A TREATISE OF THE Covenant of GRACE: WHEREIN The graduall breakings out of Gospel grace from Adam to Christ are clearly discovered the differences betwixt the old and new Testament a [...] laid open, divers errours of Arminians and others are confuted; the nature of Uprightnesse, and the way of Christ in bringing the soul into Communion with himself: Together with many other Points, both doctrinally an [...] practically profitable, are solidly handled.

By that faithfull servant of Jesus Christ, and Ministe [...] of the Gospel, JOHN BALL.

Published by SIMEON ASH.

I the Lord have called thee in righteousnesse, and will hold thine hand, and w [...] keep thee, and give thee for a Covenant of the people, for a light of the Ge [...] tiles. Isai 42. 6.
But ye are come unto mount Sion and unto the city of the living God, the heaven [...] Ierusalem, and to Iesus the Mediatour of the new Covenant, and to the bloud sprinkling, that speaketh better things then that of Abel. Heb. 12 22, [...]4.
The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him, and he will shew the [...] [...] Covenant: Psal. 25. 14.

LONDON, Printed by G. Miller for Edwa [...]d Brewster on Ludgate hill nea [...] Fleet-bridge at the Signe of the Bible. 16 [...]

To the Christian Reader.


WE doe not conceive it necessary, to give credit unto the ensuing Trea­tise by our Testimony, seeing the learned, and holy works of the Re­verend Authour doe abundantly praise him in the gate. His Cate­chisme, with the exposition thereof; his Treatise of the life of Faith, together with other Books more lately published, tending to reconcile the differences of these times, doe sufficiently witnesse to the world, both his great abilities and Pietie. And if God had been plea­sed to lengthen his life, we believe, he might have been very serviceable, in seeking to reconcile our present sad differences about Church-Government, be­cause (as we understand) he had thorowly studied all those Controversies. But seeing the Lord hath depri­ved us of his help in that kinde, we are right glad, [Page] that the Church shall have the benefit of any la­bours, which he hath left for publike use, and in spe­ciall of this subject (the Covenant of Grace) so need­full and profitable. And that acquaintance which we had with this faithfull servant of Iesus Christ, doth incline us with all willingnesse, to give our appro­bation of this piece, although our manifold imployments have not suffered us to peruse it, so exactly, as other­wise we should have done.

We shall desire, that by thy faithfull improvement hereof, thy knowledge of the foederall transactions be­twixt God and his people, through Iesus Christ, may be much augmented, unto his honour, and thine everlasting happinesse, in him, in whom we are,

Thy faithfull Friends,

To the Reader.


THe worthy Authour of this Treatise (who was my very dear and much honoured friend) bequeathed unto me, as a legacie of his love, this, with the rest of his Manuscripts. This piece he prepared for the Presse, pur­posing the enlargement of it, if the Lord had continued his life and health: and I am con­fident, it would have come abroad better polished; if he having compleated it, had then survayed the whole fa­brick, when set together. Although at the first I was un­satisfied in mine own thoughts, whether I should adven­ture the printing of it, because imperfect, yet upon the im­portunity of Friends, being incouraged by the judgement of some Reverend Divines, who had perused it, I have now made it publike, without any addition, diminution, or alteration. The subject of the book is excellent, profi­table and necessary; even, the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to Col. 1. 26. the Saints. That blessed Apostle, who experimentally un­derstood the utmost worth of humane learning, did yet contemne it, in comparison of that knowledge which is taught in this Treatise. I determined not (saith he) to know 1 Cor. 2. 2. any thing among you (among you, knowing Corinthians,) save Jesus Christ. Yea, doubtlesse, I count all things but losse, Phil. 3. 8. [Page] for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord. Oh how incomparably sweet and satisfying is it unto a self-studying Christian soul, to be acquainted with the faithfull engagements of the Almighty Majestie, unto the poor penitent si [...]ner, through that Son of his loves, in a Covenant of free, rich, everlasting grace! This Covenant being transacted betwixt Christ and God, here, here lyes the first and most firm foundation of a Christians com­fort. I will give thee for a C [...]venant of the people, and will Isai. 49. 8. 2 Cor. 1. 10. establish the earth, &c. All the promises of God in him are Yea, and in him Amen, to the glory of God. Therefore the Ser­vants of the most High (notwithstanding their own changeablenesse and unworthinesse) may hold up their hearts and hopes to enjoy all Gospell-Prerogatives through him, because God hath said, I will make an everlasting Covenant with you, even the sure mercies of Da­vid. Isai. 55. 1, 3. The right understanding and the fruitfull improve­ment hereof, will be seasonably supporting and solacing to Gods people in these dolefull distracted times. We have, through Gods mercy, a glorious work, the work of Church-Reformation under hand, now, though diffi­culties, delayes, and oppositions, doe cast discourage­ments upon our hearts, yet from hence, we have heart­ning. The mountains shall depart, and the hils be removed, but Isai. 54. 10. 11. 12. my kindnesse shall not depart from thee, neither shall the Cove­nant of my peace be removed, saith the Lord, that hath mercy on thee. Oh thou afflicted, and tossed with tempests, and not comforted, behold, I will lay thy stones with faire colours, and lay the foundations with Saphires, &c. And when bloudy oppressours prevail and prosper, we may thus plead with our God, Have respect unto the Covenant: for the dark places Psa [...]. 74. 10. of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty. For the te­nour of the Covenant which God makes with Christ and [Page] his spirituall seed, runs thus, If they break my statutes, and Psal 89. 31, 32. keep not my commandments: Then will I visite their transgres­sions with the rod, and their iniquities with stripes. Neverthe­less, my loving kindnesse will I not utterly take from him: nor suffer my faithfulnesse to fail. My Covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips, &c. And, As for Zech. 9. 1 [...]. thee also, by the bloud of the Covenant, I have sent forth thy pri­soners out of the pit, wherein is no water. How pretious be­yond all expressions are the treasures of Gods love in the Covenant of Promise! These mines are digged up and discovered in this discourse, many obscure Scriptures, full of rich Gospell-Grace are here interpreted from the ori­ginall languages, and by a judicious comparing of one place with another. The book (I believe) will commend it self unto the considerate Reader: and because so many godly, learned, well-approved brethren, have been pleased to honour it with their attestation, therefore my further testimony would be altogether needless and unseasonable. If the phrase of speech seeme sometimes knotty and unu­suall, I desire that serious attention may take off that dis­couragement. A little diligence doth often conquer great­appearing difficulties, and love of truth will make labori­ous in searching after the knowledge of it. The Lord direct and prosper thy perusall of this Treatise, that thereby thy soul may be edified in grace and comfort, through the ac­complishment of his glorious Promises in the Lord our Saviour, in whom, and for whom, I will endeavour to ap­prove my self,

Thy faithfull Friend and Servant, SIMEON ASH.

The Contents of the severall Chapters.

Of the first part.
  • 1. OF the significations of the word Covenant. pag. 1.
  • 2. Of the Cov. God made with man in the state of Innocency. p. 6.
  • 3. Of the Covenant of grace in generall. p. 14.
  • 4. Of the Covenant of promise. p. 27.
  • 5. Of the Covenant of promise made with Adam immediately upon his fall. p. 36.
  • 6. Of the Covenant of grace, as it was made and manifested to Abra­ham. p. 47.
  • 7. Of the Covenant of grace under Moses till the returne of Israel from the Babylonish captivity. p. 92.
  • 8. A particular explication of the Covenant, that God made with Israel, and what Moses brought to the further expressure of the Covenant of grace. p. 122.
  • 9. Of the Covenant that God made with David. p. 143.
  • 10. Of the Covenant that God made with Israell after the Babylo­nish captivity. p. 156.
  • 11. Of Truth and uprightnesse. p. 166.
The second part.
  • 1. Of the New Testament, or Covenant, and how God hath revea­led himselfe herein. p. 194.
  • 2. Christ the Mediatour of the New Testament, for whom he dyed and rose againe. p. 203.
  • 3. How Christ hath fulfilled the office of Mediatour, or how he is the Mediatour of the New Testament. p. 264.
  • 4. How Christ doth bring his people into Covenant, or fellowship with himselfe. p. 323.
  • 5. How Christians answer to the call of Christ, and so come to have Fellowship with him. p. 345.


PAg. 1. l. 1. marg. [...] p. 12. l. 23 r. how that faith which the exact justice in the Covenant of nature presupposeth p. 16. l penult. r. with Christ. p. 37. marg. [...]. & post. [...]. p. 41. l. ult. dele is. p. 54. mar. [...], p. 56. marg. parvo nesciat. p. 70. l. 26. r. challenge that. p. 13 lin penult. [...] p. 143. lin. ult [...]. p. 204. l. 30. positions. p. 258. lin. ult. and then p 262. l. 1. believe not. p. 268. l. 5. dele as. p. 278 l. 11. surrogation. p. 279. l. 23. [...] p. 280. l. 35. dele which is penall only, not sinfull. p. 287. l [...]. [...]. p. 290 l. 30. payeth. p. 301. l. 13. never. p. 309. mar. [...]. &c. p. 317. l. 20. the former by reall union, that is. p. 320 l 2. or which are. l. 3. are the works. p. 330. l. 19. deferred, l. 21. deferred no longer. p. 149. l. 1. 2 Sam. 21. 5.


CHAP. I. Of the significations of the word Covenant.

THE word translated Covenant, some derive [...] à [...] Gen. 26. 28, 30. & 31 46, 54. of another that signifies to chuse, or to eate; because usually they had a feast at making of Covenants: or it is a thing which two choose, and of which they mu­tually agree and promise betwixt them­selves: although the word be used, when one alone doth promise with a simple pro­mise, and so it may be referred to the Testamentary disposition. Others derive it of a roote that importeth to cut, divide or smite: [...] which being joyned to the word Covenant, signifieth to make or strike covenant or agreement. Gen. 15. 18.Sept. [...], 1 Reg 8. 21. Jer. 31. 31. Gen. 31. 44. LXX. [...]: Edit. Conp▪ disponamus testa­mentum. LXX. [...]. The holy Ghost in Greek expres­seth this word [...] sundry waies, as by [...], Heb. 8. 9. Jer. 34. 18. Jer. 34. 8. [...], Heb. 8. 8. [...], Heb. 8. 10. & [...], Heb. 9. 20. Exod. 24. 5, 6, 7. Numb. 18. 19. 2 Chron. 13. 5. Septuagint [...]. Pactum, salis, firmum stabile, quod rescindi nequit, ut nec salita car [...] corrumpi, Gen. 15. 9, 10. Jer. 34. 18. Pactum perpe­tuum hebraicè diceretur, pactum seculi simul utrum (que) obvium. Sal pecuniae benignitas: ut sal carnem conservat, sic benignitas opes & pecuniam, Et caesa jungebant foedera porca. Virg. In humane affaires also, they use the same word, 1 Sam. 11. 1. 1 King. 5. 12. Vid. Jun. Par. lib. 3. cap. 9. ad Heb. v. 15. &c. Job 31. 1. It is to be understood of a solemne condition to take heed to his eyes. Budae: Comment. ex Aristop [...], pag. 705. Maldon. in Mat. 26. Genebrard. on Psal. 24. Act. 3. 25. In the same day the Lord made a Co­venant with Abraham. Jer. 34. 18. They have not performed the words of the [Page 2] Covenant, which they had made before me. Psal. 83. 5. They are confederate a­gainst thee, Psal. 89. 3. I have made a Co­venant with my chosen. But else where to promise, appoint or ordain, 2 Chron. 7. 18. As I have promised (or ordained, or cove­nanted) with David thy Father. And so in the new Testament, the word used by the Septuagint doth signifie (Luk. 22. 29) And I appoint unto you a Kingdom. Erasm. Ego dispono vobis regnum. Beza, Ego pa­ciscor. Syr. Ego polliceor. And amongst all Nations, Covenants were established by the oblation of Sacrifice: Example be­yond all exceptions, we have in that Sacri­fice, wherein God made a Covenant with the people of Israel, and bound them to the obedience of his Law: whence it is also cal­led a Covenant of Salt, that is, perpetuall; either, because salt expels corruption, or rather, because salt was u­sed in Sacrifices; as if it had been said, a Covenant being striken, and such ceremonies used, as are ordinary in making Covenants. Amongst the Greeks also, that it was most usuall, appeares not only by infinite examples, but by common phrases, as [...], which is as much as to sweare the Sacrifice being slaine, or to esta­blish a Covenant. And in Homer, Iliad. 3. [...], that is, bringing or bearing those things, which were necessary in per­forming an Oath, or making a Covenant. The word Covenant or testamentall bond or league, which hath in Hebrew the significa­tion of brotherly or friendly parting, and of explaining the condi­tions of agreement; The Greek Interpreters doe frequently and almost perpetually render by [...], a testament or disposition, Psal. 25. 10, 14. Psal. 44. 17. & 50. 16. & 55. 20. seldome [...], Covenant, Isa. 28. 15. which is used elsewhere, Sap. 1. 16. 1 Mac. 10. 26. 2 Mac. 13. 25. & 24. 26. But in the old Testament, the word Berith is never read for a testamentary disposition, which of the Rabbins, as Drusius witnesseth, is called [...] from the word that signifieth to command, and so to set his house in or­der, or to make his will, Isa. 38. 1. Which word is yet generall, [Page 3] and must be restrained according to the circumstances of the place, Where the LXX. and Theodotio translate it [...], Sym­maechus and Aquila turne it [...]. Psal. 25. 14. Nor is it a thing unusuall with classicall Authors of the Greeke tongue to use the word [...] in the generall signification; For Camerarius citeth out of Aristophan. de Avibus, [...], used for to make a Covenant. The Papists carpe at our Interpreters, because they render the word Covenant, rather then Testament: for they would have it to signifie a testamentary disposition. But they are deceived, for the signification of the word is more generall: and the Apostle Heb. 9. 16. argueth not from the simple signification of the word, but the circumstances of the Covenant. In a Cove­nant and Testament both, there is an ordination and disposition of things according to pleasure: and the Greeke phrase in the New Testament doth follow the received Interpretation of the Septua­gint; although in this the Covenant of Grace is like to a Testa­ment, that it is not established but by the death of the Mediatour as of a Testator.

The Covenant in Scripture doth sometimes signifie an abso­lute Promise of God, without any stipulation at all, such as was the Covenant which God made with Noah presently after the Floud, promising freely, that he would never destroy man and beasts with an universall deluge of water any more. Gen. 9. 11. And that Covenant of Peace, and everlasting Covenant whichSept. [...]. God made with Phinehas, that he and his seed after him should have the Covenant of an everlasting Priesthood. Numb. 25. 12, 13. Of this kind is the Covenant wherein God promiseth that he will give his elect faith and perseverance, to which promise no condi­tionJer. 33. 20. annexed can be conceived in mind, which is not comprehen­ded in the Promise it selfe. Heb. 8. 10.

But oftentimes in holy Writ the name Covenant is so used, that in it is plainly signified a free Promise of God, but with sti­pulation of duty from the reasonable creature, which otherwise was due, no promise comming betwixt, and might have beenPsal. 50. 16. Syr. Quid tibi & libris prae­ceptorum meo­rum quod as­sumpseris pa­ctum meum. exacted of God, and ought to have been performed of the crea­ture, if God had so pleased, Psal. 50. 16. and 25. 10. Psal. 44. 17. For a Covenant is quiddam complexum, implying two things, di­stinguished either re or ratione, the one covenanting, the other re­stipulating or accepting. As also two parts covenanted. First, the [Page 4] giving of some future good. Secondly, the retribution of some performance. The first without the second, is no more then a Pro­mise: the second without the first is no lesse then a Law, though the Apostle, Gal. 3. 22. makes another opposition of Law and Pro­mise, nature and faith, workes and Christ, for that is from a divers acceptation of the Promise. But when two persons upon these two parts concurre, it is that we call a Covenant properly: though tropically sometimes the Promise, and sometimes the sti­pulation only is noted by the Covenant. Psal. 50. 5. Nehem. 1. 5. Gen. 17. 7, 9. and sometimes the seale of the Covenant is called the Covenant. Gen. 17. 10, 11.

This distinction of the Covenant depends upon a distinction of Gods love; for there is a love of God towards the creature, whence all the good that is in the creature doth flow, and there is a love of God vouchsafed to the creature, and that for those things which it hath received, not of it selfe, but of God, as it was belo­ved with that first love. That we may call primary or antecedent (for distinction sake) this secondary or consequent love. From that flowes both the making and fulfilling of the Absolute Cove­nant: on this depends the fulfilling of the Covenant, whereunto a restipulation is annexed, but not the making thereof. For in the Absolute Covenant there is nothing in the creature that might move God, either to promise, or to performe what he hath promi­sed: but in the Covenant to which a stipulation is annexed, God fulfils what he promised, because the creature exhibits what was exacted, although this that God hath entered into such a Cove­nant, and promised so great things unto him that performed such and such obedience, that wholly proceeds from the antecedent love, and free pleasure of Almighty God. The essance of the Co­venant properly consisteth in the Promise and stipulation: But the words of the Covenant containe obedience required of God, and promised of them in Covenant, and so by a Metonymie are called the Covenant. Exod. 34. 27, 28. Deut. 29. 1. Jer. 11. 2, 3, 4. and 34. 13, 14. The Tables of the Law were the Tables of the Co­venant. The Covenant and Law differ, as friendship and tables obligatory to friendship: he that violates these, is convinced to breake this: Heb. 8. 1, 2. and the tables of the Covenant of Law are called the Covenant or Testament, and the Book of the Covenant. Exod. 24. 4, 7. 2 King. 23. 2. A Covenant is made betwixt men [Page 5] of those things, which either were not due before, or were not thought to be due, which are made firme, stable and due by the ve­ry Covenant, so that by the Covenant new right is acquired or caused, either to one or both, who Covenant betwixt themselves of any matter. Therefore the Covenant of God doth contain new things, great, and in no wise due, which of his meere pleasure God offers unto us. Now where there is huge and infinite disparity, there can be no assurance of this so great a gift, but the certaine Word of God, and the assured Promise of him who doth never lie, nor change. That therefore Man should enter into Covenant with God, it was necessary that men should first give credit to the Word of God, and then that they should hope for those things which exceed their capacity, and so at last trusting in God and obeying, they should obtaine the good things promised: andExod. 24. 6, 7, 8. therefore the words of the Covenant may well be put for the Co­venant. Neverthelesse in making Covenant with the creature God is not tied to verball expressions, but often he contracts the Covenant in reall impressions in the heart and frame of the Crea­ture, which is apparent in the Covenant so often mentioned with the unreasonable creature, and this was the manner of covenan­ting with our first parents in the state of Innocency: but is mo [...]t observable in the restored reasonable creature, when God shall put his Lawes into their hearts, and write them in their inward parts, Jer. 31. 33. and the more perfect the creature growes, the more reall shall the impression be: But yet in all ages of the Church past, and so to the end of the world, God hath ever, and ever will make expressions outward of this his Covenant with mankinde. The Covenant is one thing, the name of the Covenant another. For the Covenant includes the whole reason of the Covenant with the circumstances: but the name sometimes is attributed to some circumstances. So the Covenant may be said to be the same and not the same, that which is the same in substance, varieth in manner and circumstances. Deut. 5. 2, 3. and 29. 1. and 4 31. Nor is it a thing unusuall in Scripture, that this should be affirmed of one, and denyed of another, which is more illustrious in one then in another, though it be common to both, as Matth. 15. 24. Interpreters of Scripture give this rule, when it seemes to deny the very essence of the thing, it doth deny only some circum­stance or respect, Mark 9. 37. He that receiveth me, doth not re­ceive [Page 6] me: which negation properly respects the degrees. Joh. 5. 45. There is one that accuseth you, even Moses, that is, Moses primarily and especially, Gen. 45. 8. God sent me hither: when God and hisSee Jer. 23. 7. Isai. 43. 18. brethren had done it, but in a divers manner.

CHAP. II. Of the Covenant God made with man in the state of Innocencie.

IT hath pleased God to deale with the reasonable creature, by way of Promise and restipulation, that is, by way of Covenant: In which God himselfe is one partie covenanting and promising, and the whole reasonable creature, the other restipulating and obeying. The thing holden out by God is eternall life with all immediate blessings, the condition on the part of the reasonable creature is free, ready and willing obedience, whether from nature or grace. The causes why God made choice to deale with the reasonable creature in this manner are principally three. First, that the creature might know what to expect from the Creator, into what state soever cast. Secondly, that the same creature might alwayes recognize, and acknowledge what to retribute. Thirdly, Such manner of dealing suites best with the nature of the reasona­ble creature, and his subordination to the Almighty. But passing by what might be spoken of the Covenant with reasonable crea­tures, both men and Angels: we will only consider what Cove­nant God hath made with mankind, because the knowledge thereof doth in speciall manner concerne us, and in the unfolding thereof the Scripture is most plentifull. We reade not the word Covenant betwixt God and man, ever since the Creation, both in Innocency, and under the fall: but we have in Scripture what may amount to as much. As in Innocency God provided and pro­posed to Adam, eternall happinesse in the present injoyments, and cals for perfect obedience: which appeares from Gods threat­ning, Gen. 2. 17. For if man must die if he disobeyed, it implies strongly that Gods Covenant was with him for life, if he obeyed. And after the fall, it is most evident, God was pleased to hold this course with man, in all ages and conditions, but with some altera­tions, [Page 7] as seemed best in his infinite wisedome, and best fitted the present condition of the creature. In this manner hath God afforded both the prime and secondary good unto man under Co­venants and seales, that he might have the greater assurance, so long as he walked in obedience: and herein God was pleased to condescend to mans weaknesse, and for the confirmation of his faith to adde Seales to his Covenants, in all times to bind the bar­gaine. The Covenant in generall may be described, a mutuall compact or agreement betwixt God and man, whereby God pro­miseth all good things, specially eternall happinesse unto man, up­on just, equall and favourable conditions, and man doth promise to walk before God in all acceptable, free and willing obedience, expecting all good from God, and happinesse in God, according to his Promise, for the praise and glory of his great Name.

The Author of the Covenant is God, not God and man, for God doth enter into Covenant with man, not as his equall, but as his Soveraigne, and man is bound to accept of the conditions offered by the Lord. There can be no such equality of power and authority betwixt God and the creature, as that he should indent with the most High, but he must accept what the Lord is well­pleased to offer and command. The Covenant is of God, and that of his free grace and love: for although in some Covenant the good covenanted be promised in justice, and given in justice for our workes: yet it was of grace that God was pleased to bind himselfe to his creature, and above the desert of the creature: and though the reward be of justice, it is also of favour. For after perfect obedience performed according to the will of God, it had been no injustice in God, as he made the creature of nothing, so to have brought him unto nothing: it was then of grace that he was pleased to make that promise, and of the same grace his hap­pinesse should have been continued. The partees covenanting are God and man: for God promiseth unto man upon condition, and man promiseth unto God what he requireth. In respect of Gods promise the Covenant is called his: but in respect of the conditions, it may be called mans. God promiseth freely to re­compenceZech. 9. 11. In the bloud of thy Cove­nant. Sept. [...] 68. the good of obedience, which is already due, and might be exacted without promise of reward; man promiseth to pay that debt of duty, which he oweth unto the Lord, in respect of the manifold relations, wherein he stands obliged unto him. The [Page 8] forme of the Covenant stands in a Promise and restipulation, wherein the Lord, though he might have required the wholeTo will and to nill the same things is the sure bond of all amity and friendship. Now because the communi­on betwixt God and us is of infinite dis­paritie, there­fore his will is a Law to us, and our obedi­ence is true love to him. debt of obedience, without promise of reward, in respect of the good things already bestowed upon the creature, yet to the end that man might yeeld cheerfull and free obedience, he first bound himselfe to reward the obedience of man, before he bound man unto him in obedience.

The Subject of this Covenant in generall is man not differen­ced by speciall respects: for as the Law was given, so the Gospell is revealed to man. Man in this or that speciall consideration is the subject of the Covenant, as it is divided for kinds, or altered for circumstances, and degrees: but man is the subject of the Co­venant without such particular considerations. The Lord having respect to the mutability and weaknesse of mans nature, was plea­sed, as to try his obedience by Symbolicall precepts, so to evi­dence the assurance of his faithfull promise by outward seales: but when the creature shall grow to absolute perfection and un­changeablenesse, such symbolicall precepts and outward seales shall cease as needlesse. The good promised is eternall blessednesse with all good things that doe accompany it, or belong thereunto: the good required is obedience to the just and righteous Com­mandement of God, which he as our Soveraigne Lord doth claime and call for, according as he shall prescribe and appoint. The end thereof is the glory of God, viz. the praise of his wise­dome, justice and bountie. And in all these things the Covenants howsoever divided in kinds, or varied in degrees and circumstan­ces, doe sweetly consent and agree. But seeing the Covenant is not one, but manifold, both in kinds and degrees, we must distin­guish it, and weigh more diligently what doth agree to every kind, and whe [...]ein they agree, and wherein they differ one from another. Some distinguish thus, the Covenant is either of Nature, or of Grace, or subservient to both, which is called the Old Testa­ment. Others thus, the Covenant is Legall or Evangelicall, of works, or of grace. The Covenant of workes, wherein God covenanteth with man to give him eternall life upon condition of perfect obedience in his owne person. The Covenant of Grace, which God maketh with man promising eternall life upon con­dition of beleeving. And this distinction is one for substance with the former: and with that which may be taken from the [Page 9] speciall consideration of the subject with whom it was made, scil. the Covenant made with Adam in the state of Innocencie, or with man after the Fall. We reade not in Scripture, the Co­venant of works, or of grace totidem syllabis: the neerest we come to it is Rom. 3. 27. the Law of works opposed to the Law of faith; which holds out as much as the Covenant of workes, and the Co­venant of Grace. For there the Apostle is disputing about justifi­cation, and by consequent eternall Salvation, which is Gods part to give under a Covenant. But of this hereafter. The Covenant which God made with our first parents, is that mutuall contract or agreement, wherein God promised eternall happinesse to man upon condition of intire and perfect obedience to be performed in his owne person.

The Author of this Covenant was God his Creator and Sove­raigne, who had bestowed many and great blessings upon man, furnished him with excellent abilities, and enriched him with singular priviledges. This Covenant God made in Justice; yet so as it was of Grace likewise to make such a free promise, and to be­stow so great things upon man for his obedience. God did in strict justice require obedience, promise a reward, and threaten punishment: but yet as bountifull and gratious unto his creature, intire and perfect, if he should so continue. God did in justice proportion the reward and the worke, the weight of the blessing promised, and the work of obedience required: but yet I cannot thinke it had been injustice in God to have given lesse, or not to have continued so great things to man, so long as he continued his obedience: No, God was pleased to manifest his goodnesse to man continuing in obedience, no lesse then his justice, as for­merly in creation he had shewed himselfe exceeding gratious to man, above other visible and corporall creatures.

This Covenant God made with man without a Mediatour: for there needed no middle person to bring man into favour and friendship with God, because man did beare the image of God, and had not offended: nor to procure acceptance to mans service, because it was pure and spotlesse. God did love man being made after his Image: and promised to accept of his obedience per­formed freely, willingly, intirely, according to his Commande­ment. The forme of this Covenant stood in the speciall Pro­mise of good to be received from justice as a reward for his work, [Page 10] Doe this and live: and the exact and rigid exaction of perfect obe­dience in his own person, without the least spot or failing for mat­ter or manner. The good that God promised was in it kind a per­fect systeme of good, which was to be continued so long as he continued obedient, which because it might be continued in the eye of creating power for ever, we call it happinesse, life, and ever­lasting happinesse. But upon a supposition of Adams persisting in a state of obedience, to say that God would have translated him to the state of glory in Heaven, is more then any just ground will warrant; because in Scripture there is no such promise. And if we must not presume above what is written, we may say, Adam should have continued in that blessed estate in which he was created, but as for his translation after some number of yeares spent on earth, we reade it not. In this state and condition Adams obedience should have been rewarded in justice, but he could not have merited that reward. Happinesse should have been conferred upon him, or continued unto him for his works, but they had not deserved the continuance thereof: for it is im­possible the creature should merit of the Creator, because when he hath done all that he can, he is an unprofitable servant, he hathLuke 17. 10. done but his duty. The obedience that God required at his hands was partly naturall, to be regulated according to the Law engra­ven in his heart by the finger of God himselfe, consisting in the true, unfained and perfect love of God, and of his Neighbour for the Lords sake: and partly Symbolicall, which stood in obedi­ence to the Law given for his probation and triall, whether he would submit to the good pleasure of God in an act of it selfe meerely indifferent, because he was so commanded. Though God had put many abilities and honourable priviledges upon man, yet he remained his Soveraigne, which by an act of restraint, he was pleased to make man thus exalted to know, which he did by requiring and commanding his creature to abstain from one fruit in it selfe pleasant to the eye, and good for meat. This was mans Homage-penny, a thing before the command indifferent, unto which he had a naturall inclination, from which he was now to abstaine, because God (who had before given to man as part of his patrimony, and not as reward of his obedience to this particular restraint, liberty to eat of every tree of the Garden) here interposed himselfe and reserved this as an Homage unto himself. [Page 11] God in his Soveraignty set a punishment upon the breach of thisGen. 2. 16. his Commandement, that man might know his inferiority, and that things betwixt him and God were not as between equals. The subject of this Covenant is man intire and perfect, made af­ter the Image of God in Righteousnesse and true holinesse, furni­shed not only with a reasonable soule and faculties beseeming, but with divine qualities breathed from the whole Trinity, infused in­to the whole man, lifting up every faculty and power above his first frame, and inabling and fitting him to obey the will of God intirely, willingly, exactly, for matter and measure. Whether this was naturall or supernaturall unto the first man, is a question need­lesse to be disputed in this place, and peradventure if the termes be rightly understood, will be no great controversie. Only this must be acknowledged, that this was Adams excellencie above all the creatures, and that in the fallen creature this quality is superna­turall. Unto this mutuall Covenant God added a seale to assure the protoplast of his performance and persisting in Covenant with him, and further to strengthen his obedience, with the obedience of his posterity, which upon his breach with God was made void. This Covenant of works made with Adam should have been the same unto his whole posterity, if he had continued as in all after Covenants of God, they are made with Head and Root, reaching unto all the branches and members issuing from them, Rom. 5. 17. 1 Cor. 15. 22, 47. The proportion holding in Abraham to Christ, till the Covenant be rejected in after commers. But this Cove­nant was so made with Adam the root of all mankind, that if transgressed, his whole posterity should be liable to the curse tem­porall and eternall, which entred upon his fall. This Covenant was a Covenant of friendship not of reconciliation; being once broken it could not be repaired; it promised no mercy or pardon, admitted no repentance, accepted no obedience, but what was perfect and compleat. If Adam had a thought after his breach, that he might have healed the matter, it was but vaine presumpti­on, and least he should rely upon a vaine confidence in eating of the tree of life, God drove him out of the Garden. But this Co­venant was not peremptory, not the last nor unchangeable. Woe to all the posterity of Adam, if God should deale with them ac­cording to the sentence here denounced. When man had plunged himselfe into misery, it pleased the Lord to reveale his abundant [Page 12] Grace in the Covenant of Grace, of which hereafter.

The end of this Covenant is the demonstration of Gods wise­dome, bounty, goodnesse and justice, both rewarding and punish­ing: and it made way for the manifestation of his rich grace and abundant free mercy brought to light in the second Covenant.

Three questions may be moved here not unprofitable, nor im­pertinent. 1. Why in the Covenant of nature (as it is called) Quest. 1 God doth not expressely require Faith, but Obedience and Love. And the answer is, That only by consequent Faith is required, and not expressely in this Covenant, because there was not the least probable cause or suspition why man should doubt of Gods love, for sinne had not as yet entred into the world: but in the Covenant of Grace it was contrary, for that is made with a con­science terrified with sinne, which could be raised up by none other meanes, but by the free Promise of mercy, and Faith imbra­cing the Word of Promise, freely and faithfully tendered, and to be received by faith only.

Againe, in this Covenant is considered, what in exact justice man doth owe unto God: (but he oweth justice and Sanctity:) but in the Covenant of Grace what God reconciled to man in his Sonne, would offer, and that is bountifully offered.

2. How that Faith, which presupposeth exact justice in the Quest. 2 Covenant of Nature, differs from that Faith which is required in the Covenant of Grace?

Answ. Faith, which the exact righteousnesse of man in the Covenant of Nature, doth presuppose, agreeth with faith which is required in the Covenant of Grace in this, that both are of God, both is a perswasion concerning the love of God, both begette [...]h in man mutuall love of God, because if faith abounds, love abounds; languishing, it languisheth; and being extinct, it is extinguished. But they differ first in the Foundation. For Faith which the Righteousnesse of nature presupposeth, leaneth on the title of in­tire nature, and therefore after the fall of Adam it hath no place; for although God love the creatures in themselves, yet he hates them corrupted with sinne. No man therefore can perswade himselfe, that he is beloved of God in the title of a creature; (for all have sinned) nor love God as he ought. But the Faith, of which there is mention in the Covenant of Grace, doth leane upon the Promise made in Christ. Secondly, when both are of God, yes [Page 13] that faith which exact righteousnesse presupposeth is of God (as they speake in Schooles) per modum naturae: But the Faith requi­red in the Covenant of Grace, is of God, but per modum gratiae su­pernaturalis. Thirdly, the righteousnesse, which the faith of nature begetteth was changeable; because the faith whence it did flow, did depend upon a changeable Principle of nature: But the San­ctity, which the Faith of the Covenant of Grace begetteth, is eternall and unchangeable, because it comes from an eternall and unchangeable beginning, the Spirit of Grace.

But if the Faith and Holinesse of Adam was changeable, how Object. could he be secure, or free from distracting feares; the answer is, the mind of Adam, which was wholly fixed, and set in the admi­ration and sense of Gods goodnesse, could not admit of such thoughts; such cogitations could not creep into it.

3. Whether the Covenant of works stand on foot in the poste­rity Quest. 3 of Adam, though not in respect of life and happinesse, yet in respect of the things of this life? To this some answer affirma­tively, because many of them, from some remainders of the fore­mentioned abilities, did many good things for the good of bodies politicke wherein they lived. Rom. 2. 13, 14, 15, 16. which God retributes with good things in this life, to some more, to some lesse, but to all some. And it cannot be denied; but some remain­ders of Gods Image or notions of good and evill, are to be found amongst the Heathen: and that these things, in them who lived without the pale of the Church, have been increased by culture of nature under Discipline, by Arts and Exercises, and might re­ceive improvement by vicinity to the Church; from which they might learne some things to enrich them in this trade: And that God hath bestowed many and great blessings upon them pertai­ning to this life: But it may be questioned, whether these things come from the compact of workes, or be gifts of bounty and Gods righteous administration, for a time respiting the sentence denounced against man for breach of Covenant, and vouchsafing unto him some temporall good things for the use and benefit of humane Society. Yea, it may be worthy consideration, Whether these things be not granted unto them in Jesus Christ, according to the Covenant of Grace, which was made upon the very fall▪ by whom not only the Elect, but the whole frame of nature re­ceived benefit. In the Creation God raised up a great Family, [Page 14] wherein he made Adam the head, and all his posterity inhabitors, the frame of Heaven and Earth his domicile, the creatures his servants, this Family upon the fall was broken up, the present Master turned out of his imployments, the children beggered, the servants returning to God their Soveraigne, and the whole frame of the creature under attainder. God thus defeated, (if I may so speake) sets up a second Family, called the Family of Heaven and Earth, wherein Jesus Christ, the womans seed, Gen. 3. 19. is the Head, Matth. 28. 18. Ephes. 1. 22. Col. 1. 19, 20. stiled the second Adam, Lord of all things in Heaven and Earth, and that with more soveraignty and amplitude of injoyment then ever the first Adam had; the whole creature being put under his feet. The children of this Family are the faithfull, who be the adopted Brethren, Rom. 8. 15. sometimes called the seed. The servants be the wic­ked, and those of two sorts, either such as attend in the Church, neerer about Christs person, or further off, as in farme-houses for baser offices. The creatures, by a second ordinance from their former Master free, are stated upon Christ, though they beare some brands of evill from the sinne of their former Master: the domi­cile, though not so beautifull, returnes to Christ. So the Cove­nant of Grace, entring upon the breaking up of the former Family, investeth Christ with all as purchaser of the lost creature from re­venging justice, and as Lord of all things in Heaven and Earth, who freely conferreth the heavenly inheritance upon the adopted sonnes and brethren, and vouchsafeth earthly blessings, and some spirituall common gifts to the wicked, which may be called ser­vants, both those that more neerly attend his person, and those that be further off. But of this more hereafter.

CHAP. III. Of the Covenant of Grace in generall.

THe Covenant of Grace is that free and gracious Covenant which God of his meere mercy in Jesus Christ made with man a miserable and wretched sinner, promising unto him pardon of sinne and eternall happinesse, if he will return from his iniqui­ty, embrace mercy reached forth, by faith unfained, and walke be­fore [Page 15] God in sincere, faithfull and willing obedience, as becomes such a creature lifted up unto such injoyment, and partaker of such pretious promises. This Covenant is opposite to the former in kind, so that at one and the same time, man cannot be under the Covenant of workes and the Covenant of grace. For he cannot hope to be justified by his perfect and exact obedience, that ac­knowledging himselfe to be a miserable and lost sinner, doth ex­pect pardon of the free mercy of God in Iesus Christ embraced by faith. The condition of the Law as it was given to Adam, ex­cludes the necessity of mercy reaching to the pardon of sinne: and the necessity of making a new Covenant, argues the former could not give life, Heb. 8. 7. He that is under grace, cannot at the same time be under the law: and he that waites for Salvation of meere and rich grace to be vouchsafed, cannot expect it as the deserved wages of his good worke from justice, and not of mercy.

What then may some say, is the Law abolished, or is it lawfull for Christians to live as they list, because they be not under the Law?

Not so: but the Law hath a double respect: one as the unchan­geable rule of life and manners, according to which persons in Covenant ought to walke before and with the Lord, and in this sense it belongs to the Covenant of grace. The other, as it is pro­pounded in forme of a Covenant, as if he must necessarily perish, who doth neglect or breake it in the least jot or tittle, and in this sense the Covenant of grace and workes are opposite. The matter of Evangelicall precepts and of the Morall Law is the same, but the forme of promulgation is not the same: the rule is one, but the Covenants differ. Materialy the Law, that is, the matter and argument of the Law, as a rule, stands in force: but if formally it did continue as a Covenant, there could be no place for repentance, nor for the promise of forgivenesse, or mer­cy reaching to the pardon of sinne, or the quickning of them that be dead in trespasses. The Covenant of workes is of justice, the Covenant of grace is of grace and mercy, which cannot agree and take place in one and the same subject: for he that try [...]th justice, perceiveth not the force of mercy, & è contra. This might be common to both Covenants, that God doth freely give reward, because he was not bound unto it by any Law, and that is done of grace, which we are not tied unto by Law: but in the Covenant [Page 16] of Grace, he gives the reward of meere and rich grace, and that to the creature which hath deserved Hell.

This Covenant entered immediately upon the fall, and so may be called a Covenant of Reconciliation, not of friendship. At the very instant, when God holy and true, was pronouncing judgements upon the severall delinquents in the fall, setting downe his sentence against the Tempter, both in his instrument the Serpent, and the maine Author Sathan, he brings in the par­ty who should execute the same, in which execution is unfolded the Covenant of grace for the Salvation of the creature, that the Serpent had destroyed, that God might be knowne in wrath to remember mercy. At the very fall, and before judgement was pronounced upon the delinquents that were tempted, the Cove­nant of mercy was proclaimed, that by vertue of this Covenant God might prevent further waste of his creature, which Sathan might haue wrought upon his new advantage in following his good successe, and that the tempted might have some comfort before their judgement, least they might have been swallowed up of wrath.

The Authour of this Covenant is God, considered as a merci­full and loving Father in Iesus Christ: as a Creator he strooke Co­venant with Adam in his integrity; as a Saviour he looked upon the poore creature plunged into sinne, and misery by reason of sin.

The cause that moved the Lord to make this Covenant, was not any worth, dignity or merit in man: for man never had ought, which he had not received; and now by his disobedi­ence, had deserved to be cast off for ever: neither was the present misery into which he had cast himselfe the cause that moved the Lord to receive man into favour: for the Angels more excellent by creation, as miserable by their fall, he hath reserved in chaines of darknesse: The sole moving cause, why God made this Cove­nant,Bonitatis Dei donumest, quod liberare nos vo­luit: quod verò aliter quam ta­li modo libera­re nos noluit, p [...]ccatorum no­strorum est me­ritum. was the love, favour and mercy of the Lord. Deut. 7. 7, 8. Only the Lord had a delight in thy fathers to love them, (saith Moses) and he chose their seed after them. Deut. 10. 15. When I passed by thee, and saw thee polluted in thine owne blood, I said unto thee, when thou wast in thy blood, live. Ezek. 16. 6. See Ezek. 36. 32. Luk. 1. 54, 55, 72, 78.

This Covenant was made in Christ, in and through whom we are reconciled unto God: for since God and man were separated [Page 17] by sinne, no Covenant can passe betwixt them, no reconciliati­on can be expected, no pardon obtained, but in and through a mediatour. Sinnes were never remitted unto any man, no man was ever adopted into the place and condition of a sonne, by grace and adoption, but in him alone, who is the same yesterday, to day, and for ever, Jesus Christ, true God and true man. Act. 4 12. Heb. 13. 8.

The fall of our first parents was occasion of this Covenant: forActus nostrae liberationis di­vinam bonita­tem causam ha­bet. Sed aliter actus, exactio, nimirum paenae per modum sa­tisfactionis ca [...]sam eam ha­bet, quae ad pae­nam exegendam irritat, id au­temest pecca­tum. God suffered him to slip, that he might manifest the riches of his mercy in mans recovery. Mercy freeing man from misery possi­ble might have taken place before transgression, and have disco­vered it selfe in the preventing of sinne, and so of misery: but it seemed good unto Almighty God to suffer misery to enter upon man through sinne, that he might make knowne the infinite ri­ches of his mercy, in succouring and lifting him up, being fallen and plunged into a state remedilesse and desperate for ought he knew. Besides, we may conceive, that Almighty God, upon just grounds disdaining, that such a base creature falne by pride, should thus upon advantage of the mutability of his reasonable creature, ruinate the whole frame of the Creation, and trample the glory of his name under foot: and withall looking upon the Chaos which sinne had brought, and would further make, if some speedy remedy was not provided; did out of his infinite and boundlesse love to man (though in the transgression,) and just and dreadfull indignation against Sathan, give forth this gratious and free Covenant.

The forme of this Covenant stands in gratious and free promi­ses of all good to be repaired, restored, augmented, and a restipu­lation of such duties as will stand with free grace and mercy. For the Covenant of Grace doth not exclude all conditions, but such as will not stand with grace. The Covenant which was made of free love, when we lay wallowing in our blood, and which calls for nothing at our hands but what comes from, and shall be rewarded of meere grace, is a Covenant of grace, though it be conditionall. So the pardon of sinne is given of grace, and not for workes, though pardon be granted only to the penitent, and faith on our part, a lively, unfained and working faith be re­quired to receive the promise.

The parties covenanting are two, and so are the parts of the [Page 18] Covenant, the one in respect of God, the other in respect of man. A Covenant there is betwixt God and man, but no mutuall ob­ligation of debt: for such mutuall obligation is founded in some equality; but there is no equality between the Creator and the creature, much lesse betwixt the Lord most high, and man a sin­ner. If man had never offended, God almighty, who gave him his being and perfection, could not have been indepted unto him, but as he was pleased to recompence the good of obedience, in the creature that never deserved punishment: much lesse can God be indepted to the creature that hath offended, who can neither endure his presence nor beare the weight of his wrath, nor satisfie Justice, nor deliver his soule from the thraldome of sinne. The obligation of man to God is of double right and debt: but it is of rich grace and abundant love, that God doth bind himselfe unto man. God doth promise in this Covenant to be God and Father by right of redemption, and Christ to be Saviour of them that be­leeve in God by him, and in faith do yeild sincere, uniforme, willing, upright and constant obedience unto his Commande­ments. Jer. 31. 31, 32, 33 Deut. 31. 6. Ezek. 36. 25, 26. Gen. 15. 1, 4, 5. Jer. 32. 40. & 33. 9. Heb. 8. 10, 11, 12. Isa. 54. 7. Hos. 2. 19.

The stipulation required is, that we take God to be our God, that is, that we repent of our iniquities, believe the promises of mercy and embrace them with the whole heart, and yeeld love, feare, reverence, worship, and obedience unto him, according to the prescript rule of his word. Repentance is called for in this Covenant, as it setteth forth the subject capable of Salvation by faith, but is it selfe only an acknowledgement of sinne, no hea­ling of our wound, or cause of our acquittance. The feeling ofLuke 13. 5. Act. 11. 18. 2 Cor. 7. 10. Ezek. 18. 27 [...], paine and sicknesse, causeth a man to desire and seeke remedy, but it is no remedy it selfe. Hunger and thirst make a man to desire and seeke for food, but a man is not fed by being hungry. By re­pentance we know our selves, we feele our sicknesse, we hunger and thirst after grace, but the hand which we stretch forth to re­ceive it, is faith alone, without which repentance is nothing but darknesse and despaire. Repentance is the condition of faith and the qualification of a person capable of Salvation: but faith alone is the cause of Justification and Salvation, on our part required. It is a penitent and petitioning faith, wherby we receive the pro­mises of mercy, but we are not justified partly by prayer, partly [Page 19] by repentance, and partly by faith, but by that faith, which stir­reth up godly sorrow for sinne, and enforceth us to pray for par­don and Salvation. Faith is a necessary and lively instrument of Justification, which is amongst the number of true causes, not being a cause without which the thing is not done, but a cause wherby it is done. The cause without which a thing is not done, is only present in the action, and doth nothing therein: But as the eye is an active instrument for seeing, and the care for hearing, so is faith also for justifying. If it be demanded whose instrument it is? It is the instrument of the Soule, wrought ther­in by the Holy Ghost, and is the free gift of God. In the Cove­nant of workes, workes were required as the cause of life and happinesse: but in the Covenant of grace, though repentance be necessary and must accompanie faith, yet not repentance, but faith only is the cause of life. The cause not efficient, as workes should have been, if man had stood in the former Covenant, but instrumentall only: for it is impossible that Christ, the death and blood of Christ, and our faith should be together the efficient or procuring causes of Justification or Salvation. When the Apo­stleRom. 3. [...], 22 28, 30. Gal. 2. 16. 17. Rom. 4. 2, 3. writeth, that man is not justified by workes, or through workes, by the Law or through the Law (opposing faith and workes in the matter of Iustification, but not in respect of their presence: faith, I say, and works, not faith and merits which could never be) without doubt he excludes the efficiency and force of the Law and workes in justifying: But the particles By and of doe not in the same sense take Iustification from the Law and workes, in which they give it to faith. For faith only doth be­hould and receive the promises of life and mercy, but the Law and works respect the Commandements, not the promises of meere grace. When therfore Iustification and life is said to be by faith, it is manifestly signified, that faith receiving the promise, doth receive righteousnesse and life freely promised. Obedience to allDeut. 7. 1 [...]. & 10. 12. Ier. 7. 23. Lev. 19. 17, 18. Luk. 10. 27 Mar. 12, 30. Gods Commandements is covenanted, not as the cause of life, but as the qualification and effect of faith, and as the way to life. Faith that embraceth life is obedientiall, and fruitfull in all good workes: but in one sort faith is the cause of obedience and good workes, and in another of Iustification and life eternall. These it seeketh in the promises of the Covenant: those it worketh and produceth, as the cause doth the effect. Faith was the efficient [Page 20] cause of that pretious oblation in Abell, of reverence and preparingHeb. 11, 4, 7, &c. the Arke in Noah, of obedience in Abraham: but it was the in­strument only of their justification. For it doth not justifie as it produceth good workes, but as it receiveth Christ, though it can­not receive Christ, unlesse it brings forth good workes. A dispo­sition to good workes is necessary to justification, being the qua­lification of an active and lively faith. Good works of all sorts are necessary to our continuance in the state of justification, and so to our finall absolution, if God give opportunity: but they are not the cause of, but only a precedent qualification or condition to fi­nall forgivenesse and eternall blisse. If then, when we speake of the conditions of the Covenant of grace, by Condition we un­derstand whatsoever is required on our part, as precedent, con­comitant or subsequent to justification, repentance, faith and o­bedience are all conditions: but if by Condition we understand what is required on our part, as the cause of the good promised though only instrumentall, faith or beliefe in the promises of free mercy is the only Condition. Faith and workes are opposed in the matter of Justification and Salvation in the Covenant, not that they cannot stand together in the same subject, for they be inseperably united, but because they cannot concurre or meete to­gether in one & the same Court, to the Iustification or Absolution of Man. For in the Court of Iustice according to the first Cove­nant either being just he is acquitted, or unjust he is condemned: But in the Court of Mercy, if thou receive the promise of pardon, which is done by a lively faith, thou art acquitted and set free, and accepted as just and righteous: but if thou believe not, thou art sent over to the Court of Justice.

Obedience is two-fold, perfect in measure and degree, this is so farre required, that if it be not performed, we must acknow­ledge our sinne in comming short: And this God is pleased to exact at our hands, that we might walke in humility before him, strive after perfection, and freely acknowledge his rich grace and mercy in accepting and rewarding the best service we can tender unto his Highnesse, when in the Court of Iustice it deserveth to be rejected. 2. Sincere, uniforme and constant, though imper­fect in measure and degree, and this is so necessary, that without it there is no Salvation to be expected. The Covenant of Grace calleth for perfection, accepteth sincerity, God in mercy pardo­ning [Page 21] the imperfections of our best performances. If perfection was rigidly exacted, no flesh could be saved: if not at all com­manded, imperfection should not be sin, nor perfection to be la­boured after. The faith that is lively to imbrace mercy is ever conjoyned with an unfained purpose to walke in all well pleasing, and the sincere performance of all holy obedience, as opportuni­ty is offered, doth ever attend that faith, whereby we continual­ly lay hold upon the promises once embraced. Actuall good workes of all sorts (though not perfect in degree) are necessary to the continuance of actuall justification, because faith can no longer lay faithfull claime to the promises of life, then it doth ver­tually or actually leade us forward in the way to Heaven. For if we say, we have fellowship with God and walke in darknesse, we lie and doe not the truth: But if we walke in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, 1 Joh. 1. 6, 7. This walking in the light, as he is in the light, is that qualification, wherby we become imme­diatly capable of Christs righteousnes, or actuall participants of his propitiation, which is the sole immediate cause of our justificati­on, taken for remission of sinnes, or actuall approbation with God. The truth of which Doctrine St John likewise ratifies in tearmes equivalent, in the words presently following: And the blood of 1 Ioh. 1. 7. Christ cleanseth us, (walking in the light as God is in the light) from all sinne. But of these things more largely in the severall de­grees how this Covenant hath been revealed.

In this Covenant man doth promise to repent of his sinnes, and repenting to cleave unto the promise of mercy made in Iesus Christ, and in saith to yeeld willing, cheerefull and continuall o­bedience. In contracts amongst men, one may aske more, and the other bid lesse, and yet they may strike agreement: But it is altogether bootlesse, for men to thinke of entring into Covenant with God, if they be no [...] resolved to obey in all things. The pra­ctise of all Gods people, who ever made Covenant with his High­nesse, doth expressely speake thus much, when they solemnly en­tred into, or renewed their Covenant: for thus they promise, Whatsoever the Lord saith, that will we doe, Exod 24. 3, 7. The peo­ple said unto Joshua, The Lord our God will we serve, and his voice will we obey, Josh. 24. 23. And they entred into Covenant to seeke the Lord God of their Fathers, with all their he art, and with all th [...]e [...]r sou [...]e? That whosoever would not se [...]ke the Lord God of Israel, should be put [Page 22] to death, whether small or great, whether man or woman, 2 Chron. 15. 12, 13. And the King stood by the pillar, and made a Covenant be­fore the Lord, to walke after the Lord, and to keepe his Commande­ments, and his Testimonies, and his statutes, with all their heart, and all their soule, to performe the words of this Covenant that were writ­ten in this booke: and all the people stood to the Covenant, 2 Chron. 34. 31. 2 Kings 23. 3. They entred into a Curse, and into an Oath to walke in Gods Law, which was given by Moses the Servant of God, and to observe and doe all the Commandements of the Lord our God, and his Iudgements, and his Statutes, Neh. 10. 29. And thus run­neth the exhortation of Joshua to the two tribes and halfe when he sent them home; Take diligent heed to doe the Commandements of the Law, which Moses the servant of the Lord charged you, to love the Lord your God, and to walke in all his wayes, and to keepe his Commandements, and to cleave unto him, and to serve him with all your heart, and with all your soule, Iosh. 22. 5. Which must not so be understood, as if he that did of frailty and infirmity offend in any one jot or tittle, should be held a Covenant breaker: for then no man should be innocent, but the promise must be interpreted according as the Law or rule of obedience is given, which calleth for perfection but accepteth sincerity. In the Covenant of mercy we bind our selves to believe and rest upon God with the whole heart, so as doubting or distrust of weaknesse and infirmity, must be acknowledged a sinne, but every such frailty doth not ar­gue the person to be a transgressour of the Covenant. And the same holds true of obedience. But of this more largely in the par­ticular manner how God hath been pleased to administer this Co­venant. Man then doth promise to serve the Lord, and to cleave unto him alone, which is both a debt of duty, and speciall preroga­tive, and he doth restipulate or humbly intreat, that God would be mindfull of his holy Covenant or testimony, that he would be his God, his Portion, his Protectour, and rich reward. These things be so linked together in the Covenant, as that we must conceive the Promise of God in order of nature to goe before the Promise and obedience of man: and to be the ground of faith, whereby mercy promised is received. The offer of mercy is made to man an un­beleever, that he might come home, and the promise must be con­ceived before we can beleeve, else we should beleeve we know not what, and faith should hang in the aire without any founda­tion: [Page 23] but mercy offered is embraced by faith, and vouchsafed to him that beleeveth. Also the duty which God calleth for, and man promiseth, is mans duty but given of God. By grace man is enabled and effectually drawne to doe what God commandeth. The Covenant could not be of grace, nor the good things cove­nanted, if man by his own strength did or could performe what God requireth.

This Covenant was first published, and made knowne by lively voice: afterwards it was committed to writing, the tables there­of being the holy Scripture. It was made both by word andPsal. 85. 4, 35. Deut. 29. 12, 14. Isai. 54. 9. Heb. 6. 17, 18. Gen. 22. 16. Luke 1. 72. Oath, to demonstrate the certainty and constancy thereof: and sealed by the Sacraments, which on Gods part doe confirme the Promise made by him: and on mans part are bils obligatory or hand-writings, whereby they testifie and bind themselves to the performance of their duty.

For manner of administration this Covenant is divers, as it pleased God in sundry manners to dispense it: but for substance it is one, the last, unchangeable and everlasting. One, For Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever. The last: for itHeb. 13. 8. succeeded the Covenant of works, but none shall succeed it. In it God hath revealed his whole pleasure touching the Salvation of man, and hath manifested his principall properties, the riches of his grace, wherein he delighteth to be magnified. He that is not saved by the Covenant of Grace, must and shall perish everlasting­ly. Unchangeable and everlasting: for therein God hath revea­led himselfe, in respect of the things he willeth concerning mans Salvation to be one and the same for ever. There is none other re­lation and respect, that might give occasion to another Covenant. It was the pleasure of God to shew mercy to man miserable; but he will not extend compassion to him that obstinately and wil­fully shall contemne the riches of his grace. The Covenant made with Adam in the state of Innocency, is altered for our great good and comfort: but this Covenant is like the Covenant of the dayIsai. 24. 5. Psal. 111, 9. and of the night, it stands fast for ever and ever. Though men be unfaithfull, God continueth faithfull: he waiteth for the conver­sion1 Sam. 7. 3. Deut. 4. 31. Jer. 3. 1, 2. Rom. [...]. 6. and 11. 1, [...]9. of them that goe astray, and if they returne, he will receive them into favour. The Lord will not utterly cast off that people, whom he hath once chosen, and received unto mercy. And in respect of the life to come, the Covenant is eternall: for after this [Page 24] life the people effectually in Covenant shall live with the LordHos. 13. 14. Matth. 22. 32. for ever.

Externally this Covenant is made with every member of the Church, even with the Parents and their children, so many as heare and embrace the Promises of Salvation, and give and dedicate their children unto God according unto his direction: for the Sacraments what are they but seales of the Covenant? But sa­vingly, effectually, and in speciall manner it is made only with them, who are partakers of the benefits promised. And as the Co­venant is made outwardly or effectually, so some are the people of God externally, others internally and in truth. For they are th [...] people of God, with whom God hath contracted a Covenant, and who in like manner have sworne to the words of the Covenant, God stipulating, and the people receiving the condition: which is done two wayes: for either the Covenant is made extrinsecally, God by some sensible token gathering the people, and the people embracing the condition in the same manner, and so an externall consociation of God and the people is made: or the Covenant is en [...]red after an invisible manner, by the intervention of the Spirit, and that with so great efficacy, that the condition of the Cove­nant is received after an invisible manner, and so an internall con­sociation of God and the people is made up.

Here it may suffice briefly to mention these things, because in the sundry manners of dispensation, they will come to be discussed more at large.

From that which hath been said two things may be gathered. 1. How the Covenant made with Adam, called by some Divines the Covenant of Nature, agreeth and differeth from the Covenant of Grace.

They agree in a generall consideration of, 1. The Author, which is God only wise, most holy, our supreme and absolute Soveraigne. 2. The matter of the Covenant, which is a Commandement and Promise of reward. 3. The persons contracting or covenanting, which are God and man. 4. The Subject not differenced by speciall respects, for the Law was given and Gospell revealed to man. 5. The forme of administration, because to both Cove­nants is annexed a restipulation. 6. The end, viz. the blessednesse of man, and the glory of God manifested in his wisdome, bounty and goodnesse. 7. As Adam in the state of Innocency was [Page 25] made able to fulfill the Covenant made with him: so is the Co­venant of Grace written in the hearts of them that be heires of the Promise in Christ.

They differ, 1. In the speciall consideration of the Authour, cause and foundation of the Covenants. God gave his Law to Adam as bountifull and gratious to his creature intire and perfect, but in strict justice requiring obedience, promising a reward and denouncing punishment. But the Covenant of Grace he made as a loving Father in Jesus Christ, of his meere Grace promising to receive them into favour, that sincerely and unfainedly turne unto him. The Creation of man and integrity of humane nature, is the Foundation of the former Covenant: but the Redemption of man by Christ is the Foundation of the Covenant of Grace.

2. In the forme of Sanction. In the Covenant of Nature there is no Mediatour: but the Covenant of Grace is made in Christ, in whom God hath made us accepted. The Covenant of Na­ture was not promised before it was promulgated: but the Co­venant of Grace was first promised, and long after promulgated and established or ratified in the bloud of his Sonne.

3. In the speciall matter of the Covenants, and that both in re­spect of the Promise and stipulation. For the Covenant of Nature promised life, but not righteousnesse: but in the Covenant of Grace God promiseth to tread Satan under the feet, and to write his Law in the hearts of them that be heires of Salvation. That Covenant promiseth life to them that perfectly obey, but not re­mission or forgivenesse of any, even the least iniquity. But this promiseth forgivenesse of sinnes and life eternall to the penitent sinner believing in Christ, and embracing the free promise of mercy. In that, life eternall is promised as the reward of justice: in this, life and glory as the reward of free and rich grace and mercy. To him that worketh, the wages is of debt; but to him that beleeves the reward is of Grace. In that God as a Creatour doth exact his right of man pure: but in this as a loving Father he doth offer himselfe to the sinner smitten with the conscience of his sinne. In that, life eternall and most blessed is promised, but only animal, to be enjoyed in Paradise, or continuance in that good estate wherein he was set at first of the rich bounty of God: but in the other, translation out of ignominy and death into eter­nall happinesse and glory in Heaven. In the Covenant of Nature [Page 26] perfect obedience is exacted, so that if there be but the least fai­ling in any jot or title, and that but once, a man can never be justi­fied thereby, nor can the breach be made up by any repentance: But in the Covenant of Grace obedience is required, repentance admitted, and sincerity accepted: If a man sinne and goe astray, if he returne unfainedly, he shall be received into favour. In the Co­venant of Nature obedience and workes were commanded as the cause of life and justification: in the Covenant of Grace, Faith is required as the instrumentall cause of Remission and Salvation, obedience as the qualification of the party justified, and the way leading to everlasting blessednesse. The object of obedience in the Covenant of Nature was God: in the Covenant of Grace God in Christ.

4. They differ in the speciall consideration of the Subject. The first Covenant was given to man pure, perfect, intire and sound, able to do what God required: But the Covenant following was made with man a sinner, miserable and by nature the child of wrath. And so that was a Covenant of friendship, this of firme Reconciliation.

5. In the speciall and peculiar respect of the end. For the for­mer Covenant was made for the praise of Gods wisdome, good­nesse, bounty and justice. But the Covenant of Grace was made to declare and set forth the riches of Gods grace and mercy. In it the wisdome, goodnesse, power and justice of God is more illustri­ous then in the former: and the mercy, long-suffering and rich grace of God is greatly magnified, which did not appeare or shine forth at all in the former.

6. And in their Effects and Properties. For not the Covenant of Nature, but of Grace doth exclude boasting. By the Covenant of Nature Adam was not advanced above the condition of an ho­nourable Servant. In the Covenant of Grace, man by nature the child of wrath, is made the child of God by grace and adoption. The Covenant of nature was neither the last nor everlasting, but being first made way for a better, and being broken was antiqua­ted or disanulled to our singular comfort: but the Covenant of Grace shall continue firme and immoveable for evermore.

The second thing to be gathered is, That the Fathers before 2 Christ, ever since the fall of Adam, and Christians in the times of the Gospell, did live under the same Covenant for substance, but [Page 27] not for manner of administration, which is most cleare by evidentHeb. 13. 8. Rev. 13. 8. Act. 4. 12. and 15. 11. Gal. 3. 29. Rom. 3. 30. Eph. 2. 12. Gen. 15. 1▪ and 17. 1, 7. Lev. 26. 12. Exod. 3. 6. Matth. 22. 32. 2 Cor. 4. 13. Heb. 11. 6, 7, 8. Rom. 4. 12. Heb. 11. [...], 19, 23. testimonies of holy Scripture, and by the very forme of the Cove­nant, which was one before and after the comming of Christ. The same God that calleth us, called them to the hope of eternall life: they were endued with the same spirit, and lived by the same faith: Their Sacraments for substance in signification agree with ours: and they expected an Inheritance everlasting and undefiled. Religion for substance was ever one and unchangeable, and such as were truly religious walked in the same way, and waited for the same heavenly Inheritance and everlasting crowne of glory. The Church before Christ may be considered as an heire, or as an Infant, according to the substance of the Covenant, or according to the manner of administration. In the first respect the Church is under the Covenant or Promise, and her people are called a free and willing people, an heire of heavenly and spirituall blessings. In the latter respect she is under the Covenant, in respect of the diffe­rent administration, and her people are called a servile people in comparison, an heire under Tutors and Governors, not differing from a servant.

CHAP. IIII. Of the Covenant of Promise.

THe Covenant of Grace is either promised or promulgatedGen. 3. 15. Gen. 12. 1. and 15. 1. and established. Promised to the Fathers, first to Adam, and afterwards to the Patriarchs, and lastly to the people of Israel, and that before their comming into the Land of Canaan, and afterGal. 4. 4▪ 1 Pet. 1. 20. Act. 3. 25. Gal. 3. 16. 1 [...]. Eph. 2. 12. their returne from the Babylonish captivity. Promulgated, after the fulnesse of time came. And hence the Covenant of Grace is distributed into the Covenant of Promise, or the New Covenant, so called by way of excellency. For the Foundation and Media­tour of the Covenant of Grace is our Lord Jesus Christ, but either to be incarnate, crucified, and raised from the dead, or as alreadyAct. 4 12. Heb. 13. 8. incarnate, crucified, and truly raised from the dead, and ascended into Heaven. For there was never sin forgiven but in him alone, who is the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever. Therefore al­though before the Incarnation, Christ was only God, he was our [Page 28] Mediatour, yet not simply as God, but as the divine person, who should take our flesh, and in it should finish all the Mysterie of our Redemption, and therefore he is called the Lambe of God slaine from the beginning of the world, and the Fathers by his grace were saved, even as we. In the acts of Mediation three things may be considered. Reconciliation, by which we are accepted of God. Patronage, by which we have accesse unto the Father. Do­ctrine, whereby God hath made himselfe knowne unto men by a Mediatour. This third act might be done before he assumed our flesh, and indeed was done: but the two first did require his com­ming in the flesh, although the fruit of them was communicated to the Fathers under the Old Testament, by force of the divine Promise, and certainty of the thing to come with God.

If it be objected, that the cause is before the effect, and there­fore the incarnation and death of Christ must goe before the communication of the fruit and benefit thereof unto the Fa­thers.

The answer is, That in naturall causes the Proposition holds true, but in morall causes the effect may be before the cause: and so the fruit and vertue of Christs death was communicated to the Fathers before his Incarnation. But although the Sonne of God before he was manifested in the flesh, was our Mediatour with God (to whom future things are present) because he should be, and therfore for his sake sinnes were remitted, men did teach and learne by his Spirit, the Church was governed by him: yet the manner and reason of that Mediation was proposed more obscure­ly, the force and efficacy of it was lesse, and did redound to few­ [...]r. The Covenant of Promise then was that Covenant which God made with Adam, the Fathers and all Israel in Jesus Christ to be incarnate, crucified and raised from the dead: And it may be described the Covenant, wherby God of his meere grace and mercy in Jesus Christ to be exhibited in the fulnesse of time, did promise forgivenesse of sinnes, spirituall adoption and eternall life, unto man in himselfe considered a most wretched and miserable sinner, if he should embrace and accept this mercy promised, and walke before God in sincere obedience. God the Father of his meere and free grace and mercy looking upon man in JesusDeut. 9. 5. Gal. 3. 18. Luk. 1. 54, 55. Christ, in whom he is reconciled, is the Author and cause of this Covenant. He hath h [...]lpen his servant Israel in remembance of his [Page 29] mercy, as he spake to our Fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever. Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, your Fathers dwelt on Josh. 24 [...]. the other side of the floud in old time, even Terah the Father of Abraham, and the Father of Nahor, and they served other gods. And I took your Father Abraham from the other side of the floud, and led him throughout all the Land of Canaan, and multi­plied his seed, and gave him Isaac.

The condition required in this contract, is the obedience of faith. Remission of sinnes, gratious adoption in Christ, and the Inheri­tance of eternall life is promised to beleevers: and eternall con­demnation peremptorily threatned against unbeleevers.

Christ, whom God hath exhibited in the Gospell, as he was promised to the Fathers in the Scriptures of the Prophets, is the object of this Covenant.

The end thereof is the praise of the glorious grace and mercy of God in Christ to come.

In this Covenant there is a mutuall compact betwixt God and man: God in mercy promising, and man in duty binding himself unto the Lord.

It was made with man a sinner, and reacheth to the faithfull and their seed, as God hath promised to accept the children of be­leeving parents, upon due and religious tender of them made unto his Highnesse according as he hath prescribed: but saving effectu­ally it was made with them only, who beleeve in him that justi­fieth the ungodly, be the heires of salvation, and walke in the steps of our Father Abraham.

This Covenant doth beget children to liberty, doth administer the righteousnesse of faith, and the inheritance by faith: hope, peace of conscience, life in Christ, and spirituall joy is the effect thereof.

Internally the Spirit doth seale up the truth of this Covenant in2 Cor. 4 13. Rom. [...]. 4, 5. Gal. 3. 18. Rom. 8. 15. Gal. 3. 14. Gen 22. 16. Luk. 1. 73. the hearts of the faithfull. For when the adoption and the inheri­tance pertained to the Fathers under the Covenant of promise, the spirit of adoption and earnest of the inheritance pertained unto them likewise. Externally it was delivered and confirmed by word and oath, and sealed by the Sacraments.

For substance also this Covenant was everlasting and unchange­able: The New Testament did not abolish the former, but the former was fulfilled by the latter. And in all these things it dothPsal. 105. 10. agree with the new Covenant: which here only are but briefly [Page 30] named, because the confirmation of them must be sought in the Chapters following.

And if the Covenant of Promise, and the New Covenant doe thus agree in substance, then it must necessarily follow, That thereEph. 2. 18, 19, 20. and 4. 4, 5. is but one Church of the Elect, the same Communion of Saints, one Faith, one Salvation, and one way of obtaining the same, viz. by Faith in Christ.

Secondly, that the Word of God was no lesse incorruptible seedRom. 11. 17. to the Fathers and the Israelites then to us: That the Fathers did eat the true flesh of Christ by faith, as well as we in the times of1 Cor. 10. 2, 3. 2 Cor. 4. 13. the Gospell: That they and we are partakers of the same Spirit: and that the Sacraments of the Jewes did signifie and seale to them, the same promises of eternall life, which our Sacraments doe to us. The Sacraments of the Old Testament were not types of our Sacraments, as sometimes they are called by Divines: but they typified the same things that ours doe. For as the Covenants under which they and we lived, were one for substance: so are the Sacraments one in their common nature and signification.

Thirdly, that the faithfull before Christ were saved by the free mercy of God in Christ, did know God and Christ, had theHeb. 11. 9. Psal. 105. 15. Isai. 51. 6. spirituall promise of life eternall, and were equall to us Christians in all substantiall graces of the Covenant.

Fourthly, and from the same grounds we may conclude, that the soules of the faithfull, who departed this life before the com­ming of Christ in the flesh, were immediately received into Hea­ven. For they were taken to glory, and saved as we: Now such as are taken to glory, are taken to Heaven. For the Scripture know­ethAct. 15. 11. no place in which God doth ordinarily display his glory, but Heaven. And what should hinder their translation into the hea­venly Jerusalem, when they are removed out of this earthly taber­nacle? Not their sinnes, for they which could not hinder them from Sanctification, fitting them for Heaven, could not hinder them from Heaven: Not want of Faith, who now have that faith which Abraham, and many of them had: No want of efficacie in Christ, he was the Lambe slaine from the beginning of the world, he was yesterday, to day, and for ever; his death was effe­ctuall to cause them to find pardon, and the Spirit of Sanctification. Not any priviledge of Christ: for not simply to ascend into Hea­ven was Christs priviledge, but to ascend soule and body, as heire [Page 31] of all things, and the Authour of Salvation to all that obey him. David is said not to have ascended into Heaven, but that is spokenAct. 2. 34. in respect only that he was not raised in body, and gone into Hea­ven body and soule, as the heire of all things, and person who was to sit at Gods right hand. It is also said, The Fathers received Heb. 11. 39. not the Promise, scil. of Christs comming in the flesh to performe the worke of our Redemption: but as they received the promise of forgivenesse, and of the Spirit of Sanctification, so after their death they were taken into Heaven. They whose Pilgrimage and sojourning ceased with this life, they could not but be in their Countrey at home after this life. But Heaven is the Countrey of the Saints; for where their Father is there is their Countrey. Those who walked as strangers here on earth, because they lookedHeb. 11. 13, 14, 15, 16. Heb. 11. 5. 2 King. 2. 11. Luke 9. 31. for an heavenly Jerusalem, a City whose Maker was God, they leaving this earth were translated thither. The translating of Enoch, Moses, and Elias seeme to figure out no other thing. Christ was the fore-runner of Enoch, not in act, in respect of the assumption of his humanity into Heaven, but in vertue and merit. From the beginning of the world, a place was prepared for all, whom God had chosen in Jesus Christ, Matth. 25. 31. and 20. 23. but a place was to be prepared of Christ, for us, in respect of the promised paiment, by the force and efficacy whereof the effect was before obtained, but with respect to future labours, which were both certaine and present with God. For a morall cause, though it be not present in act, if it be supposed as future, may have its effect. The faithfull before Christ, when they removed out of these earth­ly tabernacles, were received into everlasting habitations. Luke 16. 9. Now if the godly at the instant departed, were bestowed in any place but Heaven, they then did goe to mansions, which they were to leave in a short time, even then when Christ did ascend. Our Saviour promised to the penitent Theefe upon the Crosse, This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise: which if it was notLuke 23. 43. into Heaven, but into Limbus, it was but for a short time; for that was to be broken up within a few houres space.

But to returne to the matter in hand, The Covenant of Promise and the new Covenant are so one for substance, that what is in the first for weight and essentiall, is in all the degrees following, and to be understood, though not mentioned, and whatsoever in any after degree appeares as substantiall to the Covenant, that was included [Page 32] in the first propounding of it but in sundry accidents, which no­thing hinder their substantiall unity, they are distinguished.

First on the part of the Object, Christ exhibited in the New1 Ioh. 1. 1, 2. & 4. 14. Mal. 3. 1. Isai. 59. 15. Covenant, is promised as to come in the Covenant of promise. For it was meete the promise should goe before the Gospell, and be fulfilled in the Gospell, that so great a good might earnestly be des [...]red before it was bestowed, and that the expectation of them that waited for the consolation of Israel might not be frustrated.

Secondly, In the manner of administration and measure of faith. For the knowledge of Christ, and faith in him to come, was more obscure and darke, then the knowledge of him already come, and faith which doth behold him present. The manner of Christs Mediation was more sparingly and obscurely revealed: his person, the manner of execution of the office of Mediatour, and the bene­fits that we receive in him, more darkly unfolded, sometimes pro­pounded in generall words, sometimes shadowed in types and fi­gures, seldome more specially described. And the reason why these things at first were more darkely delivered, may be: first, be­cause things present or past are seene more clearely then things toHeb. 11. 17. come: prophesies be obscure before the accomplishment. 2. The Church was then in her Infancy and rude, not come to her ripe age, the Lord in his infinite wisdome so disposing the matter. 3. It was meete the cleare and full revelation of this mystery should be reserved to Christ the chiefe Prophet. The Authour of life was to lay open and make manifest the way to life: Till the way into Heaven was really entred by the true high Priest, after the order of Melchisedech, it was not fully manifested: Heb. 9. 8. Under the Old Testament the way into the Holiest was not abso­lutely shut, but vailed, not altogether untraced, but not fully laid open: because our true and reall high Priest had not made satis­faction by the offering up of himselfe a sacrifice once for all, nor consecrated that new and living way through the vaile, that is to say, his flesh. 4. The minds of men were to be held in a lon­ging desire and expectation of Christ: and the obscure revelation of Christ and his benefits did serve to raise their hearts to an ear­nest desire of his comming, in respect of the cleare revelation and great and glorious blessings they might then expect. But in this obscurity we may observe some degrees: Before the Law given by Moses the promise was more obscure: the Law being given, [Page 33] even to the times of the Prophets lesse cleare: in the times of the Prophets even to Iohn the Baptist, more cleare. Even from the first giving forth of the promise untill the comming of Christ in the flesh, the revelation was more cleare, distinct, ample, as the comming of the Messiah did approach neerer and neerer. For the Church by how much it was neerer to her beginnings, by so much it was the ruder, and therfore to be instructed in a more rude forme. As the time of the Sunne approacheth neerer, or if fur­ther off, so is the light that goeth before it, greater or lesser: and as the time of the arising of the Sonne of righteousnesse is more re­mote or nigh at hand, so was the revelation that went before more dimme or cleare. It was meete and expedient that when the comming of the glorious King of peace and righteousnesse did draw nigh, the hearts of men should be raised up in desire and ex­pectation of him: But the better they were acquainted with his person and office, the more distinctly they understood the time of his comming, the more lively tast they had of the benefits they should receive by him, and the greater tokens they saw of his glory approaching, the more their hearts would be enlarged to desire and expect him. Moreover it was the good pleasure of God to manifest the riches of his grace, not all at once, but by degrees, as he saw it most expedient for the glory of his great Name, and the good of his people in severall ages and states of the Church, of which we shall have occasion to speake largely in the Chapters following. But here two things must be noted to prevent some doubts that may arise. First that clearenesse of Revelation is two­fold. One on the part of the revealer, when the revealer dealeth so, that unlesse he have a rude hearer, or altogether malitious, it may be understood of the hearer what he meaneth. The other cleare, even on the part of the hearer, when it is so great that the rudenesse of the hearer cannot hinder, that he should not perceive what is spoken, but his malice only. In the first sence, the reve­lation of Christ in the Covenant of the promise was cleare: but the testimony concerning the Kingdome of Christ could not be understood of a rude hearer before the accomplishment.

If it be objected, how then could they be saved?

In the second place i [...] is to be observed, that Christ doth not save as clearly knowne, but as he is sincerely acknowledged. But when the Revelation was sparing and darke, no man can deny that [Page 32] [...] [Page 33] [...] [Page 34] Christ was truly and unfainedly acknowledged in the Church of the Iewes. The word of God is the measure of faith, and that is true and saving faith, which believeth all things which are revea­led, and in that manner wherein they are revealed, and therefore the faith of the Fathers was sound and effectuall, because they be­lieved what God was pleased to reveale, and after that manner wherein it was revealed of God.

A Third difference ariseth from this; for Christ with all his be­nefits was proposed to the Israelites under types and figures. AsExod. 24. 7. 8. Heb. 10. 1, Gal. 3. 16. Heb. 8. 1, 2 & 9. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Rom. 3, 25. 1 Iohn 2. 2. Heb. 3. 18. & 4. 1. the Prtiests, Altars, Sacrifices, Propitiatory, were all types of Christ his Priest-hood and Sacrifice: and the Land of Canaan a type of Heaven: the Lord leading the Iewes by the help of earthly things to heavenly and spirituall, because they were but young and tender: which was one cause why the Covenant was more obscure, heavenly things being wrapt up under earthly. But in the new Covenant Christ is offered to be seene with open face; the truth, substance and body of the things themselves is exhibited; and all vaile of figures removed, our minds are streight directed to heaven­ly blessednesse.

4. The variety of administration doth offer a fourth difference:Gal. 4. 12. & 3. 13, 25. for the Apostle compares the Nation of the Iewes to an heire as yet an Infant, that is under Tutours and Governours. The Christian Church to an heire come to ripe yeares.

And from this ariseth a fifth difference, That as an heire notGal. 5. 1. come to yeares, not differing from a servant, the Church was held under the Ceremoniall Law, from which they that believe in Christ are delivered after the expiration of the time of nourture appoin­ted of the Father.

Sixthly they differ in the number of them that are called to the participation of the Covenant. The Covenant of promise was atDeut. 30. 8. Math. 10. 1, 6. & 15. 24. first concluded within the Families of the Patriarkes, the rest having excommunicated themselves, and then within the confines or limits of Iudea: that in the Iewes there might be a most illustrious type of Election, and of rejection in the Gentiles, that is, of the Church of God and Sathan. But the partition wall betwixt Iew & Gentile being broken downe, the Covenant of grace was made with all Nations.

Seventhly, the efficacy of Christ promised is lesser then of ChristGen. 2 [...]. 18. Deut. 19. 8, 9. exhibited. In the Covenant of promise, certaine promises con­cerning [Page 35] corporall blessings, were made unto the Fathers: and ex­ternall blessings were more esteemed, as Symbols of spirituall and heavenly: But under the New Covenant, blessings spirituall, and the gifts and graces of the Spirit are in more ample and plentifull manner powred upon the Church. Remission of sinnes though it was certaine with God, was lesse felt under the Covenant of Promise, because the cloud of the Law put betwixt the mercy of God and the eye of the sould; the grace of God was more obscure­ly revealed, and the meanes of expiating sinne by the death of Christ; as also because remission of sinnes was not really obtained by our surety, for as yet he had not made the satisfaction promi­sed. The Spirit was powred in lesse plenty upon the faithfull: be­causeIoh 3. 34. Ioh. 1. 16. & 7. 38, 39. Ioel [...]. 28. that benefit was to be reserved to the times of Christ, who was first to receive the Spirit above measure in his humane nature, and thence to derive grace unto all us. The Iewes as heires were partakers of the Spirit of Adoption, bu tempered with the sprit of Servitude, because they were Infants, under the yoke of the Law,Rom 8. 15. Gal 46. the way to heaven not as yet clearely manifested: But the heire come to ripe yeares, is altogether led by the Spirit of Adoption. The sense of future glory was also more obscure, because there is more obscure mention of it, and of the way thereunto in the Old Testament. If we speake of some particular persons under the first Covenant, they were endued with greater gifts of the Spirit then many under the New: but more light of knowledge, and greater plenty and abundance of Grace is bestowed upon the Church in the time of the Gospell, if we respect the body of the Church and faithfull in Generall.

Eighthly, the seales of the Covenant of promise were in num­ber more, in signification more obscure, in use painfull and bur­densome, peculiar to some people as the Covenant was, and to continue only untill the time of reformation: But the seales of the New Testament are in number few, in signification cleare, in use easy, common to all nations, and to endure for ever.

And from these groūds it may be concluded, That though the Fa­thers being delivered from the Tabernacle of the body, were madeHeb. 8. 6. & 10: 20. partakers of life eternall in Heaven. yet they had not before Christ that perfect state in Heaven, which now we and they are present­ly possessed of: for they were not to be perfected without us, as neither shall we be perfected before that blessed day of the secondHeb. 11. 39, 40. comming [Page 36] of Christ, wherein the body of Christ, that is, the Church, shall be absolute and perfect every way. Not to insist upon this, that the former Tabernacle standing, the way to the Holiest was not fully manifested, and that there must be some proportion be­twixt the manifestation of the way unto and sense of the future life, in this life, in them that be of ripe age, and the fruition of it in the life to come: This is certaine, the Fathers who died before Christ, did expect in Heaven their Redeemer, on whom they had beleeved for forgivenesse of sinne and life everlasting: even as soules now expect the Resurrection of the body, the second appea­rance of Christ to Judgement, in regard of which things they are not perfected. Now hence followed a want of much light and joy, which on the sight of Christ, God man, entring the Heavens, did redound unto them: as we in earth now have not the fulnesse of joy which then we shall have, when we shall see the accom­plishment of what we expect.

CHAP. V. Of the Covenant of Promise made with Adam im­mediately upon his fall.

THe Covenant of Promise began immediately upon the fall, and reached unto the comming of Christ in the flesh, which is ob­scure in comparison of the new Covenant, but in it selfe receiveth distinction of degrees, according to the severall breakings out of it to the darke world, and the growth from severall manifestations of God, as was proportionable to the number and qualities of those, who in succeeding ages should take benefit: so that at first being like a young sapling, it grew to be firme, alwayes a fruitfull tree. In Scripture it is delivered unto us under these degrees of growth, both in respect of fuller and more cleare manifestation, and as we may suppose of numbers that received benefit by it. First, from Adam untill Abraham. Secondly, from Abraham untill the Covenant made with Israel upon the Mount. Thirdly, from Moses to Christ: which must be subdistinguished: for the Covenant which God did promise to make with Israel and Judah upon the delivery from the North Countrey, was to exceed the [Page 37] former Covenant, which he had made with their Fathers, when he brought them out of Egypt. Jer. 23. 5, 6, 7, 8. The first breaking forth of this gratious and free Promise and Covenant was imme­diately upon the fall, and is expressed in these words, I will put Gen. 3. 15. enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed, and her seed: He shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heele. Herein God setting downe the irrevocable judgement and finall overthrow and destruction of Satan, the arch-enemy of his glory, and mans Salvation, Gods fearefull doomes-man: into whose power man was now fallen, he proclaimeth his rich grace and mercy towards mankind in Jesus Christ, the womans seed, who should breake the Serpents head. In the malediction of the Ser­pent is included the greatest blessing of God most mercifull to­wards miserable and wretched sinners. In reference to this grati­ous antient Proclamation of mercy the Gospel is called everlasting. [...]. Apoc. 14. 6. [...]. Isai. 58. 12. & 61. 4. [...]. Jer. 6. 16. & 18. 16. [...]. Deut. 33. 15. Gen. 49. 26. Isai. 54. 4. [...]. Jer. 5. 22. [...]. Revel. 14. 6. I saw another Angel flying through the middest of Heaven, having the everlasting Gospell, not in respect of the fu­ture, but of the time past, scil. which was promised from the be­ginning of the world. For as the hils, paths, and desolations are said to be everlasting or antient, so the Gospell, that is from the beginning.

This first Promise of grace and life was published by the Lord himselfe to mankind now dead in sinne, and enemies to God, that as they had heard from him the curse against sinne, and saw and felt the same in part executed upon them, so they should heare from him the promise of absolution, lest they should be swallowed up in despaire. When they should heare peace proclaimed by the Author of Peace and Judgement, both by him that was immedi­ately provoked and offended by sinne, and came now to sentence the transgressours: when they should heare peace proclaimed by him in his owne person, by his owne voyce, it must needs put more life and encouragement into them, then if the glad tidings had been brought by some Messenger, or divulged by some He­rauld only.

The party upon whom the Promises of mercy are setled, is here propounded as the seed of the woman, and under the next degree as the seed of Abraham: called the Angel of the Covenant, TheMal. 3. 1. Eph. 1. 22. Joh. 3. 18. Gal. 4. 4. head of all things to the Church: even Jesus Christ the only be­gotten Sonne of God, who being God over all blessed for ever. [Page 38] Rom. 9. 5. should come of David and Abraham, and so of Eve Rom. 1. 3. according to the flesh, for she was the mother of all living. Christ God and man is made of God an Adam (often opposed to the first Adam, 1 Cor. 15. 21, 22, 23, 45.) Head, root, common re­ceptacle and store-house, in whom are treasured all good things, which from him are communicated to the faithfull. As in Adam our being naturall, our hopes of life and death, and in event our condemnation, was received, before ever they came to be applyed and received actually in us: So in Christ as in a common store­house every thing is first placed, which afterward is to be imparted to any beleever. The first Adam▪ created after the Image of God, but a meere creature only, was intrusted with the Promise of life for his posterity, and betrayed all the body: But now God ofMatth. 28. 19. his infinite mercy ordaineth a second Adam, even the seed of the woman, that is, Christ-man, but lifted up above the condition of a creature by union unto the Divine Person, that so as man he might be fit to receive that trust for men, as God heIt is cleare, that this battle pertain [...]d to the woman and her seed on the one par­ty, and to this Devill that spake by the Serpent, and all the wicked, on the other party. Dow. But then it cannot in spe­ciall be applyed to the Virgin Mary. If the Virgin Mary may be said to bruise the Serpents head, because Christ was borne of her, by the same reason we may say, she was crucified and died for us, &c. might undergoe the burden and charge, which was now greater then God laid upon the first Adams shoulders. To have put the prime right of the Covenant upon every particular, had left occasion to infinite fals; and withall opened a g [...]p to dis-union, which the Lord ab­horreth: To have chosen out a meere crea­ture, and under the fall, how could he have made satisfaction for sinne formerly com­mitted, or free himselfe from the bondage of Satan? There­fore that the Promise might be sure to the Heires of Promise, God puts this honour and charge upon Jesus Christ, who was the seed to come, to whom the Promises were made, and in whom all the Promises for all his brethren are Yea andGal. 3. 19. 2 Cor. 1. 20. Amen.

