A TREATISE OF Original Sin.

The First Part.

PROVING That it is, by pregnant Texts of Scripture vindicated from false Glosses.

By Anthony Burgess.


LONDON, Printed in the Year, 1658.



THe Doctrine of Original Corru­ption is as extensive in the useful­nes [...] of it, [...]as the sinne it self is diffusive in the contagion thereof; so that as there is none born in a natural way, who can plead an immaculate conception, either is there any who doth not need profita [...]e information herein, for the deep and radical Humiliation of himself before God. As for the Doctrine of it, it's easie and difficult; easie, because we palpably and eviden [...] ­ly finde the effects thereof▪ Difficult, because the exact knowledge of it being chiefly be divine Revelation; No [...]onder if those, who attend to [Page] Aristole more than Paul, and des [...] be [...]a­tionales, rather than fideles, have gro [...]ely [...] in the darke they walke in. It is the old known saying of Austin, Antiquo peccato nihil ad praedicandum notius, nihil ad intelligendum secr [...]. Hence it is that as a Popish Writer well observeth (Elisim piorum Clyp. Quest. 12. Artic. 1.) When we have heard what any learned men can say, yet still we desire to know more about it, Nil de eo legitur, quin am­plius de eo legi desideratur. By enquiring, our appetites are not so much satisfied, as provoked, [...]et the light of the Scripture is sufficient; as to all necessary saving Knowledge about it; And as for Curiosities and needlesse Subtilties, which are a shell in the Controversie, we may throw them them away, and eat the Kernel. It is acknow­ledged both by Papists and Protestants, that the Controversies about Original Sinne, are of very great importance. Stapleton chargeth us (Proleg. Disput. de peccat. Originali) with two capital maternal Errours, the one about the Scriptures; the other about Original Sinne, as if these two were the Joachin and B [...]z our Temple is built up­on, as if these were the two breasts from which all other erroneous Doctrines suck their pestiferous na­ture. We again on the other side, do propugn these two Principles (the former whereof we may call Principium cognoscendi, and the later princi­pium essendi) as the two fountaines of Doctrinal [Page] and Practical Piety, so that to destroy any of these, is to lay the ax to the root of the tree, that so no more fruit in Religion may grow thereupon. The Pontificians and Protestants are generally agreed in this (for some Papists, but few dissent from their own Party herein) that there is such a thing as Original Sinne; and that it is truly, properly and univocally a Sinne; only they complain of us, as too direfully and tragically amplifying the nature of it. Hence Hoffmeister, Eccius & Cassander grant a consent in this; onely they think the Protestants words and expressions are capable of a perfective al­teration The expresse Adversaries therefore to this Doctrine were the Pelagians of old, the Soci­nians and some Anabaptists of late; and more par­ticularly a late English Writer Dr. Taylor (U­num Necessarium, and in other little Pieces) (Proh nefas!) like a second Julian in triumph­ing language, hath with much boldness and au­dacity decried it, as if it were but a non ens, and the Disputes needless about it. For although sometimes he would make the world believe he hold­eth Original Sinne, yet these are but words, ad frangendam invidiam, as Pelagius of old would use the word Grace, for when it cometh to the ex­plication, he meaneth no more than an Original Curse, or else the meer Naturals (that he speak­eth of, complying with Pelagius and some Jesuites in that notion) whereby having lost the gratuitals our nature was at first crowned with, it is cast into an un­fitness [Page] for the Kingdom of Heaven. What learning and abilities the Author may have, I doe not detract from, only it's greatly to be lamented, that he should contrary to Cyprian, and others, take the Gold he had in Jerusalem, and carry it into Egypt to build an Idol there. He hath fully improved his liberty of Prophesying, and waving reverence to the Scri­ptures, Councils and Fathers, yea, and the Church of England, in whose Obedience he doth so glory in (as appeareth by the 9th Article, and the Order of Administration of Baptism) by a sceptical and academical disposition, he is fallen into this He­resie: for so the denial of Original sinne hath al­wayes been accounted. Neither let this Writer think that his industrious affectation of words and language, will make falshood to be truth. There is great difference between skin and bone, words and arguments in any Theological Discourse. Neither are Tractates veriores quia disertiores, there is ambitiosum eloquentiae mendacium. And as Austin expressed it, arma non vulnerant quia ful­gentia, [...]ed quia fortia. It is true, if this VVriter hath no Original sinne in him, and his Adversaries have, then he must needs dispute with great advan­tage; for ignorance and imperfection doth not ad­here to his intellectuals, as we acknowledge doth to ours, and that by Original sinne. But it must be confessed he betrayeth much of Original sinne, even while he writeth against it, and his Arguments (as I may so say) materialiter prove it, while formali­ter [Page] against it. His greatest honour is, that a Papist hath written against him.Ford. One might doubt, whe­ther really or by collusion, it is done so slightly, and cal­culated wholly according to the Popish Meridian; and yet in some respects it is his great disparagement, that one of Babylon should appear at least in some measure for an ancient Truth, while at the same time one pretending to be of Sion should oppose it. But enough of this troublesom matter.

I now come to acquaint the Reader with the Me­thod I propound in this Book, which is first to handle the An sit of Original Sinne; Secondly, The Quid sit; which done, I proceed to the two-fold Subject of it, mentioned by the Learned; The Subject of Inhe­sion; And herein, I shew particularly and largely, how every power of the Soul is infected by this Lepro­sie; which accomplished, I passe to the Subject of Predication, shewing, That it is in every one na­turally born of a woman, That omnis homo, and totus homo is thus corrupted; and then close with the consideration of the Properties and Effects of it. All which I have endeavoured to manage practi­cally, as well as doctrinally, knowing the great and excellent improvement in a spiritual way, that may be made of this truth, as I experimentally found by the attestation of godly hearers in the preaching thereof; and I doubt not but if the Ministers of Christ did more largely insist on this Point, they would finde very good success thereby, for the through Humilia­tion of their people, the information about Regene­ration, [Page] and the Nature of it; it would awaken not only the prophane, but the civil and externally mo­ralized persons. This would keep a man serious in the wayes of God, attending to the treacherous ene­my within, and thereby avoid the temptation, to be transported by curious and unnecessary Questions; but above all, this will prepare to exalt Christ in his Mediatory Office. This will be the foundation to build the free and unsearchable riches of Gods grace upon. Insomuch that the whole summe of Re­ligion doth consist in the cause of the first and second Adam.

I shall trouble thee no further; only my desire is, That the Reader would pass by candidly the Errata, he will often meet with in the printing, by reason of my distance from the Press; as also the mispointings, which many times obscure the sense. Now the Father of Spirits mould and fashion our hearts ac­cording as every divine Truth requireth, and make us to gather and hive up Honey from every Flower in his Garden, that so our Christianity may not be spe­culative, and from Books only, but experimental, and savourily affecting the heart, which only bring­eth hope of eternal life, is the prayer of

Thine in Christ Jesus ANTHONY BURGESSE.

To the Reader.

AS for making the Table, and prefixing the Contents before the Chapters, Sections, and Paragraphs of this Book, the Reverend Author committed that task to a Friend, who desireth the Reader to pardon any failings that he shall discover in them.


PAg. 62. l. 24. for Gnanon r Gnavon. p. 68. l. 36. for strictly for r. strictly [...] largely for. p. 69. l. 26. for quantum libet praeferimus r. quantumlibet profecimus. & l. 27. for cogitate r. cogitata. p. 71. l. 40. for because r. [...]e because. p. 72. l. 18. for are r. were. p. 73. l. 14. for reservantur r. reservatur. p. 80. l. 13. for ad r. and. p. 82. l. 31. for vorti cordis r. vorticordis. p. 85. for coactivum r. coactivam. p. 88. l. 27. for Echineips r▪ Echineis. p. 92. l. 30. for balbutiri r. balbutire. & l. 34. for [...] r. [...] p. 94. l. 41. for [...] r. [...]. & l. 45. dele to. p. 95. l. 16. for is r. it is. p. 97. l. 10. for [...] r. [...]. p. 107. l. 10. for outward r. outwardly. p. 121. l. 28. for [...] r. ne. p. 122. l. 6. for fabula r. tabula. & l. 8. for imitation r. mutation. p. 219. l. 32. for Monasterii Anabaptis r. [...]unster Anabaptists. p. 221. l. 26. [...]. p. 225. l. 12. for [...] r. [...]. p. 286. l. 27. for rei r. [...]. p. 307. l. 34. for thereby r. there.

The Analysis of this Book,

  • This Treatise of Original Sinne, shews
    • 1. That it is, by pregnant Texts vindicated from false Glosses.
    • 2. What it is, both
      • Name, especially the Scripture names.
      • Thing, Privative and Positive.
    • 3. How it comes to be communicated, with a consideration of the origi­nal of the Soul.
    • 4. Its Sub­ject of
      • Inhesion
        • General, the whole man.
        • In particu­lar
          • The Mind.
          • Conscience.
          • Memory.
          • Will.
          • Affections.
          • Imagination.
          • Body.
      • Predication
        • Every one.
        • Christ excepted.
    • 5. Its Qualities or Adjuncts,
      • The great­nesse
        • Of Adam's Actual trans­gression, which is our ori­ginal imputed sinne.
        • Of our Original Sinne in­herent in us.
      • The Propriety in every one.
      • The Activity.
      • The Equality in all.
      • A Justification of Gods shutting up all under sinne for the sin of Adam.
    • 6. The Immediate Effects of it
      • Propensity to Sinne.
      • The Cause of all Actual sins.
      • The Combate between the flesh and
      • Spirit in the godly.
      • Death.
      • Eternal Damnation.


PRoving the total and universal Pollution of all Mankind inherently through Sinne.

  • The first Text to prove Original Sinne, improved and vindicated, viz.
  • Ephes. 2. 3. And were by nature the children of wrath, as well as others.
  • Of the Name Original Sinne, and of the Utility and Necessity of be­ing clearly and powerfully informed about this Subject.
  • Demonstrations of the Naturality of this sinne, that we have it by Natural Propagation.
  • Objections against the Naturality of Original Sinne, answered.
  • [Page]A second Text to prove Original Sinne, opened and vindicated, viz.
  • Rom. 5. 19. For as by one mans disobedience many were made sin­ners, &c.
  • Whether we are sinners by Natural Propagation, or by Imitation.
  • Of the Souls inward filth, and defilement by Original Sinne.
  • That the inward Contagion that we have from Adam's Disobedience, is truly and properly a sinne.
  • Objections Answered.
  • A third Text to make good this Fundamental Point, improved and vindicated, viz.
  • Job 14. 4. Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Not one.
  • A three-fold Uncleanness.
  • A Comparison between mans moral Uncleanness, and Levitical Un­cleanness.
  • What is comprehended in this expression Uncleanness.
  • Objections against mans Natural Uncleanness, answered.
  • [Page]A fourth Text to prove Original Sinne, opened and vindicated, viz.
  • Psal. 51. 5. Behold I was shapen in iniquity, and in sinne did my mo­ther conceive me.
  • Objections answered.
  • More Advantages accruing from the Belief and Meditation of this Truth.
  • That we are to bewail this Original Sinne all our dayes.
  • Which needed not to have been, if Adam had stood.
  • We must be humbled for a two-fold Original Sinne, and seek from Christ a two-fold Righteousnesse.
  • The different opinions of men about humiliation for Original Sinne.
  • Repentance may be taken either largely or strictly.
  • The Difference between godly Sorrow for Original Sinne, and for Actual.
  • Reasons why we must be humbled for Original Sinne.

The Contents of the Second Part.
SHewing that Original Sinne is, and how it is communicated.

  • Of the Name Old-man, [given to Original Sin.]
  • Rom. 6. 6. Knowing this, that if our old-man be crucified with Christ, &c.
  • Why it is called [Man.]
  • Why it is called [Old-Man.]
  • Of the Name [Law of Sin,] given to Original Sinne.
  • Rom. 7. 25. But with the flesh the Law of sinne.
  • Original Sinne compared to a Law in five Respects.
  • Of the Name, [The Sinne that dwelleth in us,] given to Original Sinne.
  • Rom. 7. 17. It is no more I, but sinne that dwelleth in me.
  • Of the Epithete, [Evil is present with us,] given to Original Sinne.
  • Rom. 7. 21. That when I would do good, evil is present with me.
  • [Page]Of that Name, [The Sin that doth so easily beset us,] given to Origi­nal Sinne.
  • Hebr. 12. 1. And the sinne that doth so easily beset us.
  • What is implied in that expression.
  • How many wayes Original Sinne is a Burden, and an Hinderance un­to us.
  • Of the Name, [Evil Treasure of the Heart,] given to Original Sinne.
  • Matth. 12. 35. And an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart, bringeth forth evil things.
  • How Original Sinne resembles a Treasure.
  • Of the Name [Body,] given to Original Sin.
  • Rom. 8. 13. But if you through the Spirit do mortifie the deeds of the body, ye shall live.
  • What is implied by the word Mortifie.
  • Why Original Sinne is called a Body.
  • Of the Privative Part of Original Sinne.
  • Of Adam's begetting Seth in his own likeness.
  • [Page] Gen. 5. 3. And Adam—begat a son in his own likeness after his Image, and called his name Seth.
  • What Original Sin is as to the Privative Part of it.
  • Wherein the making man after Gods Image did consist.
  • Corollaries informing us of the Nature and Aggravations of our loss by sinne; and shewing what were the most excellent and choice parts of that Original Righteousness that we are deprived of.
  • A further Consideration, of Original Righteousness, proving the thing, and answering Objections against it.
  • More Propositions about the Nature of the Image of God, which man was created in; Shewing what particular graces Adam's soul was adorned with.
  • Reasons to prove, That the Privation of Original Righteousness is truly and properly a sin in us.
  • The Aggravations of the losse of Gods Image.
  • By the losse of Original Righteousness Gods end in making man was lost.
  • The Harmony and Subordination in mans Nature dissolved.
  • The Properties of this loss.
  • [Page]Of the Positive Part of original Corruption.
  • John 3. 6. That which is born of the flesh is flesh.
  • Of the use of the word Flesh in Scripture, and why original Corruption is called by that Name.
  • How carnal the Soul is in its actings about spiritual objects.
  • Reasons demonstrating the Positive Part of Original Sinne, and why Divines make Original Sinne to have [...] Positive as well as Privative Part.
  • Objections against the Positive Part of O [...]al Sinne, answered.
  • A Second Text to prove Original Sinne to be Positive, opened and vindicated.
  • Rom. 7. 7. For I had not known lust, except the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet.
  • The word Lust expounded.
  • A Three-fold Appetite in man.
  • A Consideration of this Concupiscence in reference to the four-fold estate of man.
  • Why Original Sinne is called Concupiscence or Lust.
  • [Page]The Description of Original Sinne.
  • A clear and full knowledge of Original Sinne can be obtained onely by Scripture-light.
  • Whether the wisest Heathens had any knowledge of this Pollution.
  • That Reason, when once enlightned by the Scriptures, may be very powerfull to convince us of this Natural Pollution.
  • A Comparison and Opposition between the first and second Adam, as introductory to this Question, How this corruption is propagated.
  • 1 Cor. 15. 49. As we have borne the Image of the earthly, we shall also bear the Image of the heavenly.
  • The various Opinions, Objections and Doubts about the manner how the Soul comes to be polluted.
  • That the Soul is neither by Eduction or Traduction, but by Introduction or Immediate Infusion, proved by Texts of Scripture, and Argu­ments from Scripture.
  • The Authors Apology for handling this great Question.
  • Propositions to clear the Doctrine of the Propagation of Original Sin, notwithstanding the Souls Creation.

The Contents of the Third Part.
HAndling the Subject of Inhesion.

  • Of the Pollution of the Mind with Original Sinne.
  • Ephes. 4. 23. And be ye renewed in the Spirit of your Mind.
  • Of Original Sinne polluting the Conscience: Setting forth the De­filement of Conscience, as it is Quiet, Stupid and Senslesse; and also when it is troublea and awakened.
  • Tit. 1. 15. But even their mind and Conscience is defiled.
  • Of the Pollution of the Memory.
  • 2 Pet. 1. 12. I will not be negligent to put you alwayes in Remem­brance of these things, &c.
  • What we mean by Memory.
  • A Two-fold weaknesse of the Memory.
  • Its great Usefulnesse.
  • Of the Nature of it.
  • [Page]Demonstrations of the Pollution of it.
  • Instances of the Pollution of the Memory.
  • 1. In forgetting the Objects that we should have in our Memory, both Superiour and Inferiour.
  • 2. In respect of its inward vitiosity adhering to it.
  • 3. In not attaining its End.
  • 4. In that it is made subservient to the corrupt frame and inclina­tion of our hearts.
  • 5. It is not subject to our will and power. Hence
  • 6. We remember things that we would not.
  • Of the Pollution of the Will of Man by Original Sinne.
  • John 1. 13. Which were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
  • Propositions concerning the Nature of the Will.
  • ¶. 1. The Corruption of the Will in all its several operations.
  • ¶. 2. Its Corruption in its General Act, which is called Volition.
  • ¶. 3. In its absolute and efficacious willing of a thing.
  • ¶. 4. In its Act of Fruition.
  • ¶. 5. In its Act of Intention.
  • ¶. 6. In its Act of Election or Chusing.
  • ¶. 7. In its losse of that Aptitude and readinesse it should have to follow the Deliberation and Advice of the Understanding.
  • ¶. 8. In its Act of Consent.
  • The Desilement of the Will, in its Affections and Properties, or the sinfull Adjuncts inseparably cleaving unto it.
  • [Page] Rom. 9. 16. So then it is not of him that willeth, or of him that run­neth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
  • ¶. 1. This Scripture opened, vindicated and improved.
  • ¶. 2. The Will is so fallen from its primitive honour, that its not worthy to be called Will but Lust.
  • ¶. 3. Its wholly perverted about the Ultimate End.
  • ¶. 4. Its Privacy and Propriety.
  • ¶. 5. Its Pride and Haughtiness.
  • ¶. 6. Its Contumacy and Refractoriness.
  • ¶. 7. Its Enmity and Contrariety to Gods will.
  • ¶. 8. Its Rebellion against the light of the Mind, and slavery to the sensitive part in a man.
  • ¶. 9. Its Mutability and Inconstancy.
  • Of the Natural Servitude and Bondage of the Will, with a brief Dis­cussion of the Point of Free-will.
  • John 8. 35. If the Sonne therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.
  • ¶. 2. The Text opened.
  • ¶. 3. Of the several kinds of Freedom which the Scripture speak­eth of.
  • ¶. 4. The Names the Scripture expresseth that by, which we call Free-will.
  • ¶. 5. Some observations concerning the Promoters of the Doctrine of Free-will; How unpleasing the contrary Doctrine is to flesh and blood, with some advice about it.
  • ¶. 6. The first Demonstration of the slavery of the Will, is from the Necessity of sinning, that every man is plunged into.
  • ¶. 7. That a Necessary Determination may arise several wayes, some whereof are very consistent with liberty, yea the more necessary the more free.
  • ¶. 8. The second Argument of its Bondage is, Its being carried out unto sinne voluntarily, and with delight.
  • ¶. 9. Thirdly, It is evident by its utter impotency to any thing that is spiritual.
  • Here is shewed, wherein that inability consists.
  • ¶. 10. That man naturally loves his thraldom to sin, and contradicts the means of Deliverance.
  • ¶. 11. Its Bondage is seen in its Concupiscential Affection to some creature or other, never being able to lift it self up to God.
  • [Page] ¶. 12. That when it doth endeavour to overcome any sinne, it is by falling into another.
  • ¶. 13. The more means of grace to free us, the more our slavery ap­pears.
  • ¶. 14. The Necessity of a Redeemer demonstrates our thraldome to sinne.
  • ¶. 15. An Examination of the Descriptions and Definitions of Free­dom or Liberty of Will, which many Writers give it: Shewing, That none of them are any wayes agreeing to the Will un­sanctified.
  • Of the Pollution of the Affections.
  • Col. 3. 2. Set your Affections upon things above, not on things on the earth.
  • The Text opened.
  • Of the Nature of the Affections.
  • How the Affections are treated of severally, by the Philosopher, the Physician, the Oratour, and the Divine.
  • The Natural Pollution of the Affections is manifested,
  • 1. In the Dominion and Tyranny they have over the Under­standing and Will.
  • ¶. 2. Secondly, In regard of the first motions and risings of them.
  • ¶. 3. Thirdly, In respect of their Progress and Degrees.
  • ¶. 4. Fourthly, In respect of the Continuance or Duration of them.
  • They are wholly displaced from their right Object.
  • Their sinfulness is discovered in respect of the End and Use for which God ingraffed them in our Natures.
  • [Page]And in their Motion and Tendency thereunto.
  • In respect of the Contrariety and Opposition of them, one to ano­ther.
  • The Pollution of the Affections in respect of the Conflict between the natu­ral Conscience and them.
  • In respect of the great Distractions they fill us with in holy Duties.
  • Their Deformity and Contrariety to the Rule and Exemplary Patern.
  • Their Dulness and senslesness, though the Understanding declare the good to be imbraced.
  • The Affections being drawn out in holy Duties from corrupt Motive [...], shews the Pollution of them.
  • That they are more zealously carried out to any false way than to the Truths of God.
  • They are for the most part in-lets to all sinne in the Soul.
  • The Privacy of them.
  • Their hurtfull Effects upon a mans Body.
  • The sad Effects they have upon others.
  • [Page]And how readily they receive the Devils Temptations.
  • The Sinfulness of the Imaginative Power of the Soul.
  • Gen. 6. 5. And God saw that every Imagination of the thoughts of mans heart was only evil, and that continually.
SECT. 1.
  • The Text explained and vindicated against D. J. Taylor, Grotius, the Papists and Socinians.
  • Of the Nature of the Imagination in a man.
  • 1. The Natural Sinfulnesse of the Imagination appears, in its making Idols, Supports and vain Conceits, whereby it pleaseth it self.
  • 2. In respect of its Defect from that end and use which God did intend in the Creation of man with such a power.
  • 3. Restlesnesse.
  • 4. Universality, Multitude, and Disorder of the Imaginations.
  • 5. Their Roving and Wandring up and down without any fixed way.
  • 6. Their Impertinency and Unreasonableness.
  • 7. The Imagination eclypseth, and for the most part keeps out the Under­standing.
  • [Page]In the Imaginations for the most part are conceived all actual im­pieties.
  • That many times Sinne is acted by the Imagination with Delight and Content, without any relation at all to the external actings of Sinne.
  • Its Propensity to all evil, both towards God and man.
  • It continually invents new sins, or occasions of sins.
  • The Sinfulness of the Imagination manifesteth it self in reference to the Word of God, and the ministerial preaching thereof.
  • It is more affected with Appearances then Realities.
  • Its Sinfulness in respect of fear, and the workings of Conscience.
  • Of the Actings of the Imagination in Dreams.
  • The Imagination is not in that orderly Subordination to the rational part of man, as it was in the Primitive Condition.
  • It is according to Austin's Judgement the great instrument of conveying Original Sinne to the Child.
  • How prone it is to receive the Devils Impressions and Suggestions.
  • [Page]Some Corollaries from the Premisses
  • Of the last Subject of Inhesion, or seat of Original Sinne, viz. the Body of a man.
  • 1 Thess. 5. 23. And the very God of peace sanctifie you wholly, and I pray God your whole spirit, and soul, and Body be preserved blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.
  • The Text explained.
  • Scripture-proofs of the sinfull Pollution of the Body.
  • The sinfulness of the Body discovered in particulars.
  • ¶. 1. It is not now instrumental and serviceable to the Soul in holy Ap­proaches to God, but on the contrary a clog and burden.
  • ¶. 2. It doth positively affect and defile the Soul.
  • ¶. 3. A man acts more according to the Body, and the Inclinations thereof, then the mind, with the Dictates thereof.
  • ¶. 4. The Body by Original Sinne is made a Tempter and a Seducer.
  • ¶. 5. It doth objectively occasion much sinne to the Soul.
  • ¶. 6. Its indisposition to any service of God.
  • ¶. 7. How easily the Body is moved and stirred by the passions and affe­ctions thereof.
  • ¶. 8. The Body when sanctified is become no lesse glorious then the Temple of the holy Ghost.
  • Of the Subject of Predication; Shewing that every one of mankind (Christ only excepted) is involved in this sinne and misery.
  • Luk. 1. 35, Therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.
  • The Aggravations of Original Sinne.
  • ¶. 1. The Aggravation of Adam's Actual Transgression.
  • ¶. 2. The Aggravation of Original Sinne inherent.
  • ¶. 3. An Objection Answered.
  • That every one by Nature hath his peculiar Original Sinne.
  • That Original Sinne in every one doth vent it self betimes▪
  • How soon a Child may commit Actual Sinne.
  • Whether Original Sinne be alike in all.
  • A Justification of Gods shutting up all under Sinne for the Sinne of Adam, in the sense of the Reformed Churches, against the Excepti­ons of D. J. Taylor, and others.
  • Gal. 3. 24. But the Scripture hath concluded all under sinne, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
  • The Text explained.
  • Pr [...]positions to direct us in this great Point of Gods Proceedings, as to the matter of Original Sinne.
  • Objections Answered.

The Contents of the Fourth Part.
TReating of the Effects of Original Sinne.

  • Of that Propensity that is in every one by Nature to sinne.
  • Job 15. 16. How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drink­eth iniquity like water?
  • The Text explained and vindicated from Socinian Exceptions.
  • How much is implied in this Metaphor, Man drinketh iniquity like water.
  • Some Demonstrations to prove, that there is such an impetuous Inclina­tion in man to sinne.
  • The true Causes of this Proneness, and the false ones assigned by the Ad­versaries, examined.
  • The second immediate Effect of Original Sinne is, the Causality which it hath in respect of all other sins.
  • Jam. 1. 14. But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.
  • The Text explained, setting forth the generation of Sinne.
  • [Page]That Original Sinne is the Cause of all Actual Evil, cleared by se­veral Propositions, which may serve for Antidotes against many Errours.
  • ¶. 2. Of the Motions of the heart to sinne not consented unto, as an immediate Effect of Original Sinne.
  • ¶. 3. How many wayes the Soul may become guilty of sinne, in respect of the Thoughts and motions of the heart.
  • Of the Combate between the Flesh and the Spirit, as the Effect of Original Sinne, so that the Godliest man cannot do any holy Duty perfectly in this life.
  • Gal. 5. 17. For the Flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the Flesh, and these are contrary one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.
  • The Text explained and vindicated from corrupt Interpretations.
  • Several Propositions clearing the truth about the Combate between the Flesh and Spirit in a Godly man.
  • A Consideration of that part of the seventh Chapter to the Romans, which treats of the Conflict within a man; Shewing (against Amyraldus and others) that it must be a regenerate person only, of whom those things are spoken.
  • ¶. 4. The several wayes whereby Original Sinne doth hinder the Godly in their Religious Progress, whereby they are sinfull and imperfect.
  • ¶. 5. Objections against the Reliques of Sin in a regenerate man, an­swered.
  • ¶. 8. The several Conflicts that may be in a man.
  • ¶. 10. How the Combate in a Godly man between the Flesh and Spi­rit, may be discerned from other Conflicts.
  • [Page] ¶. 10. Of the Regenerates freedome from the Dominion of sinne; and whether it be by the Suppression of it, or by the Abo­lishing part of it.
  • Of Death coming upon all men, as another Effect of Original Sinne.
  • 1 Cor. 15. 22. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
  • Death an Effect of Original Sinne, explained in divers Propo­sitions.
  • ¶. 2. How many wayes a thing may be said to be Immortal, and in which of them man is so.
  • ¶. 4. Distinctions about Mortality, and that in several respects Adam may be said to be created Mortal and Immortal.
  • ¶. 7. The several Grounds assigned by Schoolmen of Adam's Immortality rejected; and some Causes held forth by the Orthodox.
  • Arguments to prove, That through Adam's sinne we are made sinners, and so Mortal.
  • Arguments brought to prove, That Adam was made Mortal, answered.
  • Whether Adam's sinne was onely an occasion of Gods punishing all man­kind, resolved against D. J. Taylor.
  • Whether Death may be attributed to mans constitution, considered in his meer Naturals, against D. J. Taylor, and the Socinians.
  • [Page]Eternal Damnation another Effect of Original Sinne.
  • Ephes. 2. 3. And were by nature the children of wrath, as well as others.
  • What is meant by Wrath in this Text.
  • What is meant by Nature.
  • That by nature through the original sinne we are born in, all are heirs of Gods wrath, all are obnoxious to eternal damnation.
  • What is comprehended in this Expression, Children of wrath.
  • Some Propositions in order to the proving, That the wrath of God is due to all mankind because of Original Sinne.
  • Arguments to prove it.
  • Some Conclusions deduceable from the Doctrine of the damnableness of Original Sinne.
  • A Consideration of their Opinion that hold, an Universal Removal of the Guilt of Original Sinne from all mankind by Christs Death: Answering their Arguments; among which, that from the Antithesis or Opposition which the Apostle maketh Rom. 5. between the first Adam and the second Adam.
  • [Page]Of the state of Infants that die in their Infancy, before they are ca­pable of any Actual Transgressions, and that die before Bap­tisme.

A TREATISE OF Original Sinne. PART. I.

The first Text to prove Original Sinne, improved and vindicated.


EPHES. 2. 3.‘And were by nature the children of wrath, as well as others.’

THE true Doctrine of Original Corruption is of so great concernment, that Austin thought, De Pec­cato Orig. contra Pelag. & Celest. 2. cap. 24. the Summe of Religion to consist in knowing of this, as the effect of the first Adam, and also of Christ the second Adam with all his glorious benefits. Though therefore Coelestius of old thought it to be but Rec­quaestionis, not fides, Ibidem cap. 4. And others of late have wholly rejected it, as Austin's figment, yet certainly the true way of Humiliation for sinne, or Justification by Christ, cannot be firmly established, unless the true Doctrine of this be laid as a Foundation-stone in the building.

[Page 2] Now because original sinne is used ambiguously by Divines, sometimes for Adam's first sinne imputed unto us, (for, Omnes homines fuerunt ille unus homo) he was the common Person representing all mankind, as is in time to be shewed; And this for distinction sake, is called, Originale originans, or Originale impu­tatum; And sometimes it's taken passively for the effect of that first sinne of Adam, viz. The total and universal pollution of all mankind inherently through sinne, which is called Originale originatum, or inherens.

I shall treat of it in this later acception, as being of great practical improve­ment many wayes.


ANd because in Theological Debates two Questions are necessary, The An sit, and the Quid sit, Whether there be such a thing, and, What it is; and in both these the truth of God meeteth with many adversaries.

I shall first insist on the Quod sit, That there is such a natural and cursed pollution upon every one that is born in an ordinary way. The first Text I shall fasten this Truth upon, is this I have mentioned, which deservedly, both by Ancient and Modern Writers is thought to have a pregnant and evident demonstration, That there is such a natural contagion upon all.

To understand this the better, take notice of the Coherence briefly. The Apostles scope is, to incite the Ephesians to Thankfulness, by the consideration of that great love and infinit mercy vouchsafed to them by God; and because the Sunne is most welcome out of a dark gloomy cloud, one contrary doth more illustrate another. He compareth their present state of Grace, with their pristine condition of misery and wretchedness, which is summarily expressed, That they were dead in sinnes and trespasses, a farre more dreadfull estate, than if they had been dead and rotting in their graves. This internal corruption is am­plified from a twofold external cause,

1. The course aud custom of the world.

2. The power and efficacy of the Devil, the Prince of the power of the Air working in them.

Now lest this should be thought true only of the Ephesians, because Gen­tiles, he brings in himself also, and the Jews equal with them both in actual sinnes.

1. We all had our conversation in times past in lusts of the flesh, &c.

2. For original sinne, both Jew and Gentile were all plunged in the same ori­ginal gulf of misery: And this Proposition is asserted in the words read.


IN which words are considerable, the Subject, and the Predicate, with the Manner of its attribution.

The Subject is [We] that is, we all, as in the beginning of this verse: For seeing the Jews were Abraham's children, in which they so much boasted, and therefore are called Jews by nature, Gal. 2. 15. and the natural branches, Rom. 11. 21. They might easily think, others indeed were by nature sinfull, yet for themselves, they would think that glorious discent they had from Abraham might be a priviledge to them, but here it is true, though Jews by nature, yet sinners by nature, as the Gentiles were.

2. There is the Predicate, Children of wrath, [...], which is an Hebraism, and signifieth one wholly exposed to wrath, as if wrath were the mother, and [Page 3] gave them their whole being. Thus the children of Belial, and the sons of death are often in Scripture. By wrath is meant Gods wrath; Now because Gods wrath is just, and doth alwayes presuppose sinne; Hence is inevitably deducted, That we are also by Nature full of sinne: So that though wrath be immediatly the misery here spoken of, yet sin is supposed as the necessary antecedent.

3. There is the Manner how, [...], by nature; We have it by our birth, it's not by imitation, and action, or custom, but by Nature. This word doth clearly pass a sentence of condemnation upon every one, while in the swadling-cloaths, though as yet guilty of no actual transgression.

But because the strength of our Argument for Original sinne lieth on this word, and the Adversaries to it, especially the Socinians, would weaken this Testimony: Let us remove their exceptions.


ANd first, Gretius rejects this Interpretation of Original, sinne, as nothing to the Apostles meaning, and therefore saith the word [...], is as much as [...], truly and indeed, opposite to what is in opinion, and esteem, compa­ring this place with Gal. 4. 8. Which by nature are no gods. In this, following Pelagius his Exposition of old, as if he would take his errour by imitation, as Pelagius said, we did sinne from Adam. This interpretation of Pelagius taking prorsus for the same with nature. Austin refuseth for the novelty of it, Lib. 6. contra Julia, cap. 4. and indeed nothing now is more ordinary, then such an Exposition with the Adversaries to original sinne, as Castellio and others.

But this Exposition is not opposite, it's only subordinate, we will grant, that the word will bear this sense, That we are truly and wholly the children of wrath; but this is not all, we are so, because we have this misery by nature, and the pa­rallel instanced in, will abundantly convince it, for therefore they were not tru­ly, and indeed Gods, because they were not so by nature. So that the Text makes against him, and not for him.

Besides the word [...] being used about twelve times in the New Testament, doth alwayes signifie that which is nature, or according to natural inclination, or what we have by natural birth; For nature, so 1 Cor. 11. 14. Doth not na­ture teach you? And Jam. 3. 7. Rom. 1. 26. For natural principles and inclina­tions, so the Gentiles, Rom. 2. 14. are said [...], To do the things of the Law, or by natural descent, Rom. 2. 27. Vncircumcision is said to be [...], so Rom. 11 21, 24. The natural branches are called the Jews descending of Abra­ham, and thereby enjoying Church-priviledges, and Gal. 2. 15. Jews by Na­ture; Insomuch that it is a manifest falshood to say, the word never signifieth that which we have by birth. And indeed, as is well observed by Zanchy, The phrase, Children by Nature must necessarily imply by descent, as the sonne of a man supposeth descent from him: Adam was a man, but not the son of a man, he had it not originally from another, whereas we are by nature children of wrath, and so have it from our parents. Hence it is [...], not [...], which doth relate to our nativity, and in the original it is more emphatical than in our Translations, for there it is, not by nature children of wrath, but [...], Children by nature of wrath; So that children by nature is opposite to children by Custom, Imitation, Adoption, or any other way. Thus the first exception is removed.

Object. In the next place, The Socinian puts in his Caveat, after this manner, That must be understood by the phrase [Children of wrath by nature] which the Ephesians were now by the grace of God freed from; for the Apostle speaks in the time past, You were by nature children of wrath, but now are quickned by [Page 4] the grace of God, therefore the Ephesians were now freed from that estate: But according to the Doctrine of those who maintain Original sinne, that abideth in every man, though regenerated, and is not abolished but by death.

Answ. But this stone is easily removed: For although original sinne abide in the godly, yet the guilt of it is not imputed; So that though by nature we were obnoxious to the wrath of God through its guilt, yet when grace com­eth, this guilt is taken away, so that though it be in us, yet it is not imputed to us.

Object. Lastly, They object, It must be understood of actual sins, for the Apo­stle spoke of such before, and to be a sonne of a thing denoteth the quality inherent in a man, as given to such a way; so in the former verse the Chil­dren of disobedience, that is, those who voluntarily give themselves to such rebellion.

Answ. But to this it is answered, That in the former expression is not the word [...]: So that the Apostle doth here lay the Ax to the root of the Tree; and because the Jews might be thought by the priviledges they enjoyed as soon as born to excell the Gentiles; Therefore he demonstrateth the Fountain and Well-head of their iniquity, though secret and under-ground, as springs are usually very difficultly discovered.

Besides, We will readily grant, That this expression doth denote an habitual inclination to all actual evil, and that the Apostle mentioneth it as the curse and bitter root of all the actual impieties that are committed in the world; so that there is a reference to actual sins, but in the cause of them, which is this original pollution.

And thus much for vindication of this noble Text, we have endeavoured to throw out all that earth, which the Philistims had cast into this fountain, what else may be objected, will in time be taken notice of. And from hence observe,

That all men by nature are born full of sinne, and so exposed to Gods infinite wrath and vengeance. Every Infant coming into the world is destitute of the Image of God, and in a more dreadfull condition than the young ones of the bruitish creatures, that are not exposed to eternal torments; so that although there may be joy that a man-child is born, yet much humiliation, because a child of wrath is born.

I shall not so much insist on the Predicate, as the Subject, with the Manner how.

This original sinne is a natural sinne, not indeed as we had our nature at first pure out of Gods hands, therefore here is no Manicheism affirmed, as Pelagi­ans of old did calumniate, but as vitiated and defiled through Adam's trans­gression.

Of the Name Original Sinne, and of the Ʋtility and Necessity of being clearly and powerfully informed about this Subject.


LEt us consider the Doctrine more largely: And

First, You must know that although Original sinne be not a Scripture-name, but called so first by Austin, forced thereunto by the Pelagians, yet the truth of it is in the Scripture; And it is law­full to use new words though not in Scripture, when the matter is contained therein, to discover and distinguish Hereticks. Now we call it origi­nal sin in a three-fold respect:

First, Because we have it from our first parents fallen, who were the original and fountain of all mankind. It's not an actual voluntary sinne, immediatly and personally committed by us, but it is in us antecedently to our own personal will, both our mind and will comes into the world habitually darkned and ob­stinate against what is good.

Secondly, Its original, Because we have it as soon as we have our being. It's bred in us, and can no more be taken from our natures in an ordinary way, than mortality from our bodies: For although it be not the substance and essence of a man, yet the Scripture calling it the old man, and our members, not in Illyricus his sense, doth thereby signifie the intimate inhesion of it in us, that it is in us, as it were, leven in the whole lump, which soureth all; we have it in our being, which made Ambrose say, Cujus ortus in vitio est, which Austin often mentioneth; yea, we were conceived in it, as Psal. 51. And therefore another was not afraid to say, we were damnati priusquam nati, with Austin often it's called Damnata radix, damnata massa.

Lastly, It's called Original, Because from this floweth all the actual evil in the world; From this corrupt tree groweth all the corrupt fruit that is, as is to be shewed; therefore the Scripture describes original sinne, though not as pecca­tum actuale, yet actuosum, not as an actual, but an active sin. Thus Gen. 6. 5. it's made to be a forge, or shop from whence sparks of lusts do continually rise. The heart of man is even like hell it self, whose fire of lust is unquenchable: So our Saviour speaks of a hard heart which is as an evil treasure. Mat. 12. 35. There is an evil treasure in every mans heart, you may see all sorts of wickedness come from it, old and new sins, and though he sinne never so much, yet still he can sinne more. This sea of corruption will never be dried up in this life. Paul also Rom. 7. complaineth of the activity and vigor of this sinne in him, that it's al­wayes seducing, yea, captivating of him, although sanctified in part; Insomuch that although a man be loathsom in respect of his actual impieties, yet much [Page 6] more because of the original fountain of evil within him; The greatest part of our wickedness is in our natural inclination and propensity of spirit: Oh how deep and piercing should the thoughts of this depravation be within us, as we are all over full of sinne, so we should be filled up with shame and confusion of face, we never go deep enough in our Humiliation and Confession, till we come to this.


IN the second place, It's good to take notice of the evident utility, and necessity of being clearly and powerfully informed about this Subject. This truth is con­stantly and frequently to be pressed, we are not to give it over, although it may seem burdensom and tedious unto you; The reasons of the necessary discovery of this are divers, some Doctrinal, and some Practical. As

1. If a man be erroneous or heretical in this, he cannot be orthodox, or sound in many other substantial parts of Religion; What Austin said concern­ing the Trinity, is true also in some measure concerning this; We may erre easi­ly here, and dangerously also: easily, for such is the self-fulness, the self-flattery that is in every one, that he is difficultly perswaded that he is thus undone and miserable; The light must shine as clear as at noon-day, yea the Spirit of God must convince and set this home, else a man will never believe it, and then the errour herein is dangerous, because if this Pillar fall to the ground, almost the whole edifice of Religion doth tumble down with it: As for instance, If a man erre about original sinne, denying it either in part or in whole, he must necessa­rily hold Free-will, for this is the Cockatrice his egg, and the other is the Cock­atrice it self; from a venemous womb must come a venemous brood; Take away original sinne, and then you establish Free-will, then man hath the same power to do good he had in Creation; There may be indeed some wounds and debilitations upon him, but not a spiritual death; Then if Free-will be established, the grace of God, that is also evacuated, there is no absolute necessity of it, its only ad facilius operandum, as the Pelagians of old, to make us work more ea­sily and readily. Thus the very Sunne of Righteousness is presently taken out of our Heavens. Furthermore, If we do not believe aright about original sin, we must also mis-believe about Justification, that cannot be made such a glorious act of Gods grace, because of Christs Righteousness imputed unto us, as indeed it is; Then we shall set up our Dagon against Gods Ark; neither will the work of conversion be solely ascribed to the power of Gods grace, as it ought to be, for at the best they will make grace but an adjuvant cause, or a partial one with our Free-will, and so the praise shall be given partly to our selves, and partly to God. But above all, he that doth either deny, or diminish the guilt and conta­gion of this sinne can never exalt Christ in all his Offices as he ought to do: He that denieth the disease must needs derogate from the Physician, The whole need not the Physician, saith our Saviour, Matth. 9. 12. And therefore it's of great consequence to be fully perswaded about the depth, breadth and length of this sinne, that thereby we may be able to comprehend the dimensions of Christs love to us; Not that Christ came only to take away the guilt of original sin, as some Papists affirm, but because this is the womb wherein all other sins are con­ceived. This is the wound of the whole nature, actual sins only infect the per­son of a man; We may then easily see the necessity of being truly informed about this Subject; for this is like miscarriage in the first concoction, which can­not be amended by that which followeth; And therefore this consideration should quicken you up in a diligent attention to the whole Doctrine, which shall be delivered about it.


IN the next place we are to shew you, of what practical advantage it is, for all to be fully informed about this native contagion and leprosie we bring with us into the world: And

First, He that doth truly believe in this point, will quickly silence all those im­patient, if not blasphemous complaints that are uttered by many against nature, because (as they say) it is such an hard step-mother to mankind, Non tam editi quum ejecti, said the Heathen. I call them blasphemous complaints, because what is spoken against Nature, redounds upon God the Author of Nature. Hence in the Scripture, what Nature doth, God is said to do. Now then, if we consider, what impatient expostulations the Heathens have made, why man of all creatures should be by Nature most miserable? No true answer could ever be given to satisfie, but this, because man comes sinfull into the world: The young ones of beasts and birds, are not so miserable as our Infants, because not corrupted with evil in their Natures, as they are; So that if we see our very In­fants, which yet (as the Scripture saith) cannot discern between the right hand and left, and have not done actual good or evil, subject to grievous diseases, and death it self: Wonder not at this, for they have in themselves through their native sinfulness, a desert not only of this pain, but eternal torments in hell. Hence it is that the Scripture instructs us in that which all Philosophy could never inform us, viz. the cause and original of all those diseases and pains, yea of death it self, which reigneth over all mankind: Insomuch that thereby we see, though there were not one actual sinne in the world, though all men had no more sinne upon them, then what they had in the womb, and in the cradle, yet there was demerit enough of that vengeance of God, which upon mans transgression was threatned in the Word, Gen. 6. 5. The main cause, why God brought that universal deluge upon the whole world, was not so much their actual wickedness, as such, but because it came from a polluted fountain, which would never be wholly cleansed. Their hearts were so many shops, wherein were constantly formed all manner of impieties; yea by this we see not only the mi­series upon man, but all the bondage an vanity that is upon the whole world: That there are any barrenness, any famines, that the ground brings forth thorns and thistles, that the woman brings forth with so much labour and forrow; all these things come by original sinne; God did not at first create things in such disorder and confusion: If therefore thou wouldst quiet thy heart under all tu­mults and vexing thoughts, to see the manifold mischiefs and miseries mankind is subject unto; This Grave jugum super filios Adam, as Austin often out of Ec­clesiasticus, this heavy yoke upon the sons of Adam, have recourse to a serious meditation about original sin.

Secondly, The true knowledge of this natural defilement, will also satisfie us in those doubtfull Questions, which some have greatly tormented themselves with, viz. How sinne comes to be in the world? And whence it is Austin (in his seventh Book of his Confessions, and fifth Chapter) doth there bewail before God the great agonies and troubles of mind he was in about the beginning of sinne, whence it did arise? For seeing every thing that God made was exceeding good, this exceedingly puzzled him to know how evil should be. Yea, this knot was so hard to unty in some mens judgments, that it made many, of the Marcionites heresie, who be­cause they saw men commit evil, as soon as they were born, and yet withall be­ing convinced, That God was good, and could not be the beginning of evil; They therefore maintained two principles of all things, the one good, of all good things; The other evil, of evil things. Thus men have wonderfully plung­ed themselves into boggs and quagmires of danger and destruction, be­cause [Page 8] not acquainted with this main Truth of Original sin.

Thirdly, For want of knowledge herein, that main duty so much commended both by Scripture, and the Heathens, viz. To know our selves, can never be put in practice. The Heathen said, è Coelo descendit, [...]. And as for the Scripture, How often is it required, That we should search and try our hearts; That we should examine our selves, and commune with our own hearts, and be still, Psal. 4. Now these duties can never be effectually done, without a firm belief of that desperate pollution which is in our heart; And till we acknowledge with Jerem. 17. The heart is deceitfull above all things, and desperately wicked, Who can know it? Yea, we see David, Psal. 19. 13. though a godly man, and much enlightned thereby, being enabled to make deep search into his soul, and having the Sun beams, could discern those atoms and motes of sinne, which man in the dark could not do, yet he crieth out, Who can understand his errors? Cleanse me from secret sins, that is, such sins that lie latent and lurking in my heart, that never yet I could find out. If then this duty be so great of knowing our selves, that some make all Religion to be in these two things, The knowledge of our selves, and of God; then how necessary is it, that we should be thorowly ac­quainted with this heart, and nature-sinfulness, for without this we can never know how vile and loathsom we are? Our actual impieties, though never so gross and numerous, do not demonstrate our loathsomness so much as this bitter and sour leven within; These are the stream, that is the fountain; These are the effects, that is the cause; Therefore the greatest strength of our wickedness lieth in a defiled Nature, as you see in a Serpent or Toad, that venom it sends forth at any time, is nothing to the venom in its nature; If you look upon a Cain, a Judas, though his outside be so detestable, yet his inwards are much more abominable, so that a mans heart is like Peters great sheet, which he saw in a vision, Acts 11. 6. which was full of four-footed beasts, and wild beasts, and creeping things, all unclean; such a receptacle is mans soul of all impiety: A man cannot tell what is in the sea, what monsters are in the bottom of it, by looking upon the superficies of the water which covers it, so neither canst thou tell all that horrid deformity and wretchedness which is in thy heart, by be­holding thine outward impieties. Oh then that you would turn your eyes in­ward, as it were, an introversion is necessary: Then you will say, O Lord, be­fore I knew the Nature of original sinne, I was not perswaded of my vileness, of my foulness! Oh now I see that I am beyond all expression sinfull, now I see every day I am more and more abominable! O Lord, formerly I thought all my sinne was in some words, in some actions, or in some vile thoughts, but now I see, this was the least part of all that evil that was in me; Now I am amazed, astonished to see what a sea of corruption is within me, now I can never go to the bottom, now I find something like hell within me, sparks of lust that are un­quenchable.

Fourthly, Where there is not a true knowledge of this native corruption, there our Humiliation, and Repentance can never be deep enough; for it's not enough to be humbled for our actual sinnes, unless also we go to the cause and root of all. When a godly man would repent of his lusts, of his unbelief, or any other a­ctual transgression, he stayeth not in the confession of, and bewailing those particular sins, but he goeth to the polluted fountain, to the bitter spring, from whence those bitter streams flow, and commonly this is a difference be­tween an Ahabs Humiliation, and a Davids; Ahab humbleth himself only for his actual impieties, and that because of judgments threatned and impending over him; but David, even when he heareth God had forgiven his iniquity, yet hath great humiliation for his sinnes; and Psal. 51. thinketh it not enough to bewail his adultery and murder, but to confess, That in iniquity he was concei­ved; his actual sinnes carried him to the original. Thus Paul also, Rom. 7, [Page 9] when he miserably complaineth of that impotency in him to do good, that he could never do any good as perfectly, fully, purely and cheerfully, as he ought to do, presently he goeth to the cause of all this deordination, the Law of sinne within him, that original sinne which was like a Law within him, commanding him to think, to desire, to do sinfully, and obeyed it in all, though against his will, insomuch that he saith, He was carnal, and sold under sinne. This the A­postle doth complain of, as the heaviest burden of all; So that an unregenerate man may by the light of nature, bewail and complain of his actual impieties, he may cry out, Oh wretched man that I am, for being such a beast, such a devil, so exorbitant and excessive, but whether he can do this for the body of sinne with­in him, as Paul did, that may justly be questioned; And therefore you see then the troubles and workings of conscience in some men to miscarry greatly; They seem to be in pain and travails of soul, but all cometh to nothing: Oh how many in times of danger, and under fear of death, do sadly cry out of such sins they have committed! Oh the promises and resolutions they make, if ever God give them recovery again! But all this passeth away, even as mans life it self, like a vapour, like a tale, that is told: And one cause of the rottenness and defect of this humiliation is, because it did not go to the bottom of the soare; there was the inward and deep corruption of original sin that such never took any notice of, and so in all his sorrow did omit that which is the most aggravating cause of all grief and trembling: O Lord, I have not only done this wicked thing, but I had an heart, an inclination of soul to carry me to it, and therefore actual sinnes, though ten thousands of them, they pass away, the guilt only remaining; but this original pravity continueth in the pollution of it.

Fifthly, Ignorance of original sinne makes us also mistake in the crucifying and mortifying of sinne; No man can truly and spiritually leave a sinne, unless he doth conquer it and subdue it in some measure in the original and root of it; and this is a sure difference between a regenerate and unregenerate man about leaving or for­saking of sinne; They both may give over their wonted actual impieties; They both may have escaped the pollution of the world, and that through the knowledge of the Gospel, 2 Pet. 2. 20. but the one leaveth only the acts of sinne, the other mortifieth it gradually, though not totally in the cause and inclination of the soul. Thus Paul. Rom. 7. though he complain of those actual stirrings, and impetuous motions of sinne, yet withall he can truly say, I delight in the Law of God, in the inner man. Now no hypocrite, or unregenerate man can say so; Though he be outwardly washed, yet he hath a swinish nature still, his inward parts are as loathsom, as noisom as ever before: Though there be a fair skinne drawn over the wound, yet in the bottom there is as much corruption, and pu­trefaction, as ever before: Samson's hair is only cut, it's not plucked up by the root, so that it's not enough to have given over thy former profaneness; Thou thankest God thou art not the man once thou wert: Oh but consider whe­ther sinne in the root of it, as well as in the branches of it, doth wither and die daily. A disease is not cured, till the cause of it be in some measure at least remo­ved. As long as originall sinne is not in some degree mortified, thy old sins, or some other will break out as violently as ever, here is the fountain and root of all within thee.

Sixthly, He that is ignorant of the nature, and extent of this natural defile­ment, he must needs grosly mistake about the nature of conversion, and be wholly ig­norant of what regeneration is; As you see in Nicodemus, John. 3. 6. though a master in Israel, yet grosly mistaking about a new-birth, and what was the rea­son of it? That appeareth by our Saviours argument to prove the necessity of it, Whatsoever is born of the flesh is flesh, implying by this, That if Nicodemus had known, that by natural generation he was nothing but flesh, that is, sinne and evil, his soul, his mind, his conscience, all was flesh in this sense, as well as his [Page 10] body, then he would quickly have discerned the necessity of being born again, then he would not have continued a day, an hour, a moment in such a danger­ous condition. And what is the cause that most people are still such sots and sensless men about regeneration? Yea, learned and knowing men are as blind and bruitish in this, as the simple and poor people are, doth not all arise from this? That they feel not, neither do perceive that original sin like a leprosie hath run over the whole man, both soul and body, especially there would not be these three mistakes about the work of grace, which are very common; As

1. A Philosophical Reformation,Three com­mon mistakes about the work of Grace. by the Dictates and Principles of Moralists, such as Plutarch, and Seneca give, would not be taken for Regeneration: For although their sayings and directions are admired, and there may be some good use of them, yet they do not go to the root of the matter, they are not an anti­dote against original sinne that defileth the nature, and therefore cannot promote Regeneration, which doth properly cure that in some degree. Aristotles way to make a man a virtuous man, viz. by frequent and constant actions, at lest to acquire an habit is absurd and repugnant to Scripture, for by that, the tree must be made good, and a man must be born again, ere he can do any thing holily. Hence God promiseth to give a new heart, to take away the heart of stone, and then to cause us to walk in all holiness, Ezek. 11. 19. These divine principles must be infused before there can be holy actions. So

2. Civility and an ingenuous temperate disposition, will be but a glistering dunghill, a painted sepulchre, when original sinne is known: He will presently see, for all his civil and inoffensive life, his heart is full of all noisomness; There­fore civil men of all men do most need this light to shine into their brests; we are ready to think of our selves, because so harmless and innocent, as was said of Bonaventure, In hoc homine non peccavit Adam. such were born without sinne, and brought better natures into the world than others; but if you search into the Scriptures, it will appear that all are born children of wrath, and are equal­ly destitute of that image of God, and then, as when the pillars of an house are removed, the house it self must fall into its own rubbidge. Thus when that pri­mitive righteousness was lost, man is prone to runne into all evil, and every man would be like a Judas, or a Cain, even the most civil man that is, did not God restrain original sin.

3. Gifts and abilities which many have in religious exercises, will presently be seen not to be Regeneration. Though we should preach with the tongue of An­gels, though admirable in prayer, and other holy duties, yet these and original sin in the power of it may stand together, and so many looking to the flowers, but not the dead corpse they are upon, conclude themselves to be alive, when indeed they are dead.


I Shall mention some few more spiritual Advantages, that come by the full and undoubted perswasion of this original corruption; for so of old we are advised, Firmissimè texe, & nullatenus dubita, &c. Believe most firmly, and doubt not in the least manner, but that by Adam's sinne, all his posterity becomes sinfull and obnoxious to Gods wrath. And

First, upon the Knowledg of originall sinne we evidently see, our impossibility to keep the Law of God. That when the Law requireth a love of God, with all our heart, mind and strength; and also doth prohibit all kind of lust, and sinfull concupiscence, even in the very first motions and stirrings of it. The Law (I say) requiring such universal perfection, and we being wholly dead in sinne, upon the comparing of the Law, with our condition, we cannot but conclude, [Page 11] That we fail in all things, That the Law is spiritual, but we are carnal; And if he be cursed that doth not continue in all things the Law requireth, how ac­cursed must he be that is not able to perform any one thing? All those opinions that diminish original sinne, do also plead for a possibility of keeping Gods Com­mandments: Now this self-flattery is imbred in all. Do not most of our com­mon people think they keep the Commandments of God? Do they believe that the curses of the Law do belong to them every hour? Oh if such convictions were upon them, how greatly would it humble them, and make them debased before God, but they trust in this, they readily and confidently say with that young man. All these have I kept from my youth up, Mat. 9 20. Oh then inform thy self more about this natural defilement and loathsomness that is upon thee, and then thou wilt find the Law to accuse and condemn thee in all things.

Secondly, The right knowledge of this will make even the godly and rege­nerate, though in some measure delivered from the power and dominion of it, yet to see, that because of its stirrings and actings in them, there is imperfe­ction, in every thing they do. And truly, this is one of the most profitable effects of true knowledge herein, for hereby a godly man is made to go out of all his graces, and his duties, hereby he is afraid of the iniquity of his holy things, and cals his very righteousness a menstruous ragge. This is clear in Paul, Rom. 7. How sadly doth he complain of the vigorous actings of this original sinne in him; For the present I take it as granted, that that part of the Chapter must be under­stood of a regenerate person (though vehemently denied by some) as is in time to be shewed. That Law of sinne was alwayes moving, when he set himself to any thing that was holy, he desired to obey the Law perfectly, to love God compleatly, but this Law of sinne would not let him: So that, because of this natural defilement, evil is mixed with all the good we do, insomuch that there would be a woe, and a curse to all our gracious acts, if strictly examined. Thus it is with a godly man in this life, as those Hetruscan-robbers reported of by Aristotle, and mentioned by Austin, who would take some live men, and bind them to the dead men, which was a miserable way of perishing: Even thus it is here, original corruption is constantly adhering, and inseparably to him, who is alive in holiness, and by this means, there is unbelief in his faith, coldness in his zeal, dulness in his fervency; Insomuch that the Apostle crieth out of himself, Oh wretched man that I am! And that because of this very thing, the Papists, though they hold original sinne, yet maintaining, That after Baptism it's quite taken away, and that though there be some languor and difficulty in a man, in re­spect of what is good, yet if we do not consent to these motions of lusts within us, they are not truly and properly sins, do consequentially conclude, that there is not necessarily dross and sinne in every holy duty we do, but the evidence of Rom. 7. is too great to be contradicted. So that preaching of original sinne is not only necessary to the unregenerate, but even to the most holy and godliest man that liveth; Let him desire to know more of it, for it may do him also much good, and this is the reason, why the more godly any are, the more they are displeased with themselves, and do the more highly esteem of Christ, not but that they grow in grace, only they grow also in the discoveries of more filth and unworthiness in themselves.

Thirdly, By the true knowledge of this we come to be acquainted with that combate and conflict, that is between the flesh and the spirit, so much spoken of by Divines, who usually say, In every godly man there are two men, two I's, as the Apostle (Rom. 7.) distinguisheth, I Paul carnal, sold under sinne, doing the things, I would not, and I Paul spiritual, delighting in the Law of God in the inwardman, and thanking God the Father through Christ, because freed from condemnation; That Paul did not speak of this combate, while unregene­rate, [Page 12] as a Legalist, as some say, but as truly converted, will appear, if we consider, that in another place, Gal. 5. 17. the Apostle speaks of all the godly, as thus exercised, The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; So that whatsoever is done holily and godlily, it is alwayes cum luctâ car­nis, and therefore grace is the mortifying of the flesh: Now our sins will not be put to death, without some pain and reluctancy to the carnal part. There­fore this is a perpetual concomitant of every godly man, he hath a combate and spiritual conflicting within him, and this makes him often in so many agonies, this makes him so earnestly watching and praying against all temptations; now come we to natural people, they feel not the least strugling within them, all is quiet, and at ease, because they are wholly in their original sinne, they were born in; And this makes it plain likewise, that all their praying, hearing, all the re­ligious duties they ever performed, were never done in an holy and godly man­ner, because there was no reluctancy, or inward combate, but they did them in a customary, formal way, without any spiritual life or motion, for flesh will not fight against flesh. Indeed there is a combate between conscience in its con­viction and corruption, even in some unregenerate men, as in Aristotle's incon­tinent man, as distinguished from his intemperate, and that is known, of Me­dea, video meliora, proboque, deteriora sequor, I see and approve better things, but follow the worse: And some would have Paul's combate to be no other, be­cause he cals it, The Law of his mind, fighting with the Law in his members, but that is not cogent, as is more largely to be shewed in its time. Though therefore there be a reluctancy in some unregenerate men, yet that is not like the conflict in the godly, because amongst other differences, this is one principal. The god­ly man being regenerated in every part of the soul, though not perfectly, his will is sanctified as well as his mind: Hence the combate and opposition in a godly man, is between the same faculty sanctified, and the flesh still abiding in that part, his holy will against his corrupt will; so that not only his mind and conscience is against sinne, but his will also, so farre as sanctified: Hence the same Apostle makes the opposition between will and will, What I would not, that I do, and though captivated by lust, yet at that very time, delighting in the Law of God, in the inward man; whereas in unregenerate men, they have only an opposi­tion between their conscience, and their heart. The mind suggests one thing, but the will and affections wholly incline another way; Therefore that light in their consciences is a trouble and vexation to them, they do all they can to extinguish it.

The Doctrine then of original corruption, informing us. That it abideth still in a man, while he liveth upon the earth, doth inform the truly godly, that they must alwayes expect agonies and conflicts within, like fire and water met toge­ther, so will grace and corruption be; Therefore by this very combat, we may discern true grace, and it's counterfeit; for presumption, which would be thought faith, is easie, we find no opposition to it, but faith is put forth with much difficulty; so godly sorrow put forth upon pure and spiritual motives, is greatly assaulted by the flesh within us, but worldly sorrow or mourning, though for sinne, because of temporal judgments only that is easie, we are carried to it from a propensity within, from a love to our selves.

Hence lastly, The main and principal effect of the true knowledge of our ori­ginal defilement, is to bring the soul humbled and burdened under it, to a true and real esteem of Christ, and his Grace. So much as we take off from origi­nal sinne, making it either no sinne, or the least sinne, or quite abolished after Baptism, so much do we take off from the grace of God in Christ. Hence the Apostle, Rom. 5. when he maketh that famous opposition between the first Adam and the second, the gift of grace by one, and the condemnation by the other, he pitcheth upon that first disobedience, by which we are made sinners, [Page 13] as the original of all that calamity we are plunged into; and therefore the same Paul, when he poured out a large complaint about this Law of sinne working in him, at the close of all he runneth to Jesus Christ, Rom. 7. 35. It is the true knowledge of this only, that will make us see the necessity of Christ all the day long, and in every duty, in every performance; As we have none speak so much of Grace and Christ, as Paul, so none speaks so largely and fully about original sinne. In the fifth Chapter of the Romans, he asserts the Doctrine of it; and in the seventh Chapter, he declares the power of it, which he felt experimentally in himself, though regenerated: Do not then think this is a Philosophical dispute, or that to erre in this is like erring in those points, wherein one Christian is to bear with another; but with Austin account it a fundamental, and that to deny it, is to overthrow that Law whereby we are Christians.

Demonstrations of the Naturality of this Sinne, That we have it by Naturall Propaga­tion.


BEing then thus informed of the Usefulness and Necessity of true Knowledge in this matter: Let us have your ready and diligent attention in prosecuting that matter, which relateth to it; And so I come to that notion which this Text fastens upon it, that it is a Natural sin, that we have it by natural Propagation.

In the Scripture, and by the Ancients before Austin's time, it had many names, The Law of sinne, The Old man, The Flesh, The old stroke of the Serpent, an hereditary evil, The tradux mali; But in his time for better ob­viating the Hereticks, who would allow the former names, it was by him called Original sinne, and ever since made an Ecclesiastical word, only to call it a natu­ral evil, they did not presume for fear of the Marcionites, who held, That there was an evil Nature, as well as the good: And the Pelagians accused the Orthodox for Manicheism in this point, because they held the propagation of this corruption by Nature; Therefore they avoided the term of a Natural evil; yet Austin at last did use it, and indeed it is a very proper and fit name for it, hereby differencing it from all actual, voluntary and personal sinnes; as also from sinne by imitation and custom; for Aristotle makes a distinction of things that are [...] and [...], Lib Ethic. 2. cap. 1. where he sheweth what is [...], by na­ture, as the stone to descend, and the fire to ascend, is not [...], but [...], so ac­cording to him, who knew nothing of original sinne, we are neither good or evil, [...], by nature. And withall this Text doth fully warrant the expressi­on, If we are by Nature sinnefull, then there is a natural evil; Not that God put it at first into our Natures, or that it is our substantial Na­ture, [Page 14] but we have it by Natural Propagation.

Let us therefore consider, How much is implied in this expression.


1 ANd first, It may well be called Natural, because it doth infect the whole Na­ture of Mankind. It's a defilement that followeth our specifical, not indi­vidual being: Even as we call death natural, because it followeth all mankind; Rich men die, and poor men die; learned men die, and foolish; None are ex­empted from it: Thus also it is with this sinne, All that are born in a natural way of mankind have this contagion. The sonnes of Noblemen and Princes, though they glory in their blood and their descent, yet they are as full of sin, and the children of wrath, as well as the children of the basest; so that though in civil respects they boast of their birth, and are above others, yet in a theologi­cal and divine respect, all are alike; yea the children of godly parents, though they have a promise to their seed, and in that respect their children are said to be holy, 1 Cor. 7. yet they come into the world with inherent corruption in them; They do not generate their children, as godly men, but corrupt men, as Austin of old ex­pressed it, A circumcised man begat a child uncircumcised, and the Husbandman, though he soweth his seed out of the chaff and husk, yet that brings up others with chaff and husk upon it. Well therefore may we call it a natural sinne, be­cause it doth extend to the whole humane Nature, as it is in every one that parta­keth of it in a natural way. So that as Divines do distinguish of infirmities and evils; There are some that are specifical, which follow the Species, as death; and some are accidental, which follow the individual nature: Thus there are some sinnes, which follow the particular nature of a man, and these are actual sinnes. Every man is not a drunkard, an adulterer, but some are defiled one way, some another; but then there is a sinne, which followeth the whole and universal na­ture of man, and this is original sinne, though every man be not guilty of such or such a particular sinne, yet all are, of original sinne; And therefore the School­men say, Actual sinne doth corrumpere personam, but original Naturam, actual sins corrupt the person, original the nature.


WE are declaring the Naturality of this Original sinne, not as if it were ingredient into, or constitutive of our nature, but an universal and in­separable pollution adhering to it, as they say of death, as though it be praeter Na­turam, or contra; yet if we do regard the principles of mortality, which are in every man, so death is natural.

2 Come we therefore to a second demonstration of the Naturality of this evil, and that is seen, In that it is the inward principle of all the sinfull motions of the soul, and that per [...]se, not per accidens. This is a great part of that definition, which Aristotle giveth of Nature, now we may in a moral sense apply it to our purpose.

