Cor. 10.10. they snarle at his defective ut­terance, as he himself complains, For his letters say they are [Page 76] weighty, and powerful, but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech is contemptible. And 2 Cor. 11.5.6. He is necessitated to maintain his equality with the other Apostles, notwith­standing his rudeness, or being an Ideot in speech. He saith, For I suppose, I was not a whit behind the very chiefest Apostles, for though I be rude in speech ( [...]) yet not in knowledge, but we have been throughly made manifest among you in all things. Thirdly, Barnabas hath a very high commendation in St. Lukes history, for his grace and ability to minister the oracles of God, Act. 11.23, 24. Who when he (Barnabas read v. 22.) came, and had seen the grace of God, he was glad, and exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord, for he was a good man, and full of the h [...]ly Ghost, and of faith, and much people were added unto the Lord. Besides probably the Apostles sirnamed him Barnabas, or the Son of consolation, with relati­on to his gifts in exhortation, Act. 4.36. For let Bar be com­pounded with the Hebrew nabba, or with the Syriack nabba, either way it as well denotes, a Son of exhortation, as of con­solation, or rather a Son of consolation, by exhortation. And the word [...], whereby St. Luke expounds ths name Barnabas, signifies both official exhortation. Act. 13.5. Rom. 12.8. 1 Tim. 4.13. and beneficial consolation. 2 Cor. 1.3. And Barnabas was renowned for both, he was Barnabas, a Son of exhortation by his doctrine, and he was Barnabas a Son of con­solation by his charity. Fourthly, let Maresius his praeibat in loquendo be referred, not to natural forwardness, but prece­dency, and power of order, so that St. Pauls speaking before, or when Barnabas held his peace, must be accounted an argu­ment to prove the superiority of the ones, and the inferiority of the others offices; By the same reason St. Peter was not only supreme over, but of a distinct order from the other Apostles, he very often making use of this precedency of discourse, Act. 1.15. Act. 2.14. ver. 37, 38. Act. 3.4. ver. 12. Act. 4.8. Act. 5.3. ver. 9. Act. 8.20. &c.Barnabas proved an A­postle by a sixfold Scrip­ture testimo­ny.

All proof therefore of Barnabas his Evangelizate is wanting, and want we may long enough, when such eminent persons as Calvin and Maresius, can bring no better. But we have proof sufficient for his Apostolate,Videtur a­liquatenus adjungendus Barnabas. Bez. ad Eph. 4.11. St. Luke richly furnishing us with a fourfold testimony, and St. Paul with a double. St. Luke witnesseth;

First, that Barnabas, and St. Paul, were at the same time separated to the same work by one Revelation, and impositi­on [Page 77] of hands. Act. 13.2. As they ministred unto the Lord, and f [...]sted, the holy Ghost said, separate me Barnabas, and Paul, unto the work whereunto I have called them. This single testimony ex­torted a confession from Beza, that Barnabas in some sort ought to be reckoned among the Apostles.

Secondly, that they were both Apostles. Act. 14.14. Which when the Apostles Barnabas and Paul heard of, they rent their clothes and ran in among the people, crying out. They were now at Ly­stra, where such a Majesty of the divine power attended their joynt Ministry, and Barnabas's in particular; as the amazed people reckoned him for Jupiter, and St. Paul for Mercury ver. 12. Who knows not but that these amazed Heathens did mi­stake the true quality of the Apostles, however from their act is colligible, that they were so far from observing any inferio­rity in Barnabas to St. Paul, as contrariwise they accounted him the father of St. Paul (had he been Mercury) and of other their misconceived deities.

Thirdly, they acted joyntly in Apostolick works. Act. 14.23. And when they (St. Paul and Barnabas; see ver. 22.) had or­da [...]ned them elders in every Church, and had prayed, with fasting they commended them to the Lord, in whom they believed. Ans. to Dissenters P. 20. London. 1648. The dissenting brethren infer from this act of St. Paul & Barnabas that there remains a power of ordination in any two elders at this day. Whereunto the Assembly answer; For ought our brethren have shewed to the contrary, some of those elders might be ordained by Paul, some by Barnabas, and not all by both joyntly. Whereby they grant, that the faculty to do this work was distinct, and in [...]eparable in either of them, whether associate, or asunder; consequently Barnabas did not derive his power from St. Paul, neither was he inferiour to him.Cap. 14. Sect. istis autem adjunctis.

Fourthly, at their parting Barnabas assumes Mark into the same partnership of his work, as St. Paul took Sylas; Act. 15.39▪ 40. which is a further demonstration that St. Paul had no coercive power over him,Videmus hic qualiter se­cundum ora­culum officia inter se distri­buerunt, nem­pe ut Paulus, & Barnabas gentium essent Apostoli, alii autem Judeo rum. Calv. in-loc. and that he was no such Evangelist as Bucanus in his Definition, and before Beza in in his Trea­tise against Saravia, dreams of; to wit, One who continued no longer in imployment then till recalled by the Apostles. Suffice this for St. Lukes testimony in this matter, St. Paul witnesseth that,

Fifthly St. James, Cephas, and St. John acknowledge the joynt Apostolate of him, and Barnabas, and gave them the right hand of fellowship, as to the Apostles of the Gentils. Gal. 2.9. And when James, Cephas, and John who seemed to be pillars [Page 79] perceived the grace which was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the righthand of fellowship, that we should go unto the he [...] ­then, they unto the Circumcision. Calvin upon the place de­serves attention, he saith, We see here how according to the Oracle, they parted offices among them; to wit, that Paul, and Barnabas, should be the Apostles of the Gentiles, the others of the Jews. B [...] if the Oracle designed Paul, and Barnabas to be the Apostles of the Gentiles, Calvin never consulted it, when he said Barna­bas was no Apostle, but an Evangelist.

Sixthly, Barnabas had (as St. Paul) a power to abstain from working, and to expect a maintainance from the Churches, [...] the other Apostles did, 1 Cor. 9.4, 5, 6. Have we not powe [...] to eat, and to drink; have we not power to lead about a sister, a wif [...] as well as other Apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Ce­phas? or I only, and Barnabas, have we not power to forbear w [...] king?

Barnabas is therefore an Apostle, no Evangelist, and he, a [...] St. Paul are to be reckoned among those Apostolick paires, w [...] travailed, and wrought together as fellow labourers. A that we may at last put a period unto this exception, I repe [...] and again say; No one while associate in the works of ordin [...] tion, censures, &c, with Apostles, is in reference to such ass [...] ­ciation called in Scripture, or can thence be proved to be a [...] Evangelist. Be it granted, that none after Barnabas is called a [...] Apostle, (which perhaps 2 Cor. 8.23. Rev. 2.2. and sever [...] other places will deny) yet since we have so oft before receiv [...] an account of Christs Institution, and the Churches practis [...] in this case; reason wills us to esteem such associates of the sam [...] order, and office, and give them the same apellation, or title with those who associated with them; wherein we shall n [...] weaken the authority of holy Writ, or add any thing to t [...] mind of its author, but evince the self consistency of Scriptur [...] and the Apostles uniformity in their Church-proceedings. B [...] sides, after so many express instances of Apostles, associating wit [...] Apostles, Presbyters with Presbyters, to question the order of the one, when both wrought the same work, is all one as to doub [...] whether St. Paul, St. Peter, or St. John, or any other Apostle [...] more frequently mentioned in Scripture, do continue Apo­stles, if in any place we meet their name without that title, when to another making so fond an inference, our selves would reply, Scripture doth it to avoid tautologies: Suffice this for the second Exception.

Third Exception. We deny Calvins warrant, from Eph. 4. [...]1. Luk. 10.1. or either of them,Third Except. Luke, Timothy, Ti­tus no Evan­gelists. to fasten an Evangelizate up­ [...]n Luke, Timothy, and Titus, for but in one of those Texts, [...]he word Evangelist is barely used, in the other neither word, [...]or matter agreable to Calvins Definition of the Evangelist; and [...] neither of them is the least mention of this Triumvirate, or of [...]ny one of them; Besides, Eph. 4.11. which mentions Evange­ [...]sts, also mentioneth Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, and Teachers.

And any one of equal confidence with Calvin, may say Luke, [...]imothy, and Titus, were as truly Apostles, or Prophets, or Pastors, [...] Teachers, as Evangelists. Besides if those three persons who [...]either there, nor elsewhere are called Evangelists, be notwith­ [...]anding Evangelists; because the name Evangelists is used in [...]hat Text, then may we affirm what we list, of whomsoever, or [...]hatsoever, whose bare name we find in Scripture, and be it [...]rue or false, out-face gain-sayers with a pretended Scripture- [...]uthority, but in the mean time prove nothing but our selves [...]o be ridiculous, or if common fame mount us up to a higher [...]hear, make our beleevers to be so; we in the mean time base­ [...] employing the excellencie of our parts, and splendour of our [...]putation to make a Pack-horse of our brethrens modesty, and [...]redulity, wherewith afterwards we will break their backs, if [...]alled they wince, and will not stand still under every arbitra­ [...]y, and most importable load; I confess Timothy is once bid to [...]o the work of an Evangelist, in what sense we forbear to enquire [...]n this place, and turn over its consideration to the eight Ex­ [...]eption, and our separation of the Equivocal senses of the word [...]vangelist, but admit it any sense, at the liking of the imposer; [...]hat doth that concern Luke or Titus? of whom the word is no [...]here used, or if it were, it could not concern all of them, in [...]ne sense, St. Luke was a Pen-man of holy Writ, so were nei­ [...]her Timothy nor Titus; Timothy, and Titus constituted new, or [...]onserved old Churches, and exercised Apostolical authority, [...]n the administration of the several powers of ordination, and [...]ensures, but what Scripture proves the like of St. Luke? Suf­ [...]ice this for the third Exception.

Fourth Exception. Sylas, Timotheus, Titus, Fourth Ex­cept. Sylas, Timotheus, Titus no E­vangelists. were no Evan­gelists, though Spanhemius say it, neither dare we take his word for it, least we incur a note of partiality, for excusing in him what we accuse in Calvin; because he proves it as Calvin doth, by bare, and impertinent quotations,Ans. to dis­senters pag. 62. viz. Eph. 4.11. 1 Cor. 12.9, 10. But in good time our Assembly steps forth to Spanhemi­us [Page 80] his aid, and with much confidence say, 'Tis plain Sylas was an Evangelist: And not content with that, they add, 'tis a plain of Judas; Sylas his Evangelizate they prove by Act. 15.40. Act. 16.19. Act. 17.4. ver. 14.15. Act. 18.5. Judas his, by Act. 15.22. ver. 32. Seriously did I not know at what rate these Captains levy and muster Scriptures, we should be daunted at their numbers,Judas his Evangelizate examined. here arrayed against truth; bu [...] whether they be brought into the field for pomp, or fight, wil [...] appear by the ensuing examination. Least is said of Judas, w [...] will rid our hands of him first. We read Act. 1.21. of o [...] who as this Judas, was sirnamed Barsabas, he was candidate for the Apostolate when the lot fell upon Mathias. In thei [...] prae nomina they differ, that was Joseph Barsabas, this Juda [...] Barsabas, but whether they were distinct persons, and this the brother of the other (as A Lapide will have it) or whethe [...] they were the binomina of one person (Scripture affording m [...] ny instances of like kind) we cannot determine.In loc. This is ce [...] tain, they were either distinct persons, or one person. If the [...] were one person, his order is plainly separated from the Ap [...] stolical; Act. 1.23. And they appointed two, Joseph called Ba [...] sabas, who was sirnamed Justus, and Mathias. They appointed▪ but to what purpose did they appoint two, even that out o [...] one of them a Successor might be chosen into Judas his office and place; but neither of these two could now be appointed t [...] it, had they been of the same order before: Therefore Anti­quity constantly accounts both the Eligees (while standing i [...] election) to be Presbyters. And so farr as concerns that Bars [...] ­bas, no work of his recorded in that Chapter, or elsewhere doth exalt him above that order. Indeed Beza makes him t [...] be the same with Barnabas, mentioned Act. 4.3 [...] But he assignes no other reason for it,Bez. ad Act. 1.23. then videri possit, it m [...] seem so. But what ever it seem to Beza: First it did not s [...] seem toCitat. per a lap. ad Act. 4.36. St. Chrys [...]stome, nor toad Act. 4.36. Camerarius, nor toad Act. 1.23. A Lapide. Secondly, it rather seems by St. Lukes exact de­scription of Barnabas, by his Name, Profession, and Country (in all which is somewhat singular) that he rather designes a person formerly unmentioned in his History; note his word [...] Act. 4.36. And Joses, who by the Apostles was sirnamed Barnabas, which is being interpreted the son of consolation, a Levite, and of the Country of Cyprus. If the Barsabas's were distinct, the latte [...] enters the History, Act. 15.22. where he is styled [...] which our Translators render cheif, but the word signifies so much [Page 81] and somewhat more: to wit, a particular kind of eminency, or official prelation.Primarios i. e. in existi­matione habi­tos. Ʋt po­te ecclesiastico munere fun­gentes. Bez. ad Act. 15 22. So Heb. 13.7. Luk. 22.26. Beza upon [...]he place interprets it by principal men of high repute, being Church-officers. Now if they were Church officers (as indeed they were, because they did the work of Church-officers ver. 32.) then either they were Apostles, or Presbyters, not Dea­cons distinct from Apostles, a [...]d Pre [...]byters, because they Pro­phesied, which was none of the Deacons work, as he was di­stinct from the other two orders: But if they were Apostles, or Presbyters, then were they not Evangelists in the sense of the Definers. Our enquiry therefore is after their order; The Reader who watcheth for my halting, supposeth he hath now gotten his advantage, and may demand with what face, or co­ [...]ur of modesty, I who so lately said Apostles, associated with A­ [...]ostles, Presbyters with Presbyters, can question Judas his or­ [...]er, when he travailed in company with the Apostles, St. Paul [...]nd Barnabas; But I feel my legs steady under me, and the slip [...] in the questioners memory; for I have distinguished betwixt [...]postles companions of several sorts, and affixed a parity, only [...] joynt labourers, and performers of the same distinct works; [...]ow if Judas, and Sylas did such special works, and were thus [...]ssociate with St. Paul, and Barnabas, upon their emission from [...]erusalem, the dispute is at an end, I yeild my self caught in a [...]ontradiction, but many reasons evince the negative, none [...]rove the affirmative; for, First the express errand upon [...]hich Judas, and Sylas are sent forth, is not to constitute [...]hurches, ordain Officers, or administer the Censures (what [...]urisdiction had the Apostles at Ierusalem, much less could they [...]erive to others, within St. Pauls, or Barnabas's line) but to [...]ive an account of the decrees of the Church at Ierusalem, [...]out the question then agitated about Circumcision &c. by false [...]rethren among the beleeving Gentiles. So that Iudas, and [...]ylas may more properly be termed the Messengers, or Mini­ [...]ers of the Apostles, and Church at Ierusalem, then the associ­ [...]tes of St. Paul and Barnabas, Act. 15.25. It seemed good unto [...]s being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you, with [...] beloved Barnabas and Paul. Secondly, those decrees being [...]romulgated in many places, one of the Messengers Iudas, re­ [...]rned back again to Ierusalem. Act. 15.33. And after they had [...]rried there a space, they were let go in peace from the brethren to the [...]postles. This verse dismisseth both Iudas and Sylas, but it is [...] be interpreted only of leave given unto them by the Gentile [Page 80] [...] [Page 81] [...] [Page 74] Churches to return home which Iudas accepted, Sylas did not; for we read ver. 34. notwithstanding it pleased Sylas to abide there still. Afterwards this Sylas is assumed by St. Paul into a partnership, Act. 15.39.40. ere he joyned with him in Aposto­lical works: Wherefore Iudas and Sylas at their first emission from Ierusalem, were Elders of that Church, or Ministers of the second and inferiour order, whose emission, and the after ex­ercise of a part of their function by Prophesie, perswading the Gentile Beleevers to submit to the Jewish Churches decrees, is all that is proved by the Assemblies Texts in proof of Iudas his Evangelizate. But how far they are from proving him such an Evangelist, as is defined by Calvin, or Spanhemius, any one who is not partial, or irrational may easily determine, for in or out of that Chapter (except in the forementioned places) he is not spoken of, much less said to be associated with any Apostle, or sent forth by him with Apostolical authority, to plant new, or prune old Churches; all which should have been proved, ere the Assembly had so ventrously called him an Evangelist. But let us see whether they have any better hap with Sylas, concer­ning whom hath been observed. First his emission by the same Apostles,Sylas his Evangelizate examined. at the same time, and for the same work with Iudas. Act. 15.22. consequently that they were then both of one or­der. Secondly, his assumption afterwards by St. Paul into a partnership; Act. 15.39, 40. This assumption, and the suc­ceeding associate actions done, both by St. Paul and Sylas, is only held forth by the numerous Texts cited by the assembly, in proof of Sylas his Evangelizate. In all which the word Evan­gelist, or any word of kin to it, is not used, nor in any of them, neither do they hint his inferiority, or subordination to St. Paul; so plainly do they prove him no Evangelist in a Presbyterian sense; although our assembly say the contrary. Be­sides if either Iudas, or Sylas was an Evangelist, from, and after the time that Sylas was associated by St. Paul, then forthwith the other is deofficed, for both of them could not be Evange­lists in one sense, because their works before, and after Sylas his assumption were divers,Fifth Ex­ception. The seventy Dis­ciples were no Evangelists 1. Calvins cited text doth not prove it. and each subordinate unto other. Thus we take our farewel of the fourth Exception.

Fifth Exception. The seventy Disciples were no Evangelists. The affirmative is Calvins and Bucanus's, and they both pre­tend to prove it by Luk. 10.1. where Christs designation, and emission of the seventy into every place and City, whither he him­self would come, is recorded. Which work were it allowed to [Page 75] be an Evangelizate, or the work-men to be Evangelists in a pro­per and distinct sense, it would stand the Definers in no stead, the mission and works of the seventy Disciples being no way parallel to the mission, and works assigned by their Definition unto the Presbyterian Evangelist: We dare trust any Reader to compare the Text and the Definitions, and will transcribe neither of them.2 Calvin will not allow that text to speak ef Evan­gelists. But perhaps we may save him (as well as our selves) a labour; for Calvin serves this Text as the former, brings the record and speaks without it, yea which may seem incredible, he did not think the persons there mentioned, to be such Evangelists as he defines, for his Commentary upon the text, puts the fortasse in his Definition out of doubt,Nulla his 70. discipulis proprie fuit commissa lega­tio. Calv. ad Luk. 10.1. there he saith, The seventy Disciples had properly no legation commit­ted to them; which is most repugnant,

First, to the nature of an Evangelist.

Secondly, to Calvins own Definition of an Evangelist.

Thirdly, to what St. Luke writes of the seventy Dis­ciples.

First, to the nature of an Evangelist, who is a Church-officer instituted by Christ, but to be an officer without legation, or appointment to the office, is as impossible, as to be a natural Father without a Child. Secondly, to Calvins own Definiti­on of the Evangelist; wherein he gives him an employment, and consequently an appointment to it, for how can any sup­ply the Apostles places without legation to that charge? to what purpose is all the noise of the Apostolical ordination, association, or emission, if the Evangelists had no legation, but acted upon their own heads. Thirdly, to what St. Luke writes of the seventy, he is in nothing more exact throughout his History, then in the distinct enumeration of their commission, ordination, and emission; That one Chapter Luk. 10. presents us with four observables concerning them. First their designation, Luk. 10.1. After these things the Lord appointed o­ther seventy also: In which few words are considerable, first who appointing? the Lord Christ; Secondly who appointed? other seventy also, some were appointed before, these were other seventy also; Thirdly when appointed? after these things, i. e. after what precedes in this History, and particularly after the emission of the twelve in the foregoing Chapter. Fourthly, after what manner they were appointed? [...] he renunciated, demonstrated, or published, as electors to Civil offices, give no­tice of their Eligees. Suffice this for explication of the first [Page 84] observable in St. Lukes History concerning the seventy. Se­condly, their Commission, and work in the last part of ver. 1. ver. 5. and ver. 16. together with the ground of both, ver. 2. and their priviledges ver. 4. Thirdly their Emission, ver. 3. Fourth­ly, their Confirmation, or continuance in the harvest after their first fruits were brought in, and accounted for ver. 19. Behold I give you power, &c. This notes continuance of Christs pre­sence with them, for he doth not speak in the past tense of what he had given, but in the present tense of what he now gives, and confirms. This nineteenth verse is a good way from the beginning of the Chapter; and Calvin hath now forgot what he wrote on the first verse. For there he saith, they had no legati [...]n, In posterum confirmat Di­scipulos. Calv. ad Luc. 10.19. here he saith, Christ confirms his D sciples for the future.

This latter is true; and confirmed by Euthymius, as Maldo­nate upon the place quotes him. The result of all this is, ei­ther Calvin did not define the Evangelist, or the seventy Dis­ciples (himself being Judge) were no Evangelists. What then! doth Calvin contradict himself? he doth so, and I would to God that were all, it were no more then a particular confir­mation of this general axiom, that all men are lyars. But there is more in it, for when pretenders to explain, do ob­scure things, 'tis designedly to pucker, intangle, and ruffle them into insolvable knots:Thirdly, so doth Polanus and Spanhe­mius. However Polanus, and Spanhemius lend us a sharp sword to cut them in pieces, for perceiving Calvins self-willedness, and single standing against all Antiquity, to be too obvious to be publiquely owned, they endeavour to turn the knot of the Text another way,Polan. partit. Theol. lib. 1. p. 127. Span­hem. disput. de ministrorum vocatione, &c· and say, The seventy were a sort of Apostolical men, distinct from Apostles, and Evangelists; but they do not tell us what sort of Apostolical men they were, or wherein their distinction from Apostles, and Evangelists did consist, and I beleeve they were well-enough content to leave it so: Whereby they make all before cited of the Seventy, to be a meer dumb shew, and transient ceremony, and leave Presby­ters at a loss about the original of their own order. Whether because upstart-like they are ashamed to own their poor Pa­rents, let others determine. To these shifts are modern wits reduced, and in these by-paths do they wander, when they are weary of the old way, beaten with the track of former Saints; and disdain to acknowledge any able labourer in Gods vineyard, beside, or before themselves. Antiquity with one mouth proclaims the Presbyterate of the Seventy,Fourthly so doth Antiqui­ty. and says, Presbyters succeed them, as Bishops succeed the Apostles; but [Page 85] modern Presbyters say, They were Evangelists, Apostolical men, a­ny thing, nothing (for they say their office was temporary, and dis­continued) rather then they will consent to Antiquity, or yeild to truth. But both opinions act upon some reasons, let the [...]eader judge which are most convincing, and forcible. The [...]ntients living nigh to the Apostles times, and reflecting up­ [...]n the distinct, and successive ordination of Bishops; and Pres­ [...]ters from time to time, were careful to find out, and keep [...]art their originals, and first locations in the Church. This [...] farr as concerns Presbyters, was the ordination of the se­ [...]nty Disciples; and was the reason why the Antients alwaies [...]lled them Presbyters. But our Definers living at a great [...]stance from the Primitive times, when the Church state was [...]uch corrupted: Papal tyranny by a way peculiar to all tyrants, [...]ving confounded all orders, except those of its own erecti­ [...]. They designing reformation (whether because they were of [...]e lower order, or because theOur Pres­byterian As­sembly tartly urging the dissenting bre­thren to a full conformity, to their govern­ment (which both of them in the Bishops dayes called the discipline of God) re­ceive from them a smar­ter denyal, they alledg­ing that, there may be a greater va­riation, from [...]overnment which is established in a divine right (whereby they imply there is such a [...]ernment but distinct from the Presbyterian) much more from a government which is not [...]blished on a Jus divinum. They add in the same, But when the government it self, hath [...] toleration from the state, &c. Dissenters answer to the Assemblies papers before the Committee for accommodation, pag. 25. Our perservation is, saith the learned Hooker ( [...]eaking of the Presbyterian government) that no age had ever knowledge of it but only [...], that they which defend it, devised it, that neither Christ, nor his Apostles at any [...] taught it, but the contrary. Heokers Ecclesiastical Policy, Lib. 3. Sect. 10. Magistrates, and Common- [...]alths, under which they lived, would admit only of those o [...]icers who complyed most friendly with their Civil Govern­ [...]nts, or for other reasons which themselves can give) did ut­ [...]ly renounce the superiour Ecclesiastical order. This at­ [...]mpt being so contrary to Christs diverse Institutions of the [...]elve Apostles, and seventy Disciples, the plain constitutions [...] the Church at Jerusalem, in Apostles, and Elders, and the [...]me of all other Churches, from our Lords ascension untill t [...]eir time, they were necessitated to countenance one evil, by t [...]e perpetration of another, and having thrown out the office to wrest those texts from truth, and the exposition of all for­m [...]r Saints, which might, (as this of St. Luke) be a Land-mark o [...] Mere-stone, to discover the former diversity, and distincti­o [...] betwixt the officers. But enough is said of this fifth Ex­ [...]tion, and we matter not what Readers think it too much, so [...]at hath been spoken be truth, as we verily beleeve it is.

Sixth Exception. This passage, Gospel-writers were Evangelis [...] (which vein-like conveys corrupt blood through the body of the former Definitions) supplies matter to our sixth Exception. We would free our selves and Readers from mistakes: Where­fore be it known we level our Exception, not against the cal­ling Gospel-writers Evangelists, for such they were in a gener [...] and large sense, but against the Definers unwariness, who be­ing to define, a yet continuing Church-officer, and citing a ter [...] which treats of him in that notion, should yet notwithstanding cast up Scripture-writers in their number, between whose o [...] der and our observation, the holy Ghost draws a veile, for in­stance St. Luke. And whose work was not official, but of tem­porary, and extraordinary Revelation; the major part of the twelve Apostles, being no Scripture-writers, when others no [...] of their number, as St. Luke, and St. Mark were. Besides th [...] word Evangelist is not used of the Pen-men of holy Writ, in a [...] the new Testament, which we ascribe to Gods wisdome, a [...] especial care of his Churches peace, least otherwise brain- [...] giddy, and vain-glorious persons perceiving that text spe [...] of a formed Church, and of successive Church officers (as inde [...] it doth) should assume confidence to profess what others ha [...] the impudence to conceive, namely that there is a standi [...] Church-officer who may write a fifth Gospel, and third Test [...] ment of the holy Ghost, because Christ hath set some Evang [...] lists, or Gospel-writers in the Church, till we all come in the [...] nity, &c. which terms are generally accknowledged to co [...] prehend every period of time, from the first age of the Chris [...] an Churches militancy, until the victory which advanceth h [...] to the state and blessedness of triumphant glory. Moreove [...] modern Enthusiasts may hence be encouraged to censure [...] proceedings of the antient Church in rejecting Basilides a [...] Gospel,Vid Baron. ad eosdem an­nos. writ A. C. 120. Valentinus his Gospel, promul [...] ted, A. C. 140. Marcions Gospel, and Apostolick instrume [...] published, A. C. 146. And Manes his Gospel, and twelv [...] Apostles sent forth to preach it, A. C. 277. These inconve [...]i­ences are foreseen by more ocular Authors, some Scapula ad verbum ex [...] Thesauro Stephani. whereof say [...] Gospel-writers are called Evangelists tralatitiously; minus­recte Esth. ad Eph. 4.11. others say, they were so called improperly: Our learned Whitaker, Mitto hic quam scite, &c. Whitak. To. 2. con­trov., pag. 530. ad­judgeth Bellarmine interpreting Evangelists in this text by Gos­pel-writers, to be worthy of scorn not answer. Finally, n [...] one book of Scripture, bears the name of Philip or Timothy, or comes commended to the Church singly under their name▪ [Page 78] But the holy Ghost only calls them Evangelists, therefore either [...]ospel-writers were no Evangelists in a strict sense, or Timo­ [...]y, or Philip, or either of them were none. This concludes [...]ur sixt Exception.

Seventh Exception. Beza, Faius, Seventh Except. the Evangelist was not tem­porary. and Zanchius unwarrant­ [...]bly say, the office of the Evangelist was temporary, and doth [...]ot now continue in the Church. This they barely say, but [...]ce they alledge no confirming Scripture, we might without [...]y more ado, turn them over to St. Pauls council, 1 Cor. 4. [...] not to think of men above what is written. But peradventure [...]ough they name it not, they took the oft-cited text,The text Eph. 4.11. doth not prove it. First pa­per. Sect. And first of that of Timothy and Titus. Their rea­sons thence drawn for the affirmative discussed. Eph. [...]11. for their warrant, it being Calvins proof, and singly [...]oted by the Divines at Wight to give a King satisfaction, who [...]rupled, and doubted of this temporariness: We have read [...]e text ten times over, and over again, but cannot discern [...]w it proves any is, or differenceth one officer from another, [...]temporary, for in the whole verse is not one member of that [...]stinction, but contrariwise the titles Apostles, Prophets, Evan­ [...]ists, Pastors, and Teachers, are weaved into one uninterrupted [...] read and series of discourse, and as if the holy Ghost would [...]ark their continuance to our memory, he prefixeth the me­ [...]odical helps of first, and second, to only two of three, whom [...]r modern divinity teacheth us to forget. 1 Cor. 12.28. [...]he London Divines saw this, but rather then they will acknow­ [...]dge it,Jus divin. 1. par. p. 40. they have recourse to a distinction of their own for­ [...]ng, and say, The words are to be understood, not Conjunctim, but [...]ivisim, not conjoynedly that all of them should continue, but seve­ [...]lly that some of them, at least should continue. Thus they. But [...]e dare not allow of their distinction, for admitting such a li­ [...]ntious liberty to distinguish, men of corrupt minds may take, [...]d leave in Scripture, at the direction of their unsetled fan­ [...]es; and thereby prove the most Orthodox to be more erro­ [...]ous then themselves: Besides let the most desperate here­ [...]ks raze never so many of those sacred records, they are not [...]provable, if they leave any undefaced; because they may [...]s well as our London Presbyters) resolve, and convince gain­ [...]ers, that the Scriptures are not to be understood conjoynedly, [...]at all of them should continue, but severally that some of them at le [...]st should continue. And the least part they have left. And a [...] how happy had Marcion been, had he known, and could he h [...]ve made use of this distinction, when Tertullian in contempt, and to render him odious to the Church, called him the Pon­tick [Page 88] Mouse, for gnawing out what Scriptures made most against his heresies,Secundum hanc interpre­tationem (quae mihi & verbis, & sententiae Pauli consen­tanea vide­tur) tres illae functiones, non ideo institutae in ecclesia fu­runt ut perpe­tuae fo re [...]sed ad id modo tempus nullubi ecclesiae ante fuerunt consti­tutae. vel certe a mose, ad Christum tra­ducendae. Calv. institu­to lib. 4. cap. 3. Sect. 4. Quanquam non nego, quin Apostolos po­stea, quo (que), vel saltem eorum loco evangeli­stas excitavit deus, ut [...]ostro quidem saeculo factum est. Jd. ibid. out of the Canon. But leaving the London Di­vines, come we to Calvin, who also apropriates the three first terms to temporary officers, pursuant whereunto he interprets those terms after a new, and till his time unheard of manner, and saith. It seems to him that those functions were not instituted to continue perpetually in the Church, but either to remain till Churches were erected where none before were, or till they were tran­slated from the mosaical, to the Christian discipline. Thus he▪ And thus it seems; Apostles, Prophets, and Evangelists, were absolutely temporary, and confined within one, or other of these two limits, either to plant new Churches, or purge old from Judaisme: And this seems to Calvin to be most consentaneous t [...] the words and opinion of St. Paul. Which notwithstanding, let the words and opinion of that great Apostle go whither they will; Judicious Calvin hath another notion, whereby these functions seem to him to continue, not only after the death of the first Apostles, and Evangelists, but even till his own time▪ for in the very next words he adds, Although I deny not th [...] God hath since raised up some Apostles, or at least some Evange­lists in their stead, as hath happened in our timo. This latter may be true, though I very much suspect it in the sense which Cal­vin meant it; but being true any way (as it is one way mos [...] true) Calvin shews us what a value he hath for the sense, and meaning of St. Paul, according to which he saith his former n [...] ­tion is framed; Truth therefore it i [...], that the first notio [...] is not suited to the sense and meaning of St. Paul; 'tis Calvin [...] fancy not St. Pauls sense, and is most improbable and false, since both Conversion work upon the Gentiles, and Convicti [...] work among the Jews, is yet a continuing work, and incumbe [...] upon present Church-officers, the most part both of Jews, a [...] and Gentiles being yet unreduced to a Christian Church-estate▪ More distinctions, or other interpretations of the text, in sa­vour of the Evangelists temporariness,Reasons for the negative. we have not seen al­ledged; but this fourth of the Ephesians, furnisheth us with several reasons in the negative.

First all were institu­ted, and con­firmed by one law-giver.First, Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, &c. were all of one in­stitution, and confirmation in office, because descended Chri [...] who gave them, did continue them when ascended, St. Paul directly affirming [...], &c. or he who descended, and h [...] who ascended is the same, and in both states, He gave some Apostles▪ s me Prophets, & s [...]me Evangelists, & s [...]m [...] Past [...]r, and some Teacher▪

Secondly, the Apostle wrote to the Ephesine Church, who had all now counted standing officers affixed;Secondly, the Church whereunto St. Paul wrote was constitu­ted, and if he spake of other officers then were settled or ought to be continued with her, he should have mention­ed them. whom it was unsafe to distract with the enumeration of so many extraordi­nary officers, without ascertaining of their names, numbers, and peculiar works. Their names would have satisfied her whom, their numbers how many he meant, and the distinction of their peculiar works, would both have given convincing reasons, why he singled them out from the rest, unto a disconti­nuance & hedged out all after pretenders to their office; But the Apostle omits all those, and on the contrary, reckons each offi­cer in official term [...], takes all possible care least their order, or ranks should be inverted, and appoin [...]s all of them to perfect the Saints, work in the Ministry, and edify the body of Christ. All which are the ordinary, and conti [...]uing works of the present Ministry, or they have nothing to do.

Ob. Several works,Obj. other texts assign extraordinary works to the temporary officers. or actions are elsewhere ascribed to some, or all of the temporary officers, not now performable by continuing officers. I answer, whosoever instanceth in those works, must withal prove they were the office-works of those imagined temporary officers, othe [...]wise he mispends his time, abuseth his Reader, and begs the question; for the Text in Ephesians treats only of office-works, perfecting of th [...] Saints, Answered negatively, and by an distin­ction betwixt works and gifts. &c. not of personal priviledge [...], as working of miracles, &c. Whe [...] God instituted the legall ministry, he bestowed extraordinary gifts upon Aaron the first high Priest, He casts his rod into a ser­pent, and he, or Moses for him, laid it in the Ark, and it blosso­med, and bare Almonds; Both these were done by a special com­mand, but did not amount unto a divine, and standing institu­tion, because his Successors could do neither of them; which defect did not alter the Priest-hood, and make Aaron of one order, his Successors of another, for the Author to the He­brews, saith of that Hierarchy even in his time, that it was [...], or after the order of Aaron, Heb. 7.11. The nature or continuance of an office, is not known in the perso­nal gifts or abilities, whether infused or acquired of any of its administrators, but in the relation it bears to the society, for whose weal, and advantage it was instituted. This is evident in the Text before us; where St. Paul saith, Christ gave some Apostles, &c.: but why gave he them? to work miracles, or glory of their utterance, or knowledge, no he gave them for the perfecting of the Saints, &c. I know many things are heaped together as the extraordinaries of the first officers, which to a taker of [Page 90] them in the lump, makes them seem hugely extraordinary, but who ever shall view them one by one, shall find the most of them, as well extraordinary, and extraofficial unto them, as unto us, some such as they could not alwaies do, as miracles, &c. others not common to all the Apostles, as Scripture-writing. The bundle of supposed extraordinaries is confessedly bigger then what is here exposed, but this is not a fit place, nor am I minded to spend time to consider them here in parcels, we may have oc­casion perhaps to hint at someFor the A­postles gene­ral charge see pag. 29. For their giving of the spirit see pag. 191. &c. For their ordination by Christ see pag. 83. &c. For their sight of Christ in the flesh, see pag. 90. Thirdly the text is of that nature where­of one mem­ber being questioned, all the rest are brought into doubt. Survey of spiritual Antichrist, part 1. pag. 212. of them in the following part of this discourse, but their full examination and prosecu­tion belongs to the tract of Apostles, whither we remit it, and the Reader whose appetite is already stirred for further satisfa­ction. Proceed we now upon the reasons why the Text in Ephesians doth not treat of extraordinary officers.

Thirdly, the Text is a Gospel-promise concerning, and as­suring the perfection of the whole Church, from the time of Christs descent, and all time after following from his ascension, till all beleevers shall come in the unity of the faith, unto a perfect man, &c. Now may such a promise be understood by halves, and the effective mediums of that perfection, or any of them be disused, to what sort of words may we safely give an entire credit? or to speak more plainly, how dare any single Saint adventure his faith and salvation upon a particular promise. This no doubt occasioned Rutherford to say; If Christ promised to be with the Church for an age, so as the Apostles did cease in the next age, then there must be no Saints on earth now, but only in the first age after the Resurrection, for this promise of Christs pre­sence is not extended to Ap [...]stles only, but to all the faithful. Thus he.

Fourthly, this text is the principal prop of the standing mi­nistry, and so acknowled­ged. Lutherans.Fourthly, This Text is the strongest and most bearing Pillar o [...] the present Ministry, the Sanctuary and Asylum of all persecuted Ministers, when anti-ministerial Enemies would do violence un­to their Office: then no words of a temporary Ministery, for fear least the Adversary rank themselves in the same list, and turn them all out of the Church together. Those three different professions, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Papism, which share this Christian western World among them, though in other things they are most contrary,Ipse filius dei ministeri­um perpetua vocatione vult in ecclesia conservare, sicut ait Paulus▪ Eph. 4. & dedit &c. Chemnit. exam. secunda partis Concil. Trident. tit. de sacramento ordinis, Francofurti. 1578. yet agree as one man in this truth. For the Lutherans shall speak one of their best Spokes-men, renown­ed Chemnitius; he saith, The Son of God will conserve a Ministery [Page 91] in the Church by a perpetual vocation, because S. Paul saith, Ephes. 4. And he gave some, &c. I could name others, as Brentius, Ger­hard, yea and Luther himself, but this shall suffice. The Calvi­nists Calvinists. have very many Advocates, I shall (since the present Con­troversie is with them) single out a few of them:Jus Divin. 1. part. pag. 39. The London-Presbyters (as we have heard before) call the Text the Great Char­ter of the Ministry: And is it so? How chance the three first na­med Ministers, Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, to hold their Offi­ces for term of life, when the other two, Pastors and Teachers, hold theirs in taile, to themselves and their Successors? How can the present Ministry be assured of the continuing use of their Function, when three equally, yea primarily, in the Patent, are now degraded, and exauctorated? Methinks a busie Fancie re­flecting upon our late Tumults and Disorders, may make this Text prophetical concerning the Great Charter for our Civil Rights; all which hath been contended for (or pretended so to be) with the hottest zeal, except the first clause, whereby the King, and the then Authority of the Kingdom, grant unto God and Holy Church, all their Rights and Priviledges; all and eve­ry of which have been violated; and to say the first clause, or what concerned the preservation of the Immunities of the Church, was temporary, will be a more temperate answer then any yet hath been given to the Churches Complaints of received in [...]uries and spoils, (His Majesties most pious and gracious Re­stitution of the Clergy to their Rights, onely excepted.) But farther, as these London-Ministers call this Text a Charter,Jus Divin. 1. part. pag. 40. Answer to dis­sent. pag. 2. Bound up with their directory title Church. so they give the Reader an account of its contents, (may he carry it in his memory throughout this Discourse!) they say, When Christ promiseth a Ministry, till we all come to the unity, &c. he is not only obliged thereby to keep it from a final abolition, but from a total interruption. The Assembly in proof of the Presbyterian Government, and to free it from the objections of the dissenting Brethren, premise this (as an indisputable principle) before their main Arguments, viz. All the Ministers, and Officers of the Church are given to the whole Church, for the gathering and building of it, 1 Cor. 12.28. Ephes. 4.11. And they are all to teach and rule, and perform all other ministrations with reference to it, and the least ad­vantage of it. Thus they. Besides in their advice to the Parlia­ment about Church-Government, they prove from the said Texts, That the Ministry and Ordinances were given to and are to continue with the Church till Christs second coming. Docet hac sententia Paulus, usum ministerii non esse tempora­lem, sicut pae­dagogiae cu­suspiam, sed perpetuum quamdiu in hoc mundo ver, samur. Cal. ad Eph. 4.13. Calvin (whom ourAssembly ad Ephes. 4.13. Assembly transcribe) thus comments upon the Text: [Page 92] Paul teacheth by this sentence, that the use of the Ministry is not (as the training of youth) temporary; but perpetual, so long as we continue in this world. Who would read more upon this subject, let him consult Calvin, Institut. lib. 4. cap. 3. Sect. 4. Whitack. Controv. To. 4. Controv. 4. quaest. 1. pag. 529. Sect. secundum nostrum argu­mentum. Jus Divin. 1. part. pag. 39, 40, 114, 115. &c.

Papists. Hi gradus, & hic Hierarchi­cus ecclesiae or­do, ut alii sint Apostoli, a­lii Prophetae, alii Evange­listae, alii Pa­stores, & Do­ctores, manebit, durabitque donec infideles omnes ad unam Christi fidem & ecclesiam [...] ­centur. A Lap. ad Ephes. 4.13.The Pontifician Suffrage is yet behinde, which none delivers more fully or plainly then A Lapide the Jesuite: He saith, These Degrees, and this Hierarchick Church Order, that some shall be A­postles, some Prophets, some Evangelists, some Pastors and Teachers shall remain and continue till all Ʋnbelievers are called to Chris [...] Faith and Church. See also Jo. Bellar. de Eccles. militante, lib. 3 cap. 13. Sect. praeterea Ephes. 4. & lib. 4. cap. 8. sed ut vis hu­jus argumenti.

Fifthly, This text being op­posed to the re­ception of all new Ministers unless they are therein nam'd, cannot without express nomi­nation, con­tain any which are temporary. Baleus de Scr. Anglic Cent. 7. Reasons against Pres­byterial. Go­vernment. p. 38 Constituit qui­dem alios Apo­los, alios Pa­stores, alios E­vangelistas, a­lios▪ Doctores, cur non dicit unum omnibus praefecisse, qui vices suas gere­ret, id enim lo­cus-postulabat, nec debuit o­mitti, si verum esset. Calv. institut. lib. 4. cap. 6. Sect. 10,Fifthly, When any new erected Office, or order of Ministers would force into the Church, this Text is made the porte to keep him out, unless it can shew its hand, or bring its ticke [...] for admission. Thus Treviza lets fly at the swarms of Mo [...] and Fryars in the seventh Century, with, He had read where G [...] had sent Apostles and Priests into the world, but never any Monks [...] begging Fryars. Thus he. The Independents tread upon th [...] toes of Presbyterianism, encroaching upon the English Church with, Do you any where read that God hath set in his Church, fir [...] Presbyteries, secundarily Classes, then Consistories? Calvin keep at this guard against the Pope: He saith, Indeed Christ appoint [...] some Apostles, some Pastors, some Evangelists, some Teachers, wh [...] doth he not say, He constituted one as his Vicar over all the rest, [...] that this place especially required it, neither ought it to have been [...] mitted, if it had been true. Thus he. Now are these good arg [...] ments against Monks, Fryars, Presbyters, Classes, Popes, that the [...] are not to be received into the Church, because they are n [...] nominated in this Text? No argument can be drawn fro [...] thence to prove them temporary whom it doth not nominate (un­less it plainly express their temporariness) because the same ar­guments would take place against and exclude M [...]nks, Fryars, Presbyteries, Classes, Consistories, Popes, although they had bee [...] named, if their Excluders please to say they are temporary, and though admitted in the primitive, not to be continued in ou [...] time.

These are our Exceptions against their Scripture-proof of temporary Ministers,Exceptions a­gainst the word tempo­rary, two ways interpreted. but we have not spoken all that we have to say in that argume [...]t, for the term Temporary may not pass without a long and serious animadversion: For I am resolved that I may with good reason affirm, that the misunderstanding or neglect of clearing up the true import of that word, hath a­bove all other things rendered the Controversie about the Or­ders of Church Officers, intricate and perplexed.Duo sunt voca­bula quae non recte accepta fallunt, scilicet temporarium & extraordi­narium. Sara­via de divers. grad. Minist. lib. 1. cap. 16. London, 1611. Learned Saravia could long since say, Two words not arightly interpreted are a cause of errour, to wit, Temporary and Extraordinary. A way to expound them he assignes in that place, which although I will not utterly impugne, yet because I judge it insufficient to loose all knots in this Debate, I shall pass it over in silence, and spend a little more time and pains upon it, then (as I have yet observed) he or any others have done before me.

The word temporary may be sensed two wayes:

1. Of a certain time limited and past, or of the Apostles time,1. Of time li­mited, or past. exclusive of all others.

2. Of any time, Planetary or Erratical, this, that,2. Of erratical time. or any o­ [...]her time, (all time admitting interruption, and opposed to perpetuity) when a temporary officer (suppose the Evangelist) hath been, is, or shall be extant in the Church.

One or other of these two interpretations the term must bear [...]n the former definitions, let the Definers, or any for them,That Evange­lists were tem­porary in the first sense, af­firmed by Zanchy. His reasons for it. 1. They were made Officers by revelation. 2. They were ordained by the Apostles. His first reason confuted. Revelation di­stinguished in­to 1. Primary.2. Secundary. 1. Primary, that made no Officer tempo­rary. elect which they please, we doubt not, by their several examinati­ons, no evidence the contrariety of both unto truth. And

First do they accept it of a time limited, or past, or the A­postles time, exclusive of all time since effluxed?

We desire to see their Reasons. Are we answered by Zanchy?

They were either

  • 1. Made Officers by Revelation. Or,
  • 2. They were ordained by the Apostles. We will reply to both these in Order.

To the first we answer by a distinction, and say, Revelation may be distinguished into Primary or Secundary.

First Primary Revelations, they so far as they concern Church-Officers, were the first intimation of Gods will, for the consti­tution of those Officers: now if Zanchy mean that the Evange­ [...]ist was thus chosen by Revelation, we expect to know where we shall search for that Revelation, since the Revelations we have, or can finde concerning the constitution of Officers, declare no such thing, but their settlement to the worlds end, Mat. 28.19, [Page 94] 20. And till we all come in unity. Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13. Terms as opposite to temporariness, as time is to eternity. Doth Zanchy therefore accept Revelation of,

Secondly, Se­condary they if any such be designed offi­cers, either First to a new office. The danger of that notion.Secondly, Secondary Revelations, or Revelations consequent unto, and succeeding the first Revelations.

We answer, these Revelations designed their Eligees, either to a new, or to an old Office; If to a new Office. Then, First, de­scended Christ did not constitute his Church, and institute all her Officers for the dispensation of her holy things; and some besides Apostles, &c. are given for the perfecting of the Saints, &c. But descended Christ did constitute his Church, and institute all her Officers for the dispensation of her holy things: Nei­ther had any other any power to do it, because he is our sole, and only Lawgiver, and because he who descended, and he who ascended is the same. Secondly, Several manifestations of the Divine will,, and executions of the Legislative power will be contradictory, and justle one against another: The Church will fall under distinct forms, and constitutions. The Plat­form of arguments raised against the first, will equally batter the second Revelation. Divine Revelation will cease to be the foundation of the Churches standing Ordinances, or Ministry; what we have, or are like to have of Church-order, or Office will be maintained to be the results of her own prudence, and o [...] the successive exigencies of her affairs, and government. And whensoever she is wiser, or factious pretenders to reformation presume they are wiser, then their Predecessors, they may, pleading new Revelations alter her present form and constituti­on, and frame her a new, as they think fitting. These will be some of the sad effects of new Revelations, superceding the obligation and force of old Revelations, and constituti [...] of distinct Officers in the Church, for the dispensation of he [...] holy things; neither will we add any more till we see ho [...] these can handsomely be avoided; doth Zanchy therefore ac­cept his secondary Revelation.

Secondly to an old office. This is true, and ve­rified in two instances.Secondly, of a particular Revelation, designing new men to an old Office; we say such secondary Revelations concern not the nature or limitation of the Office, because they were defined, and bounded by the first Revelati [...]n; but they do concern the unusual, and divine exhibition of a person, or per­sons to the Church to admit him, or them unto Office. This is most true, though it make little for Zanchies purpose, but much to the vindication and clearing up, of a most precious [Page 95] and undoubted truth, and is confirmed by many, and plain [...]cripture instances. We shall confine our search unto two, [...]oth which are famous in the new Testament for having Reve­ [...]tions previous to their Church-imployments, but let modern [...]nthusiasts note it, these Revelations came to others not them­ [...]lves, the office was constituted and settled in the Church, [...]ng before those Revelations; both persons had hands solemn­ [...] laid upon them, and their work seriously commended unto [...]hem by the imposers, ere they ingaged upon it.

The first of them is St. Paul:First of St. Paul. The holy Ghost reveals to [...]anias, the notable change wrought upon Sauls heart, how he [...]as perswaded to preach, where he was resolved before to per­s [...]cute the Gospel. This Ananias must communicate unto him, by his hands upon him, and commend his work unto him, [...]re he set upon it. Act. 9.17. ad fin. 20. This being done, s [...]metimes afterwards a Revelation comes to the Prophets and [...]eachers at Antioch, willing them to dismiss St. Paul, and Bar­ [...]bas from their particular relation unto that Church, and t [...] consecrate them, and send them forth upon an Apostolate a­ [...]ong the Gentils; This they do by fasting, prayer, impositi­ [...]n of hands; Act. 13.1, 2, 3. I am not ignorant how divided [...]terpreters are in their opinions, concerning these two seve­r [...]l impositions of hands upon St. Paul: Some esteem them to be s [...]veral ordinations, others think otherwise: The new England Divines imbrace the first opinion, but for a purpose utterly un­dream't of by any other of its other favourers,Jus divin. 1 par. p. 145. namely the re­o [...]dination, or reiteration of the imposition of hands upon the heads of those Ministers, who quitting one, become a new related unto another p [...]ople. Their brethren at London justly decry their novel and he­t [...]rodox notion, but (though no fools) while they pass the rock of one absurdity they ship-wrack upon another, peremptorily saying: Ananias did not impose hands upon St. Paul in ordi­nation; wherein they have both the opposition of Scripture,Dico Ana­niam imposu­isse manum Paulo ad hoc ut visum reci­peret. Bell. de sacram. confir. lib. 2. ca. 12. Vid. eti­am eum eo­dem libro ca. 2 haec quoque solutio. and of their own most noted Expositors, although as they ventu:+rously affirm, the text seems only to hold forth the recovery of St. Pauls [...]e-sight, not his ordination. But this is borrowed from Bellar­mine, and is one of the things which seem, and are not, and they were hood-winkt, or lookt off the Text when they wrote [...] for Ananias is expresly sent unto St. Paul, as well that he might be filled with the holy Ghost, as receive his sight. Act. [...] ▪ 17. And Ananias went his way, and entring into the house, and putting his hands upon him, said, brother Saul the Lord Jesus [Page 96] which appeared to thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me to thee, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the ho­ly Ghost. In other Texts the receipt of the holy Ghost is con­stantly interpreted of the collation of official gifts, and wha [...] other sense can it bear in this Text, since forthwith upon Ana­nias his departure, St. Paul having refreshed himself after his long pains and fasting, he went forth and preached Christ in the Synagogue. Act. 9.20. And straight way he preached Chris [...] in the Synagogue, that he is the Son of God; besides, ere the se­cond Imposition of hands, by Lucius, Simeon, and Manaen, S [...] Paul is registred among the Prophets, or Teachers of the Church at Antioch. Act. 13.1. Now there was in the Churc [...] which was at Antioch, certain Prophets and Teachers, as Barna­bas, and Simeon that was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, and M [...] ­naen, which had been brought up with Herod the Tetrarch, an [...] Saul. In hunc fi­nem Ananias in Paulum manus impo­suit, partim ut illum deo con­secraret par­tim ut illi im­petret spiritus dona. Calv. in loc. Ananias mittitur, ut eum instruat donis spiritus sancti, ad A­postolatum ne­cessariis. Pis­cat. Anal. in loc. These Scriptures prove that St. Paul was a Church-off [...] ­cer, ere Act. 13. And Calvin, and Piscator say he was ordai­ned by Ananias, whose opinion we hope the London Divine will not be angry, if we prefer them before theirs. Cal [...] saith, for this end Ananias imposed hands upon St. Paul, par [...] to consecrate him unto God, and partly to convey spiritual gifts un [...] him. Piscator saith, Ananias is sent to furnish him with spiritu [...] gifts necessary for the Apostolate.

But it may be questioned by what right, or authority An [...] nias could ordain St. Paul.

I answer, Ordination of Ministers by Imposition of han [...] was an official act, performable by some, but not common t [...] every Church-officer;See pag. 191. 'Twas not common to every Church-officer, since Philip who preached unto, and baptized the Sa [...] ritanes, could not impo [...]e hands upon them, but that w [...] was reserved to the ministration of the Apostles St. Peter, a [...] St. John, when they came down from Jerusalem. Now if Ph [...] lip could have done this work without them, neither ought [...] to have omitted it, nor was it convenient for them to exec [...] it; if they were as St. Paul was careful (and who may doub [...] it, since they were guided by one, and the same spirit) not to trespass within another mans line. This is one, but not th [...] only Scripture instance, proving the distinction of order in th [...] Primitive Church; for Timothy is settled at Ephesus, to orda [...] Elders by Imposition of hands, and to exercise the Ecclesiastic [...] censures, when yet there were Elders officiating in th [...] Church before his coming. I grant we have no Text proving [Page 97] the admission of Ananias into the Apostolical order, but doing their work, his capacity must follow of course, for had he not been lawfully impowred to do it, God would not have commanded him upon it. And if he had not received this po­wer in the ordinary way, as St. Paul, Barnabas, Timothy, and Titus received it, viz. by ministerial Ordination, but by especi­al, or particular Revelation, God would, or might have made St. Paul an Officer the same way, not ordered Ananias to do it, much less by the rite of Imposition of hands, which was the ordinary way of admitting Officers unto Office. Besides had Ananias an extraordinary capacity to do this ordinary work of Imposition of hands, it renders him an Apostle of an higher form, and of a more divine designation then St. Paul, who re­ceives the holy Ghost by Imposition of hands.

But moreover, and besides what hath been alledged, to prove that Ananias imposed hands upon St. Paul in virtue of a mini­sterial order;Ex a Lap. ad Act. 9.10. I shall expose to the Readers view the opinion of several Expositors: Oecumenius saith, He was only a Deacon; and yet adds, that he was of the number of the seventy two Dis­ciples. Wherein (with reverence to his ashes) is contained a notorious contradiction; for the seventy two Disciples were Presbyters, otherwise the Church before, at, and welnigh ever since Oecumenius his time, have erred in the derivation of the original of the Presbyterial order, from our Saviours constitu­tion of those Disciples. St. Augustine saith, He was a Presby­ter, with whom in some measure agrees Calvin, Lib. 2. quaest. Evang. quaest. 47. ex tod. Alap. who fancying that Ananias his present Imposition of hands upon St. Paul, had a special relation to St. Pauls confirmation in the Faith, he urgeth it against the appropriation of confirmation, to Episco­pal administration. But St. Augustins opinion cannot be true; For Ananias as a Presbyter could not ordain St. Paul to the of­fice of preaching, since there is no ground for such,Lib. 4. in­stitutio ca. 19. Sect, 10. a practise in Scripture, but many instances to the contrary (which was also the current, and constant practise of St. Augustins time and age wherein he lived. And since Calvin saith, That Ananias consecrated St. Paul unto God, and obtained for him spiritual gifts: Which Piscator affirms to be such as were necessary for the Aposto­late; whereby in a further contradiction to Scripture, a Pres­byter is impowred to ordain an Apostle. And Calvins notion is equally as improbable, and false as St. Augustines, since the text expresly saith, that Ananias was sent to impose hands up­on St. Pault hat he might receive the holy Ghost. i. e. receive mini­sterial [Page 98] abilities. And that forthwith after Ananias his depar­ture, St. Paul preached Christ in the Synagogue. i. e. publickly, and officially exercised those gifts; which is something more then is conferred by confirmation, unless all confirmed persons may forthwith discharge distinct ministerial works. However both these opinions th [...] farr concur with ours, even to allow that what Ananias did, was in virtue of a ministerial order; And I trust the candid and judicious Reader will as well al­low us a liberty to assign him a probable and proper order, as them to limit him to an order, which is neither proper, nor probable.