The parties who are to partake of the benefits promised, are inclosed in the woman as the Mother of the good, or rather under the former terme, the womans seed. For the word seedGen. 4. 25. and 21. 13. is sometimes taken for one, but often collectively, which must be judged by the circumstances of the place. Now in this Text by the woman is meant Eve, and by the seed of the wo­man, the posterity of the woman, those, scil. which degenerate [Page 39] not into the seed of the Serpent, which is pro­vedThe Papists reade it Ipsa, contrary to all Hebrew copies, and all circumstances of the Text. The Septuagint translates it [...]: Ch [...]ysast▪ Hom. 17. in Gen. ha [...]h [...], though his Latine In­terpreters hath made him say Ipsa. Iren▪ l. 3. advers▪ haeres. c. 38. seem [...]s to have read it Ipsum. Andradius def. l. 4. Comas. l. 2. c. 15. Cajetan. Steuch [...]. Cosmop. in Gen. [...]. 3. Pagnine, Ar. Montan [...], Sacra­boscus, Francis. Georg. tom. 1. Pathemat▪ probl. 15. Felisius e [...]ucidat. Gen. 17. 2. Gal. 3. 16. Decal. praec. 1. c. 49. Riber. in Heb. 1. 15. & de Tempt. l. 2. c. 2. Perer. in D [...]. cap. Lindan. de opt. genere interpre­tandi. l. 3. pag. 126, 127. dislike the rea­ding. S [...]e Cypr. sect. Adversus Iudaeos▪ l. 2. c. 9. Panel Leo. Sermo 2. de Nativ. Dom. Rainold. praefat. de Idol. Rom. §. 6▪ by the opposition of seeds there made. For as the seed of the Serpent must be taken collectively, so also the seed of the woman, that the opposition may be fit. But by the Serpents seed are meant not only venomous beasts, but wicked men. 1 Joh. 3. 12. And the enmities fore-spoken of do pertaine to all the godly posterity of Eve, even from the be­ginning, so that the faithfull who lived before the manifestation of Christ in the flesh, can­not be excluded, but they must be understood under the name of the seed. Christ peculiarly was the seed of the woman, but the faithfull are comprehended under that title also; the seed of the woman is to be taken collectively, but so as it doth comprehend them only, who are not the Serpents seed, but opposite to them. Christ properly is the seed by which the Promise is to be fulfilled: the faithfull are the seed to whom the Promise is made: The Promise is made to the faithfull, and they are and shall be partakers of the Promise [...]. but Christ only is the cause of the blessing to be communicated. Christ and the faithfull are comprehended under one kind of seed spirituall, not carnall: but Christ the principall, who in that seed doth so excell, that in him he doth bring all the seed of Abraham according to the Spirit unto unity; the faithfull are the seed also, as they shall inherit the Promise in and through Jesus Christ.

The worke of Christ the womans seed is to bruise the Serpents head: which is a phrase of speech fitted to the condition of the Serpent, which is obnoxious to this hurt, when he is compelled to creep on the ground, that his head should be crushed and bruised by the feet of men. And thereby is signified, that Christ should destroy death, and him that had the power of death, that is, the de­vill, Heb. 2. 14. that he should destroy the workes of the devill.Joh. 12. 3 [...]. 1 Joh. 3. 8. And this is true of the faithfull al [...]o by communication with Christ. Christ hath bruised the Serpents head by his owne power: but the faithfull overcome by the power of Christ. The victory is common to all the seed: but the author of victory in the seed, is he who is the Head and chiefe, and to whom as to an Head, [Page 40] the unity of all the rest is reduced. Ye have overcome the evill one, Rom 16. 20. Luk. 11. 21. 1 Joh. 2. 13. By bruising the Serpents head we must not only un­derstand the deadly wound given to the actors person and his in­struments, but the desolation of those workes, which the Temp­ter had by the fall planted in the nature of the fallen creature, as pride, vanity, ignorance, lust &c. 1 Joh. 3. 8. Ephes. 2. 15. Now the nature of the fallen creature is such, that if you continue his be­ing, and remove off him the workes of the Serpent, you must ne­cessarily bring in the contrary habits of Grace and goodnesse, as of knowledge, faith, love, feare and other Graces of the Spirit. So that under this one blessing is comprehended whatsoever is ne­cessary to spirituall blessednes. For if Sathan be vanquished, the curse of the Law is removed, sinne is pardoned, the Image of God repaired, spirituall freedome and adoption obtained, and everla­sting happinesse shall in due time be possessed. All these blessings, which concurre to make up perfect happinesse, are inseparably lin­ked, and the possession of any one is an undoubted pledge of the rest in due season to be injoyed, So the Apostle saith, God that cannot lie, promised eternall life before the world began, or ra­ther,Tit. 1. 2. [...], Mead. in Ap. 14. 6. ante tempora saecularia, that is, from the beginning of ages, scil. in that famous promise of the blessed seed. It seemes some­what harsh to interpret the word promised, by decreed to pro­mise: and therfore it is better to referre it to this promise made from the beginning of the world. And it is manifest, by this phrase [...], he meaneth nothing but what the same A­postle signifieth by [...], Rom. 15. 25. and nothing is sig­nified thereby, but what elsewhere the same Apostle doth intimate by this phrase, [...], Ephes. 3. 9. and [...], Col. 1. 26. and that notes the same that [...], Act. 15. 18. asIer. 28. 8. [...], Heb. 7. 24. and [...], Heb. 13. 8. are the same. But this phrase [...], in it owne force and propriety doth not signifie from eternity, Luk. 1. 70. Act, 3. 21.

But how must the Serpents head be bruised? even by Christs suffering death to satisfie revenging Iustice, which was offended by transgression under the former Covenant. This is expounded un­der this terme of bruising his heele by the Serpent and his seed: which worke and labour of love is typified in the blood of the Sa­crifices, executed in his crosse and passion. The devill and all his instruments (the Scribes and Pharisees and Romanes whom Christ [Page 41] calleth the children of the devill) laboured mightily to bring him to the crosse, supposing they had gotten full conquest when he wasThe very fight it selfe was tri­umph: while the Devill [...]an with all his might against Christ; he kil­led himselfe. Angry Bees stinging once▪ make them­selves drones forever: So Satan. laid in the grave: but when they hoped to have vanquished him, the Kingdome of darknesse was utterly overthrowne, Sathan, sin and death were conquered and taken captive, and whatsoever might be brought against us, was taken away, as the least bill or scroale, Col. 2. 14, 15. 1 Ioh. 3. 8. 1 Pet. 3. 18. Christ was wounded in the heele: but by the power of his divine nature, he soon reco­vered of his wound: being put to death concerning the flesh, he was quickned by the Spirit, and liveth through the power of God. 2 Cor. 13. 4. 1 Pet. 3. 18. But by the wound he received, he wounded his enemies irrecoverably: he bruised the head of the Serpent, which wound is deadly, He spoyled principalities and powers, and made a shew of them openly. And it is not improbable, that in re­ference to this promise, that Christ by his death should conquer and subdue the enemies of our Salvation, he is said to be the Lamb slaine from the foundation of the world, Rev. 13. 8. For what can we understand by that phrase from the foundation of the world, but frō the beginning, which cannot note eternity which is without be­ginning: for then from the beginning should be as much as before all beginning or without beginning. But seeing the death of Christ to vanquish and subdue the enemies of our soule is published in this ancient and famous promise, ever renowned in the Church of God, in reference to it, it may be said, that he was slaine from the foundation of the world.

These words doe containe a manifest distinction betwixt the seed of the woman and the seed of the Serpent, and a promise of assured victory to the seed of the woman over Sathan, and all spi­rituall enemies to be administred according to the decree of God. So we reade, that the names of some are written in the booke of life from the foundation of the world, Rev. 17. 8. that God hath saved some, and called them with an holy calling, not according to their workes, but according to his owne purpose and grace, which was given them in Iesus Christ before the times of the ages, 2 Tim. 1. 9. that God hath from the beginning chosen some to Salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and beliefe of the truth, 2 Thes. 2. 13. In all which passages that choosing, writing and calling is to be understood, which is taught in this famous pro­mise, whereunto they seeme to be referred. For the phrase is, from [Page 42] the beginning or the beginning, doth sometimes note the time of [...]. the constitution of the Iewish Church, and its policie, presently from the going out of Egypt: as Psal. 74. 2. Remember the Con­gregation which thou hast purchased of old. LXX. [...], It [...] signifies also the beginning of the dispensation of the Gospell prea­ched of Christ himselfe: for then a new manner of revelation of the Doctrine of the Gospell was brought in, Luk. 1. 2. Also from the beginning is as much as from the beginning of the world, from the foundation of the world, or at least, little after the beginning of the world, Ioh. 8. 44. the devill is said to be a murderer from the beginning, and to sinne from the beginning. 1 Ioh. 3. 8. The word beginning absolutely and precisely put, is taken one of these wayes, but with an addition or restraint from the circumstances of the Text, it imports some other beginning, as of the preaching of the Gospell, to this or that place or people, or the like; as Phil. 4. 15. 1 Ioh. 2. 7, 8, 23, 24. But this phrase from the beginning ne­ver imports from eternity, in any passage of Scripture: and it is somewhat strange to interpret the beginning of duration by eter­nity, which is essentially and absolutely without beginning of du­ration. Now when the Apostle saith, God hath chosen the Thes­salonians from the beginning, what can we understand thereby, but God hath manifested some outward declaration of their ele­ction, according to this famous promise made to Adam and Eve, that the seed of the woman should breake the Serpents head. Some would referre it to the time that the Gospell was preached a­mongst them, or to the time of their effectuall calling: but the word beginning precisely and absolutely put is never so taken: nei­ther can it be said, that the Thessalonians were chosen as soon as the Gospell was first preached unto them: for it may well be, that it was often preached unto them before they believed: nor from the beginning of their effectuall calling, if (as they would have it) the faithfull persevering, not simply the faithfull, be the object of Gods Election. Of the other Texts alleadged the same may be said, unto which the foresaid answer can in no sort be fitted: so that we may conclude, in all the fore▪ cited passages there is an ap­parant allusion to this grand, ancient promise of mercy prclaimed immediately upon the fall, setting forth a manifest difference be­twixt the seed of the woman and the seed of the Serpent, accor­ding to the election of God. Besides, in these words is implyed [Page 43] a Covenant consisting of a promise and stipulation, made not in­ternally alone with the heires of promise, but externally admini­stred, offered unto and accepted of all the members of the Church, viz. of Adam and Eve, and all their posterity, that were dedica­ted to God by them, or did accept or receive the promise of mer­cy. If no Covenant had been made, there could have been no Church, nor pleasing service tendered unto God. If this Cove­nant had not been externally administred, no unregenerate man could have been in the Church, nor have communion in the ordi­nances of Religion. But by vertue of this Covenant, Cain as well as Abell offered Sacrifice unto God, as a member of the Church, and after his Sacrifice was rejected he heares from God, If thou d [...] Gen. 4. [...], 4. well shalt thou not be accepted? which is a promise of the Cove­nant that tooke place after the fall; for the former Covenant made no mention of mercy to be vouchsafed to the delinquent upon re­pentance, nor of acceptance after transgression. Of this Covenant there be two parts; first a promise, 2. a stipulation. The promise is, that God will pardon the sinnes of them that repent unfainedly, and believe in his mercy: which he doth truly promise to all in Co­venant, and effectually bestow upon them that be heires of the pro­mise. 2. The stipulation is, that they believe in him that justifi­eth the ungodly, and walke before him in all wel-pleasing. This may be gathered, because the promise of forgivenesse cannot be re­ceived, but by faith, and by faith it is that we overcome the world, and vanquish Sathan, the enemy of our soules. Thus we reade, that by faith the Elders▪ obtained a good report: and that by faith Heb. 11. 2, 4, 6 Abel offered unto God a more excellent Sacrifice then Caine: by which he obtained witnesse that he was righteous: and that by faith Enoch was translated, that he should not see death: and that Noah became heire of the righteoussnesse which is by faith: which is an argument sufficient, that they understood how faith was required in this Covenant or promise. And seeing it is the property of faith to worke by love, and to be fruitfull in all good workes, of neces­sity if faith be commanded, obedience is required, though not as the cause of life, yet as the way to life, and the fruit of faith. If we must beleeve in God, we must also walke with God, and worke righteousnesse. To whom God gives to believe in him, to them he gives to obey, and doe all his Commandements; as he doth to all that be effectually and internally in Covenant with [Page 44] his Highnesse: and of whom he requireth faith in his Promise, of them he exacteth obedience to his Commandement, scil. of all them that be outwardly in Covenant. Thus we find, that by faith Enoch walked with God▪ or walked before God in all well­pleasing. Heb. 11. 5. 6. Gen. 5. 22, 24. And to what end is remissi­on from sinne promised, that man set free from the curse of the Law and stroke of revenging justice should wallow in profane­nesse? No, but that he should serve God in holinesse and righte­ousnesse all the dayes of his life.

But how doth God require these things at the hand of the rea­sonable creature fallen, unlesse he give them sufficient grace to be­leeve if they will?

The answer is, man in the state of Innocency, being made after the Image of God, had power both to beleeve and obey, which be­ing lost by sinne, God is not bound to repaire. And though he had not justifying faith, because it argueth imperfection and sinne, and could not loose what he had not: yet by transgression he brought himselfe into such a state of bondage and wrath, which could not be removed but by faith in Christ.

2. When God in justice doth shut men up in ignorance and unbeliefe, and with-hold from them both the graces of his Spirit, and the meanes thereof, his judgements are just, though secret. And if for the sinne of man, God may justly cast off millions, and not vouchsafe so much as outward meanes of Salvation unto them; he may also exact faith and obedience upon promise of pardon and eternall happinesse, when he doth not deliver them from thral­dome and bondage spirituall whereunto they plunged themselves. Was it injustice in God t [...] [...]mise acceptance to Cain if he did well, when as yet he was not set free from the bondage of Sathan.

3. God doth deny nothing to them that be outwardly in Co­venant with his Highnesse, that he is bound to give either in ju­stice or by promise, so that it will be in vaine for them to plead with God: for if they come short of mercy promised, it is through their own wilfull neglect or contempt.

4. No man is hindred from beleeving through the difficulty or unreasonablenesse of the command, or through his owne simple infirmity, as being willing and desirous to beleeve, but not able, which inability deserves pitty: but his inability is of corruption [Page 45] and wilfulnesse: he doth not beleeve, because he will not, he is unable, because he doth not covet or desire, which is inexcu­sable.

5. His inability to beleeve is joyned with the wilfull refusall of mercy promised and voluntary pursute of some inferiour good, as more to be desired then Gods favour. But of this more in the next degrees of the Covenant.

Under this Covenant outwardly administred, were compre­hended both Adam and his posterity, even so many as he should dedicate unto God, or should accept of the Covenant, untill by wilfull departure from the faith and worship of God they disco­venanted themselves, and their posterity. As the Covenant was after made with Abraham and his seed, and is now made with beleeving Parents for themselves and their children after them: so was it with Adam, and those that should descend from his loynes.

They that lived under this administration of the Covenant did offer sacrifice unto God by divine institution and appointment, as is manifest in the example of Abel and Noah. We reade notQuemadmodum in terris, quum famulu [...] aliquid agit, quod non potest nisi juss [...] Domini, & n [...] est stultus, om­nes intelligunt, eum habere mandatum, eti­amsi non dicat. Bell. de Sacr. Conf. l. 2. c. [...]. indeed, that God gave any Commandement touching burnt offe­rings or sacrifices: but without question what they did, was done by divine prescription. What a faithfull servant doth on earth, which he cannot doe but by command and appointment of his Master, for that, if he doe it, we presume he hath the Commande­ment of his Master, although he doe not say so. But Abel and Noah faithfull Servants of God, offered sacrifice, which they could not well doe, but by the Commandement of God: therefore they were so commanded, though so much be not expressed. All Ceremonies which signifie grace are ordained of God, or they be unlawfull. But the Sacrifices were Ceremonies which signified grace. It is written of Abel, that by faith he offered a better sa­crifice then Cain, and that God had respect unto Abel and his sa­crifice: Of the sacrifice of Noah it is said, that God smelled a sa­vour of rest: but in faith the sacrifice could not have been offered, if it had not been prescribed: it should not have been accepted, if it had not carried the stamp of God. For those Sacrifices were the types of Christ, and seales of propitiation and remission of sinnes in and through the bloud of Jesus: which must be perscribed, or they cannot be accepted. These Sacrifices then were instituted of [Page 46] God, and may well be called seales of the Covenant, as they did signifie remission of sins in and through the bloud of Christ, our true Priest and Sacrifice. Whether God was pleased to confirme his Covenant by any other visible signes or seales, in that state of the Church, is more then the Scripture hath revealed.

One question remaineth to be discussed, scil. Whether this Cove­nant of Promise was made in Adam with all and every Infant that should afterwards be born into the world?

There be some that hold the affirmative part, viz. That all In­fants, whether borne of beleeving, or infidell parents, are compre­hended under the Covenant of Grace, according to the internall efficacy, though not according to the externall administration, so as they be truly and effectually partakers of the benefits promised therein. But the Authors of this opinion doe neither consent with themselves in this, nor with the truth. Not with themselves: for they say Christ died for all men considered in the common lapse or masse, in respect of impetration, not of application. But if all In­fants be partakers of the Benefits of Christ, he died for them, and so for all men in respect of application: all men are effectually re­generated, justified, sanctified and adopted, untill by disobedience they fall from that estate. Againe they confesse, that God with the Fathers may and hath reprobated the children, which is di­rectly contrary to this assertion. Arm. in Perk. pag. 92. Probas (Perkinse) gratiae rejectionem praevisam, non esse causam deser­tionis, quia Infantes extra foedus evangelicum morientes, grati­am non repudiaverunt, qui tamen reprobi sunt, & à Deo deserti: At, inquam ego in Parentibus, avis, abavis, atavis, tritavis E­vangelii gratiam repudiarunt, quo actu meruerunt, ut à Deo deserentur. Velim enim mihi solidam adferri rationem, cur cum omnes in Adamo contra legem peccaverint, posteri ejus, at (que) eo ipso poenam meriti sunt & desertionem, etiam infantes in suis parentibus quibus gratia Evangelica oblata est, ac repudiata, non peccaverint contra gratiam Evangelii: Perpetua enim est foe­deris Dei ratio, quod filii in parentibus comprehendantur & cen­seantur. And whereas they teach that Christ died for all men in respect of impetration considered in the masse, but not as impeni­tent, unbeleevers, or obstinate, let this opinion stand, and he died for impenitent and unbeleevers only in respect of impetration, but for all men in the masse effectually, so as they be actually set into [Page 47] the state of grace, and made partakers of the benefits of Christs death. It is contrary to the truth. For no such thing can be found in the Scripture. In this first promise we find a manifest distinction betwixt the seed of the woman, and the seed of the Serpent: but that all Infants be of the seed of the woman, that we reade not: and therefore we cannot receive it. And when we see by expe­rience, that many thousands are excluded from the externall Co­venant, and God hath left them without all meanes, whereby they should come to the knowledge of Christ if they live, we cannot thinke all Infants effectually to be comprehended within the Covenant, and to be partakers of the good things promised there­in. We know God is not tied to the meanes, nor doe we absolute­ly exclude every particular man from the grace of the Covenant, who is excluded from the Covenant outwardly administred: but we cannot thinke, they should universally be partakers of the grace of the Covenant, who are rejected and cast off in respect of the ex­ternall pledges and administration. And if all Infants be parta­kers of the benefits of the Covenant, it is a wonder the fruits there­of doe seldome or never shew themselves in them that live; or that God should leave them in such condition, as if they live, it is ten thousand to one, being destitute of all meanes to bring them to the knowledge of Christ, they shall fall from the grace received, and so plunge themselves into eternall perdition. Whether this opini­on will stand with the tenour of the Covenant as it was renewed and further manifested to Abraham and the Israelites after him, we shall have occasion to consider in the Chapters following.

CHAP. VI. Of the Covenant of Grace as it was made and manifested to Abraham.

THe Covenant made immediately upon the fall with Adam and Eve, God delivers it by accident, when he denounced judgement upon Satan, and in that whole passage doth not menti­on the name of a Covenant: but in the further manifestation of the Covenant of Grace to Abraham, God doth not only of purpose fall into it, and directly look at it, but openly declares the nature of [Page 48] the Covenant. Gen. 17. 7, 8. And what is more remarkeable, God would have [...] Moses spend many Chapters in opening the speciall passages of this grand contract betwixt God and Abraham. At the first breaking forth of the Covenant, it was propounded in dark and cloudie termes, not easie to be understood, and most things sparingly expressed, and indeed rather implyed then expressed: In this second rise and further manifestation of the Covenant, we have it laid downe in a plaine and conceiveable language to all whom it concernes. Gen. 17. 7. I will establish my Covenant be­tween me and thee, and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting Covenant: and it is fully expressed both in respect of the Head and Purchaser or Undertaker, the confederates in this Covenant, and subfederates, the good things promised, and con­ditions required therein. That place of Gen. 3. is seldome al­ledged in holy writ, but now and then by way of allusion: but those of the Promise made to Abraham and his seed often pres­sed in the person of Christ, not only as Meritor of the Promise, and Satisfier of revenging wrath, nor yet as Maker of the Promises, nor only as Ratifier of the Promises by his death, nor as having the prime part in the Promises as man and Head, but as Treasurer of them for the whole seed of Abraham. For all the Promises of God in him are Yea and Amen, to the glory of God by us. 2 Cor. 1. 20. And Paul, when he had to doe with the false Apo­stles, who would have blemished this free Covenant made with Abraham, by the Covenant of the Law, Gal. 3. 15, 16, 17. he so in­sisteth upon it, as that in a sort he preferreth this manifestation, and proveth that it was confirmed of God in Christ, and could not be di [...]anulled by the Law.

This Covenant was made in forme of a Promise to be perfor­med according to the purpose of Election: In thy seed shall all nations of the earth be blessed: and in forme of a Covenant consi­sting of a free Promise and restipulation, I am God all-sufficient, walke before me, and be thou perfect: Gen. 17. 1. And therein the inward force and vertue of the Covenant is to be distinguished from the outward administration, as we are to shew here­after.

The Head upon whom this Covenant is setled, both as Under­taker and Confirmer, Purchaser and Treasurer of all good things promised therein, is Jesus Christ: which is more fully expressed [Page 49] and often repeated in this second breaking forth of the Covenant. Gen. 17. 3, 4. and 18. 18. and 22. 18. In thy seed shall all the nati­ons of the earth be blessed: which cannot be understood of the seed collectively but singularly, scil. of Christ, as the Apostle expressely proveth, saying, Now to Abraham and his seed was the promise Gal. 3. 16. made, he saith not to the seeds, as speaking of many, but of one who is Christ. But we must not conceive the Apostles argument to be taken from the Grammaticall use of the word-Seed: for that is often put collectively in the singular number: but from the quality of the blessings there promised, which could not be accom­plished in any other but in Christ alone. And this is evidently hol­den out to be the literall sense in other places. Acts 3. 24, 25. But where shall we find mention of the passion of Christ in this ex­pressure of the Covenant unto Abraham, which in the first mani­festation was clouded in the phrase of bruising his heele: and is es­sentiall to the Covenant of Grace in any overture of it, as contai­ning the price and ransome by which all hinderances are removed, as the Apostle saith, Christ was made a curse for us, that the blessing of Gal. 3. 13, [...]4. Abraham might come on the Gentiles. Some answer, that this is thrice put on in the passage of this Covenant with Abraham; first, in the federall confirmation by the figments with the smoaking fornace, and burning lamps, which passed between those pieces, Gen. 15. 8, 9, 17. which howsoever it typified the dividing of A­brahams seed in Egypt with their fiery labours and sorrowes: yet primarily the type expresseth the torment and rending of Christ Abraham his prime seed, and by the fornace and fiery lampe, the wrath of God that runneth betwixt, and yet did not consume the rent and torne nature. Secondly, they conceive this perpession of Christ was expressed in the bloud of the Circumcision. Gen. 17. 10, 11. For they be of opinion, that where God commands shed­ding of bloud in any his ancient Ordinances, it doth fully reach unto the bloud of Christ, and his everlasting Testament. The bloud which was shed in the signes ordained to seale the Covenant of Promise, what did it signifie but the bloud of Christ, whereby the Covenant was to be sealed. Lastly, we may find a full expression of his passion in the resolved sacrifice of Isaac, which was typicall the death of Christ, and the Ramme in his stead: wherein is set forth an Embleme of Gods love unto the world, in that he hath truly sacrificed his only Sonne Christ to take away sinne. Joh. 3. 16. [Page 50] And if some of these be not lively expressions, it may seeme to [...] in typo vertit Tre­melius ex Syri interpretis [...] quae vox Hebra [...]è [...] est, & apud Evang. Matth. 13. 35. Propheta Psal. 78. [...]. redditur [...]. Theod. in Epist. ad Hebr. 11. Gen. 17. 4. be implyed in the very Promise: for how should the blessing pro­mised come upon the posterity of Abraham, if the promised seed had not borne the curse of the Law, and by suffering removed it, that mercy might be glorious in conferring righteousnesse and life eternall.

In the former Covenant a secret honour was put upon Eve, as she was made (if we may so speake) the first pipe whereby God conveyed the grace of his Covenant unto her posterity, who did not degenerate into the seed of the Serpent. But here the Cove­nant is made with Abraham, who received it, not as an example only, nor as a type, but as an Ordinance leading unto the convey­ance of the same Covenant to all the confederates. In which sense it is plainly spoken to in the Epistles to the Rom. and Gal. and he called the Father of the faithfull. Rom. 4. 11, 12, 16. and they which are of the faith the children of Abraham. Gal. 3. 7. the seed of Abraham, Gal. 3. 29. Abraham is not the Father of the faithfull effectively, as if he should be the worker of faith in all, or that men should be borne faithfull of him: For so God only by the holy Ghost is the Father of the faithfull: But analogically for the grace of the Covenant given unto him on that condition and priviledge, that as Fathers transferre and passe over their rights and inheritance to their children: so he as a Father should propa­gate the righteousnesse of faith and free blessednesse to all the faith­full by Doctrine, Example and Covenant. So that all who re­ceive this Covenant from God in Christ, doe likewise by faith draw it through Abraham, to whom the promise was made, Gal. 3. 16.

The Subfederates are described, and by that differenced from all the world, to be Abrahams seed. I will establish my Covenant be­tween Ge [...]. 17. 7. me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations, for an everlasting Covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. Where these specialties are holden out. That God will be as good a God to Abrahams seed, as he is to Abraham himselfe, and that whatsoever right by the Covenant was invested upon Abraham, should descend as from a Parent under this Covenant, to all his seed by vertue of this Covenant made with him. But we must distinguish Abrahams seed. For sometime by the seed of Abra­ham Gen. 18. 22. Gal. 3. [...]6. is meant Christ, who is the prime and principall seed, who [Page 51] first entred the Cōvenant as Purchaser, Maker, Confirmer, and up­on whose person it was setled for us all by Abraham. Againe, by Abrahams seed are meant all that receive this Covenant from him, whether by outward administration only, or internall force and vertue also. In the eye of God and Scripture all beleeving Gentiles are the seed of Abraham, which may be called the Chri­stian seed. In thee shall all Nations of the earth be blessed: whichGen. [...]2. 3. and 18. 18. and [...]. 18. Rom 4. [...]6, 17. ver. 11. must needs be understood of the Gentiles which should beleeve, and is plainly so interpreted by the Apostle: Therefore it is by faith, that it might be by grace, to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed, not to that only which is of the Law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham▪ who is the Father of us all; As it is written, I have made thee a Father of many Nations. That he might be the Fa­ther of them that beleeve, though they be not circumcised, that righte­ousnesse might be imputed to them also. And if ye be Christs, then are Gal. 3. 14, 29. ye Abrahams seed, and heires by Promise. All beleeving Jewes and Proselytes are comprehended under the seed of Abraham, and may be called the spirituall seed, in opposition to the carnall or na­turall seed only. This distinction of Abrahams seed spirituall and naturall the Apostle plainly specifieth; Neither because they are the Rom 9. 7, 8. and 2. 28, 29. seed of Abraham are they all children: but in Isaac shall thy seed be cal­led: that is, they which are the children of the flesh, these are not the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted for the seed. Besides, all that descend from the loynes of Abraham, and all that were borne in his house, and bought with his money are countedGen. 17. 11, 12, 13. for the seed, though indeed many of them were wicked and pro­fane. Therefore Abraham is commanded to circumcise every man-child, both him that is borne in his house, or bought with money of the stranger, which is not of his seed. Thus Ishmael, Esau, and others were circumcised, counted Abrahams seed, and under Covenant, untill they fell away, and discovenanted them­selves: but their posterity are not counted for the seed, because they utterly fell away, and departed from the faith. The whole Nation of the Jewes descending from Jacob, was accounted the seed of Abraham, untill the time of Reformation, though many amongst them were wicked, and oft-times fell away. I know (saith our Saviour to the Pharisees) ye are Abrahams seed, but yee John 8. 37. seeke to kill me, so did not Abraham. In respect of the externall ad­ministration of the Covenant they▪ were counted the seed: but [Page 52] they walked not in the steps of the faith of Abraham▪ and therefore indeed and truth they were not the seed. And the Apostle spea­king to the Jewes, who had put Christ to death, saith, Ye are the children of the Prophets, and of the Covenant, which God made with Act. 3. 25. our Fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the Kinreds of the earth be blessed. Further it is to be observed, that in all the seed the Covenant reacheth to Infants borne of the seed under the Covenant, which was the reason why they must receive the seale of the Covenant at eight dayes old. Neither must we put off this, that Infants have only jus foederis, for they be foederati. Your children are holy, saith the Apostle, 1 Cor. 7. 14. Holy by Covenant, though by nature sinfull. Indeed it is true they be not capable of many actuall injoyments under the Covenant, nor of actuall Faith: but through the free grace and acceptation of God, the Promise of forgivenesse, and the Kingdome of Heaven belon­geth unto them. So that if any person come into Covenant and procreate children, that man and his issue are foederati, and may grow up into a further body from that beginning. From this we may see the true ground of all Covenants as they receive differenceLuk. 18. 9. from the parties injoying, whether personall, family-Covenants, or nationall. Personall is the cause of family-Covenants, as Abra­hams Covenant, the ground of his Families entrance: and so the Covenant made with the Family the ground of nationall, as in the Families of Jacob cast together, made all Israel under Covenant. And herein appeares the truth of the former distinction, that the Covenant is made according to internall force and efficacy, or out­ward administration only.

The things on Gods part promised under this manifestation to Abraham and his subfederates are held forth in these and the like expressions: I will make thee a great Nation, and I will blesse thee, Gen. 12. 2, 3. and make thy name great, and thou shalt be a blessing. And I will blesse them that blesse thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all Families of the earth be blessed. Ʋnto thy seed will I give this land. ver. 7. Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, North­ward and Southward, and Eastward and Westward. For all the Land Gen. 18. 18. Gen. 13. 14, 15, 16. which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth; so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbred. Feare not Gen. 15. 1. ver. 5. Abraham, I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. Looke [Page 53] now towards Heaven, and tell the starres, if thou be able to number them. And he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. I am the Almighty Gen. 17. 1. 2. 3. 6. 7. 8. ver. 19. God: and I will make my Covenant between me and thee, and will mul­tiply thee exceedingly, and thou shalt be a Father of many Nations. And I will make thee exceeding fruitfull, and I will make Nations of thee, and Kings shall come out of thee. And I will establish my Cove­nant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations, for an everlasting Covenant to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the Land wherein thou art a stranger, all the Land of Canaan for an everlasting possession, and I will be their God. By my selfe have I sworne, saith the Gen. 22. 16, 17. and [...]4. 7. Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not with-held thy Sonne, thy only Sonne, That in blessing I will blesse thee, and in mul­tiplying I will multiply thy seed as the starres of heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea-shore, and thy seed shall possesse the gates of his ene­mies. And in thy seed shall all the Nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.

The grand Promises of this Covenant are, that God would be the God of Abraham and of his seed, whereby is signified, that God would be to him, what he had revealed himselfe to be, his King,Psal 33. 1 [...]. and 144 15. Psal. 4 [...]. 14. Hieron. in Ez. 1. Shad [...]ai. Sy [...]. Theod. [...] transtu [...]erunt, quod nos for­tem, r [...]bustum possumus dicere Is [...] [...] 13. 6. and Father, his Portion and Protectour; that he would pardon his sinne, write his Law in his heart, leade him into all truth, defend him from all evill, and in due time receive him unto glory. Happy are the people that be in such a case: yea, blessed are they that have God for their God. This God is our God for ever and ever, he shall be our guide untill death. And this is implyed, in that the Lord expressed himselfe unto Abraham to be Almighty, or All-sufficient, the nurse of all living things, strong, and potent to doe whatsoever he will, who can bring all things to nothing, as he made all things of no­thing, can give and take away, give plentifully, abundantly, as [...] Sept. [...]. Gen 49. 25. Gen. 17. 1. and 28. 3. and 35. 11. [...]. Sept. [...]. pleaseth himselfe, whose goodnesse doth copiously reach unto all his creatures. The Sept. Interpreters sometimes expresse this ti­tle by the common name of God: sometimes they omit it alto­gether, and for I am God Almighty, they translate I am thy God: sometimes they put for it, the God of heaven, Psal. 91. 1. some­times they render it by a word that signifieth fit, sufficient, strong and potent. Job 31. 2. but most commonly Almighty, Omni­potent, able to doe all things, Job 15. 25. and 22. 25. and 23. 16. and 26. 16. and 27. 11. and paraphrastically, who hath made [Page 54] all things, Job 8. 3. Sometimes they turne it heavenly, Psal. 68▪ 15. once they retaine the Hebrew word [...], Ezek. 10. 5. and once they use an expression, which comes nigh to selfe sufficiency and contentation, Job 29. 5. qui materia copiosus est valde. But [...]. when God manifested himselfe to Abraham to be God Almighty, the meaning is not so much to expresse what God is in himselfe, as what he would be to Abraham and his posterity: as afterwards when he saith he would be knowne unto them by his name Jeho­vah, Exod. 6. 3. therby is meant that he would give being to the promises for­merly made unto them. And in many passages, when the Scrip­ture speakes of the eternity of God, the absolute eternity which respects God himselfe, is not understood: but that wherby hePsal. 90 2. Psal. 10 [...]. 12, 13, 28, 29. Heb. 1. 12. Gen. 12. 2, 3. Act. 3. 25. Gen. 12. 17. Heb. 6 1 [...]. Gal. 3. 8. will shew himself eternall in his love and favour and rich grace to­wards his people. Art not thou from everlasting, ô Lordour God, we shall not die. And when the promise was made to Abraham, that in him, or in his seed, all nations of the earth should be blessed, therein was preached the Gospell unto Abraham, that the Gen­tiles should be turned from their sinnes, justified by faith, adop­ted to be the Sonnes of God, made partakers of the promised Spi­rit, and receive the Inheritance purchased for the Saints.

Unto these spirituall blessings, it pleased God to add the pro­miseVoss. resp. Ra­v rsp. cap. 23. of many and great temporall good things, which are fully branched out in the words before cited, and may be reduced to these heads. 1. Protection, I am thy shield. The Sept. hath it, IPsal. 3. 4. & 7. 11. Psal. 18. 3. will protect or stand betwixt the and all dangers, that may threat­en, or seem to come nigh thee. The like promise is often repeated in Scripture, wherin not simple aid or vulgar manner of prote­ction is signified, but present, certaine, effectuall defence, nighN [...]mb, 23. 10. Deut. 10. Gen. 3 [...]. 13. Jer. 15. 8. Hos. 1. 10. Hab. 1. 9. Isa. 10. 22. & 4 [...]. 19. Jer. 33. 22. Theocrit. Jo­yll 15. Horat. 1 Car. Od. 2 [...]. Sen. in Med. Ovid Trist. Eleg. 4. at hand continually, and that performed w [...]th great c [...]re and promptnes of mind. 2. Riches and honour, I will make thee great and thy name shall be great. 3. Multiplicity of seed; I will multiply thee exceedingly. There be three things in Scripture and Heathen Authours, which are used proverbially, to signify an huge and ex­ceeding great number, the dust of the earth, the sands of the sea, and starres of Heaven. And all these are brought to res [...]mble the exceeding number into which the seed of Abraham should breake forth, Gen. 13. 16. & 22. 17. Gen. 15. 5. 4. The Land of Cana­an is promised as an everlasting possession, and therein holy Go­vernment, Church ordinances and other blessings attending ther­on: [Page 55] all which are stated upon Abraham and his naturall seed by Jacob, and we find verified in them.

Touching these blessings we must observe first, that God gave more of the temporall, lesse of the spirituall to the naturall seed in the first ages: but in the latter ages more of the spirituall blessings, lesse of the temporall and outward to the Christian seed of the Gentiles.

Secondly many of Abrahams carnall seed injoyed the outward blessings, which reached not the spirituall; as infinite numbers that dwelt in the Land of Canaan, and being Iews outwardly did partake in outward priviledges beloging to the posterity of Jacob.

Thirdly, those that injoyed this outward part of Abrahams blessing and priviledges of the Covenant, cannot be called stran­gers altogether from the Covenant of promise: for the Apostle confesseth, that the carnall Iew in his time, was not wholly bro­kenRom. 9. 4. off from the Covenant and the Service of God, with the pro­mises: which may be said of carnall Christians, which live with­in the pale of the visible Church, with correspondency in some measure unto the ordinances, These injoying the outward bles­sings of Abraham, are in the eye of the Scripture reputed to be within the Covenant of grace, whereof we have an apparant proofe, Deut. 29. 10. Where all are said to enter this Covenant to the very hewer of wood and drawer of water, amongst whom was the carnall, as well as spirituall seed.

Fourthly, it is to be observed, that the possession of the Land of Canaan, as it was a part of their outward happinesse, so it was a type of the eternall rest, Heb. 4. 1. as shall be proved more at large hereafter.

It may be demanded how the Land of Canaan, which the Is­raelites possessed for a time, can be called an everlasting possession.

The answer is, that the word translated everlasting doth not e­ver signifie that which shall have no end, but an age, terme or continuance. It is spoken of the actions and vertues of God: of the time past or future. Of the time past, and so we reade of the bounds of ages, Pro. 22. 28. The paths of ages, Ier. 18. 15. The dayes of ages, Deut. 3 [...]. 7. The yeares of ages, Psal. 77. 5. The deserts of ages, Isai. 58. 12. Ioshua 24. 2. I held my peace of [...]ld, Isa. 42. 14. that is, long time. Of the time to come with determination certaine or uncertaine, as untill the yeare [Page 56] of Jubile, as long as he liveth, as long as the Law of Ceremonies is in force, or as long as the earth endureth, and such like, as, He shall serve thee for ever, Deut. 15. 17. and is untill the yeare of Jubile, Lev. 25. 40, 41. he shall serve them for ever, Lev. 25. 46. that is, all the dayes of his life. He shall appeare before the Lord for ever, 1 Sam. 1. 2 [...]. that is, as long as he liveth. I will praise the Lord for ever and ever, Psal. 145. 1, 2. that is, as long as I shall have any being, Psal, Horat. Serviet, aeternum qui pactones [...]iat uti. 1 Sam. 1 [...]. 13. 146. 2. So the cares of this age, Matth. 13. 22. is put for the cares of this life, Luk. 8. 14. The Covenant of the Sabbath and Circum­cision is called everlasting, Exod. 32. 16, 17. Gen. 17. 13. that is, du­ring the time of the Old Testament, or untill the time of Refor­mation. The earth standeth for ever, Eccles. 1. 4. Psal. 104. 6. that is, as long as the world shall endure, as long as the fashion, tenor or forme of the world shall continue, 1 Cor. 7 31. The grave is called the house of ages, or an everlasting house, Eccles. 12. 7. The desolations which shall end in the space of 70 yeares, are called everlasting desolations, Ier. 25. 9. And that which whiles it lasteth,Ovid. Meta. l. 1. Ad [...]ea perp [...] ­tuum deducite tempora car­m [...]n. is never interrupted, is said to be everlasting, Psal. 25. 6. Thy mercies which are everlasting, that is, which thou alwayes usest, being ne­ver interrupted. So it is a perpetuall speech, which is never in­terrupted or broken off, though it may have an end. So that we must wisely consider what doth agree to every place, even to the appointed end, and that rather hidden in the will of God, then made knowne to men. And if we take the Land of Canaan pro­perly and literally, it was not the everlasting Inheritance of Isra­ell absolute, but relative, not for ever, but for a long time pre­scribed of God, even untill the time of Reformation: But if we looke to the thing signified it is an everlasting inheritance to the spirituall seed.

These promises were freely made of grace, and of meere grace the blessings promised were conferred upon the seed. Fot Abra­ham Josh. 24. 2. himselfe was an Idolater, when it pleased God to call him out of Ʋr of the Chaldees, and to make these rich promises unto him. And as Abrahams calling was of grace, so are all the promises made unto him when he was first called. The wages is due unto him Rom. 4. 4. that worketh upon desert, but the inheritance was given to Abraham by promise. Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to him for righte­ousnesse. Gen. 15. 6. And if faith be reckoned to Abraham for righteousnesse, he hath not to glory before God. We reade indeed the Lord said untoRom. 4. 2. [Page 57] Abraham, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not with-held Gen. 22. 16, 17 thy Sonne, thine only Sonne, That in blessing I will blesse thee &c. But the same promise God had formerly made to Abraham, and faith in these promises was the cause of his obedience; therfore his o­bedience was not the cause why God gave the promise. An oc­casion or antecedent it might be of the renewing of the promise at this time, but it was no cause of the promise it selfe, nor of the accomplishment. For that whitout which, and before which the promise was, could not be a cause of the promise, or the good promised. Besides, the basis and foundation of this promise is Christ, whose incarnation could not be merited by Abrahams o­bedience. The particle because, is a note of order and conse­quence, shewing to whom the promise did pertaine, not of the cause why it was made, or the good promised should be perfor­med.

If it be said, the good promised to Abraham is called a re­ward.Gen. 15. 1, 2.

The answer is, the word reward sometimes doth import no­thing, but an absolute and free gift of God, though no action went before to which recompence was due: as Gen. 30. 18. Leah saith, God hath given me my reward, because I have given my hand­maid to my husband, Psal. 127. 4. Children are the Inheritance of the Genbrard. in Psal. 126. Lord, and the fruite of the wombe is his reward. There is a reward of a debt, such as is due to the workeman for his labour upon de­sert: and a reward of grace, such as God giveth to them who la­bour in well-doing according to promise. A reward is given to the worker of free grace, but not for his worke as the procuring or deserving cause. There is a relation of order and consequence betwixt the worke and the reward, that the one goeth before and the other followeth, but not a proportion of equiparancie, priceAli [...] est compe [...] ­satio qu [...] pr [...] ­no redditur ali­ud. Alia qua propter unum redditur aliud. Psal. 18. 20. or degrees, that the one should match or purchase the other. A recompence is given to obedience, as comfort and solace to them that suffer for well-doing: but it is not given for their obedience, as wages to the labourer, or lands and possessions for the price paid in hand. Reward is sometimes called retribution: but in Scripture not only the reward of good or evill, but simply good or evill done is thereby signified, though nothing went before to deserve or procure it. Thou hast shewed this day how thou hast dealt Gen. 50. 15. 1 Sam. 24. 18. well with me. If I have rewarded evill▪ unto him that was at peace [Page 58] with me. The Lord hath dealt bountifully with me. He hath Psal. 7. [...].▪ Psal. 1 [...]. 6. Psal. 103. 10. & 116. 7. Psal. 114. 17. & 142. 7. Isa. 3. 9. 2 Sam. 16. 36. Psal. 103. 2. Judg. 9. 16. Verbum [...] quod vulgò red­ditur, retribue­re, non semper significat par­pari referre, seu idem repon [...]re, nimirum bene­ficium pro bene­ficio, injuriam pro injuria, sed etiam priorem con [...]erre in ali­quem, vel bo­num, hoc est, benefacere, &c. Kinch. ad vers. 4 c. 3. Jo [...]l. Mius in Psal. 13. 6. not dealt with us after our sinnes, nor rewarded us after our iniquities. Deale bountifully with thy servant. And if a benefit freely vouchsafed be called a retribution, the retribution promised and of grace conferred upon the workers of righteousnesse, doth not inferre dignity or worth in the work rewarded. For when God doth performe his promise of meere grace, he is said to retri­bute, not that he oweth any thing to any man, or that he can re­ceive any that hath the reason of a benefit, but because he doth good unto them according as of his rich grace he was pleased to promise. And if God be said to render or repay a reward, thence it will not follow, that good works can merit ought at the hands of God: for the word is of farre larger signification, and imports no more sometimes, but to restore to one, that which was his own before; as Matth. 22. 21. Render to Caesar, the things that are Caesars. Luk. 9. 42. It is said of the child that our Saviour healed, he restored him to his father. Luk. 4. 20. He gave againe the booke to the Minister. Sometimes it is to give without respect to merit or desert; as Matth. 27. 58. Pilate commanded the body to be given unto him. Acts 4. 33. With great power the Apostles gave testimony of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. Numb. 3. 3. & 36. 2. 2 Chron. 6. 23. where the Hebrew hath nothing but give, the Septuagint translate it render or repay. Moreover, it signifieth to repay according to vow or promise, as is to be seen in many places of Scripture: Deut. 23. 21. Psal. 22. 26. Psal. 50. 14. & 116. 12, 17. Hos. 14. 2. Joh. 2. 10. Nah. 1. 15.That a compa­ny of miscre­ant wretches should be be­loved, saved, and a Sonne shine; reason cannot reach it, religion doth not de­sire it, nature doth not re­quire it, justi [...]e doth not exact it, only love hath done it. In brief there is a retribution of justice strictly taken, which is ac­cording to desert: Jud. 1. 7. Jer. 32. 18. Exod. 22. 5, 6. and there is a retribution of grace and bounty, which is of favour according to promise, as Ruth. 2. 12. Prov. 13. 21. and 25. 22. not to adde, that he that first doth good or evill, is said to retribute; Psal. 137. 8. Psal. 35. 12. So that if God be said to render or retribute ac­cording to our righteousnesse, it is not in respect of the worthinesse of our deeds, as if they deserved it, but of his free promise and rich mercy, whereby he hath bound himself to accept of our sincere obe­dience, and graciously to reward it.

As God was pleased freely to make these promises to Abra­ham, so also to confirme the same unto him by Oath. By my selfe have I sworne saith the Lord. Wherein God willing more abun­dantly [Page 59] to shew unto the heires of Promise the immutability of his counsell, confirmed it by an Oath; that by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us. Abraham was strong in faith, yet was it not superfluous or altogether needlesse, that God of his superaboundant love and mercy, should adde his Oath to the former promise, for the fur­ther setling and assurance of his servant. Here that common say­ing may be of use, Aboundant cautelousnesse doth not hurt, nay, it is of great profit and behoofe. But this is to be further noted, that God had respect to the posterity of Abraham. For Isaack was present then, to whom the promises were confirmed in his father: which, when both the one and the other, ought to incul­cate to their posterity, it was a matter of no light moment, that they might holily affirme, that God hath confirmed them both by word and Oath.

In this passage, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed to Gen. 18. 6. Rom. 4. 3. Gal. 3. 6. Jam. 2. 23. him for righteousnesse, both the spirituall good things promised on Gods part in the Covenant, and the condition required on mans part, are implied. For the Apostle hence concludes, that Abra­ham was freely justified by grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: and in this is included all eternall and spirituall bles­sings, which doe accompany each other. For whom God doth ju­stifie, them he glorifieth. In the first expression, the thing required on our parts was obscurely implied, and we had much to doe to find it out: but in this passage it lieth bare. Abraham believed, &c. This condition in Abraham, the Apostle fully followeth against the Justiciaries of his and our times, opposing it to the condition of works in attaining the blessings of Abraham, strong­ly proving that this faith made Abraham the friend of God, and a justified person, having nothing to glory in this kind before God, from any worke. But seeing this text is so oft alleadged and pres­sed by the Apostles, and so much controverted among men, it is not amisse to handle the words more at large. In the Originall word for word they run thus, He beleeved the Lord, or in the Lord, and he imputed that to him righteousnesse. The Sptuagint render it, and the Apostles alleadge it thus, Abraham beleeved God, and it was imputed to him for righteousnesse: The word, be­lieved, imports, he thought the words of God to be sure, certaine, [Page 60] stable and constant: and signifieth such a beliefe, as is opposed to fainting: as it is said of Jacob; when he heard the report of his sons that Joseph was alive, his heart fainted, because he believed not: but when he believed, his heart revived. Gen. 45. 25, 26. And David saith of himselfe, I had fainted▪ unlesse I had beleeved, Psal. 27. 13. So that it is a lively motion of the heart or soule assenting unto, and trusting in the word of God as firme and stedfast. Now whether you reade the word following, in or upon God, as Arias and Pagnine, or God, as the Apostles alleadge it; it is all one: for here to believe God, as all circumstances doe shew, is to put trust and confidence in God, or with lively adherence to sticke or cleaveJoh. 5. 24. unto the word of God. And he imputed, sc. God, or he in whom Abraham believed, as the construction it selfe and words follow­ing manifestly convince: or, it was imputed, as Isa. 22. 8. Mich. 1. 7. Ezek. 23. 47. Gen. 50. 20. 1 S [...]m. 18. 15. Jer. 18. 7, 8. & 49. 30. & 2 [...] 11. Exod. 26, 1. & 39 32. Psal. 40. 17. active verbes amongst the Hebrewes are expounded passively. The word tran­slated imputed, is of large signification, and imports to thinke, reckon, Rom. 6. 11. Psal. 44. 22. Rom. 8. 36. devise, purpose, con­clude, Rom. 3. 28. resolve, plot, esteeme, fore-see, reason, Mark. 11. 31. consult of a matter how it may be brought to passe, looke unto, and take care of. But more properly to the matter in hand it is to account unto a man, or repute unto a man, or reckon unto a man any thing to be his, or to be good paiment and satisfaction for him in his accounts. And that we may the better conceive the meaning of it in this text, let us consider some other passages in which it is used: Bloud shall be imputed unto that man, he hath Gen 38. 15. 1 Sam. 1. 13. Lev. 17. 4. & 25. 5 [...]. Numb. 18. 27. 2 Sam. 19. 19, 20. shed bloud. This your heave offering shall be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corne of the threshing floore. Let not my Lord impute iniquity to me. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not sinne. Phineas stood up, and executed judgement, and so the plague stayed, and that was counted to him for righ­teousnesse. If the uncircumcised keepe the ordinance of the Law, Psal. 32. [...]. Psal. 106. 31. Rom. 2. 26. Rom. 4. 11. & 5. 18. Rom. 9. 8. 1 Cor. 4. 1. 2 Cor. 5. 19. [...] Cor. 12. 6. 2 Tim. 4. 16. shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision. That righteousnesse might be imputed to them also. Sinne is not impu­ted when there is no Law. The children of the promise are coun­ted for the seed. Let a man so account of us, as of the Ministers of Christ. God was in Christ reconciling the world to himselfe, not imputing their sinnes unto them. I refraine, lest any man should account of me, above that he seeth in me. At my first an­swering no man assisted, but all forsooke me, I pray God, that it may [Page 61] not be laid to their charge. Even as David also describeth the Rom. 4. [...]. blessednesse of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousnesse without works. If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee ought, put Philem. v. 18. Rom. 4. 4. that on mine account. Now to him that worketh, the wages is not counted by favour, but by debt. Here it hinders nothing, that righteousnesse imputed should simply note out a righteousnesse of grace and acceptation, whenas the word imputed joyned with others noting desert and debt, may signifie the cleane contrary. For example, when it is said, that God gives gifts unto the sonnes of Psal 68. 18. Eph. 4. 8. men, all understand a free bestowing of good things amongst them: but when he saith, he giveth them the spirit of slumber, Rom. 11. 8. eyes that they should not see, eares that they should not heare: then albeit the word [giving] in it selfe promiseth some grace, yet being matched with such words, it hath a contrary significa­tion to that which naturally it signifieth: when mention is simply of violent men, and of raveners or snatchers, by and by all that have judgement understand men of wicked life: But when it is said, that the Kingdome of Heaven suffereth violence, and that Matth. 11. 12. the violent catch it away; it is easie to know, that this violence and catching falleth not into the lot of the wicked. Likewise the word profane, soundeth in all mens eares some foule and damnable thing: but when it is said, the Priests profane the Sabbath and Matth. 12. 5. are guiltlesse, all know that it is no word of reproach.

But to reture to the matter, to impute is either to acknow­ledge that which is truly in one, to be his indeed, and to attribute it to him, or else to attribute that to one which indeed is not his. In generall it is to transcribe or transferre and put over the cause of any thing to any one. So Ʋlpian. in lege 1. parag. Item quaeri­tur, de separat: Sibi imputent, quo minus idoncum fide jusso­rem acceperint; id est, ascribant & tribuant. Item apud juris­consult. Imputare significat acceptum seu expensum ferre, ut im­putare sibi debet, qui credulus fuit. Legum. 1. §. dolu [...]ff, [...]o per quem factum. To impute then is to ascribe a matter good or evill, or the cause thereof to any one, which he hath, or hath not. The imputation of an evill is two-fold, just and due, when the evill imputed or the cause thereof is in the subject to which it is impu­ted: so sin is imputed to him that hath committed it, and folly to him that hath not spoken that which is right, Job▪ 42. 8. and the debt is imputed to him that undertooke to make payment, or give [Page 62] satisfaction. Unjust or undeserved, when the evill or cause thereof is not in the subject, as when a fault is imputed to an innocent, and punishment inflicted upon him that neither offended in his own person, nor undertooke to be surety for the offendor, 1 Sam. 1. 16. Gen. 38. 15. Plin. lib. 8. cap. 1.

The imputation of a good thing is done three wayes, by right, grace and injustice: because law, justice and right is opposed to in­justice and grace. But here it must be noted, that its one thing to say a man is reputed just, another to say, this or that thing is im­puted for righteousnesse: a man is reputed just, but not imputed just; reputation is spoken of the concrete, imputation of the ab­stract: imputation is the cause, reputation the effect: Imputation by debt or right is, when that which is inherent in the subject, or due to it, is imputed, as wages counted of debt to him that wor­keth. But many things due cannot be said to be imputed, unlesse the word imputation be taken improperly for giving or acknow­ledgement; as we should improperly be said to impute glory to God for to give or acknowledge. Imputation by injustice is, when righteousnesse of quality or fact is imputed to an unjust man, and he is acquitted contrary to law. Imputation by grace, when righ­teousnesse is imputed to them that be unjust in themselves, and the guilty is acquitted, not of debt, but of grace, yet not against justice, but upon just and equall considerations. Righteousnesse also is put either for some one individuall righteous act, done after a manner pleasing and acceptable unto God, which is called the righteous­nesse of the fact, or it is put for universall righteousnesse, which is either the matter of justification, or at least the thing required on our part to justification, and is called the righteousnesse of the person: which latter is here to be understood, as is more at large to be shewed hereafter. Now from all that hath been spoken it fol­loweth.

1. That perfect and strict righteousnesse of quality or work in­herent, is and ought to be imputed of justice to the subject in whom it is: but by gracious estimation it cannot be imputed in the place or roome of righteousnesse inherent: for what is accounted by grace, that either is not in the subject, or it is not really that in the roome and steed whereof it is accounted.

2. Works of righteousnesse done in faith after a manner plea­sing and acceptable unto God, are of grace imputed to the doer for [Page 63] just and righteous actions, the imperfections that cleave unto them being freely pardoned. Not that works are able to beare the exact triall of the Law, or can stand as the matter of justification before the Lord: but that God in Christ is pleased to accept of our works as good and pleasant, our persons being accepted in his beloved, and the weaknesse of our works covered by his intercession. Thus Phinehas his executing of judgement was imputed to him for righ­teousnesse.Psal. 106. 31. Deue. 6. 25. And thus we reade, This shall be our righteousnesse before the Lord our God, if we take heed to keepe all those Com­mandements. Thou shalt restore him the pledge, when the Sunne Deut. 24. 13. goeth downe, that he may sleepe in his raiment, and blesse thee, and it shall be righteousnesse unto thee before the Lord thy God.

3. Faith or beliefe may truly be imputed for or unto righteous­nesse, as it is the sole working instrument and relative action re­quired on our part in the Covenant of grace, unto free justification. For by faith alone in Christ, through the meere grace and mercy of God, we obtaine full pardon and remission of all our sins, and so our works come to be acceptable in Gods sight.

4. The righteousnesse of one being of grace accepted for, or im­puted to another, is righteousnesse imputative: but this stands not in a bare opinion, or naked estimation without reality or truth, but in a reall donation and communicating of righteousnesse unto him, that is esteemed just. True it is, righteousnesse imputative is not inherent in them unto whom it is imputed, as in the subject: but it is made theirs by right of donation.

5. It may also be noted, that the word Imputation, hath refe­rence to some other thing, and commonly commeth in betwixt two things, the one the thing which is imputed, the other thatTertul. advers. Gent. Cap. 30 Ita nomen [...] ­mendationi im­putatur. Sen. ad Mart. Magno autori suo imputata. Tacit. 1. Hist. Otho. Imp. Quis mihi plu­rimum impu­tet. whereunto it is imputed, so that imputation hath relation unto both. And to make this manifest, we may consider these three phrases. The first is, The obedience of Christ is imputed unto justification, conformable to that saying of the Apostle, By the obedience of one man many are made righteous. The second phrase is, Faith is imputed unto righteousnesse. The third is, Righteous­nesse is imputed unto life. The equivalent whereof we have, Rom. 4. 11. & 5. 17, 18. In the first phrase imputation is betwixt Christs obedience, as the thing which is imputed, and justification as the end whereunto it is imputed, and it hath reference. In the second phrase, imputation commeth in betwixt faith, as the thing which is [Page 64] imputed, and righteounesse as the thing whereunto it is imputed. In the last phrase, imputation commeth in betwixt righteousnesse it selfe as the thing imputed, and life as the end whereunto it is im­puted.

This passage whereof we now speake, is diversly interpreted by Orthodox Divines, but all aiming at the same truth, and meeting in the maine, being rather severall expressions of the same truth, then different interpretations. The first is, That faith is imputed unto righteousnesse, that the obedience of Christ apprehended by faith, may be righteousnesse unto the apprehender. For faith and beleeving ever implieth the possession of Christ and his obedience in our hearts; and the imputation of faith unto righteousnesse, is the thing that makes Christ possessed by faith to be our righteous­nesse. Christs obedience is righteousnesse in it selfe, so that it is neither our faith, nor Gods imputation of our faith, that makes his obedience to be righteousnesse: but imputation of faith to us as ours, maketh the obedience of Christ possessed by faith (being righteousnesse in it selfe) to be our righteousnesse. For as the making of that, whereby we obtaine possession to be ours, maketh the thing possessed also to be ours: so that imputation of faith (which is a gift supernaturall and not within our power) maketh Christs obedience to be that unto us, which it is in itselfe though it were never imputed unto us. And to confirme this exposition, that of the Apostle is alleadged: With the heart man beleeveth Rom. 10 10. unto righteousnesse, and with the mouth he confesseth unto salva­tion. In which sentence, the Greeke word which is rendred [un­to] cannot be rendred [for] without darkning, if not perverting the true sence and meaning of that place. For we are said to be­lieve with the heart unto righteousnesse, in the same sence and meaning, wherein we are said to confesse with the mouth unto salvation. Neither is there any reason why faith should be said to be imputed unto righteousnesse in any other sence, as concerning the word [unto] then we are said to believe unto righteousnesse: but in all reason the Greeke word which we render, unto, must in both these phrases be taken in one and the same sence: that is, as we believe with the heart, to this end that we might by faith (as the only apt and meete instrument, and only covenient and effe­ctuall meane to apprehend and possesse) attaine to the possession of the righteousnesse of God in Christ: even so the Lord our God [Page 65] imputeth faith to us as our own, to this end that the righteousnesse which we possesse by it, may make us righteous before him, or be righteousnesse unto us in his sight.

The second exposition is, that faith is graciously imputed, rec­koned or esteemed for righteousnesse, or in the place or steed of righteousnesse, because the righteousnesse of Christ is imputed to none but beleevers. For those sinners onely are justified before God, who (we speake of them that live till they come to yeares of discretion) by a sound and saving faith doe lay hold of, and relyQuae semper tacentur nun­quam affirman­tur: Quae affir­mantur, dum re­liqua tacentur, sola affirmantur. upon Jesus Christ, as he is set forth of God to be a propitiation. Hence it is, that the Covenant of Grace, in steed of the righteous­nesse of the Law required to legall Justification, which is wanting in us by reason of our sins, exacteth no other thing inherent in us, as a cause of Justification, or condition in respect whereof we are justified, but faith alone. And thus in a fit sence it may be said, that faith is of grace accounted, in steed of legall righteousnesse: not that it is the meritorious or materiall cause of our Justification, as legall righteousnesse should have been, if Justification had been by the Law, nor that it is accepted for the perfect righteousnesse of the Law: but because it is the sole instrumentall or conditionall cause, required on our part to Justification, in respect whereof we are acquitted from our sins. For in the Covenant of workes per­fect obedience is required at our hands to Justification: but in theReputare sive imputare adju­stitiam, idem est, quod in ju­stitiae loco nu­merare. Covenant of Grace nothing but faith on our parts is called for, and that not as the forme or matter of Justification, but the instru­ment only, whereby we receive remission of sins, and are partakers of the merits of Christ.

The third Exposition is, that when faith is imputed for righ­teousnesse, it is not to be understood materially, as though the dignity, worth and perfection of faith made us just; but relative­ly and in respect of the object, that is, to us beleeving righteous­nesse, sc. of Christ is freely imputed, and by faith we receive righ­teousnesse and remission of sins freely given of God. And there­fore to say faith justifieth, and faith is imputed for righteousnesse, are phrases equivalent. For faith justifieth not by it's merit or dig­nity; but as an instrument and correlatively, that is, the merit of Christ apprehended and received by faith justifieth, not faith whereby it is apprehended and received, unlesse it be by an impro­per speech, wherein the act of the object, by reason of the neare [Page 66] and strict connexion betwixt them, is given to the instrument. And with this exposition for substance of matter agreeth theirs, that make an Hypallage in these words; faith is imputed unto, or for righteousnesse, as if the sence was this, righteousnesse is impu­ted unto faith, or the faithfull are partakers of the righteousnesse of Christ. The thing questioned in these expositions is, whether the words must be taken tropically or properly: but the matter and substance of doctrine contained in them, is one and the same. For herein they all agree, that Abraham did beleeve the whole truth of God revealed, but his beleefe which was accepted for, or unto righteousnesse, did respect the promised seed. Abraham beleeved the power of God to performe whatsoever he promised; he beleeved whatsoever God plainly promised, and he beleeved what God promised though farre off, as the giving of the Land of Canaan: but the principall thing promised was, that in his seed all Nations of the earth should be blessed, and belief in this promise was accepted for righteousnes. All earthly promises made to Abra­ham, proceeded from the meer love and favor of God towards him, and many of them were types and figures of spirituall, so that in beleeving them, he must needs beleeve the promise of blessing in his seed, which is Christ. Abraham could beleeve no promise, but he must beleeve that God is the rewarder of them that dili­gently seeke him: but he cannot beleeve in God, as the rewar­der of them that seek him, unlesse he have an eye to the promised seed.

The righteousnesse here mentioned is not the singular righteous­nesse of this or that act, whereby a man is said to doe justly or righteously, which is called the righteousnesse of fact: but univer­sall righteousnesse or the righteousnesse of Justification, whereby a man is freely acquitted from all his sins, and accepted of God as righteous unto life, which is called righteousnesse of the person. Faith is not imputed for righteousnesse, in respect of the worth or dignity of faith either in habit or act, but in respect of it's office, whereunto it is ordained in the Covenant of Grace, as it doth im­brace Christ, and thereby we are made partakers of the merits of his free and willing, and perfect obedience to the command of Grace. Faith is accounted for righteousnesse in regard of the ob­ject, and is a cause of that Justification which is of grace. A cause, I say, not a bare condition without which the thing cannot be: bu [...] [Page 67] a cause, not meritorious or materiall, but instrumentall only, re­ceiving Christ promised and offered in the word of grace. ForRom. 3 22. Phil. 3. 9. howsoever our righteousnesse be called the righteousnesse of the faith of Jesus, or by the faith of Jesus, faith it selfe is never called our righteousnesse. We reade that Christ is made unto us of God 1 Cor. 1. 30. Rom. 5. 19. Rom. 10. 4. righteousnesse, that by one mans obedience many are made righ­teous, that Christ is the end of the Law for righteousnesse to e­very one that believeth, that the believer is justified by him, and by faith in him obtaineth remission of sins. We find also by con­ferenceA [...] God did predestinate Christ of grace to this honour of being God in fellowship of person, and of being the Prince of out salvation: So God in the Co­venant he did make with him, and the commandment he gave him of laying downe his life, did strike it and fulfill it of grace, not re­quiring any thing of his Son more then duties of free­obedience, which should of grace have acceptance, &c. Bain. Col. 1. 19. of Scriptures, that to be justified by faith, and to be justi­fied by Christ is in substance all one. And what can be the sence of those places, but this, that Christ is the meritorious and materiall cause (so to speake) of our Justification, faith the condition and instrument, whereby we receive Christ made of God our righteous­nesse. The Apostle making comparison betwixt the first and second Adam sheweth, that as sin commeth from Adam alone unto us all, as he in whom we have all sinned: So from Jesus Christ alone commeth righteousnesse to all that are in him, as from him that hath satisfied the justice of God, and performed gratefull obedi­ence at the commandment of grace, for them all. In which com­parison faith never hath the place of our righteousnesse, but an­swers in our participation of righteousnesse in Christ, to that which is the ground of our being partakers in the sin of Adam. For, as we were one with Adam, and in respect of orignall and nature were in him, and one with him, and so by being in him and one with him, did all in him and with him transgresse the command­ment of God: even so, in respect of faith, whereby onely we are united unto Christ, and spiritually made one with him, and in­grafted into him, we all in him did satisfie the justice of God, or are made partakers of the fruit and benefit of his satisfaction. Thus our union with Christ and meanes thereof, is alwaies to be distin­guished from our communion with him, in the participation of his righteousnesse, as the fruit thereof. Like as our being in Adam, and one with him, is to be distinguished from the fruit thereof, which is communion with him in the participation of his trans­gression. If faith be only the hand whereby we put on Christ both as a justifier and sanctifier, then it is not the garment of righ­teousnesse, wherewith we are cloathed. But it is only the hand whereby we put on Christ as a garment, Gal. 3. 27. Rom. 13. 13, 14. [Page 68] Faith justifieth as it imbraceth the righteousnesse of God. But Christ only is the righteousnesse of God, allowed and ordained of God to be our righteousnesse. In the third to the Romans and elsewhere, oft we meet with this phrase, We are justified by faith: Now in the fifth Chapter of that Epistle, vers. 17. it is said, that we shall raigne in life through Jesus Christ, and verse 19. that by his obedience we shall be made righteous. What in the first place is called Justification and Salvation by faith, that in the other is called making righteous and raigning in life through Christ and him believed on. And so we reade, that of faith, and by faith, and through faith we are justified; but we never reade for faith weRom. 3. 30. & 5. 1. are justified, Act. 3. 16. First, Peter saith, His name hath made this man sound, through faith in his name: And then, the faith which is by him, hath given to him this disposition of body. Is it not plain here, that [...]aith hath healed him, is as much as his name, or Christ believed on hath healed him: the one phrase ex­pounding the other. Christ brought in everlasting righteousnesse into the world, Dan. 9. 24. But faith was in the world before the comming of Christ in the flesh, Heb. 11. 2. And the Spirit of God in Scripture evidently distinguisheth betwixt faith, and Christ ap­prehended by faith: saying, The Fathers who believed, received not the promise; that is, Christ the matter of the promise, and consequently of righteousnesse. Faith they had received: but the promise they had not received: because Christ (in whom their blessednesse was promised) was not exhibited in their daies. For all b [...] it by faith they apprehended Christ [...]cified to come, and the righteousnesse, which he was to bring unto the world at his com­ming: yet that righteousnesse in the substance and matter of it, was never brought into the world. So that the very designing of a precise time for the bringing in of our righteousnesse into the world, declareth that that righteousnesse materiall, is to be distin­guished from faith, which was in the world in all ages before it was brought in. For faith was in the world, and did apprehend righteousnesse, which was to be brought into the world, long be­fore it came, as well as now long after that righteousnesse perfor­med, it can lay hold upon it to justification. For the faith of Gods children before the day of Christ, and the faith of Gods chil­dren now after the day of Christ did never, nor yet doth appre­hend any other righteousnesse, but that which in that day was [Page 69] brought into the world. For it is as easie to faith to apprehend righteousnesse to come, as it is to lay hold on righteousnesse past or by-gone: like as our faith apprehendeth many things, yet to come, as our glorification.

Vorstius and his followers expound this Text in this sence,Rom. 3. 28. Gal. 2. 16. Rom. 4. 5. Faith, that is, repentance, conversion and new obedience is ac­counted for righteousnesse, that is, in the place or stead of legall righteousnesse or exact obedience, though it be not so indeed. And so they freely confesse, Justification by works, which the Apostle saith, is by faith without the works of the Law. But that they might not seeme directly to crosse the Apostle, they say, we are not justified by the works of the Law, that is, exact and every way perfect, whereunto wages is due by debt; but by works of grace, graciously esteemed for righteousnesse, when in the rigour of the Law it is not exact and perfect righteousnesse.

But first we reade, that God hath set forth Christ to be a propi­tiation Rom. 3. 24, 25. by faith in his bloud, that by the faith of Jesus, we might receive remission of sinnes: but we find not, that he hath ordai­ned Christ to be a propitation through works, that by works we should be saved. And if God have not taught any such manner of Justification, it is not for us to receive it. We reade of two waies of Justification, by faith and works: but of a third manner by faith and works, both as joynt causes or con-causes, we find nothing in Scripture.

Secondly, By the doctrine of faith we are bound to acknowledge and confesse that Christ Jesus by his eternall Priest-hood, is not on­ly the sole meritorious cause of all grace or righteousnesse inherent, requisite to finall absolution: but these presupposed in the party to be absolved, he is likewise the sole immediate cause of finall abso­lution or justification. Without observation in some measure to all the Commandments of God, we cannot enter into the king­dome of heaven: but we enter not for the obedience we have per­formed. To what use then doth our inherent righteousnesse or ob­servance of Gods commandements serve us? If it hath been sin­cere and [...]fained, though imperfect, yet the faith that brought it forth will make a sincere and faithfull plea for mercy in the day of tryall, in which he that hath been an hearer only, and no doer of the Law, or hath done in part, what God would have done, but not sincerely, nor faithfully, shall not be heard. Our imperfect [Page 70] obedience then is not the immediate cause of our absolution, but the obedience and righteousnesse of Christ. By the immediate and next cause we understand such a cause as is necessarily accompanied by the effect, and without whose participation the effect never doth, nor can be-fall any: such a cause as whosoever is partaker of, is by participation of it, forth-with absolved; such a cause as who so can probably hope to be partaker of, he may upon the same degrees of probability hope for finall absolution; such a cause, as who so doubts or feares, least he shall never be partaker of in this life, must upon the same termes doubt or despaire of his absolution or salvation. But if workes be accounted for the exact righteous­nesse of the Law unto us, not the obedience of Christ received by faith, but the works of holinesse in us, are the absolute cause of re­mission of sins and acceptance unto life. And what else doe the words sound, as they be interpreted, but, that as exact obedience to the Law, should have been the matter or cause of Justification from justice, so sincere obedience by the estimation of grace, is the matter of Justification by grace. They will say, I know, faith and workes are onely the condition without which remission cannot be obtained: but faith is not a bare condition, with­out which the thing cannot be, (for that is no cause at all) but an instrumentall cause: and workes, if they be any cause of Justification, instrumentall they cannot be, but the matter where­upon, and for which we are justified or accounted righteous. Workes doe not embrace Christ, but if causes of Justification, they must challenge to themselves: and therefore how faith and workes should be conjoyned as con-causes in Justification it is im­possible to conceive, seeing the one, that is, faith attributes allIn eo q [...]od sol­vimus est aliqu [...] [...]atio meriti. to the free-grace of God; the other, that is, workes, challenge to themselves: the one will aspire no higher, but to be the instru­mentall cause of free remission: the other can sit no lower, but to be the matter of Justification, if any cause at all. For if works be accounted to us in the roome or place of exact obedience in free Justification, doe they not supply the place? are they not advanced to the dignity of works compleate and perfect in Justifi­cation from justice?

3. If faith with workes be accepted for righteousnesse to Justi­fication, then faith justifieth not as it imbraceth the promises of mercy, and by it we partake in the merits of Christs death and [Page 71] obedience, but as it doth give assent to the truth of the Gospell, and adhere and sticke to the Commandements: for in that sense it is an act or exercise commanded in the Gospell, and not only as it doth receive Christ and the promise of forgivenesse. But in Scripture every where faith in Christ, in the Lord Jesus, or theGal. 3. 13. 1 Pet. 2. 24. bloud of Christ is said to justifie, not faith in other promises, threatnings, or Commandements.

4. How can it be proved, that in the matter of Justification the Apostle doth oppose faith to workes exactly perfect and com­pleat only, and not to the workes of grace done according to the prescription of the Law, as it was given to the Jewes to be a rule how people in Covenant ought to walke. To him that worketh Rom. 4. 4▪ (saith he) the wages is of debt: but he that worketh is not only perfectly just, but he that is mercenarie, that is, to him that wor­keth for his reward, as if the reward should be given him for his worke. For thus the Apostle argues, When wages is given to an hireling or mercenary, it is of debt. But Justification or life is not given of debt, but of grace. Therefore it is not given to him that worketh, or to the mercenary. Properly God oweth nothing to him that fulfilleth the Law either exactly or sincerely, when they doe nothing but their duty, and there is no proportion betwixt God and them: but because they seeke righteousnesse and life by workes, if God should retribute to them a reward, he should be thought to doe it, as it were of debt.

The Law was given to be a rule of direction to them that be in Covenant: and workes of the Law are workes done accor­ding to that prescription: which the Apostle here excludes from being any cause of Justification, though he that walkes according to this Law, being not an hearer, but a doer of the Law, is blessed in his deed. But of this more at large in the next Chapter.

5. Consider the opposition which the Apostle makes betwixt his owne righteousnesse, which is of the Law, and the righteous­nessePhil. 3. 9. which is of God by faith. I count all things (saith he) but as d [...]ng, that I might winne Christ, and be found in him, not having mine owne righteousnesse, which is of the Law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousnesse which is of God by faith. If then the righteousnesse of God through faith be the matter whereupon, or for which we are justified, we are not ju­stified [Page 72] by workes: but the righteousnesse of God through faith is the matter whereupon we are justified. Christ is the end of the Rom. 10. 4. Law for righteousnesse to everyone that beleeveth. We are made the righteousnesse of God in him. The righteousnesse of the Law is not2 Cor. 5. 19. here put for workes done exactly by the strength of nature; but for workes done according to the prescription of the Law, according to which people in Covenant ought to walke, to whom God hath promised, that if they keep his Commandements, they shall be unto him a peculiar people, ch [...]sen generation, and royall priest­hood.Exod. 19. 5. Non justifica­tur homo par­tim justitia partiali, & imperfect â in­b [...]rente, par­tim accepti la­tione imperfecti properfecto. By the righteousnesse of God to understand remission of sinnes and regeneration; by faith, faith and workes, and by the righteousnesse of the Law, workes done by the strength of nature, is rather to offer violence unto, then to interpret this Text of Scri­pture. And by the same reason the Popish Glosses upon this Text are confuted as false and vaine. Bellarmine would make the sense this, Faith is imputed for righteousnesse, that is, faith is justice, by which Abraham was justified. For if Abraham was justified by workes, he hath whereof to glory in himselfe. But with God he hath Rom. 4. 2. not whereof to glory. To him that worketh not, faith is imputed for righteousnesse, therefore faith is not the righteousnesse of the Law. The Question there disputed is not by what worke Abra­ham was justified: but after he had done many and great works, in the manner of Justification, he presented himselfe before the throne of grace, not only sub forma pa [...]peris, but which is more of an ungodly man, to receive absolution from the hand of grace by a true and lively faith. And faith is accounted for righteous­nesse by gracious acceptation: but what is accounted by free fa­vour, that is not truly and really the thing it is accounted for in­herent in us. It will be said, Faith was not reputed to Abraham for righteousnesse, after that he excelled with many vertues ha­ving embraced Christ: But the holy Ghost rather testifies, al­though the excellency of Abrahams vertue was great, whereby he had increased by long perseverance, yet he was not otherwise ac­cepted as righteous unto life, but because by faith he received grace offered in the promise. The faith of Abraham was great and excellent for degree and measure, but it was not accepted for righteousnesse in regard it was strong and eminent: but because it laid hold upon the promised feed. The faith of Abraham was eminent, but not perfect, and justified him not absolutely as an ex­cellent [Page 73] vertue, but relatively as it received the promise of mercy, not as if Abraham was thereby made perfect by inherent holi­nesse, for then Abraham had whereof to glory in himselfe, but as in himselfe a sinner and ungodly he obtained free and full remissi­on of the meere grace and favour of God. So that we may con­clude from this passage of holy writ, that Abraham was justified by faith alone: but this his faith though alone in the act of Justifi­cation, no other grace coworking with it, was not alone in ex­istence, did not lie dead in him as a dormant and idle quality. Sa­ving faith is lively and operative, attended with every other grace of the Spirit, setting them upon their worke, animating and quickning them thereto, and regulating them therein. It stirres up sorrow for sinne, and purpose of amendment; it raiseth the soule earnestly to long after, and heartily to crave mercy: it comes to Christ as an humble, poore, penitent petitioner for forgivenesse: but that which is done by faith stirring up sorrow, and working by prayer, is not done partly by faith, partly by sorrow, and partly by prayers, but by that faith which doth enforce to pray. For faith leaneth upon the promise, and no promise is made, the con­dition of prayer being shut forth. Aske, and it shall be given you, Mark 11. 24. Therefore our Saviour Christ being intreated of many that he would heale them, attributeth all the force of their prayers to faith, Thy faith hath saved thee. And so by what faith Abraham embraced the promise, by the same he offered up his Son Isaac. Workes then (or a purpose to walke with God) justifie asJam. 2. 22, 23. the passive qualification of the subject capable of Justification, or as the qualification of that faith that justifieth; or as they testifie or give proofe that faith is lively: but faith alone justifieth, as it embraceth the promise of free forgivenesse in Jesus Christ. Abra­hams faith was accepted for righteousnesse, but Abraham himselfeGen. 17. 1. is commanded to walke before God, and to be perfect. There be divers phras [...]s in the Scripture of the Old Testament, expressing the same thing for substance: as to walke before God. Gen. 17. 1. [...] LXX [...] Sept. [...]. and 24. 40. and 48. 15. 1 Kin. 3. 6. Sept. [...]. Psal. 116. 9. Isai. 38. 3. Psal. 56. 14. 1 King. 9. 4. to walke with God. Gen. 5. 22. and 6. 9. Mal. 2. 6. Mic. 6. 8. to walke after God. [...] LXX. [...]. 2 King. 23. 3. Hos. 11. 10. to walke in the name of God. Zech. 10. 12. to walke in the wayes of God. 1 King. 3. 14. Deut. 10. 12, 13, 14. wholly to follow after the Lord. i. e. to exhibite full obedience to the [Page 74] Lord. Numb. 32. 12. Deut. 1. 36. Josh. 14. 14. to stand in the sight of [...] God. 1 King. 17. 1. to walke in the light of the Lord. Isai. 2. 5. to walke in equity, Isai. 57. 2. to walke in truth, in judgement and uprightnesse. 1 King. 2. 4. and 3. 6. 2 King. 20. 6. The two first phrases of walking with God and before God, the Sept. In­terpreters doe most commonly render, to please God; though [...]. now and then they retaine the phrase of walking with or before God, or walking after God: and the Apostle seemes to have re­spectIsai. 38. 3. unto their translation, when he doth so alleadge it, Heb. 11. 5. For he is reported to have pleased God. In the New Testament there be Phrases that import the same thing for substance: as to walke in the truth. 2 Joh. 4. to walke in all the Commandements, Sta­tutes and Ordinances of the Lord. Luke 1. 6. to walke worthy the Lord, that is, as becomes the sonnes of God. 1 Thess. 2. 12. Eph. 4. 2. and to please him in all things. Col. 1. 10. to walke in Christ. Col. 2. 6. that is to doe all after the rule and command of Christ, vers. 6. and set before our eyes his glory, as the white we shoot at in all affaires great and small. To walke with or before God then is to commit our selves wholly to his care and divine protection both in life and all our actions, and assuredly to perswade our selves that he is the present and just beholder of all thoughts, words and actions; to reverence him as ever present and beholding all things; to be ready at his beck and command, studiously, readily, chearefully to receive his Commandements, and at all times reverently to de­meane and carry our selves before him: to turne our eyes and fix all our senses upon the Lord, and to attribute what good soever we enjoy, to the Lord alone. In briefe, to walke before God, is from a true and sincere heart to beleeve, thinke and doe whatso­ever God prescribeth, and that in such manner as he prescribeth; to attend upon the pure worship of God, and to live holily, justly, unblameably: as they are said to be just before God, who are tru­ly and sincerely just or such as be righteous by way of eminencyLuke 1. 6. Luke 1. 15. in comparison of others: what is done sincerely, and elegantly, is said to be done before the Lord. 1 Thess. 1. 3. Luk. 1. 57. 1 Thess. 3. 13. Thus Abraham was commanded, and by the grace of God ena­bled to walke with or before God. Gen. 24. 40. and 48. 15. But sometimes in a p [...]culiar sense, to walke with God is to minister before God. 1 Sam. 2. 32, 33. and to walke before the face of God is to be understood in the same manner: the Metaphor being ta­ken [Page 75] as it seemes from two friends, who well agree betwixt themselves, and willingly take their journeyes together being at one, and in good agreement. And to goe before the Lord is spo­ken of John the Baptist in a peculiar sense, Luke 1. 17. noting that [...]. he went before him as an harbinger to prepare the way for the Lord, as Kings and Princes have some that goe before them, whom when we see, presently we conceive the King himselfe is not farre absent.

In the old Testament there be two words translated perfect, and they be much of the same use; The first noteth that perfecti­on to which nothing is wanting: the other that which is com­pleat, absolute. The force of this word seemes to containe in it an heape of perfection: but they are put promiscuously one for theLXX [...] Sept. [...]. other; as Josh. 10. 13. [...] a whole or perfect day is rendered by the Chaldee Paraphrast [...]: Lev. 23. 15. Septem Sabbatha. [...]: the Chaldee Paraphrast. [...]. TheyLXX. [...]. Aq. [...]. Sym. [...]. LXX. [...]. are sundry wayes translated by the Seventy; as simple or plaine. Gen. 25. 27. Jacob was a perfect man, that is, simple, without de­ceit; blamelesse, or without reprehension. Gen. 17. 1. Be thou per­fect. LXX. blamelesse. Job 1. 7, 8. and 12. 4. and 9. 20. without spot. Psal. 15. 2. Psal. 119. 1, 80. Lev. 1. 3. Psal. 18. 24. to which [...] Gr. [...] is opposed. Cant. 4. 7. Pro. 9. 7. Ezek. 43. 22. and 45. 18. [...]. innocent, without mulct or punishment. Psal. 18. 25. Just or righ­teous: Prov. 28. 18. Josh. 24. 14. 1 King. 9. 4. Prov. 11. 1. whole or intire. Ezek. 15. 5. Deut. 27. 6. Josh. 8. 31. holy or godly. Amos 5. 10. Prov. 2. 21. Prov. 29. 10. Prov. 10. 29. Innocent, with­out fault or malice. Psal. 84. 12. Job 8. 20. Psal. 37. 37. Psal. 101. 2. Prov. 13. 6. pure. Gen. 20. 5, 6. single or sincere. Prov. 10. 9. 2 Sam. 15. 11. true. Deut. 32. 4. Prov. 28. 6. Isai. 38. 3. Deut. 25 15. per­fect. Deut. 18. 13. Cant. 5. 2. 1 King. 8. 61. and 11. 4. and 15. 3, 14. and full. 2 King. 20. 3. 1 Chron. 29 9. and 2 Chron. 16. 9. and 19. 9. and 25. 2. 2 Chron. 15. 17. In the New Testament there be three words usually translated perfect. The first signifieth, that which doth consist of all its parts or members, which are required to any worke, so that nothing is wanting, nor superfluous: the Meta­phor being taken from even or equall numbers, which may be di­vided into equall parts. 2 Tim. 3. 15, 16, 17. And the compound word signifieth [...]o amend, or repaire and set in joynt a part loose, or slipped aside. Matth. 4 21. Mark 1. 19. Gal. 6. 1. to fashion [Page 76] fitly and in comely order or proportion. Heb. 10. 5. and 11. 3. Rom. 9. 22. to fulfill or furnish. Act. 21. 5. Luke 6. 40. and to perfect and joyne or bind fast together. 1 Cor. 1. 10. 2 Cor. 13. 11. 1 Thess. 3. 10. 1 Pet. 5. 10. Ephes. 4. 11, 12. The LXX. use this word to give the signification of two others that signifie to up­hold or underprop and make equall, Psal. 17. 5. Psal. 18. 34. The [...] second signifieth whole or intire. 1 Thess. 5. 23. Iames 1. 4. The third perfect, Ephes. 4. 12. Iames 1. 4, 5. 1 Ioh. 4. 17, 18. But all these in use import the same thing for substance. A thing is said to be perfect three wayes. 1. That is perfect which is intire in all integrall parts, firmely knit together, faculties and functions;Animalia nas­cuntur [...]. Arist. Hist. Ani. l. 7. ca. 8. Psal. 139. 16. Lev. 22. 21. Mal. 1. 14. Exod. 12. 5. when there is in all the parts of Sanctification something: as lively creatures are brought forth perfect, Infants compleat in all their parts and members are perfect. In this sense perfect is op­posed to that which is divided, imperfect, maimed; as an Em­bryon not yet fashioned in the wombe is opposed to a perfect In­fant; Pharisaicall love as partiall, lame and maimed, extending it selfe to them that loved them only, is opposed to perfect love, which stretcheth it selfe to friend and foe. Matth. 5. 47, 48. an in­tire heart is opposed to an heart and an heart, a double heart that makes a major part against it selfe. 1 Chron. 12. 33, 38. For in [...]. that which is intire, all things doe mutually answer one another, doe conspire into one: that is not intire which dissents from it selfe, is not one and whole, or in which there is division and dis­agreement. Thus Christians sanctified by the Spirit of grace in every power of the soule, the seeds of all vertues being ingrafted1 Thess. 5. 23. 1 Chron. 2 [...] 9. in them, and firmely compact and knit together, so that freely, willingly, and upon advised deliberation they cleave unto the Lord, and without partiality or willing neglect move to all du­ties of Piety, Justice and Mercy, are said to be perfect, though they be not freed from manifold infirmities, no grace of the Spirit in them be come to perfect growth. An intire, holy, blamelesse conversation, directed according to the will of God in every place, state, and condition of life, is said to be perfect. Blessed are the perfect in the way. Psal. 119. 1. Keepe thy servant from presump­tuous sinnes, then shall I be perfect. Psal. 19. 13. I was also perfect before him, and I kept my selfe from mine iniquity. Psal. 18. 23. It is recorded of Asa, that his heart was perfect with the Lord all his dayes, though in the same booke many infirmities are noted in him. [Page 77] 1 King. 15. 14. 2 Chron. 15. 17. Thus Noah, Gen. 6. 6. Joh 1. 1. Hezekiah, 2 King. 20. 3. are said to be perfect. David to walke in his integrity, Psal. 26. 1. yet these examples must not be referred to the second degree of perfection. The body is intire, when all parts are so knit together, that each is preserved, and fit for his of­fice: the soule is intire, when all the parts of righteousnesse are ri­vetted together amongst themselves, and in the whole: the con­versation is intire, when no office of life is neglected, no precept carelessely forgotten or sleighted; when no occasions or occur­rences can remove men from their holy purposes undertaken ac­cording to Gods word. This perfect man is set as opposite to theJam 1. 6. unstable, double minded, perverse, froward and restlesse, who are off and on, turned upside downe with every contrary wind, dividedHe that can be contented to be naught in any thing, is naught in e­very thing. and at odds with themselves; who loppe and straiten the Com­mandements as will best stand with their occasions, take and leave at pleasure, rest in the externall acts of piety or justice, or cleane depart from Gods Commandements. The integrity of the up­right shall guide him, but the perversenesse of transgressors shall destroy them, Prov. 11. 3. If I say I am perfect, mine own mouth shall prove me perverse, Job 9. 20, 21, 22, Who so walketh intirely shall be safe, but he that is perverse in his double wayes shall fall in one, Prov. 28. 18. So it is noted of Abijam, that his heart was not perfect with the Lord his God, 1 King. 15. 3. of Amaziah, Ʋzziah, Jotham, they did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, but not with perfect hearts, 2 Chron. 25. 2. & 26. 4. & 27. 2. 2 King. 14. 3. & 15. 3. and of Solomon, that when he was old, his wives turned away his heart after other gods, and his heart was not perfect with the Lord, as was the heart of David his father, 1 King. 11. 4.