First, I say, It's the inward principle of all the sinfull motions, and workings of the Soul. For as the nature of the stone is the cause of its motion downward, as the nature of the fire is the cause of the fires motions and operations: Thus is original sinne the intrinsecal cause, and root of all the actual evil we are guilty of. It is farre from me to justifie Flacius his discourse or opinion of original sin, making it the natural substance of a man, and not an accident, though he so [Page 15] expresseth himself, that some think its his Logical and Metaphysical errour, ra­ther than Theological: Only that which I aim at, is to shew, That this birth­sinne, is naturally ours, because from it doth flow all the sinnefull and evil operations of the whole man; So that we may say, as it is natural to the stone to descend, to the sparks to flie upwards, so it is natural to man to think evil, to speak evil, and to do evil. Aristotle observeth (Lib. 2. Ethic. cap. 1.) this, as one property of things by nature, that there the principles are before the actions; A man hath the power to see, or hear before he can actually do either, but in moral things, the actions are before the habits. As it is natural to the Toad to vent poison, and not honey; so when a man sinneth, it's from his own, it's natural to him, but when inabled to do any thing that is good, this is wholly of grace: Now, I say, It's an inward principle of all sinne within us, to distin­guish it from external cause, viz. the devil or wicked men, who sometimes may tempt and cause to sinne; Therefore the devil is called The tempter, Mat. 4. 3. Insomuch that it is made a Question, Whether there be any sinne a man commits, that the Devil hath not tempted unto, but that I attend not to at this time: This is enough, that the Devil is but an outward cause of sinne, and therefore were there not that original filth in us, his sparks could never kindle a fire, he cannot compell or force to sinne; In somuch that whatsoever sinne we do commit, we are not to lay the fault principally upon the Devil, but our own corrupt hearts: Though Ananias lied against the holy Ghost, because the Devil had filled his heart; And Judas betrayed Christ, because Satan had entred into his heart, yet the devil could not have come into their hearts, had they not been of uncleane and corrupt Constitutions: before it was an evil heart, and therefore the devil took possession of it. The Apostle James, cap. 1. 14. doth notably discover the true cause, and natural fountain of all the evil committed by us, and that is, The lust and concupiscence, that is within us, he saith, We must not charge God with our sinnes, as if he were to be blamed, because we are not kept from wicked­ness; neither doth he bid us, Charge it upon the Devil, though he doth tempt us, but upon our own corrupt lust within. Thus then you see, that as Paul saith of those, who are in Christ, They no longer live, but Christ within them, Gal. 2. 20. So we may on the contrary affirm of every man by nature, that he doth not so much live, as sinne within him; for when our physical nature causeth us to think, or speak, or do, then also sinne like our moral nature, doth make us think, and speak sinfully: Even as the lame horse can never move himself to go, but he halteth in that motion. Surely, this consideration should make all man­kind mourn in sackcloth, and roll it self in ashes: What should a man do in his whole life, but as Anselm said, to deplore his whole life, in totâ vitâ totam vitam deplorare, for he cannot move, or stirre, or do any thing, but he sinneth; If he cateth, if he drinketh, if he worketh, yea, if he prayeth, in all these he sinneth, as is more to be shewed. We see then, that because this original sinne is by way of a principle within us of all our irregular motions; Therefore though there were no Devil to tempt, no examples for men to imi­tate, yet their corrupt nature within would carry them to it; Did not Cain murder Abel, when there had been no such sinne in the world before? We many times wonder how children, yea and sometimes grown men should commit such sinnes, that they could not see practised before their eyes; but we need not wonder, when we consider what a shop of all impieties every mans heart by nature is. Hence Solomon speaking of the uprightness God made man in, Eccles. 7. 29. he instanceth in the effects of original sin, as opposite to that uprightness, that it makes a man seek out many sinfull inventions, he doth not only sin by imi­tation, but invention.

Secondly, It is added in the definition, That nature is the principle of moti­on perse, and not per accidens: If a man move a Bowl, and make it runne, it's [Page 16] not a natural motion, because the principle is from without, and it's by accident; yea those automata, those artificial instruments, which some have made, that move themselves, yet that is not a natural motion, because the principle is not in them perse, but by accident. Now this property is very applicable to man; for when he sinneth, it's not by accident, or from unexpected occasion, but of him­self, and from himself; Therefore to do as a man, to walk as a man, denoteth sinfulness, in the Scripture phrase, 1 Cor. 3. 1. When there are envyings, strifes amongst you, Do ye not walk as men? Observe that, To walk as a man, is to do a thing sinfully, so Rom. 3. 5. when the Apostle in his reasoning made a supposi­tion of God being unrighteous, if he took vengeance, addeth [I speak as a man] These instances declare, that to do a thing as a man, is to do it sinfully, as he said, Humanum est errare. Thus when Christ would express the naturality of the Devils wickedness, he saith, He sinneth of his own (John 8. 44) when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: So when thou art proud, worldly, un­believing, thou doest this of thy own; You wonder that some have lies so ready at hand to excuse iniquity, even young children, they are like the Devil in this, they do it of their own, so that sinne only we can call our own; our wealth is not our own, our lives are not our own, these we have from God, but that propensity to sinne is our own, it ariseth from our selves, as from the rotten tree come those worms that consume it: Oh what deep humiliation should this cause in thee! Thou hast nothing thou canst call thy own but sinne; That which God only hateth and loatheth, that is only thine; he looketh on thee, and seeth thy soul, that he gave thee; he seeth thy body, that is his workmanship also, but then he beholdeth the pravity and sinfull disposition in thee, and this is none of his. It was not of God, but it came through Adam's disobedience; so that when we sinne, we then doing it of our own, it is no wonder that when there is no Devil to tempt, no example to imitate, yet men can readily commit any sinne.


3 THirdly, This sinne is Natural, because it doth alwayes and constantly put it self forth: For this is one way of discovering the naturality of a thing, viz. if it be alwayes and constantly so. The Poets saying, Naturam expellas, &c. Though you use all art, or violence, to barre out nature, yet that will recurre, it will recurre again; Though you violently smother, and keep down the flames, yet no sooner have they passage, but they will ascend, because what Nature doth, it's constant and invariable in, and this is too true in respect of this original sinne, it doth constantly and certainly work in us, even as often as our soul doth put forth any vital actings at all. Those things that are by accident, they seldom fall out, but what is by nature is frequent, you may know the Sunne will rise again, though it be night, till God put a period to the course of nature: And thus it is concerning man, as soon as ever he is born, you may conclude this child, as soon as ever he can think, he can understand, or will, as soon as he can love, or be angry, he will do them all sinfully; Even as when ye see a young Serpent, you may certainly conclude, this will poison as soon as ever it can sting, and the reason is, because it's a constant pollution of the soul, and therefore it is in every thing the unregenerate man doth, Gen. 6. 5. The imagination of the thoughts of a mans heart is only evil, and that continually; it's continually, because natu­rally so: May not this respect also make thee with Jeremiah wish, That thy head were a fountain of tears to weep day and night? For can any thing be more dread­full than to have this fountain of poison within, running out all the day long; To have this flux of blood, that no act or humane skill can stop? Aristotle saith, [Page 17] That every time a man breaths, there comes out some kind of fire with it. Certainly, every time thou thinkest and movest thy soul any way, there comes out hell fire with those motions, by this means the sea-shore is not fuller of sand, or the air of atomes, than thou art of constant sinnefull emanations from thy soul.


FOurthly, This sinne is Natural, Because it would carry a man out to the 4 highest actings of the grossest impieties that can be. As they say, Nature doth act alwayes to the highest it can. Thus it's true in respect of this natural corruption, it doth incline every man to be as vile, and as enormous as any are; For although this original corruption doth not deprive him of his understand­ing and will, making of him an irrational beast, yet it doth so captivate and in­thrall the whole man; That though to understand and to will be of nature, yet this understanding and willing in a sinfull manner will alwayes be, because it's corrupted nature; and therefore it would hurry every man even as the Devil did the Swine into the sea of perdition: Every one would be a Cain, a Judas, if his corrupt nature were left to it self, and if you ask, Why then are not all men turned into so many beasts and Devils? Why is not the whole world in consusi­on? How comes there to be any civility or morality? Why is not every place like an hell, if all men are thus vile by nature? It's answered, God hath a re­forming and restraining grace; If this later may be called Grace: Now those that God reformeth, and inwardly sanctifieth; They are made to delight in the Law of God; They have the fear of God put into their hearts, and so they keep from sinne out of love to God; but then there are others, and God layeth a restraint upon them, he puts a bridle in their mouths: So that although they have an insatiable appetite to sinne, and do not put forth the whole abundance of that evil, which is within them, yet they have a principle inclining thereunto, only God stops them; as he did Balaam, whose heart was desirous to curse the people of Israel, though he was restrained from it; As it is with the sea, by its own natural motion, it would overthrow the whole world, but that God hath put his bounds to it, saying, Hitherto shalt thou go and no further. Thus God hath a supreme dominion even over the sinfull heart of man, so that it cannot sinne, when and how, and as much as it listeth, but it's under the providence of God, Cui nihil est malum, as Austin said, because he can turn it unto good. But all this is no thanks or praise to man; Say then with thy self, If I runne not into the same excess of riot with others; If I be not so abominable and loath­som, as many others are; It's not because I have a better nature, or come less polluted with original sin into the world, but because God puts limits to me, for as you see in the little Acorn is contained all the huge branches and boughes, which by length of time, it groweth up into. Thus let man alone, let him have opportunities to sinne, let not God restrain him, and you will quickly see him to be an incarnated Devil, and the reason is, because this evil being natural, and withall the seed of all evil, therefore he would be hurried on to the committing of it: Even as Adam had in the image of God, the seminals of every godly acti­on, so that none could say, Adam had not a power to do such and such a graci­ous work. Thus it is with original corruption succeeding in the room thereof, it naturally defiles all over, and so hath a womb, as the Apostle James, chap. 1. 14. alludeth thereunto, wherein any monstrous and deformed sin may be conceived.


5 FIfthly, It's Natural, Because it's necessarily in every one; we are necessarily thus defiled and stained; And in this respect chiefly, we call it Natural, be­cause it's not voluntary, it's not subject to the exercise of free-will: For al­though, as was said, the heart of man inclineth to the highest impieties, yet the exercise of some gross impieties are subject to our power in some measure, a man is not in this sense necessarily a drunkard, or an adulterer; but when we speak of this inward filthiness, it's so natural, that it's necessary: Neither the being of it, or the immediate motions of it are subject to our reason and will, but they are in us antecedently to our own consent; and this consideration doth greatly aggravate our guilt, for we are not only habitually and actually, or vo­luntarily sinfull, but naturally and necessarily so. Now as it is the great aggra­vation of Gods holiness, that he is not only actually holy, but naturally, yet vo­luntarily: So it must be our great condemnation, that we are not only actually and voluntarily sinfull, but even naturally and necessarily, yet this necessity taketh not off from voluntariness, and delight in sin.

It's Ivy twisted about, and eaten into our Nature, whether we will or no; So that it is ours, not because we will it, and make it ours by consent, but be­cause it's inherently in us before the least deliberate actings of the soul: Inso­much that as Suarez well observeth, If a man grown up in years should by a per­sonal, formal, and explicit consent agree to Adam's sinne, yet that would only be a personal sinne in him, it would not make Adam's sinne his; And the reason is, because this sinne doth now descend upon us by natural propagation, not by voluntary agreement, yet this necessity of it doth not at all abate from the de­light and pleasure that we find in the actings thereof: Neither is it such a natural necessity, as hunger or thirst, which are not culpable, because they are not contrary to the Law of God, neither were at first contracted by Adam's free choice, but are a necessary concomitant of mans constitution in an animal life, whereas this necessity is the issue of Adam's free-will, and is subjectively in our will, whereby a man is carried out at the same time to sinne, both necessa­rily and yet voluntarily, and so agreeth rather with those who have contracted an habit of sinne, who sinne in some respect necessarily, as the Prophet expres­seth it, Jer. 13. 23. Can the Ethiopian change his skin? or the Leopard his spots? then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil.


WE proceed to further discoveries of this Truth, viz. The Naturality of this evil: And that

In the sixth place will further appear, In that it is more near to us, than any actual or habitual sinne; That it is nearer than any actual sinne, is plain, Because that is transient, and abideth not in us. But for habitual sinne, that is constantly fixed in us, when once setled there. Now it may be thought, that original sinne cannot stick closer than that, an habit being a kind of second nature: Insomuch that Aristotle makes such who have acquired habits of sinne, to sinne necessarily, and that there is not so much voluntariness in their offences, as in other faults. But now original sinne is more naturally and intimately in us, than these acqui­red habits of sinne, for we are not made thus originally filthy by frequent actings of sinne, but we are born and bred so, so that whereas habits of sinne, as drunkenness, uncleanness, &c. These are the product of many actions; Fre­quent and often sinning begets such an habit that cannot be left off. This original [Page 19] sinne is the cause of sinful actions, not the effect of it: Because we are thus sin­ful and polluted by nature, therefore all our actions are likewise so polluted. Now then if the Scripture make it such an impossible thing for a man accustomed only to evil to become a changed man, that impossibility lieth upon a man, who is naturally so; For though custom be called a second Nature, yet certainly the first Nature is more implanted, and so more active in a man. This particular therefore may greatly humble a man, in that sinne is so deeply rooted in him, it's worse than an habit or custom of sinning; It goeth as neer to thy very essence and substance, as it can do, and yet not be thy substance; Therefore the Scripture cals it, Flesh and blood, The members of a man, The Law of sinne in his flesh. If a man hath a thorn in his flesh, how restless and pained is he? Paul compared that heavy temptation, he grapled with, to a Thorn in the flesh; but although by nature, we have this thorn, not only in our sides, but even all over the whole man, yet we can lie down in ease, and live in pleasure, as if nothing ailed us; but this is one deadly effect of original sinne, that it takes away all sense and feeling, whether there be any such thing or no. Oh then, let the thoughts of this sinne go as deep into thee, as the sinne it self! Sinne is got into thy heart, let sorrow get thither; Sinne hath entred into thy bowels, and filled the whole man brimme full (as we say;) Oh let shame and holy confusion be as deep, and as complete in thee!


SEventhly, This naturality will appear, If we consider that original righteous­ness,7 which God created man in: For our original sinne comes in the place thereof, and such a perfection as that was to the soul, such a defect is this to us. Now the Orthodox do maintain against Papists, That that original righteousness was not a supernatural perfection superadded to mans nature, but a due and natural perfection concreated with him; For as Adam being made to glorifie God, was thereby to have a rational soul, so also such perfection in that soul, which might make him capable of his end, otherwise man would have been created in a more imperfect and ignoble condition than any creature. It is true indeed, That Righteousness and Holiness Adam had, which the Scripture cals Gods Image, did not flow from the principles of nature, neither was it a natural consequent thereof; but yet it was a moral condition or perfection due to Adam, supposing God created him to such an end; and therefore we are not to conceive of that Image of God, as an infused habit or habits which were to rectifie and guide the natural faculties and affections of the soul, which otherwise would move in repugnancy and contrariety to one another, but as a natural rectitude, and innate ability of those powers and affections of the soul to move regularly and subordinately to Gods will: Though therefore in respect of God, that Righteousness Adam had might be called supernatural, because it was his gift, yet in respect of man, the subject, so it was connatural, and a suitable perfection to his nature. This being taken for a sure Truth, then it will exceedingly help us to the true understanding of the naturality of this evil, for original sinne succeed­ing in the stead thereof, is not (as some Papists affirm) like the taking of cloaths from a man, and so leaving him naked; or like the taking away of a bridle from an horse, all which are superadded, and external helps, as it were; but it's like death that takes away the life of a man, in respect of what is holy and godly, and like an heavy disease that doth much hinder and debilitate even the natural operations. This original sinne then is like the spoiling of an instrument of Mu­sick, or the deordination of a Clock or Watch, when not able to perform their proper service they were made for: So that original sinne is partly the want of [Page 20] this original Righteousness that was so connatural, and partly thereby a propen­sity and inclination to all evil; For as when the harmony of the humours is dis­solved, presently diseases arise in the body: Thus when that admirable rectitude, which was at first in the whole man, was broken, then all inordinacy, all pervers­ness and crookedness presently began to possess the whole man: As then original Righteousness was not as an infused habit, but the faculties of the soul duly con­stituted, whereby they did regularly move in their several wayes; so original sin is not to be conceived, like some acquired habit, polluting the powers of the soul, but as the internal defect and imperfection that is cleaving to them; Even as the paralitical hand whensoever it moveth, doth it with feebleness and trembl­ing, wanting some strength within: If therefore we would truly judge of the horrible nature of this sinne, we must throughly understand the excellency and wonderful nature of that original Righteousness which is now lost, then all things in the soul were in an admirable subordination to that which is holy; and al­though the sensitive appetite, was then carried out to some sensible object, yet it was with a subordination to the understanding; so that in that state of integri­ty there did not need, as the Papists say, Righteousness as a bridle to curb in the passions and affections, which otherwise would be inordinate, for this were to attribute a proneness to sinne in us to God himself, for he is the author of every thing, which is natural in us, but all the affections and sensitive motions, were then subjected to the command of reason, so that Adam had power to love when, and as long, and in what measure he pleased; All the affections of his soul were both quoad originem, gradum and progressum under his dominion; Even as the Artificer can make his Clock strike, when, and as many times as he pleaseth. But wo be unto us, all this excellent harmony and subordination is now lost, and our affections they captivate and rule over our judgments, and all this is because [...], there wants something within, as he said of his Image that he could not make stand, because it wanted life within.


8 EIghthly, That this original sinne is a natural evil, appeareth, From the work of grace sanctifying, which is the proper remedy to cure this imbred defile­ment: For the grace of Regeneration is chiefly and principally intended to sub­due sinne, as it did corrupt the nature, and so by consequence, as we were per­sonally corrupted; Therefore the tree must first be made good; ere the fruit can be good, as the tree is in its nature evil, and then it brings forth evil fruit: So that God in vouchsafing of this grace of Regeneration, doth not principally in­tend to make thee leave thy actual sinnes (for that is by consequence only) but to make thy nature better to repair his Image in thee: Even as when the Pro­phet Elisha would make the waters sweet, he threw salt into the spring and fountain of them: Thus because it's from a polluted nature that all our actual sinnes flow, therefore grace regenerating is principally ordered to take away or conquer that by degrees, which is the cause of all: If this be so, then let us con­sider, What this grace is, which doth inable us to do any thing after a godly and holy manner? This is a supernatural gift of God, and an insused quality into the soul, whereby it's inabled to work above its own proper and natural operations: If then to do any thing that is good be wholly of grace, it's Gods gift, then to sin is natural and proper to thee. The Scripture is copious and plentiful in affirming this, That Christ as our head is the cause of all our supernatural actings, We receive of his fulness, and so are inabled by him. Grace then being supernatural, to love God, to repent of sin, to do any thing spiritually, being thus wholly above na­ture, it necessarily followeth, that when we sin, and do evil, that we do it naturally.


NInthly, The Nature of a thing, if compounded, and not simple, is the 9 complex of the whole. The nature of a man is not his hands, or his eyes only, but his soul, and his whole body. Thus the nature of original Righteous­ness was not the perfection of one single faculty, the understanding only, the will only, but it was the complete harmonical rectitude of the whole man, cal­led therefore the Image of God; Now as the Image of a man is not one limb or member, but the pourtraiture of the whole: So neither was the Image of God in Adam; one grace, or some few graces, but the perfection of every part; Light in the mind, holiness in the will, order and regularity in the affections: Thus it is on the contrary with original sinne, it's called, The old man, and it's said to have m [...]mbers, by which is implied, that it's not any single sinne, or a defect and pollution in one faculty of the soul, but it's universal over all. Hence our Saviour saith, John 3. Whatsoever is born of the flesh is flesh, it is wholly cor­rupted, it is all over sinful; So then, when we say, it's natural, this implieth, That it is a Leprosie all over us, as farre as our physical being extends: Thus also in a moral sense doth our sinful Being inlarge it self: Therefore our natural estate is not compared only to a blind man, or a deaf man, what wants the use of some faculties, but unto death it self, that depriveth of the use of all. The natu­rality then of this sinne doth denote both the inward inheston, as also the univer­sal diffusion of it, nothing within a man being free from this contagion.


LAstly, The Naturality of this evil doth appear In the great easiness, prompti­tude 10 and delight a man naturally finds to sin. This is a way to discover what is natural, if the actions be easie, ready, and with delight; This discovers they flow from Nature, but what is of art, that is with difficulty, and much observation. We need not hire, or teach a man to eat or drink, these are natural actions, and are accompanied with delight: And thus the Naturality of this birth-sinne is no­tably manifested; with what ease, pleasure, and inward readiness is a man carri­ed out to sinne from his youth up: Eliphaz speaks notably of this, Job 15. 16. How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like water, like a Leviathan, that is said to drink up the river, and hasteth not. You see he cals every man by nature abominable and filthy, which is discovered by this, He drinketh iniquity like water, as a dropsie, or feavorish man, that is scorched with heat within, doth with greediness and delight pour down water, and the more he drinketh, the thirstier he is, and he never saith he hath enough. Thus it is with filthy and corrupted man, he doth with earnestness and delight fulfill the lust of the flesh, he is never satisfied. Every man in the world hath a Sheol with­in him, that is alwayes craving, and saying, Give, Give, as hell hath unquench­able sparks of fire, such an hell is in every mans heart; As our Saviour said, It's my meat and drink to do my Fathers will. Thus it is every mans meat and drink by nature to be doing the Devils will: Do ye not see it in children, how of themselves they are prone to any impiety, but call them to learn, or to be instructed, then there is much aversness? All this ariseth from the natural evil within us.

Objections against the Naturality of Original Sinne answered.


THe Naturality of original sinne hath been in divers respects assert­ed. I shall therefore conclude this Text with answers to some Objections that are made against this Doctrine: I do not mean against original sinne it self, for they are various; so unwilling is man to be convinced that he is wholly sinful, but against the Na­turality of it, which this Text doth affirm: Neither shall I take in all Objections of this kind, because they will be met with, on some other Texts; only I shall pitch upon one or two, whereby your understandings may be more fully cleared in this point, and so I shall part with this Text.

First therefore, Object. it hath been enviously of old objected against this Truth, That if there were such a natural pollution adhering to all mankind, this would re­dound to the dishonour of God, who is the Author of man. This Argument the Pelagians of old insulted with, If (say they) any man hold, God is the maker of man, presently he is called a Pelagian; for thus they flourished, If there be original sinne, either the parents that beget, or the children that are begotten, or God the Creator of the soul, and in a peculiar manner forming all the parts of our body, must be the cause of this sinne. This Objection they thought un­answerable, unless we should charge God with being the Author of this original defilement. Hence it is that they charged Man [...]cheism upon the Orthodox, as if they thought, that Nature it self was evil. Five things there were, that these Hereticks did usually commend, Nature, Marriage, the Law, Free-will, and Holiness; none of which they thought could be maintained, unless we deny ori­ginal sinne.

But when these Arguments are fully searched into, Answ. there will appear no matter of boasting. Let us call the first to account, and examine, Whether the Doctrine of original corruption doth charge God foolishly, or no? Whether hereby all the sinne in the world will be laid upon God?

Now there is a three sold charge drawn up against this Truth, as it relateth to God:

1. That it makes him the Author of this sinne.

2. That it makes him unjust, imputing that sinne of Adam to us, and punish­ing us because of it, when we had no being, or any will of our own to act there­in. And

3. Of cruelty, that God who is so ready to forgive us our own sinnes, yet should impute to us Adam's. But these are fig leaves only, and cannot cover the Objectors nakedness.


FOr, First, We do not say, That the Nature of man as it was created first, had this imbred pollution in it, No: it came out of Gods hands pure and clean, Eccles. 7. ult. God made man upright. It was after Gods own Image that he made him, he had no experimental knowledge of any evil within him. But as it was with the earth after mans fall, it brought forth bryars and thorns, being cursed, which (as it is thought) it would not have done so before. Thus upon Adams transgression, then, and not till then, was his soul cursed spiritually, to bring forth nothing but bryars and thorns, such lusts as were fit combustible matter for hell fire: Therefore every Infant almost may understand this, That the maintaining of this Truth doth not at all redound to Gods dishonour, for we see the like in the Devils, Are not they become wicked spirits? Is there not an utter impossibility in a Devil to do any thing that is good? Are they not cal­led the spiritual wickednesses in high places? Ephes. 6. 12. as if they were no­thing, but all over wickedness, yet the Devil, though so vile and abominable, was made a glorious creature. None of this poison was at first infused into him, but the Apostle Jude ver. 6, layeth it wholly upon themselves, That they kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation. The Devils then, though so full of wickedness, yet are not a reproach to God their Maker, but it was through their own wilfulness, they became such Apostates.

Hence in the second place, Adam when he first transgressed that command of God, and thereby involved all mankind in darkness and misery, did it from a vo­luntary free principle within, there was no internal or external necessity com­pelling him to sinne, for he was made with the image of God in him, and that matter wherein he did transgress, he might easily have attained from God, giving him liberty to eat of all other trees, so that it was meerly, and solely from A­dams own will, that he undid himself and all his posterity. It is true, God if he had pleased could have prevented his sinning, he could have confirmed him in such grace, as we see he did the other Angels that fell not, whereby he would certainly have been preserved from all sinne, but God is the supreme Sovereign, and is not tied up as men are to inferiour Laws. It is true, he is an eternal Law of Righteousness to himself, whereby he cannot do any thing, but what is just and righteous, yet he hath also an absolute Dominion over all things, and may di­spose of his creatures as he pleaseth; and from this it was that he created man with power to fall, as well as to stand, making him mutable and changeable, whereas the glorified Saints in Heaven shall be delivered from such mutability, and there shall not be in them a posse peccare, a power to sinne, so greatly shall their souls be perfected in Heaven: So that still you see, God is freed, and mans destruction is of himself.

Hence also in the third place, when Adam sinned at first, it was not after the same manner, as we sinne; for when we sinne, this floweth from a corrupted nature within, Jam. 1. 17. Every one is tempted and drawn aside with the lust that is within him; But in Adam there was no such vicious principle. It is therefore a false and dangerous position of the Socinians, That we sinne in the same manner that he did, That we have no more corrupted Nature in us, then he had, but as he had a free-will, by which he chose either good or evil, so it is with us. But this speaketh open defiance against the Scripture; For was Adam by nature the child of wrath? Were the imaginations of his thoughts only evil, and that continually? Could Adam say, He found a Law of sinne in his Members, war­ring against the Law of his mind? Adam's sinne therefore came from the meer mutability and changeableness that was in his will, there being no antecedent cor­ruption in him: Insomuch that it hath greatly exercised learned Divines, to shew [Page 24] how Adam could sinne, and wherein the imperfection did first break forth, he being made after the Image of God; but in us our sinfulness ariseth from a ne­cessity contracted by the first voluntary transgression, and so have a corrupt nature which inclineth to all corrupt actions. Adam was in some sense a good Tree, and yet did bring forth bad Fruit, a sweet Fountain, and yet did send forth bitter Streams; Here we might say, a Vine brought sorth Thorns, and a Fig Thistles; but we are bad Trees, poisoned Fountains, Briars and Thorns, only from the paralleling of our selves with Adam, we may conclude our incurable­ness, as also the danger we are in, by every temptation; For if Adam; though without any corrupt principle within him, though without the least spark of any lust, was yet so easily inflamed by a temptation; What may we expect who have the seed of all evil within us? If the green Ivy shall take fire so soon, what will the dry Tree do? Oh take heed of coming near any occasion of sinne! As our Saviour said, Remember Lots wife, so do thou Adams wife, yea and Adam himself. These, though created holy, though without any lustful inclination, yet did presently yeeld to the temptations of sinne, What then wilt not thou do? If Samson with his strength cannot resist the Philistims, much less, when that is gone, can he withstand them. But of this difference between Adam and us in sin­ning, more in its time.

In the fourth place, God is to be justified, though we be born full of sinne, because we are to distinguish between nature it self, and the corruption cleaving to it. We say, our Nature, our Essence and Substance, our Souls and Bodies in respect of their natural Being are the work of God, and we are with David, to admire the curious workmanship of God, in respect of our Bodies; The excellent composition of all the bodily parts, did convince even Galen, though otherwise an Heathen. God therefore as a Creator is to be praised and glorified by us; only, as Austin of old, we must not so praise Deum Creatorem, as to make Su­perfluum Servatorem; We must not so celebrate the name of God, as a Creator, that thereby we should make a Saviour superfluous and unnecessary, Sub laudi­bus naturae latent inimici gratiae, under the praises of Nature, the enemies of Grace hide themselves; and so under the praises of God as a Creator, the ene­mies of Christ, as a Saviour, shelter themselves. Nature then, we say, is good, our Substance and Being is of God onely, the defilement annexed inseparably thereunto is of man: Even as in our bodies, the substance of them is of God, but God did not make death, that dissolution ariseth from sinne. We do not say, That sinne is natural to us constitutivè, or consecutivè, but transitivè and inhaesivè, it doth not constitute our Being, neither is it an internal consequence of it, but it descends with our Nature, and is inherent in everyone.

Those only do give God his due glory, and vindicate him against all sinful complaints, who do maintain original sinne; For it was the ignorance of this made the Heathens utter such impatient complaints against Nature, or rather the God of it, because they were not informed of this, they thought, God dealt more unkindly with man, than any other creature. Thus Austin taketh notice of Cicero, who greatly complained of Nature, Rem (saith he) vidit, causam nescivit, (Lib. 4. contra Julian. cap. 12.) latebat enim cur grave jugum esset super filios Adam; and this was, Because (saith Austin) not being instructed out of the Scripture, he was ignorant of original sinne. So that there is no such remedy against those damnable Doctrines of the Marcionites and Manichees, as by ac­quainting of our selves with the Truth in this point, for hereby we are inabled upon just and solid grounds both to justifie God, and condemn our selves.


LAstly, They that hold Adam was at first created with a pronity to sinne, and that it was natural in him to have the sensitive appetite rebel against the ra­tional; and therefore original Righteousness was given as a bridle to curb and keep the inferiour faculties in subordination to the superiour. These (I say) do hold that Doctrine, which makes God to be the Author, if not of sinne, yet of in­clination to it. For, as the Socinians say, That death was natural to man in his first Creation, only sinne made it necessary, end by way of a curse. So the Papists say, That even in Adam at his first Creation there would have been a rebellion between his appetite and reason, had not there been grace superadded to regulate it; For (say they) this is natural, and it abideth in all men still, and is not a sin. But we shall in time (God willing) shew the falshood of this, and prove the inclination of the sensitive appetite to any suitable object, as it was in Adam, was not irregular, but in us it is in all things excessive, we not being able to move regularly, because we have lost that inward strength we were created in. As you see in the Palsie member, that moveth very fast, not from strength, but from weakness, so is it with us now in all our motions to any object, but God. There is a paralitical af­fection, we cannot love or fear, but we do it too much. Now to say, it was thus in Adam, would be to dishonour God, and to make him the Author of that ataxy and confusion which is now in man.


AS for the other two particulars of Gods Injustice and Cruelty, supposed to be in the depriving of us of that original Righteousness, we may speak more hereafter: But for the present, this may stop the mouth of any caviller, though it be as wide as a Sepulchre.

1. That as God was not necessitated to create man, neither did he make man out of need of him, so when he had made him, he being supreme Lord and Sovereign, might deal with him upon what terms he pleased: It pleased him therefore to covenant with Adam not as a single person, but as a common head and universal person, as appeareth Rom. 5. by the collation that is made between the first Adam, and the second Adam, as two universal principles.

Therefore secondly, God taking such a way, all the good Adam should have had upon his continuance in obedience, would not have been in himself only, but to all his posterity Then in him, we had all obeyed, By his obedience we had been all made righteous, and by him life would have entred into the world; so that it's great Justice in God, to transmit all the evils of Adams transgression, to his po­sterity, who would have communicated all the good promised to them upon his obedience. And thus we have answered that Objection, which is brought against the Naturality of it.


THe other Objections will come in seasonably from other Texts; I shall therefore dismiss this Verse and Doctrine, with a vehement intreaty, not to let the meditation of this Truth go out of your hearts, till it hath humbled you in the dust, till you look upon your selves as filthy and abominable, worse than any Toads or Serpents: What is it a light matter, to have a nature that is all the day long, either in thought, word or deed offending God? Your natural evil is [Page 26] more to be deplored, in some sense, than all your actual evil; for as long as this spring is, there will alwayes be polluted streams: Many things may humble and debase us, as men, but this is the Goliahs Sword, none like this to pierce and cut at the very heart, even that we are naturally evil.

A Second Text urged and vindicated.


ROM. 5. 19.‘For as by one mans disobedience many were made sinners, &c.’

THis later part of the Chapter is the Common-place and proper seat of the Doctrine of original sinne, but the understanding of it is very difficult, for there are Textual and Grammatical obscurities by the Hyperbatons, Anantapodotons, and defective expressions, which are usual in Paul, whose matter runneth like a torrent, and cannot be so well bounded by words: And as the Gramma­tical expression makes it doubtfull, so also the profundity and depth of that admi­rable matter, which is here delivered, addeth to the difficulty of it: For Austin of old said truly, Antiquo peccato nihil ad praedicandum notius, nihil ad intelligen­dum secretius, It's easily known that there is such a thing, but what it is, is a great mystery, and secret: Insomuch that Salmeron, though a Jesuite, upon the consideration of the difficulties in this Discourse of the Apostle, spake gravely, Non tam Thesei filo, quam Spiritu Sancto, & lumine quo conscripta est, &c. We do not need Theseus his twine of thred, but the holy Ghost, and that light by which this Epistle was wrote to guide us. Not therefore to speak much of the Coherence, which is so much vexed by learned men, in the Dispute of original imputed sinne, especially that [...], of which in time I shall take notice.

In the words we have a further and clearer Declaration of that Collation made between Adam and Christ: Insomuch that this doth clear what was formerly more obscurely spoken, describing two Originals, or common Fountains, the one of Sinne and Death, the other of Grace and Life: For whereas in the verse before he said, Condemnation came upon all by Adam; Lest God should be thought un­just in this, he sheweth withall, That sinne is propagated, so that there is the De­merit of this condemnation in every one of us.

In this Collation or Comparison, I am only to take notice of the Protasis or Proposition, which is, That by one mans disobedience many were made sinners.

So that in the words, we are to consider the Subject, or rather the cause of mankinds sinfulness, and that is described in the Nature of it, and the Author, [Page 27] The Nature of it is said to be [...]. The Apostle called it [...] and [...], which words do denote the hainousness of it; Rebellion is like the sin of witch­craft, and Adams sinne is called disobedience; yea some learned Divines shew, That the proper specifical nature of this sinne was disobedience, there were also many sins ingredient thereunto, this the Apostle doth to aggravate the hainous­ness of it: Insomuch that Peltan the Jesuite doth wickedly accuse the Protestants for aggravating the guilt of it so much. Apud illos (saith he) omnia sunt quasi tragica & infernalia, (De pecc. orig.) They have nothing but tragical expressi­ons, and proclaim hell and damnation because of this pollution; For this is the Apostles scope in this place, to heighten the consideration of it, that so Christ may be the more magnified: Even as an Historian, who would make a parallel between two great Generals, yet intending to preferre one before another, doth in the first place amplifie the gallantry, the warlike power, the military strata­gems of the one, that so he may the more advance that other General whom he intends to preferre above him. Thus doth the Apostle here, he makes original sinne to be exceeding sinfull, that so the grace of Christ may be exceeding rich, and precious grace. Adams sinne then, which is imputed, and made ours (as you heard) is disobedience.


SEcondly, You have the Author of this disobedience, and that is said to be by one man. Though Eve was the first in transgression, yet Adam is named as the chief; and therefore Adam is sometimes used collectively, both for man and woman; as when God said, Let us make man after our Image. Here then we have Paul informing us of that, which all Philosophy was ignorant of, viz. The imputation of Adams sinne to us, and our natural pollution flowing from it. Yea, Paul guided by the Spirit of God, finds out that mystery, which none of us ever could discover, by reading the History of Mans Fall, related by Moses; For there indeed we could see the cause of death, how that came upon all mankind, but that Adams sin was ours, That we all sinned in him, that hereupon we were all involved in sin and misery; for this we are to bless God for Paul, who hath so largely discovered it.


IN the next place, We have the Effect of this disobedience, with the Extent of it. The Extent is to many, that is, to all born naturally of Adam; For ma­ny is not here opposed to all, but to one, the original, from that one, many, even all are made sinners. Therefore it's a dangerous Exposition of Theodoret, as Six­tus Senensis relateth, which affirmeth, Not all, but some only to be infected with Adam's sinne, exempting Abel, Noah, and others from this pollution; For (1 Cor. 15.) the Apostle saith, In Adam all die; and in this Chapter at vers. 12. All have sinned in Adam; But the Effect, that is more dreadfull, and worthy of all meditation, We are made [...]. This is more then when all were said to sin in him, for this doth denote the habitual depravation of all the parts of the soul, as also a readiness to commit all actual sins. Therefore the word is sometimes applied to signifie great and hainous sinners, as Mary Magdalen is said to be ( [...]) a sinner. So then you see, that by Adams disobedience all are made sinners.

Whether we are Sinners by Natural Propaga­tion, or by Imitation.

THere remaineth one great Doubt, Whether we are so by Natural Propagation, because born of him, or by occasion only and imitation, because he sinned? We are not (say some) made sinners as soon as we are born, but when by free-will we come to consent to sinne and choose it. Thus Pelagians of old, and Socinians of late, with ma­ny others. Erasmus, though he saith, he holds Original sinne, yet useth all his strength to enervate the Orthodox Interpretation.

That Adam's Disobedience makes us Sinners by Propagation.

BUt there are cogent Reasons to understand it thus, That Adam's Disobedience makes us sinners by natural Propagation: As

First, Because the Apostle still chargeth our guilt and sinfulness upon Adam on­ly, upon that one man, and upon that one offence, whereas if it were by example and imitation only, it might be upon our parents and others, and upon their transgressi­ons: So that the Apostle might have said, By many men, and many disobediences, we are made sinners; but still he chargeth it on one man, and one offence.

Secondly, If Imitation be taken strictly, then a man must know, and have in his eye that which he doth imitate; but how many thousands are there, that runne into all excess of wickedness, and never heard of Adam, much less could not propound his sin for a patern to follow? So that even in the Pelagian sense, to be sinners by Imi­tation cannot be properly used in this Controversie.

Thirdly, If the Apostle understood sin only by Imitation, or occasion, not Propa­gation, then as Austin of old well urged; it might be more properly fastned upon the Devil, as the Original; for it was not by Adam, but the Devil that sin came into the world, in this sense, and so death by sinne; Hence the Devil is said to be a man­slayer from the beginning, Joh. 8. 44. or a murderer, and that both of souls and bodies; In somuch that the Devil was the occasion of all the wickedness, and death the consequent thereof: And hence our Saviour speaking of wicked men, Joh 8. saith, They are of their Father the Devil, and what they see him do, that they do. So that the Devil is made to be the original of sinne by imitation to wicked men, and not Adam.

Fourthly, Adams sinne must be made ours by natural Propagation, not Imita­tion, Because death is made the necessary consequent of it all that [...] have sinned Adam's sinne: But now death is propagated naturally; Hence Infant die, which yet according to the best Divines have not actual sinne, why [...] it that they die? yea they are not only subject to death, but to exquisite torments and pains; [Page 29] yea, Infants have been grievously possessed with the Devils, and tormented by them: Now this could not be, if they were not guilty of sia: If therefore death be by natural Propagation, then sinne the cause of it, must also be in that manner.

Fifthly, This comparison made between the first Adam communicating sin, and the second, communicating Righteousness, doth fully evince this: For we are made righteous by Christ, not only as if he were a patern, and example of Righteousness unto us, but by an hidden and secret infusion of holiness into our souls, whereby we are made new creatures, and said to be partakers of the Divine Nature: For where­as the Papists would argue, as they think, very strongly for our Justification by inherent Righteousness from the parallel made between Adam and Christ; As (say they) we are made sinners, not by imputation onely, but by inherency through Adam's disobedience; so we must be made righteous by Christ, not by imputation, but inherently. We retort the Argument, and say, Because Adam's sin is imputed tous, wherby we are made sinners, so Christs obedience is made ours, whereby we are constituted righte­ous: Yet we grant further, That by Christ we are made inherently righteous, though by that we are not justified; and this inward renovation comes not from Christ by example, but a powerfull and secret transformation of the whole man, so that as to partake of Adam's sinne, we must be born naturally of Adam; For if God should create some men in an extraordinary manner, not by natural descent from him, they would not have this natural contagion cleaving to them; so to partake of Christs Righteousness, it's necessary we must be new born by the Spirit of God. Thus you see many Reasons, compelling us to understand the manner how by Adam's dis­obedience we are made sinners, to be by natural Propagation: For, if this foun­dation be not laid sure, the whole fabrick will quickly fall to the ground. We come then to the Observation, which is,


THat all mankind by Adam's disobedience are truly and properly made sinners. The Text is so clear that we would wonder any should be so deluded, as to confront the Truth contained therein: Every one that is naturally born of Adam, is thereby, and in that respect made a sinner, though he should have no actual transgessions of his own: An Infant, that liveth not to be guilty of any actual evil, yet because Adam's seed, is thereby made a sinner, and so a child of Gods wrath. Certainly, the Apostle would not have been so large and industrious in affirming this Truth: But because of the evident necessity to know it, and the great utility that may come to us, if duly improving this knowledge. To be sure he layeth this as a foundation, to exalt and magnifie the grace of God by Christ: So that they who deny this original contagion, must needs rob Christ and his grace of the greatest part of that glory due to him.

Of the Souls inward filth and defilement by Adam's Sinne.


TO explain this profound and weighty Truth, consider that expressi­on in the Doctrine, That we are by Adam's disobedience, made tru­ly and properly sinners: For there are those that hold, we receive much hurt, Yea, some say, we are guilty by Adam's disobedi­ence, but not made truly and properly sinners, they deny there is any inward pollution upon the soul of man.

When I had proceeded farre in this Discourse of Original Sinne, there cometh out an English Writer (Dr J. Taylor Vnum Neces.) in a triumphing and scornfull style, like Julian of old, peremptorily opposing this Doctrine of inherent pol­lution by nature. He is not meerly Pelagian, Arminian, Papist, or Socinian, but an hotchpotch of all; So that as there were a Sect of Philosophers, as Laer­tius reports (Proem in fin) that was called [...], because they would chuse out some opinions from all the Sects that were: So doth this man most unhappily sometimes select what is most deformed in those several parties. With this Writer we shall encounter as often as we find him throwing earth into the pure springs. Although the word Sinner in some places, is as much as to be an offender, to be obnoxious to punishment; yet in this place we must understand more, as is to be shewed.

For there are three things we are subject to by Adam's disobedience:

First, There is a participation of the very actual transgression of Adam, that very sinne he committed, is imputed to us.

Secondly, There is the guilt of this sinne, whereby Adam was obnoxious to death, and eternal condemnation, this also we partake of.

Lastly, There was the deprivation of Gods Image, the loss of that upon A­dam's transgression, so that his soul, which was before full of light, and a glo­rious harmony, upon this disobedience, became like a chaos and confusion. And in this state we are born, not succeeding Adam in the Image of God, he once had, but in that horrible confusion, and darknesse he was plung­ed into.

These three things then, we partake of by Adam's disobedience; but that which is chiefly intended here, and which also my purpose is to treat of chiefly, is, That inward filth and defilement we are fallen into by Adam's sin.


1. THerefore, when it is said, That we are made sinners by Adam, this is not all, as if thereby we were put into a necessity of dying, or that death is now made a curse to us: For thus much the Socinians grant, That Adam's sinne did hurt us thus farre, That although death was natural to Adam even in the state of integrity, yet it was not made necessary nor penal, but upon Adam's disobedience, But

1. This is false, That death would have been natural to Adam, though he had not sinned, as is to be shewed. And

In the second place, Death as a curse, or as made necessary, is not all that we are obnoxious unto by Adam's sinne, for the Apostle makes that a distinct effect of his disobedience: for he sheweth, That by Adam's offence sinne did first pass over the whole world, and after sin, death; So that to be a sinner is more than to be obnoxious to death, for the Apostle distinguisheth these two.

Besides, why should death fall upon all mankind for Adams sin, if so be that that offence was not made every mans, and all had not sinned in him? Indeed Chrysostom of old expounds this [...] by [...], or [...], subject to punishment and death; as if to be sinners, were no more than to be mortal. Though Chrysostom in some places seemeth not to hold original sinne, yet in other places he is expresly for it.

This Interpretation of Chrysostoms is received by the English Author above-mentioned, with much approbation, as if to be a sinner, were to be handled, and dealt with as an offender; But the Apostle maketh sinne and death two distinct things, the one a consequent from the other, because we are sinners, we do be­come mortal. Besides, to be a sinner, is opposite to be righteous in the Text; If then, that signifie an inherent qualification, denominating truly righteous, this must also an inherent corruption, whereby we are truly made sinners: So that this Interpretation hath no probability. Yea from Chrystom himself on the place, we may have a Consutation of this Exposition: For (saith he) one to be made mortal by him of whom he is born, is not absurd, but by anothers disobe­dience to be made a sinner, What congruity is there in that? Now what justice is there that one should be made mortal by another mans sinne, unless he partake of his sinne? Yea, he saith, a little before, For one to be punished for another mans sinne, it hath no reason, and yet all along the Chapter affirmed, That by Adam's sinne we are all made subject to death. This is no good Harmony.


IN the second place, To be a sinner, is more than some others have likewise explained it, which say, It's to be obnoxious to the eternal wrath of God. This way go Piphius, Catharinus, and Sal [...]ero [...]s inclineth much that way, though in some things different. Yea, Arminius and the Remonstrants, they conceive, that to be a sinner by Adam's disobedience, implieth these two things, and no more: First, That Adam's actual sinne is truly and properly made ours, (and thus farre they say the truth.) But then secondly they affirm, That this is all the original sin we have. They grant, that by this there is a reatus, a guilt upon all, but not any thing inherent, that hath truly and properly the notion of sinne. They will there­fore yeeled, That we are by nature the children of wrath; But (say they) not for any inherent pollution, but because of Adam's sinne imputed to us. But though these two must necessarily be granted, viz. the imputation of Adam's sinne, and the participation of that guilt thereby, yet this is not all, that the Apostle mean­eth, [Page 32] when he saith, We are by his disobedience made sinners; for he intends be­sides this, the internal and natural depravation of the whole man, which now in ecclesiastical use, is for the most part called original sinne. And there are these Reasons to evince it:

First, That it's more than guilt, or an obnoxious condition to eternal wrath, because the Apostle having spoken of that [...] and [...], that judgement to condemnation, which cometh upon all, he doth in this verse declare the inward cause and demerit of this in our selves, and thereby declareth the justice of God: For, if we had no sinne in our selves inherent, but that only imputed, the ju­stice of God would not be so manifest in condemning of us. It is true, we must not separate or dis-joyn this inherent sinne from that imputed sinne, yet we must not confound them, or make imputed sinne all the sinne we have by nature. The Apostle therefore doth in this Text, give a reason of that condemnation, which hath passed on all, because there is sin inwardly adhering to all.

Secondly, To be a sinner is more than to be onely guilty, Because (as you heard) of the opposition made between the first Adam and Christ. Now the Righteousness that we are invested with by Christ, is truly and properly a Righ­teousness; It's not only a claim or title to eternal happiness, it is not only a free­dom from guilt, but an inherent conformity to the Law of God: So that as in and by Christ there is an imputed Righteousness, which is that properly that ju­stifieth, and as the effect of this, we have also an inherent Righteousness, which in Heaven will be completed and perfected: Thus by Adam we have imputed sin with the guilt of it, and inherent sin the effect of it.

Thirdly, If this should be granted, That we are only guilty by Adam's trans­gression, and not inherently sinfull, then it would follow, that we had free-will to what is good, that we are not dead in sinne, That the natural man might per­ceive the things of God; For by this opinion, Though we are made guilty by A­dam's transgression, yet not inherently sinfull. And thus while they avoid Pela­gianism in one sense, they are deeply plunged into it, in another sense. We must therefore necessarily conclude, That original sin is more than guilt, it denoteth also an inward contagion and defilement of soul.


IN the third place, Adam's sinne imputed to us, is not all our original sinne; for this is also affirmed by many, That Adam's actual transgression is made every mans sinne; So that there is but that one original sinne common to all, and every one that is born hath not a particular proper original sinne to himself. This opinion, they think, is only able to withstand those strong Objections, that are brought against the imputability of any thing inherent in us, as truly and proper­ly sinne, while we are Infants, and cannot put forth any acts of reason or will; Yea hereby they say, that intricate and perplexed discourse about the propaga­tion of original sinne, will be wholly needless; so that they conclude on this opi­nion, as labouring with the least inconveniencies and difficulties. Their Asserti­on is, That Adam's actual sinne is made ours by imputation, and that is all the ori­ginal sinne we have, an Infant new born having nothing in it, that is truly and pro­perly a sinne, it hath (they say) many things that have rationem poenae, but not culpae, a proneness to sinne, when it groweth up, is not a sinne, but a punishment; it is the effect of original sinne, not the sin it self.

Though this may seem specious and plausible, yet this will not satisfie the Scri­pture expressions, which, besides that original imputed sinne, doth plainly ac­knowledge an inherent one. And

First, When we have plain Texts that do assert any Divine Truth, we are in­inseparably [Page 33] to adhere to that, though the wit of man may raise up such subtil Ob­jections, that it may seem very difficult to answer them; Is not this seen in the Doctrine of the Trinity, of the eternal Deity of Christ, of the Resurrection of the Body, of Justification by Faith alone? In all, or most of these points here­tical heads have raised up such a soggy mist before our eyes, that sometimes it is hard to see the Sunne that should guide us: And thus it is confessed, That in maintaining of original inherent sinne, as truly and properly a sinne, there are some weighty difficulties, but yet not such as should preponderate or weigh down clear Scripture; And therefore Austin doth sometimes confess, That though he were not able to answer all the Objections could be brought against this original de­filement, yet we were to adhere to the clear places of Scripture. Hence it is that by Epistles he consulted with Hierom in this case, acknowledging the many straits he was intangled in.

In the second place, there are clear Texts of Scripture, affirming this inward pollution in all, and that as sinne; for the Apostle in this discourse of his doth distinguish sinne and punishment, yet both these, he saith, come by Adam's sinne: If then by sinne were meant only punishment, as some would have it, then the Apostle in saying, Death came by sinne, should mean, that God punish­ed punishments with punishments, for one punishment he should inflict another. Thus whereas the Adversaries make it absurd, that a sinne should be a punish­ment of a former sinne, they fall into a greater absurdity, making one punish­ment the punishment of another. Besides, that it is sinne inherent in us, and not only imputed, appears by David's acknowledgement, Psal. 51. In sinne! was I born, and in iniquity did my mother conceive me. But of this more in time. You see by what hath been said, That our original sinne is more than meer guilt, or Adam's actual sinne imputed to us, it denoteth withall an inherent contagion of the whole man. Therefore it is absurdly and falsly said by that late Writer, It may be called original guilt, rather than original sin.


IN the fourth place, there are those yet who draw a more narrow line in this mat­ter, than the former: For when this Question is put, Whether original inherent sin be truly and properly a sin? They then distinguish between Peccatum and Vitium; It is vitium (say they) but not peccatum, or when it is called peccatum, it is in a large sense, not strictly and properly; For with these, nothing is a sinne properly, but some action repugning to the word of God; and because original sinne can­not be an action, therefore (say they) it's not properly a sinne; In which sense they deny habits of sinne to be peccata, but only vitia. Though this be to play with words, seeing the same thing is intended; And although Austin abstaineth much from the word peccatum, as if that alwayes did suppose a reatus, yet that is a needless scrupulosity, men may use words as they please; Therefore Hierom thought, (Vide Whitak. de peccato orig. lib. 3. cap 6.) vitium was more than peccatum, contrary to Austins notion, when he said, Some man might be found without vice, but not without sinne. They say indeed a thing may repugn the Law of God three wayes; Either, Efficienter, so the Devils and wicked men do, yet they are not sinnes. 2. Materially, and thus the act of every sinne doth. 3. Formally, and so the obliquity in the act only doth; and this they make only truly and properly a sinne; But whether this will stand good or no, will be examined in the Objections; As also that Assertion of a learned man, (Molinaus, vide infra.) That original sinne is condemned by the Law, but not prohibited, it being absurd (as he thinks) to appoint a Law for one grown up, that he should have been born without sinne. It is true, in assigning the proper notion [Page 34] of sinne to it, hath some great difficulty; Neither doth it become us to be over­curious in this point above what is written, remembring that original sinne came in, by desiring too much knowledge. I shall therefore treat of it so farre, as it may tend to edification, not to satisfie curiosity. For when Austin was puzled with such doubts, he brings that known Apologie, (Epist. 29.) of one who fell into a deep pit, and being ready to be suffocated, he crieth out to one passing by, to help him out; The man asketh him, How he came in? Do not, saith he, stand disputing of that, but help me out. Thus (saith he) every man being fallen into this deep pit of original sinne, it's not for us to be curiously and te­diously inquiting how we came in, but speedily seek for the grace of God, to deliver us our.

That the inward Contagion which we have from Adam's Disobedience, is truly and properly a Sinne.

THerefore in the fifth place, This sinne whereby we are infected from Adam's disobedience, is truly and properly a sinne, we are truly and inherently made sinners by Adam. A man is not more properly and really made a sinner by any actual transgres­sions he doth commit, then he is by his original sinne he is born in: Insomuch that though an Infant knoweth not what he doth, nor is capable of acts of reason, when he is born, yet he is properly and formal­ly a sinner; and the discovery of this will make much for our humiliation, and Christs Exaltation.

Now that it is truly and properly a sin, appeareth by these Arguments:

Argum. 1. That the Scipture speaking of it, doth constantly call it so, and therefore we are not to recede from the proper interpretation, unless some weighty reasons compel [...]us. What a poor and weak thing is it to deny original sinne, to be imputable to us, or to have the proper essence of evil, because with Aristotle none are blamed for those things they have by nature, or are not in their own power; For it's plain, Aristotle understood nothing of this original pollution, and by his Philosophy, we must also quit many fundamental points in our Chri­stian saith. It is enough that the Scripture speaking of it, and that purposely doth call it sinne, as Psal. 51. this Chapter of Romans, and Chap. 7. often, It's the Law of sinne working in us: So that this want of Gods Image, and an inclination to evil, is not to be considered, as a meer punishment, or as a spiritual disease, and weakness upon nature, but no sinne at all; For it's as truly a sinne, as an actual sinne, yea, in some respects, it is a more grievous and hea­vy sinne than actual sinnes, (as is to be shewed;) For the cause hath more in it, than the effect. It is from this evil heart that all actual evils do flow.

[Page 35] Argum. 2. It's truly and properly a sin, Because thereby a man is made obnoxious to death, and eternal condemnation; The wages of sinne is death, and by nature we are children of wrath; If then for this inherent corruption, we die, we are sub­ject to miseries, to Gods wrath, and the curse of the Law, then it must neces­sarily follow, that this is truly and properly a sin.

Argum. 3. That which is made opposite to Righteousness, that is truly and properly sinne; For not punishment and Righteousnesse, but sinne and Righ­teousnesse are two immediate Contraries. Now it's plain, That this inhe­rent corruption makes us sinners, so that we need to be made righteous by Christ.

Argum. 4. The Apostle distinguisheth Adam's imputed sinne, and inherent sinne, as two sinnes, and so they have a two-fold distinct guilt, (as is to be shewed) though some think it hard to say so. Thus the Apostle, By one mans offence, sinne entred into the world: Therefore Adam's actual sinne, and that sinne which entred thereby, are two distinct sinnes, and differ as the cause and the effect. By imputed sinne, we are said to sinne in him actually, as it were, because his will, was our will, but by inherent sinne, we are made sinners by intrinsecal pollution.

Argum. 5. This original inherent sinne is truly and properly a sinne, Because it is to be mortified, to be crucified. We are to subdue the reign of it in our hearts, which could not be, if it were not properly a sin.

Argum. 6. It is a true and proper sinne, Because by this our persons are made unclean, so that naturally we cannot please God; We are corrupt fountains, we are bad trees, and all this before we commit any actual sin.

Argum. 7. If Adam had stood, that which would have been communicated to his posterity, would have been truly and properly holiness. An Infant new born would have been called righteous in a proper sense; Therefore are we now born sinfull in a true and proper respect.

Argum. 8. This is a sinne properly, Because it is against the Law of God. We want that perfection which we ought to have; we are bound not only to actual obedience, but to do this from an holy and unspotted principle within: There­fore it is truly said, Original sinne is in some sense forbidden in every Command­ment, and original Righteousness is commanded in all, but because this is so much vexed by Objections, we are to speak more to it in answer to them.

We have brought in several Arguments to prove original sinne to be a sinne properly and truly so, and this was the rather to be done, because of some Pa­pists, but especially Socinians and Arminians, with the Pelagians of old, de­nying it to be so. But from Scripture it is clear, that it is as true a sinne, as actual, and therefore that division of sinne into original and actual, is of an univocal genus into its species, both the members of that division partaking in a proper manner of the nature of sinne. It being therefore the foundation of this point, and all our fabrick, which in times shall be raised, being bottomed of this, we shall ex abundanti, offer two or three Arguments more, to prove that it is a sinne, not in a large, or a metonymical lense, but rigidly and properly: And the first in order is,

Argum 9. From the necessity of Infants in respect of a Saviour; Those In­fants that die in their Infancy, and go to heaven, cannot obtain this glorious bene­fit, but by Christ: If therefore Christ be a Saviour to some Infants then they are lost and undone in themselves: But not for any actual sinnes: Therefore for origi­nal. This fully demonstrates every Infant, though but a day, but an hour old, to be truly a sinner, Why? Because even they need Christ a Saviour; if they had no sinne, they needed not a Jesus; And this must necessarily be confessed, That either Infants cannot be saved, and are not to be accounted of the people [Page 36] of God, and of his Church; or if they be, that they have sinne from which they are to be cleansed and saved. The former is rarely asserted, and therefore the later must be granted: And indeed when the Scripture saith, Matth. 1. 21. Christ is called Jesus, Because he shall save his people from their sinnes: As also Ephes. 5. 25, 26. Christ is said, to give himself for his Church, that he may cleanse it, so as to be without spot or wrinkle; Either we must say, Infants are none of Christs people, they belong not at all to his Church, or if they do, they have true and proper sinne in them, which the Scripture cals uncleanness; and it is evidently applied to Infants in that sense, Job. 14. 4. Job. 15. 14. who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? And who is is born of a woman, that he should be righteous? Where to be unclean is made directly opposite to be righteous. Therefore when the Pelagians of old would evade this Argument, saying, In­fants needed a Christ to bring them to the Kingdom of Heaven, though they had no sinne. Austin well urged, That they divided those two names of our Saviour, Christ and Jesus, making him a Christ, where he was not a Jesus: Certainly to be a Sa­viour of Infants implieth, in themselves they are lest.

Argum. 10. Hence in the next place, The initial Sacrament which God hath appointed alwayes in his Church for Infants doth fully demonstrate, they have sinne in a proper formal sense, viz. Sinne to be remitted, and to be abolished. In the Old Testament, every Infant eight dayes old was to be circumcised, and that Sa­crament did plainly declare the sinne and corruption that was in them, though so young, for Rom. 4. Circumcision was a Seal of the Righteousness by Faith, which is a Gospel-righteousness by Christ, whereas if they had no sinne within, such a Seal would have been ridiculous and absurd; As for Christ, who though he had no sinne, yet was circumcised and baptized, that was upon another account, for having voluntarily made himself subject to the Law, it beloved him to fulfill all the Righteousness thereof, but Infants have not that consideration; If then Infants needed a righteousness through faith, this plainly demonstrated they had nothing but sinne in themselves. besides, The cutting of the fore skin in the Sacrament of Circumcision, did denote the throwing away of that inhe­rent pollution of their Natures, Deut. 10. 16. Therefore Deut. 30. 6. God promiseth to circumcise their heart, which was to regenerate them, of which Circumcision was a sign. Hence Rom. 2. 28, 29. the Apostle distinguisheth of a Circumcision of the flesh, and a Circumcision of the spirit; If then Infants needed a Circumcision of the Spirit; If they needed that the sinfull fore-skin of their heart should be cut off, of which their external Circumcision applied to them, was a Seal, it followeth unquestionably, that they had an universal pollution all over them, before they had committed any actual sinne. Thus also for Baptism, an initiating Sacrament in the New Testament, that is to be applied to Infants; For though Anabaptists do now deny it, yet the Pelagians of old, (though so exceedingly pressed by this Argument, That Infants were baptized for Remission of sinne, but it could not be actual, therefore it was original, which was in them.) They never dared to deny their Baptism, but ranne to other evasions. I take it for a Truth at this time, because so fully proved by those who have writ on this Subject, That Infants are to be baptized; and if so, it's also plain by Scripture, That Baptism in the nature of it, signifieth Remission of sinnes and Regenera­tion, which priviledges, if Infants want, they must necessarily have that which is truly and properly a sin.

Argum. 11. Lastly, Every Infant new born comes into the world with that, which is truly and formally a sinne, Because the Scripture makes it the peculiar Character and property of Christ, that he was wholly without sinne. Therefore the Angel in his discourse to Mary cals him the [...], that holy thing which shall be born of thee, Luke 1. 35. And the Apostle telleth us, It behoved us to have such an High priest, who was tempted like us in all things, sin only excepted, [Page 37] Heb. 4. 15. These places do clear, that Christ only was born without sinne, and all others are polluted with it: And the reason why Christ is exempted, is, be­cause he was not of Adam, Quoad seminalem rationem, but corpulatam sub­stantiam, as the Schoolmen say, He was not the sonne of Adam by natural ge­neration, but by a miraculous conception. It is true, The Evangelist Luke rec­koning up Christs Genealogy, ascends up to Adam, as if he were the sonne of Adam, but that is because he was the supposed sonne of Joseph his father, he was accounted his legal father, though he was not his natural.

The Arminians think they only have found out the true reason, why Christ contracted not original sinne from Adam, nor was not in his loins; For (say they) Christ was not is Adam, as a common parent, and so sinned not in him, because he did not come of a woman, by that first command, Increase and multiply, but by a new and singular promise which God made to Adam after his fall, viz. That the seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent. But though it be grant­ed, That Christ was born of a woman by a singular promise, yet that alone with­out the miraculous operation of the holy Ghost, would not have cleansed the humane Nature of Christ from sinne, especially if that be true, which some learned men say, That the Virgin Mary did, in some measure, concurre actively to the body of Christ, and therefore Christ is called, The fruit of her womb, and is said to be of the seed of David, 2 Tim. 2. 8. So that being the Virgin Mary her self was unclean, till the holy Ghost over-shadowed her, none could bring that which was clean out of her, but God in a miraculous and extraordinary manner sanctifying that mass, of which Christs body was made. Besides, we read of Isaac, that he was born by the virtue of a singular promise, Sa­rah's womb being as good as dead, yet for all that he was not free from original sinne; Therefore the holinesse of Christs humane nature, and that in the very conception must be attributed to the wonderfull operation of the holy Ghost; If then this was peculiar to Christ alone, It followeth ne­cessarily, That all those who in a natural manner descend from Adam come in­to the world unclean, and infected with this pollution.

Thus we have laid sure and firm foundations to maintain this Truth, That ori­ginal sinne is truly and formally a sinne deserving eternal condemnation, as well as actual sinne.

Objections Answered.


I Am only demonstrating, that it is sin, and not what it is; There­fore I proceed no further in the positive Explication of it, but come to answer those Objections, that are made by all sorts of persons against this sinne, whether Pelagians, some Pa­pists, Arminians or Socinians; And when these Clouds are dispelled, the light of the Truth will shine more evident­ly. And

First, That which is a famous and obvious Objection, owned by all the Ad­versaries to this Doctrine, is, The necessariness and involuntariness of it.

Object. Every sinne (say they) must be voluntary; This is a principle in­graffed, as they conceive, in the conscience of a man: No man is to be faulted, or blamed for that which is not in his power to prevent; And they press that known Rule of Austins, Vsque adeo voluntarium peccatum est malum, quod non sit peccatum, nisi voluntarium, If it be not voluntary, it cannot be any sinne at all. Now (say they) this original sinne comes upon us by natural necessity, it lieth no more in our power to prevent it, then to hinder our being born; Shall then we conceive God willing to damn a man, especially an Infant, for that sinne which ne­ver was in his power, or his will to do? This they think cannot be admitted. Therefore though some of them grant, Adam's actual sinne may be made ours, be­cause our will is interpretatively in his, yet not this inherent corruption, because this is a particular personal sinne, and so requireth a personal actual will to make it a sinne. And this seemeth to have some plausible colour, while we attend only to principles of humane Reason, and Arguments of Philosophy: But let us see, whether it will not be too light, if weighed in the balance of the Sanctua­ry. And

Answ. 1. We must understand in what sense any sinne at all can be called vo­luntary, and that is, not as if any man could will sinne, no not he that sinneth maliciously, as it is sin. This is granted by all moral Philosophers, That no man willeth sin, as it is sin, because bonum, either real or appearing so, is the adequate object of the will: As in the understanding, that cannot assent to any thing that is apparently false; so neither doth the will choose any thing that is manifested to be evil, as evil, but when it imbraceth any sine, there is some deceivable good or other, which deceiveth the soul. Thus Adam when he transgressed the com­mand of God, he did not will this as a sinne, nor did he positively intend the damnation of his posterity (For we suppose that he knew himself to be a com­mon Parent, and that he received a common stock for all mankind) But he willed that action, to which sinne was annexed; And thus no wicked man, when he sinneth, doth will the damnation of his soul formally, but [Page 39] consequentially by willing that to which this guilt doth belong.

Secondly, Although it be granted, That every sinne must be voluntary, yet (as Austin of old answered) this sinne may be called voluntary, as it is in In­fants, because their will is interpretatively in Adam, and we therefore are all said to sinne in him: Adam's will may be said to be our will two wayes:

1. By way of delegation, as if we had chosen him to be our common parent, and had translated our wils over to him, as amongst men, it is usual in arbitrati­ons, and then they are said to will, that which their Arbitrator hath done, though it may be they dislike it, and in this sense, Adam's will is not our will, for we had no actual being or existence in him. Hence

2. Adam's will may be said to be ours interpretatively, God appointing him to be the universal principle of mankind; what he did is interpreted, as if we had done it, and the equity of making Adam's will ours, ariseth from the institu­ting will and Covenant of God, that would have it so: But more especially, be­cause God then dealt with Adam in a Covenant of works, which if broken and violated, carrieth condemnation to all his off-spring, as appeareth by the curses threatned in the Law. This original sinne then is voluntary, because committed by Adam's will, which by Gods imputation is made ours; so that as in Adam upon his actual disobedience, the Image of God was lost, and in stead thereof came an universal pollution of his whole man; which was in him truly and properly a sinne; So it is in every Infant descended from him.

Thirdly, If it be granted, That every sinne must be voluntary, yet this also will hold good in Infants sinne; for a thing may be said to be voluntarium in causa, but involuntarium in se. With moral Philosophers, all habits of sinne are involuntary in themselves, but voluntary in their cause; those actions that did produce them; And thus is original sin inherent in mankind, it is voluntary in its cause, which was Adam's sin.

Fourthly, Austin himself, who urgeth voluntariness in sinne, yet afterwards considering how the Pelagians made use of it, he answereth, That this is to be understood of actual sinne, not original sinne; Every actual sinne must be volun­tary, it's not necessary original sinne should be personally and formally so: A­gain, he limits that Rule to such sins as are meerly sins, not punishments also, but original sin is both a sin and punishment.

Lastly, He grants this to be true amongst the Laws of men, and therefore cals it politica sententia; And no wonder if Philosophers required a formal will in every sin, else not to make it imputable, because they were wholly ignorant of this Truth.