Suffice this, for the first Revelation, and ordination of St. Paul.

Proceed we to the second; or Lucius, Simeon, and Manaen, their imposing hands upon the same person by the direction of the holy Ghost.Lucius, Si­meon, &c. or­dained St. Paul.

But while we are stepping forward, a question thwarts us, and demands a reason of this reiteration of the imposition of hands upon St. Paul.

I answer, the two Chapters Act. 9. and Act. 13. treat of several, and distinct ordinations of St. Paul unto divers offices.

Doth my Reader demand of what orders those offices were.

An Apostle.I answer, Christ instituted only two teaching orders, or the Presbyterate and Apostolate, which orders must interpret the several acts of Ananias, and of Lucius, and his Collegues; for immediately after either of them St. Paul did the work of a Preacher. Ananias therefore ordained St. Paul a Presbyter▪ Lucius &c. ordained him an Apostle. Ananias his act is co [...] fessed to be an ordination, as we have before heard, but if admitted St. Paul to the Apostolate, the reiteration of the a [...] by Lucius, &c. either justifies the New-Englanders notion, o [...] was a nullity. For St. Paul could not be ordained into ano­ther Church, or impowred to do other works, then what were committed to him by his first ordination, if that admitted him to the Apostolate.

Ex a Lap. in loc. Arias Montanus, Cajetane, and Suarez say, the latter impo­sition of hands, or that by Lucius, Simeon, &c. was precatory, not ordinative, but contrariwise it was ordination to the Aposto­late.

First, all the new Testament recordeth not a more formal ordination,First, its recital com­prehends all the parts of a most formal ordination. the Text both describing the ordainers Com­mission, and the manner of its Execution. The Commission; Act. 13.2. As they ministred unto the Lord, and fasted, the holy Ghost said, separate me Paul, and Barnabas, unto the work where­unto I have called them. The manner of its Execution; ver. 3. And when they had fasted, and prayed, and laid hands upon them, they sent them away.

Secondly, St. Luke never styles St. Paul, or Barnabas Apo­stles, or notes their performance of Apostolical acts,Secondly St. Luke never till after this act calls St. Paul an Apo­stle, &c. till after this second ordination. But immediately after it, he doth both, Act. 14.14. Which when the Apostles Barnabas and Paul beard of, they rent their cloths, and ran in among the people, crying out. ver. 23. And when they had ordained them in every Church, and had pray­ed with fasting they commended them unto the Lord on whom they had beleeved.

Thirdly, The Apostolate, or higher Church-order (beleeve we either precedent,Thirdly the Churches con­stant custom hath been to ordain none Bishops who were not be­fore Presby­ters. or subsequent Church-custom) used not to be derived to any after its first insitution, who had not be­fore given proof of their ability, and fidelity in the lower or­der, or in the Presbyterate. Thus Antiquity with one mouth, judgeth Mathias to have been a Presbyter, or one of the se­venty Disciples, ere he was elected an Apostle. Thus St. Mark and Timothy, ministred to Barnabas and St. Paul, ere they were elected to a partner-ship. This custom hath been ge­nerally observed in the Church ever since: Only some of lat­ter dayes, have been created Bishops in Germany, &c. ere they were Presbyters, and without ever intending to be so, the greatness of the Revenue, and Jurisdiction, betraying the office into the hands of secular ambition: But however such is the convicted consciousness of these removers of the an­tient bounds, that they exclude those Bishops from the per­formance of proper Episcopal actions; and in propriety of speech they may be said to have a secular Bishoprick, not to be Christian Bishops.

Fourthly, The most godly, learned, and antient fathers, al­low St. Paul, and Barnabas to be ordained Apostles, by Lucius, Fourthly, the Antient fathers allow St. Paul, A­postolical or­dination by Lucius, &c. Simeon, and Manaen. Thus St. Chrysostom, the interlinear glosse and St. Leo in his Epistles, reflecting no doubt, upon whose o­pinions learned A Lapide, who also quotes Turrianus as of his opinion saith. It is plainly probable, that St. Paul, and Barnabas, had been already before this time ordained Presbyters, and now were ordained Bishops.

Fifthly, Mo­dern Divines both Presbyte­rial and Epis­copal yeild to this Truth.Fifthly, Modern Protestant Divines of greatest note and au­thority are not behinde in suffraging to this Truth.Ad Act. 13.3. the Assembly here trans­cribe Diodate upon the place where may be seen for the most part the fame words, or altogether words to the same purpose. Jus Divin. 1. part. p. 159. Act. 13.1, 2, 3, 4. Ex­professo Pau­lum, & Bar­nabam Aposto­los, gentium designat. Et paulo. post: ne­quit eam ec­clesiam veris Christi mini­stris destitutam esse, ubi Paulus, & Barnabas, ad gentes concedere jubentur, prophetae nominantur.— Extra controversia [...] est, expressas fuisse istas circumstantias, quo plus fidei apud nos habeat Pauli vocatio.— J [...] bet Deus ecclesiae suffragiis emitti Paulum, & Barnabam quo ipse designavit.— Promulga [...] publico edicto, solenni ecclesiae subscriptione obsignari jubet.— Non tantum dimittunt, sed s [...] lenni ritu instituunt eos, gentium Apostolos. Calv. ad Act. 13.1, 2, 3. Our As­sembly in the person of the Holy Ghost, say, Separate me Paul and Barnabas that they may have like authority with the other Apo­stles; which if they had received before, there was no need of this solemn injunction for a separation. The London-Divines say, That even the very Apostle Paul, though chosen immediately by Christ unto the great office of preaching unto the Gentiles, in a mira­culous way, yet notwithstanding it was the pleasure of the holy Ghost, that he must be separated, and set apart by men for this great work Calvin, notwithstanding his former opinion of S. Paul's ordina­tion by Ananias, is equally as peremptory for his ordination, by Lucius, and he saith, In this text God professedly designes Pau [...] and Barnabas to an Apostolate among the Gentiles. He adds, Th [...] holy Ghost mentions prophets, least any should suppose Paul and Bar­nabas were s [...]nt forth by a Church which wanted true Ministers [...] Christ. And again: Without all controversie, the holy Ghost observe [...] the circumstances of their fasting and prayer, that we may give th [...] greater credit to Paul's calling. And furthermore, God commands that Church to send forth Paul and Barnabas, by their suffrages, un­to the place whereunto he had called them. This suffrage he calls the Churches promulgation by publick Edict, and solemn subscribing and sealing to Gods command. This is much, but he adds more, and with it we shall conclude his Testimony: He saith, Lucius, Si­meon and Manaen did not onely dismiss Paul and Barnabas, but or­dained them by a solemn ceremony, to be the Apostles of the gentiles.

Omnino opus id fuit Aposto­latus ad gen­tes, Aret. ad Act. 13.1, 2, 3. gentium voca­tio fidelibus tunc videba­tur res nova, & insolens. Ita Paulus de sua missione ad gentes debuit certa in ecclesia habere testimonia. Id. Ibid. Aretius saith, The work here committed to Paul and Barnabas was altogether an Apostolate unto the gentiles: He adds, The calling of the gentiles then seemed a thing new, and insolent to believers, therefore Paul's mission to the gentiles ought to have certain testimony in the Church. Neither is this a Presbyterian notion; for Doctor Hammond allows it, and in his paraphrase upon the text saith, And as they were upon a day of fasting, performing their office of prayer unto God, the holy Spirit of God by some afflation or revelation, commanded them to ordain or consecrate Barnabas and [Page 101] Paul to the Apostleship to which God had already designed them: Heylins Hist. of Episcop. par. 1. ca. 4. sect. 1. and [...]cordingly they observed a solemn day of fasting and prayer, and so by [...]position of hands ordained them, and sent them away about the [...]ork designed them by God. Thus he. Thus Doctor Heylin, Paulum nescis a Deo simul atque ecclesia missum esse? Whitak. To. 2. de authori­tat. S. Scri­pturae contra Stapleton, lib. 3. Sect. 3. Si vero quaeris quamobrem impositae illis m [...]nus sunt eam te Graecus Scholiastes docebit, [...] hoc est & possent c [...]m authoritate praedicare, Whitak. To. 1. con. Duraeum. Sect. 66. he [...]ith, S. Paul's calling unto the Apostleship was not until the holy Ghost had said unto the prophets Lucius, Simeon and Manaen, mini­s [...]ing then in Antioch, Separate me Barnabas and Paul unto the work whereunto I have called them. And thus Doctor Whitacker inter­rogating Stapleton, saith, Knowest thou not that Paul was sent both b [...] God and the Church? (he hath reference in this demand to [...]ct. 13.) And answering Duraeus upon the same matter, he saith, But if you inquirest why hands where laid upon him, the Greek Scho­l [...]st will resolve thee that it was to enable them to preach with authority.

Sixthly, Since variety delights some Readers,Jubente spiritu sancto post jeju­nium & orati­onem, per ma­nus impositio­nem potesta­tem accipisse praedicandi u­bique evange­lii, testatur i­dem Lucas. Eo namque sacro ritu initiatos Apostolatu ne­mo est qui du­bitat. Spondan. epit. Ann. Bar­ron. ad Ann. Christi 44. Sect. 32. Quarto quia Christus ordi­navit Apostolo-episcopos, h [...] a­lios, ergo & Paulus ab ii [...] ordinatus est, hoc enim postu­lat, ordo Hie­rarchicus a Christo insti­tutus, ut cum ip [...]e Petrum & Apostolos, ordinavit, caeteri omnes ab eis vel eorum successoribus ordinentur, A Lap. ad Act. 13.3. and since what I have written may be censured for novelty by some captious Readers, if it be not confirmed by all sorts of testimonies. I [...]ll adventure to confirm this truth by the deposition of some [...]pal Divines, who are of no small note and authority. They a [...]e the Colledge of Rhemes, who in their Annotations upon the words, Separate me, mentioned Act. 13.2. say, Though Paul [...]re taught by God himself, and specially designed by Christ to be an A [...]ostle, and here chosen by the holy Ghost, together with Barnabas, ye [...] they were to be ordered, consecrated and admitted by men; which wholly condemneth these new, rebellious, and disordered spirits, that challenge and usurp the office of preaching, and other sacred actions f [...]m heaven, without the Churches admission. With these Divines a [...]ree Baronius and A Lapide. Baronius saith, Paul and Barna­ [...] (witness S. Luke) did by imposition of hands after prayer and fasting receive power to preach the Gospel every where: for of their initiation to the Apostolate by that sacred rite there is none who doubt­eth. A Lapide who as before was noted, reciteth and refuteth the opinions of Suarez and Cajetan against S. Paul's ordination in this place, doth give four pregnant Reasons to prove the con­trary. His fourth Reason is, Because Christ ordained his Apostles Bishops, they, other persons; therefore S. Paul was ordained by them. For this Hierarchick Order instituted by Christ doth require, That whereas he ordained Peter and the Apostles, all others should be or­d [...]ined by them or their successors. Do any object and say, He saith the Apostles, not Lucius, &c. ordained S. Paul and Barnabas: [Page 102] May they be remembred how in the words immediately prec [...] ding, he affirms this Text contains the onely mention in the scri­pture of the time and place of their ordination, and names and qualities of their ordainers; but here is nothing said of the A­postles, but of Lucius, &c. Besides in the following words he quotes Oecumenius, and Lyranus, asserting S. Paul's ordinatio [...] by Lucius, Manaen, &c. impowered thereunto by being them­selves previously ordained by the Apostles, which their opinio [...] he neither censures, or rejects, as false or improbable.

I know not what entertainment this truth shall meet in t [...] world, this I know, that I shall neither stand nor fall alone wi [...] it; and that there is but one material objection against it, u [...] which I shall endeavour to frame an answer.

Obj. S. Paul was an Apostle not of man, nor by the will of man. Object. S. Paul saith, Gal. 1.1. He was an Apostle not of m [...] nor by the will of man.

Answ. 1. This phrase may re­fer to the in­stitution of the Apostolical of­fice, or to the designation of S. Paul's per­son, or to the manner of his receiving of his Do­ctrine, not to his ordination Answ. 1. This phrase may refer to the Divine Institution [...] the Apostolical Office, Luc. 6.12. And it came to pass that [...] went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in pray [...] with God; and when it was day he called unto him his Disciples, [...] out of them he chose twelve, whom he named Ap [...]stles: or it may re [...] to the designation of S. Paul's person, Act. 9.15. Go thy ways, f [...] he is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles a [...] kings, and the children of Israel. Or it may relate to his recei [...] ing of Evangelical Doctrine, Gal. 1.11, 12. For I certifie you [...] thren that the Gospel which was preached of me is not after man, n [...] ther was I taught it but by the revelation of Jesus Christ. In [...] these senses S. Paul was an Apostle not of man, nor by the w [...] of man. And why may not the objected text be explicated b [...] all or some of them, since they are so obviously proveable [...] Scripture, rather then have an interpretation affixed to it, m [...] festly repugnant to other portions of holy Writ, and some [...] them directly concerning S. Paul; for was he formally admit [...] to the exercise of his Apostolical Office, not of, or by man, b [...] cause humane ordination was incompatible with that sacre [...] Function; then why doth S. Luke record Mathias his electi [...] and ordination by men, Act. 1.23. ad fin. capitis? And why a [...] not the several forementioned impositions of hands upon S. Pa [...] expunged out of the holy Canon? and why doth S. Paul in the same Epistle to the Galatians, so unwarily and vainly set dow [...] his receiving of the right hand of fellowship from S. James, C [...] phas and John, and their acknowledging him to be the Apostle of the Gentiles, Gal. 2.9.

Secondly, Act. 13.4. expounds the objected Text, and gives [...]his sense; S. Paul was made an Apostle not by man singly,Secondly, his emission by Lucius, &c. is said to be an emission by the holy Ghost. or [...] mans invention, but by man pursuant to a previous direction [...] the holy Ghost, according to the Rules of Gospel Order, [...]nce in the forementioned Act. 13.4. it is written, And they be­i [...]g sent forth by the holy Ghost, departed [...]nto Selucia, & sayled thence [...]o Cyprus. But how did the holy Ghost send them forth? [...] the preceding verse, or ver. 3. And when they had fasted, [...]d prayed, and laid their hands upon them, they sent them away. [...]he they spoken of in this verse, I suppose none will deny to be [...]cius and his Collegues. Besides, whoever shall observe St. [...]uls writings, they will find him usually in those things, or a [...]ions, wherein God directed (though they were done by [...]en) to fix the whole upon God: Whereby he doth not ut­t [...]ly exclude men from having any hand in those things, or [...]ions that were injurious to truth, but only he gives the pre­ [...]inence unto God, that best befitting his majesty, and prime [...]tion in al actions. Thus he saith he went up to Jerusalem by Reve­ [...]ion; Gal. 2.2. This journey all Expositors whom I have seen [...]cept Beza) interpret of his second,In loc. or third going up to Je­ [...]alem after his Conversion; Take we it of either, as well [...]mane appointment, as divine Revelation designed him unto [...]t service. Calvin expounds it of the former journey, men­ [...]ned Act. 11.29.30 Then his Disciples every man according to [...] ability determined ( [...] limited, designed) to send relief unto [...] brethren, which dwelt in Judea, which they also did, and sent [...] by the hands of Barnabas, and Saul; The common opinion in­ [...]prets it of the latter recorded. Act. 15.2. When therefore [...]ul, and Barnabas had no small dissention with them, they deter­ [...]ned ( [...] ordered, constituted) that Paul, and Barnabas, and [...]tain other of them should go up to the Apostles, and Elders about [...]t question. Thus also he (St. Paul) exhorts the Ephesine elders t [...] take heed to themselves, and to the whole flock over which the holy [...]host had made them overseers. Act. 20.28. when without all [...]ubt, he the Apostle had ordained those Elders. Act. 19.6. Thus Archippus is enjoyned to fulfil his Ministry in the Church of [...]losse, which he had received in the Lord; Col. 4.17,Thirdly, the phrase may be equally verifi­ed, and in the same sense of Pastors and Teachers, as of Apostles. And [...]t I never read any antient, or modern writer, who sus­ [...]cted him to be an extraordinary Officer, or to be made a Mi­ [...]ter any other way then by ministerial ordination. And this l [...]ds on a third answer to the objection.

Thirdly, Pastors, and Teachers, yea every single and ordi­nary [Page 104] Presbyter may use the phrase, not of men, nor by the will of man, &c. concerning their office, they being as well as A­postles, made by the holy Ghost, since the same Christ who gave, and confirmed the Apostolate gave also, and confirmed the Pastorate. Ephes. 4.9, 10, 11. Two things are conside­rable in every Church-officer. First the institution of his Of­fice. Secondly his admission to it. In the first notion, every Churchofficer, is an Officer not of man, nor by the will o [...] man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father who raised hi [...] up from the dead. In the latter men have a hand, but the [...] do not act singly, for Officers are ordained by Officers, in vi [...] tue of a divine appointment, and promise of the contiuance o [...] a successive Ministry. This I hope will be a sufficient answe [...] to the objection, and also for our proof of one Officer desi [...] ned by Revelation for an Office, but not Ecclesiastically investe [...] therein, neither exercising the trusts thereof, till ordained, a [...] admitted thereunto by former Officers. Consequently the Revelation was so farr from constituting a new Office, as that [...] did not place a new Officer in an old Office, but pointed hi [...] out into the Church to receive it from her. Observable f [...] this purpose is what Chemnitius saith concerning Lucius, Sunt qui­dem omnes Christiani sa­cerdotes, 1 Pet. 2. Apoc. 1. non tamen quivis Chri­stianus publi­cum verbi, & sacramento­rum ministeri­um sibi sumere & arrogare debet, non e­nim omnes sunt Apostoli, non omnes do­ctores. 1 Cor. 12. sed qui peculiari, & legitima vocatione a deo ad hoc ministerium segregati sunt. Chem. exam. con. Trid. 2 p [...] de sacr. ord. Can. 1. Nam & Paulum immediate vocatum. P publica ecclesiae testificati [...] renunciari, & designari voluit quod esset gentium Apostolus, &c. 1. Ʋt persona illa eccl [...] siae publicae designaretur, & renunciaretur legitime esse electa, & vocata. 2. Ʋt hoc [...] tu ille qui vocatus erat, de legitima, divina sua vocatione, confirmaretur, & simul ad [...] neretur, se destinari, addici, & devoveri ad ministerium, & cultum dei. Jd. ibid. Sime [...] and Manaen, their imposition of hands upon St. Paul, [...] All Christians are Priests, 1 Pet. 2. Apoc. 1. But yet every Christi [...] ought not to take, and arrogate to himself the publick Ministry of [...] Word and Sacraments: for all are not Apostles. All are [...] Teachers 1 Cor. 12. But those who are divinely separated by a pe [...] liar and lawful vocation unto this Ministry. Act. 13. He adds, F [...] the holy Ghost would have Paul although immediatly called, to [...] pronounced, and declared by a publick and ecclesiastical testim [...] to be the Apostle of the Gentiles. By this publick testimony he u [...] derstands imposition of hands, for the usage whereof he ass [...] two reasons, First, that such persons should thereby be p [...] lickly designed and proposed to the Church, as lawfully elected [...] called. Secondly that being so called they might be assured of th [...] lawful and divine calling, and withal admonished that they w [...] thereby destinated, addicted, and devoted to the Ministry, and service [Page 105] of God. Finally learned Calovius saith, Pastors, and Teachers are given by Christ from heaven, A Christo dicuntur do­nari coelitus, pastores & doctores Eph. 4.11. Qua propter etiam illi qui ab eccesia vocantur, a Christo coelitus donantur, & mediate per eccle­siam mittuntur, quum Christus ecclesiae suae praesto sit eam (que) gubernet. Mat. 28.20. Calov. Socin. profligat. loc. de Eccles. controv. 4. for the work of the Mi­nistry Ephes. 4.11. wherefore also they who receive their call from the Church, are divinely given by Christ, and mediately sent by her because Christ is alwaies present with, and governs his Church. Mat. 28.20. But leaving the first proceed we to the

Second instance, of a person divinely designed,Second in­stance is Ti­mothy, whose abilities were prophesied of, ere he was made an offi­cer. But he did not re­ceive the gift or office till S. Paul laid hands upon him. but eccle­siastically admitted to Office in the Church, which is Timothy, whose eminency in the work of the Lord is revealed by prophe­sie, ere he was made a Minister; 1 Tim. 1.16. This charge I commit unto thee s [...]n Timothy, according to the prophesie which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare; [...]ut notwithstanding those foregoing Prophesies, he is after­ward ordained, which ordination, not those Prophesies, gave him his Office-power; 2 Tim. 1.6. Therefore I put thee in re­membrance, that y [...]u stir up the gift of God that is in thee, by the [...]aying on of my hands. Do any object, 1 Tim. 4.14. Neglect not [...]he gift which is in thee, that was given thee by the Prophecy, with [...]he laying on of the hands of the Presbytery. I answer: Although Prophesie, and laying on of hands be both of them named, yet the Text must admit of the former Interpretation, Prophe­ [...]ie relating to the designation of his person, laying on of hands to his actual admission unto Office; for if Prophesie had con­ferred the Office, laying on of hands had been superfluous. Expositors sense Prophesie in this Text two waies. First some refer it to the future time, succeeding Timothies ordination. [...] by prophesie, being put by an Heterosis (frequent in Scripture) for [...] unto prophesie: The holy Ghost there­by designing not what gave him his Office, but what he did af­ter he received it. Thus Beza. Secondly,In loc. In loc. others refer it to the time past, or preceding his ordination, expounding it by, 1 Tim. 1.16. So St. Chrisostom, Calvin, Aretius, Piscator, Doctor Ham­mond, and A Lapide: Take we it in the first sense, Prophesie is no kin to Revelation, nor doth it concern the point in hand; Accept we it in the latter (which I do with both hands) it gives most clear evidence to Primitive Church-power and practice, namely to give the Office, though God himself design the per­son, and extraordinarily signify it unto the Church. Aretius [Page 106] therefore concerning Lucius, Conferunt quod jam de­us ordinave­rat munus, ut sint doctores ecclcsiae inter gentes. Aret. ad Act. 13.3. Corollary. Revelation makes all offi­cers perpetu­al, none tem­porary. Simeon, &c. their Imposition [...] hands upon St. Paul, saith well, They confer the Office; which God had before ordained, to wit, that they should be ecclesiastical teachers among the Gentiles: This he saith, the same say we both of that, and this of Timothy, neither hereby is Gods will subjected to the Churches pleasure divers, but intimations of his will are reconciled, and joyned hand in hand; Finally to conclude our Animadversion upon Zanchyes first Argument for the tempora­ryness of some primitive Church-officers. We are bold no [...] only to conclude in a direct opposition thereunto, that Revela­tion made no Officer temporary, but to assume that all Officer [...] are therefore standing, and continuing in the Church, becaus [...] their Office is founded upon a divine Revelation; for if thei [...] order did not commence in a divine Revelation, it could not be the ordinance of God, since there is no way to manifest Gods ordinances unto men, but by his own revelation. And since when once an ordinance is revealed, in virtue of that Revelati­on (if ever it be one) it becomes a divine, positive, and standing institution, not requiring a successive Revelation, but ordina­tion to perpetuate it unto the end of the dispensation whereo [...] it is an Ordinance; because (to keep to the point before us) the primary Revelation shines into all following ordinations, and declares each Minister, from first to last, to be a Ministe [...] according to the revealed will of God. And let it be noted, that our clearer apprehensions, applications of, and submiss [...] ons unto foregoing Revelations, are equally called Revelatio [...] in Scripture, as Gods first discovery of new things. Ephes. 1.17 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the father of glory may gi [...] unto you the spirit of wisdome, and Revelation in the knowledge of him. Do we doubt what is meant by Revelation in this verse, the next verse will resolve us that thereby the Apostle means only the grace of illumination, and confirmation in the truth, ver. 18. The eyes of your understanding being enlightned, that y [...] may know what is the hope of your calling, and what riches of the glory of his inheritance in the Saints. Whence cannot be imagi­ned that God in every infusion of grace into the heart of a Christian, makes some new, and before unheard of discovery of his will, but only by the same spirit, applies the same word to their hearts, as unto others before; and at the same time in the same condition. But 'tis time to call our pen off, from a pursuit of this Theam, and having recollected our selves, let us pause a while, and conclude our answer to Zanchyes first [Page 107] Argument for the temporaryness of Officers in the first latitude of that term. But we cannot long take breath,Zanchys 2. argument. Evangelists were tempo­rary because they were or­dained by the Apostles. Answered First pas­sively. Secondly, actively. First pas­sively. Their ordination by Christ considered, and the settle­ment of their office proved by three as­sertions. for his second challengeth an encounter or our yeilding, he advanceth to­wards us: And he will maintain Evangelists to be temporary, Because they were ordained by the Apostles. Our defence is, that Apostolical ordination may be considered two-wayes.

  • 1. Passively, or their own ordination by Christ.
  • 2. Actively, or their ordination of others.

We are bold to say that neither of those made Apostles, or any other officers ordained by them to be temporary. But we will consider either of them severally; we begin with,

1. Apostolical passive ordination, or their own ordination by Christ; I know this point strictly belongs to the tract con­cerning Apostles, but because I know not whether ever that work shall see the light, yea or not, our time being in the hand of God, and what ever we purpose, he alone disposeth of our actions. And because the temporaryness, and vice-A­postolate of the Evangelists cannot be so conveniently, and [...]hroughly refuted, as by searching into the nature, and insti­ [...]ution of the Apostolick Office; we will for the evidencing of that truth lay down these three assertions.

First, That Christ is solely, and incommunicably his Churches Legislator, and appoints all officers, and Ordinances appertaining to her, in her proper nature. This will lead us to the Foun­tain head of all purely ecclesiastical authority and power.

Secondly, That Christ ordained the Apostolick Office. This will manifest that the Apostolical Office and authority, was de­rived and limited.

Thirdly, That Christ confirmed the Apostolick Office, at, and after his ascension, as a standing Office to be continued with his Church. This will prove that the Apostolate it self, was not temporary. I begin with the first of these.First, Christ was solely, and incommuni­cably his Churches Le­gislator. Proved by testimony. First pro­phetical.

First, Christ is solely, and incommunicably his Churches Legislator, and appoints all Officers, and Ordinances apper­taining unto her, in her proper nature, or as she is his Body, he is her head. This is a truth evidenced by the light of all authority.

First Prophetical. Isa. 9.6. Ʋnto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given, and the Government shall be upon his shoulder, &c. Ezech. 34.23, And I will set up one Shepheard over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David, he shall feed them: And he shall be their Shepheard.

Secondly, Evangelical. Joh. 13.13. Ye call me Master, Secondly Evangelical. and [Page 108] Lord, and ye say well, for so I am; Mat. 28.18, 19, 20. And Jesus came, and spake unto them, saying, All power is given to me in heaven, and in earth, go ye therefore, and teach all nations, bap­tizing them in the name of the father, and of the son, and of the holy Ghost. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you, and Lo I am with you to the end of the world, Amen.

Thirdly Apostolical.Thirdly, Apostolical. Jam. 4.12. there is one Lawgiver who is able to save, and to destroy, who art th [...]u that Judgest another. St. Paul almost every where in his Epistles concurs in this opinion, calling Christ the head. Eph. 1.22. Eph. 4.15. Col. 1.18. the foundation, 1 Cor. 3.11. the high Priest, Heb. 6.20. and the Apostle, Heb. 3.1. i. e. by way of eminency, he being primarily, and immediatly sent by the father. But no where he (the Apo­stle) testifieth more fully, for Christs sole Legislatorship, then in the oft-cited Text, of Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13, 14.

Fourthly, Paternal.Fourthly, Paternal. The antient Fathers those lesser Stars in the Churches Firmament, meet in one constellation with the stars of the first magnitude, or holy writers, and joyntly give their influence, to Christs sole Legislatorship. It were easie for me to be copious in this Argument, but to reserve the cloud of witnesses to the tract of Apostles, where I shall evince this truth by a chain of testimonies, reaching from the primi­tive times to St. Jeromes, and the next following Century: For the present I dare say, I need not multiply quotations in a mat­ter so plain and obvious, because none moderately versed in their writing can with any forehead deny it, All of them ac­knowledging Christ to be the sole Legislator, and assigning to Apostles (who if any might claim a share therein) successively into their own orders and office. However we will here in­sert three or four testimonies, of a like number of very antient, and undoubted authors. Tertullian, prescribing against Here­ticks,Huc igitur dirigimus pre­scriptionem si dominus Jesus Christus misit Apostolos ad praedicandum, alios non esse recipiendos praedicatores, quam quos instituit Christus. Tertull. de praescript. p. 76. Habemus annume­rare eos, qui ab Apostolis i [...]stituti sunt episcopi; nam sirecondita mysteria scissent Apostoli quae seorsim, [...]tenter reliquis perfectos docebant, iis vel maxime traderent, quib [...]s etiam ecclesi [...]s co [...]mitte [...]ant. Iren adv. Haer. lib 3 ca. 3. and particularly lashing Marcion saith, This is our pre­scription, that if our Lord Jesus Christ sent the Apostles to preach, other preachers whom he hath not sent are not to be received. Irenaeus (who lived A. C. 180.) writing against some heretical tradition-mongers, who boasted of their knowledge in a more secret, and spiritual Theology, derived unto them from the Apostles hands; saith We can reckon them who were instituted Bishops by [Page 109] the Apostles, and were their successors: Now had the Apostles known [...]y secret mysteries, which privily, and apart from the rest, they [...]ught unto perfect men; they would with the first have delivered [...]em to those Bishops, unto wh [...]m they committed the Churches. S. Cy­p [...]ian (who lived A. C. 250.) encouraging his Collegue Corn [...] ­l [...]us, the then Bishop of Rome, not to be moved at the clamor, or rage of hereticks, saith, Brother we ought principally, Hoc enim & maxime frater labora­mus, & labo­rare debemus ut unita tem ae domino, & per Apostolos nobis successoribus traditam, [...]antum possumus obtinere curemus. Cypr. Epist. lib. 2. Epist. 10. Vide in hac re quid ec­ [...]siae catholicae valeat Authoritas, quae ab ipsis fundatissimis sedibus Apostolorum usque ad [...]diernum diem succedentium sibimet episcoporum serie, & consensione firmatur. Aug. lib. 11. [...] Faustum, cap. 2. and earnestly to labour what in us lyes, to retain the Lords unity, delive­r [...]d by the Apostles unto us their successors. Finally, St. Augustin writing against Faustus the Manichee, saith, Thou seest how avai­ [...]ble the authority of the Catholick Church is in this matter, which, [...]on the sure built seats of the Apostles, is upheld untill [...]is day, by a series, and consent of Bishops suc [...]eeding unto t [...]em.

Fifthly, the School learneth us the same lesson, she teacheth,Fifthly Scho­lastical. [...]at the Apostles could not constitute another Church, nor deliver a­ [...]ther Faith, nor institute other Sacraments; Apostoli non potuere constituere a­liam ecclesi­ [...], nec tradere aliam fidem, nec instituere alia Sacramenta. Tho. Aquin. 3 par. sum quaest. [...]. art. 2. ad 3. Lugduni. 1562. Quia pertinent ad potestatem excellentiae, quae competit [...] Christo. Tho. Aquin. 3. par. summul. quaest. 72. Art. 1. ad. 1. for which elsewhere [...] assigneth this solid reason; namely, Because it belongs to the p [...]wer of excellency, which is incommunicably Christs.

Sixthly. Pontifician: Modern Papal Divines,Sixthly Pontifician. although they p [...]rceive a huddle of officers, sacred, and not sacred (wherewith t [...]e Primitive Church was not acquainted, at least as so many di­ [...]nct orders) to be crept into their Church, yet they endea­v [...]ur might and main, to drive them from Christs precept, or [...]ample: Thus they bring the Door-keeper into the Church,Fab. In­carnat. scru­tin. sacerdotal. tract. de ordi­ne Rothomai 1634. De clericis. upon Christs thrusting the Buyers, and Sellers forth of the Temple, Mat. 21.12. The Reader, upon his taking the book, and reading in the Synagogue. Luk. 4.17, 18. And so of the re [...]t. Let none take offence at the obscurity of our cited Au­thor, for the same is delivered by Bellarmine: And compre­h [...]nded in a Definition, and Canon of the Tridentine Council, w [...]ich saith None but Christ can institute a Sacrament, Si quis dixerit sacra­menta novae [...], non fuisse omnia a Jesu Christo domino nostro instituta, &c. Anathema sit. Concil. Tri­dent. Sess. 7. Can. 1. and ana­ [...]matizeth gain-sayers.

Seventhly, Presbyterian.Seventhly. Presbyterian. The Pope, since his exorbitant U­surpation of all power, the spiritual directly, the temporal in­directly (as Bellarmine truly phraseth it) is as Herod upon the Throne tickled by the Jesuites among other blasphemous titles, with this of a secondary Legislatorship, so Christ first, and he se­condly, may impose Ordinances by virtue of their Legislative office.Legislatoris proprium sit, primarium habere pote­statem secun­darius non da­tur legislator in rebus ecclesiasticis, quia primaria illa authoritas, nemini a Christo commu [...] ­catur. Ames. Bellar. enerv. Tom. 1. p. 237. But Amesius strongly checks Cardinal Bellarmine for his sawciness, and unanswerably saith. A Legislator properly ha [...] the primary authority, neither will ecclesiastical affairs admit of a secondary Law-giver, because the primary authority of King of t [...] Church, is communicated by Christ unto no man.

Eph. 2.20. ob­jected, And are built upon the foundation &c.No Scripture is really, and there is but one seemingly repu [...] nant to Christs sole Legislatorship: It is Ephes. 2.20. And [...] built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Chr [...] being the chief corner-stone.

A Reader newly entered into the controversies betwixt [...] and the papists, will soon and easily reconcile this seeming diff [...] rence: But for the sake of others.

Answer 1. Apostles were not a personal foundation.I answer, First, Reason saith Apostles were not, neither co [...] they be (as Christ is) a personal foundation; for whatever h [...] been in that respect built upon them, would have long since su [...] and vanished with the consumption and corruption of their Bodies.

2. They were not an cfficial foundation.Secondly, Scripture and Reason joyntly say, They were [...] an Official Foundation; i. e. the Apostolick office was not t [...] foundation of Church Government, because then there wo [...] not onely have been several foundations, Christ and they wh [...] they lived, but a succession of several foundations, from th [...] times unto ours, and thenceforward so long as the Church co [...] tinues militant. But the foundation of the Church, and of [...] Ministry is but one, and the Apostles built upon it, 1 Cor. 3.1▪ According to the grace of God given unto me, as a wise master buil [...] I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon, but let [...] ry one take heed how he buildeth thereupon: for other foundation [...] no man lay, then that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ.

3. They were a Doctrinal foundation.Thirdly, They were a Doctrinal foundation: I explain [...] meaning thus: The apostles and prophets were doctrinally th [...] Churches foundation, because they penn'd and published th [...] Scripture, which is the word and will of Christ, who is th [...] [Page 111] foundation: This is true of prophets, 1 Pet. 1.10, 11. Of which [...]lvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who pro­ [...]hecied of the grace that should come unto you, searching out what [...] what manner of time the Spirit of Christ in them did signifie, Nos non nega­re, imo defen­dere contra negantes, ver­bum Dei mini­stratum per A­postolos & pro­phetas, esse proximum fundamentum nostrae fidei. Bell. de verbo Dei. lib 3. cap. 10. respon­deo ad hoc ar­gumentum quod saepe, &c. Lugduni 1610▪ when [...]e testified before-hand the sufferings of Christ, and what should af­ [...]rwards follow. It is also as true of apostles, John 14.26. But [...]he Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father shall send [...] my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to [...]ur remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. All protestant [...]ivines thus expound the apostles to be a foundation; and Bel­ [...]rmine doth not much dissent from them: He saith, We deny [...]ot, but are ready to defend against gain-sayers, That the word of God [...]spensed by the Apostles and Prophets, is the next foundation of our [...]aith. I adde it is so, not as their word, but as the word of [...]hrist, unto or by them: Besides, others not of the number [...] the twelve Apostles were a foundation unto the Church in this [...]se; as S. Paul, S. Luke, S. Mark, and the Author of the E­ [...]tle to the Hebrews, (if it were not S. Paul.) Suffice this in [...]nfirmation of the first Assertion.

2. Assertion. 2. Assertion. Christ ordain­ed the Apo­stles. Christ ordained the Apostolick office while he [...]s upon Earth. This is a Truth which we suppose needs no [...]oof to any who have but read of Christ, or of his Apostles: [...]or shall we so far question our Readers unacquaintedness with [...]ly Writ, as to burden him with many Quotations in this mat­ [...]r. Consider that one Text, Luc. 6.12, 13. And it came to [...] in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray, and [...]tinued all night in prayer to God, and when it was day he called un­t [...] [...]im his disciples, and of them he chose twelve, whom he named [...]stles. In this Text are observable,

The Acts preparative to the Ordination of the Apostles: [...]ich are two-fold,

1. More remote, He went out into a mountain to pray, and [...]inued all night in prayer to God.

2. More nigh, He called his disciples unto him. This is the first o [...]erveable.

[...]econdly, Their Ordination: which also hath two parts,

1. Their Election, He chose out of them twelve, i. e. out of the [...] of his disciples. These twelve were disciples before, and [...]hile they were disciples, they did the works mentioned, John [...]2. When therefore the Lord knew how that the pharisees had [...]d that Jesus made and baptized more disciples then John, though Je [...]s himself baptized not, but his disciples; then the twelve apo­stles, [Page 112] as well as Mathias, St. Paul, Sylas, Timothy, &c. ascend­ed from one ecclesiastical order to another; but let the Rea­der judge of this, and consider,

In loc.2. Their designation in these words he named them Apo­stles. This text is parallel, and contemporary with Mark 3.14 Sebastian Barradius, and Lightfoot as Jansenius and Calvin joyntly agree. Upon which Text of St. Marks, Calvin saith [...] ­nulli, or some (he might have said quamplurimi, or very m [...] ­ny) understand the recording of our Saviovrs ordination of his Apostles. All whose opinions, and expositions he turns [...] peremptorily with an Hallucinati sunt, or, they made a w [...] conjecture, and were deceived; which notwithstanding, in th [...] words immediatly following he allows, that Christ in his pra [...] er,Hoc autem exemplum no­bis perpetuae regulae instar esse debet, ut a precatione or­diamur quoti­es eligendi sunt ecclesiae pastores. Ali­oqui in auspi­catum erit quicquid ten­tabimus. Nec sane dominus tam sua causa precatus est quam ut le­gem nobis pre­scriberet. Calv. ad mar. 3.14. antecedent to their vocation, gives a standing rule obse [...] ­vable by the Church, in her subsequent ordination of Ministe [...] his words are: But this example ought with us to have the force [...] a perpetual rule, that we begin with prayer so often as the Pastors [...] the Church are to be elected, otherwise what we attempt, will be i [...] prosprous, f [...]r in truth the L [...]rd did not pray so much up [...]n his own a [...] count, as to prescribe a law unto us. Whence is as evident as light a [...] high noon, that he makes this passage a pattern to the Church i [...] her ordinations, which can never handsomely be drawn, unle [...] the original treat of the same matter. I readily acknowledge [...] that our Saviour in several other (and perhaps posterious) passages of his Gospel, gives several commands to his Apostle [...] and from thence, and the undoubted conformity of the Apostle [...] unto them, several official acts are colligible. But if the Ap [...] stles were not Church-officers, till he gave those subseque [...] commands, those observations of St Luke, and St. Mark w [...] contain nothing but wha [...] was needless to be me [...]tioned; a [...] in the other Scriptures, our Saviour m [...]st be understood command his Apostles upon office work, ere they were in order whereas that the Apostles were appointed to that high ca [...] ling by the ordination, mentioned by St Luke, and St. Mark, S [...] Chrysostom and Theophylact rest assured. And St. Luke, and S [...] Mark say enough to resolve any one,Ex Mald. in loc. who is not resolve [...] to give no credit to their testimony, that he not only designed them to that Office, but actually admitted the [...] unto it; that he designed them to it; over and beside wh [...] hath been instanced of St. Lukes, St. Mark saith, Mar. 3.13. H [...] called unto him whom he would; which phrase cannot import [...] ny thing else, then the selection of some in the rejection o [...] [Page 113] others; that he admitted them to Office. St. Luke saith he [...]med them Apostles i. e. gave them a title, and office distinct, [...]nd distinctive from others. St. Mark saith he conferred [...]pon them both a faculty to do acts of office, and to receive ex­ [...]aordinary gifts, Mar. 3.14.15. And he ordained twelve, that [...]ey should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, [...]d to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils: The for­ [...]ality of this ordination no doubt occasioned St. Peter to say [...]f himself, and the rest of the twelve Apostles, that they were [...] or witnesses chosen before of God, Act. 10.41. [...]decompounded word formed as it were of purpose to silence [...]e popular notion of laical suffrages, as essential to the ordi­ [...]tion of Church-officers, whose chief basis is its compound [...] when used in the writings of heathen Authors, who li­ [...]ed in popular, or democratical states, for our Saviour acted [...]ngle in the ordination of his Apostles, without the peoples [...]ffraging by holding up of hands, or bulleting with pebbles, [...]he had not the foundation of Church-government beareth [...]ot upon the unction of a divine Legislator; but upon the plea­ [...]re of Jewish, or Heathenish people; who as they might have [...]fused the first ecclesiastical Government, so also might they [...]ve altered it after their acceptance, by their own new choice [...]d sanction, or their successors may now do it; and intro­ [...]uce another, and different form of Church Government, when [...]d so often as they please. This shall terminate our second [...]ssertion.

Third Assert. Christ confirmed the Apostolick office, at,Third As­sert. Christ confirmed th Apostolate a a standing of­fice, after his ascension. Proved by two instances. and [...]ter his ascension, as a standing office to be continued with his [...]hurch. This if we examin modern writers, is a bold and un­ [...]sual Assertion, but most approved and ordinary, if we sub­ [...]it either to the testimonies of Scripture, or of Antiquity: [...]he latter hath been briefly evidenced already, and its larger [...]ertificate is referred to be produced in another tract, to which [...] wishing our Reader to consider what hath been said, and pa­ [...]ently to expect what may be added) we refer it. The for­ [...]er, or the testimony of Scripture unto this truth, we shall de­ [...]onstrate by two instances.

First, Our Saviours promise made,First Chrsts promise and St. Pauls ex­position of it▪ and given after his Re­ [...]rrection, is to be with the Apostles unto the worlds end, in [...]e discharge of those works, without which the Church can [...]either be (as Baptisme, which is the initial seal of the Gospel [...]ovenant) or continue (as teaching, which equally regards the [Page 114] conservation, as the constitution of a Church.) This is evi­dent by the famous, and oft instanced Text, Mat. 28.19.20. I know the phrase of going to all Nations, to teach them as there used, but that will not evince the temporariness of the Apostolick Office, because this work is performable unto this day, and will continue so henceforward every day unto the end of the world: Take we the nations spoken of in the Text, either for Christian, or Infidel: All the former need it for their con­firmation in the Faith. All the latter want it for their con­version to it. This Scripture is plain, and full enough to prove this first instance, but least any should expect that a Gos­pel truth, as well as a law matter, ought to be confirmed in the mouth of two witnesses. St. Paul to put the business out of dispute, saith, Christ both descended, and ascended gave the Apostles to the Church, For the perfecting of the Saints, work of the Ministry, and edifying of the body of Christ; Till we all come, &c. Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13. And moreover. God hath set (in the Church) first Apostles, secondarily Prophets, &c. where the word [...] rendred set notes both ordination, 1 Tim. 2.7. where­unto I am ordained a preacher [...] and fixation. Act. 20.28. Take heed therefore unto your selves, and to the whole flock over which the holy Ghost [...] hath made you overseers. And here (with the Readers patience) I cannot but enter a dissent a­gainst that opinion which maketh the Apostles sight of Christ in the flesh, to be an undeniable character differencing them from all other Ministers, whereas the Apostles commission, at the giving whereof they not only saw, but received their au­thority, and office from Christ includes Successors. And whereas such vision of the incarnate Messiah was no office-work it being no where inserted in, or required by the commissio of the Apostles, or of any other Ministers. Much less was it [...] proper office-work peculiar to the twelve Apostles, since mul­titudes of other persons, both men and women, sick and sound, friends and foes, Jews, Samaritanes, and Heathens, Magistrate and Subjects, Ministers and private Christians, were made par­takers of that benefit. Neither have those Interrogatorie; 1 Cor. 9.1. Am not I an Apostle? Am not I free? have not I seen Jesus Christ our Lord? Are not you my work in the Lord? Any reference (what ever others may think) to the marks dis­tinguishing the Apostles from other Ministers. The second Quaery (which the vulgar, and Syriack Interpreter read first) or am not I free? If, as it is thought by some InterpretersHammond. Estthius, A Lapide in lo­cum. it [Page 115] relateth to St. Pauls liberty to receive a maintenance from the Churches of his own plantation, as the other Apostles did from theirs, although he did not take it from the Corinthian Church. It cannot be a characteristical mark of an Apostle in a proper sense; for then St Paul by that phrase acknowledgeth a diver­sity in office betwixt him, and the other Apostles. If asArerius, Beza Piscator, in loc. o­thers think, it relates to a freedom from Jewish ceremonies; the which the Corinthians abused to the grievance of weaker brethren, not becoming according to his example all things to all men; that they might win some. Neither in that sense can it be a proper mark of an Apostle, since it was occasionally practicable by all private Christians, and is accordingly recom­mended to the Churches both at Rome, and Corinth. Concer­ning the third phrase, or have I not seen Christ, &c. we shall add no more then what hath been said already: The fourth or last phrase, or Are not ye my work in the Lord? is of all the rest the most unlikely to give a special mark of an Apostle. Since the conversion of the Samaritanes (a like work with that spoken of in this text) was The work of the Lord wrought by Philip the Evangelist? but he was no Apostle; and since there hath much (not to say more then in the Apostles lives) of that work been done since their deaths. The truth therefore is, that St. Paul doth not intend in this place to give the proper marks of the Apostolate, but occurs to some vulgar insinuations, urged a­gainst his Apostleship. And endeavours to prove, that even in those things which they magnified in the other Apostles, he was no whit their inferiour. But to proceed, secondly, the Apostles de­rived their office unto others.Secondly the Apostles derived their office unto others. This is provable by many Scri­ptures, but we shall limit our search at this time, unto the single instance of Mathias, recorded, Act. 1. there we read, how shortly after Christs ascension, and before the miraculous effu­sion of extraordinary gifts, the Apostles met with the hundred and twenty, and St. Peter standing up in the midd'st, opens the reasons and grounds of that assembly; namely to put one into the Office of Apostate Judas. This he urgeth upon them with some vehemency, and among other expressions saith, Act. 1.21. [...] it must be done, or it was by no means to be neglect­ed: The most probable reason of which earnestness, seems to be the the nature of Judas his Office, which was not personal in him, but [...] a lot, or part of the Churches patrimony, or heritage; Lot or inheritance being the proper signification of that word, and accordingly 'tis constantly used by the seventy [Page 116] (so farr as my observation serves me) of the setting forth, and assignation of the Land of Canaan, unto the Isralites to be lotted forth, or parted by inheritance among them, according to their tribes. Thus 'tis used, Numb. 16.55, 56. Numb. 33.54. Numb. 34.13. Numb. 31.1, 2. Josh. 13.6. Josh. 14.2. But return we to St. Peter, and the hundred and twenty; he having told them that the vacancy made by Judas in the Apostolick Office must be supplied, they fall upon it, two are chosen, whose merits being equal the Apostles submit their title unto a lot, which falls upon Mathias. Out of which History I collect two observables. First, that the Apostolical Office was derivable, and not personally limited and fixed to the first twelve, for then Judas, which compleated the number could have no successor: but Mathias succeeded him into his whole Office; compare Act. 1.17. where we read what Judas left behinde him; for he was numbered with us, and obtained part of this ministry. [...]. with v. 25.26. where we read what Matthias entered upon, viz. That he may take part of this Ministry and Apostleship, from which Judas by his transgression fell; and he was numbered among the eleven Apostles. [...]. I need put no favourable gloss upon this Text, an ordinary belief of the Divine Authority of Scripture, and a small spark of Reason will soon convince any man of rea­sonable piety, or parts, how far this first Observation is confirm­ed or infirmed by it. However, to leave no scruple in any brest, which I am able to foresee or remove,Sit ordinatio justa & legiti­ma, quae omni­um suffragio & judicio fuerit examinata quod postea se­cundum divi­na magisteria observatur in Actibus Apo­stolorum quan­do de ordinan­do in locum Ju­dae Episcopo Betius loqui­tur. Cypr. lib. 1. Epist. 4. E­pist. let me adde the ensuing exposition of S. Cyprian upon these Scriptures: He saith, That ordination is just and lawful which shall be examined by the judge­ment and suffrage of all, (in this he hath reference to the Jewis [...] Ecclesiastical Policy, ere the Incarnation) and after it he adds, Which afterwards according to the Divine Precept, is observed in the Acts of the Apostles, when Peter speaketh of ordaining a Bishop instead of Judas. Whence note,

First, That Bishop and Apostle, were terms convertible in S. Cyprian's time, and did signifie one and the some Officer of the Apostolical Order: for of that Order Matthias was, when he was ordained Bishop in the stead of Judas.

Secondly, That in S. Cyprian's Judgement the Apostolate was a derivable Office, and fixed in the Church, otherwise he would never have said Matthias was ordained Bishop in the stead of Ju­das, much less would he have drawn that ordination into a pre­dent [Page 117] (as he doth in that Epistle) to be observed in following or­nations.

Thirdly, That the substantial Rules about ordination are in­ [...]riable, or always one and the same, before, in, and after the [...]postles time. And this leads in our second observeable from [...]he Text.

Secondly, Revelation and Ordination had primitively divers [...]perations, and the Church could do her ordinary work with­ [...]ut such extraordinary assistances. The Apostles without con­ [...]lting any other then their own priviledges,Matthias his ordination by Lot expound­ded. and the Churches [...]resent necessity, elect, or cause to be elected two Candidates [...]r the Apostolate, and afterwards appoint Lots to determine [...]hich of the two should carry it.

I well know that this giving forth of Lots, and the event [...]ereof, the prize falling to Matthias, is made anVid. Piscat. ad Act. 1. ult. & Cameron. Pr l ect. in Matth. 10.16, 18, 19. Franco­furti. 1642. argument to [...]rove the extraordinariness of the whole action. But let the [...]evisers and Defenders of that opinion consider, that three [...]ings are to be eyed in every ordination,

  • 1. The subject matter.
  • 2. The form.
  • 3. The circumstances in its administration.

1. The subject matter: which is a person meetly qualified, and so adjudged by those who have authority to be the Admi­ministrators of Holy things.

2. The form: which is either internal or external; internal, or Christs promise to continue the Ministry; external, to conti­nue it by the ordination of Ministers. For 'tis with you (Apo­stles, Ministers) he promiseth to be present unto the end of the [...]orld, i. e. in a ministerial succession, for he cannot be present with what is not, and no man or individual number of men, con­tinue perpetually upon earth. Both these concurred in Matthias [...]is person and preferment, the subject matter, Act. 1.21, 22. Wherefore of those men which have accompanied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went out and in among us, beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, [...]ust one be ordained with us, to be a witness of his resurrection. The [...]ternal form, Act. 1.20. For it is written in the book of the Psalms, [...]et his habitation be desolate, and his Bishoprick let another take. The [...]xternal form, Vers. 23, 24, 25. And they appointed two, Joseph [...]lled Barsabus, who was sirnamed Justus, and Matthias, and they [...]ayed and said, Thou Lord, which knowest the hearts of all men, shew [...]hether of these two thou hast chosen, that he may take part with us [Page 118] in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas by his transgression fell, that he might go to his own place. In all this (the special cir­cumstances of time, place, and of those individual persons, onely excepted) there ought to be a concurrence in the ordination of every lawfully ordained Church-Officer of the same order, un­til this day, because they are unalterably essential to their office▪ Hitherto then there is nothing extraordinary. Is it there­fore,

3. In the circumstance of Matthias his ordination? this wa [...] casting of Lots, Act. 1.26. but did not make him an extraord [...] nary officer,

1. Because the Apostleship, or the Office whereunto he w [...] admitted, was settled in the Church long before these Lots wer given forth: for the Apostles and hundred and twenty nere questioned the continuance of the office, ere they put it to [...] whether Matthias should be the officer; which unless they h [...] been fully perswaded of Christs minde for the fixation of the O [...] fice, they ought not to have done, but rather to have put it to l [...] and sought a clear direction from the Lord, whether Judas shou [...] have a Successor, yea or not.

2. This casting of Lots was not constitutive of the Office, but visible Rite whereby Matthias his designation to it was intima­ted to the Church. Neither was it a Rite appropriate to ord [...] nations into the Apostleship, or manifested by Divine Revelatio [...] at this time, and to be used on this and like occasions, but it w [...] used at the discretion of the eleven Apostles; because S. Pa [...] and Barnabas were ordained into the Apostolate by another [...] different ceremony, viz. By imposition of hands, Act. 13.1 2, 3.

The truth is, both Lots and Imposition of hands were ar [...] trary, and prudential ceremonies, not constitutive, but de [...] rative of Church Officers, and their several usages in the sa [...] case, (viz. ordination of divers Officers of the same Order) [...] evictive not of the extraordinariness of the ordained, but of th [...] ordainers authority and power in the contrivance, continuanc [...] or discontinuance of those Rites, or of any of them: for as the [...] could not both of them be appointed by revelation, or Chris [...] positive institution, because one of them would nullifie the other two revelations would be brought into competition which [...] them should continue the manner of ordination; and the Church would be left at incertainty whose part to take: so neither di [...] the Christian Church stand in need of such divine and supern [...] [...]ral [Page 119] directions, either ceremony being used by her elder Sister [...]e Jewish Church, upon like occasions.Scutet. ex­ercitat. Evan. lib. 1. ca. 7. Thus the Priests fami­es were placed, and their several places assigned by lot, 1 Chron. 4.31. 1 Chron. 25.8. Nehem. 10.34. compared with v. 1. and [...].8, 9. where also we may observe who gave forth, and num­ [...]red these Lots; This custom continued till our Saviours time, [...]r Zacharias the father of John the Baptist, was of the course or [...]t of Abiah. Luk. 1.5. But notwithstanding that lots hath this [...]cclesiastical use under the old dispensation, yet imposition of [...]ands by a triumvirate, or three Elders, was the most usual [...]ay of ordaining of Jewish Officers.Light­foots harmony ad Act. 13.1. Thorndikes service of God at religious assemblies, pag. 66. And that the Apostles [...]d respect unto Jewish customs in the usage of both these ce­ [...]monies of lots and imposition of hands, is the opinion of ma­ [...] fathers, schoolmen, and learned Interpreters; thusCom. in Jonam. St. [...]erome, Serm. de Mathia. St. Augustine, in loc. St. Chrysostom, in loc. Beda, 2. 2. quae. 95. art. Tho­ [...]as Aquinas, ad an. Christi 45. Sect. 34. & ad an. 34. Sect. 67. Baronius, in loc. Dionysius Carthusianus, andin loc. [...]rhanus. To these so far as concerns imposition of hands may be [...]dedInstitut. lib. 4. ca. 3. Sect. 16. In com. ad Act. 6.6. Calvin, and (m) Beza. Suffice this in evidence of [...]e second instance, and therewith we will not only conclude [...]r third Assertion, but all that we intend to write of Aposto­ [...]al ordination passively considered, or their own ordination by [...]hrist. Proceed we to the second member of the distinction out Apostolical ordination, which is,

Secondly. Apostolical active ordination, or their ordination [...] others;2. Member of the distin­ction, or Apo­stolical active ordination, or their ordina­tion of others. This did not make those whom they ordained temporary. The danger of the affirma­tive. of which also we say, it did not make those whom [...]e Apostles ordained temporary. The affirmative is princi­lly intended by Zanchy, when he makes the Apostolical ordi­nation of those whom he calls Evangelists to be a main reason of [...]e discontinuance of their office. But this is a more infirm, [...]d insufficient medium to prove an officers temporariness, [...]en any of the former: That a following Revelation should [...]ke a former by the heel, and supplant it, is but an equal [...]atch, it setting God against God, and one Revelation to­ther by the ears with another. That Officers immediatly [...]dained by the Law-giver were temporary, might be true, [...] he had any where told us that he made them upon such [...]rms; but that Officers ordained by the Apostles (who them­ [...]ves were ordained by Christ) were temporary, is most false [...]d dangerous, it setting man against God, the Administra­ [...]r against the Legislator, and annihilating divine Revelation, [...]d institution, by humane ordination. Besides this absurdity, [...]ll thence unavoidably follow, that all offices into which the [Page 120] Apostles immediatly, or personally admitted Officers, were temporary; whereby the Church would now be utterly depri­ved of the Presbyterate, and of the Diaconate, yea of all order, and power of ordination; Since the Apostles in their own per­sons,The proof of the affirma­tive. ordained both Elders Act. 14.23. and Deacons, Act. 1, 2, 3. &c. This mischief is avoided, and the mistake which cau­seth it, by a right understanding of the nature of ordination which be it administred by the Apostles, or by any other law­fully impowred from the Law-giver downward to the end o [...] the world; is not, nor never was any temporary, or arbitrar [...] thing, but a permanent Church act grounded upon Christs insti­tution, and promise to perpetuate the ministry. This must ministerially commence in Apostolick ordination, but was [...] therefore temporary? to whom did Christ promise a perpet [...] ­al ministry, but to the first Church whereof the Apostles we [...] Ministers? What! did they see the date and expiration o that promise? Is the worlds end, and the Apostles live [...]-e [...] Synonima's, and terms equivalent? or did that world th [...] cease, and another begin since? certainly if it be still the sa [...] world, if there be any of the All spoken of by St., who are [...] to come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the S [...] of God unto a perfect man, &c. they are under the same promis [...] and have the same means of its acknowledgment. This th [...] London Divines acknowledge, they say, For ordination of Min­sters, Jus divin. 1. par. pag. 161. we have not one Apostolical example, but Apostolical precep [...] 1 Tim. 5.22. If it be further objected, that ordination menti [...] in the text forenamed was only for those times, and not to contin [...] to the end of the world.