2. That is said to be perfect, which hath obtained an high de­gree of perfection, not simply, but in comparison of that which is beneath: when a man is so habituated in his course, that he hath attained a facility and constancy in well doing. Children new borne are perfect, that is, intire: but when they be come to ripe age, they are perfect in comparison of thēselvs as new born babes. But every growth argueth not comparitive perfection, but that only which is so great, that it may seeme to introduce a new forme: or when by long practice a man is so habituated in his course, that he hath attained a facility and constancy in well doing. Children are more [Page 76] [...] [Page 77] [...] [Page 78] perfect then Infants new borne, and Striplings then Children: but they are not said to be perfect, because the growth is but small: but when they are come to ripe age, although as age encreaseth much may be added, they may be called perfect, because then [...]. they have attained as it were a new forme. So to be perfect and absolute, the Philosopher doth attribute to men of ripe age. Arist. Hist. Ani. l. 2. cap. 1. de part. Animal. lib. 4. cap. 10. Strong meate (saith the Apostle) belongeth to them that are perfect, or of full age. Heb. 5. 14. those that have left the Rudiments of Chri­stianHeb. 6. 1, [...]. Eph. 4. 11, 12, 13. Religion are called perfect, perfect in respect of them that be babes in understanding, and stand in need of milke. 1 Cor. 14. 20. The Law makes nothing perfect. Heb. 7. 19. because it was a rudiment only which was delivered to children, so that he that is seasoned with the knowledge of the Gospell, is perfect in respect of them that be instructed only in the Law. We speake wisdome amongst them that are perfect. 1. Cor. 2. 6. here some understand men, and by perfect they understand all Christians in generall, who are perfect in respect of them that knew not the Gospell: Others them that in speciall had made greater progresse in the faith: others understand the word things or somewhat, that this sence should be, that this wisedome doth consist in perfect things. But how­ever this text be interpreted, the Apostle elsewhere manifestly confirmeth this point, shewing that some were perfect in compa­rison of others, who had not yet attained to perfection. Here it must be remembred, that howsoever the word perfect be referred to knowledge in the mysteries of Religion in the writings of the Apostles, yet it is not seldome referred to practice and manners. In the first reference, they are said to be perfect, who have obtai­ned an high degree of knowledge in heavenly and divine mysteries: In the second, they that teach in deed and fact that they have lear­ned what they professe. Let patience have its perfect work, Jam. 1. 4. that is, let it shew its sincerity and constancy in works, that not in words and gestures, but in deed and truth it be approved; that it cannot be overcome in the greatest evils, but doth hould out and remaine invincible. He that can bridle his tongue, is a perfect man indeed, Jam. 3. 2. that is, he is not one that is in exercise to learne, which is the meane to perfection, but hath learned indeed what he professeth. He calleth that perfect which is performed in truth and deed, and is not counterfet: and so [...]in is said to be fini­shed, [Page 79] when it is committed, Jam. 1. 15. and every sound, solid, ope­rative grace, is called a perfect gift, Jam. 1. 17. and sincere, unfai­ned love, is said to be perfect love, 1 Joh. 4. 18. Christ was made perfect through sufferings, Heb. 2. 10. as he learned obedience by the things which he suffered, Heb. 5. 8. for there is an experimen­tall learning. And to this purpose belongs that speech of our Sa­viours upon the crosse, It is finished: for hereby was signified, that he had fulfilled all things, which he was to doe upon earth, Luk. 13. 32. and they that shed their bloud for Christs sake and for the Gospels are said to be perfected. Thus the patient are called perfect, because patience is a document of a mind most exercised in piety and godlinesse. So the power of God is perfected in our weakenesse, 2 Cor. 12. 9. for the vertue of Christ is not perfected in weakenesse as in the subject, not by infirmity as by the effect: but when it sheweth it selfe in the greatest and principall things. The power of God is not encreased, nor diminished: but then it is said to be perfected, when in the judgement of man it doth that which is most hard and difficult. For we live and die in God, and this is of the power of God: but when in the greatest streights, and even in death it selfe we live and breathe, the power of God doth after a speciall manner shew forth it selfe, and is perfected in us, that is, doth shew it selfe to be exceeding great, which cannot be conquered or overcome. In the same manner as the Apostle saith, Fath is perfected by works, Jam. 2. 21. not that works doe perfect faith, but that faith whilest it brings forth good works, doth manifest how perfect it is: it borroweth not force from workes, but in works doth declare what force it hath. Thus the graces of the Spirit are perfected, whilest by the effects it is made manifest how perfect they are.Psal. 19. 7. Mat. 5. 48. Psal 18. 30. Heb. 12. 23.

3. That is perfect, which is every way absolute and compleate, to which nothing is wanting, nothing superfluous: and so the soules of the just are made perfect in Heaven. In the first degree perfection is necessary to salvation, without which we cannot be partakers of the eternall inheritance: in the second and third de­gree it is to be striven after, though the latter cannot be obtained in this life. The greatest measure of perfection attaineable in this present life, is an imperfect perfection: but that imperfection is sin; and therefore though we come short, we must strive forward towards perfection, that we might be perfect hereafter.

Integrity is necessary, because the most holy God will never give himselfe to be possessed and enjoyed to a spirituall adultresse, who doth affect any other lover more, or besides him. A womanRev. 14. 3, 4. may have many friends, but one as an Husband: Conjugall love of it own nature, is of that kind, that it must be of one, and cannot be communicated to many. If God be wholly ours, we must be wholly his. And if we joyne ought with God, or take in ought with him, we doe not, we cannot cleave to him alone. When there are two objects upon which the heart is set, it is divided: and men of divided hearts, can have no fellowship or communion with him. We cannot serve God, unlesse we serve him intirely: he can­not be our Master, if we have any other. Matth. 6. 24. God heares them that pray with their whole heart. Jer. 29. 12, 13. is found of them that seeke him with their whole heart. Psal. 119. 2. Deut. 4. 29, 30. takes pleasure in them that be intire in their way. Prov. 11. 20. and accepts their work. Deut. 33. 11. If a Christian be not intire, he can never be perfect in degree: for what is defective in parts, can never be made up by any growth. He can never come to be a perfect man in Jesus Cerist, and every way compleate, in whom the work of grace is imperfect and maimed in the parts es­sentiall or integrall. If a plant be imperfect, it will never be a per­fect tree: If a Child be borne maimed or imperfect, no growth of parts received can restore what is defective in nature: If a Chri­stian be sanctified in mind only, or in some affection only, and not in every part, no growth in what he hath obtained, can ever make his sanctification perfect and compleate. Integrity is the qualifi­cation of a subject capable of finall pardon, and eternall blessednesse through grace. Remission of sins is received by faith, but faith that embraceth pardon, doth unite and knit the soule inseparably to God, and to the word of his grace, it seasoneth every affection, and stirreth them up to their proper functions according as the word directeth. Blessed is the man whose iniquity is forgiven, and whose sin is covered: Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth no sin, and in whose spirit there is no guile.

God will passe by the imperfections which he espieth in the best service of his children, when once he seeth their hearts to be intire and perfect towards him. Hypocrisie drowneth many excellent graces, and causeth God to take no notice of them: but integrity is so well pleasing to his Majesty, that if it be not shaken, he will [Page 81] not see many other infirmities. This is the chalenge against the Church of Sardis, I have not found thy works perfect before God. Rev. 3. [...]. David had many imperfections, and did often step aside in the way, but he is not accused to breake the whole Law in any thing, save in the matter of Ʋriah, 1 King. 15. 5. The Holy Ghost hath noted sundry defects in Asa, but addeth this of him by way of conclusion, yet his heart was perfect towards the Lord all his dayes, 1 King. 15. 14. Contrarily in Jehu, after a large description of many excellent things, it is observed, But Jehu regarded not to walke in the Law of the Lord with all his heart; and so his service in destroying Ahabs house (rewarded with a temporall blessing2 King. 10. 31. Hose 1. 4. 2 Chron. 30. 15, 19. to the fourth generation) was reckoned murder. Hezekiah is bould to pray in behalfe of them that came unprepared to the Passe­over, The good Lord be mercifull unto him that prepareth his heart to seeke the Lord God, though he be not cleansed according to the purification of the Sanctuary. An Husband will beare with many aberrations in the behaviour of his Wife, so long as he is perswaded of the intirenesse of her heart towards him: and so dealeth the Lord with them that feare before him with all their hearts. Great is the excellency, many the priviledges of the intire and perfect man. Better is the poore that walketh in his integri­ty, Prov. 28. 6. & 19. 1. Psal. 1 19. 1. Causall bles­sednesse is the pardon of sin; but perfection is blessednesse in order to the execution and fullnesse there­of. The perfect man is actual­ly blessed: but the cause of blessednesse is the free mercy of God. Psal. 119. 80. Job. 8. 20. Psa. 37. 18, 19. 2 Chron. 16. 9. then he that is perverse in his wayes, turning away now on this side, now on that, though he be rich. Integrity advanceth the poore man above the wealthy, and yeeldeth him more sound com­fort and profit both, then all the riches in the world can. They are blessed that walke in the perfect way: Not they that walke in the way of the Ministery, or of the Magistracy, but indefinitely they which walke in any way allowable by the word, with a per­fect heart, be it never so meane or simple, they are blessed. Bles­sed are the undefiled in the way, whatsoever it be, be it to be the scowrer of Channels, drudge in a Kitchen, or to serve in the Gallies.

More particularly. The perfect shall not be confounded. Let my heart be intire in thy statutes, that I be not ashamed. For God will not cast away the perfect man, neither will he take the wic­ked by the hand. He may seeme to neglect, but he doth not forget them that follow after righteousnesse: he is thought to favour, but he doth abhorre the workers of iniquity. The eyes of the Lord runne to and fro throughout the whole earth, to shew himselfe [Page 82] strong in the behalfe of them, whose heart is perfect towards him: Psal. 18. 25. Howsoever they may be weake in themselves, in him they shall be victorious: his power shall be perfected in their weakenesse. ForPsal. 37. 18. as it is in the Psalme, With the perfect man, thou wilt shew thy selfe perfect: thou wilt not faile him in his need. This is the na­ture of God, that he frameth himselfe to the dispositions of men, good to the good, hard to the stubborne, intire to the perfect that waite upon him. The Lord knoweth the dayes of the perfect, and their inheritance shall be for ever: that is, he seeth to what evils they lie open, what help they need, and ordereth all events to theirProv. 28. 16. & 10 9, 29. speciall good. He that walketh in his integrity is safe: no danger can overtake or meete a man in that way; because he is under the shadow and protection of divine providence. Righteousnesse pre­serves him that is intire in the way, but wickednesse overthrow­eth the sinner, Prov. 13. 6. & 11. 5, 6. Let integrity and upright­nesse preserve me, Psal. 25. 21. Integrity is a guard, that doth con­tinually keep watch and ward; and doth not only leade men to a good way, and tell them what is their duty, and fit to be perfor­med; but maketh the way passible for them, and them prosperous in it. An intire heart, is a channell or Barke in which the graces of the Spirit are contained, and faith doth swimme above all stormes and tempests: but a mind void of all integrity, is full of slisters and chincks, that if the most holy liquour of piety be offered, it is pow­red in and out together and at once. This is the nature of integri­ty, that by it the soule is intire in it selfe, and hath a spirituall con­tinuity, which may be shadowed forth by the similitude of things corporall: and therefore so long as integrity is preserved, the heart is apt to containe and keep safe the graces of the Spirit: if it be cracked grace would be lost, should not God make up the breaches of it. A soule destitute of grace, is starke dead; an heart without integrity, not well compacted, is next to death or destruction; as a ship full of holes, or a body unloosed or dissolved. An heart well compact and knit fast together in the Lord (as is the intire) isProv. 10. 29. valiant and couragious in all dangers, trials, temptations. It is not put out of countenance with slanderous tongues, nor shaken with feare of troubles. Though mine adversary should write a booke against me, would I not take it upon my shoulder, and bind it as a crowne unto me, saith Job? The hypocrite in peace and security may seeme strong and valarous: but let God by some affliction [Page 83] drag him out, as it were by the eares from his lurking hole, and convent him before his tribunall, and thou shalt not see any thing more abject and heartlesse. Then is that of the Prophet verified, The sinners in Sion are afraid, a feare is come among the hypo­crites. Isa. 33. 14, 15. Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with the everlasting burning? But the entire heart, even in this case, holds out confident and couragious. And no marvell, for every man that walketh in his integrity hath the priviledge of a treble guard, the guard of Gods protection, of the good Angels, and of a good conscience, for his defence against all adversary power. Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright, Ps. 37. 37. Ps. 37. 40. Ps. 91. 11. for the end of that man is peace: for the Lord shall helpe and deli­ver him, he shall deliver him from the wicked, and save him, be­cause he trusteth in him. The Lord will defend the perfect, and he hath given his Angels charge over them, to beare them in their hands, and keepe them in their waies: In which respect they may say with the Prophet, how many soever rise up against us, they be more and stronger that be with us, then they that rise up against us. Moreover, they are blessed of God with a good conscience, which is as a strong Castle, against which no batteries of the enemy can pre­vaile; he is a most valiant Champion, who will not be daunted with any proud on-set of the Adversary, which he knoweth to be weake, and of no strength. As there is nothing more base, or soo­ner abashed then a corrupt conscience, destitute of integrity: So nothing more bold and hardy then a good and perfect conscience. David in the midst of all his reproaches had the face to professe the name of God before Kings and Princes, without ever being blan­kedPs. 119. 23. at their presence. And shall a man so guarded, regard the enmity of any? fear the threatnings of any, though never so migh­ty? be dismayed at any hard condition that he is fallen into for the present? No, he will not be afraid for any evill tidings, for his heart is fixed and trusteth in the Lord.

Integrity addeth to the glory of our good actions, even such as are but of the lower sort. There is not the meanest duty whatsoe­ver, which integrity will not set a faire glosse upon, that in some respects it shall be matchable even to workes farre greater in their owne nature. A poore labouring man that lives by his hands, ha­ving performed holy obedience to God therin with an entire heart, may have as much comfort on his death-bed, as the best Minister [Page 84] or Magistrate, whose service in it selfe is farre more honourable: yea, if his integrity be greater, his comfort also shall be greater. For God regards not so much the matter, as the forme of obedi­ence: nor so much the thing done, as the affection wherewith we doe it. Wise men regard more the mind of the giver, then the va­lue of the gift. When we first give our hearts wholly and entirely to God, then is our service, how small soever, very acceptable unto his Majesty. It is not the greatnesse or multitude of those good workes which we have done, but the good disposition of an honest and entire heart in the doing of them, that doth bring com­fort, as the internall qualification of that faith, which makes a sound plea for mercy before the throne of grace. An halting heart dasheth the acceptance of the most glorious worke: an entire heart addeth weight to the basest service. The widdowes mite was lit­tle in worth, had not her good heart raised it's price. In value it came farre short of the superfluities that the rich men cast into the treasury; but her heart was better, and so her gift greater then theirs. When Hezekiah had received the sentence of death, what was his comfort? even this, the conscience of his integrity. O Lord remember how I have walked before thee in truth and with Isa. 38. 3. a perfect heart. This was his refuge, though the good workes he had done were in regard of his calling of the highest note, the re­storing of the true worship of God, the purging of the defiled Temple and Priest-hood; yet he did not comfort himselfe in these so worthy workes, but in the perfection of his heart, knowing well that the worke it selfe, though never so glorious, is of no e­steeme, if the heart be rotten, perverse or halting. The entire in Prov. 11. 20. heart are the Lords delight, greatly beloved of him for the pre­sent, and shall more fully see, feele and enjoy the comfort and happinesse of his favour in time to come. The Lord God will Ps. 84. 11. Isa. 60. 19. with-hold no good from them that walke in integrity: for he is both their Sunne and Shield, he will give grace and glory. As the Sunne doth illustrate, cherish and quicken all things with its heate and light: So doth the Lord visit the entire, and refresh them by his Spirit, yea, and as a Shield protect them from all evill. The Prov. 2. 21. Prov. 28. 10. Prov. 20. 7. perfect shall remaine in the Land for ever and leave their inheri­tance unto their children. Who so causeth the righteous to goe a­stray in an evill way, he shall fall himselfe into his owne pit: but the entire shall have good things in possession, and their children af­ter them shall be blessed.

The effect and token of integrity is a setled, wel-advised and de­liberate desire, resolution, will and endeavour to be enformed, what is good and acceptable in the sight of God, and to direct his wayes at all times, and in all places according to rule of righteous­nesse: for he aimes at one marke, and pitcheth upon the right ob­ject.Prov. 20. 7. The just man walketh in his integrity. It is the commen­dation of David, that he did that which was right in the sight of 1 King. 15. 5. God, and turned not aside from any thing that was commanded all the daies of his life.

The fruits of this resolution are these and such like;

First, there is no sin though never so deare, precious or profi­table, which a perfect Christian would not willingly espy out and judge in himselfe, I will declare mine iniquity, I will be sorrie for Psal. 38. 18. my sinne.

Secondly, it workes a dislike of sinne in all, even in those which be most neare and deare unto us.

Thirdly, It is joyned with a continuall care to preserve himselfe1 Ki. 15. 13, 14. Ps. 18. 23. 2 Sam. 22. 24. innocent from all sin, especially his particular and formerly belo­ved transgressions. I was perfect before him, and I kept my selfe from mine iniquity.

Fourthly, In all conditions he will looke to himselfe, that he be not carried away with unbridled passions. In regard of seve­rall states, men are subject to be transported with diverse affe­ctions, as with pride, pleasure, security in prosperity, impati­ence, fretting, discontent in adversity. Wherefore the entire Christian doth ever look to his heart, that it be not distempered with these things.

Fifthly, If the heart be entire with God, it will admit his wordProv. 2 [...]. 29. Psal. 119. 24. Psal. [...]8. 22. 2 Sam. 22. 23. for direction in all things. Thy testimonies are my delight and my Counsellours, that is, they governe my mind and heart, of them I take advice. All thy judgements were before me: and I did not put away thy Statutes from me.

Sixthly, They that are entire are said to have fulfilled after theIsa. 14. 8, 9, 14. Lord, that is, fully or entirely to have followed him, Deut. 1. 36. Numb. 14. 24.

Seventhly, The perfect man putteth away froward and per­verse speeches. The poore that walketh in his integrity is op­posedNumb. 32. 1 [...]. to him that is perverse in his lips, that speaketh froward things.

Eighthly, His care is to keep himself unspotted of the world,Prov. 19. 1. Amos 5. 10. doing that which is honest, pure, praise-worthy in the sight of God and man. This note the Prophet David giveth; for having said, Blessed are the undefiled in the way, he teacheth us to discernPsal. 119. 1, 3. them by this effect, surely they doe no iniquity.

Ninthly, He will receive evill at the hands of God thankfully, as well as good, and blesse his name, when he crosseth his desires,Job 2. 9, 10. and taketh from him what he delights in, as well as when he gran­teth the desire of his heart in outward blessings.

Tenthly, An entire heart is ready prepared to serve God, to part with any thing be it never so deare for Christ, and to suffer any1 Chron [...]. 19 Mark 10. 21. Mat. 19. 21. thing be it never so hard for Christs sake.

Eleventhly, He that walketh in his integrity will deale conscio­nably at home and abroad, in all duties of his generall and particu­larPs. 101. 1, 2. Joh. 2. 8. 2 Chron. 28. 9. vocation towards all men. I will walke in the midst of mine house in the integrity of mine heart. I will set no evill thing before mine eyes.

Lastly, He presseth towards the marke, and aimes at an higher degree of holinesse, Phil. 3. 13, 14, 15. One thing I doe, I forget that which is behind, and endeavour hard forward towards the marke, 2 Cor. 7. 1.

Integrity is the gift of God, infused into the heart by the holy Ghost; but in this respect we may not neglect the meanes ordained of God for the attainment and preservation of it. God and none but he did place David in the hill Syon, and give Gideon victory over the Midia [...]ites, as they both well kn [...]w, and firmely belee­ved: but their beleef did not emasculate their minds, or tie their hands from using such strength and valour, as they had.

First, Care must be had to furnish the mind with the affectio­nate knowledge of God in Christ Jesus. And thou Solomon my sonne, know thou the God of thy Fathers, and serve him with a per­fect 1 Chron. 28. 9. heart. The knowledge of God begets in us a similitude of God. When we come to understand what he is to us, we are made to him what he requireth. As when sound knowledge entereth, it stampeth the Image of God upon the heart: for it assimulates the mind to the object seen and discerned.

2. All holy meanes must be used to incorporate the word into the heart, that it may season every affection, and beare mild uni­versall Soveraignty over us. For the heart is trans-formed through­out [Page 87] into the nature of the word, and every power of soul is brought into subjection by an unfained, soveraigne, well-rooted faith, it is entire in parts, though imperfect in degrees. Herein all dili­gence and paines must be taken by preparation, hearing, medita­tion, and observation of all unexpected occasions of griefe, sor­row, feare, joy, or such like, to bring the word into the affecti­ons, that it may sweeten their disposition, and governe their mo­tion.

3. In all endeavours we must include prayer to God in the name of Christ, as a chiefe associate: for God ordinarily lets in sancti­fying grace at the same gate, at which honest hearted prayers goe out.

4. The fourth meanes is, for a man alwayes to possesse his heart with the apprehension of Gods presence, and so to keepe it in his feare continually; to walke with God, as being in his eye, and seeing him that is invisible. This remembrance of Gods all-seeing presence, will make men study to approve themselves before God in all their courses, and to sticke unto him with their whole hearts. Could the eye of a jealous husband prie into every privy corner of his wives heart, she would be afraid to hide any strange lover in her secret affection. If but a man, nay if but a child could looke into our hearts, we durst not deale doubly and deceitfully. What? God seeth us, and shall we dare to dally with him? Shall I give him part of my heart, and reserve another part for the world, for pleasure, for sin? How should not God find this out? for he sear­cheth the heart and reynes, and understandeth the secret cogitati­ons of every soul.

5. Another meanes is diligently to review all works of obedi­ence, and our affections in the doing of them: and to observe what discomfort and trouble follows the maimed and defective performance of good duties. And withall when we take our selves tardy, in an holy in [...]gnation to take revenge of our selves, judging and condemning our selves before God. The very thinking of the after reckonings we must come unto, when we have done our work, will make us take heed how we doe it. The remembrance of the losse and punishment they shall sustaine, whose works are not perfect before the Lord, will stirre up respect to every Com­mandment. For who is there that useth for all his actions, at the dayes end to call himselfe to a severe examination, as the hard [Page 88] Master doth his servants, that must not needs in the very midst of his actions, reason thus within himselfe; anone all this which now I doe, must very narrowly be looked over, and if the reason why I doe it, my affections in doing, the worke it selfe be maimed, halt or suffer defect in the parts thereof, I shall smart for it. O the wrings and secret pinches which mine owne guilty heart will give me; yea, the sentence which by Covenant I am tyed to passe up­on my self, in case my heart be partiall to the Lord, and my work deformed? If my worke be not perfect, shall I not loose all my la­bour, and be rejected with it?

Lastly, It is good to meditate seriously on the joyes of heaven, and the rich recompence of reward reserved for them that cleave unto the Lord with their whole hearts. If the happinesse of Saints here­after doe rightly affect, and be soundly beleeved, a man will be contented to part with all that he hath to purchase that treasure. Whatsoever he hath laid next his heart, he will abandon it with detestation, rather then deprive himself of that eternall inheritance, which God hath prepared.

To stirre up himselfe to strive after perfection more and more, a Christian must first shame himself for his halting, and make it o­dious; ah, the division of my heart, the maimednesse of my ser­vice is so apparant, that I cannot conceale it from my conscience. I have lodged sinne, vanity, pleasure, the world in the closet of my heart, which should have been kept entire for the Lord. My purposes for good have been weake, my resolutions variable, oft­times by occurrences and occasions I have been drawn aside. In holy performances I have served mine onw corrupt affections, and doing what is right, not done it with a perfect heart. Mine affe­ction to good hath been partiall, base, deformed; In the grea­test matters I have been remisse, precise in lesser: zealous in one, carelesse in another: ready to run according to inclination, not looking to the direction of the truth. I have sometimes been for­ward to heare, not so carefull to meditate, and make the word mine own; eager and fiery against some particular notorious of­fences, but not vigilant to bridle rash anger, boysterous passions and indiscreet and idle speeches. My love to the children of God hath neither been pure, nor universall: I have been apt to admire some, dis-esteem others according as they carry themselves to­wards me, and fit me in my humour. If he be a cursed deceiver, [Page 89] that having a male in his flock, doth offer that which is halt and lame to the Lord: how justly might I be confounded, who have wickedly departed from my God, and set my affections upon things of no value? Will an husband accept of divided love in his wife? will a Prince regard or take in good part, that which is lame, blind or sick, for a present from his Subject? O Lord, I have dealt exceeding foolishly in tendering such spotted service unto thy Highnesse.

Secondly, He must resolve to keepe himselfe more entirely toPsal. 119. 69. 1 King. 8. 48. the commandments of God for the time to come. I have wic­kedly departed from my God, but now I will returne, and keepe his Commandments with my whole heart. What can I tender untoThey are bles­sed who have attained some perfection in the exercise of holines. Every apprentice deemes him happie, who hath the per­fect skill of that trade wherein he is exercised. 1 King. 8. [...]9. It is a great shame to leape from pale to sprig, and with the moone to change our be­liefs. Thou art ashamed to be accounted an inconstant man. his Majesty, lesse then my selfe? How can I for shame intreat his favour, unlesse I cleave unto him with a perfect heart? Can I de­sire God to be wholly mine, unlesse I be wholly his? Can I be so impudent as to intreat God to love me with a prime and conjugall love, and give me leave to love sinne which he abhorreth, to love other things above or equall with his Highnesse? Can I looke to be married unto Christ in mercy, truth and compassion, if my heart doe not affect him above all, and other things in and through him alone? The Lord is a great King, his service must be without spot or blemish. His eye searcheth the heart, and perfectly un­derstandeth all secret motions a farre off, and will give to every one as he knoweth his heart, and according to his wayes. Men of place looke to have their pleasure done in all things by such as at­tend upon them: and shall I presume to call my selfe the servant of the living God, when I doe his pleasure in part only and by halves. My obedience cannot be perfect in degree so long as I live here, but through the grace of God it shall be universall, and that I might attaine absolute perfection in heaven, I will strive after it in this life. O Lord, I have covenanted to sticke unto thy testi­monies, and by thy grace I will keepe thy precepts all the dayes of my life, unto thee therfore do I flie for strength, support, acceptance. Create in me, O God, a cleane heart, renew a right (constant) spirit Ps. 119. 68. Ps. 51. 10. 1 Kin. 8. 58. Ps. 119. 8. within me; Establish me with thy grace, that I never fall from my integrity. I will keepe thy statutes, O forsake me not ut­terly.

In the former overture of the Covenant by Gods appointment they offered sacrifice, which was a type of Christ, and seale of re­mission [Page 90] and propitiation by the bloud of Christ, under this ex­pression the same continued: for so we reade, that Abraham builtGen. 12. 7. and 22. 9. Altars unto the Lord, and offered sacrifice. But unto this, it plea­sed God to adde other assurances whereby he bound himselfe to performe the promises which he freely made of his grace, and did establish the faith of Abraham and his posterity. This Covenant God confirmed by federall signes in the segments and fiery lamp. Gen. 15. and then by sacramentall signes, as by Circumcision. Gen. 17. which was a seale of promise on Gods part, and an ho­mage or fealtie in Abraham and his seed binding them unto the service which God required under the Covenant of grace: andGal. 5. 3. In as much as Circumcision was the signe or solemne ce­remony of this mutuall league between God and Abraham, and Abrahams seed, it is ne­cessarily im­plyed (by the tenour of the same mutuall Covenant) that God should sub­scribe or seale the league af­ter the same manner, and to receive the fame signe of Circumcision in his flesh, which Abra­ham and his seed had done. Rom. 4. 11. Rom. 2. 28, 29. therefore the Apostle put this upon them that will use Circumci­sion after Christ, that they are bound to keep the whole Law, not because Circumcision for the outward act was commanded in the Law, but because it was that homage penny, which tyed them to punctuall obedience. We may conceive, that God by this Com­mandement might now prove Abrahams obedience therein, im­posing a thing abhorrent to nature, which could not be before sinne, because it doth presuppose sinne and punishment: And it was a notable pledge of his faith, for if he could believe God in so dangerous and fearefull an execution, they might beleeve him in any other command or promise under the Covenant. Circumci­sion was not without the shedding of bloud, because the Covenant was not yet established in the bloud of the Messiah, and that might leade the faithfull to the bloud of Christ, as assuring the purging away of sinne by the same. God could have instituted [...] Sacrament which might have agreed to both sexes, but of his infi­nite wisdome, he made choice of that which could have being i [...] the males only: but the female was accounted as circumcised in the male: and therefore faithfull women were the daughters of Abraham, Luke 13. 16. and the common promise, that God would be the God of Abraham and his seed, did pertaine to each sex of his posterity. Circumcision was a seale of the righteousnesse which is by faith, that which is purchased by Christ, and embraced by faith: It was also a signe of the Circumcision of the heart by the Spirit of Christ, without which the rite did commend no man to God. Deut. 10. 16. which Circumcision of the heart is promised of God as his grace. Deut. 30. 6. and is fulfilled in Christ,Jer. 4. 4. C [...]l. 2. 10, 11. Phil. 3. 3. And it was a seale of the Covenant, and [Page 91] so of all the promises made therein concerning things temporall to the seed and posterity of Abraham, as they stood in reference to the Covenant of Grace. All that were outwardly circumci­sed, were not partakers of the spirituall blessings promised, yet was not Circumcision altogether unprofitable unto them: but as they were within the Covenant, so did Circumcision seale unto them the blessings of the Covenant. If they were externally in Covenant only and by profession, it confirmed the promises of the earthly Canaan and some other outward things whereof they were partakers: If they were internally and effectually in Cove­nant, it confirmed the highest blessings unto them, which they obtained by faith. It appeares then, that all are not in Covenant after one manner, nor doe all that be in Covenant, equally partake of the same blessings: they that be outwardly in Covenant par­take the outward and basest part of the Covenant, they that be truly in Covenant obtaine the bighest: but what blessings soever they enjoy, they are given according to the Covenant of Grace, and not of workes, given of free bounty to them that yeeld but partiall and fained obedience, and not merited by their works. But of this more at large in the next Chapter.

From all this it followeth, First, that all the faithfull are of the same faith with Abraham. The Father and the Sonnes spirituall be of the same beliefe: as they doe partake of the same spirituall priviledges. It is one God that justifieth the circumcision and the uncircumcision, and it is the same faith whereby the Promises of mercy are embraced. Zaccheus is called the son of Abraham, and he beleeved in Christ as did Abraham.

2. Not only Promises of temporall good things, but of spiritu­all and eternall were made to the Patriarks in the Covenant of Grace, and sought and obtained by them. They looked for a City whose builder and maker the Lord is. Remission of sinnes andHeb. 11. 11, 12. life everlasting was preached in the Covenant, sealed in the Sacra­ment, and typified by the Land of Canaan. To conceit the Fa­thers to be an assembly of bruite beasts, which looked to be fed with earthly blessings alone, is highly to dishonour them, and lessen the grace and mercy of God towards them.

3. Sacramentall phrases, wherein the name of the thing signi­fied is given to the signe, are ancient and familiar; as Circumcisi­on is called the Covenant, and the rocke Christ. Why then should [Page 92] our Adversaries stumble at this, that in the Sacrament of the Sup­per, The Bread is called the body of Christ.

4. In this expression of the Covenant, the spirituall good things promised therein are limited to Abraham and to his seed. But all Infants whatsoever are not comprehended under the seed of Abraham. To say many thousand thousands are excluded from the seales and outward administration of the Covenant, when yet every one is partaker of the good promised in the Covenant, is to speake of our selves, and not according to the Word of God. We will not tie the grace of God to outward meanes: but ordinarily we cannot affirme they pertaine to the Covenant of Grace, and obtaine the highest blessings promised therein, whom God doth not vouchsafe so much as outwardly to receive into Covenant.

CHAP. VII. Of the Covenant of Grace under Moses till the returne of Israel from the Babylonish Captivity.

NOw we are drawing downe to Moses his time, and that ma­nifestation of the Covenant of Grace, which was revealed to the Church by his Ministery. The curse of Gods revenging ju­stice had now seized upon mankind for many generations, even thousands of yeares, so that now it was time for God to remem­ber mercy in the midst of wrath, and to breake out into a clearer expression of this free gratious Covenant, extended to a people sprung up into a great number, and to be joyned together in an outward policie. The Covenant of free grace running downe in Abrahams seed was daily cast out, and grew wilde, as in the Ish­maelites, Edomites, Syrians, &c. therefore God was now pleased to knit the seed of Abraham together in a stronger, and (as I may call it) a state Covenant, that things might grow better and not worse, The body of the people to whom the Covenant pertained, was now growne populous and numerous, so that either it must grow wild, and come to nothing by it owne weight, or else be brought under the Covenant of God into a state and nationall Church.

The Covenant which God made with Israel is called the Old [Page 93] Testament or the Law, not because it was first, as some suppose, but because it was to wax old, and to give place to the more ex­cellent Covenant succeeding, and finally to be abolished.Heb. 8. 13.

But here at the first we meet with a great difficulty, How, and whether at all the Covenant of Grace, was manifested by Moses?

Some make the Old and New Testament, as the Covenant of workes and grace, opposite in substance and kind, and not in de­gree alone: and that to introduce an unsound distinction, viz. of promise set against Covenant or Testament, as though God con­ferred Grace unto the Fathers only by promise, and not by Cove­nant, leaving all that Moses puts under Covenant to be the Cove­nant of works and old Testament, not considering that God cal­leth his promise of Grace to Abraham a Covenant. Gen. 17. 1. be­ing in every branch a compleat Covenant: not adverting that the Apostle (who knew how to speake according to the sence of the old Scriptures) cals the promise made unto Abraham a Covenant or Testament. Gal. 3. 17. and the Covenant of promise, distingui­shing the degrees of manifestation. Ephes. 2. 12. Neither can it be proved, that ever God made the Covenant of works with the creature fallen: but whensoever the Scripture speakes of Gods entring into Covenant with man fallen and plunged into sinne, and for sinne deserving wrath, it must be understood of the Cove­nant of Grace, as shall be shewed hereafter.

Others make the Old Testament a Covenant subservient to the Covenant of Grace, and describe it to be that which God made with Israel in Mount Sinai, to prepare them to faith, and to inflame them with a desire of the promise and Evangelicall Co­venant (which otherwise had languished in their minds) and to restrain them from wickednesse as it were with a bit and bridle, untill the time wherein God should send the Spirit of adoption into their hearts, and governe them by the Law of liberty. This they make to agree with the Covenant of nature in this, that in both the one partie contracting is God, the other man, both hath a stipulation annexed, and that the same in respect of the mo­rall Law: the promise is the same in generall, and both leade un­to Christ. But to differ from it in this, that the Covenant of na­ture was made with all men, but this with the Israelites alone; that was made with man created and perfect in Paradise, and had [Page 94] no preludia: this was made long after with some part of man­kind sinners, in Mount Sinai, and had many preludia: that bound to obedience due by the Law of nature, this to the Ceremo­nies also: in that the injoyment of life in Paradise was promised, here in the Land of Canaan: the Covenant of nature leads to Christ by accident, as it shewes what man doth owe unto God, and what punishment remaines if he pay not his debt of duty: the old Covenant leads unto Christ by it selfe, for that is the true and proper scope thereof, God exacting his due of man for none other end, but that the creature convicted of his imbecillity, should flie to Christ. The Covenant of Nature leanes upon the Creation and generall conservation; the old Covenant upon the Election of Israel, his deliverance out of Egypt, and conservation in the Land of Canaan.

The Covenant of Nature was written in the heart; but the oldGal. 4. 24. Covenant did beget to servitude, and so did compell and restraine by force, as when we leave undone what we would doe, or doe what we would not for feare: that is eternall, this temporary, written in Tables of stone; The thirst after Christ which the Covenant of Nature doth stirre up in man, is allayed by the ap­plication of Christ either in the Promise, or in the Gospell: but the thirst which the old Covenant stirred up, could not be allayed, but by the comming of Christ in the flesh.

With the Covenant of Grace it agreeth, that the Author of both is God, both contracted with man a sinner: both doth shew sinne: both restraine from sinne: both leade to Christ: both the Symbole of the Church: both made by a Mediatour, and life pro­mised in both. They differ in these, that in the Covenant subser­vient, God is considered as reproving sinne, and approving righ­teousnesse: in the Covenant of Grace, as pardoning sinne, and re­newing man in righteousnesse; the stipulation of the old Cove­nant is, Doe this and live: Gal. 3. 12. Of the New, Beleeve, and thou shalt not come into judgement. Joh. 3. 18. The Old Testament was added to the Promise of Grace, which went before. Gal. 3. 16, 17. and shewes sinne not primarily, but by experience of hu­mane weaknesse in keeping Covenant. But the Covenant of Grace doth this primarily, for it teacheth expressely that all men are sinners. Rom. 3. 9, 23. and that his happinesse doth consist in the remission of sinnes. Rom. 4. 6. The old Covenant did restrain from [Page 95] sinne by compulsion. Rom. 7. 23. 24. the Covenant of Grace with a free inclination of mind and soule. Rom. 6. 12. The Covenant of Grace leads to Christ directly: the old Covenant indirectly. The old Covenant is the carnall Symbole of the Church of the Jewes, the new Covenant a spirituall Symbole of the Church both of Jewes and Gentiles. Moses is the Mediatour of the old Covenant: Christ God and man Mediatour of the new. In the old Covenant is given the spirit of bondage; but the Spirit of Adoption in the new. Rom. 8. 15. The old Covenant was a meane to the end: the new the end it selfe. The old Covenant did ter­rifie the consciences: the new doth comfort: Man a sinner fal­len a sleep is the object of the old Covenant: the conscience ter­rified with sinne the object of the new. The old Covenant shew­ed the manner of worshipping God, but gave not ability: the new Covenant doth both. The old Covenant was an hand-wri­ting against us. Col. 2. 14. the new an easie yoke. Matth. 11. 28. The old Covenant was from Mount Sinai. Heb. 12. 18. the new from Sion heavenly, amiable and pleasant. Psal. 2. 6. The old Covenant excludes the Gentiles: the new admits them. The old promiseth life in Canaan: the new in Heaven. But not to examine these things particularly, by this explication it appeares, the Divines of this opinion, make the old Covenant differ from the new in substance, and kind, and not in degree of manifestation, as also did the former.

Most Divines hold the old and new Covenant to be one in substance and kind, to differ only in degrees: but in setting down the differences they speake so obscurely, that it is hard to find how they consent with themselves. For most commonly they distin­guish them thus: The old Testament promiseth life to them that obey the Law, and condemnes all not perfectly conformable: the new doth freely pardon sinnes, and give Salvation to them that believe in Christ. The old was written by the finger of God in tables of stone: the new by the Spirit of God in the fleshie tables of the heart. The old was the ministery of death, a killing letter: the new the ministery of the quickning Spirit. The old did lay upon the necks of the Fathers an intollerable yoke of rites and commandements: the new doth impose the easie yoke of the Spirit, enduing us with the Spirit of Adoption and liberty of the Sonnes of God. The old doth involve the Doctrine of the Grace [Page 96] of the Messiah under the shadowes of types and rites: the new doth containe the fulfilling of the tipes and figures. Moses is the typicall Mediatour of the Old Testament: Christ is the true Me­diatour of the New. The old is sealed by the blood of Sacrifi­ces: the new is ratified by the blood of the Mediatour the and death of the Testatour. The Old by oblations did not pacifie the wrath of God, nor purge the conscience: the new containes the true propitiation in the blood of Christ. The old was imperfect, intolerable, weake, and therfore to be abolished: the new perfect, easy, and to continue for ever, &c. with o­ther the like before mentioned. And many things herein are spo­ken truly, but how all these differences should stand, if they be not Covenants opposite in kind, it is not easy to understand. Some few have laboured to reconcile them one of these two wais. First that the Old Testament doth promise life eternall plainly under the condition of morall obedience perfect, that is under a condition altogether unpossible, together with an heavy burden of legall rites and an yoke of most strict pollicie, but covertly un­der the condition of repentance and faith in the Messias to come prefigured by tipes and ceremonies, that by this forme of do­ctrine, worship and policie, a proud, grosse, and stiffe-necked people might be more tamed, and convinced of their owne un­righteousnesse: and that by such a pedagogue they might be led to Christ, who was more obscurely manifested under those shadows. The second is, By a distinction of Moses his proposition of the Law from God unto that people: which (as they would) is done either with exaction of perfect obedience deserving eternall life, and threatning eternall curse to all that continue not in every thing of the booke of the Law to doe it, Deut. 27. 26. or in a com­fortable moderation and [...] promising blessings to those who doe what they can to performe it. The first is a perfect and exact draught of the Law of prime nature: the second a [...]erswasion and incouragement to corrupt nature to stirre up the relicks of power and the Image of God upon hope of future good. The first is propounded to all mankind, this to the Church, though others, take benefit by it. In the first the Law breaths nothing but wrath to fallen nature, for that hath no grace nor mercy, Joh. 1. 17. In the second Moses speakes Gospell to the Israelites, for the out­ward happinesse of particulars, and the prosperity of the whole. [Page 97] The first and rigid proposition is of the Morall Law alone, and as it was contained in the first writing, Exod. 20. The second is laid downe in Moses whole frame and oeconomy to that people. The first stands in full opposition to the Covenant of Grace, con­taining a perfect Covenant of workes: but the second is and may be subordinate to the Covenant of Grace, as will appeare. And this distinction (as they conceive) is further strengthened by the preparation unto the first delivery, Exod. 19. and what strictnesse was there required in the people to prepare themselves for their persons, and what a straite charge was given not to come neere the Mount, least they die, Vers. 12. in the delivery what terrible voices, lightnings, thunders, fire, &c. with the quaking of the earth, so that neither Priest nor people must come neare least they should be consumed of wrath in the giving of the Law, which when the people heard and saw, they could not endure, but de­sired Moses to be Mediatour betwixt God and them, least if they should heare God, they should die: which was the ground of that Aphorisme, Who ever saw God and lived; yea such was the terror that Moses himselfe said, I feare and quake, Heb. 12. 21. Thus the Morall Law was first given by God: but not written till the se­cond going up, Exod. 24. 12. where God promiseth to find the tables, and write in them with his owne finger: and such was the feare of the second delivery, that Moses was glad to lenifie the former by reading the judicialls, which he had writ, and to offer sacrifice.

And thus Moses goes up the second time, and receives the two tables tarrying there forty dayes. Whilest Moses stayed the people brake the Covenant by Idolatry. God sent Moses downe, and by wise providence so ordered, that Moses brake the Tables of the Covenant; and now was all dasht, and Moses to begin a­gaine to mediate for this sinne in Aaron and the people, Exod. 32. 19. Deut. 9. Hitherto in the delivery and writing of the Law Mo­rall thunders nothing but wrath: and the more Law, the lesse o­bedience, till the Law was vailed and shadowed from them in the curse of it. Moses having thus travailed and broken those bare and open Tables, wherein was curse and plague with open face painted, he is called up againe. Exod. 34. Deut. 2. 1. but consi­der with what alteration. For first Moses now must hew the Tables, God would not deale with that, signifying that he would [Page 98] have the Mediatour Moses to have more to doe with the delivery of the second writing then at the first, which was the prologue to the lenifying of the Law, wherewith man had to doe. 2. Mo­ses must bring the Tables up, and God would write the words before written, which shewed that God could not, nor would not alter the Law, which was a perfect draught of the first Law imprinted in Adam. 3. Consider that here was no preparation, nor any terror of wonders, but a soft breath of God in this pas­sage, noting this, that God had sufficiently thundred wrath in the former delivery, and now seekes to cover it that the people might heare and obey. 4. Moses must provide an Arke to co­ver the Tables, which was not only for the safe keeping of the Tables, but to cover the wrath and curse, that the people should not see it, which was the first vaile. 5. We doe not reade that ever the Lord would have either the people or Priest to reade these words out of stone, but as they were mollifyed by Moses his transcription, in his bookes especially; wherein Prince and peo­ple were to reade the duties of the Covenant and the promises. No more tables, there they are, but deale not with them, there is wrath at the first opening: which was the reason why God smote the men of Bethshemesh with such a slaughter, because they durst looke into, and reade upon these tables of the Arke of the Lord, 1 Sam. 6. 19. 6. We reade that God, Exod. 34. 5. when Moses was standing before the Lord with his prepared tables, the Lord descended, and proclaimed, The Lord, The Lord, and said. The Lord God mercifull and gratious, long suffering and aboundant in mercy and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression and sinne. Thus the Lord would take away the edge of the curse, though he would write it for ends unmentioned. Then the Lord upon the Mount rehearsed the Covenant of grace with Israel, and causeth Moses the Mediatour to write it, Exod. 34. 27. And now he had in his hand both the Covenant of works and of grace, the one hid in the Arke, the other open in his hand: the same Commandements, but the one with wrath, the other lenified by God. 7. When Moses came downe this appearance of God had changed the skin of his face, that he was glad to put a vaile upon him, for o­therwise the people could not, nay durst not behold him, but ranne from him, as at first from God, when he delivered the Law upon Mount [...], which God would have for the very same end, [Page 99] Moses his shining face signifying the curse and wrath of God in the Law, as a meere draught of the Covenant of workes, which the people could not behould, his vaile signifying the covering of this curse from the eyes of Israel. 8. Consider that till the Law as a mee [...]e draught of natures Law was marked and thus vailed at Moses his proposition of the remedy unto these carnall Israelites, in the blood of the sacrifices, writ in the Ceremoniall Law, it could not quiet them, nor pacifie their consciences. 9. Observe this one thing further, that Moses in the five bookes doth so shun this rigid proposition of the Law, that the Apostle when he came to deale with the false Apostles about this acceptation of the Law as standing full against the Covenant of Grace and Justification by faith, could find but two testimonies in all Moses, which ne­cessarily convinced this manner of propounding the Law, the one, Deut. 21. 23. the other, Deut. 27. 26. But because this end of the vailing of Moses his face, as tending to signifie the curse of the Morall Law, and the vailing of it from the eyes of carnall Israel is called into question by some of prized judgement, and that from the passage of 2 Cor. 3. they spend one proposition in clearing that place to prove that it was the vailing of the Morall Law in the Curse. For first say they, it could not be the vailing of the blood of Christ in the Ceremonials; for the Ceremonies was a sufficient vaile to hide that, and to have put an other vaile had been against Gods love, who would have the people spiritu­all to looke into it for Salvation: one vaile was sufficient to hide so precious a treasure. But to the Text, it is plaine in the begin­ning of the Chapter 2 Cor. 3. 3. that the Apostle meanes the wri­ting of the Law in their hearts, namely the Commandements of the Morall Law by removing the Curse, that the heart may close in with it. Secondly, Vers. 6. The ministery of the Spirit is opposed not to the Cloud of Ceremonies, but to the letter of the Law Morall: for this killeth, so did not the Ceremony, but quick­ning his measure. Thirdly. Vers. 7. The Ministery of the Gospell is opposed to that which was graven in stone, which was the Morall Law only. Fourthly, Vers. 13. Moses his vaile was put on when Moses was read, and not the Ceremoniall Law a­lone, as intending the vailing of the Curse of the Morall Law. Fifthly, That which beares shew is Vers. 14. where the Text faith, that the vaile was taken away in Christ. It is true that [Page 100] the Ceremonies were removed in the comming of the substance, but is it not as true, and here meant, that the curse o [...] the Law was removed by the comming of Christ, and so the vaile made needlesse, Gal. 3. 13. But Vers. 15. the vaile yet remaines when Moses is read, which cannot be the Ceremony vailing the blood of Christ, for that is removed in act: for the Jewes sacrifice not for want of an Altar: but it is most true of the vaile of the Morall Law to cover wrath. For as it was a mercy to vaile it to that people till Christ came, so it is now a judgement Christ being come to shade it. For it might be, if seene, an accidentall cause to drive them to Jesus the Sonne of Mary for a Saviour. But the knot lyeth in the 18. verse, But we all &c. where it is thought, and strongly spoken, that the vaile signifieth the Ceremoniall Law. It is true there is a flat opposition of Christian and Jew, the one with open face beholding Christ, the other not daring to see the glory of the Lord in giving the Law. But all will be evi­dent if it be shewed what is here meant by the Image of Christ, which we behold with open face, which is not the blood of Christ vailed in the blood of the Sacrifices, but the Law of God writ in his heart, (promised Jer. 31. 34.) as the head, which is the new command of the Morall Law, set up for us as a glasse which be­houlding by faith, we are changed into the same Image by the Spirit, and now it will appeare that the whole Chapter speakes of the Morall Law.

Another inforcement of this distinction is from the Apostle Gal. 3. where he disputes against the Morall Law taken as a rigid draught of natures Law, unto the 23. verse, for otherwise the Law had been no enemy unto him as a branch of the Covenant of Grace: but at the 23. verse he disputes the good ends of it, as pro­pounded with Gods moderation. By the Law which we call the Morall Law, Moses and Paul meane the meere draught of the Law of nature, as it hath necessarily affixed eternall life to the punctuall performance, or eternall curse to the disobeyers in the least title. For the Law is complexum quiddam, containing in it command▪ and blessing and cursing. Take command without blessing or cursing, and it is no more Law with Moses: take sim­pl [...] denu [...]ciation of blessing and curse from command, and then it is threatning and promise, but no Law.

This abstract of the Law here considered from the rest of Moses [Page 101] his O [...]conomy is pure Law flashing wrath upon the fallen crea­ture, and therefore called a fiery Law, or fire of Law, Deut. 33. 3. And for speciall cause expressed in generall by the Apostle, Gal. 3. The Law, that is thus abstracted, was added, because of trans­gression. For first, in that long course of time betwixt Adam▪ and Moses, men had forgotten what was sinne, and had oblitera­ted the very Law of nature. Therefore God sets out the lively I­mage of it by Moses in this draught and abstract, to which end, all the commands saving two are propounded in the negative, that so men by the Church might know the nature of sinne againe, Rom. 3. 19.

Secondly, God propounds the Law with curse eternall to work death, and to shew Gods eternall displeasure against sin, Rom. 4. 15. which was usefull not only to the world and wicked in gene­rall, but specially to the stiff-necked and refractory Nation, to be as a rod to scourge all their rebellions and backslidings. The Law thus laced with blessings and cursings eternall, abstracted from the rest of his frame, makes Moses now to begin to breath blessings, and no lesse then Gospel. This comming from a pacified God (as Exod. 33. 6, 7, 8.) may be looked on by the fallen creature with comfort, and from this consideration it is that we affirme this Co­venant made with the body of Israel to be a Covenant of Grace: for it is one, and therefore never by Moses called Cove­nants.

Again, It cannot be denied, that so farre as it concerned the spirituall I [...]raelite (whom God especially eyed and for their sakes infolded the carnall in the compact) it was a Covenant. Thus farre for confirmation of that distinction. But these distin­ctions seeme not to remove the doubt. Not the first, because it cannot be conceived how the old Covenant should as a condition of the Covenant, exact perfect obedience deserving life as neces­sary to Salvation, and yet promise pardon to the repentant belie­ver: for these two are contrary the one to the other. Not the se­cond, because the Covenant that God made with the Jewes is but one, and how should we conceive the Law in one, and the same Covenant to be propounded as a rigid draught of prime nature, and with moderation also, as the Covenant of works, and the Cove­nant of Grace likewise, when the Covenant is but one, and the conditions the same. Besides, where the Apostles doe oppose the [Page 102] Law and Gospel, or the old and new Testament, not only the Morall Law, as it was given upon Mount Sinai, but the whole Jewi [...]h Pedagogie, or Law of Moses is understood, as it is mani­fest in sundry passages. Other things to be observed in that expli­cation I will not insi [...]t upon at this present, because they will come to be touched hereafter, as we passe along.The Law was never given or made positive without the Gospel, neither is the Gospel now without the Law, al­though the old Testament be▪ usually called the Law, and the new the Gospel: because the Law is pre­dominant in the one, and the Gospel in the other. Exod. 19. 4, 5.

Some Divines hold the old Testament, even the Law, as it was given upon Mount Sinai, to be the Covenant of Grace for sub­stance, though propounded in a manner fitting to the state of that people, time and condition of the Church. It was so delivered as it might serve to discover sin, drive the Jews to deny themselves and [...]lie to the mercy of God revealed in Jesus: but it was given to be a rule of life to a people in Covenant, directing them how to walk before God in holinesse and righteousnesse, that they might inherit the promises of grace and mercy. This I take to be the truth, and it may be confirmed by many and strong reasons out of the word of God. As first, by the contract of that spirituall mar­riage a little before the promulgation of the Law, described in these words: Yee have seene what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on Eagles wings, and brought you unto myselfe. Now therefore if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keepe my Covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine. And yee shall be unto me a King­dome of Priests, and an holy Nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel: whereunto the Pro­phetJer. 11. 2, 3, 4. Jeremiah hath reference, saying, Heare ye the words of this Covenant, and speak unto the men of Judah, and to the inhabi­tants of Jerusalem, and say thou unto them, thus saith the Lord Deut. 4. 13. 1 King. 8. 21. 2 King. 23. 2. Booke of the Covenant, Ex. God of Israel, Cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this Covenant, which I commanded your Fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the Land of Egypt, from the iron for­nace, saying obey my voice and doe them, according to all which 24. 7. Deut. 4. 23. & 5. 2. & 9. 9. Jer. 3. 16. Hos. 8. 1. Jer. 7. 23. 2 Chro. 6. 11. Ex. 34. 27, 28. Eph. 2. 1, 2. Rom. 5. 10▪ I command you, so shall ye be my people, and I will be your God. And this without doubt is to be understood of the Decalogue, as it was given upon Mount Sinai, seeing Moses himselfe doth in expresse words testifie it. God himselfe (saith he) declared unto you his Covenant, which he commanded you to performe, even ten words, and he wrote them upon two tables of stone. In these passages observe, that the Law is called a Covenant, as it is often [Page 103] els-where the Covenant of the Lord. What Covenant, but of grace and mercy? even that wherein God promiseth to be their God, and take them to be his people, if they obey his command­ments. For since the fall of Adam, the Covenant which the Lord hath entered into with his people, was ever free and gracious: For when all men are sinners by nature, dead in trespasses, and e­nemies to God, how can a Covenant betwixt God and man be stricken without forgivenesse of former transgressions? If in the state of innocency perfect obedience should have been rewarded with life from justice: now that man is fallen by transgression,Chald. Paraph. [...], 1 Pet. 2. 5. & [...]. Sept. 1 Pet. 2. 9. Exod. 19. 5. Onkelos, Reges & sacer­dotes & mul­titudo regum & sacerd [...]tum. Regiae potesta­tis est praeva­lere apud Deū, & res illas ab illo au [...]erre, quarū nulla pri­dem facultas suit. D Simō. log. c. 10. Basil. 1527. R Sal [...]m▪ R. Abrah. R. David. [...]. Sept. [...]. Vox Segulah significat rem▪ quandam a [...]ct ā & charam, five thesaurus fuerit, [...]ive res alia qu [...]cun (que). perfect obedience cannot merit forgivenesse of sins past, purchase Gods favour being justly displeased for sin, and deserve everlasting life. When the wicked and their best works are an abomination to the Lord, it cannot be imagined, that any Covenant should passe betwixt God and man a sinner, wicked, ungodly, miserable, but in and through a Mediatour.

It was such a Covenant whereby the spirituall seed was made a Kingdome of Priests, an holy Nation, and a peculiar treasure unto the Lord. The word Segullah signifies ones owne proper good, which he loveth, and keepes in store for himselfe, for his speciall use: a rare and exquisite treasure; a thing desired, deare and sin­gular or proper to a man himselfe. The Hebrew Logicians call their fift predicable, Segullah: Others interpret the word, a beloved treasure, a glorious thing & to be desired, an holy treasure, a treasure which hath both magnificence, splendour and ornament, Eccles. 2. 8. the peculiar treasure of Kings. Aquila renders it substance: Sym: treasure, or peculiar substance, the Septuagint, plenty of riches, so as it doth import multitude or great abundance: Vata­blus, a treasure entirely beloved, 1 Chron. 29. 3. I have of mine owne proper good, of gold; of my proper goods of excellency, that which was most deare unto me; of gold most pure and refi­ned, that which is chosen and laid up in a treasury. A peculiar people then is a people entirely beloved of the Lord, which is pro­per to him, the possession whereof pertaines to none other, which he layeth up (as it were) in his treasure, Exod. 19. 5. The Chal­dee Paraphrast renders it, ye shall be beloved before me. Theod [...]t. a chiefe, speciall, or excellent people: and so Deut. 26. 18. The Paraphrast hath it, he chose to himselfe Israel his beloved, and in other places. And so other Hebricians, Segullah signifieth, that [Page 104] they should be beloved before him, as a desirable treasure, whichLe [...] Iudah, pe­culium. Vata [...]l. ut the­saurus unicè di­lectus prae cu [...] ­ctis populis. Theod. [...]. Sept. [...]. or, abundantia. abundant a [...]tē ornamenta, quae sunt pretiosa, ita (que) recondunt etiam, &c. [...], Tit. 2. [...]4. [...], 1 Pet. 2. 9. a King delivereth not into the hands of any of his officers, but kee­peth to himselfe. R. Menachen in Exod. 19. Mal. 3. 17. The Greek translation turns it, a people for peculiar possession. Aqu. a peculiar people, deare and precious, which he will not part withall. In the new Testament both expressions are used: for Paul calleth them a peculiar people: Peter, a people for peculiar possession, which God doth challenge as proper to himselfe. Vulg. Populus acquisitionis, Eph. 1. 14. This was the priviledge of the Jew, which he obtained by this Covenant, and it is often mentio­ned to the praise of Gods free-grace and love towards them, Deut. 7. 6. & 14. 2. & 26. 18. The Lord hath chosen Jacob unto him­selfe: Israel, for his peculiar treasure, Psal. 135 4. But this pri­viledge they could never obtain by the Covenant of works: by it they could never have been a Kingdome of Priests, or a peculiar people: they could never have obtained the adoption, or have inherited the Kingdome of Heaven. These are priviledges vouchsa­fed of meere grace in Jesus Christ, in whom we are adopted, and made Kings and Priests unto God.Calv. I [...]stit. lib. 2. ca. 7. Sect. 7. Rom. 9. 4. 1 Pet. 2. 9. Revel. 1. 5. & 5. 10. Exod. [...]0. [...].

Secondly, in the promulgation of the Law, the Lord proclaims himselfe to be the God of Israel, saying, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Some hold these words to be the affirmative part of the Commandment, in which the Gospel is preached, and the promises contained therin offered. Others, that it is a Preface to the whole Law, or prefixed as a reason to perswade obedience to the first Commandment. But universally all acknowledge them to be the free Covenant, which promiseth pardon of sin, and re­quirethDeut. 10. 14. faith in the M [...]ssiah. God is the God of all creatures, be­cause he made and doth conserve all: but by peculiar right he is the God of his Church, because he hath chosen it to be heire of his Kingdome: whence the people are said to be blessed, that have God for their God. The Covenant of grace is expressed in thesePsal. 33. 12. & 144. 15. words, I will be thy God and thou shalt be my people: Wherein God promiseth to be favourable to the iniquity of his servants, and to remember their sins no more: and to blesse them with all spiri­tuall blessings in heavenly things. When God then saith to Israel,Jer. 31. 33. & 32. 3 [...]. Ezek [...] 20. I am your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt; doth he not propound himselfe as their King, Judge', Saviour and Re­deemer: [Page 105] Spirituall Redeemer from the bondage of sin and Satan, whereof that temporall deliverance was a type. And althoughHemming. Syn­tag. Decal. there be no expresse mention of a Mediatour in the Law, yet it is included in the word of promise, I am thy God. From Evangeli­call promises, and the remembrance of them, and a late type, the Lord makes beginning, when he gave his Law. And it is further to be noted, that as these words, I am the Lord thy God, are prefixed to the first Commandment in the Law, so are they an­nexedLevit. 19. 4, 6, 11, 12, 16, 30, 31, 32, 37. Levit. 18. 5. to all others in sundry places of Scripture, as an argument to move to sincere obedience. Least the Jewes should feare (as it commeth to passe in doubtfull matters) they heare that the rule of life is prescribed unto them of the true and only God, who is theirs by Covenant. Least diffidence should make them slacke, God comes familiarly, and commends his gracious Covenant un­to them. The reason from all this is plaine, that Covenant wher­in the Lord promiseth, or proclaimeth himselfe to be the God of Israel, is the Covenant of grace, which God made with Israel. But in giving the Law upon Mount Sinai God promised, and pro­claimed himself to be the God of Israel.

Thirdly, Christ our Saviour thus reciteth the first Command­ment, Heare O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord, therefore Mark [...]2. 29. Deut. 6. 4. thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart. And Moses in the explication of the Decalogue condemneth incredulity, say­ing,Deut▪ 6. 16. Exod. 17. 7. Ye shall not tempt the Lord your God, as ye tempted him in Massah; for there they tempted God by incredulity. Where it is most apparent, that in this first Precept we are enjoyned to take God to be our God, to choose him to be our portion, to cleave un­to him, to trust in him as our only Saviour. And it can hardly be questioned, whether that Covenant wherin we are bound to take God to be our Father, King and Saviour be the Covenant of grace or no? And by the same reason it is manifest, that the Law requi­reth faith as well as love and obedience, and doth build these upon it as a foundation. It prescribeth faith in the first place, and throughout, namely that we acknowledge God the Law-giver, to be the Lord our God, the only true God, and testifie that faith un­to him, by an universall and uniforme obedience to that whole Law and every title thereof. The Law was given for this end, that it might instruct us in faith, which is the mother of a good conscience and of love. Christ and faith is the end and soule of the [Page 106] Law, not understood of the Jews. The summe of the Law is faith or love, and both these carry the same sence, because though Mo­ses Rom. 10. 4. Deut. 10. 12. Calv. on Deut. 10. 12. Rom. 14. 23. make mention of love, and Paul of faith, yet that love doth comprehend faith, and this faith doth contain love. Certainly, Whatsoever is not of faith is sinne, even all works, though good in shew, and for substance seeming agreeable to the rule of the Law, if they issue not from faith, they are vaine and hypocriticall, if they be not quickned and enlivened by faith, they are but the carkasse of a good worke. And then if God command not faith in the Law in some sort, why doth he command other things, which without it are frivolous? Our best works are unsavoury before God, if they be not seasoned with faith: For without Heb. 11. 6. faith it is impossible to please God. Therefore the Lord in Cove­nant commanding the observation of his Law, exacteth faith also, without which the Law cannot be obeyed in an acceptable man­ner. For when the Law is spirituall, and commandeth true wor­ship and invocation, how can it be observed without faith? Would the Lord have the Israelites remaining in infidelity to ob­serve the Law? Or did he ever allow man since the fall of Adam, to come or have accesse unto him, but only in the name of a Media­tour? Or was life and salvation ever promised to man since the fall, but upon condition of faith in the Messiah? Indeed the con­dition of obedience, which God requireth and man promiseth, is the chiefest thing urged in the Law: but free and gracious pardon, wherein consisteth the happinesse of the Saints is there­in promised and proclaimed. They under the old Testament light­ly following the letter, mistooke the meaning, not looking to the end of that which was to be abolished, whereunto Moses had an eye under the vaile. For they perceived not so well the grace in­tended by the legall Testament, which the perfection of the morall Law, whereof they could not but faile, should have forced them to seeke; and the imperfection of the typicall Law, which made nothing perfect, should have led them to find: but they generally rested in the worke done, as was commanded by either Law, when as themselves were unable to do the one, and the other was in it self as unsufficient to help them.

Fourthly, after the giving of the Law a Covenant betwixt God and Israel was established by mutuall and willing consent,Deut. 4. 31. Exod. 24. 3, 4. the people promising to obey and doe whatsoever the Lord com­manded. [Page 107] In the Land of Moab Moses was commanded by theDeut. 29. 1, 9. Lord to make a Covenannt with the children of Israel, beside the Covenant which he made with them in Horeb. This Cove­nant they entred into was the same that God made with them upon Mount Sinai, even the same that did containe the blessings and curses before pronounced. But this Covenant was a Cove­nant of Grace, not of works: for God never commanded his people, that he might set them on high above all people of the earth, and that they might be an holy people unto him, to avouch him to be their God by a Covenant of works: Moses wouldDeut. 29. 12. never have exhorted the people by Oath to bind themselves unto the Lord in a Covenant of works: for that had been to bind themselves unto the most dreadfull curses, whereas they were to enter into this Covenant that they might prosper in all that theyDeut. 29. 9. doe. That Covenant is of Grace, wherein the good things pro­mised are all free and gratious: but it was of grace that God pro­misedDeut. 7. 12. 2 Chro. 6. 14. to be the God of Israel: and therefore the Lord, when he keepeth Covenant with Israel, is said to keep the mercy which he swore unto their Fathers, and when he established them for a people unto himselfe, and is their God, he is said to performe the Oath, which he swore unto their Fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. Deut. 29. 13.

The Legall Covenant or Covenant of works cannot be renew­ed after it is once broken, seeing it admitteth not repentance of sinne past, but exacts perfect and perpetuall obedience. But this Covenant made with the Israelites might be renewed after trans­gression, did admit repentance; When thou art in tribulation, and Deut. 4. 30, 31. all these things are come upon thee, even in the latter dayes, if thou turne to the Lord thy God, and shalt be obedient unto his voice: (for the Lord thy God is a mercifull God) he will not forsake thee, neither de­stroy thee, nor forget the Covenant of thy Fathers, which he swore unto See Deut. 30. 1, 2, 3. 1 Ki. 8. 34, 35. Psal. 106. 45. Eze. 16. 61, 6 [...]. Deut. 30. 11, 12, 13, 14. Rom. 10. 6, 7. them. And if the Covenant after transgression may be renewed, it is of grace. The Law which is written in the heart of the spi­rituall seed is part of the Covenant of grace: for the righte­ousnesse of faith speaketh on this wise; This Commandement which I command thee this day, it is not hidden from thee, nei­ther is it farre off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall goe up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, that we may heare it, and doe it. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shoul­dest [Page 106] [...] [Page 107] [...] [Page 108] say, Who shall goe over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, that we may heare it, and doe it? But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou maist doe it. But the Law given by Moses is engraven in the heart of the spiri­tuallIsai. 51. 7. Psal. 37 31. seed, or people effectually in Covenant, as they are called a people in whose heart is the Law. No man will deny the Cove­nant which God keepeth with them that love him and keepe his Commandements, to be the Covenant of Grace. But the Co­venant which Israel entred into, is that which the LordDan. 9 4. Nehem. 1. 5. Deut. 7. 12. keepeth with them that love him, and keepe his Commande­ments.

Fifthly, the godly Kings and people of Israel repenting of their transgressions and sinnes committed against God, did often­timesJosh. 24. 22, 23, 24, 25. Judg. 10. 16. 1 Sam, 7. 3, 4, 5. 2 Chro. 15. 12. 2 Kin. 11. 17. 2 Chro. 23 16. 2 Ki. 23. 3. Neh. 10. 30, 31. 2 Chro. 34. 31. renew their Covenant, binding themselves to the Lord to be his people, and to walke in Gods Law, which was given by Moses, and to observe and doe all the Commandements of God the the Lord, and his Judgements, and his Statutes, with all their heart, and with all their soule. But Jehoshaphat, Josiah, Nehemiah, and other godly Governours, who were well acquainted with their infirmities, and knew themselves utterly unable to fulfill the Law, would never promise punctuall and exact obedience, in hope thereby to deserve eternall life, or to receive it from God as the reward of their perfect service: nor flatter themselves as though they could stand before the Tribunall of Gods Justice in their own Righteousnesse, when upon proofe sufficient they saw, that no flesh could be justified in his sight. Without question, they understood, that God of his free grace had promised to be their God, and of his undeserved and rich mercy would accept of their willing and sincere obedience, though weake and imperfect in de­gree; which is in effect, that the Covenant which God made with them, and they renewed was a Covenant of grace and peace, the same for substance that is made with the faithfull in Christ in time of the Gospell.

Sixthly, the Covenant that God made with Abraham was theGen. 17. 1. Covenant of grace, as it is acknowledged: but the Covenant made with Abraham is for substance the same with the Covenant made with Israel upon Mount Sinai: the promise is the same, and the things required the same. For in that God promised that he would be God all-sufficient to Abraham, to blesse him [Page 109] with all necessary blessings for this life, and the life to come. InGal. 3. 8. this he promiseth freely and of his owne meere grace and favour to be their God, and make them a Kingdome of Priests and anExod. 19. 6, 7. holy nation unto himselfe. In that he requireth of Abraham, that he walke with or before him in integrity: In this he cove­nanteth, that they should obey his voice, and keep his commande­ments.Deu. 26. 17, 18. Jer. 7. 23. Deut. 10. 12. Jer. 11 3, 4. 1 Ki. 8. 25. 2 Chron. 6. 16. 2 Chr. 17. 3, 6. 2 Chr. 6. 14, 16. Jer. 2. 2. And what is it to walk with God or before God, but to walk in his Law.

Seventhly, when God gave his Law unto Israel upon Mount Si­nai, he troth-plighted that people unto himselfe, and himselfe un­to them, and that of his meere love, not of any merit in them. Thus saith the Lord, I remember thee, the kindnesse of thy youth, the love of thine espousals, when thou wentest after me in the wildernesse, in a Land that was not sowen: Israel was holinesse unto the Lord, and Ezek. 16. 8. the first fruits of his increase. When I passed by thee, and looked upon thee, behold thy time was the time of love, and I spread my skirt over thee, and covered thy nakednesse: yea, I sware unto thee, and entered into Covenant with thee, saith the Lord God, and thou becammest mine. But if the Law were a perfect draught of the Law of na­ture,Rainold Apol. Thes. pag. 211. 1 Tim. 1. 5. Act. 15. 9. Rom. 10. 4. Gal. 3. 24. Christum vocat finem i. scopum legis; quia lex sues sacrificiis, ritibus, &c. Christum inten­debat. Zanch de Redem cap. 11. Thes. 5. li. 1. The Deca­logue written with Gods own hand up­on two tables, was an Epi­tome of all Ordinances appertaining to the Cove­nant. exacting punctuall obedience in the least jot and title, as necessary to Salvation, and flashing out wrath against the least transgression, without any intimation of repentance, or hope of pardon, the Lord did not at that time troth-plight himselfe unto them.

Eighthly, the Law requireth faith as well as love and obedi­ence, and doth build these upon it as a foundation. For the end of the Commandement is love, love out of a pure heart, a good conscience, and faith unfained. That love which the Law requireth, either towards God or towards man, must flow from a pure heart, and faith it is that purifieth the heart. Christ is the end of the Law for righteousnesse sake, and the Law is a Schoole-master to bring us unto Christ. But bring us unto Christ it could not, if it did not point him out unto us, or presuppose him as promised: He is not the end of the Law, if the Law did not direct to him, and require faith in him. He is the end of the Law, as the Law leadeth and dri­veth us out of our selves, and from all confidence in any works of the Law, that by faith in Christ we might obtain righteousnesse. It is not the property of a Schoole-master to beat and strike, and not to direct or teach. That the ceremonies of the Law did pre­figure [Page 110] Christ, direct unto him, and require faith in him, is a thingExo. 34, 27, 28. confessed and acknowledged of all men. Now the ceremonies are appendices of the Law, especially of the first and second Com­mandements,Exod. 24. 8. Heb. 9. 19, 20, 23. Pigh [...]disp. Ratisp l. 2. as they were given to the Israelites. And if they require faith in the Redeemer to come, how should we thinke it to be a thing passed over in silence altogether in the Law. The deliverance of the children of Israel out of Egypt, was a type of our spirituall deliverance from the bondage of sinne and Satan, by the power of Christ; as appeares by the Ceremonie and Sacra­ment of that corporall deliverance, the Passeover, which was aJoh. 19. 36. 1 Cor. 5. 7. figure of Christ our Saviour. Therefore in the first Precept the Mystery of our Redemption by Christ is taught and contained. That particular mercy mentioned in that Precept, taught the Is­raelites to expect spirituall Salvation in the Messiah promised. InPsal. 1. 1, 2. Psal. 119. 1, 2. Scripture they are pronounced blessed, who keep the Commande­ments, and observe the Statutes and Judgements of the Lord: but withall their blessednesse is said to consist in this, that GodPsal. 32. 1, 2. imputeth not sinne unto them, that their sinnes be forgiven, and transgressions covered. The true worshippers of God then are happy, not for their works, but because God is pleased to ac­cept them in Christ, and to pardon their offences. This is the true sense of those promises made to or spoken of them that walk in the perfect way, and doe none iniquity. And if life and Sal­vation be promised to them that observe and keep the Statutes, Judgements and Ordinances of the Lord, not for the dignity of the work, but through the meere grace and mercy of God pardo­ning transgressions and sinnes, then is faith in the Messiah taught and commanded in the Law. The true sense and meaning of the Law is to be gathered out of the writings of the Prophets: for the same Spirit that breathed the Law, informed them in whatJer. 4. 1, 2, 3. and 3. 13, 14. &c. Rom. 3. 21, 22. The righte­ousnesse of the Law is testifi­ed by Moses and the Pro­phets, &c. Deut. 12. 32. and 31. 12. sense the Law was given, and how to be understood. But by the Exposition of the Prophets it is cleare, that the Law as it was gi­ven by Moses did admit repentance, and consequently, require faith in Christ. And if the Law did not command faith in Christ the Messiah, then might not the Jewes beleeve in him: for they were forbidden to adde any thing thereto, or to take ought there­from. The Law was to the Jewes a rule, according to which they ought both to live and worship God, to which they might not adde the least [...]ot or title of their owne heads: so that either [Page 111] they must not worship, praise, pray unto and believe in God in and through the Messiah, or else faith in him must necessarily be required. The Decalogue, if we precisely consider the things ex­pressed therein, doth not containe many things written of Moses: but as it was a summe and abridgement of the whole Law, where­unto every particular must be referred, and from which, as a foun­taine it was derived, it is a perfect rule whereunto nothing might be added. And if without faith it be impossible to please God, or to obtaine Salvation, the Law which promiseth eternall life to them that keep it, doth require faith as well as love or obedience. For if faith be necessary to Salvation, it cannot be that man a sin­ner should be justified, if he could keep the Law: because he can­not by future works purchase Redemption from former trans­gressions. And from all this it followeth, that the Law as it was given to the Jewes, is for substance the Covenant of grace, or a rule according to which the people in Covenant ought to walke. The Law is and ever was a rule of life to men in Covenant. Matt. 5. 18. One jot or title of the Law shall in no wise passe, till all be fulfil­led: fulfilled in respect of unpartiall and sincere obedience, for of that our Saviour speakes, as is manifest by the words following, He that shall breake the least of these Commandements, and teach men so, shall be called least in the Kingdome of Heaven: except your righteousnesse shall exceed the righteousnesse of the Scribes and Pha­risees; that is, righteousnesse of habite and practise, which is that which the Law, as it is taken in that place, required.

Many things are objected to the contrary, which must be clea­red before we passe further. As first, it will be said, that in the Law there is no mention made of Christ, without which there is no faith. And what the Law revealeth not, that it comman­deth not. But in the Law there is frequent mention of the Mes­siah, and perpetuall adumbration and representation of him, andHeb. [...]0. [...] and 8 5. his oblation in washings and sacrifices. The Apostle Paul, where he professedly handleth the chief heads of faith, to wit, that Christ ought to suffer, and rise againe from the dead, denieth that heAct. 26. 23. 1 Cor. 15. 3, 4. said any thing besides that which the Prophets and Moses did foretell should come. And our Saviour proved out of Moses, that he must first suffer, and then enter into glory. And no marvell,Luk. 24. 27, 44 seeing Moses by divers types and figures shadowed forth the death and resurrection of Christ, as shall be shewed after. [Page 112] But in the Decalogue there is no mention of Christ. Neither isMoses vvrote of Christ, Act. 3. 2 [...]. and 7. 37. Joh. 1. 45. that they should be­leeve in him. Joh. 5. 4 [...]. Ma­ny Prophets & just men de­sired to see his dayes, Mat. 13. 17. Luk. 10. [...]4. Iun. in Psal. 122. ver. 4. Abraham re­joyced to see Christ. Joh. 8. 56. Gal. 6. 16. that absolutely true. For when God saith, he is their God, who delivered them out of the Land of Egypt, doth he not propound himself a Redeemer, a spirituall Redeemer of them from the bon­dage of sinne and Satan, whereof that deliverance was a type? But he is not a Redeemer from spirituall bondage but in Christ. Implicitely therefore in these words Christ is contained and proposed unto us, which is done according to the condition of those times, wherein as yet all things were infolded and wrap­ped up. And it cannot easily be imagined, how Christ should be revealed in the Ceremoniall Law, if there be no mention of him expresse or implicite in these words. As the Morall Law doth shew and discover sinne, so was the Ceremoniall Law as a bill or bond put into the hand of God, whereby they did acknowledge themselves indebted to his Divine Majestie: and as the Ceremo­niall Law was a Schoole-master to point out and direct us unto Christ: so was the Morall a rule of obedience to them that be in Covenant with God: which of necessity doth presuppose the re­velation of Christ in some sort. The Ninevites in the threatnings denounced against them by the Prophet Jonas did apprehend a promise of mercy to be implyed upon condition of their repen­tance: which promise was made in Christ. And is it any mar­vell then we should affirme, the knowledge of Christ to be mani­fested in some sort, in those words of the Law: if we consider the words of the Law, it doth command that we love God above all, and our Neighbour as our selves: but if we search out the mea­ning of the words, we shall find it to be such a love as proceeds from faith; and from what faith, but in the Messiah? That is the foundation upon which all works of love are builded. In faith it self or with it, there is a motion of the soule towards, or a desire of the heart to obtaine the good promised, joyned with an hatred of sinne and wickednesse, which may be called inchoate love: but true, sound, intire love, whereby we affect God as our Father most neerely conjoyned to us, and reverence him as the fountaine of all good things and benefits, which of his meere grace he confer­reth upon the children of his love, and we daily expect from him, even such as accompany life and salvation: this is the effect of faith, and followeth the apprehension and habitation of Christ in the heart.

Faith in Christ is not commanded in the Morall Law as it was engraven in the heart of Adam in the state of innocency: but as it was given to Israel, to be a rule of life to a people in Cove­nant, it was presupposed or commanded. For the generall sub­stance of duty, the Law then delivered and formerly engraven in the heart was one and the same: but not in respect of the subject by whom, the object to whom, or the grounds whereupon obe­dience was required. Confidence in God was required of Adam by the Law of nature written in his heart. Confidence in God through Christ or the Messiah was required of the Israelites by the Law published upon the Mount. Adam was to performe obe­dience to the Lord immediately without a Mediatour, being him­selfe pure and innocent. But the Israelites being in themselves sinner [...]. [...]ould not in their own names performe service pleasing and acceptable unto the Lord. Adam knew he was beloved of the Lord, so long as he continued in obedience, but had no war­rant to wait upon his mercy, when he had broken the Covenant of works. But to the Israelites God bound himselfe in Covenant upon Mount Sinai, promising to be their God, and take them for his people, notwithstanding they were sinners in themselves, which could not be without forgivenesse: and this Covenant they might and did renew by repentance after transgression. The Law is not to be confounded with the Gospell, but the sacred and inviolable knot of the one with the other is to be maintained, un­lesse we shall make God contrary to himselfe.

The Law doth not so directly and expressely teach faith inWhen Paul saith, Faith came by the Gospell: it is to be under­stood of the manner of propounding, vvithout the invvrappings of types: that the Doctrine vvas [...] taught plainly, vvithout types and figures. Rom. 8. 3. Christ, but require obedience, yet doth it leade us to Christ, and more obscurely command faith in him. The Gospell doth more fully reveale Christ, and the grace of God in him, commanding faith by name: but it doth also urge, presse, and exact obedience. Thus sweetly doe the Law and Gospell consent together. But here it is to be noted, that faith is commanded in the Law, which exacteth every thing that is good, but it is given to us, not by the Law, but of the holy Ghost. The distinction of the Law and Go­spell as they are opposed one to another is cleare and evident: but as the Law was given to the Jewes it is not opposite, but subor­dinate to the Gospell. The Law in it selfe considered exacted perfection of works as the cause of life: but when that was im­possible to man by reason of the infirmity of his flesh, it pleased [Page 114] the Lord to make knowne to his people by the ministery of Mo­ses, that the Law was given, not to detaine men in confidence of their own works, but to leade them unto Christ. Whatsoever the Law teacheth, whatsoever it promiseth, whatsoever it comman­deth, alwayes it hath Christ for the scope thereof. For though the Law of righteousnesse promise a reward to the keepers there­of; yet after it hath shut up all men under sinne, it doth substitute another righteousnesse in Christ, which is received by faith, not purchased by the merit of works. And therefore the Apostle doth reprehend the Jewes, as perverters of the true sense and mea­ningRom. 10. 4, 5, 6, &c. of the Law, when they sought to be justified by their works, and sheweth that Moses taught them to look for Salvati­on in the Messiah, and seek for that righteousnesse which is by faith▪ Whereby it is manifest, that the Law was given [...] be a manuduction unto Christ, in whom we have Redemption from all things, from which by the Law of Moses we could not be ju­stified; and a rule to the faithfull according to which they must frame their conversation. For what word was that which Mo­ses saith was neere, even in their hearts, but the Law which the Lord gave upon Mount Sinai, and promised to write in the hearts of his people under the Covenant of Grace.

And from this ground it is not hard to answer what is further objected against this truth, as, If faith be commanded in the Law, then being justified by faith, we are justified by the works of the Law. For faith is not a work of the Law nakedly and absolutely considered, as it exacteth perfect obedience of man in his own person: but of the Law as it was given to the Jewes, to direct them unto Christ, who is the soule and life of the Law. And though it be commanded in the Law, as it is in the Gospel or new Covenant, yet it justifieth not as a part of Regeneration, or an act of obedience and work of Grace by it worth or dignity, but in re­spect of that office whereunto it is assigned of God, and as it re­ceiveth the promises of mercy. It is a s [...]phisticall forme of reaso­ning to say, Faith is commanded in the Gospell, therefore if we be justified by faith, we are justified by the works of grace. The arguments are like, and both faultie. For justification by faith in Christ is opposed to justification by the works of the Law: be­cause he only is justified before God by the Law, whose acts be­ing examined by the Law, are found just and righteous according [Page 115] to that which the Law requireth: but he is justified by faith, who being in himself ungodly, believeth in Christ for salvation. So that according to the Apostles meaning, wheresoever faith be commanded, he is justified by faith without the works of the Law, who is acquitted from sin by the meer and rich grace of God in Je­sus Christ received by faith: And to seek justification by works, is to rest upon our works for salvation, as they that answer in all things to that righteousnesse personall which the Law requireth. Justification by faith, and justification by workes are opposite, and so is faith and workes: but faith is not opposed to one act commanded, whereby the promise is received, for then it should be contrary to it selfe: but to works where­by the Law is fulfilled in our owne persons: to workes I say, not to one work: because no one worke can justifie, but all are ne­cessary.

If it be said, the Apostle doth every where oppose the Law and the Gospel, or the old and new Testament. The answer is from the same ground; that in the Scriptures of the new Testament, the Law as well Ceremoniall as Morall is opposed to faith or the Gospel: and yet the Ceremonies of the Law did prefigure Christ, as all men acknowledge. Therefore the Apostle doth not perpetually and absolutely oppose the Law, and the Co­venant of grace: for he teacheth expresly, that faith establishethRom. 3. 31. the Law. For he understood the force and sentence of the Law to consist in faith: but because the Jews addicted to the latter of the Law, did pretermit the force and life of it, Paul proves the Law so taken and separated from faith, to be the cause, not of life, but of death: as that which did not only want Christ, who is the soul of the Law, but is opposite to him. And therefore Paul doth this, because the Jews, (faith being let passe.) did seek righteousnesse in the dead works of the Law, and did oppose the Law to the Gos­pel and Christ, who was the end and scope of the Law. This will be more plain, if we shall examin the particular passages of Scrip­ture, wherein this matter is handled. The Apostle saith, the Co­venant from the Mount Sinai gendreth to bondage, figured byGal. 4. 24. the bond-woman and her sonne, who were cast out of Abrahams Family. The Apostle his argument may be drawne thus; the same proportion which Hagar the hand-maid had to Sarah her Mistresse in Abrahams house, the same proportion hath the old [Page 116] Testament to the new, in the Church of God▪ the same propor­tion which Hag [...]s off [...]pring had to Sarahs, the same proportion had the children of the Law, that is, the Jerusalem which then was, unto the Jerusalem which is above, that is, to the children of the Gospel or sons of promise. Now Hagar was sometimes a visible and principall member of Abrahams family, a kind of second wife to Abraham, and Ishmael her sonne was for a while Abrahams presumed heire: yet after Hagar did begin to despise and contest with her Mistresse Sarah, and Ishmael to flout or per­secute Isaac, Abrahams heir apparent and son of promise, both mo­ther and son were cast out of Abrahams house, and deprived of all hope of inheritance in the Land of promise. Sarah bearing the type of the true visible Church then on earth, did pronounce that sentenceGen. 21. 10. of Excommunication against them; Cast out the bond-woman and her sonne, and God ratifying in heaven what she had bound on earth, injoyns Abraham to put her sentence in execution, Gen. 21. 12. The Covenant likewise which God made with this people up­on Hagar or Mount Si [...]i, was [...]s the be▪ trothing of Israel unto himselfe. The Law of Moses, whilst it was lawfully used was the only Catechisme or Introduction, without which there was no entrance into the Church of God. The children of this Cove­nant, did by vertue of it become the presumed heires or children of God. But when the deputed or nursing mother came once to contest with the true Spouse of Christ, with the new Testament or Gospel: and after her children, the Jerusalem which then was, began to persecute the children of the Jerusalem, which is above; the mother with her children, that is, the Law with such as sought to be under it, were cast out of the true visible Church, by the Apostles, unto whom ou [...] Saviour had committed the keyes of the Kingdome of Heaven. For it now stood in such opposition to the Gospel, as Hagar did to her Mistresse Sarah at the time when [...]he and her son committed those misdemeanours, for which both of them were cast out of Abrahams house. The Jerusalem which was on earth, was sometimes, or in some part rather a con­sort than an opposite or adversary to the Jerusalem which was a­bove. So was the old Testament or Law, and all such as lawful­ly used it, rather subordinate allies, then foes or adversaries to the new Testament or heires of promise. They that used the Law as a School-master to bring them unto Christ, to them it was the [Page 117] Covenant of grace for substance. Unto such as used the old Testa­ment as they ought, only as an Introduction to the new, there was indeed but one Testament: For as the Schools speak, Ʋbi [...]um propter aliud, ibi [...]um tantu [...]. But such as rested in the Law, and used it not as a pedagogie to Christ, but sought justifica­tion by the observation of the Law Morall or Ceremoniall, and op­posed Christ the soul of the Law, such were held under damnable b [...]dage, and cut from Christ. And in this sence the Covenant made upon Mount Sinai did beget children unto such bondage, for which they ought to be cast out of the Family of God. And in this sence the two dispositions differ, not only in circumstances, but in substance: they be not only two, but opposite. By the way let it be observed, that by the former Covenant upon Mount Sinai, is understood the Law given by Moses, both Ceremoniall consisting in divers rites and commandements, and Morall, as the Jewes sought to be justified thereby, who refused Christ.