But in the last place, our Divines do deny that voluntariness is requisite to every actual sinne; for there are sinnes of ignorance for which Sacrifices were to be offered; And David prayeth to be cleansed from secret sins, which he did not know, and if so, they must be involuntary; yea, Paul expresly cals that a sin, Rom. 7. which yet was against his will, although it may be granted, that even in these there is some kind of voluntarines; For a thing may be voluntary either in its cause, or in it self, or absolutely involuntary, but comparatively voluntary, as when we do things for fear, or there may be a mixture of voluntarines and involuntarines, which Paul seemeth to acknowledge in himself, yet still the proper notion of a sinne lieth in the contrariety of it to the Law of God: Therefore John defineth sinne by that, whether it be voluntary or not, he doth not take notice of. This is ac­knowledged by some Scholastical Writers, especially Holkot (De imputabilitate peccati) answereth this Objection fully to our purpose, where he positively af­firmeth, That sinne is not therefore imputable unto us, because it was in the power of the will, but as righteousness is therefore praise-worthy, because it is righteous­ness, so unrighteousness is therefore culpable, and damnable, because it is unrigh­teousness [Page 40] (that is, if I may interpret him) because it's against a Law. Hence he proceedeth to shew, That a thing is not righteous or vnrighteous meerly because it was in the power of the will, for the will of a child would have been made righteous by God, sine proprie motu, without any proper motion of the childs will; And then why may it not as well be sinfull without any such voluntary motion in an Infant? So that he concludeth, It's as proper to original sinne to be naturally contracte [...] or derived from another, without any proper act of the will, as it is to an actual sinne, to have the will one way or other consenting to it: Even as in the state of integrity, original righteousness in Infants would have been propagated, but actuall Righte­ousness voluntarily performed. And these things may satisfie this first Objection, yet hereafter we shall speak more to this.


THe second Objection is in effect to this sense, What is a punishment cannot be a sinne: But the deprivation of Gods Image in man upon Adam's disobedience is a punishment; And therefore it cannot be a sinne. Original sinne, if not totally, yet principally consists in the losse of that original Righteousnesse and rectitude, which God made man in: Seeing therefore the privation of this came upon man by way of punishment, when Adam transgressed; We cannot conceive it (say they) to be a sinne also, for a punishment and a sinne, are wholly contradictory; a sinne must be voluntary, a punishment involuntary, a sinne is an action, and a punish­ment is a passion; a sinne is an evil, and God cannot be the author of it; a punish­ment is good, and an act of Justice; so that God cannot be said to permit that, but to inflict it.

This Argument (at the first view) hath likewise some colour, but upon the examination of it, it will quickly vanish: I shall not answer in a large dispute about that famous Question, Whether the same thing may be a sin and a punish­ment? Or, whether God doth punish one sin with another, but shall speak as much, briefly, as is convenient for this Objection. And

First, You must know that Arminius began to dislike this Doctrine of original sinne (Respons. ad Artic. 31.) which was mentioned in their publique Cate­chism, upon this very reason, because it was a punishment; and he gave this Reason to the Minister then conferring with him, ‘Because if God did punish Adam's sinne with this sinne, then he must punish this with another, and that other with another, and so there must be a processus in infinitum. But his followers the Remonstrants (in their Apology for their Confession contra Censuram) seem to disclaim this opinion, ‘That our original corruption is either malum culpae, or poenae, properly so called, Because where there is an evil of punish­ment, it must be for some sinne: But Infants have committed no voluntary sinne, and therefore could not deserve such a punishment.’ So that they pro­fess themselves to be of Zuinglius his mind, whether he retracted it, or not after­wards they are not certain, viz. That it is a morbus, a vitium, a languor, an imbecillity of nature, but neither the evil of sinne or punishment. Some Papists as Pighius, Catharinus, Mayro, and some Scotists hold, ‘That native pollution to be no sinne, because it's a punishment, and that for Adam's sinne imputed to all, concluding on this, That it cannot be a sinne, because it's a pu­nishment. The Socinians they say, The necessity of dying with other punish­ments, is the punishment of Adam's sinne; and therefore that repugnancy and contrariety which is between the flesh and the Spirit, is from our very Creation; The sensitive appetite rebels against the rational, from the very first Creation of man, and would have been whether Adam had sinned or no; yea, it was from this vehement opposition of the appetite to reason, that he did sin.’

[Page 41] I shall consider the strength of their Objection, as it lieth in this, The same thing cannot be a sin and a punishment too. The Remonstrants affirm this, and Papists likewise, but with some explication. And

1. It is confessed, That there are some punishments of sinne, which are not sinne, as when God for Adam's disobedience hath made man obnoxious to mise­ries, to sickness and death; These are not sinnes; It comes from sinne to have pain, and to die, but they are not sinnes; and the Reason is, Because these are malum naturale, not morale, they are a natural evil, not a moral.

In the second place, Austin saith, and he saith it truly from Scripture, ‘That original inherent sinne, which he calleth concupiscence, is both a sinne, a pu­nishment of sinne, and a cause of sin; Even as blindness of mind, or hardness of heart, is both a sinne, a punishment, and a cause of further sinne, (Lib. 5. contra Juhan. cap. 3.) That it is a sinne appeareth by the many Texts already brought: And Austin's Reason in that place is very cogent, Quia inest illi ino­bedientia contra dominatum mentis; There is in it a disobedience against the domi­nion of mind and spirit, therefore the Spirit lusteth against it. That it is a pu­nishment is manifest by the event, for upon Adam's disobedience he lost Gods Image, and so hath blindness in mind, perversness in his will, and a disorder over the whole man, in which dreadfull and horrible estate we all succeed him: and this the Text in hand speaketh to. That it is the cause of sinne is manifest, Gen. 6. 5. for from that corrupt heart of man, it is, That the imaginations of a mans heart are only evil, and that continually. This is a furnace red hot, which alwayes sends forth those sparks. Thus you see that original sinne is all these three, a sin, a punishment, and a cause of sin.

3. It is very clear and plain by Scripture, that God doth punish one sinne by another; So that when a man hath committed one sinne, he is justly given up by God to commit more. Amongst the many instances that may be given, I shall pitch on two only, 2 Thess. 2. 10, 11. where you have a sinne mentioned that God will punish, viz. They received not the truth of God in love: A sinne that is very ordinary: But then observe how dreadfully God punisheth this, God shall send them strong delusions, that they should believe a lie; This is their punishment; a spiritual punishment, more than any corporal one; and that this is a sinne, as well as a punishment, is plain, Because to believe a lie is a sinne, to take falshood for truth, the delusions of the Devil, for the voice of Gods Spirit; This is a sinne and a very hainous one. The other instance is Rom. 1. 21. where you have the Heathens sinnes mentioned, Because that when they knew God, they glorified him not. &c. There you have their punishment, to be given up to uncleanness, to all vile lusts and sins against nature. None can deny but these were sinnes, and that they were a punishment for corrupting their natural light implanted in them, is plain, for the Apostle, vers. 24, 26, 28. saith, For this cause, or therefore God gave them up to these lusts, and vers 27. the expression is observable, That they received in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. Hearken to this with both ears, and tremble all you who live under Gospel light, if natural light corrupted bring such heavy soul-judgments, no wonder, if supernatural; And therefore if you see men, notwithstanding all the preaching of Gods word, yet given up to be beastly sots, or obstinate malicious men in their wickedness; Wonder not at it, for they receive in themselves a just recompence for the abu­sing of that light God hath vouchsafed to them. Many other instances there are, wherein it is plain, That God makes one sinne a punishment of another; Yea, it's said, That every sinne since the first, is both a sinne and a punishment; There­fore the want of Gods Imagine us, as soon as we are born, with a proneness to all evil may be the punishment of Adam's actual disobedience, and yet a sinne in us.

4. As for the distinction assigned between sinne and punishment, the one vo­luntary, [Page 42] and an action, the other involuntary and a passion. Though there be learned men, both Papists and Protestants, viz. Vasquez and Twisse, who dis­prove this by instances, yet (if it be granted) it will not hinder or enervate our Position, That original inherent sinne is both a sinne, and a punishment also; For when the learned say, ‘That sinne may be a punishment of a sinne, they do not mean sin, quâ sinne, peccatum, quâ peccatum, for that is, wholly of man, but peccatum quâ poena, as a judgment it is of God.’

To understand this therefore, take notice, That in sinne there is the Obliquity, and the Action to which this Obliquity is annexed; Now sinne in the Obliquity of it, so it is not a punishment, but in the action or materiale of it, to which it doth adhere: As for instance, Those vile and unclean lusts the Heathens were given up unto, were a punishment of their rebellion unto the light; Now as they were sinnes in their formality, so they were onely permissivè and ordina­tivè of God; but take the Actions substracted to that Obliquity, which was in them, so they were efficienter of God, and he gave them up to their lusts.

2. When God doth punish one sinne with another, the meaning is not, as if he did infuse this wickedness, but only he denieth that mollifying and softning grace, which if a man had, he would resist the temptations of sinne, as in this particular of original sinne; You must not conceive of God, in the Creation of the soul, as if a man were pouring poison in a vessel, so he did put sinne into our natures, but he denieth to give and continue that Righteousness Adam had, and then our souls do necessarily receive the clean contrary, darkness for light, Atheism for faith, disorder for order: Even as if God should withdraw the Sunne at noon-day, continue the light thereof no longer to us, it would upon that sub­duction be immediately dark, there needed no other cause to introduce it: Thus it is here upon Adam's fall, God denying to continue his Image, and ori­ginal righteousness in us, original sinne without any other positive cause cometh in the stead thereof; and therefore we are not, as Austin of old well observed, to seek after the causa efficiens, but deficiens peccati, sin hath no efficient, but defi­cient cause.

Therefore thirdly, In this original sinne we may consider that which is pecca­tum, and so it's evil, and that which is poena, and so it's good; For as you look­on it, being the deprivation of that rectitude which ought to be in a man, so it is a sinne; but as you consider it to be the denying of that holiness on Gods part, which once we had, so it's poena, or rather punitio; The denying of this Image o [...] God at first was punitio, but this loss continued is poena; so that the want and loss of that righteousness which once we enjoyed, if considered on Gods part, who continueth his denial of it, is a just punishment, and a good thing ordained by God; but if you consider it as inherent in man, who hath deserved this at Gods hand, so it's an evil, and properly a sin in him.

4. The same thing may be a sinne and a punishment also, in divers respects, As it may be a sinne in respect of a sinner, but a punishment in respect of others. Thus Absolom's sinne was a sinne in respect of himself, but a punishment in re­spect of David; So Parents sinnes may be sinnes in respect of themselves, but punishments in respect of their children; and we are especially to take heed of such sinnes, as are not our sinnes onely, but others punishments, such are passions and unmortified anger, this is a sinne to thee, and a punishment to others.

5. Every sinne is a punishment, in this respect, That it brings anxiety, ter­ror, and fear with it, a guilt of conscience is contracted upon every sinne. Thus some expound that known saying of Austin, Jussisti Domine, & sic est, ut omnis animus inordinatus sit sibi ipsi poena; O Lord, thou hast so commanded, and thus it is, that a soul immoderate any way, should be a punishment to it self. Thus, [Page 43] as the moral Philosophers say, Virtus est sibiipsi praemium, so peccatum est sibiipsi poena, Virtue is a reward to it self, because it brings sweetness and comfort of conscience, so a sinne is a punishment to it self, because it brings terror and fear with it.

Lastly, The same thing may be both a sinne and a punishment, both poena dam­ni, and poena sensus, a punishment of loss, and so every sinne, in that it is a sin, depriveth the soul of that spiritual good and glory which it ought to have, and so is a kind of disease or death it self; and then in some sins they are a punishment of sense, as in envy and anger. Thus when Ahitophel and Judas hanged them­selves, their self-murder was both a sinne and a punishment of loss, and sense also.


IN the third place it is objected, Object. If original inherent sinne be made a distinct sin from Adam's imputed sinne, we do needlesly make two guilts, and so multiply sins without necessity, for all the guilt that is in Adam's sinne imputed, the cor­ruption of Nature which floweth immediately from it, doth not make a new sin, but makes the former more hainous: As if (say they) a man should by some sin lose his eyes, that act whereby he put out his eyes was a sinne, but then it's not a new distinct sin in him, to be without eyes: Or if a Commander, who had a Castle to keep, upon which depended the good of a Town adjacent, if he prove persidious, and give it up to the enemy, his perfidious act at first is all the sinne, if the Town adjacent have much misery thereby, it is an aggravation of his sin, but it doth not make him guilty of two sins.

This hath made some think,Answ. That our original pollution, as distinct from Adam's sinne imputed, is not a sinne; and that whensoever the Fathers call it a sinne, they understand it, as connexed with Adam's sinne. Thus the learned Vossius in his Pelagian History. But the truth no doubt is on their side, who hold a twofold distinct guilt, That Adams sinne imputed to us, and that inherent are two distinct sins, though one doth necessarily imply an order to another, and the later is alwayes to be looked upon, as a relative to the former. Neither doth that similitude of a man wilfully putting his eyes out, make to this purpose: For when a man hath lost his eyes, there is a natural impotency ever to have them again; Neither is there any obligation, or Law binding him thereunto: But besides the guilt of imputed sinne, we are bound to have that inherent re­ctitude we once lost, and therefore being defective in that we ought to have, it's truly a sinne. The loss of a mans eyes is malum naturale, this is morale; And thus Aristotle determined that a drunken man, who committed any sin worthy of punishment, was to be twice punished both for his drunkenness, and the other sinne committed. Thus Rivet also in the matter of Lot's Incest, which he com­mitted while he was so drunk, that he could not tell what he did, inclineth to their opinion, who say, ‘That Lot's Incest was not only a punishment of his drunkenness, and so an aggravation of his sinne, but truly and properly In­cest; so that he had two sins, and was twice guilty.’ Some learned men do de­termine, ‘That if a man commit such a sin, upon which other sins do usually follow, though while they do them, they cannot avoid them, not knowing what they do, yet those subsequent sins are to be charged upon them, besides the first that was the cause of all; as murder is to be charged, as a distinct sin up­on a drunkard, though happily in his drunkenness he knew not that he commit­ted such a sin.’


ARe we all guilty of sinne as soon as we are born? This should teach us Hu­miliation and Patience under the death or miseries of our Infants; we are ready to say, Why are such poor Innocents exposed to such calamities? The knowledge of original sinne will stop thy mouth herein. When Titus the Em­perour was dying, who for his good and sweet Government was called Deliciae generis humani, he quarrelled with the gods, because he thought they did eripere vitam immerenti, he deserved not to die, he thought death was a wrong to him; but had he understood original sinne, he would have seen his desert of it, though he had never committed any actual impiety. Pliny likewise if he had known this, would not have uttered that foolish complaint, That homo was animal infaeliciter natum, which did cum suppliciis vitam auspicari, unam tantum ob culpam, quia natum est, that did begin his life with miseries, and punish us for this fault only because he was born; No, The Scripture would have informed him, it was, because he was born in sinne. This is the rise and spring of all mans calamity.


I Shall at this time conclude this famous and noble Text, wherein we have the Doctrine of original sinne so evidently asserted, notwithstanding all the fogs and mists that some have indeavoured to bring upon it. The remaining work is to dissolve some further Objections, that are laid in the way as stumbling­blocks, which, when removed, we shall proceed to the practical improve­ment of it.

In the next place therefore, Object. this is thought a powerfull weapon against this Truth, viz. It cannot be truly and properly a sinne, because it is not against any Law. The Apostle makes contrariety to the Law, to be of the essence of sinne: If therefore Infants new-born, or before they are born, are not under a Law, then they are not capable of any sinne; and truly it hath a seeming absurdity to say, Infants are commanded by Gods Law, to be born without sinne, seeing that is no more in their power than to be born. This consideration did press that learned Divine Molinaus (Enodatio graviss. Quaest. de peccato origin. pag. 130.) to acknowledge, That no such Law was upon Infants, and therefore he saith, That the Law doth condemn original sinne, but not prohibit it. But this seemeth very strange, For how can the Law condemn a thing, but because it is against it? And how can it be against it, but because it doth prohibit? If therefore the meaning of that learned man be, that original sinne is not immediately and proximely forbidden, that is readily granted, for so only actual sins are, but mediately and remotely, both the habits of sinne, and original, must necessarily be prohibited, if they be condemned. The learned Vossius also affirmeth, That original sinne is not forbidden by the moral Law, though he con­fesseth it is by the natural Law, which was at first in the Creation of man, but that primordial and original Law is the same for substance with the moral, though differ­ing in some respects.

To the Argument therefore we say,

First,Answ. That as this original sinne is voluntary, voluntate causae, which was Adam's will, so it is also against a Law which was enjoyned Adam; For although Adam had not a Law upon him in respect of the beginning or original of the righ­teousness he had, he being created in that, and so was not capable of any Law, yet in respect of the preservation and continuation of this for himself and his posterity, so he had a Law imposed on him, and therefore violating of that Law, [Page 45] we in him also did violate it: You see then this original sin is a transgression of that Law which Adam was under, viz. the continuation of the righteousness he was created in, both for himself and his posterity.

Secondly, Even by the moral Law, or the Decalogue, this original corrup­tion is forbidden. The Apostle Rom. 7. sheweth, That he had not known lust to be a sinne, had not the Law said, Theu shalt not lust: So that as the Law forbiddeth actual lusting, thus it doth also the principle and root of it; for the Law is spiri­tual and in its obligation reacheth to the fountain, and root of all sin, it doth not only prohibit the sinfull motions of thy soul, but the cause of all these: Even as when it commands any holy duty, to love God; for instance, it re­quireth that inward sanctification of the whole man, whereby he is inabled to love God upon right and induring grounds, otherwise if this were not so, the habits of sinne would not be against Gods Law, nor the habits of Grace required by it, as therefore it was with Adam his actual transgression, was directly and immediately forbidden by the Law of God; but that habital depravation of the whole man, which came thereupon, was forbidden remotely and by consequence: Thus it is with that native contagion we are born in, and this should teach us in every sin we commit, to think the Law doth not forbid and condemn this actual sin only, but the very inward principle of it; say to thy self, Alas I should not only be without such vain thoughts, such vain affe­ctions, but without an inclination thereunto; Therefore mark the Apostle rea­soning, Ephes. 4. 22, 24, 25. When he had exhorted them to put off the old man, that is original sinne, and to put on the new man, which is the Image of God, im­mediately opposing that; See what he inferreth thereupon, Wherefore put away lying, they must leave that actual sinne, because they have in measure subdued original sinne. Thus it holds in all other sins, put away pride, earthliness, pro­phaneness, because the old man is first put away in some degrees, But oh how little do men attend to this? They think of their actual sins, they say, This, I have done, is against Gods Law, but go no deeper, they do not further consider, but God forbids and layeth his axe to the root, as well as the branches & the fruit.

Thirdly, A sinne doth not therefore cease to be a sin, because the Law doth not now forbid it, it was enough, if it were once forbidden, and contrary to Gods Law, otherwise we might say, That all sins which are past, are no sins; for the Law doth not require, that what hath been done, should be undone again, or not to be done, for that is impossible ex natura rei; If therefore ever original sinne hath been under a Law prohibitive of it, that is enough to make it a sin, though now it cannot be helped. Hence Almain the Schoolman hath a distin­ction of Debitum praecepti, and Debitum statuti (which other Schoolmen also mention) now they apply it thus, ‘To be born without sin, is not (say they) Debitum praecepti, it doth not become due by any precept or command, but it is Debitum statuti, that is, God had first appointed such an order, that who­soever should come of Adam, should be born in that righteousness, which A­dam was created in, and was to preserve for himself and his posterity; so that though there be no direct Praeceptum divinum, yet (they say) there is Ordi­natio divina, that we should have been born without sinne.’ Although we need not runne to this, because it is now against the moral Law of God, as you heard proved.


ANother Objection is from the Justice, Object. Equity and Righteousness of God, as also his Mercy and Goodness; How can it be thought consonant to any of these attributes, that we should be involved in guilt and sinne, because of anothers [Page 46] especially they urge that Ezek. 18. 18, 19. where God saith, The child shall not bear the sins of his father, and the Lord doth it to stop their prophane ca [...]il against his wayes, as if they were not equal, because the fathers did eat sour grapes, and the childrens teeth were set on edge. The Remonstrants are so confident, that in their Apology, cap. 7. they say, Neither Scripture, nor Gods Truth, nor his Justice, nor his Mercy and Equity, nor the Nature of sinne will permit this.

To answer this:Answ. First, It is not my purpose at this time to enter into that great Debate, Whether the sins of parents are punished in their children? And it so, How it stands with the Justice of God? It is plain, That in the second Command­ment it is said, That God being a jealous God, because of Idolatry, he will visit the sins of such persons, to the third and fourth generation. The same likewise is attri­buted unto God, Exod. 34. 7. when his glorious Properties are described, expe­rience also in the destruction of Sedom and Gomorrah, as also in the drowning of the world, doth abundantly testifie this; For no doubt there was in those places, as God said of Ninevch, many little ones, that did not know the right hand from the left, and so could not have any consent to the actual iniquities of their Parents. To reconcile therefore that place of Ezek. 18. where God saith, The child shall not bear the iniquity of his Father, with those former places, hath ex­ercised the thoughts of the most learned men variously, endeavouring to unty that knot. Though I find some of late, understanding that of Ezekiel, only for that particular occasion, as it did concern the Jews, in their particular judgment of Captivity, who complained that for their fathers iniquities they were transport­ed into a strange Land; So that they think it not to be extended universally, but limited to that people only, and at that time, and that alone to that Land of Is­rael, because they were driven from their own Countrey: But whether this In­terpretation will abide firm or no, it is certain that the Text doth not militate against our cause in hand. For

1. As hath been shewed, There is not the same reason of parents, since Adam's fall, as of Adam; for he was a common person, and therefore Christ and he are compared as the two fountains, and universal principles of all; For which rea­sons also it is that the Apostle doth here call him [...], The Type of him that was to come: Insomuch that we may easily see, why there is a difference between Adam and other parents; So that although the child dieth not for his parents sins, yet he doth, and most for Adams. Learned men use to illustrate our being in Adam, and sinning in him, (for which our punishment is just and due) by that of the Apostle, Heb 7. 9, 10 where Levi is said, to pay Tyths to Mel­chizedech long before he was born, because he was in Abrakams l [...]ins: And although it may be granted, that there is some disproportion, Abraham not being such a common parent to Levi, as Adam was to all mankind; yet Sceinus his exception is very frivolous. The Apostle saith, he useth that diminutive phrase, [...], as I may so say, which doth demonstrate, that it was not a proper saying. To this we answer, That if you do regard Levies actual paying of Tyths, as it he had an actual existence, then there was some impropriety, which made the Apostle use that phrase, but not in regard of the truth of his paying in a moral consideration. Thus when we say, All sinned in Adam, we may well use that phrase, and speak thus, As we may so say, we did all actually will Adam's sinne, we did all actually transgress that Commandment; Thus it is a diminutive expression in relation to our actual existence, but not to our sinne; For by Gods Covenant we were looked upon, as in him. Though I must consess that is a very absurd and forced expositi­of Catharinus (Opusc. de pece [...]t. orig) whose opinion is, ‘That all our origi­nal sinne is Adams actual sinne made ours, and referreth that expression of Christ to Nathaneel, Joh. 1. 49. When thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee, to Nathaneels being in Adam, while he did eat of the forbidden [...]ruit, which [Page 47] some say was a fig-tree:’ Howsoever it be, you see that place in Ezekiel doth not reach to our case in hand.

2. That place will overthrow the Socinians themselves also; For they grant, That by Adam's sinne, death though otherwise natural, is now made necessary and penal, insomuch that we actually die, because of Adam's disobedience. And

3. That place in Ezekiel, it is commonly interpreted thus, The child shall not bear the Fathers siane, viz. if he be innocent, and not guilty of it, as well as his Fa­ther. I do not discuss, whether this be the full interpretation of that place: But if it be so, then our punishment, because of Adam, hath no injustice in it, be­cause by that actual transgression of Adam, we are made sinners, as well as he, and so have in our selves, though new born, a just desert of all the wages of sin. The Infant dying because of that particular inherent sin, which is in him, so that it is both Adams and his own, in several respects.

In the second place, to answer this Argument, take notice, That though it be of the will of God, that Adams sin is made ours, for if he pleased, he might have done otherwise; Yet we are not to say as the Remonstrants, That God imputeth this sinne to mankind, meerly because he will, as if the thing in it self were indif­ferent: Even as God appointed things should be unclean in the Old Testament meerly and solely from his will, because he had appointed so, for it is from his Justice also, such is the hatred of God against sinne, and withall dealing with A­dam according to the Covenant of works, the curse of that, if violated, would descend from parents to children, as appeareth in Moses his curses, pronounced against those that should not continue in the Law, it was to them and their chil­dren. Therefore some learned men expound that passage of Gods saying, The child shall not die for the iniquity of his Father, which is also mentioned Jer. 31. 29. to belong to the Evangelical Covenant, but according to the Legal Covenant, the child must suffer with the father, and this interpretation they urge, because v. 31, 32. presently followeth the declaration of Gods Evangelical Covenant, he will make with his people: But let this prove as it can, this we must conclude of, That God doth not impute Adams sinne to us, meerly because he will, but be­cause of his Justice also inclining him thereunto. So that the Remonstrants speak too slightly of it, as if it were only a dispensative imputation to make way for grace through Christ. But I shall hereafter have occasion to speak more fully to this particular; as also to the other Objections, which may again frequently interpose themselves.

Vse. Of Instruction, from all these subtil and specious Arguments against it, and that in all ages, we may see the subtilty and craft of Satan, who would gladly have this Doctrine wholly buried; for man is naturally proud and self-righteous, hardly brought to be thought so miserable a sinner: If therefore any Doctors shall arise, that shall likewise plead for such a supposed innocency and freedom, How welcome and suitable is this to flesh and bloud? Therefore look upon this Do­ctrine, as a Fundamental Truth, specially in reference to the practice of godliness, and acknowledge it the good hand of God, that as there have been any, subtil and bold to deny it in any age, so he hath raised up eminent and choice men, in the same ages, to propugn this Doctrine; especially do thou often compare thy foul nature with the pure rule of Gods Law; Be not like the Elephant, which they say, before it drinketh, bemuddeth the waters that it may not see his own defor­mity.

A Third Text brought to make good this Fun­damental Point about Original Sinne, improved and vindicated.


JOE 14. 4.‘Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Not one.’

THough other pregnant Texts in the New Testament may be brought to confirm this Necessary and Fundamental Truth about original sinne, yet I shall forbear them, till I come to the handling of the Nature of it, or what it is; For that is not true of the Remon­strants, which say, Original sinne can be proved only by two or three places; although if there were no more, it's certain, that out of the mouth of two or three such Divine Witnesses, the Doctrine about it may be established.

I come therefore and select one or two places out of the Old Testament, that so you may see this Truth was alwayes acknowledged in the Church of God, and that even in the times of the Old Testament, where divine light and knowledge was not so plentifully communicated, yet there was full and clear evidence about this.

The Text I have read is deservedly both by the ancient and later Writers esteemed a powerfull place, to prove our natural uncleannesse and sinne­fulnesse.

To understand it therefore consider, That whereas Job in the former verses had asserted the vanity and mortality of man, comparing him to a flower, which though sweet for a while, yet is presently cut down. Thus all the comforts, all the joyes thou hast in this world, they are but a Poesie, which have a pinne within them to prick thee for the present, while thou smellest on them, and will quickly wither away. But because flowers also have some substance and sweet­ness for the present, in the next place he resembleth our life to a shadow, which as he said was nigrum nihil, a black nothing; There is both emptiness and transi­toriness in all these things; and hitherto all the Heathens have arrived, They all perceived these miseries and troubles we are obnoxious unto: But then in my Text, we have the cause of this, which they were either totally or in a great mea­sure ignorant of; God then did not make man like a shadow thus at first; but sinne brought this corruptibility into the world, and that not actual sinne, but [Page 49] original; If there had been none but this, yet all these miseries would have fallen upon mankind.

In the words therefore we have a full and clear Description of that original sin or birth-sinne we are guilty of; Yea the Text saith, It is impossible, it should be otherwise: So that the Scripture, and those that deny original sinne are diame­trally opposite one to another: They say, there is no such birth-sinne: The Scri­pture saith, It cannot be, but that there must be such an original contagion.

In the Text, we have the Interrogation, and the Answer; The Interrogation is therefore put to shew the vehemency and peremptoriness in affirming this truth, it's more than if it had been barely said, That none can bring a clean thing out of an unclean; The meaning is, That every man being by nature unclean, it's ne­cessary that every one born of man therefore should be unclean.

By uncleanness is meant sinne, as appeareth by comparing this with Chap. 15. 14. Chap. 25. 4. where you have this expression used, and it is opposed to righ­teousness, and to be justified before God. It is therefore an uncleanness not na­tural or bodily (as the Pelagians of old would have wrested it) but spiritually opposite to Righteousness, and such as depriveth a man of Justification: Yea, the word unclean, is applied to signifie hainous pollution: Hence the Devils are so often called unclean spirits, so that the Devils and mankind are in this alike.

The Hebrew Preposition Min, is by some understood of mutation, by others of origination, but one is necessarily connexed with the other; of mutation in this sense, Who shall give (for so it is in the Hebrew) that is, Who can make pure, him that is impure? Who can change that which is naturally filthy? No man by his free-will, or power can; or else it is for the originals, and that doth seem the most genuine, for Job is speaking what belongs to every man naturally, and thus the sense is, From that which is unclean, none can bring that which is clean: Even as our Saviour saith in another case, None can gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles, Mat 6. 16. or as the Apostle James, A sweet fountain cannot send forth bitter streams, so neither can a bitter fountain sweet streams, Jam. 3. Now when it is said, Of an unclean thing cannot come a clean: Hereby Adam in his first Cre­ation is excluded, for he was made holy, and came not out of that which was unclean; and also Christ is hereby excluded, for although he is said to be born of a woman, yet that was in a miraculous and extraordinary manner: As for the Dispute about the Virgin Mary, whose freedom from original sinne, some have with great vehemency maintained, that seemeth not any wayes probable, as is to be shewed. It is also good to observe the emphatical expression in the word, Out of unclean thing, which implieth, That man by nature is all over sin­full, in mind, will, affections; and the whole man, it is the unclean thing; even as Christ was called the [...], the holy thing, because he was in every particu­lar altogether holy.

In the next place, you have the Answer, Not one. Some read this interroga­tively. Doest not thou alone? as speaking to God, so the Chaldee Paraphrast. These make the sense to be, That God alone, and no other can deliver out of this uncleanness. Hence also some make that expression, Who can forgive sinne, but God alone? to be an allusion to this place. For, as Aquinas saith, De frigido fa­cere calidum est ejus quod per se calidum est, &c. Of cold to make hot, is the effect of that which is hot of it's own nature: So of unclean to make clean, is the pro­per work of him, who is in his own nature pure, and essentially holy. The Sep­tuagint they read it differently from others, who is free from uncleanness, nor a child, though he be but a day old. That which is most genuine is to take it nega­tively, as our Translators do, and hereby is demonstrated, That there is not one in all mankind born in a natural manner, but he is sinfull, and polluted: This same is expressed more fully, Chap. 15 14. The Socinians give in their excepti­ons [Page 50] to that place; but I shall deferre the consideration of them, till we take that to treat on, which doth evidently shew, That man is so naturally sinfull, that he drinketh sin down like water.

From the Text observe, That every one by birth and natural descent is spiritually unclean and sinfull.

A Three-fold Uncleanness.

TO inform us of this Doctrinal Truth, we may first take notice of a threefold impurity or uncleanness.

1. That which is corporal and bodily, man being born so loathsomly, that even the Heathens have abhorred themselves, because of it, when they came into the world: it did so debase them, that even the highest did refuse those hyperbolical honours, which their flatterers would have put upon them. In the sixteenth of Ezekiel you have this bodily filthiness at large described, and thereby is repre­sented the uncomely and impotent condition of the Church of Israel in her In­fancy, to promote her own welfare, no more than a little Infant new born is able to help it self; Yea this place is allusively brought by some to describe our spiri­tual uncleanness: The child comes not more naked and polluted into the world bodily, then the soul doth spiritually, being denuded of the Image of God, and full of spiritual ulcers and fores, like a Job full of botches, like a Lazarus all over spiritually ulcerous, though few take notice of this, and lay it to heart.

2. There is a typical and ceremonial uncleanness, such as was appointed in the Law, of which there were two sorts, one more hainous, and so did cast a great­er and longer separation from the company of men, and the publique worship of God: The other less, and so more easily purified, and that in a shorter space; and the former kind of uncleannesses, We read Levit. 12. That a woman upon her bringing forth a child was guilty of: Insomuch that in the legal dispensation, every woman that brought forth a child was to be separated so many dayes, as unclean to be kept from the publick worship of God, and at last to bring an offering for to cleanse her. Now it's disputed, why God appointed such a law about a womans uncleanness, and purification in bringing forth children. Although some, as Bonfretius and Grotius make it to no more signification, than of other impurities that were legall, yet Austin of old, and Calvin are very positive, that this was to informe them of the cursed and sinnefull estate, that the child was brought into the world with. The father and mother (saith Calvin) by this ceremony were taught with what humiliation and sorrow they ought to look upon that natural pollution, the infant was born in, and in his comment on the place, he insinuateth two Answers to those two Objections, that are made a­gainst the typifying of original sinne thereby, as that this uncleanness and so pu­rification, did belong to the child as well as the mother. For the Objectors say, ‘It could not denote original sin, because it related to the mother only, and not to the child;’ but Calvin saith, it belongeth to both, and that by Luk. 2. 22. it may be proved. And Grotius preferreth those Copies which have the plural number, [...], their purification, relating to the child, as well as the mother: But Junius doth more probably think, it belonged only to the mother. Another Objection is, That the mother was longer unclean by a female, than a male, which if it were for original sinne, would argue the female had more of it, than the male. To this, Calvin giveth this conjecture, ‘That therefore there might be so much spiritual [Page 51] signification to the female, that so the defect in circumcision, the females not being to be circumcised, might be made up this way.’ But the difference of time is commonly attributed to a physical consideration; Howsoever these An­swers be, yet Junius, as well as Calvin doth acknowledge, This was done, be­cause of original sinne, though he had actual sins also. As for the Virgin Ma­ry, who offered according to the Law, when her time of purification was expired, Luke 2. 22. if it did relate to the child, as well as the mother, that did not argue Christ to be born in sinne, no more than circumcision argued a duty of putting off the foreskin of the heart in him, but it was to fulfill all righteousness, he be­ing now made subject to the Law. Not that such a ceremonial uncleanness is still under the Gospel-times, as some ignorant superstitious women think, for all such ceremonial Rites were abolished by Christs coming into the world, onely in the general, that Ceremony in the Jewish Church, did teach us the nature of birth-pollution.

3. There is a moral uncleanness, and that is sinne, which is a pollution of the soul, making it abominable and loathsom in the eyes of God; and this uncleanness is upon every Infant, though but a day, or an hour old; and of this uncleanness the Text speaketh.

A Comparison between Mans Moral Uncleanness, and Levitical Un­cleanness.

TO understand the foulness of it, let us first compare our spiritual uncleanness with the worst legal uncleanness in the Law, even that of Leprosie, and we shall see, how fitly they agree. For

1. The legal unclean, especially the Leper he was to keep aloof off from all men and company, even his wife and children (only such as were to provide necessaries for them) and to cry, He was unclean, unclean. In what a sad and miserable condition did such an unclean person apprehend himself to be, no body to come near him, none to have any civil commerce with him, but to sit pining and mourning alone? Thus ought every man in this original pollution, for by it he hath deserved to be deprived of every comfort, he is now cursed by the Law with all curses thereof, so that no creature in the world might give him any creature; The whole creation began to groan, as soon as man fell: Hence it is, that though we truly say, Every man, though in his natural condition hath a civil right to the comforts he enjoyeth, yet he hath not an holy and sanctified right, being not in Christ, so that what is our due by nature, as soon as we are born, is hell and damnation, the wrath and anger of God. Though we should beg here as Dives did in hell for a drop of water, it might be denied us; Oh miserable then and unclean man, who is thus to stand aloof off from all creatures and comforts, saying, Wo unto me, for I am un­clean.

2. The legal unclean person did make unclean every thing that be touched, what­soever he laid his hand upon, that was presently made unclean; yea, as appeareth, Hag. 2. If he did touch any holy thing, he made that unclean, the holy thing did not sanctifie him. Now is not this too true in every man, who is by nature spiritually unclean? The Apostle speaks this with evident conviction to all that will not wilfully shut their eyes, Tit. 1. 15. Vnto them that are defiled and unbe­lieving is nothing pure. So then what a loathsom Leprosie of sinne is upon every one by nature, that he defileth all he medleth with; if he eat, he makes it un­clean eating; if he work, he makes it unclean working; yea, if he prayeth, if [Page 52] he heareth, he makes it unclean and impure praying and hearing to him: Oh what a thunder-bolt should this be in our ears! What a polluted wretch am I, that in all places, at all times, in every thing I do, have this uncleanesse up­on me!

The uncleanness every man is born in, hath been partly considered, and a comparison made between every man in his natural estate, and the ceremonial un­clean person in the old legal constitution. Now that we may be the more affected with this lamentable and wofull condition we are all born in: Let us consider it absolutely in it self.

The uncleanness in the Text is not a natural or ceremonial, but moral unclean­ness; For although with us in our common speech, and sometimes in the Scri­pture, uncleanness is taken more strictly for the pollution of the body in any un­lawfull way, yet it is here taken largely for sinne in the general, and therefore to be righteous is the opposite to it, as Job 15. In this sense it is used, Zech. 13. 1. where a fountain is said to be set open for sinne and uncleanness. Seeing therefore the holy Ghost doth pronounce us all by nature to be unclean, yea so unclean, that no power either humane or Angelical can make us clean; but it is God alone, that maketh grapes to grow of these thorns, or rather turns thorns into vines: Let us examine what is comprehended in this expression unclean.

What is comprehended in this Expression Uncleanness.

FIrst, There is evidently declared the loathsom and abominable objects we are to God, as soon as ever we have a being. We are unclean, that is, filthy, loath­som, abominable, such as the pure eyes of God cannot behold with the least ap­probation: Hence Job 15. 16. man is called abominable and filthy, so that no Toad or noisom creature can be more irksom and loathsom to our eyes, than we are to God, while abiding in this natural pollution: God indeed when he made man at first, saw that all was exceeding good: If Adam had continued in his in­tegrity, then there had the clean been brought out of the clean, then man would have been glorious and comely, thirsting after, and drinking down righteousness like water, then the imaginations of the throughts of his heart would have been holy and good, and that continually; but now we are become sinfull, and thus polluted of our own making; It is from us, that of once clean we are made un­clean; For although none but God can make the unclean clean, yet Adam by the liberty and mutability of his will, did quickly make the clean unclean: Oh then how deeply should this thought pierce us, that we came into the world abomina­ble and loathsom in Gods eyes! The object of his wrath and displeasure, finding nothing of that holy Image in us, which was at first put into us: Oh consider how great, and glorious, and powerfull that God is, to whom thou art thus loathsom! If all men and Angels should abhorre thee, it is nothing to this, that God abominates thee.

Secondly, This also implieth, That we should be loathsom and abominable in our own eyes; that when we are grown up, and shall be truly informed upon what terms we come into the world, we should be as so many spiritual monsters in our own eyes. Job, you see here, though so godly a man, and who had such a glorious chara­cter given him by God himself, yet because of this doth loath himself. The ul­cers and sores upon his body, for which he sate abhorring of himself upon the dung-hill, seem not more to affect him then this spiritual vileness and loathsom­ness that is upon him. It's observed, That though Herod and others have kept a [Page 53] festival Commemoration of their birth-day, yet we never read that ever any god­ly man did so, (though Calvin saith, it's mos vetustus, and so not vituperabilis, because of the good use may be made of it) in the Scripture. Indeed the day of their death hath been celebrated and called their birth-day, because then, and ne­ver till then did they begin indeed to live; And if Solomon, meerly because of the miseries and vexations that do accompany this humane life, Eccles. 4. 2. praised the dead above the living, and he that never had been, that was not born, better than both: How much rather will this bold true, if we consider, how man is born in a sinfull estate, and cannot but sinne all the day long? Certainly, we may say, it had been farre better thou hadst never been born, if not new born, if not delivered from this native filthiness, as if thou must have a being, better have been any bruitish creature than a man, better be a Toad, a Tyger, a Ser­pent, than a man, if not washed by the bloud of Christ from this uncleanness; For although we have cause to bless God that he made us men, rather than bruit beasts, in respect of natural considerations, yet in a theological sense, because they are not subject to hell and damnation, as man is, therefore their estate is not so miserable. For

In the third place, In that men is born unclean, thereby is proclaimed, That he cometh into the world upon farre more dangerous and wretched terms, than other creatures do. The bruit creatures they are not unclean; God doth not loath and abhorre their young ones; They are not by nature the objects of his wrath, nei­ther are they exposed to eternal torments, but thus is the sinfull off-spring of all mankind; Thou canst not see a worm crawling on the ground, thou canst not hear a snake hissing in the hedge, but thou mayest think these are not as bad as I am, these have no sinne in their natures, God is not angry with these, as he is with mankind: For though History report of a devout man, who seeing a Toad fell a weeping, because of the goodness of God, who had made him a man, and not that Toad, yet upon the consideration of original sinne, he might as deeply have mourned, because he was worse, than that Toad. Thou canst not see the fatted beasts driven to the slaughter, but thou mayest say, They are happier than I am, for they are killed, and there is an end of them, but I am a miserable and wretched man, born in sinne, and if not cleansed from it, must necessarily per­ish to all eternity. Luther, while in the deeps, troubles and sorrows of heart, because of his sinne, had this passage, Oh quoties optavi me uunquam fuisse homi­nem! He went from place to place, his heart aking and throbbing, crying out, Oh that I had never been a man! So that by sinne a man is not onely made like the beast that perisheth, but worse, for the beast perisheth totally, but so shall not he.

Fourthly, In our natural uncleanness is declared our manifest similitude and agreement with the Devils themselves, that we and they are now under the same consideration, for man is naturally unclean, and the Devils have this appropriated attribute all along the New Testament for the most part, that they are the unclean spirits. The Devil is an unclean spirit, and man is unclean in body and spirit; Hence because of this natural pollution, we are all by nature the seed of the Ser­pent; The Devils is said to rule in us, and we are therefore under his Kingdom, for being not born in a state of grace, but of sinne, we are therefore under his dominion; and upon this supposition even in Austin's time there were exorcisms used at the Baptism of Infants, which was not a Scripture institution, no more than giving honey and milk to the baptized child, which was very ancient, and yet now laid aside even by the Roman Church it self, that amongst other Rites in Baptism, they had this of exorcismes and insufflation, by which they signified, not that the child was possessed bodily with the Devil, but that it was under the power of him. This Austin instanceth in, to Julian the Pelagian, where he tels him, Ipse à toto orbe exufflandus esset, si huic exufflationi qua princeps mundi [Page 54] ejicitur for as contradicere voluist is; I mention not this to allow or commend that Ceremony, for it was an absurd one, though brought into the Church [...]etimes, for it had been happy, if the Church alwayes had contented her self, with the pure, plain and sole institutions of Christ, but to inform you, what even the ancient Church thought about Infants new born, that they were wholly under the pow­er of the Devils. Yea the Heathens had some kind of confused knowledge about this (as in time may be shewed) for they had a custom with them of expiating and cleansing of their Infants, as being unclean.

Fifthly, This expression of uncleanness, doth denote our unfitness and unworthi­ness to come into Gods presence, or to perform any holy duty, no more than a person full of his vomit or loathsomness, or a man with the noisom plague fores, is fit to come into the presence of a great King: As the legal unclean person, was not to come into the Temple, or to touch any holy things; And this was typified in Adam, when he was cast out of Paradise, and flaming swords set to keep him out, all this denoted, That God had excommunicated Adam, and (as it were) all mankind in him, so that now they have no fitness or decency, no worth or suita­bleness to any holy duty. And certainly, this should deeply humble us, yea at this our hearts should tremble and move out of their places, to consider, that though none need God more than we do, none have more need to pray inces­santly to him, yet such is our pollution, that we are not fit to pray, or to draw nigh to God, yea, our duties, while performed by us, in this our original con­dition, are a provocation to God, and they become new sinnes; for if no clean thing can be brought out of an unclean, then no clean prayer, no clean holy duty can come from thee, who art unclean. It is true, though we are thus pol­luted, it is our duty to pray; by our original Apostasie we are not freed from Gods commands, we are bound to pray, and to pray with as holy and heavenly frame of heart, as Adam in his integrity, but though it be our duty, yet we have lost all power and ability: Yea, and besides this, there is an unfitness and unworthiness, even as when the frogs crept into Pharaoh's chamber: And to this Bernard a [...]luded, when he called himself, Ranuncula repens in conspectu Dei, How dare such a loathsom frog as he, creep into the presence of so holy a God? Certainly, if the Angels, though without any such blemish, yea not having the least spot, do yet not cover their feet, but their faces, the noblest part (as it were) because of the glorious and holy Majesty of God, how much more must sinfull and unclean man? Isa. 6. When the Prophet had beheld God in his glory, he crieth out, though a regenerated man, Woe be unto me, for I am of pollutea lips! This made him afraid to make mention of God: How then may every natural corrupt man, cry out, Wo be to me, for I am not only a man of polluted lips, but also of a polluted mind and heart!

Sixthly, This title of being naturally unclean, maketh us to be in the most imme­diate [...] to God that can be. To say, Man that is born of woman had been miserable, frail, subject to dangers and outward evils, would not have denoted any immediate opposition to God, but calling him unclean and unholy; This sheweth, that we are by nature in direct contrariety to what he is, for he is by nature pure and holy, yea it is that glorious Attribute which makes all others glo­rious, because his Wisdom is holy Wisdom, because his Power is holy Power, therefore it's admirable Wisdom and Power; Hence those Angels, Isa. 6. of all the Attributes of God single out that to celebrate, when they cry out, Holy, holy, holy; Now man is born unclean and unholy, being herein directly contrary to God: So that though man be indowed with many natural perfections, yet this original uncleanness defileth them all; he hath reason, but it's unclean reason; he hath an understanding, but it is an unclean understanding; he hath a will, but it's an impure and unclean will; So that of all the several Arguments, which man hath to humble him, he may chuse out this, as the chiefest of all, crying [Page 55] out, unclean, unclean, unclean, why is it that upon the discovery of this contra­riety to God, we do not more abhor our selves?

Seventhly, This attribute of uncleanness, proclaimeth the absolute necessity of Gods grace, and of Christs blood, for these only can make us clean. Did a man truly consider, how it is with him in regard of his birth-estate, he would tremble to stay an hour in it, he would neither eat, drink, or sleep, till he be delivered out of it; for being wholly unclean, he can never, while so, enter into the kingdom of Heaven: So that as no legal uncleanness was removed, but with some sprink­ling and washing, much less can any moral uncleanness be washed away without Christs bloud; therefore that is said, to cleanse us from all our sinnes, 1 Joh. 1. 7. and without shedding of blood there is no remission of sinne, Heb. 9. 22. Oh then this natural uncleanness should teach us highly to esteem Christs blood, for we could never weep water enough, though our heads were fountains to wash us, nothing can get out this spot, but Christs blood! and this every Infant, though but a day old needeth; Christs bloud then must purifie us, else we per­ish, and with this also there is requisite grace, both justifying and sanctifying, for these also tend to the cleansing of us; Justification that is partly a cleansing and awashing away of our iniquities, as God promiseth, Zech. 13. 1. He would set open a fountain for sinne and uncleanness; a fountain, so that there is plenty and fulness of grace to wash away this filthiness. Thus also Ezek. 36. 25. I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean from all your filthiness. Besides this, there is also grace sanctifying necessary, and this is a formal internal clean­sing of us; so that because of this work of grace, we are made clean, yet not so, but that we need some washing daily, as Joh. 13. 10. He that is washed, need­eth not save to wash his feet, for this uncleanness will not in this life be quite ta­ken away, but is like that of the Leprosie, which stuck so to the wals of the house, that though it were scraped off, yet it would rise again, and so could not be re­moved, till the very house was demolished. Thus while death lay this house of clay in the grave, there will alwayes be some uncleanness adhering to thee.

Vse. Of Instruction. Can none bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Then this sheweth, That those who from the youth up, have lived civil, ingenuous and chaste lives, are not to rest in this, for thy nature is foul and loathsom, as well as of all others, though thy life may be cleaner. The Snake hath a glistering skinne, though she hath a poisoned body: Thus thou hast a defiled soul, an heart full of filthiness, though thy outward conversation be unblameable. Cer­tainly, if an Infant but a day old be thus unclean, and needeth the bloud of Christ to cleanse it: Doest thou flatter thy self with ingenuity and civi­lity? Thou hast not lesse sinnefulnesse and guilt in thee, than a child new born, yet that is a child of wrath, till cleansed: Oh then be [...] of thy condition.

Objections against this natural Uncleanness, answered.

THe Doctrine of our natural uncleanness and sinfulness by traduction from Adam, being established out of these words, we come to answer some Objections; That as the shaking of the Tree, makes it root faster and deeper, so doubts about it, when cleared, may the more confirm us.

The first Objection, which I shall bring, seemeth in express terms to deny any such uncleanness, at least to Infants of bellevers: So that it should seem, Be­cause [Page 56] believers are clean; Therefore their children are brought clean out of them. The place that gives fuel to this Argument is known, being much vexed and dis­cussed in these dayes, especially in the controversie about Poedobaptism, it is 1 Cor. 7. 14. Else were your children unclean, but now are they holy; where it is positively said, That the children, though but of one believing Parent, are not un­clean, [...], that answereth the Hebrew word in the Text; yea the contrary to this is affirmed, That they are holy.

I shall not range into all the controversal Disputes about this point, only in the general we may say, That this place doth not at all contradict my Text, for Job saith, That by nature none can bring a clean thing out of an unclean, but if God by grace doth it, that doth not oppose Job; yea, we told you, some render the later clause interrogatively; Art not thou he alone, viz. that can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Certainly, though no humane or Angelical power can thus sanctifie, yet God can; For, what do all those glorified Saints in Heaven made perfectly holy, but proclaim this, for they were once unclean, and impure, but now God hath made them fully clean without the least spot or blemish? Thus there is no contrariety between these two Texts, for one speak­eth of what we are in a natural way, the other, what some are by a gracious and supernatural way.

But yet in the second place, It's good to have a more thorow discussion of these words, though not so amply, as polemical Divines have enlarged it; and the rather, because the Lutheran Divines do boldly and peremptorily charge it upon the Calvinists, as if they denied original sinne in all the children of belie­vers; And although they cannot be ignorant in what sense the Calvinists do ex­plain this holiness of believers children, yet they constantly calumniate in this point, as if something would stick upon them howsoever.

Therefore in the third place, there are three or four Interpretations, that are competitors about this Text.

The first is of those, who by uncleanness do mean a spurious bastard-brood, and by holy, a civil sanctity, as it were, that is true and legitimate; as if the Apostles meaning was, in answering the doubt of a believer, Whether they might continue in marriage with unbelievers (for in Ezra's time, all the Jews that had so married, were commanded to put away their wives?) did inform them, that their marriage would be lawful, otherwise their children would be bastards, but they were legitimate. Thus the Lutherans generally some of the Ancients are alled­ged also, and Musculus upon second thoughts cometh off to this Interpretation, confessing he had formerly abused it against Anabaptists. But this might easily be rejected, if it were our business in hand: For,

1. Marriage even among Heathens, is true lawfull marriage, and their chil­dren are legitimate; for although their very marriage, as all things else are un­clean to them in a sanctified sense, because they are impure, yet marriage in it self is a lawfull thing to them, so that it is not to be judged fornication. And

2. The Apostles argument would not conclude, for those that doubted, whe­ther their marriage was lawful, would also have doubted, whether their children were legitimate, and therefore this could not be an argument to prove their mar­riage lawfull.

In the second place, There are some who understand this holiness of inward true inherent purity; so that their judgement is, that the Apostle saith, all godly parents have holy children, and if it fall out otherwise in some cases, they say, it's an indefinite, not an universal proposition, which if it be true, for the most part, it is enough; but experience seemeth to confute this; Neither is believer here taken strictly, for one who did in a saving way believe, but largely for one that did profess faith in Christ, and therefore is opposite to an Infidel; Now all that were not Infidels, were not presently, truly godly, though they did believe, as some are said, Joh. 2. To whom yet Christ would not commit himself.

[Page 57] 3. Therefore there are those, who understand this of Heathenish uncleanness and Idolatry, and so they say, One born of believing Parents, is free from that, especially, if we do regard the hopes that are in his education: Therefore some expound this holiness only in respect of the designing and dedicating of such unto real holiness. Hence Estius he understands this, De filiis adultu, of children grown up; For it may be supposed, That if the unbelieving husband will not leave his wife, but abide with her, that therefore he will yeeld to her, and let her educate her children in the faith of Christ, and be no enemy, or opposet, there­unto; and 1 Pet. 1. 3. is brought to expound this place; so that they make this holiness to be only quoad spem, and disciplinam; For the believer may by an ho­ly godly life, gain both the unbeliever and the children; and thus Hierom is said to answer a Question proposed by Paulinus, concerning this place; Lapide consents to this, and opposeth Calvin and Beza concerning this foederal holiness, as also Tirinus on the place, because the Church is not like a civil Commonwealth, but is a supernatural Society, saith Lapide; This is no Reason; for though it be a su­pernatural Society, yet God may give what spiritual priviledges he pleaseth to them and theirs; and therefore Salmeron, he understands this holiness of a Church-holiness, that they are esteemed children of that; And in his Comment on that place, brings that Promise, which the Calvinists use to do, I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed.

Hence the fourth and last Interpretation, which is justly deemed most genuine and orthodox, is to expound this holiness of a Covenant and foederal holiness, of a Church-priviledge, That being born, though but of one believing parent, yet they are not unclean, as Heathens and their children, who have no right or claim to any Church-Ordinance, but are holy by the gracious favour and Cove­nant of God, who taketh in believers and their seed. When parents are taken in­to the Church, their children also, or Infants are received in with them, not that all are made internally holy, only they have a right to Church-membership; and therefore the initial sign ought not to be denied to them: So that the hope of godly education, or to be candidates of the true faith, is not enough, but both are requisite, as Tertullian of old mentioned, both seminis praerogativa, and institutionis disciplina: Though therefore children of both, or one believing pa­rent, are in this sense clean and holy, yet by nature they are unclean; neither doth this external holiness deliver them from inward contagion; Yea, suppose some should be regenerated in the very womb, as John Baptist was, yet this Text holdeth true in him; for he was by nature unclean, he had not the holy Ghost by natural descension from his parents, for then all children should be so sanctified, but it was Gods grace and power that made him clean of unclean; John Baptist therefore was conceived in sinne, and by nature a child of wrath, but the grace of God made him clean, yet not totally and perfectly, as if no uncleanness was in him; for even Job, though in so high a degree sanctified, yet speaks this truth in the Text, to himself as then, and at that time considered, not to what he was once before his conversion, but even in that renewed estate he was in, if God should cast his eyes upon him, and judge him with severity, he would find much uncleanness adhering unto him.

The second Objection is propounded by Socinus,Object. who saith, It cannot be con­ceived, that one actual transgression of Adam should infect the whole nature of man, one Act cannot contract an habit of sinne: So then he saith, It's im­possible that one sinfull act, should all ever defile Adam, and make him totally sinfull, much lesse that it should infect the whole nature of man. And the Re­monstrants they pursue this Argument, If (say they, Apolog, pro Confessione exam. Cens. cap. 7. pag. 85.) that one act of sinne did expel all grave in Adam, then it did it, either quatenus peccatum, as it was a sinne, and if so, then every little sinne the godly man commits, much more grosse sinnes would cast [Page 58] him out of all grace, would root out the seed of God in him, which yet (say they) the Calvinists will in no wise endure; Or it cometh so from some peculiar ordination, and divine appointment of God; If so, they bid us, bring out that order, and manifest such an appointment, that one sinne onely should deprive a man of the whole Image of God, when now one sinne doth not, or cannot extirpate the habit of grace; but every godly man hath sinne and grace also in him.

To this many things are to be answered:Answ.

First, That it is a vain and an absurd thing to give leave to our humane reason­ings, that such a thing cannot be, when the event discovers it is so. It is plain, That upon Adam's actual transgression he was deprived of the Image of God he was created in. Adam therefore having lost that spiritual and supernatural life, we need not curiously dispute, how one stab, as it were of sin could kill him; Certainly, even the least sin is present poison, and would kill immediately, if Gods grace did not prevent.

Secondly, That one sinne may suddenly deprive the subject of all Grace it hath, appeareth plainly in those Apostate Angels, Did not the first sinne? which was in them a thought or an act of the will, (what it was it is disputed) Did not that immediately throw them out of their divine and blessed Habitati­ons? And by that one and first sinne, was not a glorious Angel made immedi­ately a black Devil? It is true indeed, We cannot say the Devils have original sinne, In this sense, As if because when the first Angel sinned, all the rest sinned in him, as if all their wils were bound up in him; No, They all stood upon their own bottom, they all sinned personally and voluntarily by their own actual transgression, though happily it might be by imitation and consent to him that first sinned; yet for all this, we see plainly, that in every Apostate Angel, one sinne was enough to deprive him of all the good he had, and to fill him with such inveterate enmity to all goodness, That the Devil, though of such natural light in his conscience, yet is not able to do one good work, or have the least holy thought.

Thirdly, Sinne doth expel grace, both formally, or (as some call it) effici­ently and meritoriously also; it expels it formally, as darkness doth light, as diseases do sickness, or death, life, and meritoriously deserving, that God should deprive us of all holiness, and deny any further grace to us. The Remonstrants they call this folly and absurdity, to say, Sinne expels grace actually and meri­toriously also; For if it do actually, what need is there of meritoriously? If a man actually put out his eyes, it's absurd to say, he deserveth by that to have them put out; Or if a man wilfully throw away his garments, making himself naked, that he deserveth to be naked. But these instances do no wayes enervate this Truth; for in that sinne doth thus actually and meritoriously also deprive us of grace, we see the hainousness of it; one sheweth, how sinne is in it's own self like poison that presently kils, and the other, how odious it is to God, that if it did not of it self deprive us of spiritual life, yet it doth so provoke God, that because of it, God would not continue his daily grace to us. Besides, though sinne doth formally expel the grace that is inherent in us, yet Gods grace with­out us, his preventing cooperating and continuing grace, without which we could not abide a moment in the state of grace, that it chaseth away meritorious­ly only; So that Adam in his first sinne did both chase away the Image of God in him, and deserve, that God should withdraw his assisting and preserving grace, without which he could not have continued in his good estate; yea, sinne doth so meritoriously expel grace, that could Adam by his own power, have im­mediately recovered himself, and instated himself into the condition he was in, yet he deserved for that former transgression, that God should have outed him of all: As they say, A man that hangeth himself, if it were pos­sible [Page 59] [...] to live presently again, the Law would adjudge him to death, for [...] of himself.

Therefore in the last place, you see, why every sinne in a godly man, no, [...] it be a gross sinne, doth not immediately deprive him of all grace, as we see it did in Adam, and the Apostate Angels: Not that sinne in it self would not do so in them, as well as in those, but because God entred into a gracious Cove­nant and Promise with every believer through Christ, to perpetuate his interest and union with him; so that if he fall, he shall have grace to recover himself, neither will every spark of grace within him be suffered wholly to be extinguish­ed, although in Adam there was a peculiar reason, why his sinne did infect all mankind, because (as Aquinas saith well) Adam in quantum fuit principium [...] naturae habuit rationem causae universalis ex Adam, in that he was the [...] of mankind, was a kind of universal cause, and so by his corrupt act, all mankind was corrupted.

Vse Of Instruction, That nothing more is requisite on our part to be par­taker of Adam's sinne, and to be made unclean, but natural generation and descent from Adam; It's true, there is on Gods part also a Covenant, and his imputa­tion, otherwise Adam's sinne would not have been ours, no more than other parents; but on our parts, there is no other way of conveying it, but by natu­ral descent from him, whereas to be in Christ, and to partake of his divine bene­fit, there is required a supernatural work upon us, a spiritual insition, and incor­poration of us into Christ, but to be a sinner in Adam, our very being born in a natural way, before we are able to know, or will any thing, or to discern the right hand from the left, is enough to intitle us to it: Oh then with what shame, sorrow and holy confusion of face, should we think of this our natural unclean­ness! How vile and loathsom should we be in our eyes? Oh the distance and con­trariety that is between so holy and pure a God, and thou an impure and unclean wretch? If our righteousnesses are menstruous rags, how abominable then is our real iniquity?

A Fourth Text to prove Original Sinne, opened and vindicated.


PSAL. 51. 5.‘Behold, I was shapen in iniquity, and in sinne did my mother con­ceive me.’

THe sad occasion of this Psalm is plainly set forth in the Inscription, David a godly man, after Gods own heart, a Prophet, a King, who had been exercised under several afflictions, yet when arrived to peace, plenty and ease, fals into those foul sinnes of Adultery and Murder, which later was contrived with much deliberation, subtilty and bloodiness; Yet after some security in this sinne, be­ing admonished and awakened by Nathan, he repents and bitterly bewaileth these transgressions. So that in this Psalm is described a form for every Prodigal, repenting, and coming home to his Father; That David was only in a Lethargy, or Apoplexy, not quite dead, that the seed of grace, was not wholly extinct in him, is sufficiently proved against the Arminians by the Orthodox, though they de­ride, saying, The Calvinists Elect persons; The Albae Gallinae filii, They may do any thing, commit any sinne, and nothing will hurt them; But this is to mock and scorn at that special Covenant of Grace in Christ, made to those who are given to him by the Father; and indeed such present meltings and remorse of soul, up­on Nathan's admonition, without any rage, malice, or fury at the Prophet, who rebuked him, intimate, That the seed of grace was not quite overcome within him.

For the Psalm it self, that is Supplicatory, wherein David wrestleth in ago­nies with God, for to obtain mercy, using several Arguments; One from the Mercy, yea the multitude of mercy, that is in God: Another is, from the con­fession and deep sense of sinne in his soul, he acknowledgeth it, and it is alwayes before him, he never puts it out of his memory: Whither soever he goeth, and whatsoever he is doing, still his sinnes are (as it were) so many Devils appear­ing in horrid shapes before his eyes.

A third Argument is in the Text, from the aggravation of those actual sinnes he committed; They were not sinnes to be considered meerly in themselves, but from the cause and root whence they sprang, even the defiled and corrupt na­ture that was in him, it being not so much those actual, though so horrid sinnes that made him so guilty, as that they did flow from such a defiled fountain within [Page 61] him: Thus he aggravateth those actual sinnes from the root and cause within him; For although he was regenerated, and so delivered from the dominion of original corruption, yet it was with him, as with Paul, The Law of sinne did still warre within him against what was good, sinne dwelt in him still, and was apt upon all occasions, like a Dalilah, to betray him into the hand of the Philistims, into the power of some soul transgressions. It is true, some have thought, that Da­vid speaks this to extenuate and lessen his sinne; as if his meaning had been, Lord, it's true, I have committed these foul sinnes in thy sight, but they are the more venial and pardonable, because my nature is corrupt: It is no wonder, that being not an Angel, or a man in integrity, as Adam, or confirmed in grace, as the glori­fied Saints in Heaven, but the son of corrupted Adam, that I have thus tumbled into the mire; And it cannot be denied, but that this truth of our original cor­ruption may be pleaded, both for aggravation to punish, and also for pity to spare: Hence Gen. 6. 5. Because every imagination of mans heart, was only evil, and that continually, therefore God was provoked to destroy the world by water, yet Chap. 8. 21. the very same thing, viz. because a mans heart is evil from his youth, is made a reason, why God will not smite the earth again with such an universal destruction. But it seemeth farre more genuine and consonant to Da­vid's scope in this Psalm, to make these words by way of aggravation; for Da­vid is humbling and debasing of himself, desirous to justifie and clear God, and therefore he layeth himself as low, as possibly he can, digging into the very bot­tom of all that evil, which cleaveth to him.

In the words therefore we may take notice of the matter confessed and ac­knowledged with the introductory particle, to make it more considerable. It is not an ordinary or slighty thing, he is to speak of, and therefore he begins with that note Behold; This Ecce may be called the Asterisk of the holy Ghost, or the Bibles nota benè; It is commonly used either for Attention or Admiration, or Caution; and it may have this three fold use here.

For Attention, the matter being of so great concernment, so little minded or believed by most men; for David doth not speak here, as if it were his particular case alone, as if none were born in iniquity, but him; yea, rather it followeth, if David, though so eminent and godly, so blessed by God, was yet born in sinne, then no doubt, but all others are likewise.

Again, It may be a note of Admiration, because of the mysterious depth of this original defilement: It is unsearchable, and the more he considers of it, the more amazed and astonished he is; even as David at another time, Psal 19. crieth out, Who can understand his errors? when he hath set himself with his whole might, to sathom all the evil that is in him, yet he cannot do it: Hence Jeremiah, Chap. 17. speaking of this deceitfull and desperate heart of man, be­cause of the native pollution of it, saith, Who can know it? And then answers, It's God alone that searcheth it, God knoweth the depth of all that evil, which no man can reach unto.

Lastly, It may be a note of Caution [Behold] and take heed of it; for you see even David betrayed by it, the holiest man that liveth may quickly and sudden­ly fall into the most enormous sins, because of it.

In the next place, we have the thing it self confessed, and that is in two things.

He was shapen in iniquity, that is the first: The word is many times applied to the bringing forth of a child, and doth properly signifie to bring forth with sor­row and pain; Hence some render it, I was born in iniquity, and so it may very well be translated; but if we render it shapen, or formed, then this sheweth, That in the forming of the parts of the body, and disposing of it for animation, even then sinne is there initially; so that before we are born, as soon as that mass is enlivened and animated, so soon is original sinne in a man.

[Page 62] The other expression is, That in sinne did his mother conceive him; The He­brew word is, Did warm him, or nourish him; So that this doth not so much relate to the actual conception, as to that whole time his mother did bear him in the womb, all that while this pollution was in him. Hence Aquila renders it, [...], and the Septuagint [...], which though happily some might think it a fault in writing, [...] for [...], yet there are those, who make that word em­phatical, and say, it's a metaphor from the fowl, that is called [...], Pica, the Pie, that while building of her nest, is with great vehemency and violence com­piling of it, breaking off the tops of twigs, and flying from place to place, as if some inward heat did transport her▪ Others make it to signifie a multiform appe­tite from the colour of that Bird. Well, howsoever it be, the word from the Hebrew is to be extended to that whole time, the child is carried in the mothers womb, being warmed and nourished there; So that not only, as Ambrose of old, we may say, Hominis ortus in vitio est, a mans birth is in sinne, but as soon as ever that mass of flesh in the womb is informed and animated, so soon it be­comes sinfull. It is true indeed, the parts of the body are along while in forming before the soul be inspired, and sinne is not properly, till the soul be united to the body, yet because that is part of man, and tends to it, we may say sinne is there inchoatively and imperfectly, because it is in tendency to make up man, and there­fore it was, that Christ being to be man, yet without sin was to be conceived by the holy Ghost, The very corpulent substance of the Virgin Mary, from which his body was made to be purified and sanctified by the holy Ghost.