Ans. This is not true; for if the ministry be to continue to the e of the world, then the way to enter into the ministry enjoyned by Apostles, is also to continue: And there can be no reason brought [...] the one should be abolished, and not the other. Thus they. A [...] herehence is easily colligible, that they think what ever t [...] Apostles commanded concerning ordination is practicable unt [...] the end of the world; whereunto I add that ordination practice [...] by the Apostles, was only the first link of the chain of the suc­cession of Church-officers, because unless duly ordained off [...] ­cers, till, and at this day are ordained, and do ordain as tru­ly, and into the same commission, as if the Apostles were stil alive, and assisted in those actions; the commission, ordination and promise are all lost, and the Church hath ever since th [...] death of the Apostles been governed by new erected officer▪ [Page 117] This truth is perpetually attested by all the Antients, they un­ [...]nimously deriving the order Episcopal from the Apostolical, [...]ot as a new order, but as the same order transmitted [...]y the death of the Apostles, unto the Bishops their succes­ [...]ors.

Thus have we examined Zanchy's reasons for the temporari­ [...]ess of the first Church-officers,A breif re­capitulation, and enforce­ment of our instances a­gainst Zan­chyes reasons for the tempo­rariness of Church-offi­cers. namely, either because they were chosen by Revelation, or because they were Apostolically [...]rdained, and we hope if what we have written meet with un­ [...]rejudiced Readers, it will convince their consciences of the [...]nvalidity of those reasons, let them be considered either [...]oyntly, or separately.

If they be considered joyntly, and Revelation associate with [...]postolical ordination determine the temporariness of Officers, [...]hen Revelation in conjunction, is the confusion of ordination; nd Scepticks in religion may deservedly question how follow­ [...]g ordinations can perpetuate any ecclesiastical Officer, since ew Revelations may be pretended to discontinue them, which [...]ill as little contradict Christs promise, or the Churches pra­ [...]ise, as the former did, they being both of them as express for [...]e continuance of those Ministers, which former Revelations [...]ade temporary; As for the perpetuation of those Mi­ [...]isters, which till these new ones come, we judge continu­ing.

If they be considered separately, then to recapitulate him up, and breifly enforce what hath already been more l [...]rgely handled. We may tell those who maintain the contra­ry.

That divine Revelation did not make any Officer temporary, [...]ecause all Church-officers are founded upon Revelation; [...]hich in its first discoveries gives them to, and leaves them [...]ith the Church; to abide with her until the end of the world, [...]nd till we all com in the unity of the faith, &c. And if any suc­ [...]eeding Revelation shoul annul the former, the divine right [...]f the Ministry is utterly lost, since both the Primitive, and pre­ [...]nt Church are under one, and the same Mediatorian [...]overnment. And as we may tell them this, so al­s [...],

That the ordination of the Apostles by Christ, did not make themselves, or those whom they ordained tempora­ [...].

First not themselves, for that the Apostles themselves were [Page 118] ordained, instead of convincing us of their temporariness, leads us into the consideration of a Law-giver, who constitu­ted them. This Lawgiver was Jesus Christ our Lord, whose appointment of the Apostles, or of any other Officers in his Church, was no extraordinary thing (nothing more properly, or ordinarily belonging to a Legislator, then to make Laws, and appoint Officers to put them in execution) neither was the Office temporary, because the Law-giver appointed the first Officers, for all orders, whether civil, or ecclesiastical, must have their commencement, some must be the original Officer [...] but so long as the society is the same, the office, though not th [...]; officers is the same. To conclude, we have not the same Mini­stry, because we have not the same Individual Ministers, most desperate, it killing all Laws, in the death of the prese [...] administrators.

Secondly, not others; Because the Apostles power to orda [...] others, was derived from Christs promise of a perpetual pr [...] sence, which settled Apostles themselves to the worlds en officially, though not personally; according to their practice, [...] conjectured at by after ages, but plainly recorded in Scriptur [...] was in their lives time to derive their Office unto others: [...] unto Mathias, Timothy, Titus, and others.

But here the Shoe wrings, and Presbyterian Divines cry o [...] importunately that these persons were all temporary, and ta [...] of them, or Timothy and Titus were Evangelists, not consid [...] ring that if the temporaryness of the Apostles were grante [...] this imposeth a fresh necessity upon them to shew, how the [...] postles could derive what was temporary in themselves, [...] others temporarily, or for term of life; derivation of off [...] al trusts being the most undoubted evidence, both of the perpetua [...] of offices, and succession of officers. A new ar­gument assig­ned by later Presbyters to prove the temporariness of the first Church-offi­cers, and to a­void the force of the argu­ments for their continu­ance; It is. This one thing were suff [...] ent to warrant our dismission of Zanchy's reasons as invalid [...] this controversie about the temporaryness of officers, and t [...] prepare our way to the arguments confirming our denyal of th [...] limitation of any officers to the Apostles dayes.

But we must respite the latter for a little space, because w [...] find others of Zanchy's opinion have somewhat more to add wh [...] Judgment should not be given against him, or them: We mu [...] therefore beg our Readers patience a while till we have examin­ed it, and then we shall God willing proceed.

Our latter Presbyters perceiving the Cogency of some of th [...] forme instances, are enforced to grant that Apostolical acts o [...] [Page 119] office, or what was done by the Apostles, or committed by [...]hem to others, relative to the Churches propagation, and go­vernment, whether by ordination of Ministers, or exercise of [...]he Censures, &c. was derived downward into some hands, and conitnued dispensable by those Trustees unto this day; and must perpetually continue so till the end of the Churches militancy. But to secure their Principles, they start a questi­on about the orders of those Trustees, whether it were the same with the Apostolate (higher it cannot be) or distinct and infe­riour. The former part of the quaery they insist not much up­pon, for affirmed and proved, it maintains our opinion, and resolutely opposeth the temporaryness of any of the first Mini­sters; and that with reason, since it gives Christs institution the authority to direct Apostolick practice, whereas the con­trary nullifies Christs institution by Apostolick practice.The Apo­stles derived their office-work unto a distinct, and inferiour or­der of offi­cers, viz. unto Presbyters. Their rea­sons for it. There­fore they build upon the latter, wherein they are so forward, & [...]lamorous that (though Judge, & party) they have outfaced some [...]art of the reformed Christian world, that themselves are the [...]postles descendants, and successors in those trusts. Where­by we have not an abolition of the office, but a mutation of the order of the officers. This is a high, and till our time un­heard of notion, requiring little less then a second descent of our Saviour for its authorization. But this they do not, nor dare pretend unto; let us consider impartially, and in the fea [...] of God what they alledge.

First, Our Assembly feign a sophistical distinction, whereby when the whole practice of the Apostles will serve their turns, they arrogate it, because qui Apostoli, or those who were Apo­stles acted as Presbyters,First, the Apostles acted sometimes as Apostles sometimes as Presbyters. Ans. to dis­senters p. 52. and p. 55. This distin­ction is, first fallacious, Secondly Popish. but when it will not they renounce it, and say the Apostles therein wrought quá Apostoli, or as they were Apostles; but I dare say (without any partial reflection upon these times) that this is a meer jugle, and shift to palliate their boistrous extrusion of Episcopacy, and fallacious intrusion of their Antiscriptural Government upon the Church of Eng­land, for as it confounds two distinct offices (of which more by and by) so all our Divines thus censure it in Bellarmin, Bellar. de Rom. Pontif. lib 4. ca. 5. Sect. respon­deo magnum esse discrimen. who endeavoureth to prove, That none of all the Apostles, but St Peter had successors, because as he saith, The powers given to him, and them joyntly as Apostles, were particular settled up­on him and his successors, as the ordinary Pastor. And the truth is this distinction grows out of such pliable timber as Ar­tists may make scammum, aut Priapum, Consistory, or Pope, or what they please out of it.

Secondly, officers may succeed each other into their work, not into their commission. Ministers at Wight. 2. Paper. This reason is fallaciously propounded by them. And is by us, 1. Explica­ted.Secondly, The Ministers at Wight prove Presbyters to be standing Apostles, because at they say; There may be succession into the same work, though not into the same commission, or office. Thus they, but if it be a reason why Presbyters succeed Apo­stles, it transcends my capacity, and I shall by and by, give my reasons why I cannot understand it.

But least some fallacious evasion lurk in these general terms, same works, and same office: We desire our Reader (ere we make a direct answer) to carry in his memory our former di­stinction concerning ecclesiastical works, viz. into common works, or works done by both orders, and distinct works, or works done by any one of them; for we cannot deny present Presbyters a faculty to do what ever was officially done by former Presby­ters, though those works were commonly, and promiscuou­sly done both by Apostles, and Presbyters. This we do deny, that Presbyters succeed Apostles, or that their performance of common works, will intitle them to do what was distinctly done by the Apostles in the Primitive time; for then all di­stinction betwixt Apostolical, and Presbyterial order, is utterly removed; then the first Presbyters lived, and dyed ignorant of their cheifest priviledges, and 'tis either a Tautology in St Luke, or an usurpation in the Apostles, or both, that he distri­butes the officers of the Church at Jerusalem, into Apostles and Elders; It lies therefore upon the contrivers of this reason, or Paradox, To prove, that what official act the Apostles did by distinct commission, and never communicated to former Presbyters, is derived as a work unto present Presbyters, who make no pretence or challenge to the commissions, either of the first Apostles, or Presbyters. That they pretend not to an Apostolical commission, this assertion of the Wight Divnes informs us. And that they do not make claim to the commissions of the first Presbyters, hath been part­ly shewed in the fifth Exception, and shall be hereafter more fully evidenced, in answer to the third Presbyterian reason of the Apostles derivation of their office-works unto Presbyters. Thus have we shewed what the Divines at Wight have said, and what they are to prove; They have affirmed without rea­son that Presbyters succeed Apostles in their work, though not in their office:

Secondly denyed be­causeWe deny it for the following reasons.

First, 'tis false, and of dangerous consequence. Its false­hood.First 'tis false, and of dangerous consequence, that any one should succeed another into his officework, but not into his com­mission or office: 'Tis false, because the commission and office [Page 121] gives the relation betwixt officers & people, & office works are the actual performance of the duties belonging to that relati­on. Now as there can be no effect without its immediate cause, so neither can the same work be done without the same relation; relation and work, not being contradistinct, but sub­ordinate, so that it can no more be the same work where the office is divers, then it can be the same duty without the same re­lation. I prove this by an instance too too familiar in these Schismatical times: A Lay, or unordained person, may actual­ly baptize, or celebrate the Communion in the prescribed forme, but is his the work of a Minister? or is he made a Mi­nister by doing it? Indeed it is a like act, but 'tis not the same, because the Administrator, and a Minister have not the same Church relation. There is the fallacy, and here is the danger of the notion;Its dange­ronsess. for if the same work may be done with­out the same office, then all the Church acts of an unordai­ned intruder (so they be done in common, and ordinary form) are justifiable and valid, or none are, because what he, and an or­dained officer doth, are the same works. And when he is re­buked for meddling with the Ministerial office, he may answer, and alledge in his own defence, that he pretends not to the Mi­nisterial office, but to the work, for doing whereof he is un­justly blamed, since Ministers themselves grant there may be a succession into the same work, though not into the Commission,Secondly, 'tis contrary to the nature of Christs commission. or office. Reason being thus irreconcilable to this irrational notion, we take it for granted, that so is Scripture the rather, because these Wight Divines alledge none in favour of it, wherefore not finding it bottomed either upon reason, or Scrip­ture, we suppose it to be borrowed from the oft interrupted transactions of temporal Princes, who themselves, commissi­ons, offices and officers, are all temporary, alterable, and perish­ing; which as not prescriptive in this case, and violently draw­ing Christ to an imitation of humane formalities (it implying his keeping a Patent office, where when one officer dyes, ano­ther comes and receives a new Commission for his office) we censure for a prophane, and Phanatick novelty. And do in a direct opposition maintain, that King Jesus who never dyes, ne­ver is put by, or deposed from the Regiment of his Church, but is yesterday to day, the same day for ever, he who is, was, and is to come the Almighty; perpetually grants the same offices, & im­powers to perform the same works by the same Commission, without renual or alteration. Nor can it want proof to a diligent [Page 132] observer, of Mat. 28.18, 19, 20. Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13. that his Commission is issued forth, directed, and confirmed, not to a personal and stinted number of officers, since they decay, alter, and dye dayly, but to a perpetual and unchangeable office, capa­citating successive officers to preach, baptize, and perfect the saints, work in the ministry, and edifie the body of Christ, till the end of the world, and till we all come in the unity, &c. Suffice this to be spo­ken against the second Reason, or Paradox.

But there is more behind, for the Wight Divines present is with monstrous assertions (as the unclean beasts entered the Ark) in couples, but with this difference, they were both of a kind, these diverse, and being conceived of mingled seed, are by far the more monstrous; behold the Beast.

3. Reas. Presbyters were consti­tuted by a dateless Apo­stolical pra­ctice, not by Christs com­mission. Wight Di­vines second paper. This distin­ction is fond and perillous.Thirdly, The same Wight Divines explicatively of the forme [...] Assertion (sure there was need) add in the same place, the [...] words, The ordinary officers, which are to manage the works [...] teaching, and government are constituted, settled, and limited i [...] warrant of Scripture, as by another commission, then that whic [...] the Apostles had. I trembled in my self at reading of this fond and perillous distinction, fond, because it is a distinction with­out a difference; Christs Commission to my sense being war­rant of Scripture, and warrant of Scripture being Chris [...] Commission: Perillous because if it be a lawful distinction, an [...] warrant of Scripture, and Christs Commission do constitute di­vers officers to do the same works of feeding, and governing then an officer by Christs Commission is none by warrant o [...] Scripture: And an officer by warrant of Scripture, is none by Christs Commission. Besides many, and perplexed were [...] thoughts, and enquiries what this warrant of Scripture shou [...] be, whether somewhat preceding, or somewhat succeeding Chri [...] Commission; If preceding, I resolved Christ would not impo [...] null Commissions upon his Church. If succeeding, I perceive not how her officers could hold their places by a better Pa­tent, then their Kings, and Lawgivers. After I had sufficient­ly wearied my self, I found these Divines elsewhere thus delive­ring themselves in this matter. They say, The ordinary powe [...] of teaching and governing, In the same second Paper not far before the end. are settled in the hands of ordinary officers by a new warrant and commission, according to the rules of ordinati­on, and calling in the Word. This resolved me, that this pre­tended Scripture warrant, was posteriour to Christs Commissi­on, and if these Divines say true, Christ committed one thin [...] to the Apostles, and they practiced another; but I was not [...] [Page 122] far resolved as to have no remaining scruple and this a­mong others was a sore enquiry to me; where to enter upon my search of this new warrant, and where to find the silken Clue which directed the way into this Labyrinth of Apostolick practice, much time I spent, and much labour I lost, in turning over such papers as came to my lands, and could not find wherewithal to unloose this knot; till at last I met from the Assembly, what? what gave me satis­faction? no, what compleated the Paradox; they say, The truth is we read not at all in Scripture of the time, Ans. to dis­sent, pag. 3 [...]. &c. or occasion of or­daining elders in that Church (they mean the first Church, or the Church at Jerusalem) elsewhere they add. We find elders in that Church first named, Act. 11. and afterwards, Act. 15. but when they were constituted, we find not particularly expressed; on­ly we may rationally conceive, that the Apostles in their care for the Churches good, did ordain elders in that Church very early. Ans. to diss. pag. 47. We [...]eserve this notion of the Assemblies to be anatomized, and [...]cattered peecemeal in the following part of this discourse; In [...]his place we shall only parly with it, and say, what ifSee pag. 275. Christ not the Apostles, ordained the first Elders? what ifSee Pag. 276. St. Lukes not recording their original in the Acts of the Apostles be an additional confirmation of this truth, and of his cautelousness not to use vain repititions? he having largely, and plainly inser­ted it in his Gospel, whereunto the acts of the Apostles is a kind of supplement, or appendix: And what ifSee pag. 279. the same Assem­bly in the same tract, in the same 38. pag. and in the very next line [...]fter their denyal, to have read in Scripture of the time, or oc­casion of ordaining Elders, do in effect confess all this? All which we do undertake to evidence in the places, unto which a reference is made in the margent, then what is proved by this Paradox, but what we all know already, even that none are so blind, as they that will not see, and that when men of the largest parts, and strongest abilities are once intoxicated, and made drunk with error, they never cease reeling, till they fall at the utmost distance from truth: But in the mean time this bold Assertion, that Presbyters succeed Apostles thus marvailously flankered is this cit­adel, out of which they batter Timothies temporary office, and defy all who dare make a title (though they make it good) unto a present capacity to discharge it. However in the [...]trength of the Lord, we will make our Approaches unto it, well hoping that the Magical spell is now spent, and the time [...]ome when this enchaunted Castle▪ raised by the witchcraft of [Page 124] rebellion must vanish.Our Reasons a­gainst the tem­porariness of the first Church-Offi­cers, and against their derivation of their Office-works unto another and inferiour Order of Officers. Our assault is a down right denial that the Apostles did derive their Office-works unto an inferiour Or­der, or namely unto Presbyters, and consequently that no Office in the primitive Church was temporary.

First, 'Tis contrary to Apostolick practice.First, The constant practise of the Apostles contradicts it. Pres­byters are not of yesterday, they were as well in being in the Apostles days, as in ours; but no Scripture proves their recei­ving power from the Apostles to ordain Ministers, or exercise the censures, &c. singly, and independently, from an higher Or­der of Officers. Contrariwise we have many instances of the Apostles reserving those powers in their own hands, or derivi [...] them to others of their own Order, and superior unto Presby­ters: for instance, S. Paul censured the incestuous Corinthia [...] 1 Cor. 5. when yet that Church had affixed Elders, otherwi [...] he could not have complained of her members, for unworthy r [...] ceiving of the Eucharist, for had that Sacrament been celebrted by unordained men, the reproof lay equally against the unworthy breaking and pouring out, as against the unworthy taki [...] and drinking of the bread and cup: and the Apostle should no [...] have ordered the self-examination of the Communicants ere the [...] came to the holy Table, but the suspension of all celebration o [...] that sacred Mystery, till the Elders were ordained among them The same Apostle commits ordination and censures to Timothy a [...] Ephesus, long after that Church was gathered, and her Elders or­dained, as shall appear by and by, in our discussion of the dat [...] of the first Epistle to Timothy. But why need we post it off s [...] long? How could Timothy receive and proceed upon the accusatio [...] against delinquent Elders, 1 Tim. 5.9. if there were no Elders the Church before his coming, or if they were ordained [...] him? (for he had such power, 1 Tim. 5.22.) yet the power o [...] administring the censures was no longer in his hands, but in a Consistory, Classis, or Assembly of themselves. I know these in­stances, especially that concerning the Church of Corinth, sup­ply matter to long disputes, not by their own inevidence, but by the wranglings of their Expositors. However lest we should swell this discourse to too great a Bulk, and rend away a princi­pal part from that concerning the Apostles, we cannot discuss them here, but must refer them thither: which notwithstand­ing, if our reasons against the Evangelists temporariness, andSee pag. 198, &c. Ti­mothys Evangelizate upon Presbyterian principles, be conclusive [Page 125] and evident, a foundation will be laid, whereupon the continu­ing distinction betwixt the Apostles and Presbyters, must be built, and the whole Presbyterian structure in defence of their succession unto the Apostles, will be levelled. And finally, what hath been instanced of Timothy in this paragraph, will perswade candid Readers of the reasonableness of our denyal, that the Apostles committed their office-works unto Presbyters, or that such an assertion can be founded upon their practise.

Secondly, It falsly and anti-scripturally supposeth that descended Christ did not form his Church which he confirmed at his ascen­sion,Secondly, 'Tis a false supposition. but left his Apostles (as they gathered it) to cast it into what mold they pleased, the erroniousness of which conceipt is evidenced by all the Gospels, and especially by Act. 1. through­out. Besides, were it true, that the Apostles, not Christ ap­pointed the standing Ministry, then the Divine Right thereof is forthwith abrogated and anulled, since it must be warranted by the Legislators institution and commission, not by the Apostles practise how early soever it were: otherwise the Apostles, not Christ, are the Churches Law-giver; their practise, not his in­stitutions are her Laws. Thus Presbyters demurring upon the Bishops plea for a distinct order, nullifie Christs Legislation, and settle their own office, upon a foundation inconsistent with it. But we remember that we have already referred this point, and send it to its place.

Thirdly, It infolds a notorious contradiction,Thirdly, It implies a contradiction. for first, it grants that the Apostles received commissions and delegations, but by and by it makes them supreme, and impowers them to delegate at pleasure, some into their own commissions for a time, others into another for perpetuity, then which, nothing can be more contradictory to reason, for was it ever heard, or to use the As­sembly's words, can it be rationally conceived, that any supreme Governour should issue out commissions to his Officers to do what they will upon their own heads, and sometimes to act by their commission, as the Apostles are said to do in the delegation of the Evangelists, otherwise to act without it, yea to the disan­nulling and overthrow of it, as they are also said to do in the ordination of Presbyters? And yet their commission includes Suc­cessors, and though they should alter the orders instituted by Christ, yet could they not give Church Officers any other works then what he had appointed, namely, preaching, baptizing, per­fecting of the Saints, &c. The Wight Divines, and the Assembly un­derstood well enough the import of the Apostles commission, [Page 126] how it must if it continue include Successors; because the first A­postles are not now, and yet the world is not ended, nor are we all come in the unity, &c. But this is the pestilence of their discipline, an An­tidote must be prepared against it, but they can or will compound no better then a bold charge of breach of trust upon the Apostles, making warrant of Christ and Apostolical commission to com­mand one thing, but warrant of Scripture and Apostolical pra­ctice to do another.

Fourthly, It dissolves Ecclesiastical Unity.Fourthly, It dissolves the straightest Bond of Ecclesiastical U­nity, and mans against the Church her strongest Fortress agains [...] haeretical Invasion and Depraedation. The Apostle, Eph. 4. shew the several Ligaments of the Churches Unity: as, 'tis one Faith, one Baptism, one Spirit, one hope of calling, so 'tis one Ministry Indeed the Apostle doth not use the phrase one Ministry in expres [...] syllables, but when he said, That ascended and descended Christ is the same wch gave some Apostles, &c. he means as much as if he had plain­ly said one ministry. Our entire conjunction with our head is kn [...] by all these joynts, break the hold of any one of them, we are s [...] far separated from him. The Church is a mystical Body, wherein a in the natural body, when all is joyned together, and compacted by th [...] which every joynt supplieth, according to the effectual working of the measure in every part, the whole maketh encrease to the edification of it self in love. Now if the Ministry have the nature and place [...] a joynt in the mystical Body, it must always be the same; much more when it is the principal joynt, and Atlantick knot wherein all the other joynts meet, and are moved: For is it one faith i [...] how is that generated? by the Ministry; Rom. 10.14. How sha [...] they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall the [...] believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they he [...] without a preacher? Is it one baptism? how is that dispensed? the Ministry; Matth. 28.19. Go ye therefore & teach all nations, bap [...] ­zing them, &c. Is it one Spirit? how is that received? by the Mini­stry; 2 Cor. 3.6. Who also hath made us able Ministers of the new Testament, not of the letter, but of the Spirit; for the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life. Gal. 3.2. This onely would I learn of you, received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? V. 5. He therefore that ministreth unto you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? Is it one Body? how is that concinnated? by the Ministry; Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16. And he gave some Apostles, and some Prophets, and some Evangelists, and some Pastors and Teachers; for the perfecting of the Saints, for the work of the mi­nistry, [Page 127] for the edifying of the Body of Christ; till we all come in the Ʋnity of the Faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ. In the same Epistle the Apostle tells that Church, that they were made [...], or a Body incorporated, and [...], or co-parteners of the promise, by his Ministry, Ephes. 3.6, 7. That the gentiles should be fellow heirs and partakers of his promise in Christ, by the Gospel, whereof I am made a minister, according to the gift of the grace of God given unto me, by the effectual working of his power, Is it one hope of our calling? how are our expectations raised towards it? by the ministry, 2 Thess. 2.13, 14. For we are bound to give thanks always to God for you, brethren, beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctifi­cation of the Spirit, and belief of the truth; whereunto he called you by our Gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. This saith Scripture: and what saith Reason? Will it ever admit Faith, Baptism, Spirit, Body, Hope of calling, to be ordinary and unalterable Ʋnities, when yet the Ministry which knits them together is sometimes temporary, sometimes perpetual, sometimes ordinary, sometimes extraordinary, notwithstanding it was instituted by Christ to continue in doing of that work till we all come in the unity, &c. Let one instance be given of any number of men, who made a real change in their Ministry, and did not alter somewhat in their Faith, Baptism, &c. Think we when Rebels cut Christs cords in sunder, they intend to tie themselves faster, or rather to hold their Faith and obedience by a bow knot, which they will slip, or streighten at pleasure. Search the Church Antiquities, you will finde the original betwixt ordinary and extraordinary Officers commen­cing in the most profligate practices of most pernicious Hereticks; had Marcion, Valentinus, or Basilides a safer retreat for their new Apo­stolate, then an obstinate denyal of successors unto old Apostles? Sure I am, Tertullian (who lived but two hundred years after Christ, and was himself a Presbyter) thus catechizeth Marcions disciples,Evolvant or­dinem Episco­porum suorum, ita per succes­sionem ab ini­tio decurren­tem, ut primus ille episcopus, aliquem ex Apostolis, vel Apostolicis viris, (qui tamen cum Apostolis perseveraverit) autorem, & antecessorem habuit. Tertul. de praescript. p 80. A quibus traducem in fidei, & semina doctrinae caeterae ecclesiae mutuatae sunt, & quotidie mu­tuantur & ecclesiae fiunt. Ac per hoc, & ipsae Apostolicae deputantur, ut soboles ecclesiarum Apo­stolicarum, Omne genus ad originem suamcensentur necesse est: Itaque tot, ac tantae ecclesiae, unam esse ab Apostolis primam, ex qua omnes; sic omnes primae, & omnes Apostolicae, dum u­nam omnes probant unitatem. pag. 76. vide etiam. pag. 81. Let them turn over the order of their Bishops so flowing in a succession from the Apostles, that their first Bishop had one of the Apostles, or Apo­stolical men, (who persevered with the Apostles) for his Author and Ancestor. Thence he proceeds to shew (pag. 82.) what Churches could produce their genealogie; namely, Corinth, Philippi, Ephesus, [Page 128] and Rome. And he adds, That not onely Churches planted by the Apostles, but all other Churches which have borrowed, and do bor­row dayly the root of faith, and seed of doctrine from them, are to be accounted Apostolical, as being the race of Apostolical Churches; for when all of the same kind are mustered under their originals: All will be one Apostolical Church, because all proceed from one; so all are first, and all Apostolical, while all approve one unity. I know some passages in this, are highly esteemed by traducers, and denyers of the Apostles successors, but I dare say it is for want of due consideration of the authors scope, and of distinguishing betwixt the first Apostles, and their successors. The tract he intitles A prescription against Hereticks, by whom he specially designes the Marcionites, whose ringleader Marcion (Tertullians contemporary, or very little his senior) levells all former Church-states to build a new one upon himself; And accordingly, as a second Christ, he publisheth his new Instrument, and as the Divel tempting Christ, he retains, and rejects what he thought fit in Scripture. Tertullian in this case must act both defen­sively, and offensively, or defend the present Church-state, and deny Marcions notion, doing the former, he assignes successors unto the old Apostles, and maintains that the Church did not expire with them, but continues one and the same, under the government and administration of the Bishops, their successors; doing the latter, he decryes, and exclaims against all new power, to ordain another kind of Apostles, and puts Marcion upon the proof of Christs again descending, and constituting, and giving gifts unto the heretical, Idem pag. 79. and new created Apostles; whereby over, and be­side the confirmation of the truth, and of his own most true o­pinion, he gives us this certain Axiom. That to keep out new, there must be successors unto old Apostles. This was Tertullians buck­ler against Hereticks above fourteen hundred and fifty years a­go, then he, and his fellow Presbyters, saw no other way to secure their own order, or the Churches peace, but in the maintenance of the succession of their Bishops unto the Apostles. But were he now alive, and inhabiting either Rome, or Geneva, or in any other place under their Jurisdiction, his assertion would not pass uncensured, nor himself unpersecuted without a recantation. Rome saith she alone is Apostolical, Geneva saith she is, and all other Churches ought to be Presbyterial; and governed by Officers not founded upon Apostolical commission, [Page 129] but upon they know not what Apostolick practice. These things shall be further explicated in the tract concerning A­postles, neither should we have named them here, but to shew our Presbyters from what desperate precipices they tumble and cast down the stately temple of Church order, to build them­selves a moveable tabernacle in her ruins. But we hasten to the next reason, which is a consequent of this.

Fifthly, It introduceth multiformity, or diversity of consti­tution betwixt the past, and present Church?Fifthly, it introduceth multiformity betwixt the past and pre­sent Chur­ches. The rea­sons are. First be­cause the Mi­nistry is the external form of the Church which form cannot be al­tered without the alteration of the subject. the form of the Church is twofold, either internal, or external, the former is faith in Christ, because it consisteth in the union, relation, and life which the Church hath, and holds with him as her head; the latter is Christs instituted ministry; ministers being co-w [...]r­kers with him. 1 Cor. 39. and builders upon his foundation, ver. 10. According to these divers forms, the Church falls under distinct denominations of visible and invisible; and as without one Christ to be beleeved in, she cannot be one invisible [...]hurch, so without one ministry to preach the Word, admi­ [...]ister the Sacraments, and exercise discipline, she cannot be one [...]isible Church: Hence Christ coupleth his perpetual presence and a ministry, Mat. 28.19, 20. and St. Paul saith the ministry given by Christ, is necessary to be continued at their work, till we all come in the unity. Ephes. 4.11, 12, 13. These Scrip­tures are most plain to prove the external formation of the Church by the ministry, the former looks upon the world as gentiles till the Apostles disciple them; the latter looks upon the Church as undiscernable from other societies till perfected by the ministry: Neither need we to seek for mans, when we have found Gods authority; however for the farther evidencing of this truth, not in its self, but unto some mens capacities, we shall subjoyn the testimony of several authors, antient, and mo­dern. St. Cyprian saith: The Church of Christians is a flock, or people united to their Priest, or Pastor, whence we ought to know that the Church is in the Bishop, and the Bishop in the Church, and who­soever are not in the Bishop, they are not in the Church. i. e. if we may interpret his meaning, no visible Church,Ecclesia Christianorum est plebs sacerdoti adunata, & pastori suo grex adhaerens, unde scire debes episcopum in ecclesia esse, & ecclesiam in episcopo, & si qui cum episcopo non sunt, in ecclesia non sunt. Cypr. lib. 4. epist. Epist. 9. ubi non est episcopus, ibi non est ecclesia. Hieron. ad Luciferi­an. no Church ex­ternally formed according to the pattern of the precedent [Page 130] Church, the reason is because ministerial acts as preach­ing of the Word,Forma ex­terna ecclesiae consistit in coe­tuum sacrorum collectione, con­ventione, ad­ministratione & regimine ecclesiae unius cujusque pe­nes illius pa­stores, Presby­teros & seni­ores Mares. system. Theo. loc. 16. Jus divin. 2 par. p. 96. Ʋnde enim natae sunt hae­reses, nisi dum episcopus qui unus est, & ecclesiae prae est superba quo­rundum pre­sumtione con­temnitur. Cypr. lib. 4. epist. epist. 9. Ne que enim aliunde haere­ses obortae sunt &c. Epist. haec sunt enim initia haereti­corum, &c. lib 3 epist. 9. lib. 1. epist. 3. administration of the Sacraments, and exer­cise of the Censures, specificate the Church, and difference her from other societies. And uniformity of external constitution (in what is essential to the constitution) is a most requisite principle of union betwixt one Church and another, in so much, that what ever Church is not so formed as the Primitive was, is not one Church with her; Not that the former Church prescribes her example (as her own act) to be imitated by al [...] following Churches, but because both the one and the other is constituted one body by the constitution of the Law-giver▪ and promised to be continued in unity until the end of th [...] world. Maresius saith, The outward form of the Church consist in her gathering, assembly, publick service, and government: A [...] which are performable in each Church, by her own Pastors, Presby­ters and Elders. The London ministers say; a true ministry is e­sential to an organical Church, or Church administring ordinances But if this, and their other opinion about diversity of th Office, Order, Commission, and Warrant, betwixt the past, an present Church-officers be both true, what follows but mult [...] formity, and diversity of constitution betwixt the past, an [...] present Church-states, so that they are not one visible bod [...] neither have they one head, because as hath been said, this ex­ternal form or ministry, specificates the Church, and differe [...] ­ceth her from other societies, and because by rule undenyable the composition cannot be one, where such form is manifold; becau [...] it inseparably inheres to the matter, and will not admit of the sup [...] ­induction of another form; Excellently St. Cyprian saith, whe [...] come heresy's and schismes, but when the Bishop which is one, i [...] set over the Church (he means each particular Church, and us [...] this argument against those Africane Schismaticks, who made rent from the Church of Carthage, and carried themselves in­solently towards him their Bishop) is c [...]ntemned by proud and presumptuous men. This he spake neither in a heat, nor sud­denly, but in several places elsewhere using almost the same words, it appears to have been his constant, and professed Judgment.

Obj. Amesi­us, saith pro­fession of faith is the external form of the Church. Medull. Theol. lib. 1 ca. 31. Sect. 27. & ca. 33. Sect. 18. Amesius to express his singularity (a fault too too commo [...] with him) and to elevate the divine right, and necessity of the ministry, makes profession of faith to be the external form of the Church; the ministry to be her organical state.

But this is easily refuted, by a right stating what an organic [...] [Page 131] state is, and considering whether the ministry stand in the same elation to profession of faith,Ans. the inva­lidity of his assertion fully manifested. as an organical state doth stand [...]nto its form. An organical state presupposeth a form, nei­ [...]er is it, or continues it longer such a state, then while sub­ [...]ervient to the form, therein, or thereby exercising his function; [...]he eyes, or ears of dead men are no organs, because being sepa­ [...]ted from the form, they do neither see nor hear. If we com­ [...]are this with the ministry, and profession of faith, we shall soon [...]erceive these wide differences.

First, the ministry precedes profession of faith. Rom. 10.14 [...]d 17. Rom. 16.26. Gal. 3.2.Cap. 32. Sect. 30. I know Amesius in confirma­ [...]on of his opinion, adds, That there may be a profession of faith in. [...]me assemblies, before solemne preaching of the Word, and admini­ [...]ation of the Sacraments. But this needs no refutation, since [...]hrists institution, and promise is otherwise, Mat. 28.19.20. St. [...]aul resolves the case otherwise. Rom. 10.14, 17. and no Scrip­ [...]re instance can be given of any company professing the faith, [...]efore they had been under a Gospel ministry. And Amesius [...]ould have done well to have told us, what profession of faith [...]en can make before they hear of faith, or the Gospel.

Secondly, ministerial acts (as hath been instanced) difference [...]ofession of faith from other professions; the Church from [...]her societies. This they do not commonly, but most pro­perly, they specificating the Church a distinct society from all others, and entirely, and exclusively belonging to her, and her alone. Otherwise the most, and most learned of our reformed divines are mistaken, who make pure preaching of the Word; and l [...]wful administration of the Sacraments to be the marks of the Church. To these some add ecclesiastical discipline, but with [...]o disadvantage to our Assertion, for all of them are ministerial [...]orks. Mat. 28.19.20. 1 Cor. 11.24, 25, 26. 1 Tim. 4. 1 Tim. 5. [...]r tot. Return we therefore to the other more antient, and more true opinion, which resolves the ministry to be the ex­ternal form of the Church; wherein we acquiesce; And are re­solved that this form must continue one and the same, from the first instant, to the last moment of the Churches continuance, i [...] she be alwayes one body, and have constantly the same consti­tution.

Our resolution ariseth, and is confirmed,Secondly, the Church is often called a body which must be one, not only from what hath been already said, but from hence, that the Church is often called Christs body. 1 Cor. 12.27. Ephes. 3.6. Ephes. [...].16. And unless we foist the mock-figure Antiphrasis into [Page 132] that expression, and say the Church is called a body, because she holds no proportion with other bodies, we may conceive the holy Ghost in comparing the musical with the natural body, points at some Analogy betwixt them; But nothing is more obviously proveable of the natural body, then her institution, for conservation by the same Elements. And the following Scriptures seem to justifie the same of the mystical body. Eph. 4.10. ad fin. 16. Eph. 2.21. Col. 2.19.

Thirdly, the constitution of the Jewish Church was alwaies one.If any one think this instance from the natural to the mystica [...] body, is too remote let them know this truth is attested by th [...] Church-state ere the incarnation, she was at first seated in Mo­ses his chair, or formed by officers of his appointment. A [...] therein, after the expiration of nigh two thousand years, [...] sate in Christs time, neither are her then officers blamed for setting in it, but for stepping out of it by their traditions. T [...] new Testament, and the faith of Christians willingly pr [...] Christ to Moses, as the surety of a better testament, an high Pri [...] consecrated for evermore. The Apostle, and Bishop of our professi [...] who was faithful in all his house i. e. as Calvin expounds it,Calv. in Heb. 3.5, 6. in a government of his whole Church. All which he was not as a se [...] vant (which Moses was) but as a son, Heb. 3.5.6. But if reaso [...] be refractory, how hardly will it be reclaimed, since the M [...]s [...] ­cal discipline continued inforce so long, it commencing, as concluding in high Priests, Priests, and Levites; yea most of th [...] nation of the Jews continue under that pedagogy unto thi [...] day. But Christian ministers allow Christs institutions to be a [...] ­brogated, almost as soon as instituted, because very early afte [...] his ascension the Apostles (with whom he promised to be pr [...] sent successively unto the worlds end) did ordain others to their work, not in virtue of their Commission, or Order, [...] ther do their successors found their Jusdivinum-ship thereupo [...] but upon a new warrant,Baxters 5. disput. disp. 1. Sect. 3. pag. 22. and the rules of ordination in th [...] Word: More might be added in this particular, but we chu [...] to give it the Reader in Mr. Baxters words, he saith; It is no [...] a tolerable thing to charge God with such a sudden mutation of [...] law, or order of Church government, without very certain proof▪ If we find Christ settling one way of Church-government in his own time, and presently after for the first age, it is a most improbable thing that he should take that down again, and to set up another kind of go­vernment, to continue ever afterwards. Thus he.

Obj. the Je­wish Church frequently ad­mitted extra­ordinary offi­cers or pro­phets. Obj. Do any say the Jewish Church frequently admitted ex­traordinary Officers, or Prophets?

I answer. This were it true, proves nothing why the Chri­ [...]ian Church should also do it; the Mosaical was a temporal [...]ispensation, the Christian is perpetual. Besides many, great, [...]nd weighty are the differences betwixt those Prophets, and our [...]retended extraordinary Officers.Ans. by a declaration not only of the divers Church states then, and now, but of the most different qual­lifications of those Pro­phets, and our pretended ex­traordinary officers.

First, Our pretended extraordinary Officers are of the con­stitution of our Church, so were not those Prophets of the constitution of the Jewish Church; neither were any Officers of her constitution temporary, and extraordinary: They were Moses, Aaron, the Priests and Levites; Moses is considerable in a [...]ouble respect. First as Legislator (who is no Officer in the [...]nse wherein we are now treating of Officers, for therein Mo­s [...]s typed Christ, and holds no resemblance with Apostles or Evangelists) therein he neither had, nor could have successors.

Secondly as cheif Magistrate, therein he had successors, as [...]oshua, Josh. 1.1. Othriel, Judg. 2.9, 10. &c. Aaron the high [...]riest had successors, he saw himself stripped, and his son Elea­ [...]r clothed with his Robe, and settled in his Office of high [...]riest-hood, ere his death, Numb. 20.26, 27.28. the Priests, [...]d Levites also had successors. Numb. 18.6.7. Deut. 7.9.

Secondly, Our pretended extraordinary Officers are affir­ [...]ed to alter the frame and constitution of our Church, Christ [...]ft it to them Apostolical, they left it to their successors [...]resbyterial; Christ gave both Apostles, and Elders (to orders of preaching ministers) to the Church, they took away one, [...]d left only the other remaining. Whereas all the Prophets [...]ised up in the old Testament, or any of them, did not alter [...]e first frame of the Jewish Church, vacate the old, and [...]ring in a new Ecclesiasticall Government, because the [...]riest-hood continued to be after the order of Aaron till [...]ospel times.

Thirdly, We have no word in the new Testament foretelling [...]s of the ceasing of some, and raising of other extraordinary Officers, or willing us to receive them when they do come, but many to the contrary, Mat. 28.19, 20. 1 Cor. 12.28. Ephes. [...].11, 12, 13. Mat. 7.15. Mat. 24.11. ver. 24. 2 Pet. 2.1. [...] Joh. 4.1. But the frequent raising up of Prophets under the [...]ld Testament dispensation, is promised in the very body of the Mosaical Ordinances. And therefore they are unduly called (at least in the same sense as we call ours now) extraordinary. Deut. 8.15. The Lord thy God will raise up a Prophet unto thee, from [Page 134] the middest of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me unto him shall ye hearken. I willingly grant this promise principally belongs to Christ, and is accordingly cited by St. Stephen; Act. 7.37. but lesse principally, it refers to other Prophets, forerunning his Incarnation. And it hath both a fore, and after reference in the Chapter, which rather inclines it to them then him.

First, If we look backward but to the verse immediatly go­ing before it, we see Moses delivering this promise as a mean to keep Israel at all times to their law, and from heathe [...] superstitions, and enchantments; read the words, they are For these nations which thou shalt possess hearkned unto observers times, and unto diviners, but as for thee, the Lord thy God has not suffered thee so to do; the Lord thy God will raise up unto thee Prophet, &c. That Israel when planted in Canaan, was very for­ward at several times to learn those wayes of the heathen, a [...] that God for the most part raised up Prophets at such time [...] is evident from Isa. 8.19. Jer. 10.2. Jer. 27.9. Micah 3. Micah 5.12. Zech. 10.2.

Secondly, If we look forward we behold a rule given for th [...] trial of false Prophets, ver. 20, 21, 22. But the prophet whic [...] shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not com­manded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other god, that Prophet shall surely dye, and if thou say in thy heart; how sha [...] we know the word which the Lord hath not spoken? When a Prophe [...] speaketh in the name of the Lord, if the thing follow not, nor come [...] pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, but the Pro­phe [...] hath spoken it presumptuously, thou shalt not be afraid of him. From whence is colligible, that Moses under the promise [...] Gods raising up a Prophet, intended not only Christ the g [...] Prophet, but even other Prophets also who should speak [...] word of the Lord; for if the Prophet like unto me, had referr [...] only to Christ, this caution needed not to have been given con­cerning true, and false Prophets: But the whole Jewish nati [...] (with Samaritanes) ought to keep themselves to the five books of Moses, and deny credence to all, and every the prophetica [...] writings before the Incarnation. Whereas if th [...] Prophet like [...] ­me refer unto other Prophets as well as Christ, we have a war­rant to beleeve their writings, and may conclude upon the reason, why [...] caution against false Prophets is added, to wit, least the people should be abused with false alarums of the comming of the great Prophet. Thus to expound the Text is not my singular opinionIn loc. Abulensis, In loc. CajetaneIn loc. A Lo­ [...]ide, [Page 135] andItaque post quam au­guriis, divi­nationibus, ar­tibus magicis, necromantiae, aliis (que) super­stitionibus ve­tuit eos dare operam, subji­cit se daturum quod pro om­nibus sufficere debet, nempe prophetis nun­quam destitu­tum iri. Calv. inst. lib. 4. ca. 1. Sect. 5. Calvin thus expound it. Calvins words I will [...]ranscribe, he saith, Therefore after he had bid them to take heed [...]o soothsaying, divination, magick arts, necromancy, and other su­perstitions, he subjoynes his promise to take sufficient care never to leave them destitute of Prophets. Thus he. Unto whom, and all the forementioned I have judged it requisite to subjoyn the [...]arge, and ample testimony of Mr. John Diodati, concerning the old Testament Prophets; he saith. The ministry of the Prophets was no way concerning the ceremonial, and ordinary service, but was directed to these three several ends. First to maintain by preaching, and by the word, the religion, and customs in their ancient purity, and [...]ntegrity; to correct and purge vices, crept in among them from time [...]o time, to oppose all humane power, which should be contrary to Gods power, and finally to keep, or set again all things into their [...]ormer state, by the same spirit, as they were first established in the be­ [...]inning. The second, was alwaies to keep alive the promises of the Messiah, and to keep the faith and expectation of the faithful alwaies [...]ent towards him; and to comfort and strengthen the Church in her [...]ufferings, Argument before his an­notations on the prophesie of Isaiah. Lon­don 1643. by setting before her the promises of her restauration by Christs spiritual kingdome. The third, to be the ministers of Gods [...]racles, in many particular occurrences, for the revealing of his secret will, [...]or to give resolution in perplexities, or direction and council in diffi­ [...]ult cases; or for to denounce threatnings, to beat down the pride of the rebellious, and for to bring unbeleevers to repentance; finally, [...]hey were instruments of Gods continual communication with his Church, and sovereign power, and government over her; the strength­ [...]ing of the ordinary ministry, and a remedy against disorders and [...]rowing evils. Thus he. And thus are we returned to the [...]lace where the beginning of the objection found us, and hope [...]e may (notwithstanding any thing which may be alledged of [...]he old Testament Prophets) confidently, and rationally as­ [...]ert, that the one, and alwaies the same constitution of the [...]ewish Church shames the Christian, if she be multiformous. [...]he Reader may perceive how easily, if I listed to pursue all [...]dvantages, I could convince this opinion of the imaginary accession of Presbyters unto the Apostles, of the highest, and [...]ost blasphemous derogation unto Christ. It charging him [...]ith temerity, and inadvertency in his institutions before his [...]scension, yea after his ascension, for he then confirmed what [...]e had before instituted. But the argument before us con­ [...]erns the Church, I shall therefore only add in conclusion of this [...]fth reason, that as it is impossible to injure the Church and [Page 136] Christ not feel it, so she cannot be more insufferably abused, then to be charged that she is not now Organized as in her Primitive state; It giving the lye to Christs promised presence with her ministers, and raising such a thick wall of partition betwixt the two Church states, as both cannot be that one body of Christ.

Sixthly it destroyes the ministry.Sixthly, It not only makes the Church monstrous, or mani­fold, but renders her ministry a chimaera, a metaphysick notion, a lye, nothing at all, because the principle of the temporariness of any minister will, or may be improved to deordinate the whole ministry: Sathan, and corrupt men are only excelle [...] at assuming, and concluding from particular propositions grant them one Office, or Officer to be temporary, how facile and strong is their inference (a pari) they are all so. Let me add, such inference of every one, ariseth out of the premises of our opinion of the temporariness of any one Officer; for the temporary Officer once had an express warrant, and commissio [...] for his Office, or the Church would never have received hi [...]

But the perpetual Officer never had, could, or can have a [...] more: now may one of these warrants and commissions be an­nulled, and made void, why may not another: Church orde [...] is like foundation stones, no part of it can be removed, but somewhat of the substructure tumbles with it. That Presby­tery fell with Episcopacy, and had been grub'd up root and branch,Jus divin. 2 par. pag. 69. 2. Paper delivered to the mini­sters at Wight with that tree of her own hewing down, unless she had left a stump standing, whereupon to graft her own ordination by the Bishop Presbyter, is a recent experiment. Wherefore whe [...] fallen on the wrong side of the Lighter, she pitifully tells the in­sulting Independents, that she did not Covenant the abolition Scripture Episcopacy, but Praelacy. Prophetical whereof was th passage in his blessed Majesties papers (wherein is enough also [...] prove him King and Priest) viz. His Majesty doubteh whether it be i [...] your power to give him any perfect assurance, that in the desired aboli­tion of the present hierarchy the utter abolition of Episcopacy, and consequently of Presbytery, is neither included, nor intended. Thus His Majesty, and this shall end our sixth reason.

Seventhly, it irreconcili­ably contra­dicts other as­sertions of Calvius and Zanchys.Seventhly, It irreconciliably contradicts those portentous assertions of Calvin, and Zanchy, which boad ruin, and destructi­on to whatsoever Church state they hang over.Non'nego quin Apostolos quo (que) vel sal­tem evangelistas quosdam excitavit deus, ut nostro quidem tempore factum est. Calv. instit. lib. 4. ca. 3. Sect. 4. Calvin (as was before observed) saith I deny not but some time after­wards [Page 137] (i. e. after the Apostles time) God hath raised up some Apostles, or in their stead some Evangelists, Aliquando evangelistas quosdam exci­tat deus quum vult. Zanch. in 4. praecept. pag. 662. as hath hapned in our [...]ime. Zanchy saith, when God pleaseth he raiseth up some Evange­lists. Both those notions (whatsoever they are to truth) are directly contrary to the Evangelists, or any other Officers limi­tation to the Apostles dayes, and have a force upon the strongest back't Presbytery, to make it stoop as low to the pretended E­vangelists in these dayes, as to Timothy and Titus in the Apostles. This Presbytery half in the chair in England, providently fore­saw, and to secure themselves hastily hewed down the stairs (or was endeavouring to do it, if the Independents had not discove­red and disturbed them) whereby she ascended the Supremacy. The Apostles commission, when pleaded by Bishops, was tem­ [...]orary, there was no other way to eject Episcopacy, but after­wards the Apostles commission, and most of their works were ordinary, and imitable by Presbyters, there was no other way [...]o settle Presbytery. The particular instances we reserve to [...]he tract of Apostles but they are so numerous and notorious, that the dissenting brethren, not passionately, but with very good reason tell the Assembly, that they brought the Apostles to the state, condition, and work of ordinary parish ministers. Reasons a­gainst the Presbyterian-government pag 36. Aus. to dissert. pag. 56. This the As­sembly (the odium of the term only excepted) acknowledge, and say, Our brethren confess the Ap [...]stles were virtually elders, we say really, and indeed: Whence is easily colligible. First, how the same Officers are temporary, or continuing as they deserve, or serve Presbyterian designes. Secondly, how unjustly Pres­byters quarrel with the Bishops for deriving their Office from the Apostolical, as one and the same order: When yet them­selves do, and must confound two distinct orders, Apostolical, [...]nd Presbyterial, ere they can patch together their new disci­pline. Particularly, the incongruities wherewith the Wight [...]resbyters passionately, and absurdly load Episcopacy, do fly back into their own faces,Wight di­vines second paper. and strongly retort against them­selves. They say; Whereupon it follows, that the highest officers in the Church are put into a lower orb, an extraordinary office is turned into an ordinary distinct office, confounded with that which in Scripture is not found, a temporary and distinct office revived. This shall conclude our seventh, and last reason for our resolu­t [...]on against the temporariness,Second in­terpretation of temporary as relative to erratical time propounded. or sole limitation of any Officer into the Apostles dayes.

The other Interpretation of temporary is yet behind, or as it is spoken of uncertain, or erratical time. Any time when [Page 138] Calvin will not deny, or when Zanchy saith, God will have such Apostles,Reasons a­gainst it. First the contrary is proved by Scripture. Secondly, Cal­vin, Zanchy, &c. and o­thers alledge no Scripture in proof of their opinion. or Evangelists in the Church. But we must e­qually enter our dissent against this, as against the other. For,

First, the words of several texts; God hath set, 1 Cor. 12.28. Christ hath given; Ephes. 4.11. Lo I am with you to the end of the world, Mat. 28.19, 20. imply nothing less then such un­certainty, and wandring.

Secondly, These divines alledge no Scriptures to prove their Assertions. Calvin saith, he will not deny it. Zanchy saith, God doth send them. Our Assembly sayAssembly before Com­mittee of ac­commodation pag. 98. Extraordina­riis ministris quibus ne (que) ab homine, ne­que per homi­nem proprie confertur, sed a solo deo, per Jesum Chri­stum, & spi­ritum san­ctum. Ames. medull Theol. lib. 1. ca. 23. Sect. 26. they have their authority not from, or by man properly, but from God a­lone by Jesus Christ, and the holy Ghost; Of this kind of Offi­cers he reckons some living in his own, or his fathers dayes, but we must note that he saith it upon his own, not Scripture authority, and we shall shew how little reason he had to say it ere we conclude our reasons against the allowance of this latt [...] sort of extraordinary Officers. Aretius Inter­dum cum mundus exor­bitat a vera doctrina deus alios extra ordinem [...]ittit reformatores qui loco Apo­storum, & Prophetarum sint, tales ho­die Lutherus, Zuinglius, & alii. Aver. problem. loc saith, Someti [...] when the world wanders from true doctrine, God doth extraordinari [...] send other reformers, who are instead of Apostles, and Prophets, [...] Luther, Zuinglius, and others in these times: But what have we to do with the sayso's of our Assembly, or Amesius, or Calvin not denyal; our question concerns a matter, not of humane opinion, but divine institution, and we expect the authority of the holy Ghost, not their words for its confirmation: In­deed Zanchy and Aretius speak a little louder, but to as little purpose; they say, God will have them to be in the Church, [...] doth extraordinarily send them to her; But what matters it [...] what men forge Gods volition, or mission, since he gives [...] Church no notice of it in the Scripture. 'Tis not the first ti [...] that false prophets have come with a God wills, or thus saith the Lord, when they have only seen the visions of their own heads, and spake the deceipts of their own hearts. What a grave pers [...] long since observed of loose Historians, is dayly verified of more loose divines, i. e. when they have entangled themselves with monstrous positions, deo indigent & machina, they want the engine of a deity, to releeve and free them. The ordinary character of the false Prophets of old, was to run, ere they were sent, they came all extraordinarily, for neither God, nor his Church cal­led, or sent for them. And we have seen thousands in our time, who as if they had been Heralds to Christs second co­ming,Polybius. have soberly affirmed, lo here is Christ, lo there is Christ, [Page 139] [...]hey wearing a disguise of Sanctity so neatly upon their Hypocri­s [...]e, as our selves might have been cheated into a good opinion [...]f them, unless the holy Ghost had forewarned us not to believe them, because they shall deceive many, and if it were possible even the elect. Then we saw that such confidence in contradictions was an evidence of their being Seducers, or seduced, for whosoever [...]ith sometimes, Lo here is Christ, otherwhile, Lo he is there, con­fesseth he knows not where he is, for Christs word is not yea and nay, nor his body here and there, nor was it ever fancied so to be, till the real presence became consubstantiate with ubiquity. 'Tis our own perswasion (let it stand or fall at the pleasure of the discreet Reader) how no one thing gave a rise and increase un­to the several Sects of the Pharisees, Sadduces, Essenes, and He­rodians of old, like this, there were many Prophecies and Pro­mises in the then onely Books of God, concerning the future manifestation of the Messiah, and of Elijah who was to come, to [...]repare his way before him, Mal. 4.5. and those Sectaries took [...]dvantage to vend their Traditions and Inventions under the [...]ined but plausible Titles of the Laws of that Messiah, or of [...]mething previous thereunto: But we Christians are under [...]other Dispensation, neither do we expect an Elijah to come [...]d loose our knots, or resolve our doubts; for we stedfastly be­lieve, that he who should come, is come, and that we need not look for another, Mat. 11.3, 4. with 14. Hebr. 3.2, 3.