The Old Testament then and the New, are sometimes compa­red and considered by sacred writers, as the thing including and included, the Huske and the Graine. The Gospell before Christs time, was in the Law as the Corne new set in the [...]are. And the Law and the Gospell, and the two Testaments, thus considered, are rather one than two, at least there is an unity of subordinati­on betwixt them. The same Testaments may be considered some­times as abstracted or severed each from other. Thus the Gos­pell or New Testament since our Saviours death and resur [...]ection, is become as pure Corne, threshed and winnowed. The Old Testament or Law (thus severed from it) remaines only as the chaffe or huske; If we thus consider the Law or Old Testament, as the Jewes embrace it, that is, altogether severed from the new, to which alone we Christians adhere by faith, they are not only two, but two opposites or contraries. This opposition or subordination between the Legall and Evangelicall Testament is opened by the Apostle, saying, If the first Covenant had been fault­lesse, then should no place have been sought for the second. F [...]r fin­ding fault with them he saith, Behold the dayes c [...]me (saith the Lord) when I will make a new Covenant with the house of Israel, and the Heb. 8. 7, 8, [...] ▪ 10. Jer. 31. 32, 3. [...] house of Judah: not according to the Covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day wh [...] I tooke them by the hand, to leade them out of [Page 118] the Land of Egypt, because they continued not in my Covenant, and I regarded them not saith the Lord. For this is the Covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those dayes, saith the Lord: I will put my Lawes into their mind and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people. But what Law was it, which the Lord promiseth to write in the hearts of his people? was it not the Law given before by Moses? con­cerning which also Moses expresseth the same promise that Je­remy doth; The Lord thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the Deut. 30. 6. heart of thy seed, that thou mayest love the Lord thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soule, that thou mayest live. Now that Law God himselfe had delivered in writing, and commanded Moses Exod. 34. 1, 27. also to write the same. Therfore the words of the Prophet as touching the writing of Gods Law in our hearts, can import no­thing but this, that the Lawes which were before by the mini­steryEzek. 36. 26, 27. 2 Cor. 3. 1, 2, 3. of Moses delivered only in Inke and Paper, should by the power of the holy Ghost, through the faith of Christ be wrought and written in the affections of the heart: that God in Christ would not only administer outwardly the letter of the Law, whe­ther in writing or preaching, but would by the regeneration of the Spirit, give grace inwardly to the obedience thereof. And as the Law written in the tables of the heart, and ingraven in ta­bles of stone, is one for substance: so is the new and the old Te­stament. The Law is not opposed to the Law: but the writing to writing. Writing in tables of stone pertained to Moses or to the Old Testament: writing in the heart to Christ, or the new Covenant. The Law is the same, but otherwise administred in the hand of Christ, then in times past in the hand of Moses. Mo­ses gave the Law in tables of stone, but could not give power or ability to doe what the Law required: but Christ writeth the Law in the heart, and inableth the faithfull in some measure to doe what he commandeth. And in the same place the Lord by the Prophet sheweth, that when he made this Covenant withJer. 31. 32. the Fathers which they brake, he declared himselfe to be an hus­band unto them, or joyned himselfe in marriage unto them. But God never joyned himselfe in marriage unto a people, but by the Covenant of grace. It may be said the Apostle sheweth the for­merJer. 3. 14. Covenant to be faultie, or that another Covenant was lac­king. But that is not mentioned to prove the Covenants to be [Page 119] two in substance opposite one to the other: but because the first Testament did not containe the Image of the things themselves, and therfore was not to be rested in, as if we could be justified byHeb. 10. 1. the workes of the Law, or ceremoniall observances annexed: but must be used as an introduction to leade us unto Christ, who is the very Image of the things themselves. This first Covenant therfore could not be fulfilled or effectuall, but by the bringing in of a second, which was prefigured thereby. For the blood of Bulls and Goats was not availeable to purge away sinne: but did prefigure the blood of Christ, which is effectuall to purge our con­sciences from dead workes. The blood of Bulls and of Goats, and Heb. 9. 13. 14. the ashes of an Heifer sprinkling the uncleane, sanctifieth to the purify­ing of the flesh, sc. from a trespasse meerely committed against the Law of Ceremonies: but the bloody sacrifice of our Lord and Sa­viour Christ, whereof the legall Sacrifices were tipes and sha­dowes, was alone appointed of God, and is effectuall to cleanse us from all sinnes committed against the Morall Law of God, and to purifie us from such dead works, as, not expiated by his blood, would bring forth everlasting death. Of necessity therfore the first Covenant, because it is of grace, must bring forth a second,Joh. 1. 17. Joh. 5. 46. in which is fulfilled that which in the first is prefigured. The Law was given by Moses, and the righteousnesse of faith was taught by Moses, as our Saviour testifieth. Why then doth the Apostle in the words following add by way of opposition, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ? The sence of the place seemes to be this, That the Law prefiguring Christ, and redemp­tion in him, and teaching and commanding what oug [...] to be done, but neither giving grace to doe it, not containing the sub­stance of the thing prefigured, was given by Moses: but grace to doe what was commanded came from Christ, in whom also the substance of what was prefigured by the Ceremonies, is ful­filled. But if the Law of Moses sent the Jewes to Christ, and directed them how to walke believing in him, but of it selfe did not give grace or truth, of necessity it must make knowne Christ2 Cor. 3. 6, 7, 9. [...] or as some bookes have it: [...]: Syr. verba vi­va Ar. Serm [...] ­nem vivum. in some sort, and command faith in him: which is proper to the Covenant of grace. The Law is a killing letter (saith the Apostle) and the ministration of death and condemnation. But the same Law, which is called a dead or killing letter, is stiled a lively word, or lively oracles, that is, such as give life: The words of Paul ther­fore [Page 120] are not to be understood absolutely of the Law, but as it wasAct. 7 38. Lev. 18, 5. Ezek. 20. 13. Neh. 9. 29. separated from Christ and the Gospell, of men who did rest in the Law, and sought to be justified by it: whereas Christ was the end of the Law, which the Jewes not perceiving, they erred from the truth, and perverted the true sence and scope of the Law. For the ministery of Moses, as it is referred to the mind and counsell of the Lord, is bright and illustrious: but the carnall people could not behold that brightnesse, and therefore the Law is vailed to the carnall Jew, that he cannot behold the light that shineth therein. Even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vaile 2 Cor. 3. 15, 16. is upon their heart. Neverthelesse, when it shall turne unto the Lord, the vaile shall be taken away. That is, when Israel shall be turned unto the Lord, the vaile shall be taken away, that in the law it selfe they may see Christ, whom now being blind by reason of their indurate mind, they could not fee. For there was a double vaile drawne over their eyes, the first of hatred against Christ, the second of the Law it selfe, in which Christ was revealed, but not so clearely as in the Gospell: which double vaile shall be ta­kenIsa. 25. 7. Rom. 4. 15. & 3. 20. & 7 9. away, when they shall be converted unto Christ. The Law worketh wrath, and discovereth sinne: yea reviveth it. What the Apostle speaketh of the Law, in these and other above rehear­sed passages, is to be understood of the whole Jewish pedagogie, viz. the Law Morall and Ceremoniall as it was given by Moses. And as here, the Law is said to worke wrath, and terrifie: soPsal. 19. 7, 8, 9. & 119. 47. elsewhere it is said to cause the soule to returne, to enlighten the eyes. and rejoyce the heart. Of necessity for the reconciliation of these sayings of the Prophet and Apostle in shew contrary, itBeza in Rom. 2. 27. Calv. in 2 Cor. 3. 17. Col. 2. 13. The ceremo­nies are visible words prea­ching Christ, and they prea­ched our guile, and wrath be­longing unto us. must be granted that the Law animated by Christ is pleasant and delightfull, but as it is barely considered in opposition to Christ and to the Gospell, as it exacteth perfect obedience, but giveth no ability or power to performe what is required, it woundeth, terrifieth, killeth and worketh wrath.

Of the Law there is a twofold use and consideration. One as it is a rigid exactor of intire obedience, and hand-writing against us for sinne, and thus of it selfe barely considered, it woundeth, but healeth not, it reviveth sinne, but mortifieth it not. The o­ther, as it pointeth to Christ in whom Salvation is to be found, and directeth how to walke in all well-pleasing before the Lord: and thus it is an easy yoke. The Law considered without Christ [Page 121] woundeth, killeth and reviveth sinne by reason of our Corruption: But the Law considered in Christ, and as it pointeth unto him, killeth corruption, and converteth the soule. In the Epistle toGal. 3. 10, 17. Act. 7. 53. The law was givē ad ordina­tiones angelorū, Syr & Ar per mandatum, as Rom. 13. 2. as a son is said to doe, ad nutum patris: as [...] is used, Num. 16. 34 or secundum, juxta o [...]dinatio­nes, as [...] signi­fieth, Gen. 1. 21 paralell to this are Gal. 3. 19. Heb. 2. 2. The reason & truth of these sayings seem to be, that the Angel wch appeared to Moses in the bush, v. [...]5. and was with him in the wilder­nes, v. 39. did out of the midst of the Angels, which did on every side cō ­passe him a­bout, give the Law upon Mount Sinai, whereof the Sanctuary was a figure. [...] is the same that de­cretum vigils. the Galathians the Apostle opposeth the Covenant of Grace to the Law in many things; as that the Law accurseth every one that continueth not in all things, that are written in the booke of the Law to doe them: that it was foure hundred and thirty yeares after the Covenant, which was confirmed before of God in Christ, &c. But it is to be remembred, that in those passages the Apostle disputeth against the Jewes, who trusted in the workes of the Law, and thought by the blood of Bulls and Goats to be purged from their sinnes, or of them that joyned the Law with Christ in the matter of Justification, as if Justification had been in part at least by the workes of the Law; which the Apostle e­very where condemnes as contrary to the intent and purpose of the Lord in giving the Law. The contrariety then of the Law or Old Testament, even of the Law as it beareth the figurative sprinkling of the bloud of Christ, and so pointeth us to him, unto the new Testament, or Covenant of grace, is not in themselves, but in the ignorance, pride and hardnesse of heart of them, who understood not, or did pervert the right end of the Law, as if it was given for Justification. The Law as it opposed to Christ, doth accurse every one that continueth not in all things, that are writ­ten in the booke of the Law to doe them: because he that trusteth in the Law, is convinced by the Law to be a transgressour: but the Law as given to them that be in Covenant, doth reprove eve­ry transgression, and convince every man of sinne, who conti­nueth not in all things that are written in the book of the Law to do them, but doth not accurse the offendour in every jot or title, be­cause in Christ sin is pardoned and forgiven. To the Jew, who rested in the works of the Law, and refused Christ, the Law which was given foure hundred and thirty yeares after, did make void the promise, or Covenant confirmed before of God in Christ: But according to the true meaning of the Law, and to them that used it aright, it did not make void the promise but establish it. What the Apostle citeth of the Law out of Deuteronomy, and no­teth of the giving of the Law after the promise, is for substance preached by the Prophet Jeremy at the Lords appointment, when he speaketh of this Covenant of grace without all question. Heare [Page 122] ye the words of this Covenant, and speake unto the men of Judah, Jer. 11. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. and say unto them, thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this Covenant, which I commanded your Fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the Land of Egypt from the iron fornace, saying, obey my voice and doe them, according to all which I command you: so shall ye be my people, and I will be your God. That I may performe the oath which I have sworne unto your Fathers, to give them a Land flowing with milke and honey, as it is this day: Then answered I and said, so be it, O Lord. Then the Lord said unto me, pro­claime all these words in the Cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem, saying, Heare ye the words of this Covenant, and doe them. This Covenant then, which God made with Israel, was for substance one with that he had made before with the Patriarks, that is, it was a Covenant of grace and mercy: though the Law, to them that rested in the works thereof, and perverted the right use and end of the Law, was a killing letter and ministration of death.

CHAP. VIII. A particular explication of the Covenant that God made with Israel, and what Moses brought to the further expressure of the Covenant of Grace.

THis doubt being thus discussed, we may proceed with more facility to lay open the particulars of this Covenant. God of his free-grace and mercy made this Covenant with Israel upon Mount Sinai, fifty daies after the Israelites were delivered out ofExod. 19. 28. Egypt: as fifty daies after the deliverance of his people from the bondage of sin and Satan, the same Lord proclaims his Gospel or new Covenant upon Mount Sion in Jerusalem, the Metropolis orIsa 2. 2. Micha 4. 2. Gal. 4. 24. Heb. 12. 18. royall seat of Abraham or Davids seed. God, I say, of his infi­nite love and undeserved mercy did make this Covenant: for if he remember mercy, when he performeth his Covenant, then it was of meere grace, that he entred into Covenant. Also it is of mer­cyPs. 103. 17, 18. Nehem. 9. 32. Hos. 2. 19. that God doth troth-plight him unto any people; for the pro­mise runneth, I will betroth thee unto me for ever: yea, I will [Page 123] betroth thee unto me in righteousnesse, and in judgement, and in lo­ving kindnesse, and in mercies. But when the Lord made this Covenant, he betrothed himself unto Israel. And when he made this Covenant, he did more fully proclaime his great name, and make his mercy better knowne, then formerly he had done, forExod. 14. 6, 7. ought we find. For he passed by before Moses, and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, strong, mercifull, and gracious, long­suffering, abundant in goodnesse and truth: keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, and transgression and sinne, and that will by no meanes cleare the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the Fathers upon the children unto the third and the fourth gene­ration. Which glorious description of Almighty God is oftenNumb. 14. 18. Psal. 86. 15. Psal. 103. 8. & 145. 8. Nehem. 9. 17. Jon. 4. 2. Exod. 6. 3. mentioned by Moses, and the Prophets, as the ground and foun­dation of their faith, hope and comfort. And whereas he had ap­peared to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob by the Name of God All­mighty: Now he was knowne to the Israelites by his Name Je­hovah: which Name denoteth both Gods being in himselfe, and his giving of being unto, (that is, the performance of) his word and promise, in which latter respect he here saith, he was not knowne to the Fathers by this Name, or as the Greek and Chaldee translate it, he manifested not, nor made knowne this Name. They being sustained by faith in Gods Almighty power, without receiving the thing promised, Act 7. 5. Heb. 11. 9, 10. But now their children should receive the promise, and so have full know­ledge and experience of Gods power and goodnesse, and of the efficacie of that his Name Jehovah, which therefore they sung toIsa. 49. 23. & 52. 6. & 60. 16. Ezek. 28. 22, 23 24, 26. & 30. 19, 25, 26. Exod. 19. 18, 19, 20. Deut. 5. 4, 22. his praise, upon their full deliverance from the Egyptians, Exodus 15. 3. So upon performance of further promises or judgements, he saith, they shall know him to be Jehovah.

This Covenant was given with tokens of majestie and terrour: for Mount Sinai was all of it on a smoake, because the Lord de­scended upon it in fire: and the smoake thereof ascended as the smoake of a fornace, and all the Mountaine trembled exceedingly, and the voice of the Trumpet was going and waxing strong ex­ceedingly. The Mountaines saw the Lord and trembled, Hab. 3. 10. they leaped like Rammes, Psal. 114. 4. The earth quaked, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God, even Sinai it selfe at the presence of God, the God of Israel, Psal. 68. 9. Judg. 5. 5. The mountaine burnt with fire unto the midst of heaven, with [Page 124] darknesse, clouds, and thicke darknesse, Deut. 4. 11. and from this, it may be, the Law is called fiery, Deut. 33. 2. The Pro­phetsDeut. 4. 35, 36: use the like words to signifie the Majestie of God, Psal. 18. 9, 10, 12, 14, & 97. 2, 4. with clouds and smoake God often ma­nifested his glorious presence to his people, Exod. 40. 34, 35. 2 Chron. 5. 24. & 6. 1. & 7. 1, 2. Isa. 6. 4. Revel. 15. 8. And as Princes publish their decrees with the sound of the Trumpet: So God to his ancient people revealed the pleasure of his will, and gave answers unto them in thunderings and voices, Joh. 12. 28. Rev. 4. 5. & 6. 1. & 10. 3. & 8. 5. And hence (it may be) the two reverend Ambassadours of his voice and divine Maiestie, are called the sons of thunder, Mark 3. 17. This is noted as one dif­ference betwixt the old and new Testament, Ye are not come un­to Heb. 12. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. the Mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blacknesse and darknesse, and tempest, and the sound of a Trumpet, and the voice of words, which voice they that heard, entreated that the word should not be spoken unto them any more. For they could not endure that which was commanded. And if so much as a beast touch the Mountaine, it shall be stoned or thrust thorow with a dart. And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly feare and quake. But ye are come unto Mount Sion, and unto the City of the living God, and the heavenly Je­rusalem, and to an innumerable company of Angels, to the gene­rall assembly and Church of the first-borne, which are written in Heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the soules of just men made perfect. It may be hereby God would testifie his anger and displeasure against sinne, not as yet expiated by the bloud of the Messiah, and warne the Israelites to deny themselves, stand in awe of his Highnesse, and cleave inseparably unto the word of his promise.

If any man shall thinke, that Christ the second person in Trinity to be incarnate, who is called the Angel of the Covenant, or Messenger of the Covenant, (scil. by whom it was sent unto Moses) Mal. 3. 1. and the Angel of his presence. Exod. 23. 20, 21. and 33. 14. Isai. 63. 9. did deliver the Law unto Moses, I will not gain-say it: because it is expressely said, that Moses was in the Church in the wildernesse with the Angel, who spake to him in the Mount Sinai. Act. 7. 37. who is called Christ, 1 Cor. 10. 9. And this Covenant of Grace was made in Christ, the promised seed: [Page 125] for God was not the God of Israel but in and through the promi­sed Messiah: whose person and offices are more fully described, whose death and resurrection is more lively typified in this ex­pressure of the Covenant then in either of the former. Had ye be­leeved Joh. 5. 46. Moses (saith Christ himselfe the Author of truth) you would have beleeved me: For he wrote of me: that is, Christ was, if not the sole subject, yet the only scope of Moses his writings. And as Mo­ses, so the Prophets that followed after him, who wrote by the same Spirit, and under that expression of the Covenant, did speake of Christ more fully and plainly then he had done before. In the first promise it was revealed, that the Messiah should be the seed of the woman, to Abraham it was made known, that he should be of his seed: but in the writings of Moses we learne, that he was to be both God and man, or that God was to be incarnate, and to have his conversation amongst men, after a more peculiar manner then in the ancient times of the world he had. The promise runs thus, And I will dwell amongst the children of Israel, and will be their Exod. 29. 45, 46. God, and they shall know that I am the Lord their God, that brought them forth out of the Land of Egypt, that I may dwell amongst them: I am the Lord their God. The same promise is renewed or repeated, And I will set my Tabernacle amongst you, and my soule shall not ab­horre Lev. 26. 11, 12, 13. Ezek. 37. 26, 27, 28. you, and I will walke among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people. The Chaldee translateth the first place, I will settle my habitation (or divine presence) amongst the sonnes of Israel. And where in the Hebrew it is, I will dwell in the midst of the sons of Israel. Onkelos and Jonathan reade it, I will place my Divinity. But what Divinity? whether the holy Spirit, or ra­ther the Word, as we reade, The Word was made flesh, and dwelt Joh 1. 14. amongst us; when Christ took our nature upon him, and came and dwelt amongst his own, then was this promise punctually fulfil­led. Or if it be referred to the habitation of God by his Spirit amongst the spirituall seed of Abraham, as we find the word often used. Rom. 8. 2. 2 Cor. 6. 19. 2 Tim. 1. 14. Ephes. 3. 17. Jam. 4. 5. 2 Cor. 12. then it implieth the incarnation of Christ, and his dwelling amongst the Jewes, because that was to goe before the plentifull habitation of the Spirit in the hearts of the faithfull. And if the Evangelists words have not reference to the forecited places, they do allude to a passage in the Prophet Zachary, whenceZech. 2. 10, 11, 12. they may be interpreted. Sing and rejoyce, O daughter of Sion, for [Page 126] lo I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the Lord: And many nations shall be joyned to the Lord in that day, and shall be my people: and I will dwell in the midst of them, and thou shalt know that the Lord of Hosts hath sent me unto thee. The Prophets describe thePsal. 11. 1. Messiah to be the Sonne of David, and Davids Lord, The Lord said unto my Lord; The Chaldee hath it, The Lord said unto hisPsal. 110. 1. Word, namely the Messiah or Christ, who is the eternall Word of God, by whom he made and doth conserve all things. And in other places the Paraphrasts put the Word of God, for God or Lord, and that sometimes when the second person in Trinity is not necessarily to be understood, andIsai. 1. 14. my soul. Targ. my word. Jer. 1. 8. I am with thee. Targ. my word. Isai. 45. 17. By the Lord. Targ. By the word of the Lord. Gen. 3. 8. The voice of the Lord. Targ The voice of the word of the Lord, or the word, the Lord Gen. 22 15, 1 [...]. I have sworne by my selfe. Targ By my word. Psal. 103. 13. The Lord. Targ. The word of the Lord. Psal. 16. 1. In thee. Chald. In thy word. Psal. 103. 18. The Lord hath. Targ. The word of the Lord. Gen. 31. 24. God came to La [...]an Targ. The word came. So Gen. 20. 3. Gen. 28. 15. I will be with thee. Targ. my word shall be thy help Hos. 1. 7. I will save them by the Lord their God. Chald. I will re­deeme them by the word of God their Lord. sometimes the word or promise, they so render, as Psal. 119. 76. According to thy word unto thy servant, where the Chal­dee hath Memar. And so Psal. 130. 5. And in thy Word (or promise) I trust. But if the second person be not ever meant by the word of God, as the Para­phrast useth it, yet certainly in many pla­ces it must be so understood: and that this word was to be incarnate, was most certainly fore-told, Psalm. 102. 11, 26. Heb. 1. 10. For the very literall meaning of the Psalmist will enforce thus much, that this place was to be meant of God, not simply or absolutely, but of God incarnate. For the e­ternall duration of the God-head is not measurable by daies or yeares, but the incarnation of the Sonne of God, or his duration in the flesh, may be accounted by number of yeares for the time past, yet are his yeares as man to continue without end, without any decay or diminution of that nature which he assumed. AndPsal. 68. 19. Psal. 103. 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. Tit. 3. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. if out of any one place of the Psalmes, where he doth intreat of the deliverance of the Church, it doe appeare that the Messiah is true, and very God, by the same reason, wheresoever he speaks of the deliverance of the Church, God and the Messiah shall be the same. But it is most certaine in sundry passages, he that is God, is also the Messiah; And for that reason what is spoken of the mercy of God in the Psalme following, may be understood not of the mercy of God absolutely, or considered in the God-head only, but the [Page 127] mercy of God to be incarnate, to be made King and Judge of the earth, which may be cleared by the very letter and circumstance of the text. For the expected comfort, whereupon this Psalmist pitcheth, is this, The Lord hath prepared his throne in the hea­vens, vers. 18. and his Kingdome ruleth over all: And this is that King­dom and that throne, which Daniel fore-told, that God long after his time would erect, Da. 2. 44. To be born of God, what is it, but toJoh. 1. 12, 13. be born of immortall seed, & what is that immortal seed, wherof St Peter saith, we are born again, but the flesh and bloud of the Son ofIsai. 40. 6, 7, [...]. man, who is also the Son of God, whose flesh is meat indeed, & whose bloud is drinke indeed, which nou [...]isheth us not to a bodily, but to1 Pet. 1. 23, 14. a spirituall and immortall life, which presupposeth an immortall seed. We are begotten and borne againe by the preaching of the Word, as by the instrument or meanes: and by the the eternall word, that is (by Christ himselfe) as by the proper and efficient cause of our new-birth. Thus much St Peters words in that place will enforce us to grant according to the letter. For having before declared, that the word of God (by which we are borne againe) doth live and endure for ever, he thus concludes, and this is the word, which by the Gospel is preached unto you, 1 Pet. 1. 25. Mo­ses also and the Prophets did fore-tell, that the Messiah (or mer­cifull one, or gracious Saint, as he is called, Psal. 16. 10.) shouldPsal. 8. 6. H [...]b. [...]. 7. Psal. 16. 10, Deut. 18. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Psal. 110. 1, 2, 3. be made for a little time lower then Angels, and after crowned with glory and honour, and set over the works of the Lords hands: that he should suffer death and rise againe: be laid in the grave, but not see corruption. That he should be the great Doctour of the Church, a Priest after the order of Melchisedech: the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, whom God would set upon his holy hill of Sion. His death and resurrection, Kingdome and Priest­hood was prefigured by the Sacrifices and Serpent, the Priest hood of Aaron and Kingdom of Israel. But of these things more fully in the new Covenant.

This Covenant was made in Christ the promised Messiah, in and through whom the faithfull obtained the blessings promised: but according to the administration of this Covenant Moses was the Mediatour: and herewith in this expression is embellished above the former. The Law was ordained by Angels in the handL [...]v. 26▪ 46. Deut. 5. 5. 27. 28. of a Mediatour, Gal. 3. 19. that is, by the labour and ministery of Moses: which though some do [...]t of, is yet confirmed from this, [Page 128] that Christ reserves himselfe to be a Mediatour of a better Testa­ment. Heb. 8. 6. There is but one Mediatour true and spirituall, scil. Christ: but Moses was a Mediatour only typicall. The Mediation whereby men are truly and effectually united unto Christ, cannot fall upon any person who is not endued with infinite power and vertue, who is not God as well as man: but the Mediation of Mo­ses was of this use, to shew what was the true manner of worship­ping God, but did not inspire force and power to follow it, nor reconcile men to God, but propound those things, whence it might easily appeare, that there is need of another recon­ciliation.

Moses an Israelite and part of that people with whom God made the Covenant, was comprehended under the one part confe­derate: but as he undertook the function of Mediatour imposed upon him of God, he was not now simply an Israelite, but a Me­diatour interceding betwixt God and the people Israel, that he might be a more illustrious type of Christ; Moses was called in as a Mediatour on both parts: On Gods, when he called him up to receive the Law and all that message which God sent unto the people: on the peoples, when they desired him to receive the Law, and they would doe it. Further, never was mortall man more neer unto God, to whom for this end he is said to appear face to face. He called Abraham friend, but Moses was Gods favourite.Deut. 5 5, 27. Againe, no man either in love, knowledge, authority so neere the people, which makes them idolize him unto this day. Moses thus constituted a Mediatour, did first as a Mediatour prevaile with God for the suspending of his justice, that it should not breake out upon the people for their failing in highest degrees in morall obedience. Secondly, with the people he prevailed to bind them in Covenant unto God, and make profession of that obedienceExod. 24. 4, 5, 6. which the Lord did require and call for. Thirdly, he was never denied any thing from God, which was for the good of that peo­ple, though God denied some of his requests for himself: but what was needfull for the good of that people, specially spiri­tuallDeut. 9. 18, 19, 20, 21. and 10. 10. and eternall, that was procured by the bloud and mediation of Christ blessed for ever.

The Law was given to one Nation, whom God did chuse toEz [...]k. 16. 8. Psal. 147. 19, 20. be his peculiar people, scil. Israel, with whom God entred into Covenant, and it became his. He sheweth his Word unto Jacob: his [Page 129] statutes and his judgements unto Israel: He hath not dealt so with any nation, and as for his judgements they have not knowne them. Therefore they have not knowne the Judgements, because God did not make them manifest unto them: as we say, a place is full of dark­nesse; because the Sunne doth not enlighten it with his beames: Not that God is the efficient cause of their darknesse, but that he doth not hinder or remove the cause of their ignorance, or he doth not shine upon them by the revelation of his Word. That the earth is lightsome, this it oweth to the Sunne: but that it is dark­some, to it selfe: God is the Authour of all good, the cause of our faith, but ignorance and infidelity are of our selves. And these words, He hath not dealt so, doe import a meere negation, and not a similitude: they deny the thing it selfe, and not the manner ofPsal. 76. 1. Rom. 3. 2. the thing alone, as might be proved by many instances: but this may plentifully suffice, that in the whole Scripture, we shall ne­ver find this phrase to note a negation of the manner of the thing, but a negation of the thing it selfe. So that this is the meaning of the Prophet, He hath not dealt so with any Nation, that is, he hath not revealed his Statutes and Judgements unto them.

This Covenant God made not only with the Fathers, whom he brought out of the Land of Egypt, [...] with their posterity. Ye stand this day all of you before the Lord your God: your Captaines Deut. 29. 10, 11, 12. of your tribes, your Elders and your Officers, with all the men of Israel, your little ones, your wives, and thy stranger that is in thy campe, from the hewer of thy wood, unto the drawer of thy water: That thou shoul­dest enter into Covenant which the Lord thy God maketh with thee this day: Neither with you only doe I make this Covenant, and this Oath: ver. 14, 15. but with him that standeth here with us this day, before the Lord our God, and also with him that is not here with us this day. And that it might be the better established, he gave speciall charge and commandement, that the words which he had spoken by Mo­ses and the Prophets, should be publikely read, often inculcated, and expounded unto them: and that all his visitations of this people, whether in mercy whilst they obeyed his voice, or in judgement for their disobedience, should be registred to remainDeut. 4. 10. and 6. 6, 7, 8. Psal. 78. 6, 7, 8. upon record as so many ruled cases and presidents, and publi­shed and rehearsed unto their children, that they might learne to set their hope in God, and not forget his Commandements. But this Covenant was so made with the Jewes, that if any stran­ger [Page 130] amongst them, or neere adjoyning Heathen did turne unto the Lord, he was not to be excluded. When a stranger shall sojourne Exod. 12. 48. Deut. 23. 15, 16. with thee and will keep the Passeover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come neere, and keep it: and he shall be as one that is borne in the Land: for no uncircumcised person shall eate thereof.

The good things promised in this Covenant are temporall or spirituall: but the temporall as types of spirituall. First God promised to give them the Land of Canaan for their inheritance, and therein length of dayes, riches, and honour, victory over their enemies, protection and peace. If ye shall diligently keep all these Deut. 11. 22, 23, 24, 25. and 1. 8, 39. Commandements which I command you, to doe them, to love the Lord your God, to walk in all his wayes, and to cleave unto him: Then will the Lord drive out all these nations from before you, and ye shall possesse greater nations and mightier then your selves. Every place Deut. 4. 1, 38. and 6. 18, 19. whereon the soles of your feet shall tread, shall be yours: from the wil­dernesse and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the utmost sea, shall your coasts be. There shall no man be able to stand before you: for the Lord your God shall lay the feare of you, and the dread of you upon all the Land that ye shall tread upon, as he hath said. Thou shalt keep therefore his Statutes and his Commandements which I command thee this day, that it may goe well with thee, and with Deut. 4. 40. thy children after thee, and that thou maist prolong thy dayes upon the earth, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for ever. And it shall be, and [...]. 33. and 6. 3. when the Lord thy God shall have brought thee into the Land which he sware unto thy Fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give Deut. 6. 10, 11. thee great and goodly Cities which thou buildedst not, and houses full of all good things, which thou filledst not, and wels digged, which thou diggedst not, Vine-yards, and Olive-trees, which thou plantedst not, &c. Wherefore it shall come to passe, if ye hearken unto these judge­ments, and keep and doe them: That the Lord thy God shall keep unto Deut. 7▪ 12, 13, 14, 15. thee the Covenant and the mercy which he sware unto thy Fathers: And he will love thee, and blesse thee, and multiply thee: he will also blesse the fruit of thy wombe, and the fruit of thy Land, thy Corne, and thy Wine, and thine oile, the increase of thy kine, and the flocks of thy sheep, in the Land which he sware unto thy fathers to give thee. Thou shalt be blessed above all people, and there shall not be male or female barren amongst you, or among your cattell. And the Lord will take away from thee all sicknesse, and will put none of the evill diseases of Egypt, [Page 131] (which thou knowest) upon thee: but will lay them upon all them that hate thee. The Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good Land, a Land Deut. 8. 7, 8, 9. & 11. 14, 15. of brookes of water, of fountaines, and depths that spring out of the vallies and hils, a Land of wheat and barley, and Vines and Fig-trees, and Pomegranates, a Land of Oile, Olive and Honey. A Land where­in thou shalt eat bread without scarcenesse, thou shalt not lacke any thing in it: a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hils thou maist digge brasse. The Lord hath vouched thee this day to be his peculiar Deut. 26. 18 19. people, as he hath promised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all his Commandements: And to make thee high above all nations which he hath made, in praise and in name, and in honour, and that thou maiest be Deut. 28. 1, 2, &c. an holy people unto the Lord thy God, as he hath spoken.

Secondly, The Lord promised to chuse a place to cause his name to dwell there, and set his Tabernacle amongst them and walke with them. But when you goe over Jordane, and dwell in the Land Lev. 26 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11. Deut. 12. 10, 11, 12. & 16. 6. which the Lord your God giveth you to inherit, when he giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety: Then shall there be a place which the Lord your God shall choose to cause his name to dwell there, thither shall ye bring all that I command you. And I Lev. 26. 10, 12. will set my Tabernacle amongst you, and my soule shall not abhorre you: And I will walke among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people. For the Lord hath chosen Sion, he hath desired it for his habi­tation: Psal. 132. 13. 14. This is my rest for ever, here will I dwell, for I have desired it.

Thirdly, Free forgivenesse of sinnes is likewise promised in this Covenant. This is implyed in that he promiseth to be their God: for if he be theirs, he will be favourable to their iniquities, and remember their sinnes no more. And so much is expressed, when upon repentance and turning unto him, he hath proclai­med himselfe ready to receive them into favour. If from thence Deut. 4. 29, 30. thou shalt seeke the Lord thy God, thou shalt find him, if thou seeke him with all thine heart, and with all thy soule. And it shall come to Deut. 30. 1, 2, 3. passe, when all these things shall come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt call them to mind among all the nations whither the Lord thy God hath driven thee, And shalt returne unto the Lord thy God, and shalt obey his voice according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children: That then the Lord thy God will turne thy Captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will returne and gather thee from all nations. When thy peo­ple [Page 132] Israel be smitten downe before the enemy, because they have sinned 1 King. 8. 33, 34. Man as capable of Justification is [...] sinner, as be actually re­ceiveth Justifi­cation a Belie­ver. against thee: and shall turne againe unto thee, and confesse thy Name, and pray, and make supplication unto thee in this house: Then heare thou in heaven, and forgive the sinne of thy people Israel, and bring them againe unto the Land. Moreover, the Lord made himselfe knowne to be the God, that pardoneth iniquity, transgression, and sinne, when he gave this Covenant unto his people. But of this before.

Fourthly, Eternall life is promised in the Covenant: for God is not the God of the dead, but of the living: and therefore the faithfull Jewes, which have God for their God doe live still, notMath. 22. 32. Math. 19. 17. Luk. 10. 25, 28. in earth, but in heaven. The life which is promised to them that keepe the Law, is eternall: but in this Covenant life is pro­mised to them that keepe the Commandements. Not only longPsal. 34. 12, 13. life and good dayes, in the Land of Canaan, but eternall life is assured by the promise to them that keepe Covenant, as eternall death and destruction is comprehended under the curse denounced against them that breake the Covenant. Expresse mention ofGal. 3. 13. the King some of Heaven perhaps is not found in the Old Testa­ment: but eternall life is comprehended under the termes of life and blessing, as eternall death under the tearmes of death and the Curse. Eternall life in heaven, eternall death in hell, the Law noteth, though it doe not expressely name them, Which things unlesse they had been commonly knowne in the dayes of our Sa­viour, the penitent Thiefe about to die, had not thought of a Kingdome, nor the Lord promised Paradice to him, when he asked a place in the Kingdome of the M [...]ssiah.

But all these promises were made of fre [...] grace and of free love accomplished. Speake not thou in thine heart, after that the Lord Deut. 9. 4, 5. thy God hath cast them out from before thee, saying, For my righteous­nesse the Lord hath brought me in to possesse this Land: but for the wic­kednesse of these nations, the Lord doth drive them out from before thee. Not for the righteousnesse, or for the uprightnesse of thine heart, doest thou goe to possesse their Land: but for the wickednesse of these Nations the Lord thy God doth drive them out from before thee, and that he may performe the word which the Lord sware unto thy Fathers, Abra­ham, Vers. 6. Is [...]k, and Jacob. Ʋnderstand therefore, that the Lord thy God giveth thee not this good Land, to possesse it, for thy righteousnes, for thou art a stiffe-necked people. True it is the promises runne up­on [Page 133] this condition, If ye obey my voice and doe my Command­ments. But conditions are of two sorts, antecedent or consequent. Antecedent, when the condition is the cause of the thing promi­sed or given, as in all civill contracts of Justice, where one thing is given for another. Consequent, when the condition is annexed to the promise as a qualification in the Subject, or an adjunct, that must attend the thing promised. And in this latter sence, obedience to the Commandments, was a condition of the promise; not a cause why the thing promised was vouchsafed, but a qualification in the subject capable, or a consequence of such great mercy freely conferred.

Of them that slip aside and transgresse the Covenant, God cal­leth for and commandeth repentance, that is, it is his will and command, that they be thinke themselves of their evill doings, confesse their iniquities, and turne unto the Lord. The frequent and earnest exhortations of the Prophets made to backsliding and rebellious Israel, that she should acknowledge her wickednesse, and returne unto the Lord, is a full Commentary of that whichJer. 3. 7, 22. & 4. 1, 2. Ezek 18. 27, 28 Ezek. 18 31, 32. & 33. 11, 13. God required of them in this Covenant, in case they should turne away from the holy Commandment. The Lord protesteth by his Prophet Ezekiel, that he hath no pleasure in the death of him that dieth; but rather that he should repent and live: and the same for substance he made knowne to Israel in the Covenant which he stroke with them: sc. that if they transgresse and goe astray, he doth admit, will accept and approve, nay command their unfained re­pentance, and comming home unto the Lord, that they might live. This question, Why will ye die, ye house of Israel! is put forth to the people in Covenant, and not indifferently to all and every man living: It is manifestly spoken of the house of Israel, whom God had spared, notwithstanding their manifold and great provocations, to whom he not only gave space of repentance, but used meanes to bring them to repentance, by sending Prophets unto them to admonish them of their sins, to denounce the judge­ments of God against them for their impenitency, and earnestly to exhort them to cast away their transgressions, that they might live. God then doth approve, and command the returne of his people that have gone astray, he waiteth for their amendment, useth meanes to bring them to the knowledge of themselves, is not wan­ting to them in any thing that in justice or promise he ought to doe [Page 134] for them: but yet it is not his will effectually to bring every man to repentance, whom he doth command to repent. The Com­mandment of God shews what is our duty, but not what God will worke in every man: the commandment lieth upon them that be obstinate and rebellious, but they have not grace to will their conversion or amendment. Neverthelesse, we must not thinke, either that God doth dissemble, or that he is the authour of mans impenitency: for mans corruption, pravity and wilful­nesse is the cause of his going on in evill; and his impotency, is not a meere infirmity, which he doth bewaile, but a stubbornesse, which he doth foster and cherish by all means.

The condition of this Covenant (in the sence afore-said) is faith in the promised Messiah, which is implied in the promise, I will be thy God, and commanded in the precept built upon it, Thou shalt have me to be thy God. For God is not the God of Israel, but in and through the Mediatour, neither can Israel take God to be their God, but by faith in the Messiah. In the Prophets we meet with no exhortations more common then these, Trust in the Lord, commit thy selfe unto the Lord, rowle thy burden upon him, leane upon the Lord: but what the Prophets exhort-unto, that is commanded in this expressure of the Covenant: and trust in the Lord man a sinner cannot, unlesse it be in and through a Me­diatour. Israel is commanded to seek the Lord, and walk before him in all well-pleasing. But without Heb 11. 6, 7. Quod addit Apostolus, nondum venisse fidem, Gal. 3. 23. quamd [...] Dei po pulus sub legis custodia detinebatur, id aliò spectat, scil. fides Apostolo eo loco est eva [...]ge lica fontis misericordiae Dei, Rom. 3. 29. in Christi filij Mediatoris sanguine declaratio, quam fidem [...] vocat. quippe re­velationis Christi gradum excellentissimum: eadem prorsus ratione, qua Johan. aj [...]at spi­ritum, John 7. 39. Jer. 31. 33 34. & 32. 33, 34. quae comparatè tantum dicuntur, non au­tem absolutè, quasi haec nullo gradu jam tum contingerent. faith it is impossible to please God. For he that commeth to God, must believe that God is, and that he is the rewarder of them that diligently seeke him. We cannot seeke God, nor pray unto him without faith, for to seek God is to trust in him. But all men will confesse the Israelites were by Covenant bound to seeke God, and pray unto him. As Gideon, Barak, Sampson, Jepthah, David and Samuel, through faith sub­dued Kingdomes, wrought righteousnesse, obtained promises, &c. So the faithfull and true Israelite by faith walked with God, and became heire of the righteousnesse, which is by faith. As God is one who shall justifie the circumcision by faith, and the uncir­cumcision [Page 135] through faith: without question in the Covenant of Grace he taught the Circumcision to seek justification by faith, and not by the works of the Law. Neverthelesse herein God cal­led for, and his Israel was bound to yeeld obedience to all his Commandements. Strict, exact, perfect obedience the Lord doth require, so that the least failing must be acknowledged to be a sin: uniforme and sincere obedience is so required, that without it there can be no Salvation. Perfect obedience is commanded, that if a man will trust in his works to be justified thereby, he must ei­ther bring that which is every way compleat, or be cast in judge­ment. Sincere obedience, though imperfect is approved, that the imperfection of their best works being covered, and their trans­gressions graciously pardoned, they might be accepted by faith in Christ, who is the end of the Law, as righteous unto eternall life. This distinction was formerly propounded, but now is more largely to be confirmed.

The Law requires perfect and exact obedience: for secret faults, even thoughts arising from corrupt nature, before they attainedRom. 7. 7. full consent, are therein condemned: and he that trusteth in his works, if he continue not in every thing that is written in theGal. 3. 10. book of the Law to doe them, he is accursed. But to them that be in Covenant the Law was given with such moderation, that sincere obedience was accepted of them, though attended withPsal. 19. 12, 13. many imperfections, as is cleare by that of the Psalmist, who can understand his errours, cleanse thou me from secret faults, keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sinnes, let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression. The godly Governours and people of Israel were well acquainted with the meaning of the Law, and what obedience should be accepted at their hands: And when2 Kin. 23. 3. 2 Chro. 15. 12, 13, 14. Neh. 10. 29, 30, 31. they promised, and bound themselves by Oath to walk in all the Statutes, Judgements, and Ordinances of the Lord, or of the Law of Moses, they did neither pervert the sense of the Law, nor pro­mise punctually to fulfill the Law in every jot and title. Therefore they understood the tenour of the Law as it was given unto them, to admit of upright, unfained and true obedience, the imperfecti­on that cleaveth unto their best works being graciously pardoned. I have sworne, and I will performe it, that I will keepe thy righteous Psal. 119. 106. judgements. Did the Prophet think himself able punctually to ful­fill [Page 136] the Law? How will that stand with his Prayer, Enter not in­to judgement with thy servant; for in thy sight shall no man living Psal. 143. 2. be justified. No, but he knew sincere and willing obedience, which he promised and would performe, should be taken in good part. And this is further apparent by the prayers of the faith­full, Judge me, O Lord, for I have walked in mine integrity. Remem­ber Psal. 26. 1, 11. Isai. 38. 3. Neh. 1. 5, 9. Psal. 25. 10. Dan. 9. 4. Jer. 31. 32. how I have walked before thee in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in thy sight. It never came into the heart of these Worthies to conceit, they had been able to justifie themselves before the barre of Gods justice in any particular acti­on, great or small, as if it had been without all defect or staine, be­ing tried in the rigour of justice; nor could their integrity ought availe them, if no obedience did find acceptance with God, but that which is every way compleat. It is said of Josiah, that he tur­ned 2 Kin. 23. 25. to the Lord with all his heart and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the Law of Moses; that he declined not to the right hand, or to the left: Of David, that he kept the Commande­ments 2 King. 21. 3. of God, and his Statutes: that he kept the Commandements of 1 Kin. 11. 34. 1 King. 14. 8. 1 King. 15. 5. God, and followed him with all his heart, to doe that only which was right in his eyes: that he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and turned not aside from any thing that he commanded him all the dayes of his life, save only in the matter of Ʋriah the Hittite: and1 King. 22. 43. of Jehoshaphat, that he turned not aside from doing that which was right in the eyes of the Lord: Of Asa, that his heart was perfect before the 2 Chro. 15. 12. Lord all his dayes: Of Asa and the people, that they sought the Lord with all their heart, and all their soule. From these passages we cannot prove either that these servants of God did, or that it is possible for men in this life to fulfill the Law exactly, or that the Law is given with such moderation, as that the imperfections which did cleave unto these, and the best servants of God, were no sinnes: because in phrase of Scripture the words will not beare that weight, it may be confuted by Text it selfe, setting down se­verall imperfections even in them, who are said not to have turned aside from the Commandements, and it is directly contrary to di­vers other passages of holy writ. But thence we may soundly gather, that the Law as it was given to Israel, doth admit and allow of sincere and unpartiall obedience, though it be imperfect and answer not to that exactnesse which is required.

These words, Doe this and live, must not be interpreted, as if [Page 137] they did promise life upon a condition of perfect obedience, and for works done in such exactnesse as is required: but they must be expounded Evangelically, describing the subject capable of life eternall, not the cause why life and salvation is conferred: and by doing sincere, uniforme, unpartiall obedience, not exact fulfilling of the Law in every title is to be understood. Doe this and live, what is it more then this, If ye will obey my voice, and doe my Com­mandements, Psal. 112. 1. ye shall be to me a peculiar treasure. Blessed is the man that feareth the Lord, and delighteth greatly in his Commandements. Psal. 106. 3. Blessed are they that keep judgement, and he that doth righteousnesse at all times. Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the Law of Psal. 119. 1, 2. the Lord. Blessed are they that keep his testimonies, and that seek him with the whole heart. Who so looketh into the perfect law of liberty, Jam. 1. 25. and continueth therein, he being not a forgetfull hearer, but a doer of the worke, this man shall be blessed in his deed. To them who by pati­ent Rom. 2. 7. continuance in well-doing, seeke for glory, and honour, eternall life: which passages are to be understood of sincere and upright wal­king, and shew who are justified, and to whom the promises of life pertaine, but not why they are justified. And in like manner that of the Apostle, The doers of the Law are justified, may be ex­poundedRom. 2. 13. Evangelically, not of them that fulfill the Law, which should be justified by their works, but of them that soundly obey, who are justified of grace by faith, not for their works. And hence it appeares what works the Apostle opposeth to faith in the matter of justification: not only perfect works done by the strength of nature, of which sort there be none at all: but works commanded in the Law as it was given to Israel, such as Abraham and David walked in after they were effectually called, such as without whose presence faith it self could not be existent, such as are necessary in the person justified: these works are opposed to faith, in the matter of justification, not that faith can be without them, but because they cannot be causes together with faith in Justification. And of necessity, if faith be opposite to works ex­actly perfect, it must be opposite to them that are imperfect and stained in part, that be impurely pure: because the Covenant of Grace calleth for perfection, though it accept sincerity, and in all reason perfect righteousnesse should rather be accepted for righte­ousnesse unto life, than that which is imperfect and falleth short of that which is required.

For the better administration of this state and nationall Cove­nant, it pleased God to ordaine sutable Ordinances for the teach­ing and applying of this Covenant, scil. of Ministery and Priest­hood. The first of these the Apostle openeth, setting down the state of the Gentile and Jew before Christ came, compared both together, and how both stood in comparison to the Church after Christ, in regard of this Ordinance of teaching. As the GentileGal. 3. 23, 24, 25. before Christ was a man constrained to live without a shelter: the Jew at the same time is better provided for: for he had the Law taught to cover his head in a storme, that it be not too violent, But we after Ch [...]ist dwell in well-grounded, yea, seiled roomes, that we need not to feare the blowing, beating, or flowing in of the Sea, raine, or wind, for we have the Ordinances of the Go­spell. The Gentiles before Christ ran wild like beggarly bruits without all schooling; the Jew a great deale better for the time being, he had a Schoole-master to teach and nourture him, even,The Lord did thinke it good to set forth the state of mino­rity in such kind of attires & habiliments as might best suit with the fansie of mi­nority: and so to teach and clothe his Church with types and Ce­remonies, which is a kind of Image­rie, and there­fore of the two the Jewes had more liberty in that kind, then Christians in times of the Gospell. the Law to bring him unto Christ. But happy Christians after Christ living in the University of the Church under the free Tu­tors of new Ordinances. The Schoolemastership of Moses was a good Ordinance for the body of the people under Covenant with God, as we find this calling needfull and profitable in a Common-weale, though inferiour to the honour and worth of an University. There was not a man of them undiscovenanted who took not benefit some way or other by this pedagogie. For some were kept thereby from notorious evils, as children that learne little at Schoole, get good in this, that they are kept from shrewd turnes. Others get much ability of knowledge, though they ne­ver looked at Christ; as some at Schoole learn to write and read, cast account and make a bond, though they never intend any bet­ter use of their learning. But the spirituall Jew got some true measure of grace to Salvation, though they reached not to that pitch and measure which is attaineable under the Ordinances of the New Testament; as in some good Grammar Schooles those grounds of learning may be obtained, whereby men may be ser­viceable to the Church or Common-weale in some measure, though they come not to that ripenesse and maturity, which may be gotten in the University.

For the manner of this pedagogie under Moses, we are not to conceive, that he taught his Schollers in things too hard for [Page 139] their capacity and practise only to set them to others to aske: for it is the part of a bad master to set his Schollars too hard a taske, that they might runne to their fellowes to make exercises, this is the way to non-proficiency. But Moses in the Ceremoniall Ordinances did point out Christ, and so as a good Schoole-master directed unto him; and by shewing unto the Jewes their weak­nesse and inability, convincing them of sinne, terrifying their consciences, he did drive them unto Christ, and informed them how to walke being in Christ, that they might inherite the pro­mise. Thus the Law entred that sinne might abound, it discove­redRom. 5. 20. Gal. 3. 19. Rom. 7. 11. and 4. 15. sinne, wrought wrath, wounded, terrified and killed, and withall revealed the remedy to be had, not in the Law, but in Christ, that the distressed might not rest in the Law, but seek un­to Christ, and live. In a Schoole we must have rods to keep re­fractory boyes in awe, and idle boyes to their bookes, according to the common Proverbe, A rod in a Schoole is alwayes in season. This was found with Moses in his Schoole, and used as occasion was offered. The Ceremonies were as an hand-writing againstCol. 2. 14. Ephes. 2. 15. The Ceremo­nies are visible words preach­ing Christ, and they preach guilt also and wrath belon­ging unto us, by consequent and to the Jew directly. Cere­monies as they are a meere carnall kind of instructing▪ do witnesse a­gainst us. them, as they witnessed their uncleanenesse, or bound them to the debt of the Law: and a curse was denounced against them that should not continue in all things that was written in the booke of the Law to doe them. Schoole-masters must have Apples and toyes to traine up boyes of better and softer natures, who be won with a Nut and lost with the shell: This the Schoole of the Law wanted not in the hand of Moses, as the outward temporall bles­sings of this life plentifully spoken too, and distributed by the hand of Moses in his Booke: The Jewes were as Infants and little children that are much pleased with rattles and other toyes: and Moses the rather to winne and keepe them in obedience, doth make large promises of corporall blessings and an earthly inheritance, as did befit the state and condition of that people. But if these prevaile not, he hath his Ferula and gentle rod, which is the commination of temporall calamities and judge­ments to be inflicted upon transgressours. It is expedient a Schoole-master have some other practises besides Rods and Nuts to breake their wils, and make them corrigible and teachable, tractable and gentle, which the Law provided for aboundantly, having to doe with a stiffe-necked people, and stubborn Schollars. Three kinds of impositions Moses propounded unto his Schollars to beare.

First, in the pedagogie of the Law he restrained them from some free creatures, whereunto they had strange naturall desires, as meats and drinks; making some uncleane: as mothers lay Apples before the eyes of their children, which yet they must not touch upon paine of a frowne, chiding or whipping, to breake their wils, and traine them up in obedience.

Secondly, He laid before them some other indifferencies, which if they did adventure to use, they must undergoe such and such hardship as was not worth the while: their injoyment not worth the paiment, as we reade Levit. 15. in many washings and purifications.

Thirdly, He prescribed such duties about the free creatures, which were dangerous, painfull and costly for the present, if it were possible to bow their uncircumcised hearts: wherein he prevailed, and they profited aboundantly. In all which he in­creased their homage to God, more than at the first in the Cove­nant of works with Adam, or in any former manifestation of this Covenant. And in these respects the Law might well be called a burden unsupportable, which neither the Jewes, nor their FathersActs 15. 10. were able to beare.

A good Schoolemaster will not scorne to teach rudiments to lesser boyes, every letter and syllable: so Moses and his successors taught all the rudiments and legall precepts to all the Jewes, wherein though some sticke as their furthest perfection, yet some went further to higher degrees, and all learned by them some par­tiall obedience to draw on them and theirs some partiall bles­sings. Of this sort were these, Touch not, tast not. It beseemesCol. 2. 21. an able Schoolemaster so farre as he hath ability and authority to teach his Schollars Greeke, Hebrew, Logicke, principles of high­er learning, especially when an university is not at hand: so Mo­ses in this pedagogie did rise to teach higher things to the spiritu­all Israel, as the blood of Christ folded up in the blood of the sa­crifice, for the purging of their hearts from dead workes, and the mortification of sinfull corruption in their burnt offerings, that so they might discover how they were delivered from the eternall curse of the Law. Now when his spirituall Schollars felt the bondage of the Law, and came to learne the remedy, the very thing learned was their motive and reward, that they did not so much need rods or nuts, that is, the promise of temporall bles­sings, [Page 141] or denunciation of temporall judgements, and the want of such learning was a smart rod to beate them.

Moses also brought in the Priest-hood as a setled ordinance for that present, which for the persons were to succeed him; The things which they had proper were two. First to offer Sacrifices for the people and thereby to cleanse them from the breach of Ce­remoniall commands put upon them by Moses to testifie their homage. But the blood of those sacrifices, was a tipe of ChristsHeb. 9. 9. & 10. 4. & 9. 23. blood our true and unchangeable high Priest, whereby the con­science is purged from the guilt of sinne, and from all failings in the least and highest degree of morall obedience. And though the carnall Jew saw it not in their sacrifices, yet the spirituall, which brought a right sence of sinne and fitting disposition, both saw it and reached pardon in these sacrifices by faith in the blood of Christ tipified by them. And hence we see in what respect, theGal. 3. 21. Heb. 8. 7. & [...] 13. Law is said to be weake and unable to give life, to purge the con­science, or pacifie the wrath of God: because it was not the blood of Bulls or Goats, but of Christ, the immaculate Lamb of God, who thorough the eternall Spirit offered up himselfe a sa­crifice to the Father, that did purge the conscience, and bring in eternall redemption, which was not shed but tipified under that Covenant, though the spirituall seed by faith laid hold upon i [...], and were partakers of the benefits thereof.

Secondly, It was the effect of this ordinance to offer up pray­ers to God for the people upon their Incense. To runne into eve­ry particular in this kind were infinite.

The effect of this Covenant, that it bringeth forth children, but in some kind of bondage, pressed and kept under with servi­tude. For the heire so long as he is under Tutors and Governours dif­fereth Gal. 4. 3, 4. not from a servant, though he be Lord of all. The Jewes were children and heires, but tutored and kept under with many Cere­moniall ordinances and observations as appendices to the Law, expedient for that time and state. But there is a twofold servi­tude; one to damnation, which shuts the sonnes of such disposi­tion out of the Kingdome of Heaven, which was figured by the bondage of Ismael and Hagar. This the Covenant doth not be­get in it selfe, but in them that rejected Christ the soule of the Law, and trusted in their workes to be justified thereby. The o­ther of sonnes, which are held under the nourture of the Law and [Page 142] legall rites, but rest not in them, but by them are led unto Christ; which abide still in the house, and partake of the dignity of sons though under Tutours; and this servitude is an effect of the Cove­nant thus administred.

Under this Covenant the naturall seed of Abraham bore the face of the Church and state, and God had promised abundance of temporals, and of spirituall a scantling: But all under the outward administration of the Covenant, were not in like manner parta­kers of the blessings promised in Covenant. For some had their part in the temporall blessings only, and the outward ordinances; others were partakers of the spirituall blessings promised. But whatsoever good thing any of them enjoyed either temporall or spirituall, it was conferred upon them freely according to the Covenant of Grace, and not for the dignity of their workes. It is true, the promise is conditionall, if they obey, they shall reape the good things of the Land: but obedience was not a causall con­dition, why they should inherit, but consequent, what they must doe when they should inherit the Land. God would not that his people should live dissolutely in the promised Land: but he gave them not that inheritance for their righteousnesse. Certaine it is also, that God did reward partiall obedience with temporall blessings, as he spared some upon their temporary humiliation and fained repentance: and he permitted some obstinate and rebel­lious to abide in the promised Land, and take roote and prosper for a season: but this he did of his free bounty, that he might performe the Oath which he sware unto the Fathers. So that herein there appeares no intexture of the Covenant of workes with the Cove­nant of Grace, nor any moderation of the Law to the strength and power of nature for the obtaining of outward blessings. But rather that God of his aboundant goodnesse is pleased freely to conferre outward blessings promised in Covenant upon some that did not cleave unto him unfainedly, that he might make good his promise unto the spirituall seed, which by word and oath he had confirmed unto the Fathers. In this expression of the Cove­nant it pleased God to add unto the former, another seal for con­firmation of their faith, sc. the Passe-over which was a tipe ofExod. 12. 1 Cor. 5. 7. Christ, the immaculate Lambe of God, which taketh away the sinnes of the world; ourtrue Passe-over, who was sacrificed for us, as well as a seale of their deliverance from the bondage of E­gypt. [Page 143] And the celebration of the Passeover, was as a gratefull remembrance of their most powerfull and gracious deliverance from the fiery fornace, and consequently of their possession of that good Land, which the Lord had promised to give them: so was it a testimony of their faith in the bloud of Christ, whereby they were set free from the powers of darknesse, and the curse of the Law, and restored into spirituall liberty, being made heires of the kingdome of heaven. And from all this we may see, wherein this expres­sion of the Covenant doth exceed the former, and wherein it dif­fers from, and fals short of the new Covenant: of which in the latter end of the next Chapter.

CHAP. IX. Of the Covenant that God made with David.

THis Covenant of Grace was further manifested to David, to whom the Lord doth most aboundantly and familiarly make knowne the riches of his free-grace and love. And is this O Lord the manner of men? 2 Sam. 7. 19. Or as Junius readeth it, and that after the manner of men, O Lord God, that is, thou dealest familiarly with me, as a man dealeth with man,Amam: id (que) secundum consuetudinem hominis seu hominum: (i) ac si amicus cum amico age­ret, S [...]hingler. Huc adducit, Chald. [...] Et hoc, hic agendi modu [...] conveniens est filijs hominum. q d. ita [...]olet amicu [...] cum amico colloqui & familiariter animi sui sententiam depromere. Sept. [...], &c. Em. Sa. Lex hominis. q d. sic mecum agi [...], ut solet h [...]mo cum amico. 1 Chron. 17. 17. And thou hast provided for me according to the manner of men concerning this excellency, O Lord God, or, thou hast provided for me this excellency, according to the man­ner of men. I see, for I provide for: for the Hebrews, when they have not compound verbes, doe use simple in their stead, Pisc. & aspexeris me secundum rationem hominis (i) humanam [quoad] hanc excellentiam. Engl. according to the manner of high degree or great dignity. Sept. [...].

The Authour of this Covenant is the LordHab. 1. 12. Deut. 34. 4. Sept. [...], Joh. 18. 30, 37. Isa. 26. 4. 1 Sam. 2. 2. Psal. 18. 32. & 28. 1. & 2 Sam. 2 [...]. 2, 32. Sept. [...], [...] Sam. 23. 3. Sept. [...]. al [...], 2 Sam. 22. 47. Isa. 30. 29. The rocke of Israel, Psal. 8 [...]. 26. The rock of Salvation, Sept [...]. God, the God of Israel, the God that hath bound himselfe in Covenant unto Israel, who doth watch over them, walk in the midst amongst them, is their shield and buckler, and strong Tower of defence. The rocke of Israel, the everlasting rocke, that is, the mighty, stable, and immutable foundation and de­fence of the faithfull, who flie unto him, and trust in him. So God is called, the Rock of their Salvation, Deut. 32. 15. Psalm. 95. 1. Sept. [...], the rocke of their strength, Psal. 62. 7, 8. Psal. 31. 3. Isa. 17. 10. Sept. [...], Psalm. 71. 3. Psal. 31. 3. Sept. [...], the rock of my heart, Psal. 72. 26. Sept. the God of my heart: and besides him there is none other, Isa. 44. 8. a rock of refuge or affiance, Psal. 94. 22. Sept. [...], Psal. 18. 3. Sept. [...] Rock and Re­deemer are put together, Psalm. 19. 15. Rocke and Salvation, Psal. 62. 7.

This Covenant was made in Christ, and Christ is more clearly manifested in this breaking forth of the Covenant, then in any of the former. As first, that he was God and man in one person; the Son of David, who should come of his loynes, and yet Da­vids Psal. 110. 1. Mat. 22. 42, 45. Act. 2. 34. Lord. The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, untill I make thine enemies my foot-stoole. Then in respect of his humiliation and glorification, his sufferings and exaltation. Thou wilt not leave my soul in grave, nor suffer thine holy one to Psal. 16. 10. Act. 2. 26, 27. & 13. 36, 37. Psa. 8. 6. & 22. 1 Heb. 2. 7, 9. Psal. 110. 1. see corruption. Thou hast made him for a little inferiour to the Angels, sc. as concerning his sufferings: Thou hast crowned him with glory and honour. Sit thou on my right hand, untill I make thine enemies thy foot-stoole. Also in respect of his offices, that he should be both King and Priest; a King to rule and governe his elect, to bridle and subdue his enemies; I will declare the decree, Psal. 2. 5, 6, 7. Heb. 1. 5. Act. 13. 32, 33. Psal. 110. 2. the Lord hath said unto me, thou art my Son: I will set my King upon my holy hill of Syon. Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. A Priest after the order of Melchisedech, confirmed by oath, an­nointed with the oyle of gladnesse. The Lord hath sworn and will Psal. 110. 4. Heb. 5. 8. & 7. 1 [...]. Ps. 45. 7. not repent, thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchi­sedech. God, even thy God hath annointed thee with the oyle of [Page 145] gladness above thy fellows, that is, above all Christians, who are thy fellows, consorts and partners in the annointing. To offer up himselfe once for all a sweet smelling Sacrifice unto the Father, for the sins of his people. Sacrifice and burnt-offering thou Psal. 40. 7, 8. Exod. 21. 6. wouldst not have, but mine eare hast thou boared, or digged o­pen: that is, thou hast made me obedient to thy voice: or mine eare hast thou boared, as thy servant for ever. The Septuagint to make the sence plainer, say, but a body hast thou fitted to me, or prepared me: meaning that his body was ordained and fitted to be a Sacrifice for the sins of the world, when other legall Sacri­ficesHeb. 10. 5, 10. were refused as unprofitable. Loe I come, or am come, scil. into the world, to give my self a Sacrifice for sin. In the volume, Heb. 10 10. Joh. 6. 38. Psal. 2. 8. or role of thy booke it is written of me, that I should doe thy will; by the which will we are sanctified, even by the offering of the bo­dy of Jesus once. In respect of his kingdome, power, glory, dig­nity, dominion and rule or government. Aske of me, and I will Psal. 72. 8, 11. givethee the Heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost Psal. 89. 30, 37, 38. parts of the earth for thy possession. He shall have dominion from Sea to Sea, and from the River unto the ends of the Land. All Kings shall worship him, all Nations shall doe him service. His seed shall be for ever, and his throne as the Sun before me. As the Moon it shall be established for ever: And as a faithfull witnesse Isa. 53. 10. Heb. 2. 13. Ps. 22. 23. in heaven. His seed will I establish for ever; that is, Christians borne of God, which are called Christs seed and children, as Christ is called the everlasting Father. Thou hast ascended up on high, Isa. 9. 6. Psa. 68. 18. Eph. 4. 8, 9. thou hast led captivity captive, thou hast taken gifts for men, that is, thou hast given and distributed gifts among men, which are the Ministers of the Gospell, given for the good of the Church.Ps. 89. 34, 35, 36. 2 Sam. 7. 28. Thou hast told this goodnesse unto thy ser­vant, Psal. 89. 24. My truth al­so, and my mer­cie shall be with him, Ps. 132. 11. The Lord sware unto David in truth, Ps. 22. 1.

This Covenant the Lord made of his rich mercy and grace, which he confirmed by Oath, My mercy I will not make frustrate from with him, nor deale falsly against my faithfullnesse. I will not profane my Covenant, nor alter that which is gone out of my lips. Once have I sworne by my holinesse, if I lie unto David. Once have I sworne, as God spake once, Psal. 62. 11. that is, un­changeably: for an oath cannot be revoked, there is no danger of inconstancy. David himselfe was a type, and did beare the per­son of Christ, and many things spoken of David, were more pro­perly fulfilled in Christ the person typified, then in David: as, [Page 146] My God, my God, why hast thou forsak [...]n me. They parted my Mat. 27. 46. Psal. 22. 18, 19. Joh. 19. 2 [...], 24. Ps. 41. 9. Joh. 13. 18. Ps 69. 21. Job 29. 28, 2 [...]. garments among them, and for my coat they cast lots. They pier­ced my hands and my feet. He that eat bread at my table, hath lift up the heel against me.

The things promised in this Covenant particularly, above those that were mentioned in the former breakings forth there­of, are

1. That God would be with him, whethersoever he went, and2 Sam. 7. 9. Psal. 89. 22, 23. make his way prosperous, and cut off all his enemies from before his face, that he might make him a great Name, like to the name of the great men upon earth. And thus the Lord delivered him from the hand of Saul, and all his enemies, who did oppose him that he should not raigne, O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn Psal 4. 3, 4. my glory into shame? How long will ye love vanity, and seek af­ter leesing? Selah. Know ye, that the Lord hath wonderfully se­parated to himself the man that is godly: the Lord will heare when I call upon him.

2. That he would appoint a place for his people Israel, and plant2 Sam. 7. 10. [...] Kin. 5. 3. 1 Chron. 20. 9. it, that they might dwell in a place of their owne, and move no more, nor be disquieted any more by wicked people, as in former times. And so God gave Israel rest from all their enemies round about, and setled them in peace and quietnesse by the hand of David.

3. That when the daies of David were fulfilled, and he shall2 Sam. 7. 12, 1 [...] sleepe with his Fathers, he would set up his seed after him, which should proceed out of his body, and he should build an house or Temple for the Name of the Lord God of Israel. I purpose (saith1 King. 5 5. [...] Chron. 20 10 which is called an house of rest, Psal. 132. 8. 1 Chro▪ 28. 2. 2 Chro. 6. 41. and the Lords seat or habita­tion, Ps. 132. 13 Ps. 68, 17. 1 Kin. 8. 18, 19, 20. Solomon) to build an house unto the Name of the Lord my God, as the Lord spake unto David my Father, saying, Thy Son, whom I will set upon thy throne for thee, he shall build an house unto my Name. And at the dedication of the Temple he maketh mention of this promise: The Lord said unto David my Father, whereas it was in thine heart to build an house unto my Name, thou didst well, that thou wast so minded: Neverthelesse thou shalt not build the house, but thy son that shall come out of thy loyns, he shall build the house unto the Lord. And the Lord hath made good the word, which he spake. I have built thee an house to dwell in, an habitation for thee to abide in for ever. [...] Kin. 8. 13.

[Page 147]4. He promiseth to be a Father to Davids seed, and take him2 Sa. 7. 14. Psa. 132. 12. Ps. 89. 26, 27. for his Son. He shall call upon me, thou art my Father, my God, the rock of my salvation. And I will make him my first-born, higher then the Kings of the earth; that is, the Prince and chiefeCol. 1. 15, 18. Heb. 1. 2. Iust in institut. l. 2. tit. [...]9. de baered. qualit & differ. ult. of the Kings, the most glorious and famous of all Kings. As Christ is called the first begotten of every creature, not that he was created before all other creatures, but because he is the Lord, Prince and head of every creature, and hath dominion over all creatures: and so the heire of all things, as heire, is sometimes put for Lord or owner, and pro haerede gerere, is, pro Domino gerere. Haeredes enim veteres pro Dominis appellabant.

5. That his house should be established and his Kingdome for e­ver2 Sam. [...]. 16. 1 Chron. 22. 16 Ps. 89. 29. Psa. 89. 36, 37. 1 Kin. 11. 38. And if thou hearken unto all that I com­mand, &c. I will build the [...] a f [...]rme house, &c. before the Lord, even his throne should be established for ever. His seed will I make to endure for ever, and his throne as the daies of Heaven. His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne shall be as the Sun before me. He shall be established for evermore as the Moon, as a faithfull witnesse in the heaven: that is, his Kingdome shall be perpetuall and glorious. For although the Moone waxeth and waineth and seemeth sometimes to be gone, yet it is continually renewed, and so stable: which is a fit resemblance of the Church, which hath not alwaies one face or appearance in the world, though it be perpetuall. And though for the sins of the people and Davids house, the state of his Kingdome and housePs. 89. 30, 31, 32, 33. decayed, yet God reserved still a root, till he had accomplished this promise in Christ.

6. That his house should be as the Morning light, when the Sun2 Sam. 23. 4. Ps. 132. 15, 16. Her victuals I will blesse, her poore I will satisfie with bread, Psal. 18. 28. The Lord hath lightned my candle, that is, given me comfort, joy, prosperity after troubles. 2 Sam. 23. 5. ariseth, the morning I say without clouds, and as the grasse of the earth with cleare shining after raine: that is, it shall shine with all light of glory and prosperity, and flourish or be green perpetually, as the herbes and grasse which is refreshed with seasonable rain and heate.

These gracious and free promises God made to David and to his house, and to the whole Kingdome of Israel, not for their righteousnesse, but of his manifold and great mercy. And as he promised them without consideration of their desert, so of his rich grace and love undeserved, he made them good. For Davids house was not such as it ought to be before God, they kept not promise & Covenant: but the Lord was mercifull and gracious, he did not forget his truth, nor suffer his mercies to faile▪ If his children Ps. 89. 30, 31, 32 [Page 148] forsake my Law, and walke not in my judgements, if they breake 2 Sam. 7. 14, 15. 1 King. 11. 11, 12, 32, 33, 34, 36. Psal. 132. 11, 12. my statutes, and keepe not my Commandements: Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stroakes: But my loving kindnesse will I not take from him, neither will I falsifie my truth. True it is, the Lord did correct the posterity of David for their sinne with moderate correction, and for their pro­fit, that they might be partakers of holinesse: But even when it did not bud or come on according to that which seemed to be promised, the Lord was most faithfull in his promises: for it was their sinne that kept them downe. And for this (saith the Lord1 King. 11. 39. to Solomon) I will afflict the house of David, but not for ever: for the whole spirituall kingdome was restored in the Messiah. I will make the horne of David to bud, I have ordained a lampe Psal. 132. 17, 18. 1 King. 15. 4. for mine annointed: that is, I will make the Kingdome and pow­er to encrease. For Davids sake did the Lord his God give him a light in Jerusalem, and set up his son after him, and established Je­rusalem. Yet the Lord would not destroy Judah, for David his 2 King. 8. 19. servants sake, as he had promised him, to give him a light, and to his children for ever. Great deliverance giveth he unto his King (he is the magnifier of salvations unto his King) and sheweth mer­cy Psal. 18. 51. unto his annointed, to David and to his seed for ever.

7. That the Priests should be cloathed with salvation, and thePsal. 132. 16. Saints with joyfullnesse: that is, the ministration of the Priests should be profitable and saving to the people, which should be an ornament to them, as a garment of honour, and the people should sing cheerefully. The salvation of the person only is not here meant, but the conservation of the ministery; as if it should be said, I will cause that the ministery of the Priests be safe, that it shall not be troubled with ungodly men, nor defiled with the filth of errour: and that it shall be effectuall in the minds of the godly, and many by the blessing of this ministery may obtaine eternall happinesse. It may also be applied to the private salvation of the Priests, because they should be defended and protected from a­bove, and adorned with blessings of all kind. Great and pretious are the promises which God hath given to Israel in this Covenant: as that God by visible testimonies of his presence would be pleased to dwell amongst them, and not forsake them, that he would heare their prayers, when they prayed before him towards his holy Temple; that the Church and politie of Israel should continue, [Page 149] that it should be effectuall, and the people blessed with rest, peace,2 Sam. 25. 5. Rom. 11. 29. Lam. 5. 19. Gal. 3. 20. 2 Sam. 25. 5. Sept. [...]. Psal. 5. 4. [...]. Psal. 23. 5. Isa. 21. 5. Sept. [...] Ps. 178. 19▪ Psal. 132. 17. Judg. 20. 22. Gen. 14. 8. Sept. [...]. & 22. 9. [...], Lev. 1. 7, 8, 12. Sept. [...], Al. [...]. Prov. 9. 2. Sept. [...]. Aquin. [...]. Sym. [...]. Th. [...]. Josh. 2. 8. Psa. 50. 21. 1 King. 2. 3, 4. 1 King. 3. 6. 1 King. 8. 57, 58. 1 Chro. 28. 7. I will establish his Kingdome for ever, if he endeavour to doe my Com­mandements. 2 Sam. 23. 5. Psal, 78. 71. Psal. 101. 1, 2. Hodie non im­peravi, quia nemini bene seci. joy and blessings of all sorts spirituall and temporall.

This Covenant that God made with David is everlasting, that is unchangeable: because the gifts and calling of God is without repentance. His word shall be established for ever in Heaven: and though the course of the promise be interrupted for a time, it shall bud, and spring, and bring forth fruit.

It is also a well ordered Covenant in all things, fitly marshal­led, disposed or set forth as an army in comely order, orderly ad­dressed, prepared, setled, furnished, directed, firme and sure: that is, the good things promised were all prepared and in readinesse, and should be performed in comely order, and fit season. But the or­dering of this most desired and saving Covenant, was in the power and pleasure of God, both in respect of his house, the Kingdome, and the whole Church of Christ, who had faithfully promised, and would effectually make good in his own time, whatsoever he had spoken.

And it is a sure Covenant faithfully to be kept and observed: a Covenant that God doth remember, taketh heed unto, and will make good for his mercy sake. For the Lord is faithfull, and will not deny himselfe, though we be inconstant, unfaithfull and apt to start aside.

The condition of this Covenant is, that they should walke in the wayes of the Lord, and keepe his watch; take heed to the charge of the Lord their God, and keepe his statutes and his Commande­ments, and his judgements, and his testimonies; to walke before the Lord in truth, with all their soules. The Lord our God be with us, as he was with our Fathers that he forsake us not, nor leave us: That he may bow our hearts unto him, that we may walke in all his wayes, and keepe his Commandements, and his Statutes, and his Lawes, which he commanded our Fathers. Particularly, He that ruleth over men, that is, the Israelites, must be just, ruling in the feare of God. And thus it is observed of David, That he f [...]d Jacob and Israel according to the integrity of his heart, and gui­ded, or led them by the discretion of his hands; that is, with most prudent and discreete administration managed he them. This was that which David promised, I will sing of mercy and judgement to thee, O Lord, will I sing: I will doe wisely in the perfect way, oh, when wilt thou come unto me. The Priests they must justly [Page 150] and holily administer their office. Let the Priests be cloathed Psal. 132. 9. with righteousnesse: The Prophet speakes not so much of the righteousnesse of their persons, but of their office: the first is a great ornament of the ministery, the other more necessary in re­spect of the body of the Church; sc. that they fullfill their mini­stery, teaching sound and incorrupt doctrine, exhorting, admoni­shing, comforting, sacrificing, and performing all other offices and services which the Lord commanded. The whole body of the people, they should walke in holinesse, sing of the praises of God, and give up themselves unto God as an holy people, zealous of good works.

As for the execution of this Covenant; First, David did fight the warres of God, and the Lord was with him, and did prosper2 Sam. 7. 2. 1 Chro. 17. 2. 1 Chro. 23. 25. 2 Sam. 5. 9, 10, 12. 1 Chro. 1 [...]. 1, 3. and 16. 1, 2, 3, &c. Ps. 132. 1, 2, 3. A [...]xia animi sollicitudine. him, untill his enemies were subdued, and the people had rest and peace from them that were round about them.

2. He prepared a place for the Arke of the Lord at Jerusalem, and set it there. David prepared a place for the Arke of the Lord, and pitched for it a tent: And he gathered all Israel toge­ther to bring up the Arke of the Lord unto his place which he had ordained for it. Remember David, and all his afflictions; how he swore unto God, and vowed a vow unto the mighty God of Jacob.

3. He set the courses of the Priests in their offices, and the Le­vites2 Chron 8. 14. and 29. 25. 1 Chron. 23. 28, 29, 30. 1 Chron. 24 1, 2, &c. in their watches, for to praise and minister before the Priests every day, and the Porters by their courses at every gate. The office of the Levites was under the hand of the sonne of Aaron, for the service of the house of the Lord in the courts, and chambers, and in the purifying of holy things, and in the worke of the service of the house of God, &c. So David and the Captaines of the Ar­my 1 Chro. 25. 1, 2. separated for the ministery, the sonnes of Asaph, and Heman, and Jeduthun, who should sing prophecies with Harpes, with Vi­ols, and with Cymbals. He appointed also divisions of Porters of 1 Chro. 26. 1 [...]. the chiefe men, having the charge among their brethren, to serve in the house of the Lord. And of the Levites, Abijah was over the treasures of the house of God, and over the treasures of the dedicate things. And Shelomith and his brethren were over all the treasures of the dedicate things, which David the King; and vers. [...]6. the chiefe Fathers, the Captaines over thousands, and hundreds, and the Captaines of the Army had dedicated.

4. He made preparation for the house of God, exhorted the Princes, and encouraged his sonne Solomon unto the work. I have 1 Chro. 28. 11, 12, 20, 21. 1 Chro. 29. 2, 3. prepared with all my power for the house of my God, gold for ves­sels of gold, and silver for them of silver, &c. Moreover, because I have delight in the house of my God, I have of mine owne gold and silver, which I have given to the house of my God, beside all that I have prepared for the house of the Sanctuary. And the vers. 7, 8, 9. Princes of the families gave for the service of the house of God, five thousand talents of gold, and ten thousand pieces, &c. And they with whom pretious stones were found, gave them to the trea­sure of the house of the Lord. And the people rejoyced when they offered willingly; for they offered willingly unto the Lord with a fit heart.

5. God gave Solomon a large heart for wisedome and under­standing, to goe in and out before the people. Behold, I have done 1 King. 3. 12, 28. according to thy words; loe I have given thee a wise and an un­derstanding 2 Chron. 1. 7, 12. heart, so that there hath been none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall arise the like unto thee.

6. The Lord magnified Solomon in dignity, in the sight of all1 Chro. 29. 25. Israel, and gave him so glorious a Kingdome, as no King had be­fore him in Israel. And the King gave silver and gold at Jeru­salem 2 Chron. 1. 1 [...]. & 9. 27. 2 Chron. 9. 22. ver. 23. as stones, and gave Cedar trees as the wild figge trees, that are aboundantly in the plaine. So King Solomon excelled all the Kings of the earth, in riches and wisedome. And all the Kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon, to heare his wisedome that God had put in his heart. And they brought every ver. 26. 1 Chron. 28. 11, 12, 13. 1 King. 6. 1. 2 Chron. [...]. 1 [...]. man his present. And he reigned over all the Kings from the ri­ver, even unto the Land of the Philistines, and to the border of Egypt.

7. Solomon built the Temple upon the Mount Mo [...]iah, the place appointed and appropriated by the Lord, according to the patterne shewed unto him by his father David. So Solomon be­gan to build the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, in Mount Mo­riah, which had been declared unto David his Father, in the place that David prepared in the threshing floore of Ornan the Jebusite.

8. Also he dedicated the house of God, blessed the people, prai­sed God for his goodnesse, prayed unto the Lord that his eyes [...] Chron. 6. [...], 20, 21, &c. might be open towards this house day and night, even toward this place, whereof the Lord had said, that he would put his name [Page 152] there, that he would hearken unto the prayer, which his servants pray in that place. This prayer of Solomon the Lord answered first by signes of acceptation: for when he had made an end of praying, fire 2 Chron. 7. 1, 2. came downe from Heaven, and consumed the burnt offering and the sa­crifices: and the glory of the Lord filled the house, so that the Priests could not enter into the house of the Lord, because the glory of the Lord had filled the Lords house. And then the Lord appeared to Solomon 2 Chron. 7. 12, 13, 16. by night, and said to him, I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place for my selfe to be an house of Sacrifice. And I have now chosen and sanctified this house, that my Name may be there for ever: and mine eyes, and mine heart shall be there perpetually. And if thou wilt walke before me, as David thy Father walked, to doe according Vers. 17, 18. unto all that I have commanded thee; and shalt observe my Statutes and my Judgements, Then will I establish the throne of thy Kingdome according as I made the Covenant with David thy Father, saying, Thou shalt not want a man to be ruler in Israel.

Hitherto things succeeded prosperously, the King going be­fore, the people followed with joy and cheerfulnesse, and the blessing of God accompanied them. But when they turned a­side, and forsooke the statutes and commandements, which the Lord had set before them, and went and served other Gods, and worshipped them, then the Lord afflicted the house of David, and the house which he had sanctified for his name, he cast out of his sight, and made it a Proverbe and a common talke among all peo­ple, and an astonishment to every one that passed by.

In this Covenant therefore the internall efficacy and outward administration is to be distinguished: or some things are absolute­ly promised, or if upon condition so as God will make good the condition; others are conditionally promised, so as they take not effect, because the condition was not made good. In the first sence, God promised a Sonne to David, who should sit upon his throne, and build an house unto the Lord God of Israel: He pro­mised also to establish his throne for ever: but that tooke not ef­fect in Solomon, but in Christ, who came of the loynes of David, and in whose hand the spirituall Kingdome was established for ever-more. I will establish thy seed for ever; and I will build thy Psal. 89. 5. Vers. 30. throne from generation to generation. If you seeke for corporall suc­cession in the stock of David, it failed together with the King­dome: but this eternity is to be found in Christ, who builded a [Page 153] Kingdome, that shall never fade; an heavenly and spirituall King­dome, which shall not cease, before things that are in Heaven doe perish and vanish away, that is, never; not earthly and cor­porall, which is subject to change and alteration. In this sence2 Sam. 23. 5. David saith, This was all his Salvation, and all his desire, al­though he made it not to bud, that is, he rested in this alone, that God would effect and make good his promise; not for their righte­ousnesse, (for Davids house was not such as it ought, kept not Covenant with God) but for his great names sake. In the second sence many things were promised, which never tooke effect, and yet God is faithfull and true, because the condition was broken. To the spirituall house of David, so to speake, was promised par­don of sinne, adoption, comfort, joy, and an heavenly inheri­tance; all this was made good, for God freely called them by his Spirit, and by his power kept them by faith unto Salvation. Though the house of David lost the Kingdome and government in Israel, yet God preserved his posterity untill Christ came, in whom the throne of David was established for ever: for this was absolutely promised. But the temporall glory of Davids house, and the peace of Israel was changed, because they changed the ordinances, neglected the charge, and brake the Commande­ments of God. If his sonnes forsake my Law, and walke not in my Psal. 89. 31, 32▪ judgements: If they prophane my statutes, and keep not my Comman­dements; Then will I visit his transgressions with the rod, and his sin with scourges. If ye turne away, and forsake my statutes and my Com­mandements, 2 Chron. 7. 19, 20, 21, 22. which I have set before you, and shall goe and serve other gods and worship them, Then will I pluck them up out of my Land which I have given them, and this House which I have sanctified for my Name, will I cast out of my sight, and will make it to be a Proverbe and a common talke among all people. And this House which is most high, shall be an astonishment to every one that passeth by it, so that he shall say, Why hath the Lord done thus to this Land, and to this House? And they shall answer, Because they forsooke the Lord God of their Fa­thers, which brought them out of the Land of Egypt, and have taken Sep. [...]. hould on other gods, and have worshipped them, and served them, there­fore hath he brought all this evill upon them. Davids heart was not perfect with the Lord in the matter of Ʋriah, and for that cause the sword of God never departed from his house. When Solo­m [...]n waxed old, and gave his heart to pleasure, his outlandish [Page 154] wives inticed him to Idolatry: and the Lord rent ten tribes from the house of David. In after times the house of David fell away more and more, the Priests neglected the charge of God, and the people grew prophane, obstinate, impenitent: and then the Lord abhorred his people, was wroth with his heritage, and gave his glory unto the enemies hand. Jerusalem was laid wast and de­solate, the Temple burnt with fire, the Princes led captive and made tributary, the aged were despised, the young men made slaves and bond men, maidens d [...]floured, and children dashed a­gainst the walles. They were slaine with the sword, burnt up with famine, languished through oppression, misery and sorrow, had in contempt and derision daily, but there was none to pittie or comfort them. Neverthelesse, the promise of God was firme and sure to all the seed, in respect of the things absolutely promised, for the infidelity of man cannot make the faith of God of none effect.

Hence we learne, two things are to be considered in the Covenant, 1. The persons in Covenant according to the ex­ternall administration, or according to the effectuall purpose and internall administration. 2. The good things promised not only temporall, but spirituall. For they are either such as are absolutely necessary to salvation, or such as concerne the welfare of a Christian, his peace, joy, chearfull and constant walking with God without offence, and such like. To the first sort, the promises of the Covenant are made sincerely, but conditionally, If they doe well they shall be accepted; if they consent and obey, they shall inherit the good things of the Land. To the other be­ing effectually called, all other promises are made absolutely, or at least shall absolutely be made good, because God will give them to doe what he requireth. Effectuall calling is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mer­cy. It is wrought freely, effectually, certainly, but when, where and as the Lord will, not conditionally, nor according to pro­mise to this or that person. God promiseth he will preserve his Church, and uphold the seed of David: but to this or that person God hath not promised, that he shall be brought home, or gathe­red to the flock. The Covenant made presupposeth man called, and taking hold of the Covenant, it doth not promise that he shall be effectually wrought upon, and powerfully drawne to lay hould upon the promise. Faith is the gift of God, which he giveth as [Page 155] he pleaseth: but to the believer he assureth all other necessary good things, with continuance in faith, according to his free Cove­nant.

Of good things spirituall there be two sorts, as was said, some absolutely necessary, as faith, repentance, pardon of sinne, perseverance, eternall life, and these are all most certainly promi­sed, and assuredly conferred. And though Justification and eter­nall life be conditionall, promised unto and so bestowed upon the unfained beleever: yet may they be called absolute, because God giveth to the man in Covenant every thing necessary to Salvati­on. Other things are good in themselves and profitable, as joy and chearfulnesse of heart, deliverance from scandalous and re­proachfull evils, wounding conscience, and grieving the Spirit. And these are not promised, nor evermore bestowed upon the faithfull. David may be an instance hereof; He was not preser­ved from sinne-wasting conscience, and staining the soul, but was recovered from the danger thereof. To repent of the sinne, and to be pardoned of free grace, was necessary to Salvation, God there­fore vouchsafed this sure mercy unto him. To be kept from fal­ling was not of that necessity, God therefore suffered him to fall to cure pride of heart, make him know himself, and magnifie the riches of his grace in his recovery.