In the last place, we are to take notice, in what he is thus formed and born, and that is also in two words, Gnanon and Cheteh, both which signifie, that which is truly and properly a sin: So that it's plain, when David could have no actual will, or con­sent of his own, yet then sin and iniquity was truly in him. This place therefore is very evident and unanswerable, to prove this, That all by nature are born in sin. The Fathers of old, before Pelagius arose did expound it so, and generally after Au­stin's time; The Popish Interpreters also grant it a clear place to prove this truth; yea, the Rabbins, they from hence also prove original sinne, and say, it hath seven names in the Old Testament, whereof two that they mention, viz. The fore-skin of the heart, and an heart of stone, are without all doubt applicable unto it: Insomuch that they who deny this Doctrine, in these dayes, must needs wil­fully put a veil before their eyes.

It is true, Clemens Alexandrinus hath a passage, which would seem to ener­vate the force of this place, which the late Writer (Vnum Necessar. pag. 395.) maketh use of, [...], (Lib. Stromat. 3. sub finem) But how much his Authority herein is to be re­garded, appeareth, in that he maketh the mother (here spoken of) to be Eve; he calleth his mother Eve prophetically, saith he (though happily that doth hint something of original sinne, else why should he name Eve?) Besides, this Clemens doth a little before, speak strangely, which passage is taken notice of by the same Author, as speaking home to the point, [...], &c. Let them tell us, Where an Infant did fornicate? Or how he who had done nothing could fall under the curse of Adam? Bellarmine thinketh these words to be the objection of Hereticks, and truly those books do well deserve their name [...], for there is so much confusion, we can hardly tell when the Author himself speaketh, Some would interpret him of actual sins, but the learned Vossius (Histor. Pelag. l. 2. pars 1. pag. 160.) saith Clemens did not fully understand the Doctrine of origi­nal sinne; And Coccius (Tom. 2. Artic. 2.) the Catholick-Treasurer, from this very passage, saith, Clemens parum novisse de peccato originali videtur.

Objections against this Ineerpretation answered.

BUt let us hear, what is objected by the Adversaries to this clear Text? And

First, Object. It's said by some, That David doth not here bewail his own sins, but his parents in begetting of him, as if it was their sinne he acknowledged, and not his own.

This is a miserable shift;Answ. for, First, David was not begotten in adultery, neither were his parents unlawfully joyned together, therefore in begetting of him, they did not sinne; for Marriage is honourable, if the bed be not defiled with adultery or fornication: Therefore if Adam had stood in the state of inte­grity, there would have been procreation of children; so that his parents did no more sinne in this, than in eating and drinking, or any other lawfull act God hath appointed, either for the propagating of the species, or conservation of the individuums.

Secondly, This Interpretation is against the scope of David in this Psalm, which is to debase himself, to humble himself from what is in him, not what is in others, I will acknowledge my sinne, and my iniquity is alwayes before me, and so proceedeth to bewail this original, or birth-sinne.

Thirdly, If his intent were to confess his parents sins, why doth he instance in his mother only, In sinne did my mother conceive me? he saith, Why did he not ra­ther bewail the sinne of his father, who begat him, who would have been a greater sinner, than his mother in that matter, if it had been a sinne at all?

Lastly, It's good to take notice of what Bellarmine, in the Exposition of this place, though a Papist saith, It may be to prevent such calumnies, that future Hereticks would raise, the holy Ghost in this Text would use no word, that did pro­perly and directly relate, either to the fathers begetting, or the mothers immediately conceiving thereupon, for this might seem to attribute sinne to that, which yet is of Gods appointment, and if true, would necessarily condemn marriage, as unlawfull; So that as he observeth, The words do properly relate to the child afterwards in the womb, when formed and nourished there.

A second Objection is, Object. That what David saith here is hyperbolical. Thus the Socinians, David doth not mean, as if he were born in sinne, but doth hyperboli­cally aggravate his wickedness, in that from his youth up he did quickly fall into sinne, and they compare two places (amongst others) Psal. 58. 3. Isa. 48. 8. where wicked men are said to be transgressors from the womb.

But first,Answ. Seeing David intends to abhorre himself before God, there is no sense to go from the plain words, otherwise we might turn all the Scripture into tropes and figures, and so make no certainty at all; And as for those two places, they confirm this Text, for how come men to be transgressors from the womb, to act wickedness so early, to sinne as soon as ever they are able to act any thing? Doth not all this demonstrate they were born in sinne?

Besides, those places are not parallel, for they speak of the facts of men after they come out of the womb, and in such particulars an Hyperbole may sometimes be admitted; but this relateth to David while in the womb, and not to his own action, but that wherein he was passive.

Lastly, Another Socinian saith, It is to be understood of actual sinnes, and not original, because it is in the Plural number, whereas original sinne is but one.

[Page 64] The Answer is, That indeed the Septuagint, and so the Vulgar Latine they render it in the Plural number, in iniquities, &c. And thereupon it's disputed by the Schoolmen, Whether original sinne be one or more sinnes? Some (though but few) say, it's more; Others, but one, and excuse their vulgar Translati­on, by saying, that it may be called sinnes in the Plural number, because it is the root of many, or because it being a body of sinne, hath (as it were) many parts and members. Arminius likewise among other exceptions, brought this against their publick Catechism, because it said Innata peccata in the Plural num­ber, as if original sinne were many sinnes: But all this Discourse is needless, for in the Hebrew it is in the Singular number, and so our Translators render it, and that David cannot mean actual sinnes, is plain, because he was born in this ini­quity he speaketh of.

The Text then thus vindicated, first from the note of Attention, [Behold.] Observe,

That the true Doctrine about original sinne, is not only to be believed, but we are diligently to meditate and consider about it. Behold (saith David) I was shapen in iniquity, &c. Great will be the spiritual advantage, that a man may reap here­by; but because I have mentioned many already, I shall now name but two or three, not spoken before.

More Advantages accruing from the Belief and Meditation of this Truth.

FIrst, The man who deeply considers this, he will dwell at home much, he will much commune with his own heart, his work will be to rectifie his inwards much, to attend more to his heart-work. Alas, how many do you see spend all their time in disputes about Religion in quarrellings and strises about this opinion, and that opinion, whereas if he were deeply sensible of that wound upon him by original sinne, and how his whole soul is out of order, he would presently give over that way, he would say, I have greater work in hand, I have more necessary business to do? If a mans house were on fire, he would give over any disputes he had with his neighbour, and go presently to quench that: Thus the Pilot, when the ship is leaking, he would not attend to needless cavils, and in the mean time endanger his Ship; when thy vitals, yea thy very heart is diseased, thou standest disputing about the cure of thy fingers end: Oh how much better were it to be searching into your hearts, diving into the bottom thereof, then to spend thy time in useless disputes!

Again, If we did meditate on this more, We should not be so forward to judge and censure others, to be alwayes medling and talking of other mens infirmities, for we should find our selves had enough at home.

Yea further, When men accuse in, and falsly slander us, charging this sinne and that upon us: Now though we may bless God, and appeal to him, because of our innocency, yet we must withall confess, that if men knew all that stirreth in our hearts, as God doth, they would abhor us: Even Socrates, though an Heathen, when he was told, how men reviled him, What would they say (saith he) if they knew all by me? Certainly, there is no godly man, but loatheth himself more in Gods eyes, because of this depth of pollution within him, then all the world can despise him, he is not more abominable in their eyes, than he is in his own.

Lastly, Hereby a godly man is provoked to walk with more fear and trembling, be­cause [Page 65] David had this birth-sinne, therefore was he so quickly tempted to those foul sins: Oh if God should not keep down, and by his Spirit mortifie this body of sin, it would quickly break out even into a very hell! Thou carriest therefore fit fewel for any sinne: Oh take heed, how thou comest near the fire of any temptation!

That we are sadly to bewail, and be humbled for this Original Sinne all our dayes.

VVE have considered the Introductory Note of Attention, and now proceed to the Matter it self, which is acknowledged and bewailed, and that is not actual sinne, but the sinne he was born in, even before ever his understand­ing and will, could put forth any actions. David (you heard) doth not here hyperbolize, he speaks it not only humiliter, but veraciter; he doth in his own experience, find that there is such a bitter root within him, such a corrupted na­ture, that if left to it self, would immediately flame out into most accursed and abominable transgressions; and therefore David knowing, that the strength of all his actual sins, was in this original, he composeth himself in a serious and affe­ctionate manner to acknowledge that.

That we are not only to believe there is such a thing,Doct. as original sinne in us, but we are sadly to bewail it, and to be humbled for it all our dayes.

This is not a truth in Divinity, that is to be in a speculative and barren man­ner disputed about, but we are to descend into our own hearts, to discern the wofull and bitter effects of it upon our own souls: It is not enough for you to be of this saith, That there is original sinne, that it is the sinne of the whole world, and of all mankind; but you are to take notice of, and to be affected with that particular and proper original sinne, which difsuseth it self over thy whole man: Original sinne is not one sinne, as there is one Sunne, and all partake of the light of it; or like one Intellectus agens, as some Philosophers dreamed, but it is in every man that cometh in the world, every one that is born hath his birth-corru­ption; Therefore David doth not speak of that iniquity, as it is in all mankind, but as it was his case, and as he was born in it: So that it is not enough for you to say, It is true, it cannot be denied, but that all are sinfull by nature, but you must come home to your own heart, you must take notice of the dung-hill and hell that is in your own hearts. Thus the Apostle Paul, as you heard, Ephes. 2. 3. to humble them, and to lay them low, that they might see all the unwor­thiness and guilt that was upon them, before the grace of God was effectual in them, he informeth them not onely of those grosse actual impieties they had walked in, but that they were by nature the children of wrath. But you may see this duty of bitter and deep humiliation, because of original sinne, notably ex­pressed in Paul, Rom. 7. most of that Chapter is spent in sad groans and com­plaints, because of its still working and acting in him. It was the sense of this, made him cry out, Oh miserable man that I am? Dost thou therefore flatter thy self, as if there were no such law of sinne prevailing upon thee, when thou shalt see Paul thus sadly afflicted because of it? Therefore it is, that I added in the Doctrine, We are to bewail and acknowledge it all our lives; For Paul speaks here (whatsoever Papists and Arminians say to the contrary) in the person of a regenerate man, Who did delight in the Law of God in the inward man; and yet these thorns were in his side, Original sinne in the lusts thereof, was too active, whereby he could not do the good he would, and when he did, he did it not so pure­ly [Page 66] and perfectly, as he ought. So that you see, the work you are to do, as long as you live; Though regenerated, though sanctified, you are to bewail this sinne, yea none but the truly godly do lay it seriously to heart. Natural men, they either do not believe such a thing, or they have not the sense of it, which would wound them at the very heart; Therefore we read only of regenerate men, as David, Job and Paul, who because of this birth-pollution, do humble them­selves so low under Gods hand. But let us search into this truth.

Which needed not to have been, if Adam had stood.

FIrst, Take notice, That had Adam stood in the integrity God made him in, had he preserved the Image of God for himself and for his posterity, then there had been no occasion, no just cause for such self-abhorrency, as doth now necessarily lie upon us. Adam did not hide himself, and runne from God, neither was he asha­med of himself, till sinne had made this dreadfull breach; In that happy time of mans innocency, there was no place for tears or repentance; There was no com­plaining or grieving, because of a Law of sinne hurrying them, whither they would not, then Adam's heart was in his own power, he could joy and delight in God, as he pleased, but since that first transgression, there hath become that grievous ataxy, and sad disorder and confusion, under which we are to mourn and groan, as long as we live, for as we necessarily have corruptible bodies which will be pained and diseased, as long as we are on the earth, so we have also defiled and depraved soules, which will alwaies be matter of grief and sorrow to every gracious heart, so that they must necessarily cry out, Oh Lord! I would fain be better, I desire to be better, but this corrupted heart and nature of mine will not let me! The Socinians, who affirm, That Adam even in the first Crea­tion, had such a repugnancy planted in him, and a contrariety between the mind, and the sensible part, that this prevailing made him thereby to commit that trans­gression, do reproach God the maker of man, and make him the Author of sinne: So then this necessity of confession, and acknowledgment of our native polluti­on, was not from the beginning, but upon Adam's transgression.

We must be humbled for a two-fold Original sinne, and seek from Christ a two-fold Righteousness.

SEcondly, When we say, That original sinne is to be matter of our humilia­tion and sorrow, we must understand that two-fold Original sinne heretofore mentioned, viz. Adam's actual sin imputed to us, and that inherent or in-dwelling sin we are born in; For seeing the guilt of both doth redound upon our per­sons, accordingly ought our humiliation and debasement to be; Yea, Piscator thinketh David confesseth both these in this verse: In the first place, In iniquity was I shapen, or born, as he interprets it, viz. in Adam's iniquity; And in the second place, in (or with, for so some render it) sinne did my mother conceive me, which is to be understood of that imbred pollution; howsoever it be, here it is plain, Rom. 5. that the Apostle debaseth and humbleth us under this two-fold consideration, first, That we all sinned in him, there is the imputed sinne: [Page 67] And secondly, That by his disobedience we are made sinners, there is our birth-sin: So that those who would hunger and thirst after Christ, finding a need of him, must seek for a two-fold benefit by Christ, answering this two-fold evil; First, the grace of Justification, to take away the guilt of all sinne, and then of San­ctification, in some measure, to overcome the power of it, that as we have by the first Adam imputed and inherent sinne, so by the second Adam imputed and in­herent righteousness.

The Different Opinions of Men about Humiliation for Original Sinne.

THirdly, There are those who make such an humiliation and debasement, as David here professeth altogether needless and superfluous, but they go upon dif­ferent grounds: For,

First, All such who do absolutely deny any such thing, they must needs ac­knowledge all such confessions to be lies and falshoods, that it is but taking of Gods name in vain, when we confess such a thing by our selves, if it be not in­deed in us: For if Adam should have said, Behold, God created me in iniquity, and formed me in sinne, would not this have been horrible lying to God, and bla­spheming of his Name? No less is it; If their Position be true, That we are born in the same condition and estate that Adam was created in, derogatory to God, and a bold presumptuous lie, for men in their prayers to acknowledge such a sinne dwelling in them, when indeed it doth not; So then, if this be true, That we are not born in original sinne, then David doth in this penitential Psalm, fearfully abuse the Name of God, speaking that which is a lie, and a most abominable untruth; But whose fore-head is so hardned, as to affirm this? Yet all such who deny there is any birth-sinne, they must also say, there is no confession to be made of it, neither are we to humble our selves be­cause of it.

Secondly, Others there are, that though they hold it to be a sinne, yet (they say) it was absolutely forgiven in Baptism; and if it was then totally forgiven, what necessity is thereof confession and acknowledging it afterwards? That origi­nal sinne was forgiven to all that were baptized, was the opinion of Austin, who yet did more earnestly propugn this Doctrine of original sinne, than any of the Fathers: Yea in his time, these two seemed to be Catholick Doctrines of the whole Church, viz. an universal efficacy of Baptism in all Infants baptized, to purge away original sinne, as also the necessity of damnation of those Infants which died without it. The Papists also, they generally conclude, That this ori­ginal sinne is forgiven to all baptized persons; and Socinus in his Exposition of this place, approveth this Position, That it is not to be confessed; Yea, it cannot be denied, but that some learned Protestants, adversaries both to Papists and Ar­minians, as Davenant, Ward, have affirmed also, That all baptized persons have their original sinne forgiven them, and so dying in their infancy, must without doubt be saved.

Thirdly, There are others, and such are the Remonstrants, who affirm, That upon Adam's fall. God entring into a new Covenant of Grace with fallen mankind, by Christ our Mediator; Therefore it is (they say) that none is damned for ori­ginal sinne, no not Heathens or their children, but that by the second Adam, viz. Christ, there is taken off all that guilt which came by Adam's transgression. So that in this respect, they make the children of Heathens, and believers all alike: [Page 68] So that by these mens Positions, though going upon several grounds, we see it affirmed, That original sinne is pardoned, and that before there is any confessi­on, humiliation and sorrow for it; Whether indeed, though it be pardoned, some of the fore-mentioned Authors will not hold it necessary to confess it, and to beg for the pardon of it, may well be doubted, (I say, some of them) For how prophanely and arrogantly doth a Remonstrant Adolphus Vena­tor, in his Apologia contra Ministros Dordracenos, speak in this matter, as he is cited by Sandaus the Jesuite (for I have not the Book it self) in his Hydrus Hollanda, lib. 2. cap. 20. pag. 268.) where, when from the diversity of opinions about original sinne, he concludeth, There is scarce any certainty about it, addeth, Etiam hinc intelligi potest, nihil esse, quia nemo in se reperiat, mor­sum conscientiae, vel accusationem suiipsius ob peccatum ante quinquies mille, & quingentos annos in Paradiso comissum; Ego saltem non sensi, nec credo Derdrace­nes fratres propter illud vel ingentem conscientiae stimulum persensisse, vel copiam la­chrymarum profudisse: How wretchedly doth this man speak? Certainly David, and Paul had other apprehensions of this original sinne, with the immediate ef­fects thereof. For the Orthodox hold against the Antinomians, ‘That though our sins be pardoned, yet we may, yea, ought upon special occasions to confess them, and to renew our humiliation again for them, as David prayeth, God would not remember the sinnes of his youth; and here in this Psalm, he prayeth to be purged and washed, which relateth to all that uncleanness both original and actual, he had formerly confessed: Thus Paul also doth several times with humiliation and self-debasement make mention of his former perse­cutions and blasphemies he had been guilty of.’

Fourthly. Whatsoever may be the opinions of men about this sinne, either denying it wholly, or making it universally pardoned to all mankind, or at least to some when baptized, of which more is to be said, when we treat of the effects of original sinne; Yet from this example of David, and from other Texts of Scripture, we see, It is our duty, as long as we live in this world, to groan under it, and bewail our miserable condition, because of it.

Repentance may be taken either largely or strictly.

LEt therefore David's example here in the Text, be more to thee, than what ten thousand cavillers may say unto thee, onely you must know, that when we speak of sorrow and repentance about this sinne, we may take repent­ance largely or strictly for any kind of holy sorrow and humiliaton of soul, and that because God is displeased with us, because we have that which is contrary to his holy Law, and so is offensive to him, and damnable to us; and in this re­spect we are in a deep measure to humble our selves for original sinne, as being a most grievous and hainous sinne, the guilt whereof would press us into the lowest hell, did not Gods grace interpose, or else it may be strictly taken for a change of our mind, or an alteration of that purpose and will we once had: Now in this strict sense, though it be our duty with sorrow to be humbled for original sinne, yet we cannot be properly said to repent of it, because it was not a sinne ever committed by us personally, or through our own actual will. So that al­though we may not so properly (it may be) exhort men to repent of this ori­ginal sinne, yet we must press them to a deep and daily humiliation under it, and that not as a punishment, or an affliction only, but as a true and proper sin; So that as without confession and sorrow no actual sinne will be forgiven unto a man, [Page 69] so neither will original sinne, and therefore we do by consequence in the Lords Prayer, when we say, Forgive us our sinnes, pray not onely for the pardon of actual sinnes; but original also, whatsoever the Remonstrants say, neither is their Argument against it of any worth, when they say, then the meaning likewise is in the clause following, That we forgive men their trespasses, and their original corruption against us, for the comparison lieth not in the Nature of the sins, but the manner of forgiveness; otherwise, when the Church prayeth for the pardon of Idolatry, or any sinne against the first Table, adding, As we forgive others, the meaning should be, As we forgive them their Idolatries, or sins against the first Table, which would be absurd and blasphemous. Besides, we are not onely to forgive the actual trespasses of those who wrong us, but even their thoughts and inclinations to hate us; If therefore original sinne be a sinne, and will damn us without Christs bloud, and Gods gracious pardon thereby, then we pray for the pardon of [...] in the Lords Prayer, and we are all our life long, because of the reliques of it in us, to humble ourselves, because of it; And although because Wallaeus, an eminent Divine spake of, Reliquiae peccats originalis. The Remon­strants call it an absurd phrase; ‘For what is meant (say they) by these re­liques of original sinne, either actual sinnes or original?’ If original, why then are they called the reliques of it? Yet we may say, The phrase is very proper, for it supposeth original sinne not to be wholly extinct, but busie and acting, even in the godly, and therefore we may truly say, Paul, Rom. 7. complained of the reliques of it.

It is our duty (we heard) from this example of David, to humble our selves for the original sinne that is in us, as long as we live. Hence whatsoever Austin said at other times, yet in one place he spake most truly in this point, Propter vitium quantum libet praeferimus, esse nobis necessarium dicere dimitte nobis debita nostra, cum jam omnia in Baptismo dicta facta, cogitate dimissa sint. (Epist. 29) Because of original sinne, although we have never so much pro­fited, yet we are to pray, that God would forgive us our sins.

This truth is the more diligently to be pressed upon us, by how much the more doctrinal opinions have risen up against it; for those that deny any such thing, they must needs make confessions of it to be a lie, and a meer mockery. And as for the Papist, though most of them hold original sinne to be truly a sinne, yet they say, Baptism is instituted for the remission of that, as repentance is for actual sins: So that it should seem by their Doctrine, Confession and godly sor­row are required only to take away actual sinne; but as for original, Baptism in the very opere operato doth remove it; for no Infant can put an obex to hinder the effect of that Sacrament: Hence it is that Almain a rational Schoolman, (Opus. de peccato orig. pag. 72.) maketh this Objection, ‘Suppose an adultus, a man grown up, be to baptized, and at that very time he puts some obex by a gross sinne to hinder the fruit of Baptism; How then can that man (saith he) ever have his original sin pardoned; for there is not a second Baptism, and repentance is only to take away actual? To this he answers, That such a man is not indeed either to have attrition or contrition, or confession of original sinne; for as it was not contracted by our free-will, so it doth not require such a nolition, whereby I would not have been born in it;’ Therefore such a man, in his opi­nion, is to repent of that sinne which was the obex, and then when that is re­pented of, original sinne is forgiven by the very receiving of Baptism. I bring this instance, to shew, That according to the Popish Doctrine, which yet holds original sinne, yet there is to be no sorrow, no contrition or confession, yea that we are not to have a nolition of it, because it was not committed by our free­will. Bellarmine likewise (lib. 1. de Sacramento Baptismi, cap. 9) saith, Ori­ginale paccatum non est materia poenitentiae, nemo enim rectè poenitentiam agit ejus peccati, quod ipse non commisit, & quod in ejus potestate non fuit: Although Onu­phrius [Page 70] (De poenitentia Disp. 3. Sect. 1. Quaest. 5.) brings out of Aquinas that distinction I mentioned before, viz. of Repentance taken strictly and largely, and in this later he joyneth with Aquinas, holding it necessary for original sinne, opposing Medina, who affirmed, ‘That Repentance taken any way, though never so largely, was not necessary for original sinne.’ But our Doctrine out of this Text, will endure as gold and precious stone, when that errour will be Conte [...]ed as hay and stubble: For as actual sinne, so neither original sinne will be forgiven to any persons grown up, unless they do acknowledge, and with true [...] of heart bewail it; so that many commands which are to confes [...], to bewail it, and to abhorre our selves, because of it, as also to pray ea [...]ly and fervently for pardon, must extend to original sinne, as well as actual ne­ither is Baptism a Seal of the pardon of original sinne onely, but of all [...] sinns to grown persons, which shall by faith make an holy improvement of that Ordinance, only it is true, as was hinted before, there is some difference in our godly sorrow for original sinne, and for actual.

The Difference between Godly Sorrow for Original Sinne and Actual.

FIrst, Repentance, or change of our minds and wils, is not strictly and properly for original sinne, because that was not actually committed by, us neither was it ever in our own single persons to have prevented it, yet in respect of sorrow, detestation, and self-abomination, so we are as much, if not more, to bewail our selves, than for actual sin.

Secondly, Again, In actual sins, there is this necessity in our repentance, That we do so no more, he only truly repents, that doth not commit those gross sins again, at least not habitually or customarily, as our Saviour said to one, Go thy way, and sin no more; but this will not hold in original sinne, we cannot say, we will have it no more within us, we cannot say, this Jebusite shall abide no longer within our borders, for we shall alwayes carry about with us this body of sinne.

And therefore in the third place, Original sinne and actual differ exceedingly in this, That actual sinne when pardoned, both the sinne itself, and it's guilt is removed, but in original sinne, though the guilt be removed in the godly, nei­ther is it imputable to them, yet the sinne it self in some measure and power re­maineth with us, as is more largely to be shewed in time; Onely you see some difference there is, in our sorrow and humiliation, between original and actual, yet not such, but that in respect of deep confession, and humble acknowledgement, both are alike; so that we cannot have any pardon of either without such con­trite hearts, as the Scripture speaks of; and it is good to consider the grounds, why we ought to be greatly debased, and to lay our selves so low under this con­sideration.

Reasons why we must be humbled for Original Sinne.

FIrst, Because original sinne is in some sense all sinne; It is the universal conta­gion of all the parts of the soul; it hath Maculam universalem, all actual sins they have only their particular spot or stain, and do more immediately pollute that power or faculty of the soul, it is immediately subjected in, as blindness of mind doth properly infect the understanding, not the will or affections: so con­tumacy in the will, doth not but by consent or sympathy, as it were, infect the mind, but original sinne doth pollute all over, it's like a Gangrene over the whole body, whereas actual sinnes are like so many several sores: Thus original sinne is universal subjectively, there being no part of a man, no not his mind, or his conscience, but it is all over defiled, whereas no actual sinne hath such a ge­neral defilement with it: Oh then what cause is here, why our hearts should bit­terly mourn and even roar out, for this sinne makes thy soul all over like a Black­moor! Thou mayest behold thy self in the glass of Gods word, and not see one fair spot; it is a leprosie upon the whole soul, so that it leaveth nothing good in thee. It's true, the substance and faculties of thy soul are left still, yet they are so corrupted and vitiated, that in a moral consideration there is nothing whole or sound in them.

Secondly, From hence it is, That it hath as it were an universal guilt, it makes the understanding guilty, the will guilty, the affections guilty, even guilt all over; Every actual sinne hath its proper formal guilt; the guilt of theft is one thing, the guilt of adultery is another thing, but now original sinne is as it were an universal guilt: As God is that bonum, in quo omnia bona, so in some sense original sinne is that malum, in quo omnia mala, not onely effectively, of which in the next place, but because of the general guilt accompanying; For as it hath a ge­neral maculam, so it must have suitably a general reatum. This is greatly to be laid to heart; for as original righteousness was not the perfection and glory of one faculty only, but the universal rectitude and general harmony of the whole man; Thus original sinne is not any particular guilt of one kind of sinne, but it's the ataxy, the dissolution of that curious workmanship which God at first made in man, and so is a general guilt; and therefore the more are we to bewail this condition, saying, Lord, It is not one or many sins, it is not this, or that peculiar guilt I am to humble my self for, but I am all over guilty, as the Land of Israel is said to be, Isa. 1. 6. From the sole of the foot to the head, there is no soundness, nothing but wounds and putrifying sores. Thus are we to judge of our selves in respect of this overspreading contagion.

Thirdly, We are greatly to bewail and humble our selves under this birth­pollution, Because it's the fountain and root of all the actual evil we do commit. This is enough, if there were no external temptations to plunge us into all im­piety. I shall not here dispute it rigidly, Whether every sinne committed, be­cause of that original defilement within us, of that we are to speak hereafter. It is enough, that the Scripture doth attribute all actual evil to this, as the cause, Jam. 1. 17. Every one is tempted and drawn aside by the lust which is within him; and out of the evil heart, as an evil treasure, our Saviour saith, Mat. 12. 35. pro­ceed all evil thoughts, words and actions. Thus also Genes. 6. The imaginations of the thoughts of a mans heart are evil, and that continually, but of this more in its time; onely take notice of this consideration in this place, as a full and clear ground, why thou shouldst with all thy might all the dayes thou livest, abhorre thy self, and loath thy self: It's from this original sinne David's adultery and murder did flow: And thus there is no actual iniquity, which lieth as a load upon [Page 72] thee, but it did flow from this bitter fountain at first: Wilt thou therefore con­demn the fruit of a Tree, and not much rather the root? Wilt thou abhorre the stream, and not much rather the fountain? Oh remember that here lieth the strength and power of sinne, and therefore the strength of thy sorrow ought to bend that way likewise.

Fourthly, We are deeply to humble our selves for this birth contagion, Be­cause in it self it is a most grievous and hainous sinne. It's a dispute, Whether ori­ginal sinne be not gravissimum peccatum, the heaviest and greatest sinne that is; It is true indeed, many sins may exceed this in several respects, but yet if we lay all things together, we have cause to judge it the heaviest sinne that is; For al­though Bellarmine minceth the matter, and saith, it is minimum, peccatum, the least sinne in this respect (though he acknowledge it very hainous otherwayes) because it hath minimum de voluntario, yet we must not judge of the greatness of a sinne by a Philosophical notion, but according to the judgement of God, who best knoweth the hainous nature and guilt of sinne; now by Gods punishing of it in such a manner, it appeareth to be the greatest sin, the event doth demon­strate it; In that we read not of any sinne punished by God in such an high de­gree, as original sinne was in Adam our first parent, in whose loms we are; For whereas all other sinnes bring only the temporal and spiritual curse upon the offender himself, this doth upon all mankind: Indeed God doth visit sometimes the sins of Parents to the third and fourth generation, but here it is as long as there shall be a generation: And besides, it's not onely temporal evils we suffer for Adam's sinne, in which respect many may suffer for other mens sinnes, as in Achan and David's case, but it is in spiritual destruction likewise, all mankind is obnoxious to eternal damnation for this transgression: That therefore must needs be an horrid sinne, and of a crimson nature, for which we see God to be so sevre, yea not only mankind, but all the creatures likewise are cursed for this; so that had not God provided a new Covenant of grace for some of mankind thus fallen, the whole race of men, would have been eternally damned, and that for this sinne alone, though there had not been one actual sinne committeed in the world by any one man since the fall: Oh then tremble under this consideration, because the anger of God is thus stirred up against that one sin, morethan all the sins that are committed! For though the sinne against the holy Ghost be in this respect more terrible than original sinne, because God will never pardon that, whereas original sinne is pardoned to all believers, and as Antiquity hath thought, even to Adam himself; yet in other respects, original sinne is in a more extense and uni­versal manner cursed than that: Do not then go to extenuate this sinne, to say, It was but the eating of some for bidden fruit; or original sinne, it hath none of my will, I cannot help it (for we joyn original, imputed, and inherent at this time together, because of their inseparable connexion;) but rather consider the great anger of God that is gone out against all mankind, because of it, and then thou wilt look on it with the same abborring eye that God him­self doth.

Fifthly, We are greatly to bewail this original defilement, Because it makes us wholly incurable, it depriveth us of all spiritual ability and power to re­cover our selves; We are thus shapen in iniquity, and so must live and die, and go to hell in it, if Gods grace doth not interpose: Doth not Job, Chap. 14. 4. make it impossible for any man, to bring a clean thing out of an unclean? So that all mankind is born in an absolute impotency to help it self, if we would give thousands of worlds to come out of this lost estate, we could not help ourselves: Hence it is that the Scripture attributeth all the good we have to the alone free grace of God.

Sixthly, We are to bewail it, Because it makes us sensless, stupid, depriving us of all spiritual sense and feeling: So that by it we are put into this sad per­piexity, [Page 73] for none need, or are bound more to bewail this sinne, than an unrege­nerate man, and yet he cannot send forth the least sigh and groan, because of it: So that hereby we have contracted such an unavoidable exigency upon us, that we cannot turn our selves any way; mourn and cry we must for this pol­lution, yet mourn and cry we cannot, because this is one inseparable effect of it, to take away all tendernesse and mourning: Hence the stony heart mentioned by Ezekiel, Chap. 11. 18. is in a great measure original sinne: Till therefore we are regenerated, as we see in David, Job and Paul, we cannot truly mourn under it.

Lastly, This is a work to do as long as we live, Because it's inseparable from our natures, while we live in this world. God indeed could in our life time, wholly free us from it, as well as at death, but he lets these re­liques continue, that our tryumph at the Day of Judgement may be the greater, Vivum captivum reservantur ad tryumphum, Captives are preserved alive for the greater trymph; And the rather God doth this, that so even his very Pauls, his most eminent and choicest servants may have matter of debasement within themselves, and more earnestly groan for a day of Re­demption.


A TREATISE OF Original Sin.

The Second Part.

SHEWING VVhat ORIGINAL SINNE is, AND How it is Communicated.

By Anthony Burgess.


LONDON, Printed in the Year, 1658.

A TREATISE OF Original Sinne. PART. II.

Of the Name Old-man given to Original Sinne,


ROM. 6. 6.‘Knowing this, that our Old-man is crucified with Christ, &c.’

IN the beginning of the Chapter, the Apostle informeth us, That no Gospel priviledges, or Evangelical grace amplified to the highest, may encourage to sinne, for the Apostle maketh an Objection himself from the Doctrine he delivered; If grace abound where sinne doth abound, then why may not we sinne more, that grace may abound more? Thus there have alwayes been some who have turn­ed bread into stones, and fish into serpents, making the grace of God to exclude our duty, and a tender care against sinne. But the Apostle, as if blasphemy were in this Objection, tryeth out, God forbid; You see with what indignation and detestation we should look [Page 78] upon all those Doctrines, which under pretence of advancing Grace, do cry down Duties and an holy life, making it a legal and a servile thing.

Now the Apostle bringeth an Argument against indulgence in sinne, notwith­standing Gods grace, Because we are dead to it, and then how can we live to it? Would it not be a monstrous, and an afrighting sight, to see dead men come out of their graves, to live and walk amongst us? Thus also it ought to be no less wonderfull, yea terrible, to see a Christian give himself to any evil way. And that we are dead to sinne, he proveth by our Baptism, concerning which he speaks admirable and sublime matter: So that if we consider what great things are here spoken of it, we may wonder to see, how cold and rare our meditations are about it; for he makes it to be that Sacrament, in the right use whereof▪ we put on Christ, yea that thereby we are ingraffed and implanted into him: Hence ver. 5. he useth that word of being planted into him; a metaphor from the Husbandman, who by planting his Science into, another stock, doth thereby make it partake of the life or death of the Tree; if the Tree liveth, that liveth; if the Tree di­eth, that dieth; so it is with us and Christ. By the phrase then is intended no more than our communion with, and interest in Christ, and that both in his death, and his resurrection: For you must know, that the Scripture doth not only make Christs death and resurrection to be the cause of the death of our sins, and of our spiritual resurrection to holiness, but also makes them types and re­semblances of such things in us, That as Christ died in his passible body, so we should die to sinne; and as Christ after his death did rise again to glory and im­mortality, thus we should rise out of sinne, to walk in newness of life, and both these are signified in Baptism.

1. Our Communion with Christ in the efficacy of his death and resurrection.

2. The Representation of this; that what was corporally done to Christ, should be spiritually fulfilled in us; and therefore some think, that the Apostle doth allude to that primitive Rite and Custom which was in baptizing; when the baptized party was first put under the water for a little season, which represent­ed Christs burial, and our death to sinne. 2. There was the emersion, or rising again out of the waters, which signified Christs Resurrection, and also our rising again to holiness and godliness.

This is the Summe of the Apostles discourse concerning Baptism in its sacra­mental signification, which he amplifieth further in my Text, and that as a rea­son, why we should not live to sinne who were baptized into Christ, viz. Be­cause our Old man is crucified with Christ; Both because Christ in being crucified did subdue thereby the dominion of sinne, and also we are to do to the body of sinne within us, what was done to Christs body, to crucifie it, and thereby to destroy it. There is nothing more to be enquired into in the Text, but what is meant by our Oldman?

They limit it too much that understand it only of the habit, or acquired custom of sinne, which we live in before Regeneration, as Grotius seemeth to under­stand; But we are to take it, as both Popish and Protestant Commentators do interpret it, for that vicious and corrupt nature, which we all derive from Adam, putting it self forth into several lusts and ungodly actions, wherby there is an habi­tuated, inveterated custom at last in sin; so that although we may understand lusts and actual impieties with long custom therin, under the phrase of the Old man, yet principally and chiefly we are to interpret it of that polluted nature we have from Adam; and this will easily appear to be so, if you consider the other two places, where this expression is used, Ephes. 4. 22. That ye put off the Old man, &c. and that ye put on the New man. Col. 3. 9, 10. Ye have put off the Old man with his deeds, and have put on the New man. Where,

1. You see the Old man is distinguished from the effects and deeds of it, which are actual sins. And then

[Page 79] 2. Old man and New man are made two immediate opposites; now the New man is plainly expressed by the Apostle, what it is, viz. not so much actual ho­liness, as the Image of God repaired in us, so that as the New man is the Image of God, and that holy nature repaired in us, so the Old man is the contrary to this, viz. a deprivation of that Image of God, and and an universal pollution of all the whole man: So that whereas sometimes the word Old is used absolutely, as the old Serpent (there is no new Serpent) which is the Devil; So here its used comparative­ly, and called Old in respect of the New man, the work of grace succeeding therein.


HAving therefore hitherto shewed the Quod sit of original sinne, That there is such a thing, maugre all adversaries, and that by the mouth of two wit­nesses out of the New Testament, and two out of the Old (not but that there are many more, only I shall (God willing) treat on them upon some different notions.) I now come to inform you of the Quid sit, What it is; for here is much opposition likewise; And because in knowing what a thing is, there is the Quid nominis, and Quid rei, what the name is, and what the thing is.

I shall first beginne with what the Name is, for that way Socrates did use to commend, from the name to go to the nature of a thing: And whereas this na­tive-pollution hath Scripture names, Ecclesiastical, used by the Fathers, and Scholastical used by the Schoolmen, yea the Rabbins say, it hath seven names in the Old Testament. I shall only pitch on the Bible names, and that not univer­sally, but upon some eminent and chief ones, which it hath in the Scripture, from which alone we shall be best able to discern the nature of it.

The first whereof is here in the Text, wherein it is called the Old man; From whence observe,Observ.

That the natural or birth-pollution we are barn in, is called by the Scripture, The Old man that is in us.

Several names indeed the Scripture giveth it, and some are applied to it by Divines, of which, yet some question may be made; as when Christ is said, to be the Lamb that takes away the sinne of the world, John 1. 29. By that they say is meant original sinne, for that is not so much my sinne or thy sinne, as the sinne of the world, and therefore he speaketh in the singular number, The sinne, not the sins of the world; but this is not so probable, for Christ came into the world to take away not only original sinne, as some Papists have thought, but actual also. Others apply that of Heb. 10. to it, The sinne that doth so easily beset us; And indeed that is a very proper word to explain original sinne; but whether the Apostles scope be so immediately to point at that, may be further enquired into. I shall therefore take only some few clear and undoubted Titles, that the Scripture giveth to it, of which this in the Text is a notable one, The old man; And before we inform you, how comprehensive this is, let us remove a twofold mistake, or erroneous apprehension that may be about it.

Two Mistakes removed.

THe first is that of Flaccius Illyricus, who because the Scripture useth such concrete and substantive terms about original sinne, calling it a man, a body, therefore he erred in a contrary extremity to the Pelagians; and some Pontificians, making original sinne not to be an accident, but the essence and sub­stance [Page 80] of the soul; but of this more when we come to search out the nature of it; only you must know, that original sinne is not the substance of a man, but an universal disease adhering to it; as the Leprosie in a Leper, it's not his body, it's not his corpulent essence; the body is one thing, the Leprosie is another thing; and thus in man, his soul and body are one thing, his original corruption is ano­ther thing: Though as in an universal Leprosie, you cannot touch one part of the body, but it is infected; so neither can we name one part of the soul, but it is polluted; we must therefore distinguish between nature and sinne, to avoid Flac­cianism; yet we must not separate or divide one from the other, to avoid Pela­gianism; but of this more in its time.

Secondly, We must not conceive that it's called the Old man, because of any impotency or weakness, as if it were not able to put forth into vigorous acts and lively lustings of sinne, as old men have all their natural strength and vigour de­caying: No, though it be called the Old man in us, yet it's constantly working, drawing aside, captivating and enflaming of us, yea making warre daily against any thing of God within us.

These things premised, let us consider, why the Scripture giveth it such a name, for it might seem a very harsh exposition, to call that which is an accident or a quality in a man, by the name of an Old man.

Why Original Sinne is called Man.

THerefore let us see the reason, why it's called Man, and then the Old man; original sinne may be called a Man,

First, Because that so farre as we are men, quanti sumus, we are all over pollu­ted; So that the old man is the whole man polluted in this sinne before he be rege­nerated: Insomuch that this phrase may sadly and deeply humble us, that the Scripture gives the name of man to sinne, as if that were all we are: Hence (as you have heard) to walk as a man, to speak as a man, is to do a thing sinfully, as farre as thy humanity reacheth, so farre thy pollution reacheth; So that the very calling of thee a man may greatly debase thee; for though thou art a rich man, a great man, yet this Old man doth infect thee.

Secondly, In that original sinne is called a Man, there is implied the Subject of it to be every man, as well as every part of man, Totus homo, and totum homi­nis, yea ad omnis homo, not one exempted that is by natural propagation: So that every little Infant hath this Man in it; Every one that needeth a Christ, that wanteth a Saviour, hath this Old man abiding in him.

Thirdly, It's called Man, Because of the heap or collection of all sinne that is in it; For as a man is not one part of the body, the finger, the eye, or the hand, but the whole Compages and Fabrick of all the parts united together. Thus original sinne is not one particular sinne, but the mass or spawn of all; It's not a stream, but the ocean, and therefore this sheweth the horridness also of it, that it is the womb wherein all sinne is conceived; Let a man be totally cleansed from this, as the glorified Saints in Heaven are, and then no actual sin can come from him.

Lastly, It's called a Man, Because of the intimate and tenacious adhesion of it to the whole man, there being no way to sever our Natures and that, while we abide in these mortal bodies: So that it supposeth sinne to be in us, as fire in the iron when it is red hot (though there is some dissimilitude also) that we cannot see [Page 81] the colour and substance of the iron for the fire, nothing appeareth but fire; Iron though of it self black and cold, yet by the fire in it is altered; so the soul of a man; yea the whole man that was at first made upright and holy; now through this pollution manifests nothing thereof, yea the clean contrary; in stead of the Image of God, there is the image of the Devil, there appeareth nothing but of the sinne and the Devil in a man; for if Paul could say, He no longer lived, but Christ in him, Gal. 2. 20. when yet grace was not full and complete in him, How much rather may we, while abiding in our natural estate say, We no longer live, but sinne in us, for sinne moveth all, and doth all, having full dominion over us?

Why it is called Old-man.

IN the second place, It may be called the Old man; First, Because it came from Adam the first man, and most antient: Thus it is a sinne of great antiquity, it hath been in the world ever since Adam's transgression; Most things have had their times and their seasons, but this hath been alwayes; There was never any age, wherein men were not born sinfull, though some actual sins have abounded more at one time than another, though Adam be dead thousands of years ago, yet the sin liveth and is propagated.

2. It is Old, Because it is from every mans particular beginning: Thou canst not think of the number of thy years, or how old thou art, but thou mayest with groans remember also that sinne is just as old as thou art; Hast thou lived to threescore or an hundred years, even thus old sinne is? Alas we are apt to complain of old age, to count it a disease; we say, Alas now our best time is gone, we are weak old men: Oh but there is an old man within that is more to be la­mented!

3. It's the Old man, Because of the crast and subtil wayes that this sinne hath within us: Insomuch that Jeremiah complaineth Chap 17. None can find out the depth of sinne, none but God can search thy heart: This is the old subtil fox within thee, and therefore it's said to deceive and to tempt us.

4. It's the Old man, Because it is to be renewed; That which is old (saith the Apostle) is to vanish away. The Old Testament was removed that the New might succeed. Thus the Old man is to die, is to continue no longer, that the New may be established in us.

Lastly, It's called the Old man, Because there is no loveliness or comeliness in it; For old age is like winter, making the blossoms of beauty to fall: Thus the name Old man argueth the uncomeliness of it.

Vse. Of Instruction, To acquaint your selves with this Old man in you, young and old, rich and poor, all have this Old man, that will at last betray and damn you: Oh consider you carry your own bane about with you, out of thy own bowels, thy own heart, will arise that which will destroy thee, and this Old man is in every one; The Pharisees told the blind man, He was wholly born in sinnes; They thought it was the condition of some miserable afflicted people to be so born, but it is the condition of all, and therefore expect no heaven or slavation, till this Old man be crucified, and the New man repaired in thee.

Of the Name Law of Sinne given to Original Sinne.


ROM. 7. 25.‘So then, with the mind I myself serve the Law of God, but with the flesh the Law of Sinne.’

THis Chapter is the common seat and proper place, wherein the nature of original inherent sinne is expresly handled; so that he who by reading of this Chapter shall not be convinced that there is such a thing as original sinne, and that in some measure putting it self forth in the godly to their great grief and misery, I think we may say, he would not believe any such thing, though men should rise from the dead, and come and preach it to us. I shall in time (God willing) fully improve the chief matter herein contained; for herein is described that Christian conflict which is in all the godly between the regenerate and unrege­nerate part, as also the consequents thereof: For the present, I must take two Hypo­theses, or Suppositions for granted, which in time (God willing) I shall fully prove.

The first is, That the Apostle speaking of such a sharp combate within him between the Law of his mind, and the Law of sinne, doth not assume the person of another, as of a carnal unregenerate man, or a Legalist convinced by the Doctrine of the Law, yet his heart carrying him in the clean contrary way, but speak it of his own Person, and that as regenerated. The former way go the Arminians, and some Papists, and all Socinians, but the later way generally go the Protestants, even as Austin of old, retracting the former opinion he once had; yea the best and choisest Commentators of the Papists, Salmeron, Pererius, Estius and Lapide, &c. do adhere to this Exposition. So that you must not think, that the com­bate here spoken of, is like that which Aristotle describes his incontinent person by, that doth like videre and Probare meliora, but deteriora sequi, which is only a fight between an inlightned conscience, and a corrupt heart. Nor

2. Is it like those preparatory and initial works anteceding sometimes conversion, which Austin doth notably speak of in himself, desiring to be freed from sinne, and yet afraid his prayer should be heard; so that he was alwayes going, but yet never did thorowly go to God, till at last he found that gratia Dei vorti cordis, which no hard heart can resist, because it is given on purpose to take away the hard heart: But the Apostle doth here not only doctrinally affirm such a thing as original sinne, but experimentally he declareth the actings of it: So that he [Page 83] doth not only write a doctrinal and dogmatical Truth, but also an History of what he observed in himself.

The second Supposition to be granted is, that by flesh the Apostle doth not only mean the sensitive or sensual part, but the whole man, so farre as corrupted. So that with the Apostle, the soul is flesh, the understanding, the will, are flesh, be­cause all are corrupted with original sinne; Of which more in its time.

These two things premised, you may know, that this Text read is the Epilogue or summary Conclusion, which the Apostle makes from that doctrinal and pra­ctical discourse about himself (to wit) that there are two principles in him, two selves, two men, as it were; There was both a sweet fountain and bitter within him, and from these did flow two suitable streams, The Law of the mind, did incline him to serve the Law of God, but the Law in his members, the Law of sin; Not that the Law of sinne and members are two distinct things, as Calvin and Beza thought, making the Law of sinne, to be original sinne, the Law in the members to be the actings and stirrings of this in the whole man; for ver. 23. The Law of sinne is expresly said to be in the members; And whereas the Apostle in that verse saith, He seeth a Law in his members bringing him into captivity to the Law of sinne, that doth not argue a distinction between these, but according to the use of the Scripture, the Antecedent is repeated for the Relative; the sense being. That the Law of his members did bring Paul into captivity to it, not­withstanding the Law of the mind with in him, as Gen. 9. 16. I will remember (saith God himself) the everlasting Covenant between God (that is my self) and every living creature.

We see then in these words, that the Apostle giveth another name to that original sinne, which dwelleth in him, he calleth it very emphatically The Law of sinne in him; Original corruption is even in Paul, though converted, how much more in all unregenerate persons by way of a Law: From whence observe,

That the Scripture cals original sin the Law of sin Within us.


TO understand this, take notice of these things:

First, The Apostle in his Epistles doth delight to use the word Law, and that when speaking of contrary things, The Law of God, the Law of Works; This he mentioneth properly, but then he cals it, The Law of faith, because the He­brew word for Law, signifieth no more than Doctrine, for Torath either comes, they say, from a word that signifieth to appoint or teach, or from a word that signifieth to rain, because (saith Chemnitius) as the raine is gather­ed together in the clouds, not to be kept there, but to be emptied on the earth, that so it may be made fruitfull. Thus the Law of God was ap­pointed by God, not meerly to be written in the Bible, but also to be implanted in our hearts. The word then in the Hebrew signifying Doctrine in the general, no wonder if the Gospel be called, The Law of Faith; So Regeneration, Rom. 8. is called, The Law of the Spirit of life; as in other places it is, The Law of God written in our hearts; but the Apostle doth not only apply it to these things, but especially in this Chapter he cals it; The Law of sinne, not sin only, but the Law of sinne, and the Law in our members; why the Apostle doth so, you shall hear anon. Only

In the second place, you must consider, when the Apostle cals it, The Law of sinne, it is in an improper and abusive, or allusive sense; for a Law properly is only of that which is good, the matter of a Law, must be honest and just, be­cause a Law is pars juris, and Jus is à justo; Therefore Aquinas saith, That un­just Laws are rather violentia, than leges. Yea Tully saith, Such Decrees are nei­ther [Page 84] Leges, nor ne appellandae quidem, yet the Scripture speaks of some, who make iniquity a Law, Psal. 99. 20. or who frame mischief for a Law. Tacitus com­plaineth of the multitude of Laws in his time, and saith, The Commonwealth groaned, ut flagitiis ita legibus; So that although the properties of a Law are to be good and profitable, yet by allusion, all unjust and hurtfull Decrees are cal­led Laws, and thus the Apostle cals it the Law of sinne, alluding to those pro­perties, or effects, which a Law hath; What the Law of God doth in a regene­rate man, the contrary doth the Law of sinne in a natural man.

Original Sinne compared to a Law in five respects.

ORiginal sinne therefore may be compared to a Law, in these respects:

First, A Law doth teach and direct, Lex est lux, It informeth and teach­eth what is to be done. Thus the Schoolmen, they make Direction the first thing necessary to a Law; The work of grace in a godly man, is called by the Apostle, The Law of the mind, in this Chapter; Because grace within a man doth teach and direct him what to do; Hence 1 John 2. 27. the godly man is said to have an anointing within him; The Law of God is written in his inward parts, and so from within, as well as by the Word without, they are taught what to do: Thus on the contrary the Law of sinne in a natural man, doth teach and prompt him to all kind of evil; This Law of sinne doth not indeed teach what we ought to do, but it doth wonderfully suggest all kind of wickedness to us; and from this cause it is, that you see children no sooner able to act, but they can with all readiness runne into evil; sinnes that they have not seen committed before their eyes, they can with much dexterity accomplish: What a deal of instruction and admonition is requisite to nurture your young ones in the fear of the Lord? And all is little enough, And why is this? The Law of God is not in their hearts, they have not that in them, which would direct and teach holiness; But on the other side, chil­dren need not to be taught wickedness, you need not instruct them how to sinne, they have much artifice and cunning in an evil way, And why so? The Law of sinne is in them, this is that they are bred with: So that as the young ones of Foxes and Serpents, though they have no teacher, yet from the Law of na­ture within them, they grow subtil and crafty in their mischievous wayes: Thus the Law of sinne doth in every man, he is ingenious and wise to do evil. As the ground ere it will bring forth corn doth need much labour and tillage, but of it self bringeth forth bryars and thorns: Thus all by nature are so foolish and blind, that without heavenly education and institution you cannot bring them to that which is holy, but of their own selves, men have subtilty and abilities to frame mischievous things: And why is all this? They have a Law of sinne within them, which directs, suggests and inform­eth to do much evil: So that we are not to put all upon the Devil, to say, He put it into my minde, he suggested such thoughts to me; No, the Law of sinne within thee, can sufficiently prompt thee to all evil.

Secondly, A Law doth not onely teach, but it doth instigate and incline, it presseth, and provoketh to the things commanded by it, Thus the Law of the mind in a godly man, doth greatly instigate and provoke him to what is good; It is like a goad in his side, it is like fire in his bowels, he must do that which is good, else he cannot have any rest within him: You read when David refrained for a while from speaking good, at last he could hold no longer, but [Page 85] the fire did break out: So Paul, 2 Cor. 5. The love of Christ constraineth us; Thus the true believer he hath a principle of grace within him, which is like a Law upon him, he cannot do otherwise, he must obey it: Thus on the contrary, Original sinne in a natural man, is like a Law within him, it provoketh him, it enflameth him to all evil; Whensoever any holy duty is pressed upon him, this Law of sinne stirreth him up against it, makes him rage at it, as the Apostle doth abundantly testifie in this Chapter, he tels us, This Law of sinne did warre and fight against the Law of God, it did lead him captive, it conquered and subdued him against his will: If then a godly man find this Law of sinne so powerfull, and operative in him; No wonder if men wholly carnal and natural, they finde the Law of sinne as fully prevailing over them, as the Devils did on the herd of Swine, which they hurried violently into the sea without any resistance. As then the Devil when he possessed some bodies, provoked and moved them to ma­ny violent and sudden actions, which they could not gainsay: Thus doth the Law of sinne in men naturally, it provoketh, it instigateth, it turneth the soul upside down, it is continually pressing and enclining to evil, which makes the Scripture say, Gen. 6. That the imaginations of the thoughts of mans heart is only evil, and that continually.

Thirdly, Original sinne is a Law, because by this a man is bound and ca­ptivated to the lusts thereof, there is an indissoluble union till death. Thus the Apostle argueth from the Law of an Husband and his Wife, she can­not marry another, while her Husband lives; Neither can we be married to Christ, while this is predominant, yea, we must die, ere we be wholly freed of it.

Fourthly, Original sinne is called a Law of sinne within us, because of the injurious command and rule it hath in every man by nature: And this in­deed is the most explicite and formal reason, why it is called a Law; for to a Law there is not onely required a directive power, for so counsels and admonitions have, which are no Laws; but there must be also a preceptive and commanding power; so that a Law hath vim coactivum, a compelling force; to have a thing done; and in this respect, the Apostle gives it this Title of a Law of sinne within us, for even in the person of a regenerate man; What sad complaints doth he make of this tyrannical power of sinne with­in him? He is not his own man, he cannot do what he would, yea he doth what he would not; insomuch that he cals himself carnal, and sold under sinne: These expressions are so great, that therefore some have thought they could not be applied to a godly man; For it is said of Ahab, as a sure Character of his wickednesse, That he sold himself to do evil, 1 Kings 21. 20. but Ahab did that willingly; Paul is here passive, he is sold against his will, because sinne hath such tyranny over him: Therefore the afflicted Israelite did not more groan to be delivered from his oppression, than Paul crieth out to be delivered from this body of sinne; Well therefore may this birth-pollution be called, The Law of sinne within us, for it ruleth all, it commands the whole man; what sinne bids us think, we think; what it bids us do, we do; No natural man can do othewise: The Apostle speaks per­emptorily, They that are in the flesh cannot please God? Rom. 8. 7, 8. And the carnal minde is not subject to God, neithe indeed can be: Oh the mise­rable and unhappy estate we are all then in by this original sinne! We cannot but sinne, we do not love that which is good, neither can we; The Law of sinne hath wholly enslaved us: Though all the curses of the Law be denounced against us, yet we cannot but sinne: As venemous creatures can­not vent that which is sweet, but necessarily that which is poison, yet (as Bernard of old said well) ‘This necessity in sinning doth not take off from [Page 86] voluntarinesse and delight in it, neither doth the delight take off from the necessity.’

Lastly, It may be called, The Law of sinne (saith Aquinas) Because it's that effect of Gods penal Law inflicted upon mankind, because of Adam's trans­gression; So that upon Adam's sinne, God hath so ordered, that it should be by way of a punishment upon us, to be prone unto all evil. For (as you heard) this original sinne, is both a sinne and a punishment; So that as God hath appointed that every man should die, it is a Law that shall never be repealed; so likewise that every one born of man in a natural way should be unclean, and have a fountain within him daily emptying it self into poisonous streams.

Vse. To be informed, whence it is that thy heart is so out of all mea­sure evil, whence it is that no godly thing is pleasing to thee, whence it is that upon searching into thy heart, thou findest a noisom dunghill there, that thou art never able to go to the bottom, whence it is that lust is so ready at hand alwayes, that sinne alwayes appeareth first in thy soul; All this is, because original corruption is by way of a Law in thee; That teach­eth to sinne, that instigateth to sinne, yea that commands and imperiously puts thee on to all manner of evil: If you do not feel this heavy thral­dome and pressure upon you, it is not because it is not there, but because thou art dead in sin, and hast no feeling of it. Solemon speaking of a good woman, hath this notable expression, Prov. 31. 26. The Law of kindnesse is in her lips (The Law of kindnesse) she cannot but be loving and friendly in all she saith. Now on the contrary, The Law of sinne is all over thee; The Law of sinne is in thy heart, the Law of sinne is in thy mind, the Law of sinne is in thy eyes, in thy tongue, thou canst not but sinne in, and by these.

Of the Name, The Sinne that dwelleth in us, given to Original Sinne.

Of the Combate between the Flesh and Spirit.

ROM. 7. 17.‘Now then, it is no more I that do it, but sinne that dwelleth in me.’

THis excellent Chapter, which containeth the heart and life of the Doctrine of Original Sinne, so that it may be called the Divine Map thereof, describing all the parts and extents of it, will afford us many testimonies for the confirmation of it.

We therefore proceed to another name that we find here de­scribed to us in this Text, viz. The sinne that dwelleth in us. The Apostle you heard (as we take for granted) doth here speak in his own person, and so of every regenerate man, that there is a conflict, and a combate between the flesh and the Spirit. In all such there are two Twins strugling in the womb of the soul, which causeth much grief and trouble of heart, which the Apostle doth in a most palpable and experimental manner relate in this passage, vers. 15. That which I do, I allow not; for what I would, that I do not, but what I hate, that I do. Now you must understand this aright, lest it prove a stumbling bl [...]ck, For,

First, The Apostle speaks not this, as a man meerly convinced, but yet carried away with strong corruptions; This is not to patrocinate those who live in sinnes against their conscience, but have some check and bitter reluctancy sometimes, so that they can say sometimes, I do the things I allow not, yea I hate; When the Apostle, Rom. Chap. 1. and Chap. 2. speaketh of some Heathens, that had their consciences accusing of them, and that they detained the truth in unrighteousnesse, he supposeth, That those who yet never tasted of the power of the Gospel, may have such truth and light in their consciences, that it shall suggest what is to be done, yet love to their lusts will hurry them the contrary way, but as in time is to be shewed, the combate between reason, and the sensitive appetite, is a farre different thing from the conflict between the flesh and the spirit in the godly.

Neither secondly must you understand Paul speaking of gross and foul sins, as if when he said, The evil he would not, that he doth, were to be understood of scandalous and wicked enormities; No, but it is to be interpreted of those motions [Page 88] to sinne, and constant infirmities, which cleave to the most holy. Let not there­fore any prophane person, that customarily walloweth in his impieties, excuse himself with this, It is true, I am such a beast, I do such soul things sometimes, but I may say with Paul, The things that I allow not, yea that I hate, those I do. This is to turn honey into poyson; This is to make the Scripture an incentive to thy impiety; No, Paul, and such as thou art, differ as much as the Sunne and a dunghill; Paul did not mean, the drunkenness, the uncleanness that he would not do, that he did, but he meaneth such corruptions and infirmities that imme­diately flow from the polluted nature within us, from which we are never through­ly cleansed in this life.

Thirdly, Neither when the Apostle saith, The good he would, that he doth not, and the evil he would not, that he doth: Is thus to be so understood, as if it were perpetual, and in every particular act, as if sinne had alwayes the better, and grace the worse, as if in no action he did, grace did conquer sinne; for in other places, the godly are said to have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts thereof: As also, That sinne shall not have dominion over them; but sometimes in some temptations they are captivated against their wils.

Fourthly, Neither may you thus understand Paul, when he saith, He would do good, but evil stops him, as if he had only the sluggards will and wish, who would eat, but doth not labour, who would be rich, but yet lets his field be full of briars and thorns, such velleities and incompleat wishes many formal Christi­ans have; so that such lazy and sluggish desires without efficacious operations are not to shroud themselves under Paul's expression.

Lastly, Therefore Paul's meaning is, That the good which he would do, be can­not do it perfectly, he cannot do it with that alacrity and fervency, as he would do; Though the flesh do not wholly conquer the spirit, yet it doth stop and hinder it. Therefore Nazianzen calls it the Echineips, the fish that stops the ship that it doth not go so speedily, though it doth not drown it.

In what sense those words, It is not I, but sinne that dwels in me, are to be understood.

THis premised, we may take notice of an inference or conclusion that the A­postle draweth from this, Now then, it's no more I that do it, but sinne that dwels in me, which he speaketh not as excusing or putting off the blame from him­self, but to difference and to distinguish these two principles that are within him, the regenerate and unregenerate; So farre as he is regenerate, he doth not do these things, neither are they to be charged upon him, he speaks it to distinguish not excuse; which is the rather to be observed, because of those Carpocrations of old, and Libertines of late, who excuse all their impieties, saying, It is not they that do such things, but the flesh within them, and so make a mock of all sinne: yea some of late have arrived to such horrid blasphemy, as to say, It's not they that do such and such evil actions, but God in them; Neither doth the Apostle lay the fault upon the Devil, it was not his, but the Devil, as many are apt to do, but upon that fountain, and root of all the bitterness in his heart and life, which is original corruption, here described to be the sinne dwelling in him. From whence observe,

That original sinne is an inherent, in-dwelling sinne in us. It is the sinne that sticketh fast to our Natures, and dwels in us.

Some will confess, That there is original imputed sin, but not inherent, where doth the Scripture call it so, say they?

[Page 89] But first, They grant original imputed sinne, yet Where doth the Scripture call it imputed sinne?

And secondly, we say, The Scripture cals it inherent in this Text, The sinne that dwelleth in us, that is the same in sense, with the sinne inherent in us. So then, original sinne is the sinne that dwelleth, inheretit and abideth in us. To open thus,

First, Take notice, That there are three kinds of sinnes, as to our purpose, Original, Habitual, and Actual; Actual sinnes are all such which are a trans­gression of Gods Law, whether by thought, word or deed; for the sinnes of the mind and the heart are actual sinnes, though never committed bodily and externally; Now these actual sinnes, they cannot be called sinnes that dwell in us, for they are transient, and when committed, they are passed away, onely the guilt remaineth, viz. An obligation to eternal wrath; Neither doth the Apostle so much complain in this Chapter of the actings of sinne (though that be part) as the Law of sinne in his members, which is the fountain of all.

In the next place, There are Habitual sinnes, such as are acquired by fre­quent acts, and daily commissions of sinne; and these indeed must be confessed to be in-dwelling and fixed sinnes in us; and these habits of sinne do much in­tend, and strengthen our original corruption, making it more vigorous; and if so be that custom be a second nature, how miserable is an unfegerate man, who hath as it were a two-fold nature inclining him to sinne? Original corru­ption, which is like an innate habit, and custome in sinne, which is like an acquired: So that as the Scripture speaks of some, who are twice dead, so we may say, These are twice alive, in respect of their vigorous propensity to sinne; Therefore the Scripture speaks sometimes of men, that have these double chains of wickedness upon them: Thus when the Apostle, Rom. 3. 10, 11, 12, &c. doth from several places in the Old Testament apply those things which are spoken of men in an high nature flagitious, to every one by nature, that doth comprehend both their innate and acquired impiety, and therefore might well by the Apostle be applied to all, because all by nature would be carried out to such enormous rebellions. The Psalmist, because of original and habitual sinne in some persons, hath a notable expression, Psal. 5. 9. Their inward part is very wickednesse, or wickednesses, as in the Hebrew, Their inward part is nothing but wickednesse. Now although therefore habitual sinnes may truly be called sinnes dwelling in us; yet the Apostle doth not speak here of such habitual sinnes, for he speaks all along of one sinne, as the mother, as the fountain and root of all; And besides, Paul speaking in the person of a regenerate man, could not complain of the acquired habits of sinne within him, for in Regenerati­on, there is an expulsion of all habitual sinne; and in this sense, Those that are born of God, are said, not to sinne, viz. habitually and customarily, as wicked men do, although some actual sins, and those of a very hainous nature, may consist with the work of grace, yet habites of sinne, and habits of grace can no more consist together, than light and darkness: It is evident then, that the Apostle not mean­ing habitual sinne, must understand original, in the immediate actings and work­ings of it, for this will alwayes be a troublesome and molesting inmate; This is not conquered but with the last enemy, death it self.

Why Original Corruption is called, The Inherent or In-dwelling Sinne.

THis premised, Let us consider, why original corruption is called the Inherent and In-dwelling Sinne, and that even in a godly man.

And first, The Apostle cals it, the sinne, ( [...]) Because of the propriety, and proper right it hath to us. As a man is said to dwell in his house, be­cause he hath a right to it, and it is his own: This original sinne is in every man, as in its proper place, as the stone doth rest in its center, and will not move fur­ther; So that as hell is said to be the proper place of Judas. He went (saith the Text) to his own place; Thus is the heart and soul of a man, the proper and fit subject for all the natural impiety that cleaveth to us; and therefore, though the Devil be also said, To rule in the hearts of wicked men, he dwels also in them, as well as sinne, for which he is compared to an armed man, keeping the house; yet this is more extrinsecal, and from without; The Devil could not find a room ready swept and garnished for him, but because of this native pollution: Hence the Apostle doth not in this Chapter complain of the Devil, but sin dwel­ling in him; He doth not say, I would do good, but the Devil hinders me (though that be sometimes true) but sin dwelling in him.

Secondly, This expression of sinne dwelling in a man; denoteth, The quiet and peaceable possession it hath in man by nature, it dwels there, as in its own house, nothing to disturb or molest it: Hence it is, That all things are so quiet in a natural man, there is nothing troubles him; he is not disquieted in his consci­ence; he feeleth no such burden or weight within him, as Paul here complain­eth of; so that you would think many civil and natural men in a more holy con­dition than Paul; They will thank God, They have a good heart, and all is quiet within them; but this is not because original sinne doth not dwell, and live, and work in them, but because they are sensless and stupid, sinne is in its proper place, and so there is no trouble and restlesness in their conscience; Therefore its thy want of experimental discoveries that makes thee question original sinne, other­wise thy own heart would be in stead of all books to thee in this particular. Indeed in godly men, though sinne dwelleth in them, yet it hath not peaceable possessi­on, it is as a tyrant in them; Therefore the regenerate part maketh many op­positions, and great resistances; There is praying, watching and fasting against it; They are as sollicitous to have it quite expelled, as some were to have Christ cast out the Devils from their possessed friends; otherwise in the natural man original sin prevaileth all over, and there is no noise, no opposition, yea great delight, and content there is in subjection thereunto, so that they resist Grace, and the Spirit of God by the Word, which would subdue sinne in them.