Object. But may some say,Objection from GOD's Omnipotencie. Consider a little better with your self what you write, ere you write any more, doth not Zanchy say, God when he will raiseth up Evangelists, or extraordinary Offi­ [...]rs: And cannot God do what he will?

I answer,Answered. He can; but will and can are of equal force with God, and he will do nothing against his Truth; Power and [...]erity are his inseparable natural Attributes, and what is one [...] his Nature, cannot be two in his Providential Administrations; God is just as Powerful as he is True, and just as True as he is Powerful: These Attributes always move and act together. Luxuriant Fancies would perpetually sprout forth into unwor­thy Conjectures of an incomprehensible Being, and though in t [...]eir presumed Exaltations they most heavily depress it, they [...]ould obtrude their Notions, as Divine Truths, upon those who a [...]e as Credulous as they are Confident, did not God check and keep them under, by a peremptory enjoyning all men to respect him, and expect from him, according to a written word: who do so, may assure themselves of a certain and timely perfor­mance, [Page 140] but whoever wait the assistance of a Divine Power con­trary unto a Sacred Promise, though they speciously pretend Gods Omnipotencie, and doing all things, yet they do in effect bend God to their wills; binde one of his hands within another, make him will contradictions, and consequently impotent to do any thing. Whatever God doth, hath done, or promised to do, he squareth it by a certain Rule or Law; this so far as concerneth Church-Officers, is Christs Institution, Commission, and Pro­mises in the Word. And if the Word be proper, the Divine Power hath in nothing so strictly tied up his all-acting power, as in the continuance of those Institutions, and accomplishment o [...] those Promises. Our Lord Jesus instituting his Ministry, pro­miseth a perpetual presence with them to the end of the world and S. Paul argues for the performance of Promises, upon [...] most true supposition,Thirdly Ame­sius audacious­ly saith, There is no scripture for it, neither are we to ex­pect any other authority then that of the people. In historia no­vi Testamenti exempla habe­mus constitu­tionis ministe­rii, & ejusdem etiam conser­vationis, sed non restaurati­onis ejus, aut reformationis post generalem Apostasiam o­mnia igitur quae pertinent ad plebem fi­delem in tali casu, non re­praesentantur ibi certis ex­emplis. Ames. Bell. enerv. To. 2. pag. 77. This notion favours 1. Popery. lest otherwise God should deny himself, 2 Tim. 2.13. Give us therefore Scripture for this Knight Errantry [...] Officers, we shall be silent in that will of God, whatever else brought, is as easily rejected, as objected; and we dare bold answer, that the Apochryphal wills and sendings of God, quoted [...] Zanchy and Aretius, if God would have them in his Church, [...] send them to her, why did he not keep them there, while the [...] were there, given and set by him, with promise of their conti­nuance unto the worlds end, and till we all come in the unity, &c But

3. Amesius bids us despair of Scriptures having any hand i [...] the draught of this temporary Officers Commission; for he saith Although the new Testament contain certain examples of the consti­tution and conservation of the Ministry, yet there is none of its re­stauration and reformation after a general Apostacie. We may [...] therefore expect certain Scriptural examples of the duty of the fai [...] ful multitude in such a case. What! Have we certain exampl [...] of the conservation of the Ministry, and have we none of it restauration? Can that which is conserved, be so wholly lost, [...] we may not know where it is, or who have power to find it out [...] Away then with the sufficiencie of Scripture: Then Presbytery is beholding to Bellarmine for his defence of the unwritten word of God, since 'tis equally her Sanctuary as the Papists. Yet tis a question not easily resolved, whether all or any Papal tra­ditions derogate more for the Authority of a written word, [...] the power of ordinary Church-Officers, then this one Presby­terian unwritten word; how easily is Plebem changed into Pa­pam? or whereby can the Pope more readily justifie his wo [...] [Page 141] exorbitancies, when indicted of contradiction and opposition unto Scripture, then to say, There is no Scriptural Example suitable unto the present case or time? If at any time corrupti­on leave the Church a Chaos, and confused lump, why may she not aswel be formed by Papal as Popular discretion?2. Machiavila­nism. Besides what a wide breach doth this sulphurous notion tear in the wall of the Vine-yard? What! Is not the Church sufficiently in danger by Polititians framing of Trojan Horses for her Ruine, but her pretended Reformers must trap them with the gay title of Reformation, and Restauration of Religion, and suffer [...]hem to surprize her greatest strengths, as Palladiums, and excel­lent Inventions of a propitious Deity. If the multitude may make a Ministry, Machiavils sons in the multitude will make [...]d unmake Ministers, till they have made all Religion subser­ [...]ient to Reason of State. Furthermore, what mischievous Se­ [...]ucer can want a warrant for his actions,3. The worst Exorbitancies of the most mischievous Seducers. how extraordinarily [...]icked soever they are? If his perverts once sign his Commissi­ [...]n, how vain are all after-disputes and arguments? his inward [...]all is from God, his outward from the people, to whom all be­ [...]ongs in case of Apostacie: Be his party powerful who dare [...]ain-say him? be it weak, how ready is this reply, The Faithful [...]ho always are the least number, acknowledge his heavenly mis­sion in their submission to it; and the opposition which he and [...]hey meet with from the ungodly multitude, ought to be inter­preted an additional confirmation to his call, since all past Law- [...]ivers and Reformers met with the like: dares any silly soul [...]ome against him with the sling and stone of Scripture? observe [...]ow this Goliah defies them. 'Tis for ordinary Officers to con­ [...]orm to Scripture president, what others accompt his sin, he e­ [...]eems to be his glory, namely his administration of holy things [...]ithout an ordinary call; for otherwise he could have no testi­ [...]ony to his extraordinary mission, Scripture containing no ex­ [...]mple of the Restauration or Reformation of the Ministry, after [...] general Apostacie. These are bad fruits of a cursed principle, but there are worse in the bud, for since scripture tells us not who [...]r what shall be Judge of the time of the coming these of Extra­ [...]rdinaries, nor whether the Church stand in need of them, yea or [...]ot; What Star can direct us to their Cradles? What person was, or should be present at the issuing forth the Fiats for their [...]o long dormant Commissions, and sealing of their patents? Into what number of Extraordinaries those new Commissions [...]hall be limited? Who will, as in Jeroboam's time, may fill his [Page 142] his hand, or consecrate himself an extraordinary Officer. And as fast as justice, or death cut off one of those Hydra's heads, another will arise in its stead; for why may not what hath once been be again? Can that Church? which admitted one, shut the door against another extraordinary Officer? Apostacy, and corruption was brought into the Church by many hands, how can they be carried out by a few? When seditious malecon­tents, asBetwixt the second and third Century, the African Schismaticks in St. Cyprians time,betwixt the third and fourth Centu­ry. Arius, Aerius, and others afterward hedge up the ordinary way, because 'tis not broad enough to bear their ambitions. Amesius draws their special plea, and admits them, since Anti­christ hath, or they say he hath abused it, to stop it up, and lay out, and walk in another. Dare any saucily demand a sight o [...] their Commissions? they say shew the old cancelled, they will produce their new Letters Patents; Otherwise what was valid for Zuinglius, &c. is the same for them. The Gospel is a mystery (and why may not they extraordinary members o [...] its mysteriousness) have, as every common science, the allowance of praecognitio, or conceded principles, against which [...] dispute may be tolerated. Prove a Trinity, discover wher [...] Lazarus his soul was, when his body lay four dayes in the grave, or how the eternal God could be born in time, take flesh, and dwell among us, they will sensibly, and rationally, make o [...] their call. But if you say faith evidenceth the former, the re­ply, 'tis because you want it that you do not see the latter. Wounded men must trust their Chyrurgions eye and art, and a corrupt Church-state (as God knows they live in, and are the bluness of the Pestilential humor) must trust her refor­mers, though extraordinary in their call, and in their course Honest Socinus would never have attempted the reformation [...] the reformation, had not much been wanting, so truly is [...] affirmed by his followers.

Tota ruet-Babylon dirupit [...]tecta Lutherus,
Calvinus muros, sed fundamenta Socinus.
Luther pulls down the roof, Calvin the wall,
Socin the groundwork, thus whole Rome doth fall.

The glorious title of Reformation, and odiousness of Apo­stacy, leads tender spirited men any whither; Even as harmless birds when their notes are counterfeited into snares and lime-twigs; good men! who can blame their ardent desires to be [Page 143] more like & nigh to Christ? But because hypocrisie, & unworthy designs may pretend reformation, & Apostates cry out of Aposta­cy, the most guilty, being usually the most clamorous; and it were to no purpose for the Wolf to put on sheeps clothing, unless he hoped he should be taken for a very sheep; therefore may all sober minds be pleased to accept our Saviours advice, to beware of disguised Wolves, and to couple prudence with their since­rity. These guides will soon discover, that as a preposterous disposition of the same parts will not conform an artificial frame to its primitive composure, so neither can one, and the same Church be formed by the Ministry, and reformed by the mul­ [...]itude: For Reformation is the reduction or bringing back of a swer­ [...]ed thing, or state, unto its first and original constitution. This is [...]eformation in general, and such ought Church reformation to be; for all endeavours wide of that scope (be the Church state never so vicious, or our pretensions never so specious) are not [...] reformation, and setting in joynt what was dislocated, but a deformation, and straining of what is strong and well set, and [...]nevitably tendeth to the dissolution of the whole frame. The [...]ork of grace in the heart is sometimes phrased By renewal, Col. 3.10. s [...]metime by being born again, Joh. 3.3. sometime by being formed again, Gal. 4.9. All which is done by restoring the [...]ame Image of God in righteousness, &c. Ephes. 4.23. wherein Adam was at first created. This truth is equally verifiable of all [...]he members joyntly, and in society, as of any of them several­y, due regard being had to their several formations and con­ [...]titutions; so that as particular reformation must answer to particular formation, so must general reformation answer to general formation; so that Amesius is to prove, that the pri­mitive Chrch was formed without a ministry, ere he can truly [...]ssert, that the present Church may be reformed by the mul­ [...]itude.

We read in the old Testament of the formation of the Jew­ish Church,Fifthly contrary to the manner of reforming of the JeWish Church. and of her reformation after several Apostacy's. But the cheif Magistrate, and the chief Priest, who were in­strumental to make, were alwaies imployed to mend that frame. Thus she was at first formed by Moses and Aaron; afterwards reformed by David and Zadok, after Sauls Apostacy and death, [...] Chron. 24.31. by Jehosaphat and Amariah, after Rehoboams, defection, and Asa's partial reformation, 2 Chron. 19.11. by J [...]ash and Jehojada, after Athaliahs usurpation. 2 King. 12.8, 9. by Hezekiah and Azariah, after Ahaz his abomination 2 Chron. [Page 144] 31.10. by Josiah and Hilkiah, after the dreadful revolt under Manasseh and Amon, when the bare finding of the Book of the Law, occasioned matter of admiration and amazement. 2 King. 22.4. ver. 8. by Zerrubabel and Joshua, at the Jews first re­turn from Babylon; Ezra. 3.2. and by Nehemiah, & Eliashib after wards, Nehem. 3.1. I freely acknowledge that the cheif Ma­gistrates from Moses downeward did hold their own, and keep their Aarons under, the chief Priests being in this as in many o­ther things, types of Christ, who was subject unto Caesar. Thus did Moses. Numb. 10.1. ad fin. 10. Thus Solomon. 1 King. 2.26. Thus Nehemiah. Nehem. 13.8. and ver. 29.30. Thus the Magistrate did in his political capacity, and he did somewhat else, either in an ecclesiastical capacity, or as su­preme governour of the Ecclesiastical Polity; namely, dire [...] in the prudential administration of Church matters. Per­haps he did not do it separate from the Priest, but we know n [...] what part the Priest acted, for the Prince is solely name [...] Thus David, 1 Chron. 24.3. Thus Hezekiah. 2 Chron. 3 2. And no solid reason can be given, why this flower shou [...] not be wreathed within their Scepters, it being so influentia [...] upon civil peace, and of such a nature whereof may be said b [...] the change of one word, as David did of Shew bread, it is [...] a manner Civil, The high Priest had as his common, so his pe­culiar works; the former hath been spoken to, and may be farther evidenced by Deut. 7.9, 10, 11. 2 Chron. 19.8, 9, 10. The latter appears by, 2 Chron. 26.16, 17. My design i [...] all these instances is not to exclude any, who are warranted to [...] and assist under the Prince, and chief Priest in those Assemblies But to prove the Lords care of maintaining the dignity, a [...] distinctness of his own Ordinances, even after most fearful Apostacies; for such most of the forementioned insta [...]ces do con­cern; and let me add, who ever acted with, or under the Prince & chief Priest, nothing was done without them. But contrariwise their exclusion from any Convention, pretending to the highest, or most glorious reformation, was interpretatively Gods nega­tive voice, not passing, or approving the acts of those assemblies. For instance: The lower rulers, and inferiour clergy, associate with Corah, Dathan, and Abiram, Numb. 16.1.2. (the only pattern of an attempted, but unaffected Presbyterian government in the whole Bible) rise up against Moses and Aaron, pretending both to reform, and that they were so reformed, and holy, as Moses & Aarons power was too great to be endured: Num. 16.3. ye take [Page 145] [...]oo much, &c. (not too much in its own nature, for these Rebels [...]id desire the same thing) but too much up [...]n you. It went to [...]he heart of Corah and his complic [...]s, that Moses and Aaron, not hemselves were settled in it. But did the Lord pass this act with he Royal assent? no, he takes but till he next morning to de­iberate upon it, ver. 5. when he makes them such prodigious [...]xamples of successess rebellion, as a sanctified heart cannot read heir story without trembling; or a gracious ear hear it with­out tingling; the Lord doing a new thing, or (as the margent more expresly from the original) creating a creature. ver. 30. [...]. e. making a Judgment, as it were of set purpose to revenge heir wickedness, the earth opening her mouth, and swallowing hem up quick, whereby at once he signified, not only his pre­ent indignation against them, but what others are to expect who in according to their example. It continuing a truth unto the [...]eriod of divine Revelation in a written word, that the ad­unct of Corahs gainsaying or perishing. Jude ver 11. Besides an [...]surping prince (Jeroboam) and the body of the people (or the en tribes) set upon what no doubt, they called a through re­ormation; 'twas so in the language of some latter times, for he true Magistracy and Ministry was voted down, reason of state iscovering no other way to strengthen a crack't title, or set­ [...]ng a tottering Crown upon an Usurpers head, but a change [...]f the old worship: That (away with it) learned obedience to God and his lawful Vice-gerent, and Priests. And above all lly conscientious souls would hanker after Davids house, 1 [...]ing. 12.26, 27. if it were continued. Besides, what might [...]ould Jeroboam have upon the people? how could it be ex­ected that they should stick to him in the plunge of his for­unes, unless they were engaged in rebellion, and Apostacy sa eep as he? could he once make them break the bonds of their [...]s, no doubt they would fight resolutely for the liberty of their ew conscience? Wherefore Jeroboam, and his Ahitophels must [...]ome together, take councel, and what is the advice? why, to ndeavour by some popular insinuation to make the tribes out of love with what from Moses downward, until this day had been their Religion. This is suggested by publick Proclamati­on, 1 King. 12.28. [...] It is too much (Rabh it notes a greatness in quantity, or quality too long, and too tiresome, the way too much, and too expensive the worship, both prevalent arguments with an idle or covetous heart) for you.) Jeroboam could do it himself, but good man! he studied the ease of the King and [Page 146] Priest-ridden people.) to go up to Jerusalem (the habitation of tyrants, malignants, & will-worshippers.) This plot takes with all, or most part of the people, except the Priests and Levites. 2 Chron. 11.13, 14, 15. few being of Davids mind, not to serve God with what cost them nothing, 2 Sam. 24.24. But 'tis no mat­ter, 'twas the Clergy (perrogative creatures) who were discon­tented; and the opposing of this blessed reformation so much, would make the Laity favour it the more; they were afraid of their parsonage barns, but who cares, now the proprietor shall have his tith gratis, or buy it cheaper of the new ministry. 1 King. 12.31. Had we lived in those dayes, how might we have heard each village ecchoing to other, with these or the like acclamations? Let my Lord King Jeroboam live for eve [...] Let it be inscribed upon everlasting monuments, impenetrable by the sharp teeth of all devouring time, tha [...] Jeroboam an [...] freedom are twins of a year! date all publick evidences fro [...] his entrance upon the government, as the first year of Israels berty by Gods blessing restored! O happy Prince! O tender F [...] ther! O blessed People! had any one stood at the elbow o [...] God, while he was measuring out the several successions o [...] times, he would had it been in his power, elected to have ser­ved his generation under so sacred a regiment! long, and long live Jeroboam, Jeroboam, Jeroboam! But let Jeroboamites re­joyce in Jeroboam, and walk for a while in the sparks of this f [...] which their sins have kindled: God doth neither approve of the ref r­mation, n [...]r of the reformer, and it will not be long ere be shew he dislike of both; partly in the extirpation of Jeroboams family, root a [...] branch, whilest he was scarse cold in his grave. 1 King. 15.25. fin. 29. partly in printing the character of walking in the way [...] Jeroboam, upon men destinated to unavoidable ruin. 1 King. [...].34 per tot. partly in the welnigh perpetual oppression of this peop [...] under forrein enemies, or intestine feuds, till carried into an hither­to unredeemed Captivity. 1 King. 16.16. and ver. 22. 1 King. 20 4. 2 King. 17. per tot. And finally by the frequent interruptio [...] of their civil government, for whose [...]establishment this state religion was at first invented. 1 King. 12.27. This was the only popular reformation in the old Testament, these its undesirable effects, and yet it carried a fairer face then most succeeding Popular re­formations, Jeroboam (whom no body in his dayes durst style beneath a King) being a party in it: And he might touch the Prophesie of Aliiah the Shilomite, that it was the Lords plea­sure to raise him to that dignity 1 King. 11.29. ad fin. 32. so [Page 147] wretchedly false (as to this example) is Henders ns bold asser­on, he saith; though reformation by the body of the people is m [...]re [...]perfect (viz. then regal or sacerdotal) in respect of the instru­ents, or manner of proceeding, yet for the m st part it is m [...]re pure [...] its effect, and product. H [...]nders [...]ns se­cond paper 1. concerning the reformati­on of religi­on. An asse [...]tion, wherein as the author ever consulted with St. Paul, Rom. 3.8. And not rather as we [...]e slander [...]usly reported, and as some affirm that we say let us do evil, [...]at good may come, whose damnation is just; so I do beleeve it is ot verifiable, or to be verified by any (called) reformation in [...]e Jewish, or any other Church from Jeroboams time unto urs. But Ʋzza's story is a truth, 2 Sam. 6.6.7, 8. And when [...]ey came to Nach [...]ns threshing floor, Ʋzza put forth his hand to [...]e ark of God, and took hold of it, for the Oxen shook it; But the an­r of the Lord was kindled agaist Ʋzza, and God smote him there [...]r his error, and he died there before the Ark of God. And David [...]as despleastd, because the Lord had made a breach upon Ʋzza, [...]nd he called the name of the place Perez Ʋzza unto this day. Whence note.

1. Ʋzza did not presumptuously, or in contempt to the Levites whose Office it was to carry the Ark) thrust them by from [...]heir employment, only he put his hand to the Ark to hold, or [...]pport it in a case of seeming necessiy the Oxen stumbling [...]rough weakness, or kicking through wantonness, and sha­ng it.

2. The civility, and sincerity of Ʋzza's intentions were so [...]sible, or at least so apprehended by David, that unto him the ivine proceedings against Ʋzza sounded harshly, and were ispleasant.

3. Neither the seeming necessity, nor Ʋzza's intentions, nor Davids good opinion of them, could put a barr to Gods dis­leasure, but he strook him there for his error or temerity, and [...]ere he died before the Ark of God, his crime and punishment, [...]ming the place of execution Perez Ʋzza, or the breach upon [...]zza in terrour to all after attempters to sin by his example; eglecters and wavers of known duty may pretend necessity, [...]ood meaning, and the favour of good men, but with what [...]azard this one instance is sufficient to inform them.

4. That the procuring of a pure & through reformation (such [...]his bringing back of the Ark in Davids time was 1 Chr. 13.3.) [...]he holy, and ever blessed God, is careful not to use any in­truments promiscuously huddled together by popular tumults, but those who have the clearest warrant, and authority in his [Page 148] Word, to do his work. A like truth with this concerning Uz­za is 1 Sam. 2.34, 35. (and I wonder neither of them made impression upon the consciences of Amesius, Henderson, and other the like brazen trumpets to popular seditions) where we read, that when the prodigious sins of Elie's sons (the Priests) provoked God to use extream severity against their whole fa­mily, he doth not threate [...] to raise up the people, to reform the Priesthood, but promiseth that he will raise him up another Priest.

Sixthly, contrary to the manner of reforming of the Christian Church.'Tis granted the Christian ministry is not now confined as the Jewish was, unto one family, or tribe neither is our Church (as theirs) limited to one nation, but if when the vineyard was thus either way enclosed, God left the reformation of ecclesiasti­cal corruptions, if not solely, yet inexclusively to the chief Ma­gistrate, and sons of Levi (his first Committees for the custody of that discipline) how much more forcibly doth it conclude in this state of the Church, that duly ordained Officers be convened under the authority, and protection of Christia [...] Princes, about the determination of matters of like nature.

First, Because Christian Kings as nursing fathers, may chal­lenge the same authority in our Churches, as the Jewish Kings exercised in their Church, because the Polity, or external ad­ministration of discipline is (even Presbyters being Judges) so much alike in both: Witness the London Presbyters, they say; What Grotius saith, Jus divin. 1 par pag. 172. that the government of the Churches of Christ was conformed to the pattern of the Jewish Synagogue, is true in ma­ny things.

Read Bp. Jewels de­fence of his Apology a­gainst Har­ding. pag. 691. and seq. Lon­don. 1571Secondly, Because the first Christian Emperours, and King had this power peaceably allowed them, neither can they no [...] be excluded but a Pope steps immediatly into their place, or which is worse, many.

Thirdly, Because each Church now grieved, or corrupted, hath not only a liberty as the Jewish had, to convene all her own Officers (some whereof at least may be rationally adjudged to be as much spirited with a zeal for reformation, and have, or ought to have more reforming abilities, then the rest of the people.) But also (which the Jews had not) hath priviledge to assemble with her sister Churches in general, or other Synods to ease and reform her self. And why should not we rather ex­pect Christs presence, and submit to its dictates in such assem­blies, since he hath promised it. Mat. 18.17. Mat. 28.19, 20. [Page 149] And the Apostolical Church practised it, Act. 15.6. And the Apostles, and Elders came together for to consider of this matter, then to await an extraordinary call, and assistance to a promiscuous multitude, who however they come together (even their ad­vocates, and patrons being Judges) they cannot assign a war­rant, or example of Scripture for their direction. This shall conclude our third reason against the temporariness of Church-Officers in this second limitation, and exposition of the word temporary.

Fourthly, Who ever have in these dayes stood to an ex­traordinary call, they neither have the gifts, nor do the works of them who are accounted extraordinary Officers in the primitive Church.Fourthly, now preten­ded extraor­dinary officers neither have the gifts, nor do the works of those who were formerly accounted extraordi­nary.

First, They have not their gifts. First, they have not their gifts. Habent dona & assisten­tiam extraor­dinariam, itae ut sine errore ministrent. A­mes. medull. lib. 1. ca. 33. Sect. 25. Compend. Theol. lib. 1. ca. 26. Jus divin 1 par. p. 116. Amesius saith the former extraordinary Officers had extraordinary gifts, and assistance to minister without error; what gifts, and assistance the first Church-Officers had we dispute not, this we do deny that Amesius, or any for him can maintain those to be thus qualified, whom in that very Chapter he calls extraordinary Officers raised up of latter times, or since the reformation begun by Martin Luther in Germany. Wollebius gives a more particular [...]ccount of their gifts, he saith they were prophesie, tongues, and miracles. But where, or in whom shall we find them, or any of them in these dayes. The London Divines abate one of these three, they say; He might be an extraordinary Officer who did not work miracles, they instance in John the Baptist; were it not for [...]he sake of others, I could turn this over with a short answer, and say what am I concerned in their contradictions? But least [...]he Enthusiast take sanctuary at it, I dispute its priviledge. That John the Baptist wrought no miracles, is confessed, but there may be several reasons given for it; & why it is not to be drawn into justifying president of the want of those gifts, in any now pretended extraordinary Officer: For John was the immediate forerunner of Christ; that the Messiah should come, was the constant and ordinary belief, and at this time the raised ex­pectation of the Jews, unto whom he preached, and affirmed de facto that he was come. This was a more direct way to prove his doctrine, then working of mirales; for miracles may be feined, in his preaching could be no deceit; If his Auditors turned to their Bibles, and found what the antient Prophets [Page 150] predicted concerning the Messiah verified in Christ, they had reason to beleive their Preacher, otherwise they might reject both as deceivers: This if I mistake not, is a reason assigned by the holy Ghost, why John wrought no miracles; Joh. 10.41. And many resorted unto him, and said, John indeed wrought no miracles, but all that he said of this man were true; how soon John spake of Christ, and how he protects himself under the wings of his authority, when questioned for doing somewhat reputed extraordinary; appears by Joh. 1.25, 26, 27. And they asked him, and said; why baptizest thou then? if thou be not the Christ, nor Elias, nor that Prophet, John answered them saying, I baptize you with water, but there standeth one among you, whom you know not, he it is, &c. The sum of all this is, John was a cryer, or Herald. Joh. 1.22. who gave notice of the coming, and ap­proach of the longed for Saviour; whose message could be no otherwise confirmed then by Christs presence: Miracles would do no good without it, and were needless with it. Perhaps al­so our Lord reserved those largesses of the divine bounty to [...] distributed among the people by his own hands, or the han [...] of his Apostles, after he was more publickly known. We ex­pect therefore from our now pretended extraordinary Officers, to minister without errour, prophesie, and work miracles (all which in the judgment of their favourers are requisite qualifications in an extraordinary Officer) or we cannot, we will not own them.

Secondly, They do not do their works. This is by far a more certain way to judge of the order of Officers,Secondly, they do not do their works. then gifts, for gifts may be divers, works must be the same; and all that we have said concerning them in the foregoing Paragraph, is t [...] be reduced to the force of an argument, arising from the co [...]cessions of our opposites: But we shall by and by digress, re­turn we therefore into our way; now pretended extraordinary Officers, do not do the works of formerly presumed extraor­dinary Officers. The Apostles and Evangelists preached, bapti­zed, and mainly endeavoured to build Churches, where no foundation was already said to their hands, and to preserve settled Churches in order and unity. But our extraordinaries, if they break down the carved works of Gospel order in con­stituted Churches, with axes and hammers (instruments of vio­lence of the readiest execution) are instantly baptized by their Party into the name, and confirmed in the Office of an Evange­list, or an Apostle. The good works of real Apostles and Evan­gelists [Page 151] are, and must be accounted temporary; pretended Zea­lots have other work to do then to travail in the conversion of the Gentiles, but the bad works of nominal Apostles, and Evan­gelists are, and we fear will be long continuing. It exceeds our Arithmetick to cast up what damage, either the Christian Church in general, or my mother Church, the Church of Eng­land in particular hath sustained by their violence, and usurpati­on. What institutions of Christ, and Apostolical practices have we had disputed, censured, and exploded by factions, and cla­morous novelty, out-voicing them to breath their last, and close their eyes with those of the Evangelists and Apostles. And what novel inventions have been obtruded upon the Church, in the commanding form of a Divine Right, by self sent pre­tenders to their Office. To say the hot Sun in Africa, doth not more frequently generate deformed terrestrial monsters, then this loose opinion about the extra ordinariness, and temporali­ness of Church-Officers, doth enliven ecclesiastical mis-shapen births, might be thought a Rhetorical flourish, were not multi­tudes of confirming instances at hand; for what errour, or false doctrine hath prospered from Mahumetanisme to this day; whose Authors have not pretended extraordinary communion with a deity, and voiced the visions of their own heads to be the revelation of the blessed spirit: But we will draw the points of our compass nearer,Cut off by the sword of Justice C. C. 1525. and within the circumference of the imme­diate preceding, and present centuries. Thomas Munzer; the Patriarch Anabaptist, a smoaking firebrand, whose tayl threat­ned in to so great a part of Germany, boasted of Gods extraordi­nary raising him up with the sword of Gideon to extirpate the wicked; or if you will read his meaning in his practices, the magistracy, and ministry; John the Botcher of Leyden, A. C. 1536. who stitch't Munzers scat­tered shreds into a kingdome, and sewed on himself as their cape, or King, at Munster in Germany, blasphemously enough (had it not been done by an extaaordinary call) styled himself; The King of Saints, as a mock Christ, chose his twelve Apostles; and like him­self, a lustful salatious wretch, took his fifteen wives at one time, one whereof dis [...]elishing his practices, he sacrificed (for he was both king and Priest) immediatly before he celebrated the Eucharist. This wretch burning many thousands of choice books in that Town, justified it by Scripture, saying, the time was now come when they should be all taught of God. A. C. 1527. Thomas Schuk of Gaul in Helvetia an Anabaptist also, Leydens Saviour (though in respect to their King, I place him beneath him in this dis­course) [Page 152] in a full assembly of his confederates, caused his own brother to kneel down before him, and in that posture killed him; their common father, and mother afterwards expostula­ting with him, to shew his motives and inducements to commit that horrid villany, he impudently told them, what was done, was by the will of his heavenly father, wherein he barbarously, and searedly persisted at the place of execution.A. C. 1550. Henry Nicholas, the unhappy root of all the accursed ranting practices, from his time downward unto ours, saluted our fathers in this mock Apostolick style. Henry Nicholas by the grace and mercy of God, through the holy spirit of the love of Christ, raised up by the highest God from the death, according to the Providence of God and his promises, annointed with the holy Ghost, in the old age of the under­standing of Jesus; Godded with God in the spirit of his love, illumi­nated in the spirit of the heavenly truth, the true light of the perfect being, made heir with Christ in the Heavenly good of the riches of G [...] according to his promises in the most holy services of God, to the o [...] dience of his love. Hacket that manlike monster, and shame of [...] Country,A. C. 1591. whose positions were so dreadfully blasphemous, a [...] a sober tongue cannot name them without blistring, gave out by himself, and his two false prophets, Coppinger and Arthing­ton, how God had extraordinarily raised him up to reform the Church. That bloody parricide Enoch ap Evan, natures by-blow, and the stain of generation, whose inhumane murder of his own natural mother and brother, at Bishops-Castle in the County of Salop, Studely's looking-glass of schisme. in the year 1633. as an ill boding Meteor, and Malignant Comet, ushered in the immediately following Civil wars, and unnatural troubles, searedly affirmed, that he but­chered those harmless souls in a zeal for God; the fuel to which accursed flame was their filial submission to the determination of their mother Church, in receiving the blessed Eucharist knee­ling, and refusing to submit to his Phanatick dictates in that matter. What need more words? or why wast we time in per­sonal instances? doth not Soeinianisme (that sink whereinto all heresies, antient, and modern are evacuated) brazen-facedly tell the world, that their tenet, which ungods Christ, and renders his death and satisfaction insolvent for our sins, Ecclesiae no­strae credunt ea sibi a deo revelata esse; quae ad excolendam veritatem evangelicam, utpote in quibus de vera dei, & Christi gloria &c. & denique quae devia verae pietutis expeditiori reddenda agunt. Smalc. praef. no­vinst. ex Calov. Socin. prostigat. Wirebergae. 1652. is revealed to them as a more nigh, and expeditious way to what concerns the true glory of Christ and God; to advance true piety, and refine evangelical truth. [Page 153] Faustus Socinus magnifies his uncle Laelius, Divinum quid sapiens a deo ipsa pate­factum preci­bus multis a christo impetra tum. vix quic­quam divinius videri queat sperabam te fassurum Soc. De unic. fil. dei existent. adv. Erasm. Joha. Omnes una secum deo gratias agant, pro Laelio. Socino cui deus primo revelavit. Smalc. par. Sophis. pag. 5. ex Gelassii grammat. sacr. tract. 3. numb. 47. Francofurti. 1653. his wresting of those [...]in words for our Saviours divinity, or before Abraham was [...]m, to maintain thereby his sole existency (as other mens) [...]m, and not before the time of his incarnation; And of it [...]th. It savours of some divinity, was obtained (which instead of [...]leeving, we admire how he durst write it) from Christ him­ [...]f by many prayers, and divinely sparkleth with such bright and [...]zling beams, as hoped his Antagonist would have discerned, and [...]ored them. This very ignis fatuus so amazeth Smalcius, as he [...]uld bend the whole Church upon her knees together with him, to [...]ss God for revealing it to Laelius Socinus.

Finally, whence is this pestilent Sect encouraged to lay the [...] to the root of the whole ministry, but either because the [...]imitive Ministers were temporary, and extraordinary,Ex Calo­vio. or the [...]esent Ministry hath lost the file of its succession in Antichristi­ [...] Apostacy. And professedly, and in the face of the world to [...]intain, That no ministerial work, as the work of a distinct Offi­ [...] is now continuing, what is so called, being only a work of charity [...] from every man unto his neighbour. Suffice this for the fourth [...]ason.Fifthly, Scripture A­postles, and Evangelists had an ordi­nary Mission

Fifthly, Scripture Apostles and Evangelists had an ordinary [...]ssion concerning the former Apostles enough hath been [...]d in the foregoing part of this Exception; The Evangelists [...]ntioned in Scripture are but two, Philip and Timothy; and [...]th of them had an ordinay mission. Timothies mission; Tim. 4.14. &c. 2 Tim. 1.6. undeniably proves. Philips [...]ssion, so far as concerns his Diaconate, is as plain by Act. 6. 2, 3. We will not here dispute his call to do the works re­ [...]ded, Act. 8. reserving it to our own definition of the E­ [...]ngelist; and shall only add in this place: That the works he [...]d, namely Preaching and Baptizing, necessarily required a [...]l, and ordination to do them, because unsent persons are [...]ohibited to meddle with them, Mat. 28.19, 20. Rom. 10. [...]. and 17. Socinus, the arch enemy of Ministerial Mission,Illi enim qui in Samari a crediderunt fide vera cre­diderant, & erant intus in clesia, quae una est, name Philippo diacono, quem ijdem Apostoli miserant baptizati erant. [...]prian. epist. ad Jubaianum. [...]der the name of Gratianus, Prosper saith, Philip was sent by the [...]postles, with him agree Zanchius, Aretius, Polanus, and Buca­ [...]s in their aforecited definitions of the Evangelist. And this [...]s also St. Cyprians judgment long ago, he saith, Those who [Page 155] beleeved in Samaria, beleeved with true faith, and were within the Church which is one, because they were baptized by Philip the dea­con, whom the Apostles sent among them; We will add no more to this fifth Reason.Sixthly, who might best pretend an extraordi­nary call in these dayes do themselves disown it. Non dissi­mulanter te­stamur nos ha­beri. Luthe­rum pro insig­ni Christi A­postolo. Calv. adv. Albert. Pighium lib. 1. Gerard loc. de ministerio Sect. 144. 145. 146. Genevae. 1639. Jus divin. 1 part. pag. 120. 121, 122. 123 Seventhly, Presbyters de­ny an extraor­dinary all. Jus divin. par. 1. p. 71.

Sixthly. Those who might best pretend an extraordinary call in these dayes, and have it voluntarily given unto them by others, do themselves disown it. Aretius as we have heard before, calls Luther an Apostle, so doth Calvin, He saith withou [...] dissimulation, we esteem Luther to be a famous Apostle of Christ We hope we need not tell the Reader that Calvin, and Areti [...] in both those places understand an Apostle to be an extraordi­nary Officer, let him that doubteth consult the places. Bu [...] Luther himself alwaies stood to an ordinary call; never appea [...]ed from it, and expresly disclaims all other. This is exactl [...] demonstrated by his learned defender Gerhard, in his Theolo­gical common places, where he records the several dates of Euthers Academical, and Ecclesiastical preferments. The L [...]don Divines say as much of Zuinglius, Oecolampadius, Bucer, [...] Peter Martyr. They conclude with Zanchyes testimony in th [...] matter, who inrols himself in the same Catologue with Zuingli­us and the rest; And there we conclude this sixth Rea­son.

Seventhly, The same London Presbyters sadly reflecting upo [...] the aforementioned Socinian, & enthusiastick tenets, together wit [...] many other inconveniencies, arising from this distinction be­twixt temporary and continuing, ordinary and extraordinar [...] Officers; not only modestly enter their dissent from the mai [...]tainers of the extraordinary call of our first reformers, but [...]solutely lay down this axiom; they say, there is a necessity in Church of Christ, of a constant, perpetual, and ordinary Missi [...] This is a precious truth, and that the Reader may improve as he ought, we beg him to consider that perpetual being pre­dicated of any subject, comprehends all time from its com­mencement to its conclusion; so that if there be a necessity [...] a perpetual ordinary Mission in the Church of Christ, it is u [...]doubtedly exclusive of extraordinary Officers in the Primitiv [...] if in the present Church-state; for of necessity she must perpe­tually have an ordinary Mission, there is no time past, presen [...] or to come, when she hath been, is, or can be without it: An [...] let the Assemblies vague and uncertain early ordination of Pres­byters come up never so nigh to the first constitution of th [...] Church, they will be excluded from a perpetual relation t [...] [Page 154] her, because there was some precedent time when she was with­ [...]ut them. Nor are the London Divines alone in this opinion, or they borrow it from their brethren in the Assembly, Humble advice con­cerning the doctrinal part of ordi­nation bound up with their directory. who [...]y, Ordination is alwaies to be continued in the Church; and [...]ove it by Tit. 1.5. 1 Tim. 5.21, 22. I receive their propositi­ [...]n, but must tell them their proof is strong against Presbyteri­ [...] ordination, and destroyes their proposition unless Timothy [...]d Titus have successors to continue their practiced way of or­ [...]ination; for neither of them (if we may beleeve the same As­ [...]mbly) were Presbyters, nor did ordain as Presbyters, but as [...]xtraordinary Officers, or Evangelists; so that their proof and [...]roposition compared exhibit this Paradox, that ordination, [...]ecause ceasing in some, and beginning a new in others, is al­ [...]aies to be continued unto the Church. A notion so crackt, [...]d maimed, as nothing can splice it, or hold it together, but [...]e, or other of these two things, to be demonstrated by [...]lain and convincing Scriptures, either,

First, That Christ betrusted ordination to several hands, or [...]rders of Officers. Or,

Secondly, That Presbyters are ordained singly, and separate [...]om the higher order. But return we to the point before us, [...]e perpetuity of the ministry in the ordinary way of ordinati­ [...]n [...]is provable out of all Presbyterial divines, who write ei­ [...]er of the Church, or of the ministry. But we will confine our [...]earch to a few instances, out of Calvin and Zanchy, that it may [...]ppear we do not oppose our own, or other mens wills against [...]heir fore-examined, and refuted opinion about the temporari­ [...]ess of Officers: We have heard Calvin upon Ephes. 4.13. say,Neque e­nim vel solis lumen, & ca­lor, vel [...]ibus, ac potus, tam sunt praesenti vitae fovendae, & sustinendae necessaria, quam est con­servandae in terris ecclesiae Apostolicum, & Pastorale munus. Calv. institut. lib. 4. ca. 3. Sect. 2. The Ministry is not temporary, as the training of youth, but perpetu­ [...]l so long as we continue in this world. Elsewhere he adds, the [...]ht, or heat of the sun is not more necessary to the nourishment, and [...]stenance of this present life, then the Apostolical, and Pastoral Office [...] necessary for the conservation of the Church upon earth. Now what hath been said by me, or can be urged by any other, for the overthrow of this distinction betwixt ordinary, and extraordi­nary Officers, which will not receive encouragement from this sentence of Calvins, for if light and heat, meat and drink, be not more necessary for the present life, then the continuance of the Apostolical, and Pastoral Office is for the Churches con­servation upon earth: It must inevitably follow, that the maintenance of any temporary Office (for none can lay so fair a claim to it, as the Apostolate is even in Calvins Judgment, most [Page 156] unnecessary,Sicut eccle­sia dei perpe­tua sit oportet in hoc mundo, propter promissionem dei, & Christi, docentis, portae inferi non praevalebunt adversus eam: sic etiam in t [...] semper sit, & maneat ministerium. Zanch. in 4. praec. pag. 655. dangerous, and destructive. Zanchy saith. As i [...] is necessary that there be a perpetual Church in this world, becaus [...] Christ hath promised that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it so likewise is a perpetual ministry necessary.

Ratio est qui­a sicut per mi­nisterium ec­clesia colligi­tur, sic etiam per idem ser­vatur, pro in­de notas eccle­siae, &c. Christus enim non permittit, nec permittet, ut sua ecclesia legitimo care­at ministerio, quod igitur a­liquando, & alicubi, & aliquo modo vitiatas vidimus, & videmus, praecipuas ministerii partes, non ta­men semper, nec ubique, nec penitus totum ministerium corru [...]pi permittit Christus, unum e­nim ab altero, separari non potest, nec ecclesia a ministerio, nec ministerium ab ecclesi [...] Zanch. Ibid.This he not only saith, but confirmeth by many reasons, viz. The ministry must preserve the Church, because it gathers her; Vhe notes of the Church, viz. pure preaching of the Word, and lawful administration of the sacraments cannot be, or be discerned bu [...] in the ministry, neither doth Christ permit, nor will he suffer the Church to want a lawful ministry. And although we hvae seen, o [...] shall see the principal parts of the ministry, sometimes in some places, and after some sort to be corrupted, yet doth not Christ permit th [...] whole ministry to be alwaies, or every where, or totally corrupt [...] because then the same may be affirmed of the Church, for one ca [...] be separated from the other, neither the Church from the minist [...] nor the ministry from the Church. This shall conclude our [...]venth, and last Exception against temporary, erratical, a [...] unfixed Officers.

Three grand objecti­ons against the precedent part of this discourse.I have walked, especially in this seventh Exception upon a [...] Icy path, and as God, and my conscience bears me witness, hav [...] endeavoured to tread warily, and to the best of my observatio [...] not to wander out of the road of truth. But I dare not gi [...] entertainment to flattering hopes, that I shall meet with no [...] who watch for my haltings, and to take advantage of my trip­pings to cast me down. I write to the mixed multitude of all sorts of Readers, and must as well obviate the calumny of the froward, as the equity of the moderate minded. There are who will charge this discourse with three hainous crimes, any of which proved, condemns it for dangerous and unseasonable; therefore they must all of them be confessed, or avoided, ere we can proceed to the remaining Exceptions,1. Obj. that I seek credit by discredit­ing of emi­nent persons. and following part of this dispute. They are that,

1. Obj. I seek a name by vilifying of eminent men, and to raise my own upon their ruined credits, namely, Calvin, Beza, &c.

[Page 157]2. Obj. I scandalize all reformed Churches.2. Obj. that I scandalize all reformed Churches.

3. Obj. I give the Roman Synagogue occasion to blaspheme the living God, and his people.

To the first Objection I answer.

First,3. Obj. that I give the Ro­man Syna­gogue occasion to blaspheme. The equity of my opposing of some of the opinions of those noted men, hath been so clearly proved, by facing them with other sentences of their own, or most devoted partizans, as we doubt not that the unprejudiced Reader will resolve that the repugnancy, and contradiction is primarily in Calvin, The first objection an­swered. a­gainst Calvin, Beza against Beza, the London divines, or our Assem­bly, against both, rather then in me, against any of them.First, I do not discredit them, but they discredit one another by their contra­dictions.

Secondly. The thing in controversie is not matter of no­tion, or opinion, wherein much may be attributed deservedly to humane parts and abilities. But matter of fact, of a divine, and positive institution clearly witnessed by Scriptures, and obvious to ordinary, yea welnigh all capacities; such as neither their, mine, or any other mans credit, or discredit, can make more or less, or other then it is. I say de facto, 2 The matter in con­test is not mat­ter of opinion but of divine institution. that Christ ordained both Apostles, and Presbyters for succession, and appointed them to continue perpetually with his Church. Calvin, &c. say he did not, or that tract of time, or other contingency, hath annulled or worn out them, or one of them; Let their, and my reasons be put upon a Scripture ballance each against other, and the weightiest carry it.

I know they have something more to say for themselves, then hath been yet insisted upon; namely that the terms, Bishops and Presbyters, are aequivocal, and signify the same thing in seve­ral texts; that St. Jerome 390. years after Christ, seems in one, or two places to favour their opinion, and that a numerous stray of Monks, Friers, and Schoolmen, have pressed through the gap whereat he entered. All which shall have a large disquisition, and we hope a satisfactory refutation in the tract concerning Apostles, to which they most properly belong.Their argu­ment from the equivocalness Bishop and Presbyter, in several texts briefly consi­dered, an­swered, and referred to the tract of Apostles. But least any Reader think we wave them, as fearing their force, let him take this brief answer to them in this place. We intreat him not to insist too peremptorily upon the equivocalness of Bishop, and Presbyter in some Scriptures, as reducing the Gospel-feeding, and governing Ministry to one Order, till he can reconcile that notion to Christs distinct Ordination, and institution of the twelve Apostles, and seventy Disciples, to the plain constitution of the Ministry of the Primitive Church by Apostles and Elders, and to the powers, which the Apostles acted themselves, and derived [Page 158] unto others, over Presbyters. Neither is it of any force to say our higher Order of Officers are now called Bishops, not Apo­stles, for

1. They have been called Apostles long, and long after the death of the twelve.

2. They own, and maintain themselves to be the Apostles suc­cessors.

3. They do the Apostles works, and in virtue of their commis­sion.

4. They may as well be called Bishops These are most evident truths, that the Apostles were Bishops over those Presby­ters they or­dained, as well as over the Churches they planted, and that go­vernment be­ing necessary for the Chur­ches welbeing when multi­plied, and so­ciated, must also necessa­rily descend from the Apostles to others, after the example of that superiority and power they had ab [...] others, which could not end with their persons, since the use and end of that governme [...] still continue [...]. ca. 17. or of the differences betwixt the King and two Houses. Episcopatum: Nos vocabulum illum libenter retinuimus quia dei ecclesiastico, & eo q [...] dem Apostolico munere hic agit. Bez. ad Art. 1. 20. as St. Peter could call the Apostolate a Bishoprick. Act. 1.20. For it is written in the b [...] of the psalms, let his habitation be desolate, and his Bishoprick [...] another take; the word Bishoprick or, [...], Beza renders E­piscopatum, and saith, he doth willingly retain the term, because the Apostle treats of an ecclesiastical Office, and that indeed the Apo­stolical. Besides me thinks the holy Ghost in calling the Apost [...]late a Bishoprick, consequently the Apostles Bishops, in that pla [...] (which is not only mine but St. Cyprians consequence, as ha [...] been before observed) and Presbyters, compresbyters, Deaco [...] &c, in other places seems to hint, that so long as the offices [...] distinct, and each Officer limited to his proper work; A rigid, and perpetual distinction of the names of those Officers, is not abso­lutely necessary. And furthermore to improve this promis­cuous usage of names to confound the orders of ministers, must unavoidably sink the Apostolate, into the Presbyterate or Diaconate, when an Apostle is called Presbter or a Deacon.

Their Arg. from St. Je­rome and some of his follow­ers briefly considered, and referred to the tract of Apostles. Augustin. de Haeres. ca. 53. Genevae. 1559.But 'tis time to come to their second Argument drawn fro [...] the authority of St. Jerome and his followers; which we de [...] may be reconciled to the Churches uninterrupted practice, be­fore, and in St. Jeromes time. St. Augustin St Jeromes equal in time, and in many other things much his superiour, calls St. Jeromes opinion, as broached by Aerius, proprium dogma, or a sin­gular, and novel notion: And when it shall be proved in the tract concerning Apostles, to which the full prosecution of this work belongs.

1. That all Expositors, Protestant, and Pontifician, reject [Page 159] more singularities in St. Jerome, then in any other ecclesiastical writer of unsuspected credit, and of like antiquity.

2. That all his antients, Clemens, Ignatius, and Ireneus, Tertullian, Cyprian, &c. All his equals and contemporaries, Athanasius, Eusebi­ [...]s, Ruffinus, Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory Nyssen, Basilius Caesariensis, Hilarius Pictavensis, Ambrosius, Epiphanius, Augustinus, Optatus, Chrysostomus, Cyrillus Hierosolymtanus, Salvianus, yea and St. Jerome himself did elsewhere profess, and maintain the contra­ry opinion.

3. That he was a Presbyter, and in actual Schism against his own Patriark John of Jerusalem, whom he most passionately, and virulently reviles and reproacheth.

4. That while they continued at variance, his brother Pauli­anus being to be ordained Presbyter, he did not open the pack of Aerianisme, and set up for himself, but against the Canons, all due order, and Scripture warrant, he fetcheth another Bi­shop (Epiphanius) to Allotrioepiscopize, and Bishop it in his Pa­ [...]riarks Diocess.

5. That afterwards (the Sea of this contention yet flowing betwixt them) he sayls to Rome, and is the first Champion of [...]ll the Antients in defence of the Bishop of Romes usurped po­wer to tolerate, and indemnifie Rebels against their own Bi­ [...]hops. And

6. That while he was at Rome, Pope Syricius and his Cler­gy, were equally distasted at his passion, and intemperance as his own Patriark Ruffinus, and others had before been, they after a sort expulsing him the City.

We shall leave it to all sober men to pass Judgment,Mihi videtur, ut pace tanti viri dicam, nec Scripturae sacrae, ec anti­quitatis histo­riae consenta­neum. Esth. ad Tit. 1. 5. of what force St. Jeromes angry lines are in this matter; whether his no­tion may not as well be termed a singularity in him, as in Aerius. And whether it be not deservedly censured by the lear­ned Esthius, As neither agreeable to Scripture, nor antient History.

Obj. Do any say the distinction betwixt ordinary, and extra­ordinary Officers, was entertained in the Church long before Calvins, Beza, or Zanchyes dayes.

I answer; This will no whit advantage, much less excuse them, for since it is neither satisfiably by Scripture, nor by the writings of the most Antient fathers, who unanimously assigne successors unto the Apostles, distinct from, and superiour unto Presbyters, and thereby make all Orders instituted by Christ ordinary, and continuing; True Reformers should have re­jected the distinctions, not maka a farther, and worse use of it [Page 160] than the Pope did before them, for the special service of whose Supremacy, together with an officious attendance upon the Sacri­fice of Mass, I beleeve it was, if not at first coined, yet at least passed for currant in the Church.

This might suffice in answer to the first Objection, but least a Spider should such poyson out of this free discussion of the errours of Calvin, A conside­ration how far the most eminent men may be oppo­sed. Beza, &c. And say I design to lay their honour in the dust, to prove contempt upon all their labours, and to cast a longer shadow by travailing in the afternoon of their declining eminencies, because they were godly, and lear­ned men of a different Judgment, I add for my own vindicati­on, and the satisfaction of moderate men, that I do honour (so farr as fallible humanity can expect) their parts, abilities, and pains in many of their undertakings; They were all learned, and Judicious persons, men as able to serve truth, and in many things doing her as eminent and useful service, as almost any other whom she entertains; Her challenge to them (whereof am only the bearer) concerns not the reprobation of thei [...] parts and persons, but the rectification of their errours. Nei­ther are they the first famous men who have been mistaken in Church matters. This they freely marked in their Predeces­sors, this if they give occasion, their Successors must observe in them, otherwise truth once buried under a noted mans au­thority, can never expect a resurrection.

There is a twofold Rock, against which most ill ballasted, and worse steered Judgments, bulge, and shipwrack; either they will beleeve nothing from any man, let the divine Majesty print never so fair characters of its wisdome, and of irrefragable reason upon his expressions; they will beleeve every thing from some men. The former lifts up a ruin-threatning head more visibly, the latter though covered under water, is equal­ly, if not more dangerous, because it is not so easily discerned, or avoided. That imbrutisheth all men; this all but our own Faction. Truth sayls in a middle channel, and anchors the steddy Judgment in a safe harbor, even to beleeve what is rati­onal, though spoken by a fool, or an enemy; to reject the con­trary, though pronounced by the wisest, and most friendly. Were this ingenuity entertained among Christians (in matters of opinion and private determination) we should not with such fruitless, and unanswered words, and wishes call back the Pri­mitive love and candour into our societies, and in the mean time bite, and devour one another. But where truth is party [Page 161] there is no nutrality; In this case our Saviour saith, he that is [...]t with me is against me: 'Tis not urbanity to our friend, but [...]eachery to truth, to applaud him to her prejudice, and it is [...]rdly utterable what mischiefs, and inconveniences she receives, [...]hen her presumed defenders excur into a justification in gross, [...] those, who in some things complying with their opinions, [...]e in others contrary to her; she is most glorious in her own [...]ikedness, our passions and our praises, equally disguise, and [...]shonour her: When I have observed some eminent men [...]inly prefacing what they beleeved to be, and really was truth; [...]ith their unwillingness to dissent from others of their own [...]nk and reputation, it hath suspended my Judgment in an [...]quilibrious doubtfulness, whether they thought to bear out [...]uth, or be born out by her; Truth (as Christ) may be be­ [...]ayed with a kiss and complement; and this is a degree of [...]eason, whereunto the grossest rudeness cannot ascend. Re­ [...]erend, and eloquent Dr. de Moulin did not advance the French [...]hurch, or her Presbyterian Government, in his Apologetical [...]ters to Bishop Andrews; nor did the Church of England, re­ [...]ive a little prejudice by the Encomiasticks, which some of her [...]rned men, and obedient sons, made upon the Genevian Dis­pline. Divine institutions if widened, or straightned by our con­ [...]sions, or denyal, will loose their authority, and be accounted the re­ [...]lts of prudence and conveniency, by judicious and cunning men. If [...]e will be giving, let us part with our own, not Gods right; [...] us not confound our inventions with his institutions, to [...]ingle both together is the ready way to make neither oblige [...]e conscience. Witness Erastianisme, and Socinianisme. 'Tis a [...]s divinum we must stick to, if we will prove our Ministry to [...]e Gods Ordinance unto our people, or have them own it as [...]ch; wherein if we waver in our Epistles, or Treatises unto [...]rangers (in what language so ever they are written) how easi­ [...] comes it, and how many are there to bring it to their notice, [...]d when they know it, and object it against us, with what [...]ords can we excuse our selves, or desend our Order? The [...]hurch is not now as of old, confined within two Nations or Professions, viz. Jewish and Samaritane, for besides several Churches under reformed Episcopal, or Presbyterial Govern­ment; there are many of a third sort, whose Ministers pretend [...]onfidently, and constantly their Divine Right. But if we (be our [...]nds what they can be) are indifferent in our Assertions, and [...]ang it in suspence, whether we, or others, or both of us (when [Page 162] the world is sensible of our contrary constitutions) be Govern­ments by Divine right: uninterressed persons will settle there, where there is most confidence, and least dispute tolerated. I know the world is too bankrupt in civility, too slow in making just payment of those observances, due from all men unto the worthy advancers of truth; my intent is not to shew forth their Charter of Protection, but to caution their friends of truth, not to fetter her freedom by their complements. We may honour men, so hath God ordained; Render honour to whom honour is due, Rom. 13.7. Thats the Kings. Hold such in reputa­tion. Philem. 2.29. thats the Ministers. In honour preferring one another, Rom. 13.7. That's one Christians duty to ano­ther. But we must distinguish what honour we give to me [...] and when we give or take it; what honour, least what we give to men be stollen from Christ, and our respects (as Gideo [...] armies bounty to him) prove a snare to them. Judg. 8.25, 2 [...] 27, 28. 'Tis Christs peculiar honour to be, and be esteem [...] infallible, to be indisputably credited upon his own wor [...] wise, or good men, will neither take, nor give this honour [...] themselves, or others, for humanity must be laid aside, or take into an indissolable union with the deity, ere man can be infallible The best of men have, and will acknowledge they have errours St. James the Apostle, and a Pen-man of Holy Writ, who might have pleaded infallibility, if any meer man may do it, on the contrary saith; Jam. 3.1, 2. My brethren, be not ma [...] masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation, [...] in many things we offend all; If any man offend not in word [...] a perfect man, and able to bridle the whole body; the last words ( [...] if any man offend not) run Hypothetically, but do not cont [...] a grant that some men are impeccant, for that the forego [...] clause, or in many things we offend all, contradicts. Rather they [...] force the proportion of all mens fallibility, and imply, if so much perfection is required in bridling the tongue, of which notwith­standing he saith, ver. 8. the tongue can no man tame, it is an un­ruly evil full of deadly poyson; then how much more perfection i [...] requisite, for the unerring regulation of the thoughts and actions. And will the best of men, even Apostles acknowledg they have errours? what is it for others to deny it, but to charge them with want of charity unto, or Judgment of themselves, and to presume we know them better then they know them­selves. We admire the stupidity of Heathens, in worshipping of stocks, stones, and dumb creatures, which they knew were [Page 163] no Gods, but to adore in men what themselves disown is a [...]rosser and more sensless Idolatry, it stooping to an Idol which [...]ath a mouth and tongue, wherewith he tells us he is no God: [...]xcellently S. Paul, 1 Cor. 2.4, 5. My speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of mans wisdom, but in demonstration [...] the spirit and power, (there's his practice,) that your faith [...]ight not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God: there's his reason for it.) Men may lead us, as the Samaritan [...]oman did her Citizens, unto Christ, but unless our faith ulti­ [...]ately resolve, as theirs did, John 4.42. Now we believe not be­ [...]use of thy words, for we have heard him our selves, and know this indeed the Saviour of the world. It will stand totteringly upon sandy foundation.