This is evident from this, that in the Covenant as the Lord promised mercy, which he performed, so he threatned judge­ment, and destruction against them that did disobey, if they persi­sted obstinate and would not returne. And therefore both in shewing mercy, and inflicting punishment, the Lord dealt ac­cording to promise. Sometimes when the house of David sin­ned, the Lord spared them, but then he gave them hearts to hum­ble themselves, and so the judgement was prevented. Thus saith the Lord▪ Ye have forsaken me, therefore have I also left you in the 2 Chron. 12. 5, 6, 7, 8. Sept. [...]. Sept. [...]. hands of Shishak. Then the Princes of Israel, and the King humbled themselves, and said. The Lord is just. And when the Lord saw, that they humbled themselves, the word of the Lord came to Shemaiah, say­ing, They have humbled themselves, therefore I will not destroy them, but I will send them deliverance shortly, and my wrath shall not be pou­red out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak. Neverthelesse they shall be his servants: so shall they know my service, and the service of the vers. 12. Kings of the earth. And because he humbled himself, the wrath of the [Page 156] Lord turned from him, that he would not destroy him altogether. And also in Judah the things prospered. Sometimes the Lord poured his wrath upon Judah and Jerusalem, according as he threatned, but he let them goe on in the stubbornnesse of their hearts, untill they had filled up the measure of their iniquity, and till there was no re­medy. So he gave them into the enemies hand, and suffered his Name to be polluted amongst the Heathen, when he had tryed by all meanes to bring them home, but they would not repent. The Kingdome of David was for ever established, and God preserved a Church and people unto himselfe, according to his good pleasure, for this was absolutely willed and foretold, but performed accor­ding to promise of free grace and love. Thus God is serious in all his Promises and Commandements, according as he is pleased to give them: and effectually brings to passe his own purpose of grace, according to that which he hath promised. With this promise they presse the Lord in their captivity, Why dost thou for­g [...]t Lam. 5. 20. 21. Sept. [...]. Psal. 80. 4. Psal. 126. 1, 2. Psal 4. 7. us for ever, and forsake us so long time? Turn thou us unto thee, O Lord, and we shall be turned: renew our dayes as of old: Turne us, O God, or restore us, to wit, from sorrow to joy, from captivity to li­berty: cause thy face to shine, that is, to be light, chearfull, comforta­ble: and we shall be saved.

CHAP. X. Of the Covenant that God made with Israel, after the Babylonish Captivity.

WHen the people of Israel was almost cleane destroyed and wasted in the Babylonian Captivity, the Lord by many ample promises did assure, that he would deliver them out of the hands of their enemies, and bring them again into their own land, set up the tokens of his presence amongst them, and delight in them to doe them good. Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith Isai. 4 [...] 1, 2. Gen. 34. 3. your God: speake ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that h [...]r iniquity is pardoned; for she hath received of the Lord double for all her sinnes: that is, she hath been punished enough and more then enough for her transgressions.Jer. 1 [...]. 18. and 17. 18. Behold, the Lord will c [...]me with strong hand, and his arme will rule [Page 157] for him: behold, his reward is with him, and his work before him. He Revel. 18. 6. Isai. 40. [...]0, 1 [...]. shall feed his slock like a sheepherd, he shall gather the Lambes with his arme, and carry them into his bosome, and shall gently leade those that are with young. Feare not thou worme Jacob, and ye men of Israel: Isai. 41. 14, 15, 16. I will help thee, saith the Lord, and thy Redeemer the holy One of Israel. Behold, I will make thee a new sharpe threshing instrument having teeth: thou shalt thresh the mountaines, and beat them small, and shalt make the hils as chaffe. Thou shalt fanne them, and the wind Rev. 17. 14. and 19. 17. and 20. 8, 9. shall carry them away, and the whirlwind shall scatter them: and thou sh [...]lt rejoyce in the Lord, and shalt glory in the holy One of Israel. When the poore and needy seek water, and there is none, and their tongue faileth for thirst, I the Lord will heare them, I the God of Israel will vers. 18. 19. not forsake them. I will open rivers in high places, and fountaines in the midst of the vallies: I will make the wildernesse a poole of water, and the drie Land springs of water. But now thus saith the Lord that created thee O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, Feare not; Isai. 43. 1, 2, 3. for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name, thou art mine. When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt, neither shall the flame kindle upon thee. For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransome, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. Remember Isai. 44. 21, 22, 23. these, O Jacob and Israel, for thou art my servant: I have formed thee: thou art my servant, O Israel; thou shalt not be forgotten of me. I have blotted out, as a thick cloud, thy transgressions, and as a cloud thy sinnes: returne unto me, for I have redeemed thee. Sing, O ye hea­vens, for the Lord hath done it: shoot ye lower parts of the earth: breake forth into singing ye mountaines; O Forrest and every tree therein: for the Lord hath redeemed Jacob, and glorified himselfe in Israel. Th [...] saith the Lord thy Redeemer, and he that formed thee from the wombe; vers. [...]4. I am the Lord that maketh all things, that stretcheth forth the heavens above, that spreadeth abroad the earth by my selfe. That frustrateth 25. the tokens of the liars, and maketh diviners mad, that turneth wisemen backward, and maketh their knowledge foolish: That conf [...]rmeth the word of his servant, and performeth the counsell of his messengers, that saith to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited, and to the Cities of Iudah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the decayed places thereof. That saith to the deep, Be drie, and I will drie up thy rivers. That saith of Cyr [...]s, He is my sheepherd, and shall performe all my pleasure, [...] say­in Isai. 45. [...]. [Page 158] Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built, and to the Temple, Thy foundation shall be laid, Thus saith the Lord, The labour of Egypt, and merchandise Isai. 45. 14, 15. of Ethiopia, and of the Sabeans, men of stature shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine, they shall come after thee, in chaines they shall come over: and they shall fall downe unto thee, they shall make sup­plication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee, and there is none else, there is no God. Israel shall be saved in the Lord with an everlasting ver. 17. Salvation; ye shall not be ashamed, nor confounded world without end. Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house Isai. 46. 3, 4. of Israel, which are borne by me from the belly, which are carried from the wombe. And even to your old age I am he, and even to hoare haires will I carry you: I have made, and I will beare, even I will carry and will deliver you. I will bring neere my righteousnesse: it shall not be vers. 13. farre off, and my Salvation shall not tarry: and I will place Salvation in Sion for Israel my glory. Goe ye forth of Babylon, flee ye from the Isai. 48. 20, 21. Chaldean with a voice of singing, declare ye, tell this, utter it even to the end of the earth: say ye, The Lord hath redeemed his servant Iacob. And they thirsted not when he led them through the deserts, he caused the waters to flow out of the rock for them: he clave the rock also, and the waters gushed out. The promises to this purpose are very many, and because it was an hard matter to perswade the faint and droo­ping spirit broken with long and grievous calamities, the Lord is pleased to confirme his promises by sundry arguments, some whereof we will here repeat, because the ample promises of their returne, and the repaire of the City and Temple, doth give some light what Covenant the Lord made with them after their returne.

First, God promiseth to deliver them, because they had been beloved of him of old time. I am the Lord thy God, the holy One of Isai. 43. 3, 4, 5, 6. Isai. 46. 3, 4. Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransome, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honoura­ble, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee, and peo­ple for thy life. Feare not, for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the East, and gather thee from the West. I will say to the North, Give up; and to the South, Keepe not back: bring my sonnes from farre, and my daughters from the ends of the earth. Even every one that is called by my Name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him.

Secondly, The Lord hath not sold them for price or gaine, [Page 159] therefore he might redeeme them without money. Awake, awake, Isai. 52. 1, 2, 3. fortem posce animum. put on thy strength, O Zion, put on thy beautifull garments, O Ierusa­lem the holy City; for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the uncleane. Shake thy selfe from the dust: arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem: loose thy selfe from the bands of thy necke, O captive daughter of Zion: For thus saith the Lord, Ye have sold your selves for nought: and ye shall be redeemed without money.

Thirdly, By former experience he doth assure them of their fu­tureIsai. 52. 4, 5. return into their own place. For thus saith the Lord God, My people went downe aforetime into Egypt, to sojourne there, and the As­syrian oppressed them without cause. Now therefore what have I here, saith the Lord, that my people is taken away for nought? they that rule over them make them to howle, saith the Lord, and my Name con­tinually is blasphemed. Therefore my people shall know my Name: there­fore they shall know in that day, that I am he that doth speake. Behold it is I.

Fourthly, This shall be to the Lord for a name and glory. For Isai. 48. 11. and 42. 8. mine own sake, even for mine own sake, will I doe it: for how should my Name be polluted? and I will not give my glory unto another. I will cause the Captivity of Iudah, and the Captivity of Israel to return, and will build them as at the first. And I will cleanse them from all Jer. 33. 7, 8, 9. Ezek. 36. 22, 23. their iniquity, whereby they have sinned, and whereby they have trans­gressed against me. And it shall be unto me a Name of joy, a praise, and an honour before all the nations of the earth, that shall heare all the good that I doe unto them: and they shall f [...]are and trem­ble for all the goodnesse, and for all the prosperity that I procure unto it, &c.

Fifthly, That they might not faint through the long and great calamity which went before deliverance, the Prophet in the Name of the Lord, setteth before them the glory and dignity of the Messiah which followed his humiliation. Behold, my servant shall deale prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very Isai. 52. 13, 14. high. As many were astonied at thee (his visage was so marred more than any man, and his forme more then the sonnes of men) so shall he sprinkle many nations, the Kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them, shall they see, and that which they had not heard, shall they consider. Another Prophet directing the faith­full how to behave themselves in that long and grievous Captivi­ty, scil. to wait patiently for the accomplishment of the Promise, [Page 160] because the vision would speake in its appointed season, and not lie, he doth unfold the Doctrine of free Justification by faith in Christ more plainely then formerly it had been expressed in the Law of Moses, adding, Behold, his soul which is lifted up, is not up­right Hab. 2. 4. in him: but the just shall live by his faith. Whence the Apostle inferreth, that we are justified by free grace, and not by the works of the Law in the fight of God. In the OriginallGal. 3. 11. it is, The just shall live in his faith: but that particle is oft very well [...] rendred by Deut. 6. 5▪ Mar. 12. 30. Luke 10. 27. Rom. 1. 17. Gal. 3. 11. Heb. 10. 38. Deut. 32. 21. Hos. 12. 13. Psal. 78. 2. Act. 17. 28. Psal. 18. 30. Matth. 17. 21. Phil. 4. 13. Of, or By: and it is all one whether we reade it, The just shall live by, of, or in faith, the sense being, The just shall live the life of grace here, and of glory hereafter in or by faith. That which the Prophet speaketh in generall of all the Promises of God, that the godly might certainly and constantly hold, in what thing they ought to rest in the midst of all stormes and tempests, and whence they may live securely in the distresses of death, that the Apostle doth specially interpret of Justification and life eternall, which we obtaine by faith. The Prophet and Apostle both speake of a lively faith, which is effectuall to bring forth good works: but we obtain life eternall by faith, and not by works. To live here is to obtaine life or glory, not to leade our life according to the Law, or rule of righteousnesse: as the drift of the Prophet, and Exposition of the Apostle, opposing the life which is by faith, to that which is by the works of the Law, which could not be, if to live by faith had been to direct our life according to the Law. Though then the righteous man must exercise himselfe in righteousnesse, yet he is justified and liveth, that is, obtaineth life eternall by faith, and not by the works of faith.

Now the Lord, the strong Redeemer of his people, accordingJer. 24. 6, 7. and 50. 20, 34. Ezek. 20. 34, 35, 37. to the word of his Prophets, brought back their Captivity with joy in his time appointed, planted them in their own Land, brought them into the bond of his Covenant, and set up his Ta­bernacle amongst them. When the Lord (saith the Psalmist) brought back the Captivity of Zion, we were like them that dreame. Psal. 126. 1, 2. Then was our mouth filled with laughter, and our tongue with singing: then said they amongst the Heathen, The Lord hath done great things for them. And the Prophet Zachary, As for thee also, by the blood Zech. 9. 11. of thy Covenant, I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein is no water. By this great, speciall, late and new blessing, the [Page 161] Lord did bind his Israel unto him more strongly then heretofore. Behold, the dayes come, saith the Lord, that they shall no more say, The Jer. 23. 7, 8. and 16. 14, 15. Lord liveth, which brought up the children of Israel out of the Land of Egypt. But, the Lord liveth, which brought up, and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the North Countrey, and from all Countries whither I had driven them, and they shall dwell in their own Land. In respect of this late and new blessing vouchsafed, the Covenant that God made with his people now brought back and planted in their own Land, may be called New: but in re­spect of the Author, matter, forme, end, effects, and meanes of ad­ministration, teaching and applying, it was one with the former. Neverthelesse, the Covenant which God made with his inheri­tance upon their delivery from the North Countrey, did exceed the former which he had made with their Fathers, when he brought them out of Egypt, in divers respects.

First, the Mediatour in and through whom this Covenant was made or promised, is more plainly revealed, both in respect of his person, humiliation, resurrection, place of his birth, time of his comming, kingly office, and manifest tokens whereby he should be knowne, then in the former expressions. Behold, the dayes come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous branch, Jer. 23. 5, 6. and 33. 14, 15. Isai. 40. 2. Zech. 3. 8. and a King shall raigne and prosper, and shall execute judgement and justice in the earth. In his dayes Judah shall be saved, and Is­rael shall dwell safely, and this is his name, whereby he shall be called, The Lord our righteousnesse. Surely he hath borne our griefes, and Isai. 53. 4. carried our sorrowes: yet we did esteeme him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted: but he was wounded for our transgressions, he was brui­sed for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed: yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him, he ver. 10. hath put him to griefe: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his dayes, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall see the travell of his soul, ver. 11. and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant ju­stifie many: for he shall beare their iniquities. But thou, Bethlehem Mich. 5. 2. Matth. 2. 6. Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel: whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting. Seventy weekes Dan. 9. 24. are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy City, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sinnes, and to make reconciliation [Page 162] for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousnesse, and to seale up the vision and prophesie, and to anoint the most holy. Rejoyce greatly, O Zech. 9. 9. daughter of Zion, shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King commeth unto thee: he is just, and having Salvation, lowly, and riding upon an Asse, and upon a Colt the foale of an Asse. In the Promise of this Covenant, these and the like descriptions we have of the promised Messiah, by whom the Salvation of the Church is wrought, and in whom all the Promises of God are established.

Secondly, Spirituall benefits and the graces of the Spirit were more plentifully bestowed upon the Church, under this Cove­nant, then formerly. For thus the promise runneth, I will set mine Jer. 24. 6, 7. eyes upon them for good, and I will bring them againe to this Land, and I will build them, and not pull them downe, and I will plant them, and not pluck them up. And I will give them an heart to know me, that I am the Lord, and they shall be my people, and I will be their God: for they shall returne unto me with their whole heart. Then shall ye call upon me, and ye shall goe and pray unto me, and I will hearken unto you. And ye shall seeke me and find me, when ye shall search for me with all Jer. 29. 12, 13. your heart. And I will cause him to draw neere, and he shall approach unto me: for who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto me, saith the Lord? They shall come with weeping, and with supplications Jer. 30. 20, 21. Jer. 31. 9. will I leade them: I will cause them to walke by the rivers of waters, in a straight way wherein they shall not stumble, for I am a Father to Israel, and Ephraim is my first born: Therefore they shall come and sing ver. 12. in the height of Zion, and they shall flow together to the goodnesse of the Lord, for wheat, and for wine, and for oile, and for the young of the flock, and of the herd: and their soule shall be as a watered Garden, and they shall not sorrow any more at all. I will poure water upon him that is thirsty, and flouds upon the dry ground: I will poure my Spirit Isai. 4 [...]. 3, 4, 5. upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thy off-spring: And they shall spring up as among the grasse, as the willowes by the water-courses. One shall say, I am the Lords: and another shall call himselfe by the name of Jacob: and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and surname himselfe by the name of Israel.

Thirdly, in the very tenour and administration of the Covenant it selfe it did excell. For this Covenant after it once began, did continue without interruption, untill it was perfected by the New Testament properly so called, whereas the former Covenant was broken or did expire. For during the time of the Babylonish [Page 163] Captivity, neither Judah nor Israel had either wandering Taber­nacleJer. 23. 6, 7. or standing Temple: But in this Covenant, God did so as­sist Zerubbabel in the building of the Temple, that he brought forthZach. 4. 7. ver 9. the head stone thereof with shoutings, crying, Grace, Grace unto it; He laid the foundation of the house, and his hands also fini­shed it: and the Lord so preserved it, that it continued untill Christ taking our nature upon him, came and dwelt amongst his people. I will shake all Nations, and the desire of all Nations shall come, Hag. 2. 7, 8, 9. and I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of Hosts. The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the Lord of Hosts. The glory of this latter house shall be greater then of the former, saith the Lord of Hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the Lord of Hosts. And so we commonly find the promise of calling the Gentiles, and bringing them into the sheep-fold of JesusJer. 16. 19. Christ, is commonly annexed to this Covenant. O Lord, my strength and my fortresse, and my refuge in the day of affliction: The Gentiles shall come unto thee from the ends of the earth, and Jer. 32. 37, 38, 39. shall say, surely our Fathers have inherited lies, vanity, and things▪ wherein there is no profit. Behold I will gather them out of all Countries, whether I have driven them in mine anger, and Ezek. 11. 17, 18, 19. Eze. 20. 40, 41, 42, 43. Lam. 4. 22. Thy pu­nishment O daughter of Zion, is finish­ed, he will not adde to give thee to be car­ried away, scil. after thou shalt return into thy Country out of present Capti­vity. in my fury, and in great wrath, and I will bring them againe into this place, and I will cause them to dwell safely: And they shall be my people, and I will be their God. And I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may feare me for ever, for the good of them, and of their children after them. And I will make an everlasting Covenant with them, that I will not turne away from them to doe them good: but I will put my feare into their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. And in these respects, this Covenant which pertained to the old Testament might be cal­led an inchoation of the new: because the old ordinances distilling grace in some measure into the whole Covenant, were to continue, untill Christ should be incarnate, and erect a new Tabernacle, which should stand and continue for ever: when a new people should be added to the Lord, and the old ordinances, because of their weak­nesse, being taken downe, a new forme should be set up, to abide for ever.

And from all this, we may briefly observe in what accidents the old and new Testament differ one from another, when for substance they be one and the same. They both flow from the [Page 164] free-grace and mercy of God looking at poore sinners in Jesus Christ. They have both one common matter: the obedience ofHeb. 5, 8. Act. 3. 19▪ Eph. 1. 14. faith required, and life everlasting, and all secondary good things promised by the imputation of the righteousnesse of faith, and free adoption in Jesus Christ. They have both one object Jesus Christ, who being promised to the Fathers in propheticall Scriptures, God hath in due time exhibited under the Gospel. They have both one generall end, viz. the praise of the glorious grace of God in Jesus Christ. Both Covenants are struck with man-kind, as invested in one and the same reall and formall consideration, whither before or after Christ, viz. with sinners, and those which worke not, but beleeve in him that justifieth the ungodly. In both the same spirit sealed up the truth of the Covenants to all under Covenant: for seeing the adoption, and inheritance in some measure belonged to the Fathers in the old Testament, the earnest of that inheritance cannot be denied them. But the new Covenant doth in many things out-strip the old, which do nothing derogate from their sub­stantiall and reall unity and agreement.

First, In the old Testament the Lord did proclaime himself to be mercifull and gracious, slow to anger, aboundant in goodnesse and truth, which he confirmed by great and wonderfull deliveran­ces of his people out of Egypt and Babylon: but yet at first he gave his Law with signes of Majesty, glory and terrour, yea of anger and displeasure against sin and wickednesse. But the newExod. 19. 18. Heb. 12. 21, 22, 23. Eph 2 17, 18. 2 Cor. 5. 17, 18. Testament was given with manifest tokens of love, favour and free mercy, God being reconciled in the Son of his love, and therein he hath revealed his superaboundant and transcendent love, mercy and long suffering, as shall be shewed hereafter.

Secondly, In the old Testament Christ was knowne to be the seed of the woman, the selected seed of Abraham, his bloud and death typified in Moses, his person and office, humiliation and resurrection fore-told by the Prophets, but all these were more obscure and darke to the Jewes: but in the new TestamentJoh. 1. 12, [...]. Rom. 1. 4. Gal. 3. 19. 2 Co. 1. 20 he is openly manifested to be the Son of God, made unto us of God wisdom, righteousnes, sanctification and redemption, to whom the promise was made, and by whose love & authority, as the great Te­stator of heaven, they are all made, put forth, ratified & established.

Thirdly, The commandments of the old Testament were manyHeb. 7. 16. Col. 2. 14, 15. of them carnall▪ standing in ceremoniall observances, and contai­ning [Page 165] an hand-writing against them: and the promises were many corporall, as of an earthly inheritance, so that by them their faith was to ascend up to spirituall and heavenly things, and the spiri­tuall promises were obscure, in number fewer, and such as were farre off. But the commandments of the new Covenant are spi­rituall,Mat. 6. 33. and the promises spirituall, plainly revealed, nigh at hand, ratified by the comming of Christ, particular: earthly things are promised as an additament to them that seek the Kingdome of hea­ven, and included in the spirituall.

Fourthly, Moses was the Mediatour of the old Testament, aGal. 3. 19. typicall, imperfect Mediatour, as not a right middle person; aHeb. 9. 15. 8. 8. 6. & 12. 14. Mediatour in respect of the outward administration, and that by the power and vertue of Christ, but the force of that Covenant had foundation in Christ, and it was in and through Christ, that the federates were partakers of the good things promised. But Christ the Mediatour of the new Covenant, a true and perfect Me­diatour, a right middle person between God and man; who hath revealed the Gospel, satisfied revenging justice, brought in ever­lasting righteousnesse: who alone is able to remove the guilt of sin from the conscience, repaire the lost image of God in his peo­ple, bow their hearts to walk in obedience, and procure acceptance to their service.

Fifthly, The old Testament was confirmed with the bloud ofHeb. 9. 18, 19, 20. Heb. 9▪ 14. Mat. 26. 28. beasts, because the typicall Mediatour was not Testator, and so was not to die: but in the new Testament the true and perfect Media­tour, was also the Testator, and so the Covenant was confirmed by his precious bloud.

Sixthly, The Law was written in tables of stone, yet so as it wasExod. 31. 18▪ Deut. 9. 10. Deut. 30. 6, 11▪ 12. 2 Cor. 3. 5. Jer. 31. 33. Heb. 8. 10. engraven in the tables of the heart, though not in that plenty and abundance that afterward: for under the old Testament God would have both letter and spirit, but more letter and lesse spirit. But the Gospel is written in the fleshie tables of the heart, yet so as it is committed to writing: for in the new Testament the Lord would have both letter and spirit, but more spirit and lesse letter then in the old Testament.

Seventhly, The old Covenant was made with one selected Na­tion, though Proselites, if any offered themselves, might not be excluded; but in the new Covenant, the world in opposition toMat. 28. 1 [...] Dan. 7. 14. the Jewish Nations, all Nations, people and languages are taken to be federates.

Eighthly, The Law was weake, unable to give life, to purgeGal, 3. 21. & 4. 9. Heb. 8. 7. & 9. 13. the conscience, to pacifie the wrath of God, and therefore to be abrogated, when Christ was come, whereunto it pointed, and the new ordinances were set up and established: but the Gospel containeth the unsearchable riches of God, is the power of GodEph. 3. 8. Rom. 1. 16. Mat. 26. 28. [...] Heb. 9. 14, 15. & 12. 24. to Salvation, to continue for ever, and the blood of the new Te­stament doth expiate sin, purge the conscience, and speak better things then the bloud of Abel.

Ninthly, The federates under the old Covenant are compared unto an heire under age, needing a Guardian, Tutour or Schoole­master, little differing from a servant, subject to the bondage ofGal. 4. 1, 2, 3, 4. Gal. 4. 23, 24, 25. the Ceremoniall Law, and servitude of spirit, because the curse of the Law was more severely pressed, and the bloud of Christ, whereby freedome was purchased more covertly and sparingly re­vealed: but the federates under the new are growne up unto a ripe age in Jesus Christ, freed from the bondage of Ceremoniall ordinances, endued with holy liberty, partakers of the spirit of a­doption, whereby they cry Abba Father. But of the priviledges of the federates under the new Covenant, and the excellency of that Covenant in the Chapters following.

CHAP. XI. Of Truth and Vprightnesse.

IT hath often been said, that God accepteth true, unfained and upright obedience, and when the servants of God intreat mercy, we find they alleadge the truth, uprightnesse, and integrity of their hearts, to shew they were rightly qualified to make a faith­full plea for mercy: therefore (I conceive) it will not be out of place here to shew what Truth and Uprightnesse is, and then pro­ceed to the doctrine of the new Covenant.

Truth the Septuagint renders righteousnesse: for upright­nesseGen. 24. 49. Isa. 38. 19. & 39 8. Josh. 24. 14. Isa. 45. [...]9. Pro. 28, 6. Pro. 8. 20. and integrity they put truth: and for the paths of judge­ment, they have it, the paths of truth. And in this sence to doe truth, Joh. 3. 21. is, not to doe perversly, to doe right, justice, integrity, as to deale perversly or unjustly, Isa. 26. 10. they trans­late, not to doe truth. In like manner, lies or false-hood, deceit [Page 167] and fraud they translate injustice; as a false-witnesse, is in them,Job 27. 4. Deu. 19. 18. Levit. 5. 22. Psal. 44. 17. Jer. 5. 31. Amos 8. 5. Hos. 12. 7. Luk. 16. 9, 11. Mal. 2. 6. 1 Pet. 2. 22. a witnesse of injustice, or an unjust witnesse, they sweare falsely, is, they sweare unjustly: the Prophets prophecy false things, unjust things they render it: a false ballance, is a deceitfull ballance, or unjust ballance, or ballance of injustice. And injustice is opposed to truth, and iniquity or unrighteousnesse put for falshood or de­ceit: the Mammon of iniquity, that is, deceitfull riches, is set a­gainst the true treasure, which will not deceive. Iniquity was not found in his mouth, saith the Prophet, that is, guile or deceit. The deceitfull, the Septuagint translates, the unrighteous and guilefull man, Psal. 43. 1. So that these foure, Truth, Uprightnesse, Righ­teousnesse and Integrity, doe signifie the same thing for substance,1 King. 3. 6. and most certaine it is, they be so conjoyned, that where one is, the other cannot be wanting. But though the thing be one for sub­stance, that is signified by all these, and they be sometimes used in­differently, yet they note formall and distinct conceits, and so may be considered.

Truth implieth or presupposeth these things;

1. Knowledge of Gods will. Truth of judgement goeth beforeMat. 16. 12. truth of heart: for corrupt doctrine is as sowre leaven, that lea­veneth the whole masse, maketh the whole to savour of it.

2. Soundnesse or solidity in grace, opposite to those superficiall and shallow-planted graces, that may be found in temporary Christians, enduring but for a time. This is truth in the reines orPsal. 51. 6. inward parts, which seasoneth the heart throughout, and makes it true, whereas the heart of the temporary is false and unsound; because his graces are superficially or sleightly rooted.

3. Sincerity or godly simplicity without fraud, craft or guile, where the in-side and out-side are one, the heart and mouth equall and well consenting. Truth is an ingenuous life without deceit and dissimulation, Ephes. 4. 15. Holinesse of truth is true or sincere holinesse, Ephes. 4. 24. To keepe the truth, Isa. 26. 2. is to im­brace true piety and true vertue without hypocrisie, without lying, or perfidiousnesse. To serve God in truth, Josh. 24. 14. 1 Sam. 12. 24. is to serve God unfainedly, from the heart, according to his1 King. 2. 4. will. To walke in the truth, Joh. 3. 3, 4. is to walke sincerely or in godly simplicity. For truth is ingenuous, void of simulation. And in this sence some understand that of the Apostle, Love re­joyceth in the truth, that is, love sincerely or in truth rejoyceth1 Cor. 13. 6. [Page 168] with them that rejoyce. Truth is opposed to lying and falshood, and to empty shadows and rites: and thus it may be applied toEph. 4. 25. Joh. 4. 23, 24. this purpose, as noting a plaine simplicity contrary to lying and emptie shews. To stay upon God in truth, Isa. 10. 20. is unfai­nedly, and not in word to stay upon him. To preach Christ in truth, Phil. 1. 18. is sincerely to preach him: A true heart is single, Act. 2. 46. resolved not in some things, but in all to walk with God, or as the Lord hath appointed. Thus a true Christian hath but one mind, one intention, one delight, one face, one tongue; he is all but one man, all the powers of the soule goe but one way.

4. Purity, or cleare shining innocency in all things, free from the mixture of leaven in manners or doctrine. The Apostle Peter writeth to the dispersed Jewes, to stirre up their pure minds:2 Pet. 3. 1. what is that, but minds furnished and seasoned with an holy per­spicuity of truth. Paul prayeth for the Philippians, that theyPhil. 1. 9. 10. might abound in all knowledge and in all judgement, that they might be able to discerne things that differ, that they might be sincere. And the same Apostle testifieth to the Corinthians, he was afraid of them, lest their mind should be corrupted from the [...] Cor. 11. 3. simplicity that is in Christ. The word used by the Apostle in all three places signifieth properly something tried by the light of the Sunne. And it is a Metaphor (as some suppose) taken from the custome of the Eagle, whose manner is (if we may beleeve those that write the naturall story) to bring her young out of the nest before they be full fledge, and to hold them forth against the full sight of the Sun; the sight whereof those of them that can with open eye endure, she retaineth and bringeth up as her owne; the rest that cannot brooke it, and winke at it, she rejecteth and ca­steth off as a bastardly brood. Others thinke it rather taken from the usuall practise of Chap-men in the view and choice of their wares. A wise wary Chap-man that hath to doe with a deceitfull Merchant, Draper or other, one that keepeth his wares in obscure places, where the defects of them cannot so easily be discerned, or hath false lights, that may helpe to give a counterfeit glosse to them, he will take no ware of him upon his word, but he will first diligently view it, tosse it and turne it to and fro, over and over, try how it is in the midst, as well as at both ends, bring it forth into the light, hold up his cloth against the Sun, see if he can espie [Page 169] any defect or default in it, he knoweth he may easily else be over­reached. The like must be our practise in all matters of faith and2 Cor. 2. 17. manners: and this is to walk in the truth, when we have our con­versation honest, and hold the truth of Doctrine purely, as we may endure the tryall of the light. Thus the Apostle joyneth sin­cerity and truth together, as one and the same, or as the speciall1 Cor. 5. 8. 2 Cor. 1. 12. and generall, sincerity being a branch of truth. This is our comfort, that in simplicity and sincerity of God, that is, godly sincerity, we have had our conversation.

5. Firmenesse and constancy in every holy duty of our generall or personall calling, of piety or righteousnesse. A faithfull spi­rit is stedfast with God: the ground of declining is lacke of truth. Their heart was not right with him, neither were they stedfast in Psal. 78. 8. Psal. 78. 37. his Covenant. If the heart be not true, what shew soever a man makes, he is but like an Apple, rotten at the coare, or as an house built upon the sand, the one of which, though beautifull, will soon putrifie, the other, though fairly set, will quickly fal. A man may have many worthy gifts, but if he want sincerity, upon a sudden may be taken from him, both that which he hath, and that which he see­meth to have, & his end be as the fig-tree, which making only a shew with leaves, having no fruit, being cursed, lost even those also, and withered away by degrees, being good for nothing but the fire. For as a stomack ill affected with choller, though never so wholesome meats be received into it, yet it cannot hold them, but is provoked: so where there is this obstruction of the soul, the wilfull love of any sinfull course, or subordination of grace to boi­sterous, distempered, earthly passions, pleasures or profits, what­soever grace is received into the heart, it will not let it rest, but maketh the soul cast it up upon all occasions. Truth and soundnesse is the preserver of grace received: an honest and sound heart is as a vessel well closed, it will keep and hold the liquour of grace that is powred into it. The course of a true Christian is permanent, and continueth unto the end.

This truth or sinceritie, is the girdle, whereby all other gra­ces are tied close unto us. So the Apostle in the descriptionEph. 6. 14. of the spirituall armour, calleth it the girdle of truth. And therefore here also that is true of all men, which we say of children in the Proverbe, Ʋngirt, unblest. This girdle hath these uses.

First, It doth adorne us: for this was the use of the studded belt, which the Souldiers did weare to hide the gaping of the joynts of their armour, which would have been unseemly: and nothing doth more adorne a soule, beautifie our actions, or raise admira­tion in them, then sincerity; as our Saviour commending Natha­niel, gave this speech of him, Behold, a true Israelite in whom▪ Joh. 1. 47. there is no guile.

Secondly, A girdle doth tie other clothes about us, which o­therwise the winds would blow abroad, and would hang but loose upon us: so this girdle of truth doth containe and hold toge­ther all other graces, wherewith the soule is arraied, and unlesse truth doe keepe them together, in time all of them will be blowne away with the wind of temptation. That grace which was not knit together with honesty of heart, came to nothing in the end, as appeares in the Parable. The body, when the soule is once gone, may not long stay above ground, it must needs be buried. The hypocrites graces are but the body of grace, they want the soul and life, which is sincerity, and we cannot thinke they should long endure. An unsound horse, that hath some secret fault, may carry as good a shew as the soundest, and at first for a mile or two, trav [...]ll as freshly and cheerfully as the best, but at length he tires, and shews what he is: so it is with an unsound Christian, notwith­standing all his shews, fair beginnings, and hopefull entrances, he continueth not.

Thirdly, A girdle trussing up the loins moderately, doth streng­then a man, a girdle is put for strength and ornament, Isa. 23. 10. for in the loines is the seat of strength and might, and with a gir­dle the loines are girded; whence are these phrases, I will streng­then him with thy girdle, Isa. 22. 21. Justice shall be the girdle of his loynes, Isa. 11. 5. He girdeth their loynes with a girdle, Job 12. 18. and looseth the girdle of the strong, Job 12. 21. She gir­deth up her loynes with strength, Prov. 31. 17. And the exhorta­tion so often used. Gird up thy loynes, Jer. 1. 17. Job. 38. 3. & 40. 7. 2 King. 4. 29. & 2 King 9▪ 1. So this grace addeth great strength to the inner man, as we may see in Job, who when God seemed, and men did fight against him, when heaven and earth seemed to conspire against him, yet this did stick by him, Ʋntill I die, I will never take away mine innocency from my selfe. Job 27. 5.

Fourthly, In the Easterne Countries, where they were accusto­med [Page 171] to weare long garments down to the ancles, they used to gird them close unto their body, when they had any journey, combateExod. 12. 11. or labour in hand, least they should be an impediment unto them. So they were commanded to eat the Passeover with their loines girded, because they had a journey to goe, and Elias girded up1 King. 18. 46. his loines, and ran before Ahab. And so to have loynes girt, is to be fitted and prepared for any service, travell or conflict; Let Joh. 13. 4. Luk. 17. 8. Luk. 12. 35, 37. 1 Pet. 1. 13. Act. 12. 8. your loynes be girded about, and your lights burning. Gird up the loynes of your mind, and be sober. Gird thy selfe and bind on thy sandales. Thus Christians girded with truth, are in readinesse for any spirituall duty, and to encounter with whatsoever adver­sary power shall with-stand them in the course of godlinesse. Per­adventure at the first putting on, this garment may seem somewhat straight▪ nothing easie to weare: but he that is accustomed to goe girded, shall find such ease in it, such comfort by it, that he can never be well without it, never at ease, untill it be put on. Truth of heart is blessed of God with increase of grace. This is it which maketh the least portion of grace to thrive in the hands of Gods children. Their faithfulnesse in a little, brings them to beLuk. 19. 17. owners of a great deale, and to be rulers over much. This brought such a plentifull blessing upon the small beginnings of Nathaniel, to whom Christ, because of his truth in the inward affections, pro­mised an enlarged measure of enlightning, and that he should see greater things. This brought such a comfortable encrease upon the dimme knowledge of the Eunuch and Cornelius; they wor­shippedJoh. 1. 47, 50. God in truth of heart, according to the measure of under­standing they had received, and in them the promise was accom­plished, To him that hath shall be given, and he shall have in aboun­dance: they were led further into that great mysterie of godlinesse, an Evangelist being sent of God to the one, and both an Angell and an Apostle to the other. A true hearted Christian is carefull to get, charie to keepe, and warie to husband, what grace hee hath received, and how should hee not then en­crease from one measure to another? Not that a second grace is given for the right use of the first, but that the conditi­on of grace is such, that one drawes another, and for a first given a latter is freely bestowed also, in which continuation of grace, the right use of grace proceeding from it, is con­tained.

Sincerity is strengthened of God to be a meanes of comfort to a mans soule in his greatest distresses. When Hezekiah was arrested with the sentence of death by the mouth of the Prophet, here was his comfort, and that which imboldened him to looke death in the face with more courage; O Lord thou knowest, or remem­berIsa. 38. 3. J [...]r. 12. 3. now (for herein I dare appeale to thy Majestie) that I have walked before thee in truth. He had done many worthy things in the abolishment of Idolatry, and in the restitution of the true worship, but in none of these simply tooke he content, but in the sincerity of his heart and affection in performing of them. So Paul in the midst of all his sorrowes, this is his rejoycing, not simply that he had preached, that he had planted Churches, wrought miracles, converted sinners, made Satan to fall downe from Hea­ven like lightening: but that in simplicity and godly sincerity he had his conversation in the world.2 Cor. 1. 12.

This puts▪ a kind of heroicall spirit, and Lyon-like boldnesse in­to the children of God in the greatest tryalls. Hereupon Paul 1 Cor. 4. 3. was resolute not to passe for mans judgement. Faith depends up­on the meere grace of God, and his free promise: but the truer any mans heart is unto God, the more bold and confident is he of the Lords support and comfort, which alone adds undaunted courage in all temptations.

The service of a sound Christian is very acceptable to God, beJer. 5▪ 3. 2 Chron. 30. 18, 19, 20. Joh. 4. 23, 24. Col. 3. 22. Ephes. 6. 5, 8. Rom. 12 8. Psal. 145. 18. Deut. 4. 7. it in outward shew never so meane and simple. Are not thine eyes (saith Jeremie) upon the truth. If servants be obedient to their Masters in singlenesse of heart, they shall receive their reward of the Lord. A cup of cold water given to a Prophet in singlenesse of heart, shall not be forgotten. The Lord is nigh to all that call upon him in truth; he will heare their prayers, answer their de­sires, guard and protect their persons. Not the most eloquent prayer, and best set forth in words; but the supplication that is breathed from an honest and true heart finds best acceptation. Ma­ny actions otherwise fervent enough, for want of this sincerity are but froth, and vanish then when we stand most in need of comfort: but the meanest worke performed in truth of heart, shall not go unrewarded. As in the naturall body, the case of the sound finger is better then of the blindish eye: so in the family of God, it is more comfort to be a faithfull doore-keeper, then an unfaith­full steward.

A faithfull man shall abound in blessings, that is, he that dealethProv. 28. 20. sincerely and truly with men, and is not willing to deceive any in word or deed, carrying himself in all holy simplicity towards God, as he liveth honestly amongst his Neighbours, and that not in one thing, but in all, and is therefore in the Originall Text called a man of faithfulnesse; he shall abound in blessings of all sorts, with plenty so farre as is expedient, with good estimation, with kind friends, with spirituall graces, &c.

The more sincerity, the more affinity with God: for truth is a neere tie, and hath an uniting power in it. The true and soundPsal, 73. 27, 28. Christian is the Lords neere neighbour: so much the neerer, as the wicked are farre off: for God will draw nigh to them, that draw nigh unto him in truth. God is the God of truth, Psal. 31. 5.Jam. 4. 7. Jer. 30. 21. Christ is truth, Joh. 14. 6. the spirit is the spirit of truth, Joh. 14. 17. Truth is one speciall branch of that Image of God accordingEphes. 23, 24. 2 Cor▪ 3. 18. to which man was made. And the greater measure of truth in the inward parts, the more are we (to speake with the Apostle) changed into the Image of God. And the more we resemble God and have communion with him, the more is our affinity with him. Satan ever did, and still opposeth sincerity by perse­cutions, opprobries, and reproaches, as of pride, hypocrisie, dissimulation, specially when God afflicteth his people, Job. 2. 6, 9. But the more Satan opposeth truth and simplicity, the more should we be in love with it: for Satan would not loade it with disgraces if it were not excellent. Satan labours to foist in the leaven of hypocrisie in our daily course, that by little and little he might pick the good seed of righteousnesse out of our hearts, but our care must be to disappoint him. Here our resistance is to hold us to our owne, and pray to God to rebuke him.

And here to prevent mistaking we must distinguish the de­grees of soundnesse and simplicity, and the nature of it. In nature the soundnes of the godly is true, but in degree weake and im­perfect, and therfore now and then through frailtie and weake­nesse in the performance of good duties they looke more at man then at God, and propound indirect meanes when they should eye his glory only. But as we say of other sinnes, so of hypocrisy, it is either raigning, or not. In the hearts of true Christians there may be hypocrisie, but not raigning hypocrisie. David when he said, Blessed is he, in whose spirit there is no guile, did take himselfePsal. 32 2. [Page 172] [...] [Page 173] [...] [Page 174] t [...]rdie in this evill: and Bradford with others of those most holy Martyrs, doe much seeke pardon of hypocrisie and carnall gospel­ling. But sinne that raigneth not, must not discourage: and if we have an unfained purpose against it, if we grieve for it, if we seeke for strength against it, it reigneth not.

The effect or evidence of a sound heart is, that being well in­formed in the truth of God, he doth heartily resigne himselfe to be guided and directed by the Lord, in all things. As Paul pray­ethPhil. 1. 10. in behalfe of the Philippians, that they might approve things that are excellent, that they might be sincere, and without offence till the day of Christ. And it is noted of Ezra, that he prepared his heart to seeke the Law of the Lord, and to doe it: and to teach in Israel, Statutes Ezra 7. 10. and Judgements. And from this generall spring divers particu­lars.

First, Truth breeds an hatred of all false and corrupt opinions in Doctrine: because sound affections require good judgement and true understanding, and if the understanding that should guide and governe the inferiour powers be perverted with errour, the heart must needs move out of order. Folly is joy to him that is desti­tute Pro. 15 21. of wisedome, but a man of understanding walketh uprightly, or di­recteth himselfe straite in walking: He can never shoote straight, that takes his aime contrary. The voice of a true heart soundeth thus in David, I hate vaine thoughts, but thy Law doe I love. I e­steeme Psal. 119. 113, 128. all thy Precepts concerning all things to be right, but I hate eve­ry false way.

Secondly, It hath in detestation all false and devised worship, which is nothing but lying pompe and vanity. Ephraim compas­seth me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit. TruthHos. 11. 12. seeke neerenes and acquaintance with God: but in devised wor­ship no comfort or profit is to be found: rather the heart is remo­vedMath. 15. 9. Isa. 29. 14. from God, when men draw nigh to him with their lips.

Thirdly, It worketh an universall hatred of all sinne, that is, of secret as well as open sinnes, of lesser sinnes as well as of greater e­vils, of such sinnes as where unto we have speciall inticements by some particular content or profit, which they seeme to promise, as well as of those which afford neither gaine, credit, nor plea­sure. A true heart hath a costant purpose in no one thing, willingly to sinne against God, but rather to indeavour the uttermost in eve­ry [Page 175] good way of Gods commandements. And as he stands resolved against all sinne in generall, both simply considered, and in respect of all occurrences, whereby he might be allured or cōpelled there­unto: so in speciall against the sinne to which he finds himselfe most inclined, or where-with he hath at any time been overtaken. Incline not my heart to any evill thing, to practise wicked workes with Psal. 141. 4 men that worke iniquity: and let me not eate of their dainties.

Fourthly, It is joyned with a readinesse of mind to acknow­ledge and lay open every sinne as soone as it is knowne to be sinne; and a gladnesse to have the conscience ransacked and ripped up, that whatsoever is sinfull may be found out. David spake it out of experience, when he pronounced the man blessed, in whosePsal. 32. 2. spirit there is no guile: Now this was a branch of that spirituall guile, that he once thought to helpe himselfe in evill doing, by holding his tongue; as who would say he would forget it, and passe it over: but he was never well, till he was de­livered of that false trick, and fell to the down-right acknow­ledgement of his sinne; he never had comfort till he had con­fessed against himselfe his wickednesse. This he writes for a patterne, and gives his Psalme a title accordingly; To give in­struction: and this experience taught him to intreat the Lord to pry into him, as fearing himselfe that he should deale somewhatPsal. 139. 23; 24▪ over-favourably with himselfe. Try me, O Lord, and know mine heart: prove me, and know my thoughts, and consider if there be any way of wickednesse in me: and to professe himselfe not only willing to beare, but desirous to be reprehended, if he should step awry. Let Psal. 141. 5, the righteous smite me, it shall be a kindnesse: and let him reprove me, it shall be an excellent oyle, which shall not breake my head: for yet my prayer also shall be in their calamities, or, by how much he shall doe that the more, by how much they shall reprove me the more di­ligently, by so much I shall pray the more fervently for them. When a man loves not those meanes which tend to the discovery of his heart and life, and to the finding out of his secret sinnes, or reprehensions whether publike or private, or serious and earnest confession of sin before God, there is great cause to suspect that all is not sound within.

Fifthly, Truth dealeth not only against this or that branch of corruption, which shooteth out to our disgrace or trouble, but against the root it selfe. As in Paul we see, the Law of [Page 176] evill which did dwell within him, was his principall matter of conflict.

Sixthly, It zealously contendeth for the maintainance of Gods pure worship and service. Judah ruleth with the Lord, and is faith­full H [...]s. 11. 12. with the holy One. Judah retaineth the pure worship of God, whose service is perfect freedome, and the truest dominion: for he that serveth the Lord purely, hath rule over Satan and his own unruly lusts.

Seventhly, In all service the true Christian strives to approve his heart unto God, and to performe it as in his presence, to theEph. 6. 19. 1 Cor. 14. 15. Rom. 6. 17. 2 Cor. 2. 17. glory of his name. He prayeth with the Spirit, obeyeth from the heart, heares with reverence, speakes as in the sight of God, and doth all things with life and power.

Eighthly, In all conditions or estates of life, in all dealings se­cret or open, publike or private, at home or abroad, he will carry himself as becomes the Gospell, and study to be harmelesse, un­blameable, and without rebuke before God and man. Doe all things without murmurings and disputings: That ye may be blame­lesse, Phil. 2. 15. and harmlesse, the Sonnes of God without rebuke. Thus a Chri­stian servant will shew all diligence in his Masters businesse, asEph. 6. 6, 7. Col. 3. 22, 23. Tit. 2. 10. Dan. 6. 4. well absent as present, froward or courteous; and all faithfulnesse in things committed to his charge, even to the least pinne, though he might doe otherwise with secrecy and security from men; and that willingly, of conscience, and not for hope of credit or gaine. And not so only, but he will reverence his Master, and in heart be that unto him, which he seemeth to be in carriage, and that be­hind his back which he is before his face. A Christian man will be simple, plaine, and just in all his dealings, inoffensive in matters of Religion, loving and courteous in all his behaviour, and what he would seeme to be towards others in their presence, that he is inwardly, and in their absence.

Ninthly, True grace is permanent, and sound Christians are constant in their course, not shrinking in temptation, not star­ting aside like a broken bow. An hypocrite is wavering in re­spect of occurrences, halting and divided in respect of objects; in subjection to inordinate passions, powerlesse in the performance of holy duties, wise to hide and cover sinne, glorious in empty shewes of Religion, apt for advantage to swallow lesser sinnes without straining, slippery in earthly dealings, aiming at wrong [Page 177] ends in the profession of the truth, indulgent to his beloved and darling sinnes, desirous to seeme religious, though he much neg­lect the power of godlinesse. But the true Christian is unlike him in all these respects: He is sound and constant, a master of his af­fections, a bungler to colour or guild over sinne, desirous to be good, and in every thing answerable to his profession, faithfull in his place, plaine in his dealings, innocent and harmelesse, as be­comes the child of God; the same man at home and abroad, within and without, openly and in secret, in thought and dis­course. This is that truth and sincerity which the Lord ac­cepteth, and the godly strive after, and obtaine in some mea­sure.

There be three words in the Originall translated Right or [...] Jer. 18. 4. [...] Targ. [...]. Upright. The first comes of a root that signifieth to be right or prosper, or to direct, Eccles. 11. 6. and 10. 10. and it is translated Uprightnesse, Equitie, Industry, and Profit: of the Septuagint Valour or Fortitude. Sym. Swiftnesse or speed. Eccl. 2. 21. and 4. 4. and 5. 11. Esth. 8. 5. But it is not to be referred to the act of the mind or heart, but to some externall work or deed, which is so cunningly polished and skilfully contrived, that nothing can more be desired in it, or justly be thought wanting. The second [...] word comes of a root that signifieth before or in presence, as Prov. 4. 25. Let thine eye-lids look Sept. [...]. Sym. [...]. Aq. & Theod. [...]. straight before thee. Prov. 5. 21. For the wayes of man are [...]. Sym. [...]. before the eyes of the Lord. See Gen. 25. 21. And it is translated right, equity and uprightnesse. Prov. 8. 9. They are right to them that find knowledge. Sept. [...] or [...]. Theod. [...]. Sym. [...] or [...]: al. interp. [...] bet­ter [...]. Amos 3. 10. They know not to doe right. Sept. [...]. Isai. 59. 14. Equity cannot enter. Sept. [...]. Isai. 30. 10. Pro­phesie not unto us right things. Isai. 26. 10. In the Land of uprightnesse he will deale unjustly. LXX. [...]. Isai. 57. 2. Each one walking in his uprightnesse, or before him. 2 Sam. 15. 3. Thy matters are good and right. LXX. [...]. The third word comes of a root [...]. that signifieth to goe strait, Prov. 15. 21. 1 Sam. 6. 12. Psal. 5. 8. or to direct, Prov. 3. 6. And this is the most usuall and common: Thus God is said to be upright: Thou most upright dost weigh the path of the Just. Isai. 26. 7. To shew that the Lord is upright. Psal. 92. 15. The word of the Lord is uprightnesse. Eccl. 12. 10. Psal. 33. 4. His Judgements are right, or strait. Neh. 9. 13. Psal. 119. 128, 137. [Page 178] God made man upright. Eccl. 7. 29 and they that walk according to the word, though they have their infirmities, are said to be1 King. 22. 43. upright. Psal. 33. 1. Prov. 29. 10. It is diversly rendred by the Greeke Interpreters, most commonly right or upright. Psal. 7. 11. [...]. Sym. [...]. Dan. [...]1. 6. [...]. and 19. 9. Isai. 40. 4. Mic. 2. 7. Prov. 11. 6. and 12. 6. Prov. 8. 9. Just. Job 1. 1. Prov. 3. 32. Prov. 17. 20. Numb. 23. 10. Pure. Job 33. 3. Good, or what doth please. Deut. 12. 28. and 6. 18. and 13. 18. True, or unblameable, Job 2. 3. and 1. 8 Job 8. 6. and 41. 7. and 17. 8. Holy, Deut. 32. 4. He that directeth his way aright. Mic. 7. 2. Prov. 14. 11. and 15. 8. Prov. 2. 7. Valiant or couragious, Prov. 15. 19. Holinesse, Deut. 9. 5. Righteousnesse and simplicity, 1 Chron. 29. 17. and Truth, Isai. 45. 19. And every where true and upright, or upright and perfect, and truth, uprightnesse, and in­tegrity, Deut. 9. 5. 1 Sam. 12. 23. Iob 1. 1, 2. Psal. 33. 1. 1 Ki. 3. 6. are joyned together as in substance noting the same thing. So that uprightnesse cannot be taken negatively for the want of unrigh­teousnesse only, but positively for truth, and righteousnesse, or ra­ther that which is equivalent to both. For the Greeke straight, Luke 3. 4, 5. the Syriac Interpreter useth a word that signifieth equall, polished, smoothed, made even or pure, comming of a root that is to polish or make smooth, as Masius in Peculio and David de Pomis in his Dictionary teach. And Ferrarius turneth the word pure, sincere, plaine, which answereth to that of the Pro­phet, Isai. 40. 4. In Luke 8. 15. for a good and honest, it hath the same word, as if it was a polished heart, made even and smooth: or if you will, a sound heart, intire and well constituted, and set in frame, as amongst the Arabicks, the root is to heale, or restore whole or intire. Upright or strait is opposed to crooked and oblique: but to this present purpose, That is upright which doth answer to the rule of the divine Law, concerning the love of God and our Neighbour. An upright man is he who by faith working by love doth study to conforme himselfe to the Law in all duties of holinesse, sobriety, justice, or mercy. An upright man is he, who doth not writhe or bend himselfe, nor (as we say) serve the time or humours of men, but God and his conscience, though no­thing forbids him, who serves God and his conscience, to serve the time, when it may be done without detriment to the glory of God or to his conscience. A straight way is shortest betwixt the points. Now the Word of God directeth the shortest and next [Page 179] way to Heaven: and the man that walkes in that path, doth walk uprightly. And here it may be noted, that to doe what is right1 Joh. 3. 22. Joh. 8 [...] 29. 1 Thes. 4. 1 [...] Rom. 12. 1. in the sight of the Lord, and what is pleasing in his sight, are for substance one and the same, and so Exod. 15. 26. Deut. 6. 18. and 12. 25. and 13. 18. and 21. 9. 1 King. 9. 12. Numb. 23. 27. 1 King. 9. 12. 2 Chro. 14. 15. translated by the Seventie. The Scriptures mention an uprightnesse of heart, and uprightnesse of life and conversation. Uprightnesse of heart is an holy confor­mity of heart and soule to the good will and pleasure of God. Thus we reade, God saveth the upright in heart, Psal. 7. 10. The ungod­ly shoot privily at the upright in heart. Psal. 11. 2. Shout for joy all ye that are upright in heart. Psal. 32. 11. O continue thy righteous­nesse to the upright in heart. Psal. 36. 10. All the upright in heart shall glory. Psal. 64. 10. Doe good, O Lord, unto them that be good: and to them that are upright in their hearts. Psal. 125. 4. Good and upright is the Lord. Psal. 25. 8. His will is the most certaine rule of equity and rectitude: and our hearts are then upright, when they stand in an holy conformity to the good pleasure of God. This is some­times expressed by the phrase of preparing the heart to seeke God,2 Chron. 19. 3. 2 Chron. 17. 6. or lifting up the heart in the wayes of God. And herein is implied, 1. An holy disposition of mind, will and affections, bending them­selves to the good pleasure of God, approving, affecting, exercising readily whatsoever he requireth. I know also, my God, that thou tryest the heart, and hast pleasure in uprightnesse. As for me in2 Chr. 29. 17. the uprightnesse of mine heart, I have willingly offered all these things. 2. A godly fervency of heart, which maketh that in choosing and embracing good things, it is equally more remisse or fiery and strong, as the goodnesse of the things be greater or lesse, of greater or lesse necessity and importance. Thus an up­right heart hath respect to every Commandement, but his greatest care is about the weightie matters of the Law, holinesse and ju­stice: and the more excellent the duty, the more circumspect and forward is he in the performance of it. The upright love thee, or they love thee in uprightnesse. Cant. 1. 4. that is, with a strong and vehement love, which is without dissimulation or guile. Therfore (saith David) I esteeme all thy precepts concerning all things to be right, and I hate every false way. Psal. 119. 128. 3. An upright mind in all purposes and actions doth aime directly at the right marke, and propose the true end by just and approved meanes. A right end never hath a crooked rule leading unto it: and a right heart doth neither look awry, nor goe by a crooked rule. Thus it is [Page 180] said of Ezra, that he had prepared his heart to seeke the Law of the Lord, and to doe it, and to teach in Israel Statutes and judge­ments:Ezra 7. 10. Act. 8. 21. And on the contrary, when Simon Magus would have bought the gifts of the holy Ghost with mony, Peter rebukes him, saying, Thy heart is not right in the sight of God.

Uprightnesse of life, is a conversation, way, or course of life a­greeable to the word of God in that calling or vocation, wherein God hath placed us. Thus it is said of David, That he walked psal. 37. 14. 1 King. 3. 6. Prov. 14 2. Pro. 29. 27. Isa. 26. 7. with God in truth and uprightnesse of heart. And he that wal­keth in his uprightnesse, feareth the Lord. He that is upright in the way, is an abhomination to the wicked. The way of the just is uprightnesse. He that speaketh uprightnesse shall dwell with the everlasting burning. This is expressed by the phrase of going with a right foot. Gal. 2. 14. of ordering our steps aright, Prov. 4. 26. and making even pathes for our feet, Heb. 12. 13. Upright­nesse is an universall and constant cleaving to the Lord, notwith­standing all occurrences that might divert or turne us out of the way. All the upright in heart shall follow it, or, shall followIsa. 33. 14, 15. him; that is, they shall cleave to the Lord, and goe after him continually, and never forsake him, although they endure many and great evils, for his names sake. An upright heart is an heart fixed and established in respect of the object, or maine businesse,Psal. 94. 15. Psal. 78. 37. Jam, [...]. 6. 7. opposite to a double, divided mind, wavering between two diffe­rent objects, unstable, inconstant, turned with every blast, resol­ving now this, anon that, one thing to day, another to morrow, this in one company, that in another. And the pathes of upright­nesse are contrary to all crooked wayes, which leade unto death. Doe good, O Lord, unto those that be good, and to them that are Pro. 21. 8. Prov. 2. 13, 15. Psal. 25. 4, 5. upright in their hearts. As for such as turne aside unto their croo­ked waies, the Lord shall leade them forth with the workers of iniquity. We may take the description of an upright man from the Psalmist in other words, He hath cleane hands and a pure Psal. 24. 4. heart, and hath not lift up his soul unto vanity. A pure heart is the foundation of an holy life, and words and works, as it were the building setled upon it.

Uprightnesse is chiefly commanded, most highly esteemed and principally commended in the Saints. For this cause Israel was called Jeshurun, Deut. 32. 15. & 33. 5, 26. Isa. 44. 2. because up­rightnesse is the thing, which God requireth in every true Israelite. [Page 181] God that trieth the hearts of all th [...] sons of men, taketh pleasure in uprightnesse. The froward and unstable are abomination to his high­nes;1 Chro. 29. 17. but such as are upright in their way are his delight. The offerings of an upright heart are free and voluntary, which God graciously ten­dreth, & lovingly accepteth. The Sacrifice of the wicked is an abomi­nation Prov 15. 8. Job 8. 6. Psal. 25. 21. to the Lord: but the prayer of the upright is his delight. God will not cast off the upright, nor leave his soul in adversity. If thou wert pure and upright, surely now he would awake for thee, and make the habitation of thy righteousnesse prosperous. God will make it known that he doth regard the upright, & though for a time they be in affliction, they shall not be forsaken, or left desolate. Marke the Psal. 37. 37. end of the upright, for the end of that man is peace. The wicked may flourish for a time like the Bay-tree, but suddenly they shall wither. The upright may be kept under for a time, but he shall bud and blossome apace in his season, and his prosperity shall en­dure. The upright shall dwell in the Land, and the perfect shall Prov. 2. 21. Psal. 37. 29. Prov. 14. 11. remaine in it. The righteous shall inherit the Land, and dwell therein for ever. The Tabernacle of the upright shall flourish. The word of the Lord doth alwaies good to them that walke up­rightly, Micha 2. 7. God doth pronounce all good to them that live according to his Commandments; instructions will sinke in­to such hearts, the promises cheare and revive them; by the do­ctrines they are made wise, they increase in wisdome, they growPsal. 73. 1. from one measure of grace and comfort to another. God is good to Israel, even to them that be of an upright heart; and the word of God doth speake mercie, peace, quickning, and doe good to the upright in heart. The integrity of the upright shall (guide and)Prov. 11. 3. preserve them; that is, shall procure good direction from the Lord, both for his service, and for their own happinesse, and make them tractable to follow it. Contrary to this is the condition of the crooked and unstable, who are not led by the word, but over­ruled by their lusts, and therefore misled by them to their undoing. For thus standeth the opposition: the integrity of the upright shall guide them in the way, and so preserve them: but the froward­nesse of the wicked will keepe them from the way, and so destroyIsa. 40. 4. 1 Sam. 12. 13. Psal. 143. 10. [...] them. The path of the upright is even, strait, plaine, lightsome, good, the next and shortest cut to heaven that can be. I will teach you (saith Samuel) the good and the right way: And the Saints pray, Let thy good Spirit bring me into the Land of uprightnesse, [Page 182] that is, an even and plaine Land, where my feet should not stum­ble. Teach me thy way, O Lord, and leade me in a plain path Psal 27. 11. (a way of uprightnesse) that my foot tread not aside, that I doe nothing unjustly, to the dishonour of thy name, or offence of mine adversaries. God is both the Sun and Shield of the upright▪ their buckler of defence and comfort in this life, their crowne and glory in the life to come. God saveth the upright in heart. He is Psal. 7. 10. Prov. 2. 7. Psal. 25. 21. Psal. 125. 4. Psal. 97. 11. a Buckler to them that walke uprightly. They may pray with confidence, Let integrity and uprightnesse preserve me, for I hope in thy word. Doe good, O Lord, to them that be good, to them that be upright in heart. Light is sowne for the righteous, and joy for the upright in heart. Comfort is reserved and laid up in store for them, though hidden for the present, as seed in the ground which will spring and ripen. This life is the seed time of an upright man, the harvest of his comfort shall be in heaven: ne­verthelesse some portion of that heavenly treasure the Lord doth impart unto him on earth. Therefore the upright are called uponPsal. 36. [...]0. again and againe to rejoyce in the Lord, at all times, in all condi­tions, to rejoyce heartily before him. Shout for joy all ye that are upright in heart: praise is comely for the upright: All the up­right Psal. 32. 11. Psal. 33. 1. Psal. 64. 10. Psal. 112. 4. in heart shall glory. Ʋnto the upright there ariseth light in darknesse, scil. God gracious, mercifull and righteous is his light, joy and salvation, or it ariseth, from God, mercifull, gracious and righteous, as some interpret it. The secret of the Lord is with the Prov. 3. 31. upright; that is, his secret and hidden wisdome of attaining true happinesse. They are of the Lords privy Councell, his intimate and familiar friends, whom he will instruct in the way that theyPsal. 15. 2. Ps [...]l. 140. 13. Isa. 33. 14, 15, 16. should choose. They shall abide in the Mountaine of his holinesse, and dwell in his presence for evermore. The upright shall dwell with the everlasting burning, and not be consumed. The Lord will astonish them with feares, that give themselves to all manner of sinne and wickednesse: but as for them that love and follow up­rightnesse, he communicateth himselfe graciously and familiarly unto them. He stiles himselfe a consuming fire, least his Majestie and power should be contemned: but whosoever draw nigh unto him with a true and unfained desire to please him in all things, they shall feele by the effects, that his presence is most sweet and aimi­able.Psal. 112. 2. Neither doth the blessing of God reach to the upright only, but to their posterity. The generation of the upright shall be [Page 183] blessed. But as for the crooked and perverse, it is not so with them: for their sins are uncovered, The froward is an abhomina­tion to the Lord, their hope shall perish, they shall be cut off from the earth, they shall be taken in their own naughtinesse, and their end shall be accursed.

The effects of uprightnesse are many, but specially these.

1. An heavenly disposition of heart, whereby we are affected to love all good, and hate all evill truly according to the nature and degree thereof, and to have respect universally, not equally to e­very Commandment. The high way of the upright is to depart Prov. 16. 17. from evill: that is, to depart from evill is the case-way of the up­right, in which they walke rightly, fitly, securely or in great safe­ty. The uprightnesse of David is thus described, that he did ac­cording1 King. 9. 4. to all that the Lord commanded him, and kept his Sta­tutes and his Judgements: that he did that which was right in the1 King. 15. 5. eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from any thing that he com­manded him all the daies of his life. Thus the uprightnesse of Za­charie Luk. 1. 6. and Elizabeth, They walked in all the commandements and ordinances of the Lord blamelesse. An honest heart mainly desires to please God in matters of justice and judgement, the great and weighty matters of the Law; for God desires mercy and notHos. 6. 6. 1 Sam. 15. 22. sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more then burnt offerings: and in the duties of his particular calling, because every tree must beare his owne fruit, and every man attend to his proper charge: and in such duties, as in respect of time and place be of greater im­portance, because he must not be wanting to the opportunity: but he takes care withall to be faithfull in every circumstance, pin, hoofe and naile. These things ought ye to have done. The uprightMat. 23. 23, 2. [...] mans assurance and resolution is this, Then shall I not be confoun­ded, when I have respect to all thy commandments: I have re­frained Psal. 119. 6. vers. 101. my feet from every evill way, that I may keepe thy word. For they doe nothing with an upright, heart, that give themselves liberty to transgresse any one commandment. If a man shall keepe Jam. 2. 10. the whole Law, soil. in outward and externall actions, and yet offend in one point, willingly and of indulgence, so as by the Co­venant of grace he shall be held a transgreslour, he is guilty-of all. Of frailty and weaknesse a man may, and the most holy doth break every commandment, and is guilty of none, so as it shall be im­puted unto him: But he that habitually, willingly, on set purpose, [Page 184] shall dispence with himselfe in the transgression of any one com­mandment, or any branch thereof, he is a trespasser, he shall be ac­counted guilty.

2. To be upright is to stand, as it were in Gods presence, as one of the words doth signifie, Isa. 57. 2. as was shewed before, I 2 Cor. 12. 19. 2 Cor. 2. 17. & 4. 2. & 7. 12. Psal. 18. 22, 23. Psal. 119. 16 [...]. have set the Lord alwaies before me, Psal. 16. 8. So David pro­testeth his uprightnesse, for all his judgements were before me: and I did not put away his Statutes from me. I was also upright before him, and I kept my selfe from mine iniquity. And I have kept thy precepts, and thy testimonies: for all my waies are before thee. Thus Job proveth himself to be no hypocrite, as his friendsJob 13. 15, 16. imagined; Though he slay me, yet will I trust in him: but I will prove mine owne waie [...] before him. He also shall be my salvation. for an hypocrite shall not come before him. And seeing he wal­keth as under the eye, and in the sight of the Almighty, therefore in some measure he is alike in all places and companies, be­cause he remembreth well, that God is present in every place, and doth behold and discerne all his actions, yea his secret ima­ginations.

3. The third effect of uprightnesse is hatred of all sinne, of our bosome, delightfull, profitable sins, of secret sins, of the sins of our inclination, custome, education, whatsoever, but more in our selves then in others: and love of good, specially the best and chiefest good, in others, as in our selves. Homebred sin is most hatefull, because most hurtfull to the soule, pernicious to our State, dishonourable to God. And it is a good token of a plaine and down-right heart, when a man is willing to see, ready to acknowledge, and can with eagernesse of affection set against his owne sinne, rather then against the sins of other men. For the love of sin is abandoned, the heart is framed to self-deniall, which it hath not by nature, but by grace: and sinne will have no plea­sure to lodge in that heart▪ where it is thus pursued. But true goodnesse is lovely in all men, because it proceeds from God, con­formeth a man after the image of God, and inableth to the obe­dience of his commandment: and whose heart is right with God, he cannot but rejoyce to see his name glorified by whom­soever.

4. Delight in the most high at all times, in all conditions, pros­perity and adversity, evill report and good report, making God [Page 185] the stay of our soules, when oppressing trouble lieth heavie upon us, and walking before him in humility, meekenesse and feare, when all things prosper according to our hearts desire, and readily performing our vowes which we made in the day of our calamity:Job 27. 10. Job 3. 23. and 2. 3, 10. This is a notable effect of uprightnesse. Thus Job confirmeth his uprightnesse, in adversity he called upon God, and waited upon his aide: in prosperity he remembred his change, eschewed evill, stood in awe of God, shewed mercy to the poore, fatherlesse and widdow, comforted them that were in distresse: in both estates God was his delight and his portion. It is a double and crooked heart that starts aside, and varieth in obedience according to out­ward conditions, that goeth forward or backward, on this side, and on that, as occasion requireth; that praiset [...] mercy in his need, but commendeth sparing and nearenesse▪ when he washeth his pathes in butter: The upright is resolved of his way, and doth breake through all lets and barrs whatsoever may be cast beforeProv. 21. 29. him in his journey. A wicked man hardeneth his face: but as for the upright he directeth his way. As the ungodly man is ob­stinate in evill, so is the upright constant in piety, and will not be removed from it. I have enclined my heart to performe thy Sta­tutes, alway, even unto the end. Hold thou me up, and I Ps. 119. 112, 117 shall be safe, and I will have respect unto thy Statutes con­tinually.

5. Respect of Gods approbation more then the applause of men, resting well contented that we are allowed of him, though dise­steemed in the world, is a good signe of an even and polished heart. A good heart regardeth not much, what men thinke or1 Cor. 4. 3. 1 Thess. 2. 4. say, so God be well pleased. I passe little to be judged of mans judgement, yea I judge not my selfe. As we were allowed of God to be put in trust with the Gospel, even so we speake, not as plea­sing men, but God who tryeth our hearts. Let the world fawne or frowne, speake faire or revile, be quiet or persecute, all is one, a faithfull man will goe forward in his good course, neither star­ting aside, nor turning backe. For the heart that is well directed, seeketh heaven and not earth; the favour of God, not the faire countenance of men; rest in the world to come, not peace in this vale of misery: and thus minding his [...]ome prepared in heaven, he goeth on his race, not regarding how little his service is esteemed by earthly men.

[Page 186]6. An honest heart is no lesse carefull to returne praise for gra­ces and good things received, then to beg supply of what is wan­ting.Isa. 33. 1. This is the study of the upright (and it becomes them well) in which they diligently apply themselves, to set forth the goodnesse, power, mercy, and rich grace of God vouchsafed unto them.

7. To the upright man the hardest things are easie: be­cause they are industrious and chearefull in the workes they take in hand, according to the Lords appointment. The way of the slothfull is an hedge of thornes: but the way of the upright Pro. 15. 19. is made plain.

8. The down-right Christian is carefull to shunne all appearan­ces, occasions, and provocations unto sin, willing to suffer admo­nition and rebuke, and constant in the use of all means, that heJob 31. 1. Psal. 141 4, 5. might grow in grace.

The means whereby truth and uprightnesse may be attained and strengthened are;

1. Constant and conscionable dependance upon the preaching of the word, effectuall receiving and sound feeding upon it. Desire 1 Pet. 2. 1. the sincere milke of the word, saith the Apostle. He cals the word sincere milke, a milke without deceit: It is in it selfe truth, ha­ving the God of truth for the Authour, Christ Jesus the truth forJoh. 14. 6. the witnesse, the Spirit of truth for the composer of it: and it worketh truth in the hearts of them that heare and receive it kindly. It is mighty to the purging out of that leaven of fraud, which is within us, and to the transforming of us into the image of God, if it be kindly planted and soundly rooted in the heart and consci­ence. Sanctifie them with thy truth, thy word is truth. This isJoh. 17. 17. that which begets faith, and faith is that which purifieth the heart. How came the Romanes to that heartinesse and sincerity of obe­dience, which Paul commends so much, was it not by that formeRom. 6. 17. of holy Doctrine which was delivered? Or as we reade it some­times, unto which they were delivered: wherein the truth of God is compared unto a mould into which they were cast, and by which they were transposed into a new forme, enabled to walke sincerely and without halting before the Lord. The mind must be truly informed, or the heart can never move aright. But there is no meanes to come to the knowledge of the truth, but by the word of God, which is the word of truth, and Gospell of salva­tion. [Page 187] It is truly said, the heart can never be sincere, till it be hum­bled and broken, and brought to abasement and deniall of it selfe: and what means hath God ordained so effectuall, as his word to worke this humiliation of spirit? Is not this the hammer whichJer. 23. 2 [...]. Act. 2. 37. 2 King. 22. 19. breaketh the stone? Is not this that which pricketh the heart, and maketh it to melt, and sometimes wringeth teares from the eyes of them that heare it? Besides, what hope that ever any mans disease of a false heart should be cured, untill he be brought to the sight of it? Who seeks for health, till he know himselfe to be dis­eased? And shall ever any man be brought to the understanding of his defect in this, untill he hath been made to see it by the word? What health is to the body, that truth and uprightnes is to the soul: now bodily health ariseth from the seed, is preserved by sound and good diet: But the word of truth is the wholsome food, wherby the soul is nourished. The word is a word of uprightnesse or rectitude, and when it is well learned, and throughly digested, safe lodged, andJam. 1. 20. close applied, it doth season and regulate the heart and affections, and change them into the nature of it. If we bind our crooked affections close to the word of truth, they will become strait, a­greeable unto the word, whereunto they are bowed. And the same word truly embraced, doth enflame the heart with a fer­vent desire to walke with God in all duties of holinesse and righ­teousnesse.

2. Thornie cares, vaine pleasures, sinfull delights must be stoc­ked up and digged out of the heart. Weeds will grow of them­selves, if the roots be not plucked up, good corne requireth tillage and sowing both. Perversenesse is naturall to man corrupt and sin­full, and will encrease of it selfe: but uprightnesse will not pros­per, if the fallow ground of the heart be not ploughed, and the rootes of worldlinesse and voluptuousnesse killed in them. If the world be our treasure, our heart cannot be true and upright with God, for where our treasure is, there will our hearts be.

3. A third meanes is to possesse our hearts with this, and to have it ever in our thoughts, that in all things, especially in mat­ters of Religion, we have to doe with God, and are ever in his sight and presence. In our common daily duties to labour thus to performe them with our heart, as in the sight of God, to his glo­rie, is a ready way to get this grace of truth deeply rooted. It is [Page 188] the very maine ground of all hypocisie, that this one thing is not duly thought on. Men forget him that seeth in secret, whose eyes are as a flame of fire, wherewith he pierceth further then the outward face: and hereupon they are not to imagine, that when they have carried the matter smoothly and fairly before men, all is well. The world either applauds them, or accuseth them not, and hereupon they flatter themselves, as if nothing more were to be looked after. Let us then remember this, if we would be true and sincere in our hearts; The waies of man are before the eyes of Prov. 5 21. the Lord, and he pondreth all his paths. This kept the Church and people of God of old in their sincerity, and preserved them from dealing falsely concerning his Covenant; they thought with themselves, If we doe thus and thus, shall not God search it out?Psal. 44. 17, 21. for he knoweth the secrets of the heart. And this consideration moved Paul to faithfulnesse in his Ministerie; We make not mer­chandize of the word, but as of sincerity, but as of God, speake we in 2 Cor. 2. 17. Christ. See what things goe together, doing a matter in sincerity, and doing it, as in the sight of God.

4. Society and fellowship with the faithfull is a signe of up­rightnesse, and a meanes of continuance and encrease therein. For he that setteth his heart upon heaven, will be carefull to draw on and encourage his companion in the same way. Coales laid together kindle each other, and preserve heate the longer: So it is with the faithfull linked together in holy com­munion.

5. It is good to call our selves to a frequent reckoning touching our carriages, binding our selves to an examination of them. He that hath a servant, of whose fidelity he maketh some doubt, and whom he desires, if it might be, to reclaime, both for the good of the party, and for his owne particular also, that he may be usefull to him, he will not let him run on too long before he call him to an account; he considers that to be the next way to make him carelesse and secure. If he expect ever and anon to be reckoned with, it will cause him so much the more carefully to looke unto his businesse. It is so in this case. The word of God telleth thee, that thou hast with thee a false, coosening, deceitfull heart: an heart that will beguile thee to thine utter ruine; it is ever ready to practise with Satan the professed enemie of thy soule, to worke mischiefe against thee: Wouldst thou reforme this heart, that it [Page 189] might become usefull and serviceable for thee, in the great and important businesse of Salvation, be sure to call it often to account. It will be good to reckon with it once a day, to see what hath passed it, to examine what thoughts have been framed in it, what purposes, what intents, what acts have been done, as effects and fruits of these inward purposes: surely this tying of thy selfe to such an often survey, and looking back upon thy heart, will keepe it in so much the more awe; and when it is once accustomed to the sweetnesse which will be felt, when it can give account of care and of obedience, and to the smart and punishment which followeth the remembrance of failing in holy duties, it cannot but be kept in so much the better tune.

And to finde out the better the guile of our spirit, and croo­kednesse of affection, First consider what ignorance, vanitie, folly, infidelity doth still remaine in the mind, what stubbornnesse in the will, benummednesse in the conscience, disorder in the affecti­ons: how apt we are to undervalue the true treasure, loose our selves in base delights, abuse things lawfull in excesse: how lavish and rash in our speeches, dull and drosse in holy performances, pettish and impatient if a little crossed, &c.

Secondly, Consider how carelesse we are of the spirituall acti­on, in those things we performe, as in prayer, hearing the word, receiving the Sacraments, giving almes, &c. To the spiritual, performance of these and such like duties is required a preparation and heavenly disposition of soule befitting such actions, and the Majestie of God with whom we have to deale; as in confession of sinne is required griefe, shame, humility: in supplication re­verence, devotion, spirituall emptinesse, whereby the heart is ta­ken off the creature, and driven out of our selves. But who doth not lightly passe over these duties? which is no better then the wiping of the out-side of the dish, not looking to that within. Doe we not rush upon prayer without premeditation, give our hearts liberty to rove about, forgetting with whom we have to doe? are we not perfunctory in craving Gods blessing upon our meate at ordinary meales, and in giving thankes when we are re­freshed? &c.

Thirdly, Marke that in resistance of sinne, we are more sorrie, and deale more against this or that branch of Corruption, which appeareth to our disgrace, then against the body of death it selfe; [Page 190] and against that sinne whereunto we are not so much enclined, more then against others no lesse dangerous, whereunto we are disposed.

Fourthly, Consider the course of our affections, and we shall see how unsound we are towards God and our Brethren. If a thing touch our selves, our blood will quickly be in our nailes: If a man know this or that a misse by us, it is very grievous, the shame of it much upbraids us: but things that offend God, and which we know he seeth amisse in us, we can let these passe nothing af­fected. A signe our love to him is not so sound, our feare of him, and desire of praise with him, not so unfained. We should be a­shamed to be found often in the same fault before men: but we commit and confesse the same sinnes daily before God, and are not confounded in our selves. If we speake but an hasty or unad­vised word in the presence of some grave and godly man, that might be to our disgrace, our thoughts trouble us: but the offence against God is lightly passed over. We are circumspect to avoid the breach of penall lawes, not so carefull to watch against the committing of sinne against God. We confesse sinne before God, and seeme to aggravate it: but being questioned by men, we turne the faire side outward, and make the best of it.

Lastly, Let us observe how frequently our actions are corrup­ted. In leaving sinne many time we leave it not because we hate it as sinne, but it hath often broaken out to our reproach; our friends perswade us to breake it off, it will be for our credit and advantage. We confesse our owne sinnes, not desiring to give glo­ry to God, and gaine a testimony of a sound heart: but because worldly wisdome doth tell us, It is best to tell our owne tale, or it were double folly to make daintie of that all the world know­eth: It will not be for our credit to lessen our fault, when it is ful­ly knowne; we shall loose the estimation of good men if we seek to hide, excuse, or make light of our offences. Our promises of amendment, when we have been overtaken with sinne to our dis­grace, have not proceeded from due consideration, nor had due execution accordingly. In the profession of religion we have oft aimed at sinister ends, as praise of men, gaine, or the like, Thus in taking up good duties, as orders in our family, we often looke not so much at the conscience of Gods Commandement, as at this, The eyes of men are upon us, all the world will cry shame, [Page 191] if such things be neglected altogether. Our performance of pri­vate duties is farre more dull, superficiall, and sleight, then that which is done in the sight and company of others. The presence of men doth oft restraine from many hastie sinfull speeches and un­warrantable actions, which we take liberty to speake and doe be­fore the face of the most high, and are not ashamed. Our rebukes are carnall, rather because our minds are crossed, then that God is dishonoured. Our obedience is partiall, this we doe, another thing no lesse materiall we passe over without regard: and we meane well many times, and are fervent in a good thing, not meer­ly for sinister respects, and yet not only, nor resolutely for Gods Commandement, but more for other considerations then that: And therefore in such cases and tryalls, we are found to be others, if we examine it, then we would be. We beare with faults in him that is serviceable to our humour, against another not so plea­sing in our eye, we are hot and fiery. Sometimes we undertake to deale for some that speake to us, but doe it without any heartie well-wishing to him, sometimes not sticking to say to our friend, I must speake to you for fashion, but doe as you please. We visit sick ones, but not stirring up the bowels of mercy, we speake a great many phrases of course, our conscience telling us it is other­wise. We make a semblance of reverence, but how farre it is from the heart this may testifie, that we can (absent from the parties) use their names proverbially, breake jests on them, admit sinister suspitions. We can speake faire to mens faces, when warre is in the heart: and when we hate the person, take on as if we sought the disgrace of his sinne only. So in fruits of love, we can doe this partie good sometimes, but it is to keep another under, who else would sprout forth so farre, that his shade would dimme our lights: as likewise I will doe for such an one, they know good be­haviour, they will doe their homage, such an one will thanke me for it, I am sure it will not be given cleane away: He is able to doe me a good turne againe, &c. In works of mercy we are not dis­creet, free, compassionate, forward: we seldome consider the necessities of others, stand a loofe, if any man will steppe before us in the worke, pretend ignorance, and are glad to hang the burden upon other mens shoulders, that be lesse able to beare it.

Sixthly, After we have discovered and found out the crooked­nesse [Page 192] and unsoundnesse of our heart and life, we must take up our selves for halting, bewaile it with shame and sorrow, stirre up our selves to more uprightnesse and sincerity, and fly unto God by hearty prayer to be established and confirmed. Though there may be some reliques of hypocrisie in a good man, yet the nature of halting is, it will goe quite out of the way if it be not healed. And make straight steps unto your feet, least that which is halting be turned Heb. 12. 13. out of the way. Ah, the frowardnesse of my heart, how crooked have my wayes been in the sight of the Lord? I have regarded vanity, doted upon transitory pleasures and profits, undervalued the true treasure. The streames of mine affections have been dri­ven with full saile to that which is little worth; but ebbe to what they should covet above measure. My whole soule, all that is within me, should have looked continually upon God, and my conversation directed towards him: but my thoughts, desires, affe­ctions, words and actions have looked ordinarily, very often, ano­ther way. How farre am I from that truth which God requires in the inward parts? what a masse of wicked fraud and deceit is heaped and piled up within me? what rottennesse doth lodge still in my breast? what am I but a shop of lies and vanities? Easier it is a great deale to know the number of my haires, then the running motions of my heart and affections. Oh, the blind corners, the se­cret turnings and windings, the close lurking holes that are there­in: upon examination I have found a world of falshood in my soul, more then ever I suspected or imagined. My cogitations are vaine, if not wicked and ungodly, mine affections unsound, mine aimes indirect, my course of life palpably grosse in dissimulation before God, and towards men. If the members of my body were crooked and deformed; my mouth, face, eyes drawne awry or squint; if one part did swell, another wither and pine away; I should esteeme it an heavy crosse. But the distemper of the soule is much more dangerous, as the safety of the soule is more preci­ous then of the body. If in a journey I chance to strike out of the way, or fetch compasse about, when I might have gone a shorter cut, how am I grieved at my ignorance, that I knew not, or neg­ligence, that I enquired not the right way in time? But in the course of Christianity I have turned aside, and stepped out of the right path to my great losse and prejudice. Did I stand convicted before men for some notorious coozener or deceiver, I could not [Page 193] but take it grievously: but many times I have played fast and loose in the presence of the all-seeing God, pretending his ser­vice, when I have done mine own will; offering him the body, when the soule hath been let loose after vanity. I have too long wandered and gone astray like a l [...]st sheep, but now I will keep the testi­monies of my God: For the Commandement is a lamp, and the Law is light, and reproofes of instruction are the way of life. The Comman­dements leade directly to that life, which deserves the name of life, eternall life. The Traveller takes the next way to his Jour­neyes end: No wise man will willingly step one foot out of the way to Heaven. If our limmes be crooked, we omit nothing that Art or Exercise can doe to set them strait: and shall not I take care to rectifie my soul, and bring it into right order? Deceit and falshood is the Image of Satan, who abode not in the truth, most unmeet to be borne by him that is by adoption the sonne of God. The charge of God is, Be ye holy, for I am holy; be ye perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect: and hereby may we assure our hearts that we are the children of God, if we be true, as he is true. Truth is the Image of God stamped upon their hearts whom the Lord hath called to be his peculiar people. What soundnesse is to the body, that is sincerity to the soule: a grace of singular excel­lency, and excellent use, pleasing to God, and profitable to man. Wise men delight in sound and faithfull friends: the Lord takes pleasure in them that be true hearted to his glory. A sound body is fit for labour: a true heart is ready prepared for any service that God requires. The way is not tedious to men, they halt not in it, but through weaknesse and imperfection: O my soule, the way of life would be most pleasant and delightfull, crosses easie to be borne, the comforts of grace most sweet and admirable, were it not that corrupt humours causing distempers, did still breed in thee. Earthly desires, vain delights, unruly lusts are great impe­diments to the quicke and easie dispatch of the Christian Pilgri­mage. Sincerity is the girdle of the mind to tr [...]ffe up these, strengthen our loynes, and tie the heart to the work comman­ded. We buy girdles for the body, and if costly ones we keepe them charily: I will seek to Heaven for this girdle of grace, for it is woven there, no shop can serve me with it but that only. O Lord, thou that delightest in the simple and true hearted that cleave unfainedly unto thy testimonies, create in me a true heart [Page 194] and sincere spirit, that without guile▪ I may stick unto thy testi­monies, and doe what is acceptable in thy sight. Naturally I am full of falshood and guile, oh thou that a [...]t the God of truth, who at the first didst create me after thine Image▪ make me every day more and more like unto thy self in true holinesse and righteous­nesse. Then shall I be true indeed, when Christ the giver of truth dwelleth in my heart: Lord strengthen my faith, that being knit unto Christ the way, the truth, and the life more and more, I may partake of his fulnesse, grace for grace.

CHAP. I. Of the New Testament or Covenant, and how God hath revealed himself therein.

IN Scriptures New is put for admirable, unusuall, not beforeIn [...]mnibus lin­guis penè id no­vum dicitur, quod aliis suc­cedit: u [...] n [...]vus rex, novu [...] ma­ritus. Exod. [...]. 8. Sept. [...]. Aq. & Theod. [...]. Act. 7. 18. heard of; as Jer. 31. 22. The Lord hath created a new thing in the earth. Isai 42. 9. Behold, the former things are come to passe, and new things doe I declare. Isai. 48. 6. I have shewed thee new things. And for necessary, noble, illustrious, excellent to admiration or asto­nishment; as new doctrine, Mark 1. 27. is wonderfull, excellent doctrine; a new Commandement, Joh. 13. 34. that is, a necessary and excellent Commandement; new wine, Matth. 26. 29. that is, wine, which by reason of its excellency is had in admiration. And so we reade, a new Name, Rev. 2. 17. Isai. 62. 2. and my new name,Follio est ips [...] facit nova car­mina Virg. Ec­cl. (i.) magna & miranda. Serd. Rev. 3. 12. and a new song, Psal. 33. 1. (which by some is inter­preted an excellent song) and a new work, or a new thing, Isai. 43. 19. Behold, I will doe a new thing. The Apostle John saith, I write no new Commandement unto you, 1 Joh. 2: 7. but that hinders not the former interpretation of the word new; because it is usuall with that Apostle, to use the same word in divers manners. That is said to be new also, which is another or divers from that which was before Christ came into the world, or which was granted to no former age of the world, but to these last times only: as 2 Cor. 5. 17. If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away, behold all things are made new. And so a new song, is a song, wherein the name of God is celebrated for some new and admira­ble benefit of deliverance by the comming of Christ; as Isa. 42. 10. [Page 195] Sing unto the Lord a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth. Psal. 96. 1. O sing unto the Lord a new song, sing unto the Lord all the earth. Rev. 5. 9. And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art wor­thy to take the booke. Rev. 14. 3. And they sung as it were a new song before the throne, and before the foure beasts. Though now and then that is called a new song, wherein the name of God is cele­brated for some new benefit of deliverance at what time soever vouchsafed; as Psal. 40. 3. And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise to our God. Againe, that is new, which is perpetuall, shall never wax old, or vanish away; Heb. 8. 13. In that he saith, A new Covenant, he hath made the first old, Now that which decayeth, and waxeth old is ready to vanish away. And in this sence may that of the Apostle, 1 John 2. 8. well be understood, Againe, a new Commandement I write unto you, which thing is true in him, and in you.