So that there is a great difference between the In [...]dwelling of original sinne in a natural man, and a regenerate; In the former it dwelleth indeed, but as the Je­busites in Canaan, upon hard terms, as the Gibeonites were in subjection to the Israelites. It is true, Arminius (In Cap. 7. ad Rom. pag. 696.) from this ex­pression of sinne dwelling in Paul, doth think a firm argument may be drawn, to prove that he discourseth of an unregenerate person, Because (saith he) the word to dwell, doth in its proper signification, and in the use of the Scripture signifie a full and powerfull dominion, and therefore rejecteth that distinction of Peccatum dominans, or regnans, which is said to be in wicked men, and inhabitans, which is in the godly; he would have it called inexistens, not inhabitans: But we have shewed, That sinne is said to dwell in a man, not because of its dominion in a [Page 91] godly man, but because of its fixed inseparability, and from this word a servant, who hath no rule in an house, is called [...], 1. Pet. 2. 18.

Thirdly, The word doth denote permanency, and a fixed abode in us; it is not for a night, or year, but our whole life dwelling in us: So that sinne is not in a mans heart, as a pilgrim, as a stranger that is presently to remove, but it hath taken up a fixed abode in us, here it dwels, and here it will dwell, you see our holy A­postle sadly complaining of this inseparability of it from him, as long as he l [...] ­veth; Actual sinnes they are committed, and so passe away, yea when pardoned, it is as if they had never been; but original sinne is like Samson's hair, though cut it will grow again, and be as strong as ever, till it be plucked up by the roots.

Fourthly, In this expression is denoted the latency also, and security of it, it dwels in us, and it's called, The Law in our members. The chief actings and stirrings of it are in the inward man; Therefore it is that the natural man, the Pharisaical and hypocritical man know nothing of it; Paul while a Pharisee, and so zealous against grosse sinne, abounding in external obedience, yet knew not lust to be a sinne, neither was he so sensible of such a load and burden with­in him.

Vse 1. Of Instruction, not to think imputed original sinne, or Adam's actual transgression made ours, to be all the original sin we have: No, you may see there is an in-dwelling sinne, an inherent corruption, from whence floweth all that actual filth which is in our lives. And why is it that we hear no more groaning and labouring under it? Is it not because the spiritual life of grace is not within them? Oh why are all things so still and peaceable within thee! Is it not because sin doth all in thee, and flesh will not fight against flesh?

Vse 2. Why is it that even the most holy are to walk humbly, to go out of themselves, to lay fast hold on Christ and his righteousness, is it not because they have such a treacherous enemy within, that hindereth them in every holy duty? Why also is there such a necessity of watching, praying, of holy fear and trem­bling? Is not all this because of that secret deceitfull adversary within our own brests?

Of the Epithete Evil is present with us, gi­ven to Original Sinne.


ROM. 7. 21.‘I finde then a Law, that when I would doe good, Evil is present with me.’

I Shall not for the present say any more in the general, the may relate to the Explication of this Chapter, especially of that conflict and combate mentioned therein, as also in whose person he describeth it; for all will be fully considered, when we come to speak of the fruit and immediate effects of original sinne.

To come therefore immediately to the Text, You may easily perceive that it is part of that paroxysme, and spiritual agony Paul is in between the principles of good and evil, working in him: therefore he saith, [...], I find, that is, by experience: As for Grotius, who makes this no more than the combat of conscience with corruption, which may be in natural men, alledging places out of the Poets, and Epictetus, where some have said in the like manner, they knew it was evil they did, and they do not allow it, but yet their frail flesh compelleth them to do it, so that they do not what they would, and what they would not, that they do: As also bringing in a Pagan out of Lactantius, saying, That he sinneth, Non quia velo, sed quia cogor, the flesh being so strong in him. These are but low and philosophical notions, arguing the ignorance of the work, of Gods Spirit in a man, and the repugnancy thereunto by the unregenerate part: But of this more in its time: It is enough for the present to take notice, that Paul saith of himself, That he findeth this in him.

In the next place, There is the object matter of this experimental discovery, which in the Greek is something intricate, and hath so tormented Interpreters, that there are eight Expositions given to make the grammatical connexion: Yea Erasmus is so bold, that unless we receive the supply of that Ellipsis or defect, he thinketh in Paul's speech which he giveth, that we must confess Paulum bal­bituri; but as Beza well saith, Erasmus doth ineptire in saying so, our Transla­tors render it smooth enough, I find a Law, and then followeth the specifical description of it, for [...] is taken many times [...], which is this, That when I would do any good, I cannot do it so fully, so perfectly, so freely, because evil [...] is present with me; it's adjacent and pressing upon me; it doth not sig­nifie a meer presence of sense, but the activity and vigorous motions of it. [Page 93] Beza thinketh it an allusion to that which was spoken to Cain, Gen. 4. 7. Sinne lieth at the door, it is at hand upon all occasions in the punishment thereof to lay hold on a sinner, howsoever if the simple word [...], doth not signifie a bare simple nearness, but that which is a burdensom, destructive approximation, as when it's said, Matth. 3. 10. The ax is laid to the root of the tree, [...], in the Original, and so also some expound that, 1 Tim. 1. 9. The Law is not made for the righteous, [...], as a burden imposed upon him by constraint, for he hath a voluntary principle within; If I say the simple word [...] be used so, then much more the compound [...], for [...] and [...] are called 'Diabolicae praepositio­nes, because they do so intend the signification; Paul then finds sinne alwayes at hand, when his heart is ready to do any good, to pull him back, to press him down, and so he is like the bird tied in a string, which assaying to flie up to hea­ven immediately is plucked back again; Now this sinne thus present, is not actu­al, habitual, or an accustomed sinne; Though Gratius relateth it to the custom of sinne, even as he doth (Lib. 2. de Jure belli cap. 12. 26.) expound that of the Apostle [By nature the children of wrath] making nature to be custom, saying, The Apostle doth not so much speak of his own person, as of the Romans amongst whom he then lived. For Regeneration delivers from the custom of sinne, but it is that original sinne, that corrupt nature, which doth alwayes cleave to us, as the shadow doth the body, or rather, as the Ivy the Tree, secretly consu­ming it. From whence observe,

That original sinne is the adjacent sinne, or the sinne that is alwayes troublesomly present with as: So that whereas we may go from one company to another, from one place to another, yet we can never go from this original sinne, but we carry it about with us at all times, in all places, in all duties, and that even the most holy do, whereby it is that they are kept so low, and humble in themselves; Why is it, that when we are regenerated, we should not be like Saints in Heaven, without any spot or blemish? Why should we not delight in God, and heavenly things, more than in earthly? Why should there he the least difficulty and unwillingness in us to any thing that is good? Is not all this, because this sinne is thus readily present with us, it lieth not at the door, but in the very heart of us all?

But let us explain, What is comprehended in this Epithete given original sinne, That it is present with us?

What is implied in that Epithete.

FIrst, It implieth, That this sinne putteth it self forth first in the soul: The motions and thoughts of sinne arise first in us, before grace can prevent them. The Schoolmen speak of the motus primò primi, the very immediate and first stir­rings of the Soul, before the will gives any consent, or the mind hath any deli­beration, and these are sinnes, because contrary to the Image of God; But whence come they? Even from this womb of original corruption: So that it is like a furnace alwayes sending forth sparks: The Scripture expresseth it notably, Gen. 6. 5. where every imagination of the thought of the heart is said to be only evil, and that continually. Valentia (Analysis Dis. de peccato originali) and other Papists com­plain, That we aggravate originall sinne too much, we speak too tragically about it, and indeed the Subject is very distastfull to every man; how unwilling is he to bear, that he is all over thus sinfull? This is to make them like Devils, and to send them to hell, they think; but what can be spoken more terribly against man in regard of original sinne, then God himself here speaks, where every [Page 94] word is like so much thunder and lightning, as is to be shewed? Only for the present purpose observe, that he saith, Every imagination of the thought of a mans heart is evil; Imagination, or framing, and fashioning the heart of a man, is compared to a shop of wickedness, and every thing framed or fashioned there, is only evil. Sinne then is present in a powerfull manner, when there cannot so much as rise a motion in thee, a stirring of thy soul, though never so involuntary and indeliberate, but it is only evil: Oh it was not thus in the state of integrity, then every imagination, every motion was good, and only good; but now our gold is become dross, and wine water; Let a natural man observe his heart, and he shall see what riseth first in his soul is all filth, like the muddy fountain it comes from; Yea, even in a godly man, How many thoughts and motions rise up in his heart, that he abhorreth and trembleth at? It is true, sometimes the devil injecteth vile and blasphemous thoughts; so that his heart is not at all active in them, and therefore are not sinnes, but compared to the Cup in Benjamin's sack, they knew not how it came there, and it is a great dexterity in casuistical Divi­nity so to direct a Christin, that he may know when such motions arise from the devil alone, so that they are my afflictions, but not sinnes, or when they come from my heart, and so are truly imputable to me; of which in its due time, it may be; but for the present we may sigh and groan under this consideration, That evil is so present with us, that nothing riseth up in the heart sooner than sinne.

Secondly, In that evil is said to be present, to Paul, there is denoted the universal and diffusca presene of it. Paul doth not say, it's present in one part, in one fa­culty, but to me, that is in every part susceptible of sinne. Therefore it is called The Law in his members, because it putteth forth its efficacy every where: sinne is present in the mind, by atheism, unbelief, &c. in the will by obstinacy and obdurateness, in the affections by inordinacy and confusion, yea sinne is present in the eye, in the tongue; So that the Apostle meaneth, this original sinne is of such an universal extent, that it is present in every part in him; For you must not think (as some Papists do) That original sinne is only in the inferiour, sensitive part of a man, but it is principally and chiefly in the intellectual and most noble part, the mind and the understanding; and indeed because it's so predominant, therefore is conversion so difficult for the Ministry, bringing arguments and con­victions out of Gods word. The sinne that is present in the understanding putteth a man upon atheistical cavils, and carnal disputes, whereby he shuts himself up voluntarily in his darkness, rather than he will receive light.

Thirdly, In that evil is said to be present with us, here is denoted the continual assaulting and vigorous acting of it at all times. Though original sinne be not an actual sinne, yet it is an active sinne; Hence Paul attributeth such actions to it, as if it were some mighty, imperious and conquering tyrant, he saith, it doth [...] and [...], It warreth against him, it leadeth him into capti­vity; Do not then think this sinne hath a meer bare sluggish presence, is if it lay asleep in thee? No, it is daily assaulting thee, it's continually pulling thee down; As the heart and pulse are in continual motion, thus is original sin within thee; Therefore our imaginations are not only said to be only evil (Gen. 6. 5.) but also continually; Thy soul never acteth, but it acteth sinfully and corruptly. It is true, while men are in their natural estate, They are dead in sinne, and so they find not, feel not these stirrings, neither do they groan under them, but there are innumerable Myriads of sinfull motions in thee to sinne, though thou doest not apprehend them; As a man shut up in a dark dungeon full of Toads and noisom vermin, he seeth nothing, till light come into the place, and then he trem­bleth, being afraid to stay there any longer; such a loathsom dungeon is every mans heart naturally: Oh the atheism, vanity, wickedness that is bound up there­in, but thou dost not know or believe any such thing, because dead in sin.

[Page 95] Fourthly, There is implied the facility and easiness in sinning. The way to sinne is no narrow or strait way; There needeth not much striving to enter therein, for it's ready at hand; May not all find, if they will search, this readiness of sin at all time? Why is thy heart so quickly moved and drawn out to any earthly or sinfull pleasure, but it's a long while, ere thou canst make any fire, or kindle a flame in thy soul to that which is good? Thy soul is a dry Tree to the former, but a green Tree to the later, as the Scripture speaks concerning the righteousness of faith, It's night thee; Thou needest not say, Who shall go into the deep for it? Rom. 10, &c. Thus it is true of sin in thee, thou needest no instruction, no ma­sters, thou needest not fetch devils from hell to commit sinne, for that is alwayes present with thee: Hence Eliphaz compareth it, Job 15. to drinking of water, when a man is scorched with thirst; If you see there are many, who by a natu­ral conscience are so convinced, that they are difficulty brought to commit some sinnes, especially gross ones; It is no contradiction, for a man to be all over polluted and prone to sinne, notwithstanding such dictates of conscience im­planted in all men; This is plain, That sin ss so present, that without any difficulty or pain, we are carried out to sinne, so that the kingdom of hell doth not like the kingdom of Heaven, need any violence to take it.

Fifthly, When evil is said to be present, there is denoted the subtile and daily in­sinuation of it into all that we do. It's in a man, like leaven, that sends forth its fourness into all the meal, it leaveth not the least part unleavened: This sinne is like a Dalilah in Samson's heart, it is alwayes enticing and tempting of thee; and therefore it's called by the name of lust or concupiscence; and Jam. 1. 17. there it's said [...], to intice, by setting baits for us: Hence in Jer. 17. the wicked­ness of the heart is expressed by this, That it is deceitfull above all things; who can think, that the wise, holy God made us with such hearts at first: No, but up­on the first transgression came this desolation upon us. Because then evil is thus present with us, hence every holy duty is contaminated; hence there is flesh as well as spirit in the best performances: This close subtil insinuating nature of ori­ginal sinne, is the cause why a godly man can never know the bottom of his heart; This makes so many hypocrites and apostates; This is it that makes a man so un­certain about himself; for when he hath done all, that we would think there were no danger, yet some embers or other may lie, as it were, under the ashes, and set all on flame.

Lastly, When it saith, Evil is present with us, that denoteth, the molesting and retarding nature of it, stopping us in all the good we would do. This is that especi­ally for which Paul makes this sad complaint, so that he cannot step one step, but sinne puls him back again; This is the milstone about the neck; This is the clog and burden upon every man: Oh Lord, I would even flie up into heaven, but this burden doth press me down! When we would runne our spiritual race, this makes us halt.

Vse. Of Instruction, to abhorre all such Doctrines as teach a perfection, that holdeth, We may attain to be without sin in this life. Some Anabaptists and Papists, though so extreamly contrary, yet have understood that place, Ephes. 5. 27. Not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing (to be fulfilled in this life, forgetting the words before) that he might present it to himself a glorious Church; so that till this be done, it is not without spot; And near to these are such, who though sinne be every way present in them, yet because of their pharisaical and doubled minds (as Paul once was) they do not discover or feel any such thing. But let the tender en­lightned heart go into Gods presence, and sadly bewail himself, saying; O Lord, How ill is it with me? What shall I think or say of my self? How unspeakable is my misery, I might have thought all sin within me even dead and buried? But oh, how it stirreth! Oh how ready is it to put forth it self! Lord, I know not how to live with this burden, and yet I cannot live without it, I should utterly faint, but that thy grace is sufficient for me.


Of that Name, The Sinne that doth so easily beset us, given to Original Sinne.


HEB. 12. 1.‘And the Sinne which doth so easily beset us.’

THe Apostle from those several Examples of many Worthies re­corded in the former Chapter, which he cals, A Cloud of Wit­nesses, partly for the multitude of them, and partly for Dire­ction; As the Israelites had a Cloud to guide them in the wilder­derness, doth inferre a conclusion by way of Incouragement, to go on constantly in the way of Christianity; which he doth here, as in other places, compare to a running in the race. This similitude sheweth the Difficulty in the race, the Earnestness, the Fortitude and Patience that ought to be in such who will be saved. What an antidote should the meditation of this expression, be against all dulness, slothfulness and negligence, whose life is like a running in a race to Heaven: Now the Apostle following this Metaphor, exhorts to lay aside all those burdens that may hinder us in this work: It would be [...] in him, who is to runne a race, to put burdens upon his back, and lay as many heavy weights upon himself, as he can; No lesse absurd are they, who give way to sinne in the lusts thereof, and yet hope to arrive at Heaven.

Now the burden we are to lay aside, is expressed in two words:

1. [...] weight, by this is meant, all actual sinne, especially love and cares about the world, for the earth is an element that descends downward, and so he who hath an earthly heart, cannot but have his soul presse down­ward.

2. There is the Root and cause of this, expressed in that phrase, The sinne that doth so easily beset us, [...], the word is but once used, and that in this place, it's a two fold compound, and so the more emphatical, [...], which is as much here as easie, and [...], so that it is a sinne which besetteth and compasseth us about, and that very easily, it finds no resistance, neither have we any power to withstand it.

Some understand this of actual sinnes, but not only Protestant Interpreters, but even some Papists also; Ribera and others understand it of Concupiscence within us; The word is made a Metaphor several wayes; Erasmus renders it, Tenaciter adhaerentem, That sinne which doth so tenaciously adhere to us, ma­king [Page 97] it an All [...]sion to Ezekiel Chap. 24. where there is a Pot set on the fire, yet all the fire and burning cannot get off the rust and filth that clea­veth to it. Gretius makes it to respect Lament. 1. 14. where there are yokes and bands mentioned about the neck, which are impediments to the beast in his going.

Others they make the Metaphor from a Wall, or an hedge that stops the passenger in his way; Yea, Lapide following others, makes it to be the outward temptations, or the dangers that are in the way by enemies and adversaries to the Truth, but the Greek [...], doth not well agree to that: Hesichius render­eth [...], Varinus [...]. If we compare this expression with what Paul saith of himself (Rom. 7) concerning original sinne, keeping and pressing him down; we may well with Beza put a procul dubto upon that exposition, which doth apply it to original sinne, for that indeed is the onely weight, that doth constantly and perpetually beset us and hinder us in our way to Heaven, and that with all ease and facility: Observe then,

That original sinne is the sinne which doth so easily beset us: That doth circum­cingere, as Beza saith, bind us up strait and close, that our limbs are not expe­dite and free to runne our holy race; So that it is with us as a racer that hath his arms or legs bound, his garments so strait-laced to him, that he can­not have that liberty and freedom to runne, as he doth desire. Some con­sider the word, as it did allude to a milstone about the neck, plunging us down into the Sea.

What is implied in that Expression, So easily beset us.

LEt us take notice, What is contained in this excellent and emphatical word. And

First, There is implied our utmost impotency and inability to shake off the power of it. For although the Apostle exhorteth us to lay it aside, yet that must be understood as a duty alwayes in doing, that we are neverable to compleatfully and perfectly; You see, though they are godly to whom he writeth, and they are already in the race, yet it is their work daily to be unburdenning of them­selves: When therefore it's called, The sinne so easily besetting us, hereby is taught us our inability and insufficiency to withstand it; Insomuch that all those Doctrines, which teach Free-will, and a power to do what is good, are justly to be abandoned, John 15. when separated from Christ, we cannot do any thing, and therefore are said to be not asleep, but even dead in sinne; so that no Infant new born is more unable to help it self, than we are to promote the good of our own souls. This therefore must be laid as a foundation, without this our humi­liation doth not goe deep enough; We are to lie bemoaning our selves, as that poor Cripple, which had no power to put himself into the water; And indeed till we be sensible of this impotency, we cannot expect that Christ will help us; When that Cripple said, He had no man, than our Saviour relieved him: Oh then, bewail the strait and misery thou art in If it were a temporal calamity thou wert in, and such as neither thou thy self, or any man in the world could help thee, How greatly would it afflict thee? But now though neither men or Angels can deliver thee out of this spiritual evil, yet thou doest not lay it to heart.

Secondly, As it densteth that our power to good is lost by this original sinne; [Page 98] So also our will and desire: For why should it be said to beset us so easily? But because we have neither power or will against it; so that till the principle of Re­generation be infused into us; sinne hath defiled our will, as well as our power; as we cannot, so neither we will not gain say the lusts thereof. We must not then conceive of man, as indeed miserably polluted, and such as cannot help himself, but is very willing, and heartily desireth to be freed from this bondage, but his will is as grosly polluted, as any thing, He willeth not the things of God, he loveth not, yea he hateth every thing that is spiritual and holy; Insomuch that we may truly say, That the actual wickednesse in mens lives, doth not onely arise from weaknesse and impotency to what is holy, but from an unwillingnesse, and an aversnesse to it. Though they be allured with the glorious promises of Gods favour, and eternal glory; Though the terrors of God, and the everlasting flames of hell be set before them, yet they will not; Though their consciences be convicted, though the word of God be plain against their lusts, so that they cannot tell what to say, yet they will not: So that herein lieth the sad and dreadfull efficacy of original sinne, that it hath cor­rupted the will all over, so that whereas we will the lusts of the flesh, the pleasures of sinne, the comforts of the world, we have no will to what is good: If then the will, which is the appetitus universalis, and like the primum mobile, that doth carry all the inferiour orbs with it, be thus infected with sinne, no wonder if we be easily beset by it: This is to bribe the Commander in Chief, that ruleth all, and so it is no wonder, if all be at last betrayed into the hands of sinne and Satan.

Thirdly, When original sinne is said thus to beset us, and compasse us about, hereby is denoted, What an impediment and hinderance it is to us in our way to Heaven, that were it not for this clog upon us, we should with all chear­fulness and alacrity runne the way of Gods Commandments. It is this that makes the Chariot-wheels of the soul move so slowly; It is this that stops us in the way, that makes us draw back.

How many wayes Original Sinne is a Burden, and an Hinderance unto us.

NOw because this property is chiefly aimed at by the Apostle in this ex­pression, viz. that it is a burden, an hinderance, a stop to us, while we are in our race: Let us consider, How many wayes original sinne is a bur­den and hinderance, so that if this were removed, there would be no complaints of the difficulty that we find to what is good, yea the more perfect and spiritual any duty is, the more pleasing and acceptable it would be to an heart eased of this burden. And

First, Original sinne is a burden incurvando, By bowing down and pressing to the soul to these creatures here below; So that now by nature the creature with the comforts thereof, is the center of a mans heart, is the ultimate object his soul is placed upon. God indeed made man after his own image and then his heart, his affections, they did all ascend upwards to God, then he could not satiate, or fully delight himself in any thing but God, but through this original sinne a man is habitually averse to God, and converted to the crea­tures; So that God is not in all his thoughts, yea Ephes. 2. 2. they are said to be without God in the world, Even as the body of a man, when deprived of its sense; falleth prostrate presently upon the ground; so when that ori­ginal [Page 99] righteousness was removed, which was the soul of the soul, presently we fall downwards to the creatures, knowing no better good, nor desiring any bet­ter comforts, but what are in them. No marvel then if this make the godly go stooping and bowing down, because it depresseth and leaneth to the creature, leaving God; That as you see the body is a burden to the soul, especially if dis­eased, which made Plato say, [...] was [...], the very grave and sepulchre of the soul: Thus original sin is a spiritual burden to it, that there cannot be those ascensions and elevations of the mind to God, as ought to be.

Secondly, It's an impediment in our race, Obnitendo, by a plain opposing and contrary thwarting of any good that the Spirit of God either externally offers, or internally operates. Thus this native sinne doth with all violence oppose and thwart whatsoever is spiritual; Therefore you see the Apostle expressing this re­sistance by military words, that it doth warre against him, and sometimes lead him into captivity; Thus even a Paul is like a poor captive or prisoner, carried up and down whether he would not: Now this obnitency and reluctancy of original sinne is seen two wayes against what is good:

1. There is a good published and tendered by the preaching of the Gospel. God doth by that proffer unto us everlasting and eternal life; but this original sinne stirreth up a man to reject it, and to refuse it; it's no sutable or acceptable offer to our natures, no more than pearls or sweet flowers are to the beastly Swine. Indeed when a people have lived long under the preaching of the Go­spel, yet do reject it, and oppose it, loving darkness rather than light, these have a double blindness and hardness upon them; The natural one by original sinne, and the habitual contracted one, which they are justly delivered up into by God for the contempt of the light they do enjoy; but I speak here only of the natural blindness, and natural hardness upon our hearts: So that upon the very first of­fers and tenders of grace, the first Sermon that ever we hear, the first time that the Gospel doth sound in our ears, we have a contrariety to it; and why is it that a man should thus naturally be an enemy to his own peace? Is it not because of this imbred sin working in us?

2. If the Spirit of God go further, and doth not outwardly teach onely, but inwardly and spiritually also, changing even the whole man, making it a new creature, yet because this corruption is not quite rooted out, it doth conti­nually gain say, and withstand that Law of the mind within us: Whence then is it that such rebellion and opposition is within thee to every good thing? Is it not because original sinne hath put thee into this dis­order?

Thirdly, It is an impediment alliciendo and inescando, It doth ensnare and allure the heart, so that while the soul should pursue the race, that throweth in the way some alluring objects or others, and thereby it is stopt in its course; As the Heathens speak of golden Apples cast in the way to hinder one that was swiftly running in the race: He that runneth in a race, must not step out of the way to gather every flower that groweth by the way-side; nor is he to stand still and refresh his eyes with pleasant objects: Thus neither ought we in our way to Heaven; but this original corruption bewitches and enticeth the heart with many deceitfull and alluring lusts: So that by this means we are for the most part in golden, sweet, dreams, promising this and that comfort to our selves, till at last with Dives we awaken in hell, and see our selves bereaved of all happiness. The Apostle James doth fully confirm this secret bewitching way of original sinne within us, which he calleth lust, Jam. 1. 14. So that, marvel not to see thy self drowned in all the pleasures of sinne, to be sucking down the comforts of earthly things with all delight, for this lust within thee, this bewitching Dalilah in thy breast, puts thee into a sweet sleep, and so heavenly things have no relish, no taste to thy appetite, [Page 100] but the things of the world are sweeter than the honey-comb: Oh why is it that sinne which is indeed full of stings and bitterness should be so sweet! Why should it be such a pleasing thing to go in the wayes that lead to hell and damnation? that when thou art sinning, it is as thou wouldst have it? Is not all this, because sin hath insnared and inticed thee?

Lastly, Sinne is a burden to the soul in our race, debilitando, By weak­ning and debilitating the principles of grace within us: So that although we are regenerated and sanctified, yet because original sinne doth intimately adhere even to the very habits of grace within us, so that they are not per­fect and pure: Hence it is that their actings are more remisse and languid; we cannot love God perfectly, we cannot have pure and sinnelesse actions, because we have not pure and sinnelesse principles: So that whereas some have thought, that there is not such a spiritual conflict in a godly man, as we speak of, because that would make the will, to will and nill at the same time two con­trary things; they do not rightly understand this Assertion, for it's not from contrariety of volitions, but because the will being not perfectly healed, willeth good things remisly and faintly, not with that perfection, or freedom and alacrity as it ought to do.

Vse. Of Instruction. Every day to bewail this depraved estate of thine more and more; We take thee (as Ezekiel was in another case) and cause thee to see every day more and more abomination: Thou hast not heard all the worst, nor have we discovered all the worst that is in us, yea, we are never able to goe to the bottome of it. This original sinne is an unsearchable Mystery; It is a long while ere we come to know any thing of it, and longer ere we come to know the breadth and length of it. Know this sufficiently, and then be in love with thy self, or trust in thy good heart, and thy own righteousness, if thou canst.

Of the Name Evil Treasure of the Heart, given to Original Sinne.


MAT. 12. 35.‘And an evil man, out of the evil treasure of his heart, bringeth forth evil things.’

THese words are part of an Apologetical Answer, that our Savi­our made against the Pharisees, who were guilty of blaspheming the holy Ghost, because they did maliciously oppose the known truth, and what was done by the Spirit of God, attributing it to the power of the devil. And in this Apology the fervency and zeal of our Saviour, doth appear in the compellation he giveth them, Generation of vipers: Here you see, That it is not alwayes railing and indiscreet zeal, to call wicked men by such names that their sinnes do de­serve.

In the next place, he giveth the reason of this their blasphemy, it is no won­der if they speak ill, who have ill and naughty hearts, which he expresseth em­phatically:

1. By an interrogation, How can ye?

2. By the impossibility, How can ye?

3. From the matter mentioned: he doth not say, How can ye being evil de good things, but speak; We might think wicked men might easily forbear evil words, though not evil actions, but their heart is first set on fire with hell, and then the tongue. The Physician discovers how the heart is by the tongue, and so doth Religion also. Now that good words cannot proceed from a bad heart, viz. naturally (for on purpose, and artificially many evil-minded men, may speak religiously, and men may have butter words, whose hearts are like swords) our Saviour proveth from the common and even proverbial rule; A good man hath a good heart, and a good treasure, and so of this sweet fountain cannot come bitter streams. But a bad man hath an evil treasure in his heart, and so from these thorns men cannot gather grapes, nor from these thistles figs; we see here then a good man and a bad, diversified by that which is wholly hidden and secret, not known to any, but God, till he discover it by words or actions. Now this evil treasure in every mans heart is two-fold,

1. That which is Natural, that which he cometh into the world with, thus every man hath an inexhausted treasure of wickedness, which he spends upon all his life time, and yet never cometh to the bottom of it; And in this sense our [Page 102] Divines do well prove, That no natural or unregenerate man is able to do any thing, though never so little that is good, because he is a bad Tree, and be­ing also of the seed of Serpents, there cannot come any honey, or sweet thing from him.

2. There is an acquired and increased treasure of sinne, which a man storeth up by daily custom in sinne, so that he becometh to have two treasures of evil in his soul, as if one were not enough, natural, and voluntary, innate, and volunta­rily contracted: For you must know, That original sinne, though it be a full fountain of poison, ready of it self to overflow, yet custom in sin doth strength­en, and inable it to be more vigorous and operative; we may put more wood to this fire, and so make it more dreadfull: Even as these Pharisees, though they were by nature, the Serpents seed, yet because of their voluntary and contract­ed malicious disposition in them, superadded to the former, our Saviour calleth them, Generation of vipers. Now although the Pharisees had this two-fold evil heart, naturally, and voluntarily, yet I shall of the former onely, and so handle it not, as relating to the Pharisees, but as it is a general Truth, to be af­firmed of every one, till renewed by grace, that he hath an evil treasure, an evil heart within him; And from thence observe,

That original sinne is the evil treasure that is in a mans heart. Sometimes the heart it self is said to be evil, to be desperately wicked; but then it's not taken phy­sically, as it's a corpulent substance in a man; but morally or theologically, as it is the seat and principle of all evil: For as the Sea hath all the Rivers in it, from which they come, and to which they return again; so the heart is the fountain of all evil, and all evil is seated in it, coming from the heart, and going back again to it.

But let us open this treasure, which is not like the opening of that Alablaster Box, which perfumed the whole house; but like the opening of a noisom Sepulchre or dunghil, from whence cometh only what is loathsome; Therefore it's not cal­led a treasure in a good sense, as commonly the word is used; for we do not use to treasure up vile and loathsom things; but because in a treasure there is plenty and fulness, therefore is this evil heart, this original pollution called a treasure, and that very properly, for these resemblances.

How Original Sinne resembles a Treasure.

FIrst, A treasure hath fulness and abundance. A poor man that hath only mo­ney enough to discharge his daily expences, is not said to have a treasure, for that denoteth abundance, more than enough: Thus is original sinne deservedly called a treasure, because it's a fulness of wickedness: As in Christ the treasures of wisdom are said to be in him, Col. 2. 3. So in every man, there is a treasure of folly and wickedness; so that every man is rich enough to sinne, let him be never so poor, never so straitned, not a morsel of meat to eat, not a farthing to buy any thing with, yet he hath a rich heart, a full heart to sinne, he is never de­stitute of plenty and power to do that; which consideration should greatly hum­ble thee to think, in stead of that good treasure, which God once put into my heart, being throughly furnished with every grace; now there is a treasure of evil; now darkness is where all that light was; evil, and nothing but evil, where all that good was; Though thou art a rich man, and a great man, glorying in thy treasures of wealth, yet the treasures of evil in thy heart, may make thee fear and tremble.

[Page 103] Secondly, Here is denoted in this expression, That all sinne is potentially and se­minally in our hearts; For it's not said to be an evil heart in some respect, and as to some actings, but indefinitely and generally, an evil treasure of the heart. Hence Rom. 3. 14, 15. There are in man by nature crimson actual sins of the greatest guilt, viz. The poison of Asps is under their tongues, their mouth is full of cursing, their feet are swift to shed blood, &c. These sins which some few of mankind only, and those the worst of men, do ordinarily commit, yet they are attributed to every man by nature; And why? because there is the treasure of these in his heart; you cannot name the vilest actions that are, though for the present like Hazael, thou wouldst defie such things, saying, Am I a dog, a devil, that I should do them? yet did not God bind up this treasure of evil in thee, as he doth the clouds, that are his treasures of rain, thou wouldst quickly be overwhelmed with them; what trembling should this make in a mans heart, when he shall consider, there is not the vilest and most prophane atheistical man breathing, but thy heart would car­ry thee out to do the like, did not God say to this sea of corruption within thee, Hitherto thou shalt go and no further? It is because of this, that David and other eminent godly men, have fallen into such gross and loathsom sins, that you would have thought they had not been in the least danger of, that they were as farre from, as the East from the West, yet how quickly could these materials for sinne in their hearts ripen, and break out into a flame? How quickly did even the green Tree burn? What then would the dry Tree do? Look then upon thy self, as the vilest sinner in the world, in respect of thy principles, and propencity to all sin; Say, it is not because I have a better nature, I have less original sin in me, but because God is pleased to put a restraint upon me! Certainly, if this will not make us like Job, abhorre our selves, as it were, upon the dunghill, what will?

Thirdly, In that original sinne is compared to a treasure, there is denoted the in­exhausted nature of it, though we sinne never so much, yet the stock of sin is not quite spent. As God, because he hath a treasure of mercy, and therefore said to be rich in grace; though he sheweth never so much mercy, and vouchsafeth never so much grace, yet his treasure is not impoverished thereby, he is as fully able to bestow fresh grace, and new mercy to thee, as if this were the first time that ever he began to be mercifull: Thus, though with great disproportion, it is with a man that hath this evil treasure in his heart; Though he sinne all the day long, though from this abundance his mind thinketh, his tongue speaketh, his hand acteth that which is evil, yet still his corruption is not abated, yea it is the more strenghned and increased: As it is with poisonous creatures, though they vent never so much poison, yet they cannot cast out the root and cause of it as long as they live: So though a natural man be all the day long sending forth no­thing but sinne and folly, yet his heart is as full as ever, this fountain is not dried up; Therefore although it may fall out, that many bodily sinnes cannot be any longer committed, because the body groweth old and infirm, yet this original sin is never weakned, while a man is unregenerated, but in a natural man, though an hundred years old, yet it is as vigorous and active, as in youthfull sins. It is re­ported of a liberal Emperour, who was much in free munificence, that he would say, [...] Draw from me, as from the River Nilus, meaning, that he would never be weary, that he was like a fountain, of which all travellers might drink, yet he be as full as ever: Thus it is with this treasure of original sinne, all the sins that have come from it to this day, have not at all diminished the foun­tain, it's as full and as overflowing as ever, yea as sudden showrs make the rivers fuller, causing a flood; Thus do all actual and customary sins, they make this ori­ginal corruption like Nebuchadnezzar's fornace seven times hotter than it was before.

Fourthly, In that it is called a treasure, we thereby see the delight and pleasure that we naturally take in what is sinfull. Our Saviour saith, Where a mans treasure [Page 104] is, there his heart is also; how much more when this treasure is his heart, when his heart and treasure is all one? Therefore this expression doth denote the futa­ble and pleasing nature of sinne to us; it sheweth, that what water is to the hy­dropical man, as Job 15. so is sinne to a man by nature: Hence Heb. 11. they are called, The pleasures of sinne; Who would think so? you would rather think we might as well say, The pleasures of hell, and the pleasures of damnation, that a man would be as willing to be damned, as to sinne; But thus sweet and pleasing is sinne to every man by nature, because his heart is upon it, it is a treasure to him; That as the godly account Gods will sweeter than the honey-comb, so do they the will and lusts of sinne; Do ye not pity such, who are so distempered in their palate, that they cannot forbear eating those things, which will be their death at last? How much more miserable is man, to whom nothing is so pleasant, so much sought after, as that which will prove his eternal damnation? And certainly, if sinne be not such a delight to thee naturally, how cometh it about that no threat­ning, no fear of hell, all the curses in the Law denounced against thee cannot make thee forbear? If you regard sinne in its own nature, so the Scripture repre­sents it most irksom and loathsom, comparing it to gall, to a bitter root, to mire, to vomit; And who can desire to swallow down these things? But because ori­ginal sinne hath infected all, hath made us like so many beasts, therefore what is in it self abominable, to our corrupt natures is become exceeding pleasant.

Fifthly, Because it's a treasure, therefore it is that every day there cometh from us some new corruption or other, some new sinne or other to be matter of condemnation to us. That when we might think, if once we had got our hearts to such a frame, if once we could subdue such a corruption, then, we hope we should be at some ease; but no sooner have we obtained such desires, but this treasure of evil pour­eth out new matter of sorrow, corruptions rise fresh again, when we began to hope all were dead; So that the soul begins to be even hopeless, crying out, O Lord, how long? When shall this bloudy flux be stopped? When shall it once be that I may be quiet and free from this molesting enemy within? But it is with thy heart as with the sea, when one wave is over, presently there cometh another, and again another, and it cannot be otherwise as long as this treasure is in us, as Job saith, Chap. 14. A Tree though the boughes of it be cut, yet the root will spring again, and be as big as ever, if suffered to grow: Thus original sin, though it may be mortified and crucified in some measure, though there may be much stopping and abating the strength of it by grace, yet because the root is there still, it will quickly sprout again: Hence are the godly put upon those duties of crucifying and mortifying the flesh, because they will have this work to do, as long as they live; there is a treasure, and so out of this, as the good Scribe cut of his good treasure, Mat. 13. 52. doth bring out new and old, thus doth he old lusts and new.

Vse. Of Instruction. Have we all by nature an evil treasure in our hearts, then see, why it is that thou art alwayes sinning, that thou art never weary, that all the world cannot change thee, or make thee of another mind? Is it not this evil treasure within? As it is a treasure of sinne, so it is of wrath and punishment, Rom. 2. some are said, To treasure up to themselves wrath against the day of wrath; and this is thy case, and never do thou flatter thy self, because thou dost not feel and perceive any such evil upon thee, for therein art thou the more miserable; Treasures use to be hidden and secret, therefore in the Scripture called hidden trea­sures, and thus is this treasure of evil in thy heart, it is hidden from thee, thou dost not know it, till God open thy eyes, till he give a tender heart.

Of the Name Body, given to Original Sinne.


ROM. 8. 13.‘But if ye through the Spirit doe mortifie the deeds of the Body, ye shall live.’

I Come now to the last Name, I shall insist upon, that the Scri­pture giveth original sinne, and that is a Body; For al­though the most famous, and notable name is flesh, yet because that will most properly be considered, when we speak of the Nature and Definition of it, I shall put it off till that time; Only we must necessarily take notice of this Title given to it here, and elswhere, (viz.) a Body: Not that this word is to foment the Illyrican absurdity, That original sinne is not an accident, but a substance; but hereby is manifested the real and powerfull efficacy of it upon the whole man: For the coherence of the words, the Apostle at vers. 12. from that glo­rious and precious Doctrine of Justification by Faith, and also Sanctification begunne in us, doth inferre this Exhortation by way of Conclusion, That there­fore we are not Debtors to the Flesh, we have received such great and unspeak­able favours from God, that we owe all to him; as for sinne, called here the Flesh, we owe nothing at all to that, sinne will not justifie us, sinne will not save us: Neither hath the Devil shewed that love to us, which Christ hath done.

By this then we see, That though Justification and Gospel-mercies be not for any works or merits of ours, yet Believers are to study and abound in holiness, as that which Christ aimed at by the work of Redemption, as well as our Justification. Now for this reluctancy against, and mortification of sinne, the Apostle useth several Arguments, as in the Text, the danger that will accrew even to the godly, If they live after the flesh, they shall die, that is, eternally; The godly need this goad to prick them forward, they must not please themselves, as if because they were elected, justified, they may live as they list, and walk after the flesh; No, if they do so, they shall surely be damned.

What is implied by the word Mortifie.

BUt on the contrary, If they mortifie the deeds of the body by the Spirit, they shall live; where you have the duty supposed, to mortifie; that im­plieth, it is not enough to forbear from the actings of sinne, but they must kill it; Sinne may be left upon many considerations, yet not mortified; Look there­fore that sinne be dead in thee, and not asleepy, or onely restrained for a season.

Again, To mortifie signifieth the pain and renitency that is in the unregene­rate part against this Duty. A wicked man had almost as willingly be killed, as leave his lusts. This sheweth how fast sinne is rooted in us, more than a tooth in the jaw, or the soul in the body; and if any of these are not taken away with­out much pain and trouble, no wonder if the leaving of our corruptions be so troublesom to us.

Lastly, This word supposeth, It's a constant work, we are alwayes mor­tifying, alwayes crucifying; This is spoken to comfort the godly, that they should not wholly be dejected, if they find some actings and stirrings of sinne still within them.


SEcondly, There is the Object of this Duty, and that is The deeds of the body; Many translate it, The deeds of the flesh, for that which was called [...] be­fore, is here called [...]; Now this body is not only sinne putting it self forth in bodily actions, but it is the same with flesh, which is original corruption defiling the whole man: So that the body here, as Beza doth well observe, is, The whole man in soul and body, while unregenerate; for the flesh, the body here spoken of by the Apostle, is in the soul as well as body, it is every thing that is opposite to God in a man, whether it be in his mind, or in his flesh. So that Austin said, The Epicurean he saith, Frui carne meâ est bonum, to enjoy the flesh is good; The Stock he saith, Frui mente meâ est bonum, to enjoy my mind is good, but both are deceived, for to enjoy God only is good, and both the body and the mind are all over defiled with sin.


LAstly, There is the Efficient Cause, by which we mortifie the deeds of the body, and that is the Spirit; It's not our power, but Gods Spirit that con­quereth these lusts for us, Observe,

That original sinne is a body in us. It is a body both in our soul and body; it's called a body, not properly, as if it were a substance, but metaphorically and allu­sively; So Rom. 6. 6. it's called The body of sinne; and certainly it may as well be called so as flesh and the old man.

Why Original Sinne is called a Body.

BUt let us consider, Why it hath such a name given to it. And

First, It is to shew, That original sinne doth not lie latent in our breasts, but putteth it self forth visibly in all the operations of the body: That as the Godhead is said to dwell in Christ boa [...]ly, and the Word was made flesh, because the Divine Na­ture which is immaterial and invisible, did through the body become as it were visible. Thus we may say, Original sinne dwelleth in us bodily, and that it is made our flesh, because in and through all bodily actions, it doth manifest it self both to our selves and others: It is then the body of sinne, because it makes it self outward visible, and doth as it were incarnate sinne, hence it is called the outward man: Indeed it is disputed, whether 2 Cor. 4. 16. where the Apostle saith, Though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed daily; By outward man there is meant the body only, or original sinne in the bodily deeds thereof; Most do interpret it of the body only, yet Paraeus understands it of original sinne with the body, That as the body and original corruptions with the effects thereof are constantly dying, being mortified by the Spirit of God, so the inward man, which is the work of grace, is daily more confirmed; Howso­ever this be, yet it is plain, Rom. 7. 22. That the work of grace within us, being called the inward man, that by opposition, original corruption must be the out­ward man, and therefore called, The Law in our members. It is thought by Ne­rimbergius, that the Apostle taketh this distinction of an outward and inward man from Plato, out of whom he quoteth a place, with some vicinity to Paul's expression. This is certain, That original sinne may well be called, a body, and the Law in our members, because by these it doth so palpably put forth its self: Insomuch that we may wonder any will not believe there is original sinne, for it is obvious to the sense, they may behold the effects of it, that as you may know a man hath a soul, because he speaketh and laugheth, though you cannot see the soul: Thus though you cannot see original sinne, yet because as soon as ever the child can speak or do any thing, you see vanity and sinne put forth it self, therefore you may conclude there is original sinne: Thou then, that wilt not be convinced of it by Scripture, by reasons and several Authorities, we send thee to experience; You cannot go from house to house, from Town to Town, from company to company, but you may see the effects and actings of original sinne: If you say, It's mens actual sins and custom therein, that makes them so vile; It is true; But still we ask, Whence came the custom? Whence came they to have those actings? Certainly, those streams could not have been polluted, if the fountain had not been; and if original sinne did not infect our natures, why should not men ge­nerally as well act that which is good, and obtain a custom in that which is com­mendable? Therefore experience, thy eyes, thy ears, may convince thee of this bodily sinne.

Secondly, The Apostle calleth it a Body, to answer those other expressions that he useth about it, for he often calleth upon us to mortifie, to kill, to crucifie this original sinne: Now to mortifie and crucifie are properly relating to a Body, we do not say properly accidents, or qualities are crucified. To make therefore the expres­sion harmonious, he calleth it a Body; Howsoever therefore it is with our natu­ral body, that no man ever yet hated his own flesh, we are to nourish and cherish that, and it would be murder to mortifie that body, yet this Body of sinne is to be kept under, we are not to spare it, but by the Spirit of God to be constantly crucifying of it; neither let that discourage thee, because (as you heard) this will be painfull and grievous to flesh and blood; for you must conclude upon this, [Page 108] That the way to Heaven is narrow and straight, there must be constant violence and opposition to all natural inclinations: Every godly man may well be called a Martyr, for though he may feel no pain in the killing of his natural body, yet he must and will feel much exercise in killing the body of sinne, but better endure some grief here, than eternal torments hereafter. Our Saviour speaks to this twice, as it's mentioned by the Evangelist Matthew, Chap. 5. 30 & 18. 3. It is better (saith he) to go halt and blind into life, than with two hands and eyes to be cast into everlasting fire: Think then, whether will be more burdensom to leave the pleasures of sinne here, or hereafter to be tormented to all eternity.

Thirdly, Original sinne may be called a Body, To shew the reality of it, that it is not a meer fancy or humane figment, as some call it, or a non ens (as the late Writer D. J. T. Answ. to a letter.) We know the Scripture, and so our use of speech opposeth a body to a shadow; The Legal Rites are called a shadow, and Christ the body; Thus original sinne, it is not the shadow, or the notion of a sinne, it liveth and moveth as well as actual, it provoketh God, it curseth and damneth as well as actual sins; So that we are not to flight it, or to be fearless of it, but rather to tremble under it, as the fountain of all our evil and calamity. The word Body is sometimes taken for that which is substantial and real, in which sense some have excused Tertullian and others, that attributed a body to God and Angels, as if they intended nothing but a real substance, as the a [...]iome of the Stoicks was, Omne quod est, est corpus; Hence they made Virtues and the Arts, Bodies: But whatsoever their intentions might be, the expression is dangerous, for God is a Spirit; but there is no danger to call original sinne a Body, thereby to express the full and real nature of it, and thus farre Illyricus his intention was good, though his opinion was absurd, to amplifie those terms the Scripture giveth to original sinne in opposition to Popery, wherein they speak so coldly and for­mally of it, only that he should therefore make it to be more than an accident, even the substance of a man in a theological consideration; hence he did over­throw all Philosophy and Divinity; So that properly the Lutheran Poet cannot be excused, when he saith,

Ipse Deo eoram sine Christo culpa scelumque,
Ipse ego peccatum sum, proprieque vocer.

In a figurative expression it may pass, but he intended Flaccianism; hence Cont­zen speaks of Illyricus by scorn, Cujus vel substantia est peccatum. Yet thus much we must take notice of, That the Scripture doth not in vain use such substantive names about our natural defilement, for hereby it doth aggravate it, and would have us also know the greatness and vileness of it; For how few are there, till san­ctified and enlightned by the Spirit of God, that do bewail this as an heavy bur­den? They can complain of the pains, the aches, the troubles of their natural body, but do not at all regard this body of sin, whereas to a spiritual tender heart, this body of sinne is farre more grievous than any bodily diseases, or death it self, yea death is therefore welcome to them, because that alone will free from this bo­dy of sinne, so that they shall never be molested with it more.

Fourthly, Original sinne is called the Body of sinne, Because it is a mass of sin, a lump of all evil: It is not one sinne, but all sinne seminally: And this seemeth to be the most formal and express reason, why the Apostle giveth it this name, cal­ling it a Body, and attributing members to it; for as a body is not one member, or one part, but the whole compounded of all; Thus is original sinne, it is not the defilement, or pollution in one part of the soul, but it diffuseth it self through all. It is a body of sinne, and herein it doth exceed all actual transgressions, and for this reason, we ought the more to grieve and mourn under it; The body is heavier than one part, why are actual sins a load upon thee, but this which is the cause of all, and comprehends all, thou art never affected with? O pray more [Page 109] for the Spirit of conviction by the Word! Look oftner into the pure glass of the Law! Compare thy universal deformity with that exact purity! It is for want of this the pharisaical and the natural man is so self-confident, trusteth so much in his own heart, doth so easily perswade himself of Gods love, whereas if we come to a Christian like Paul, complaining of this Law of sinne within him, finding it captivating and haling of him whither he would not, then we have much a do to comfort such an one, all our work is to make him have any hope in Christ, he thinketh none are so bad as he, that the very devils have not worse in them, than he feeleth in himself; and all this is, because original sinne is such a loathsom dung­hill in his brest, that as those who have putrified arms, or other parts of their body, they cannot endure themselves, they would flie from themselves: Thus it is with them, because of this original pollution.

Fifthly, Original sinne may be called a Body, Because it inclineth onely to car­nal, earthly and bodily things, not at all savouring the things of God and his Spirit. Hence it is called so often the flesh, because it only carrieth a man to fleshly things, being contrary to God, and full of enmity to his will, as Rom. 8. And doth not experience confirm this? Take any man, till renewed by grace, and all the bent and impulse of his soul, are to such things alone, that are earthy and sensual, Jam. 3. 17. The Apostle James doth there excellently describe the nature of all natural wisdom, It is earthy, sensual and devilish; Every one by nature is both beastly and devillish; This body of sinne presseth him down to the earth and hell: Inso­much that you may as soon see a worm flying in the air like a bird, as a man abi­ding in this natural pollution, having his conversation in heaven; So that being made thus bodily and carnal, all the spiritual things of God are both above our ap­prehension, and contrary to our affections. Now this very particular, if there were no more, is as deep as the Sea, and containeth unspeakable matter of humiliati­on, viz. That by this natural pollution, we are destitute of Gods Spirit; Spiri­tual things are no more apprehended by us, than melody by the deaf ear: Do ye not see wise men, learned men, yea great Scholars, when you come to discourse with them about spiritual things, they are very fools, and are as blind as moles that live wholly in the earth? But of this more in the effects of original sin.

Lastly, In the Scripture, Body is used sometimes for the strength and power of a thing; And thus original sinne is the body, as that which giveth life and motion to all actual sins.

Let the Use be greatly to humble thee under this notion Gods word gives ori­ginal sinne, This sinfull body; It troubleth thee thou hast a mortal body, a cor­ruptible body, but above all this body of sinne should be a burden to thee; What shall God give all these names to it, to make thee afraid, and to groan under it, yet shall thy heart continue still like the rock and adamant?

Of the Privative Part of Original Sinne.

Of Adam's begetting Seth in his own likeness,

GEN. 5. 3.‘And Adam—begat a sonne in his own likeness, and after his Image, and called his name Seth.’

MOses in this Chapter giveth a brief and summary capitulation of the Lives and Deaths of the Patriarchs unto Noah, mentioning these heads:

1. That God made man.

2. That he made him in time.

3. After his own Image.

4. Male and Female.

5. He blessed them.

6. The imposition of the name Adam to Eve, as well as to Adam; And this he calleth, The Book of the generations of Adam, viz. His succession, with all his acts of his Life, and also his Death, otherwise Adam had no generation, but was created by God.

The Hebrew word, though sometimes it signifieth a Book or Epistle, yet in the general it is no more than a Catalogue or Rehearsal, as it is here, and so is to be interpreted in some other places, the neglect whereof hath in part made an oc­casion of dispute, Whether any Canonical Books be lost or no, as Numb. 21. 14. whereas the word there is not to be taken for an Historical Volume, but the Enu­meration or Rehearsal of the ways of the Lord?

In the next place, he proceedeth to Seth, not but that Adam had other sons, only he mentioneth him, as the future head of humane posterity upon the drown­ing of the world: Now concerning him, we have his name, he was called Seth. There were Heretiques called Sethiani, who attributed unto him more than a man, but the holy Ghost doth antidote against that opinion, by informing of us, that he was begotten in a sinfull, mortal estate.

2. Of whom he was begotten, and that is of Adam.

3. How, or in what manner? and that is, After Adams Image, in his own likeness.

Adam was created after the Image and likeness of God, that is, in a most per­fect and compleat resemblance; for Image and likeness do not differ, though the [Page 111] Schoolmen attempt to difference them, but it is an Hebraism, putting two Sub­stantives together for aggravation sake, and it is as much here, as an Image ex­ceeding like.

Thus Adam was made in respect of his soul qualified with holiness like God; but in the Text Seth is said to be begotten of Adam, in Adam's Image, not in Gods, that is, in a corrupt, miserable and mortal estate: For whereas Adam was by Nature a man; by Condition, the Lord and Chief, in whom humane Posterity was to be reckoned of; As also in respect of corruption, now polluted having lost Gods Image. Seth was after Adam's own likenesse, in all these three particulars: That he was a man like him, none can doubt; That he was like Adam, in respect of his Headship to his Posterity, is plain, because Abel was dead, and Cain with his Posterity was to be destroyed in the floud. Not that this is the whole Image or likenesse here spoken of; That as Adam was the first Head of mankind, so Seth was to be of those, who should be preserved in the flood, as some would have it; For such a resemblance would have been more eminently in Noah, who in the Ark seemed to be the common Parent of man­kind.

Therefore in the third place, This Image or likenesse, to Adam is mentioned eppositely to that Image of God, which Adam was created in; And if you ob­ject, Why is it not as Well said of Abel or Cain, that Adam begat them after his own Image as well as Seth?

The Answer is plain, Moses in this Historical Capitulation, doth not mention all in a Family, but such who were onely by a direct Line to de­scend to their Posterity, and to be an Head to that. Now not Abel or Cain, but Seth was appointed by God in this place; And that we might know in what manner all Generations are to descend from him, the Scripture doth here inform us, That we must not think, that Seth had from Adam the Image of God, or would propagate it to others; but now he and we are as Adam after his fall, sinfull and mortal: For although the Church hath generally thought of Adam, that he did repent and was saved; for we doe not reade after­wards of any grosse sinne he committed, and God made the glorious Pro­mise of a Saviour to him, yet he did not beget Seth, as he was regenera­ted, but as a man; and so being fallen from that Covenant, he was first pla­ced in, his personal grace afterwards could not be conveyed to his Posterity, as his sinne, while a common Parent was. We see then, though Adam was godly, and Seth was likewise holy, yet for all that he was born without the Image of God, and in a polluted estate.

Besides therefore in this place is a seasonable mentioning of the likenesse and Image Adam begat Seth in, because Moses being here to capitulate their several Generations, which doth imply their mortality, doth oppor­tunely give the cause of it: So that Snecanin (Method. Distri. Cause. Sol. & dam. cap. 3.) his opinion, which he offereth to the learned to judge, Whether by Adam's Image be not meant his repaired Image with the cor­rupted one, being now assumed unto Gods favour, seemeth directly to oppose the Text, which calleth it Adam's own Image, not Gods.

What Original Sinne is.

SEeing therefore we have handled the Quid nominis of Original sinne, what the chief Names are which the Scripture giveth unto it; We come to consider the Quid Rei, the Nature and Definition of it; And whereas some make it it consist onely in the meer privation of Gods Image; Others in a positive inclination unto all evil; We shall take in both; for although, as Calvin well saith, He that affirmeth Original sinne to be the privation of Gods Image, speaks the whole Nature of it; Yet because that doth not so fully and particularly represent the loathsomnesse of it, therefore it's neces­sary with the Scripture, to consider both the Privative and Positive part of original sinne.

I shall beginne with the Privative part, That original sinne is the privati­on of that original Righteousnesse, and glorious Image of God, which was at first put into us: And this the holy Ghost meaneth, when he saith, Adam begat Seth after his own likenesse and Image. From whence observe,

That we are by nature without the Image of God we were created in, and this is a great part of our original sinne. This truth of the losse of Gods Image in us, is of very great concernment, and therefore to be improved both Doctrinally and Practically. It is the greatest losse that ever besell man­kind, and oh our carnal and dull hearts, which can bewail the losse of health, of wealth, of any outward comfort, but this which is the greatest losse of all, viz. the Image of God, which we should bewail all our life time, that we are no wayes sensible of!

I shall not at large in this place treat, De Imagine Dei, of the Image of God in man, I shall say onely so much as will make us the better discover the Nature of original sinne. And

First, We are to know, That howsoever there be hot and fervent Di­sputes about this Image of God, what it is, wherein it doth consist, (and according as they take it more largely or strictly, so they conclude the Image of God is lost, or not lost) yet we may by Scripture-light make it to consist in these things.

Wherein the making Man after Gods Image did consist.


FIrst, In the soul, as it is endowed with reason and understanding: For herein man did transcend all other visible creatures, that God made him with a rational soul, investing him with reason and free-will, and in this respect the Image of God is not totally lost; For though by it we have lost all our power and understanding in holy things, yet we have not lost our souls, and the natural faculties thereof; we are not made bruit beasts, we are men still; Hence it is that still the reason holds, Why a man should not kill another, Gen. 9. 6. For in the image of God made he man; If there were not yet the Image of God in some respect, the reason would not be so forcible; For what weight would it carry to say, Thou shalt not kill a man, because once he had the Image of God, but now he hath lost it? God speaketh of what he will require of every man that hath slain another, and that because in the Image of God he made him: Thus Jame. 3. 9. aggravateth the sinne of cursing any man, because man is made after the similitude of God; To this we may appropriate that of the Poet, confirmed (Act. 17.) by the Apostle himself, We are his off spring: We will grant then, That the Image of God, so farre as it consists in the soul, and the natural faculties, is not lost, though in re­gard of the actings thereof even about natural things, they are made infirm and weak.

Secondly, The Image of God did consist in that holinesse and righteousness, which God did adorn the soul with: And this indeed is the most noble and principal part of Gods Image, to be made like God in righteousnesse and holinesse; There­fore Col. 3. 10. Ephes. 4, 24. we read the Image of God is said to be in righteous­nesse and true holinesse: Insomuch that many learned Divines do make this the onely Image of God, though not so probably; This indeed is the principal and chief, the other is but remote and secundary, for the later abideth even in the Devils and the damned in hell; They have reason and understanding, yet they cannot do the least good action, no not for a moment, although they have so much light in them. This holinesse and righteousnesse then in the whole man, was the chiefest resemblance of God, he being holy as God was holy, not by equa­lity, but similitude. But alas, who is able to apprehend aright of this? Who can now tell, being plunged into all evil and sinne, what it is to be altogether holy, what it is to be without any blemish or spot? Yet in such a glorious and admirable manner we were created.

Thirdly, The Image of God did not only comprehend this holinesse actually dwelling in us, but a power and strength also to persevere in this holinesse; for if God had been never so bountifull in one, yet if he had denied the other, he would have made us happy, [Page 114] that thereby we might become more miserable. But this is not to be thought of that God, who shewed so much love and bounty in our first Creation; Adam there­fore had the Law of God written in his heart, having strength and ability from within to withstand all temptations, and to perform any holy auty; so that we cannot instance in any holy action, which he had not power to perform Indeed to believe in Christ as a Saviour, to repent of sinne, he could not actually do them, because they do necessarily imply the subject sinfull, and in a miserable estate and conditi­on, but eminently and transcendently these things were in his power; yea, this power of his did extend to keep all the Commandments of God, and that without any imperfection; Insomuch that being under the Covenant of works, he might have obtained justification by them, though not meritoriousty; This glory did God at first put upon us, who now have nothing but a cursed slavery unto sinne, and an utter impotency to any thing that is holy: As for resisting any temptation, he had strength and ability enough to gainsay it, though it had been in many degrees more violent, than that which [...] him: It is true, he was overcome by a temptation, and in that which might have easily been repulsed, as we would judge; but this was to shew, That although he was created holy, yet he was also mutable; Though he had power to persevere, yet he had not that grace which did make him actually to persevere, as the confirmed Angels have: So that what Historians say of the Marsi in Italy, and the [...] in Africa, That they had such a temper of body, that no Serpents could hurt them, or poison them; Such an admitable temperament was Adams soul in, that the Serpent would not have deceived them had not they given consent; For, if while we are in this corrupted estate, yet the Devil cannot force us to sinne, be cannot make us sinne, whether we will or no, but it is lust within us, that betrayeth all to him: No wonder then, if in that state of integrity, there was no [...] to sinne, either from within or without.

Fourthly, This Image of God in the holinesse of it, was not only in the mind and the will, with a clear knowledge of God, and love of him, but it did extend also to the affections, so that they were made with a regular subordination to the rule of ho­linesse within a man. These wild horses (for our possions are no better) were then all tamed, and as much subject to mans will, as the winds and tempells were to Christs: Anger, grief, love and desire, these did not rise or continue in our soul any longer, or otherwise, but as they were conducted by the light of God shining in the mind: This must necessarily be comprehended in that expression, Eccles. 7. when God is said to make man right, rectitude is an universal harmony and congruity of all the parts of the soul unto the rule. Austin did once wonder at that disobedience which now man finds in himself, Superat animu corperi &c. (Confes. lib. 8. cap. 9.) The soul commands the body, and presently it obeyeth, but (saith he) Imperat sibi ipsi, it commands it self, and then there is rebellion, but it was not thus from the beginning: Therefore the Papists and Socinians they do blaspheme in some sense God our holy Maker, whale they affirm, That the repugnancy and rebellion of the sensitive appetite to the reason, ariseth from the very internal constitution of a man; And therefore the Papists they make original righteousness to be the bridle only to curb this appetite, or an anti­dore to prevent this infection. And as for the Socinian, he denieth, that Adam had any such righteousness at all, and therefore they say he sinned, Because his sensitive appetite did prevail against the rational: Thus they make man, even while he was in honour, and before his fall, to be like the beast that perisheth, and to have no understanding comparatively even in that place of Paradise; But this errour is so dangerous, that we are not to give place to it, no not for a moment. In that holy estate the soul commanded the body, and all the affections; They did goe, when he bade them goe, and stood still, when they were commanded: Oh but now, in what a warre, in [Page 115] what a confusion and distraction are we plunged? now we cannot be angry, but we sinne; now we cannot grieve, or love, but we sinne; Thou that deniest ori­ginal sinne, let the exorbitancy of thy passions, the inordinacy of thy affections convince thee: Is thy heart in thy own power? Canst thou have every thing stirre and move in thy soul, how, and when thou pleasest? Canst thou say in respect of thy heart, and all the stirrings of thy soul, as the Centurion did of his servants that were at his command? How is experience a mistress of us fools in this parti­cular? Wherein doth our weakness, our sinfulness more appear than in our passi­ons and affections? As Alexander when his flatterers exalted him as a God, he derided at it, when he saw blood come from his body. Thus when men cry up free-will, power to do what is good, deny original sinne, and make us in our birth free from all evil, With what indignation mayest thou reject it, when thou seest the Chaos and confusion that is in thy soul, when thou findest not any affe­ction moving in thee, but it overfloweth it's banks presently? Whereas original righteousness gave Adam as much power over those, as he had over all the beasts of the field; but as the ground hath now thorns and thistles in stead of those plea­sant herbs and plants it would have produced of its own self; Thus also man now hath all his heart and affections grown wild and luxuriant, so that Solomons ob­servation in other things in here made true, Servants ride on hors-back, and Prin­ces go on foot.

Fifthly, This Image of God was partly in respect of the glory, honour and im­mortality God created him in. Adam was made after the Image of God, not only in holiness, but also in happiness; he was not subject to any fears or tears, nothing from within, or from without could cause pain and grief to him; Hence death, by which is meant all kind of evil and misery, was threatned unto him, as a reward of his disobedience; but Adam did not beget Seth after this Image, we are now made dust, and in a necessity of dying, which is the effect of our original sin.

Lastly, The Image of God doth consist by way of consequence in dominion and superiority. The Socinians indeed, because when it's said, God made man after his own Image, Gen. 1. 26. it's added, And let him have dominion over the beasts of the field▪ &c. make it the only thing wherein it doth consist; But we are to believe the Apostle, Ephes 4. Col. 3. expounding this Image of God more than they, who applieth it to righteousness and true holiness; yet it cannot be denied, but from this Image of God, did flow that Dominion and Sovereignty, which the woman also was created in; for though she was made in subjection to her husband, and so is called, The Image of her husband, as the husband is the Image of God, yet in respect of the creatures, so she had power over them, and they were sub­ject to Eve as well as to Adam. Thus you see what this Image of God in a brief manner is, the next work is to amplifie our losse of it.


is taken away, both meritoriously and efficiently, meritoriously our A­postasie deserved, that God of a Father and a friend, should become a Judge and an Adversary to us; it deserved that we should be children of wrath by nauture, who were children of love by Creation; What tongue of men and Angels can ex­press the dreadfulness of this condition, viz. of coming into the world under Gods wrath and vengeance? God is not to us, what he was in the state of inte­grity, not that any change is in God, but in us. Again, This friendship and love of God is expelled efficiently, for fallen man hath no suitableness and fitness, no proportion or ability to have communion with God. Darkness cannot delight in light, neither bitterness in sweetness: The swine cannot love pearl and precious flowers; man corrupt cannot love or delight in the enjoyment of God; so that the guilt of sinne did presently make Adam afraid of God, so as to runne from him.


4. THis privation of Gods Image is more than like the spoiling of a man of his cloaths, or like the taking of a bridle from the horses mouth, or removing the bonds and chains a man might be in, Which when taken off, he can walk well enough. For the Popish party, though they grant, Man fallen hath much hurt by Adam, yet they make the privation of original righteousnesse, to be no more than the spoiling of a man of his garments; so that as a man without his cloaths, is a man still, though naked, and exposed to many difficulties. Thus, they say, man still hath his naturals, though he hath lost his supernaturals; Original righteous­ness was like an antidote, or a bridle against the inferiour parts of the soul (they say) so that what man is deprived of, is only what was supernatural and meerly superad­ded to humane nature. By these subtilties of theirs, a mans losse is made to be far lesse than indeed it is: Hence they do so often apply that Parable of the man go­ing to Jericho that was wounded, and left half dead, to Adam fallen, to all man­kind in him, as if we were but dangerously wounded, and not throughly dead: But the scope of that Parable is wholly to a different purpose; Original righte­ousness is not to be conceived, as a supernatural excellency bestowed upon man after his Creation, but as a concreated perfection in all the parts of his soul: So that the losing of this, is not like the losing of some accidental glory and ornaments, but even those concreated perfections in the soul are also lost. The misunderstand­ing of this breedeth a dangerous errour, as if by original sinne we onely had lost these superadded ornaments, but did retain our pure naturals still, as they call it, which are indeed altogether impute, Eccl. 7. God made man right; Even as all other creatures were exceeding good: Now God had made man the more noble creature, worse than other creatures, if he had not created him with such perfect and suitable qualifications, as would inable him to obtain true blessedness, for eve­ry creature else had an implanted ability in it, to accomplish his end, and why then should God do lesse bountifully with man, one of the chiefest instances of his glorious workmanship? But of this I must necessarily speak more, because of the Socinian, who cals this Doctrine of original righteousness, Faetida fabula, an old stinking fable.