Besides, as we must distinguish what honour we give to men, we must heedfully observe the time when we give it unto [...]em. When Christ is dishonoured, the Church reproached, [...] her unity broken, then is no time for Christians to seek their [...]wn honour; in this case it is enough that the disciple be as his ma­ [...]r, and the servant as his lord: for if they have called the master of the [...]use Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of the houshold, [...]atth. 10.25. 'Twas the high commendation of Valiant and [...]eligious Ʋriah, that he would not take his ease in his own [...]use, when the Ark of God, and his General Joab, lay in the field. Sam. 11.11. To be dishonoured with Truth, will bring more [...]e Comfort and Peace, and prove a greater Honour at latter [...]d, then to be honoured without it: Those (as Moses) God [...]ll honour: These (as the Pharisees) he will bring to shame. [...]or our indirect honouring, or being honoured by men, occa­ [...]neth a farther dishonour unto Truth; who unite to us, will [...]nd from her, and transform Verity into a Conspiracie, and [...]ith into Faction. Nothing being more certain and explored, [...]en when each hath the honoured head of his own party, seldom [...] never any hold the head of truth. S. Paul's carriage towards [...]e factious Corinthians is of excellent use, though rarely imi­ [...]ted. They had eclips'd the Majesty, and broke the Unity of [...]ruth, by setting too high a value upon, and having his per­ [...]n, and the persons of their other Teachers in an undue admi­ [...]tion, One was of Paul, another of Apolles, a third of Cephas, none [...]r Christian Concord or Communion. What doth the Apo­ [...]le in this case? Why he tears the Garland from off all their [...]eads, and sets it upon the Head of Christ, mightily endea­ [...]ouring that neither Paul, Apollos, or Cephas might be named a­mong [Page 164] them, but onely Christ, 1 Cor. 1.13, 14. Like we th [...] way and company, we shall not travail far, till we meet anothe [...] Apostle encouraging us to keep in it, and threatning us if w [...] stir out of it, that we shall be branded for the worst Haereticks for they, as we, have the persons of men in admiration, Jude v. 16 A bare cautelousness, not to be liable to this crime or punish­ment, may (I suppose) be my justification, for using such plai [...]ness and freedom of speech with dissenting, and (as I believe mistaken Brethren. It being each Church-Officers duty, (i [...] which Catalogue I am, though unworthy, enrolled) by an intu­ition of Charity, (perhaps Presbyterian parity may carry it fur­ther) to observe, bewail, and endeavor to redress what he per­ceives amiss in his Brethren: Other design I had not, in ex [...] ­mining, and dissenting from the aforesaid opinions. And I ho [...] I have pursued it with demonstration, and kept my self with [...] due limits. Sure I am, I have spar'd the Image of God in e [...] Dissenter, and not drop'd such black words to blot this pa [...] as Grotius in his vote for peace execrates in others, he na [...] them: and what he there writes, is not matter of opinion, [...] of fact. This shall suffice, and I hope will be sufficient to a [...]swer the first Objection.2. Object. Or Scandal given to all reform'd Churches. 1. Answer. Our contro­versie is not with Churches, but with parti­cular men.

But our Boat being cleared of one Rock, another threaten [...] yea we are charged to dash against Reformed Churches.

Answ. 1. The diligent Reader need not to be remembred how seldom I have mentioned Churches in this dispute; my bu­siness was and is with particular men, with whom supposing th [...] worst, that I have dealt too coursly, yet am I to learn that the Calvin, Beza, &c. are so many particular Churches, or that [...] of them together (with whom I have to deal by name) be o [...] Church, since they are all Ministers. But if Maresius his fig [...] Synecdoche must be brought into this place also, and we must [...] a part for the whole, accompt them Churches, because the [...] were Ministers, then I say, This will come little short of seatin [...] them in several Chairs of Papal Authority and Infallibility: an [...] we must be wary not to meddle with any of their Errours, lea [...] (as the Pope) they threaten us with a Catholick Church falling about our Ears. Reason tells us, That a City is not tainte [...] with the Treason of a few Inhabitants; and the Scripture assure [...] us, that the eleven were not degraded by Judas his apostacie. [...] the subsistence of any body, did depend upon the absolute sound­ness of every part, a could not long continue: The Head or the Heart may ake, and the body do well in time notwithstanding [Page 165] S. Paul reckoned up the several Factions in the Church of Corinth, made or abetted by her prophets and leading men, for which he very frequently and severely checks them by name, which assu­redly he would never have done, if it had injured the Catholick or that Church in particular. This might stop the mouth of the objection, would not clamorous Spirits hale it to Churches, and cry out, That (notwithstanding this evasion) I scandalize all reformed Churches. Of necessity therefore I must adde some thing more, though if I did not believe Truth dictated it, I would conceal it.

2. Reformation is a thing easier pleaded then proved:2 Answer. By distinguishing Reforma­tion into All that saith it is reformed, is not. Reformation (as Titles upon Apothecaries Boxes) may be written on the forehead where cor­ruption and deformitie's in the brain. Primitive Hereticks pro­mised others liberty, while themselves were the servants of corruption. What saith it is, no more then what seems to be, is not the same. But we are yet too general, that we may therefore resolve our Reader whether we have scandalized all or any Reformed Chur­ches, we shall consider Reformation, as it falls under considera­ [...]ion in a two-fold notion.1. Proper.

1. Proper. Reformation, properly so called, hath the same relation unto Formation, as Resurrection unto Life: that's of the same Body, this must be of the same Church: The Church is [...]hen reformed, when she is restored to her primitive constituti­on: what that was, may be collected from what hath been [...]lready handled in this discourse: but I know with whom I have [...]o do,Concilia coguntur, ut refor­mentur eccle­siae, ecclesiae sunt refor­mandae, ad formam omni­um optimam. Melior eccle­siae forma in­veniri, aut ex­cogitari non potest; illa, illata quam Christus per se & per suos A­postolos, ecclesiam initio constituit; & confirmavit. Qualis fuit illa veteris & Apostolicae ecclesiae forma tempore Christi & Apostolorum liquido & certo apparet, ex libris Aposto­lorum, & Evangelistarum probabiliter autem, ex reliquis post Apostolos antiquissimis ecclesiae scriptoribus. Et paulo post. Sunt igitur ad formam veteris, & Apostolicae ecclesiae, [...]mnes ecclesiae reformandae. Zanch. de regula Concilii. and am beforehand aware of how little credit whatever I shall say, will be with them. May they therefore hear what Reve­ [...]end Zanchy saith in this matter: He saith, Councils are to be con­ [...]ened for the Reformation of the Church: Churches are to be refor­med according to the best Form of all: a better Form of a Church cannot be found out, or imagined, then that according to which Christ by himself and by his Apostles in the beginning instituted and framed his Church: What was the form of that old and Apostolick Church in the time of Christ and of his Apostles, plainly and certainly ap­pears in the Books of the Apostles and Evangelists, and probably out of the other most antient Ecclesiastical Writers, after the Apostles: Therefore all Churches are to be reformed according to the Form of the antient and Apostolical Church. Thus he.

And let the Objectors shew me any one Church formed as the Primitive and Apostolick Church, which admitteth but of one teaching Order, I will bear the heavy burden of a Scandalizer of Reformed Churches, otherwise he who chargeth me with it, and cannot prove it, will be censured for a false Accuser. Pres­byterians usually appeal from Fathers and Councils, to the first Church, truly affirming, she is the prime Antiquity. All con­trary unto her (be it never so gray-headed) is Novelty, and to be censured as such. Content we are to attend the prosecution of their appeal at that Tribunal, let them prove the Church of Jerusalem, and any under Calvin's Discipline, to be alike consti­tuted, we will venerate both as the oldest and truest Church in the World. What the Church at Jerusalem was, soon appears; she was founded by descended Christ, in the twelve Apostles and seventy Disciples, confirmed after his Ascention in Apostles and Elders, both of them, Officers distinct in their Titles, and n [...] less in their Office-works, as hath been here and there hinted i [...] this Discourse, and shall be evidenced at large in that concerni [...] the Apostles. Now if Calvin's Church be thus constituted, [...] are all agreed, first, middlemost, and last Church-State is sti [...] the same, and the distinction betwixt ordinary and extraordina­ry officers is returned to the Brains of its first Forgers, to con­sume and rot with them. But if this new Church be not thus constituted, she is neither formed as the Church of Jerusalem was, nor reformed according to her Pattern or Example. The Church, like Theseus Ship, doth not retain an old name, under new materials, she is rib'd, and plank'd with the Tree of Life, Timber which can never rot, nor be worm-eaten, descended Christ is the Keel of her Ministry, ascended he builds her tigh [...] and Stanch, and will maintain her so, till the perfecting of the sain [...] and he as it were again descend, by surrendring up all ( [...] Mediatorian) power unto the Father, that God may be all i [...] all. But

2. Common or deptiangr from a Com­munion with a corrupt Church, in which sense al­so no reform'd Church is scandalized by this Discourse.Secondly, Reformation hath confessedly another notion; which for distinction-sake we may call its common signification. A Church is said to be reformed, so far as sshe frees her self from the corruption of a deformed Church, with whom she former­ly held communion and fellowship. This is an act of the high­est nature and most important consideration, to the whole State of Christianity, not to be thought of, much less attempted, till all other means have been tried and found fruitless: that we are all one body, minds us not lightly to consent to the abscision of [Page 167] any member, though corrupted, for till peril of gangreening be imminent and unavoidable, the grounds of hope are equal, that by good Medicines, and the strength and vigour in the sound parts, the corrupt may be assisted to expel the noxious humour, and amend, with those of fear, least the sound be concorrupted by them. Several Churches of Apostolical plantation, as Co­rinth, Galatia, &c. were full of gross humours, and corrupt members, but S. Paul doth not immediately threaten them with an excommunication, and cutting off from all other Churches; but contrariwise, he insists upon councels, intreaties, and pre­scribed Remedies, how they might reform themselves. But granting (as there may be) a just and reasonable cause for such departure and reformation from a corrupt Church; what is done should be apprehended and carried with the feeling of a Patient loosing a Limb, and with the Care and Conscience of a skilful Chyrurgion, who cut off no more then is ulcered, and not to be continued without danger to the body. To conclude corruption in all, from unsoundness in some members, is assu­redly destructive to every body, either Natural, Civil, or Eccle­siastical. A foul Church hath some part clean, or she is no Church at all. Neither doth Reformation terminate in the ut­termost imaginable distance from her, but in keeping as far from her, as she is from her self when she was primitive. The name Reformation assures us, that once she had a right form, and retains some part of it, otherwise she cannot be reformed, but must be formed a Church ere she be one. A Mahumetan doth not reform, but turn Christian. Recession from what a corrupt Church holds in common with the primitive, is no Reformation, but an equal departure from both. Wherefore let the Objector prove, that all Churches thus reformed from Romish superstition, allow of the distin­ction betwixt Ordinary and Extraordinary Officers, and practi­cally admit but of one teaching Order of Ministers, we will take no disadvantage to his prejudice of his former failure, but we are certain he equally failes in this, as in the other, for be­sides the Saxonish, Swedish, Danish, (not to mention the Greek and Abyssyne) the Church of England (not onely the fairest Flower in, but the Wall and Defence about the whole Gar­den of Reformation) excludes her self from their number: She being divinely directed in her Reformation unto this bles­sed temper, she left the corruptions of present Rome, and was content to hold Communion with her (if she pleased) in what was Rome primitive, whereby at once she avoided the scandal of [Page 168] Novelty and Faction, and left an open door to Rome her self to reform, if she listed. Her Judgement about extraordinary Ministers,Articles of the Church of En­gland, Art. 23. she delivers thus: It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the Office of publick preaching, or ministring the Sacraments in the congregation, before he be lawfully called, and sent to execute the same; and those we ought to judge to be lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this work by men, who have publick authority given them in the congregation, to call and send Ministers into the Lords vineyard. Thus the Article. And for the Orders of her Ministers, she judged it unsafe to invent a new frame, because of corruption in the Romish Hierarchy, but veiwing the primitive constitution of Apostles and Elders, how comely doth she frame her self by Bishops and Priests, (not Sacrificers, but the contraction of Presbyters) both distinctly named in her Book of Articles, whereunto all her Ministers were sworn, and those who were conscientious of their Oaths, strenuously de­fended both against Rome and Geneva. The distinguishing Rails betwixt which two Orders, she visibly placed in a solemn and peremptory confinement of either Officer within and exercise of different official Actions.

It cannot be denied, but in the Crisis of her late, and in some measure yet-continuing Agony, she was hardly able to put forth her power according to her principles, which rash judging ill­willers imputed to the crazedness of her first frame, not to the multitude of ill humours, then drawing to a consistencie, and heading in the Distemper under which she yet labours; yea even at that time so out-ragiously violent upon her, that if any of her more obedient Sons durst assert the Divine Right of her higher Order of Officers, he was instantly clamoured against for a No­velist, because Faction had over-perswaded her open-ear'd par­ty, that it was grounded upon an Act of Parliament, not Christs Institution. A cavil begotten by want of will, or skill, to di­stinguish betwixt what was meerly, what mixtly Ecclesiastical in their Jurisdiction, or what they held under King CHRIST, what under King CHARLES. But let's observe while she was yet in vigour, (when the onely true Judgement can be made of her) how she muzzles the Mouth of that Cavil, and strikes through the Loyns of that Objection. In that famous conference at Hampton Court, upon King James his entrance upon the Government of the Realm of England, Bishop Bancroft prote­sted before the King, the most honourable Personages, and the greatest Opposers of Ecclesiastical Government by Bishops, in [Page 169] the Kingdom,Conference at Hampton-Court. That unless he could prove his ordination lawful out of Scripture, he would not be a Bishop four hours longer. This spo­ken upon this occasion, in such a place, and before such a pre­sence, cannot be turned off as one Doctors opinion.Preface to the Book of the Form of Or­dination. But this is not all we have to say in this matter: The whole Church of Eng­land professeth, That it is evident to all men diligently reading the Scripture, and ancient Authors, that from the Apostles time there have been these Orders of Ministers in Christs Church, Bishops, Priests and Deacons. And in the ordination of Bishops, she hath [...]hese words, in the exhortation of the people to pray for the Elect, viz. Brethren it is written in the Gospel of S. Luke, that our Saviour Christ continued the whole night in prayer, or ever he did [...]huse and send forth his twelve Apostles. That the Disciples which were at Antioch did fast and pray, or ever they laid hands upon, or [...]ent forth Paul and Barnabas. Let us therefore following the exam­ [...]le of our Saviour Christ, and his Apostles, first fall to pray, or that we admit and send forth this person presented unto us, unto the work thereunto we trust the holy Ghost hath called him. In the prayer she [...]ith, That it may please thee to bless this our Brother elected, and to [...]nd thy grace upon him, that he may duely execute the office whereun­ [...] he is called, to the edifying of thy Church, and to the honour, [...]raise and glory of thy name. And furthermore, she adds, Almigh­ [...]y God, Giver of all good things, which by thy holy Spirit hast ap­ [...]ointed diverse Orders of Ministers in thy Church, mercifully behold his thy servant, now called to the work and ministry of a Bi­ [...]op. Nor did she content her self with saying so, for when [...]ome Sheep marked by forraign Shepherds, (or Presbyters or­ [...]ained by Presbyters) desired the Communion of her Fold, at [...]he beginning of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, she shore off their [...]ut-landish Mark, and caused them to receive hers, ere she ad­ [...]itted them. This Smectymnuus acknowledgeth: they say,Smectym. p. 5. When some of our Brethren who flying in Queen Mary's days, had [...]ceived imposition of hands beyond the Seas, returned again in Queen Elizabeth's days, they were urged again to receive imposition of hands [...]rom our Bishops, and some of them did receive it. This they urge as horrid and unpardonable crime in Episcopacie, at a time when very charge was adjudged a convicted crime, and no Writ of Errour or Defence might be admitted or argued. But may they [...]ow be pleased to hear,

1. That Ordination was never committed to Presbyters in [...]he Apostles days; and that for them to take more now, then was then allowed them, is to reform primitive Institutions, by present practices.

[Page 170]2. That their great Patron S. Jerom appropriates Ordination to Episcopacy, as an Act differencing it from Presbytery: And whereas they tell us, Bishops and Presbyters are all one Order, Episcopacie being onely a Degree of the same Order, above Presbytery; we must answer them, That this mud is raked out of the standing pits of the Schoolmen,Ordinatur om­nis ordo ad sa­cramentum Eucharistiae Tho. Aquin. 3. per sum. Q. 40. Art. 5. and hath no colour but their wrong Definition of Ecclesiastical Order, namely, Tha [...] the supremity thereof is the administration of the Eucharist; wherea [...] this was a work commonly done both by Apostles and Presbyters, in the primitive time, consequently the affixing of a parity of Or­der to all of its Administrators, must necessarily remove all for­mer difference betwixt the first Apostles and Presbyters, whe [...] yet Scripture is in nothing more exact then the maintenance [...] such diversity; it frequently assigning distinct official works un­to the Apostles, as Ordination of Ministers, exercise of Ce [...] ­sure, &c. Besides the same Schoolmen, when they give Order i [...] proper Definition, are neeessitated to ackowledge that Episco [...]cie is an Order distinct from Presbytery:Episcopatus non est ordo, ni­si secundum quod, ordo of­ficium quod­dam est ad sa­cras actiones. Tho. Aquin. 3. per summae quaest. 40. Art. 5. conclus. Alio modo po­test considera­ri ordo secun­dum quem est officium quod­dam respectu quarundam a­ctionum sacra­rum, & sic cum Episcopus habeat pote­statem in acti­onibus Hierarchicis respectu corporis mystici supra Sacerdotem Episcopatus erit [...] Id. ibid. ad primum. Ordo est signaculum quoddam Ecclesiae per quod spiritualis potestas traditur ordinat [...] Lomb. lib. 4. sentent. dist. 24. Atqui discrimen hoc Episcopi, & Presbyteri, Divino Jure, per Christi institutionem se [...] per fuit in Ecclesia designatum. Id ibid. they say, Episcopaci [...] not an Order, unless in this respect, that order is a certain Office ( [...] ­culty or power) to do some sacred actions. And moreover, O [...] may be considered in another sense, in which respect it is a certai [...] Office Relative to some sacred actions; and so since the Bishop hat [...] power in some Hierarchick ctions above a Presbyter, respecting th [...] Body mystical so far forth Episcopacie will be an Order. With th [...] agrees the grand Definition Order, framed by the Father of th [...] Schoolmen, or the Master of the Sentences, which is, Order [...] a certain Ecclesiastical Signature, by which spiritual p [...]wer is give to the ordained, But the Episcopal Consecration capacitates f [...] several Church-works, as Ordination, Confirmation, &c. wh [...] none without it can do; therefore those acts do as really d [...]rence the Bishop from a Presbyter, as administration of the [...]craments, or giving of Absolution differenceth a Presbyter fro [...] a Deacon. In the same place the same person saith, This diff [...]rence betwixt a Bishop and a Presbyter was always marked out by i [...] institution to be of Divine Right in the Church; for Christ ordain [Page 171] his Apostles Bishops, as S. Augustine in his Questions upon the old [...]nd new Testament, takes for most assured, whereas Presbyters onely [...]upply the places of the seventy two Diseiples, as Pope Anacletus teach­ [...]th. I cite the words of my Author, but let no man boggle at [...]hem, for Popery was not what is now, when Anacletus was Bi­ [...]hop of Rome, and instances shall not be wanting in the tract of Apostles, that this was not Anacletus his single opinion: Learn­ed Doctor Davenant late Bishop of Salisbury, after a brief view of the Schoolmens opinions, saith, It sufficeth us, Nobis sufficit (hac verbo­rum velitati­one seposita) si ostendamus, cos, qui appro­priate vocan­tur, Episcopos habere digni­tatem altorem potestatem ma­jorem & emi­nentiora officia sibi annexa, quam habent alii Presbyte­ri idque verbo Dei minime repugnante. Sed parum est quod dicimus non repugnante, nam in verbo divino adumbratam delineatam, & ab Apostolis ipsis constabilitam fuisse hanc Episcoporum, supra Presbyteros eminentiam, facile est demonstrare. Dav. deter. quaest. Theol. q. 42. Tria autem sunt insignia Episcoporum propria, quibus facile a caeteris Presbyteris di­stinguantur ceterisque superiores agnoscantur. (this skirmish­ [...]ng of words being dismissed) to shew that those who appropriately are called Bishops, have a higher Dignity, a greater Power, and more [...]minent offices annexed to them, then have other Presbyters; and that not opposed by the word of God; but we have said too little in affirm­ing that it is not opposed by the word of God; for 'tis easie to demon­ [...]trate that this eminencie of Bishops above Presbyters is adumbrated, delineated, and established by the Apostles in the word of God. In the same determination a consulter of the place may observe how he proves this Assertion by Analogie from the Jewish Church, and positively by the institution and practice of Christ and his Apostles. And furthermore he adds; That there are three proper Ornaments of Bishops, whereby they are easily distinguished from other Presbyters, and may be acknowledged to be superiour un­to them, Viz.

First, 1. Quod in ci­vitatibus quantumvis amplis & po­pulosis in quibus plures Presbyteri creabantur, unicum tantum Episcopum ordinarunt Aposto­li cui decedenti, alius singulariter in eadem sede succedebat. When many Presbyters were created in large and populous cities, the Apostles ordained onely one Bishop, upon whose decease a­nother singly succeeded.

Secondly, Right and power of Ordination, 2. Jus & po­testas ordinan­di quae ab Apostolis ad Episcopos transmissa, Presbyteris autem inferioribus denegata est. transmitted by the A­postles unto Bishops, and denied unto inferiour Presbyters.

Thirdly, Power of Jurisdiction, 3. Jurisdicti­onis potestas. Non modo su­pra Laicos, sed supra Clericos, etiam Apostolica institutione Episcopis subjectos. Id ibid. whereby both Clergy and Laity were subjected by Apostolical Institution unto Bishops.

I readily acknowledge this learned man doth not call Episcopa­cy an Order (for what reasons he himself knew best.) Bu [...] whether to say; Bishops appropriately so called, have a [...] higher dignity, a greater power, and more eminent Officers annex [...] to them by Christs institution, and Apostolick practice: All which he afterwards particularly enumerates (as hath been already hinted) do not import and imply as much, as if he had called them a distinct Order I leave to judicious men to determine, since the essentials of Order, [...] ex secunda Apo­logia Athan. pag. 570. ex officina Con­melin. or superiority over inferiours, and right power of doing distinct Office-works, is thereby al­lowed unto Bishops. But to proceed.

Thirdly, That the Church of England in this annulling of Presbyterian Ordination, as she kept close to her own constitu­tion, so followed the fairest Copy of least questioned Antiqui­ty; when Aerianisme (or modern Presbyterianisme call i [...] which you will, for 'tis one Tragedy acted by several persons upon divers Stages) first sprouted in the arrogant practice [...] Collythus, who being a Presbyter and no more, and presum [...] to ordain Presbyters, the Patriarchal Synod gathered out Egypt, Thebais, Lybia, and Pentapolis, and and assembled [...] Alexandria, declare all his Ordinations null, all ordained by him to be reduced among the Laity for this only reason, or be­cause Collythus died a Presbyter; nay more, the second Coun­cil of Spain upon relation of a certain Bishop (then dead) who by reason of a pain in his eyes (in his life time) did only lay on hands in the ordination of one Presbyter and two Deacons, Relatum est nobis de qui­husdam cleri­cis quorum dum unus ad Presbyterium duo ad vita­rum ministeri­um sacraren­tur. Episco­pus oculorum dolore detentus, manum suam super eos tantum imposuisse, Presbyter quidam qui contra ecclesiasticum ordinem benedictionem dedisse, qui licet propter tantum audaci­am poterat accusatus damnari, tamen quia jam ille examini divino relictus humano judicit accusari non potest, hi qui supersunt gradum sacerdotii, vel Levitici ordinis, quem perverse adepti sunt, amittant. Concil. secund. Hispalen. can. 5. ex sum Concil. edit. per Caran­zam Rothomag. 1633. suffering a ba [...] Presbyter to give the blessing unto them against ecclesiastical order. They decreed, if the Bishop had been alive, he ought to be accused and condemned for this boldness, and that the Presbyter and D [...] ­cons so ordained, should loose the degree of the Priesthood, and Deac [...] ship, which they had perversely obtained.

Thus warranted our Church of England acted at home to main­tain her constitution, and to give her testimony against the contrary; and was she afraid, or ashamed to do it abroad? no, but sending several of her renowned Sons to assist in the Synod [Page 173] of Dort, where the Orders of Church-officers were Presbyteri­ally defined: She entered this solemn protestation against it, unto which no answer was then given,Interea ta­men de disci­plina paucis monet, nun­quam in eccle­sia obtinuisse ministrorum paritatem; non tempore Christi ipsius tunc enim duodecim A­postoli erant septuaginta discipulis su­periores. Non Apostolorum aetate; non subsecutis saeculis: nec valere rationem in hac confessione usurpatam, nempe qui­a omnes sunt aeque ministri Christi; nam septuaginta discipuli erant ministri Christi, non tamen Apostolis aequales, & omnes omnino homines sunt aeque homines, non tamen inde homo homini subesse non debet, haec non ad harum ecclesiarum offensionem, sed ad nostrae anglicanae defensionem, monuisse professus est. Synod. Dordracen. sess. 145. See the joynt attestation of the English Divines, Anno. 1626. nor is any like to be gi­ven unto the worlds end. Viz. In the mean time he declareth (viz. the Bishop of Landaffe, in the name of himself, and of his Reve­rend Collegues, Bishop Hall, Bishop Davenant, Doctor Goad, Doctor Ward, and Doctor Belcanqual) in a few words, that a Pa­rity never took place in Christs time, for then the twelve Apostles were superiour to the seventy Disciples; not in the Apostles time, nor in the following ages; neither is the reason used in this confession of any force; to wit, that all are equally the Ministers of Christ, for the seventy Disciples were the Ministers of Christ; but therefore they were not equal to the Apostles, and all men are equally men, but thence doth not follow, that one man ought not to be subject to ano­ther. This he professeth to have declared not in offence of these Churches, but in defence of the Churches of England.

This Doctrine thus professed, practiced, and protested both at home and abroad, was so deeply rooted in English mens minds, that our Assembly of Divines durst not in their confession of Faith, revive the distinction betwixt ordinary, & extraordinary officers, or so much as name it. I take notice of ther advice, afterwards presented to the Parliament about Church Government.In the fifth Exception. It being attempered unto Policy, and the then State of affairs, but not Justifiable by Scripture Rule, or the antient Ecclesiastical Practice. This the Dissenting brethren abundantly prove, who (as we have heard) call the Presbyterian Government, a Govern­ment not established upon a Jus divinum, but settled by the State. And prove it to beTheir reasons a­gainst the Presbyterian government irrational, andTheir rea­sons against the subordi­nation of standing Sy­nods. 1. it is proved from what the Pres­byterian; and alibi passim. worse then Episcopal, or Papal. Do any say, the Assembly omitted all treaty of Church-officers in their confession of Faith. I answer, that contradicts not what I said, but such their omission may beget a question, which themselves only can resolve, namely why their confessi­on, repugnantly to the confessions of all other Churches, makes no mention of the Ministry; Sure I am, their Scotish brethern, give a solemn caution about it; they say, Least our intentions, and meaning be in some particulars misunderstood, 'tis hereby expresly [Page 174] provided, and declared, that the not mentioning in this confession of the several sorts of Ecclesiastical Officers and Assemblies, shall be no prejudice to the truth of Christ, Act of ge­neral Assem­bly prefixed to our Assem­blies confessi­on of faith. to be expressed fully in the Directory of government. The result of all this is, that the Church of En­land was, and is one of those reformed Churches, who doth not own this distinction betwixt ordinary, and extraordinary Officers, and gives her reasons why she doth not; till which are answered, the favourers of the distinction complain unjustly of their dissatisfaction, or of our scandalizing of all reformed Churches. But did I say the Church of England doth not own the distinction? I must say more; she needed not to own it, be­cause her Reformation was effected by ordinary Officers, as the Ark used to be carried upon Levites shoulders; neither was any noise, or tumult heard within all her borders, except the joy­ful, hearty, and universal acclamations of the people, every where crying grace, grace, unto it. We proceed to the la [...] Objection.Obj. 3. that we give the Roman Syna­gogue occasi­on to blas­pheme.

Obj. 3. Not only Calvin, &c. but the whole Reformation hereby set bare-brested against the fiery darts of Roman bla [...] ­phemies.

I answer, First, I grant this crafty Adversary singles out our Reformists opposition unto truth (if any be) or contradiction one unto another,1. Ans. concession how far Pa­pists may take it. as the fittest place to raise his battery against the whole Reformation. But,

Secondly, The whole Reformation is not concerned in this charge,2 Ans. Ne­gation; that we give it. for the reasons expressed in the last Paragraph of our an­swer unto the second Objection: and if any part of the Reforma­tion be chargeable, must we conceal their weakness, that the Adversary may securely make his breach, and enter at pleasure [...] To what purpose shut we our eyes against what they see? [...] less their eyes be covered under our lids: Doth not the Li [...] see the silly beast when he hides his head, and doth not see the Lion? Who writ Ministromachia, and how long since is per­fectly known to any,Stanislaus Rescius. who is but moderately acquainted with our controversies: Doth the Roman Synagogue blaspheme? Are they to be blamed who gave the occasion, or those who endeavour to take it away? When will we be, if we be not yet, sensible what advantage the Pope hath gotten, by the seldome agreeing together of some men, but when they fight him? And might not the miserable ends of the seditious Captains at Jerusalem, when besieged by Titus Vespasian (if we wanted an experiment) tell us what would be the issue? This we shall [Page 175] not question, but can resolve, that the different constitution be­twixt the Reformed Church of England, and others also dignified with the same Title, had long since been observed, and (I doubt not) highly improved to the advantage of the Papacy. Gualte­rus the Jesuite could ask the French Reformists before I was born; By what law of truth or reason, Praeterea quanam veri­tatis aut con­scientiae lege, fratres apel­lare audent ministros Angliae, qui habent inter se episcopos, & Archiepisco­pos, eos (que) sim­plicibus mini­stris, ita au­thoritate, & potestate supe­riores, ut nul­la propemo­dum inter u­tros (que) compa­ratio existat. Gualter. Tu­bul. Chrono­graph. pag. 298. they dare call the Ministers of England their brethren, who have Bishops, and Archbishops a­mong them, so far superiour to common Ministers, that no comparison may be made betwixt them; Now must we suffer those Rabshakey's to proceed in their reproaches, and close our lips, least speaking we wake a sleeping Faction? What do all men of different judgments, tenderly suffer their dessenting brethren to go on un­molested in their own wayes? Did we never hear of Calvins Discipline in England? or hath our Church received no preju­dice by any of his Emissaries? If he be right lets close with him, and hold together the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace? If he be wrong, 'tis a shame to us not to be as free, diligent, and open in the maintenance of truth, as he, or his are for the propagation of errour; how lustily he, or his party endeavour it, and that with explicite abhorrency, and overt expressions to render all contrary constitutions odious, appears so frequent­ly in their writings, as it would savour of no industry to trans­cribe particular quotations: Let me only add to this Section, that all the labours of the society of Jesuites, since the first foundation of their Order, have not so much settled the triple Crown upon the Popes head, or dissettled the reformed interest, as the tepidness of some luke-warm defenders of the Discipline of the Church of England, whilst it stood, and the violence and rage of ignorant Zealots against it, since its shaking. We know who said it; Because they received not the truth in the love of it, that they might be saved, God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lye. 2 Thess. 2.10, 11. But,

Thirdly,3. Ans. re­tortion upon the Papists. What do the Factors of the man of Sin take heart, and resolve that Rome shall once again be the only mart for trading, since the Reformists, or some of them are guilty of such indirect and unhandsome dealings; may they know, she will get little by the bargain, because much of this Ware lyes upon her Merchants hands already; for instance, did not Hilde­brand the root, and foundation of the present Papacy, a man of far greater repute with them, then any of the forementioned are with us, profess his election to be extraordinary, Naucler. generat. 36. and of St. Pe­ters choice, when he intruded upon the Papacy without the will of [Page 176] the elector Cardinals: This past for a currant History, and Tra­dition before Luthers dayes, for the Relator Nauclerus lived, and ends his History with the precedent Century; And is to this day so well approved by the Roman Church, that Gualterus the Jesuite affords him a place in his Catalogue of holy writers. I will not turn mine, or my Readers stomack, by raking in the writings of Surius Metaphrastes, pratum spirituale, or the golden legend; which are the common Lay-stals of such Church filth rak't into heaps, and dunghils. Baronius, the most advantage­ous, and admired writer of the Annals of the Romane Church; well knowing how light many of her Monastical, and Pontifical practices would weigh, without the allowance of some grains of extraordinary callings and Revelations; Hangs his History very thick with those forgeries: For instance, hath any light Huswife a dislike against her Husband, and his family, and lust to travail with some errant Frier; how opportunely doth she meet St. Thecla in the very entrance of his History (bare fourteen years after Christs Ascension) divinely moved to forsake he Spouse, and gad about with St. Paul from place to place in his travails. And when by the Law, that then was, she was expo­sed to the Lyons, they became tame, and fawned upon her. All which we esteem more slightly, then the most undervaluing words can express, because they are so contrary to St. Pauls Doctrine, 1 Cor. 7.13. ad fin. 16. and doubtless to his pra­ctice; for he would not say one thing and do another; which Text, and others such like, were so busie with the Cardinals conscience (though he name them not) that after he had rela­ted this passage,Ad propri­a reverti, ne poneret offen­diculum evangelio. Baron. ad Ann. Christi 47. Ʋtor Epito­me Henrici Spondani, Im­pressa Franco­furti. 1614. Baron. ad unde. Ann. and others concerning her, he introduceth St. Paul rating at her, and commanding her to return to her own (Spouse, House, Country, least she caused the Gospel to be evi [...] spoken of.

Besides, Is any puft up with the Tympany of a private Spirit, and not having yet made shipwrack of his Faith and Consci­ence, is expectant ere he launcheth further into that Whirle­pit, whether such a notion have any president in the Church Antiquities; his eminency will assure him, that Gregory Thauma­tourgus, or the wonder-working Gregory in the year of Christ 234. did receive from the hands of the Virgin Mary, and of St. John the Evangelist, a rule of Faith verbatim, concerning the perfect knowledge of the Trinity.

The same Cardinal saith, that St. Jerome was converted upon sight of an Angel, Ad ann. 386. speaking in the ear of St. Ambrose, preaching [Page 177] unto the Millanois. And that the same St. Ambrose; the same day wherein he dyed at Millain in the West, was seen in the East, (i. e. some part of the Greek Empire) praying, and laying his hands upon several persons. Indeed the Cardinal doth not tell us, whether it were in confirmation, or ordination, but the matter is not much, since both of them belonging to Episcopal administrati­on; and St. Ambrose could then as well do one as another, and both of them as easily as one. And if he did ordain, what a multitude of extraordinary Officers might he make?

Thus (he also tells us) how St. Proclus, then St. Chrysostomes disciple, and afterwards his successor in the Patriarchate of Constantinople, saw St. Paul leaning over his masters chair, Fidem fecit se saepius vi­disse. Baron. ad Ann. Chri­sti. 407. Os admoventem auri dextrae Id. ibid. Cum quid de sacris lite­ris scribere vellet. Baron. ad Ann. Chri­sti 604. while he was writing. But least any one should be so hard of belief, as to question one Satins testimony of another, the Cardinal adds That St. Proclus was deposed, that he saw it often: And had so clear a view of St. Paul at his apparition, that it was one part of his oath, that he saw the Apostle putting his mouth to St. Chrysostoms right ear.

Moreover he adds, that John the Deacon constantly saw the holy Ghost in the form of a Dove, sitting at St. Gregories right ear, when he commented any thing upon Scripture. A relation so vene­rably received by, and put so farr out of dispute with our fore­fathers, that St. Gregory was alwaies pictured with a Dove at his ear.

But what if this extraordinary, and private spirit speak mista­kingly, by the tongue of the Enthusiast? will it tell him as the true did St. Paul (even then when he spake truth) that bonds and afflictions abide him? no; Baronius hath provided him of a Reprieve, no other, nor worse man then sweet St. Bernard shall bayle him from imprisonment, and answer the Action for him. The story is in short thus, St. Bernard was a busy instigator of Lewes the seventh and his Frenchmen, to undertake the Pilgri­mage War in Palestine, then propounded by Pope Eugenius (Bernards quondam fellow Monk.) The good Saint promised the over credulous King mountains of success, and profit here, and a Paradise of unspeakable glory hereafter: He, and his people fly into the expedition, but suddenly their wings are clipt; all things happen contrary to their expectation, and St. Bernards Prophesie; hereat sober men storm and rage, and St. Bernard being yet alive and uncanonized, his Holyness and truth are called in question, and he good man, and his friends for him are forced to Apologize, wherein among other things in his behalf, [Page 178] we read, That he indeed by divine inspiration did perswade unto this service, Ipsum qui­dem spiritu Dei afilatum, expeditionem illam suasisse, sed vel eos, qui eam suscepe­rant, ob super­biam, lasciviam (que) suam, salutaria mandata non observantes merito rerum, & personarum dispendium tulisse: vel sic variis tribulationibus a peccatis purgatos, opportune a Deo erep­tos esse, ex hac vita, ne diutius in ea permanentes, pejora forte prioribus scelera, in suam per­niciem animarum perpetrarent. Baron. ad Ann. Christi. 1156. but the undertakers, either out of pride, or lasciviousnes not observing wholsome Councils, deservedly suffered the loss of their lives and fortunes, or being thus purged from their sins by manifold tribu­lations, God took them out of this life, least continuing any longer therein they might trespass a new, and more grievously to the utter de­struction of their souls.

Multitudi­nem Angelo­rum qui cecide rant exiis qui in expeditione mortui erant, restauratam esse. Baron. u­bi supra, & Bernardi. E­pist. Epist. 333.This John Abbot of Casemary not only promoted, but withal protestated to St. Bernard himself: that St. Paul, and St. John, did Saepius visitare, or very often visit their Covent, of whom it be­ing demanded what became of the souls of those slaughtered bodies, they answered (he calls it certissima revelatio, or a most undoubt­ed Revelation) that they were translated into heaven, to supply [...] vacancy left there by the Apostacy of the fallen Angels. Hereupo [...] St-Bernard is absolved from all blame, and Baronius observes in the same place and year, that Henry, King Lewes his brother (St. Bernard having before hand prophesied of his conversion) was shorn a Monk of the Cistercian order. And undoubtedly this laid a foundation for the willingness of the next succeeding Generation to adventure again upon the same expedition, with worse success under St. Lewes.

If all this be not sufficient to convince a Papist, how justly what we have reproved in some Reformists, is chargeable up­on his Faction, let him cast his eye upon the stollen feather wherewith Bellarmin tricks, and imps forth the train of the pr [...]ent Church of Rome, particularly these two; namelyBell. de Eccles. mili­tant. not. 11. to glory of her Miracles, andId. ibid not. 12. Prophetick light yet continuing. These he calls Church-marks, but to my observation they point out nothing, except the diffidence of the Church of Rome to adventure a tryal of her verity by the doctrine of the Scrip­tures: However, were they not a back of Steel to the weak bow of her cause, she had long since brake with the violent draughts of Wil-worship and Superstition. Neither could the innumerable swarms of religious Sects (all whose thighs are la­den, either with somewhat contrary unto truth, or one unto another) have ever been hived, or cloistered without the tink­ling of such pretended Prophesies, and extraordinary Miracles. [Page 179] I call them extraordinary, because they are so divers in their [...]auses, and effects from the true Miracles. They proceeded [...]rom, and were wrought by the power of God to confirm true Doctrine: These are base brats of mens deluded imaginations, or Sathanical sleights purposely excogitated to infirm true Do­ctrine, and establish the contrary. But let us not wander from our path. The fore-observed use of these pretended Revela­ [...]ions, and pious deceipts was providently foreseen by Bellar­mine; when in proof of Prophetick light yet continuing,Et quidem monachi & Romano Pon­tifici addicti Bell. not. Ec­cles. not. 12. he [...]nstanceth in the Prophesies of St. Benedict, and St. Bernard. And when answering to Luther, objecting that the Church of Rome hath received a bill of divorce from God; he saith, There have [...]een true Prophets in every age, who were Monks, and sworn men [...]o the Pope. This might suffice in proof of the guiltiness of the Papists, in supporting the worst part of their Abominations, with extraordinary Revelations, and Ordinations of men to Office. But we have somewhat more to add, which we desire [...]ur Reader seriously to consider: It is, The whole foundation of [...]he Papacy stresseth upon this distinction betwixt ordinary, and extra­ [...]rdinary Officers. This will appear in several instances.

First, Calvin objecting, Ephes. 4.11. to exclude the Pope [...]rom his arrogated power in the Church, because the Text [...]oth not mention him, or his Office,Responde [...] Pontificatum summum esse diserte posi­tum in illis verbis, & po­suit alios qui­dem Apostolos, siquidem sum­ma ecclesiasti­ca potestas [...]n solum data est Petro sed etiam aliis Apostolis, omnes enim poterant dicere illud Pauli. 2 Cor. 11. instantia mea quotidiana cura omnium ecclesiarum, sed Petro data est ut ordinario pastori, cui perpetuo succederetur; aliis vero tanquam delegatis, quibus non succederetur. [...]ell. de Rom. Pontif. lib. 1. ca. 9. Vid. etiam Franciscum Suarez. in sua defensione fidei Catholicae. lib. 3. ca. 11. Sect. 12. is answered by Bellar­ [...]ine; The Pontificate is expresly placed in the word Apostles; In­ [...]eed the highest Ecclesiastical power is not only given to Peter, but al­ [...]o to the other Apostles; for all of them could say, that of Paul, 2 Cor. 11. that which cometh upon me daily, the care of all [...]he Churches, but it was given unto Peter, as unto the or­ [...]inary Pastor, who should perpetually have successors, to the other A­ [...]ostles it was given as to Delegates, who could have no succes­ [...]rs.

Again,Non eodem modo quo Pe­trus, illi enim habebant [...]ummam, atque amplissimam potestatem, ut Apostoli, seu delegati. Petrus autem ut pastor [...]rdinarius, Id. de Rom. Pontif. lib. 1. ca. 11. Sect. tribus modis dicuntur. when our Divines argue for a Parity among all the Apostles, because they are all called Foundations. Bellarmin an­ [...]wers. They are not Foundations in the same manner that Peter is, for [Page 180] they had the cheifest and most ample power as Apostles, or Delegates; but Peter had it as the ordinary Pastor.

Elsewhere he tells us, that we may understand that this cheif po­wer was committed to all the Apostles as to Delegates, Ʋt autem intelligeremus hanc summam potestatem col­latam Aposto­lis omnibus, ut legatis, non ut pastoribus ordinariis, & cum quadam subjectione. ad Petrum, soli Petro dicitur, Joh. 21, Pasce oves meas, quemadmodum solum illi dictum erat, Tibi dabo claves. Claves enim regni ut principalis, & ordinarius praefectus, tunc solum accepit, cum audivit pasce oves meas. Bell. de Pontif. Roman. lib. 1. ca. 12. not ordina­ry Pastors; and that with some subjection unto Peter, because it is only said to Peter, feed my sheep, as it was only said to him, to thee will I give the keyes, &c. for he then only received the keyes of the kingdome, as the principal and ordinary Governour, when he heard those words, Feed my sheep.

Besides, when we object against the Popes Primacy; the constant opinion of all the Antients, about the s [...]ccession of all duly ordained Bishops unto the Apostles, and that the Pop [...] own Councils, congregated even since he is gotten upon a Pinacle of the Temple; namely the Councils of Florence, an [...] Trent have defined for the Bishops; the words of the Council [...] Trent, because it was the last assembly of that nature, and by the Papists is accounted to be a general Council, I shall transcribe, viz. The holy Synod declareth that Bishops (who do succeed in the place of Apostles) do principally appertain to this Hierarchick Order, Sacrosancta Synodus de­clarat episco­pos (qui in Apostolorum locum successerunt) ad hunc, Hie­rarchicum or­dinem preci­pue pertinere & positos (sicut Aposto­los ait) a spiritu sancto, regere ecclesiam Dei, eos (que) Presbyteris superiores esse, ac sacramentu [...] confirmationis conferre, ministros ecclesiae ordinare, atque alia pleraque peragere ipsos posse, quarum functionum potestatem, reliqui inferioris ordinis nullam habent. Decret. 7. sess Cap. 4. Si quis dixerit in ecclesia catholica, non esse Hierarchiam divina ordinatione instituta [...] quae constat ex episcopis, Presbyteris, &c. Anathema sit. Can. 6. and are placed (as the Apostle saith) by the holy Ghost to rule the Church of God, and that they are superiour unto Presbyters. And that they can confer the Sacrament of confirmation, ordain Ecclesiastical Mi­nisters, and perform many other things; the power to do which, the rest of the inferiour order of Ministers have not. And in their Ca­nons in corroboration of this Decree, they say, If any shall s [...] that there is not an Hierarchy of Divine Ordination in the Catholic [...] Church, which consisteth of Bishops, Presbyters, &c. let him be Anathema.

Si quis dixerit episco­pos non esse Presbyteris superiores, vel non habere potestatem confirmandi, & ordinandi [...] eamquam habent illis esse cum Presbyteris communem, &c. Anathema sit Can. 7.And again; If any shall affirm that Bishops are not superiour [...] Presbyters, or that they have not a power of confirmation and ordina­tion, [Page 177] or that what power they have is common to them with Presby­ters, &c. let him be Anathema.

But Bellarmine is Antahema proof, and turns them off,Respondes magnum esse discrimen, inter successionem Petri, & ali­orum Apostolo­rum nam Ro­manus Ponti­fex proprie succedit Petro non ut Aposto­lo, sed ut Pa­stori ordinario totius ecclesiae, & ideo ab illo habet Romanus Pontifex Jurisdictionem, a quo habuit Petrus. At episcopi proprie non succedunt Apostolis, quoniam Apostoli non fue­runt ordinarii, sed extraordinarii, & quasi delegati Pastores, quibus non succeditur. Bell. de Rom. Pontif. lib. 4. ca. 25. toge­ther with the authority of the Council with this peremptory answer, viz. I answer, there is a vast difference betwixt the suc­cession of Peter, and of the other Apostles, for the Roman high Priest doth not properly succeed Peter as an Apostle, but as the ordinary Pastor of the whole Church. And therefore the Roman high Priest hath his jurisdiction from him, from whom Peter received it. But Bishops do not properly succeed Apostles, because the Apostles were not ordinary, but extraordinary, and as it were delegated Pastors, who could have no successors.

This is Bellarmines opinion, and generally received, and maintained by all the modern Champions of the Papacy, now let who will be Judge, whether in the overthrow of the distin­ction betwixt ordinary, and extraordinary Officers, I do grati­fie the Papists, or rather at once decry both Papal, and Pres­byterial usurpations upon Episcopacy, neither let any wonder why I couple these two seeming opposite Factions, for as to the maintenance of this distinction, I find them no farther disagree­ing then thus, that the Papists make St. Peter only an ordinary Pastor thereby to secure the Papacy. Presbyters make all the Apostles a Presbytery of ordinary Pastors, thereby to set Pres­bytery, or their consistorial Government. However, least I should be thought singular, let me nominate a few of many, who stand with me in the denyal of this distinction: Unto Bellarmines first instance, Whitaker gives this answer. 'Tis a new distinction, Nova di­stinctio, Bel­larminus ho­mo mirus, qui cum sum­mam potestatem omnibus Apostolis concesserit, Petri tamen primatum, & monarchiam defen­dit. Whitak. To. 2. controv. 4. quaes. 1. ca. 3. Sect. secundum nostrum argumentum. and Bellarmine is a wonderful man, who granting the supreme power unto all the Apostles, yet contends for the Monarchy, and Primacy of Peter.

Amesius answereth.Si Petrus ut Apostolus fuir ordinarius Pastor, tum extraordinarius, & ordinarius Pastor, idem sonant, tum etiam om­nes Apostoli, fuere ordinarii Pastores. Ames. Bell. enerv.. To. 1. p. 136. If Peter as an Apostle was the ordinary Pa­stor, then the extraordinary, and ordinary Pastor is the same, yea then all [Page 178] the Apostles were ordinary Pastors. Reader I beg thee carry this back, and compare it with the Assemblies Assertion, Pag. 120. viz. that the Apostles were really, and indeed Elders.

Opinionem cum recentissi­mam, tum in­ertissimam, & infirmissimam. Whitak To 2. controv. 4. quaes. 2. ca. 3. Sect. quartum nostrum argumen­tum.Unto Bellarmines second instance, Whitaker thus answereth: What he teacheth of the ordinary Pastorate, Quod Pe­trum vocat pastorem ordi­narium, id nullus unquam veterum docuit novum hoc, & Jesuiticum commentum est, quo minime miror tantopere delectari Bellarmi­num, utpote suo foetu. Whitak. To. 2. contro. 4. quae. 2. ca. 3. Sect. hoc fuit primum no­strum argumentum. that none of the antients taught at any time, but is a new, and Jesuitical fiction, which makes me the less admire that Bellarmine should please himself so much with his own brat.

Laud against Fisher. pag. 168. London. 1639.Archbishop Laud against Fisher, answereth, That the highest ecclesiastical power confessed to be given to other Apostles, as well as unto Peter, was given unto Peter only as an ordinary Pastor; whose successors should have that power which the others should not hav [...] can never be proved out of any Scripture, nay I will give them the [...] own latitude; It can never be proved by any Tradition of the wh [...] Catholick Church. Thus he.

Unto Bellarmines third Instance the same Whitaker answer­eth. It is an opinion as most novel, so most inartificial and weak.

Unto Bellarmines fourth, and last Instance, the same person also answereth. This distinction betwixt Peter and the other Apo­stles, is fained, neither the Scripture nor any father, nor hardly any Papist except Bellarmine himself makes mention of it. Respondeo hanc distincti­onem inter Pe­trum & alios Apostolos esse commentitiam scriptura, nec ullus pater, nec fere quisquam papista, praeter Bellarminum huius distin­ctionis memi­nit. Whitak. To. 2. contro. 4. quaest. 8. ca. 3. Sect. nunc nos contra probabimus. Ʋt Apostoli claves a Christo acceperunt, & potestatem docendi, & remittendi peccata, sic & episcopi. In iis vero quae Apostoli extraordinarie habuerunt non successernut illis episcopi, hoc est in illa potestate, quae vere, & proprie Apostolica est. Id. loc. posterius ci­tato. In thi [...] Chapter Whitaker proves against Bellarmine, that Bishops d [...] succeed the Apostles. This truth he asserts peremptorily in all that precedes, and in what follows a little after our Quota­tion. But in the manner of their succession he judgeth it safe not to be over curious; but with some passion calls those Theo­logasters, who assert such a succession as is maintained by this discourse. I reverence the learning and memory of the man, and should, if not have omitted altogether, yet at least have respi­ted what I shall now add, until the publication of the Tract of [Page 179] Apostles. But perhaps some who never before read any thing of this Authors, turning to this place of my citing, may in the latter part of the Chapter find his dissent from us, and tax us of reading Authors (as himself doth) by an Index; or of a crafty concealment of the adverse testimony of this famous man. We must therefore take notice of what he saith,Si vere, & proprie Apo­stolo succede­ret, tum face­ret vere quod Apostoli face­re potuerunt hoc est, scribe­ret libros ca­nonicos, do­num lingua­rum & mira­culorum habe­ret, super ser­pentes ambu­laret, daemones ejiceret, & alia ejusmodi faceret, &c. Jd. loc. poste­rius citato ibid. and be conclu­ded by it, or give reasons why we cannot; he grants, that Bi­shops do succeed the Apostles in their common works, as power of the keyes, teaching, and remitting of sins; but he tells us of other things as preaching in the whole world, writing of Canonical Scriptures, working of Miracles, gifts of Tongues, casting out of Devils, and walking upon serpents, which were truly, and properly Apostolical works, and ought to be done at this day by those who truly, and pro­perly succeed the Apostles, if there be any such.

Here are several things practiced by the Apostles granted to be perpetual, others extraordinary; We yeild willingly the for­mer, but (notwithstanding this great Divines censure of gain­sayers) we must animadvert something upon the latter. What is truly, and properly Apostolical, he accounts underivable, consequently.

First, This denies the power of the keyes, preaching, and remis­sion of sins to be truly, or properly Apostolical works, and yet they are required of them by Christs express commission. Joh 20.23. Mat. 28.19.20.

Secondly, It overthrows all proper, and true succession to the Apostles. And consequently, the Bishops whom he allows to succeed the Apostles, do succeed them neither truly, nor properly; which to my sense is irreconciliable to the nature of Succession; since the Successor truly, and properly enters upon what the Predecessor enjoyed. I know in temporal possessions, one Predecessor may have several Successors, A Father may divide his Lands among many Sons, all of them are his Succes­sors, but none of them enjoy his whole estate. But this will no whit advantage Whitakers opinion till it shall be proved, that present Church-officers succeed the Apostles in nothing pro­perly Apostolical, and that what he accounts truly, and pro­perly Apostolical, and consequently underivable were the veri­ties, and proprieties of the Apostolick Office: I bear in memo­ry well enough what he hath said, but must profess before the world, that I cannot allow his Criteria's, or preaching to the whole world, writing of Scriptures, working of Miracles, gift of Tongues, casting out Devils, and treading upon Serpents; to give [Page 180] a certain character of the proper, and true Apostolick Office, distinct from what is derived to their Successors, for the grea­test part of these matters were no part of the Apostolick Office, but extraordinary gifts, and what is Official is at this day pra­cticable by their Successors; for instance; their preaching to the whole world, is the only Office work mentioned by Whitaker among his supposed extraordinary Apostolical works. And this to this day is incumbent upon their Successors. We have spoken somewhat of this already, pag. 89. And shall add more, pag. 290. out of this discourse. If all, or any of which, shall satisfie our Reader, it will convince him; that though this work was truly Apostolical, yet it was not so proper to the first Apostles, as to distinguish them, as men of another Order from their present Successors; because others besides the twelve A­postles did it in the Apostles dayes; and because much, if not most of that work remains undone until this day.

All the rest mentioned by Whitaker were special gifts, at neither truely, nor properly appertaining to the Apostolick Offic. For example, he instanceth in Gospel-writing. I grant the Apo­stles were imployed in this work, but not properly, and exclu­sively of all other men, for then we should have no Pen-men of holy Writ but Apostles, whereas St. Luke, and St. Mark were Scripture writers, but none of the twelve Apostles: Nor was it truely an Apostolical work, so as to distinguish an Apostle from an Officer of an other Order, for then Andrew, Philip, Barthol­mew, Thaddeus, one, if not both the James's, Th [...]mas, Simon the Canaanite, Obj. and Mathias were truly no Apostles. Do any say these Apostles did, or might write Scripture, though they did not write it, or if they writ, their writings are not come to our hands.Sol.

We can oppose a reason against either member of the Ob­jection.

First, If these Apostles did write books of Canonical Scrip­ture and they are perished, then have we not the Canon of the Scripture entire. And so great a flaw being found in Gods providence towards the preservation of his Oracles, as to suffer the writings of the major part of the Apostles to perish; those who please, may either thence take advantage to deny the cer­tainty, and validity of the rest, or to vend new Enthusiasmes, under the specious pretexts of the recovery of the writings of these Apostles.