In the Covenant of grace God promiseth to put a new spi­rit into his people. Ezek. 11. 19. not new for the matter, not for the inward forme or kind, but the frame and fashion: a new spi­ritEzek. 18. 31. renewed in qualities, not changed in substance. And so the faithfull are said to put on the new man, which after God is crea­ted in holinesse and righteousnesse, Ephes. 4. 24. Col. 3. 10. And in Christ neither Circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, Eph. 2. 15. but a new creature, Gal 6. 15. that is, a new man refined, reformed, and renewed by God in Christ Jesus. And it may be, the renew­ed soule is called the new man, or new creature, because it is noble, beautifull, fresh and vigorous, never to wither or decay with age. And whatsoever we must understand by the new heavens and the new earth promised, Isai. 65. 17. and 66. 22. Revel. 21. 1. the title new seemeth to import the admirable excellencie and continuance thereof, never to alter or decay, but to remaine be­fore the Lord.

In all these respects the Covenant of Grace is fitly called the new Covenant or Testament, Jer. 31. 31. Heb. 8. 8. 2 Cor. 3. 6. for it is divers from that which God made with the Fathers be­fore Christ, most necessary and excellent, never to wax old, or to decay. By it a new light of the doctrine of the Gospell shined to the world, it had new worship, new adoration, a new forme of the Church, new witnesses, new tables, new Sacraments and Ordinances, and these never to be abrogated or disanulled, never [Page 196] to wax old. Heb. 8. 13. and it was established after a new manner, by the bloud of the Mediatour. It is called a Covenant of peace, an everlas [...]ing Covenant, which shall not be removed: the Cove­nant of my peace, Ezek▪ 36 27. and 34. 25. Isai. 54. 10. and 55. 3. Heb. 13. 20. Isai. 61. 8. It is called a Covenant and a Testament. A Covenant in respect of the manner of agreement; a Testament in respect of the manner of confirming. A Covenant in respect ofHeb. 9. 16. God; a Testament in respect of Christ, who being appointed of the Father Lord and Prince, with full possession of all things ne­cessary to Salvation, died as Testatour, and confirmed by his death the testamentary promise before made, of obtaining the eternall inheritance by the remission of sinnes. John the Baptist by the light of preaching was greater then the Prophets, that had gone before him: but properly he was not a Minister of the new Testament, as it differed from the old: wherefore a middle place is rightly assigned to him, being the forerunner of Christ to pre­pareMatth. 11. 11. the way before him. From the birth of Christ, the things foretold in the old Testament pertaining to the constitution of the new, began to be fulfilled; and that first by his comming in the flesh, afterwards by his administration, and then by his death: by whose death the old Testament was abolished, and the new did succeed in the roome thereof. The old Testament was aboli­shed by the death of Christ in right, but not in act. For before the promulgation of that innovation by the sound of the Gospell, they amongst the Jewes that did beleeve in Christ were true be­leevers, though they were zealous for the Law: but after the do­ctrineAct. [...]0. 21. of grace was sufficiently published, they that obstinately did cleave to the shadowes and Ceremonies of the Law, did re­ject the promise and Covenant in Christ. So that properly theHeb. 13. 10. beginning of the new Covenant is to be fetched from that time, wherein Christ hath fulfilled all things, which were shadowed of him in the Law, or foretold in the Prophets, that is, after that Christ was corporally ascended into Heaven, and had sent downe the holy Spirit in the visible shape of fiery tongues upon his Apo­stles,Act. 2. 3, 4. at the solemne feast of Pentecost; For the summe of the Gospell or new Testament is this, that the Ceremoniall Law is ceased, and the use of the Law (whereby we were kept in bon­dage untill faith was revealed) abolished: and that Christ being already crucified, dead, buried, and received into Heaven, remission [Page 197] of sinnes in his bloud is clearly, plainly and openly propounded, offered and given to all them that by true and lively faith doe be­leeve that he is Christ the Lord and Saviour, and that the Spirit of Adoption is sent into their hearts, who by firme affiance and con­fidence doe rest in the Redeemer, that being taught of God they stand not in need of the legall pedagogie. Surely, that doctrine concerning faith in Christ, cannot strictly be called the Gospell, which did take place, the Mosaicall worship as yet in force, and that by the approbation of Christ, those things not being fullfilled as yet, which were preached in the Gospell. For the Gospell is a message of good tidings or things past, which affect the heart with singular joy and chearefulnesse. And as the old Covenant was not promulgated without great pompe upon Mount Sinai, the people of Israel hearing and beholding, and swearing unto it, Exod. 19. 18. and 20. so it was meet that the New Testament, should be published on a solemne set day, in the assembly almost of all Nati [...]ns, with great splendour and glory, as it was on the feast day of Pentecost. And before that time the doctrine concer­ning faith was of that sort, that men were rather called to the fu­ture Kingdome of God, then commanded to rest in the present state of things. John the Baptist put over his hearers to▪ Christ, Joh. 1. 26, 27. Luke▪ 3. 16. Mark 1. 7, 8. Matth. 3. 11, 12. Christ invites men to the Kingdome of Heaven, that is, the Evangelicall Government of the Church, as future at hand, but not yet present. Matth. 4. 17. Mark 1. 15. Nay, after he was risen from the dead, although he professe openly and plainly to his Disciples, that all power was given unto him in Heaven and earth, and he command them to preach the Gospell to every creature, Matth. 28. 18, 19. yet he gives them a charge to tarry at Jerusalem, to waite for the accomplishment of the promise concerning the solemne sending of the holy Ghost, and to be endued with power from above, Luk▪ 24. 49. as if they were designed before, but then to be inaugurated, and by extraordinary gifts, many hearing and beholding, openly to be approved. The dayes immediately following the death and resurrection of Christ, were the dayes of the Churches wi­dowhood, wherein she sate (for a while) destiture and comfort­lesse, and barren, having neither power to beare, nor to bring forth children. But within ten dayes after Christ, the Lord, the Bride­groome of the Church, had ascended from earth to Heaven in [Page 198] glory, the holy Ghost came downe upon the Apostles in visible shape, in token that Christs Church was now betrothed unto him, and had received strength to conceive and bring forth, and breasts replenished with plenty of Milk to nourish and feed her children. This was as the Solemnization of the Marriage, and then did the barren begin to rejoyce, that she should be the mother of many children. From this time properly the New Testament tooke its beginning.

The nature of this Testament stands principally in three things. 1. In the kinde of Doctrine, plaine, full, and meerly Evangelicall. 2. In freedome from the curse of the Law, and freedome from Legall Rites. 3. In the amplitude and enlargement of the new Church, throughout all Nations of the world.

It may be described, the free Covenant which God of his rich grace in Jesus Christ incarnate, crucified, dead, buried, raised up to life, and ascended into Heaven hath made and plainly revea­led unto the world of Jew and Gentile, promising to be their God and Father by right of Redemption, and Christ to be their Saviour; to pardon their sinne, heale their nature, adopt them to be his Sonnes, protect them from all evill that may hurt, furnish them with all needfull good things spirituall and temporall, and crown them with everlasting glory in the world to come, if they repent of their iniquities, beleeve in Christ and through or by Christ in him, and walk before him in sincere, constant and con­scionable obedience: which he doth inwardly sease by the wit­nesse of the holy Spirit, who is the earnest of their inheritance, in the hearts of the faithfull; and ratifie and confirme by outward seales universall, plain, easie, and perpetuall.

The Author of this Covenant is God in Jesus Christ: for none can make these promises but God, none can make them good but his Highnesse. Therefore the Lord doth evermore challenge this unto himself, that he is the maker of the Covenant: And as it isJer. 31. 1, 31, 32, 33. called our Covenant in respect of the conditions required, Zech. 9. 11. So it is called the Lords Covenant, because he hath made, and will establish it. If ye can break my Covenant of the day, and my Covenant of the night, &c. Then may also my Covenant be broken Jer. 33. 20, 21. with David my servant. Christ also as Mediatour is both the foun­dation and Author of this Covenant, as he is appointed of the Fa­ther [Page 199] Lord and King, advanced at the right hand of God to give repentance and remission of sinnes unto Israel, and as TestatourHeb. 9. 16. he hath confirmed the Covenant by his death. But of this in the next Chapters.

God is both the Author of this Covenant, and one partie con­federate. Fathers, we know, seldome frame Indentures, thereby to bind themselves what they will doe for their children, if they will be obedient, but by right of Fatherhood they challenge of them their best service: Lords and great personages seldome in­dent with their free servants what preferment they shall expect after some terme of service and attendance, but if they look for reward, they must stand at their courtesie. But our Lord and Ma­ster, to whom we owe our selves by right of Creation, who might take advantage against us for former disobedience, is content to undertake and indent with us, and by Indenture to bind himself to bestow great things and incomprehensible upon us, if we will accept his kindnesse and bind our selves unto him in willing and sincere obedience.

If you demand a reason of this dealing, none can be given, but the meere grace and rich mercy and love of God. Thus saith the Ezek. 36. 22. Lord God, I doe not this for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for mine holy Names sake. I will cause you to passe under the rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the Covenant, &c. And ye shall know Ezek. 20. 37. that I am the Lord, when I shall bring you into the Land of Israel, &c. And there ye shall remember your wayes, and all your doings, wherein 42. 43. you have been defiled, and ye shall lothe your selves in your own sight, for all your evils that you have committed. And ye shall know that I am the Lord, when I have wrought with you for my Names sake, not according to your wicked wayes, nor according to your corrupt doings. Man can doe nothing of himself to procure his spirituall good. In spirituall things it fareth with him much what as with a child new borne into the world, which being naked can neither pro­vide cloathes, nor being provided and laid by him, can put them on: for man destitute of all spirituall goodnesse, can neither move to helpe himself, untill it be freely bestowed, nor manage and wield it well, when it is of grace vouchsafed, without direction and assistance from God. And there is as little worth or dignity in man to move God to promise him help, as there is ability in man to procure help. There is nothing in man to move God to [Page 200] shew mercy, but only misery, which might be an occasion, but can be no cause, either why mercy is promised, or salvation gran­ted. If man had not fallen from grace and state of Innocency, God had never sent his Sonne to redeeme him, nor shewed mercy rea­ching to the pardon and covering of his iniquity: If he had not lost himself, Christ had never come to find and restore him; if he had not wounded himself, he had not been healed and repaired of grace. Man then is a subject on whom God bestowes grace, and in whom he works it; and his m [...]sery an occasion that the Lord took of manifesting his mercy in succouring and lifting him up out of that distresse: but the free grace and love of God is the sole cause of what the Lord hath promised in this new Covenant, and doth give according to promise.

And though the old and new Covenant be of the same nature, and from the same fountaine, yet the new Covenant is preferred above the old, as farre as Sunne-light before Torch light, in this, that God who makes the Covenant hath more fully manifested the riches of his grace and superaboundant love in Jesus Christ, the brightnesse of his glory and engraven forme of his person, to the federates of the new Testament. In the old Covenant the Lord had made it knowne, that he was mercifull and gracious, slow to anger, aboundant in goodnesse: But in the new Covenant he doth most familiarly reveale himself to be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus, and in him the Father of the faithfull: which most sweet and pleasant name doth breathe out unspeakable love and tendernesse.

Again, though the ancient federates had some knowledge of Gods Attributes, as an introduction to the Covenant of Grace, yet they never knew that transcendency of Gods love, which is brought to light in the new, mentioned in these and such like passages of Scripture: Behold, what manner of love the Father hath 1 Joh. [...]. 1. bestowed upon us, that we should be called the Sonnes of God. God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Sonne: that whosoever Joh. 3. 16. beleeveth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. He spa­red Rom. 8. 3 [...]. not his own Sonne, but delivered him up for us all: how shall he not with him freely give us all things. Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, 1 Tim. [...]. 4, 5. and one Mediatour betweene God and man, the man Christ Jesus. They that seek to stretch this speech of the Apostle to the fur­thest, [Page 201] doe yet confesse it is spoken of the times of the Gospell: and that appeareth evidently by the reason of the Apostle, con­firming that saying, that God will that all men be saved, from this, that God is the God of all men by Covenant, and Christ the Me­diatour of all men in Covenant, and by the Gospell, the Word of truth, the saving truth of God was brought unto all in Covenant. Besides, in the old Testament the Doctrine of the Trinity of per­sons in the unity of the God head was more obscurely taught: but in the new Testament we are clearely and most comfortably assured, that the Father, Son, and holy Ghost do sweetly conspire to perfect the Salvation of the Faithfull, and confirme unto them the promises of the Covenant; There be three that beare record in 1 Joh. 5. 7. Heaven, the Father, the Word, and the holy Ghost, and these three are one. Goe ye therefore and teach all Nations, baptizing them into the Matth. [...]8. 19. Name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the holy Ghost. If in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word must stand: why should a Christian question or doubt of the promises of mer­cy made in the Covenant, assured unto him by the Father, Sonne and holy Ghost. God the Father promiseth, that in his only be­gotten Sonne, he will be a mercifull Father to all Believers, that he will give him to them for a Redeemer, accept his satisfaction for them, give them his Spirit, and bestow upon them righteousnesse and salvation. The Sonne doth promise, that he will be Redee­mer of the faithfull, by doctrine, merit, and efficacy; that he will deliver them from the power of Satan, bring them into perpetuall favour with God, wash them from all the filthinesse of their sins, and be unto them, as he is made of the Father, Wisedome, Righteousnesse, Sanctification and Redemption. The holy Ghost doth promise, that being redeemed by the bloud of Christ, by the presence of his grace, he will cleanse them from all inherent sinne, and repaire the Image of God in them: leade them into all truth and holinesse, inable them to cry, Abba Father, seale them for the Lords, and abide with them by his grace and comfort as an ear­nest of the inheritance, untill the redemption of the purchased possession.

This Covenant was stricken with all Nations, or the world in opposition to the Jewish Nation: for now the promise madeGal. 3. 8. to Abraham was fulfilled, In thee shall all Nations of the earth be blessed: now the prophecies touching the calling of the Gentiles,Isai. 44. 6 [Page 202] and bringing them to the Sheep-fold of Christ, were accompli­shed: now the Apostles were sent forth to preach the Gospell toMatth. 28. 19. Mar. 16. 13. Rom. 1. 16. Col. 1. 6, 23. Act 10. 45. every creature: and God gave such a blessing unto the Word, that by their preaching a great part of the habitable world was con­verted unto the faith. Now upon the Gentiles was powred out also the gift of the holy Ghost, Christ having broken down the partition wall be­twixt Jew and Gentile, and abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the Eph. 2. 14, 15. law of Commandements, contained in Ordinances, for to make in him­selfe of twaine, one new man, so making peace.

The Covenant of promise was first made with Adam and his posterity; not with him as the common parent of all mankind, and so with every man that should come of his loines howsoever in all generations: but with Adam as a beleever, and his posterity un­till by wilfull departure from the faith they should discovenant themselves and those that did proceed from them. In like man­ner it was made with the Patriarchs, with Noah, and his posteri­ty: then with Abraham and his family; afterwards with one se­lected Nation: but under the Gospell all Nations are brought in­to the bond of the Covenant. All nations, I say, but not every one in every nation, nor every nation in all periods of that time. For many nations have lived, we know, for a long time in infi­delity, without the Gospell, without God in the world, aliens from the Common-wealth of Is [...]ael, and strangers from the Co­venant of Grace. And we find the Apostles to make a manifest2 Cor. 6. 14, 17. difference betwixt the people of God and unbelievers, so that all in their dayes were not admitted into Covenant, though the Go­spell was preached unto them. For they that be in Covenant are in phrase of Scripture the people of God, that is, such with whom God hath contracted Covenant, and who in like manner have sworne unto the words of the Covenant, God stipulating, and they accepting the condition. God as an absolute Soveraigne hath right and authority over all men: but in a certaine and pe­culiar reason they are called his people, who receive his Com­mandement, and acknowledge him to be their Lord and Saviour. And these be of two sorts; for God doth make his Covenant with some externally, calling them by his Word, and sealing them by his Sacraments, and they by profession of faith and receiving of the Sacraments oblige themselves to the condition required: and thus all members of the visible Church be in Covenant. [Page 203] With others God doth make his Covenant effectually, writing his Law in their hearts by his holy Spirit, and they freely and from the heart give up themselves unto the Lord, in all things to be ruled and guided by him. And thus God hath contracted Covenant with the faithfull only. The first sort are the people ofRom. 2. 28. God outwardly or openly, having all things externall and pertai­ning to the outward administration. The second are the people of God inward or in secret, whom certainly and distinctly the Lord only knoweth. Experience hath confirmed it, that in the dayes of the Gospell, the Church of Christ hath sometimes been shut up within narrower bounds and limits, sometimes it hath spread it selfe over the face of the earth more gloriously, and so much was plentifully foretold in the Scriptures, that such as lived in the times of that great apostasie and falling from the faith, might not be offended at it. What the state of Gods Church shall be in these latter dayes, time will manifest more certainly then we can yet define: but some Divines are of opinion that the bounds thereof shall extend further, and the glory thereof be greater then ever heretofore. And this is not improbable: for when the Apoc. 11. 15. seventh Angel sounded, there were great voices in heaven, saying, The Kingdomes of this world, are become the Kingdomes of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall raigne for ever and ever; which accordeth with that of Daniel, Behold, one like the Son of man, came with the Dan. 7. 13, 14. clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of dayes, and they brought him neere before him: And there was given unto him dominion and glory, and a Kingdome, that all people, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not passe away, and his kingdome that which shall not be destroyed.

CHAP. II. Christ the Mediatour of the New Testament for whom he died and rose againe.

CHrist Jesus incarnate is the Mediatour of the new Testa­ment, a reall Mediatour, a fit middle person betwixt God and man: a Mediatour and Testatour both, who hath confirmed the Testament with his bloud. But seeing the Covenant is [Page 204] made in Christ, and Christ died in some sort for them that be un­der the Covenant, it will not be out of place first to shew for whom Christ died and rose again, and then how Christ is the Mediatour of the New Testament, and what is the exaltation and Prerogative of the new above the old Covenant in that respect.

Touching the first there be two main opinions of Divines. The first sort hold, that he died for all and every man with a pur­pose to save. But in the explication of their Tenent they adde.Corvin in Mol. cap. 28. Sect. 1. & 4. & 20. 1. That Christ died for all men considered in the comman lapse or fall, but not as obstinate, impenitent, or unbelievers. Christ died not, say they, for Cain and Judas, as such, or as they should perish, nor for Abell and Peter as faithfull, in respect of the im­petration of Salvation: but without difference for them consi­deredResp. ad Epist. Minist. Walak. pag. 51. Armin. Worst. part. Secunda necess. Resp. Synod▪ declar. sent. remonst. circa Art. Sect. de morte Chri­sti. Thomson. diatr. cap. 4. Corvin. in Mol. cap. 27. Sect. 4. & cap. 12. Sect. 25, 26, 27. in the common state and condition of the fall and sin. 2. That Christ died for all men in respect of the impetration of Salvation, but the application thereof is proper to believers. 3. That Christ died not to bring all or any man actually to Salvation, and make them partakers of righteousnesse and life; but to purchase salva­bilitie and reconciliation so farre, as that God might and would, salvajustitia, deale with them upon termes of a better Covenant, which might well stand allthough it should be applied to no man, no man should be reconciled or saved by Christ, God should have no Church on earth, or Saint be crowned with glory in heaven. 4. That Christ hath purchased salvabilitie for all men, but faith and regeneration he hath merited for none: because God is bound to give that which Christ hath merited of him, although it be not desired or craved. Exam. Cen­sur. Cap. 8. pag. 95. & Cap. 7. pag. 87 & Respons. ad specul. 11. 107. Other po [...]itions they hold, which [...]ang not together, nor agreeExam. Cens. with that which hath been mentioned; as that God neither would, nor could by right condemne any man for the sinne of Adam, and that Originall sinne so called, is properly neither sinne, nor pu­nishment: And then if Christ died for mankind in the common lapse, he died for them that never had sinned, nor deserved punish­ment. Againe they teach that all Infants, whether of believingCorvin. in Mol. cap. [...]8. Sect. 13, 14. or Infidell parents, dying without actuall sinnes committed in their owne person, are restord into the favour of God, regenera­ted and saved: and that because God hath taken all mankind into [Page 205] the grace of reconciliation, and entred into a Covenant of graceArm. Resp. ad ad Art. 13, 14. with Adam and all his posterity. But then Christ died for all mankind in respect of impetration and application both: and by his death hath actually reconciled all mankinde unto God, meri­ted actuall regeneration for them, and purchased Salvation, if af­ter they be possessors of these spirituall blessings, they doe not fall from them and shake them off by impenitency and infidelity. For Adam and Eve excepted, mankind cannot be considered in theArmin in Perk. pag. 4. common lapse, but as infants only. Further they affirme, that In­fants have refused grace in their parents, grandfathers, ancestors, by which act they have deserved to be forsaken of God: which how it can stand with their generall position, or that last menti­oned, I cannot conceive. Lastly, they teach, that Christ died for the impenitent and unbelievers: for thus they reason, If Christ died for all whom he came to save, and came to save unbelievers, as his words are, I came not to judge, but to save, then he died for unbelievers. How they accord these things, I cannot finde; but if we take things as they lay them downe, it will plainely follow, that Christ died for all mankind in respect of impetrati­on only, and that he died for them in respect of impetration and application both; that he hath not actually reconciled them unto God, and that he hath purchased actuall reconciliation; that he died not for the impenitent or unbelievers in respect of impe­tration, and that in respect of impetration only, he died only for such. And all this can hardly be reconciled with that they have in their Script. Synod. declar. sent. Rem. circa Art. 2 Gratia haec impe­trata est peccat [...]ribus quatenus in communi lapsus & peccati statu alijs (que) peccatis, excepta sola impenitentia, considerantur, &c. Sicut fidelibus, quatalibus, fructus impetratae gratiae proprié obtingit, ita infidelibus & rebellibus, qua talibus, gratia impetrata non est, &c. & pag. 312.

The second sort of Divines distinguish the sufficiency and effici­ency of Christs death. In respect of the worth and greatnesse of the price he died for all men: because it was sufficient for the re­demption of every man in the world, if they did repent and believe: and God might without impeachment of justice have offered Sal­vation to every man in the world upon that condition if it had been his pleasure. In the efficiency, as every man, or any man hath fruit by the death of Christ, so Christ died for him. But this is not of one kind: some fruit is common to every man: for as [Page 204] [...] [Page 205] [...] [Page 206] Christ is Lord of all things in heaven and earth, even the earthly blessings which infidels injoy, may be tearmed fruits of Christs death. Others proper to the members of the visible Church and common to them, as to be called by the word, injoy the Ordi­nances of grace, live under the Covenant, partake of some gra­ces that come from Christ, which through their fault be not sa­ving: and in this sence Christ died for all that be under the Cove­nant. But other fruits of Christs death according to the will of God and intention of Christ as Mediatour, be peculiar to the sheep of Christ, his brethren, them that be given unto him of the Fa­ther, as faith unfained, regeneration, pardon of sinne, adoption, &c. and so they hold, Christ died efficiently for his people on­ly in this sence, namely, so as to bring them effectually to faith, grace and glory.

Now let us come to examine what the Scriptures teach in this particular. The Apostle writeth expressely, that by the grace ofHeb. 2. 9. God Christ tasted of death for all men or distributively for every man. Some referre this to the sufficiency of Christs death: but all men, cannot be referred to man-kinde considered in the common masse or lapse: for the words must be understood of the death of Christ as it was suffered in time, and not as it was decreed of God, and of men considered as at that time. But at what time Christ suffered, mankind could not be considered as in the transgression of our first Parents. The Jewes were of opinion, that Christ the Messiah was promised a Saviour to them only. How, to impetrate Salvation? No, but to be applied as in Covenant. Now to beate downe their pride, the Apostle saith, Christ tasted of death for all, sc. both Jew and Gentile, who stood in relation by virtue of the Covenant, as the Jewes did. So that the Apostle speakes of the application of Christs death, which is not absolutely common to all and every man in the world: and by every man is meant, eve­ry man who heareth, receiveth, and is partaker of the fruit and benefit of Christs death offered in the word of reconciliation: e­very man who is under the new Covenant, as it is propounded of God in the Gospell and accepted of them. But every man under the new Covenant, as he is under the Covenant, is partaker of the fruit & benefit of Christs death. That the passage is to be under­stood of them that apply and possesse the fruit of his death, is ma­nifest by divers reasons from the verses precedent and subsequent. [Page 207] The world to come, verse 5. may well be that all, or every man for whom Christ tasted death: but that world to come is that happy age, which the Prophets did foretell should begin at the comming of Christ, whose accomplishment or fulfilling we expect as yet.Beza an not. in Heb. 2. 5. Corvin. in Mal. cap. 29. § 1. Heb. 2. 10, 11. 13 Isa. 53. 10. Heb. 2. 16. They for whom Christ died are in the same Chapter described to be one, that is, of the same nature and spirituall condition with Christ, to be his brethren, such as trust in God, the children of God given unto Jesus Christ, the generation or posterity of Christ, as the Prophet speaketh, whom Christ tooke by the hand and lif­ted up from their fall, the seed of Abraham. But these things a­gree to them only that possesse the fruits and benefits of Christ, for whom he died by way of application. If the maintainers of uni­versall redemption consider their owne grounds, it will be hard to fit this Text to their purpose: or rather from them the former exposition may be confirmed. For either by all men, they must understand mankind in the common lapse, as fallen in Adam, and then Christ by his death hath restored them into the favour of God, they stand actually reconciled, they be regenerated, and if they die before by actuall sinne committed in their owne person they fall from that estate, are undoubtedly saved: or they must under­stand all men considered as obstinate, impenitent, rebellious, un­believers. And then Christ died for all, and every man as obstinate, impenitent and unbelievers: which I cannot find that any of them hath or dare affirme: or by all men they must understand all belee­vers, who apply and possesse the benefits of Christs death, which is that we affirme. They say (how truly I dispute not) his do­minion over all men, that they are bound to obey him, and live unto him, is grounded upon his dying for every one. But if that be granted, is it not necessary that his death should be applied to every one in some sort, at least made knowne unto them in the word of life? For men are bound to obey and live unto Christ, as they will grant, not because he hath impetrated righteousnesse and salvabilitie, but because he hath entred into Covenant with them, made knowne unto them the way of life, imparted unto them his blessings, and they have accepted of the condition, and received him to be their Saviour.

And these words, By the grace of God, I should thinke, im­port more to them, then that velleity or common mercy, or gene­rall affection of doing good, which Armin. and Corvin, make [Page 208] naturall, and (as they teach) God beareth towards them that he hateth, Corvin. in Molin. cap. 29. Sect. 2. which was the cause why he gave Christ to die for all men: even that free grace and love, whereby he quickens them that were dead in trespasses, and saveth them that believe, Ephes. 2. 5. As for the particle All or e­very one, examples are usuall in Scripture where it is used with fit limitation, though neither all precisely, nor the most part be signi­fied, and that confessed by all sides. But what need paralell places to prove it may be, when the circumstances of the text shew it must be limited, and they that most presse universall redemption are enforced to acknowledge a limitation in this matter.

It is objected, that the holy Ghost speaketh generally in the be­ginning of the Chapter, What is man? But how to frame anyHeb. 2. 6. reason from those words to disprove the former limitation I see not. For this word man designes the nature of man in generall, but with relation to the person of Christ, and is spoken of the nature of man, as to be united to the person of Christ, and alleadged by the Apostle to prove, that the world to come, is put in subjection unto him as man. And if it be extended further then to Christ as man, it must be restrained unto the faithfull, to whom that which follow­eth may be applied by communication and fellowship with Christ.

Againe, it is objected, that Christs dominion over all is groun­ded on his death: but if that be granted, it is not necessary his death should be simply for all men. For the Apostle speaks ofHeb. 2. 6, 7. Phil. 2. 9. Joh. 3. 35. Mat. 11. 27. Christs dominion, not only over all men, but over all things, the Angels themselves not excepted: but it was not requisite, Christ should die for all things, even for the Angels, as they themselves confesse. His power extendeth it selfe unto all creatures, to whom he can command obedience at his pleasure, and unlesse they per­forme it, inflict punishment. For he is made Lord of the world, and all power is given unto him in heaven and earth. Christ hath Soveraignty over all things, and doth rule over all men, the faith­full to life, the unfaithfull to death, Corvin. in Molin. cap. 12. § 26. This dominion of Christ stands well with reason, is consonant to the Scripture, but was not purchased by his death simply for them.

Lastly, It will be said, the Apostle threatneth punishment for not receiving or retaining Christ, and exhorteth to care of it, which argueth generall purchase, or else such exhortations and threat­nings would be without force. Touching the thing it selfe, it is [Page 209] freely acknowledged that the sufficiencie of Christs death and greatnesse of the price was such, that God might salva justitia, not only invite all man-kind to come unto Christ, but also bring them unto faith and salvation by him, if it had seemed good unto him in his infinite wisdome: and the efficiencie of it so great, that God doth seriously invite many that live in the visible Church to come unto Christ and bestow many spirituall gifts and graces up­on them, by their own fault unavaleable, to whom he doth not give grace to repent and believe unfainedly. But exhortations and threatnings argue not that generall purchase in question. For the obstinate and rebellious, they whose eyes are closed and hearts hardened, least seeing they should see, or hearing they should heare, and be converted; even they are exhorted to repent, and threatned for their impenitencie: but I have not found, that the purchase was made absolutely for all such as such. For some re­bellious, I can beleeve that Christ hath purchased not salvabilitie alone, but faith, regeneration, pardon and salvation, because it is written of Christ, That he is ascended on high, and hath led Psal. 68. 18. At (que) etiam re­belles, captiv [...] duxisti, ut habi­tent eum, I [...]h Deo. captivity captive, and hath received gifts for men, yea for the re­bellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them: or as Piscator renders it, thou hast led captive the rebellious, that they might dwell with the Lord God. But the maintainers of univer­sall redemption have not undertaken as yet to proove gene­rall purchase for all and every obstinate, rebellious and treacherous revolter from the Lord. In this place the objection is more vaine: for the Apostle might well speake of the application and possession of the fruits of Christs death, when he exhorteth them that had heard and received the word of truth, to retaine and keepe that which they had heard. Exhortations and threatnings both are usefull to them who have not received the truth: for God is plea­sed by such means to worke what he doth exhort men unto: and to them who have received the truth, and doe possesse the bene­fits of Christs death, that they might continue and persevere. And may we not argue more probably, that seeing they are exhorted to take heed to the things they had heard, therefore salvation had been preached unto them, and in some sort received by them. God so Joh. 3. 16, 17. loved the world (as we reade in the Evangelist) that he gave his only begotten sonne, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Sonne in­to [Page 210] the world to condemn the world: but that the world through him Joh. 1 [...]. 47. might be saved. And, I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. Here the motive from which the gift of Christ is derived isThe particle Who, is not e­ver distribu­tive of the sub­ject to which it is attributed. See Rev [...]l. 2. 25 26. 2 Cor. 5. 15. common love. The word World cannot be taken for the elect only: for then it will be as if it had bin said, God so loved the elect, that he gave his only Sonne, that whosoever of them believed in him should not perish. The world that Christ came to save, was that world into which he came; and that comprehended both beleevers and unbelievers: and in the same place, it is divided into them that shall be saved, and them that shall be damned: and there should be no force of reasoning in the latter place, if the world did not comprehend unbelievers under it. Thus these passages are urged for universall redemption. But the principall texts speake plainlyIsa. 54. 5. De [...] totius ter­rae vocabitur. Ʋt 1 Joh. 2. 2. Joh. 4. 42 Rupert, Tuit. in Joh. Mundum [...]anè quem di­lexit Deus, hu­manum genus accipim [...], id est, vivos & mortuos; mor­tuos, scil. qui venturum in fi­de expect ave­rint: vivos, qui in illum, sive ex Iudaeis, five ex Gentibus, credi­turi erant. of the daies of grace, when God sent his Sonne into the world, and when according to the prophesies and promises made before, the Gentiles were to be called to the faith, added to the Church, and received into Covenant. And the world is taken communi­ter & indefinitè, for the world, as it is opposed to the Jewish Nation alone, not universaliter pro singulis, for every man in the world of what time or age soever, or of this time in speciall. The sence then is, In the fulnesse of time, God manifested so great love unto the world of Jew and Gentile, not of the Jew alone, That he gave his only begotten Sonne, and in the Ministery of the Gos­pel, seriously invited them to beleeve, and entered into Covenant to bestow life and happinesse upon condition of their unfained faith on Jesus Christ. As God loved Israel, whom he chose to be his peculiar people under the old Testament: so in the times of grace he extended his love to the world of Jew and Gentile. And as a­mongst the Jews God manifested so much love to the body of that Nation, as to enter into Covenant with them, and vouchsafe unto them the meanes of grace, but unto some he shewed more speci­all love, so as to call them effectually, and make them heires of salvation: In like manner in the last times or daies of the new Testament God manifested so much love to the world, as it is op­posed to the Jewish Nation, as that in the ministery of the Gos­pell he entreated them to be reconciled, and entered into a Cove­nant of peace with them: but unto some he bare and manifested more peculiar love, in that he called them effectually, and made them heires of life. Neverthelesse, when these Texts be expoun­ded [Page 211] of the daies of grace, or times of the new Testament, we must not conceive, that all men now called Gentiles, were in former a­ges of the Church utterly cast off, and shut out of Covenant, or that the gift of Christ to Jew and Gentile is so restrained to the daies of grace, as that he was not given to the faithfull, whether Jew or Gentile, in all ages: but that the transcendent love of God in giving his Sonne to die, and in him receiving the world of Jew and Gentile into the new Covenant is peculiar (specially after the distinction of Jew and Gentile) to the times of the Gospel. This might easily be confirmed, both for the substance of matter, and the sence of these passages, out of their writings that be the stiffest maintainers of the point in hand. See Vorst. Parasc. cap. 4. & 7. Corv. in Mol. cap. 31. § 33. Exam. censur. cap. 8. Vorst. de Deo not. ad disput. 1. Now then let us compare their position, and those texts together, and see whether they consent or dissent one from another.

First, The love wherewith God so loved man fallen, as to give his Sonne to die (I speake according to their opinion) is com­mon to all men; an incompleate will and affection, whereby God loved them as men; or a volition and intention of being reconci­led. But the love mentioned in this text is a love speciall to some ages and some men, not common to every man in all ages. It was a speciall love, whereby the Lord loved the Jewes as his pecu­liar treasure, above all Nations of the earth, in the time of the Law, Deut. 7 6. & 10. 14. & 26. 6. & 32. 8. 2 Sam. 7. 23. 1 King. 8. 53. Psal. 33. 12. & 100. 3. & 143. 5. And it is a speciall love, not common to all ages, much lesse to every man in every age, whereby the Lord hath loved the world of the Gentiles, in the daies of the Gospell, to take them for his people. And this love is true love, though many pervert the grace of God to their owne destruction.

Secondly, The world for which Christ died was man-kind con­sidered as fallen in Adam; for unbeliefe followeth the death of Christ, cannot be precedent to it. But here the world compre­hends unbeleevers and impenitent in respect of their present state: and not such only as may fall into unbelief and impenitencie▪ even such impenitent and obstinate, as the Scripture saith, could not believe, Joh. 12. 39.

Thirdly, The world for which Christ died, (as they teach) [Page 212] doth comprehend every particular man, of what estate or condi­tion soever, in what age of the world soever. But the world in the text doth not comprehend all men of all ages, nor every man of any age yet passed, but the world as it is set against the Jewish Nation only; not comprehending every particular man of the Jewes or Gentiles, but so many, and so considered, as they give reason of that opposition. Looke in what respects God is said to have chosen the Jewes to be his peculiar people in the time of the Law, but now in times of the Gospell to love the world in opposi­tion to that peculiar favour at that time manifested to them alone, in that sence is the world of Jew and Gentile to be understood, and so many comprehended under it.

Fourthly, They say, Christ died for the world in respect of im­petration or acquisition of righteousnesse, not of the application of his death. But this world which God so loved, was called by the Gospell, and did enter into Covenant with God, and God with them: The world which Christ came to save was a world in Co­venant, and whereunto he preached peace: and so the death of Christ was applied unto them by the word and Sacraments, and received by them in respect of faith temporary and profession. For when God enters into Covenant with a people, and they accept the conditions, and give up their names unto God, they doe in a sort apply the death of Christ unto themselves; and possesse some fruits and benefits thereof. And therefore, either these passages must be interpreted of Gods giving Christ to die for the world in a speciall manner, or from them it may undeniably be concluded, that he died not for all man-kind. For that which in speciall love was given in peculiar manner to the world of Jew and Gentile in the times of the new Testament, that is not the effect of common love, given to all and every man in all ages; but God of his spe­ciall love to the world of Jew and Gentile in the daies of the new Testament gave Christ to die for them: therefore of common love he did not give him to die for all man-kind of every age and con­dition. And seeing God loved some, and but some, according to the true sence of these places, so as to give Christ to die, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, &c. Yea some con­sidered for the present in the state of impenitency, unbelief and obstinacy, and (it may be) given up unto a reprobate sence,Deut. 9. 9. & 32 28. whereas he cast off many Nations in former ages, much more par­ticular [Page 213] persons, who never proceeded so farre, continued so longJosh. 24. 2. Psal. 100 3. Isa. 43. 8. & 65. 1. Ezek. 16 3. in these sins as this world had done, must we not of necessity ac­knowledge some free election or choice according to the good pleasure of God? Certainly, it cannot be concluded hence, that Christ did equally lay down his life for all men without exception, to purchase for them actuall reconciliation on Gods part. It is here objected, that this world doth comprehend many impenitentSynod de [...]ens. sent Remonst. circ. Art. 2 pag. 301. and unbelievers, that shall not be saved, and if Christ died for one that shall not be saved, it followeth à pari, that he died for all. And it is true, as many be externally in Covenant, and have all out ward things common with the faithfull, who be not true members of Jesus Christ: so also this world opposed to the Jew­ish Nation, called of God, and admitted into Covenant, doth comprehend many, which in deed and truth be not lively mem­bers of Jesus Christ. In like manner many, indeed wicked men and ungodly, living in the visible Church, and under the externall Covenant, are called the chosen of God, the people of God, Saints by calling, and so Christ died for them, efficiently, and by way of application, as they be within the Covenant made in Christ, and doe partake of those fruits and benefits of his death, which of themselves tend to salvation, but are perverted of them to destruction through their owne default. But others compre­hended under the world, be faithfull indeed, living members of Jesus Christ, sealed by the Spirit, and for these Christ died effi­ciently in a peculiar manner, scil. to bring them to life and hap­pinesse, as already they are called savingly and effectually to faith and repentance.

The argument à pari is of no weight, manifestly confuted both by Scripture and experience it selfe. For to many that perish is the word of Salvation sent, they receive it, professe it, rejoyce in it, live under the Ordinances of grace, be partakers of sundry graces of the Spirit: all which be speciall fruits of Christs death, speciall to some, not common to all men: and in which respects Christ is said to die for them. But to affirme the same things of every particular man in the world, is to offend against common sence. If Christ had died for one wicked man that perished, be­cause he had been wicked, or for that reason, there had been some truth in the argument: but some fruits of Christs death are im­parted to some although they be wicked, not because they are wic­ked, [Page 214] or for that reason. Besides, it is one thing to say, Christ died for some that perish, as they partake the fruits of his death in themselves belonging to Salvation, which is granted, another to say, Christ died for all men, considered as fallen according to the will of God, and intention of Christ as Mediatour, with full pur­pose to purchase for them actuall reconciliation on Gods part, which is, that they contend for. So that this objection will be of no force, untill it can be proved, that impretation is ap­plication, they be in Covenant, who be not, nor never were in Co­venant; they have the Gospell, who never heard of the Gospell; they have received the promise of Salvation, who are rejected and cast off of God, as aliens from the Covenant; Christ is amongst them, who never had possible meanes imaginable to come to the knowledge of the truth; and they are enlightned, and have tasted of the good word of God, and of the powers of the life to come, who all their life long have lived in ignorance and infidelity, and not heard that there is a Christ.2 Cor. 5. 14, 15.

We thus judge (saith Paul) that if one died for all, then were all dead. And that he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose againe. Here the Apostle saith expressely, Christ died for all simply meant, in respect of the impetration of a new Covenant, and salvation according to that Covenant: common misery is concluded from this, that Christ died for all men: sc. that all were dead: which is universally true of every man. And upon this ground he exhorts men to live unto Christ, scil. that Christ died for all men. Some learned Divines not partiall referreSee Estium in 2 Cor. 5. 14. pag. 586. this to the greatnesse of the price and dignity of Christs death, which was sufficient for the redemption of man-kind, if they did repent and believe: but the Apostle rather speaks of Christs death for all in respect of application, event, or effect: for all not sim­ply, but for all to whom the fruit and benefit of Christs death is offered in the Gospel, and received by faith. Thus Vorstius▪ Vorst. in 2 Cor. 5. 14 loc. com. Illud quo (que) hic obiter. notan­dum. Christ died, and was raised up for all men in generall, if we con­sider the amplitude of divine grace offered in Christ: but in re­spect of the event or effect both are done for all the elect and be­lievers only. And in this latter sence that phrase is used of the A­postle in this place. And this the circumstances of the text will plainly enforce. For he speaks of the death of Christ, not as it [Page 215] was purposed and decreed of God, but as it was actually suffered by Christ, when the farre greatest part of the world, was for pre­sent state drowned in Infidelity and Idolatry, wherein they had continued a long time, being rejected and cast off of God. The end of Christs death and resurrection there named by the Apostle, sheweth it is to be meant of the fruit and application, that they which live, should not henceforth live unto themselves, but to him which died for them, that is, that by force of that communi­on which they have with him their head, being dead unto sinne, they should live unto righteousnesse. But that can agree unto none, who are not partakers of the fruits of Christ; none are fit­ted by grace to live unto Christ, but they that have put on Christ by faith. That All for whom Christ died, is that world, which God in Christ hath reconciled unto himselfe, not imputing their sins, ver. 19. whereby is meant the world of Jew and Gentile, of which we have spoken before in the fore-cited places, which must have the same meaning; and cannot be affirmed of the world universally according to that present state wherein it stood, when Christ suffered.

How then doth the Apostle conclude common misery from this, If one died for all, then were all dead? It may well be under­stood, of death unto the world and sinne, and not of death in sinne, as if he had said, if Christ died for all, then all that are his, are dead to sinne and to the world. The words and scope of the Apostle do both agree well to this interpretation. It hath been alleadged, that the words speake of a death passed, not present, as our translation sheweth, and so could not be understood of death unto sin. But Vorstius upon that very word noteth, that he un­derstandethVorst. in 2 Cor. 5. 15. Schol. all Christians in which the efficacie of Christs death sheweth forth it self, as they also by the example of Christ are dead to sin and the flesh. Confer Rom. 6. 2, &c. 1 Pet. 4. 1. Some foo­lishly understand this of the guilt of death, that the sense should be, because Christ is dead for all men, hence it is truly gathered, that all men are guilty of death; which is refuted in the verse fol­lowing. This is Vorstius his censure of that interpretation. As for the words, seeing they speake of the death of Christ applyed in the time past, it was requisite these that intreat of the death of sin in them that be Christs, should be put in the time past also. And so the words doe more confirme, then weaken the inter­pretation.

It is further objected, that it will not agree with the argu­ment of the Apostle, who by Christs death for all, could not prove all to be dead to sin, nor so much as all the Elect, or all at Corinth. And the drift of the place is to prove, not that all men simply are dead to sinne, for that is notoriously false, and was nei­ther taught, nor confirmed by any Pen-man of holy Writ; nor that all the Elect, or all at Corinth are dead to sin; for he speaketh to the Church or faithfull in Corinth, not to the place, or inhabitants universally: but that the faithfull, who had belie­ved in Christ, as himself and the converted Corinthians had done, and did for the present, were dead to sin, which he strongly con­firmeth from the communion they have with Christ in his death and resurrection, that is, that Christ died for them in effect and event, that the vertue and efficacy of his death did shew forth it self in them.

If the other Interpretation be admitted, the consequence is good thus, Christ died for all believers, therefore all men by nature are dead in sin: for the state of believers before conversion is the same with the others: and if they by the merit, power and efficacy of Christs death be delivered from the guilt and do­minion of sin, who so is not set free by the death of Christ from the power of sin, must needs be dead therein. Arguments not much unlike we have, 1 Cor. 15. 22. As in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive. In the first part all simply, in the latter all with limitation, scil. that be in Christ must be understood.See Gal. 3. 22. And Rom. 5. 18. and 11. 32. But of that there is no need to make many words, because the former interpretation is most naturall. The 15. verse they say, need not be restrained, because all are bound to live unto Christ. Whether all men be simply bound to live un­to Christ, because he simply died for them, though his death had never been signified unto them, I will leave to another place: But the discourse of the Apostle is of them, for whom Christ died, and who believe in him, and in whom the efficacy of Christs death doth exercise it self. They that are dead with Christ should live unto God.

They object moreover, that reconciliation is predicated of thevers. 19. whole world, which is reconciled thus farre through Christ, that God will not deale with man as he might have done, to cast him away utterly without hope, so as he hath the Angels that sinned, [Page 217] but he will accept of him upon termes fitting, according to a newCorvin. in Mol. cap. 28. §. 35. Covenant. In which sense a Father is reconciled to his Son, a Master to his Servant, when he is content upon repentance, sub­mission and amendment to receive him into favour. Upon this Text they would build a two-fold reconciliation, one generall (as some expresse it) another speciall; one not an actuall taking away of sins, not actuall remission of sins, not Justification, not actuall redemption of these or these, but an impetration of remission, Ju­stification, and redemption, whereby God may, his justice not hindring, remit sins to men transgressours, which doth imply another member, to wit, reconciliation, justification and redemp­tion actuall. Arm. in Perkin. §. 25. pag. 76. or a reconcileable­nesse, whereby men might be delivered from the captivity of sin, or the necessity of thraldome and reconciliation, whereby they are delivered from captivity. Voss. Hist. Pelagian. lib. 7. part. 1. thes. 3. Others call it an actuall reconciliation on Gods part, and an actuall reconciliation whereby it comes to passe, that all sinners do actu­ally please God. Exam. Censur. cap. 8. pag. 59. Vorst. in 2 Cor. 5. 15. and 1 Joh. 2. 2. Christ sufficiently and efficiently doth expiate the sins of all, and reconcile the world to God, quantum in ipso est, that is, as much as pertaines to the execution of his office laid upon him by his heavenly Father. What distinction they make of re­conciliation, and actuall reconciliation, or reconcileablenesse and actuall reconciliation, the same may be made of redemption, re­mission of sins, justification, and adoption, regeneration and san­ctification, so that we may distinguish of them also, that there is an actuall redemption and redemption, actuall remission of sins and remission, actuall justification and justification, actuall sanctifica­tion and sanctification. The terme actuall remission or reconci­liation being set against reconciliation, as the distinct member, doth require, that reconciliation potentiall be understood, which may be called reconcileablenesse. And then Christ hath not ob­tained of the Father by his death, that he should remit sins, but that he hath power to remit them: he hath not obtained re­demption, but a possibility of redemption, or the redemption pur­chased is a potentiall remission of sinnes: he hath not merited sanctification, but a right that he may sanctifie or sanctifiablenesse: he hath obtained also that God might pardon sin, as well as that man might be pardoned or reconciled; and notwithstanding any [Page 218] redemption that Christ hath purchased, every man might perish, and be condemned for ever. But if reconciliation potentiall or a possibility of remission only be purchased by the death of Christ, how is this made actuall by application? If it be actuall and effectu­all, why is it not applyed and given to every man? will not God give to every man, that which Christ hath merited and purchased for every man? The merit of reconciliation by Christ, and the application thereof must be distinguished: but for whomsoever eternall redemption is purchased, for them he hath obtained grace and glory, and upon them he will actually conferre that grace and mercy, sanctifying them to be a peculiar people to himselfe. Heb. 9. 12. Matth. 1. 21. Joh. 4. 14. Application is as necessary an effect of redemption or reconciliation purchased, as burning is of fire; and there can be no redemption, but of necessity it must bring application, both in respect of Gods justice, and Christs sa­crifice▪ Dan. 9. 24. Heb. 10. 10, 14. Therefore there is but one re­conciliation, and that actuall and effectuall, though it may be uni­versally proposed in the Gospell: and that particular actuall recon­ciliation is none other but that very same, which God meritorie and impetratorie hath proposed by the death of Christ. As for the present Text alleadged, reconciliation is not predicated of the whole world, taking the world for every man in the world, nor reconciliation put for reconcileablenesse. For it is manifest the Apostle speaks of the world as it was to be considered in the times when Christ suffered, or after, when in respect of present state the farre greater part were impenitent, if not obdurate sinners, ali­ens from the common-wealth of Israel, without God in the world: and I desire to see that Text of Scripture, where God is said to reconcile unto himselfe the whole world of impenitent and obdurate sinners, as such; or where we shall find, that all suchEph. 2. 12. Rom. 3. 8, 17. Gal 3. 26. Eph. 2. 3, 4. be brought under a new Covenant. It is also as plaine, that he speakes of the surrogation of the Gentiles in the place of the Jewes, and is to be understood of the world opposed to the Jew­ish Nation. That world concerning whom the Lord had spo­ken before to Abraham, saying, In thy seed shall all the Nations of Gen. 12. 3. and 18. 18. Psal. 2. 8. and 22. 27, 28. Isai. 11. 9, 10. Psal. 72. 11. the earth be blessed: That world, which the Prophets foretold should be added to the Church, and given to the Messiah; This world, I say, which God hath promised to blesse, and adde to the Kingdome of the Messiah, he hath reconciled unto himselfe, [Page 219] to wit, as they are blessed in Abrahams seed, actually and ef­fectually.

This is the Priviledge of the New Testament, that God wasSynod. ubi su­pra. Illi hoc loco per vocem Mundi, intelligantur, ad quos sermo reconciliationis pertinet. in Christ reconciling the world unto himselfe, as is most apparent in the words next following, and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation, and by the sentence it self; God was in Christ. But what is proper to the times of the New Testament cannot be attributed to every man in the world, even those that sate in darknesse and the shadow of death, before the light did shine upon them. The reconciliation here mentioned is actuall, effectuall, particular reconciliation, purchased by Christ, published by the Apostles to the world of Jew and Gentiles, and receivedMeritum Chri­sti subordina­tur gratiae di­lectionis gene­rali, ex ea enim fluit ordinatio hujus medii, &c. non enim ut vellet nostri misereri fecit Christus, sed ut salva justitia nostri misereri posset. Stegma. pag. 54. Rom. 5. 9, 10. by them in the Covenant of grace. For it is explained by the non-imputation, or remission of sinnes, (at least as one part or branch of reconciliation) which is a transient act, conferred in time, and inferreth a change of state and condition in the partie ju­stified or reconciled, and of other reconciliation betwixt God and man the Scripture speaketh not. And it is to be observed, that the Apostle saith not, Christ hath purchased that God is recon­cileable, or actually reconciled on his part, as if before he were ir­reconcileable: but God was in Christ reconciling the world un­to himself, where the world is the subject or matter of reconcilia­tion, which is changed in respect of state or condition, now recei­ved into actuall favour, whereas heretofore it lay under wrath. In another place the Apostle puts reconciliation by the death of the Sonne of God, and justification by Christs bloud for the same: where justification cannot be taken for possibility of justifica­tion, but for actuall justification by faith in the bloud of Christ, wherewith Salvation is joyned, whereby we are acquitted from the guilt and punishment of sinne: and so the justified or recon­ciled are opposed to sinners, ungodly and enemies. In respect ofvers. 6, 8. our antecedent state, we were enemies, whenIn Scriptura, ut saepè res dicitur, quod paulò antè fuit, ut coeci vident, surdi a [...] ­diunt, claudi ambulant, Matth. 11. 5. esu­rientes, qui prius miserè victitabant in solo sterili, [...]sal. 107. 36. Joh. 9. 17. leprosus, qui jam mundus est, Matth. 26 6. Virgo, quae jam nupta. Matth. 10. 35. baculus, qui est serpens, Exod. 7. 11. publicanus, qui est Christi discipulus. Matth. 10. 3. & disci­pulum Christi, qui eum reliquit. Joh. 6. 66 Sic contra saepè in sacris literis res descri­bitur, qualis [...]utura est, non qualis nunc est. Ephes. 5. 20. Ita Christi oves dicuntur, qui tunc adhuc erant lupi. Joh. 10. 16. Dei filii, qui tum a [...]huc erant filii diaboli. Joh. 11. 52. Tarn. exercit. l. 2. Job. 3. 2. 561. reconciled to God by the death of his Son: but by reconciliation we are received into grace, and of enemies made friends and sons. In these passages we cannot find reconcilia­tion put for reconcileablenesse, nor predica­ted of all the world, nor all the enemies of God, nor in any other Scripture. For though [Page 220] all were enemies before reconciliation, yet all enemies are not reconciled, but they that be converted to the faith. Thus we are taught in the word of truth, to distinguish the state of the Gentiles living in their infidelity without God, from the state of the Gentiles reconciled. But now in Christ Jesus, ye who sometimes were farre off, are made nigh by the bloud of Christ, &c. And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the crosse, having slaine the enmity thereby. Eph. 2. 13, 16. And you that were sometimes alienated, and enemies in your minds, by wicked works, yet now are re­conciled. Col. 1. 21. Now, scil. the Messiah being exhibited, they are reconciled, and their sins pardoned, the promise of mercy per­taining to them, as well as to the Jewes, when formerly ab­alienati à foedere promissionum, they were not reconciled. And when in the precedent verse he saith, that it pleased the Father by him, (scil. Christ) to reconcile all things unto himselfe, whether they be things in heaven, or things in earth; he speaks of actuall reconci­liation, not reconcileablenesse, and all things must be limited, as that signification of the word, and scope of the place doth neces­sarily require. The sentence is diversly interpreted, some think it not absurd to extend it simply to all things without exception, but especially to reasonable creatures, Angels and men. Others think it must necessarily be restrained to creatures of a certaine kind, and interpret it of Angels and men reconciled one to ano­ther, who were formerly separated by mans disobedience. Others restraine it to the faithfull in heaven and earth, and expound it ofVorst. in Col. 1. 20. Sch & Eph. 1. 10. the Church and men in Covenant, who are received into favour and reconciled by the death of Christ laid hold on by faith. But to interpret it simply of all men penitent, impenitent, believers, in­fidels, obstinate, separated from God by their evill works, is di­rectly contrary to the Text, and hath scarce a second Author. No man is to be excluded from seeking the benefit of reconciliation: but from the benefit it self the Apostle excludes them that be not in Covenant, and in the state of grace, to whom only this spiritu­all blessing doth pertaine. And in the same manner this and the like words are to be limited in other places. Eph. 1. 10. Rom. 11. 32. And this they must not deny, if they would be at one with them­selves: for they say all men are under a new Covenant, and re­ceived [Page 221] into favour, and that pardon of sin is promised unto all that shall continue in that Covenant, and not transgresse against it. Arm. respon. ad Art. 13, 14. so that to consummate happinesse there is need of continuance only in the state, which evermore hath effectuall communication conjoyned. And restitution into the state of grace, and actuall reconciliation, if they be not one thing, they be inseparable. And this doth take away the objecti­on which they raise from the words following, And hath com­mitted vers. 19, 20, unto us the word of reconciliation. Now therefore we beseech you, we pray you in Christs stead, be ye reconciled to God. For not to say, the Apostle speakes to the Corinthians at that time belee­vers, and in the state of persons reconciled: hath not God com­mitted the word of reconciliation to the Ministers, who are to beseech mankind actually restored into grace, and admitted into the new Covenant, to be reconciled? The word of reconciliation is of use, both to them that be not restored into grace, that they might be called, and to them that be reconciled, that they might continue and be builded forward.

That passage of the Apostle, 1 Joh. 2. 1, 2. If any man sinne, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. And he is the propitiation for our sinne: and not for ours only, but also for the sinnes of the whole world, is like to the former, as all men confesse, and hath the same answer. For as Christ is our Advocate by of­fice to plead our cause, and defend us against the accusation of all our enemies, so is he our propitiation: But Christ is not the Ad­vocate of every man simply, but of his people. And as he is the propitiation of the beleeving Jewes, so he is of the whole world:1 Joh 4. 10. but he is the propitiation of the beleeving Jewes, in that God is propitious unto them in Christ, and not propitiable or reconcile­able only. He is their propitiation through faith in his bloud. Rom. 3. 25. by whom their sinnes are covered, not coverable, andCyril. in Ioh. [...]. 11. cap. 19. Aug. tract. 87. in. Iob. Autor de vocat. Gent. l. 2. c. 1. Euseb. Hist. l. 4. c. 15. Estius in 1 Io [...]. 2. 2. expiated and done away, not expiable only. Therefore the Apo­stle speakes of the application of Christs death, and by the whole world, man-kind in common considered as under the fall cannot be understood, but the whole world of the Gentiles now called to the faith, and admitted into Covenant. Thus Vorstius himself, though in his common places upon this Chapter, he would under­stand these words, as if Christ sufficiently and efficiently quantum in se was the propitiation for the sinnes of all mankind: yet in [Page 222] his paraphrase, he giveth this sence of the Text; Where fore letVorst in 1 John 2. 2. him consider, that the Lord Jesus is the propitiation for our sins, as who hath purchased full remission of them all for us: And not only for us, who at this time embrace his doctrine, but for all men of the whole world, as many as by faith receive or appehend the blessing of the Gospell offered unto them. In this sence the world is taken, as they themselves confesse, Rom. 11. 12, 15. Their fall is Scrip. Syn. pag. 307, 308. See Chemnit. Har. Evang. cap. 8. Quod gaudium erit omni populo. the riches of the world, and their casting off the reconciliation of the world, that is, of the Gentiles converted to the faith, which did make a great part of the world, and before conversion were world­ly and profane men. The rejection of the Jewes was an occa­sion, by which the Gentiles, hitherto without that gratious communication, was made rich, and being converted to the faith, did returne into favour with God. And the same argument they bring out of the former Text to confute the distinction of Christs death effectually for some, sufficiently for all, because then the ad­versative particle, doth loose his emphasis, if the Apostles words be thus understood, Christ died effectually for us, and not only so, but sufficiently for the sinnes of the whole world, doth confirme the other interpretation; for the adversative should loose it weight, if the sentence be thus resolved, Christ is our propitiation by faith, in whom God is actually reconciled, and not only so, but he is reconcileable to the whole world that lieth not in infidelity.

The maintainers of universall redemption thinke it may strong­ly be proved by this reason, All men are bound to beleeve in Christ: but Christ died for all men, that are bound to believe in him; which some propound in this forme; Every man is bound to be­leeve, that Christ died for him: but whatsoever a man is bound to beleeve that is true: therefore he died for every man. But if by beleeving in Christ they understand nothing but bare assenting to this proposition, that Christ died for all men, and for me as a man, for the impetration of righteousnesse quantum in se, or to purchase the grace of the Father and pardon of sinnes, no man is bound to beleeve it, because it is not revealed in Scripture, much lesse made knowne to every man in the world by meanes sufficient. Every man called, whether he hearken to God calling or not is bound to beleeve that Christ is offered unto him as a Saviour, so as if he beleeve he shall be saved: but that Christ died for him in particular for the impetration of righteousnesse, and for every par­ticular [Page 223] man in the world, that he is not bound to beleeve, because it is not found in Scripture, nor can he beleeve it, according to their grounds that urge this argument, neither can such perswa­sion be the ground of justifying faith. I say every man in the world good or bad cannot beleeve it, as they teach: For either they be considered as in the common Masse, as all Infants, and then they be actually restored into grace; or as impenitent and unbe­leevers, fallen from the Covenant themselves, (or as Arminius addeth, in their parents) and then Christ died not for them as such. If they be admitted into Covenant, and continue therein,Script. Rem. advers. coll. Hag. art. 2. Christ died for them in respect of application: if they be fallen from that state by impenitency, obstinacy, rebellion, Christ died not for them as such: If they be cast off, and not so much as out­wardly called, how can they beleeve that Christ died for them, specially, when by transgression they have departed from that Covenant, and fallen from that state unto which (they say) they were admitted. Neither can this perswasion be the ground of faith justifying, for many ungodly men are perswaded that Christ died for all mankind, that neither will, nor can, nor ought as such, to beleeve in Christ, or rest upon him for Salvation: and many beleeve it not, that beleeve truly in Christ, and know they be­leeve and that they ought to beleeve. If by beleeving in Christ be meant faith justifying, the proposition may be granted with two limitations. First, that under this terme they be not comprehen­ded, who never heard of Christ, or had possible, at least proba­ble meanes to come to the knowledge of Christ, or were admit­ted into Covenant. So Vorstius seemes to limitit, unlesse (saith he) Christ had died for all that are called, in vaine should they all be commanded to beleeve in him. The Authours of the Synod. cap de Election. A Law not given, or when it cannot be un­derstood,See Synod. de. fens. sent. pag. 33 [...]. Non repugnat, &c doth not bind: Whosoever is bound to beleeve in Christ, must have the rule of new life, which is the Covenant; which was purchased by the blood of the Mediatour, as they dis­pute. And then he which is not in Covenant, nor ever had the rule of new life, how should he be bound to beleeve in Christ? The second caution is, that he that goeth on in an evill way, and ma­keth a pastime of sinne, is not called immediately to beleeve in Christ, nor hath received grace sufficient as such a man, to rest upon him for Salvation. Before they will or can come unto Christ, [Page 224] it must be otherwise with them, they must be prepared of God, who draweth men to Christ, but first (as they say) drawes them to mind their soules seriously. A wicked man living within the pale of the Church is bound to beleeve, as to repent and cease from his evill way; for the neglect of one duty doth not exempt a manSynodal. ubi Supr. arg. 30. Arm. priv. disp. de fide. from another: but so long as he goeth on in an evill course, he cannot lay hould on the promises of mercy, nor embrace Christ as his only Saviour. The hungry, thirsty and burdened, not they which wallow in iniquity are invited to come unto Christ, that they might be eased and refreshed. They are called to beleeve in Christ for pardon, not that they are already the children of God, and restored into favour. A thirsty and weary man as such, can no more beleeve that he is the child of God, then a wounded man as wounded can that he is cured; or the man stung with the fiery Serpent, that he was healed, before he looked up to the brasen Ser­pent. Thirst is opposed to water, and weatinesse to refreshing. A man must believe before he can be in the state of grace, and know he doth beleeve, before he can beleeve that he is the child of God, neither of which can be affirmed of the weary as simply such. Thus then I grant all men are bound to beleeve in Christ: but thence it will not follow, that Christ died for all men equally, to purchase for them actuall reconciliation on Gods part, and with full and compleate will and purpose quantum in se to save them: but only that Christ died for them as an all-sufficient and efficient Saviour, so that in the Covenant of grace salvation might be and is tende­red unto them upon condition of true repentance and faith unfai­ned. For they to whom the Gospell is preached, and by whom it is professed, are bound to beleeve what is offered in the Gospell, as it is offered there in, viz. if they hunger and thirst, deny them­selves, and be wearie of their sinnes. But it is one thing to deny our workes, and relie upon the free mercy of God in Christ, another to beleeve that Christ died for our redemption in par­ticular. Whosoever is bound to beleeve hath Christ as an all­sufficient and efficient Saviour, in and through whom Salvation might be obtained, and undoubtedly shall be obtained by him, if he renounce his owne works, and flie to the sole mercy of God in Christ, as the object of faith, in order of nature before either the act of faith, or proposall of the commandement to beleeve: He hath also the rule of new life, and is admitted into the Cove­nant [Page 225] according to the externall administration, wherein Christ is offered as a sufficient and efficient Mediatour, so that pardon of sin, adoption and eternall happinesse shall redound to all and every one by his death, if they doe believe: and as a Mediatour by me­rit and saving efficacy to reconcile them actually unto God that be in Covenant effectually.

The word of truth is the foundation of faith, in nature before it, true as it is promised, not made true by faith: but that faith cannot be given to the promise, unlesse the thing promised be tru­ly existent, and made good before faith, is strange in Divinity. One thing is true, because it is promised: another, because it is fore-told, another, because it is simply declared. Those things which are true as related, those things have been whether we be­lieve them or not: and those things which are fore-told as true, those in like manner shall come to passe, whether we believe, or believe not. But those things which are true as promised, it is not necessary that they be, unlesse we believe. For the narration andArm. pri [...]. disp. thes. 43. prediction is absolute, but the promise conditionall, requiring faith in the hearer. There is this mutuall respect betwixt the pro­mise and stipulation, that the promise is as an argument which God useth, that he might obtaine of man what he requireth, and the performance of the thing required is a condition without which man cannot obtaine the promise of God. But leaving fur­ther dispute of this matter, faith in Christ and the commandment to believe in him hath a subject word true in it selfe, not made true by faith, whereupon it is builded, as true, firme and certaine, as any ground of faith in Christ can be desired or conceived. There is one act of faith, whereby we believe that sins are pardonable: this is builded upon this ground, that Christ is an all-sufficient and efficient Saviour, in whose name Salvation is freely offered, by faith to be received. There is another act of faith, whereby we rest upon Christ for salvation: this is grounded upon these andMat. 11. 28. Isa. 55. 1. such like promises, Come unto me all y [...] that labour, and be hea­vie laden, and I will refresh you. Hoe, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters. Let him that is a thirst, come unto me and drinke. There is a third, whereby we believe that our sins are al­ready pardoned: and this is grounded upon these and such like. He that believeth shall be saved.

It is objected, if Christ died not for all men, then a man may [Page 226] doubt, whether he should believe or no? But that scruple is not removed by the contrary perswasion, that Christ died for all man­kind in the common lapse: for so Christ died for many men, that neither can nor ought as such to believe: and he that questioneth whether he should believe, doth it in respect of former transgres­sions, abuse of grace, neglect of the meanes, and conscience of his owne unworthinesse, in which case it affords small comfort, and lesse resolution to informe him that Christ died for all men as sinners, but not as impenitent or unbelievers. But the direct way and course to comfort the distressed and doubting soule in that per­plexity, is to informe him that his sins are pardonable, because in Christ forgivenesse is offered unto him; that he is particularly cal­led being hungry, thirstie burdened, finding himselfe destitute both of grace and comfort, to come unto Christ for them both: and being graciously invited, he is without further dispute or de­lay to cast his soule upon the promises of mercy and come unto Christ, that he might be refreshed. But they are in vaine com­manded to believe, if Christ died not for them, because they can­not believe. Is it then in vaine, that the obstinate and rebellious are commanded and invited to believe, who as such cannot believe? Was it in vaine, that God commanded Pharoah to let Israel goe? that our Saviour would have gathered Jerusalem, when the things concerning her peace, were hid from her eyes? Might not men argue by the same reason, that it was in vaine for God to intreate and perswade them to believe, when he did fore-know that by such invitation they would not be allured to come unto him? And if they cannot believe; it is not through the unreasonablenesse or absurdity of the thing commanded, which doth excuse, nor im­potency of weaknesse, as if they would believe, but cannot, which is to be pitied; but impotency of wilfulnesse and prave affection, the more unable to believe, the more wilfull to refuse, which is in­excusable. And though I cannot say, God hath given to every man to believe if he will: Yet sure, God is not wanting to any man in that which either in justice or promise he is bound to give: and did men deny themselves, nourish the motions of Gods Spi­rit, and earnestly desire to believe, without question they should find the Lord gracious. If men believe it is of grace, not only that whereby they are inabled to believe, but whereby they are discerned from other men: if they believe not, it is of themselves, of their own [Page 227] pravity; and they be not further from believing, then from desire to believe.

It is objected further, that Christ as he died to impetrate remis­sion of sins for me in particular, is the object of justifying faith. The mercy of God reaching to the pardon of sin in and through Jesus Christ is the object of faith justifying, as it is proffered unto us in the word of life: but it is one thing to believe that mercy is to be had through the death of Christ, and that it is offered unto us in the Gospell, and we called to imbrace it, another to believe that Christ according to the compleate and full will of God, hath laid downe his life for us in particular to purchase for us both grace and glory. Proportionable to the perswasion a man hath of Gods wil­lingnesse to be mercifull, is his perswasion of the sufficiency of Christs satisfaction: and proportionable to his perswasion that God is mercifull to him in the pardon of his sin, is his perswasion that Christ died for him in particular. Justifying faith is not with­out an apprehension of mercy in Christ to be obtained, but im­plieth not an apprehension of mercy reaching to the pardon of sin already obtained. It is not without an application of recum­bency, reliance, or imbracing, which presupposeth the offer o [...] mercy, in and through Jesus Christ to be received, but the applicati­on of particular perswasion, that Christ died for me in particular, as well as for any other, or hath purchased for me grace and glory, isCorvin. in Mol. cap. 29. Sect. 24. not required in justifying faith. Some have affirmed, that faith whereby I believe that Christ died for me, is the foundation of faith whereby I believe in Christ: but I should desire better proof than their bare word for it, seeing the Scripture makes the merci­full offer of salvation in Christ to the burdened, hungry and thir­sty, the ground of this affiance, and that perswasion (according to their positions) may be in good and bad, them that never shall be justified, neither will, nor can rest upon Christ for salvation. To believe that Christ is an all-sufficient Saviour, and that salva­tion is offered to me in his name, is lesse then to believe in Christ for remission of sins; and in order of nature goeth before it. But to believe that according to the purpose of God Christ is my Re­deemer, who hath purchased for me in particular grace and remis­sion of sins and eternall redemption, and hath actually reconciled me unto God, this is the consequent of resting upon Christ for sal­vation, and cannot be believed according to the Scripture, unlesse a [Page 228] man doe first believe in Christ: and according as men rest upon Christ superficially or soundly with a soveraigne and well-rooted affiance, so they believe the other. For when we reade in Scrip­ture, that Christ tasted of death for every man, Heb. 2. 9. died for all, 2 Cor. 5. 15. is the reconciliation for the sins of the whole world, 1 Joh. 2. 2. shed his bloud for many, Mat. 26. 28. gave his life for the ransome of many, Mat. 20. 28. Mar. 10. 45. purcha­sed the Church by his blood, Act. 20. 28. Ephes. 5. 25. gave him­selfe for us all, Tit. 2. 14. Rom 8 32. for his people, Mat. 1. 21. for his sheepe, Joh. 10. 15. for them that were given unto him of the Father, Joh. 17 9, 19. In these and such like passages, by All, the World, Many and Ʋs are meant men in Covenant, partakers of the benefits of Christ, redeemed from all iniquity, and purified unto him as a peculiar people, delivered from this present evill world, Gal. 1. 4. that they might live unto God, 2 Cor. 5. 15. Pe­ter Act. 3. 26. saith to the Jewes that crucified Christ, Ʋnto you first, God having raised up his Sonne Jesus, sent him to blesse you, in tur­ning away every one of you from your sinnes. But he spake to them who were in Covenant, the children of the Prophets, and of the Covenant; and as they were in Covenant, so God raised up Christ for them, which cannot be referred to the impetration of righteousnesse, but the application of Christs death in some sort. Otherwise, if it be observed, that the Apostle speaks of the Jews according to the present state, when Christ was incarnate, or a­ctually raised from the dead, I thinke the greatest Patrons of uni­versall redemption will not affirme, that Christ died for every man good and bad, believer or Infidell, obstinate and rebellious, to pur­chase for them actuall reconciliation on Gods part, according to that state wherein they stood, when Christ came into the world, or was raised from the dead.

Once againe, it is objected, that if this proposition, Christ died for all men be not the ground of particular affiance, it can have no ground at all, neither promise of mercy absolute nor conditionall, generall nor speciall. But already it hath been shewed, that bare assent or belief that Christ died for all men cannot be the ground, much lesse the only ground of justifying faith, and it may further be made evident by these reasons.

First, That is the foundation of faith, whereupon particular af­fiance leaneth or is immediately grounded. But no mans particular [Page 229] affiance on Christ for salvation, can be grounded on his generall belief, that Christ died for all men: because this notwithstanding it may be, he is not allowed, he cannot rest upon Christ for sal­vation.

Againe, That is the ground of faith, which doth fully and sa­tisfyingly answer to this question, why doe you, and how know you that you are allowed to rest upon Christ for salvation? But the bare beliefe of this proposition, that Christ died for all men, to save, &c. is not a satisfying and full answer to this Question.

Againe, This categoricall proposition, Christ died for all men, sheweth what is done, whether men believe or not, but doth not warrant every man as such to rest upon Christ, nor promise upon condition of faith, what cannot be obtained without beliefe in Christ. The ground of particular affiance is some word or pro­mise made to man not yet believing, whereby he is assured that as such he is allowed to believe, and that believing he shall receive the free forgivenesse of his offences; which promise is in order of na­ture before faith, tendered to him that beleeveth not, holding forth free remission upon condition of faith, and is made good to him that beleeveth. What some speake of a conditionall promise made to beleevers, I cannot comprehend: for if the person must be a beleever, before the promise be offered unto him, then faith must hang in the aire, and not be built upon the word, neither can faith be the condition required in the promise, but somewhat else; for a conditionall promise, the condition being fulfilled, is conditio­nall no longer, but absolute; the condition being performed, the thing promised is applied and possessed, and not barely promised upon condition.

What hath been answered to former passages of Scripture, doth open the true meaning of another, much urged in this matter. God our Saviour will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the 1 Tim. 2. 4, 5, 6. knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and one Media­tour between God and men, the man Christ Jesus: who gave himselfe a ransome for all, to be testified in due time. But All in this place doth not signifie universally every man, in every age and condition: but All opposed to the Jews only, all indefinitely, and that in the times of the new Testament, of which the Apostle speaketh. For those All whom God willeth to be saved, he wil­leth that they come to the knowledge of the truth, scil. the saving [Page 230] truth of God, he vouchsafeth the Gospell unto them, and word of reconciliation. But the word of reconciliation was not vouch­safed to every Nation under heaven in every age, much lesse to every man; Nor to all Nations in any age, specially since the distinction of Jew and Gentile, before the times of the Gospell.

It will be replied, that God was ready to have communicated the Gospell unto them, if they had used well what they had recei­ved: but abusing what he had given, it was just to with-hold fur­ther meanes from them. But this answer will in no sort fit this place, because the Lords willing that all men be saved, and the a­ctuall1 Tim. 2. 7. communication of the Gospell unto all men are plainly con­joyned, and so is Christs actuall giving of himselfe a ransome for all, both in this and other passages of Scripture. Besides, it is most evident those All, which in this place are meant, are such as2 Cor. 5. 19, 20 had fearfully abused the common grace received, and with-held the truth of God in unrighteousnesse, and for which many of them were given up unto a reprobate sence. Of these the Apostle spea­king of the times of grace, saith, God willeth that they should come to the knowledge of the truth, not that he willeth to vouch­safe the Gospell unto them, if they should use the common gra­ces well, (for they had fearefully abused them already) but a­ctually to vouchsafe the word of reconciliation notwithstanding such their abuse.

Those all whom God willeth to be saved, are they that havever. 5. God to be their God, and Christ to be their Mediatour: but all men in every age have not God for their God. Is he the God of Rom. 3. 29. the Jewes only? Is he not of the Gentiles also? Yes, of the Gen­tiles also? But of the world of Jew and Gentile he is the God, in times of the new Testament, and not of the old. The place is much like that of the same Apostle, for God hath concluded them allRom. 11. 32. in unbeliefe, that he might have mercy upon all, that is, not upon the Jews alone, but all beleevers, both Jewes and Gentiles, be­cause there is neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free, male nor fe­male; but in Christ Jesus they are all one. This was meant of the daies of salvation, and the acceptable yeare which was fore-prophe­sied, 2 Cor. 6. 2. and began from the ascension of Christ to receive ge­nerall execution, Act. 13. 46, 47. when according to promise all should be taught of God, Joh. 6. 45. and Christ would draw all [Page 231] men unto him, Joh. 12. 32. Thus Arminius himselfe, the placeArm. in Perk. intreats of the amplitude of grace exhibited in Christ under the new Testament: and concludes his answer thus, that through­out all ages God hath willed that all men severally should come to the knowledge of the truth, and be saved, as they are comprehen­ded in the Covenant of God, but not as they are fallen from it in themselves or their parents.

It is objected, That God willeth that all they should be saved, for whom we are to pray. But we must pray for all men. But the Apostles argument is otherwise, that we must pray for all men, because God willeth that all should be saved, that is, Gods will it is, that the Gentiles should be called, and added unto the Church, the Gospell should be preached amongst all Nations: therefore now pray ye for all men, specially for Kings, because by the good affection of Kings to Gods Church, the Church of God is like to prosper farre better then by the conversion of meane persons. But it no way followeth, that God willeth their salva­tion, because we pray for their salvation. The child prayeth for the Fathers health and recovery, when God willeth he shall die. If God should leave us to our owne desires, peradventure we should desire, not only that all that now live, but that all that e­ver lived might have been converted and saved: yea, that the An­gels that fell might have been kept from sin, or having sinned might have been brought to repentance and saved. To desire that every one that now liveth might be saved, with submission to the will of God, is no incongruity. But we cannot inferre thereupon, that it is the will of God to save every man now living in the world, or to grant them meanes sufficient to come to the know­ledge of the truth. Neither will it follow, that we must pray for every man in the world, in every age, knowne and unknowne un­to us, such as we never heard of by relation, because we must pray for All men: for then all must comprehend even those that sinne sins unto death amongst the rest, unlesse we beleeve that there are no such sinners in the world: and he had need be of a strong faith, and have some extraordinary revelation that beleeveth that.

Then are we to pray for all and every Infidell, obstinate, rebel­lious person, even the whole Kingdome of Antichrist, that they might come to the knowledge of the truth: but he must be a man [Page 232] of strong faith that can believe that God will give his Gospell to e­very of these in particular, that they might come to the saving knowledge of the truth.

The distinction of antecedent and consequent will, hath no place in this matter, because such are to be understood as have most egre­giously abused the common grace of God received. Moreover, we shall never find in Scripture, that the faithfull ever made such prayers: but as God hath signified his will and pleasure concer­ning the calling and gathering of his people, Jews or Gentiles, so they have prayed, as we may pray for the fulnesse of the Gentiles, and calling of the Jews, wherein we doe not exclude any, thoughAct. 5. 31. a [...]d 11. 18. we know God hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and gives the grace of repentance, and to repent also, to whom he please, the habituall grace serving for the one, and the a­ctuall and effectuall motion of Gods Spirit being requisite to the other.

Some pleade further, The meanes to this end, that men may have part in Christ, are unlimited, the word written, Joh. 20. 31. and preached, Act. 3. 24, 25, 26, 27. yea, a command to preach to every creature, Mark 16. 15. which Paul understood, and there­fore warned every man, and taught every man, Col. 1. 18. to re­pent, Act. 17. 30. and to beleeve, Rom. 1. 5. But if all this be gran­ted, nothing will follow which is not freely granted. For as on the one side no man will affirm that Christ died to this end, name­ly to procure forgivenesse of sinne and Salvation to all and every one, whether they beleeve or no; so on the other side, none will deny, but that he died to this end, that salvation and remission of sinnes should redound to all and every one, in case they should be­leeve and repent. For this depends upon the sufficiencie of that price, which Christ paid to God his Father for the redemption of the world. No man denieth, but God made a Covenant with Adam fallen and his posterity, as now with the faithfull and their seed: that all mankind had continued in this Covenant, if they had not discovenanted themselves and their posterity; that no man is deprived of the benefits of Christs death, but through his own sinne and corruption: that God is not the cause efficient or deficient of any mans infidelity, but man himself: That men are seriously invited to repent in the Ministery of the Word, and that the promise of Salvation is faithfull and true, so that he that [Page 233] beleeveth shall never perish. These things be not questioned, nor whether some effects or benefits of Christs death be common to all men, but whether he died equally for all men, to purchase actu­all reconciliation for them on Gods part, and set all Infants in the actuall state of salvation, but to procure faith and beliefe for no man, so that he had obtained the full, immediate end of his death, though no man had ever beleeved on him, or been saved by him. But that which is assumed in this argument is apparently false, as it is applyed. The Covenant of grace is revealed to some, no man being shut forth by name, but if he repent and beleeve he shall be saved: but many thousands never heard of, never had probable meanes to come to the knowledge of the Covenant. The commandement to preach the Gospell to every creature, was given to the Apostles in the dayes of grace, upon the publication of which Covenant, they which formerly served dumbe idols, were bound to repent and beleeve: but that commandement was peculiar to the Apostles, not given till after the resurrection of Christ, after such commandement the Apostles were injoyned to tarry for a time in Jerusalem, nor could they possibly disperse themselves in a moment into every part of the world, nor the world take notice of any such commandement given unto them, or of the doctrine revealed by them. Before that time the Lord suffered the Gentiles for a long time to walk in the vanity of their minds, without the light of his truth: and since that time divers nations have been cast off, left to themselves, as aliens from the Covenant, and deprived of all meanes to come to the knowledge of God in Christ. And if there were any force in this reason, The meanes of grace be unlimited, and command given to preach to every creature, therefore Christ died for all men: This must be of greater weight, The meanes of grace be not vouchsafed unto all and every man: therefore Christ died not for all and every man. For if meanes necessary to Salvation be not propounded, if they be not, nor ever were called to the faith by the ordinary and only effectuall meanes ordained of God to bring men thereunto, we speake of our selves, and not according to Scripture, if we affirme, God gave Christ to die for their redemption.

Amongst many effects of Christs death reckoned up in this ar­gument, this is the most generall, and all the rest depend upon it: and if the meanes be not vouchsafed to all, none of the rest can be [Page 234] common to every one. It is a received principle amongst them, that as God loved the world, and Christ gave himselfe a ransome for all men, or is the propitiation for the sins of the whole world so God willed that the Gospell concerning Christ should be pub­lished to all men in the world. Corvin. in Mol. cap. 31. sect. 33. If then the Gospell be not published, or God willed not that the Gospell should be published to all and every man in the world, Christ died not for all and every man. Adam and Noah having received the Covenant, were bound to teach their children, and so successively in all ages: Psal. 78. which had it been observed, none had failed to have the same published unto him. If this be applied to the present purpose, they must teach only, that Christ died for all and every man, if they that be in Covenant, shall care­fully observe the charge and commandement of God. And by the same reason they may conclude, that God gave his Sonne to die, and that with plenary purpose, that no man should ever sinne by ignorance, infirmity, impenitency, unbeliefe, or any particular transgression: that God purposed to give to every man the plen­tifull and effectuall meanes of grace, and that every man should actually apply the death of Christ. For if every man successively had obeyed the commandement given to Adam, and fulfilled that charge, the doctrine of salvation had been published to every man, every man had been borne and lived in Covenant, every man had actually applyed the death of Christ unto himselfe, every man had enjoyed all the Ordinances of God: yea, there had been no impe­nitent person, I might adde, properly no sinner but Adam and Eve. Then they could not say, Christ came to save the world, un­der which infidels must be comprehended, or that he prayed for his persecutours and unbeleevers, nor that he came to save his people from their sinnes: for if this charge had been obeyed, there had been no Infidell, nor persecutour, nor sinner amongst his people, but only our first Parents. And by the same evasion, they may hold that Christ died for all and every man, when he died for no man living, or that ever lived, but Adam only. But this is no­thing to prove, that since many Nations have neglected their charge, and being fallen from God have received from him a Bill of divorce, a commandement hath been given notwithstanding unto his servants in all ages, to publish the doctrine of salvation un­to every creature amongst all Nations.

Adam and Noah were in Covenant, is there the same reason of them and their posterity continuing in the faith, that there is of them that be strangers to the Covenant, shut up in darknesse, and never heard the sound of the Gospell for many ge­nerations together?

It seemeth sufficient to Princes (say they) to publish their Lawes in some places, at some times, though they concerne all, are for their good, and take hold of them, if they be not observed, leaving it to Parents to teach their children, and every one to en­quire for his own good.

In this comparison there be divers things unlike, divers that cannot befitted to the purpose, unlesse it be in a sense contra­ry. For they say, Lawes once sufficiently published bind and stand in force, though unknowne, or scarcely possible to be known by some particular men now living in some remote parts of the do­minions: And the plaine direct reddition is, That God having made a Covenant of grace with Adam and his posterity, all and every man is bound to beleeve in Christ, and walke in obedience, though he be ignorant of his duty, never received ability to do it, never had meanes possible to come to the knowledge of Christ: yea, though he be cast off, and left to the hardnesse of his heart. God hath commanded Parents to teach their children. Who doubts of that? But the question is, whether God hath vouchsa­fed sufficient means of grace to every man, which is not hereby proved, because God, when he gave his Covenant, injoyned Pa­rents to teach their children. We grant the Lord is wanting in nothing, which either he promised, or in his eternall wisdome and justice saw meet to be done, and that such as be deprived of the means of grace be justly deprived. But we say, as experience confirmeth, that sufficient meanes of grace hath not been afforded to every man living since the fall of Adam.

In the comparison there be many things unlike. For common­wealth are one body politick, in which it is held sufficient to publish Lawes in some knowne places, and at some times, gran­ting space and meanes that all may learne them if they will. But we speake of such as never were so much as in the outward society of the Church, nor adjoyning to them; that never heard of the Covenant of grace, they, nor many of their Ancestours, nor of a people or society professing the true Religion. So that where­as [Page 236] the reason is of the meanes of supernaturall knowledge vouch­safed to them that never heard of the Covenant, or lived nigh unto them that enjoyed the word of reconciliation, the com [...]ari­son is of men in Covenant, who cannot want possibl [...] meanes [...]o know the main and fundamentall points of the Covenant. Old Lawes, they say, not in use, yet in force, scarce possible to be knowne, do bind: But the question is, of many doctrines in use, which must necessarily be known, or a man cannot be in the num­ber of the faitfull so much as in externall society.

There is not a prohibition to preach or write to any, (say they) unlesse it was to punish some speciall sinne, as when Christ saith, Cast not pearles before swine; or some others were to be served first, as Christ said to the woman of Canaan, I am not sent, but to the lost sheepe of the house of Israel; and Paul, Act. 13. It was need­full that the Gospell should be first preached unto you: And it was thus when the Spirit forbade Paul to goe into one place, and commanded him to goe into another. We might aske unto which of the two cases they will referre that of our Saviour, Into the way of the Samaritanes enter ye not. Matth. 10. 5. and, Tarry ye at Jerusalem, untill ye be endued with power from on High. Luke 24. 49. during which time, and before the Apostles could disperse themselves, many millions might depart this life, who never en­joyed meanes sufficient to bring them to the knowledge of God in Christ. And if God have charged his servants, not to cast pearles before swine, and prohibited them for a time to preach the Word of the Kingdome to some people, and in some places, because it is his pleasure to serve others first, why should we not likewise think, that God in justice hath deprived many nations and people of all possible meanes, whereby they should come to the knowledge of the truth? Let us see how well this fitteth the matter in hand, The meanes of grace be unlimited, but in two cases there was a prohibition to write, and what is this, but in plain termes to confesse, that the meanes of grace in all ages and times, in respect of all places and persons have not been unlimi­ted? Besides, when no man must take this office of preaching upon him, but he that is called thereunto of God, and no man can shew that he hath beene called to preach the Go­spell to every creature, why may not this be called a prohi­bition?