5. ORiginal sinne is a privation, not only of that righteousness which was a na­tural perfection due to him upon supposition of his Creation for the enjoy­ment of God, but also of whatsoever supernatural and gracious favour Adam had. [Page 119] We do not say, That Adam had nothing supernatural in him, for assisting and co-operating [...] supernatural, as also that prophetical light he had concern­ing [...] God did superadde many glorious ornaments which were [...] and which he did not absolutely need as means to make him [...], and such likewise were those consequents of holinesse mentioned before, [...] to be the Sonne of God, and to be the Temple of the holy Ghost; Now all these gratuita are lost as well as the naturalia, we are no more the children of God, or the Temple of God, but our souls are possest with Sa­tan, and he ruleth in our hearts, as in his proper possession▪ Some Divines call original righteousnesse the absolute Image of God, and our sonship, and filial re­lation to God, for Adam is called the Sonne of God, Luke 3. ult. the relative Image; now whether absolute or relative Image, all is lost; and therefore that assisting grace, which was then ready at hand for Adam to enjoy, that thereby he might b [...]nabled to do any good action, we are naturally without: Oh then the [...] and undone estate we are in, being without inberent grace dwelling in us, and assisting grace from God without us, without eyes, and the light of the Sun also! Who can think that God at first made us such sinfull, mortal and wretched creatures? It would be much against the wisdom and goodness of God, he would then have done worse with man, than with any flie or worm.

What are the most excellent and choice parts of that Original Righte­ousness that we are deprived of.

BUt because the greatest part of the privative way of original corruption, is in losing that Image of God, and concreated holinesse, and we have onely spokan in the general of that, that we may be the more affected with it, and the losse thereof may pierce to our very hearts; Let us consider, what are the most excellent and choice parts of this original righteousnesse that we are deprived of, that so we may not only see our losse in the bulk, but be able to account of every particular in this, and that we have lost.

And the first particular to be insisted on, is that great dignity God put on man, making him with a Free will to do what is holy. Free-will is a great perfection, though the mutability in it, as in Adam was a negative Imperfection, this was admirable in Adam, that he had power, if he willed to doe any holy action whatsoever: There was not in him any clog, any impediment to stop the exercise of this Free will; but as he had dominion over all creatures, so also over hi [...] whole soul; and indeed if God had not created him with this domi­nion over his actions, his obedience had not been so eminent, nor his disobedience so culpable▪ But this flower is withered, this Crown is fallen to the ground; Man hath now no free will, no power to do any thing that is holy; He hath power to eat and drink, he hath power to do civil & moral actions, he hath power to do actions externally religious, to come to the Congregation, to hear; but for those things that are internally holy, to love God, to believe on him, to repent of sin; This the Scri­pture doth in many places deny to him, making him to be dead in sinne, and untill born again by the Spirit, unable to do any holy duty. This Raymundus (Theol. Natur. de lapsu hominis) doth well urge, That the soul as to spiritual actions, and in reference to God, is wholly dead; so that as a dead man is not able to produce any vital actions, so neither can any natural man spiritual actions; and because man being dead is not sensible of this losse, therefore doth the same man compare him to a mad man, that knoweth not how it is with him; yea he much pursueth that similitude of wine degenerated into vinegar, saying, That as vinegar retain­eth [Page 120] nothing of the sweetnesse or goodnesse it had when it was wine: Thus neither doth man retain any thing of that light in his mind, or love in his heart, which once he had: Man (saith he) is not become of good wine bad, which though bad, retaineth some taste, and hath a little relish of the nature of wine; but he is as when Wine is degenerated into vinegar, which hath all clean contrary to what is had when once wine. This comparison he the rather urgeth, Because (saith he) man doth not, or cannot discern in himself the difference between his created condition, and his fallen, therefore he must see how it is with him in similitude by other things. We may adde to this similitude another of the body of man while living, and an instrument of the soul, with it self when dead, and separated from it, that body then though formerly never so beautifull and comely, never so lively and active, now is loath­some, and hath the clean contrary qualities; Such a thing is man now fallen, if compared with his Creation.


A Second instance of a particular in this Image of God, which we have lost, is Faith and dependance upon God as a Father. As God made Adam his son in holinesse, so Adam had a filial dependance and belief on him, resting alone in Gods protection and preservation, and thereby was not subject to any fears, grief, or troublesom dejections of mind about his soul or body; This was an ex­cellent pearl in that Crown of glory, which God set on mans head, but how to­tally is this lost? Every man by this original sinne may justly go up and down trembling like a Cain, fearing that every thing should not only kill him, but damn him; Yea, whence is it that the Sea is not fuller of monsters, than thy heart is of unbelieving, doubting and diffident thoughts about God? Why art thou so fear­full, suspicious and despairing about God naturally? Is not this because God and thy soul are separated? Doth not thy conscience secretly suggest to thee, that God is offended with thee? Is not this a plain discovery of thy losse of God and his Image, that thou hast naturally fears and doubts within thy self? Thou think­est of God and art troubled, as Adam when he heard Gods voice, ran and hid himself; All the natural tremblings and trepidations of conscience about God, arise from this, because there is a secret perswasion thou and God art at a distance, yea a contrariety one with another.


A Third particular is, The losse of that love to God above all things which was implanted in Adam's heart. The moral Law being cograven in Adam, he loved God with all his soul and might, and that above all creatures, yea above himself; for seeing the debt and obligation upon Adam was to prefer God above all creatures; yea Gods will, and Gods glory above his own will and glo­ry; it stood not with that integrity God made him in, to be defective in any of these; but through Adam's apostasie now all is changed upside down; Self-love is that which predominateth in every man a mans own will, own good, own plea­sure and honour, is the chiefest end aimed at; so that now Gods will and honour is trampled under foot, and all to set up our own selves, insomuch that this self­love may almost be called the original sin in a man.


FOurthly, Another particular which is lost is, That joy and delight which Adam had in God, for as he loved God above all things, so enjoying of him, he did in­finitely delight and rejoyce in him. Though God made the creatures for Adam's delight; Paradise was a place of delight, yet these were but drops, God was the Ocean; Adam did then perfectly say, which David did with some imperfection, Whom have I in Heaven but thee? And whom in earth in comparison of thee? God was all things unto him. But where is this divine delight? Doth any natural man find any sweetness in holy things? Is not all our joy, a carnal, a worldly, a crea­ture joy? Certainly our joy and delights do as much discover the losse of Gods Images as any thing else; whereas Adam would have daily rejoyced in God, and in the honour and glory of God, that he was magnified and exalted, we naturally are not affected with these things.

A further Consideration of Original Righteous­ness, proving the thing, and answering Obje­ctions against it.


THe Privative Part of Original Corruption, as it is the loss of Gods Image hath been treated of, both in the general and the particulars. Now that still we may the more throughly possess our souls with this unspeakable loss, it is necessary to say something of Gods Image, which man at first was created in: For although I said, that I would not enter into a large Tractate of it, yet something must be necessarily spoken to it; for if there be no such thing as original righteousnesse, then there is no such thing as original sinne; if there be no such thing as light, there cannot be any such thing as darkness. The Privation doth necessarily suppose an habit; Hence the Socinians, as they wholly deny this original sin we are treat­ing of, so do they also reject this original righteousness; calling it (as was said) Faetida fabula, an old stinking Fable, an Idea feigned in mens brains, of which there is [...], not the least Title in the Scripture (Vide Pertium Harmon.) It behoveth us therefore the more diligently to search into this truth; For if Adam never had such glory and holiness put upon him, then we his posterity could not lose it.

To inform our selves then herein, Let us consider,

First, That what Adam's state of integrity was, we cannot any wayes know, but by the Scripture. We have now no experience of it, nor can any Philosophy or humane reason, give us any direction therein Now there are two Rocks upon [Page 122] which the Adversaries of this Truth do split themselves; The one is, Judging of original righteousness, or of man in his Creation, according to the principles of moral Philosophy; As if we were not to read Moses and Paul concerning this righ­teousnesse of Adam, but Plato and Aristotle; for humane Philosophers, as they were wholly ignorant of original sinne, supposing the soul to come into the world as an abrasa fabula, a meer blank, ready to receive good or evil, yet inclining ra­ther to good, as Aristotle saith, so they were wholly ignorant either of mans cre­ation, or if that were acknowledged, of any imitation or change made upon man by his Apostasie. Now this principle in effect the Socinian imbibeth: For (he saith) There is no righteousness to be conceived in Adam, but what was actual, that there was no habitual infused into him, but that he was created in a neutral and indifferent estate, neither good or bad, but to be made either of these, as his free-will should put it self forth into action. Thus you see how truly Tertullian of old said, Philosophers were the Patriarchs of Heretiques; for both Papists and Secintans judge of Adams first estate, by principles of moral Philosophy.

The second Rock upon which the erroneous party in this great Truth, destroy­eth themselves at, is, The judging of man in his first Creation, according to that which we feel in our selves now, as if we should judge what wine is by the vinegar it's degenerated into, as if we should determine of a living body, according to what we see in a dead carkass; And truly we may say, that from hence ariseth all Pelagianism, Popery and Socinianism: We passe a sentence upon the state we were created in, by what we now feel in our selves, as if God had not, or could not make us otherwise: As for instance, because we now in our selves find the in­feriour appetitive part rebel in it's motions against the rational, therefore they conclude, That this was at first in Adams Creation; That this repugnancy is planted in our very constitution: Yea, a Remonstrant is not afraid to say, It was in Christ himself, because a man, (and why not then in the glorified Saints to all eternity, seeing they shall after the Resurrection consist of soul and body also?) In this Position both Socinian, Remonstrant and Papist do positively agree, viz. That the repugnancy and rebellion, which is between the rational and sensitive part doth arise from the very constitution of man. It ariseth (saith Bellarmine) not from God, but è conditione materiae, from the condition of that matter, of which God made him; but doth not this arise because we see such a repugnancy is now in every man, because there is none that can live now upon the earth without this rebel­lion? therefore we conclude it was not alwayes so. If then we would sail by these Rocks, if we would be guided into this Divine Truth, let us go out of our selves, and out of all the traditions, which Ethical Philosophy hath delivered unto us, for that speaks only of what is acquired, not of any thing infused or concreated with our natures, but rather think this Image of God is so glorious a thing, that we know not how to speak of it, or to think of it, we never had the actual en­joyment, or working of it. It is not with us, as with men, who hold a rich and plentifull estate, but are now fallen into extream poverty, such can tell you by experience, what a plentifull life they once lived. Job could tell us what honour once he had, and the abundance he enjoyed, even when he sate scraping himself upon the dunghill, he could experimentally compare his former estate, and that together, but so cannot we. Indeed those common [...], or dictates of nature, whereby our consciences have some light to discern between good and evil, may serve for some kind of conviction, that once God did create us in a more knowing and holy estate, but what it was, and fully to conceive of it, that we cannot do. Hence

In the second place, It's a very necessary thing in all men, to be often meditating upon these two states and conditions of man, his created state, and his fallen estate, his primitive condition, and his present condition. To compare the light men, with his darknesse now, his holinesse then with his impurity now, his immortality then [Page 123] with his mortality now, his Communion with God then, and his estrangement, or contrariety now, for hereby his heart will be the more deeply humbled under his present miserable condition; Those that make them both alike, or assign a very little difference, they neither duly consider what a glorious thing Gods Image was, we were created in, nor how deep and universal our pollution is: Oh how dishonourable and dblasphemous is it, to think we come out of Gods hands as we are now, that at the first we had inclinations to sinne, that there was a rebellion in us to what is good! What is this but to say, God made us at first the children of his wrath? Oh pray that the scales may fall from thy eyes, that thou beest not delivered up to this dangerous errour, which is the broad way to perdition.

In the third place, To understand the nature of that Image of God, man was created in, you must take heed of the Socinian Position, who say, God made man meerly an innocent, even as a young child, that he had not in his creation any holi­nesse infused into him, but he was in a neutral and indifferent disposition, to be actu­ally good or wicked, as his free-will did determine. But this is to diminish the good­nesse of God who made man in such a distinguishing character to all other crea­tures, except Angels, for Angels and men they only were created after the Image of God; That Adam was not created in such a negative frame of soul, appeareth, in that the Image of God is expresly said by Paul to consist in righteousnesse and true holinesse; Now righteousnesse is more than a not being evil, it denoteth an inherent positive perfection in the soul; Hence Eccl 7. 30 God is there said, To make man righteous; The word Jashar is generally used to signifie as much as holy, clean and pure. It is not therefore for us to contradict so plain Texts of Scripture; Hence the Psalmist, Psal. 8. 5. doth admire the goodnesse of God, and his works to man, especially in this, That he hath made him but a little lower than Angels: Oh then admire that glorious excellency God did at first put us into! We were at first made but a little lower than those glorious Angels of God; Therefore Chrysostem called Adam an earthly Angel; Now compare thy present estate with this of Adams; Art thou like an Angel? Have Angels such blind­nesse of mind, such aversnesse to what is good, such rebellious and unmortified thoughts in them, as thou hast? Nay, Art thou not rather a Devil for pride, for malice, for opposition to what is good? Was it thus with us from the be­ginning? They therefore do most unthankfully rob God of all that glory and honour which is due to him that will affirm, That God made him in such an indif­ferent neutral state, neither righteous or unrighteous: Surely then God could not have looked upon all the things that were made with that approbation, They were exceeding god; For though other creatures might be good in their kind with a natural goodnesse, yet Adam was in his kind with a moral goodnesse: Neither will the Socinian evasion help, That by good there is meant convenient, beautifull and proper for its end: For let no more be granted but that, it's enough, If Adam was not created with holinesse in his soul, he was not made good in their sense, that is not sutable and sit for his end; For being created to know and love God, and thereby to have a comfortable enjoyment of him, How could he do this without wisdom in his mind, and holinesse in his will? And certainly we may not think, that God gave every creature a goodnesse in its kind, to obtain its particular end, and not adorn man, the noblest of visible crea­tures, for his peculiar end.

The Scripture then is clear, That man was at first made such an holy and bles­sed creature; Let us consider what Reasons are objected against it by the Socinian party. And

First, (say they) Adam could not be holy till he had done some actual holi­ness,Obj how could he be denominated righteous (say they) till he had acted something that was righteous?

[Page 124] But this argueth great ignorance,Answ. as if there were no righteousnesse, but what is acquired, as if there were no infused habits of holinesse, which de­nominate a man so, before he doth that which is holy; Were not the Angels made holy in their Creation before they acted what was holinesse? Is not Christ himself Luke 1. called the [...], the holy thing, before he did actually that which was holy; yea the contrary is true, therefore did Adam that which was actually holy, because he was habitually holy: As the Tree is first good, and then the fruit good: Adam then before his fall had both original and actual holi­nesse, but the latter was an effect of the former, and therefore he did one be­cause he had the other.

Secondly, Object. It is objected by them, That if Adam was made in the Image of God like him, holy as he is holy, then Adam could not sinne, he would be impeceable, even as God is.

But this is a weak cavil,Answ. For though man be made holy, as God is, yet that is not by equality, but proportion onely; Were not the Angels made holy, and yet for all that they sinned? He then that is essentially and infinitely holy cannot sinne; yea a creature when confirmed in holinesse by God cannot sinne, as the elect Angels and glorified Saints; but Adam though he was made ho­ly, yet was in a mutable and changeable estate, and therefore he might sinne.

Quest. But you will say, Why did not this original Righteousnesse so farre defend him, that he did not withstand the Devil more strongly, he seemed to have little or no grace, that was so easily ensnared by Satan, and that in such a little matter when he enjoyed so much outward felicity?

Answ. But to this we may answer, That Adam and Eve, they did not at the very first yeeld themselves up to the Devil, but they did repell the Devils tem­ptations awbile; neither was it the inordinate desire of the forbidden fruit that was his first sinne, but pride and unbelief; not believing the threatnings of God, and affecting to be like God, and such sinnes do quickly and easily penetrate in­to the best and noblest subjects, as you see in the Angels themselves, those sublime and admirable spiritual substances, yet how quickly did such kind of sinnes enter into them, and defile them all over; So that we are to look to those spiritual secret sinnes, which did induce Adam to eat of the forbidden fruit.

Lastly, Object. It's objected by them, and the same Argument also is improved by Bellarmine, That man consisting of a soul, a spiritual substance, and of a body, which is a sensible corporeal substance, when these two are united in one person, it's impossible, but the spiritual part should incline one way, and the sensitive another; The rational part that desireth a spiritual good, and the sensitive part that which is sensible, and these are contrary.

But the answer is,Answ. that though these inclinations are divers, yet they are not contrary, but where sin hath made an Ataxy. As God at first ordained the will, which is appeti­tus rationalis, to follow the understanding, so he did also our affections to follow both of them; so that there was an essential subordination of the affectionate part to the rational; even as we see the members of the body do readily move at the com­mand of the soul, or as in perfect mixt bodies, though there be contrary qualities, yet by the temperament of that body, their contrariety is removed; and certainly, the Angels sinned, who yet had not any sensitive appetite to rebell against the ra­tional, therefore it was not from this necessarily, that Adam did sinne. Thus in Christ there was no repugnancy between grace and nature; for when he said, Father, if it be possible, let this Cup passe away; This was not an absolute desire of his humane nature, but a conditional one, and still with submission; there­fore he addeth, Neverthelesse thy will be done; and the Saints in Heaven, when they shall have re-assumed their bodies, will not find any contrariety [Page 125] between the rational and sensitive appetite. And thus you see that Adam was created in this holy estate.

Lastly, This holiness and righteousness in a well explained sense, was not super­natural, but natural. The Remonstrants they make this dispute about original righteousnesse, inepta & absurda, absurd and foolish; Therefore they deny any infused or concreated habits also, and say, The rectitude of the faculties was enough; But the Orthodox say, Adam could not be created without such habits or principles of holinesse within him, because he was created for the enjoyment of God, and therefore they call it natural, not as flowing from the principles of nature, but as a moral condition necessary to qualifie him for his end, and there­fore it was given to whole mankind in Adam, and would have been naturally pro­pagated; and whereas the Remonstrants ask, To what purpose or use is such origi­nal righteousnesse? For if it did not necessarily and immutably determine Adams will to good, than this original righteousnesse, did need another, and so in infini­tum; or if it did then, How came it about that Adam did sinne? To this subtil­ty it is answered, That this original righteousnesse was not to determine the will of Adam necessarily, but to incline and sortifie Adams will the more strongly, and easily to do what was good; So that although it did not absolutely take away Adams mutability and liberty, yet it did heighten and raise up the faculties of his soul to what was good, yet this was not a superadded grace to Adam, as actual confirmation in holines would have been, but a natural and due qualification preparing him for communion with God; So that the discourse about man in his pure naturals without this original righteousnesse, is an house that hath not so much as a sandy foundation, it being without any foundation at all, God having put his Image into man, as Phydias did his into Minerva's shield, that none could take that out, but he must also destroy that shield: Thus the Devil could not prevail with Adam to sinne, but by the losse of Gods Image.

A further Consideration of the Image of God, which Man was created in; Shewing what particular Graces Adam's Soul was adorn'd with.


WE are discovering the Nature of that Image God created us in at first, that so we may see how great our losse is.

The last particular was, The naturality and supernaturality of it in divers respects: And this is the more to be observed, because while the Orthodox oppose the Socinians, who affirm, Nothing but a natural and simple innocency in Adam, without any infused or concreated habits of holinesse, or any thing supernatural in him; You would think they joyn with the Papists, who dogmatize, That all the holinesse Adam had was supernatural. Again, while the same Orthodox oppose Papists, because of this opinion, one would think they joyned with the Socinians, who say, Adam had nothing in him, but what was natural, whereas the truth consists between these; and therefore original righteousnesse was supernatural to Adam; if you respect the principle from whence it did flow, it was immediately from God, not from principles of nature, and this opposeth the Socinian; yet if you do consider Adam the subject of this righteousnesse, and the end for which he was created, so it was a perfection due to him, and in that respect called natural, otherwise had not God invested mans nature with this and concreated this perfection with him, the noblest of visible creatures had been dealt worst with.


YEt in the second place, Though this Image of God was natural to Adam, yet we must not say, that he had nothing supernatural, that there was nothing by way of superadded grace to him. Even as in Adam, although we deny, that he was created in pure naturals, yet we say, that Adam in some respect may be said in Paradise to live an animal life, as well as he was created immortal; Adam was made free from death, he had not any proxim or immediate cause of death, yet he was not made immortal, as the glorified Saints in Heaven shall be, for their bodies are made then spiritual, not animal, as the Apostle distinguisheth, where­as Adam's body was in this sense animal, that it did need meat and drink, as also it was for generation, to procreate and propagate a posterity, which argued the [Page 127] animality of Adams body, but not the mortality of it, as the Socinians say, un­less we mean such an immortality as our bodies shall have in Heaven. Thus though Adam was created immortal upon supposition of his obedience, yet that doth not exclude wholly an animal life, or natural, as the Apostle expresly saith, 1 Cor. 15▪ 46. That was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; Thus it is also in respect of Adams spirituals and his soul, although all that holi­ness which was necessary to guide him to happiness was natural, yet there were other things that might be of meer grace, and superadded favour to him; And under this we may comprehend the grace of God, which Adam needed, though qualified with original righteousness to do that which is holy; as also the reward which God would give to Adams obedience, for to be the Sonne of God in respect of a gracious enjoyment of God, and to have received that life promised to him, if he did obey (though here be great Disputes about it, what it would have been) yet it would not have been of merit, though of works, but of grace, for works and that grace in that state were consistent, though Evangelical grace and works do immediately oppose one another; Adam then was not without some su­pernatural savors.


IN the third place, that which will much tend to the magnifying of this Image of God, is to consider the Integrity and universality of it; so that he was made holy and righteous all over, with light and wisdom in his mind, with all kind of holiness in his will and affections; so that Adam had both the perfection of parts, and also of degree of grace within him: One single habit was not sufficient to give perfection to all the active principles in a man, yea there were several habits in every faculty of the soul; So that original righteousness is an aggregation or collection of many habits. That Text Eccless. 7. when Adam is said to be made right, inferreth so much; for he is not right, rectu, that doth want any essen­tial or necessary part, and the very expression of the Image of God denoteth as much; an Image consisting not in one, or some few parts, but in the harmonious composition of all; How admirable was it then to have those commands of God, Thou shalt not lust, and Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy soul, with all thy heart and strength, fulfilled perfectly and without any difficulty? If we do compare our sinfull and carnal hearts with this glorious temper, that are carried out to lust inordinately all the day long, and love every thing before and above God, What shame and confusion may it bring to us? But in that state of inte­grity, there was no part of holiness, or degree of holiness wanting. It is true, if we speak of the Image of God repaired in us: We find a godly man doing that now which Adam could not do, as to repent, and to believe in a justifying manner in Christ; for the actings of these graces were incompatible with that state, and suppose an imperfection in the Subject, and therefore even now cannot be so well called parts of the Image of God in a sanctified man; and indeed there is some difference between that Imago Creationis, and Imago Recreationis, as Bannez expresseth it, or Imago constituta, and Imago restituta, the Image of God in our Creation, and the Image of God in our Recreation or Renovation, when we are made new creatures by the Spirit of God.

Now because Adam had not justifying faith in his glorious estate, it hath occa­sioned that dispute, Vpon what terms, or with what justice God can require of eve­ry man to believe in Christ, seeing he never gave the power to do this in Adam? Therefore the Arminians plead from hence a necessity of a new universal Cove­nant of grace, and this hath been an hot dispute: The Orthodox, though they easily grant, That Adam could not actually believe with justifying Faith, yet [Page 128] they say) this was potentially and habitually in him, he had a power and habit for many things, the acts and exercises whereof were yet inconsistent with that present estate of felicity he was created in; and certainly we may gather good and sound positions for this truth, out of some of the choisest Schoolmen; They have laid down good Rules, by which we may see, that the firmament was not more filled with innumerable starres, than Adam's soul with all choise graces.


FIrst, Those graces (the Schoolmen call them virtues) which do not import any imperfection, these were in Adam both habitually and actually, as to love God, to be thankefull to God, to delight in God; For these graces will alwayes con­tinue, even in Heaven it self, and therefore were no wayes repugnant, but neces­sarily required to Adam in that state of felicity.

Secondly, Those graces which denote some kind of imperfection, which yet were not repugnant to that state he was created in, were also in Adam, both according to the habit, and also the act, such are faith and hope. By faith we do not mean, the particular act of relying on Christ, as a Mediatour, but the general assenting un­to every thing as true, which God spake or promised unto him, and according to this faith; so also Adam had hope depending upon God, and expecting such things as God had promised. Now these graces of faith and hope, even in the general nature of them, have some imperfection, if compared with vision and fruition; Faith is opposed to vision, and hope to fruition, as the Apostle plainly argueth, 2 Cor. 5. 7. Rom. 8. 24. But this imperfection did not repugn that state Adam was created in; For although we say, Adam was made right and perfect, yet that is not to be understood absolutely, as if he were as perfect as God, nor comparatively in this sense neither, as if he could not be made more perfect, or as if he had such perfection, as the glorified Saints in Heaven shall have, but he was thus farre perfect, that he wanted nothing for that state and condition God made him in.

A third Rule is, Those graces which import an imperfection repugnant to the state Adam was in; They were in him habitually, but not actually; They instance in the virtues of mercy and repentance; Besides others, we may also adde, the grace of justifying Faith; So that although the Arminians judge such a position as this absurd, yet almost the common current of Schoolmen go this way; And if the grace of mercy, of liberality, of fortitude and patience were in Adam habitually, why not of justifying Faith? Neither is it any Argument at all, to say, That these ha­bits are given for their acts, but the acts are inconsistent with that state he was made in, for these habits were bestowed by way of perfection and ornament to mans nature in the general, and the want of the habits of them would have been an imperfection: Even as Adam's knowledge did extend to the medicinal virtue in herbs and plants, which yet could not in that state of integrity be put in pra­ctice: So that those habits, though not reducible into acts, yet were not in vain, because they were for the perfection of humane nature. When therefore Adam after his fall did repent and believe in Christ, the seed of the woman promised; He did not put forth those acts from the habits of faith and repentance he was created in, as some have said; but the whole Image of God being lost, every gra­cious habit or act, was then supernatural to him, which before was natural Yet Suarez in his Disputations concerning the Creation of man, saith, ‘That even the habits of repentance and mercy were in the state of inte­grity reducible into some acts, though not into all; as if I should sin, I would abhorre it, and bewail it; if there were any miserable, I would [Page 129] relieve him, which (saith he) are not meer conditional acts in the un­derstanding, but presuppose a purpose in the will. Again (saith he) A­dam from those habits had a complacency in his mind, and an approbati­on of such acts, when they could be performed by him in a sutable state;’ But I presse not these things.

Now although the habit of justifying Faith and Repentance were in A­dam, yet we cannot say, They were in the Angels, or in Christ, because these were in a condition that did repugne the very habit of such acts, as well as the acts themselves. Thus by these Rules we see, there is no kinde of grace imaginable, but Adam's soul was adorned with it one way or other: Oh then take up bitter lamentation, and like Rachel refuse to be com­forted, because our loss is unspeakably greater than hers! There remaineth not one grace of those glorious ones mentioned, now in us: and in stead of a power to any thing that was good, we have an utter impotency thereunto, and a prone­ness unto evil.

But you may ask, Object. How can original six be said to consist in this privation of original righteousnesse, seeing that seemeth to be Gods act, to deprive us of it, and not ours?

To this the Answer is,Answ. That we are not to conceive of God taking a­way this righteousnesse from us, as if one man should spoil another of his garments; but man by sinning did exclude and shut it out from his soul; and having thus provoked God, then God doth not continue and vouchsafe that grace to him, which Adam had thus repelled; so that God is not as an efficient, infusing wickednesse into Adam's heart, but he denieth that holinesse to him, which by sinne was repelled; as if a man should shut out the light from him, and keep himself in the dark: But I have spoken more fully already to this Objection.

Reason to prove, That the Privation of Ori­ginal Righteousnesse is truly and properly a Sinne in us.


I Shall adde that there are four Reasons, why this Privation of Original Righteousnesse is truly and properly a sinne in us. And

First, Because the soul is a Subject fit and prepared for to receive this Righteousnesse. This rectitude you heard, was a moral perfection necessarily required in man: The soul of a man cannot be in a neutral condition, it must either have holi­ness, or sinne in it; As the air doth necessarily receive either light or darkness; The body is either sick or well; if then the soul be such a fit and capable subject of holiness; when it is deprived of it, it wants that which is sutable and connatu­ral to it: Insomuch that for the soul to be without this holiness, it's against the nature of it; Why should such a spot and a blemish be in so glorious a creature? How came spots in this Sunne? As Idolaters are condemned, because they turned the glory of God into the Image of a beast that eateth hay: No lesse is done by Adam's Apostasie upon us all, for we who were made Gods Image, are now become like beast without understanding, and yet this consideration will not debase and humble us.

Secondly, This Privation is a sinne, Because it is against the Law of God which requireth habitual holinesse in us. It requireth the continuance in that state, which God created us in. This Definition of original sinne, that it is a Privation of that rectitude which ought to be in us, was first assigned by Anselme, and Occham thought it insufficient, unlesse there was added [...] the Description, a Privation arising from the sinne of another, ‘Because (saith he) Adam upon his sinne lost this Righteousnesse, which ought to be in him, yet we cannot say, he had original sinne, because it did not arise from a sinne of another, but from his own transgression.’ This is a needlesse sub­tilty, for it was original sinne in Adam, yea and in Eve, though they did not derive it from one another, because they did actively communicate this un­to all their Posterity. This Privation then of all glorious holinesse being against the Law of God, as we have formerly shewed, therefore it makes a man truly sinfull.

Thirdly, It is a sinne, Because Adam our Head and common Trustes once had this Righteousnesse; So that it is a Righteousnesse, which we were once actually possessed of in our Head; God did not only say, Let us make man after our Image, but he did put it into execution, he did make him after [Page 131] his image; So that it's a righteousnesse that we once had, which now we have lost.

Lastly, It is a sinne, Because by Adam our Head we were deprived of it. The Apostle saith positively, Rom. 5 That by one, sinne came upon all, inas­much as all have sinned, viz. in him, and by him: Hence it is, That his lo­sing of this Image is our losing of it, as really, as if we had actually and perso­nally deprived our selves of it. And thus much shall suffice for the Doctrinal part of it; but because it's good to have our affections wrought upon, as well as our judgements informed. The next work shall be to give the Aggravations of this losse, that so we may make a full improvement of this Truth.

The Aggravations of our Losse of GODS Image.


I Shall conclude this Text, with that particular Observation about it, that relateth to the privative part in original corruption; for we have abbreviated that vast and large Subject of original righteousnesse into a little compasse, briefly informing concerning the Nature of it. For howsoever Epipha­nius (as Pererius and Suarez say) thought that it was im­possible for any to determine, wherein the Image of God doth consist; yet Paul doth sufficiently explain Moses in this particular; So that we need not run to those forced expositions of some, who will have man in respect of his bodily constitution to bear the Image of God. Therefore (some say) ‘God did assume an humane shape, and in that did make man, whereby man in a bodily manner was made after his Image. Others, That it was so said, Let us make man after our own Image, in reference to the Incarnation of Christ, who was in time to be made man:’ For we have already heard, that it was righteousnesse and holi­nesse in the soul, which made man to be after Gods Image; So that the Image of God was not in the body, but as in signe, a sign and demonstration of that Image in the soul. It is true, Christ is the Image of God, but as he is the second Person in the Trinity in respect of the Father, but that is adequately and essentially so, we are not the image of God but in great imperfection, because we do not essen­tially participate of it. Christ in respect of the Divine Nature is the Image of God, but never said in Scripture to be made after it, for that would be an imperfection; yet if we speak of the humane nature of Christ, we may say, that it is created after Gods Image, because God filled it with holinesse. Hence some (Durat. de Imag. Dei, lib. 1. pag. 7.) expound that Ephes. 4. of putting on the new man, to be meant of Christ; ‘Christ (say they) is the new man, paralleling it with [Page 132] Rom. 13. where we are exhorted to put on the Lord Jesus Christ. Now howsoe­ver some of the Ancients have made it very dangerous to say, Adam, and in him all mankind lost the Image of God, yet that hath its truth no further, than if we limit the Image of God to the essentials of mans soul, as endowed with intel­ligence and immortality; for it we take it in respect of gracious qualifications, so it cannot be denied, but that Adam was not more naked bodily in his Creation, than after his fall, his soul was made naked of all righteousness, only Adam did blush and was ashamed after his sinne at his nakedness, running from God, be­cause afraid; whereas at our soul-poverty and nakedness, we have no sad and grievous thoughts, thinking with our selves, How shall we come in our spiritual nakedness unto the most great and holy God? That therefore we may be the more affectionately possessed in our thoughts about this loss, Let us consider the seve­ral aggravations of it.

The Ends for which God made Man, lost by the losse of Original Righteousnesse.

FIrst, The losse of this righteousness doth deprive us of the end for which God made us: So that whereas before sinne God looked on Adam, and saw he was ex­ceeding good, after his fall he seeth him to be exceeding evil, and full of sinne: Let us instance in some choice ends for which God made man in his own Image thus with righteousness and holiness. As

1. Therefore was he made thus holy, To have communion with, and enjoyment of so holy a God. When God had made all the creatures, yet he saith, There was not a meet help and comfort for him, one in his own Image and likeness; therefore he makes a woman of the same nature with him; yet still among all creatures, though we adde Angels to them, there was not an adequate and sufficient object to fill his heart with delight, therefore God was his utmost end: So that although he had Paradise, a place of delight to live in; Though his state was not capable of any misery or fear from the creature, yet that which was Adam's happiness was to enjoy God in these: Now who can bewail our loss in this respect? We are now propense to the contrary end of our Creation; we wholly descend downwards, who were made to ascend upwards; Adam found the favour of God in all the creatures: It was not this or that comfort, but God in and by them that did draw out his heart: But oh the misery and captivity we are in to self-love, to the love of the creature! Neither are we able by nature to lift up the heart above them to God in them, no more than the worm can flie like an Eagle towards Heaven: Oh groan under this, and say, My heart was not once such a lump of earth, such an heavy stone, as now I find it: There was not then any such com­plaints heard; Lord, I can love Paradise, I can love my wife, but I cannot love thee, but the clean contrary! I love them, because I love thee, and I could not love them, but because I love thee! This Captivity and bondage our souls are in to the creature, should make us mourn more grievously than ever the Israelites did under the Egyptians oppression: What a shame is it to have a body that look­eth upward to Heaven, and a soul that looketh downward to earth? How doth the constitution of thy body agree with the condition of thy soul? Thy face is up­ward, ‘Os homini sublime dedit, Coelumque tueri.’ But thy soul, that is pressed down in all its propensions and affections to the crea­tures, [Page 133] and how contrary then are we to the end of our Creation, which is the enjoying of God? Adam had that which Alexander so ambitiously desired, viz. the dominion over the whole world, and yet he had as great dominion also over his own heart, so that God was all in all to him. If David, though of the cor­rupted posterity of Adam, but regenerated, could say, Whom have I in haven but thee, and there is none in earth in comparison of thee? How much more could Adam in that glorious state of integrity?

2. Another end in Adam's Creation after the Image of God, was to be is the glory and praise of Gods Name: For as the Angels, who also were made after Gods Image, their constant work was to praise and glorifie God: Thus Adam being made like another Angel, was made full of holiness, that upon the Earth, he might, as the Angels do in Heaven, sing holy, holy, holy unto the Lord: As some great Kings of the Earth, when they have built some great City or Town, they cause their Image or Picture to be set up in some eminent place, for the monument of themselves, who were such great Benefactors: Thus God, when he had made this great and glorious world, he puts man into it as his Image, that thereby his praise and goodness should be constantly declared; but since Adam his fall, all mankind is now a reproach and dishonour to God; Their thoughts, their affe­ctions, their lives, are so many dishonourable and reproachfull passages against him; God doth not look upon us now as his workmanship, but as the devils; he feeth not his Image, but the Devils in us: Moses saith, that when God saw how all men had corrupted themselves, it repented him that be made man, and it grieved him at his heart, Gen. 6. 6. What a wonderfull expression is this? God cannot repent or grieve at any thing properly, but the Scripture speaketh thus after the manner of men, to shew how exceedingly displeasing and offensive mans fall was, that it had been better he had never been created, than prove such an Apostate. It is true, God knew how to work a greater good out of sinne, than sinne could be an evil, but this no thank to Adam's sin and disobedience; The good wrought thereby cometh wholly from the gracious power of God; so that Adam's sinne of it self, did disanull the end of his Creation, and brought all things into confu­sion. Take every man by nature, what a beast and devil is he, what an enemy to God, what an adversary to every thing of God; so that whereas he was made to glorifie and honour God, all his whole work and life is now to dishonour him, and reproach his holy Name: Herein then lieth the misery of this losse of the Image of God, that we are fallen from our end, we are of our selves salt that hath lost its favourinesse, we are fit for nothing but eternal torments.

The Harmony and Subordination in Mans Nature dissolved, by the loss of Gods Image.

IN the second place. This losse is to be aggravated, because of the Nature of it, which is the deordination and dissolution of all that Harmony and Subordination which was in mans nature. That admirable and composed order which was in the whole man, is now wholly broken; so that the mind and will is against God, and the affections and passions against them. A three-fold Subordination there was in man.

The first, of the intellectual and rational part unto God, The mind clearly know­ing him, and the will readily submitting unto him.

The second was, A regular Subordination of all the passions and affections unto the mind, so that there did not from the sensible part arise any thing that was un­beseeming [Page 134] and contrary to the rational: Hence it was that the Scripture taketh notice of Adam and Eve in their privitive Condition, that though naked, yet they were not ashamed; There being a full purity and simplicity in their natures, whereby nothing could arise to disturb all those superiour operations. At sin expresseth it well; ‘Even (saith he) as Paradise the place wherein Adam was created, had neither heat or cold, but an excellent temperament excluding the hurtfull excess of either; so also the soul of Adam was without any excessive passion, or inordinate motion, but all things did sweetly and amicably concur in obedience to the mind.’

The third and last Subordination was of the body, both to the rationall and sensi­tive principles; There was a preparednesse in the body of Adam, as there was in Christ, whereby he did readily do the Will of God, and sound the body not ob­structing or weighing of it down. Now let us consider this three-fold cord, which did bind Adam's whole man unto that which is good, which was easily bro­ken; and then, as when the flood-gates are open, the streams of water violent­ly rush forth, hurrying all away: Thus it is with mankind; This order being dissolved, the whole heart of man is as unruly as the Sea; and whereas that hath its natural bounds, Hitherto it shall go, and no further; The heart of man is bound­lesse, and hath no stops of it self, only the infinite God of Heaven he ruleth and ordereth it as he pleaseth. Consider the first breach, and mourn under that: Is it nothing to have the mind of man, which hath as many thoughts almost as there are sands upon the Sea shore, and yet not to have one of these rise in the soul with subordination to God? What a sad bondage is this, that our thoughts are no more under our command, than the flying birds in the air? Do not either sinfull thoughts, or if good, come in so unseasonably upon thee, that they carry away thy soul prisoner? Oh this losse of the obedience of the mind to Gods Law, in all the thoughts thereof, ought to be no mean matter of debasement! Not to find one good thought of all those Iliades, Chiliades and Myriades of thoughts which thou hast, but to have rebellion in them against God: What sad impression should it make on thee? In the will also those motion and incompleat velleities, yea acts of consent in the will, which arise in the soul, as so many swarms of flies in the air, Are not these also so many armies of lusts against God, whereas in the state of integrity, there would not have risen the least distemper?

The second breach, Is not that also as terrible and powerfull? For are not all our affections and passions like so many dogs to Action, like so many Locusts and Caterpillers in Egypt, like so many flies and hornets, till by grace they are cruci­fied? What man is there, in whom if God should let any one passion or affection have dominion over him, that it would not immediately destroy him? So that the power of original corruption is more manifested in the affections and passions, than any subject else.

Lastly, The disorder which is in the body, in respect of its instrumental service­ablenesse unto God can never be enough lamented; Do not pains and diseases in the body much indispose in holy things? Do not dulnesse, drousinesse and weari­nesse hinder a man, so that when he would religiously serve the Lord, this body will not let him? Now all this evil and misery is come upon us, because we have lost the Image of God; As God in nature doth not suffer any vocuum or redun­dans, so neither did he in respect of the frame of the soul at the first; There was nothing defective, and nothing excessive.

The Properties of this Losse.

THirdly, This losse by original corruption of Gods Image, is exceeding great in the properties of it. For,

1. It is a spiritual losse, principally and chiefly; The loss of Gods favour, of all holiness, is wholly spiritual, and did tend to make a man spiritually happy; So that if you should compare all the temporal losses that ever have been in the world, with this first and spiritual one, it would be but as the mole-hill to an high mountain: If then our eyes were opened, if we were able rightly to judge or losses, for this we should mourn more than for any evil that ever befell us or others; [...] messengers that came with such sad tidings one upon another, is nothing to this message that we bring thee, But who will believe this report?

2. As it is a spiritual loss, so it is an universal loss. The whole world is in a lost state, by losing this Image of God; Every creature hath lost in this univer­sal losse; The earth hath lost its fruitfulness, yea the whole Creation groaneth, and is in bondage, subject to vanity, because of this. Thus all the creatures they lose by it, yea every thing in man loseth; The mind its light, the will its holiness, the affections their order, and the body its soundness and immortality; If all the creatures were turned into tongues, they would proclaim the loss of their primitive glory, and beauty, because of this sinne.

3. It's not only universal, But it's the cause of all the temporal losses that we have: For death (in which is comprehended all kind of evil) came in upon the loss of this Image; So that if we are sensible of any temporal loss, How much more of this spiritual one, which is the cause and root of all? Therefore is the body pained, therefore it dieth, because this Image of God is lost, therefore do we loose parents and children, therefore is the whole world a valley of tears, because of this losse; If then any private losse be so bitter unto thee, how much more ought this to be, which putteth a sting into all?

Lastly, This loss is incurable as to any humane or angelicall power. The image of God is so lost, as that by our own power we are never able to recover it again: Insomuch that when God doth repair it in us, it's a new Creation, and a spiritual Resurrection; we could not further it in the least degree.

Let the Use then be, deeply to humble us, to break our hearts far this, and yet still to break them more and more. When Tamar was defloured, she went with ashes upon her head, weeping and saying, I, whither shall I go? Oh do thou much rather mourn, and sigh, and pray! We, oh wretched we! Whither shall we go? What shall we do? Call to the Angels, they cannot help you: Cry to the mountains, they cannot hide you from Gods wrath: Shall Saul seek for his lost Asses, the woman for her lost Groat, Micha for his lost gods, and wilt nor thou bitterly lament the loss of the true God, and his Image in thee?

Of the Positive Part of Original Corruption.


JOH. 3. 6.‘That which is born of the flesh is flesh.’

THe Privative Part of original corruption being largely disco­vered, we come now to the Positive Part of it: For although many of the Papists deny it, laying the whole nature of it in a meer want of original righteousnes, yet not only the Protestants generally, but Aquinas and some who follow him, do plead for this Positive Part in original corruption as well as the Pri­vative, and is therefore called Flesh, as here in the Text, and in other places lust; Of which in its due time. We are not then to conceive of this birth-sinne, as a meer privation of the Image of God, but as including also therewith, a propensity and inclination to all evil.

To the discovery of this Truth, we shall find this Text pitcht upon will be ve­ry subservient; and herein we are to take notice, That it is part of that famous Colloquy and Conference Christ had with Nicodemus, a Master in Israel; where­in several things in the general are briefly obserable: As

First, The Mercy that is to the Church in having this Discourse upon Re­cord; For by Nicodemus his carnal cavillings, we see the necessity of Re­generation; our Saviour is the more powerfull in his asseverations, Veri­ly, verily, I say unto you, &c. that hereby every one may see, that though he be great, rich, wise, learned, ingenious, yet he must be born again

Secondly, We may take notice of our Saviours wisdom, that pitcheth upon this Subject rather than another to treat upon; for herein Nicodemus did grosly erre, Nicodemus had learning enough, knew the Law of God and the Scriptures, but was wholly ignorant of Regeneration.

Thirdly, We therefore see, That the work of Regeneration is a mystery, even to wise and learned men; Twice or thrice, saith that great Doctor, How can this be? What poor and childish Objections doth he make against it, and all, be­cause this is a thing spiritually discerned?

Lastly, The great cause why Nicodemus did not know what Regeneration was, or see the necessary of it, was, Because of his blindnesse about original sinne: Had he believed how carnal and sinfull every one was born, he would presently have bewailed his condition, and said, O Lord, it is true, I am all over polluted, I find nothing of thy Spirit in me, I am all over flesh, and do therefore need thy Spirit to regenerate and quicken me! But this was the root of his destruction, [Page 137] from hence did arise that gross miscarriage about a new-birth, because was so sensless and unacquainted with the pollution he was born in.

So that the Text is an Argument to prove the Doctrine of Regeneration, and the necessity of it, which Nicodemus did so carnally cavil against: For although our Saviour did so vehemently assert the truth of it in these expressions, twice geminated, Verily, verily, I say into thee, &c. Yet because Nicodemus still ask­eth, How can this be? therefore our Saviour discovereth to him the root and fundamental cause of the necessity of this birth, and that not of Nicodemus only, but of every man; Therefore he speaks generally, Vnlesse a man be borne again, &c.

The fundamental cause therefore of the necessity of Regeneration is from that universal Proposition laid down in the Text, That which is born of the flesh is flesh, which is also illustrated by the contrary, That which is born of the Spirit is spirit; The strength of the Argument lieth in this, Every thing resembleth that it is produced of; from a Serpent, there cometh a Serpent; from a Toad, a Toad; so from a Dove, a Dove; a Sheep, a Lamb; There being therefore two contrary effective principles in us, The flesh and the Spirit; The flesh, that produ­ceth what is flesh, the Spirit, what is spirit.

In the first Proposition, we have the emphatical expression of this defile­ment:

1. In the Vniversality of the Subject of Predication, That which is born of the flesh is flesh; There's none exempted, great men, noble men; Even Kings and Emperors they are flesh of flesh.

2. There is the Vniversality of the Subject of Inhesion; All is flesh, that comes of flesh; so that not only the body, but the soul also is flesh in this sense; for by flesh here, as in other places, is meant, The whole man consisting of soul and body, as he is unclean and impure, and this appeareth by the opposition, which is the Spirit of God, and the effects thereof.

Another emphatical expression is, In using the abstract for the concrete, is flesh, that is fleshly, is spirit, that is, spiritual. We see then here a Proposition affirm­ed concerning all mankind born in a natural way, which no humane Philosophy could ever inform us in, yea to which it is wholly contrary, viz. That we all by nature both in soul and body are nothing but flesh; for flesh is here put for the vicious and sinfull quality that is in us, and so the mind, the intellictual and chois­est parts of the soul are thus condemned, as well as the more gross and sensitive, as in time is to be shewed.

This is a clear Text to prove our universal contagion by sinne, yet upon what weak and poor grounds would the Remonstrants oppose it; They therefore by flesh understand, Man simply as man, flesh and blood, begotten in a fleshly and bo­dily manner, not as sinfull and corrupted; as if our Saviours Argument had been, as what is born of man is man, so what is born of the Spirit is spiritual: But this is very unsound: For what Argument would this be to prove Regeneration? Must a man be new born meerly because he is a man? Certainly had Adam continued in the state of integrity, there would have been procreation of children, yet then there would not have been a necessity of Regeneration: Our Saviour therefore is giving a reason, why there must be a new birth, and that is from the sinfull pollution every one is born in: And whereas the reason they give, why by flesh cannot be meant, wholly sinfull, Because (say they) then in the opposition, by Spirit, would be meant wholly spirituall, whereas the Orthodox do acknowledge a conflict with the Spirit, and the flesh abiding in every regenerate man: But to this the Answer is, That the abstract is put for the concrete, spirit for spiritual, so that the Subject in the Proposition [Born of the Spirit] Spirit is the holy Spi­rit of God; and the Predicate [is made spirit] Spirit is to be understood of that spiritual and heavenly nature wrought in us by him; And although he who is [Page 138] made thus spiritual, is not purely and absolutely so, yet the Spirit will in time sub­due and wholly conquer the flesh, in which sense Gal. 5. They that are Christs are said to have crucified the flesh with the lusts thereof; Although there be the re­liques and remainders of it still in the most holy.

The Text then being thus vindicated, the Observation is,

That all men born in a natural way, are not only without the Image of God, but thereby also are positively polluted, and made all over flesh and sinfull.

Of the use of the word Flesh in Scripture; And why Original Cor­ruption is called by that name.

TO discover this, in the first place, It is good to take notice of the use of the word [Flesh] in Scripture; for the mis-understanding or mis-applying of it, hath brought in a world of mischief. The Papists by Flesh (I mean some of them) understanding only the bruitish and sensitive part, as if sinne were onely resident there, and the rational part were free and pure; but this is a very great errour; For besides the general use of the word Flesh in the Scripture, there is two more pertinent to our purpose.

1. Flesh is sometimes taken for that which is weak and frail, Isa. 31. Their horses are flesh and not spirit. Psal. 78. He remembred they were but flesh. And

2. It is often taken for sinfulness and corruption; Thus Gal. 5. The works of the flesh are opposite to the works of the Spirit; and men who are in the Flesh, Rom. 8. cannot please God. Gal. 3. Who having begun in the Spirit, will ye end in the flesh? To be in the flesh and in the Spirit are made two opposite beings by the Apostle; Insomuch that we may make it a sure Rule, That wheresoever flesh is opposed to the Spirit of God, or its spiritual operations, that then flesh is used for that which is evil and sinfull; and thus it is in the Text. The true notion therefore of the word Flesh being retained, Let us consider, Why original sinne is thus called Flesh. And

First, It is called so, Because of its opposition to what is spiritual. Whatsoever the Spirit of God revealeth to be believed, or commands to be obeyed, it is whol­ly contradicted by man, while abiding in the flesh. Thus the Apostle Rom. 8. The wisdom of the flesh is enmity against God; You see here is not only a meer pri­vation of what is spiritual, but a positive enmity and frowardness against God, and therefore we do not speak enough to describe the fulness of our natural evil, when we say, that we came naked into the world without the Image of God, and his Spirit; for original sinne hath a contrariety in it against God, it puts a man upon hatred of whatsoever is holy, therefore the Apostle addeth, Rom. 8. 5. It is not subject to the Law of God, neither indeed can be: Oh then that God would make our hearts more of flesh in the Prophet Ezekiels sense, viz. tender, and melting under considerations of how much flesh is in both mind and heart in the Apostles sense! Would thy self-righteousness, thy self-love, thy self-fulness con­tinue any longer, if thou didst thus judge and believe concerning thy self? Oh what a noisom carkass, what a loathsom monster wouldst thou be in thy own eyes, if thou didst consider the positive frowardness and opposition which is in thee to what is holy! And therefore even in the regenerate, Gal. 5. 17. The Flesh is said to lust against the spirit; Search then into thy heart, and say, From whence doth arise these gainsayings and oppositions which are in me, to what is holy: Why should not heavenly and spiritual things be as welcome, pleasing and delight­full to me, as sinfull and wordly objects? Is not all this, because thou art Flesh? [Page 139] Certainly, there is a thousand times more reason for thee to imbrace spiritual objects than earthly; They have more real, excellent and enduring good in them, then all the pleasures of sinne if put together, but it is because thou art flesh, that thy heart is naturally so full of enmity against whatsoever is spiritual; And although this natural enmity be encreased in thee by voluntary wickedness, yet that which cleaveth to thee, as soon as thou hast a being is enough to make thee refuse the word of God, the Ministry inviting of thee, and to slight every Ser­mon thou hearest, or every affliction God layeth upon thee for thy sinne, mourn then under this enmity, this Law of sinne that rebelleth against the Spirit of God: This may sensibly and evidently teach thee, that thy natural corruption is more than a meer want of the Image of God.

Secondly, In that original corruption is called flesh, is manifested, That even the whole intellectual and sublimer parts of a man are become sinfull. We see our Saviour saith, That which is born of flesh is flesh, nothing is excepted; so that whereas some would have it the rational part; The mind and understanding not to be comprehended under this flesh; we say the contrary according to Scripture, That in the soul and faculties thereof there is originally sinne chiefly seated There is the spring and fountain from whence issue all the streams of sinne into the lower parts of the soul: Thus when the Apostle reckons up the works of the flesh, Gal. 5. 19, 20. There are Idolatry and Heresies numbered with the rest, which must needs be sins of the mind, How often doth the Scripture speak of darkness, igno­rance, folly and blindness in the minds of all men by nature? Col. 2. 18. There it's called a fleshly mind; and certainly if the mind must be renewed, as the Scripture speaks, Rom. 12. 2. Col. 3. Eph. 4. 23. it necessarily followeth, that it is fleshly and sin­full. Behold then, what a fountain of evil and misery springs out from us in this re­spect, which may overwhelm us? For though the inferior parts of the soul had been throughly infected with this Leprosie, yet if the superiour and chief parts had not been contaminated, there would have been hopes, that those Sun-beams would have dispelled such misty clouds; but seeing that the eye is become dark, How great is our darkness, and salt it self having lost its seasoning, all must become loathsom and unprofitable? Not only thy eyes, thy ears, not only thy affections and passions of love, fear, anger, &c. which are the lower region of thy soul; but thy will, thy mind, thy conscience, these also are become flesh, and are wholly corrupted, so that in thee by nature, there remaineth no good thing at all.

How carnal the Soul is in its actings about Spiritual Objects.

3. IN that it is called Flesh, there is discovered that a man in all the workings of his soul in religious things, is carnal and meerly carried out wholly by the principle and instigation of flesh within him, the Image of God was so glorious and efficacious in Adam, that all his bodily and natural actions were thereby made spi­ritual, his flesh was spirit (as I may so say) the body and bodily affections did not move inordinately against Gods will, but having a divine and holy stamp up­on them, they were thereby made divine and spiritual: But since this original corruption, the clean contrary is now to be seen in us; for even the spiritual workings of the soul are thereby made carnal and fleshly, Adam's body was made spiritual, and now our souls are made carnal: Oh the said debasing and vilifying of us that is by this means! If an Angel should become a worm, it is not so much dishonour as for righteous Adam to become an apostate sinner.

[Page 140] Let us take notice how our souls do put themselves forth about spiritual ob­jects, and you shall find they are wholly carnal and fleshly in such approaches; insomuch that in their highest devotions, and religious duties they are onely car­nal and fleshly all the while. As

First, In the mysteries of Religion, which are revealed unto in by a supernatural light; The mind of man, because it cannot comprehend of them in a carnal, or bodily manner, much more if not by natural reason (though that be corrupt) is ready to despise and reject all; What was the reason, that Christ crucified is such a foolish Doctrine to be believed by the learned Grecian, but because it was not agreeable to natural reason? When Peter made that Confession concerning Christ, That he was the Sonne of the living God; Christ tels him, Flesh and blood had not revealed that to him, Mat. 16. 17. And doth not this fleshly mind still effectually move in Atheists and Heretiques? Is not this the bane of Socinan per­sons, that they will make reason a judge of divine Mysteries, whereas that it s [...]lt is corrupt, and is it self to be judged by the word of God? So that the power of original sinne, as it is flesh, manifests it self about all the supernatual Do­ctrines and Truths revealed in the Gospel. We that are Pigmies think to measure these Pyramides, we think to receive the whole Ocean in our little shell: Hence it is that Paul, 2 Cor. 8. 5, 6. will have all our imaginations, every high thought brought into captivity.

Thus you see, That whatsoever a man doth in reference to God, he is wholly carnal and fleshly in it, he is not carried out with a sutable principle of the Spirit, to that which is spiritual, and this may be discovered in many branches; it is al­so very usefull and profitable; for hereby they shall see, that the onely things which they relie upon, as religious worship of God, and the evidences of their salvation, are so farre from being a true stay to them, that like thorns they will pierce their hands: If a mans spirituals be carnals, How great are his carnals? If his Religion, if his devotion, if the matters of his God, be thus altogether flashly, What will his sins and corruptions appear to be? We have already in­stanced in one particular, viz. The Doctrine to be believed, and declared, how carnal a man is in that. We proceed further to illustrate this necessary Truth, and therefore.

Secondly, Every natural man in his religious worship, is wholly carnal, as well as in his Doctrine to be believed. For if we consult the Scripture, and observe what was the cause of all that Idolatry and spiritual abomination, for which God did so severely punish the children of Israel, was it not from a carnal fleshly mind within? Therefore you heard, Gal. 5. Idolatry is made a work of the flesh, when they changed the glory of God into the similitude of an Ox, that eateth bay; Was not this to please the eye? And so their goodly Altars, their goodly Images, which the Prophet mentioneth, Were not all these, because of their sutableness to a carnal mind? We need not instance in Pagans or Heathens, who are wholly in darkness, without any supernatural light; But if we take notice of the Christian Church in all the successive Ages thereof, How potent and predominant have carnal principles been in all their Devotions? And is not Popery to this day a full demonstration of this Truth? So that that notable expression of our Saviour, Joh. 4. 23, 24. God is a Spirit, and they that worship him, must worship him in spi­rit and truth; Yea, that the Father seeketh such to worship him, hath seldom had its due observation. Whereas then Campian would prove, All Monuments, all Churches, all Windows and Pictures therein, to be a demonstration of their Religion. This proveth indeed the superstition and carnality of it, not the spi­rituality and truth of it; and oh the dishonour done to God by this means! This fleshly wisdom in Gods worship, hath been one chief cause of most of the calami­ties which have fallen upon it, Col. 2. 18. The Apostle attributeth the worshiping of Angels to a fleshly wisdom in men.

[Page 141] Thirdly, A man is naturaly carnal in religious Ordinances. Because he is apt to put trust in them, to think he merits at Gods hands, or maketh satisfaction for his [...]ispasses. This is not to be spiritual, but carnal; We have low, carnal appre­hensions of God. when we think that by our righteousnesse, though it were ten thousand times more perfect than it is, that we are able to profit God therewith. Thus those false Teachers with their followers, they are said to make a fair shew in the flesh, Gal 6. 12. and Phil. 3. 3. to have confidence in the flesh; To worship God in the Spirit, and to have no confidence in the flesh, are two opposite things; Now by flesh there is meant circumcision, and all other Church-priviledges, which Paul did eminently enjoy, and while a Pharisee, he wholly rested in them, but when once the sonne of God was revealed to him, then he renounced all con­fidence in these things, judging himself to be only carnal in them; But now little was Paul, while a Pharisee, and so exactly diligent in the discharge of them, perswaded that all he did was rejected by God, that he abhorred all, that he was only carnal in those things? It is therefore of great consquence to be spiritual in the particular, for this is a secret sweet poison, that is apt to undo us; Therefore the Particular, the formal the devout man, who is ignorant of Regeneration, while he abhorreth all bodily flesh-sinnes, he may be highly guilty of soul flesh sinnes: So that there is little cause for a Pharisee to boast, saying, He was not a prophane grosse sinner like a Publican, he did not wallow in bodily sinnes of the flesh, for he was dangerously diseased with soul sinnes; The flesh there made him abominable in the eyes of God, for that which they did so highly exalt, it was [...] before God; What an heavy and sad deceit will this prove, when thou shal [...] find that wherein thou blessest thy self, and applaudest thy self in, will be thy condemnation, as Christ told the Pharisees, Moses in whom ye trust, he will condemn you? Oh that this Truth might be like a sword piercing into the se­crets of your heart! How wilt thou be overwhelmed, when that which thou ho­pest will save thee, that will damn thee? There is a carnal Religion, there is a fleshly devotion, in which men putting their confidence, may thereby be con­demned, as well as by grosse prophanenesse: Certainly this confidence in what religious duties we perform (as some at the last day will plead, Have not we pro­phesied, and wrought miracles in thy Name?) doth insensibly and incurably damn the greatest part of formal Christians, and it is very hard to make them di­scern or judge themselves carnal in this, To trust in the arm of flesh, they will ac­knowledge quickly to be a sinne, but to trust, and rest in the holy duties they have performed, out of this sinne no sonnes of Boanerges can awaken them.

Fourthly, A man is naturally carnal in all his religious performances, Because when he d [...]h them, it is not out of any love to God, to exalt and honour him, but out of love to himself, thinking thereby to avei [...] some judgement or other. It is true, we deny not but it's lawfull to serve God, to be humbled for sinne with respect to our own good, that we may escape temporal evil, but yet we are not to do it principally and chiefly for this, we are not to uti Deo, and frui Creatu­ris, to enjoy the creatures for themselves, as the utmost end, and make use of God only for our outward help, as John 6. 26. our Saviour told the multitude that followed him, That they did seek him only because they did eat of the loaves and were siled: This is a fundamental principle of flesh in every man by nature not to love himself subordinately to God, but God subordinately to himself, which is a sinne of a very high nature, and immediately opposing the great ma­jesty of God; They worship God upon no other reason, then what some Hea­thens did sacrifice to the Devils, Tantùm ne noceant, That they might do them no hurt: I [...] not then out of any love to God, or desire to magnifie him, but wholly for their own ends; and hence it is, that they alter, and change the wor­ship and wayes of God, as they please, and as it serveth for any political interest, [Page 142] as you see in Jeroboam, and other wicked Kings, Whence is all this? but because they make themselves, the Alpha and Omega, Et Deus non erit Dens nisi homini placuerit; How could men thus break the statutes and ordinances of God? but because they make their own advantages, the supreme Law, as if God were for them, and they not for him: Hence it is also that the Scripture complaineth so much of men, Walking in their own Imaginations; And Jeroboam, 1 King. 12. 33. is branded for this, that he set up such a worship and Ministry, that he had devised of his own heart; This then is a sure demonstration of our fleshly minds, that in our worship and duties, we regard not divine Institutions and Gods Rule, but attend only to what is subservient to our purpose: Now the founda­tion of all this is, because we do not look upon God as supreme, to whom all our senses should bow, but referre him and his glory to our selves. The Apostle 2 Cor. 5. 16. speaketh of knowing Christ after the flesh, and so there is also a knowing of God after the flesh, which is, when we doe not things pure­ly and sincerely out of respect to his Name, but for our own profit and benefit: Take heed then of this fleshly frame in thy approaches to God.

Fifthly, The fleshly mind of a man is seen in his spiritual transactions between God and himself, In that he doth wholly conceive and imagine such a God, and Christ, not as the Scripture represents, but as he would have, and doth most suit with his carnal disposition. This is greatly to be observed, for because of this, though they hear never so much of God and Christ, yet because they think them to be such, as they would have a God of their own making, a Christ of their own making, therefore they never truly repent, or turn unto God; for concerning God, they conceive him as altogether mercifull; They never think he is a just and holy God; They attend not to the sury and vengeance which the Scripture saith is in him against obstinate and impenitent sinners, but apprehend him to be one that loveth them, and will save them, though they go on in all re­bellious wayes against him; The Psalmist doth notably speak to this purpose, Psal. 50. 21. where having spoken of such hypocrites, that will come and wor­ship God, though they retain their old lusts, and live in all impurity, he addeth, Thou thoughtest I was altogether such an one as thy self; They thought God was not provoked with such abominations, they thought God would not be angry with them, as if he were like themselves: And doth not this still continue true in most prophane men? Why is it that they do not tremble under the name and thoughts of God? Why is it that they roar not out with fear, lest God should damn them? Is it not because they make a God like themselves? They love themselves, and acquit themselves, they easily think well of themselvs, and therefore they think God will do so also, and thus they do likewise with Christ; They represent him to be a Sa­viour, and a Saviour only; They consider not that he died to conquer the Devil, to make us a peculiar people, zealous of good works; They attend not to the purify­ing and cleansing power of Christs death from the strength and power of lusts with­in, as well as from the guilt and damnation by it, which being so, they can trust in Christ, and put their whole hope in Christ, although they live in all disobedi­ence at the same time, and therefore whereas we might wonder, how prophane men can live as they do? Where are their thoughts of God and Christ? Why are they not stricken with astonishment, when they hear of them? Alas, you may cease to wonder, for the Scripture God, the Scripture-Christ, in the Scripture­way they do not think of, but a God and a Christ, which is a meer Idol in their own hearts set up by themselves.

Sixthly, The fleshly mind of a man is seen in running into extreams, and so never submitting themselves to Gods word, which is alwayes the same: So that whereas in some the fleshly mind of man runneth out into superstitious and excessive wayes of devotion, which God never required so in others again it [Page 143] acteth the clean contrary way pretending to Enthusiasts, Revelations, and strange raptures and impulses of soul, and herein they think they are the only spiritual men, and that all others are in the flesh, but strong delusions under the pretence of Revelations, Apparitions and visions have been no new thing in the Church of God; neither are we to stagger in our saith, because of these things; for the flesh excited by the Devil, may vent it self in these extasies and raptures, as well as in superstitions; yea which is further to be observed, a man may be altogether fleshly, while he pretends to an high spiritual way of subduing and keeping down the flesh, Col. 2. 23. Those who were puft up in their fleshly minds about Angel­worship, yet are said to have a shew of humility in not sparing the body, and this we may say to those deluded Papists, who macerate and excruciate the flesh of the body, it would be better, if they did cast out at the same time, their fleshly mind.

Seventhly, A natural man in his most religious deportment, is only fleshly, Because whatsoever he doth in these things, he is furthered only by natural strength: For being without the grace of God, either in his understanding, or his will, hence it is that he can rise no higher, than natural reason, natural conscience, and natu­ral will, doth enable him unto; and these being altogether polluted by sinne, in stead of furthering, they are an hindrance and opposition to him: If therefore you ask, From what principles, and by what strength doth a natural man draw nigh to God? The answer is only by that power which he hath of himself; The grace of God which alone can elevate the soul to God, that he is wholly destitute of: And although it must be granted that there are some common principles and di­ctates in all about God, and moral good things, yet these are never improved any otherwise, but from carnal principles, and to carnal ends. And thus much may suffice for this branch, viz. The carnality of a man, by original sinne in his most religious offices and duties.

In the last general place, Man may justly be said to be all over sinfull and flesh only, Because all his care, his thoughts are only for his body and sensible things, in the mean while neglecting God, and his immortal soul. I shall conclude with this, because all else comprehended in this name, will come in at some other seasonable time. By nature we are in the flesh, we walk after it, we make provision for it; so that we willingly lose God and our souls, to save and preserve that; Who is there that will believe our Saviour, saying, What will it profit a man to winne the whole world, and lose his own soul? Mat. 16. 26. What complaints and accusati­ons may the soul make against us, when the body hath said, Feed me, Cloath me, you have done it? But when the soul hath famished, and been perishing, you have not heard the cries of it: Oh men only flesh and utterly devoid of all spiri­tual power!

Reasons demonstrating the Positive Part of Ori­ginal Sinne.


HItherto we have been informed out of this Text, what is compre­hended in the word [Flesh] attributed to every one that is in a natural way born of mankind. We now proceed to that Truth, for which it was designedly pitcht upon, viz. That Original sin is not only a Privation of Gods Image, but doth cannote also a Posi­tive inclination, and an impetuous propensity to every thing that is evil. For this Question is agitated between some Papists, and the Protestants; They asserting, ‘That the whole nature of original sinne lieth in the privation of Gods Image:’ But the Orthodox, they say, ‘That although original sinne is privative, yet it is not meerly privative, but doth include in it, as the materiale, that habitual crookedness and perversnes, which is in all the faculties of the soul;’ And thus the Protestants do almost in effect say the same with Aquinas, who calleth original corruption a corrupt habit, not a meer privation, for privations are of two sorts, either simple, that imply onely a privation, as blindnesse and death, or compounded and mixed, which besides the meer privation, do denote some materiale or substratum with it. Thus Aquinas compareth original sinne to a sickness or disease, which doth not only signifie a privation of health, but also the humours excessively overflowing, and thereby dissolving the due tempe­rament of the body: Such a privation is original sinne, a mixt, or compounded privation, that besides the absence of what righteousness is due, denoteth also a propensity and violent inclination unto that which is evil. It is true indeed, if we come punctually to examine, how the will is disobedient, and how the affections are so disorderly, we cannot resolve into any thing, but this privation, the un­derstanding is therefore darkness and erroneous, because without its primitive light; The will is crooked and perverse, because without its primitive rectitude: So that Calvin saith well, He that cals it the privation of Gods Image, saith the whole nature of it, yet when we speak of the privative part of it only, we do not so fully and significantly expresse the dreadfull pollution of it: Even as concerning vi­cious habits in morality, intemperance, injustice, it is not enough to say, they are the privation of those virtues, which are immediately contrary to them, but they do denote also such an inclination in a man, that thereby he is carried out to those vicious of such habits constantly, and with delight.