Secondly, Whereas it is supposed that some Apostles might [Page 181] (thought they did not) write Scripture. This is directly repug­ [...]ant to the nature of Divine Inspirations, which to whom so­ [...]ver they came, they immediatly captivated the man to their [...]leasure, and made him but as a Pen in the hand of the holy Ghost, to write what characters he framed, what words he dicta­ [...]ed, and no other. This is St. Peters decision. 1 Pet. 1.21. [...]or the Prophesie came not in old time by the will of man, but holy [...]en spake as they were moved by the holy Ghost. In which Text [...]eing moved by the holy Ghost, is directly opposed to the will of man, If the will of man acted, it was a humane, not a divine [...]otion; but if the spirit of God moved, there was no impulse [...]f the will of man; but what was done was by a supernatural, [...]nd divine force, carrying and bearing men out of themselves, [...]o that all of them might say with St. Paul. 2 Cor. 12.2. Whe­ [...]her they were in the body they could not tell, or whether they were out [...]f the body they could not tell. By, and from all which we may [...]fely, and warrantably conclude that no Apostle who did not [...]rite Scripture, had any faculty to do it, since if it were other­ [...]ise, Inspiration would be proved to be a resistable motion, and [...]ose Apostles who did not write Scripture convinced to have [...]esisted the holy Ghost.

But return we orderly to the rest of Whitakers proper, and [...]rue Apostolical works, they are working of miracles, gift of [...]ngues, casting out of devils, and treading upon serpents. These [...]re all of one nature or kind, and proceed from one cause; viz. [...]he effusion of extraordinary gifts upon the first Church-offi­ [...]ers; and by an examination how truly, and properly any one of them was an Apostolical work, we may make a Judgment of [...]he rest, we will make an essay upon the gift of working of Miracles. This (in a direct opposition to our learned Author) [...]e say was not an Apostolical work, either truly, or properly, [...]or then when the Apostles ceased to work Miracles, they were [...]o true Apostles. And St. Paul who once could heal multi­ [...]udes with cloaths taken from his body, ceased to be a true Apostle when he lost Trophimus sick at Miletum: Not properly, be­cause Philip, who is expresly excluded from the Apostolical, Order, Act. 8.1. wrought Miracles at Samaria. Act. 8.6. And the people with one accord gave heed to those things which Philip spake, hearing and seeing the Miracles which he did. And what hath been said of Miracles, may be said of the gift of tongues, cast­ing out of Devils, and treading upon serpents, & sufficiently proved by, Act. 8.7. Act. 19.6. 1 Cor. 14. per tot. Luk. 10.17. & ver. 19. [Page 183] In all which places, persons distinguished from their Aposto­lical Order, are noted to exercise those gifts.

These things shall have a larger handling in the Tra [...]t concerning Apostles, where we shall not only distinguish betwixt Apostolical works and gifts, but give rules and directions, whereby one may be known,Papal objecti­on; that they do not hold the distinction so grosly, as the Protestants do. and differenced from another. And thither we refer all farther dealing in this matter, and the fuller answer unto Whitaker, if any not satisfied with what is said i [...] this discourse, shall continue to insist upon his authority. Thus might we dismiss the third Objection, and proceed to the re­maining Exceptions, but as quaerulous Protestants have give objections, so clamourus Papists may add another; and say.

Sol. The Pro­testants do not hold this di­stinction, but the Papists hold it as grosly as the Phanatick part of pre­tended Pro­testants. Obj. Were all this granted. The Papists do not hold th [...] distinction betwixt ordinary and extraordinary Officers, [...] grosly as the Protestants do; Protestants leave all to the i [...]spired Laity in case of corruption, but Papists own the Pope [...] Christs Vicar, to have authority to examin the verity, & vali [...] of pretended revelations, and to compose all other differenc [...]

I answer; I might charge this Objection as a calumny, s [...] I have already produced a Catalogue of so many Protesta [...] Churches who disown the distinction. But I shall endeavour t [...] give the Objection a fuller answer: And do say. Papists a [...] no more excusable in this, then the most hair-brain'd Enthus [...]asts, who make the worst use of this distinction. I prove i [...] from Bellarmine, his task being the settlement of the Popes In­fallibility uncontroulable by general Councils, and according having laid this foundation,Summum Pontificem esse caput totius ecclesiae, Bel­lar. de Concil. lib. 2. ca. 15. That the Pope is the head of t [...] whole Church. Non esse in concilio sum­mam potesta­tem. cap. 16. that Councils have not the supreme power, Pontificem esse absolute supra concili­um. cap. 18. t [...] the Pope is absolutely above Councils, &c. Pontificem non posse sub­jicere seipsum, sententiae co­activae concili­orum. ca. 18. Non tamen hinc sequitut non licere, resistere Pontifici, ecclesiam destruenti, licet enim eum servata, reuerentia ad­monere, & modeste corripere, repugnare etiam vi, & armis si ecclesiam destruere velit; a [...] resistendum enim, & vim vi repellendum, non requiritur ulla authoritas; vide de hac i [...] Johan. de Turrecre mata lib. 2. ca. 106. Bell. de Concil. lib. 2. ca. 19. Sect. respondeo non mi­rum. that the Pope ca [...] subject himself to the compulsory decree of Councils. At last he p [...]ceives the earth quakes under the weight of his Structure; A [...] the Church cryes unto him, that this unlimited papal powe [...] leaves her remediless, let the Pope be never so arbitrary or ty­rannical. Wherefore he digs deeper, and discovers (not a Ro [...] but) a great part of the Jesuitical mystery (which is so to manag [...] other mens boundless subjection to the Pope, as to make him a vassal to the Jesuites) and plainly tells his Holiness. That i [...] doth not follow from hence (i. e. all disputed in the foregoing Chapters) that it is unlawful to resist the Pope destroying the Church, [Page 182] for it is lawful with fit reverence to admonish him, and modestly to re­ [...]uke him; yea to oppose him by force and armes, if he will destroy the [...]hurch; for to resist and put back force with force, no authority is re­ [...]uired. This he declareth not as his single opinion, but as joyntly [...]ofessed, and owned by his fellow Cardinal John de Turrecremata; Whereby the truth of the Popes Fallibility is confirmed in the [...]outh of two Cardinal witnesses. Particularly Bellarmines [...]estimony, not only contradicts, but draws a Deleatur upon [...]hat he had before written of the Popes Infallibility; for were it [...]ue, when he saithDe verbo Dei. lib 3. ca. 5. Sect. quin­tum testimoni­um. de Roman Pontif. lib. 4. ca. 3. per to­tum, & ca. 6. per totum de Concil. lib. 2. ca. 2. Sect. tertia classis. the Pope cannot erre, because Christ pray­ [...] for Peter, that his faith should not fail. It had been a fairer, [...]d fuller answer to say, the Objection supposeth a thing impos­ [...]ble, and utterly inconsistent with our Saviours prayer for Pe­ [...], and his Successors. But if the Objection be true and va­ [...]d, as Bellarmine by his answer unto it acknowledgeth it to be, [...]en the infallibility is a fable. However Bellarmine will main­ [...]in both, and calls John de Turrecremata to his assistance: [...]he Objection is conceded, the sore acknowledged, the salve [...]escribed; In this case the Pope must not step into the Chair, [...]ut the people must pull him out, no matter who, of what con­ [...]tion, or in what manner they assemble, for to repel force [...]th force no authority is required: Do but they say he will [...]estroy the Church, and have power enough to stand by their [...]ords, 'tis sufficient, yea 'tis the only remedy, and final Judg­ [...]ent. For the Pope cannot (though he would) submit himself to [...]e compulsory decrees of Councils. Thus if Papists complain, that [...]e Reformation hath entered into any place with more force [...]en order, those they complain upon may answer they did no­ [...]ing but upon Bellarmines advice and councel; for ere they re­ [...]rred to force, they said, and were ready to prove that the [...]ope would destroy the Church, and they had no other way [...] resist his force but by taking up armes against him. And thus [...]apists and Presbyterians, who for ends not much unlike; the depression [...]hat's the Papal) the suppression (that's the Presbyterial) of an Offi­ [...]r of divine Institution, superiour to Presbyters, and equal to the [...]ishop of Rome, that themselves may arrogate, and usurp his authority; [...]aintain this accursed, and to be abominated distinction, betwixt or­ [...]inary and extraordinary Officers. Although in other things they [...]em to be, and are the greatest opposites; yet herein they agree to ma­ [...]age their arch usurpation so arbitrarily, that as their settlement is by [...]orce and disorder, so to leave the people to like means to relieve them­ [...]lves against their tyranny, men without authority with the one, and [Page 184] men without Scripture warrant with the other, being the fittest and ablest Reformers. This shall conclude our seventh Exception; and answer to the Objections which might be made against it. We proceed to the

Eight Except. none of Buca­nus his Scrip­tures prove this definiti­on.Eighth Exception. Bucanus bemists his Readers Judgment with a Fog of bold pretentions, he calls them Scripture proof concerning the Evangelizate of several persons nominated in the new Testament; When upon examination, they will prove him self an Evangelist in the sense of his Definition, as soon as any whom he calls by that name. How thick do Evangelists drop from his Pen? Luke, Mark, Timothy, Titus, Tychicus, Phi­lip; And what a large scope of holy ground do they over­spread? Tit. 1.5. Act. 16.3. 2 Tim. 4.5. ver. 11, 12. 2 Cor. 8.23. Act. 21.8. Luk. 10.1. Rom. 16.7. These Scriptures are eight in number, six whereof neither name, nor take no­tice of any Evangelist. The other two name Evangelists in the particular persons of Philip, Act. 21.8. and Timothy, 2 Tim 4.5. But our Definer doth not resolve us, whether Tim [...] and Philip did precisely, and separately all the works mentio [...]ed in his Definition, or whether they both of them wrought one and the same works, neglecting therein, as also do all the rest of his brethren, the principal part of his duty, which is when words are equivocal, or of divers senses, as the word E­vangelist, is to segregate, and disperse the common significati­ons, and to limit by express enumeration of special Acts, the distinct sense wherein he accepts them. This had Bucanus had leisure, or a will to have done, he would soon have perceived, that the term Evangelist could not agree to Philip and Timothy, in one sense: But since he omits it wholy, we shall not urge [...] any farther in this place, herefater we will do it with our [...] strength, when preparatory to our Definition of the Office [...], we shall separate the Equivocal senses of the name; Whether with the two Texts, Act. 21.8. 2 Tim. 4.5. we refer it. Be­sides, could Timothy and Philep, be both of them proved to be formal and proper Evangelists, and their works altogether the same; what is this to the proof of the Evangelizate of Luke, Mark, Tychicus and Titus, whom, or any of whom no Scripture calls Evangelists, nor can it thence be proved that all of them did only the same works one with another, or with Philip and Timothy. The sole proving whereof would have contribu­ted more to the Definition of this Officer, then either Bucanus, Calvin, or all the rest of the Definers have effected. But let [Page 181] us consider what Bucanus hath done; Tit. 1.5. is his leading proof, there we read. For this cause left I thee in Creet, that thou shouldst set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain Elders in every City, as I had appointed thee. Here is the words of the Text, but where is the Evangelist? or how shall we know it treats of an Evangelist? Are we answered, that although the word Evangelist be not Syllabically written in it, yet what was so loudly called for before answers here, namely Titus did the same works at Creet, as Timothy did at Ephesus; but Timo­thy is called an Evangelist, therefore he and Titus are both of them Evangelists. I reply; the works required to be done by Titus in this Text, were ordination of Ministers, and setting things in order, which must be understood of giving Rules a­bout Discipline, or exercise of Ecclesiastical Censures, or both of them; If which were Timothies works at Ephesus, and with relation to them, he is called such an Evangelist by St. Paul, as Bucanus, Beza, Calvin, and Zanchy define, then Timothy, and Titus were both of them Evangelists. But in finding two Evangelists, we have lost two other things, viz. Ordination of Ministers, and exercise of Ecclesiastical Discipline and Censures, for those Definers say, the Evangelists were temporary, now operation follows being, and longer then the Office the work cannot continue.

It is said what was temporary in them,Obj. is perpetual in the or­dinary Officers, or Presbyters.

I answer. Besides the unsoundness of the distinction,Sol. it be­ing both Antiscriptural, and weakly built in the brains of its first Forgers; the Objection is levelled by a bare review of that Church-state, where Timothy was exhorted to abide, and do those works of Ordination & Government. That Church was Ephesus, she had Presbyters affixed to her ere he came thither, as hath been already proved in the foregoing part of this dis­course, and shall be more fully evidenced in the remaining and following part.Proposition concerning Presbyterial ordination in the Assemblies advice to the Parliament. Chapt. of the power of or­dination. Cited by Jus divin. 1. par. pag. 181. Neither is there any one Scripture extant of Presbyters ordaining singly, separate, and distinct from the higher Order. I know from what misinterpreted Texts they derive their challenge, and shall in fit place (even the Tract of Apostles) glean out the Tares which they have mingled among the Wheat: Suffice it here to hint, that the single pillar of Presbyterian Ordination, in the Judgment of our Assembly is, 1 Tim. 4.14. But Calvin the founder of their Discipline could discern it to look that way. This Gillespy puts off slightly, and [Page 182] saith it was one of Calvins few mistakes. Calvins mistakes I am not concerned in, but I wonder Gillespy so farr mistook the interest of his party in this acknowledgment; the consequence utterly overthrowing the Presbyterian Platform, it implying Calvin built it upon a wrong foundation; whereat shall we hold our peace, and suffer Presbyters to give Presbytery what sense they please in 1 Tim. 4.14. yet comparing it, with 2 Tim 1.6. It proves nothing less, then their ordaining singly, & distinct from the higher order: Hence the London Ministers write in the Li [...]e against these two Texts in the Margent; that S. Paul was ordained by Christ, Timothy by Paul & the Presbytery. This is also the judg­ment of the Assembly. But of this largely in the Tract concerning Apostles.Jus divin. 1. par pag. 4. And to return to the point before us. I say, and affirm that if Timothy, and Titus were temporary Evangelists, because either of them performed the same Ecclesiastical Acts of Ordi­nation and Censures;Annot. ad 1 Tim. 4.14. & ad 2 Tim. 1.6. then were those Acts as well as th [...] Office, temporary. These Rocks are avoided by steering [...] to the scope of St. Paul, in 2 Tim. 4.1. ad fin. 6. And [...] hope the Reader will be satisfied upon bare reading of the words, that Timothy is called an Evangelist upon another score, then for Ordination of Ministers, exercise of Discipline, &c. However he may expect a full explication of that Text hereafter in this discourse, when we examin the validity of the Presbyte­rian Arguments in proof of Timothies Evangelizate.

We proceed at present to examin the rest of Bucanus his Scriptures; whereof 2 Cor. 8.23. is another, which though it be not next in his order, and ranking of his Texts, yet because it concerns Evangelist Titus, we take liberty to examin it in this place. The holy Ghost there dictates. If any do enquire of Ti­tus, he is my partner, and fellow helper concerning you, or our brethren be enquired of, they are the Messengers ( [...] the Apostles) of the Churches, and the glory of Christ. Can any Text speak less of the Evangelist then this doth? what advantageth it a cause to sub poena many witnesses, who appearing in Court will not lay their hand upon the book, or if they do either stand mute, or speak not to the point in controversie. 'Tis true St. Paul calls Titus, [...] and [...] or partner, and fellow-helper: But what are these words towards the proof of an Evangelist, or an Officer who is inferiour in dignity, and next in Office unto the Apostles. The word [...] properly signifies one of two, or more, who hold, and exercise the same thing, Estate, Trade, or Office in common a­mong them; wherein all have a like propriety, such part­nership, [Page 183] not consisting in ones value, or estimation of another, but in every of their joynt interest; for instance, it is used of men of the same vocation, thus Luk. 5.10. And so was also James, and John the sons of Zebedee, which were partners, [...] with Simon. i. e. they were all Fishermen, and traded upon a common Stock. St. Paul calls Philemon his partner, ver. 17. and urgeth it as an Argument, why he should receive his Run­nagate servant Onesimus into favour, and employment; which partnership let it consist either in work, or wealth, implies joynt interest and concernment, otherwise St. Pauls argument had been weak and invalid. Thus sufferers of like affliction, Heb. 10 33. and sharers of like grace, 1 Pet. 5.1. 2 Pet. 1.4. 1 Cor. 10.13. and ver. 20. 2 Cor. 1.7. are all of them expressed by this word [...]. The substantive [...] which with [...] are stems sprouting from one and the same root, is used of the Act of the other Apostles, receiving S. Paul & Barnabas into a fellowship of their Office. Gal. 2.9. And when James, Cephas, & John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace which was given to me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, [...] And why did they give it, even as it follows in the verse, that we should go un­to the Heathen, they unto the Circumcision. This being the usual sense of the word [...] in other places, therefore Titus being called St. Pauls partner, doth more probably evince his Aposto­late then his Evangelizate, especially if we reflect upon him; either ordaining elders, and setting things in order at Creet, Tit. 1.5. or accompanying his fellow travailers in this Text of the Epi­stle to the Corinthians; Who are called [...] or our brethren the Apostles of the Churches.

The other word [...] or fellow helper, is promiscuously used of any kind of helpers, either temporal or spiritual; Thus [...]uila, and Priscilla are called St. Pauls helpers. Rom. 16.3. Greet Aquila, and Pr [...]scilla my helpers. What Aquila was we dispute not, but Priscilla could not be St. Pauls helper in the Ministerial Office, she being of the Sex prohibited to take Or­ders. Contrariwise, Titus was St. Pauls helper in Office, he being engaged at Creet upon distinct Apostolical works; which whether they make both St. Paul, and Titus to be of one Order, or one an Apostle, the other an Evangelist, let the prudent Rea­der determine; our business is to proceed to the examination of the residue of Bucanus his Text; whereof, Act. 16.3. is the third. It concerns Evangelist Timothy, and relates how St. Paul took, and circumcised him; which I believe Bucanus mis­took [Page 184] for his taking him, and sending him forth to Evangelize, the words are him (i. e. Timothy, of whom the discourse is continued from the first verse) would S. Paul have to go forth with him, and took him and circumcised him, because of the Jews which dwelt in those quarters, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. This Timothy long after ministred to St. Paul, Act. 19.22. consequently could not be at the time of St. Pauls circum­cising him his Companion and Fellow labourer, for the reasons expressed in the second Exception of this discourse, pag. 44. 45. Suffice this in examination of his third, proceed we to his fourth Text, which is 2. Tim. 4.11, 12. This is his proof of three Evangelists, let us read it, and heed it well; the words are. Only Luke is with me, take Mark and bring him along with thee, for he is profitable unto me for the Ministry; And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus. Here are three men named, Luk, M [...]rk, and Tychicus, but were a thousand Alembicks set to the Text, and wonder-working Paracelsus alive to tend them, he could not thence extract three, yea not one Evangelist; for instance. Only Luke is with me; what pity is it that as an Evangelist is not added? or is such addition needless? was every companion to the Apostles an Evangelist? Alas it cannot be, for Barnabas was with St. Paul, Act. 14.14. and yet he; Priscilla was with St. Paul, Act. 18.18. and yet she was no Evangelist. Bring Mark along with thee; where shall we find the Evangelist in this phrase? If we grope by conjecture, 'tis because our Author leads us into, and leaves us in the dark; was Mark an Evangelist, because he travailed in company, or was desired to accompany with Ti­mothy the Evangelist? The primitive custom yet continuing, that Officers of the same Order should travail in couples. This proves one incertainty by another more incertain, till Timothies Evangelizate be clearly, and convincingly proved. But what if Timothy was no Evangelist in the sense of Bucanus his Definiti­on: And what if Mark were the same person whom Barnabas assumed into a partnership, as is probably affirmed by Esthius, and A Lapide. [...]n loc. Then Mark was as farr from being an Evange­list, as the Text is from mentioning it. Tichicus have I sent to E­phesus; but wherefore? could he be sent upon no other errand, ex­cept to Evangelize? What! was Timothy, and the Church at Ephesus Ethnick, and yet to hear the first news of Christ; or is an Apostles Messenger; and an Evangelist terms Equivalent? If we will beleeve the Postscript to the Epistle to the Romans, it will assure us that Phebe carried it to Rome, but I hope none [Page 185] will take advantage of her being sent by the Apostle, to con­clude her to be an Evangelist. We must beleeve that some were sent by the Apostles to settled Churches, (such Ephesus was, ere Tychicus was sent thither) upon other errands then to evangelize, namely to collect their charity towards their poor and necessita­ [...]ed brethren, 2 Cor. 8.18. and why might not Tychicus be sent upon one or other of these accounts, as well as to evangelize? [...]ure I am, that men of greater eminency then Bucanus (as Baro­ [...]ius and Pelecanus) say Tychicus was sent upon the former ac­ [...]ompt, or to br [...]ng this Epistle to Timothy; and I am as sure, [...]hat considering S. Paul's present necessities, it is more proba­ [...]le that he was sent upon the latter accompt, or to hasten a [...]ollection for the Apostles relief, rather then to evangelize. We [...]roceed to Bucanus his fifth text, which is Luk. 10.1. But now [...]is proofs draw nigh the dregs, and are very flat, for he bor­ [...]ows it from Calvin; and we have said enough in the fifth Exce­ [...]tion to prove that those who believes it treats of the Evangelists, [...]as they are defined by Calvin or Bucanus) credit mens Fancies, [...]ot the word of God. The last text is Rom. 16.7. which of all [...]he rest is shot widest from the white of truth, for as it neither [...]entions the name, nor any presumed work of the Evangelist, so [...]ose whom it mentioneth, it expresly stiles [...], [...] famous among the Apostles, of which phrase the Reader shall [...]od willing have a further account in the tract concerning Apo­ [...]les. This shall conclude the Eighth Exception. The Ninth [...]llows.

Ninth Exception.Ninth Except. 1 Cor. 12.9, 10. doth not prove Spanhemius's definition. In loc. We challenge Spanhemius for bringing in [...]y head and shoulders 1 Cor. 12.9, 10. as a witness in this con­ [...]oversie, where is so little appearance either of the Evangelist [...] of his Office, that no Commentator, Presbyterian, or other, [...] my knowledge) besides Spanhemius, suspects his being there. [...]arlorate in his Ecclesiastical Exposition, culls out the choicest [...] Modern, Presbyterian, and other Commentators, and be­ [...]des his own opinion, he cites Calvin, Meyer, Martyr, In loc. and Bullin­ [...]r, but writes not one word of the Evangelist. To the [...]e may [...]e added Aretius and Piscator. Indeed Beza upon the place oc­ [...]asionally mentions Philip the Evangelist, not with reference to [...]is Office, or what he had, and performed, but in reference to [...]is gifts, or what he had not, and could not perform The text [...]reating of discerning of spirits, which Philip wanted, he baptizing Simon Magus, whom Peter afterwards discerned t [...] be in the gall of [...]itterness, and bond of perdition. If any think Spanhemius hath [Page 186] dived deeper and nearer to the bottom of this text, then any other Expositor, Let them compare it with his Definition, I have done it, and perceive them to be so disparate and una­greeing, that I could not finde in my heart to waste paper in transcribing and facing them one with another. The Reader who is unsatisfied may read the one in his Bible, the other in the sixth page of this Discourse.

Thus have we finished our first Head of Exceptions against the Definers, and submit it to the Readers Judgement, whe­ther they have proceeded according to their Evidence, yea or not.

Corollary from the nine precedent Ex­ceptions.If they have not, as I verily believe, and hope I have proved they have not. We beg our Reader seriously and in the fear of God, to consider whether the finger of God doth not here write in Capital Letters, That Presbyters are themselves most guil­ty of what they charge as the highest crime upon others; it being a [...] Axiome with the more downright and rigid of that party, (t [...] call them conscientious, having learned from Beza, to disting [...] betwixt Science and Conscience, who concedes the latter to th [...] Antients, and arrogates the former to his own time and way) That no Church matter, although it be relative to the externa [...] administration of her Discipline,In Epistola ad Duditium. ought to be entertained i [...] that quality, without producing of Scripture-credentials▪ When behold and stand amazed! we must take the definition o [...] Church-Officers, who are so essential to the Churches external Form, as she cannot be visible without them, upon the Definers bare words, for other warrant they give us not for their Definitions, the imperti­nent quotation of chapter and verse onely excepted. But we hav [...] submitted all to the Judgement of the impartial Reader; A [...] let me adde, I dare make the conscience of the most rigid pe [...] son a Tribunal whereat I am content that whatever hath bee [...] said of Calvin and the rest shall receive a re-examination. Pro­vided he have room enough in his Judgement left spare of pre­judice to entertain and discuss this question, Whether the Defi­finers proceed upon such clear, full and convincing Scriptures a [...] they require from others in lesser things, and is, and ought to be used in a business of this nature and weight?

Second Head of Exceptions, or the Definers are not agreed in their Ver­dict, proved in five instances.But part of this charge is yet behinde, and Method require [...] us to prosecute and finish it, ere we crave theirs, or any other Readers final Judgement.

We deliver it in short thus, The Jury of Definers are not agreed in thei [...] verdict. This hath been in part evidenced in the fifth [Page 187] exception, where the contradictions of Calvin, Bucanus and Spanhemius, and Polanus about the seventy Disciples have been evidenced: But over and beside it, there remains several exce­ptions arising out of their Definitions.First Except. Beza Flaius, and Spanhe­mius, against Aretius, Zan­chius, and Maresius.

First Exception. Beza, Faius and Spanhemius say, Evangelists constituted Churches. Contrariwise Aretius saith, They did not constitute Churches, but conserved the Apostles D [...]ctrine, and taught in fixed Assemblies. Zanchius saith, They preached the Gospel now here, now there, where the Apostles had not founded Churches. And Maresius saith. They were sent hither, and thither to finish the work begun by the Apostles.

Second Exception.Second Ex­cept. the Lon­don divines a­gainst Areti­us, Ʋrsinus, and Pareus. The London divines say. Exangelists had a vicariate charge of all Churches. Contrariwise Aretius saith, no necessity lay uyon them to preach every where, but they taught in certain Churches. Ʋrsinus and Pareus say, They taught divers Churches.

Third Exception.Third Except. Aretius over­throws his de­finition by his own proofs. Aretius destroyes his Definition by his own presumed confirming instances; he defines Evangelists by Gospel preachers, where the Apostles had founded Churches. And affirms that Timothy, and Philip were both of them Evangelists in that sense. Whereas Philip prepared, and drew together the materials, wherewith St. Peter, and St. John afterwards builded a Church.

Fourth Exception.Fourth Ex­cept. Zanchy in a contra­diction. Zanchy saith, Timothy was an Evange­list, and his Office temporary. Instancing only in his being ordained Bishop by St. Paul, and preaching the Gospel to prove his disconti­nuance. But certainly the function Bishop, or the work Preach­ing cannot be removed out of the Church; neither did any before, or since Zanchy suspect it of preaching, or affirm it of the Scripture Bishop. And such Timothy was, otherwise we could not have his ordination by St. Paul recorded in holy Writ. Besides, Bishop may be taken in a Presbyterian, or a Praelatical sense: If in the former, then the parity of Ministers of the same Order, now zealously maintained, was not obser­ved in the Apostles dayes; because Presbyter Timothy had po­wer of Ordination, and Censures over other Presbyters: If in the latter; what is so earnestly withstood by others, is quietly yielded by Zanchy, namely that praelatical Bishops, or Bishops superiour to Presbyters were ordained by St. Paul, one where­of was Timothy: In a word take we Bishop in what sense we please, if Timothy were therefore a temporary Evangelist, be­cause he preached the Gospel, and was ordained Bishop by St. Paul; [Page 188] then as well Bishop Presbyter, as Bishop Praelate, and Gospel preach­ing are all thrust forth of the Church together with Evangelist Timo­thy.

Fifth Except. Bucanus in a contradiction.Fifth Exception. One Member of Bucanus his Definition re­coyles against another, and breaks it all to pieces. In one place he saith, The Evangelists were not immediatly chosen by Christ without an intervenient humane Ministry, but chosen by the Apo­stles, or taken with them, &c. but by and by, he adds. The seventy quos dominus designaverat, or whom the Lord ordained were E­vangelists.

Corollary from all the exceptions to bewail the drousiness of the husband­men while all these tares were sowing.This shall suffice in charge of both sorts of Exceptions; If all, or any of which convince the sober Reader of the falseness, or imperfection of the former Definitions. Let him never busie his enquiry to search after the reasons, why presbyters should tolerate so many, and divers opinions in a matter so sacred, and necessarily requiring uniformity, as is the body of our Christian profession. If he adventure upon it, I shall leave him to him­self, or others to get his satisfaction: Few of what may [...] presumably, or probably be their reasons occurring to my sense and observation, but what may bring a man in danger of following a truth to nigh too the heels. My desire rather is that all our hearts, and affections may be taken up with a bitter la­mentation, that the Husbandmen should sleep so soundly, while all these Tares were sowing, and not only suffer them year after year, to be cast into the Furrows of the Church-field, when little else was sowed in any of the generally learned Languages, unless in some by, and less conspicuous corners of controversal Tractates. But perpetually permit them to grow (without weeding out) to the over topping, & choaking of the wheat. For what were both Universities, but seminaries of these Doctrine? When the young Theologue betook himself to the study of Di­vinity; what other Institutions, common places, bodies of Divi­nity, Medulla's, Syntagma's, Systems, problems, compendiums, Ca­thechismes, Synopses; Theological theses, and disputations could he meet with: And how soon did these sour Grapes set his teeth on edge, distasted his palate, and made him disrelish the esta­blished Discipline of his mother Church? A vice which increa­sing upon him with his years, so habituated his affections un­to Calvinisme, that nothing could effect a cure upon him but Divine grace, Church preferment (insufficient to take off all malecontents) or the toylsome, unpleasant, and perhaps dan­gerous way (according as the spirits of his neighbor-hood stood [Page 189] affected) of turning the course of his studies in his Country re­tirement: All of which together, were not efficacious enough to eradicate this long, and deep rooted Malady; so that some few Bishops were remiss in the exercise of their Jurisdiction, and maintenance of the dignity and distinctness of their Order; too too many of their actions scandalously witnessing against them, that the means and honour, or the serving of a party, not a convinced Conscience of the Divine right of Episcopacy, or a true love to the established Hierarchy and Discipline, sea­ted them in the Episcopal chair. And for the residue of that most venerable Order▪ how oft did God chide those spiritual Fathers in the rebellion, and stubborness of their younger Chil­dren, for breeding them no better. 'Tis true the way to sound Theology was open, though trodden by a few feet. It lay by the Foot-steps of their former Flocks, and antient Shepheards Tents; especially in those ages, and Theological exercises, when Christ, not Aristotle moderated in the Schools of the prophets. This (let others take what path they please) seems to me to be the safest way; because unless our Religion be new, and of this daies birth, we ought to conform to yesterdaies, and elder observa­tion. Christianity (if ever it will be) is of sufficient age to exact our imitation of former patterns, and needs not leave us to excogitate new forms of Divine worship. But because less knowing, and more presuming spirits had found out a shorter cut, hastening, and hollaing on their party with incessant clamours to follow them, no matter what, or whose Fences, or Inclosures they brake down, and laid wast, therefore these high wayes were unoccuppied, and the Travailer chose by-wayes: And there hath been War in the gate. Besides, not only the Church, but the Com­monwealth of learning is Invaded by presbyterianisme; in somuch, as if the Heathen poets, Orators, and Historians had prophesied of the Evangelist, as defined by presbyters. [...]: Sic vocantur­ii, in novo te­stamento qui secundi ab A­postolis, quos (que) illi tanquam asseclas, & collegas habebunt in fungendo suo munere peromulgandi evangelit ideoque nulli ecclesiae erant addicti, Eph. 4. postea ver [...] aedificatis jam ecclesiis▪ cum Aposto­lorum, & evangelistarum munus desiisset, translatum est [...]en ad quatuor illos Historiae Chri­sti scriptores, & peculiariter, tributum Johanni, pro cogn [...]mine, ut ab altero Johanne distin­gueretur, Scap. Lex. Amstelod. 1652. We find undertheword [...] in Scapula's lexicon, this In­terpretation. They are called Evangelists in the new Testa­ment, who were the Apostles seconds, and employed by them as their fellows and companions in Office to promulgate the Gos­pel. [Page 190] Therefore they were not settled upon any one particular Church, Ephes. 4. But afterwards when Churches were settled, and the names both of Apostles and Evangelists ceased; the name was translated to the four Gospel-writers, and particularly given to John for a sirname to distinguish him from another John. This I do not transcribe intending it a farther refutation, because I doubt not but 'tis done already in the foregoing exceptions. Only to excite those who have ability, and authority to row [...] out of their drousiness, and to endeavour the recovery, and cleansing both of these upper, and neither springs thus forcibly, or fraudulently cut off, and taken from the Church.

Philip and Timothy compared.

WE are now through Gods assistance gotten forth of the Presbyterian Definitions. But (this notwithstanding) we cannot come at our own Definition till we have separated the Homonymy's, or doubtful significations of the word Evangelist. And given our Reader an account, how, from whom, and in what sense we take it.

Logicians distribute homonymy's into pure, and Analogous; the former concerns things purely divers; the latter relates unto things partly the same, and partly divers, And is the Ho­monymy which troubleth us in this dispute.

The verb [...], the theme from whence the word [...] is formed, is used of several persons.

First, Of the Angel news-bringer of Christs birth, Luk. 2.10.

Secondly, Of our Saviour himself, Luk. 20.1. Ephes. 2.17.

Thirdly, Of the Apostles Act. 2.42. Act. 14.15. Ver. 21. Ver. 35.

Fourthly, Of Philip. Act. 8.12.

All these (to name no more) although they agree in one ge­neral work of publishing good tidings, yet can they not be ra­tionally conceived to be of one Order, or to do all [Page 191] and only the same Official actions with the Officer men­tioned, Ephes. 4.11.

The Substantive Evangelist (the Compass whereby all steer in the Sea of this Controversie) is to my remembrance never used in the old Testament of the Translation of the Septuagint: And it is used but three times in the new Testament; all the places have been already named, the first is Ephes. 4.11. This proves the being of such an Officer, but what he is, or what his works are, it declares not; the only stead it stands us in, is to tell us there is such a Church-officer, but it leaves us to search where we can find him. The other,

Second and third Texts, Act. 21.8. 2 Tim. 4.5. concern two famous persons, Philip and Timothy, often mentioned else­where, as officially ingaged in yet continuing ecclesiastical acti­ons: If which be parallel, or the same works be done by both of them, we need not travail farr for the Definition of this Officer, since both Philip and Timothy are Evangelists; Otherwise if their works be divers we must endeavour to find out, of which of them 'tis spoken strictly and formally; the Reader will soon see how the case stands in a brief survey, and comparison of both their labours.

We begin with Philip; Philip menti­oned Act. 8. and Act. 21. the same Phi­lip. he is called an Evangelist, Act. 21.8. where he is mentioned, not as officially Evangelizing, but as occasionally visited by St. Paul. However, another Text sup­plies what here is wanting, and proves this, and the Philip there mentioned, to be one and the same Philip, it bringing him unto, and leaving him Evangelizing at Caesarea, where St. Paul now finds him. The Text is, Act. 8.40. But Philip was found at Azotus, and passing through, he preached in all the Cities ( [...]) till he came to Caesarea. This Evan­gelizing was also his work at Samaria, Act. 8.12. When they beleeved Philip preaching ( [...]) the things concerning the kingdome of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized both men and women. It was also his work with the Eunuch, Act. 8.35. Then Philip opened his m [...]uth▪ and preached ( [...]) unto him Jesus. Objection a­gainst it.

I know some fancy a diversity betwixt the two Philips, or one Philip twice named, he Act. 8. they say was the Apostle Philip; he Act. 21. was Philip the Deacon, or one of the seventy; but contrariwise.Answered.

First, This opinion is most improbable, both because the Apostles are expresly excluded out of the number of the bre­thren [Page 192] dispersed by the persecution arising after St. Stephens death, Act. 8.2. And Saul was consenting unto his death; and at that time there was a great persecution against the Church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the Regions of Judea and Samaria, except the Apostles. But Phi­lip the Evangelist was one of the dispersed brethren. Act. 8.4.5. Therefore they that, were scattered abroad, went every where preaching the Word: Then Philip went down to the City of Sama­ria, and preached Christ unto them. And because if the Philip, Act. 8. had been the Apostle; St. Peter and St. John neither need­ed, nor ought to have been sent to impose hands upon his Con­verts,In loc. for Philip the Apostle could have done it himself; and it is inconsistent with Gospel order, and the Apostles practice, Rom. 15.20. that any Officer should be sent into anothers line to take his work out of his hands. And do what he could, and ought to have done without them.Quarto menti­tur in eos quod dicit Philippum qui baptizavit Simonem Ma­gum fuisse Philippum Apostolum, nam certa res est Philippum illum, non nisi diaconum fu­isse. Coc. in sens. quorun­dam scriptor. veterum. Lon­dini, 1623. Philips works 1. Work.

Secondly, It is (not to mention the Antients) generally re­jected by Presbyterian Commentators; as by Calvin, Aretius, Pomeranus, Piscator, and our Assembly. Cocus in his censure of some Antient writers, reckons it for one of St. Clements lyes (as he terms it) because he, or the Impostor under his hood, saith, Philip who baptized Simon Magus was Philip the Apostle, and not Philip the Deacon.

Philip therefore being the same Individual person in both places, our next enquiry is after his works, concerning which we say.

1. He was a Church Officer sent forth from Jerusalem in pe­rillous, and persecuting times, to preach the Go [...]pel, and baptize Converts where Christ had not before been named; his Office is evidenced by his works of preaching, & baptizing, Act. 8.12. so also is his Mission, because unsent persons are strongly barred from doing them, by Rom. 10.14.17. Mat. 28.19, 20. When he was sent forth, Act. 8.1. resolves. To whom he went, appears both in the character at his coming, Act. 8.9. and by what he did among them after his coming, Act. 8.12. the former informs us, that notwithstanding our Saviour had passed in his Journeyes, sometimes through these parts, yet in all probabi­lity these p [...]rsons had never seen, or heard of him, for then they could not so soon have been bewitched with the Sorceries of Simon; the latter assures us, that granting they had seen, or heard of Christ, they were yet to be made Christians, other­wise they needed not to be baptized.

[Page 193]2. Although he did preach and baptize at Samaria, yet the Church at Jerusalem sent down St. Peter, 2. work. and St. John thither to add some other thing, be it in Ordination or Confirmation, or both of them, which Philip did not, neither could he do, not because Imposition of hands succeded with the gift of the holy Ghost, was peculiarly annexed to the ministration of the twelve Apostles; for Ananias gave, or rather God gave the ho­ly Ghost to St. Paul by his imposition of hands, Act. 9.17. but because Philip was of the inferiour Order, and had not like power derived unto him as Ananias had. Collating with passa­ges, we have both a clear instance of the derivation of the A­postolate in Ananias his Imposition of hands to give the holy Ghost, and a plain witness to the truth of the Institution of the Church-officers of divers Orders, in Philips suspension from [...]t; had the Act been peculiar to the twelve Apostles, and temporarily limited to their personal administration, Ananias not being of their number could not have done it; and that Ananias did it by reason of his Order, or in virtue of a power received in the ordinary way of verification of Christs promise of a perpetual Ministry (or in the way of Ordination) not in virtue of extraordinary spiritual gifts appears in this, that Philip who had, and exercised those gifts in as large and won­derful manner, as almost any other one man mentioned in Scripture, is yet notwithstanding withheld by the holy Ghost from meddling with it. But furthermore, had the Act of Im­position of hands been common to every Preacher, and Bapti­ [...]er (as is now pretended) Philip ought not to have forborn it, yea the Apostles at Jerusalem usurped upon his priviledges, when they sent St. Peter, and St. John to do that work, which he could, and ought to have done without them.How the A­postles gave the holy Ghost and wherein breifly ex­plained.

I well know, that to give the holy Ghost, is now reckoned one of the peculiar extraordinaries of the twelve Apostles, and how near to a blasphemy against the two first persons of the Tri­nity, from whom the third, or the holy Ghost proceedeth some mens expressions, and apprehensions are in that matter. But what hath been before observed of Ananias, and wha [...] shall be hereafter observed of the holy Ghosts descent upon Cornelius, we hope will be of force to suspend the Readers thoughts con­cerning it, till we shall discourse it more at large in the Tract concerning Apostles: In this place we judge it only requisite to expose to his view the Commentaries of several learned men, upon that phrase in Act. 8.15. Beza saith, Receive the holy Ghost, [Page 194] i. e. those excellent gifts wherewith Church-officers ought in a special manner to be adorned. And a little after he adds, Without all doubt Peter and John were sent by the other Apostles, [...] i. e. Dona il­la eximia qui­bus esse orna­tos oportebat eos qui praefi­ciendi erant ecclesiae. Et paulo post. Petrus & Johannes pro­culdubio missi erant ut par­tim Philippi diaconi doctrinam ipsi confirmarent, partim ut Apostolica authoritate ecclesiam in ea urbe constituerent. Bez. in loc. Minime dubium est, quia primas docendi partes susceperant. Calv. in loc. [...] pro [...], nempe pro aliquibus eorum, nam donum illud spiritus sancti conferrebatur ad praedica­dum evangelium, vel saltem ad prophetandum quorum neutrum singulis ecclesiae m [...]m [...] commune erat. Piscat. in loc. Hammond Paraph. in loc. partly to con­firm Philip the Deacons doctrine, and partly to settle a Church in that City by Apostolical authority. Calvin saith, undoubtedly they were newly made teachers. Piscator saith, laid hands upon them, i. e. upon some of them by a Synecdoche of a part for the whole; for the gift of the holy Ghost was conferred to preach the Gospel, or at least to Prophesie, neither of which were common to all Church members. Learned, and judicious Doctor Hammond thus Paraphrasing the Text, saith, The two forementioned Apostles were sent to confirm them, and to ordain them elders or Bishops, in every City one by Im­position of hands.

These are the opinions of learned Divines of the two contrary Judgments: Let the Reader beleeve which of them he likes best; neither of them will prove any more then this, viz. the holy Ghost in the primitive time attended some yet continuing Ordinances, with the effusion of external visible gifts; whereunto the intention, or ability of the administrator no way concurred, God bestowing them upon the Apostles without a [...] humane Ministry, and upon other men, both by the administra­tion of the Apostles and of other Ministers. 'Tis confessed these gifts are at this time ceased; not because temporary Ministe [...] are ceased, but because the gifts were temporary; some such a [...] these who acted them once could not act them another time, as hath been elsewhere instanced in the gift of healing: And is equally true of the gift of tongues. St. Paul imposing hands up­on the twelve at Ephesus, instantly they received the gift of Tongues and Prophesie, without study or meditation, Act. 19.6. But the same Apostle adviceth Timothy (on whom notwith­standing he had formerly laid hands, 2 Tim. 1.6.) to give attendance to reading, 1 Tim. 4.14. to meditate, ver. 15. and to study to shew himself approved. 2 Tim. 2.15. Besides, as some of these gifts could not alwaies be conferred by the same Apo­stles, so all of them were such, as the holy Ghost expresly pro­nounceth to be temporary, 1 Cor. 13.8. Charity never faileth [Page 195] but whither there be prophesies they shall fail, whither there be tongues they shall cease.

But the same Ordinances, spiritual graces, and necessary gifts still continue, and whosoever receive them, whether in Confir­mation or Ordination, receive the same Spirit in the same O [...] ­dinance in as effectual, though after a divers manner: And are as truly Ministers and Christians, as if they were ordai [...]ed, or confirmed by the twelve Apostles, or by any one of them; otherwise we shall not only have extraordinary Ministers, but extraordinary Ordinances and Christia [...]s. And the present Church will be altogether divers from the primitive.

Observable it is; How the Apostles received the holy Ghost Joh. 20.22. i. e. were Saints and ministers, ere they received the extraordinary gift of fiery tongues, Act. 2.3, 4. Whence no doubt the Church in all ages took her warrant to use the form of words there used by our Saviour, or Receive ye the holy Ghost, in the Ordination of her Ministers, thereby at once inti­mating her right unto that institution, and steady belief of the same spirits accompanying it in her administration.Deinde cum unicus ecclesi­ae pastor ma­neat, necesse est ut in mini­stris quorum opera utitur; spiritus sui virtutem pro­ferat. Calv. ad Joh. 20.22. Calvins note upon the Text is observable, he saith, Furthermore since the one, and only Pastor of the Church yet continues, he must expect the vir­tue, and efficacy of the spirits of his employed Ministers. Piscator saith, We may not doubt but he performeth the same thing towards present Ministers and their hearers. Chemnitius saith, God addeth the words, receive ye the holy Ghost, as his promise to give grace and gifts to all lawfully called Ministers, whereby they may rightly, faithfully, and profitably perform their Ministry: He adds. These things are necessarily to be considered in ecclesiastical vocations, that the Church, and Ministry may certainly determine, that God is pre­sent and efficacious in their Ministry, according as he saith, Cum Christus Apostolos ad praedicandum evangelium mittens, afflatu testatus est, &c. ne dubitemus eum istud adhuc hodie praestare. Piscal. ad Joh. 20.22. Addita est promissio Deum daturum gratiam, & dona quibus eaquae ad ministerium per­tinent, recte fideliter, & utiliter, exequi p [...]ssint, qui legitime vocati sunt. Joh. 20. accipi­te spiritum sanctum. Chemnit. exam. Concil. Trident par. 2. exam. 3.4, & 5. Canon de sacramento ordinis. Haec necessario consideranda sunt in vocatione ecclesiastica, ut certo statuere possint, & ministri▪ & ipsa ecclesia, Deum huic ministerio adesse, & per illum efficacem esse. Sicut in­quit Joh. 20. accipite spiritum sanctum. Exam 6.7, 8. Can. de sacr. ordinis. Receive ye the holy Ghost.

I will shut up this point with the Judgment of most accom­plished Hooker; he saith,Eccles. Pol. lib. Sect. 77. Knowing therefore that when we take [Page 196] ordination, we also receive the presence of the holy Ghost, partly to guide, direct, and strengthen us in all our waies, and partly to assume unto its self for the more authority, those actions which appertain to our place and calling. Can our ears admit such a speech (as re­ceive ye the holy Ghost) uttered in the reverend performance of that so­lemnity? or can we at any time renew the memory, or enter into a serious consideration thereof, without much admiration and joy? Remove what these Ironically spoken to the Presbyterian impugners of the way of the Church of England in ordination; who impu­dently affirm that the usage of these words, or re­ceive ye the holy Ghost is a papistical rite foolishly and injudiciously retained with her. foolish words do imply, and what hath the Ministry of God besides wherein to glory? Whereas now for as much as the holy Ghost, which our Saviour in his first Ordination gave, doth no less concur with spiritual vocations in all ages, then the spirit which God derived from Moses to them that assisted him in his govern­ment, did descend from them to their successors, in like auth [...]rity and place: We have for the least, and meanest duties performed by virtue of ministerial power, that to grace, dignifie, and auth [...]rize them which no other Officers on earth can challenge. Whether we pr [...]ach, pray, baptize, communicate, condemn, give absolution, or whatever [...] dispensers of Gods mysteries we do; our words, judgments, acts [...] deeds are not ours, but the holy Ghosts. Suffice this for this di­gression about the Apostles supposed extraordinary ability in giving of the holy Ghost, and for the explication of the second part of Philips work.

3. work.3. He settles at Caesarea, whereas yet no Apostle had been, and whence we are not warranted by Scripture to remove him: That he entered Caesarea before any of the Apostles, the order of St. Lukes history perswades; he came thither, Act. 8.40. St. Peter who was the first Apostle that came thither, came not till Act. 10.In loc. Lightfoot in his Harmony, placeth seven years distance betwixt these Journeys, referring all passages in Act. 8. to Act. 34. All in Act. 10, to Act. 41. Two Objectio [...] removed, will perhaps let in more light to this point.

Obj. Obj. 1. Philip preached till he came to Caesarea, Is not that till exclusive of his preaching at that place?

Res. Unless Philips gift left him, and his commission expi­red upon his entrance of that City, 'tis most probable he did there what he had before done elsewhere. Besides the particle [...] rendred till, which is the main sinew of that Objection, is as well inclusive in other Scriptures of what time follow [...], as of what precedes; so Mat. 1.25. Heb. 1.13. Neither can any solid reason be given, why it should not be so sensed here, con­trariwise so to interpret it makes most for Gods glory, and Philips faithful discharge of his Office.

Obj. 2. St. Peter preach't first to the Caesareans, insomuch that upon his return from them he is put to an Apology at Je­rusalem, why he did so new and insolent a thing.

I answer first, the first questioned,Obj. is not alwaies the first a­gent. Philip might preach to the Caesareans, and not to be questioned, though St. Peter was; for

1. Upon Philips mission to Evangelize, his particular relation to the Church at Jerusalem ceased,Sol. & consequently he was there­of discharged: This is proved partly by the nature of his Office, suppose it were no more then the Diaconate (& it is also true of it, if it were the Presbyterate) which is local and personal, such as in the absence of one, must of necessity be supplied by another Officer; especially in such a Church as this was, where the clamours of the poor were so impetuous and importunate, Act. 6.1. And partly by St. Lukes exact description of Philips seve­ral Stages, and leaving him at his Journeys end, not at Jerusa­lem, but at Caesarea, Act. 8.40. This perhaps occasioned Cal­vin to say Philip went from Jerusalem, Excellentio­rem provinci­am manda tam. Calv. ad Act 21.8. Lightfoot Harm. ad Act. 10. because he had a more excellent Office committed to him.

Secondly, The quality of the place Caesarea (being a privi­ledged place, as scituate out of the Jurisdiction of the Jewish Sanhedrim; and being the residence of the Roman President, mixedly inhabited by Jews and Gentiles, and reckoned to ly betwixt the borders, that is disputable whether to be accoun­ted within the Holy Land or without it, or indeed both) pro­tected Philip from being called to an account by the Jews, or Judaizing Christians, as St. Peter was.

Second Ans. 'Tis very probable that Cornelius, and his Fa­mily entertained the first notion of Christianity by Philips Mini­stry, though their through conversion, baptizing, and en­churching was reserved for S. Peters ministration: It being otherwise very hard to conjecture how Cornelius, being origi [...]ally an Italian Idolater, should ere St. Peter came, make such a profici­ency in God-pleasing duties, as to be accounted a worshipper fearer of God ( [...]) with all his house ( [...],) That passage in St. Peters Sermon is observable, Act. 10.37. The word I say you know, which was published through­out all Judea, and began from Galilee after the baptisme [...]f John. The word [...] rendred ye know, notes a familiar and elective knowledge, Joh. 13.18. both ocular, Joh. 4.42; and Intelle­ctua, Joh. 4.29. which expression assuredly St. Peter would not have used, if Cornelius and his friends were then to hear the first news of Christ. St. Gregory, and ten more Antient Fa­thers [Page 198] cited by A Lapide the Jesuite, say, Cornelius and his friends were in the state of grace ere St. Peters coming: And this A Lapide saith is a most true affirmation; he proves it also by many reasons,Quare Corne­lius ante ad­uentum Petri, a Judaeis qui­buscum Caesa­reae versaba­tur, didicit, hausit (que) fidem explicitam u­nius Dei, & implicitam Christi medi­atoris coluit (que) verum Deum, ut Job. &c. A Lap. ad Act. 10.2. Cornelium certum est, nullos advocasse temere, sed solum eos quos ex suis habebat, verae u [...] ­gioni assentientes quamvis incircumcisos. Cum jam tum divina providentia ex tenebris [...] ­cem erneus effecisset, ut permixti cum dispersis Judiae non pauci ex profanis gentibus per or [...]em terrarum Idololatria abdicata veram religionem amplexantes ad audiendum evangelium essent comparati. Bez. ad Act. 10.24. and concludes with his own Judgment, after this manner. Wherefore Cornelius ere St. Peters coming had lear­ned, and drawn from the Jews among whom he lived, an explicite faith in one God, and an implicite faith in Christ the Mediator; and worshipped the true God as Job did before him among the Hea­thens, &c. Beza upon Cornelius his getting his friends toge­ther when he received St. Peter, hath this note. 'Tis certain Cornelius did not rashly, or promiscuously gather his friends together, but only such of them, who though uncircumcised, he knew to be fa­vourers of the true Religion; for divine providence causing light to spring out of darkness, had already prepared many Gentiles who lived among the dispersed Jews, to renounce Idolatry, embrace the true Re­ligion, and be ready to hear the Gospel.

All these Authors grant, that Cornelius was some way or other prepared to receive the Gospel, ere he sent for Peter; Indeed they do not name Philip to be employed in that service. But since the Nation of the Jews were generally enemies to the Christ then manifested, and since the holy Ghost brings Philip too, and leaves him Evangelizing at Caesarea, Act. 8.40. We do therefore (and we doubt not deservedly) ascribe it to his Ministry. But we shall not any longer insist upon it, what makes most for our purpose is most certain; namely, after Phi­lip is once settled at Caesarea, we are not warranted by Scrip­ture to remove him from thence. Contrariwise the last menti­on it makes of him,Har. in loc. is as there resident, Act. 21.8. This Light­foot computes to fall in A. C. 56. which is two and twenty years after Philips first coming thither: Were it granted that he was in his Chronology (to establish which, his conjecture is equally as strong, as any other mans to overthrow it) yet 'tis certain, that many acts which necessarily must take up much time, are inserted betwixt the eight and one and twentieth Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. Particularly, S [...]. Pauls three years abode at Ephesus, and all the works he did after his [Page 199] Conversion, elsewhere before he came to Caesarea and visited Philip. This shall suffice to be spoke of Evangelist Philip his work and settlement.

Evangelist Timothy meets us often in several Scriptures,Timothies works. some­times with (Act. 16.3. Act. 20.4.) sometime without St. Paul, Act. 19.22. but till we find him (by St. Pauls first Epi­stle to him) settled at Ephesus,; 'tis hard to fasten any special official works upon him, at least such as are not common with those before mentioned of Philip: Sure I am his works registred in that Epistle, and the Definers imaginations of his removal from Ephesus when they think fit to continue him there no longer, are the foundations of their Definitions, and the pillars whereupon their whole cause bears and settles: Besides, if common works bring Timothy into one Definition with Philip, then the whole structure of his vice-Apostolate, Ordination of Ministers, exercise of the Censures in and over many Churches, is forthwith overthrown and demolished, wherefore (or we shall have no further business to do with Presbyterians) we must reckon Timothies works by those which were committed to him, or expected to be done by him, by the rules and directions given in that first Epistle, where we observe,1. work.

1. He was besought to abide at Ephesus, 1 Tim. 1.3. where St. Paul had before been, and ordained Officers, or Prophets. Act. 19.6.

2. His principal works were Ordination of new Ministers by Imposition of hands, 1 Tim. 5.22. 2 Tim. 2.2.2. work. And regulation and due ordering of old Ministers, by witnessing to the Apo­stles doctrine agai [...]st Hereticks, and Seducers, 1 Tim. 1.3. And by proceeding to Censures as against private Christians, so against Elders, who were erroneous in doctrine, 1 Tim. 1.6. or enormous in practice, 1 Tim. 5.19.

3. Most antient Tradition (not disprovable by any Scrip­ture) there (or at Ephesus) continues him during his life,3. work. and buries him after his death, as shall appear by and by.

The two former of Philips & Tim [...]thies works are so directly con­trary, as both workmen cannot possibly be of one order;The diversity betwixt Phi­lips, and Ti­mothies works. Philip preached to Ethnicks, T [...]mothy in a constituted church; Philip could not impose hands, but Timothy is specially required, & impowred to do that work: In their third and last, or their settlement, both Philip and Timothy agree. But this wounds all the for­mer Definitions through the fifth rib, and lets out the heart blood of the cause. Philips settlement hath been already evi­denced, [Page 200] and Timothies shall be made appear in fit place; for his coming to Ephesus, and the works he did there cuts us out work to begin upon; and makes it our task to find out in this diversity unto whom, whether unto Timothy, or unto Philip, the name Evangelist is given formally and strictly.

Timothy no Evangelist at Ephesus.

Timothy at E­phesus was not formally and strictly an Evangelist. First, because the Evangli­zate will dash against all the absurdities mentioned in the 1. 2. 3. 7. and 8. ex­ceptions. Secondly, if he was, Philip was no Evan­gelist. Thirdly, Pro­phets were ordained at Ephesus ere he came, or the Epistle was sent to him thither. This is proved by a double instance. 1. That Act. 19.6. preceded Timothies sending to Ephesus.TIS not so given to Timothy.

First, Because he did at Ephesus all the works differencing the Apostles from other Church-officers; namely, he ordain [...] Ministers, gave rules for Discipline, and administred the Cen­sures: If which works constitute an Evangelist in a strict sense, the Office will be attended with all the absurdities mentioned in the first, second, third, seventh, and beginning of the eight Exceptions.

Secondly, If Timothy was, Philip was no Evangelist, be­cause Philips works were distinct from, and inferiour unto Ti­mothies.