The last refuge is, That any man might have had the Word, using that little well that God gave. How should he have had it? By ordinary meanes, or extraordinary revelation. Some are bold to affirme, he should have had it after an extraordinary man­ner. Others speake of I know not what possibility by traffique, and the like: both sorts utter strange things, and it is reason we should require better proofes then bare affirmations. To him that hath shall be given, is a proverbiall speech, whereby our Saviour signifieth, that they who be enlightened by the Gospell, and use well the supernaturall gifts they have received, shall be enrich­ed with an happy encrease. And that the contemners of the Gospell and grace bestowed upon them, shall have that taken from them which they seemed to have. But that men unregene­rate can of themselves use their naturall gifts in an acceptable manner, or that God will bestow supernaturall, upon them that use their naturall gifts minus male, as Arminius speakes, is neither found in the Text, nor confirmed from any circumstance of it. Twice we find the passage used, Matth. 13. 12. and 25. 29. In the first it is manifest, our Saviour speakes of them that enjoyed the Gospell: In the second, of those that used their Talent, whereby gifts not naturall, but supernaturall are meant: because the Lord doth freely bestow eternall life immediately upon them that use their Talent well, which they will not say, he doth upon them who use their naturall gifts minus male. In both places our Savi­our shewes, how God dealeth with his, giving them a taste of his goodnesse, wherby they thirst after the augmentation of his grace the more earnestly, when he doth not affect the hearts of all men in that manner. And if naturall gifts (which they call common grace) be understood, then for the abuse of this light or grace, God doth not only with-hold from men the supernaturall meanes of grace, but takes from them their naturall gifts which they had: For so the Text runneth, And from him that hath not, even that which he had, or seemed to have, shall be taken away. And then I would demand, whether Christ died for them that so abused their naturall gifts as such, or no? If he did, then he died for many, to whom he vouchsafeth not meanes sufficient to bring them to sal­vation, or faith in him. If he died not for them, then he died not for the farre greatest part of the world, in all ages, in respect of the present state wherein they stand as men. And here is to be [Page 238] considered, that in Scripture you shall not find, that God gave Christ to die for any nation, people, or world to whom he sent not the word of reconciliation; nor is any people or nation cast off, and rejected for their impiety, left without the means of grace, given over to the vanity of their mindes, without God in the world, ever said to be redeemed by the bloud of Christ, or recon­ciled unto God.

In many places we reade that Christ died for them that shall, or may perish, for reprobates and cast-awaies, 2 Pet. 2. 1. There shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring up­on themselves swift destruction, Rom. 14. 15. Destroy not him with thy meat for whom Christ died, 1 Cor. 8. 11. And through thy knowledge shall the weake brother perish for whom Christ died, Heb. 10. 29. Of how much sorer punishment suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath troden under foot the Sonne of God, and hath counted the bloud of the Covenant wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of Grace. From which passages they argue thus, He that died for the elect and reprobate, for them that perish and perish not, he died for all men. But Christ died for the elect and repro­bate, for them that perish and perish not. The Proposition they take for granted, but it is apparently captious. For he that died for all the elect, and all the reprobate, for all that shall be saved, and all that perish, died for all men: but to die for the elect and some reprobate, is not to die for all men, but for some only. And if they meane it in the first sence, the passages of Scripture will not prove what they affirme; if in the second, it fals short of the que­stion. But suppose they argue thus, some denied the Lord that bought them, and thereby brought upon themselves swift destru­ction: therefore Christ did not buy the elect only, to save them: If they dispute thus, they conclude not the question in hand, they put more in the conclusion then is in the antecedent, and if they cannot shew, that there is the same reason of all reprobates, they must confesse it makes much against them: for the thing to be proved is, that Christ died equally for all and every man; and it is one thing to die for the reprobate in some sense, and to die for them with an intention and purpose to save them: and if Christ died for some and but some that perish in a manner not common [Page 239] to all and every man, it is manifest, he died not equally for all men.

Let us consider the Texts themselves, 2 Pet. 2. 1. Some denied the Lord that bought them. How? in respect of the impetration of righteousnesse, or in respect of the application of it? Let the Text speake for it selfe. These false teachers lived in the Church, en­joyed the Ordinances of God, professed the faith, had known the way of truth, and escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 2 Pet. 2. 20. they had turned from the holy Commandement delivered unto them, and it had happened unto them according to the true Pro­verbe, The dog is turned unto his own vomit againe, and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire. Therefore the death of Christ was applyed unto them, and they were partakers of the fruits and benefits thereof by some kind of faith. They that most urge this place, doe thus interpret it. Thus the Authors of the Sy­nodal. def. Sent. Remonst. circ. Art. 2. pag. 358. It is most evidently and invincibly manifest, that those false teachers, of whom Peter speakes, were truly bought of the Lord Jesus Christ, by the know­ledge of whom they had escaped the pollutions of the world: or if thou hadst rather, that God the Father by the bloud of his only begotten Sonne had truly bought them, and by his Spirit truly re­generated them. Vorstius in like manner upon this place: first, heVorst. in 2 Pet. 2. 1. Schol. saith it is indifferent whether thou referre this word bought to Christ, or to God the Father. For both God the Father is said every where to have redeemed us, and Christ to have bought or redeemed us to God: and then he sends us to these places. Act. 20. 28. 1 Cor. 6. 20. Eph. 5. 25. Rev. 1. 5. More plainly in loc. com. following, It is demanded, saith he, how the Lord may be said to have bought them, who deny him. For this seemes contrary to those places of Scripture, in which it is affirmed, that the faith­full alone, of whom the Catholike Church of Christ consisteth, be redeemed by Christ, Act. 20. 28. Eph. 5. 23. and that the faithfull do alwayes remain in the Church. 1 Joh. 2. 19. Some answer (saith he) that those who fall away, were never truly redeemed, nor did ever truly beleeve. Therefore they thinke these places and such like are to be taken not according to the truth of the thing; but accor­ding to the apearance or opinion: to wit because these Apostates professe the faith for a time, and so feeme both to themselves, and [Page 240] to others judging in charity, to be true beleevers, when in deed they are nothing lesse. But it seemes more simple, if we say, that some who after fall away, for a time doe truly beleeve: which Christ doth therefore call Temporaries, Math. 13. 21. And then concludes, to take away the shew of repugnancy, which seemes to be betwixt this and the former places. We must hold, that Christ in act and very deed is the redeemer of the faithfull, as long as they be such: although in power, yea and in will he be the Saviour of the whole world. To let passe other things which pertaine not to this question, it is plaine the Apostle speakes of them for whom Christ died in act, event or application, in which sence they confesse he died not for all men, but the faithfull only as such. And as these false teachers were called into the Cove­nant, accepted the condition, beleeved in Christ, for a time re­joyced in him, and brought forth some fruite, so we confesse they were bought by the blood of Christ, because all these were fruits of Christs death, whereof they were made partakers. As in the Parable, the Lord is said to remit to his servant a thousand Talents, when he desired him, sc. inchoately or upon condition, whichMath. 18. 25. was not confirmed, because he did not forgive his fellow servant: so the false Prophets are bought by the blood of Christ, sc. in a sort, as they beleeved in Christ, but not sincerely and unfainedly. WeHeb. 6. 5, 6, 7. reade of some Apostates, that they had been enlightened, and ta­sted of the heavenly gift, and been partakers of the holy Spirit, who afterwards did revolt from the faith. To these men, their sinnes were remitted in a sort in this world, and in a sort they were bought by the blood of Christ, but inchoately only, and as they tasted the word of life. Had they eaten the word of life, that is, had they soundly and truly beleeved in Christ, they had received perfect and consummate remission of sinnes, both in this world2 Pet. 2. 22. Ʋt generalis, vox acquirere, pro emere, Act. 7. 16. cum Gen. 25. 10. sic spe­cialis, emere pro acquirere vicissim usurpa­tur. Apo. 3. 18. 2 Sam. 7. 23. Psal. 26. 11. and in the world to come; they had been perfectly redeemed and reconciled unto God: but because they did not eate, tasted only, they received not perfect remission, they were not perfectly re­deemed. To this taste answereth the Sowe that is washed, and re­turneth againe to the wallowing in the mire: washed and so re­deemed, washed with remission of sinnes, and so redeemed from sinne, inchoately: but because she returneth to the filth of sinne, that remission is confirmed, neither in the houre of death, nor at the day of Judgement. The false Prophets were bought as they [Page 241] beleeved. Had they beleeved effectually with a soveraigne, well­rootedLuk. 21. 28. Rom. 8. 23. Heb. 11. 35. Empti dincuntar. h [...]e. ut alibi l [...] ­quitur scriptura. Exod. 15. 16. Deut. 32. 6. acqui siti, uene­pe, quod illos Deu [...] in famili­am suam adsci­ [...]erit. See Kimedont. de Redemp. hū. gen. cap. 9. pag. 206. affiance, they had been bought saving-effectually: as they beleeved superficially, so they were bought in act and event, but not unto Salvation. The purchase of redemption goeth before faith, is not made by faith, but applied only: but it is most assu­red, if men beleeve unfainedly, they are redeemed effectually, if they beleeve not, they are not redeemed: for them that be cast off as aliens, we doe not reade that redemption was purchased. This interpretation will not seeme new, nor strained to them that shall weigh the circumstances of the Text, not to them that urge it, when they shall consider it is their owne. It agreeth well with the scope of the Apostle, which is to shew the fearefull condition of such false teachers, because they in life denied the Lord that had called them into Covenant, which they had accepted, whom they had embraced by faith, by whom they were delivered from the pollutions of the world, in whom if they had beleeved unfai­nedly, without question, they should have been saved: and whom wilfully, not of frailty, they had denied. And is not this a good argumēt to prove, that by their wilfull departure they had brought upon themselves swift damnation. If they were never the nee­rer heaven by ought Christ had done, the fault was their owne: for life was truly promised unto them, whereof they deprived themselves, not because they could not doe otherwise, but because they would not receive it, or having received it in part, they vo­luntarily fell off. What though God never purposed to make them actuall partakers of the saving benefits of Christs death? By his commandement he bound them to beleeve, by promise he as­sured them of Salvation if they did beleeve, he bestowed upon them many spirituall gifts the fruits of Christs death; and if they fell a­way, God was no cause efficient or deficient of their revolt: And doth not all this conclude their sinne to be out of measure sinfull in denying the Lord that bought them.

The other places Rom. 14. and 1 Cor. 8. receive the same answer; for they speake of weake bretheren for whom Christ died, who were beleevers, or as beleevers, for whom Christ died in respect of application. And then this argument doth not hang handsom­ly together, Christ died for beleevers in respect of application, therefore he died for all men to impetrate righteousnesse. If they reason thus, he died for some in respect of application that may [Page 242] perish; therefore he died for all men in respect of impetration, it hangs but loosely: for they themselves will say, Christ died for the faithfull only in respect of application, and not for all men, whatsoever we are to thinke of the condition of the faithfull, whe­ther they shall stand, or may perish. Amongst themselves, some that maintaine generall redemption by the death of Christ, doe yet hold, that no lively member of Jesus Christ, can perish, or fall a­way. And I can hardly see how their positions will hang toge­ther, if they doe not grant, that though some believers may fall and perish, yet others cannot: But as concerning the weake bre­theren, such as be true believers, it is possible they should be grie­vously shaken by offences and temptations, yea destroyed, as farre as lies in the authours of scandall and temptation, and their own frailty: but in respect of the decree and unchangeable love of God and the intercession of Jesus Christ, they shall not utterly perish, but if they be tempted, they shall be supported, or if they fall, God will raise them up againe. The Apostles exhortation then is forcible, that they should not offend their weake brother, for this was as much as lies in them to destroy him for whom Christ died.Perditio est [...]orbi ac vul [...]u neris, non mor­tis. Vorst in Rom. 14. 15. Thus Vorstius paraphraseth the text, offend not him with thy meat, I pray thee, and as much as in thee is destroy him, for whom Christ died. And in his loc. com. upon that Chapter, al­though the elect cannot perish, the unchangeable decree of God withstanding, yet it is not said in vaine, that they perish by our fault, who when they have entered into the way of salvation, be­ing offended with our actions begin to turne from the same. And in loc. com. upon the other place; although Christ will suffer none of his to perish, yet indeed they are said to drive weake Chri­stians into destruction, who doe rashly offend them, because to wit offences of themselves doe tend to their destruction, to whom they are objected.

Lastly, It is objected, that the Covenant in Christ is generall, Joh. 3▪ 16. & 6. 30. without respect of others.

As the Covenant is generall, so is the fruit and application of Christs death, in and through whom the Covenant is made, that is, proffered of God, and accepted of man. As all and every man is called into Covenant, liveth under the Ordinances of grace, is partaker of the fruits of the Spirit, and applieth the death of Christ, so Christ died and rose againe for him. But this manner of [Page 243] Christs death pertaineth to the event, act or application, which they confesse is not common to all men, and is manifest in this, that God entred not into Covenant with every Nation at all times, neither under the Law, nor in times of the Gospell, scil. Act and with the Nations he passed by, and which as the Scripture saith were without God. God expressely declared himselfe in the time wherein the distinction of Jew and Gentile tooke place, that he would accept of strangers, as well as any, if they should love and feare his name, Isa. 56. 7. But the Covenant at that time was not made with all Nations, as it was with the Jews, not made known unto all the Gentiles, they did not enjoy means sufficient to come to the knowledge of the truth; That the promises of mercy did at all times belong to them that fulfilled the condition, is needlesse to be proved: but that the Covenant was made with every man, or that meanes sufficient or grace to receive the promises was granted to every man, at all times, in all ages if they would, is that which no Scripture testifieth. And that passage of the Pro­phet, which promiseth the acceptance of the stranger, if he repent and turne unto the Lord, is manifestly spoken of the times of the new Testament, when the partition wall was broken downe, as the verses following doe convince. In the daies of grace the Co­venant was more generall, then in former times it had been: but God hath not erected his Tabernacle, nor walked amongst all Na­tions, in every age of these last times, as experience teacheth. How then is the Covenant generall, respecting every man? Peradven­ture they mean no more but this, that every man that will be saved, must be saved by it, and whosoever doth believe, be he bond or free, Jew or Gentile, male or female, rich or poore, he shall be saved, though the Covenant was never made with most Nations of the world, nor accepted by them, nor they had means to come to the knowledge of it, much lesse grace to performe the conditi­ons: and then to grant the Covenant is generall will availe them nothing. There is no force in this argument, the Covenant of grace is made with some, none being exluded, if they repent and believe, therefore Christ died for every man, rather we may strong­lyRom. 1. 16. Col. 1. 23. Act. 17. 30. Tit. 2. 14. Luk. 24. 47. argue, Christ died not for every man, because God is not the God of all by Covenant. But the invitation is generall, scil. in the daies of grace and to them that heare it, and the promise uni­versall to every believer: we adde, the invitation is serious, shew­ing [Page 244] what God is well pleased with, and doth approve in us, scil. that which he perswadeth with arguments in themselves forcible to move and incite, and what he will performe, if we make good the condition. We adde, that the party invited is passively capa­ble of the invitation, that no man of what state or condition soe­ver is hindred or kept backe from comming to Christ by any cause efficient or deficient out of man himselfe, which doth either con­straine or necessitate his not comming: and he that refuseth to come, refuseth not through inability, as unable, though unwilling and desirous to imbrace it, but willingly preferring some base in­feriour good before it. But this argueth only the sufficiency of Christs death, that all men should be saved, if they did believe, and the efficiency thereof, that the members of the visible Church should be invited seriously, and those that be effectually called should inherit the promise.

It will be said, to what purpose are they called and invited, if they be as unable to come, as a dead man is to arise and walke. True it is, every man is of himselfe unable by nature to come unto Christ, and God doth enable whom he please: but this inability is not from any impossibility that is without man himselfe, either in respect of the thing commanded, or any externall cause, or bruite necessity and disposition, but from his voluntary perverse­nesse, which is most blame-worthy. The comparison may be ad­mitted, if rightly interpreted, otherwise it is captious: for sinne is the death of the soule not physicall, but morall: Man by sin loc­seth not the faculty of understanding, and willing, but of under­standing and willing aright, as in duty he is bound, the object be­ing propounded and revealed with fit and convenient light. It is not therefore all one to invite a sinner to forsake the errour of his way, and call upon a dead man to arise out of the grave. The Lord who doth whatsoever he will in heaven above, and in earth beneath, in his deepe and unsearchable counsell never absolutely intended to make every man actually and effectually partakers of the benefit promised, for if he had so purposed it, it should have taken effect: neverthelesse, the invitation is serious, shewing what we ought to doe, and God doth approve and desire on our parts: and the purpose of God to give faith to whom he please, and not to all men, is no cause of any mans unbeliefe, either efficient or deficient, For that man believeth, this he oweth unto God, and [Page 245] that not simply alone, but comparatively in respect of others, who believe not: but that man refuseth the promises of mercy, this is of himselfe, not of simple or naturall infirmity, which might pro­cure pity, but of his owne perversenesse, and love to some infe­riour good, different from the good proposed, or contrary to it, and aversenesse from the circumstances and conditions of the object proposed.

They aske, what signe doth God shew of desire or approvall that men should believe, when he gives them not power so to doe. This that he commandeth, intreateth, perswadeth them to re­pent and believe, waiteth with long-suffering and patience for their amendment, promiseth mercy if they will returne, convin­ceth them of their wilfulnesse, and though he change not their hearts by the effectuall worke of his Spirit, is wanting to them in nothing, which in justice or promise he is bound to give, specially when their impenitency is not from lack of grace, but from per­versenesse. If this satisfie them not, let them answer themselves, how God doth will the repentance of them that be cast off, and left to the hardnesse of their hearts? How he doth will, desire and approve the conversion of such as he hath blinded and hardened for their sins, even when they are so blinded and hardened; as ofGen. 4. 7. 1 Joh. 3. 12. Mat. 13. 15. Caine, who was of the wicked one, and slew his brother, be­cause God had respect unto his sacrifice, and of the Jews, whose eyes were closed, and hearts hardened, that they should not convert.

How is it imaginable, say they, that impossible should be the object of Gods desire or approvall? The answer is given already, impossible in it selfe, or in respect of the unreasonablenesse of the thing commanded, is not the object of Gods desire, approvall or commandment: but an impossible thing to us in respect of ou [...] perversenesse, may be and is the object of Gods commandment, and so of his approvall and desire, as he doth will and desire what he doth command. Doth not God exact of the Gentiles given up to the vanity of their minds, that they should seeke him in the way, wherein he will be found, if they would be saved, when they have not meanes sufficient to bring them to the knowledge of the truth, nor grace to believe? Doth not the Lord command, approve, and desire the conversion of many obstinate, impenitent persons living in the Church, who have and doe abuse the meanes [Page 246] of grace, whom for their former and present contempt he dothIsa. 6. 9. blind and harden, whose condemnation is aggravated by this, that they have, and doe live under great and good teaching? Doth not the Law exact perfection of them who are under the Law, when it is impossible by reason of the infirmity of the flesh? Is not the rebellion of the flesh repugnant to the Law of God, from which it is impossibe to be freed in this life? In the Covenant of grace, perfection of faith and obedience is commanded, otherwise im­perfection should not be a sinne: but that is impossible to man, whilest he carries about this body of sin. And if impossible be not the object of Gods will in this sence, he that by custome in evill hath contracted an habit, that he cannot but sin, should not offend, and he that is carried with most violence of mind unto evill, should be least evill.

They demand further, how could God approve that such should repent and believe, as doe not these things from him, and by the power of his grace, who therefore might glory, as he would have no creature to doe? 1 Cor. 1. 30. And it is a most sure thing, God would have no creature to glory in himselfe, and most true, that faith will not, cannot glory in any thing, but in the Lord, and therefore we acknowledge that God of his grace hath chosen some men to faith and holinesse, as in justice he purposed to leave and forsake others for their sin. For if God decreed not to give men faith and repentance, he is not the authour of them. For God doth nothing in time, but what he decreed to doe before all time. To exclude boasting it sufficeth not to say, that God gives grace, whereby we might believe, if we will, specially if we use our na­turall gifts well: for that makes ability to believe only to be of God, and that in part procured by our selves, but faith and repen­tance to be from the free use of our owne will, whereby we are di­stinguished from others which believe not, to whom God wished as well, and who received as much grace from God, perhaps more. See Groven. dissert. de elect. & fid. praevis. But leaving that matter for the time, to the objection the answer is plaine, that as God commandeth wicked men to repent and believe, so he testifieth what he doth desire and approve, but with-holding the internall and effectuall working of his Spirit, they will not re­pent through their perversenesse. As it is a duty which God re­quireth, so it is approved, but without his grace it cannot be per­formed. [Page 247] It is a certaine truth, if the wicked doe repent unfai­nedly, they shall be accepted, but repentance is the gift of God, which without his grace cannot be wrought. As God comman­deth repentance, so he doth approve it, but he approves not that men should glory in themselves, because if they returne as he com­mands, it is by his grace. God testified to Cain what he appro­ved, Gen. 4 7. when Cain had not grace at that time to doe what God required: nor did the Lord approve, that he should glory in himself, as if he could repent by his own power.

It may be asked, to what end doth God invite and perswade wicked men to repent and believe, if he give them not grace to be­lieve if they will. The latter part of that question must be explai­ned, for if this be the meaning, that many men through their own default be left of God without grace sufficient to bring them to life eternall, it is that experience it selfe confirmeth, in many In­fidels who have departed this life, before they had means to come to the knowledge of Jesus Christ. And if God may deny to some both meanes and grace sufficient to bring them to life eternall, he may justly with-hold the graces of his Spirit from them that be called and invited in the Ministery of the word, when grace is free­ly given, and both the one and other be deprived through their owne default. But if the meaning of that latter clause be, that though wicked men should seek and truly desire grace, yet God doth violently with-hold it from them, then it is most false, and implies a contradiction, as if men without the grace of God, could truly desire grace. Now the end of this invitation may be consi­dered according to the meanes and invitation it selfe, and the willDuplex animi despositio ad fi­dem & poeniten­tiam: una fine qua non: scil. ut audia [...]us Ev [...]n­gelium: formali [...] altera. of God exacting of man what is good and acceptable, and what in duty he oweth unto God: and in this respect the salvation of the party invited is the end of the invitation: or it may be consi­dered according to the will of God, whereby he doth not only or­daine and approve meanes to such an end, but will so bring to passe that the effect shall follow: or hereby he not only commands them to believe, and others to further their salvation, but willeth effectually to bring them to salvation and draw them unto him by the powerfull operation of his Spirit, so he doth not will the sal­vation of all that be called. As men are called to repent that they might live, and God doth in calling them a vow it is his desire, they would repent that they might live, so the end of the invitation is [Page 248] life and salvation. This is manifest, in that the Lord doth earnest­ly againe and againe call upon impenitent and obstinate sinners to repent and believe, protesting that he desires not their death, but rather that they should repent and live, when yet in his just and dreadfull judgement he hardeneth their hearts for their perverse­nesse and rebellion, that they cannot repent. But in respect of the good pleasure of God not to give them grace to repent and believe, which of his rich mercy he gives to others, who have abused what they received no lesse, perhaps more then they, the end is to ma­nifest his justice in them, for the contempt of his grace. For what God doth command, intreat, perswade and promise, that he doth will as he doth command, in [...]reat, perswade and promise it. But as God doth justly denie that grace to one, which of his free love he vouchsafeth unto another, so he willeth to ma­nifest his justice in the one sort, and the riches of his grace in the other.

Lastly, Some object, that they that are invited must either have Christ, he not dying for them, or misse of Christ though they re­pented, whereof the former would argue mutability, that Christ should die for men, and not die for them, and the latter would be a breach of promise. A conceit not much unlike, drove Socinus to denie the prescience of God, because whencesoever this pre­science commeth, it is altogether certaine, and from that is ne­cessarily gathered an antecedent necessity of all things which are done. Socin. Praelect. cap. 8. And in the same forme and man­ner a man may reason from the prescience of God, if God approve the repentance and faith of them, whom he doth certainly fore­know to have no portion or benefit by the death of Christ, then either if they repent they shall have no benefit, which is con­trary to his promise, or if they have benefit, then is God deceived, neither of which can be admitted without blas­phemie.

And the answer to both these cavils is one, that certaine it is Christ died for them that believe, and whosoever believeth in him truly and unfainedly, shall have benefit by his death: but we need not, we cannot say, Christ died for them for whom he died not, or that God is changeable: For it is as sure and true, that they will not repent and believe for whom Christ died not. The connexion is good, if the reprobate doe repent and believe unfainedly they [Page 249] shall be partakers of the benefits of Christs death: but the simple Propositions are both false; the reprobates doe repent, and they are partakers of the saving benefits of Christs death. Carnall rea­sonings have brought forth strange monsters in Divinity, and in this particular not a few: It is good for us to acknowledge the wisdome, justice, goodnesse, mercy and truth of God in all his wayes, though we cannot wade into the depth of his counsels. If men give themselves leave to reason thus against the protestations of the Lord, why doth he intreat and perswade them to returne? why doth he complaine that they will not come unto him? if he give them not grace to come if they will, if he doe not enable them: Might they not plead as well against the fore-knowledge of God in the same manner, if God certainly fore-know that men will not returne upon such invitation, why doth he intreat a­gaine and againe, sending his Prophets early, and calling upon them, when by the refusall of such mercy, they aggravate their sin, and encrease their judgement. Sure amongst men such a course would be accounted idle, unlesse it was done for a further end. One answer will suffice to both Objections: but when shall we make an end, if we give way to our ignorant and blind ima­ginations.

Now let us come to the second opinion, which is that Christ died, and by his death satisfied the justice of God for all that have believed, doe believe, or shall believe; that they, and they only are partakers of the saving benefits of Christs death. The death and redemption of Christ they deny not to be sufficient for the sal­vationSee Malder an­tisynod. p. 23, 24 Tapper. in schol. Lovan. Art. 6. Fr. Sonn. l. 3. demonst. Relig. Christ. cap. 19. Heb. 13. 20. Zach. 9. 11. Mat. 26. 26. and 20. 28. Mar. 14. 24. Isa. 53. 12. Luk. 22. 20, Heb. 9. 28. of all men: nor that it is effectuall in many particulars, to some that believe not sincerely: but that, if the will of God, or the event be considered in respect of saving benefits, it was pecu­liar to the faithfull. For Christ the Mediatour of the Covenant of grace, died for them only that be comprehended in the Covenant of grace. His bloud is the bloud of the everlasting Covenant, of the Covenant that God of his grace hath stricken with his Church, and was shed for them that have been, are and shall be called in­to that Covenant. This is my bloud of the new Testament, which is shed for many for remission of sinnes: For many both Jews and Gentiles, of which the Church was to be gathered. Luke hath it, which is shed for you; and so it was shed for them, and for many of the same spirituall estate and condition with them, for [Page 250] many under the same Covenant. The word many is used for all sometime, Rom. 5. 15, 16, 19. but here it is used rather to distin­guish them that be in Covenant, from them that be cast off, and them to whom remission of sins purchased by the bloud of ChristHeb. 2. 10, 13. is sealed in the Sacrament, from them to whom it is applyed. The remission of sinne here spoken of, is not put for remissiblenesse, but actuall remission granted and received, for remission in act and application, whereof all are not partakers. If all be taken for the common sort and poore of the people (which yet may be questio­ned, and cannot be proved by any passage of Scripture, or shew of reason) and our Saviour used that phrase to testifie his aboundant love and humility, in that he shed his bloud for the poore and in­feriour ranks of men in this world, it makes nothing against the former interpretation. For not many mighty, not many noble, but the poore and base of this world are called and admitted into1 Cor. 1. 21. Covenant. But the faithfull only be effectually in Covenant: they that be in Covenant according to the outward admini­stration, doe professe the faith, and in some degree are con­formable in respect of conversation: they that be truely and effectually in Covenant, doe soundly and unfainedly beleeve. When the Scripture speakes of them that be out of Cove­nant, it saith they are not knowne of God, neither doe they know God, that is, they are not regarded of God, neitherIsai. 55. 5. Exod. 4. 10. Exod. 5. 1. Jer. 10. 20. Isai. 63. 8. Hos 1. 10. Tit. 2 14. Col 1. 21. Gal. 4. 26. Rom. 4. 16. doe they regard him: when of them that live in Covenant, it stileth them the people of God, sonnes or children of God, the sonnes of the living God, a peculiar people, reconciled unto God, justified unto life; the daughters of Zion and of Jeru­salem, who have the Jerusalem that is above for their spirituall mother, the seed of Abraham, who is the Father of us all; And as Jerusalem which is above is the mother of us all, so is Christ said to die for us all, and God to have mercy upon all. Rom. 8. 32. He that spared not his own Sonne, but delivered him up for us all. Rom. 11. 32. God hath concluded them all in unbeliefe, that he might have mercy upon all. Rom. 5. 18. By the righteousnesse of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life, that is, of all them which pertaine to the posterity of Christ by spirituall regenerati­on. It may well be, that all to whom Paul wrote that Epistle, did not unfainedly believe, but as they professed the Doctrine of Salvation, and in some measure walked according to the policie of [Page 251] the new Jerusalem, and as they enjoyed the Ordinances of grace, whereby Christ was applied, so the Apostle speakes of them as Saints and beloved and faithfull. And in the same sense in other places, they are reckoned amongst the faithfull, beloved and elect, who believe for a time, and professe the doctrine of Salvation, and partāke the seales of the Covenant, though afterwards they fall away: and as they are called beleevers, converts, disciples, mem­bers of Christ, temples and sonnes of God; as they are said to be justified, sanctified, and redeemed, so is Christ to have died for them, as he is applyed in the Ordinances of grace, and they par­take of the benefits of his death. But as for them that be not in Covenant, we shall never reade that their sinnes are pardoned,Act. 10. 43. Joh. 5. 24. Joh. 15. 2. Act. 15. 9. Rom. 5. 1. Rom. 9. 25, 26. Col. 1. 21. Joh. 3. 36. 2 Cor. 6. 15, 16, 17. that they are delivered from death, purged from their sinnes, recon­ciled unto God, received into favour: nay, the contrary is plainly affirmed of them, that they are not the people of God, that they have no communion with Christ, that they are enemies in their minds by wicked works, alienated from God, that the wrath of God abideth on them, that they are without God in the world; which is never said of them for whom Christ died. The Scripture speaketh expressely, that Christ died for his Church, his sheep, his children, his people, the people or children of God, those that are given unto him of the Father, his brethren. As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father, and I lay downe my life for my sheep. Joh. 10. 15. Take heed unto your selves, and to all the flocke, to feed the Church of God, which he hath purchased with his own bloud. Act. 20. 28. Christ is the head of the Church, and he is the Saviour of the body. Eph. 5. 23. Christ loved the Church, and gave himselfe for it. ver. 25. He shall save his people from their sinnes. Matth. 1. 21. Who gave himselfe for us, that he might redeeme us from all iniquity, and purifie unto himself a peculiar people. Tit. 2. 14. As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternall life to as many as thou hast given him. Joh. 17. 2. He prophesied that Jesus should die for that Nation; and not for that Nation only, but also that he should ga­ther together in one, the children of God that were scattered abroad. Joh. 11. 51, 52. For both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified are all one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren, say­ing, I will declare thy Name to my brethren, Heb. 2. 11, 12. The Church and people of God in themselves considered were sinners, ungodly, enemies, alienated from God, and Christ died for them, [Page 252] not that he found them friends or brethren, or children, but thatRom. 5. 6, 10. he might make them such, as by the participation of the benefits of his death they are made such indeed. The faithfull are the seed or children of Christ, which he hath brought forth with pain and travell. Isai. 53. 10, 11. The inheritance of Christ, which he hath purchased by his death, given unto him of the Father, that they might be redeemed from death, and possessed of him for their Salvation. Psal. 2. 8. as the Psalmist elsewhere expounds it, All the ends of the world shall remember and turne unto the Lord: and all Psal. 22. 27. Psal. 72. 11. and 86. 9. the kinreds of the Nations shall worship before thee. And if Christ died thus for his people, seed, inheritance, sheep, and Church, he died not equally for all and every man: for then in his death he considered none to be made his sheep or brethren before others, nor did he purchase grace that one should be made the child of God rather then another. For though grace be distribu­ted, in different degrees, yet that being so common to them that beleeve and them that beleeve not, that some­times the greater measure is given to them that reject and cast it off, it cannot be the cause why one man differs from ano­ther.

Many things are answered to this argument; As first, that it isSynodal. circ. Art. 2. pa [...] 3 17. Vorst. amica collat. cum Piscat. s [...]ct. 26. Gal. 2. 20. not said Christ died for his sheep, or brethren only, and that his dying for them doth not exclude others; as Paul saith, Christ died for him, applying the death of Christ to himself, but not ex­cluding others. But the instance is not like; for these words (for me) are not disjunctive to distinguish Paul from the rest of the faithfull, but from unbeleevers, or them that were not in the same state or kind. This is a priviledge common to Paul with all be­leevers, that Christ died for him: in respect of them then it is not disjunctive, but in respect of them who be not partners in that prerogative, it is disjunctive. Therefore the example doth ra­ther prove the speech to be restrictive, then otherwise: for as these words of Paul, Who loved me, and gave himself for me, di­stinguish Paul from the company of unbeleevers, and so are exclu­sive: in like manner are these words of our Saviour, I lay down my life for my sheep, restrictive and exclusive. In those Texts there is no exclusive particle expressed, but the proposition for sense is re­strictive. For when difference or distinction is contained in some terme, the Proposition is for sense exclusive, no lesse then if it was [Page 253] expressely noted. Thou shalt feare the Lord thy God, him shalt thou Deut. 10. 20. serve, and to him shalt thou cleave: here is no restriction or exclu­sion expressed, but in sense it is exclusive, Call upon me in the time of Psal. 50. 15. trouble, and I will heare thee: only is not added, and yet for the sense the words are exclusive. In thy seed shall all the Nations of the earth be blessed; though no exclusion be expressed, the Apostle isGal. 3. 16. bold to interpret it, as if it had been said, In thy seed alone. Whom he foreknew, them he predestinated: this proposition is notRom. 8. 29, 30. expressely exclusive, is it not then exclusive in sense? When Da­vid saith, The Lord is my God, he excludes not the faithfull from the same preeminence: but when the Lord saith to his people, I am the Lord thy God, he excludes them that be not in Covenant. Abraham beleeved God, and it was accounted to him for righteous­nesse: Gen. 15. 6. here is not restriction added, but the proposition is exclu­sive. Whosoever beleeveth in Christ shall not perish, but have everla­sting Joh. 3. 16. life: doth not this proposition exclude works from being a cause of Salvation, because only is not added? Some answer, that these passages be exclusive, because the Apostle expressely shuts forth works from the act of Justification, Rom. 3. 28. where­as they rather teach, that faith doth comprehend repentance, con­version and new obedience, and that works are not excluded from the act of Justification, but only works done by the power of na­ture: But leaving that, the proposition is for the matter exclu­sive, and that the Apostle shewes from the thing it self, proving hereby that Abraham, after he had followed the Lord a long time, and yeelded obedience to his commandements, was justified by faith without the works of the Law. The words therefore may be exclusive though only be not added: and that they be restri­ctive is plain by the thing signified: for what is it for Christ to lay down his life for his sheep, or to purchase his Church by his bloud, but to bruise the serpents head, to redeeme them from all iniquity, and purifie them to be a peculiar people to himselfe, [...]o save his people from their sins, to deliver them from the feare of hell and death, and to blesse all Nations of the earth, according to the promise made to Abraham.

This needs no further confirmation then the next answer, which they make, that the words be exclusive not in respect of the thing it selfe, but of the modus: which others expresse thus, that Christ died for his sheep in respect of the application and [Page 254] event. For if it be exclusive in the modus, exclusive it is as well, though only be not added, as if it was. And the question is not of the sufficiency of Christs death for all men, in respect of the mag­nitude and excellency of the price: nor of the efficiency of his death in some degrees, for such as shall not inherit the crown of glory: but of the modus, whether he died sufficientèr & efficientèr quantum in se, for all and every man. That this Modus is exclu­ded, will appeare in that we shall never reade that Christ died for any but for his sheep, his Church, his brethren, his people, or them that be considered as such in respect of present profession, exter­nall administration, and application of his benefits. Ʋnto you is borne this day in the City of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Luke 2. 11. Luke 1. 68, 69, 70. Lord. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, because he hath visited and redeemed his people, and hath raised up an borne of Salvation in the house of his servant David, as he spake by the mouth of his holy Pro­phets▪ which have been since the world began: That we should be sa­ved from our enemies, and from the hands of all that hate us. Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of Luke 2. 30, 31, 32. all people. A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel. Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his Heb. 2. 17. brethren, that he might be a mercifull and faithfull high Priest, in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the s [...]nnes of the people. Thou art worthy to take the booke, and to open the seales thereof: for Rev. 5. 9. thou wast slaine, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kinred, and tongue, and people, and nation. And generally in every place, they, for whom Christ is said to die, are called his elect, his sheep, his people, his brethren, not barely called into Covenant, but received upon their acceptance thereof. The severall passages al­leadged to prove the universality of Christs death, have been ex­amined already, and found to speake directly to this purpose. But amongst them that be called into, and accept of the Covenant, some be elected simply, others in comparison, some be the sheep and brethren of Christ in truth and sincerity, others in pro­fession and externall administration, or in some respect only. And as we must distinguish of the elect and sheepe of Christ, so of his dying for them. For he died for all his elect, as they apply and be partakers of the benefits of his death: he died saving-effectually, scil to bring them to grace and glo­ry; according to the election of grace, for his simply elect [Page 255] and people in truth, that is, for them upon whom Salvation should be conferred, and to whom it should be soundly applied. So the Prophet telleth us, Christ died, that indeed and most cer­tainelyIsa. 53. 10. he might see his seed, and bring many brethren unto God. And if Christ died not for his sheepe for this particular end, that by his speciall grace, and that which is given to none others, theyRom. 9. 18. Job, 10. 15. might injoy the fruit of his death, we must confesse, that Christ in this saying doth give no particular comfort to his sheepe, and in that whole Chapter: which is absurd. And though sheepe and beleevers materially be the same, formally in this place they be not: for when Christ saith to the Pharisees, Yee beleeve not, for yee are not of my sheepe. Joh. 10. 16. If to be a beleever and the sheep of Christ doe signifie the same thing, he should say, ye beleeve not, and that which followeth, My sheepe heare my voice, and follow me, Joh. 10. 27. should be the same as if it had been said, the belee­vers beleeve. So that sheepe and beleevers are reciprocall, but formally they are not made sheepe by faith, but by election.

Moreover the acquisition of righteousnesse by the death of Christ, and the application thereof, are things to be distinguished, but so inseperably conjoyned, that for whomsoever it is acquired, to them it is applied. By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justifie many: for he shall beare their iniquities, Isa. 5 [...]. 11. He bare the sinne of many, and made intercession for the transgressours, Isa. 33. 12. By his stripes are we healed, Isa, 53. 5. Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised againe for our justification, Rom. 4 25. As by the offence of one, judgement came upon all men to condemnation: even so by the righteousnesse of one, the free gift, came upon all men un­to justification of life, Rom. 5. 18. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather that is risen againe, Rom. 8. 34. I am come that they might have life, and that th [...]y might have it more a­boundantly, Joh. 10. 10. In this was manifested the love of God towards us, because that God sent his only begotten Sonne into the world, that we might live through him, 1 Joh. 4. 9. By the which will we are sancti­fied, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, Heb. 10. 10. For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are san­ctified, vers. 14. The passages of Scripture are plentifull, which testifie application to be the end of Christs death; for he died to establish and ratifie the everlasting Covenant of grace, Heb. 9. 15, 16, 17. to abolish him that had the power of death, that is, the [Page 256] devill, Heb. 2. 14, 15. conquer death, 2 Tim. 1. 10. destroy and kill sinne, Rom. 6. 10. sanctifie his people through the truth, Joh. 17. 19. give life unto the world, Joh. 6. 33. redeeme us from the curse of the Law, Gal. 3. 13. and from all iniquity, Tit. 2. 14. obtaine eter­nall redemption, Heb. 9. 12. that we might be made the righte­ousnesse of God in him, 2 Cor. 5. 21. that he might deliver us from this present evill world, Gal. 1. 4. that being dead unto sinne, and alive unto God, Rom. 6. 4, 5, 6. we might not live to our selves, but unto him which died for us, and rose againe, 2 Cor. 5. 15. and that we might receive the adoption of sonnes, Gal. 4. 5. And it is ab­surd to reason it selfe, that Christ by the decree of God should pur­chase that for men which is not given unto them; that he should acquire what they obtaine not: that by divine imputation Christ should die for every man, when the merits of Christ be not com­municated unto them: that the promised seed should be given to Abraham, no blessing or multiplication following. If Christ have purchased a new Covenant, faith, redemption, reconciliati­on for every man, without question they are or shall be delivered from the condemnation and dominion of sinne; the Spirit is given or shall be given to abide with them; they ar [...] or shall be renewed after the Image of God. If Christ be a King, he hath a Kingdome, subjects and territories, wherein he doth exercise his regall power. He is a King not only in personall right, or to punish enemies; but a King to feed and rule a people. God hath given his Sonne the uttermost parts of the earth for his po­ssession, and shall men with-hold it? Shall God give men unto Christ, and shall they detaine themselves from him? If Christ came to destroy the workes of the devill, (that is sinne, as the A­postle shewes, 1 Joh. 3. 8. Joh. 8. 41, 44.) and to deliver men from the feare of death and the devill, shall we not thinke, that Satan is cast downe, and death abolished? Christ is a Saviour as in me­rit so in efficacy, else should his purchase be in vaine, the end of his comming into the world be uncertaine, his purpose in laying downe his life be frustrate, and Christ should merit by the appoint­ment of God, what God doth not give: therfore▪ the impe­tration of righteousnesse must not be plucked from the application, nor doth the giving of benefits purchased by the death of Christ depend upon the pleasure of men any more then the acquisition doth. Betwixt the purchase and application of Christs death, [Page 257] faith comes between: but that faith is merited by the death of Christ, and for Christ vouchsafed to them, for whom he died, Tit. 3. 6. Ephes. 1. 3. Phil. 1. 29. Ephes. 6. 23.

Some have answered, that all men are the sheep of Christ, as the dispersed, torne, and devoured of evill pastors and beasts of the field, and the seduced and destroyed are acknowledged to be sheep, Jer. 23. 1, 2. Ezek. 34. 5, 6. But the Prophets speake only of the people of the Jewes, which at that time was distinct from the Gentiles, as the flock and inheritance of the Lord: so that hence nothing can be gathered, but that they, who live in Christs Church and fold, are his people and sheep of his pasture.

Againe, the Scripture speakes of the sheep of Christ, two wayes, according to vocation or according to election. Accor­ding to vocation they are sheep, who externally pertaine to the number of Gods people and the Church: according to election,Jer. 23. 3. Rom. 9. 27. Ezek. 34. 5, 6. many sheep are without, many wolves within, and many sheep within, many wolves without. Although there be a distinction betwixt the merit of Christ by his obedience even to death, and his intercession, yet one of them cannot be separated from the o­ther: for he maketh intercession for them to his Father for whom he hath merited reconciliation by his death, and we cannot thinke he should lay downe his life for them, for whom he would not pray. If we looke unto the signification of the words, Mediatour and Intercessor note the same thing: and if Christ have put him­selfe betwixt the wrath of God and man to obtaine reconciliation by making satisfaction to offended justice, can it be thought, he will not request, that for the virtue of his sacrifice they for whom he hath satisfied, might be accepted of the Father. If we looke to these two functions of Mediation, suffering death and making intercession, they are conjoyned in Scripture. It is Christ that Rom. 8. 34. died, yea rather that is risen againe, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. If any man sinne we have 1 Joh. 2. 1, 2. an Advocate with the Father Iesus Christ the righteous, and he is the propitiation for our our sinnes. Christ is our Advocate, if he be our propitiation, if we will receive the testimony of the Apostle and not separate things that God hath conjoyned. Incredible it is, that Christ out of his incredible love should vouchsafe to lay downe his life for them as well as others, for whom, the time of his passion being at hand, he would not power out a prayer. How [Page 258] these two be conjoyned in the intention of our Saviour, sc. to prayJoh. 17. 19. for men and to offer himselfe a Sacrifice for them, may appeare by the words of our Saviour himselfe, for these I sanctifie my selfe, that is, for these am I prepared to offer my selfe, that they might be sanctified by the truth; for these, that is, them for whom he pray­ed. And if Christ had intended to offer up himselfe an holy and propitiatory sacrifice for the sinnes of all and every man, he would rather have prayed his Father to accept his sacrifice for all men, then professe that he prayed not for all men. For whom Christ hath offered up himselfe a Sacrifice to put away sinne, for them doth he appeare before God in heaven: and if he doth appeare be­foreHeb. 9. 24. God for them, he doth also make request for them But Christ prayed not for all men, professeth that he prayed not for the world.Joh. 17. 9. He prayed for beleevers and them that should beleeve hereafter, and testified that he would not pray for the rest. And it must be observed, that he prayeth for them that beleeve and shall beleeve, as they were Gods, and of God given to Christ, which formally is not the same with beleevers, though it be materially.Joh. 6. 37, 39.

They answer to this argument, that there is a two-fold inter­cession of Christ, one generall for all men that they might be­leeve. The other speciall for beleevers, that they might be gl [...]ified▪

If you aske the ground of this distinction, they say, Christ up­on the Crosse prayed for his persecutours and them that put him to death, Father forgive them, they know not what they doe. But if we search the Scripture we shall find no passage that saith, ChristLuk. 23. 34. prayed for every man that he might beleeve, nor is probable. For if he aske faith for all men, then absolutely or conditionally: not absolutely; for then all men should obtaine faith, because Christ was absolutely heard in whatsoever he absolutely prayed for. If upon condition, doth he then pray to his Father, that they might not resist the first grace offered, or that they might beleeve, if they doe not resist the first grace? But if absolutely he pray that they might not resist, then they doe not resist grace: if conditionally, that they might beleeve, if they doe not resist, then he prayeth that they might beleeve if they beleeve: for not to resist the first grace is to obey it, that is, to beleeve. Besides, if Christ pray for all men that they might beleeve, then also that they might enjoy the Gospell; which is the meanes of faith: and that either absolutely, and they should enjoy the Gospell, which we know they doe no [...][Page 259] or upon condition, as the right use of their naturall gifts, or the piety of their progenitours, or the like: And then these conditi­ons our Saviour doth pray for absolutely or upon condition, or not at all: If absolutely, then all men should use their naturall gifts well, because he is alwayes heard in that which he doth aske ab­solutely: if not at all, then it is not of grace that men use their na­turall gifts well, or some grace is given to men without the inter­cession of Christ. And when the Gospell is vouchsafed to some that abuse their naturall gifts, to others not, did our Saviour pray that some should have the Gospell absolutly, some conditionally? or is the Gospell granted to some for the intercession of Christ, to others without it, although he make intercession equally for all men? And if the Gospell be vouchsafed to some that abuse their naturall gifts, why doth not God give the grace of faith also with­out that condition, under which only Christ asked faith for them. Moreover▪ if Christ pray for all men that they may beleeve, he as­keth this for the vertue and merit of his passion, or not. If not, then faith should not be given for the merit of Christ: if he aske for the merit of his passion, then he asketh it without any condition; for Christ d [...]ed absolutely & without conditiō for all men, as they teach, & what Christ hath merited for all men, that God giveth absolute­ly to every man. Christ upon the crosse prayed for them that crucified him, Luk. [...]3. 34. But that might be of private duty as man, who subjected himselfe to the Law of God, which requires that we forgive our enemies, and pray for them that persecute us; not of the proper office of a Mediatour, who was to intercede for his people by suffering death and making request. It behoved Christ, as he subjected himselfe to the Law, to fulfill all righte­ousnesse, and so to pray for his enemies, but that was not out of his proper office as Mediatour, which was to offer up himselfe a Sacrifice or make intercession, as our high Priest. If any shall contend, that this is to be referred to the proper Mediatorie inter­cession of Christ, it will not prove the matter in hand: for he prayed not for all and every man, but for them that crucified him, and that indefinitely, not universally; for them that were pre­sent at his crucifying, and in simplicity of heart (and not of affe­cted ignorance (resisting the evidence of the Spirit speaking by Christ, and by miracles giving testimony to his doctrine) in obe­dience to the commandement of the Superiours, did crucifie him, [Page 260] but not for all them that had any hand in his death. He prayeth not that they might beleeve, if they were not wanting to them­selves: but prayeth for forgivenesse for them that had abused naturall gifts, and supernaturall meanes of grace: so that it can­not be referred to that generall Intercession they speake of, with any shew of reason.

Some answer, the sense of the words is only this, Father seeing they have sinned of ignorance, let them not be punished with that punishment, which the thing they have done deser­veth (which was without all hope to be blinded, hardened, and cast off) but let them not for this sin be in this state, but shew mer­cy on them, that they may be in possibility of repentance, pardon, and grace, which intercession answereth Christs dying, as it re­specteth all, which was to possibilitate their Salvation. But this exposition is new and straitned, and cannot be confirmed by any circumstance of the place, or signification of the word forgive­nesse: and if it be granted, will not sute with their purpose. For Christ died not to possibilitate the Salvation of every man, that had or should abuse naturall gifts and supernaturall meanes, as the rulers of the people, which stirred up the people to desire Jesus that he might be crucified, nor prayed for every man, that had so fearfully abused the meanes of grace by wilfull and affected ignorance (if not worse) that he should not be given up to blind­nesse and hardnesse of heart. If any man shall be bold to affirme ei­ther of these, we must desire better proofe then his bare word, be­fore we can yeeld assent.

If it be said, the persons for whom Christ prayed were not in a state capable of remission or pardon, because they were impeni­tentCorvin. in Mol. cap. 27. pag. 7. and unbeleevers, Corvinus answereth, that we must under­stand the condition, if they repent. And by the same reason, he might aske salvation for all men, scil. if they repent and beleeve. And how then doth this Intercession differ from that, which they say was speciall for the Salvation of beleevers. Surely to aske the pardon of their sinnes that repent, doth rather pertaine to spe­ciall Intercession whereby the salvation of them that beleeve is prayed for, then to the generall, wherein the faith of all men is craved.

An example of this generall Intercession, wherein Christ prayeth that all men might beleeve in him, we have (they say) [Page 261] in that 17. of John, ver. 21. That the world may beleeve that thou hast sent me. Some by the world in that place understand the elect, who then were dispersed abroad, or them that were to be converted from infidelity to the faith. But because the word world in the whole Chapter is taken in another sence, it is most naturall in this place to understand it as before, for men that be of the world, not illightened, or converted to the faith: and the word Beleeve to be put improperly for to acknowledge or con­fesse. The sense is, that the world, although unbeleeving, althoughMaldonat. in Joh. 17. 21. Iansen. hac. 136. an adversary to me, yet seeing the great love and concord of my Disciples, may be compelled to beleeve, that is, to acknowledge and confesse, that I was sent of God, that is, that I am not as now it thinketh, a seducer, but that I am truly sent of the Father; or that the Infidels may by experience be convinced to confesse my glo­ry, and be compelled to acknowledge and confesse that thou hast sent me a Saviour into the world. This sense is so plain and easie, that we need not seek any further for the meaning: but if we grant it to be meant of true and sound faith, it will not follow thence, that Christ made intercession for every man in the world, that he might beleeve. For the world is usually taken for men in the world indefinitely, and not simply for every man, nor yet for the greater part of men in the world. There went out a decree from Cesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed, Luk 2. 1. but this cannot be extended to every nation, much l [...]sse to every man. The Vide Psal. 118. 10. 1 Chro. 14. 17. Jer. 27. 7. Dan. 2. 38. Matth. 10. 22. Rom. 15. Rev. 18. 3, 23. impure spirits goe forth unto the Kings of the earth, and of the whole world. Rev. 16. 14. All the world wondred after the beast. Rev. 13. 3. The whole world lyeth in iniquity. 1 Joh. 5. 19. He was in the world, and the world knew him not. Joh. 1. 10. Behold, the world is gone after him. Joh. 12. 19. The Syriacke Interpreter, vulgar Interpreter, and Mannus the Greeke Paraphrast, adde the universall particle and reade it, the whole world; But if the world be taken for every man in the world, we must conclude, that every man in the world did follow Christ, and that no man in the world did know him.

They aske again, what is it the Intercession of Christ required? Psal. 2. 8. Aske of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine Inhe­ritance. Is it not for unbeleevers to bring them to the faith? and doth not Christ intercede for the comming of Gods Kingdome, as he taught his Disciples to doe? There is therefore an Interces­sion [Page 262] of Christ for them that beleeve. But here we cannot find that generall Intercession of Christ they speake of, that every man might come to the faith by fitting meanes, but for the most part ineffectuall. The prayer required in the second Psalme Arminius Armin. Orat. de Sacerdot. Chr. referreth to the prayer which Christ offered to the Father for him­selfe, according to the commandement and promise of the Father. Aske of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine Inheritance: to which Promise of the Father Christ having respect, said, Fa­ther glorifie thy Sonne, that thy Sonne also may glorifie thee, as thou Joh. 17. 2. hast given him power over all flesh, that he might give eternall life to as many as thou hast given him. And from this prayer are to be di­stinguished (saith he) those supplications which with strong cries and teares he offered to his Father in the dayes of his flesh: by those he craved to be freed from his Agony, by this he prayeth that he might see his seed, and that the will of God might prosper in his hand. But howsoever it be, the prayer spoken of in that place, is absolute, certain, and effectuall: for what God there pro­mised, Christ prayed for in particular, and he was heard therein: and therefore it cannot be applyed to that generall Intercessi­on of Christ which they would maintaine, as every man may plainly see.

They further reply, that this Intercession of Christ, Joh. 17. per­taineth to the application of Christs death; that Christ maketh Intercession for beleevers: and by the world they are signified, who did or would contemne and reject Christ offered to them in the word of his Gospell; as the word world is used in many other places. Joh. 1. 10. and 3. 19. and 14. 17. & 16. 8, 9. & 14. 22. But if it pertain to the application of Christs death, it followeth thence, that the death of Christ shall be applyed to them, who were given unto him of the Father, that in speciall manner he might lay down his life for them, seeing Christ offered up him­selfe a sacrifice to the Father for them, and them only, for whom according to his office of Mediatorship he made speciall Inter­cession. If by the world obstinate contemners of the Gospell be understood, what shall we thinke of them to whom the word of reconciliation was never sent, or Christ offered in the Ministery of the Gospell? are they partakers of the benefits of Christs spe­ciall Intercession? or is the death of Christ applyed unto them? If only contemners of the Gospell be meant by the world, for [Page 263] which Christ would not pray, why should it be interpreted of speciall Intercession, seeing our Saviour (as they confesse) neither laid down his life, nor made generall Intercession for such as such, that they might be brought to the faith, or be partakers of the me­rits of his death? Our Saviour in that his prayer opposeth the world to them that are given unto him of the Father, and as to be given unto him of the Father, notes somewhat precedent to ef­fectuall vocation and lively faith, though every one that is given unto him doth or shall beleeve, so the world notes a state antece­dent to wilfull contempt, though they that be of this world; if they live under the Gospell, will prove themselves contemners, Joh. 6. 37. All that the Father giveth me shall come unto me; and him that commeth unto me, I will in no wise cast out, saith Christ. But to come unto Christ is to beleeve in him by effectuall vocation, Joh. 1. 10. The world knew not Christ: but they were the world, before they shut their eyes against the light, and refused Christ offering himselfe unto them. Joh 3. 19. They are the world who are not given unto Christ, are not his sheep, his people, his bre­thren, believe not in him, be disobedient, cast out, though they never stubbornly contemned the Gospell: because the sound ther­of never came into their eares, that light never shined amongst them. And now for conclusion of this argument, let this one thing be added, that if we search the Scripture we shall find no mention of this two-fold Intercession of Christ properly media­tory, one generall, the other speciall, which some of late have de­vised: but that he makes Intercession for all and every of them that are given unto him of the Father, and only for them, and that his Intercession is ever certain and effectuall; as when he saith to Peter, I have prayed for thee, that thy faith faile not: and to all theLuke 2 [...]. [...]2. Joh. 14. 10. Apostles, I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another comfor­ter, that he may abide with you for ever. And when we heare from Christ himselfe, that according to the proper office of his Media­torship he makes Intercession only for them that are given unto him of the Father, we may conclude, that in speciall manner he offered up himself a sacrifice to the Father for them only. Other arguments are alleadged for confirmation of this truth, which who list may reade at large in sundry Treatises of this matter [...] but it would be too long to insist upon each particular, therefore [Page 264] here I will breake off this controversie, and proceede to that which followeth in this intended discourse.

CHAP. III. How Christ hath fulfilled the office of Mediatour, or how he is the Mediatour of the New Testament.

IN the fulnesse of time, the eternall Sonne of God, took unto him our nature, and became God and Man in one person, that he might be an equall middle person between God and man. The necessity of a Mediatour appeares in this, that man is guilty, and God true and righteous; If man had continued in his inte­grity, he had stood in no need of an expiation: if God had been unrighteous in the passages of mans sinne, there had been due unto him no just debt of satisfaction. But seeing man created good but mutable, did willingly and by voluntary choice transgresse that Law, under the precepts whereof he was most justly created, and unto the malediction whereof he was as necessarily and righte­ously subject if he transgressed: and God was purposed not to suffer sinne to passe utterly unrevenged, because of his great hatred thereunto, and of his truth and the Law which he had established against it: of necessity either God must execute the severity of his Law, whereby the creature should everlastingly loose the frui­tion of him, and he should likewise loose the service and volunta­ry subjection of his creature, or some course or other must be found out to translate this mans sinnes on anothers person, who may be able to beare them, and to interest this mans person in that others righteousnesse, which may be able to cover him. Of necessity a Mediatour must be found out to stand between God and man, who must have one unto whom, and others for whom and in whose behalfe, and somewhat wherewith to make satisfa­ction to offended justice: In regard of God towards man he must be an officer to declare his righteousnesse, and in regard of man to­ward God a surety ready to procure pardon and deliverance, not by favour or request, but by way of satisfaction. He must be one with us in the fellowship of our nature, passions, infirmities [Page 265] and temptations, that so he might the more readily suffer for us, who in so many things suffered with us: and one with God the Father in his divine nature, that so by the vertue of his sufferings and resurrection he might be able both to satisfie justice, to justifie our persons, to sanctifie our nature, to purifie and perfume our services, to raise our dead bodies, and to present us to his Fa­ther a glorious Church without spot or wrinkle. He must be man pure and undefiled; man, that he might suffer, it being no way fit that one having no communion with another, should make satisfaction by suffering for anothers fault: Man pure and undefiled, otherwise he could not have satisfied for himself, much lesse for them that had so grievously offended. He must be man, that he might have compassion on them that come unto God through him: and pure and undefiled, that his Sacrifice being pure and without spot, might be acceptable and pleasing to provoked ju­stice. He must be God that he might beare the weight of Gods wrath without sinking under it, be the King and Head of the Church, defend his people against the enemies of their Salvation, send forth his Spirit into the hearts of his redeemed, and receive from them such divine worship as was due to so great and graci­ous a Saviour. He must be man, our neere kinsman, that he might have right of redemption, be a mercifull and faithfull high Priest, in all things like unto his brethren. He must be God, that by his death he might overcome death, and him that had the power of death, that is, the devill, free us from the guilt of sinne, and curse of the Law, and preserve his redeemed unto his everlasting King­dome. He must be God and man in one person, and so of a middle condition between God and us, in that both the natures of God and man doe concurre and are conjoyned in his person, that he might joyne God and man in a firme and stable Covenant of friendship and reconciliation: and be the root, fountaine and be­ginning of supernaturall and spirituall being, in whom the whole nat [...] of mankind should be found in a more eminent sort then it was in Adam. The horrour of sinne was so grievous, the curse of the Law so terrible, the price of redemption so great, that a mee [...] creature could not take away the one, or pay the other: and that man might not fall away as he had done under the former Cove­nant, our Mediatour, who was the foundation of this new Cove­nant, did assume our humane nature unto his divine person. There­fore [Page 266] the eternall Sonne of God, being ordained of the Father to this office of Mediatorship, that he might intercede between God and man, and joyne God and man in one, did assume our nature in­to the unity of his person, and was born of a woman, that he might save and call sinners, and redeeme them who were under the Law,Gal. 4. 4. and shut up under the curse of the Law.

The second person in Trinity, the Son of God by nature, the Image of the Father, by whom all things were made, was made man, that he might renew what was disordered by sinne, and make us the sonnes of God by grace and adoption, who were by nature the children of wrath, it being fit our redemption should be wrought by the Sonne, and sealed by the holy Spirit. For whereas a double mission was necessary, the one to reconcile, the other to give gifts to reconciled friends: the Father being of none, sent his Sonne, the first proceeding person to take our nature and make satisfaction: the Father and the Sonne both send the Spirit, the second proceeding person, to seale up them that Christ hath redeemed by his bloud. And who was fitter to become the Sonne of man, then he that was by nature the Sonne of God? who could be fitter to make us the Sonnes of God by grace and adoption, then he that was the Sonne of God by nature? who fitter to repaire the Image of God decayed in us, then he by whom at first man was made after the Image of God? Thus Christ was a fit and equall middle person, conjoyned by the bands of friendly society, and peaceable agreement with both the par­ties, God and men, that he might be a Mediatour of reconcilia­tion and peace betweene God and man. He tooke unto him the sanctified nature of man, that therein he might draw neere unto men, and be the root of them that are sanctified; and retained the nature of God, that so he might not depart from God.

Here it is questioned, according to which nature Christ is Me­diatour, whether as man only, or as God and man. That he is a Mediatour according to the concurrence of both natures in the unity of his person, it is confessed by all; for if he were not both God and man, he could not mediate between God and man: but whether he be a Mediatour according to both natures concurring in the worke of Mediation, there be some that make question, Our resolution is, that Christ is Mediatour according to both na­tures, [Page 267] the humane nature doing that which pertained to the hu­manity,Bellar. de Christ. lib. 5. cap. 7. § Potest tamen. and the divine nature that which pertained to the divini­ty, but the humane and divine both concurring to produce one act or work of Mediatorship. As the divine and humane nature concurre to make one Christ, so the acts of the divine and hu­manePlura principia ad operationem unam possunt concurrere. Lun. ibid. cap. 7. not. 1. nature, distinct in vertue and operation, by co-operation concurre to make up the same work of Mediation. Some of the works of Christ the Mediatour, were the works of his humanity in respect of the thing done, and had their efficacy, dignity and value from his divinity, in that they were the works of him that had the divinity dwelling bodily in him: and some the works of his divinity, the humane nature concurring only instrumentally, as the remitting of sins, the giving of the Spirit, the raising of the dead, and such like. The works of Ministery, the Sonne of GodI [...]n. cont. 2. l. 5. cap. 5. not. 29. performed them in the nature of man. It was the Sonne of God and Lord of life, that died for us on the Crosse, but it was the nature of man, not of God wherein he died. The works of Au­thority and power were all performed by the divine nature, yet not without an instrumentall concurrence of the nature of man. Christ suffered as man, but the divine nature did support and su­staine the humane. He died as man, as God he overcame death, conquered, and rose againe: as man he was made an offering for our sins, the worth and value of the Sacrifice was from the divi­nity. The two natures in Christ be distinct in their essence andI [...]n. Paral. lib. 3. in cap. 9. Hebr. properties, and so in their operations, that we must not imagine one action of both natures: but as the natures be united in one person, so the operations concurre to make up one work of a Me­diatour. Many chiefe, necessary and essentiall acts concerning ourIun. animad. in Bell. contr. 2. l. 5. ca. 3. not. 9▪ reconciliation with God, are from the Deity of Christ as from the next, proper, immediate and formall beginning. The Incar­nation of Christ is from the Deity, which did assume the humani­ty, which when it was not, could not assume it selfe. The mani­festation of God was a work truly divine, from the humanity of Christ as an instrument, from the Deity as the true cause. Christ asJoh. 1. 18. Matt. 11. 27. man teacheth as an instrument, and Christ the Word teacheth as Mediatour: for he is not only Mediatour, who supplyeth the roome of an instrument: but the Deity did move the humanity as his instrument, that is, personally united, and not as anothers.Joh. 10. 18. To lay down his life passively belongs to the flesh, to lay down [Page 268] his life or soule actively to the word. The resurrection of Christ isIun. ibid. cap. 6. not. 1. Rom. 8. 34, and 4 25. Rom. 1. 4. Mar. 2. 10. Joh. 15. 26. and 16. 7. an essentiall part of our Redemption: but Christ rose not by the propriety of his flesh, but by the power of his Deity. Christ as Mediatour performed many divine acts: but the humanity alone cannot be the beginning of a divine act: as Christ as Mediatour hath authority to forgive sins, to send the holy Spirit not merito­riously alone, as Bellarmine distinguisheth, but efficiently, to conjoyne us unto God, and bring us to salvation. Christ as Me­diatour is the King and Head of his Church, which dignity and of­ficeMeritum Me­ [...]ation [...] est, & Mediatio per­sonae. cannot agree to him that is meere man. For the Head is to give influence of sence and motion unto the body, and Christ gives supernaturall sence and motion unto his mysticall body, and that both by way of efficiency, and by way of disposition, fitting us that an impression of grace may be made upon us. He prepareth and fitteth men to the receipt of grace by the acts of his humanity,A t [...]ta quidem Trinitate datur Spiritu [...]: sed ad personam Me­diatoris haec a­ctio terminatur quoad [...]. in which he suffered death, and dying satisfied Gods wrath, remo­ved all matter of dislike, procured the favour and acceptation of God, and so made men fit to receive the grace of God, and to en­joy his favour. He imparteth and conferreth grace, by the opera­tion and working of his divine nature, it being the proper worke of God to enlighten the understandings of men, and to soften their hearts.

If it be alleadged, that there is nothing that one person of the Trinity doth towards the creatures, but they all doe it, and con­sequently, that those things which Christ did in his divine nature, pertained not to the office of a Mediatour, being common to all the Persons.

The answer is, though the action be the same, and the worke done by them, yet they differ in the manner of doing it. For the Father doth all things authoritativè, and the Son subauthorita­tivè, as the Schoole-men speake; that is, the Father, as he from whom, and of whom are all things; the Son as he by whom are all things, not as [...]y an instrument, but a principall efficient. And in this sort to quicken, give life, and to impart the Spirit of San­ctification to whom he pleaseth, especially with a kind of concur­ring of the humane nature meriting, desiring, and instrumentally assisting, is proper to the Son of God, manifested in our flesh, and not common to the whole Trinity. As the second person in Tri­nity did assume our nature, and not the Father or the holy Ghost: [Page 269] and as Christ is the Head of the Church, not the Father or the holy Spirit: so he doth give life and sence to the body, and not the whole Trinity. If the speciall Offices of Christ be considered se­verally, much more if all of them be considered joyntly, it will e­vidently appeare, that both natures must necessarily concurre in the formall execution of them. For he cannot worthily performe the office of the chiefe Doctor of the whole Church, and heavenly Prophet, nor execute the office of an eternall high Priest, that is, offer a Sacrifice truly propitiatory, daily heare the prayers of all his people, and present them before God; nor exercise kingly power and authority in heaven and earth, who worketh to the forme of meere humanitie, or onely as he is man: When in those offices there must be a divine excellencie and effi­cacie.

The end of personall union is the administration of his office;Qualis substan­tia personae, t [...] li [...] & operatie, & qualis ope­ratio, talis sub­stantia. and the personall union of two natures in Christ had not been ne­cessary, unlesse both had concurred as a formall beginning to that worke. For every agent necessarily worketh according to and by its forme; whence it followeth, either that the person of the Me­diatour doth not consist of two natures, or both natures of Christ, as proper formes, doe necessarily concurre to the proper works of a Mediatour, because the proper operations must be conjoyned in one worke of a Mediatour, as both natures are joyned and uni­ted in one person. There is one God, saith the Apostle, and one 1 Tim. 2. 5, 6. Mediatour between God and man, the man Christ Jesus: ad­ding the man Christ, to shew that in him were both natures, that is, he was God and man in one person, and so a fit middle person or Mediatour. And man may be taken personally, not naturally, it being most usuall to name the whole person of Christ from either1 Cor. 2, [...]. nature: as he is called the Lord of glory, when his person is un­derstood. And so in this place, the man Christ, that is, that per­son,Ia [...]. animad. in Bell. contr. l. 5. 6. 3. not. 11, 12. who hath that nature by which he is truly called man: and of that appellation there may be divers weighty reasons more, a­mongst the rest this, that the Apostle would encourage us to put our trust and confidence in him as being our elder brother. By voluntary dispensation Christ is Mediatour as God incarnate, and not by nature as God. And according to that dispensation ChristJoh. 17. 3, and: 14. 1. 1 Joh. 2, 1, 2. is Mediatour to the Father, who is personally called God some­times in this respect, and distinguished from Christ as Mediatour: [Page 270] and Christ is our Advocate to the Father, but never represented in Scripture praying to the Son or holy Spirit, but the Father only: which dispensation is carefully to be observed, from which we must not depart upon any vain speculation, which humane curiosity might suggest.

A Mediatour must be a middle person, equally distant, and e­qually drawing nigh to both parties betwixt whom he doth me­diate.Bellarm. de Christ l. 5. c. 2. §. Praeter [...]a. Ille solus est verè medius in­ter Deum & hominem, cum u­triusq, naturam habeat. And thus Christ God incarnate is a fit middle person, for he draws as neare to the Father as God, as to us as man, and is as farre distant from God as he is man, as he is from us as God: and he comes as neare to the Father, as he departeth from us: and comes as neare to us, as he doth to the Father.

But Christ as a just man is not so a middle person, for he comes not so nigh to the Father as just, as he doth to us as man; nor is so farre distant from us as just, as he comes nigh to us as man. Then as Mediatour he should be joyned to the Father in will only, but in nature dis-joyned: and be distant from man not in nature, but in quality only: then should he be Mediatour, not as substan­tially one with the Father, but only as he is united to him in will.

If it be alleadged, that if Christ be Mediatour as God incarnate, then he is Mediatour to himselfe, because he is God, and then al­so he should differ from himselfe, because a Mediatour is a middle person.

We answer, it is not necessary a thing should differ from theIun. ibid. cap. 5. not. 1, 3, 5, 15. extreames according to all that in respect whereof it is of a middle condition, but it is sufficient if it differ in some thing from one, and in some thing from another, as is before explained. So the Son of God incarnate by voluntary dispensation differeth not only from the Father and the holy Ghost, but from himselfe as God on­ly: scil. as man he differeth from himselfe as God, and as God from himselfe as man. The whole Trinity being offended with us for sin, was to be pacified, but the Scripture teacheth, Christ was our Mediatour to the Father: and we must silence our con­ceits, and learne of God what to believe. And assuredly if the Fa­ther be reconciled, the whole Trinity is reconciled. And further it may be added, that he who according to absolute essence or na­ture is the partie offended, may according to voluntary dispensa­tion sustaine the person and doe the office of a Mediatour: and so [Page 271] Christ was primarily a Mediatour to the Father for us, and by con­sequence and secundarily to the whole Trinity, and so to himselfe as God.

It is further objected, if Christ be Mediator according to his divine nature, then all three persons in Trinity be Mediatours: but this is a meere deceit: for the divine nature is taken essentially for the divine nature common to Father, Son and holy Ghost: or personally for the divine essence considered distinctly in the Father, Son and holy Ghost: In the latter sence we say, Christ according to his divine na­ture is our Mediator, as he was incarnate, and did assume our nature unto his divine person, and not the Father or the holy Ghost.

But then (it will be said) he was inferiour to the Father: In office it is true, by voluntary dispensation he is inferiour, but in na­tureIun. ibid. not. 13. he is equall to the Father: and nothing hinders but one equall to another in nature, may by voluntary and free choice under-takePhil, 2. 6, 7. an office of inferiority. Being in the forme of God, he humbled himselfe. The Scripture teacheth expressely, that God the Fa­therJoh. 1. 18. & 3. 16. & 3. 13. Rom. 5. 8. Ephes. 1. 7. Col. 1. 14. 1 Joh. 1. 7. & [...]. 1. & 4. 10. Act. 20. 28. gave his only begotten Son to death for us: and the only be­gotten or proper Son of God according to both natures, and in both states is said to administer his office, the property of either na­ture observed: as also the only begotten Son of God is said to de­scend from heaven to earth for our sakes, and to suffer death for us, and to have done and suffered other such things: and that by the bloud of his Son we are reconciled to God the Father.

This office of Mediation Christ hath performed. First, as the great Doctour of his Church by revealing unto us the way to life, e­ven1 Cor. 2. 7, 8, 9. the last, full, and perfect will of God concerning mans salva­tion; the wisdome of God in a mysterie, even the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the world, unto our glory, which none of the Princes of this world knew: Such things as eye hath not seen, eare hath not heard, or ever entred into the heart of man to conceive: Such as the naturall inquirie of Angels could ne­verMat. 11. 27. Joh. 1. 1 [...]. have discovered. No man knoweth the Father but the Sonne, and he to whom the Sonne hath revealed him. No man hath seen God at any time, the only begotten Sonne which is in the bosome of the Father, he hath declared him. He only it is that openeth the bosome of his Father, that is, who revealeth the secret and mysterious counsels, and the tender and compassionate affections of his Father unto the world. He is said to be a teacher sent fromJoh. 3. 2. [Page 272] God, and to be the Lord which speaketh from heaven, and the doctrine which he taught an heavenly doctrine, even great Salva­tion. The woman of Samaria could say, I know when the Mes­siah cometh, he will tell us all things: And our Saviour professethHeb. 12. 25. Joh. 3. 12. Heb. 2. 3. Joh. 4. 25. Joh. 15. 15, to his disciples, All things that I have heard of my Father, I have made known unto you.

And in this the new Covenant is lifted up above former expres­sions of the same Covenant for substance. For God who in sundry times, and in divers manners spake in times past unto the Fa­thers Heb. 1. 1. ver. 3. by the Prophets, hath in these last daies spoken unto us by his Sonne: who is the brightnesse of his glory, and the expresse Image of his person; that is, he in whom the glory and Majesty of the Fa­ther,Col. 1. 15. otherwise invisible and inconspicuous, doth shew forth it selfe, and that which is hid in the Father as in a ring, is mani­fested, as on the seale. And as God is manifested in Christ, so was he manifested and made knowne by Christ. In Christ are hidCol. 1. 3. Ephes. 3. 9, 10. all the treasures of wisdome, and he hath made knowne the mani­fold wisdome of God. The discovery of misery and sin is that which sweetens mercy, and gaines it esteem: and therefore as the mercy of God was plentifully unfolded, so was the Law laid open, and sin discovered by our Saviour more fully then it had been in the old Testament, that as sin abounded, mercy might abound much more. And where the maladie appeares hideous and desperate, there is need that we be well acquainted with the soveraigne reme­die, and hence as the doore of the Law and curse is cast quite open, that men might throughly know themselves, so Christ in his person, natures, office and benefits is lively deciphered, that when men feele themselves lost in themselves, they might runne unto him for righteousnesse, grace, life and salva­tion.

Secondly, Christ hath satisfied offended justice, and answered whatsoever the Law had against us. The word satisfaction the Scripture hath not, but the thing signified thereby is plainly noted by the phrases of Redemption, Expiation, Reconciliation, and many such like every where in Scripture. Justice did release the debtour, or the punishment of the person offending: but would not simply release the punishment of the offence, or pardon the fault without satisfaction. If then the guilty be spared, the surety must suffer punishment.

It is here questioned, whether God could not pardon sin without satisfaction, or satisfaction be absolutely necessary, the decree and pleasure of God so to have it excepted.

Many sound, orthodox and learned Divines hold the affirma­tive,Martin. de pers. Christi lib. 1. Sect. ex mundi redemp [...]. p. 154, 155. because justice is essentiall to God, and it is a righteous thing with God to render tribulation to them that afflict, and that every transgression receive a just recompence, 2 Thess. 1. 6. Heb. 2. 2. Rom. 1. 32. Exod. 34. 7. And if recompence be just, it is injustice to let sin goe unpunished. The Lord testifieth, that he that justi­fieth the wicked is an abhomination to his highnesse: and he will not doe what he abhorreth in others, Prov. 17. 15. Isa. 5. 23. God cannot but love his Image, and so he cannot but hate the corrup­tion of it, and severely punish that which is dissentanie from it. This seemes to be engraven in the heart of man by nature, that God is just, and that sin cannot be done away without satisfa­ction: and hence come those many fond devices amongst the Hea­thenLex non est ali­quid internum in Deo, aut ipsa Dei voluntas, sed voluntatis quidameffectus. Lactant. de [...] Dei, cap. 19. Index peccatis veniam dare n [...] potest, quia vo­luntati servit alienae. Deus autem potest, quia est legis suae ipse discep­tator & judex, quam cum pone­ret, non uti [...] ad­emit sibi omnem potestatem, sed habet ignoscen­di licentiam. Senec. Occidere contra Legem nemo non potest, ser­vare nemo pr [...] ­ter te. to pacifie offended justice: they were ignorant of the true God, and how his wrath and displeasure was to be appeased: but assured of this, that he was offended by sin, and that without satisfaction the sin could not be expiated or done away. For these and such like reasons many have thought, that it is abso­lutely repugnant to divine justice to pardon sin without satis­faction.

Others and those learned and orthodox are of opinion, that the necessity of satisfaction depends upon the will and pleasure of God, and that God by his absolute power, salva justitia, might have pardoned sin without satisfaction. For God might out of his absolute soveraignty not have punished Adams sin, both be­cause it was against himselfe, not others to whom he is tied to doe justice: and especially, for that the demonstration of his reven­ging justice springeth not from the necessity of his nature, but from his voluntary disposition, as well as the giving life perpetuall, to obedience for a certaine space performed. For with-draw that vo­luntary Covenant, who doubteth, but that had the creature kept his innocency a thousand yeares, God was free to have annihilated him? Also God is able were he pleased to shew his power to turne it to his glory, which mens impotency not attaining, being also forbidden by the Law of their Superiour, maketh them that they cannot alwaies with justice forgive, even that wherein themselves [Page 274] are trespassed. If God of his absolute power cannot pardon sin without satisfaction, then not to punish sin is simply a thing im­possible, or God in so doing should be deficient or inconformable to the rule of his will: but to let goe sin unpunished is simply the omission of a divine act (the decree of God excepted) not defi­cient or inconformable to any rule of Gods will, but rather a pe­culiar exercise of divine mercy. What absolutely God can will, that he can justly will: otherwise it might be that God can will a thing which is injust, or that he can will injustly. But it was pos­sible for God to will to let sin goe unpunished, it is not absolutely repugnant to his divine nature so to will.

If God cannot pardon sin without sa­tisfaction,Hae rationes tum demum locum obtinerent, si ita De [...] putaretur agere ex necessitate naturae, ut solo naturae impetu, citra omnem intellectum, & voluntatis actum, ageret, veluti ignis cale­facit ex necessitate naturae. Windel. de mundo Sect. 2. c. 2. Lex agendi necessitas 1. naturae 2. congruentiae. Illa per quam agens ita agit, ut per naturam non possit non agere, est (que) vel sine cognitione, vel cum cognitione. Ista per quam agens non potest non congruenter suae na­turae agere. then it is necessary that he pu­nish sin by absolute necessity, or sin pre­supposed, it is of absolute necessity that it be punished; but it is not of absolute necessity that sin be punished, for then God should punish it alwaies in one manner, and as much as he can, as natu­rall agents worke: whereas we see by experience, that God doth differently punish the sins of men in this life, the lesser offendors most, the greater least many times, ever so as their punishments might be increased. Neither can it be said, that the greatnesse of punishment in this life, doth lessen their punishment in the life to come; for the punishments of the life to come being eternall, can carry no proportion with the punishments of this life. Then it was of absolute necessity that Christ should suffer so many stripes and no more, be forsaken just so long and no longer, continue in his agony so many houres and neither more nor lesse.Sciendum est, non sequi inju­stum ex quavis negatione justi, etiam posi [...]is [...]is­dem circumstan­tij [...]. Non est perpe­tuum ut id quod justè fiat, non nisi injustè o­mittatur. The bounty of God to reward obedience is essentiall as well as ju­stice to punish iniquity: and if God punish iniquity by absolute and naturall necessity, of necessity he must reward obedience: if he punish iniquity without divine constitution, he must reward obe­dience in the same manner. God may inflict a more mild punish­ment then sin deserveth, therefore at least he may leave some de­gree of sin unpunished: as also, it is lawfull for God to men equall in sin, to grant pardon to one, to punish another according to his deserts. To give reward above merit is not contrary to justice, if [Page 275] it be given of our owne: nor to punish mercifully, and lesse then the fault deserveth, if it be a fault committed against our selves. And it seemes as much repugnant to ju­sticeSunt quaedam Dei proprietates quarum exerci­tium, tum quoad actum, tum quoad tempu [...] & modum actus, imo etiam quoad objecti determi­nationem, pendet a libera ipsus voluntate. Ex promissione jus aliquod acquiritur ei cui facta est promissio: at comminatione apertius dun [...]axat declaratur meritum poenae in peccante, & jus puniendi in comminante. Cum bonitas & misericordia Dei non minus proprietas ej [...] sit, quam justitia: ac quamquam ex miseri­cordia non [...]gisset, sed puniisset universos, mi­nimè eo mutabilis, vel etiam immisericors po­tuerit dici: similiter, ne (que) extra decreti consi­derationem, mutabilem vel injustum dici po­tuisse, quanquam ignovisset universis citra illam satisfactionem. Quod is qui deliquit pae­nam meretur, eo (que) punibilis est, hoc ex ipsa peccati & peccatoris ad superiorem relatione necessariò sequitur & propriè naturale, ut ve­ro puniatur quivis peccator poena tali quae cul­pae respondeat, non est necessarium simpliciter & universaliter, ne (que) propriè naturale: sed na­turae satis conveniens. Chamier. panstrat. Tom. 2. l. 5. c. 1 [...]. Parker de desc. l. 3. Sect. 56. Wotton de Reconcil l. 1 c 4. V [...]ss. respons. ad Iud. Ravensperg. cap. 28. Isa. 53. 10. Psal. 40. 8. Joh. 5. 19, 30. to accept a surety, as to pardon the punishment; especially that the Son of God, the party offended, should take upon him our nature, and make satisfaction for us. And if God by absolute necessity must punish sin as it deserveth, then it is simply impossible to renew the sinner by repen­tance, or to annihilate him, because then he doth not bear what punishmēt his sin doth call for from the hand of justice. Justice is essentiall to God, so is mercy, bounty, libe­rality: but God sheweth mercy to whom he will & doth good to whom he will free­ly, not by absolute necessity: only God hath obliged himselfe by righteousnesse of fi­delity, that is by promises and threat­nings, which must be fulfilled, to doe this or that. Sin though it hath an out­ward disagreement, such as may be in a creature from the Creator: yet it hath no inward positive repugnancy or contra­riancy to Gods nature, such as is betwixt fire and water: for then should the di­vine nature inwardly in it selfe be worse for the being of sin, and should necessarily nill it. Sin is displeasing unto God, he cannot approve it as good in it selfe, but it is one thing to be displeased with, or hate sin, another to punish it of absolute and naturall ne­cessity; as it is one thing to approve obedience, another to re­ward it of necessity, It is most true, that God doth not only hate, but punish all sin, but that he doth, not by naturall necessity, but by naturall congruity, which may stand with the most free will of God, determining to manifest his justice, for the manifestation whereof the punishment of sin was necessary. The hatred of sin and punishment thereof are joyned together as a free cause and ef­fect, not as a necessary cause and effect: for God hateth sin at all times, but punisheth it not ever, but in his time or season. But [Page 274] [...] [Page 275] [...] [Page 276] it is not materiall to dispute this matter in more words; for seeing▪ God hath determined that his justice shall take her revenge, if by breach of Covenant she be wronged, he cannot but punish sin ac­cording to its desert, neither may he set us free from the same, but so as wronged justice may receive satisfaction. The decree of God is unchangeable, and the sentence of God denounced against sin must stand firme for ever, therefore punishment must be executed, if the commandment be transgressed.

And the reasons of this decree beOmne agens quod agit naturaliter, agit in obje­ctum suae actionis naturaliter receptivum: qua­re si punire esset naturale (illa nimirum acceptatione, quae secum sert necessitatem) non pos­sit actio talis de persona peccatori [...] in per sonam aliam transire Ne (que) etiam sapientia Dei, quae in boc negotio max [...]mè elucet, locum babitura videtur; si per naturam nequisset Deu [...] aliter [...]gere: sapientia enim est electrix mediorum. Luk. 24. 26, 27. Joh. 10. 18. weighty. For hereby God manifesteth his just indignation against sin, and mag­nifieth the riches of his grace and tender compassion towards the sinner, whom he is pleased to save from deserved wrath. Seeing then God decreed not to deliver man from the sentence of death contra­cted by sin, but upon satisfaction made to divine justice, and the punishment of sin borne by his surety, of necessity if Christ become a Mediatour to intercede for us, he must undertake to pay our debts, and in our roome and steed to suffer what we deserved. And as he undertook, so he hath borne the chastisement of our peace, and by bearing the punishment hath taken away our sins.

That Christ did under-goe the punishment due to sinners, as their surety, is evident in this, that he died for us. For the wages of sinne is death, Rom. 6. 23 & 5. 12. which God inflicteth upon none but either a sinner, or him that beareth the person of a sinner:2 Cor. 15. 21, 22. Col. 1. 14. Eph. 1. 7. Heb. 12. 2. Act 20. 28. Col. 1. 20. Rom. 3 25. Gal. 3. 13. Heb. 12. 24. wherefore seeing Christ in himselfe most innocent, did suffer death, it necessarily followeth, that he suffered not in his owne, but in our name, and satisfied the Father for us. Hitherto it makes, that he suffered not any kind of death whatsoever, but ignominious, violent, judiciall and accursed, such as had the sence of Gods wrath adjoyned. For no reason can be imagined, why Christ should so much dread death, which the Martyrs endured without feare, but that for the time he was deprived of that refreshing of divine grace and favour wherewith they were sustained and con­firmed2 Cor. 4 8, 9. in the midst of the fire. Nor is there any thing, whither we can referre, those tremblings of Christ, those groanes and teares, in which he was heard, that desire that the cup might passe [Page 277] from him, but to the imposition of our sinnes, and that conflict with the wrath of God, which followed from it. The death of our Saviour is referred to his unspeakeable love towards us, Joh. 14.Rev. 1. 5. Gal. 2. 20. 13. Gal. 2. 20. Ephes. 5. 2, 23. But if he could not but ide, because he was man, he shewed his infirmity in dying, rather then the fervour of his love. For though Christ had loved us unto death,Soc. lib. 3. de Serv. c. 5. yet had he not commended his love in dying, if he dyed by condi­tion of nature, and had not being innocent laid downe his life for us mortall, because sinners. In like manner Christ is said to haveLev. 5. 1. & 10. 17. [...]. Gal. 5. 10. Ezek. 18. 20. 2 King. 7. 9. Syr. portavit et ascendere secit. [...], sursum serre. Luk. [...]4. 51. sursum ducere. Matth. 17. 1. Mar. 9. 2. Heb. 7. 27. Jam. 2. 21. Heb. 13. 15. 1 Pet. 2. 24. carried our sinnes, and that in his body upon the tree, which in usuall phrase of Scripture is to be punished for our sinnes, and pay the punishment of our sinnes, Isa. 53. 11. 1 Pet. 2. 24. Lev. 19 8. & 20. 17. & 24 15. Numb. 14. 23. & 30. 16. Lam. 5. 7. Ezek 18. 20. And such a carrying is described to which smiting is adjoyned, and the chastisement of our peace, from the translation of all our ini­quities upon Christ, Isa. 53. 5. For as it followeth in the same place immediately, He was afflicted, that is, with the punishment due to sinne, which was laid upon him, Isa. 53. 6, 7. Whereunto those passages of Scripture might be referred, which say, that Christ made his soule an offering for sinne, Isa. 53. 10. that he that knew no sinne, was made sinne for us, 2 Cor. 5. 21. that he hath redeemed us from the curs of the Law, being made a curse for us, Gal. 3. 13. in which he must of necessity be understood, who bears the punishments of sinne. And it is against reason, that he should be said to beare the sinnes of others, who suffers by occasion of sin only, unlesse he beare the punishment of sinne, and take it upon himselfe. For who will say, he that suffers losse or dammage from the fault of a thiefe, doth beare his sinne, when he doth not beare the punishment of theft, nor is punished for it. The Evangelist translates this saying of the Prophet to corporall diseases, which Christ did not receive upon himselfe, it is by way of similitude andMath. 8. 16, 177 agreement in the thing it selfe, although the manner of the thing be diverse; as also by such miracles, Christ declared himselfe to be that Messiah, who was to beare, and by bearing to take away our sinnes.