Why Divines make Original Sinne to have its Positive as well as Privative Part.

THe Reason, why our Divines make original sinne to have its Positive as well as Privative part, is to obviate that errour of the Papists, who sup­posing original righteousness to be only by way of a bridle in Adam to curb and subjugate the inferiour part to the superiour of the soul, when Adam lost this, they conceive mankind, hath not any further pollution upon it, but that meer losse; Insomuch that they say, ‘Man is now as if God had created him in his pure naturals without any supernaturals.’ The Socinians likewise, they deny any such pollution, and make us to be born in the same condition Adam was created in (death as a punishment only accepted) meerly without either sinne or righ­teousnesse, like Aristotles, Obrasa Tabula, in a neutral indifferent way. Now to confront such dangerous opinions, we say, ‘That by our birth-sinne, we are not only deprived of Gods Image, but are in an habitual inclination to all evil, which is also active and repugnant to all good.

Reasons to evince the Positive part of Original Sinne.

NOw that we are to judge of it thus, will appear from Scripture, upon these grounds:

First, The names that the Scripture attributeth to it, compell us to think of it, as more than a m [...]er bare simple privation, for in the Text it is called Flesh, in other places Lust, the Old man, the Body of sinne, which emphatical expressions are for this end to make us conceive of the deep and most real pollution it bringeth upon us: Insomuch that we are not to extenuate and diminish the nature of it, but as the scope of the Scripture is to aggravate it under the most substantial and powerfull names that are, so we also are accordingly to judge of it. It is true, Illyricus out of a vehement opposition to Papists and Synergists, did wring the Scripture till bloud came out of it in stead of milk; for he would understand these places mentioned about original sinne almost literally, as if sinne were our very substance and essence, whereas if he had gone no further, then to say, that the Scripture by these names doth intend not onely the meer privation of good by this original pollution, but also a positive pronenese, and a con­tinual activity unto all evil, than he had hit the mark. The Scripture Names then are only considerable, for the holy Ghost doth not use them in vain, but thereby would startle and amaze us, that we may consider that we are without, and what evil doth abide in us.

Secondly, This is proved from Scripture-affirmation, about the state of all men. It doth not onely describe man privatively, that he is without God, without Christ, but also pesitively, that he is an enemy to God, and cannot be subject to him, Rom. 3, 10, 11. to the 18. verse. The holy Apostle applying several passages out of the old Scripture to all men by nature, instanceth both in privatives and positives also; Privatives, There is none that under­standeth, there is none that seeketh God, there is none that doth good, there is no fear of God before their eyes: But is this all? No, he addeth, Their throat [Page 146] is an open Sepulchre, the poison of Aspes is under their lips, their feet are swift to shed bloud, &c. Here you see, the nature of every man is abominable, loath­some and ready to commit the foulest sinnes, if he be not stopt; yea the Scripture is more oftener expressing this Positive part of original sinne then the Privative, Genes. 5. Genes. 8. 21. The imagination of a mans heart is said to be onely evil, and that from his youth. Eliphaz also in Job 15. saith, How abominable is man who, drinketh down iniquity like water? Thus you see the Scripture represents us in a farre more loathsome vile and poisonous nature than we are apt to believe concerning our selves. When Austine maintained this Doctrine, Pelagius would say, This was to accuse mans na­ture (Lib. 1. de Naturâ & Gratiâ.) But this is indeed the onely way to set up the grace of Christ our Physician, for the whole need not a Physicias, ‘Neither (saith Austin) are we so to exalt God a Creator, as to make a Saviour wholly superfluous.’ It is true therefore, which the same Author saith, ‘That when we have to do with such who deny the necessity of grace by Christ, making free will of it self, sufficient to what is holy, and all be­cause they deny any such thing as original sinne, we are not so much (saith he) to deal in Disputations with them, as prayers for them, that their eyes might be opened to know themselves, and that the stony heart may be taken from them, for if once they had the sense and feel­ing of this, they would quickly confesse both original sinne, and Christs grace.’

Thirdly, Original sinne is positive, Because the Scripture attributes positive and efficatious actions to it, which meer and bare privations are not capable of. The seventh Chapter of the Romans speaketh fully to this, what expressions, and that in allusion to military affairs, doth the Apostle use concerning this sinne inhabiting in him? For vers. 23. he complaineth of this Law of sinne, that it doth warre against him, and bring him into captivity, which phrases denote, That this original sinne is not a sluggish, idle privation, but withall it connoteth an impetuous repugnancy to any thing that is holy; This also the Apostle con­firmeth, Gal. 5. 17. where the flesh is said to lust against the Spirit, shall we think then, that the holy Ghost speaketh of this activity and working of sinne in us, that we should apprehend no more than the absence of Gods Image within us. Let us then aggravate the hainnousnesse of it, as we see the Scripture doth, and deeply humble our selves under it: Shall it be a small thing to have such an impetuous active principle in us against what is holy? That which we should imbrace and close with as the most excellent, that we flie from, and are most averse to, as if it were the greatest evil, and would be to our utter undoing.

Fourthly, If vicious habits that are acquired by customary practice of evil. are not meer and simple privations, but do also include in them a propensity to evil, then it followeth, that original sinne likewise is not a meer privation; For we are to conceive of original sinne, as an innate and imbred habit, as the other are acquired: Now it's plain, That all vicious moral habits, they are not a meer negation, or absence of such virtues, but do [...] also in­cline and dispose the subject to vicious actions, easily and with delight; So that we must needs attribute as much Postivenesse, if not more to ori­ginal sinne, then to vicious acquired habits; And the truth is, This is a closer Leprosie infecting of us, then such habits, for this we have as soon as we are born, this is twisted within our bowels; this can never be whol­ly shaken off, whereas accustomed sinnes, they are perfectly overcome by the work of Regeneration. For this is the difference between acquired ha­bits of sinne, and original corruption: In Regeneration, seeing the Image of God is put into us, which is the substance of all holy habits, the con­trary [Page 147] habits are presently excluded, and the sinnes the godly afterwords com­mit, are not from their former habits of sinne, but from the reliques of ori­ginal corruption, whatsoever the Remonstrants say to the contrary; But Re­generation doth not totally exclude original sinne, onely diminisheth the strength of it: So that this original corruption will abide in some measure in us, even while we carry this mortal body about with us: And if the Prophet made it such an impossible thing for men habituated in sinne to be converted, as when he saith, If a Leopard can change his skinne, then may you learne to doe well, who are accustomed to doe evil, Jerem. 13. 23. What then shall he said of us who are borne in evil? Customary sinnes are but the Leopards skinne, original sinne is like the Leopards na­ture.

Lastly, This positive inclination doth necessarily follow from the privation of this Image of God; if the due summetry and excellent Harmony which was at first in the soul be taken away, then all the faculties and powers of the soul must necessarily move sinfully and inordinately. The soul of a man is alwayes working one way or other, if then it hath lost original righteous­nesse, it cannot but be hurried on to what is evil; as if you take away the pillar on which a stone liethh, presently that will fall to the ground; If you spoil the strings of musical instruments, immediately they make a jarre and ingratefull noise upon every moving of them: The soul of a man is a subject immediately susceptible of righteousnesse or corruption, and if it lose its righ­teousnesse, then by natural necessity corruption cometh in the room of it, and so when the understanding acts, it acteth sinfully, when the will mo­veth, it moveth sinfully; So that we may well say with Austin to the Pelagian, demanding, How this corruption could come into us, for God was good, and nature good, Quid quaeris latentem rimum, cum habes aper­tam jannam? Not a cranny, but a gate or door is open for this corruption to seize upon us.


BEfore we come to answer the Objections, Let us affect our hearts with it, and labour to be humbled under the consideration of this positive­nesse and efficacy of it.

For first, Hereby we see, that if it be not restrained and stopped by God, we know not where we should stay in any sinne; What Cain's, what Judas's would we not prove? Who can say, Hitherto I will goe in sinne, and no further, for there is a fountain within thee, that would quickly overflow all? This active root of bitternesse, this four leaven within thee, would quickly make thy life, like Job's body, full of ulcers and noisome sores: If thou art not plunged in the same mire and filth, as others are, doe not say, Thou hast lesse of this corruption than they; Thou art borne more innocent than they, onely God stops thee, as he did Balaam from doing such wickednesse, as thy heart is forward enough unto; No Serpent is fuller of poyson, no Toad of venome, than thou art of sinne, which thou wouldst be constantly committing, were not some stop put in the way.

[Page 148] Secondly, In that sinne is thus positive and inclining thee, thou art the more to admire the grace of God, if that work a contrary inclination and propensity in thee; If thou art brought with Paul, To delight in the Law of God in the inward man; If thy heart pants after God, as the Hart after the waters, which once delighted in sinne, which once longed after nothing, but the satisfying of the flesh: Oh admire this gracious, miraculous work of God upon thy soul, who hath made thee to differ thus from thy selfe! The time was once, when thou rejoycedst in those sinnes, that are now matter of shame and trembling to thee. The time was when thy heart was affected with no other good than that of the creature; Thou didst know no other, desire no other but that, but now God hath made iron to swimme, he hath made the Blackmoor white: Oh blesse God for the least desires and affections, which thou hast at any time for that which is good, for this cometh not from thee; it is put into thee by the grace of God.

Lastly, Consider that this positivenesse of sinne in thee, doth not onely manifest it self in an impetuous inclination to all evil, but also a violent re­sistance of whatsoever is good: The Apostle (Rom. 8.) calleth it, Enmity against God; and Rom. 7. he complaineth of it, as warring and fighting a­gainst the Law of his minde; And certainly this is a very great aggravati­on, not onely to be without what is good, but to be a desperate enemy, and a violent opposer of it, both in others, as also to that which the Spi­rit of God by the Word would worke in our own hearts, not onely with­out the remedy, but full of enmity against it; Doth not this make our con­dition unspeakably wretched? Certainly, this is the highest aggravation in ori­ginal sinne, that we are not onely unable to what is good, but we are with anger and rage carried out against it, as if good were the onely evil, and sweetnesse the onely bitternesse.

Objections against the Positive Part of Original Sinne answered.

Cautions Premised.

THere remain only some Objections against this Truth, but be­fore we answer them, take notice,

First, That although we say original sinne is more than a privation of that Righteousnesse which ought to be in man, yet We do not make it to be like some infecting corporeal quality in the body, that hereby should vitiate the soul, and as it were poison that. Lombard and some others, especially Arimi­nensis (Distinct. 30.) They seem to deliver their opinion so, as rejecting An­selm's definition of original sinne, making it to be want of that original righte­ousnesse which ought to be in us, and do declare it to be a morbida qualitas, some kinde of pestilential and infecting quality abiding in the body, and thereby affecting the soul; As when the body is in some phrenetical and mad distempers, the soul is thereby disturbed in all its operations; so that these make the want of original righteousness to be the effect of original sinne, not the nature of it, saying upon Adam's sinne, Man becoming thus defiled, God refused to continue this righteousness to him any longer. But if these Schoolmen be further questioned, How such a diseased pestilential quality should be in the body? Some say, it was from the forbidden fruit that that had such a noxious effect with it; but that is rejected, because that was made of God, and all was exceeding good: Ari­mine [...]sis therefore following as he thinketh Austin, maketh this venemous qua­lity in a mans body to have its original, from the hissing and breath, as it were of the Serpent; he conceiveth, that by their discourse with the Serpent, there came from it such an infectious air, as might contaminate the whole body, and he saith Austin speaks of some, who from the very hissing and air from Serpents have been poisoned.

But the Protestants they do not hold it any positive quality in this sense; for this is to make the body, the first and chiefest subject of original sinne, and so to convey it to the soul, whereas indeed the soul is primarily and principally the seat of original sinne; We therefore reject this, as coming too near Manicheism, as if there were some evil and infectious qualities in the very nature and substance of a man.

Secondly, It must be remembred, what hath been said before, That when we come to give a particular reason why the understanding or will are propense to any evil; We can assign only a privative cause, viz. Because it wants that rectitude which would regulate it; as if a ship (it's Anselm's comparison) were without [Page 150] Pilot and Governour of tacklings let loose into the whole Ocean, it would be violently hurried up and down till it be destroyed. Thus man without this Image of God would be tossed up and down by every lust, never resting till he had hur­led himself into hell; yet though we cannot give any more than a privative cause, there is also a positive propensity to all evil connoted: As in a wicked action of murder or drunkenness, if you go to give a reason, why such actions are sinnes; we must say from the [...] that is in them, that want of order which the Law requireth; There is a privation of that rectitude the Law commands, yet those sinnes do imply also the material and substrate acts, as well as the obliquity: In every sinne of commission, there is that which is positive as well as privative; Though the ratio formalis of the sinne be a privation; and thus it is in original sinne, the whole nature of it comprehends both a want of Gods Image, and a con­stant inclination to all impiety. Though the privative be the cause of the positive Indeed Rolloc (De vocatione cap. 25. de peccat. orig.) maketh a three-fold mat­ter, and a three-fold form in original sinne: The three-fold matter he assigneth to be a defection from God, a want of original righteousness, and a positive quality, which succeedeth in the room of holinesse: To which three-fold matter he attributeth a three fold form or [...], in which the nature of sinne consists. Now these material parts of original sinne, are so many entities, being good in themselves, and coming from God the Author of nature, but how Apostasie and want of original righteousness can be positive entities, and good of themselves, I cannot understand, or how carentia justitiae originalis, should have the [...] for its form when that it self is the [...], and so a form have a form seemeth ir­rational to conceive.


THese two things thus premised, the plain and obvious Objection is, That if original sinne be positive, then it's good, and so of God, because omne ens est bonum, every being is good, and then as Austin, Omne bonum est vel Deus, vel à Deo, all good is either God himself, or of God Would it not then be blasphemy to make God the Authour of it, and if it have a positive being, then certainly it must come from God the Author of all being?

But to this several Answers may be returned:

First, That though original sinne should be granted to be positive, yet for all that God would not be made the Author of sinne, Because as it's sinne, it doth arise from man. There are some great Schoolmen, as Cajetan and others, that hold sinnes of commission have a positive real being, as sinnes; They deny that the nature of such sinnes lieth formally in a privation. but in a positive rela­tive contrariety to the Law of God; and when urged with this Argument, That then such sinnes have their being immediately from God, as all other created beings have: They will answer, That God is indeed the efficient of every being, but not of every modus, or relative respect of that being: As for example, when a man eateth and drinketh, this eating and drinking they are from God, but then take them under this relative respect, as they are vital and formal actions of man, so they cannot be attributed to God, for then we might say, God doth eat and drink, yea in those gracious acts when we do believe and repent, God is the efficient cause of them, yet as they do formally and vitally flow from us, so they are not to be attributed to God, for God doth not repent or believe. Thus it may be said, That though God be efficiently the cause of all positive being, yet as some being hath a relative respect to the second cause working, so it cannot be attri­buted to God, neither is this any imperfection, but a perfection in God, be­cause Deus non potest supplers vicem materialis, aut formalis causae: There­fore [Page 151] saith Curiel a positive Doctor for the positive nature of sinnes of Com­mission (Lectur. 6. in Thom. pag. 300.) ‘That it may be granted, the will is prima moralis causa peccati, as we may say a man is the first cause of sight, per modum videntis, because he is not subordinate to any other cause, which doth produce this sight, viz. formally, a sight; and (saith he) the like is in all other vital actions.’ But I need not run into this thorny thicket to hide my self from the force of this Objection.

Secondly, There are some learned Protestants, that do distinguish of ens, or being; That ens is either created, as the works of the six dayes, or generated, as mankind, and the animate creatures, or made as artificial things, or prepared, as Heaven and Hell, or introduced, as sinne; for it's said of sinne, that it's [...]; So that upon this distinction they will say, That God is the cause of all made, and created beings, but not of introdu­ced beings, such as sinne is, because that came in by Satans temptation, and mans disobedience. But this distinction hath scarce so much as a sandy foundation; for though it be an introduced being, yet because a being, it is a creature, and so must come from God the chief being, according to that of the Evangelist, John 1. All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made: For that which is ens only by participation, must be re­duced to that which is ens per essentiam. Therefore

In the third place, We must speak of original sinne, as we do of vicious habits, and of actual sinnes; The material and substrate of them, being a good of na­ture is of God, but the vitiosity and obliquity that is of man, when a man mo­veth his tongue to curse and swear, or his hand to murder another: As they are actions they are of God, For in him we live, and move, and have our being; but as evil adhereth to them, so they are of man: Thus it is in original sinne, when we say, there is a positive inclination in mans heart to all evil; The mean­ing is, That the understanding and will, as they are faculties, and as they do act, thus farre they are of God, but as they cannot but act sinfully, and offend in every motion, so it's of Adam's disobedience, to understand then, to think, to will, to love, these are of God, but to love what is evil and contrary to Gods Word, or to love excessively and immoderately that which we are to do in subor­dination only, this is of our selves.

A second Objection is, That if original sinne be like a vicious habit in a man, then it cannot be transmitted unto posterity, for habits (they say) are personal things: No father doth communicate to his childe any habits, either virtuous or vicious.

But to this it's answered, That original sinne is not an acquired habit of sinne, but an innate and imbred one in us; So that as if Adam had stood, original righteousnesse, which was like a concreated habit in man, would have been com­municated to all his posterity, thus it is no wonder, if original sinne, which doth so tenaciously and inwardly adhere to all natures be transmitted to every one born in a natural way.

The last Objection is, That there is no necessity of supposing such an habitual vitiosity in a man; It's enough (say they) that a man be deprived of the Image of God, and when that is lost, of it's own self man's nature is prone to evil; It needs no habitual inclination to weigh him down; as if a wild beast be tied in cords and chains, lose him, unty him, and of himself he will runne into wild and untamed actions.

But to answer this:

First, The Papists, they cannot consequentially to their principles say thus; For they hold, ‘That if this Image of God be removed, he doth continue in his pure naturals, there is no sinne inhering in him, upon the meer losse of that; For they confesse, That although by acting from his [Page 152] pure naturals he could not deserve Heaven, or love God as a supernatural end, yet in an inferiour way, as the ultimate natural end, so he might love God, and that above all other things.’

But secondly, That is granted, This positive inclination to all evil, follow­eth necessarily from the removal of this Image of God from us; If the Sunne be removed, then necessarily darknesse doth cover the face of the soul; If the loco-motive faculty be interrupted, then there is nothing but halting and lamenesse: Disturb the harmony, and good temperament of the humours, and then immediately diseases and pains do surprize the whole man; It cannot therefore be avoided, that when this disorder is come up­on the soul, but that our lusts break out as at a flood-gate, and we are in a spi­ritual deluge all over covered with the waters of sin; but then here is a positive as well as a privative.

Besides, It is not for us to be curious in giving a reason of such posi­tive corruption in a man by nature; it is enough that Gods word is so clear and full in the discovery of it, that he must needs wilfully shut his eyes, that will not be convinced by the light of Gods word herein: And this may suffice to dispel that darknesse, which some would have covered this Truth with, and as for what knowledge about this positivenesse of original corruption is further necessary; We shall then take notice of it, when we speak of original sinne, as it is called lust or concupiscence.


LEt therefore the Use from the former Doctrine delivered, be, To affectus, and wound us at the very heart, that we are thus all over covered with sin, that we have not an understanding, but to sin, a will but to sin, an heart but to sin; May not this be like a two edged sword within thee? What will fire thee out of all thy self-confidence, thy self-righteousnesse, if this doe not? What delight, what comfort canst thou take by beholding thy self, by looking on thy self thus corrupted and depraved? And the rather let this consideration go to the ve­ry bottom of thy soul. Because

First, Thy propensity and inclination is to that onely which God onely hateth, which God onely loatheth, and hath decreed to punish with his ut­most wrath to all eternity. Consider that sinne is the greatest evil; All the temporal evils in the world are but the effect of it, that is the cause. Now can it ever humble thee enough to think, that the whole bent, and constant tendency of thy soul is unto that which is the most abominable in the eyes of God? Thou canst not do that which is more destructive to thy own soul, and more dishonouring unto God, then by committing sinne, and yet thou canst do nothing else, thou delightest in nothing else; Thy heart will not let thee do any thing else: Look over thy whole life, take notice how many years thou hast li­ved, and yet if not regenerated and delivered in some measure from the power of original corruption, thou hast done nothing but sinned; Every thought hath been a sinne, every motion a sinne within thee, and yet sinne is the greatest evil, and that alone which God hateth.

Secondly, If yet thy heart be hard, and nothing will enter, take a se­cond naile, or wedge to drive into thee, and that is, being thus all over carried out to sinne, not the least good able to rise in thy heart, that here­by the very plain Image of the Devil is drawn over thee: Hence it is, that wicked men are said to be of their Father the Devil; and he is said to rule in the hearts of the children of disobedience, Ephes. 2. What a wofull change is this, to be turned from a Sonne of God, to become a Devil? [Page 153] While Adam retained the Image of God, God abode with him, and in him, there was a near union with God, but upon his Apostasie, the Devil taketh possession of all, and so now man is in a near union with the De­vil: Every mans soul is now the Devils Castle, his proper habitation; The Spirit of God is chaced away, and now thy heart is made an habitati­on for these Satyrs; Thy soul is become like an howling wildernesse, where­in lodge all beastly lusts whatsoever; Thou that wouldst account it horrible injury to be called beast and Devil, yet thy original sinne maketh thee no lesse.

Thirdly, This further may break thy heart, if it be not yet broken e­nough, that hereby thou art utterly impotent and unable to help thy self out of this lost condition; For how can a dead man help himselfe to live again? How can thy crooked heart be ever made straight, unlesse a greater power than that subdue it; If thou didst judge thy conditi­on an hopelesse one, as to all humane considerations, then thou would­est tremble, and have no rest in thy selfe, till God had delivered thee out of it?

Lastly, Let this also further work to thy Humiliation, that being thus po­sitively inclined to all evil, not onely proper and sutable temptations draw out thy sinnes, but even all holy and godly remedies appointed by God, they do increase this corruption the more, And is not that man miserable, whose very remedies make him more miserable? Doth not the Apostle com­plain sadly of that Law of sinne in him, even in this respect, that by this means, the Law wrought in him all evil? The more holy and spiritual the Law was, the more carnal and sinfull was he thereby occasioned to be: Oh then! What wilt thou do, when good things make thee evil, spiritual things make thee more carnal?

A second Text (to prove Original Sinne to be Positive) opened and vindicated.


ROM. 7. 7.‘For I had not known lust, except the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet.’

WE are discovering the Nature of original sinne in the Positive part of it; For although Corvinus the Remonstrant cavilleth at the Division of original sinne into two parts, therein gratifying the Papists (as it were, yet we see the Scripture speaking of it fully, as having these two parts; And whereas he saith, ‘The Positive inclination to evil, must be the effect of the privation of ori­ginal righteousnesse, and so not a part of original, because an effect cannot be a part of its cause.

It's answered first, That sometimes there is a division of a common thing, as into two parts, when yet one is the effect of the other; as when malum is divided into malum culpae, and malum poena, the evil of punishment is necessarily the effect of the evil of sinne. But

Secondly, Though an inclination to evil may be the effect of the privation of original righteousnesse, yet for all that it may be part of original sinne, which is the whole consisting of both these: Even as according to some learned Di­vines, Remission of sinne is part of Justification, although it be an effect of the imputation of Christs Righteousnesse, which is also another part of our Justification.

The word Lust expounded.

HAving therefore considered this Title or Name given to original sinne (viz. Flesh.) which doth denote the Positivenesse of it: I come to a second, which shall also be the last, and that is the word lust or concupiscence, which both in the Scripture, and in the writings of several Authors is attributed to it; For which purpose the Text pitched upon is very usefull.

To understand which, consider that the Apostle having asserted some things, [Page 155] which in an outward appearance did seem to dishonour the Law, he maketh this Objection to himself, Is the Law sinne? A cause of sinne, and so sinne, and God the Law-giver a commander of sinne; To which he answers, [...], by defiance, God forbid, and in the next place giveth a reason, why the Law cannot be the cause of sinne, because that doth discover and detect sinne, that judgeth and damneth it, therefore it cannot be the cause of sinne; and that the Law is the manifester and reprover of sinne, he instanceth in himself, and his own experi­ence, I had not known lust to be sinne, except the Law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

Now ere we can understand this Text, we must answer some Questions. And

First, It's demanded, What is meant by the Law here? Some say, the Law of Nature, which is not so probable; Others, the written Law of Moses, and this is most probable by the whole context. But yet some, though they understand it of the Law of Moses, yet they do not mean any particular command, but the Law in the general, saying, the Apostle useth [...] and [...] for all one; As if the meaning were, The Law in general did not only forbid sinfull actions, but also inward lust, and motions of the soul thereunto, as our Saviour fully expound­eth it, Matth. 5. Others they understand this Law of a particular Command­ment, viz. the tenth; and therefore Beza observeth the Article [...], by this, or by that Commandment in particular; And this seemeth most probable, because they are the very words of the tenth Commandment.

But secondly, If the Apostle alledge that command, Why doth he instance onely in the sinne forbidden, not mentioning the objects that are specified in the command, Thy neighbours Oxe or his Asse, &c?

The Answer is, that is not material, for the Apostle speaking of lusts in the heart, what latent and unknown sins they were without the light of the Law, it was enough to name the sinne it self, seeing the objects about which they are con­versant are of all sorts, and can hardly be numbred.

In the third place, It's doubted how the Apostle could say, that he did not know lust to be sinne, but by the Law of Moses, seeing that by the very Law of nature, even Heathens have condemned inward lusts, and unjust thoughts and plots, though but in the soul, and never put into practice. Aquinas makes the meaning of it, as if Paul's sense was, He did not know lust to be sinne, as it was an offence to God, and a dishonour to him, because the Law of Moses represents the sin­fulness of these lusts in a more divine and dreadfull way, then the Law of nature doth. Grotius maketh the sense thus, Paul did not know lust, but by Gods Law, because the Laws of men punish nothing but sinfull actions, never at all medling with the thoughts and purposes of the heart.’ Beza expounds the ex­pression comparatively, I had not known lust to be sinne, viz. so evidently, so fully, so unquestionably, as I did when I understood the Law. But the general Interpretation is, That the Apostle speaketh here of his thoughts and knowledge, while he was a Pharisee, and it's plain by our Saviours correcting of pharisaical glosses about the Law, Matth. 5. That they thought the Law did onely require external obedience, and whatsoever thoughts or sinfull lusts men had, so that they did not break out into the practice of them, they were not guilty of sinne, He did not then know lust to be sinne, following the traditional exposition of his Ma­sters, till he came to understand the Law aright.

Another Question of greater consequence is, What is meant by lust? Thou shalt not covet, for the word [...], though in Exod. 20. there be the same Hebrew word [...] yet Deut. 5. 21. There is another Hebrew expression, which is [...], which because in Hithpael, and so of a reciprocal signification, they translate fecit se concupiscere, to stirre up a mans self to desire, and thereby say, such lusts are only forbidden that a man nourisheth, and yeelds himself up [Page 156] unto, but that rule is not a general one, see Prov. 23. 3. Some limit this Com­mandment too much, as it did only command contentation of spirit, and that we should not sinfully desire, that which others have. But the Apostle doth plainly extend it further than so. The Papists they likewise limit it too much, making only those lusts andmotions of sinne, which we consent to to be forbid­den, denying that those motions to evil, which arise antecedently to our reason and will, to be truly sinnes; hence is their Rule concerning them, Non sensus, but consensus is that which doth damn, which in a good sense, we also will ac­knowledge to be true. But we are not to limit Scripture, where it hath not li­mited it self, and therefore we conclude, That the command doth forbid a three­fold concupiscence or lust.

First, That lust which is actually consented to, though not breaking forth into act, and if this were all, the Law of God would hereby be exlted above all humane Laws, which reach no further than external actions, And how many are ignorant of, at least not affected, with the spiriruality of this Law in this particular? Would they dare to entertain such heart-sinnes as they doe, could they make their souls cages of uncleane, unjust and ungodly thoughts, as they do?

Secondly, The Law goeth higher, and doth not only forbid those lusts in thy heart, which thou yeeldest consent unto; but all those suggestions and suddain surreptitious motions, which do suddenly arise in thy soul, though thou doest not con­sent to them, yea though thou doest resist them, hate them, and pray against them, for of such lusts Paul doth especially speak in this Chapter, and the Law of nature did never condemn these for sinnes in any Heathens, where­as the Apostle doth chiefly complain of these, and that as sinnes properly so called, for to be mortified and crucified, as being contrary to the holy Law of God.

Lastly, By lust is meant original sinne, as being the fountain, the root of all these lusts, that hot furnace, from which those sparks of sinfull motions do con­tinually arise, and that by lust is meant at least secondarily, and by contequent original corruption is plain, because this lust is the same with the Law of the mem­bers, the Law of sinne, and the sinne dwelling in him. It is true, he saith, this sinne he complaineth of, wrought in him all manner of concupiscence or lust. But then we must distinguish between lust habitual, and lust actual; Lust habitual is original sinne, and that is the cause of lusts actual; And if you say, Why doth the Apostle call original sinne lust, as if it were an actual sinne? The reason is (as is further to be insisted on) because it is a fountain alwayes running over; Its not a sluggish dull habit, but is continually venting it self forth into all poisonous and sinfull acts. So that by lust forbidden in the Text is meant.

1. Lusts consented to, though not accomplished in act.

2. Lusts arising in the soul, but rejected and striven against.

Lastly, Original sinne, as the root of all; In which sense the Apostle James Chap. 1. 14. calleth it likewise lust. Some learned men there are, that do not like it should be said original sinne is forbidden by the Law of God, (as Molineus, Rivet. in Expos. Dec. Martinius in Exposit. Decal) although they grant the Law doth damn it and judge it. But surely their meaning is no more, as Marti­nius doth expresly afterwards affirm, than that original sin is not primarily and directly forbidden, but secondarily and by consequent; As also that it is thus forbidden, that we should not obey but resist it, as Rivet. But whereas they reason, That a prohibition is not of those things that already are present in us, but of what is future or may be, that is no wayes solid, because past sins and present actual sins, are truly forbidden by the Law, although the sinne past cannot but be past, and the sinne present cannot but be present, because quic­quid est, quando est, necesse est esse. Other learned men, though they grant [Page 157] original sinne is truly and properly forbidden by the Law of God, yet they say, It is not in this Commandment, partly because it's forbidden in every Command­ment, for where any branch of sin is forbidden, there the root also is forbidden, and where pure streams of holiness are required, there also a pure fountain of holiness; Original righteousness is commanded, and that partly because this tenth Commandment doth belong to the second Table onely, whereas original sinne is not onely the cause of evil lusts towards man, but also towards God. Now in this we shall not much disagree; For it must be granted, That seeing an holy heart is required in every particular command, it followeth, That an evil sinfull heart is forbidden in every command; and for the later we grant also, That original sinne is not forbidden in this last Commandment in the universal la­titude and utmost extent of it, but so farre as it doth break out in sinfull lusts to­wards man.


THese things being thus necessarily premised for the opening and vindication of the Text, I proceed to the Doctrine, which is

That original sinne is truly and properly concupiscence or lust in a man. This name doth plainly denote more than a meer privation, for it evidently discovereth the nature of it, to be in the carrying out of the soul in all its motions sinfully, and inordinately, as also that from this as a corrupted fountain do all those poi­sonous streams of actual lustings in the soul flow, as Jam. 1. 14. where you have notably the rise of all actual sinne described, how it cometh about that any one is enticed to do that which is wicked, he cannot accuse God or the Devil, but this lust within him: But of that famous and excellent Text, we are in time to speak. This great Truth, That original sinne is Lust, or Concupiscence, doth first deserve diligent and clear illustration, and then practical amplifi­cation.


IN the first place consider, That concupiscence or lust may be taken two wayes, as was formerly hinted, habitually and radically, or actually, the mother and the daughter, the root and the fruit. Now original sinne is lust, not actually, but radically; It is that from which all actual lusts and desires have their immediate rise; and in this sense it is commonly called the flesh, and lusts are the sinfull issue of it. Thus Gal. 5. 16. You shall not fulfill [...], The lust of the flesh. And again, They that are Christs have crucified the flesh with the lusts thereof. So Ephes. 2. 3. here flesh and its lusts, is original sinne with the immediate motions and outgoings thereof. At other times, original sinne is called sinne in the gene­ral, to declare the emphatical sinfulness of it, and then there are ascribed several lusts likewise to it, Rom. 6. 12. Sinne must not reign in us, that we should obey the lust thereof; And Rom. 7. 8. Sinne wrought in me, [...] all manner of concupiscence. So that you see, there is lust the cause, and lust the effect, lust the root, and lust the branches; the former is original sinne, called excellently by the Apostle Jam. 1. 15. [...], lust conceiving, implying, it is like the womb, wherein all wickedness is first conceived, and such a womb that like the grave never hath enough, we may call it the Sheol in a man. The Rabbius say well, That concupiscentia doth aedificare inferos; This lust in the several act­ings of it, is that which maketh hell; Though God never said▪ Increase and mul­tiply to it, yet it filleth earth and hell, with the effects thereof.


SEcondly, We are to understand, that [...] in the general, To desire in the abstract is indifferent, neither good or bad, but as diversified by the object. In the Hebrew there are these words for concupiscence [...], and that proper­perly signnifieth Lust, as we take it in our common-English sense, for the lusts of the body in an unclean manner, Eccles. 12. 5. the word is there used, but tran­slated by the Septnagint [...], which hath exercised Criticks; The root of the Hebrew word is [...] from whence is Ebion, poor, needy, from thence some Heretiques were called so, as being destitute of understanding. Another is [...], which signifieth desire in the general, and is used in a good sense, Psal. 132. 13. in a bad sense Numb. 11. 4. There is also the word [...], which is many times applied to the object desired, as wives, children, houses, &c. Last­ly, there is [...], and the Hebrews do commonly call evil concupiscence [...]: But to return to the Greek word [...]. Col. 3. 5. There is [...], E­vil Concupiscence: Though the English word Lust seemeth to be ordinarily ta­ken in an ill sense, yet Gal. 5. 17. our Translators render it, The Spirit lusteth against the flesh; Hence in the Scripture we may observe a three-fold lust or desire:

1. That which is natural flowing from the appetite of nature: Thus it is said of Lazarus, Luk. 15. 16. he did [...], desire to be satisfied with the crums of the rich mans table.

2. There is in the Scripture mention of a good concupiscence, or coveting, and that is, when a godly man doth earnestly desire to do or suffer the wil of God: Thus Mat. 3 17. righteous men are said to desire to see those things; which were to be seen in Christs dayes: So Luk. 22. 15. Christ is there said, [...], greatly and ear­nestly to desire to eat the Passeover with them. The godly then have a holy coveting, an holy desiring after the things of God, as carnal men have lusts after their sin­full objects, and therefore they ought to nourish and cherish those affectionate desires; They cannot go beyond their bounds and limits in this case, the modus is sine m [...]de.

But then lastly, There are evil covetings and desires, sinfull lustings; In which sense we read often of the [...], The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, 1 John 2. 16. The lust of the world, 1 John 2. 17. And men are said, To walk after their lusts, to be delivered up to their lusts; There is then a natural concupiscence, a good concupiscence, and a sinfull wicked one; And this again is two fold, either when we desire such objects as are absolutely and simply sinfull: Or secondly, when the objects are lawfull and good, yet we desire them exces­sively, and for sinfull, unlawfull ends.

A Three-fold Appetite in Man.

THe third particular necessary for the understanding of this Doctrine, viz. That original sinne is lust or concupiscence in a man, is, To take notice of a three fold appetite, Natural, Animal and Rational: Even inanimate bodies, the stone and the fire have a kind of an appetite, to descend, the one downward, the other upward. In a man there is a natural appetite of eating or drinking.

2. There is the animal or sensitive appetite, whereby the sensitive faculties do desire their sutable objects.

[Page 159] Lastly, There is the Rational Appetite, whereby a man is carried out to desire those good things that are judged to be so by reason: Now if we take these ap­petites substantially, as it were, or physically, so they are good, and the actions that flow from them are good; but then take them Ethically and Morally with that Ataxy and Inordinacy that doth cleave to them, as they are in man, and so they do become polluted, and defiled: Insomuch that a man doth sinne till rege­nerated in all these things; his eating and drinking became sinne, and all other his actions, because the principles from which they flow are all vitiated; So that whatsoever principle we have of any action, it being destitute of that original rectitude, which adhered to it; therefore it is that it moveth to every object sinfully; So that this consideration may take off that calumny which the adver­saries of original sinne would fasten upon the Orthodox herein, as if we made man to be nothing but opus Diaboli, the work of the Devil, as if he were not the good creature of God. Vide August. lib. 2do, de nuptiis & concupiscentiâ, where the Pelagian saith, Qui originale peccatum defendit perfectè Manichaeus est, ne vo­centur Haeretici fiunt Manichai, as also this freeth them from the aspersion of [...]ccianism. though Cortzen the Jesuite saith, ‘The Calvinists by their prin­ciples cannot avoid it, Necessario concedere coguntur substantiam esse peccatum, qui concupiscentiam affirmant, (Com. 5. ad Rom.)’ but very absurdly. For we say, take these faculties of the soul, as they are naturally planted in the soul, so they are good and of God. The understanding, the will, the affections, these are in themselves good, but man having sinned away original righteousnesse, which would have habitually disposed them to their due objects, in a due manner, for a due end, hereby it is, that they are only for sinne, which were at first only for good.


4. VVHen we say, That original sinne is habitual lust, we must not take lust strictly, but most largely, as it comprehends any part of the soul in its motions to their respective objects. Our English word lust is by custom almost li­mited to unclean desires, as if those corporal burnings were onely lust: Even as the Latine word libido, though originally signifying quicquid libet, any thing that pleased a man is for the most part also restrained to fleshly lusting, but we told you that the word lust [...], is in the Scripture used onely largely in a good sense, in a bad sense, and a neutral indifferent one. Therefore in the affections there is this lust, in the will there is this lust, yea in the understanding and fancy, which are apprehensive faculties only, there is this lust: For although Aquinas saith, ‘That we cannot properly in the understanding say, there is motus ad objectum, because a passive faculty, yet in a large sense, all faculties of the soul have their inclination and motion to their objects, and so this original lust dif­fuseth it self through them all,’ and therefore they also limit this concupiscence too much, which confiae it only to the sensitive part, the inferiour region of the soul; For the more acute Papists do ingeniously confesse, That Heresies, Idola­tries are sins of the mind, and yet flow from this concupiscence, so that this ha­bitual lust is diffused and extended, as farre as the soul hath any power or motion: Oh but how few are there that do regard lust any further than bodily or sensible? The spiritual, the intellectual lustings of the soul are not apprehended as an heavy load or burden: So that original sinne hath its upper-springs, and its nether-springs, the corporal chanel, and the spiritual, in which its filth runneth down; In the gross prophane man, there is original sinne acting carnally and bodily; in the heretique, in the proud Scholar, there is original sinne acting mentally and intellectually: So that as man doth consist of two parts, one visible, and the other [Page 160] invisible, so also doth original sinne, as it were, consist of two ingredients, the bodily part, and the soul part, and from the soul doth this poison fall to all the inferiour parts; Therefore do not only complain of sinne and lust in thy material and sensitive part, but look upon the strength and chief power of it, as in thy immaterial and soul part, for in all these, this original lust, this Law of sinne doth constantly dwel. The Schoolmen they call this Fomes peccati, because it doth fovere; it's like the cinders and ashes that keep alive the fire of sin within a man, and the more dangerous and damnable it is, by how much the more close and latent it is.

A Consideration of this Concupiscence in reference to the four-fold Estate of man.

5. VVE are to consider this concupiscence or concupiscibili'y (for we speak of the principle of lusting, not actual lusting) according to several states that man may be looked upon in: AS

First, There was his Natura instituta, his instituted nature at first, and that was right and holy; There was concupiscence and desiring of the several powers of his soul, but in a good and orderly way; It was not then as now, the Superi­ora did not turpiter servire inferioribus, or the inferiora contumaciter, rebel against the superiour parts, as is to be shewed in the next place; In Adam there was no concupiscence in this sense; The inferiour parts, though they did desire a sensible object, yet it was wholly in subordination, and under the command of the supe­riour. It's true indeed Eve did look upon the forbidden fruit, and saw it was good and pleasant, whereupon she was tempted to eat of it, but this did not arise from any original lust in her, but from the mutability of her will, being not confirmed in what was good: Even as we see the Angels before their Apostasie, had sinfull desires in their will, through pride and affectation to be higher than they were, yet this did not arise from original lust in them. Although therefore both Socinians and some Papists, do acknowledge man made with such a repug­nancy of the sensitive appetite to the rational; yea, the former making it to be in Christ himself, yet this is highly to dishonour God in the Creation of man: Oh happy and blessed estate, when there was such an universal harmony and due proportion in all the powers of the soul, but miserum est illud verbum snisse, may all mankind cry out in this particular.

Secondly, There is Natura infecta and destituta, infected Nature, stript and de­nuded of all former holiness and excellency, and here concupiscence is not onely in us, but it doth reign and predominate over the whole man; The harmony is totally dissolved, and now the choice and sublime parts of the foul, are made pro­strate to the affectionate part, as loathsom and abominable, as when the Law for­biddeth to lie with a beast. Now the mind and understanding is wholly set on work to dispute and argue for the carnal part: Now the motions of the soule beginne in the carnal part, and end in the intellectual, whereas in the state of integrity, the beginning and rise would first have been in the intelle­ctual, and so have descended to the sensitive part. The motions thereof ante­cede all deliberation in the mind, and a rectified choice in the will; Thus the feet they guide the head, and in this little world of man, the earth moveth, and the Heavens they stand still, as some fancied in the great world; now lust is by way of a Law ruling and commanding all things: This is the unspeakable misery and bondage we are now plunged into.

Thirdly, There is Natura restituta, repaired nature by grace, which the re­generate [Page 161] attain unto, and these, though they have not obtained concerning lust, ne sit, yet that ne regnet in them, as Austin expresseth it, though they cannot perfectly fulfill that command ne concupiscas, yet they obey another, post concu­piscentias ne [...]as; hence it is because of the actings and workings of original sinne still in the godly, they are in a continual conflict, they cannot do any thing per­fectly, they feel a clogge pressing them down, when they are elevating themselves, as Paul, Rom 7. doth abundantly manifest, The good he would do he cannot do. Original sinne is like that Tree in Daniel, Chap. 4. 23. Though there was a watcher from Heaven coming down to cut it down, yet the stumps and root of the Tree were left with a band of iron and brass, to denote the firm and immovable abiding of it: Thus though the grace of God be still mor­tifying and subduing the lusts of the flesh, yet the stumps seem to be bound with brasse and iron to us, we are never able in this life wholly to extin­guish it.

Lastly, If you consider the perfected and glorified estate of the godly in Heaven, then there will be a full and utter extirpation of this original sin. The glorified bodies in Heaven, though naked, shall not be subject to shame and confusion, as Adam and Eve were after their fall; And among other reasons, therefore doth the Lord suffer these reliques of corruption to abide in the most holy, that so we may the more ardently and zealously long after that kingdom of glory, when we shall be delivered from this sinfull soul and mortal body; Then this command Thou shalt not lust, will be perfectly accomplished, whereas in this life it is a perpetual hand writing against us; The Papists indeed do confess our lusts to be against this command, but not ut praecipienti, but ut indicanti, as if God did not so much command us what we should do, as by Doctrine inform what is good and excellent in it self. Thus rather than they will be found guilty by this Law, they will make it no Law, and turn it from a precept into a meer doctrinal infor­mation: But seeing one end of the Law is to convince us, and aggravate our sin­fulness, to make us see our desperate, diseased estate, that thereby we may flie to Christ, as the malefactor to the City of refuge; let it be farre from us to ex­tenuate or to lessen our sinfulness: The Pharisees of old, and all their successors in endeavouring to establish a righteousness by the Law, have split themselves on this rock, as if the Law had not holiness enough to command them, but they were able to do more than that required: But whence doth this Blind presumption arise? Even from the ignorance of the power of original siane in us.


6 FRom these things concluded on, we may see, that the Scripture giveth us a better discovery of our selves, than ever the light of nature, or moral Phi­losophy could acquaint us with. Aristotle teacheth us out of his School clean con­trary Doctrine to this, That we come into the world without virtue or vice: E­ven as Pelagius said of old, and the Schoolmen, though they hold original sinne, yet most of them by cleaving to Aristole's principles, and so leaving the Scri­pture have advanced nature, to the dispraise of grace: Aristotle he maketh the reason in a man, alwayes to incline to the best things; and as for the sensitive ap­petite, that he divides into concupiscible and irascible, not acknowledging any corruption in these principles of humane actions, viz. the mind, the will and sensitive appetite by nature, but by voluntary actions. We must therefore re­nounce all Heathen Schools, whether of Plato or Aristotle, when we come to be auditors of this Doctrine, yet (as in time may be shewed) some of the Heathens had a confused apprehension about such a natural defilement.

Why Original Sinne is called Concupiscence or Lust.

THese things thus premised, to understand this Truth, viz. That original sin is habitual lust. Let us in the next place consider, why we call it so. And First, It may well be called concupiscence or lust, Because the appetitive and active powers of the soul are chief in a man, and they being corrupted and polluted, it's no wonder if the whole man be [...]urried headlong to hell. The Schoolmen make it a Question, Why original sinne should not be called ignorantia, as well as con­cupiscentia? But first, We may call it ignorance also; It's ignorance and blind­ness in the apprehensive powers of the soul, but lust and concupiscence in the ap­petitive; especially the will being horribly corrupted, which is said to be the appetitus universalis, and is to all other inferiour parts of the soul, as the pri­mum mobile, to the other orbs, which carrieth all about with its motion; It's no wonder that it be called lust, as infecting and perverting the will, which is the whole of a man; for if a man know evil, yet if he do not will it, it is no sinne; God himself knoweth all the sinne that is committed in the world, and there is difference between Cogitatio mali, the thought about evil, and cogitatio mala, an evil thought; but the will cannot be carried out to evil, but presently it is an evil will. The understanding by knowing evil is not polluted, but the will is by willing of it, because the understanding receiveth the object intentionally into it self, and so is abstracted from its existency; but the will that goeth to the object in it self, and as it doth really exist, but this occasionally onely. Original sinne may well be called lust, because the acting and working parts of the soul, where­of the will is the supreme and chief, being polluted by it, the vigour and efficacy of it is most discovered by them, and this is that which makes grace so admirable and wonderfull, that it can bind the strong ones of the soul, yea that it can turn sinfull lustings into glorious, heavenly and holy lustings; Thus it is marvellous in the eyes of the godly.

Secondly, Original sinne may well be called Lust, Because it's general to every sinne; Every actual sinne is a lust in some sense: So that although Aquinas (up­on the Text saith,) That original sinne is, Commune malum non communitate ge­neris aut speciei, sed causalitatis, not by a community of genus, but of cause, yet in some sense we may say, that concupiscence hath a generical community, because as a genus it is included in every sinne: So that if we do take notice of any sinne, this is in the general nature of it, that there is a sinfull desire or appetite; What is covetousness but an inordinate desire of wealth? What is ambition but an inordinate desire of honour, and so of every sinne? But to be sure, it is a common sinne by way of causality. The Apostle James informeth us, Chap. 1. 14. That every man, when he sinneth is tempted aside by that lust which is in him: So that all the sinfull thoughts, words and actions, which all the men of the world, since Adam's fall till the end of the world shall commit, and be guilty of, do arise from this fountain, yet how little do we affect our hearts with the hainous­ness and dreadfulness of it?

Lastly, It may well be called Lust, Because it is alwayes an acting vigorous principle within us. Whatsoever we are doing, eating, drinking, working, this lust is moving in us; yea in sleep, in frantick mad men, in children and infants in some sense (as is to be shewed) This lust is putting forth it self; we may as well keep the wind within our fists, as make this original lust lie still; So that by this we may evidently see, the greatest part of our evil lieth Inwardly and secretly in the soul; our actual and outward impieties, they are but the least part of that sinne, which cleaveth to us; Pray therefore to know and understand this my­stery [Page 163] more: Look upon thy self in all thy external righteousness, but as a paint­ed Sepulchre, full of loathsome and noisome thoughts and lusts: Neither be thou afraid to look into this vile dungeon, do not turn thy eyes from seeing this mon­ster, for this is the only way to drive thee to that full and dear esteem of the Lord Christ as a Saviour, which is absolutely necessary.

The Definition of Original Sinne.


FRom the Commandment in this Text, we have heard forbidden actual lust consented unto, actual lust, though not yeelded un­to, and original lust the mother of all, all which Austin thought was prayed against in three Petitions in the Lords Pray­er, Lust consented unto, when we pray for the forgivenesse of sinnes committed; Lusts tempting and ensnaring, but not own­ed by us, when we pray not to be lead in temptation, and lastly, when we say, But deliver us from evil, that is aufer concupiscentiam ne sit, take away the very root, and fountain of all evil in us, (Ad Marcell [...]num, lib. 20) Ignosce nobis ea in quibus sumus abstracti à concupiscentiâ, adjuvane abstrahamur à concupiscentiâ au­fer à nobis concupiscentiam.

So that in this command we have seen the positive nature of original sinne in being called concupiscence, we shall therefore from the former Discourse treating of original sinne in the privative nature of it, and this later of the positive, en­quire into the definition of it, what it is, for it's not enough to know that it is, and that there are such sad and bitter effects of it, but also to be assured what it is. As it is not enough for a man to be perswaded, that he is diseased, but he must search into the nature of it, what it is, if so be he would be cured. Before Austin's time, there was not a publick known definition of it: The Ancients before him thinking it enough to believe there was such a thing, and that we do daily feel the horrible effects thereof. Pighius in his Discourse of original sinne, saith, ‘That even to his time the Church had not peremptorily defined what it was, and therefore all are left to their liberty to believe what it is:’ So that they grant there is such a thing, but as if Ignoti nulla cupido, so nullum odium, of an unknown thing there is no love, and also no hatred: So that if we do not know how loathsom and vile this sinne is, we are never able to bewail it, and to humble our selves under it.

There are many Descriptions of it given by several Authors, but that we may in a large and popular way comprehend all things in one Description, that is ne­cessary to understand the full nature of it; we may take this delineation of it.


ORiginal sinne is an horrid depravation and defilement of the whole man, caused by the Devils temptation, and our first Parents obedience there­unto, and from them descending by propagation to all his Posterity, being stript of Gods glorious Image, whereby they are prone to all evil, and so are under the bon­dage of the Devil, and obnoxious to eternal wrath. It is not my purpose in making this draught of it, to attend unto the exact rules of Logick, but so to compose it, that every thing considerable to give the true knowledge of it, may be comprized therein. And

First, We say, It's a depravation and defilement, which implieth the sinfulness of it, that it is truly and properly a sinne; And therefore sinne is truly and uni­vocally divided into original and actual; so that they who make it onely to be guilt without any inward contagion, they do wholly erre from the Scripture, they say not enough. It is true, Adam's sinne in the guilt of it is imputed unto us, which made Ambrose of old say, as Austin alledgeth him against the [...]elagians, Morinus sum in Adamo, ejectus sum in Paradiso in Adamo &c. I am dead in Adam, I am cast out of Paradise in Adam: But we are not disputing of original imputed sinne, but original inhering; Therefore original inherent sinne is truly and pro­perly a defilement upon us against the Law of God, and this sinfull estate of all by nature, should be farre more terrible unto us, then our miserable and mortal estate. Again, When we call it a defilement, we oppose their opinion, who make it only morbus, and not truly a sinne; As also those who say, It is the substance of a man, for if so, then Christ could not have taken our nature without sinne, neither could there be glorified bodies in Heaven without sinne, for all these have the humane nature of a man. Further we say, It's an horrid depravation: This Epithete is necessary to be added to awaken pharisaical and self-righteous persons, it being so dreadfull an evil, that we are never able to go to the depth of it: Never therefore think of speak of original sinne, but let thy heart tremble, and let horrour and amazement take hold of thee, because of it; and this is put in the Description to obviate those opinions that make it the least of all sinnes. Some complain, ‘That we are too severe and tragical in the ag­gravation of it;’ but enough hath been already spoken out of Scripture, to shew, that neither heart can conceive, or tongue express the foulness of it. This is the general part of the Description.

Secondly, You have the Subject of it, and because the Subject thereof is two­fold, of Inhesion, and of Predication. In this part, we have the Subject where­in it is, and that is totus homo, and totum hominis, the whole man, and the whole of man, there being no part free from this contagion; so that it's repletively and diffusively in all the parts of soul and body, though eminently and princi­pally in the mind and will, and the whole heart. It's true, sinne is not properly seated in the body, the eyes or hand, or in the sensitive part, yet participatively and subordinately, as they are instruments to the soul in its actings, so they are said to be sinfull: Thus there are lustfull eyes, cursing tongues, unclean bodies; There are sinfull imaginations and fancies, because these are the organs by which the soul putteth forth its wickedness: So that the body is like a broken, spoiled instrument of musick, and the soul, like an unskilfull Artificer playing on it, which causeth horrid and harsh sounds for pleasant melody. But as God is every where, yet in Heaven after a more glorious and signal manifestation of himself: So on the contrary, though original sinne be a Leprosie infecting the whole man, yet it's most principally in the intellectual and immaterial parts of the soul. It's horrible darknesse in the mind, aversnesse in the will to all that is good, and contu­macy in the heart to whatsoever is holy; And this part doth directly oppose all [Page 165] those who grant indeed original sinne, but yet grant it wholly in the inferiour and sensitive part, as if our reason and mind were like the Heavens of a quintes­sential frame in respect of any unholy contagion, whereas indeed because these eyes of the soul are dark, therefore is the whole body dark: Because the Sunne, and Moon, and Starres, as it were, of this little world of man, are turned into bloud, therefore every part else is also become blood, defiled and loathsom; and this is the reason, why so few do either believe, or know this natural corruption, because it benummeth us, yea it taketh away all spiritual life, so that we cannot discern of it. The declaration of the cause of it, followeth in this description, where we have the external efficient cause, and the internal; The external was the Devil; after his all and apostasie, he endeavoured, being a murderer from the beginning, to destroy man also, and accordingly he did prevail, and thus by the Devil sinne came into the world; yet he is the external cause onely, he could not force or compel our first parents to sinne, he did onely perswade and entice them; Therefore the internal cause was the freedom of their will, God created them in, whereby they might either imbrace good, or chuse evil, which mutabi­lity was the cause of their apostasie. It is true, the dispute is very curious, How Adam being created perfect could yeeld to sinne? Whether did the defect arise in his will or understanding first? But seeing it's clear by Scripture, that he did sinne, and we feel the wofull effect of it: Let us not busie our heads in metaphy­sical curiosities, although I see the soundest Authors make the beginning of his sinne to be in inadvertency, for his soul being finite, while he earnestly intended to one thing, he did not attend to another, and so sinne was inchoatively first in his understanding, not by errour or ignorance, for Adam's understanding was free from that, but by not attendency to all considerations and arguments, as he ought to do. Although it must be confest, that the root and foundation of his sin, was the vertibility of his will, for as he might not sin, so also he might sin, he had then a posse peccare in him, and so a defectibility from the Rule. Thus although effici­ent causes use not to be put into exact definitions, neither hath sin so properly effi­cient, as deficient causes, yet in large descriptions, it is very usefull to name them, for hereby God is wholly cleared, although he created man, and fore-knew he would fall, yea permitted him to fall, yet he was no cause of his fall; neither did God make Adam, that he might sinne, as some would calumniate the Ortho­dox Doctrine with such consequences: Even as Austin's adversaries said, he did Sub nomine gratiae asserere fatum, because we do not make God an idle Spectator, as it were, of Adam's fall, or make it wholly uncertain and casual, as it were, to God, but acknowledge his permission and ordination of Adam's evil to a better good than his evil, could be evil, therefore it is that some do so paratragediate. Take we heed then, that in the acknowledging of this Doctrine, we have no fro­ward or foolish though [...]s rising against God; Adam's destruction, and of all his posterity, was of and through himself.

The next thing considerable in the Description, is the propagating and commu­nicating of it to all his posterity that naturally descend from our first Parents. This also is very material to open the nature of this sinne, that it's by propaga­tion Adam's sinne was not personal, as ours are, but common to the whole na­ture; Therefore the Apostle Rom. 5. putteth it upon one sinne, or offence, and that by one man. The Pelagians were vehement opposers of this, and therefore called the Orthodox Traduciani, because they hold the traduction of this origi­nal sinne, Adam being a common person, and he as our Head being in Covenant with God, when he became a Covenant-breaker, then we all forfeited all in and by him; So that it's the Covenant of God that is the foundation of communica­ting original sinne, as farre as sinne can be communicated to all mankind, yet natural generation is the medium, or way of conveying it; But of this more in it's time.

[Page 166] It followeth in the Description, That this original sinne, as it is by propaga­tion, so to all and every one of mankind, who were in his loins, for Christ was not properly in Adam's loins, and so his sinne could not be imputed to Christ because Adam was not in Covenant for him, otherwise not the Virgin Mary or any other is exempted from this universal pollution. So that here we have the Sub­jectum praedicationis, as formerly inhaesonis, that subject of whom this sinne may be predicated, and that is every Infant new born, as soon as he hath a being, so soon doth he become thus all over stained and abominable; and this should make Parents have sad and serious thoughts about their children, there is that corru­ption planted in their souls, which no instruction, no discipline can eradicate, nay the grace of God sanctifying doth not wholly expel in this life; Although the grace of God in some Obed-Edoms and Timothies appear in them from the youth, yet these were by nature dead in sinne, and children of wrath, onely Gods grace was very wonderfully conveyed unto them in their youth or infancy. Do not therefore think, that because thou hast a more ingenuous, civil and moral nature, that therefore original sinne is not in thee, yea many times the actings, and workings of it are more mortiferous and pestilential than in grosse sinners. But let us proceed to the parts, as it were essential and intrinsecally constituent of this depravation, and that is said to be the losse of Gods glorious Image, and there­by a proneness to all evil; we need not say more to explicate these particulars: As in hell there is a privative part, the losse of the enjoying of God, and then a po­sitive punishment through the torments of hell fire. Thus in original sinne we are without the Image of God. There is not that light or holiness he created us in, and withall an impetuous inclination to whatsoever is evil; So that now all the powers of the soul they move inordinately, and with great precipitancy, as Seneca saith of old men, because of their feebleness, Dum ambulare volunt, cur­runt, they do not walk but runne; Thus our affections, our will, they do not so much go, as tumble headlong to their objects. Hence Tanrellus (Tryumphus Philos. pag. 18.) maketh original sinne to be nothing but impotentia naturam cohibendi, that we cannot stop nature in the impetuous motions thereof to sinne, no more than we can the violent torrents and streams of water in excessive floods. In these two things then lieth the whole venom and poison of this natural filthi­ness, we are without all good, and under the dominion of all evil, and this is to speak all the misery that possibly a man can be capable of.

In the last part we adde in the description a two-fold effect of this natu­ral defilement, which although they are to be treated of in a more large manner, with all the particular effects of this sinne, or some of them at least, yet in the general something is to be said, that we may affect our souls with them. And

First, Hereby we are made obnoxious to the curse and wrath of God: Even before any actual sin is ever committed, for this Infants dying immediately upon their birth, may justly be damned to all eternity; This is that which carnal reason strometh at; This is that which the nature of man will hardly yeeld to; Therefore the po­sition of many have been, That there is nothing damnable in Infants; And al­though some would not admit them into the Kingdom of Heaven, yet freed them from the place of the damned, but we must submit our humane reason, and our humane affections to the Scripture, if so be that Gods word saith, We are by nature children of wrath; If Jesus Christ be a Saviour to Infants as well as to men; if he came to redeem them as well as actual sinners, then of themselves their condition was damnable, for Christ came to seek that which was lost, and the whole need not the Physitian, but the sick: Oh then let us all humble our selves under this sentence of condemnation passed upon us. God might say of every Infant, In the day thou art born, thou shalt be damned, and it is the meer gracious favour of God, that deferreth the execution of this sentence, for till a man be in [Page 167] Christ, he is not freed from this curse, only God in much patience doth put off the execution.

The second effect is, To be under the power and dominion of the Devil, Eph. 2. The Devil is said to rule in the hearts of men, and is therefore called, The Prince of this world regeneration is not only subduing of corruption in us, not only repairing the glorious Image of God which we have lost, but also a dispos­sessing of the devil, who had a throne in every mans soul. By nature therefore because thus polluted, we are vassals and bondslaves to Satan, we are of him, we do his works; The bodily possessed by Satan were not more miserably agitated by him, then our souls are spiritually by him; what he tempts us to, we obey; what he suggests to us, we entertain: Insomuch that every man by nature may say, he no longer liveth, but sinne in him, and the Devil in him; Hereby thy heart may be called hell, yea and Legion, because many Devils do rule in thee: Oh that God would make this Truth like a two-edged sword in our hearts, that we may not rest day or night, till God hath delivered us from this wretched estate! Pray for it, groan for it, all the day long.

A clear and full Knowledge of Original Sinne can be obtained only by Scripture Light.


A Full and large information concerning the whole Nature of ori­ginal sinne, both in the Privative and Positive part thereof, hath been delivered, to which this Text hath been very usefull. There remaineth one thing more in it, which is very considera­ble, and that is the way or means, how Paul cometh to be thus convinced of that sinfulnesse, which he did not acknowledge before, and that is said to be by the Law. In what sense Paul said, He knew not lust to be sinne, hath already been declared.

There remaineth therefore this Doctrine to be observed, viz. That original sinne in the immediate effect thereof, is truly and fully known onely by the light of Gods word. None are ever clearly, and throughly perswaded of such an univer­sal horrid defilement, but those who look into the pure glass of Gods word. This Paul acknowledgeth in himself, and yet no Heathen, he lived under the light of the Word, but following traditional expositions from his fathers, and wanting the Spirit of God to enlighten him, therefore he was wholly stupid and senslesse in this matter, as therefore the Doctrine of Christ, and Evangelical grace is a my­stery, so is also this Doctrine about original sinne.

Whether the wisest Heathens had any Knowledge of this Pollution.

BUt because this matter is under Debate and Question, let us further enquire into it, examining, Whether the wisest Heathens had any knowledge of this na­tural pollution the Word doth so fully inform us in? And

First, As for that original sinne called originans, viz. Adam's actual trans­gression made ours by Gods will and appointment, through imputation, that is, wholly known by revelation, so that no Heathens by the highest improvement and cultivage of nature could ever discern such things. That God made Adam righ­teous, giving him a command of tryal in obedience, or disobedience, whereof all his posterity should be involved, this they had not the least him of, and the reason is, Because the truth of such things lieth not in nature, neither have second causes the least demonstration of this, but it is wholly discovered as a matter of fact by the Scripture; So that we Christians ought the more to bless God for the sight of his Word, seeing thereby a very Ideot amongst us may know more, then the wisest Aristotle or Plato amongst the Heathens.

Secondly, As for original inherent sinne, it must necessarily be granted, That even the Heathens had some general confused knowledge about a mans natural de­filement: Hence was their custom of a solemn washing, and lustration of their Infants in a religious way, implying hereby, that they came into the world pol­luted, and needed the propitious savour of their gods. This solemn religious cu­stom of theirs, was some general confession of original sinne; but as for the Philosophers, who were the wisest and most learned of them, some do speak more congruously to this point than others. That noble and learned Pless [...]us in his Book of the Truth of the Christian Religion, Pag. 377. which he endeavoureth to prove even from Heathinish Authors, especially the Platonists, doth alledge some things pertinently to our subject; For Plato holding, ‘That the soul was put into the body, as into a prison and a dungeon, for former sinnes commit­ted,’ through he grosly erred in the foundation, thinking souls pre-existent be­fore the body, and for faults committed then adjudged to the body as a place of prison, which was an absurd errour, yet there was some truth he did take notice of, for observing that the soul which should rule and command the body, was yet mancipated, and enslaved to it, he concluded there was some fore-going crime deserving this, though he was wholly ignorant of Adam's fall: Hence he saith, ‘That the soul hath lost and broken her wings, which she had at first, and there­by doth onely creep and crawl upon the ground.’ The [...]phrastus also Aristotle's Scholar, was wont to say, ‘That the soul payeth a very dear rent for the house of her body, the body is such a clog and impediment to it.’ The Platonists do seem to acknowledge more truth herein, then Aristotls, for Aristotle doth ex­presly deny, That either virtue or vice is in us by nature, the very same thing which Pelagin afterwards did use to say: Therefore the Schoolmen, though en­slaved to Aristotle, yet when urging this Argument, ‘That there cannot be a sinne by birth in a man, because no man is to be reproved or beaten, for that which he hath by nature, but rather to be pitied, it is not his sinne but misery;’ Which speech (if true) doth utterly contradict that of the Apostle, We are by nature the children of wrath. The Schoolmen (I say) though [...] vasalized to Aristotle, and alledging him oftner than Paul, do answer that Argument thus, It is no matter what Aristotle saith in this case, because he knew nothing of original sinne. Thus you see they are forced to leave him in this point, and there­fore Aristotle is more to be renounced in this point, then any other Philo­sopher. Grotius also (Comment. in 2d. Luc. v. 21. alledgeth several Hethe­nish [Page 169] Authors, who lay down this for a Position, that [...], it is implanted and ingraffed into man to sinne. Tully (lib. 3. Tusc.) doth speak so fully to this purpose, as if he had read what Moses speaketh of man by nature, Simul ac editi sumus in lucem & suscepti in omni continuè pravi­tate versamur, &c. as soon as ever we are born, we are presently exercised in all manner of evil, Vt poenè in lacte nutricis errorem suxisse videamur, as if we sucked down errour with the nurses milk; Here you see he speaketh something like to Moses, when he saith, Gen. 6. That the imagination of the thoughts of our hearts are only evil and that continually; Although at the same time he seemeth to at­tribute this propensity to evil to wicked manner, and depraved opinions, for there he saith, ‘Nature hath given us of honesty parvulos igniculos, and that there are ingeniis nostris semina innata virtutum. But although some of their wisest men have confessed such a misery and infirmity upon us, yet it may be doubted, Whe­ther they looked upon this, as truly and properly sinne, deserving punishment either from God or man; They rather thought all sinne must be voluntary: Hence Seneca, Erras si existimas nobiscum nasci vitia supervenerunt ingesta sunt. Indeed in their sad complaints concerning mans birth, and all misery accompany­ing him, as Austin said, they did rem scire, but causam nescire, they evidently saw we were miserable, but they knew not the cause of it, whereas original sin, according to Scripture light, though not personally voluntary, yet is truly a sinne, and maketh a man in a damnable estate; Therefore the word original, when we divide sinne into original and actual, is not terminus restrictivus, or diminuens, as when we did divide ens into ens reale, and rationis, but terminus specificans, as when animal is divided into rationale and irrationale, both properly partaking of the general nature of sinne; So that whatsoever apprehensions they had, and complaints they made about man, yet they did not believe he was born in sinne, though experience told them, he was in misery. The Persians (as Plesseus in the above-mentioned place saith) had every year a solemn Feast, wherein they did kill all the Serpents and wild beasts they could get, and this Feast they called vi [...]iorum interitum, the slaying of their vices. By which it doth appear, that they had a guiltiness about their sinfull wayes, and that none were exempted from being sinfull. Yea Casaub. (Ex [...]rcit. 16. ad Annal. Bar. pag. 391.) speaking of the sacred mysteries among the Grecians, the discharging whereof was called [...], affirmeth, That therefore they called the scope of those holy actions [...], because it was (as they thought) a perduction of the soul to that state in which it was, before it descended into the body, which he interpreteth of the state of perfection from which we fell in the old Adam, so that even in this errour there was some truth, which made Tertul­lian say, Omnia adversus veritatem de ipsà veritate constructa esse operantibus aemulationem istam spiritibus erroris. Thus you see how the wisest of the Heathens have been divided in this point, Some making the soul of a man to come without vice or virtue, as a blank fit to receive either. Others acknowledging a disease, and an infirmity upon the soul, yet ignorant of the cause of it, neither acknow­ledging it to be a sinne, and so deserving punishment.