Thirdly, What Timothy did, was in a Church where an A­postle had before been, and ordained Officers preferred in the Catalogue of Church-officers before Evangelists; 1 Cor. 12.28. Ephes. 4.11. This Church was Ephesus; there was Timothy besought to abide; 1 Tim. 1.3. And there had St. Paul been before, and ordained Prophets. Act. 19.6.

Two things explained and proved, manifest the validity of this reason.

1. That the passage Act. 19.6. preceedes Timothies being ex­horted to abide at Ephesus.

2. That the twelve Prophets there mentioned were Church-Officers; Of these in order.

First, That Timothy was left at Ephesus after St. Paul im­posed hands upon the Prophets, Act. 19.6. This si proved by the general, and most received opinion among sacred Chronolo­gers, who (in very great * numbers) time Timothies being [Page 201] exhorted to abide at Ephesus at St. Pauls second going into Macedonia, mentioned Acts 20.1. now that this proves our in­stance, appears thus;Calv. Proem. in 1 Tim. Bez. Annot. ad 1 Tim. 1.3. Aret. disposit. prioris epist. ad Tim. Baron. ad Ann. Christi. 57. numb. 53. St. Paul before his own journey sent Ti­mothy, and Erastus into Macedonia immediatly upon, or [...] at the time of the Ephisme tumult and insurrection, Act. 19.22. When which was quieted, the Apostle forthwith prepares to follow them: He pursues his resolutions, and having staid there a little while (three moneths, and a few odd dayes are only mentioned in Scripture, read Act. 20.) he returns from thence unto Miletum, convenes the Ephesme Elder, and exhorteth them to vigilancy, and faithfulness in their several places: This ex­hortation he backs with many arguments, among others, with some of his own example, and three years converse among them. Now supposing (according to the former Chronologers) that Timothy was returned out of Macedonia, and settled at E­phesus upon the first day of St. Pauls removal from thence. It [...]s certain St. Paul had been there above two years before, and one of the first acts he did after his coming thither was Ordina­tion of those Prophets, Act. 19.6. Hence Beza saith, Timo­thy was exhorted to abide in a constituted Church, because St. Paul had been there two years before. Dr. Lightfoot computes Act. 19.6. to A. C. 52. the Mission of the first Epistle to Timothy, Sed ut in ec­clesia constitu­ta nam Ephesi per biennium docuerat Paulus. Bez. ad 1 Tim. 1.3 Harm in. loc. to A. C. 55. This if we prove those twelve Prophets to be Church-officers, will make it a more difficult work to prove Timothies evangilizate, then it hath been accounted by those swarms of writers, who without any more a do ascribe it to him; where­fore our present business is to prove that these Prophets were Church-officers, and this prepares matter for the,

Second Instance.Secondly, the twelve mentioned Act. 19.6. were Church-officers. Those twelve Prophets mentioned Act. 19.6. were Church-officers immediatly from, and after St. Pauls im­position of hands upon them. This is an assertion (confessedly) opposed by the authority of many & worthy Expositors, who say it was used in Confirmation of their Faith, not in Ordinati­on unto Office. But that it was used in Ordination (I will not say single, and exclusive of Confirmation) is proved by several reasons.

1. No Scripture treats more formally of a Church-officer,1. The Text contains a most formal ordination. or comes nearer to his Definition; read the words, Act. 19.6. And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the holy Ghost came upon them and they spake with tongues, and prophesied. Whence note. First, their ordination. Paul laid hands upon them. Se­condly, their inward qualification and gift; the holy Ghost came [Page 202] upon them. Thirdly, their ministration of their gift, and office flowing from the two former, they spake with tongues, and prophe­sied.

2. They recei­ved the gift of Church-offi­cers by the ordinary rite of admitting Church-offi­cers.2. As their received gift to speak with tongues was, and hath been proved to be the gift of Church-officers, called as they were Prophets, so they received it by imposition of hands, which was the ordinary rite of admitting Officers into the Church; and after they had received the gift, they officially exercised it in Prophesie. Wherefore should the usage of the rite or ceremony prove little of it self, it being used in several cases, as confirmation, healing of the sick, &c. yet collated with the end why they received it, to wit, to Prophesie, it necessa­rily interprets the text by Ordination, since no instance can be given of any upon whom hands were imposed, and the colla­tion of official gifts thereupon followed, together with the ex­ercise thereof, but those persons were thereby admitted into the same Office, with those whose gifts they had, and whose works they did.

Obj. From the gifts received by Cornelius and his friends Answered 1. They did not receive their gift by imposition of hands. 2. They did not exercise their gift in prophesie. Obj. Are Cornelius and his friends objected, upon whom while they were unbaptized, and attendant upon St. Peters Ser­mon, The holy Ghost fell, and they magnified God Act. 10.46.

I answer. First, they did not receive their gift by imposi­tion of hands the time when the holy Ghost fell upon them, [...], or while Peter was yet speaking, being plainly exclusive of the performance of that rite.

Secondly, the exercise of their received gifts is not as here, extended unto Prophesie; but limited to magnifying of God, [...]. which was a duty performable by private persons, either upon receipt of a special mercy, Luk. 1.46. or upon a spiritual experience of Gods pre­sence in his Ordinances; Act. 5.13. Act. 19.17. both which concurred in the present dispensation towards Cornelius and his friends.

Thirdly, Although these reasons are sufficiently forcible to free our Assertion from prejudice by this Text, yet because a right and full exposition thereof may be expected, and may be useful, errours never lodging more securely, then by the sides of difficult truths;3. Act. 10.46. fully ex­plicated. and 'tis neither wise, nor safe to draw the Curtains upon them; because what the Orthodox do not, or dare not explicate for the advancement of verity, the Hetero­dox will confidently interpret in favour of haeresie; we shall [Page 203] labour a little in it. The scope of the whole Chapter is the [...]irst enchurching of Gentile beleevers, the i [...]strument whereof was St. Peter, the place where it was done Caesarea: Many were [...]he preparative acts unto it; as Cornelius his, and St. Peters vi­ [...]ion: St. Peters backwardness to be employed upon the service, [...]ill out argued by the holy Ghost; his setting forth upon the [...]ourney, with certain brethren in his company from Joppa; [...]nd the solemn Interview betwixt St. Peter and his associates, [...]nd Cornelius and his friends and family: In all which is some­ [...]hing observable, but because I hasten to the principal matter, [...] pass them over. St. Peter being come, he falls to the business, preacheth Christ and the holy Ghost, nigh the Close of his Sermon falls upon his Gentile Auditors. This unexpected [...]ction astonisheth his Jewish Christian Fellow-travailers; who were it seems not fully acquainted with Gods purpose before­ [...]and: Wherefore at once to satisfie them, and proceed to en­ [...]hurch these Conve [...]ts with conviction of all gain-sayers (for [...]s the present Christian Jews were astonied, so their brethren [...]t Jerusalem calls St. Peter to an account for it afterwards, Act. 11.1, 2.) St. Peter questioneth with his amazed companions (who doubted, or gainsayed (and perhaps did both) the reality of Gods purpose to open the door of Faith unto the Gentiles) whither the visible effects of Gods spirit upon these Converts did not, or ought not to silence all further objections, & disputes [...]gainst their admission to Church-fellowship. Farr be it from [...]e to charge any crime upon these Christian Jews of which they were not guilty; I hope I have said no more then the holy Ghost said before me, when he saith they were astonied: for the word [...] rendred astonied, is generally used even by St. Luke of an unbeleeving astonishment, attended with explicite doubts and gain-sayings. Thus, Act. 2.7. And they were all [...]mazed, ( [...]) and marvelled, saying one to another; Are not all these men Galileans; Act. 2.12, 13. And they were all amazed, and were in doubt ( [...]) saying one to another, what means this? others mocking, said, these men are full of new wine; thus Act. 9.21. And all that heard him were amazed ( [...]) & said is not this he who destroyed them, and came hither for that intent, that be might bring them bound to the chief Priests? The two first of these instances concern the unbeleeving Jews, and Greeks questioning the Divine Power whereby the Apostles spake with tongues; the latter refers to the shyness, and doubtfulness of the Christians to receive the late persecuting, now converted [Page 204] Paul into their fellowship. Were it needful we could multi­ply more parallel quotations, but we judge otherwise; for if the word did not bear this sense elsewhere, it must be allowed unto it in this place, because St. Peter is said to answer them; ver. 46. which phrase supposeth a precedent question; his answer contains an interrogation, and is recorded, ver. 47. Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, who have received the holy Ghost, as well as we? In these words are con­tained the form, and force of an argument from the greater to the less, which may be thus framed.

Those to whom God hath given gifts suitable to Church-offi­cers, or who have received the holy Ghost as well as we, or as on us at the beginning Act. 11.17. or even as he did to us. Act. 15.8. (i. e. Apostles, they first receiving those gift [...]) ought not to be denyed a member-ship, or visible admission unto Church fellowship.

But God hath given to these Gentile Converts gifts suitable to Church-officers, and they have received the holy Ghost as well as we, or as on us at the beginning, or as he did to us A­postles.

Therefore they are not to be denyed a member-ship and vi­sible admission to Church-fellowship.

Learned Doctor Hammond consents to this exposition and ar­gument; he saith. Is there any doubt, or question to be made of baptizing them, and receiving them into the freedome of the congrega­tion, unto whom although they be Gentiles, God hath allowed that which is more then baptisme, Viz. the descent of the holy Ghost upon them, thereby fitting them for office in the Church. The summe of all this is, that the Lord compassionating the frailty, and imbe­cillity of the beleeving Jews, and willing to frame them into [...] good correspondency, and unity of spirit with Gentile Con­verts, bestows upon the first fruits of the heathens, extraordina­ry gifts, ere their enchurching, thereby as it were fitting them at once for membership and office in the Church.

Object. Do any say, Their ensuing Baptism, not Ordination, is recorded.

Sol. I answer, The mention of their Baptisme, not of their or­dination, proves onely, that these extraordinary gifts did not priviledge them from entering the ordinary way into member­ship, or Office; and since they were baptized ere made mem­bers, there is the same reason that they must be ordained ere made Officers; because not extraordinary designation, but mi­nisterial [Page 205] Ordination, is the Scripture way of making and con­tinuing the ministry.

Object. Object. It is further demanded, How we know that these gifts did design them for Office?

Sol. Sol. I answer, It was the Apostles practice, both before, Act. 8.14, 15.16, 17. and afterwards, Act. 14.23. where-ever they baptized Converts, to ordain and [...]et Officers over them, to feed and preserve them in the faith. Nor may we think S. Peter had less care of those Caesareans, then of other Believers, when God had so wonderfully prepared them Officers, ere they were a Church: But if he did ordain Officers among them, they were either,

1. The Receivers of these gifts; and if so, As who more fit to do the works of Apostles, then those who had received gifts as Apostles, then such largition of gifts antedating their private membership, proves (as was noted before) Gods recommending them at once unto that Church both for membership and office. Besides we may further learn, That to bestow those Gifts was so far from being limited to the ministration of the twelve Apostles, as it wa [...] not annexed to the Apostolical, or any other huma [...]e admi­nistration, though the Apostles were present at their effusion. But the same God who gave them to the Apostles, did also at his own will and pleasure, bestow them upon others. Sometimes after ordination, as upon the Apostles; sometimes before it, as on Cornelius and his friends; sometimes at it, as on S. Paul and Timo­thy.

2. They were others. If which be true, and Cornelius and his friends, after the receipt of those gifts, continued private mem [...]ers, then their rejection was not onely injurious to Gods previous signation, but the constitution of this Church was di­vers from all other Churches; Gifts being separated as well as Office, from the Community, and privat brethren distinguished from gifted brethren in the Catholick Church, of which this Church at Caesarea must be a member, or she could be no Church at all: Thus S. Paul, 1 Cor. 14.3. puts Rails betwixt the Speaker with tongues, and [...], or the unlearned. Beza saith,Hos Idiota [...] vocat quasi privatos ut iis opponantur qui ministra­bant. Beza in loc. These unlearned were private brethren distinct from Ministers; and Cal­vin upon the place calls them Plebei, or the common people. Be­sides, we read, 1 Cor. 12.29. Are all Apostles? Are all Prophets? Are all Teachers? Are all Workers of miracles? Have all the gift of Healing? Do all speak with Tongues? Whence we may note,

[Page 206]1. The Apostle as well distinguisheth the gift of tongues from the community, as the Apostleship, Prophetship, or Doctorate, say­ing, All do not speak with Tongues, no more then all are Apostles, Prophets, or Teachers.

2. This text limits the universal term all in 1 Cor. 14.31. Ye may all prophecie, to all, and onely all Prophets; for all of all sorts were not prophets; neither could they prophesie. Besides, as if the holy Ghost consulted the infirmity of some, and would confront the impudencie of others, who otherwise might loose themselves or others, in the wide term all, in the last mentioned text, he encloseth it either way, with the express mention of Prophets, in the precedent and subsequent verses, thus; vers. 29, 30. Let the prophets speak, two or three, and let others judge: for vers. 31. ye may all prophesie; and why may they all prophesie? be­cause vers. 32. The spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets. Thus hath the Reader my sense of the descent of the holy Ghost upon Cornelius and his friends, before their baptism. And this shall conclude our second Reason why the twelve prophets or­dained by S. Paul at Ephesus, Acts 19.6. were Church-Of­ficers.

3. Reas. Because Presbyterian Commentators allow it. Necesse est fa­teri hic agi de Ecclesiae Ephe­sinae primordi­is, Beza ad Act. 19.6. Perinde per­contrari de do­nis quibus illos peculiariter solebat Deus ornare, qui gubernaculis Ecclesiarum admovebantur Id. ibid. Illos Divinitus ad sacrum mi­nisterium vo­cari, veluti do­no linguarum, & prophetiae. Id. ibid. Proculdubio istius Ecclesiae duces, & gubernatores. Id. ibid.Thirdly, We have the Authority of the most noted Presby­terian Commentators, countenancing our opinion, concerning the twelve prophets. Beza runs as fast as words can carry him to our side; he saith, Of necessity we must confess, that this text treats of the Original of the Ephesme Church. And again: The Apostles demanding whether they had received the gift of the holy Ghost, would thereby learn of them, whether they had received those gifts where­with God was then wont peculiarly to adorn Church-Officers. More­over he adds, They were called by God to the sacred Ministry, to wit by the gift of tongues and prophecie. And finally he saith, without all doubt, they were constituted the Guides and Governours of that Church. Calvin calls them select men chosen out of a greater num­ber. And this his opinion is very probable, because S. Paul him­self, and Apollos had before taught at Ephesus (which was the place of the ordination of the twelve Prophets) with much elo­quence, power, and conviction upon his Auditors, Act. 18.25. Our Assembly agree with these Authors, upon this occasion; They made the Church of Ephesus one of the platforms for the Presbyterian Government: But the Independents scoffingly tell them, There was not room nor number sufficient for their Consistories, Classes, Pro­vincial [Page 207] and General Assemblies, because the whole Church consisted but of twelve persons. The Assembly ward the blow, and defend the Cause under the Buckler of Beza's Opinion; whereupon they make this gloss.Answer to dis­sent. pag. 103. Which way that passage vers. 6. of Paul's imposing hands upon them, and their thereupon speaking with tongues and prophecying, seems something to propend: now if it be so, it will be no sound reasoning of our Brethren, that because they were about twelve, whom the Apostles ordained for Officers, that there should be no more Disciples. I confess this gloss doth not carry an acknow­ledgement in the plainest words, but considering how, and to what end the Assembly urge Beza's Opinion, and what a break­neck to their Cause it would have been to prosecute it further, since it absolutely destroys Timothy's Evangelizate at Ephesus, the prudent and impartial Reader will soon resolve, that the As­sembly saw no cause to dissallow it, and that to defend themselves from assaults of Independencie, they must pull down their own house, with their own hands. This they warily decline in this place, but in their Annotations upon the Text,Annotat. ad Act. 19.6. 4. Learned men of the E­piscopal judg­ment do not gain-say it. Heylins Hist. of Episcopacie part. 1. cap. 4. Sect. 3. they fall round­ly and lustily about it, there they say, The twelve preached and expounded, as able Ministers of Christ.

Fourthly, This is not onely a Presbyterian notion, for learn­ed men of the Episcopal Judgement, do not a little favour it. Doctor Heylin arguing for Apostolical Ordination, without the concurrence of any others, makes this text a proof of it, and saith, Which if it were an act of Ordination, as Beza thinks, and it is likely so to be, because the text saith, that they spake with tongues, and prophesied; then have we more Presbyters created by laying on of S. Paul's hands onely, without the help of others. Presbyterian reasons for Ti­mothy's Evan­gelizate exa­mined. They are Unto Doctor Heylin, I could adde several others, but his reason to prove the twelve prophets to be Church-Officers, because they did Office-works, or prophesied, is one of the most principal reasons which can be alleadged in that matter, and for one man to say the same thing which Scripture doth, is of equal force as if a thousand said it, because the same reason which weakens a Scripture truely asserted by one man, would in like manner invalidate it, if it were maintained by the whole creation.

Thus have we instanced in what must be said against Timothy's Evangelizate at Ephesus, more might be added, but we are wil­ling to giveThe terms Calvinists, Calvinism, &c. sometime used are intended only for terms of distinction, and to avoid a more tedious way of Ex­pression, not as marks of disgrace, or contempt. Calvinists a fair hearing of what they can alledge, in favour of their Opinion, and if we shall discover a weaknes▪ and insufficiencie in their arguments, we doubt not but enough will be said to prove that Timothy was no Evangelist, in a Pres­byterian [Page 208] sense, or a temporary and wandring vice-Apostle, during his abode at Ephesus, consequently that the works he was enjoyn­ed to do, and did at that place, were not the proper works of the formal Evangelist.

All that our Opponents say, may be reduced to two heads.

  • 1. He is called an Evangelist. 2. His Office was temporary Object. 1. Ti­mothy is called an Evangelist. Answ. 1. The name proves nothing, un­less it be with­al proved in what sense he is called an E­vangelist.
    1. He is called an Evangelist.
  • 2. His Office was temporary.

Of these two in order: And first of the first.

Object. 1. Timothy was an Evangelist; for so he is called by S. Paul 2 Tim. 4.5.

I answer, 1. The word Evangelist is there used, but makes nothing to the resolution of the question truely stated, which is, not who is called, but who is formally and properly an Evan­gelist. Philip is called an Evangelist; (but as hath been proved) he did other works then Timothy did at Ephesus, works so divers, as both the workmen cannot be of one Order. The usage there­fore of the name, will leave it a perpetual question, whether Timothy or Philip were the formal Evangelist. Besides, ad [...] Timothy did elsewhere Evangelize, yea grant he did Evangelize at Ephesus, for no doubt there was Ephesus-Ethnick, as well as Ephesus-Christian, both in one City, long after the settleme [...]t of the Ephesme Church, and Timothy might Evangelize, or bring the first tidings of Christ unto them. I say, Grant all this, what is it to the purpose, or advantage of our Opponents, for unless Timothy, ordaining Ministers, and exercising the censures in the Church of Ephesus, was an Evangelist; all the former De­finitions are lost: But if doing those works he was an Evange­list, Philip was none; and whoever shall now lay claim to a title either of ordaining Ministers, or exercising the Censures, [...] and it may be rejected, because they were temporary works of the ceased Evangelist. To assume therefore out of this propo­position, That whoever is called an Evangelist, was formally an Evangelist: But Timothy is called an Evangelist; Ergo he was formally an Evangelist: concludes no more, then the begging of the question. But to give it its final Answer, we say,

2. The term is used of Timo­thy in a gene­ral sense.2. The term is used of Timothy in a general sense, relatively to common works, or to works performable both by him, and by the Evangelist. The holy Ghost upon that accompt usually cal­ling both superiour and inferiour Officers, by one and the same Title; We will single out a few, out of many instances. The Apostles had common works with Presbyters (as hath been pro­ved) respecting which they often call themselves Pre [...]byters. Thus [Page 209] 1 Pet. 5.1. 2 Epist. John 1. and 3 Epist. John 1. but the most presumptuous ignorance cannot thence determine, the removal of the formal difference betwixt the Apostles and Presbyters, which were not onely distinct in Christs Institution of the twelve Apostles, and seventy Disciples, but continued so after the ascen­sion in the constitution of the Church at Jerusalem, in Apostles and Elders. Presbyter therefore when spoken of Apostles, must admit of another and larger signification, then when spoken of ordinary Presbyters. S. Paul often calls his whole Church-ser­vice a Diac [...]nate, Act. 20.24. Ephe [...]. 3.7. Col. 1.23. not be­cause he onely served Tables, and there was no difference betwixt him, and a Deacon, but because his and the Deacons work had some agreement; and he was as painfully engaged about the souls of the poor Saints, as they were imployed about their bodies. The same Apostle, Ephes. 4. draws the circumference of all the labours of Church-Officers unto this one small point or centre, [...], or for the work of the Ministry, surely not because Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors and Teachers, were formally Deacons, but because in their several Stations they were to minister unto Christs Body the Church; and their ministra­tions (as the Deacons) were toylsome, laborious, full of care, and requiring c [...]rcumspection. In the objected Text, Timothy is not onely called an Evangelist, but also enjoyned to fulfil his Dia­conate, [...], or make full proof of thy Ministry, or Diaconate, where unless the former latitude of words be al­lowed, but Evangelist and Ministry, must be taken formally, then either the Evangelist was a Deacon, or the Apostle degraded Timothy with the same streak of his Pen, wherewith he conse­crated him an Evangelist. This single Argument procures learned Gerhards subscription to a Certificate in his own and Lu­ther's name, against Timothy's Evangelizate; he saith, (and Lu­ther said it before him) Whereas Timothy was already constituted Bishop of the Ephesme Church, Cum jam tum Timotheus constitutus fu­erat Ecclesiae Ephesma Epis­copus nec ulte­rius fuerat Paulum comitatus, cum (que) [...] nomen generale addatur, convenientius etiam nomen E­vangelistae accipitur generaliter. Gerhard. loc. com. loc. de minister. Sect. 227. Geneva. 1636. and did not any more accompany with S. Paul, and whereas the general name of Diaconate, or Ministry, is added, therefore the word Evangelist is more conveniently to be taken generally.

3. The Apostle in the same chapter,3. This chap­ter & the for­mer Definiti­ons do not limit his Evangelizate to the same works. expresly limits the work of Timothy's Evangelizate, not to go about with him, from place [Page 210] to place, poor S. Paul was now ready to be offered, and the time of his departure was at hand; nor to constitute new Churches, as his Vicar; but considering what a black Cloud of persecution hung over the Apostles head, to be sedulous, diligent, strong and constant in preaching the Gospel, what storm soever is poured down upon him, his words are, 2 Tim. 4, 5. But watch thou in all things, endure affliction, do the work of an Evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry: Indeed Ministry is a general term, comprehen­sive of all Ecclesiastical Services, when it hath not bounds put unto it: But a short review of the Chapter will soon inform us, what the Apostle meant by this Ministry, and why he would have Timothy so careful to fulfill it, by watching in all things, and doing the works of an Evangelist: what? vers. 2. Preach the word, be instant in season, out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all long suffering and Doctrine; why? vers. 3, 4. For the time will come, when they will not endure sound Doctrine, but after their own lusts shall heap unto themselves teachers, having itching ears; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. In all this there is nothing like the works mentioned in the Presbyterian Definitions, nothing but what is common with a work of Philips, namely to preach the Gospel in despite of all opposition; Philip did so at Samaria, and so must every Evangelist do, where-ever he cometh, because men seldom entertain a new Religion, till they have strugled hard to retain the old one; and nothing, which is not now required of every Church-officer at this day. For was Timothy a temporary Evan­gelist because he preached the Gospel, was instant in season and out of season, watched in all things, endured affliction, did the work of an Evangelist, and made full proof of his ministry in times of persecu­tion, and heretical Apostacy. Then cowardly Deserters of their Flocks in such hours of temptation, may alledge in their own defence, that it cannot be expected at their hand to set up a Standard against those over-flowing wickednesses, least they should usurp upon the ceased work of the temporary Evange­list.

4. Calvin and many other e­minent Pres­byters either doubt or deny the formal acceptation of the word Evangelist in this place. Caterum an Evangelistae nomine generaliter significet Paulus quosvis Evangelii ministros, an vero speciale fuerat aliquid munus in certum est. Calv. ad loc. Eam non tam Timothei quam aliorum causa scriptam fuisse, facile judicabunt, qui dili­genter omnia expenderent. Multa enim continet, quae supervacaneum esset scribere si Paulus cum solo Timotheo negotium habuiss [...]t. Juvenis erat, nondum ea authoritate instructus, quae sufficeret ad cohibendos homines protervos, qui contra insurgerent. Calv. proem. in 1 Tim.4. Whatever Junior Presbyters think of this phrase, [Do the work of an Evangelist] their Seniors are not so resolute for its formal and strict acceptation. Calvin is doubtful, he saith, But [Page 211] whether S. Paul signifie by the name Evangelist any Gospel Minister, or a special Office, is uncertain. Doth Calvin here doubt how to sense it? Elsewhere he resolves it to me, (and I think to himself and to all other men who will abide by his reasons) that he never thought Timothy to be such an Evangelist as he and his Partizans define, to wit, having a Vicar-Apostleship over all or many Chur­ches; for to establish his Presbytery, as well over the Evange­lists then, as over the Bishops now, he saith, Whoever shall diligently weigh the whole contents of the Epistle, will easily judge, that it was not writ so much for Timothy's sake, as for the sake of other men: for it contains many things needless to have been written, if S. Paul's business had onely been with Timothy, who was a young man, not furnished with sufficient authority to restrain stubborn rebels. But herein as Calvin took no notice of S. Paul's particular directing of the Epistle unto Timothy, and single salutation of him, with­out the least mention of his Presbytery, 1 Tim. 1.1, 2, 3, &c. Paul an Apostle of Jesus Christ, &c. Ʋnto Timothy my own son in the Faith, Grace, mercie and peace from God our Father, and Jesus Christ our Lord. As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some, that they teach no other Doctrine. Compare also, 1 Tim. 1.18. 1 Tim. 3.14, 15. 1 Tim. 4.6, 16. 1 Tim. 5.1, 7, 9, 11, 19, 21. 1 Tim. 6.11, 12, 13, 20. so neither did this great Expositor heed the [...]njunction, 1 Tim. 4.12. Let no man despise thy youth; or feared not to be found in the number of those Despisers.In loc. Bullinger expounds the word Evangelist by a Gospel-preacher; so also doth Zanchy, as may be seen in his fore-quoted Definition. The lat­ [...]r Helvetick Confession is of the same Judgement, it saith,Evangelistae praecones Evan­gelii, quomodo & Paulus Ti­motheum jubet opus implere Evangelistae. Helvet. Confes. Boster. Genev. 1581 Answ. to Di [...]. pag. 65. Evan­gelists were Gospel-preachers, thus Paul bids Timothy do the work of an Evangelist. To these may be added Zuinglius, Aretius, and Piscator upon the place. Our Assembly being somewhat over­pressed by the Dissenters arguments for Tim [...]thy's Ordination by the Apostle, not by the Presbytery, burst out into this passionate demand, Our Brethren must prove, that Timothy was ordained an E­vangelist; wherein as they harp upon the former harsh string, that an Evangelist, or other Officer, may be constituted without ordi­nation, for there is the same reason for one as for another, and for any as for one, so they testifie their diffidence of Timothy's Evangelizate at Ephesus, since his designment and ordination to [Page 212] do what he did there, is most plainly proved by 1 Tim. 1.3. 2 Tim. 1.6.

We shall hem in this piece with some further Testimonies of Presbyterians both in judgement and practice, who (whither out of fear of receiving out-ragious dealing from the more ri­gid of their Faction, or for other Reasons which whoever else can more exactly assign them, may do it) taking it as it were for granted, that according to the principles of others of their Bre­thren, Timothy and Titus might elsewhere be called Evangelists, or do such Evangelical works as are assigned by the Definers, do notwithstanding deny that they were called Evangelists, or did their works at Ephesus, or Creet, in vertue of S. Paul's Epistles directed to them. Many might be registred in this Catalogue, we shall onely point at two of the brightest Stars in the firma­ment of the Churches of Germany or France. They are,

1. Scultetus (according to the transcript of his opinio [...] by the Author of the Confessions and proofs of Protestant D [...]es concerning Episcopacie) saith, But Paul taught for some time [...] in Ephesus and Creet, At Paulus E­phesi, & in Creta ali­quando docue­rat, ideo Ti­motheum & Titum ibidem jubet manere non utique ut Evangelistas, sed ut ecclesiae gubernatores. Id quod etiam epistolae ad utrum (que) scriptae evincunt. In his enim non ecclesiae colligendae, [...] erat evangelistarum, sed collectae gubernandae quae est episcoporum rationem illis praes [...] sunt (que)ue praecepta omnia ita confirmata, ut non speciatim ad Timotheum vel Titum, sed gene­ratim ad omnes Episcopos referantur. Ideoque ad temporariam Evangelistarum potestate [...] minime quadrent. Scultet. Com. in Tit. pag. 10. therefore he commands Timothy and Titus t [...] abide there, not as Evangelists, but as Church-Governours; which also the Epistles written to them both do evince. For in th [...]se places Churches were not to be gathered, which was the work [...] of Evangelists, but gathered Churches were to be governed, which was the w [...]rk of Bi­shops. And all his precepts are so confirmed, as they do not special­ly belong to Timothy or Titus, but are to be referred generally to all Bishops: And therefore they square not at all to the temporary works of Evangelists.

Quomodo ap­pellaveris & Timotheum, Titum & Mar­cum, s [...]u Epis­copos sive Evangelistas. Constat eos habuisse Successores Episcopos, haeredes illias pre-eminen­tiae. Du Moulin. Epist. 3. ad Episc. Winton.2. Du Moulin saith, However thou shalt call Timothy, Titus, o [...] Mark, whether Bishops, or Evangelists, it appeareth that they had Bi­shops for their Successors of their pre-eminency.

These are the Sentences of those two learned Divines, and although I promised to mention no more, nor shall insert any more of their Judgement, yet because of its near relation to this [Page 213] subject, and because it may not pass without a serious remark, of some Readers, I shall close with the Judgement of Holy L [...]th [...], [...] super pr [...]posi [...] ­ones Lyps [...] dij­putat. conclus. 13. Luther [...]o­perum. Tom. 1. fol. 30. [...]. who not onely proves that in every City there [...]ught to be Bishops b [...] Divine Right, according to that of S. Paul to Titus, For this cause left I thee In Creet; But maintains, That this was the Resolution of his Predecessors, S. Hierom and S. Augustine.

We hope what hath been said sufficiently proveth, that this Text, 2 Tim. 4.5. doth not treat of Evangelist in a strict sense. And whoever is so perswaded may collect enough out of Presby­terian Authors, to confirm him in that opinion, and withal give him sad and just cause of complaint against the want of honesty, ingenuity and prudence in late Presbyters, who wilfully and spitefully threw an Officer out of the Church, because his and Timothy's work of ordination and censures were one and the same; when they had little of any thing else, but this ambigu­ous phrase of S. Paul's bidding Timothy do the work of an E­vangelist, to put a colour upon their Attempt: wherein their unbridled passions, not the teachings of Gods Spirit, or the concurrence of their prime Leaders opinions, drave them so fu­riously, as they never heeded either that they were truckling Divine Institutions under their yesterday Inventions, or that God was gone out against them, and had taken off the Chariot Wheels of their Reasons, so that they drave heavily, and plun­ged Themselves and Cause in a Red Sea of bloody Absurdities, and Unnaturalness; most whereof are obvious to our last twen­ty years experience, and the rest are piled up in great heaps in the papers passing between the dissenting Brethren, and the As­sembly. Or finally, that the Erastians and Socinians, at divers Breaches (all of the Presbyters making) took advantage to bring in the Abomination of Desolation into the Holy Place. Presbyters in the mean time crying, Reformation, Reformation, to their new-invented Discipline, as justly as the Israelites said to the Calf which Aaron made, These be thy Gods, O Israel, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, Exod. 32.4. And as wisely dancing naked in the midst of their Enemies.

Object. Object. The Verb or Parti­ciple elsewhere used of Timo­thy may prove his evangeli­zate. Answered ne­gatively. If Timothy's Evangelizate be not proved by the Noune Evangelist, 2 Tim. 4.5. that's no bar why it may not be proved by the Verb or Participle, evangelize, evangelizing, elsewhere u­sed of him.

I answer, I am in a manner assured, there is no text where the verb or participle is used in that sense of Timothy, having made some search after it, and cannot finde it, neither have any whose [Page 214] writings I have seen in this controversie alledged it. But grant­ing it have escaped both their and mine observation,2. Presbyteri­an Arguments for Timothies evangelizate. or that he was temporary. 1. In his office which hath been already answered and is referred to that place. 2. in His tempo­rary exercise of his Office at Ephesus. This is urged by them Generally from his tra­vails. Second Paper. yet such text will prove little, unless

1. It speaks of Timothy in a distinct sense, because those words are used of several persons of divers Orders, as hath been be­fore observed.

2. It must have relation to him, doing those works at Ephesus which are required of him by the first Epistle. Which if it have, then Philip was strictly no Evangelist; and the Office will be attended with all the Absurdities mentioned in the former exceptions, against the Presbyterian Definitions. We deny therefore, till such new Text is alledged, and such sense justifia­bly affixed to it, that Timothy was formally an Evangelist, or that the works he did at Ephesus, were the proper and distinct works of that Officer.

This shall suffice in refutation of the first sort of Presbyterian proofs of Timothy's evangelizate at Ephesus.

But we have not yet done, for as they endeavor to prove [...]t by the aforesaid Scripture, so by their own suppositions, that he was temporary.

By this temporariness, they understand two things:

1. His Office; or that it was limited to that time. This we trust will need no further refutation, to a Reader and Considerer of our seventh exception against the Presbyterian Definitions.

2. His exercise of his Office; or that he was temporarily, or for a time engaged as an Evangelist at Ephesus; our business is with this latter, whereupon lies the main weight of their cause, many words they use to evince it, but upon what grounds, and with what Reasons, we will enquire, and let the Reade [...] judge.

The Womb which conceives, bears and brings forth the re [...] of their imaginary Arguments, is, Timothy travailed from place to place, without any settled residence. The Wight Divines tell King Charles the Blessed, that Timothy's Evangelizate bears with some stress upon this foundation. We will feel how it doth sustain it, and hope to discover it was set thereunder, as the pillars under Dalilah's house, for the ruine of their cause.

Generally an­swered by a right stating of the questionBefore we transcribe their particular reasons to prove this as­sertion, or prepare to examine them: We premise this necessa­ry concession: Timothy went with, and without St. Paul to divers Churches. But this is not our question: But whether after St. Paul besought him to abide at Ephesus, he removed thence [Page 215] discharged of his official relation to that Church. For if he travailed before his settlement at Ephesus, and during his tra­vails did distinct Apostolical works, as ordain Ministers, admi­nister the censures in the several places where he came: This proves his vice-Apostolate, or rather his admission into the Apo­stolical Order; and that the Apostles general charge did not necessitate their perpetual motion, and restless travailing from place to place, all over the world; but left them at liberty, their own Age, or the Churches necessity exacting it, to settle upon some one Church or people, for the well ordering and governance thereof; they in the mean time committing other People and Nations, whether converted, or to be converted, to the guidance, oversight and travails of fit persons. But this we dispute not now, neither need we: for Timothy's temporariness,Timothy's tra­vels urged particularly. 1. From the Date of the first Epistle. 2. From some passages in both Epistles. A premoniti­on concern­ing the vali­dity of human assignation of the Date of Scriptures, submitted to con­sideration, ere the Presbyte­rian assignati­on of the Date of this Epistle is propounded or examined. Tot fore Sen­tentiae, quo [...] Chronologi. Scult. Delit. Evang. Cap. 14. Hanov. 1620. Dub. Evan. lib. 2. cap. 1 Ex Christian. Theol. Wende. lib. 1. cap. Theol. 9. discharged of his official relation to the Church of Ephesus, af­ter S. Paul had besought him to abide there, is principally: ur­ged from his supposed travail. We demand therefore what affirming proof our Opponents have of their opinion; and stand ready to receive the charge of any assailing arguments. Behold they advance in great numbers, and fall as in two Bo­dies.

  • 1. Arguments drawn from the date of the first Epistle.
  • 2. Arguments drawn from some passages in both Epistles.

We engage with those from the date first, and face them a­gainst the encounter, with the darkness and uncertainty of hu­mane assignation of the Chronological Date of Scriptures. This is so freely acknowledged by all learned men, who have tra­vailed in this subject, as we need not single out this or that par­ticular Authors confession. Those who have sweat most at this Plough, confessing voluntarily, That the more they have labour­ed, the further they were off from satisfaction, in some Enqui­ries. For instance: The most remarkable period of Christian Time, is our Saviours Nativity; but persecution, or tract of time, hath now covered it under so much rubbish, as there are few more Enquirers then divers opinions about it. This Scul­tetus acknowledgeth; he saith, There are almost as many Opinions as Chronologers. Spanhemius compares its investigation with the search after the Quadrature of a Circle, or Platonick Numbers, and doth observe how others collect above forty several Opinions, which he saith, he will not transcribe, yet by and by, he reckons learned men in great numbers, not agreeing one with another, nor he with any of them. Pareus and Zanchius differ full ninety [Page 216] three years from Pererius, Bellarmine, and Baronius in stating the account; they settle it in A. M. 3929. those in A. M. 4022. now doth such gross darkness cover the face of our Saviours Nativity to dissipate which, that sunne seems to be purposely set in the Scripture Firmament, and did enlighten the antient Church to fix both the year and day; Luk. 2.1. ad fin. 5. Think we any modern testimony concerning the date of Scrip­ture writings can be so firm, as to admit of no denyal or dispute, especially when those divinely inspired writings have no such distinguishing marks within their own Canon, or explicite re­ferences unto other records. And when no argument can be alledged to maintain them (I reflect particularly upon the assig­ned date of the Epistle in question) but as good,The argument from the date propounded. or better rea­sons may be brought to disprove them: But least we be thought to proceed to Judgment unduly, and without hearing of the allegations of the adverse party, we leave an ear open to re­ceive them: They are;Baron. ad Ann. Christi 57. Lightfoot harm. ad An. Christi 55. Beza ad 1 Tim. 1.3. Aret. disposit. prioris 1 epist. ad Tim. Est. proem. ad 1 Tim. 2. Paper of the Ministers at Wight 1. it is confessed that our assertion. Answered. 1. By Hypo­thetical con­cession. St. Paul going from Ephesus into Ma­cedonia, Act. 20.1. leaves Timothy behind him at Ephesus; [...] which place the Apostle sometime after his own departure from thence sends him this Epistle; But returning to Miletum a short while after (three moneths and a few daies are only menti [...]ned in Scripture, and the former Chronologers compute St. Pauls going into M [...]cedonia, and returning to Miletum, within one and the same year) the Apostle convenes the Ephesme elders, dischargeth Timothy, and committeth the regiment of the Church unto them. Afterwards Baron. ad Ann. Christi 57. Lightfoot harm. ad An. Christi 55. Beza ad 1 Tim. 1.3. Aret. disposit. prioris 1 epist. ad Tim. Est. proem. ad 1 Tim. 2. Paper of the Ministers at Wight 1. it is confessed that our assertion. Answered. 1. By Hypo­thetical con­cession. Timothy is often mentioned, as elsewhere employed by St. Paul, or in company with him: Thus Phil. 1.1. Col. 1.1. Philem. 1. Heb. 13.13.

Hereunto I answer.

First, By Hypothetical concession, and say; should we grant all this, yet since the Apostles Journey into Macedonia, and consequently the date of this Epistle, fell nigh three years after his coming to Ephesus, and the ordination of the twelve Pro­phets, Act. 19.6. Then to prepare for Timothies travails, our Antagonists have marcht off his evangelizate; for how could he be an Evangelist, or bring the first tidings of Christ to those who had so long before lived under St. Pauls, and Apollos his ministry: And who had Officers preferred unto the Evangelist, viz. Prophets settled among them ere Timothies coming; be­sides these twelve Prophets being Church-officers (as hath been al­ready abundantly proved) they were either of the Presbyterial, or Apostolical Order. If they were of the Presbyterial Order, [Page 217] then the powers of Ordination, and Censures now challenged by Presbyters, was not their due in the Apostles time, since these Prophet-Presbyters nigh three years after their ordination were subject unto Timothy. If they were of the Apostolical Order, their subjection unto Timothy evinceth a necessity of settling a primacy of Order, with some super-intendency of authority, and Jurisdiction, upon a cheif and eminent person, within par­ticular Churches and precincts; not one Pope over all Chur­ches, but a Primate ouer every national Church; for Titus had the same place at Creet as Timothy had at Ephesus. 'Tis not my business to speak of Timothies Order in this tract, what hath been said rather shews what he was not, then what he was; to wit, he was not an evangelist, because he exercised Jurisdicti­on over Prophets; wherein he acted in his own right, and with­out usurpation upon their priviledges, otherwise the exercise of his power might have overturned the cradle of that Infant-Church, nothing being more intolerably provoking to any man, or number of men, then the infringing of their Liberties. This is all that can be gained by granting that the former Cronolo­gers have found out the precise date of this Epistle, but it may not be granted they have said it.

Secondly, We positively deny it, for these reasons.2. By positive negation, Because 1. Timothy is sent before St. Paul into Macedonia no mention is made of his return ere the Apostle fol­lowed him thither.

1. Timithy and Erastus (St. Paul continuing sole at Ephesus) are expresly sent into Macedonia, immediatly before the rise of the Ephesme tumult, Act. 19.22, 23. And he sent into Mace­donia two of them that ministred unto him, Timotheus and Erastus, but he abode in Asia for a season. And the same time there arose no small stir about that way; the residue of the Chapter is spent in a description of the nature of the tumult; upon what cause it began, ver. 24. ad fin. 27. with what confusion it proceeded, [...]er. 28. ad fin. 34. and by what descretion it was quieted, ver. 35. ad fin. Capitis. The tumult being over, St. Paul is ob­served in the very first verse of the following Chapter to go in­to Macedonia, Act. 20.1. no intervenient mention being made of Timothies return; the words of that text are: And after the uproar was ceased, Paul called unto him the Disciples, and embraced them, and departed for to go into Macedonia. All which put toge­ther rather proves St. Pauls hastening to follow Timothy, then Timothies return out of Macedonia unto Ephesus; 2. Timothy accompanies S. Paul at his re [...]urn from Macedonia. for when the uproar which began at Timothies departure was appeased, St. Paul prepares for the same Journey, and set upon it.

2. At St. Pauls return from Macedonia, Timothy accompanies [Page 218] him, not as one relating to Asia or Ephesus (for so that City is called, and Trophimus who is said to be of Asia, Act. 20.4. is called an Ephesian, Act. 21.29.) its Citizens being special­ly distinguished from Timothy and the rest of the company, Act. 20.4. And there accompanied him out of Asia Sopater of Berea, and of Thessalonica Aristarchus, and Secundus, and Gajus of Derbe, and Timotheus: and of Asia, Tychicus & Trophimus; these going be­fore, tarried for us at Troas. Now should the text leave us to conjecture, whether those of Asia: and the rest accompanied St. Paul from end to end of his return from Macedonia? or whe­ther they met him upon the way from several parts (although the former seems more probable, because we read not one word of their meeting the Apostle upon the road,In loc. but on the con­trary they are all said, [...], or to accompa­ny, or travail together with him into Asia, or usque in Asiam, even unto Asia, as Beza renders it.) To be sure the Text is as clear, and full in excluding Timothy from a relation unto Ephe­sus, as in excluding Sopater, Aristarchus, Gajus, and Secunia [...]; all of them being named from their respective Cities, except Timothy, whom St. Luke had before observed to be a Lystrian, Act. 16 1. whereas had Timothy come from Ephesus, or stood at this time in the relation of a Bishop,3. The inter­val betwixt S. Pauls going to & return from Macedo­nia is too short and scant for Ti­mothy to ef­fect the works committed to him by the Epistle. 4. The charge a [...] Miletum prophesies somewhet to befal the Churoh at E­phesus, which the Epistle speaks of as past. or Evangelist to that Church, he ought to have been named among the Asians, or Ephesians.

3. The time of Timothies supposed continuance at Ephesus was too little, and sca [...]t for the performance of the works committed to him by the Epistle; the time hath been already computed not to exceed half a year; the works were many, and two of them especially would take up much time, namely [...] leisurely proceeding in Ordination of Ministers, 1 Tim. 5. [...]. and a solid examination of the charges against misdemeaning el­ders, ere he censured them, 1 Tim. 5.19.

4. The Elders of the Church of Ephesus being sent for, and present at St. Pauls charge at Miletum, he saith in the future tenses, Act. 20.29, 30. For I know this, that after my departure shall grievous Wolves enter in among you, not sparing the Flock, Als [...] of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things to draw Dis­ciples after them; the words [...], and [...] rendred shall enter, and shall arise, are of the future tense. And accor­dingly the Apostles immediatly following premonition, respects futurity, ver. 3. Therefore watch and remember, &c. But in the Epistle, which according to the Presbyterian computation [Page 219] was written some moneths before the charge was given at Mi­letum, he assigns this as his chief end in leaving Timothy at E­phesus; namely, To charge some that they taught no other doctrine; 1 Tim. 1.3. because some having swerved from the truth, were tur­ned aside to vain jangling, ver. 6. and that he had delivered Hym [...]neus and Alexander, (both confessed Ephesians) unto Sa­than, ver. 20. now had these things been done, or the Epistle written before the charge at Miletum, the Apostles would more probably have warned those Elders by the rece [...]t example of those Apostate, and heretical Teachers, and by his own and Ti­m [...]thies former care and vigilancy at Ephesus; to practise the like diligence, and faithfulness in watching against such ungodly attempters for the future, then to discourse of those evils in a prophetick stile, as after contingencies: Especially since it was this Apostles custome to mind other Churches of those instru­ments, whom God had joyntly employed with him for their good; thus particularly he reminds the Corinthian Church of Timothy, 2 Cor. 1.19. For the son of God Jesus Christ, who was preached among you by us, even by me and Sylvanus, and Timothe­us, was not yea and nay, but in him was yea. Besides the Apo­stles commemoration of his own labours, Act. 20.31. gave him a hint of Timothies (if Timothy had before laboured in this matter.) And why should the Apostle have omitted it, since both together would have more enforced his argument; and since all manner of enforcement was no more then needed,Act. 19.33. objected. be­cause neither of the Epistles to Timothy (and we doubt not to prove either of them written after the charge at Miletum) do speak the Church at Ephesus in a quiet condition. But contra­riwise they order Timothies abode and diligence, least others spread the same, or like pestilent doctrines.Answered, and the text largely ex­pounded.

Some say, Act. 19.83. refers unto the injuries done unto St. Paul by Apostate Alexander; for which afterwards, ere the Apostle went into Macedonia, he delivered him unto Sathan: This weak conjecture hath strong assertors, learned Beza, and learned Dr. Hammond. But we must enter our dissent against it, and do not perceive how any one well observing the text (though it be translated most advantageously for that conceipt) can do otherwise; the words are: And drew Alexander forth of the multitude, the Jews also putting him forward; Ambo. in loc. And Alexander beckned with his hand, and would have made his defence unto the people: Concerning this defence (which whether it were in­tended for, or against St. Paul and the Christians, Scripture is [Page 220] silent) Beza, and Dr. Hammond tell us this fair story; they say The Orator Alexander was St. Pauls most pernitious enemy, mentioned 1 Tim. 1.14. and delivered by him to Sathan, 1 Tim. 1.20. which Alexander, Ambo in loc. the Jews at this time carry forth of the croud into a fit place, where by an invective Oration he might appease the inraged people, revile them to the Jews, and derive all their ma­lice upon St. Paul and the Christians.

Our Judgment of this story briefly is, 'tis but a Tale, For.

First, Those who put Alexander forward, are plainly diffe­renced in the text from those that drew him forth; the words in the original are [...]. This Beza himself thus translates, Ex tucla vero produxerunt quidam Alexandrum propellentibus eum Judaeis. And all other translations observe the difference, except the Syriack, which rather paraphraseth, then translates.

Secondly, The Gentile Ephesians were equally incensed both against Jews and Christians; Particularly they were so far in­raged against the Jews, as perceiving Alexander to be a Jew, they would not suffer him to speak, ver. 34. But when they knew that he was a Jew, all with one voice, about the space of two h [...]urs cryed out, Great is Diana of the Ephesians. Besides had not the Ephesians been offended both against Jews and Christians, the Jews needed not to have thrust Alexander forward to make any Apology for them; because Demetrius took his first distast a­gainst the Christians,In loc. and had thrown the contempt upon them. We are therefore with Beza's good leave yet to seek for the true exposition of the text, and shall not be able to find it, till we can assign the difference betwixt those who drew Alexan [...] forth, and Jews who put him forward.

Doctor Hammond agreeing with Beza in the rest, saw this, and to help Dun out of the mire, he adds. Those who drew A­lexander forth were Serjeants, those who thrust him forward were Jews, malicious to St. Paul, who questioned and examined him, and then he was ready to Apologize, Id ubi supra to avert the danger from him­self, and to turn it upon others. This Exposition he grounds up­on a secular usage of the word [...] namely, that it signi­fies to examin judicially a suspected, or impleaded delinquent.

But as well this, as Hesychicus his gloss must be mended. For

First, 'Tis utterly improbable, that the Town Officers should suffer the Jews to examin their Prisoner.

Secondly, [...] hath no such Scripture Signification, nor if it had elsewhere would this text admit it, till it were proved, that the Magistracy of Ephesus consisted of Jews.

Thirdly, 'Tis somewhat too confident (though animated by our translation) to say, that Alexander would have made his own defence, for the word [...], used absolutely as here, equally signifies a general as a particular Apology: And when the Pen-man of this History (or St. Luke) useth it for a particular Apology, he joyns it in construction with some limiting expres­sions; thus Act. 24.10. Then Paul after the Governour had beckned unto him to speak; answered; for as much as I know that thou hast been of many years a Judge unto this Nation, I do the more cheerfully answer for my selfe ( [...].)

Fourthly, 'Tis yet more confident to say that Alexander in­tended to accuse others, for no word properly signifying to accuse, appears in the text. Neither will the word [...] (which is the only word looking that way) bear it in St. Lukes Dialect, because elsewhere he placeth [...], or to make a de­fence in opposition unto [...], or to accuse. Act. 24.2. with 10.

The errors whereunto these Authors draw themselves, and confiding Readers, proceed (I dare say it) from want of due consideration of the several words rendred drew forth, and put forward; the former [...], rendred drew forth, although in our Dialect it import a manual violence, yet originally both in Scripture, and Greek Authors, it signifies a forceless drawing, by reason, instruction, or intreaty; In▪ Scripture 'tis used of a Parents instructing her Child, Mat. 14.14. And she being be­fore instructed of her mother, [...]. In Authors 'tis used of a Clients procuring, or instructing of his Patron, or Coun­cellor. Take we it in either of these senses in this text, it leads us presently to ascertain Beza's quidam, namely the Christians, who were the parties in danger; They drew Alexan­der the Orator forth to make a publick defence.

Obj. Obj. But may some say, what have the Jews to do with Christians? for if the Christians drew Alexander forth, the Jews put him forward.

I answer, Christians and Jews,S [...]l. had then more to do one with another then they have now, and in this very case there was a special reason for their unity, and joynt acting; for the cause and danger was the common concernment both of Jews and Christians; both of them were professed enemies to Diana; [Page 216] both of them were for the most part originally Jews; and per­haps the enraged Ephesians knew not before, much less would they in their present rage make any difference betwixt Jews and Christians; sure I am, the men of Thyatyra did not, but com­plaining to their Magistrates against St. Paul and Sylas, they say Act. 16.20. These men being Jews, do exceedingly trouble our Ci­ty. Therefore the cause, and danger both of Jews and Christi­ans being the same, there is no reason why they might concur in the election in a common advocate to make their joynt de­fence, least both should be swallowed up promiscuously in those tempestuous waves of popular fury. To this Exposition good Authors assent;In loc. namely Aretius, Piscator, and A Lapide; neither is it any whit discountenanced by the following words, or what is said of the Jews, that they put him forward; for that word doth not alwaies signifie a violent haling, and thrusting out of a malicious intent: In Scripture it is used of trees, bud­ding or sprouting, Luke 21.30. Among Authors 'tis used, as well of a parties producing his witnesses in Court, as of the Judges examination of them; In which cases the Party is oft-times enforced to use all violences of intreaty, promises of re­ward, Subpoena's, and threatnings of hazard to his witnesses, if they neglect their appearance to put them forward, least the cause should be heard in his absence, and go against him; the result of what hath been said is this, that the Christians drawing Alexander forth by instruction, the Jews might put him forward, hasten and encourage him to proceed in the com­mon Apology. And certainly any one in his case would have needed both Spurs.

This I am perswaded is the true meaning of the place, and I wonder that Beza and Doctor Hammond neither took notice of it,In loc. nor of some as learned as themselves, to wit, Cajetane, and Arias Montanus who deny the Alexander named in this Text to be the same named, and excommunicated by St. Paul, 1 Tim. 1.20. Calvin upon the place leaves it with an incertum est, or it is incertain whether they were both one man, or divers. This is mo­dest, but the other opinion seems truest. But grant both Texts speak of one and the same Alexander, this in the Acts gives no colourable reason why an excommunication should pro­ceed against him, but he was actually excommunicated 1 Tim. 1.20.

Wherefore again and again, we affirm and repeat, that the charge given to the Ephesme Elders at Miletum was prophetical [Page 213] of those future mischiefs, which false teachers should do unto that Church, unless they were watcht against with all diligence: And that the Prophesie had in part its accomplishment in St. Pauls delivery of Hymeneus, and Alexander unto Sathan, ere he directed the first Epistle unto Timothy: Suffice this for the fourth rea­son against the assigned date of the first Epistle unto Timo­thy.

Fifthly,Fifthly, Cal­vin doubts of the validity of the assigned date. Vix certo col­ligi potest ex historia Lucae quando scrip­tu fuit prior epistola. Calv. proem in 2 Tim. The former reasons are I trust convictive to inge­nuous Readers of the equity of our opposing the assigned date of that Epistle; but if any more morose come a thwart this discourse, we beseech him to observe what Calvin saith in this matter, ere he shoot the bolt of his censure; he saith, It cannot be gathered with any certainty out of St. Lukes history, when the first Epistle was written. What! cannot Calvin certainly col­lect it, whom, and whose cause it so much concerned, since the greatest stress of Timethies Evangelizate bears upon it? Doth the Master builder fear the downfal of his Fabrick, since 'tis founded upon vix certo, or a ticklish foundation? Are not we rather excusable in refusing to build thereupon, then venturou­sly to attempt the reedification of that Babel whose builders are confounded in their language, and either raze their Tower with their own hands, or prepare Engines, wherewith others may do it. Besides, St. Lukes history hath been consulted and considered, where not only we cannot find the date, but do find the Presbyterian assignation of it to be of all others the most incertain, and improbable.

Those clamours then evaporate as smoke into ayre,A Presbyteri­an cavil obvi­ated by way of corollary. 1. Paper of the Ministers at Wight the same is manifest. 2. Paper to that which your Majesty And the one reason gi­ven by your Majesty. where­with Presbyters so cloy our ears in this controversie, to wit: That Bishop Timothy is altogether neglected by St. Paul, when he gave the Ephesme Elders their charge at Miletum; since they are [...]et to prove that Timothy was settled at Ephesus, ere the first E­pistle was sent unto him; Besides, the charge doth not commit the same works unto the Elders, as the Epistle doth to Timothy, if it did, such concession might rather be received with preju­dice that they got it no sooner, then with thanks that it was now allowed them, since they were Presbyters of a long stan­ding, ere the supposed date of that Epistle; and since Timothy had all the while usurped upon their priviledges. Indeed the charge at Miletum allows the Ephesme Elders the feeding, and oversight of their particular flocks in such subordination as the Epistle to Timothy puts them under their superiour Offi­cers, which was never denyed them, under the Episcopal Go­vernment.

Obj. We are required to assign another date. Ans. 1. We are not neces­sitated to do it. Obj. Some may object and say, since you have denyed the as­signed date, tell us when the Epistle was written.

I answer. First, the holy Ghost not revealing it, perhaps rather directs to our silence with him, then our enquiry with­out him; especially, because when we have wearied our eyes, and hearts in seeking it, we shall find no more then Calvins vix certo, what whereof an it may, or it may not be true, may with equal probability be pronounced: I will not say the holy Ghost hath hid it from our observation as he buried Moses his body, because we should not find it; but I will say, if finding it had been necessary, he would not have concealed it; besides, when ever it was written,, it concerns one Timothy at Ephesus, which was a Church having settled Officers ere he came thither, since one of his first trusts after his coming, was to examin and cen­sure delinquent Presbyters. 1 Tim. 5.19.