Moreover the Scripture saith, Christ died for our sinnes, 1 Cor. [...]. 15. 3. Gal. 1. 4. Heb. 10. 12. 1 Pet. 3. 18. and was delivered to death for our offences, Rom. 4. 23. and for sinners and wicked, Isa. [...]. 53. 6. Rom. 5. 6. 2 Cor. 5. 21. to be made sinne for us, 1 Pet. 3. 18. [Page 278] to suffer the just for the unjust, which import, that sinne was the efficient meritorious cause of the death of Christ: for sinne cannotPsal 39. 12. Psal. 73 18, 19. & 10 [...]. 17. Ephes. 5. [...]. otherwise be the cause of punishment but by way of merit, nor can any man be said to be punished for sinne, but the meritorious cause of punishing is noted thereby. And those particles applied to other things may note the finall cause, applied to sufferings, they point out the efficient or meritorious only, and sinnes deserve af­fliction per modum paenae, Lev. 26. 39. Deut. 18. 12. 1 King 14. 16. [...]. Matth. 5. 38. Luk. 11. 11. Rom. 12. 17. 1 Cor. 11. 15. Heb. 12. 16. 1 Pet. 3. 9. [...] signifieth the impulsive cause. Rom. 15. 9. 2 Cor. 1. 11. Ephes. 1. 16. & 5. 20. 2 Cor. 5. 20. 2 Cor. 7. 4. & 9. 2. & 12. 5. 2 Cor. 12. 10. 1 Cor. 1. 4. Jud. ver. 15. Sic Latini, pro beneficijs grati­as agere, ulcis­ci pro injurijs, &c. Christ is said to die not only for our sinnes, but for us; not for our good alone, but in our roome and steed, as the phrase importeth, and the one particle used signifieth opposition or subrogation and commutation, Mat. 20. 28. Mar. 10. 45. Joh. 11. 50. Rom. 5. 7, 8. 2 Cor. 5. 15. Heb. 2 9. 1 Pet. 2. 2. and the latter, though some­times it admit a different sence, in this matter must be expounded by the former, Rom. 9. 3. 2 Cor. 5. 20. 2 Cor. 5. 14. Christ died, the Just for the unjust, that is, being just he was substituted for us unjust, and suffered not only for our good, as the Martyrs may be said to doe, Isa. 53 9, 10. Rom. 5. 5, 6, 7, 8. 1 Pet. 3. 18. 1 Cor. 1. 13. The same is demonstrated by this, that Christ is said to be the Mediatour, who gave himselfe a ransome for all men, 1 Tim. 2. 5, 6. that by redemption of transgressions which were under the former Covenant, they that are called might receive the inhe­ritance, Heb. 9 15. and the mediation it selfe is joyned to the sprinkling of blood, Heb, 12. 24. so that none other mediation is to be understood, then that whereby parties disagreeing are set at one. Hitherto it is to be referred, that we are said to be reconci­led to God by the blood of Christ, Rom 5. 10 11. 2 Cor. 5. 18. Ephes. 2. 16. Col. 1. 20. whereby our conversion to God, is not understood, as if we who hated God before, had now departed there from, and did set our love upon him, but that we which for­merly were under wrath are restored into favour, that which cau­sed that seperation being taken away by the satisfaction of Christ and free condonation of grace. Therefore Christ is called ourHeb. 2. 17. sig. ibi expiati­ [...]nem, sedeam quae fit plac [...]n­d [...]. propitiatorie, Rom. 3. 25. and propitiation, 1 Joh. 2. 2. & 4. 10. not a testimony of placation, because God in Christ is made propiti­ous unto us, and not we propitious to God. In Scripture God is said to reconcile the world unto himselfe, according to the usu­all manner of speaking, wherein he that offendeth, is therefore said to be reconciled, because as he gave occasion to hatred, so he hath [Page 279] need of reconciliation, and the pacifying of him whom he hathSophocles in Ajace: [...] Dijs conciliari i. ips [...]s reddere, prop [...]tios. Punitio omnis qua talis, sive impersonaliter spectata causam habet justitiam Dei. Proca­ta [...]ctica ver [...] causa sunt pec­cata, itidem impersonaliter & in genere spectata, sine determinatione punitio verò quae pro alio est, plane miseri [...]or­diae divinae opus est: procatar­ctica vero caus [...] sunt peccara nostra satisf [...] ­ctionem exigen­tia. Voss. resp. cap. 12. offended: although the reconciliation of them that be offended, be not excluded.

The deliverance which we obtaine by Christ is called redemp­tion, which was made by the paiment of a price, Rom 3. 24. Gal. 3. 13. Ephes. 1. 7. Heb. 9 12. 1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. Matth. 20. 28. Mar. 10. 45. 1 Cor. 6. 20. & 7. 23. and redemption made by a price, can be no other then by satisfaction or substitution, as the Apostle saith, Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the Law, be­ing made a curse for us, Gal. 3. 13. 1 Tim. 26. Faith and repentance and preaching of the Gospell come betwixt, that we might ob­taine spirituall deliverance from the captivity of sinne: but no man will say, that we are redeemed by them, as by a price whereby we obtaine deliverance? In the legall sacrifices sinnes were expi­ated no other way but by substitution: how much more was Christ, who is the bodie of those shadowes, substituted for the sinnes of the faithfull? Wherefore the Apostle saith, Christ was appointed to make reconciliation for the sinnes of the people, Heb. 2. 17. that is, that by expiating the sinnes of the people, he might pacifie God; in the same sence wherein the blood of Christ is said to purge the conscience, Heb. 9. 13, 14. Therefore the Scripture u­seth those words in this businesse, which note recompence and subrogation; as [...] which signifieth both to pacifie and reconcile Gen 3. 20 Prov. 16 14. and to recompence or satisfie, 2 Sam. 21. 3. Exod. 21 30. Psal. 49. 8. and [...] to recompence or pay, Gen. 31. 39. In the legall sacrifices there was a typicall expiation, but the conscience was not purged, nor sinne taken away, or heaven­lyHeb. 9. 9 & 10. 4. & 9. 23 [...]. things sanctified by such sacrifices: but the sacrifice of Christ was necessary, by which things of so grea [...] moment were effected, which was tipified by the legall sacrifices, and was effectuall as a morall cause of Salvation, before Christ was exhibited in the flesh. And if the Fathers of the [...]l [...] Testament were saved by Christ, of necessity the satisfaction of Christ was true and reall, for when it was not distinctly understood, it could not profit them as an ex­ample or confirmation of doctrine, but as a reall satisfaction only. If Christ by his death had confirme [...] his doctrine only, and notHeb. 5. [...]. made satisfaction, be had not died as a Priest, whose office it is to offer sacrifice and make attonement: but the Scripture sheweth plainly, that Christ is our high Priest, according to the order of [Page 280] Melchizedech, Psal. 110. 4. Heb. 7. 14, 15. who hath offered up himselfe a sweet smelling sacrifice, Ephes. 5. 2. and sanctified us by one offering up of himselfe once for all, Heb. 10. 11, 12. And be­cause the sacrifice of Christ may be considered, either as he offeredHeb. 9. 13, 23. up himselfe for all the faithfull in generall, his sheep, and Church, or as every particular faithfull man is comprehended under that universality, and the good things purchased for all, tend to the salvation of every singular beleever, God would have the first should be shadowed forth by the anniversary sacrifice, and some o­thers which were offered for all the people: the latter by the pri­vate sacrifices of every sinner, Lev. 5. Exod. 29. 30. Christ then as Mediatour by his death hath made satisfaction for us, and that true, full, reall satisfaction, and not by a certaine fiction of Law or di­vine acceptilation, as they call it. For why did God exact the bloody death of his Sonne, if it had pleased him to rest in any light satisfaction? The Apostle concludes, the sacrifice of Christ to be necessary, because it is impossible the blood of Bulls and Goats should doe away sinnes, Heb. 10. 4. which argument concludes not, if Christ hath satisfied only, as it pleased the Father to accept of his imperfect satisfaction, as if it had been perfect. The satisfa­ction of Christ was free, because he was freely given to satisfie, but the decree of God presupposed to shew his mercy and justice, full satisfaction was necessary: because sinne must be punished as the Law requireth, or God is not true as in his promises, so in his threatnings. None other wages is appointed for sinne but death,Rom. 6. 23. hence he that is dead is justified from sinne, Rom. 6 7. But Christ suffered death, and by death made recompence to justice for our debt: and in that he died for sinne, he died once, Rom. 6. 9, 10. He tasted death, that by death he might destroy him that had theHeb. 2. 9, 14, 15. power of death, that is, the devill, and deliver them who through feare of death were all their life subject to bondage. But when the Scripture nameth death generally, it comprehends all that which God threatned in that sentence, Thou shalt die the death: that penall death, which is the reward of sinne, but not sinne it selfe: which is penall only, not sinfull. Other mens debts are an­swered diverse wayes: some answer them simply as redeemers, some as sureties. He that answers them as a suretie, must pay theHeb. [...]. 6. same summe of money that the debtor oweth. Now Christ is not only our Mediatour, but our suretie, Heb. 7. 22. and hence the me­diation [Page 281] of Christ is called a propitiation. Rom. 3. 25. 1 Joh. 2. 2. and the surety is of debt and justice to make full satisfaction, be­cause he hath voluntarily promised it, and God the Father did in justice exact it. Rom. 3. 24, 25. and 8. 32.

In the sufferings of Christ we must consider the circumstances, and substance of his sufferings. The circumstances, as the person of the sufferer, the cause of suffering, and efficacy of the passion: in which respect it was more then the Law required: for the Law did not require that God should die, nor that any one should die that had not finned, nor such a death, and of such efficacie, as not only to abolish death, but to bring in life, and that by many de­grees more excellent then that which Adam had lost: but if we respect the substance of punishment, it was that which the Law required, which he paid of love free and voluntary, and yet of justice. Justice requireth the same summe of debt, the dig­nity of Christs person nothing hindering: and according to justice Christ made satisfaction. As concerning the substance of punishment, Christ suffered what was due to us, but in the circumstances, which pertained not to the substance of the debt, some thing was pardoned, to the dignity of the person. In this stands the dignity of Christs person, that he might be fit meritoriously to pay our debt, so farre was it from freeing or acquitting him for any part of our debt. He that knew no sinne, was made sinne for us, 2 Cor. 5. 21. Surely he hath born our griefes, and carried our sorrowes. Isai. 53. 4. When the Scripture speakes so fully, why should humane curiosity limit the sufferings of Christ, as if they were not fully satisfactory, but by divine ac­ceptilation only? Christ suffered not every particular punishment that every particular sinner meeteth withall: but his passion was a common price payed at once for all his people, satisfying justice for all their offences, Rom. 5. 19. Heb. 10. 14. Rom. 8. 33. He bore our sinnes in his body upon the tree. 1 Pet. 2. 24. We are redeemed by his bloud. Eph. 1. 7. The bloud of Christ cleanseth us from all sinne. 1 Joh. 1. 6. Phil. 2. 8. Col. 1. 20. He hath made peace by the bloud Voss. respons. ad Iudic. Ravens. cap. 6. Robert. Loeus Examen. Eccl. The saur. effigiet veri Sabbath. of the crosse.

Touching the punishments which Christ suffered, they were not ordinary, but beyond measure grievous, bitter and unsupporta­ble; yea, such as would have made any meere creature to sinke down under the burthen of them to the bottome of hell. For he [Page 282] suffered grievous things from all the things in heaven, earth and hell. He suffered at the hands of God his Father, and of men; of Jewes, of Gentiles, of enemies insulting, of friends forsaking, of the Prince of darknesse, and all his cruell and mercilesse instru­ments. But whereas of the punishments of sinne, some be sinnes and punishments both, others punishments only: and some common to the nature of man, others personall growing out of some imperfection and defect in the vertue and faculty for­ming the body, disorder in diet, or some violence offered: and some for sinne inherent, others for sinne imputed: Our Saviour Christ suffered the punishments that are only punishments, and not sinne, common to the whole nature of man, not personall to this or that man; the punishments of the sinnes of other men, not his own, and that of them that should breake off their sins by re­pentance, not of them that would sin for ever, if they might live for ever. The whole life of our Saviour was a life of suffering, but his speciall sufferings were those he endured in the Garden, or upon the crosse. In the Garden he was in an agony: upon the crosse he was pressed with the weight of grievous and unsuppor­table evils. His agony was that sorrow, wherein his soule was beset round with heavinesse and feare even unto death. Thus the Evangelists describe it, He began to be sorrowfull, and very heavy. Matt. 26. 37, 38. Then saith he to them, scil. Peter, James and John, My soul is excee­ding sorrowfull, even unto death. He began to be sore amazed, and to be very heavy, And saith unto them, My soule is exceeding sorrowfull Mar. 14. 33, 34. Joh. 12. 27. unto death. Now is my soul troubled. His soul was smitten with horrour, that all powers and faculties for a time left their proper functions, and did concurre to relieve nature in that extremity; as when a man hath received some gashly wound, the bloud doth at first retire to comfort the heart. But this stay came not from any internall defect, which had been sinfull, but from an externall cause, to wit, the horrour which fell upon him, as the wheeles of a Watch may cease from motion without any fault in them, when they are stayed by the hand of the Artificer. He feared also the stroke of the justice of God his Father, sitting on the Tribunall or Judgement seat, to punish the sins of men, for whom he stood forth to answer; this he feared, as a thing impossible to be esca­ped, in respect of the resolution and purpose of God his Father, that by his satisfactory death, and no other way, man should be [Page 283] delivered. And he declined everlasting destruction, as a thing he knew he should escape without all doubt or uncertaintie of event, though not without conflicting with the temptations of Sathan, and the enduring of many grievous and bitter things.

These passions in Christ were most pure, because he himselfe was most free from all taint of sin, as if you put cleare water into a cleare glasse, though you shake and stirre it never so much, it will raise no mud.

The effects of this agony were two; Earnest prayer and bloudie sweat. Being in an agony he prayed more fervently. He Luk. 22 44. fell on his face and prayed: He prayed thrice the same words, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup passe from me: neverthelesse, Matt. 26. 39. not as I will, but as thou wilt. As the sense of nature and inferiour reason presented death, and the ignominy of the crosse unto him, as they are in themselves evill, without the consideration of any good to follow, he desired to decline them. But as superiour rea­son considered them with all circumstances, knowing Gods reso­lution to be such, that the world should thereby be saved, and by no other meanes, he most willingly accepted of them. Between these desires there was a diversity, but no contrariety: a subordi­nation, but no repugnance or resistance. Consider Christ in pri­vate as a man, of the same naturall affections, desires and abhorren­cies with other men, and the cup as it was very bitter and grie­vous, and so most justly he feared and declined it, and could not but decline it, unlesse he had put off the nature and affection of man: But consider him in his publike relation, as a Mediatour, a suretie, a mercifull and faithfull high Priest, and so he most wil­lingly and obediently submitted unto it. And this willingnesse in respect of his office was much the greater, and the comfort we may draw from thence the sweeter, because in respect of nature, his will could not but shrinke for it. If nature had not necessarily shrunke, sweat startled, and stood amazed at that service, Christ had not manifested so much love and free submission to the com­mand of grace, nor could we have had so much comfortable assu­rance of the truth of our redemption thereby: for it is impossible the nature of man should conflict with the terrible wrath of God, and not dread and tremble. The Apostle saith, Christ in the dayes of his flesh, offered up prayers and supplications, with strong crying and Heb. 5. 7. [Page 284] teares, and was heard in the thing he feared. In the New Testa­ment the word signifieth reverence, Luke 2. 25. Act. 2. 5. and 8. 2. Heb. 12. 28. or circumspect caution joyned with feare. Heb. 11. 7. Act. 23. 10. but feare is most fit to this place, as it signi­fieth commonly in good Authours, and by the phrase it selfe may be confirmed: for he was heard from his feare, as he was delive­red from death.

The second effect of this Agonie was a bloudie sweat. In a cold night, when our Saviour lay upon the ground, in the open aire, no man being neere unto him, no violence offered unto his body, he did sweat clotted bloud, in such abundance, that it strea­med through his apparell, and wet the ground. Never was there sweat like this sweat, nor anguish of soul like this anguish that [...]e then endured. But these I may call the beginnings of sorrow. Upon the crosse he uttered that dolefull complaint, My God, my Matth. 26. God, why hast thou forsaken me? He complaineth not that his hea­venly Father had forsaken his, but him. Formerly he had wept over Jerusalem, and commended his Disciples unto the custodyJoh. 17. of his Father, being assured they should be gathered, though for the time dispersed. But the cause of this lamentation was, that being now in the hands of his cruell, bloudy, mercilesse enemies, left to endure the extremity of their rage and fury, his Father for a time withdrew from him that solace he was wont to find in him. The unity of his person was never dissolved, his righteous­nesse or graces were never either taken away or diminished: nei­ther is it possible he should want assurance of future deliverance and present support: but for a time the Father did with-draw the sense of favour and comfort, that his humane nature might suffer what our sinnes deserved. This dereliction was altogether with­out sin; because Christ our Saviour brought it not upon himselfe, but was called unto it, and in the conflict his faith was most firm, not shaken with any degree of unbelief: in which cases only the want of comfort is a fault, scil. when we bring it upon our selves, or stain it with infidelity.

It is here objected, that an innocent person ought not to suffer for a nocent, for guilt is inseparable from sin; The sonne shall not beare the iniquity of his Father, neither shall the Father beare the ini­quity of the son, the soul that sinneth the same shall die. Ezek. 18. 20.

For the clearing of this objection, we must note, that there is a [Page 285] two-fold manner of guilt, either such as growes out of sin inhe­rent, which is the deserving of punishment, as it is in us: or such as growes out of sin imputed, and that not by reason of union natu­rall; as the guilt of Adams sin is imputed unto us (which man­ner of imputation likewise is the foundation of punishment deser­ved) but voluntary by way of vadimonie and susception. And so guilt is only a free and willing obnoxiousnesse unto that punish­ment which another hath deserved. In an ordinary course of providence it is true, the sonne shall not beare the punishment of the Fathers sin; because he is altogether personally distinct, he is not appointed so to doe, as Christ was, he is not able to bear them so as to take them off from his Father, as Christ did ours, and al­ready hath too many of his own to beare: but this was no natu­rall or unchangeable Law, and if the will of the Sonne go along with the Father in sinning, it is not strange, not unusuall for him to suffer for his Fathers and his own sin together, as for the conti­nuation of the same offence. More particularly for resolution of the question, whether an innocent person may suffer for the guil­ty, we must note, first that God out of his dominion over all things, may cast paines upon an innocent person, as it is manifest he did upon Christ, who suffered most grievous things, and death it selfe; And what ground of complaint could any creature have against God, if he should have created it in fire, and made the place of its habitation, the instrument of its pain? Do not we our selves without cruelty, upon many occasions put creatures that have not offended us, unto pain?

Secondly, it is not universally against equity for one to suffer the punishment of anothers sin: We see the Infants of Sodome, Babylon, Egypt, of Corah, Dathan, and Abiram, were involved in the punishment of those sins of which themselves were not guilty. The Lord reserveth to himselfe the punishment of the Fathers upon the children. Exod. 20. 5. and 34. 7. He punished the sinnes of three hundred and ninetie yeares all together. Ezek. Lam. 5. 7. 4, 2, 5. Cham committed the sinne, and yet Canaan was cursed2 Sam. 1 [...]. 13, 14. for it, Gen. 9. 22, 25. The sin was Gehezi's alone, and yet the Le­prosie cleaved not to him only, but to his posterity. 2 King. 5. 27. For the sin of Saul, his sons are hanged up before the Lord. 2 Sam. 21. 8, 14. Achan trespassed alone, but he perished not alone, but his sons and his daughters, and all that he had with him. Josh. 7. 24. [Page 286] The sin of crucifying Christ was the sin of the Jewes in that age alone, and yet wrath is come upon them to the uttermost, even unto this day, Matth. 27. 25. 1 Thes. 2. 16. vid. 1 King. 21. 21. and 14. 10. Judg. 9. 56. 1 King. 2. 33. Jer. 22. 30. And if it be not unjust to punish one for anothers fault, and grant impunity to the offendour, it is not unjust to punish the innocent for those faults, which are remitted to the guilty, 2 King. 8. 9, 10. 1 King. 21. 21. For it is essentiall to punishment that it should be inflicted for sinne, but not that it should be inflicted upon him that hath offended.

Thirdly, that an innocent person may thus in justice and equi­ty suffer for a nocent, there is required (besides the acts of ordina­tion in the supreme, of submission in the suretie, and of consent inActus cui poena inest, est actus nocivus: qui nec omnibus, nec in omnes concessus. Quare ut poena sit justa, requi­ritur ut actus ipse poenalis sit in potestate pu­nientis: quod ter contingit, aut antecedenti jure ipsius puni­entis, aut justo & valido con­sensu ejus de cujus poena agitur, aut ejus­dem delicto. the delinquent) first, an intimate and neere conjunction in him that suffereth, with those that should have suffered. Severall unions and conjunctions there are, as Politicke between the members and subjects in a state: and thus the people were punished for Davids sin. 2 Sam. 24. 14, 17. and in a common-wealth univer­sally sinfull, a few righteous men may as parts of that sinfull socie­ty be justly subject to those temporary evils, which the sins of that society have contracted. See 1 Sam. 12. 25. Naturall, as between parents and children, so the Lord visited the sins of Dathan upon his little ones. Numb. 16. 27, 33. Valer. Max. de Dion. Siculo. Plutarch. de sera Num. vindict. Mysticall, as between man and wife, so the Lord punished the sins of Amazia [...] the Priest of Bethel, by giving over his wife unto whoredome, Amos 7. 17. And we see in many cases the Husband is liable to be charged and censured for the exorbitancies of his wife. Stipulatorie and by consent, as in the case of fide jussores & obsides, who are punished for the sins of others whom they represent, and in whose place they stand as a caution and muniment against injuries which might be feared, as we see in the Parable of a Prisoner committed to the custody of another person. 1 King. 20. 39, 42. So the surety is punished for the debtor. Possessorie, as between a man and his goods, and so we find that a man was to offer no beast for a sin-offering, but that which was his own. Lev. 5. 6, 7. Besides, there is required in the innocent person suffering, that he have a free and full dominion over that from which he parteth, in his suffering for another. As in suretiship, a man hath free dominion over his money, and ther­fore [Page 287] in that respect he may engage himself to pay another mans debt; but he hath not a free dominion over himself, or his own life; and therefore he may not part with a member of his own in commutation, for anothers, (as Zaleucus did for his sonne) nor be [...], to lay down his own life for the delivering of ano­ther from death, except in such cases as the Word of God limi­teth and alloweth. Now all these things hold in Christ in a spe­ciall manner. There is a most neere conjunction between him and us. He conversed amongst men, and was a member of that Tribe and Society amongst whom he lived, and therefore was to­gether with them under that Romane yoke which was then upon the people, and in that relation paid tribute unto Cesar: He had the nature of man, and was subject to all humane and naturall in­firmities without sinne. He was mystically married unto his Church, and therefore was answerable for the debts and misde­meanours of his Church. He entred into Covenant, and became surety for man, and therefore was liable to mans engagements. He became the possession in some sort of his Church, whence it is that we are said to have him. 1 Joh. 5. 12. not by way of dominion (for so we are his. 1 Cor. 6. 19.) but by way of communion and pro­priety. He was Lord of his own life, and had therefore power to lay it down, and to take it up. And this power he had (though he were in all points subject to the Law as we are) not solely by vertue of the hypostaticall union, which did not for the time exempt him from any obligations of the Law, but by vertue of a particular command, constitution, and designation to that service of laying down his life. This commandement have I received of my Father. Joh. 10. 18. Moreover, he had power ample enough to breake thorough the sufferings he undertooke, and to assume his life, and former condition again. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it up. And therefore it was most just and righteous, that Christ in himself innocent, should suffer for us in our selves guilty, which doth more plainly appeare, in that all parties are glorified, and all parties are willing and well-pleased. All parties are glorified: The Father is glorified in the obedience of his Sonne. Joh. 12. 27, 28. John 17. 4. The Sonne is glorified by the Father. Joh. 17. 5. Heb. 2. 7. crowned with glory: and the sinner glorified, being received into favour. Ioh. 17. 24. All parties are willing; the Father is willing, for by his Ordination he ap­pointed [Page 288] Christ unto it. Act. 4. 27, 28. and in his love and com­passion bestowed Christ upon us. Ioh. 3. 16. by his divine ac­ceptation he rested well pleased in it. Matth. 17. 5. and by his wonderfull wisdome fitted it to the manifestation of his glory and mercy, to the reconciliation of him and his creature, and to the exaltation of his Sonne. The Sonne is willing, he cheareful­ly submitted unto it. Heb. 10. 9. and freely loved us, and gave himself unto us. Gal. 2. 20. The sinner is willing, and accepteth and relieth upon it. The summe of all is this, By the most wise, just, and mercifull will of God, by his owne most obedient and voluntary susception, Christ Jesus, being one with us in a mani­fold and most secret union, and having full power to lay downe, and to take up his life again, by speciall command and allow­ance of his Father given him, did most justly, without injury to himself, or dishonour to or injustice in his Father, suffer the pu­nishment of their sins, with whom he had so neere an union, and who could not themselves have suffered them with obedience in their own persons, or with so much glory to Gods justice, mercy and wisdome. And though the will of God being ever just, is to us a sufficient cause of what God willeth, and the reason there­of be to us unsearchable: yet in this matter we can assigne just and weighty reasons of this will of God out of the Scriptures. God will not execute the severity of his Law, because he is merci­full, slow to anger, and ready to forgive. His free and everlasting love, and infinite delight which he hath in mercy, disposeth him aboundantly to pardon, and exercise loving kindnesse in the earth. Exod. 34. 7. Micha 7. 18. Ionah 4. 2. 2 Chron. 30. 9. Psal. 86. 5. Psal. 103. 8. Isai. 55. 7. Ier. 9. 24. and 31. 20. Luke 6. 36. Rom. 2. 4. And if the Lord should utterly destroy all men, there should be no Religion upon earth, as man should everlastingly loose the fruition of God, so he should likewise loose the volun­tary service and subjection of his creature; Iohn 15. 8. Ezek. 33. 11. For these reasons God purposed not utterly to cast man off, and poure upon him deserved vengeance: but withall he purposed not to let sinne goe unrevenged, and that for these reasons.

First, because of his great hatred thereunto. He is of purer eyes then to behold evill, he cannot looke on iniquity, Hab. 1. 13. it provoketh abhorrency in him, Psal. 5. 6. Zach. 8. 17. Rev. 3. 16. [Page 289] Amos 5. 21, 22. Isa. 1. 13, 14. And what is more convenient then to testifie how much sinne is displeasing unto him, which is done most conveniently by punishment, Exod 32. 10, 11. Numb. 11. 1. & 16. 22. Joh. 3. 36. Impunity hath this in it, that it makes that sinnes be l [...]sse esteemed: as feare of punishment is a ready way to keepe men in awe. They that have written of the relaxation ofProxima sunt idem ac tantun­dem. Lawes doe note, that those relaxations are best, to which some commutation or recompence is annexed: because by that meanes the authority of the Law is preserved, and obedience given to that reason, which was the cause of the Law.

And hence we may gather a second reason, why God would not pardon sinne without satisfaction, sc. his truth and the Law which he had established against sinne, which he will in no wise abolish: one jot or title shall in no wise passe from the Law, till all be ful­filled, Matth. 5. 18. For it is altogether undecent, especially to the wisedome and righteousnesse of God, that that which provo­keth the execution, should procure the abrogation of his Lawes, that that should supplant and undermine the Law, for the alone preventing whereof the Law was before established.

Also God will have men alwayes to tremble before him, and by his terror to be perswaded from sinning, 2 Cor. 5. 10, 11. and there­fore he reserveth to himselfe entire the punishment of sin, that men might alwayes feare before him, Matth. 10. 28. Luk. 12. 4. The omission of punishment after the publication of the Law, doth de­tract somewhat from the authority of the Law, with the subjects: God therefore willing to shew mercy to the creature fallen, and with all to maintaine the authority of his Law, tooke such a course as might best manifest his clemency and severity, his hatred of sin, care to stablish the Law, and tender compassion towards them that had gone astray. And hereby the love of God towards them that are spared is the more illustrious, that he spared them, who rather then he would not punish sinne, would give his only be­gotten Sonne to die for sinne.

It is objected againe, that God doth freely remit and pardon sinne, therefore he willed not that Christ should make satisfaction: because free remission will not stand with satisfaction. And most sure it is, that God is favourable to our iniquities, Ier. 31. 34. but God hath set forth Christ to be a propitiation through faith in his bloud. Rom. 3. 25. Act. 10. 43. Luk. 1. 68, 69, 70.

There is a twofold paiment of debt: one of the thing altoge­therRemissio est ab­soluta in qua Creditor sibi sa­tisfieri nō vult: & conditiona­ta, in qua De­bitor obligatio­ne debiti solvi­tur at satisfa­ctione aliunde interveniente. Stegma p. 505. Noxa sequitar caput. Gen. 2. 17. the same, which was in obligation, and this ipso facto freeth from punishment, whether it be paid by the debtour himselfe, or by the surety. Another of a thing not altogether the same, which is in the obligation, so that some act of the Creditour or Governor must come unto it, which is called remission: in which case deli­verance doth not follow ipso facto upon the satisfaction. And of this kind is the satisfaction of Christ: for in the rigour of the Law, the delinquent himselfe is in person to suffer the penalty denoun­ced. Every man shall be are his owne burthen, Gal. 6. 5. In the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt die the death. So that the Law in the rigour thereof, doth not admit of any commutation, or substitution of one for another. And therefore, that another per­son suffering may procure a discharge to the person guilty, and be valid to free him, the will, consent and mercy of him to whom the infliction of the punishment belongeth, must concurre, which in respect of the debtour is remission; and his over-ruling powerQui solvit hoc velle debet, ut debitor libere­tur. Rom. 3 24. Tit. 2. 14. Manet nihil o­minus gratuita Dei gratia. 1. Ratione de­creti gratuiti. 2. Ratione doni gratuiti, & 3. Ratione ac­ceptationis gra­tuitae: quod tale consiliam inve­nit quod tale medium de­dit, quod satisfa­ctionem talem acceptavit. Col 2. 13. & 3. 13. Eph. 4. 31. See Act. 25. 11, 16. 2 Cor. 2 7, 10. must dispence, though not with the substance of the Lawes de­mands, yet with the manner of execution, which in respect of the Law is called relaxation. Remission therefore is not repugnant to antecedent satisfaction: but only to that paiment of the thing due, which ipso facto doth deliver and set free.

It may be added that of grace Christ was ordained to be our surety, that at the commandment of grace he made satisfaction, and that his mind and will in satisfying was, that grace might justly glorifie her selfe in pardoning offences, and not that pardon should be given of justice. And so the satisfaction of Christ is full and perfect, and our pardon is every way free and gracious. And seeing every one may impose a Law to the act depending upon his own free will and pleasure, he that prayeth for another, and he that admitteth the paiment of one thing for another, may cove­nant, that remission shall follow presently, or after a certaine time, purely or upon condition. And this was the will and plea­sure of Christ making satisfaction, and of God admitting satisfa­ction, and this the Covenant, that God should pardon sin, not presently in the very time of Christs passion, but when man is tur­ned unto God by true faith in Christ, humbly intreating pardon. To forgive sin, is not opposite to th [...] accepting of that satisfaction which is freely admitted, when it might be refused, and to which [Page 291] he upon whom the benefit undue is conferred, doth conferre nothing.

It is further objected, that Christ satisfied not justice fully, but by divine acceptilation only: because he suffered but for a time, whereas we deserved to die eternally.

Sundry answers are made to this doubt. Some say his suffering for a time was more then if all man-kind had suffered eternally, in respect of the excellency of his person. But the worth and excel­lency of his person, was neither to dispence with time, nor grie­vousnesse of his punishments, but to make the passion of one a­vaileable for many. Otherwise if it might have dispensed with one degree of extremity of punishment due to sin, it might also have dispensed with two, and consequently with all.

Others answer, that the punishments of sin eternally remai­ning, must according to the rules of divine justice, be eternall: but it is no way necessary, neither doth the justice of God require, that the punishments of sin repented of, ceasing and forsaken, should be everlasting. For as Divines note, there are three things to be considered in sin; the aversion from an infinite and incommutable good; the inordinate conversion to a finite good, and the conti­nuing in the same, or ceasing from it: and to these severall things in sin, there are three severall things answering in the punishment of it. For to the aversion, which is objectively infinite, there an­swereth the losse of God, which is an infinite losse. To the inor­dinate conversion of the sinner to things transitory, there answe­reth a sensible smart and griefe intensively finite, as the pleasure the sinner taketh in the transitory things he inordinately loveth is finite. To the eternity of sin remaining everlastingly in staine or guilt, or continuance of it for a time, answereth the eternity of punishment, or the suffering of the same, but for a time. Now our Saviour Christ suffered only for those sins, which he meant to breake off by framing the sinners to repentance, and therfore it was no way necessary for the satisfying of divine justice, that he should endure eternall punishment.

A third answer is, that Christ suffered for a time, because he suffered to satisfie, and so to overcome upon the crosse, he trium­phed meritoriously over principalities and powers, therefore his sufferings could not continue for ever, but must have an end. For in suffering he had not satisfied justice, nor conquered the enemies [Page 292] of our salvation, if he had lien under the punishment of our sins e­ternally. But this sheweth the reason why Christ suffered but for a time, rather then how his suffering for a time could sa­tisfie the justice of God for ever, which had deserved eternall death.

The fourth answer is more full and free from exception, that Christ suffered but for a time, because it was impossible he should be held under of the sorrows of death, Act. 2. 24. The wicked suffer eternally, because they being cast under the curse, they can­not deliver themselves, and justice will not set them free: but Christ in suffering did overcome, and delivered himselfe, so that his sufferings continued but for a time. In kind his sufferings were the same with those, which in us should have continued for ever,Chamier. Tom. 2. l. 5. cap. 12. Sect 4. although they did not continue: wherefore? because they had an end not of themselves, or their owne nature, but of the power of Christ. He overcame those punishments which had been altogether eternall, if he could not have overcome.

Lastly, it is objected, that if God did elect and choose some men to grace and glory in and through Jesus Christ, Christ neededSynodal. Dord. ubi supra. not, nor yet could make satisfaction for them; for in as much as they were beloved of God, we cannot conceive how satisfaction should be needfull or could be made for them. Thus some dispute with great confidence, but little strength. For this Proposition, God loveth whom he hath chosen, or to chuse is to love, doth ad­mit a double sence: one this, whom God doth elect, them he lo­veth, or willeth well unto them, in time to make them actuall heires of grace and glory in Jesus Christ, and thus it is most true,Illi tantum à parte ante ratio­ne Dei n [...]gant meritum Chri­sti & effectum electionis illud constituunt, ita ut Deus prius homines ele­gisse, postea sic absolutè electis Filium tanquā salutis medium d [...]disse dicatur▪ St [...]g [...] pag. 49 [...] and doth not exclude, but inferre the necessity of satisfaction; a­nother sence may be, that whom God doth elect, them he doth love as made actuall heires of grace and glory by the influence of his love, and in this, it should exclude the necessity of satisfaction, but so it is not to be admitted. It is not absurd to say, the elect are in grace with God in respect of ordination or appointment; but after are brought into grace by Christ in respect of the actuall collation and communication. When Christ is said to reconcile us unto God, the meaning is not, that God did then first begin to love, or will well unto us, as if he did hate and will to damne us before: for then we must admit a proper change in the purpose and internall will of God proceeding from an externall cause, [Page 293] which is contrary both to Scripture and sound reason: but whereas formerly we lay under wrath deserved by sin, now we are recei­ved into favour and friendship with God. For reconciliation is a transient act, done in time, which inferrs a change in the creature reconciled, a change of state, not of qualities, and followes the obedience of Christ, as the effect the cause, and which God impar­teth to believers. Reconciliation, as the Scripture speaks of it, imports not any change in God, nor the externall good will or love of God, which remains in himselfe, and worketh not any change in the creature: but a blessing granted to us in time, that we who were the children of wrath by nature, should be the Sons of God by grace; we who were enemies, and hated in respect of the effects of wrath, and desert of sin, should be made friends and deare to God, the enmity being taken away by the bloud of Christ. And from hence we may learne how the new Covenant in many things hath the prerogative above the old. For wherein Moses mediated it was by the power of Christ, but Christ was that one Mediatour, who mediated from his owne authority and immediate power. Moses was called by God and the people, but an imperfect Mediatour, as not a right middle person: but Christ was a fit middle person both God and man, partaking the nature both of the offending and offended party, and so a middle person not only in office, but in nature, willing and fitting to mediate. Moses by reason of his weaknesse, was neither powerfull with God, nor yet fully compassionate and powerfull with the people: But Christ was man for the whole body of his brethren to prevaile for them: and man with his brethren, to be fully sensible and compassionate, Heb. 2. 17. Againe, he was man with God to present a perfect ransome or price of reconciliation: and he was God with man to bow them sufficiently to accept the reconcilia­tion offered. Moses stood in need to mediate for himselfe, as for the people: but Christ having no controversie for himselfe, me­diated only for the people, and hath perfected, wherin Moses wanted. For he fully bowes and circumciseth the hearts of his brethren to seeke attonement and to walke sutably: He doth re­move the guilt of sinfully from the conscience of the offending bre­thren, Heb. 9 14, 15. He is potent with God to satisfie revengingGal. 3. 13, 14. justice by presenting his bloud to remove the curse of the Law, that those which are called might receive the inheritance. He alone [Page 294] hath in his owne person performed obedience to the broken Law of God, and fulfilled all righteousnesse: and by his crosse hath can­celled the hand-writing that was against us, and broken downe the partition, and slayed hatred and enmity betwixt the brethren, Ephes. 2. 14, 15. But of this more hereafter. The Fathers recei­vedHeb. 11. 13, 14. not the promises, but saw them afarre off, and were perswa­ded of them, and saluted them with great sweetnesse: but under the new Covenant we have recived the promise, God hath sent his Son into the world, borne of a woman, and made under the Law, and openly manifested him to be the Son of God. And ifGal 4. 4, 5. the appearing of Christ God and man, did adde much to the joy and comfort of the Saints in glory: the manifestation of Christ in the flesh must adde to the faith and comfort of them, that waited for the salvation of Israel. The Incarnation of Christ was the day of his Coronation, and of his espousals, wherein in speciall man­nerCant. 3. 11. he contracted him unto his Church. Goe forth, O ye daugh­ters of Zion, and behold King Salomon with the crowne where­with his mother crowned him in the day of his espousals, and in the day of the gladnesse of heart. The Fathers expected deliverance from the curse of the Law, and to inherit the promises in and through the Messiah: and the Sacrifices did prefigure, and Pro­phets fore-tell the death of the Messiah; but we may well thinke, the faithfull did not distinctly understand, how the Saviour pro­mised, was to satisfie justice, and by death to overcome him that had the power of death. But in the new Testament we learne ex­pressely, that Christ is made of God unto us wisdome, righteous­nesse, sanctification and redemption, how he satisfied justice by one oblation of himselfe, removed the curse of the Law, destroyed him that had the power of death, purchased the promised Spirit, and ratified all the promises of the Covenant by his death and bloud-shed, Heb. 9. 15.

Thirdly, He is entred into heaven, appeareth before the Father, and maketh request for his people: unto which there is pre-requi­red a power and prevalencie over all his enemies, to breake through the guilt of sin, the curse of the Law, and the chaines of death, with which it was impossible that he should be held. And this power of Christ was shewed in his Resurrection, wherein he was declared to be the Son of God with power, Rom. 1. 4. and in his ascension, wherein he led all his enemies captives, Ephes. 4. 8. and [Page 295] in his sitting at the right hand of God, farre above all principalities and powers, Ephes. 1. 19, 20. All which did make way to the pre­senting of his Sacrifice before the Mercy-seat, which is the con­summation of it, and without which he had not been a Priest. We have such an high Priest (saith the Apostle) as is set downe at the right hand of the Majestie in the heavens, for if he were on earth he should not be a Priest, seeing that there are Priests which offer gifts according to the Law, Heb. 8. 1, 4. Christ our high Priest having offered up himselfe an expiatory Sacrifice once for all, by his divine power rose againe from the dead, and is entered into the very heavens, to appeare in the presence of God for us, Heb. 9. 24.Levit. 16. 11, 15. It was the same continued action, whereby the Priest did offer without the holy place, and did then bring the bloud into the ho­liest of all, Heb. 13. 11. For the reason why it was shed was to present it to the mercy-seat, and to shew it unto the Lord there.Heb. 9. 8. Inchoari potest functio veri Sa­cerdotis stante▪ typico Sacerdo­tio & perfecta esse non potest illo stā [...]e Obla­tio peracta in terra perfectis­sima f [...]it, sed perfectione par­tis non perfecti­one totius▪ Aliud est of­ferre in terra, aliud peracta▪ oblatione mane­re in terra. Heb. 1. 3. & 10▪ 5, 6 & 9. 1 [...]. 1 Cor. 5. 7. So Christs act or office was not ended, nor fit to denominate him a compleate Priest, till he did enter with bloud and present his offe­ring in the holiest of all not made with hands, Heb. 9. 24. And therefore he had not been a Priest if he should have continued on the earth, for there was another Priest-hood there, which was not to give place but upon the accomplishment of his; for the whole figure was to passe away when the whole truth was come. Now Christs oblation was the truth prefigured in the Priests sacrificing of the beast, and his entrance into heaven was the truth prefigured in the Priests carrying of the bloud into the holiest of all. And there­fore both these were to be accomplished, before the Leviticall Priest-hood did give place.

Some referre this to the oblation of Christ, whereof they make two parts; the one exp [...]atory, when Christ suffered upon the crosse: the other presentatory, when he doth appeare in heaven before God for us: the one of killing or suffering, the other of o­stension: the one finished on earth, when Christ suffered without the gate: because as no sin, so no punishment can come within the holy place: the other performed in heaven, satisfaction beingHeb. 13. 11, 12. first made on earth. The first was not a preparation of a Sacrifice, but a Sacrifice: the latter was not so much a Sacrifice, as the com­memoration of the Sacrifice made: for appearing in heaven is not properly a sacerdotall act, unlesse it leane upon the vertue of the Sacrifice performed: the first was an act of humiliation; the lat­ter.Heb. 10 8, [...]. [Page 296] of glory: the first performed once for all: the latter done con­tinually: that the explatory Sacrifice or obtaining of redemption: this the application of redemption. The Sacrifice consisted in theVidetur etiam spect are consue­tudines Regum & Iudicum in­ter homines. Reges enim soe­derati in suis aulis matuo ha­bent Legatos pacis obsides, qui quamdiu apparent in Re­gis conspectu, firma stat con­foederatio. death of Christ alone, the application thereof is grounded upon Christs death as its merit, but effected by the life of Christ as its immediate cause. When the Apostle saith, Christ appeareth be­fore the Father for us, the expression is borrowed from the custome of humane Courts; for as in them when the Plaintiffe or Defen­dant is called, their Atturney appeareth in their name and behalfe: so when we are summoned by the justice of God to defend our selves against those exceptions and complaints, which it preferreth against us, we have an Advocate with the Father, even Jesus Christ the righteous, who standeth out, and appeareth for us. 1 Joh. 2. 1.

It consisteth in two things; First, his appearing or presenting of his person in our nature and in his owne, as a publike person, a Mediatour, a sponsor and pledge for us; as Judah was both a Me­diatour to request, and a surety to engage himselfe to beare the blame for ever with his Father for his brother Benjamin, Gen. 43. 8, 9. And Paul for Onesimus a Mediatour, I beseech thee for my sonne Onesimus, Philem. 9, 10. and a Sponsor, If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee ought, put that on mine account, I will repay it, ver. 18, 19. So Christ is both a Mediator and surety for us, Heb. 7. 22. and 8. 6.

Secondly, the presenting of his merits as a publike satisfaction, for the debt of sin: for the justice of God would not be entreated or pacified without satisfaction, now that is for ever, because he shall not cease to appeare.

The Intercession of Christ is his gracious will, fervently and im­moveablyHeb. 7. 25, 28. Rom. 8. 34. Heb. 7. 25. desiring, that for the perpetuall vertue of his Sacrifice, all his members might be accepted of the Father, whereunto an­swereth the consent of the Father, in whose bosome he is, who heareth him alwaies, Joh. 11. [...]2. and in whom he is well pleased, Mat. 17. 5. who called him to this office of being as it were master of Requests in the behalfe of his Church, and promised to heare him in his Petitions.Rom. 8. 34. 1 Joh. 2. 1.

This Intercession of Christ is generall and particular, for all and every faithfull man. I pray not for the world, but for all that thou hast given me, Joh. 17. 9. for all that shall beleeve, vers. 20. [Page 297] Simon, Simon, Satan hath desired to winnow you as wheate, but Exod. 28. 21. I have prayed for thee, Luk. 22 31, 32. As the high Priest went into the Sanctuary with the names of the twelve Tribes upon his breast: So Christ entred into the holiest of all with our persons in our behalfe, and doth carry all his people upon his breast, and pre­sents his desires unto his Father for them.

It is also heavenly and glorious: for our Saviour doth not fall upon his knees or prostrate himselfe before his Father, as in the da [...]es of his humiliation: for that is not agreeable to that glory he hath received, and to which he is exalted: but after a manner be­fitting his glory, doth present his good will and pleasure to his Father, that he may thereunto put his seale and consent. It is a praying not out of private charity, as the Saints pray one for ano­ther in this life, but out of publike office of mediation, by a pub­like person set up, not only to pray for the Church in generall, but to present the prayers of particular men to God in their behalfe;Quia enim pij [...] perpetuò litt­gandum fit cum Satana, mundo & car [...]e, ac e­tiam ipsa lege & ira Dei, e­juso probatio­nibus ac mora in exaudiendo, ipse Spiritus S. illos consolatur & instituit, ut Advocatus in foro clientem. Dicitur ergo Paracletus, Alvocatus & Patro [...]as, qui suo clienti in per [...]culo judicij ad [...]at eum con­sclatur, insti­tuit, pro eo etiā loquitur & de­niq omnibus modis illi patro­cinatur. not out of humility, which is a proposing of requests for things un­merited, which we expect of meere grace, according to the free promise of God; but out of authority, which is the desiring of a thing so, as that he hath with all a right joyntly of bestowing it, who doth desire it.

True Intercession as it is a publike and authoritative act is foun­ded upon the satisfactory merits of the person interceding: He cannot be a right Advocate, who is not a propitiation too. The Spirit is our Advocate by energie and operation, by instruction and assistance, as by his counsell, inspiration, and assistance he en­ableth the faithfull to pleade their own cause. But Christ is our Advocate by office, as he taketh upon himselfe the cause of his Church, in his owne person applieth his merits in heaven, and furthers the cause of our Salvation with his Father. The Spirit maketh inter [...]ellation for men in and by themselves, emboldening them in their feares, helping them in their infirmities, when they know not what to pray, and giving them accesse unto the Father, Ephes. 2. 18. Heb. 10. 15. 19. Rom. 8. 26. Ephes. 3. 16. and is their Advocate, as he leadeth them into all truth, and teacheth them so to pleade their cause, that they have wherewith to defend and comfort themselves, Joh. 14. 16. against the criminations and tyrannie of the world, Joh. 16 7 8 But Christ by his Intercession applieth his satisfaction made, and laies the salve to the very sore. [Page 298] And so the Intercession of Christ implies three things. The per­petuall vigor of his sacrifice; the will of Christ fervently desiring that all his members might be accepted for the vertue of his sacri­fice: and the will of God resting well pleased with us in his belo­ved Sonne.

The Saints on earth pray mutually one for another according to Gods commandement, not in their owne names, or for their owne merits, but for the merits, and in the name of Jesus Christ: but the Intercession of Christ is no wayes reciprocall, he prayeth for all and every one that is given unto him of the Father, and that through the vertue of his sacrifice, but they pray not for him.

This Intercession of Christ is ever effectuall, because the Father heareth and answereth him, and as he hath a power to intercede for us, so hath he power to conferre that upon us for which he in­tercedeth. I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Com­forter, Joh. 14. 16. If I goe not away the Comforter will not come unto you, but if I depart, I will send him unto you, Joh. 16. 7. Christ as man praying for himselfe, was heard in that which he feared, though the Cup did not passe from him: but Christ as Mediatour is ever heard in the particular which he desireth.

Many and great benefits come to the Church of God by the In­tercession of Christ Jesus. 1. Hereby the faithfull are assured of protection and defence against the continuall temptations, assaults and accusations of all their spirituall enemies, Satan and the world. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather that is risen againe, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh In­tercession for us, Rom. 8. 34. I pray that thou wouldest keepe them from evill, Joh. 17 15.

But are not the faithfull subject to evills, corruptions and temp­tations still? how then is that part of the Intercession of Christ made good unto us?

For the understanding hereof, we must know that the Interces­sion of Christ is a vaileable to the faithfull presently, but in a man­ner suteable and convenient to the present estate and condition of the Church, so that there may be left roome for another life, and therefore we must not conceive all presently done. As the Sunne shineth on the Moone by leasurely degrees, till she come to her full light; or as if the King grant a pardon to be drawne; though the grant be of the whole thing at once, yet it cannot be written [Page 299] and sealed but word after word, and line after line, and action af­ter action: so the grant of our holinesse is made unto Christ at first, but in the execution thereof, there is line upon line, precept upon precept, here a little, and there a little; such an order by Christ observed in the distribution of his Spirit and grace, as is most sute­able to a life of faith, and to the hope we have of a better King­dome. I have prayed for thee, that thy faith faile not, saith Christ to Peter, yet we see it did shake and totter: the prayer was not that there might be no failing at all, but that it might not utterly and totally faile.

2. Hereby they are assured of the pardon of their daily infirmi­mities, and their rising againe if they fall. If any man sinne of in­firmity, he hath a pardon of course granted, for Christ is his Ad­vocate to pleade his cause, 1 Joh. 2. 1. If any man slip of weakenesse, he shall rise againe, for Christ hath prayed for him, that his faith might not faile, Luk. 22. 31, 32.

3. All the workings and comforts of the Spirit in our hearts which we enjoy, are the fruits of Intercession. I will pray the Fa­ther, and he shall give you another Comforter, or Advocate, that he may abide with you for ever, even the spirit of truth, Joh. 14. 16, 17. who shall leade the faithfull into all truth, and inable them to plead their cause against the calumnies of the devill, and accusations of the world: who doth teach them to sigh and groane unto God for mercy, speake unto his highnesse in prayer, furnisheth them with wisedome and prudence in every condition, directeth them to grapple in all temptations, serve God in all estates, raiseth the de­sires to heaven, formeth Christ upon the heart, enflameth with the love and comfort of the truth, healeth, reneweth, reviveth, pres [...]rveth, strengtheneth, supporteth, and sealeth up unto eter­nall life.

4. The fourth benefit is free accesse to the throne of grace, and assured hope of all blessings here, and heaven hereafter. Seeing then that we have a great high Priest that is passed into the heavens, Je­sus the Sonne of God, let us hold fast our profession, and come boldly unto the throne of grace, Heb. 4. 14, 16. And againe, This man after he had offered one Sacrifice for sinnes for ever, sate downe on the right hand of God, from henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstoole: from whence the Apostle inferreth, Having therefore boldnesse to enter into the Holiest by the blood of Jesus, and [Page 300] having an high Priest over the house of God, Let us draw neere with a Heb. 7. 25. true heart, in full assurance of saith, Heb. 10. 12.—23.

5. The prayers and workes of the faithfull are sanctified and accepted in the sight of God, the imperfections that cleave unto them being covered and removed; as the high Priest in the Law was to beare the iniquity of the holy things of the children of Israel, that they might be accepted, Exod. 28. 36, 38 Christ is the Angell of the Covenant, who hath a golden Censor to offer up the prayers of the Saints, Rev. 8. 3. And this is a benefit which run­neth through the whole life of a Christian: all the ordinary workes of our calling (being parts of our service unto God, for in them we worke as Servants to the same Master) and workes of mercy and righteousnesse, are unto us sanctified, and to the Fa­ther made acceptable, not-with-standing the adherencie of sinne unto them, by reason of our imperfections, by the intercession of1 Joh. 2. 1, 2. his Sonne, who hath made us Priests to offer our Sacrifices with ac­ceptance upon this Altar, Rev. 1. 6. 1 Pet. 2. 5. Isa. 65. 7. Phil. 4. 18.

6. The sixt benefit is fellowship with the Father and his Sonne, I pray for these, that as thou Father art in me, and I in thee, they also may be one in us, Joh. 17. 21.

7. Continuance in the state of grace, and strength against sin, so that the faithfull shall not finally be overcome, is the gratious and comfortable effect of Christs intercession. I have prayed for thee, that thy faith faile not, Luk 22. 32. Father I will that they al­so, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am, that they may behold my glory which thou hast given me, Joh. 17. 24. Some may say, in our Saviours prayer for Peter there was some-what singular. And every example is singular, and so this as an example: but it containes nothing singular which is not common to all the faith­full, and such as are given unto Christ of the Father: for then we must say, Christ prayed so for Peter, as he prayed not for his peo­ple who stood in more need of his Intercession then Peter, (if the matter be weighed according to the judgement of men,) who had obtained many priviledges. And if Peters faith shall perse­vere, because Christ prayed for him, they for whom Christ makes intercession that their faith may not faile, they shall continue in faith unto the end. If they say, this priviledge was granted to Peter as an Apostle: then it was granted to all the Apostles: but this priviledge was not common to Peter and Judas. [Page 301] It remaines then that it was given to him as a faithfull Apostle, and so agrees to all the faithfull with him. And the things which Christ asketh for his Apostles are to be distinguished: for some things are simply necessary to Salvation, as that they might be sa­ved from evill, and sanctified by the truth; others which per­taine properly to the Apostolicall office. Now when Christ as­keth things necessary to Salvation, he prayeth not for his Apo­stles as Apostles, but as faithfull and beloved. For what things are asked for this or that man, as he executeth this or that office, they properly respect that office: but whatsoever things tend di­rectly to the salvation of the Soule, are not to be reckoned amongst the things which are peculiar, but which are common.

Further they object, that Christ ever pray­edChrists Intercession is not for the faith­full as faithfull, but as given unto him of the Father: for Christ hath prayed for them that they might believe: Christs Intercession is not conditionall: for then that condition is purchased by the blood of Christ or not. If not, then some spirituall blessing is necessa­ry for us, which Christ hath not pur­chased. If yes, then Christ doth not desire his might receive what he hath purchased. If Christs Intercession be conditionall, then what is the conditi­on, and whether is that purchased by his death, or of our selves. for the absolute perseverance of beleevers, but after a sort, and upon condition. But the prayer of Christ is certaine, and not sus­pended. They for whom Christ prayed doe not love the world, but that they love not the world, is an effect of Christs prayers, not a condition required in them that he might pray for them. Some prayers raci [...]ly include a condition in him for whom we pray, as if we pray God to give eternall life to a sinner, we presuppose faith and repentance: because without faith and repentance life cannot be given, nor desired: but some prayers presup­pose no condition in him for whom we pray, as when we pray God to give faith or repentance to any man. Now the Intercessi­on and request which Christ maketh for the faithfull doth presup­pose no condition; for he prayeth not simply that life might sim­ply be given to the faithfull, but that they might be kept from e­vill, and if they be kept from evill, they must persevere in the faith: for to fall from the faith is the greatest evill. Neither can it be said that Christ prayeth for them that would persevere, but he prayeth that they should persevere: for the object of the thing for which we pray, must be distinct from the thing it selfe pray­ed for. No man would pray for men to persevere if they doe per­severe: but rather that they might persevere, which otherwise would not. Yet they reply, Christ prayeth that his Apostles [Page 302] might be kept from evill, as he had kept Judas. Joh. 17. 12. Belike then Peter had no greater assurance of his recovery, nor the rest of the Apostles of their perseverance in the faith, then Judas had. Ju­das was given to Christ in respect of his office and ministery, but not as an heire of Salvation, or as the faithfull are said to be given; The particle translated But, in that clause (But the child of perditi­on) is not ever an exceptive, but an adversative in many places; as [...]. Gal. 2. 16. Knowing that a man is not justified by the workes of the Law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ. Matth. 12. 4. Which was not [...]. lawfull for him to eat, neither for them that were with him, but only for the Priests. See Gal. 1. 7. 1 Cor. 7. 17. Rev. 9. 4. and 21. 27. And [...] Psal. 1. 2, 4. Gen. 18. 15. the Hebrew particle im lo and ki im, which the Septuagint turne [...], Gen. 22. 26. [...], Gen. 24. 38. Isai. 59. 2. and [...], 2 King. 5. 17. is used adversatively. And [...], which the Syriac Inter­preter useth, is now and then put for an exceptive, in which sense usually [...] followeth it, but without it, it is most commonly an adversative. For the Syr. [...] is compounded of [...], &Pro nobis uni­cus interpellat in coelo, praestat cum patre quod postularat à Patre: quia Mediator est & Creator: Mediator ut po­scat, Creator ut tribuat. Smaragd. in Act. Apost. cap. 10. [...], and is the same with the Hebrew Im lo. And so in this place, Judas is opposed to them that were given unto Christ, and not excepted from that number, as if he had been given also. We may therefore conclude that our Saviour prayed for the certaine perseverance of them that were given unto him, or that they might be kept from evill, and that he was heard in that which he desired.

Fourthly, Christ being advanced at the right hand of his Fa­ther, doth exercise his Kingly office, both for the comfort of his chosen, and the bridling and repressing of his and their enemies. This is noted by his sitting at the right hand of the Father: which was foretold by the Prophets, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, untill I make thine enemies thy foot-stoole. See Deod. in Psal. 110. 1. Psal. 110. 1. Act. 2. 34. Matth. 22. 43, 44. Luk. 20. 42. and by our Saviour himself: Ye shall see the Sonne of man sitting on the right hand of power. Mark 14. 62. And accordingly it was accomplished, This man after he had offered one sacrifice for sinnes for ever, sate downe on the right hand of God. Heb. 10. 12. Thus Christ is said [...] to stand at the right hand of God. Act. 7. 56. to be at the right [...]. hand of God. Rom. 8. 34. 1 Pet. 3. 22. to sit at the right hand of [Page 303] God. Mark 16. 19 to sit on the right hand of the power of God, Luk. 22. 69. and to sit downe on the right hand of the Majestie on high. Heb. 1. 3. The right and left hand are proper differences of corporall positions: but figuratively the right hand is put for power, strength, counsell, work, aide, love and fidelity; as Psal. 26. 10. Their right hand is full of bribes. Psal. 144. 8. 11. Their right hand is a right hand of falshood, that is, either confidence in their own power will deceive themselves, or they will deceive others to whom they promise succour and assistance. 1 Sam 14 19. Is not the hand of Ioah with thee in all this? Gal. 2. 9. They gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship. And being applyed to God it notes his power, strength, aide, Majestie, glory, sove­raignty, and divine authority. Psal. 44. 3. Thy right hand, and Isai. 48. 13. right hand to span the hea­vens. thine arme, and the light of thy countenance, because thou hadst a favour unto them. Psal. 77. 10. This is mine infirmity, but I will re­member the yeares of the right hand of the most High: where we find Gods hand, that is, his power opposed to the infirmity of his ser­vant. My infirmity and weake faith made me apt to sinke under the sense of Gods displeasure, but when I called to mind the ex­periences of Gods former power in like distresses, I recollected my spirits, and was refreshed again, Psal. 89. 13. Strong is thy hand, and high is thy right hand. Psal. 20. 6. He will heare him from his holy heaven, with the saving strength of his right hand. Psal. 21. 8. Thy right hand shall find out those that hate thee. Psal. 118. 16. The right hand of the Lord is exalted, the right hand of the Lord doth vali­antly. Psal. 17. 7. Shew thy marvellous kindnesse, O thou that savest by thy right hand them which put their trust in thee. Psal. 48. 10. Thy right hand is full of righteousnesse. Psal. 138. 7. Thy right hand shall save me. Psal. 139. 10. Even there shall thy hand leade me, and thy right hand shall hold me. Hab. 2. 16. The cup of the Lords right hand shall be turned unto thee.

And God strengtheneth, and helpeth and upholdeth his people by the right hand of his righteousnesse. Isai. 41. 10. that is, by his power and faithfull promises, which in their weaknesse streng­thens them, in their fear and flagging helps them, in their sinking and falling upholds them. Therefore also Gods right hand is cal­led the right hand of Majestie, Heb. 1. 3. and the right hand of power. Luk. 22. 69.

To sit properly betokeneth a site of body opposite to standing, or [Page 304] moving: but figuratively it signifieth to rest, stay, dwell, inhabite, rule or governe, as Psal. 27. 4. One thing have I desired of the Lord, that I will seeke after, that I may sit, or dwell, in the house of the Lord all the dayes of my life. 1 King. 1. 30. He shall sit upon my See Luke 24. 49. Ruth 1. 4. Matt. 23. 2. throne in my stead. Prov. 20 8. A King that sitteth in the throne of judgement, scattereth away all evill with his eyes. Isai. 16. 5. And in m [...]rcy shall the throne be established, and he shall sit upon it in truth. To stand or sit at the right hand is an usuall phrase in Scripture. By the former divers things are not [...]d; First, to resist, oppose, or [...] hinder the endeavours of any one; Psal. 109. 6. Let Sat [...]n stand at his right hand, scil. to stay or hinder that it might not move, to in­fringe, or weaken his endeavours. Zech. 3. 1. And he shewed me Ioshua the high Priest standing before the Angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.

Secondly, to assist, defend, protect against enemies and manifoldVid. 1 Chron. 6. 30. [...] Psal. 16. 10. dangers, whereunto men are subject. He shall stand at the right hand of the poore, to save him from those that cond [...]mne his soule. Psal. 109. 31. I have set the Lord alwayes before me, because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.

Thirdly, they are said to stand at the right hand, that obtaine the next degree of honour with him at whose hand they are said to stand. Psal. 45. 9. Ʋpon thy right hand did stand the [...] Queen in gold of O phyr.

For the second, Great Kings and Princes doe set them at their right hands, whom they specially love, favour, or honour; and whom they mind to advance to the chiefe degrees of power and authority under them, or to be as it were in their stead, and in of­fice to represent their person; The King rose up to meet Bathsheba, and bowed himselfe unto her, and sate down on his Throne, and caused a seat to be set for the Kings mother, and she sate on his right hand. Ad dextram Dei sedere, est proximam post Deum potesta. tem habere. Verbum sedere Regni significat potestatem. Hieron. in Eph. cap. 1. 1 King. 2. 19. To sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father. Matth. 20. 21, 23. By Christs sitting at the right hand of his Fa­ther, is noted that great honour and glory, plenitude of power, and judiciarie office or dominion, which God the Father hath given unto his Sonne, after his manifestation in the flesh, in his Nativity; and justification by the Spirit, in his Resurrection: for then amongst other dignities, he was received up into glory. 1 Tim. 3. 10. It may be described, the highest and supreme de­gree [Page 305] of Christs exaltation, wherein he hath received of the Fa­ther, excellent glory, dignity, power and dominion, and is actual­ly made the head of his Church; and Lord and Ruler of all things both in heaven and earth. Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God, Angels, and authorities, and powers, being made subject unto him. 1 Pet. 3. 22. He hath s [...]t him on his own right hand in the heavenly places, farre above all principalities and power, and [...]ight, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: And hath put all things un­der his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the Church. Eph. 1. 20, 21, 22. Th [...]u hast put all things in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not yet put under him. Heb. 2. 7, 8, 9. Ʋnto which of the Angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand. Heb. 1. 13. which the Apostle expounds, He must raigne till he hath put all enemies under his feet. 1 Cor. 15. 25. By this sitting at the right hand of the Father, not the propriety of his humane nature; but the exceeding glorious state of his person is signified. We have such an high Priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majestie in the heavens. Heb. 8. 1. Set downe at the right hand of the throne of God. Heb. 12. 2. His divine nature could not possibly re­ceive any intrinsecall improvement or glory, all fulnesse of glory essentially belonging thereunto: but so farre forth as it was hum­bled for the administration of his office, so farre it was re-advan­ced. He emptied and humbled himselfe, not by emptying and putting off his divine glory, but by suffering it to be over-shadow­ed with the similitude of sinfull flesh, and to be humbled under the forme of a servant: and he is magnified at Gods right hand, as he doth manifest and shew forth his divine glory in his humane nature, which before was covered and shadowed therewith, as with a vaile. And how-ever we cannot say the Deity or divine nature was exalted in any other sense then by evident manifesta­tion of it selfe in that man who was before despised, and accused as a blasphemer, for that he made himselfe equall with God, yet by reason of the communication of properties from one nature to another in the unity of one person, it is true that as God saved the world by his bloud, and the Prince of life was crucified, and the Lord lay in the Grave, so God was at the right hand of Majestie exalted again. The humane nature of Christ is most highly ex­alted, as he hath obtained a new eminencie and dignity over all [Page 306] creatures, which in respect of his humane nature he never had be­fore: he hath an ample and immediate claime to all that glory which might in the humane nature be conferred upon him. This glory, dignity and dominion Christ received from his Father according to his eternall decree and Covenant. He sits at the right hand of his Father, and from his Father he received his power, authority and rule.

Christ is a King both by the providence, and by the good will and immediate consecration of his Father. The Father loveth the Sonne, and hath given all things into his hand. Ioh. 3. 35. He judgeth Dan. 7. 14. Matth. 11. 27. Joh. 17▪ 2. no man, but hath committed all judgement to his Sonne. Ioh. 5. 22. that is, hath entrusted him with the actuall administration of that power in the Church, which originally belonged unto himselfe, He hath made him to be Lord and Christ, Act. 2. 36. and raised him up to sit on his throne, ver. 30. Him hath God exalted with his right hand, to be a Prince, and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Is­rael. Christs natu­rall Kingdome doth belong unto him as God coeffenti­all and coeter­nall with the Father. Christs dispensatory Kingdome is his by donati­on as Media­tour. Matt. 18. 19. Rev. 1. 1. Dedit autem haec Iesu Christo, quate­nu [...] Med [...]atori, nou ut coessen­tiali filio. Joh. 17. 5. Haec ordinem magi [...] docent, quo Deus cog­nitione [...] Ec­clesi [...] impertit, quam origi [...]em scienti [...] respe­ [...] [...]ilii. Act 5. 31. He hath ordained him to be a Iudge of quick and dead. Act. 10. 4 [...]. He hath appointed him over his own house. Heb. 3. 2, 6. He hath crowned him, and put all things in subjection under his [...]it. Heb. 2. 7, 8. He hath highly exalted him, and given him a name above every name. Phil. 2. 9. Therefore he calleth him my King, set up by him, upon his own holy hill, and that in the vertue of a solemne decree. Psal. 2. 6, 7. Therefore to sit on the right hand of the Father doth not note glory and dominion properly divine, which doth belong to the Sonne as coessentiall and coeternall with his Father, and is his by nature: but glory and dominion next unto that which is essentially divine, which belongeth to Christ as Mediatour, and which is his not by nature, but by dona­tion and unction from his Father, being made the Head of his Church, a Prince of Peace, and King of Righteousnesse. This glory and dominion was given unto Christ: and so was not that eternall glory, naturall and essentiall, which he had with his Fa­ther before the foundations of the world. This glory Christ had not before his ascension into heaven: but the other as it is natu­rall, so it was from everlasting. Saint Paul and Peter doe con­strue it by raigning immediately over every creature, till the My­sterie of our redemption shall be finished, 1 Cor. 15. 25. Psal. 110. 1. The setting Christ in the throne of Majestie, Heb. 1. 3. and 8. 1. and 12. 2. at the right hand of the throne of God, the making [Page 307] of him Christ and Lord, Act. 2. 35, 36. and 5. 31. It is not thenSi sessionen [...] Christi non pro jure tantum re­gende ecclesiae, sed pro ipso regnandi actu accipiamu [...], co­operatio illo, de qua agit [...]r, par [...] ipsius ses­sionis rectè vo­ [...]bitur. Mart. de person. Christ. p. 11 87. Psal. 110. 1. Joh. 5▪ 27. the might of divine soveraignty over the creatures which is gi­ven unto him, for this doth so follow the nature of God, that it is necessary with every person that hath this nature. This the Son could not relinquish, this he cannot be taken unto, as which doth necessarily agree to him, as God blessed for evermore. What is it then? A right of executing immediately and in a manner ap­propriate to this person, the soveraigne dominion of God, over every creature. This soveraignty is given to the person of the Sonne both as God and man now ascended: as God, for it is a power which none that is a pure creature can take or execute: As man, because it is given him now ascended into heaven with his humane nature, and is to be executed by him as man; for his man-hood doth concurre as an instrument working with his God-head in the administration of it.

The meaning then of this phrase is not to be admitted toNe (que) per ejus­dem essentiae communicatio­nem, ne (que) per physicam ali­quam transfu­sionem se [...] transitionem [...]e subjecto in sub­jectum, sed per solam ejusdem personae [...]. equality to the divine nature, for this Christ ever had as God, and could not but have: neither to be admitted into the divine blessed­nesse setledly to injoy it: for Christ as God ever had and could not but have that essentiall beatitude. Neither doth it import thus much, That the humane nature of Christ is elevated to this honour, that it may freely use the divine Attributes, omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotency, so as to become by them omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent no lesse properly then the divine, though after a manner farre otherwise; the divine nature being thus by naturall necessity: the humane being thus by union with the di­vine, by gracious communication of these unto it, with liberty toNon essendo, sed habendo, non [...] sed [...], non per naturam, sed per gratiam, non in seipsa, sed persona [...], &c. use them for the perfecting of it selfe. So that according to this opinion, the humane nature of Christ is made omnipresent with the omnipresency of the divine nature, not as a thing subjective­ly inhering in it, but so really communicated with it, that it is made truly omnipresent by it, though the divine Attribute never goe forth of the nature of God, in which as the proper subject they grant it immoveably inherent. The ground of this errour is, that they suppose upon the union of the twoƲrsin. tom. 2. de lib Concord. cap. 8. p. 598. Inseparabilis unio non inducit coextensio­nem duarum in Christo naturarum: quippe quarum una finita est, altera infinita. T [...] ­t [...] Christ [...] sed non totum Christi est ubi (que) ▪ Sicut caro habet immensitatem, i. arctè c [...] ­pulata est immenso verbo, non minus ver­bum habet finitionem, i. arctè unitum est carni fiaitae. Martia. de person. pag 637. Dici de [...]liquo requirit inesse: ergo si verè praedica [...]tur de humana natura, verè eti­am eide [...] inesse [...]p [...]rtet, sive per naturam, sive per gratiam, sive ut in subjecto pri­mario sive secundari [...]. natures in Christ a reall communication of divine Properties to follow, as that the humane nature is made truly omnipotent or omniscient, not by any confusion of Pro­perties, [Page 308] nor yet by any bare communion and concourse of it to the same effect, each nature working that which belongeth to it with communion of the other, but by a reall do­nation, by which the divine omnipotency doth so become the omnipotency of the hu­mane nature, that it may work omnipotent­ly with it, no lesse then the divine nature doth it selfe. But the union cannot cause the humane nature par­take more in the Properties of the divine, then it causeth the divine partake in the Properties of the humane. Againe, if a true and reall communication did follow of divine attributes, it must needs be of all, as eternity and infinitenesse, seeing these are the divine essence, which can no way be divided. Beside in the union of soul and body which is personall, the life of the soul is not communicated with the body, but an effect of it only. And to what end should created gifts serve, when now more noble Properties doe enter? Not to mention that infinite perfections cannot perfect finite natures, no more then reasonable perfections can make perfect unreasonable creatures. Finally, this opinion maketh the divine Properties become instrumentary faculties as it were to a finite nature.

The place where Christ fits at the right hand of his Father, in respect of his Humanity, is in heaven: because where that is, there it is also inwardly glorious in it selfe, and hath in it self,Luke 24. 51. Mark 16. 19. Hebr. 4. 14. Act. 1. 11. 1 [...]e [...]. 3. 22. as in a subject, his power, and worketh by that power within the spheare of it finitenesse, not severally from the word, but with it, and in it. He is at the right hand of God in the heavens, Ephes. 1. 20. in the highest places, Heb. 1. 3, 8. above, Col. 3. 1. This his Soveraignty is a consequent following on his Ascension into Heaven. Look as Kings are crowned in the chiefe Cities of their Kingdomes, and keep their residence in their Palaces neere unto them: so it was decent that our Saviour should be crowned in this heavenly Jerusalem, and keep his residence as it were in his heavenly Mansion. There Christ sitteth at the right hand of God, where he appeareth for us, where he maketh intercession for us: But Christ appeareth for us in Heaven: Heb. 9. 24. and 8. 4. and in Heaven he maketh request for us, and from Heaven we1 Thess. 1. 10. Isai. 66. [...]. expect the Lord Jesus. Phil. 3. 21. God is infinite, Heaven is his [Page 309] throne, and the earth his footstoole: but the humanity of Christ is finite, and not every where present: Christ is ascended above these visible heavens, above them and without them, but he sit­teth at the right hand of the Father in the highest heavens, above them, not without them. So the Cherubims were over the ArkeEphes. 4. 9, 10. Heb. 9. 5. of the Covenant, and yet they stayed upon the Arke, as the place. Heaven is one thing, heavenly glory another, [...]. Exod. 25. 21, 22. Heb. [...] Sept. [...], est id, quod [...] seu [...], in coelo est, Heb. 9. 23. Heb. 8. 4. Ita coelum dicitur [...]. a Mac. 3. 39. Job 22. 12. Sept. [...], and 16. 19. [...]. Isai. 33. 5. Sept. [...]. al. [...]. 1 Cor. 15. 20. corpo­ra [...]. Ephes. 2. 6. Ephes. 6. 12. and 2. 2. Joh. 3. 11, 12. Ignat. Epist. 11. Psal. 68. 34. When a finite nature is in hea­ven, it is not in earth. Christ is not so supra omnes coelos, ut sit extra illos, & non in eis: extraterras tamen; quia mun­dum bunc reliquit. Eidem carni duplex is (que) contrarius existendi modus tribui non po­test, sc. localis & illocalis, seu physicus & hyperphysicus. as earth and earthly misery. Heb. 11. 13. Joh. 14. 2. But whilest we say, Christ is in hea­ven, his presence in earth, in the Church, in the midst of his enemies is not excluded. For the same Christ, who is man, is also God and every where. Christ in his body is in the heavenly and triumphant Church, absent from the earth: by his infinite Deity he is present together in the earthly militant and heavenly. But concerning his Body we may truly conclude, because he is in heaven, ther­fore it is not every where: for Christ can­not be said to be made every where in the heavens, without a contradiction, no more then to be made infinite within limited bounds of being. This being taken for granted, that heaven can signifie nothing but a place limited for the extent of it. Christ as God and man hath power of rule over all things, by the essence of his Deity he is every where; by the essence of his humanity now he is in heaven: but he ruleth every where by the ministeries of his domination. Where as man at the right hand of the Father, there he is said to be as man in respect of place: and if where he sits as ruling, there also he be in all places in his body, he is also in his body out of his body: then which nothing is more absurd. Christ is received into Heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God, by a mediatory action, which he executeth according to both natures, the word working what pertaineth to the word, and the flesh what appertaineth to the flesh. Christ is Mediatour, as God and man: and glory hath redounded unto him as God and man: and living in this glory he ruleth and governeth his Church as God and man. He ascended into Heaven in his huma­nity: he sitteth at the right hand of God as Mediatour in respect [Page 310] of both natures; he worketh together with the Ministers of the word by his divine and every where present efficacy.

The first thing implied by Christs sitting at the right hand of the Father, is the filling of his humane nature with supernaturall gifts of knowledge, power, &c. and whatsoever doth any way pertain to the administration of his office. God, his God hath annointed Psal 45. 7. Heb. 1. 9. him with the oyle of gladnesse above his fellowes. In respect of us these gifts may be called infinite, but simply they are not, because they are things created, the effects and works of the holy Spirit,Joh. 3. 34. Isa. 11. 2. Men sura est di­visio quaedam donorum: at in Christo plenis­sima copia & ubertas Ephes. 4. 7. Rom. 12. 3. 1 Cor. 12. 8, 11. So [...]. Labor immensus. Ov. & [...], dolor immensas Se­necae dicuntur. Joh. 1. 16. Non deplendo aliquidex ip­sius ne (que) im­me [...]sitate ne (que) dimensione, sed implendo nostrā indigentiam ab ipso. absolutely they are finite, comparatively infinite. He received the Spirit above measure, that is, the whole Spirit, all the gifts of the holy Spirit, in higher degree then any creatures, men or Angels, in full abundance. That is said to be done in measure which is done sparingly, moderately, in proportion: for he that gives bountifully or largely doth not measure or number what he giveth, but powreth out copiously, as we say, from the full heape or with both hands. And that which is plentifull, aboundant, full, is said to be above measure, not that simply and absolutely it is infinite, but in comparison. By that which is given, and not by measure, not that which is infinite, but that which is whole and entire is signified. And of his fullnesse we all receive, grace for grace: we so receive of his fulnesse, that his sufficiency is no whit diminished: our want is filled by him, but his fulnesse is not emp­tied by us. The Sunne is not greater, if it be beheld of many, not the lesse, if of fewer: the same is true of the righteousnesse of Christ imputed. The Sunne doth not decay by motion; an Angell is not wearied with the service of God; Christ man is not wearied with the care of the Church, nor his store and plenty wasted with that which he doth every day impart unto his Church, not as a materiall beginning, but as an efficient. In himselfe Christ shall ever have sufficiency, and in respect of us perpetually redundance. But the same wisdome and holinesse, which Christ hath in himself he doth not infuse into us, but he doth worke in us by his efficacie, wisdome and holinesse answerable or proportionable in a sort.Numb. 11 25. With such gifts we are adorned as our head, but not with so great.2 Pet. 1. 4. Christ is the annointed, and doth annoint us: but we are only an­nointed, the redeemers of others we are not. The fountaine of grace is in Christ alone; the streame flowes to the faithfull: but the streame is from the same fountaine, though lesse then it. Christ [Page 311] is annointed above his fellowes. The things here compared areGal. 4. 6. Psal. 45 7. [...] Chald. Plus seu am­plius prae con­sortibus Vulg. prae parti­cibus. Sept. [...]. Sym. [...] Vox Gr. & Heb sig. parti­cipationem quamcun (que) rei alicujus pluri­bus communi [...]. Heb. 7. 13. & 2. 14. 1 Cor. 10. 21. Heb. 5. 13. 1 Cor. 9. 12. Christ and his fellowes, and the meane wherein they are compa­red is the annointing: for which the Lord is called Christ, and we Christians: together annointed, not together annointing. We are like to Christ, and shall be liker unto him, but equall in dignity we are not, nor never shall be. Concerning his office Christ hath no fellow, he alone is Mediatour: as concerning his person, there is none in heaven or earth, who dares to boast that he is the fellow of Christ: But according to his humane nature, the faithfull are his fellows, whom he doth acknowledge for bre­thren. Our union with Christ, and the union of the humane na­ture with the Word differ in kind and in very deed: but both these are freely effected of God, and the one is like to the other, although the one doe farre excell the other. Christ is annointed as our head with most abundant grace: we as his members in degree con­venient for us.

The fulnesse of grace is of two sorts: First, in respect of the grace it selfe: And secondly, in respect of him that hath it. The fulnesse of grace in respect of grace it selfe, is then, when one at­taineth to the highest and uttermost of grace, both quoad essentiam & virtutem, intensivè & extensivè: in the essence and vertue of it intensively and extensively, that is, when he hath it as farre forth as it may be had, and to all effects and purposes whereunto grace doth or can extend it selfe; as he is said to have life perfectly, or the fulnesse of life, that hath it, not only in the essence, but accor­ding to all the operations and acts of life, sensitive, intellectuall, rationall, spirituall and naturall. This kind of fulnesse of grace isTho. Sam. T [...]e [...]. par. [...]. qu 7. Art. 9. proper to Christ only. The fulnesse of grace in respect of the sub­ject or him that hath it, is then, when one hath grace fully and perfectly according to his estate and condition, both intensively to the uttermost bound that God hath prefixed to them of such a condition, and extensively in the vertue of it, in that it extendeth to the doing and performing of all those things that may any way pertaine to the condition, office, or estate of such as are of his place and ranke. Or we may say, there is a fulnesse according to measure, the fulnesse of a measure or vessell, a fullnesse for them­selves only, a fulnesse of activity, courage and resolution: and soLuk. 1. 15. & [...] 55. Act. 6. 3. 1 King. 7. 1 [...]. John the Baptist, Steven and others are said to be full of the holy Ghost, of wisdome and understanding. But fulnesse without [Page 312] measure, like the fulnesse of light in the Sun, or water in the sea, which hath an unsearchable sufficiency and redundancy for the whole Church, is proper to Christ alone. So that as he was furni­shed with all spirituall endowments of wisdome, judgement,Eph. 4. 8. Isa. 11. 2 & 61. 1. power, love, holinesse, for the dispensation of his own office: So from his fulnes did there run over a share and portion of all his gra­ces unto his Church.

Certaine it is our Saviour from the veryCol. 2. 3. Christ as man knows God more fully then all the creatures, though not so fully as God is knowne of him­selfe. But the Apostle speaketh not of the man-hood of Christ only, but of his whole person; nor of his man-hood as in the time of his humiliation, but of Christ now glorified. In every age Christ had actually given him all such gifts as might fitly stand with the myste­rie of his humiliation. Luk. 2. 52. time that he tooke our nature was per­fectly sanctified, and received the Spirit a­bove measure: but the personall union did not endow the humane nature with the reall titles of the divine; otherwise Christs strength as man should have been infinite from the wombe: and his body should have been every where. And it would be lesse unreasonable to say, that his body is at this day infinite, and his humane nature every where, then that his wisdome or knowledge as man, should have been infinite, or as great whilst he was in the wombe as now it is. If the divine nature did not communicate his infinity to the humane, nor make the Son of God so compleate a man for strength or ability of body from the wombe, as at thirty yeares he was, what reason have we to imagine, that our blessed Lord and Saviour did not as truly grow in wisdome and knowledge, as he did in strength and stature of body. Simple nescience can be no sin in any child, nor in any man, unlesse it be of those things whichT [...] fuit corpus unitum D [...]ta­ti, quam anima. Heb. 5. 8. Obe­dientiam didi­cit ex ijs quae passus est, quam sc. res ardua & gravis sit, in tam ac [...]rba & ignom [...]n [...]osa morte sufferen­ [...]a Deo par [...]re. Mark 13 32. Ma [...]. 2 [...]. [...]9. he is bound to know: but proficiency in wisdome and knowledge is to the Sons of men a praise-worthy perfection: which must not be denied unto our Lord and Saviour in his infancy or his youth, no more then he is to be robbed of any royall attributes now he is made King. That he was without all staine of sin, the most holy Sanctuary of the most holy and blessed God, is stedfastly to be be­lieved. But that he had the same measure of knowledge at his cir­cumcision which he had and gave proofe off when his Parents found him in the Temple, or at his Baptisme, as since his resurre­ction and ascension he hath, this the Scripture testifieth not. As man he was ignorant of the day of judgement, which now in hea­ven he knowes, as all other things pertaining to his office. How­ever [Page 313] therefore our Saviour had the habit of all knowledge from the beginning, yet he had not the act and use of it. That which someSee Maldonat. in Luk. 2 40. Quod volunta­tem concernit, omnes virtutes ta [...]e incremen­tum in ea acce­p [...]runt, quale in creaturam ca­dere potest Jun. Th [...]ss. Theolog. 29. answer, that Christ by infused knowledge knew all things, and af­ter attained another kind of knowledge, which they call acquisite is not so fit, because knowledge acquired and infused of the same things is of the same nature and condition, and two formes or qua­lities of one kind cannot be in the same subject.

The second thing implied in Christs sitting at the right hand of the Father is to be admitted into divine blessednesse, setledly to en­joy it. Christ as God ever had, and could not but have that essen­tiall beatitude: and that blessednesse which he receiveth as man is not to have end. The good that is in an intellectuall nature is of two sorts: the one of vertue, the other of sweet, joyfull and plea­sing delight: And though both these concurre sometimes, as in the fruition of God in heaven, wherein the perfection of vertue, and fulnesse of joy and delight doe meet together: yea and though e­very thing that is vertuous be delightfull, yet it is not so much the height of vertue, as of delight, that is judged happinesse. Now our Saviour Christ was joyned to God by the affection of vertue or justice, andƲt mori corpus Christi potuit, & tamen cum unionem, tum eff [...]ctus quosdam De [...] ­tatis participare: Ita & mori mortem suam & derelinqui anima potuit, & tamen uni [...]ne sua, & hujus unionis effe­ctis frui. Can [...] [...] lib. 12. cap. 1 [...]. Ma [...]donat in Mat. 26. Isa 5 [...]. 4. Joh. 4 6. H [...]b. 4. 15. Joh. 14. 23. Prov. [...]5. [...]5. Chamier tom. 2. lib 5. cap 20. Nullus comprehensor est obnoxius ul [...]s ca­lamitatibus. could not be devided or separated from him, no not for a moment, because he could not but love him, feare him, trust in him; but by the affection that see [...]eth pleasing content in enjoying those ineffable delights and pleasures that are found in God our Saviour as man might, and was for a time divided from God. Moreover our Savi­our Christ in his life time here on earth, so re­strained and kept within the closet of his secret Spirit, the happi­nesse that he enjoyed in seeing God, that it should not spread far­ther, nor communicate it selfe to the inferiour faculties of his soule, or impart the brightnesse of it to the body, but it was sub­ject to misery and passion. The godly in this life doe tast not on­ly some hope of heavenly life, but the first fruits of this heavenly joy. The Church and every Saint is heaven: the soule of the righ­teous is heaven. Our Saviour was both viator and comprehensor, blessed in this life, with that blessednesse, which is not to be had but in heaven: but now our Saviour advanced on the right hand [Page 214] of God, is admitted into that incomprehensible, glorious, setled blessednesse, never to suffer the least ecclipse for one moment, which doth communicate it selfe toCham panst. tom. 2. lib 4. cap 4 and 5. Ma [...]. 17. 2. 1 P [...]t 1. 11. Heb. 12. 2 Phil. 3. 21. Verè contr [...]stari, dolere, & pati non potest, cui divina [...]e [...]t [...]tud [...] & impassi­bilitas verè & reali [...]er communicata fuit. Ʋrsin. Tom. 2. co [...]f [...]ss de person. Christ. pag. 407. all powers of soule and body, that it is and shall remaine for ever incorrup­tible, impatible, immortall, encreased with strength and nimblenesse, shining with brightnesse and glory celestiall and divine.

Thirdly, our Saviour Christ as man is taken to have preroga­tive before every other creature. For this phrase of setting at his right hand, noteth the preheminence of him, as next to God him­selfe: that loo