Secondly, Will not this satisfie, but my Reader expects that I should rove at the date,2. Aus. Con­jectured to be written after St. Pauls de­liverance from his first imprisonment at Rome. as others have done before me. I say probably St. Paul, after his release from his first imprisonment at Rome, returning to visit his formerly planted Churches, and yet under his own Jurisdiction, came to Ephesus, where he found the Garden overrun with weeds, the Church miserably corrupted with heresies and false doctrines (his Prophesie, Act. 20. being then in some measure fulfilled) to occur to which mischeifs, give a check to their further encrease, and proceed according to his purpose in visiting the remaining part of his Vineyard in Macedonia, &c. he settles Timothy at Ephesus, and writes this Epistle to him. This is all conjectural and probable, I give it my Reader for no more; but

First, 'Tis a probability not lyable to the like absurdities with the former assignation of the date.

Secondly, 'Tis much favoured, both by the Apostles former practise: Act. 15.36. And some dayes after Paul said to Bar­nabas, let us go again and visit our brethren in every City where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do; 1 Cor. 11.34. And the rest will I set in order when I come. 2 Cor. 11.28. Besides those things that are without, that which cometh upon me dayly, the care of of all the Churches. And by a text in the latter Epistle to Timothy, 2 Tim. 4.20. expounded. which mentions St. Pauls being at Miletum long after the charge. Act. 20. It is 2 Tim. 4.20. Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick; The exposition of this text will be useful, and the readiest way to do it, is to compare the opini­ons of expositors, I find it interpreted three wayes.

First, Some say Trophimus was left sick at Miletum, when St. Paul and his company sayling to Rome, touched upon the Coasts of Asia. Act. 27.2. Thus St. Chrysostom and Beza. In loc.

Secondly. Some charge corruption upon the text, boldly alledging Miletum is falsely written for Melite. Thus Baronius and Beza; In loc. the latter whereof adjoins it to his former opini­on, with a quanquam potius conjicio [...], or although I rather con­jecture. But we value not his Conjecture, for.

1. 'Tis contrary to all Greek copies. Beza dares not cite his antient manuscript, but boldly ventures it into the world up­on his own Conjecture, as also, doth Baronius. Now must the Church interpret Scriptures by such Conjectures; certainly God hath given his Word to little purpose, since mens fancies may alter it when, and how they please.

2. 'Tis against the credit of all translations; the Latine are obvious; the Syriack is thus rendred by Tremellius. Trophimum autem reliqui aegrotum in Mileto urbe, or Trophimus have I left sick in the City Miletum.

3. 'Tis audacious, dangerous, and improbable; Audacious, be­cause it introduceth the Cabala upon the new Testament. Dan­gerous, because it may be improved to invalidate the most con­clusive Scriptures against heretical opinions, if the words which make most against them have any common letters, with words which favour them. Improbable, because a Metathesis, or transposition of letters will not lay in the words, since Miletum, and Melite are also written in Greek with different vowels. I shall conclude my animadversion upon this second exposition, with Dr. Lightfoots censure of Beza, for the same thing he saith;Har. in loc. He is alwaies one of the forwardest to tax the text for corrupt, when he cannot clear it.

Thirdly, Others interpret the text of some time after St. Pauls release from his first imprisonment when he perambulated, and travailed over again his former Stages: thus A Lapide. The first, and last of these expositions are only probable,In loc. the middle­most most improbable and false, our present enquiry is, which of the two is most probable: Do any say the first is? because Trophimus was not left sick at Miletum when Acts 20.17. was written, I answer:

Grant it to be true, it wipes away the Dust thrown by Presby­ters into the face of this Controversie; when to weaken Timo­thy's Episcopate at Ephesus, they say, St. Paul took his last fare­wel of the Elders of the Ephesme Church, and gave them their [Page 220] final instructions, when he told them at Miletum, That they should see his Face no more, Acts 20.25. whereas hereby they grant, that he visits them again, and might see, or be seen by them in this Voyage, which according to the supputation of Chronologers, was under-taken not above four years after that charge. But wiating all advantages gainable, by insisting upon the probability of the first Exposition, we renounce it, and close with the latter Exposition as more probable, for this pas­sage of leaving Trophimus sick at Miletum, was written ten ful years after St. Paul's first voyage to Rome, and 'tis utterly improba­ble either that Trophimus should be left so long sick at one place, or that St. Paul should now write it unto his Neighbour Tim [...] ­thy for News, for this second Epistle was written to Timothy while he was at Ephesus, and last of all St. Paul's writings, as will appear by and by in the discussion of its Date.

Thirdly, 'Tis allowed by the exact judgement of the late most eminently learned, and to a miracle judiciously conver­sant in all sorts of Antiquity, Dr. James Ʋsher Arch-Bishop [...]f A [...]magh, who in his annals of the World, dates the first Epi­stle to Timothy in the 55th year of Christ, not much above a year before St. Paul's Martyrdome, which sufficiently challen­geth an allocation of time to the Date of that Epistle subsequent to St. Paul's Delivery from his first imprisonment, in which annals, the said excellent man, placeth the leaving of Trophimus sick at Miletum in the year of Christ 66. not many Moneths before St. Paul's exchanging his Earthly pil­grimage for a Heavenly habitation.

Corollary from the refutation of the first sort of Presbyteri­an Argu­ments, to prove Timo­thy's travels.But for the present dismissing all further conjectures, at­tend me to what is certain, namely Timothy at the Date of the first Epistle (whatsoever was the time of its Date) was resident at Ephesus: And so far we have fixed him. When then did he remove? afterwards; (say Presbyters.) If we ask them in what year of our Lord? they will tell us they cannot tell: But if you will take their word, you shall hear them say with much confidence, That he did remove.

Proceed we to a further Query, and demand their Proofe, their Answer, as the former, will not want confidence; and a­ver they have enough, so we will quietly grant their assigned, and refuted Date of the First Epistle to Timothy. And they have so ordered their business, as easily credulous persons may rea­dily believe he was afterward with St. Paul, or imployed by him in divers places, as appears by Phil. 1.1. Col. 1.1. Philem. v. 1. [Page 217] Heb. 13.13. But I suppose I have broken the Links of this goodly Argument, and till Timothies Travails can be chained and linked together by one more strongly tack't, do positively deny that any of these Texts do treat of him, as removed from Ephe­sus, and discharged of his Relation unto that Church. This shall conclude our Refutation of the first sort of Presbyterian Arguments, in proof Timothy's Evangelizate by his pretended Travels.2d. sort of Presbyterian Arguments. for Timothy's Travels: Or several instan­ces out of the epistles to him

But their other body of Arguments (or instances from se­veral Texts, in both the Epistles to Timothy) are advancing: And,

1 Tim. 1.3. fals on: The words are, As I besought thee to a­bide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou migh­test charge some, that they teach no other Doctrine. This is always the forlorn of the Cause, I meet it in Smectymnuus, First, 1 Tim. 1.3. As I be­sought thee to abide at E­phesus. in the Di­vines at Wight, where not? And hereby they would evidence Timothies occasional, and precarious leaving at, not Authoritative mission to the Church of Ephesus.

This they say, and I well hoped they would have been weary of insisting on it,Smectym. pag. 37. Wight Div. 1 pap. Sect. And first to that of Timo­thy and Titus. when I perceived the Royal Pen (which stoo­ped to examine every thing of any imaginary weight in the Mi­nisters Papers) disdaining this Objection an Answer: But finding it not raked up in the quiet Ashes of Silence and Obli­vion, but as fresh and pert as ever among the London Divines, I was troubled to see such a Trifle, as the vulgar acceptation of an English word to p [...]evail so far,Jus. Divin. 2 part, p. 66. with men pretending either to solidity of learning, or ingenuity of spirit; for though it may pass currant with common Capacities, that to beseech the doing of a thing, is not the putting forth of an act of power, enjoyning its performance, yet more refined Brains will demur upon it, because they know:

1. Answ. 1. Answ. We are not so much to eye what is said, as who speaks. Words receive their force and signification from the quality of their Speakers, who hath Authority to command, is equally to be obeyed if he do entreat: Did not my Servant thus interpret my Language, he would fulfil few of my most important commands, their ordinary Style, when necessity of performance concurs with my desire to have them done, being prithee do it: Neither can there be a more demonstrable Argu­ment of a Slavish spirit in inferiours, to apprehend themselves less concerned in their Duty, because their Superiour [...] do not furiously rate, but mildly intreat them. I appoint this to the point in hand thus. Timothy was qualified to impose hands, [Page 228] censure delinquent Presbyters, and others, ere the Apostle besought him to do them, else he would never have besought him, and S. Paul had equal authority to command as to beseech him, for he ordained Timothy, 2 Tim. 1.6. And all Ordainers lay the command of God upon the Ordained, faithfully to discharge the trusts belonging to their Offices, in the Churches whereun­to they are called. Granting therefore S. Paul did onely be­seech Timothy to abide at Ephesus, it was of equal force to in­gage him to remain there, as if he had used words of the great­est threatning and charge, especially since the works he enjoyned him to do there, even Ordination of Ministers, and exercise of censures, are of constant and almost dayly use, and he al­ways had a power to do them, and that Church would perpetu­ally call for its exercise.

2 Timothy un­derstood the word besought of a settlementSecondly, Timothy thus understood St. Pauls intreaty, upon it he staid at Ephesus; neither doth any Scripture, or good au­thority remove him from thence, the last mention which holy Writ makes of him, is as there resident; and Antiquity there settles him in his life, and buries him after his death (as shall be largely evidenced by and by: Besides strict observation cannot discern how Timothy could understand S. Paul's beseech­ing otherwise then of a settlement; the words of it are [...], or I besought, or exhorted thee to abide still at Ephesus. The word [...], rendered abide still, by our Translators, and remaneres by the Vulgar, as it refers to the next following words, or when I went into Macedonia, implies that S. Paul had been at Ephesus before, and left Timothy behind him. As it respects the last words of the same verse, or that thou mightest charge some, that they teach no other Doctrine; it interprets S. Paul's beseeching, by Timothy's residence at Ephesus. Since no work requires greater diligence, or more constant attendance, Act. 20.28. ad fin. and since the second Epistle finds Timothy at the same place, and engaged upon the same works, as shall ap­pear, when we argue for his residence at Ephesus. Beza tran­slates [...], permaneres, which is fuller to prove fixation, then either remain or abide, for they do not necessarily require long continuance, but to permane exacts constant attendance, and a through discharge of all the trusts of an imployment. Thus the word [...] signifies in this very Epistle to Timothy, 1 Tim. 5.5, 6. Now she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, continueth ( [...]) in supplications and prayers night and day; but she that [...]ive h [...] pleasure, &c. Where we may observe the word both to [Page 229] be extended to constancie, the widow indeed continueth in prayer and supplications, night and day,; and opposed to temporary and shifting Devotions, the luxurious widow (doth not continue, but) liveth in pleasure. Elsewhere the word is rendered cleave, Act. 11.23. Who when he was come, and had seen the grace of God, was glad, and exhorted them that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord, ( [...]) which certainly the Speaker Barnabas doth not intend of a temporal owning, but of a spiri­tual adherence to the Gospel; neither do I any where observe the word to be used of a temporary or transient action, unless some limiting adjunct, be construed with it, which is not to be found in this text of Timothy's, but it is in Act. 18.18. And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, ( [...].) Mat. 15.32. Then Jesus called his Disciples unto him, and said, I have compassion on the multitude, because they now continue with me three days, ( [...].)

Thirdly, The word [...] here used, ( [...], or I be­sought thee) doth primarily, properly,3. The origi­nal word ren­dred besought, primarily sig­nifies to ex­hort. and most usually signifie to exhort and give a charge, but more rarely to beseech in any Idoneous Author: A truth well known to our Interpreters, and accordingly they often render it exhort. Thus, among other places, in 1 Pet. 5.1. The Elders that are among you I exhort, ( [...]) In this text, as well as in that of Timothy, the speech is directed by an Apostle to Church-Officers, and I see no reason besides the Translators pleasure, why ( [...]) was not ren­dered exhort, in both places.

4. Where 'tis rendered beseech,4. When 'tis rendered be­seech, it notes an authorita­tive beseech­ing. it notes intreaty conjoyned with authority, concerning most important duties, duties which must be done, and by no means neglected by the besought per­sons, Eph. 4.1. I therefore the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you ( [...]) that ye walk worthy of the calling wherewith ye are called: Will any one imagine this to be an occasional request, because the word beseech is used? What can be either a more worthy and serious matter for a preachers earnest exhortation, or for a peoples constant imitation? Thus also 2 Cor. 5.20. Now then we are Ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you ( [...]) by us, we pray you in Christs stead, be ye reconciled unto God. Well was it for S. Paul, that there was no such acute men as Smectymnuus, the Wight and London-Ministers, in the Churches of Ephesus and Corinth, otherwise he had soon heard from them, that if those duties of walking worthy of their calling, and being reconciled unto God, were not temporary and transient things, not re­quiring [Page 230] a perpetual observance, he would have used words of more authority then to beseech them to do them.

This might suffice in answer to this Scripture, but because Presbyters usually couple it with Tit. 1.5. whence they wrestled­ly collect, Titus his temporary settlement, because he is said to be left at Creet. I shall vindicate that text also, and speak some­what more of the unworthiness of those men, in their impo­sing upon vulgar capacities. And

Tit. 1.5. ex­plained.1. The word left is not onely used of an occasional dropping of men at a strange place, but of leaving them at their habita­tions and settled residence. Thus Act. 18.18, 19. And Paul af­ter this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the Brethren, and sayled thence into Syria, and with him Aquila and Priscilla; See pag. 232. having shorn his head in Cenchrea, for he had a vow; and he came to Ephesus, and left them there. The word [...], there rendered left, is the same word so rendered in the text of Titus, and Ephesus was the place of Aquila's and Priscilla's * residence, 2 Tim. 4.19.

2. The fastening of such interpretations upon S. Paul's ordi­nations of Timothy and Titus, unto the great works of preach­ing the Gospel, and Church-Government, as that he precariously employed the one at Ephesus, and casually left the other at Creet, is undoubtedly injurious, both to the Apostles gravity, and the sacredness of the work; VVhen our Saviour sent forth the first Preachers, he continued all night in prayer, Luc. 6.13. and if this be not written for ministerial imitation, but less solemnity will serve the turn; yet Timothy must forget how slightly he was complemented into his work, when he yeilds obedience unto the precept in 1 Tim. 5.22. Lay hands suddenly upon no man, neither be partaker of other mens sins; keep thy self pure. Proceed we now to the rest of the Scriptures urged by Presbyters, in proof of Timothy's travails.

2 Tim. 4.9. Do thy dili­gence to come to me quickly, objected. Answer. 1. Their in­ference from thence, is a false suppositi­on. 2. It doth not follow from The text.

A second Scripture urged against Timothy's residence at Ephe­sus, is, 2 Tim. 4.9. Do thy diligence to come to me quicklie.

I answer:

First, This falsly supposeth, but proveth not Timothy's absence from Ephesus, and till such proof can be produced, it strongly maintains his residence there, until the date of the second E­pistle.

Secondly, 'Tis no certain consequence that Timothy went be­cause S. Paul desired him: the Apostles own Councils were of­ten broken off in such casual appointments. Thus, Rom. 1.13 [Page 231] Now I would not have you ignorant, Brethren, that oftentimes I pur­posed to come unto you, (but was let hitherto) that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other Gentiles. Thus 1 Thess. 2.18. Wherefore we would have come unto you, (even I Paul) once and again, but Satan hindered us. And why might not Satan, or other impediment, hinder Timothy in like case, especially if S. Paul were in such instantaneous hazard of death, as he speaks of,3. Granting their infe­rence it proves nothing, unless Timothy were discharged from his rela­tion to the E­phesme Church. 2 Tim. 4.12. Tychicus have I sent to Ephe­sus, objected. Answer. 1. Their infe­rence is a false supposition. 2. 'Tis no good consequence. 3. Tis a singu­lar and novel gloss. In loc. 2 Tim. 4.6.

3. Suppose Timothy went to Rome upon S. Paul's desire, he might, yea he must return again to Ephesus, because neither S. Paul's desire, nor Timothy's obedience unto it, could discharge him of his office, no more then a married Son, is divorced from his VVife, by visiting his dying Father, upon his intrea­ty.

A third and last Scripture is urged by the Wight Divines to prove Timothy's Errantry, it is 2 Tim. 4.12. Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus.

Answ. 1. This as the former falsly supposeth, but proves not Timothy's absence.

2. 'Tis no good consequence to say, Timothy is not at Ephesus, because Tychicus is sent thither, when nothing is more usual in familiar Letters, passing betwixt Friend and Friend, then to acquaint each other of other Friends coming into their parts, whom they may visit, or by whom they may be visited.

3. The text hath onely two current senses among Expositors, either of which ruine this gloss of the Wight Divines: some say, S. Paul adds he hath sent Tychicus to supply Timothy's place in his absence,Timothy's resi­dence at Ephe­sus, maintain­ed by four propositions. 1. Prop. The second Epistle was sent to Ti­mothy at Ephe­sus. Confirmed. 1. Therein S. Paul com­plained of the Asiaticks Un­kindness to him at Rome, as a thing well known to Ti­mothy. as a motive to quicken and hasten Timothy upon his Jour­ney. Thus Calvin, Pomeranus, Piscator, Lightfoot, and A Lapide. Others say, Tychicus was the express by whom S. Paul sent this Epistle unto Timothy, so Baronius and Pelecanus,

Thus have we examined what hath been said in proof of Timo­thy's temporary abode at Ephesus, and are so far unsatisfied with the affirming arguments, that as a Coronis and conclusion to this part of the Dispute, we will take the Opponents part, and argue for his settlement. This we shall do in proof of several propo­sitions, whereof let this be the first.

First Proposition: Timothy was at Ephesus when the second Epi­stle was sent unto him. VVe prove it,

1. Because therein S. Paul complains of the Asiaticks unkinde­ness to him at Rome, as a thing well known to Timothy, 2 Tim. 1.15. This thou knowest, that all those of Asia he turned away from [Page 232] me, of whom is Hermogenes and Phygellus. The term all is not to be taken universally for every one simply, but Indefinitely, for a great many, because Onesiphorus is excepted by name, as an ad­ [...]erer to the Apostle, both at Ephesus, and Rome. And this also was known to Timothy, 2 Tim. 1.16, 17, 18. The Lord give mer­cy to the house of Onesiphorus, for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain, but when he was at Rome, he sought me out diligently, and found me, the Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day; and in how many thingt he ministred unto me at Ephesus thou knowest very well. These two Texts com­pared together administer matter to a probable Argument, for Timothies residence at Ephesus at the mission of this Epistle, but the next puts it out of all dispute.

2. He wills Ti­mothy to salute Aquila, Pris­cilla, and the houshold of Onesiphorus. Fuisse tamen adhuc Ephesi, quum ad eum scriberetur haec epistola, quia sub finem Aquilam Pri­scillam, & O­nesiphorum sa­lutat. Calv. proem. in 2 Tim. 3. He re-minds him to contest with the same Asiatick Haere­ticks, against whom he gives him charge in the former E­pistle.Secondly, St. Paul toward the latter end of this Epistle, wills Timothy to salute the houshold of Onesiphorus, and Aquila and Priscilla, 2 Tim. 4.19. Salute Priscilla and Aquila, and the hous­hold of Onesiphorus; all these were Ephesians. That Aquila and Priscilla were, appears, Act. 18.18, 19. The like concerning the family of Onesiphorus, is evident by 2 Tim. 1.16, 17, 18. Now Timothy could not give S. Paul's salutations to them, nor would the Apostle have imposed it upon him, unless they had been his neighbours. This occasioned Calvin to say, Timothy was yet at Ephesus when this Epistle was written to him, because nigh the end of it, S. Paul salutes Aquila and Priscilla, and Onesiphorus. Yea far­ther,

3. S. Paul reminds Timothy to contest with the former Asi­atick Hereticks, of whom he had forewarned him in the first E­pistle: this appears by 2 Tim. 1.13, 14, 15. Hold fast the form of sound words which thou hast heard of me, in faith and [...], which is in Christ Jesus; that good thing which was committed to thee, keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us: This thou knowest, that all those which be in Asia, be turned away from me, of whom are Phygellus and Hermogenes. 2 Tim. 2.15, 16, 17. Study to shew thy self approved to God, a workman that needeth not to be a­shamed, rightly dividing the word of truth: But shun prophane and vain bablings, for they will encrease to more ungodliness; and their word will eat as doth a Canker, of whom is Hymeneus and Philetus, 2 Tim. 4.14, 15. Alexander the Coppersmith did me much evil, the Lord reward him according to his works, of whom be thou ware also, for he greatly withstood our words. Compared with 1 Tim. 1.3, 4, 5, 6. As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach [Page 233] no other doctrine: neither give heed to fables, and endless genealo­gies, which m nister questions, rather then godly edifyings, which is in faith; so do. Now the end of the commandment is charity, out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfained, from which some having swerved, are turned aside to vain jangling. Vers. 19, 20. Holding faith and a good conscience, which some ha­ving put away, concerning faith have made shipwrack, of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander, whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. These texts compared exhibit these parallels: 1. The same hereticks, Hymeneus and Alexander. 2. The same end of their heretical Oppositions, vain jangling, vain babling. 3. The same way and means to resist them: Study to shew thy self approved unto God.—Holding faith and a good conscience.

4. S. Paul prescribes Timothy to take the same road to Rome, 4. He pre­scribes Timo­thy to take the same Road which he the Apostle had formerly tra­vailed to Rome Harm. on New Testament. p. 134. which himself had formerly travailed, compare 2 Tim. 4.13. with 2 Cor. 2.22. Act. 20.5. This is Doctor Lightfoots argument, and tran­scribed out of his harmony, where who pleaseth may read more, and wherewith we will conclude our proof of our first propo­sition.

Second Proposition.2. Prop. The second Epistle to Timothy was written the last of all S. Paul's wri­tings. Two opinions about the date propounded. 1. Modern, which dates it A. C. 59. 2. Ancient, A. C. 69. The Modern opinion consi­dered and re­jected. In loc. The second Epistle to Timothy was written last of all S. Paul's writings. VVe prove it,

By an examination of the several opinions about the date of this Epistle, and confirmation of the truest and most probable. Interpreters, are divided into two opinions in this matter.

Some say, It was written A. C. 59. or the first year of S. Paul's arrival at Rome, mentioned Act. 27. This is the modern Opi­nion.

Others date it the last of S. Paul's writings, or in A. C. 69. the Apostle in that year suffering Martyrdom under Nero. This is the ancient Opinion, we will consider both in order.

The Modern Opinion, suppose it were true, allows the second Epistle to be written two full years distant from the date of the first Epistle, the same Authors acknowledging that to be writ­ten in A. C. 57. this in A. C. 59. whence, and by our proof of the former proposition, it appears Timothy was not so absolutely discharged of his official Relation to the Church of Ephesus, by the charge at Miletum, but two years (or four years if Lightfoot's computation be exact) afterwards we finde him there engaged upon his old works.

1. Of Ordination, 2 Tim. 2.2. And the same things that thou hast heard of me, the same commit thou to faithful men, ( [...]) [Page 234] who shall be able ( [...]) to teach others also. These Quali­fications, [...] and [...], in the work of teaching, are peculi­arly requisite to Church-officers, 1 Tim. 1.12. 1 Cor. 15.9. 2 C [...]r. 2.16.

2. Of Vigilancie against Haereticks, 2 Tim. 2.14. 2 Tim. 4.5. with 1 Tim. 1.3, 4. and 2 Tim. 2.17. 2 Tim. 4.14, 15. with 1 Tim. 1.20.

But we must wave these advantages, and dare not admit mo­dern Writers to have recovered the true date of this Epistle, for as the foot of their accompt, stands upon meer conjectures, (read Baronius and Esthius, Baron. ad. A. C. 59. Est. pro­em. in 2 Tim. its chief Propugnators) so we must have all it grants, and a great deal more, neither will the Rea­der think we demand too much, when he hath weigh'd our Reasons why this second Epistle was not writ onely two, but twelve years (or fourteen years,Lightfoot Har. in loc. Ham­mond proem in 2 Tim. according to the accompts of Doctor Hammond, and Lightfoot) after the Apostle gave the Ephesme Elders their charge at Miletum.

But although neither of the conjectures of Baronius, or Esthi­us, are worthy of our or the Readers notice, yet learned Do­ctor Hammond concurs with them, and (as is his manner) as­signes a fair probability for his so doing;An Objection of Dr. Ham­monds in fa­vour of the modern computation. Ham. proem. in 2 Tim. he saith, 'Tis not so probable that S. Paul should remember his persecutions at Antioch, Iconium and Lystra, 2 Tim. 3.11. and what Alexander had done to him at Ephesus, Acts 19.33. and repeat them to Timothy, fourteen years after the fact, and just before his death; as at his first coming to Rome, which was but four years after he suffered them.

To which I answer, 1. S. Pauls principle scope in this Epistle was, to encourage Timothy unto constancy and stedfastness at his work, whatever troubles and afflictions befel him: To back and strengthen which Exhortation, he useth (as other Argu­ments,) so an argument deduced and drawn from his own example: To draw which to the life, he interweaves all, or the most eminent part of his fore-passed sufferings; and pre­sents it in one piece unto Timothy, as being the face of a man of sorrows, well known unto him, 2 Tim. 3.11, 12. But thou hast fully known, &c. And whereas the Doctor argues from the intervenient time, betwixt the Apostles sufferings, and the date of this second Epistle, thereby to invalidate the ancient opinion; we retort it, and say, the longer it was that some, or all of those troubles befel S. Paul; their urging, was the more likely way to [...]ncourage young Timothy to do or suffer [Page 235] like, without complaining of the duration of old, or succession of new troubles, since both hapned to S. Paul, who was the pattern whom the Holy Ghost set before Timothy his eyes, for his imitation.

2. S. Pauls usual practice at his farewel taking of Church-Officers, was, to repeat the whole course of his anteacted Ministery, labours, and sufferings among them: Thus Acts 20.31. 2 Cor. 11.23, &c.

We will not busie our pen, or our Readers patience,The ancient opinion con­sidered and maintained. with transcribing any more conjectures in proof of the modern opi­nion, about the date of the Epistle in question; the uncertainty and unwarrantableness of them, altogether appears widest, when objected to the light shining forth of Scripture, upon the an­cient opinion; a dazling beam whereof is, 2 Tim. 4.6. For I am now ready to be offered, First by S. Paul. and the time of my departure is at hand. The elegancy of the word rendred offered (though commonly observed) I may not overpass. It is a Metaphor borrowed from the actual pouring forth of Drink-offerings: Martyrdom is it seems a kinde of bowl wherein the precious blood of the Saints is offered up, as the most acceptable Drink-offering unto God: He who receives their tears into his bottle, receives their blood into his bowels (if I may so speak.) But we cannot pursue the Metaphor, for our business is with the Apo­stles scope; which is, the declaration of the imminency and in­stantaneousness of a mortal peril hanging over his head; set off (to assure us he spake upon good grounds) by a double phrase, 1. [...], or, I am ready to be offered; or to offer up my self; for the verb is frequently construed actively: Martyrdom is, and ought to be a Christians freewil offering of himself up to God; and although a Martyr ought not to run into the fire presumptuously, he ought to be led into it wil­lingly: But accept we the verb (offered) in which form we please; it is of the present tense, and notes as well the readiness of S. Pauls Persecutors, to try his faith and patience; as his resolvedness to act them: This the second phrase, and last clause of the verse fully confirms; [...], or, the time of my departure is at hand. Were there any ambi­guity in the former, this latter clause clears the Apostles scope to intend, a nigh approach of a sudden dissolution.

But Dr. Hammond questions the translation,Objection by Dr. Hammond in loc. and will have the original rendred: And the time of my departure hath been at hand

Sol.But, 1. This is against the Authority of the most, and most noted Interpreters of the New Testament: the vulgar renders it, tempus resolutionis meae instat. Beza, tempus praestitutum meae dimissionis instat. Tremellius, from the Syriack, tempus quo dissolvar appropinquat. Castalio, discessus (que) mei tempus instat. Piscator, tempus migrationis instat.

2. The Doctors translation cannot be reconciled to the fore­going clause, where the Apostle expresly saith in the present tence, He is poured, or pouring himself forth.

3. Though the verb [...] be the past tense, yet sacred Gram­marians know nothing is more usual, then such Enallages and Hebraisms in Scripture. Those who can compare, may judge by the following instances of the same verb, Luke 24.4. Acts 4.1. Acts 10.17. of one neer of kin to it, in construction and composition, 2 Thess. 2.2. and of both of their simple and pri­mitive verb, John 1.26.

Besides, to proceed with S. Pauls testimony to the posteriori­ty of the date of this Epistle, he doth in this very Chapter di­stinguish betwixt his past, and present condition at Rome, 2 Tim. 4.16, 17. At my first answer, no man stood with me, but all men forsook me; I pray God it be not laid to their charge: Not­withstanding, the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me, that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear, and I was delivered out of the mouth of the Lyon. Wherein who cannot but observe, that he speaks of a very great danger, and his deliverance from it, he had been in the mouth of the Lyon; afterwards he was set at liberty, to preach unto the Gentiles; but now he was ready to be offered: And that his being in the Lyons mouth, and following deliverance, can no way be so tolerably interpreted, as of the intervenient time betwixt his first and second imprisonment, and his con­fessed pains and labours among the Gentiles, while at liberty. To be sure, his deliverance out of the Lyons mouth, or preaching to the Gentiles; and his being a second time within the jaws of the Lyon, or ready to be offered, cannot be verified, either of one time, or of one condition.

Furthermore, least Timothy, or any other, should suppose that S. Paul cryed out as a fresh water Souldier, upon the first brunt of danger, and was more feared then hurt; he assures them, he had gone through so much, that as to a Captain suf­ferer, nothing remained but the Triumph, 2 Tim. 4.8. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith, [Page 237] henceforth there is laid up for me, a crown of righteousness, &c.: All this speaks the verity and validity of the ancient assignation of the date of this Epistle, and so doth.

Sound inference out of the Acts of the Apostles; 2. By S. Luke. We shall de­duce it most fairly, by bringing the two computations Antient and Modern in view, and face to face. The Modern accompt saith; this second Epistle to Timothy was written the first year of St. Pauls first arrival, and imprisonment at Rome. The An­tient computation, saith it was written in the year, when the Apostle dyed at Rome, and some little time before his Martyr­dome: Now let both of them hear what St Luke saith. He tells us, he continues his History till the end of the second year after St. Pauls first arrival at Rome, but doth not observe any hardship endured by the Apostle within that time; which bare omission, considering how exact this sacred Chronologer is throughout his History of the Acts of the Apostles, to describe St. Pauls Persecutions, and dangers at other places (as his ex­pulsion at Antioch in Pisidia, Act. 13.15. The Jews attempt to s [...] him at Iconium, Act. 14.5. Their stoning him at Lystra, Act. 14.19. His being scourged at Thyatyra, Act. 16.23. His many dangers at Jerusalem by the Grecists, Act. 9.29. Act. 21.27. to 35. His hazards by the other Jews, Act. 23.12. and his shipwrack in his voyage to Rome Act. 27.) gives us cause to believe, that if the Apostle had suffered any persecution at Rome in the first year after his arrival, St. Luke would not have omitted it.

Do any say the Evangelist left the mention of the Apostles Roman sufferings to be recorded by his own Pen.Object.

The contrary is proved. First, by the nature of an History,Sol. which is either to describe particularly all material passages without relation, or turning over the Reader to other writings, or to express what it refers, and whither.

Secondly, By the forementioned sufferings of the Apostle at Antioch, &c. which as they are recorded by St. Luke, so also are they commemorated by St. Paul, 2 Cor. 11.25. &c. 2 Tim. 3.11.

Thirdly. By St. Lukes writing somewhat contradictory thereunto, for he not only omits the mention of Persecutions but contrariwise observes many extraordinary favours, and kindnesses bestowed upon the Apostle at R [...]me. Thus; Act. 28.16. When we came to Rome, the Centurion delivered the Priso­ners unto the Captain of the guard, but Paul was suffered to dwell by himself, with a Souldier that kept him. And ver. 31.32. And [Page 238] Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him, preaching the kingdome of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ with all confidence, no man forbidding him. What can? if this be not writ as it were of set purpose to non-pluss the groundless con­ceipt of St. Pauls treating 2 Tim 4. of troubles which befel him in the first year after his arrival at Rome, especially since S. Luke did not write this part of the History as an ear, but as an eye witness; for he prefaceth the whole relation with, When we came to Rome, Acts 28.16. and tells us, he was S. Pauls indi­vidual companion throughout the voyage, Acts 27.4, 5. vers. 7. ver. 29. vers. 37. Acts 28.7. ver. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.

Besides, suppose S. Paul met with some severity within the first year of his coming to Rome; yet it being tempered with so much lenity, it was not onely unbeseeming of Apostolical magnanimity, to cry out so piteously for a little pain: Ready to be offered, the time of my departure at hand: I have fought a good fight, &c. but contrary to the common rules of prudence and civility, to give reviling terms, Lyon, &c. behinde the back of an Emperor; under whose nose (even by the testimony of his fellow Traveller and Sufferer S. Luke) he was treated with so much civility and respect: And might justly have provoked a far better Prince then ever Nero was, to utmost rage and se­verity against him. In the mouth of these two most compe­tent witnesses, S. Paul, and S. Luke, the truth of the ancient computation of the date of the Epistle in question, might be confirmed,3. By History. and concluded: But Civil Records witness the same thing, S. Paul came to Rome in the third year of Nero's Reign;Euseb. Eccles. Hist. l. 2. c. 2. ex tralat. Han­meri. who till then, and some while afterwards, was ac­counted to be a tolerable Prince. Let the Reader note what Eusebius saith, who is one of the Ancients, and of the ancient opinion: He saith, It is like that the Apology of Paul for his Do­ctrine, might have been in the beginning sooner accepted, when Nero was somewhat milder in affection and dealing; but after that he fell into such outragious wilfulness, he was quick with others for the Apostles sake. Besides, Cardinal Baronius observably notes, in the year of S. Pauls arrival at Rome, how Nero turned over Pomponia Graecina, who was accused of favouring some new and foreign Sect (which the Cardinal suspects to have been Christi­anity) to no other bar then her husbands brest, who acquits her. This saith Civil Records in this business.

4. By the Fa­thers.But what saith the Church Antiquities? enough, even in [Page 239] the judgement of Esthius, who dissents from them: He saith,Omnes pene in­terpretes &c. Est, ad 2 Tim. 4, 5. 5. By Presby­ters. Quam diu vixi manum tibi porrexi, nunc tempus est ut magister tibi sis at (que) hortator, Calv. in loc. Wight Divines second Paper. Almost all Interpreters agree, that this Epistle was writ last of all S. Pauls writings, or when he was near his Martyrdom.

Lastly, we have the consent of the most famous Presbyters unto this truth: Calvin upon the words, For I am now ready to be offered, saith, While I lived, I assisted thee, but the time is come, when thou must be thy own Teacher and encourager. The Wight Divines after they had vapoured hard about Timothies travels, at last calmly say, After all this (viz. their instanced texts for Timothies remove from Ephesus) towards the end of S. Pauls life, after his first answering before Nero; and when he said, the time of his departure was at hand, he sends for Timothy to Rome. This the London Ministers transcribe, and avow it to be their opinion. But if it be true, then have both of them abused their Readers, by citing several texts in proof of Timothies absence from Ephesus; when yet notwithstanding they confess, after all this, this second Epistle is sent unto him. Since we have proved (although they deny it) that he was then at Ephesus; our Corollary from the whole confirmation of this second Proposition, is,Annals of the World. ad an. Christ, 66. That twelve years after the Presbyterian assignation of the date of the first Epistle, the second findes Timo­thy at Ephesus, engaged upon his old works of Ordination and Censures: And with it, although we could alledge several emi­nent Epispocal Divines, as Archbishop Ʋsher, and others, who submit to the ancient assignation of the date of this second Epistle, we conclude our discourse upon this second Proposi­tion.

3. Proposition,3. Propos. Ti­mothies works at Ephesus are of perpetual use. The works imposed upon Timothy by the first Epistle, are of constant and perpetual use, such, without one of which, or Ordination of Ministers, a Church can neither be consti­tuted, or propagated; and without the other, or Administration of Discipline, and exercise of the Censures, a Church cannot be pre­served, and kept free from corruptions and errors.

Words are needless to demonstrate this Proposition,Confirmed. it is so evident in reason. Who dares deny, that Officers form the Church, or give her, her external being? Or that Discipline and Censures preserve her from falling into confusion and dis­orders? This makes me admire, how it can sink into any mans judgement, which is not a meer bog of Ignorance, that Timothy at Ephesus, and Titus at Crete, should be of a tempo­rary and discontinued Office, when they were purposely settled at those places, for the discharge of those works. The Lon­don [Page 244] Divines experienced the force of this truth, when it ex­torted from them the following confession; to wit, Nor were these directions given for that age onely, but for all the ages of the Church, Jus Divin. part. 1. p. 74. unto the end of the world, as appears evidently from 1 Tim. 6.14. compared with 1 Tim. 5.7. vers. 21. What these directi­ons were,Vide etiam Calvinum, Be­zam, & Are­tium ad 1 Tim. 6.14. they tell us a few lines before, namely, The rules laid down for calling of men to the Office of the M [...]nistery, 1 Tim. 3.2, 3, &c. and 1 Tim. 4.14, &c. What! is it evident by Scripture, that these rules are give [...] for all ages of the Church, unto the end of the World? then certainly thence it necessarily follows, That such an Officer as Timothy, in such superiority, as the first Epistle placeth him over Presbyters, was not a temporary Apostolical Institution, but a standing Ordinance of Christ: And suppose Timothy did remove, or was removed from Ephe­sus, the Office did not remove, and discontinue, but some Officer might be appointed in his stead, to do those works, or those directions were given onely for that age of the Church, and not for all ages, unto the end of the world. Suffice this in proof of the third Proposition.

4. Propos. Ti­mothy as a Bi­shop lived, dy­ed, and was buried at Ephesus. Confirmed. Histor. l. 3. c. 4.4. Proposition, The best records, of lest questioned Antiquity, say, Timothy in an Episcopal superiority over Presbyters, lived, dyed, and was buried at Ephesus.

Timothies Office and settlement at Ephesus, is acknowledged by Eusebius, who lived A.C. 330. not onely as his own opini­on, but delivered down to him by Clemens, a Companion of the Apostles, named in Scripture, and flourishing A.C. 70. and by Hegesippus, who neighbouring upon those times, dyed A.C. 160. The London Divines tax both Eusebius and his witnesses credit: They say, He read Histories parum attente, or carelesly. But how do these grave Censors prove it? Do they compare him with his Ancestors, and assign their disagreement? No, they make a shorter and surer work of it, arraigning him and them before themselve [...], and condemning both together: Clemens they say is fabulous. But,

1. Herein they contradict their Brethren at Wight; who citing a passage in Clemens his writings, which made (as they thought) a little for their purpose,Wight Divines first Paper. they give the Book this Elogy, It is the most unquestionable record of Antiquity.

2. Were Clemens fabulous in some things, that is no prejudice to his verity in others: What! do the London Divines expect universal infallibility in all Historians? And because of the fal­libity of one, will they give no crdit to many true Relations: [Page 241] Then devote we to the flames, all the ancient Records of ve­nerable History; and let us stubbornly contemn all their grave observations, how neerly soever they concern our pre­sent states and conditions. The London Divines are therefore to prove Clemens fabulous, in fixing Timothy at Ephesus; and if they can do that, the Fable will not commence in Clemens his writings, but in the fabulous first epistle to Timothy.

3. Are the Writings fabulous now going under Clemens his name? Not his, but some Impostors: What is that to the Co­py by which Eusebius wrote? Is nothing of theirs true, of whose Authority Deceivers may make use after their deaths, under which they may give the fairer colour and shade to their errors? What! have all Gods true servants a priviledge to preserve their Writings from miscarriage; either totally, by the injury of time, or partially, by the injustice of men? And can none wear their livery, under the shroud of whose credits, Cheats have vended their own imaginations and errors? Then raze we out of the Canon, the Proverbs, the Canticles, Ecclesiastes, and all other Scriptures relative to the Acts of Solomon, because an Apocryphal Wisdom is masked under his name. Deny we credit to all and every of S. Pauls Epistles, because the Church hath be [...] abused with a counterfeit Epistle (pretendedly his) to the Church of Laodicea: Justifie we our irreverent rejection of all Antiquity, since hardly any one of the Fathers hath not been so served?

Hegesippus is the other of Eusebius his witnesses, of whom the London Divines say, He is not extent. A worthy product of the concentricated brains of a Provincial Assembly of Pres­byters. Hegesippus is not extant in 1653. therefore there was no such man in 160. The London Divines can finde no Writings of Hegesippus extant in their times, therefore Eus [...]bius was care­less in citing his Authority in 330. Now whether Hegesippus were extant in Eusebius his time, let the Reader judge, when he hath read the following passage extracted out of his Eccle­siastical History: He being to prove the Martyrdom of Simeon Bishop of Jerusalem, saith Hegesippus is his testimony; and after he hath glossed a little upon his evidence, he addes,Eccles. Hist. l. 3 c. 29. ex tra­lat. Hanmeri. But let us hear the Historiographers own words; Certain (saith he) of the Hereticks accused Simeon the Son of Cleophas, that he lineally descended of the stock of David, and that he was a Christian; See lib 4. c 20. &c. 21. he suffered Martyrdom, being an hundred and twenty years old, under Trajan the Emperor, and Atticus the Consul: thus Eusebius. And [Page 242] much more to this purpose may be seen in the same Chapter, and elsewhere: Therefore leaving Eusebius, and directing our speech to the London Divines, we say he did considerately fix Timothy at Ephesus; and if they had not been more eager to write, then conscientious or careful what they wrote; and if either their own credit, or the Churches peace, had had due place in their judgements, they would not have filled paper with such blots.

Catal. Scrip. Sacr. Eusebius having fixed Timothy at Ephesus, S. Jerom tells us how long he tarried there, to wit, He there lived in the Office of a Bishop, there died, and there he was buried. I know this Cata­logue is sometime cited under S. Jerome, and sometime under Sophronius his name, (who was S. Jerome's contemporary) the reason is, because either of them had a hand in its composure: S. Jerome writing their Acts whom Eusebius mentioneth, one of which Timothy was,Ad A. C. 109. and Sophronius addeth the rest. The time of Timothy's continuance at Ephesus, is computed by Ba­ronius to amount to above forty years, and he was no Babe in Hi­story, nor is it advantagious to the Papacy, to allow Timothy's Episcopacie at Ephesus, it carrying along with it such an Aposto­lical Succession, as is inconsistent with S. Peter's ordinary Pasto­rate, and the Popes peculiar Succession in it. Lyranus, who was above two hundred years Senior to Calvin, Ex a Lap. ad Rev. 2.1. and to the first Set­tlement of the Presbyterian Government at Geneva, saith, The common opinion interprets the Ephesine angel, Rev. 2.1, 2. by Ti­mothy. But the Book of the Revelation was written one of the last of Scripture-writings, and published by S. John long, and long after S. Paul's death. And yet even then, those who lived nearest Timothy, concluded him to be resident at Ephesus.

Besides, when Timothy died, his office was not buried with him in the same Grave,Against Hart. for learned Doctor Raynolds proves a li­neal succession of seven and twenty Ephesme Bishops from Timothy. And long before Doctor Reynolds, Leontius Bishop of Magnesia maintains in the famous Council of Chalcedon, Concil. Chal­ced. Act. 10. That from blessed Timothy to his time, there had been twenty six Bishops of Ephesus. This shall conclude the proof of our fourth and last propositi­on.

Coeclusion of this part of the discourse.Thus Timothy's Works and Office at Ephesus have been exa­mined, and we suppose it hath been proved, that he did not stand formally in the relation of an Evangelist, unto that Church. Neither did he remove discharged of his Official Relation to her. We have been a long time upon it, but if it be at last [Page 243] well done, the Reader is desired to impute it to the weight and intricasie of the matter, not unto my desire or design to impose upon his patience. For in the preparation to our Definition, it hath fared with us as with an Architect, who building a small Tenement out of the Ruines and upon some part of the Foun­dation of a decayed Palace, he spends twice so much time in re­moving and carrying away the Rubish of the former, as in the erection of the latter. But we shall not keep our Reader lon­ger from our Definition, by a tedious and impertinent Apology, that we have done it too long already. We define from Philip, as S. Ambrose, S. Anselm, and Theophylact, did before us: This is observed by those who have read their Commentaries, and we do not doubt but reasons of sufficient ponderousness have been alledged in this discourse, why we define the Evangelist by Phi­lip, and not by Timothy.

The Evangelist must be defined by Philip or Timothy.

BUt as we are stepping into our Definition,Obj. Why must the Evangelist be defined by Philip or Ti­mothy. Aus. 1. Because none but they two are called Evangelists. 2. Philips works were purely evan­gelical. 3. Concession of Presbytery. a before-un­thought-of Objection takes hold of our Pen, and demands a Reason why the Evangelist must be defined by Philip or Ti­mothy?

I answer:

First because none but those two are called Evangelists.

Secondly, Philip did such pure and proper Evangelical works, as the nature of the Office cannot so certainly or readily be found out, as by them.

3. The most wary and judicious Presbyters content themselves with the sole nomination of Philip and Timothy, in their Defini­tions. Thus Zanchy and Aretius. And with them agreeth our Assembly in their notes upon Eph. 4.11. Besides those Definers who insert more names, do it because they conceive their works were parallel either unto Philip's or Tymoth [...]'s.

4. The Verb Evangelize, or Participle Evangelizing, are in­deed [Page 240] used of many besides Philip and Timothy; but those of whom they are used,4. The Verb E­vangelize is u­sed of several o­thers, but little will be drawn from thence to end this debate. are of such different Orders and Relations, as little by very much labour can be drawn from them, towards the Definition of the Evangelist in a proper and distinct sense Neither did any good Author hitherto, Presbyte [...]ian or other, attempt the breaking up of that Quarry. However, the Dis­senting Brethren make an Essay upon it. To what purpose will appear by the following Narrative.

They perceiving their Presbyterian Brethren sped so well, by wresting of words of many and dubious significations, endea­o [...]ur from [...] or the pa [...]ticiple evangelizing, to set up Gifted Brethren in the ruine of Presbyters, as Presbyters by the Substantive Evangelist had raised themselves in the depressi­on of Bishops: Accordingly they maintain exercising by Gifted Brethren to be a Gospel Ordinance, and in proof of it ei [...]th [...] Assembly, Dissenters Ex­ceptions to the proof concern­ing the Church at Jerusalem. Pag. 19. Although the noune Evangelist may signifie an Officer, ye [...] the verb or participle agrees to a gifted brother, (they might have added a gifted Sister, for their proof will bear it; if it bear an [...] thing) because as they say, Aquila and Priscilla taught Apollos and they are not called [...], as having an [...]ffice, but [...] as referring to the act, the work they did; and that the word seems to sound, as if they made it their work. Would the Assembly have had recourse to the Text where this action of Aquila's and Pris­cilla's towards Apollos is recorded, they would soon have found that no such word as [...] is used in it. The Text is Act. 18.26. and in the Original runs thus: [...]. But the Dissenters craftily conceal the Text, and confidently affirm this evangeli­zing by Aquila and Priscilla, as if it were granted on all hands; having these advantageous but dishonest ends in it, Either the Assembly might take it upon their words, (as it afterwards pro­ved) or if the Assembly should search the Text, and detect the fallacie, the Dissenters papers were in print, and spread into the hands, and entertained in the hearts of their party; many of which never could, more never would see the Assembly's answer; and those who did, would censure its Authors of reading the New Testament after some corrupt Copy, their friends having the very Original, which they were most confident that they faithfully translated. And what a door was here opened to a perpetual, and never to be silenced clamour. The Dissenters hereby in the opinion of their partakers, had discovered the [Page 23] formerly hidden priviledges of glib tongued (they call them tender Conscienced) Brethren, and rescued a most precious truth out of the jaws of Presbyterian tyranny; and let the As­sembly oppose it with never so much Scripture, or reason, they would adjudge it to be to little purpose, save the further ma­nifestation of their usurping perfideousness, since the godly and publique spirited Dissenters had removed the vail, and shewed all lay-Gospellers the way to confute it, and to maintain their rights conceeded to them by the holy Gospel. But leave we the Dissenters to their thoughts, and come we to the Assem­blies answer; who instead of making use of what we have ob­served, and might with all ease have been observed by them; and being observed, would have stopped the mouth of all Reply: They patch together such a pitiful answer, as hath as little regard to truth, diligence, and faithful comparing of Scriptures, as had the Dissenters objection. Wherein also the Assembly, to the unworthy betraying of a most precious truth, do weakly grant, what the Dissenters mainly insisted upon: Take it in the Assemblies own words,Answer to Dissenters, page 31. We desire our Brethren to pro­ [...] one text of Scripture, where [...] is used of any that are not Preachers by Office. We can bring many where it is used of those that are, even by the Penman of this History. This they write in the line, and against it cite in the Margint. Luke 8.1. & 9.6. & 20.1. Acts 5.42. & 8.12. & 10.36. These texts are six in number: But Reader, behold and stand amazed, no one of the first five contain [...], yea, not so much as [...] in any case, or number, with, or without an article. In the last text, Acts 10.36. we read [...]: but they did never read the text, who joyn it in construction with [...] or preach­ing, as is most plain both by the Original, [...]. And by our Translation, The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ, he is Lord of all. But notwithstanding this gross inobservancy of the Assembly,Jus Divin. part. 1. p. 2. the London Divines (many of which were Assembly men) repeat and urge this answer of the Assembly, after nine or ten years of deliberation, as the Achillean Argument, or Goliahs Sword, against gifted Bre­thren: But of this enough. The reason why we mentioned it, is, to shew how the Assembly, the London Divines, the Dissenting Brethren, and to whom Bucanus may be added,Loc. com. loc. 42. quae. 1 [...]. agree with us, that the Evangelists Office is onely to be defined by them, or one of them, of whom the substantive is used: But [Page] the substantive is onely used of Timothy and Philip: Of th [...] former, in a large and general sense, as hath been already proved; the latter (or Philip) onely remains, of whom it is used strict­ly and formally, and from whom we define as followeth.

Evangelist defined by Philip.

Definition. First Definiti­on. AN Evangelist is a Presbyter, of singular courage and sufficien­cy, sent forth to preach the Gospel unto an unconverted people, or nation, and to baptize them upon their believing, in order to their enchurching.

Generally proved.This definition is an abstract of all concerning, or done by Philip, Acts 8. except working of miracles, which is purposely omitted, because neither Philip, nor any other Officer, wrought them, as ordinary acts of Office: Who wrought them once, not having a faculty to produce them, when, or so often as he pleased, although the occasions were the same: This we shall dispute, as the matter requires, when in the tract concerning the Apostles, we shall distinguish betwixt their gifts and Of­fice works. But as touching the point before us, or our Defi­nition, it may be proved in few more words then it self con­tains. Philips Presbyterate appears, both in what he did, as preach and baptize, Acts 8.12. But when they believed, Philip preaching and teaching the things concerning the Kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized both men and women. These will not be denied by our Antagonists, to be Presbyterial acts of Office, and we trust we shall satisfie all others in the particular explication and confirmation of our definition, that Philip was of that order, and no higher, when he did them. And as his Presbyterate is evidenced in this, so also in what he could not do, as laying on of hands, vers. 15.16.

Philips courage and sufficiency is attested, both by the time of [Page 247] his mission, Acts 8.1, 3, 4, 5. And Saul was consenting unto his death: and at that time there was a great persecution against the Church which was at Jerusalem, and they were scattered all abroad throughout the regions of Judea, and Samaria, except the Apostles. As for Saul, he made havock of the Church, entring into every house, and haling men and women, committed them to prison: therefore they that were scattered abroad, went every where preach­ing the Word. Then Philip went down unto the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto them. And by the temper of the people to whom he went, which appears both in the foremen­tioned, Acts 4.5. and by verse 34.35. And the Eunuch answered Philip, and said, I pray thee of whom speaketh the Prophet this, of himself, or of some other man? Then Philip opened his mouth, and began at the same Scripture, and preached unto him Iesus.

Philips Mission is resolved by the negatively concluding questi­ons, Rom. 10.14, 15. How shall they call on him, on whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him, of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear, without a preacher? and he shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, how beauti­ful are the feet of them, that preach the Gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things.

The Infidelity of Philips Auditors is demonstrated, partly, by the place of their habitation, Samaria, whereinto our Sa­viour forbad the Apostles to enter, Mat. 10.5. Those twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any City of the Samaritans enter ye not. And especially, by the character of those persons to whom Philip preached, Acts 8.9, 10, 11. But there was a certain man called Si­mon, which before time in the same City, used sorcery, and bewitch­ed the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one; to whom they all gave heed from the least to the greatest, saying, This man is the great power of God; and to him they had regard, because that of long time he had bewitched them with his sorceries.

Lastly, Philips baptizing the converted Samaritans, in order to their enchurching, appears by Acts 8.14, 15, 16, 17. Now when that the Apostles which were at Jerusalem, heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter and John; who when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost (for as yet he was fallen upon none of them, onily they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus:) then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost: Should we leave our definition thus, no part of it remains unproved: [Page 144] But to make the whole more evident,he Definiti­on proved in part. An Evangelist explained. we will take the frame in pieces, and examine the fitness of every part.

An Evangelist: The Grammatical explication of this word may be expected, and we shall endeavour the Expectants satis­faction with all possible brevity.

Step we into any (termed) Theological Tracts concerning Evangelists (as if nothing but criticising upon a word simply pro­phane, were in hand) a verse out of Homer, or a sentence out of Cicero, bolts forth upon us. The Poet senseth it by the re­ward of good news.



Reward my news, for the vernal stork is come.

The Orator senseth it, by Sacrifice, upon tidings of our friends health, prosperity, or safe return from a long and ha­zardous journey and enterprize. Thus receiving welcome let­ters from his friend Atticus, he saith, O sweet Letters, to whom I confess a Sacrifice is due. O Suaves epi­stolae, quibus evangelium deberi fateor. Cicero ad At­ticum. Pascitur in vestrum redi­tum votiva Juvenca. Horat. This custom was familiar with the Romans, upon like occasion: But I shall not commend to my Readers stomach, what I finde my own kerking against; or why need we beg husks from strang [...]ers, when in our fathers house there is bread enough. A diligent Reader of the Old Testa­ment, of the seventies Translation (which all learned men will readily grant, New Testament Writers had frequently in their eye) will finde the verb [...], or to evangelize, used as ex­tensively by them, as by any, yea, all other Authors: It hath a twofold signification,

  • 1. Secular.
  • 2. Sacred.

[...]And in both is the Interpretation of the Hebrew Bisher.

In its secular signification, it is used of tidings of several sorts.

1. Bad; when Joab disswades Ahimaas from carrying the unwelcome news of Absolons death unto David: the seventy use the word [...], or thou shalt not carry tidings; for which the reason is subjoyned, or, because the Kings son is dead, 2 Sam. 18.19, 20. The news bringer to Eli, of the taking of the Ark, and of the slaughter of his two sons, and of thirty thousand Israelites, by the Philistian Army, is in the Original called Hambusher; but the Seventy translate it, [...], 1 Sam. 4.17

[Page 241]2. Good. The Lepers finding the Assyrians fled, [...] and their Camp empty, call it, [...], 2 Kings 5.7. & 9. Da­vids Watchmen seeing Ahimaaz coming from the Camp ward, and acquainting the King therewith: he forthwith accepts the Omen, and presageth, that the tidings, as the bringer, were good, [...], 2 Sam. 18.27. And they were so, for the Re­bels were discomfited, and their head (or Absolon) strucken off.

From this latter branch of signification, the word spreads further, and is expressive of,

1. The reward given to the Messenger of good tidings, when Ahimaaz was over importunate with Joab to run with tidings unto David, the discreet General would have taken him off with this, [...], 2 Sam. 18.21, or this journey will be little to thy profit; for which the reason is presently subjoyned, or, because the Kings Son is dead. Forster in le­xic. ad verb. [...] Forster to the same sense in fewer words, Non invenies Evange­lia, or, thou shalt not finde a reward. Thus the Amalikite who kil­led, or presumed to tell David that he killed Saul, coming to David with the news, is said to expect [...], or a reward, 2 Sam. 4.10.

2. The [...], or Triumphal songs publiquely pronounced, and danced u