In the second place, Although the Heathens did not see this sinne, nor could truly bewail it, yet so farre many of them were convinced, that if they had any sinfull desires or lusting in the soul, or any wicked thoughts in their hearts to which they gave consent, that these were sinnes, and wholly to be abstained from, though they did not break forth into act. Grotius in his Comment upon the 10th Commandment, sheweth out of several Heathenish Writers, That all secret lustings of the soul with consent thereunto were were wholly unlaw­full; Yea, as one of them is there said to expresse it, they are not so much as to covet a needle, the least thing. And as for Seneca, he hath high assertions about the governing of our thoughts, and ordering the inward affections of our souls [Page 170] so, as that the gods, as well as men may approve us. Tully saith, That an ho­nest man would do no evil, or unjust thing, though he could have Gyges his ring, which they feigned made a man invisible; And this is the rather to be observed, because herein they surpassed the Pharisees, who though brought up under the Law, and had constantly the word of God to guide them, yet they did not think any covetings or lustings in the heart to be a transgression of the Law, as appear­eth by our Saviours information, and exposition he gave them, Matth. 5. And Josephus is said to deride Polybius the great Historian for making the gods to pu­nish a King, meerly because he had a purpose and an intent to commit some en­ormious iniquity: Yea, This principle of the Heathens may make many Chri­stians ashamed, and be greatly confounded, who live, as if their thoughts were free, and their hearts were their own, so that they might suffer any poisonous evil, and malicious actings of soul to be within them, and to put to check or controll upon them: As they matter not original sinne, so neither the immediate effects and working thereof. Though their hearts be a den of theevish lusts, and their souls like Peter's sheet, wherein were a company of innumerable unclean creeping lusts, yet so as their lives are unblameable, they wholly justifie them­selves; but you are to know, that the strength of sinne lieth in your hearts. The least part of your evil is that which is visible in your lives.


THirdly, We see that original sinne is so hardly discernable, that though men do enjoy the light of Gods Word, yea and read it over and over again, yet for all that they are not convinced of this native pollution. We see in all the Heretiques that have been in all ages, who have denied this original sinne, they were summoned to answer the Word of God, Scripture upon Scripture was brought to convince them, but a veil was upon their eyes, they would wrest and pervert the meaning of it, rather than retract their errour, so that Scripture-light objectively shining therein, is not enough Paul is a clear instance in this, he was most exact and strict about the Law, yet wholly ignorant of this funda­mental truth before he was converted, he knew the Commandment, Thou shalt not covet, yet he did not fully and throughly attend thereunto Hence

In the fourth place, To have a full and clear understanding of this native de­filement, we are to implore the light of Gods Spirit. The light of the Word is not enough, unlesse the Spirit of God be efficacious to remove all errour, and impe­diments, as also to prepare and fit the soul to receive it; Hence it's made the work of Gods Spirit to lead into all truth, if into all, then into this, while the eyes remain blind, the Sunne with all its lustre can do no good. It is true, Gods Word is compared to a light, and to a lamp, but that is only objective without us, there must be something subjectively within us, that shall make a sutableness be­tween the object and the faculty. To be made then Orthodox, and to have a sound judgement herein, it must be wholly from the Spirit of God; For why is it that when one heareth and readeth those Texts, We are by nature the children of wrath; Who can bring a clean thing out of unclean? He adoreth the fulness of these Texts, he is convinced of such heart-pollution, and blesseth God for the knowledge of this truth: But another he cavilleth at the Texts, he derideth and scorneth at such a truth, Is not this because the Spirit of God leadeth one into the truth, and leaveth the other to his pride and blindness of mind.


FOurthly, It is not enough to know this sinne in an orthodox specula­tive manner, to acknowledge it so, But we are also in a practical, ex­perimental manner to feel and bewail the power and burden of it. And happi­ly this may be part of Paul's meaning, when he saith, He did not know lust to be sinne, that is, not so clearly, so fully, so experimentally, as now he did since the grace of God had both enlightned and sanctified him; How many have with great orthodoxy maintained this Truth against Pelagians, and all the enemies of Gods grace shrouding themselves under the praise of nature, but it is rare to see those that do not onely theoretically believe it, but practically walk with broken and contrite hearts under it. Examine then thy self, Doest thou believe this is Gods Truth, that thou camest into the world all over polluted? Doest thou think that thou as well as any other, though never so civil and unblameable in respect of actual sinnes, art by nature a child of the Devil, prepared fuel for the eternal flames of Hell? And doest thou not onely believe this to be thy particular case, but withall thou art so affected with an holy fear and trembling, thou hast no quiet­nesse or rest in thy soul, because of it, then thou art come to a true and right knowledge of it? For the end of our preaching on this Subject, is not onely to establish your minds in this Truth against all errours therein, but also to mollifie and soften your hearts, that you may all your life time loath your self, and advance the fulnesse of Christ: And seeing that natural light is dimme and confused in this matter, keep close to the Word, and not on­ly so, but implore the Spirit of God, that in and through the Word, this Truth may enter like a two-edged sword into thy bowels, knowing that without this foundation laid, there cannot be any esteem of Christ.

That Reason when once enlightned by the Scri­pture, may be very powerfull to convince us of this Natural Pollution.


A Clear and full knowledge of original sinne can be obtained onely by Scripture light; Although (as you heard) some Heathens have had a confused apprehension about it. My work at this time shall be, to shew, That even Reason, where once enlightned by the Scripture, may be very powerfull to convince us of this natural pollution. So that when Scripture, Reason and Experience shall come in to confirm this Truth, we may then say, there needeth no further disqui­sition in this point. And

First, This may abundantly convince us, That the hearts of men are naturally evil, Because of the overflowing of all wickednesse in all ages over the whole world; How could such weeds, such bryers and thorns grow up every where, were not the soil bad? It's true, in some ages some kind of sinnes have abound­ed more than others, and so in some places. But there was never any generation, wherein impiety did not cover the earth, as the waters do the Sea: Insomuch that if we should with zeal undertake to reprove them according to their desert, Non tam irascendum quàm insaniendum est, as Seneca of the vices of his time. Erasmus in his Epistle to Othusius complaineth, ‘That since Christ's time, there was not a more wicked age then that he lived in; Christ (saith he) crieth, I have overcome the world, but the world seemeth, as if it would say shortly: I have overcome Christ, because of the wickedness abounding, and that among those who profess themselves the salt and light of the world.’ Now how were it possible, that the whole world should thus lie in wickedness, 1 Joh. 5. 19 as the Apostle affirmeth, but that all mankind by nature is like so many Serpents and Toads, of which there is none without poison? If this wickedness did abound only in some places, we might blame the Clymate, the Countrey, or their Edu­cation, but it is in all places under the Equator, as well as the Tropick; in all ages, former times as well as later have been all groaning under ungodliness, and whereas you might say, The world is in its old age now, and the continual habi­tuated customary wayes of wickedness have made us drink the dregs of impiety, yet the Scripture telleth us, That not long after the Creation of the world, when we might judge greater innocency and freedom from sinne to have been every where, yet then all flesh had corrupted their wayes, Gen. 6. 12. which provoked God to bring that wonderfull and extraordinary judgement of drowning it with water, as if it were become like a noisom dunghill that was to be cleansed. And lest you should think this was only because of their actual impieties, we see God [Page 173] himself, charging it upon this, because the imaginations of a mans heart were only evil, and that from his youth up: So that there is no man who considers the wayes and manners of all the inhabitants of the world, but must conclude, had there not been poisonous fountains within, there had never been such poisoned streams. The warres, the rapines, the uncleannesses, and all the horrid trans­gressions that have filled the earth, as the vermine did Aegypt, do plainly declare, That all men have hearts full of evil; And lest you might think this deluge of im­piety is only in the Heathenish, Paganish and bruitish part of the world. The Psalmist complaineth of that people, who were the Church of God, and enjoy­ed the light of the Word, That there was none righteous, that there was none that did good, no not one, Psal. 14. 3. So that as graves and dead mens bones, the Se­pulchres and monuments every where do fully manifest men are mortal, no lesse do the actual impieries that fill all Cities, Towns and Villages discover, that all are by nature prone to that which is sinfull.


SEcondly, This original sinne may be proved by reason, yea and experience thus, If you consider all the miseries, troubles and vexations man is subject unto, and at last death it self; and that not only men grown up, who have actual sinnes, but even new born Infants, will not this plainly inform us, That all man­kind hath sinned, and is cast out of the favour of God: How can it enter into any mans heart to think, that God the wise Creator, so full of goodness to man, that he made him little lower than Angels, should yet make him more miserable than all creatures? It was Theophrastus his complaint, when he lay a dying, ‘That man had such a short time of life prefixed him, who yet could have been serviceable, and by long age and experience found out many observable usefull things, when Crows and Harts, and other creatures of no consideration have a long life vouchsafed to them:’ Yea, all the Heathens, even the most learned of them, complained much concerning this Theme of mans misery, being never able to satisfie themselves in the cause of it; But now by the Scripture we see it's no wonder, the race of mankind is thus adjudged to all misery, seeing it's all guilty of sinne before God; so that if there had been no actual sinnes commit­ted by the sonnes of men, yet the ground would have been cursed to bring forth bryers and thorns, man would have been miserable and mortal: So that this doth not onely teach us, there is such a sin, but that it was so hainous and abominable in the eyes of God, that no sin hath ever been punished like this.


THirdly, Those reliques of the Image of God, and some implanted dictates and notions, with a natural conscience accusing and excusing; These do demon­strate, that there was a glorious Image of God in us, but we have lost it. There is something in all men by nature, whereby they are convinced of a God, have re­morse upon sinne, and tremble much when they are dying; Now what are all these but the rubbidge and obscure remnants of that holy estate we were created in; So that as when any famous building, or great City are brought to ruine, yet commonly there remain some fragments or others, that witness there was such a famous place once: Thus those implanted Dictates of conscience, those natural apprehensions about a God, though they are very confused, and cannot be a star to guide us to Christ, yet they remain as monuments of that spiritual excellent building. It is true, Illyricus out of his vehement desire to aggravate original sin [Page 174] in us, denieth that those common notions about God, or good and evil, are na­turally in us, but that they are de novo infused into us by God, and manifested, wherein also he hath some followers, but if such natural dictates remain in the Devils, which is plain, because otherwise they could not be so tormented for their wickedness as they are, why should it be denied to man? The Socinian also deni­eth any implanted notion about a God, and that the knowledge of him comes by observation of the creatures, and also by education and tradition, but experience as well as Scripture confuteth this, in which respect Tertullian said, O animan natu­raliter Christianum! It's true, some more orthodox dispute, Whether the faculty of the understanding in its operations only continueth, or that there are habitual principles inhering in it? It is enough that there remaineth a conscience in man, which like Job's messenger can inform us, though very obscurely of that sad loss which hath befallen us.


FOurthly, This may evidently convince us of our original pollution, That it is farre worse with man, now in respect of the end, he was created unto, and the na­ture he was constituted in, then with any other creatures. This plainly argueth mans apostasie from God, for all creatures in their kind live proportionably, and obtain their end, which is usefulness and serviceableness to man, only man neither liveth according to his nature rightly considered, and withall doth miserably fall short of that glorious end for which God made him. If you consider man in his nature, he is a reasonable creature, and so ought to walk according to the principles of reason, to do nothing against the rules thereof; now all men are by original corruption, be­come like bruit beasts that have no understanding; Hence the Scripture doth so often compare them to beasts, yea prefer beasts before them; The sluggard is com­manded to go to the Ant, Israel is said to be worse than the Stork that knoweth her season, and the Ox or Ass that know their masters crib: Why doth the Scripture speak thus, but to shew that beasts do in their kind surpass man in his kind? Every wicked man is called a fool, and a simple one, because when he sinneth, he goeth against the dictates of true reason, and this is the condition of all men till regene­rated by grace, they do not consider what God made them for, or why they have immortal and rational soules. Take the Drunkard, is not he worse then a beast? doth the beast drink any more then will suffice nature? insomuch that we may truly say all by nature are become spiritual monsters, for as a monster in nature is, when nature is deficient or redundant in her operations, and so worketh not regularly: Thus also when a man doth not keep the rules of reason, and live as one who hath a rational soul, he becomes like a monster, and so ought to abhor himself: Oh then loath thy self and say, every creature liveth like its kind! The horse doth as an horse should do, the ox as the ox should do, but I miserable and wretched sinner do nothing that a man should do! Again, The beasts, and so all creatures, although they are subject to vanity, and groan under a curse, because of mans sin, yet they do not fall short of the end, they were intended for. God he made man to serve him, and all the creaturs to serve man, and thus they do still, though a great part of this dominion man bath by his sin justly deprived himself of, yet the Sun giveth light to him; The earth brings forth her fruit for him, some living crea­tures are daily slain for his food and cloathing; what shoals of fish, and flocks of birds do at some seasons of the year present themselves, as if they should say, here we appear to serve you; and this is the utmost perfection they were made for. But come to man, he was made to serve the Lord, therefore did God furnish him with all these mercies, that he might the more willingly and diligently obey him, but instead of God, he serveth Gods enemies, he serves sin in the Insts thereof, he serveth the de­vil [Page 175] in his desires: Thus of all the creatures God made next to the devils, man is in the most bitter and undone estate: So that this must needs stop thy mouth against all cavils, if there be no original sin, Why is man worst in his kind than any other creature in their kind? Yea, see the most savage beasts agree well enough with one another, one Wolf with another, one Tyger with another, yet one man is a Wolf and a Devil to another; When did you ever hear of a company of Bears going out to fight with another company of Bears? Yet what is more ordinary than to hear of one army of men, going out to kill and slaughter another? Can we say, God made man thus vile and sinfull? What intollerable blasphemy would it be? Oh then let us roll our selves in the dust! Let us say, we are not worthy the name of men, we are become beasts, yea, worse than beasts: Say not, This is to vilifie and to debase man too much; No, this is the only way to perform that duty, which not only Scri­pture, but even Heathens have admired, as revealed from Heaven, Nosc [...] teipsum, Know thy self; Doth not that expression in Job abundantly confirm this, Chap. 11. 12. Vain man would be wise, though man be born like a wild asses colt? A colt, the asses-colt, and a wild asses-colt, such a stupid senssess thing is man, though he would be wise.


5. MAn is originally defiled, Because that which is the most noble and excellent part in him, is captivated and inslaved to what is inferiour unto it. This was so greatly considered of by the Platonists, as you heard, that therefore they thought the souls of men had committed some crimes, for which they were adjudg­ed to bodies as unto prisons and dungeons; How comes it about, that the rational part of a man, which was made to be the guide, and called by Philosophers the [...], that it should follow after the inferiour lusts of the soul, That this can­dle should be put not under a bushel, but a dunghill; That the elder should serve the younger; That the tail should lead the head; we are not carried out to what rea­son by the word of God commands, but by what every sinfull affection doth sug­gest. Those that say, this rebellion between the mind and affections, was from the Creation, that God made man with this contrariety in himself, must needs make God the author of sin, but God saw every thing that he had made, and it was exceed­ing good; If then thou doubtest, whether this universal pollution be upon thee, look into thy self, observe the rebellion, the repugnancy there, unto all light, whether natural or supernatural, and this will make thee readily confess it.


6. THe incurvation of the soul unto all earthly and worldly objects, this also makes it plain, we came with original sin into the world. The very making of the bo­dy different from other creatures who look downwards, doth denote that therfore God created us, that both soul and body should look upwards. But is not every mans soul till rectified by grace bowed down to these earthly vanities, no more able to soar up to Heaven, than the worm can flie. Now this is a plain sign of thy sinful apostate condition. It is one of Hippocrates his rules, That when a sick man catcheth inordinatly at the feathers of his pillow, or at straws, and any such light matter, it is a sign of death; and truly to see men by nature so immoderatly snatching and cat­ching at these worldly things, argue, thou art a dying, a perishing man, unless Gods grace doth interpose: As the Sun, though with its beams it shine upon the earth, yet it is not thereby defiled; So man ought, though he meddle in all outward affairs, though he marry, though he buy and sell, and use this world, yet he ought not in the least manner to soil and pollute his soul thereby. But as the body deprived of the soul fals prostrate on the ground, thus doth man deprived of Gods Image, so that he is never able to get above the creatures, but is vassaliz'd to them.


THe work remaining is, to give further reasons (the Scripture being first laid as a foundation) to demonstrate this truth, That we are by nature originally defiled; For though man be unwilling to be found thus a sinner, and the entertaining of this truth seemeth to strike down all the hopes and comforts that a naturall man hath. Believe this, and all men, (as in respect of defect) are so many damned men, so that flesh and blood must needs deny, cavill, distinguish, and turn it self into a thousand shapes ere it will acknowledge it, yet look we into our selves diligently, and compare our selves with the glass of Gods Word, we cannot but say, That all we have heard by the Ministers, all that Sermons and Books tell us, come not up to what we feel in our selves; So that as the A­postle, when he said, This corruption shall put on incorruption, he did cutem tan­gere, did lay his hand upon his body, as Tertullian thought, so do thou strike upon thy thigh, and smite upon thy breast, and say, within this body, lieth a soul covered all over with sinne, and damnable guilt. To assure us more herein, these further discoveries may be added.

First, That spirituall death in sinne, which we are all plunged into, whereby we do become altogether senseless and stupid, as to any spirituall concernement. The death threatned upon Adam's trangression was spirituall, as well as corporall, and therefore Ephes. 2. We are said to be dead in sinnes till Christ quicken us by his power; Now this is a full discovery that we have lost Gods Image, and all spiritual life, otherwise why should not spirituall life be as quick, active, and moving towards spirituall objects, as our naturall and corporall life is to corpo­rall things, Why is it, that when any do threaten corporall death and outward misery we are afraid, and will give all we have for this corporall life? But when the Devil tempts, and the world tempts, so that we are in danger of loosing eternal life, we have no trembling or horror taking hold upon us. Nebuchad­nezzar made a law, that whosoever would not worship his Image, should be cast into a fiery furnace, and unless the three Worthies, none refused; so great a matter is the fear of a naturall death. But hath not God threatned hell which is ten thousand times more dreadfull then that fiery fornace, to every one that goeth on wickedly? yet none trembleth because of this; Is not this plain then, that thou art a dead man in sinne? Further, concerning our corporall life, how sollicitous are we about the preserving of it? what carking and caring for meat and raiment? what labour for the back and the belly? Is not the greatest im­ployment in the world for these two things, and all this is that our frail perishing life may yet be continued? But do men naturally manifest any such thoughts and diligence about the meanes of a spirituall life? The preaching of the Word, the Ordinances, these God hath appointed to be spirituall food, by these our hea­venly life is maintained; these are the oyl, to keep that lamp burning: But do not all men by nature loath these? are they not a burden to them? do they ever pant and thirst or hunger after these things, as men do for meat or drink? now, why is all this, but because we have no spirituall life in us? So that if you do con­sider the insensibleness and stupidity of every naturall man, as to things of an heavenly aspect, you need no more to perswade you, that Gods Image is lost, and we are dead in sinne. When the body needeth food needeth raiment, all is supplyed, but so thy soul needeth Christ, needeth grace, and there is not the least thought to have a supply: yea we are not only dead in sinne, but have been a long while thus dead, and if she said of Lazarus, Joh. 11. 39. Lord by this time he stinketh, for he hath been dead four dayes. How much more may we say this in a spirituall sense of thee, who (it may be) hast been dead fourty or fifty years.

Secondly, This may be further inlarged by a consectary from the former; [Page 177] will not this abundantly declare we are all over sinfull, Because heavenly things are not such objects of delight and pleasure to us, as carnall and worldly things are. This is a palpable demonstration of our wretched pollution, That we cannot feel any sweetness, any pleasure, or joy in those things which immediately concern God: Adam in his state of integrity, was like Jacob's ladder, the foot whereof was on the earth, but the top reached to heaven: Thus though Adam's inferior part the body, was exercised in these earthly things, yet his soul the more sub­lime part, that was fixed in heaven; But now all our su [...]eableness and communion with heavenly objects is wholly perished; we have hearts inlarged with joy, we are ravished with delights about wordly things, and when brought to any thing that is heavenly, there we are weary, and neither flesh or spirit is willing to such things; yet nature might reach us, that man of all creatures only hath hands, and those not to embrace the earth, but he hath feet to walk and trample upon it. We read of Paul and David, with other godly ones, when recovered in part from the power of this originall corruption, what longings and breakings of soul they had after God, and his Ordinances. These things were accounted for sweetness above the hony; and for presciousness above gold; now why should not every man be able to say so as well as they? but because our tasts are wholly distempered, and we are carnall not spirituall. Certainly spirituall objects have in themselves infinite more matter of joy and delight, then any earthly thing can have; who can think there is more sweetness in a drop, then in the ocean? more light in the starre, then in the sun? The creature is less then these in com­parison of God: May not than even blind men see, that we are all over-plunged into sinne? else, why should not God and heavenly objects, which do so farre surpass in matter of true delight be more sweet and welcome to us, then all the creatures of the world though put together? Psal. 4▪ 6. Many say, who will shew us any good? The naturall man finds no delight but in these earthly things oppo­sitely to God. There is a She [...]ll in his soul, that is alwaies craving and asking, never satisfied; now, why can they not with David as well put forth the follow­ing petition, Lord, lift up the light of thy countenance upon us? But because the carnall man finds no more pleasure in spirituall things, then the swine doth in pearles or pleasant flowres: A man that is spirituall having drunk of this water, desireth no other; As the Philosophers say, The matter of the heavens is so fully actuated by the heavenly formes, that it desireth no other, whereas the matter of these sub [...]unary things is never satisfied but though under one forme, yet it still desireth another. Thus the soul possessed of God and Christ, hath so much delight and pleasure that it hath enough, it desireth no change, but the naturall man is carried out from one thing to another, from one object to another, first delighting in this, and then in that, it being impossible that Zacheus his shoe should sit Goliah's foot: Thus you see that though a man be restless in his de­lights, yet he can take pleasure in earthly things, whereas he finds no sweetness, no delight in heavenly things, that are infinitely more precious; So this may demonstrate the loss of Gods Image, and our service to originall sinne in the lusts thereof.

Thirdly, That we are thus originally corrupted, appeareth, in that utter im­potency and inability to do any spirituall good: we are not able so much as to think a thought, or send forth an hearty groan, as to our eternall welfare; whereas at first God made Adam right, and thereby endowed him with power to do any thing that was holy, called therefore the Image of God; so happy and blessed was his condition, that he could with delight and joy fullfill the Law of God, feeling no difficulty, nor impediment, but now being dead in sinne, we are no more able then dead men to move, or walk in holy things. The Scripture is wonderfully clear in this, though Papists, Arminians and others have endea­voured to raise a mist, and obscure the sun beames, Joh. 15. Without me ye can [Page 178] do nothing. Rom. 8. The flesh is eumity against God, 1 Cor. 2. The naturall man perceiveth not the things of God, neither can he, where both the act of doing good, and the power also is denied to every man by nature: If therefore every man by nature be dead in sinne like a stone, as in respect of any holy impression from God, if he have blind eies, deaf eares, a foolish heart, as to any heaven­ly thing, doth not this plainly tell us, that we are all over polluted? It's good for our humiliation to consider how the Scripture describeth a naturall man, as wanting all his senses, he hath no eies to see, no eares to hear, no heart to un­derstand, but is wholly dead, and all this is to shew what a wonderfull impotency is in man to help himself spiritually; Now this declareth the necessity of pre­serving this doctrine of originall corruption clean and sound; for if we be ortho­dox here, then also we shall hold the truth of God against foe will and the power of nature in divine things; for these two particulars are like Castor and [...], they alwaies appear together; and what is the design or Secinians, Papists, and Arminians, either in whole or in part, to deny or extenuate originall sinne? but thereby to make a way to advance their magnificent Diana. their free will to holy things, for they evidently see, if originall sinne be such an universall, deep and inward pollution of the whole soul, even the will as well as other parts, then their doctrine of the power of nature is pulled up by the very root; There­fore the more fully assure your souls of this truth, by how much the whole body of Divinity depends upon this foundation. Indeed the Scripture is so clear in deba­sing man as to supernaturalls, and giving all to the grace of God, that we may wonder how this pride should settle it self in mans heart, and that he doth not tremble to speak or write any thing, whereby the grace of God may be diminish­ed, and man exalted; he that cannot make a white hair black, he that cannot adde one cubit to his stature, will yet think to make a polluted soul holy, and adde many cubits of grace to his spirituall stature.

Fourthly, Our original corruption will yet further appear, If you take notice of that universall ignorance and dullnesse that is upon a mans un­derstanding, knowing no saving thing about God or Christ, if it be not re­vealed: Insomuch that the necessity of Scripture-light, of revealed-light to conduct us to heaven, doth without contradiction, prove that by nature; we are (as Paul said) Ephes. 4, darkeness, even darkness it self; Look over the generation of mankind, that are the wisest and most learned, where the light of Gods word hath not shore upon them, Rom. 1. 1. The Apostle there informeth us, that the doctrine of the Gospel was foolishness to them, that professing them­selves to be wise they became foolish in their imaginations, what Aristotle or Pleto could ever by naturall reason understand any thing of Christ? If then we lay this for a sure foundation, (though some would absurdly question it) That without the knowledge of Christ and faith in him, none can be saved; And that none by nature can come to this knowledge, then it followeth undeniably, that damnable ignorance doth cover the face of our souls, as darkness did the deep at first, That there is a very Chaos in our souls: Oh then that we had knowledge to know our ignorance! Oh that the dark dungeon we are shut up in might not be so pleasing to us! In that the Gospel is called a mystery; In that flesh and blood doth not reveal the things of Christ to us, this sheweth our wretched estate in sin; Adam had knowledge about the meanes rending to everlasting happiness, other­wise God would have made him imperfect; but now we are ignorant of Christ the way: All that live in the Church, had it not been for revealed light, would have groped in darkness, as we see all Heathens and Pagans do: If therefore you would see, what our natures are of themselves, consider the Sanages, the Indians, the Pagans of the world, who as to any right knowledge of God have little more then bruit beasts; we cannot so well see what mans nature is of it self, who live in the Church, because there is the light of the Gospel, and many times [Page 179] godly education, and Christian institution of us while young doth restrain sinne, otherwise if there were not this planting and watering of us, we should not know any more about Christ, then the most rude Barbarian that is; Take off then those ornaments, those supernaturall additaments that God hath put upon us, who live under the Gospel, and then our nakedness and deformity will plainly appear.

Fifthly, The wofull captivity and bondage we are in to Satan by nature, doth also manifest our originall defilement; For were we not cast off by God, did not sinne make us like hell, why could so many legious of Devils dwell in us? Eph 2, The prince of darkness, the god of this world, is said, to rule in the hearts of the disobedient, and such we are all by nature; yea, we are, till regenerated in the snares of the Devil, and taken captive at his will. Therefore when Christ sent his Disciples to preach, he said, He saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven: Thus the Devil hath his throne in all mens hearts, till Christ who is stronger cast him out. It is trne, by wicked and ungodly customes in sinne, The Devil taketh further possession, as we see in Ananias, and in Judas, The Devil is said to enter into him after the eating of the sop, not but that he was before in him, only he had more power and strength over him; Thus he doth possess the souls of all that are born till regenerated, and by frequent actings of sinne, he setleth his king­dome more firmely.

Lastly, This may fully discover our originall pollution, In that even in respect of naturall things, we are much weakened and debilitated; our understandings are not able to find out even naturall truths; Insomuch that there was a famous sect of the Academicks, who held, That nihil scitur, we know nothing at all. Even Aristotle, who is prophanely made to be by some, the same in naturalls, which Christ was in supernaturall; yea Scaliger calls him, Vltimus Musarum conatus, as if nature her self could not send forth a greater Artist, yet his known saying (That our understandings in respect of the celestiall bodies especially, are but noctuae ad solem, owles to the Sunne,) makes it appear, that we are ignorant of more things, then we know: yea, and which is greatly to be bewailed, The more learning and parts men have had, they have been more mischiefed by them; in­somuch that meer Ideots, and naturall fooles, have been less wicked then they: so that humane abilities, when polished by arts, have been like wine to a feavou­rish man, like a sword in a mad mans hand: neither did God ever choose many of the wise men of the world, Austin being filled with humane eloquence, this was a great prejudice to him in imbracing Christianity; he contemned the simplicity of the Scripture, dedignabar esse parvulus, as he confessed: And Scotus, who for his acute understanding, was called, Doctor subtilis, yet the great Historian Jovius, giveth this censure of him, That he was ad ludibrium Theologiae natus, born to make Religion a scorn and a reproach, because he could dispute every point, probably on all sides, And memorable is that of profound Bradwardine, who before he was cordially affected with the grace of God, confesseth, That when he heard Paul's Epistles read, he did dispise them, because Paul had not metaphisicum ingenium, a metaphysicall head. Thus you see that even those poor abilities that with much labour are attained, make us the worse for them.

A Comparison and Opposition between the first and second Adam, as introductory to this Question, How this Corruption is propagated?


1 COR. 15. 49.‘And as we have born the Image of the earthy, we shall also bear the Image of the heavenly.’

THe Apostles chief scope in this Chapter, is to corroborate and establish one main Fundamental Article and Principle in Religion, which is the Resurrection of the dead. This Truth, as it is Fiducia Christianorum, the very confidence and life of believers, so it hath been opposed and denied by many, as most absurd and fabulous: Insomuch that what Tertullian said concerning Christ, who is God, becoming man, and crucified for us, Prorsus credibile, quia impossibile, the same may be applied to this Truth: Therefore it is the Object of Faith, because rea­son cannot comprehend it. Now among many other Arguments by which the Apostle statuminateth this Doctrine, Christ's Resurrection is most palma­rious: For although to Heathens this Argument would not be valid, yet to the Corinthians, who either doubted of, or denied the Resurrection, but did not wholly abandon the Christian Faith, this reason would be very co­gent: So that the Corinthians either doubt or infidelity in this Point, hath made this Doctrine the more unquestionably true, so that doubts and heresies have been over-ruled by God, to make Truth more orient, like the file to rusty iron, and like the shaking of the Tree, which maketh the root faster and deeper.

But whereas the Doubt may be, Wherein lieth the strength of this Argu­ment? Christ is risen, therefore his members, or all that are his shall rise (For you must know the Apostle's Arguments doe principally prove the blessed and happy Resurrection of the Just, the Wicked they shall rise, but by the power of Christ, as a Judge, not as members united to him their Head.) At the twentieth verse he giveth us a two-fold reason of that con­nexion:

First, Christ is the first-fruits; now the first fruits sanctified the whole [Page 181] crop of Corn, and although they were taken before the rest, yet this did assure, that all would be taken in its time: Thus Christ being the first fruits did sanctifie all his people, and his Resurrection was an assured pledge of theirs.

The second Reason (which is pertinent to my matter in hand) is from the Collation between Adam and Christ; As Adam was the common root and principle of death to all that come from him, so is Christ the common Head of Salvation and Life to all who are of him. The Apostle, Rom. 5. maketh such a Comparison between Adam and Christ, as two common Principles and Heads, but to another purpose, there it is in respect of spi­ritual death, (viz.) Sinne by one, and Righteousnesse by the other; but here it is principally in respect of temporal Death, and Resurrection by Christ.

The Apostle having thus cleared this Truth, he then enters into a second Debate, (viz.) In what bodies we shall rise? and determining, That it [...] ­eth a corruptible body, but it shall be raised an incorruptible one; It dieth a natural body, but it shall be raised a spiritual.

Last this Distinction of a natural and spiritual body should seem uncouth, and very absurd, he asserteth and confirmeth it by Scripture; And here again in the second place, he taketh up a Collation between the first Adam and the second; and therein we have them compared,

1. In regard of their Condition and State.

2. In respect of their Originals. And

3. In respect of their Qualities and Properties.

This illustration the Apostle is large in, because the strength of his Argu­ment lieth in this, Such as the Principles are, such are the Effects; Such as the Root is, such are the Branches: Now all men have from Adam earthly mortal bodies which will die: Therefore all that are Christs shall have from him heavenly and spiritual bodies.

Let us diligently open the particulars, wherein we have this Collation between Adam and Christ made, for from hence we shall have a fair occasion to examine, How from Adam we come thus to have his Image upon us? which is the great difficulty in the Doctrine of original sinne.


THe first particular therefore wherein they are compared, is, The state and condition Adam and Christ was made in; Adam's estate is proved from Scri­pture, ver. 5. As it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; we have this related, Gen. 2. 7. where God is said, To breath into mans nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul. Adam's body being made out of the dust, and formed thencefrom, was yet without life and motion, therefore God did with him farre otherwise than with bruit beasts, for He breathed into him the breath of life. This is spoken after the manner of men in a figurative way, we are not to think God took on him the form of a man, and so breathed life into Adam; Neither may we say, This was a particle, or part of the divine Essence, which God communicated to man; But the meaning is, God inspired into him his soul, which gave life, and sense, and motion to the body, by which he becoming a living soul, that is, a living creature; This is Adam's condition. But as for Christ, who is here called the last Adam, Adam because a com­mon Person, and last, because there is no more to succeed him; This last Adam is said, To be made a quickening Spirit, not but that Christ was man, yea and had such an humane Nature, as Adam had like to him in all things, [Page 182] [Sinne onely excepted] But this is spoken of Christ principally after his Re­surrection; For Christ while he lived on earth had an animal body, he needed food and rest, but after his Resurrection, then he had a spiritual body; so that it is in reference to this, that Christ is called a Spirit, but with this Epithete, A quickning Spirit, that is, which giveth life to others; He hath not only life in himself, but he giveth it also to others, and therefore no wonder if he raise those that belong to him.

But seeing Christ is thus a quickening Spirit, it may be said, Why then have the people of God their natural bodies still? If they be in the second Adam, Why are they not as he is?

To this the Apostle answereth, verse 46. That which is natural is first, and afterwards that which is spiritual. It is the will and appointment of God, that the imperfect things should be first, and afterwards that which is more perfect.

In the next place, The Comparison is made between the two Adams in respect of their Originals, The first was of the earth, earthly, his body was made of the dust of the earth: (The Aegyptians had some confused know­ledge of this, and therefore defined man to be, Animal terrenum è limo na­tum; Hence in their Feasts, they offered unto their gods an herb that grew in their lakes, to signifie what man was.)

But the second man is the Lord from Heaven. This place hath an appear­ance of some difficulty, for from this Text did some Anabaptists (who re­vived an old Heresie, (viz.) ‘That Christ had not his body of the Virgin Mary) indeavour to prove, That Christ had his body from Heaven, else (say they) what opposition could there be made to Adam's body?’ Christs body was in the Virgin Mary, but not of her, as they affirm, But this is grosly to mistake; For the Apostle doth not intend to make a comparison in the Mate­rials, of which both bodies were compounded, but the Originals from whence they are; The one is from Earth, the other from Heaven, being the Lord of Heaven and Earth. Some indeed have said, ‘That Christ is therefore said to be from Heaven, because though it was materially of the Virgin Mary, yet be­cause the Conception was in an extraordinary manner by the holy Ghost, there­fore it might be said to be from Heaven. This may have some truth, yet A­dam was in an extraordinary manner, and that in respect of his body formed by God, called therefore the Sonne of God, yet he cannot be said to be from Heaven, So that the most solid Interpretation is to understand it of the Person of Christ, and so he is wholly of Heaven, being the true and eternal God; in which respect, John 3. 13. he is said to be The Sonne of man, which is in Heaven. John 6 38, 41. he is said, To come from Heaven; So that although his body was of the Virgin Mary, yet as God, in which respect he hath his personality, so he is from Heaven

The third and last Collation is in respect of their qualities and properties. The first man is of the earth earthy, in a three fold respect:

1. Because his affections are only to earthly things.

2. Because the place where he is to be is the earth.

3. Because of his mortality, he is to return to dust again.

But the 'second Adam is heavenly in a three-fold contrary respect:

1. He is heavenly in regard of his life and conversation.

2. In regard of the place where now he is sitting in Heaven at the right hand of God, and thus all Christs members shall be heavenly, for they likewise shall be in Heaven for ever with the Lord.

3. Heavenly, Because of his immortality, for he shall never die more.


THus we have the Apostles elegant opposition between the first and second Adam, and my Text is a Conclusion from the former Discourse. Some have read the words preceptively, as if the sense were, As we have born the Image of the first Adam, so let us bear the Image of the heavenly; But the most solid Interpreters read it affirmatively, as in the Text we render it; and this seemeth to be more consonant, because the Apostle is still in the Didactical and Doctrinal point about our Resurrection; The particle [...] is for the, and so, better translated illatively, Therefore.

The Text then affirmeth two things:

1. That all bear the Image of Adam who came from him.

2. Those who are of Christ shall bear his Image.

Having therefore treated of original sin, the Quod sit and the Quid sit, we come to that which is deservedly thought the most difficult and hard to conceive and ex­plain in this point, Which is the manner of propagating it, and this shal be soberly and modestly discussed out of these words. For from the 45th verse, Austin takes an occasion to dispute (as Paraeus relateth) about the souls traduction from Adam, as well as the body. Although to speak the truth, that which is principally and apparently affirmed by the Apostle here, is, That we have mortal bodies propaga­ted to us from Adam, which is easier to conceive of, then to have also sinfull souls from him, yet because the Text speaketh of Adam's Image in us, and that doth necessarilly suppose a sinfull soul, as well as a mortal body. We shall therefore declare the truth as of them conjoyned together. Observe

That all who come of Adam do thereby bear his Image: Our natural descen­sion from him, maketh us to be wholly like him; when he was corrupted. That as those who are of Christ are renewed after his Image in righteousness and true holiness, so all of Adam are corrupted in sin and ungodliness.


WHat this Image is, you have heard already at large, our main work is to examine, How we come to be made partakers of it? Yet it is good sum­marily to say something of this Image of Adams we all bear about with us. And

First, Man who was not only made after the Image of God, Gen. 1. 26. but is said absolutely to be the Image of God, 1. Cor. 11. 7. by his apostasie became not only like the beasts that perish, but also like the Devils that are damned. In­somuch that now this glorious Image of God being defaced: If you ask, Whose Image and Superscription he beareth? We answer of corrupted sinfull and mor­tal Adam, an Image we are to be ashamed of, and to mourn under all the dayes of our life; Who can look upon man, but may behold sinne and misery, folly and mortality? Now this Image of the first Adam comprehended the things of the soul and the body. In the body we have pains, diseases, and a necessity, of death at last; In the soul there is horrible blackness and confusion upon it, that as devils are represented in the most horrid and black manner that can be, such things are our souls now become. Although therefore the Text speaketh of Adam's Image in the bodily part, that we are thereby corruptible and mortal, and so need a Re­surrection to make us happy, yet I shall chiefly speak of this Image in the soul, as it is infected and polluted with sinne from him. This is the Image we bear, but there is exceeding great comfort to the godly, that they being in Christ the se­cond Adam, they shall be made perfectly conformable to him, they shall bear [Page 184] that heavenly Image, and at last shall have no cause to complain, that their souls are bowed down with sinfull, earthly and heavy affections, weighing us down to the ground; were it not for hope of this at our Resurrection, the Doctrine about Adam's fall, and our hurt thereby would utterly discourage us; but there is a second Adam as well as a first, if he had been the first and last too, that no Adam would have answered him in the way of righteousness and life, as he was in the way of sinne and death; nothing but horrour and damnation could have taken hold of us; Let us be more deeply affected with the first Adam, and so shall we come more highly to prize and esteem the second Adam.

Secondly, Adam's Image as it is sinfull in the general, is not only born by us, but there seemeth to be a stamp and impression upon us of those very sins he committed. As those women who have inordinate desire after some things, do sometimes leave marks and impressions thereof upon the body: Thus it is spiritually. Those very sins which Adam particularly committed in eating the forbidden fruit, all men seem most universally to incline unto. As

1. A curiosity and affectation of knowing that which is not to be known. An inor­dinate desire was in Eve to eat of the Tree of knowledge, because the Devil told her, It would make her wise, therefore she must eat of it; And is not this a very natural sinne in all, a curiosity in knowledge? Do not all desire to eat of the Tree of knowledge, but few of the Tree of life, especially Scholars, and such who are busied in learning? What an incurable itch is there to be wise above Scri­pture, and to know such things God hath hidden? And this is a good Item to us to content our selves with sobriety, in questioning, How Adam's sinne can be ours? How the soul can come to be polluted? To desire to know this, is like the eating of the forbidden fruit: While thou art thus curious, remember Adam's sinne, that thou art acting it, while thou enquirest, how we are guilty of it?

A second thing remarkable in the first sinne was Their mincing about the word of God, yea plainly lying, that God had said, they should not touch it, which, though some say, is put for eating; Others, that Eve did say so for caution sake; Whence Ambrose hath a good saying, Nihil quod bonum videtur, &c. we must adde nothing to Gods precept, though it seem very good, and make much for godliness; yet others make Eve plainly to lie, and so to accuse God, as if he envied them further knowledge; Now this sinne of lying, how natural is it? We see it in chil­dren, before they can move their feet to go, their tongues can stir to lie, as if they had been taught, they are so subtil in it.

3. Adam did excuse and cover his sinne as much as may be, putting it off from himself to others, and herein also we have a natural resemblance of him, for how prone are we to clear our selves, to lay the fault any where, rather than on our selves? Thus we bear Adam's Image.

The various Opinions, Objections, and Doubts, about the manner how the Soul comes to be polluted.


THe next work is to consider of the manner how we come to bear this Image. As for the body, to have a mortal and a corruptible one from Adam is easily to be conceived, because the body is causally and seminally in the first man, so propagated from man to man but this hath deservedly been acknowledged the hardest knot to unty in all this doctrinal truth about original sinne, how the soul can come to be pol­luted if created from God. In this Argument, The Pelagians did much try­umph, and Austin was so puzled with it, that he many times confesseth his ignorance at least his doubt in this point, yea (he saith) That he could neither legendo, erando, or ratiocinando, find out how the propagation of original sinne, and the creation of the soul could be defended together, But of this more in its time.

The great Objections that are against asserting the Souls Creation.

IT is certain that here are dangerous rocks on both sides, for if we say, the soul is created, then seeing God cannot but make every thing holy, he cannot make a sinfull soul, how then can it be infected with sinne? Again, if the soul be created, then it was not virtually in Adam, then it could not be said to sinne in him, because it was never in him, for why did not Christ sinne in him, but because he was not seminally in him, and if the soul was never radically in Adam, how can it be pol­luted, is it just with God to punish that with Adams sinne which never sinned in Adam? If it be said, that the soul when united to the body, doth from that receive infection, as if pure liquour were powred into a stinking vessel, This will not solve but increase the doubt, for a vessel indeed may pollute liquour. because they are both bodies and so act by a corporall contact, but the soul is a spirit, and its a rule (say they) received by all, that a body cannot act upon a spirit, Besides, sinne is proper­ly in the soul, and must from that be conveyed to the body: The body, whie with­out a soul, is not capable of sinne no more then a bruit beast; It hath no reason, it is under no law, how then can that communicate sinne to the soul, when it hath none at all it self? Thus you see what strong cords here are, even that a Sampson can hardly break.

Objections against holding that the Souls come by Generation, Multi­plication, &c.

THen on the other side, if you think that the only way to maintain the pro­pagation of original corruption, is to hold, that the souls are not immedi­ately created of God, but either by generation or multiplication, or some other way. Then here also are more dangerous rocks, for if we hold this, we seem to contradict some strong Texts of Scripture, that maketh God the immediate giver of the soul. Besides, we must then necessarily make it material yea though they who hold the tra­duction of the soul will not grant that consequence, yet it cannot be avoided, but what is generable is corruptible, and so the soul must be mortall, and that rule of Aquinas seemeth to carry much evident light with it, Quod dependet a materiâ quoad fieri, dependet quod existere. This rule holds true in every thing else, and why should it be denied about the soul, if the soul in its beginning depends upon the body, it can­not continue seperate from it, and so be immortal.


THus you see there is a veil upon the face of this Doctrine: But although modesty and sobriety be necessary in this point, as also in the Doctrine of the Trinity and Christs incarnation, yet as in them its necessary to search the Scriptures, and so farre to improve the light shining from them; that we may be able to convince heretical gainsayers; Thus it is also in this truth, so much knowledge as is not forbidden yea as is revealed in the Scripture, let us thankfully acknowledge, and humbly, yet with diligence and constancy improve against those, who by reason of these difficulties would overthrow the fundamental Truth it self, we must not for some seeming Objections forsake the clear Texts of Scripture; It commonly falleth out, that almost in every great and funda­mental truth in Religion, as the Doctrine of the Trinity, the Doctrine of Justi­fication. There is some Objection above all the rest, that hath more difficulty in it then ordinary, and so it is here; but let us not be afraid to get Canaan, because of some Anakims in the way.

The severall Wayes that learned Men have gone to remove the aforesaid Difficulties.

TO guid you therefore in this wilderness to it, let us consider what are the several waies that many either of learned or of corrupt judgements have said to the clearing of this, And

First,Origen and Plato's opinion There are and have been some in the Church following Origen, who also followed Plato, deriving many opinions from him, who did thus think to make this truth easy, By holding that the souls were created long before the bodies, and that upon their evill, and sinne committed, they were adjudged to be put into bodies, and so from hence it is, that they say, man is so propense to all evill; Therefore they will not say, That the souls of men are either by traduction, or immediate creation and infusion into the body, but that they were created long be­fore [Page 187] the body, and while preexistent before it, they deserved to be put into this dark prison of the body, There was one Vincentius Victor, according to his name, bold and audacious, who disliked Austin for his cunctation and deliberation in the point of the traduction of the soul, which occasioned Austin to write four Books De origine animae, Now this Vincentius he affirmed, That the soul was created before the body, and did deserve to be made part of that man, who is a sin­ner, yea that it did deserve to be made peccatrix a sinner. Some have also thought, that this was a general received opinion amongst the Jewes; and they proove it from that question proposed to Christ,The Jews. concerning the man born blind, yea they were Christs Disciples that did make that question; so that it seemeth they were still infected with that vulgar error, for Joh. 92, They say, Master, who did sinne, this man, or his parents, that he should be born blind? They ask, whe­ther the sinnes of the mans parents, or his own sinnes made him to be born blind, now he could not have any sinnes before he was born, unless his soul did preexist before his body, and it seemeth the Pharisees concluded, that they were his own sinnes, for they say ver. 34. Thou wast altogether born in sinnes. They did not (happily) mean original sinne, for they say sinnes, which must be actual sinnes, either his own, or his parents.

But this opinion is so wicked and absurd, that to name it is enough to refel it; and for this monstrous figment might Origen be called Centaurus, as well as for others. Only two things are to be said to it.

First, If souls for sinnes acted were adjudged to their bodies, how is it that the Scripture giveth that command of, Increase and multiply? how is it that children, and life are made blessings? certainly to be kept in a prison, or adjudg­ed thereunto is a curse not a blessing, But

Secondly, This opinion doth not at all heal the wound, that the mentioned Objection giveth; for the doubt is how our souls are infected, because of Adam, if they were not causally in him? And this speaketh to another matter, that they sinned before they were incarnated, and therefore have such a troublesome and noisome lodging.

Again this contradicts the Apostle, and doth indeed take away the subject of the question, for Rom. 5. The Apostle maketh Adam's disobedience to be the cause of all the sinne that we have as soon as we are born, It is not then the souls sinning before its union to the body, but Adam the first man, and the common head in whom we all sinned; and seeing the souls of men were [...] Adam, as their bodies are, the stone still remaineth unremoved.

In the next place, Therefore there are those, of a later hatch, but few, yet would be, if not in the number of the first worthies, yet of the second, Papists I mean; Pighius and Catharinus, against whom the Papists do as largely dispute in this controversie of original sinne almost, as they do against the Protestants. These lay down their opinion in two things.

First, Some Papists. That the soul of a man cometh into the world pure and holy without any inherent filth of sinne, and that till there be actual sinnes, there is nothing in man but what is of God, and for this they bring all the Arguments, which the Pelagi­ans of old use to do, But then

In the second place, That they may not be anathematized as pelagianizing. They say, Adams actual disobedience is made our sinne by imputation, so that they deny any original sinne inherent in us, only all the original sinne we have is Adams first sinne of disobedience, which is made ours, hence they deny that every one hath his proper original sinne, as if there were as many original sinnes as persons born; but they say, Adams actual disobedience, being made ours, is the one origi­nal sinne of all mankind. Thus as one sun serveth to inlighten all the starres, and as some Philosophers say, that there is one intellectus agens, common and uni­versal to all men, so they make one original sinne to be common to all, and [Page 188] this only Adams posterity is guilty of. This opinion they press, as hereby making every thing easie and clear; Then there needeth no disputation about the origi­nal of the soul, or how it can be infected, if this, be true (say they) then here is no occasion for these intricate disputes about the propagation of original sinne, To which the most learned are never able to give a satisfactory Answer? Al­though this opinion of imputation doth no waies remove the doubt about the Creation of the soul, for if the soul be by Creation, how cometh Adam's sinne to be imputed to man born of Adam, if his soul was never causally in Adam? so that the difficulty doth still continue as great notwithstanding this opinion. But as this opinion hath some truth in it, so also much more error, and therefore though it be sweet in the mouth, yet it proveth wormewood in the belly: The truth is this, That Adams actual sinne is made ours by imputation; this must be constantly affirmed, because denied by those, who also deny the impu­tation of Christs righteousness, as if thereby we were justified; we grant there­fore, that Adams one sinne is made all mankinds: Hence the Apostle doth still speak of one man (though there be many immediate parents) by whom we are not only made sinners, but in whom also we did sinne; and this doth arise wholly from Gods ordination and appointment of it: for although Scoto, and others, do call the Covenant in this respect, fabula, a meer fable, yet Suarez doth confess the necessity of it; and indeed it must be, for though Adam had a thou­sand times over, wil [...]ed that his sinne should be the sinne of all his posterity, yet they could not have been guilty of it, had not that Covenant involved them: so that if the patrones of this imputation had not stayed here, but acknowledged also an inherent pollution, they would not have been so justly censured. But we have already proved by Scripture, reason, and experience, that mankind is in­volved in an inherent pollution of their own, as well as guilty of imputed sinne: and indeed, how could man be obnoxious to eternal wrath, if there were not damnable matter within, as well as without? can they go to hell with souls pure and holy?

But if this imputation be granted, then the pelagians Objection seemeth to be of force, That as Adams sinne could hurt those that have not actually sinned, so Christs righteousness may profit those that do not believe.

This Objection [...] rather to be answered, because the Antinomian thinketh from hence, [...] answerable argument, to prove, that we are justified before we [...] That the elect are accepted of, having their sinnes pardoned, [...] they do repent, yea before their sinnes are committed, because we are in [...] the second Adam. To this Argument, Austin answered of old the Pelagians, That Christs righteousness did not profit any but believers, and therefore Infants they were saved alienâ side by the faith of their Parents, Even as we are condemned alieno peccato by the sinne of another, although it be so alie­num, as that it is also proprium; but this is not satisfactory.

Therefore to the Antinomian we answer, That although we are all said to sinne in Adam, and his disobedience is imputed to all, yet the condition, or the medium by which we come to partake of this imputation, is naturall generation; and therefore till we have an actual being, we cannot be said to sinne in him: poten­tially indeed we may, but natural generation (supposing Gods Covenant as the reason of the conveighance of it in this way, Even as in the state of integrity, the Covenant would have been the cause of transmitting original righteousness to Adams posterity, though natural generation would have been the way of communicating of it) is that only which maketh us actually to participate of his guilt, Therefore it is a feeble thing in a late writer, (Eire) to oppose the natu­ral generation or discent from Adam, to the Covenant, for both are requisite, the latter as the cause, the former as the medium. And thus it is in regard of Christs righteousness, that is the cause of our justification, in Christ we are made [Page 189] righteous, as in Adam sinners, yet the medium to apply this and to make it ours, is faith, so that none are justified till they do believe, as none are condemned for Adams sinne till they have an actual being, faith is the same in a supernatural way to partake of Christ, as natural propagation and discent from Adam is to be made a sinner in him, Although we may say truly that Christ doth profit the non-believers, who belong to grace, for by him they are brought to believe, they are brought out of the bondage of sinne, only Justification and such Gos­pel-priveledges are actually bestowed upon none till they do beleive, we have not time to proceed in the discovery of other waies and opinions of the learned to answer this doubt, only thus much we have heard, that may make us therefore to bewail original sinne, that we are in such a dark ignorance, that we do but grope about the propagation, had Adam continued in integrity, he would not have only communicated righteousness to his posterity, but they would also have certainly known the manner how, but now we are wholly miserable and know not exactly the manner how, we know little about the soul, so that the soul which only is knowing in man knoweth very little of it self, of its nature, of its original, like the eie that seeth other things but not it self. Let us then be more sollicitous about our going out of the world, then how we came into it. Be more desirous to come out of this pit, then to stand wondring how thou didst fall into it, dost thou not observe more, ready to inquire curiously about the one, then daily to pray about the other.


HItherto the expedients thought upon, to ease that great difficulty about the propagation of original sinne, have appeared very improbable, and in some respect very absurd, like unwise Chyrurgians, not healing, but vexing the wound worse: We shall now proceed to some more probable ones, and dispatch them with convenient speed, lest you should think these are such [...] upon which no grapes can grow, of more difficulty then usefulness; although you shall find, that even in this wilderness we may meet with M [...]ona; The truth discussed will not only be for doctrinal Information, [...] doctrinate Applica­tion: The next therefore that I shall instance in, is [...] of those who hold, The soul is not by the immediate Creation of God, but [...], or mul­tiplication; and this they are so confident in, That they [...] Doctrine of original corruption cannot be maintained, unless we affirme so: Thus you heard Austin affirming, That neither by reading, praier, or disputing could he find out, how one could be defended without the other, It is true Bellermine saith, ‘That the opinion of the traduction of the soul from the parents doth no way at all either advantage, or incommodate the Doctrine of original sinne; but that the difficulty will still be as great:’ so also Arminius (Thes. pri. de primo peccato.) maketh the dispute about the original of the soul, in the matter of the propagation of this hereditary defilement, unusefull and needless; But certainly, the clearing of the souls original is very influential into this point, especially because we are forced to it by the adversaries of this truth; for it seemeth very probable, that Austin would readily have believed the immediate creation of every of every soul, but that the dispute about original corruption was the remora: for he regarded not any other Objection. This opinion then, That the soul cometh originally from the parents; as well as the body, hath had its grave, and learned abettors. Tertullian of old, who wrote a book (De animâ); And as for Austin, it is true, he did not defend this opinion, neither did he deny it, he wrote four Books, (De origine animae,) against one Vincentius Victor, who blamed Austin for his hesitancy in this point; and in those Austin doth still persist in the same doubt, and doth answer those [Page 190] Arguments, which are usually brought out of the Scripture, yet so as that he doth not determine against the souls Creation, but desired stronger Arguments, and therefore doth rebuke that young man for his bold presumption, in deter­mining that controversie so confidently. Austin also (in his tenth Book upon Genesis ad literam) doth shew the same doubting mind within him, as also (in his Epistle to Hierom) wholly about the original of the soul, wherein he doth ear­nestly desire of Hierom, that he would teach him and satisfie him in this point by strong and sure evidence, likewise he maketh the original of the so [...], the subject of this Epistle to Optatus. It appeareth that Austin did more incline to hold the Creation of the soul, therefore he saith to Hierom, That although none can by wishing make a thing to be true, yet if it could he would by wishing have the Do­ctrine of the Creation of the soul to be the truth: No wonder that Austin thus doubted, seeing Hierom saith, the greatest part of the western Doctors were for the traduction of the soul; But the eastern the greek Fathers, they did gene­rally hold, the immediate Creation of it. In the latter daies of the Church, since the Reformation, there have also been eminent and able Divines, asserting the traduction of the soul from the parents, and thereby original sinne: Vostius men­tioneth Johnius, and Marnixius: The Lutheran Divines seem generally to be of this opinion as appeareth by Brechword and Meisner; The latter whereof rela­teth of Luther, that he should say, He would never trouble the Church about any opinion about the original of the soul, yet his private opinion was, that it was not by Creation; and they do pitch on this, as holding it most convenient to remove all doubts; although Meisner confesseth, there are even unanswerable Objecti­ons, if they do hold the generation of it from the parents; But I must tell you, that those, who affirm the soul to be from the parents, as well as the body, differ amongst themselves, for some say, it is by eduction out of the matter, that it is generated, as the body: Others, they say, by traduction, that the soul is not corporally begotten, but the parents soul doth multiply the infants soul; even (say they) as you see one candle doth inlighten another.

In the confession of the Aethiopick Faith, as Hornebeck (summa Cont. de Gracis) relateth, it is affirmed, Omnes sine ullâ hesitantiâ in hâc sententiâ versa­mur, &c. All of us are in this opinion without any hesitancy, that all our souls come of Adam, as well as our flesh, and that we are all Adam's seed both in flesh, and soul.

That the Soul is neither by Eduction or Tradu­ction, but by Introduction or immediate Infu­sion, proved by Texts of Scripture.


BUt whatsoever learned men have thought therein, we may say, That it is against Scripture and true reason, that the soul is ei­ther by Eduction or Traduction, but by Introduction, or imme­diate Infusion, and that by God himself: And I shall instance in some Texts of Scripture, to which, though they give excepti­ons, yet (I suppose the Truth stands immoveable, neither do you think this work needless, for it's worth the while, if there were no other use, but to informe you against a dangerous sect, that are called Mortalists, who hold the soul is nothing but the temperament of the body, and that it is mortal, to which abominable opinion the Socinians also do strongly incline.

The first Text to prove the Creation of the soul, shall be from Eccl. 12. 7. Then shall dust returne to the earth as it was, and the spirit shall returne to God who gave it. This seemeth to be very clear, for he speaketh of every man that dieth, he considers the two essential parts of man, his body, which he calleth dust, be­cause it was made of dust, and then his soul, which he cals a spirit, because of its simple and incorporeal nature, again, which strengthens the Argument, he com­pareth these two in their contrary or divers originals, The body returneth to the earth, the Spirit unto God that gave it.

Though we would think this might satisfie, yet Austin of old, and those that are Traducians, they say, God indeed giveth the soul by propagation, as well as by Creation; God giveth two wayes, by Creation, or by Propagation, as saith Austin. God is said, 1 Cor. 15. 38. to give every several grain its body, yet it is by seminal propagation, and God is often in the Scripture said, to give us our eyes, and our ears, and our bodies, yet they are by natural generation; or if this will not serve, then they say, This is true onely of Adam, not his posterity, because Adam's body was only made of the dust, not ours; and God did breath a soul into him at first.’

But every one may see these are weak exceptions, as for the later, it's plain, he doth not speak of Adam, but every man that dieth; For having advised the young man to improve his youth for God, he tels him, old-age is coming, and then death, then shall he return, How can this be applied to Adam, who had re­turned to the earth many hundreds of years before that was spoken? And where­as it is said, That only Adam's body was made of dust. The answer is easie, That though our bodies be of flesh and bone immediately, yet the remote principle is [Page 192] dust, and therefore Abraham, though his body was not made as Adams, yet he said, [...] was but dust and ashes. Thus this Text stands firm for the immediate Creation of the soul. Though (let me by the way give you rightly to under­stand that later clause) The spirit returneth to him that gave it; The meaning is not, as if the soul of every man was saved, but that it goeth into the hands of God, as a Judge to dispose of it, according to what hath been done in the flesh; As for the next exception, that will be answered in the following Argument; on­ly in the general this may be said, That if God gave the soul onely mediate­ly by propagation, then the body might be said to return to him, as well as the soul.


WE will proceed to a second, and that is from Zech. 12. 1. The Lord which stretcheth forth the Heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him. Here we see the Lords power described by a three-fold effect, the making of the Heavens, the laying of the earths foun­dation, and making the spirit of man; Now it is plain, that the two former were by Gods immediate Creation, therefore the later must be: So that the Context doth evidently shew, That Gods making of the soul of a man within him, is no lesse wonderfull then the making Heaven and earth. This Text was also of old agitated by Austin in this controversie, and to answer it, he runneth to his old refuge of forming a thing immediately, and by natural propagation: God is not to be ex­cluded (saith he) from having a special hand in giving being to the soul, yet it doth not follow, that therefore it must be by creation out of nothing. To this purpose they bring that of Job, Chap. 10. 10, 11. where Job attributeth the ma­king and forming of his body to God, Hast thou not poured me out like milk, &c? Thou hast cloathed me with skin and flesh. So Psal. 139. 13, 14, 15. where Da­vid acknowledgeth the wonderfull wisdom and power of God, in making his body, Then hast curiously wrought me; As the curious needle-woman doth some choice piece; now we cannot from hence prove, that therefore the body is of God by immediate Creation.

But this cannot weaken the Text, for we told you, That the Argument is not meerly from that expressing of forming the spirit of man within him, but from the upper two Attributes. Besides the Scripture tels us plainly of what materi­als the body is formed of, whereas they who hold the propagation of the soul, are extreamly streightned and difficultated to say, what the soul is made of; They say, it is not ex animâ, but ab animâ. not of the soul, but from the soul of the Parent, but then are divided amongst themselves when they go to explicate, how the soul hath its being if not from Creation. Some say, it hath its being by a cor­poral seminal manner, but then it must be a body, which Austin would constantly deny, for he dissents from Tertullian in that, though both held the natural Tradu­ction of the soul, Austin I mean only suppositively, but Tertullian positively, yet he professeth his dissent from Tertullian, who made it a body. This therefore being thought absurd, others they tell us of an incorporeal and immaterial seed from the soul of the Parents, which causeth the soul of the child. To this purpose Tertullian in his book de animâ, distinguisheth of semen animale, which cometh from the soul, and semen corporeum, which cometh from the body. But this may easily be judged as absurd as the former: If therefore the Scripture, when it speaketh of the forming of mans spirit within him, had discovered the materials of which it is formed, as well as when it speaketh of the forming of the body, there would have been some pretence for the Argument. But calling it a spirit, and as you see in the Text, comparing the forming of it with the making of the Heavens and the Earth, this makes the creati­on [Page 193] of the soul more than probable. Tarnavius the Lutheran would likewise avoid this place (Comment. in loc.) by saying the Hebrew word Jahac doth most commonly signifie, not an immediate creation out of nothing, for so the Hebrew word Barah doth for the most, but a mediate out of some prejacent mat­ter, yet indisposed; but this Rule being not universal, it hath no strength in it. Besides, the Hebrew word is in the Present tense, who formeth, so that it cannot relate to the making of Adam's soul at first. Indeed the fore-named Tarnavius doth from the participle Benani draw an Argument against us, saying, It doth not alwayes signifie actum secundum, but habitum and potentiam, and so maketh the sense to be God, who hath this power immediately to create the soul, if he will; but all will confess this to be forced; That is more considerable, when he saith, As God in stretching out the Heavens, and laying the foundation of the earth, is not thereby declared to create new Heavens, and a new earth every day; so neither is it necessary that he should create souls daily, but conserve the order appointed, as he doth, about the Heavens. The Answer is easie, there­fore do the words relate to the Creation at first with the conservation of them, because new Heavens and new earths are not every day made; but both they and we do acknowledge new souls are every day produced, as often as a man is born, and God at first making Adam's soul by breathing into it, the same order is still to be conserved.

This Text thus cleared, we may adde as proofs also of the like kind, Isa. 42. 5. Though Austin thought by spirit there, might be meant the sanctifying Spirit of God; But that hath no probability. Psal. 33. 15. the Psalmist saith, God hath fashioned the hearts of men alike, or wholly throughout; By which is meant the soul of a man in all its thoughts and workings, because the soul puts forth its vital actions in the heart. That also is remarkable, which yet I find not mentioned by any in this Controversie, Jer. 38. 16. where Zedekiah maketh an oath to Jere­miah, that he will not kill him, after this manner, Thus saith the Lord, who made us this soul, not this body, but this soul, (he putteth that into the oath,) inti­mating what an heavy sinne it would be to kill a man that is innocent, seeing he hath his soul from God. I shall mention but one Text more, and that is in the New Testament, which seemeth clearly to demonstrate the creation of the soul, Heb. 12 9. We have had fathers of our flesh that corrected us, &c. Shall we not much rather be in subjection to the Father of Spirits? I think this Text may put us out of all doubt, God is opposed as a Father to our natural parents; God is called a Father of Spirits, natural parents father of our flesh: Now if our souls did come from our parents, they might be called fathers of our spirits, as well as of our flesh: The Apostles Argument would have no force, if the Creation of the soul by God alone, and the generation of the flesh only by natural parents be not asserted: Thus Numb. 16. 20. as also Chap. 27. 16. God is there styled, The God of the spirit of all flesh, in a peculiar manner. It may be wondered, that though Austin busied himself so much in finding out of this Truth, diligently at­tending to the Scripture, yet he never mentioned this place. Certainly, this Text might have removed his doubt, and made him wholly positive in affirming the creation of the soul.

That which I find later Writers reply to it, is, That God is called the Fa­ther of Spirits in respect of Regeneration, because he sanctifieth and maketh holy.

But the opposition to our fathers of the flesh, evidently confuteth this; and withall they can never shew, that God is called a Father of Spirits, or a God of Spirits, but in respect of Creation, not Regeneration. It is true, the word spi­rit may sometimes be used for a man as regenerate, as flesh is for a man wholly corrupt; but they can never shew that the word spirits in the plural number is taken for men regenerate.

[Page 194] Vse. Of Exhortation, To quicken up your attention to this Truth, do not think this is unprofitable and uselesse, that this Question is like those of which Paul complaineth, some doted, foolish and endlesse; No, it is very profitable, for in knowing the original of thy soul, how it cometh even from God himself, may it not shame thee to make thy self like a beast, as if thou hadst no better soul then they have? Prophanenesse and sottish ignorance do greatly oppose the na­ture of thy soul. Why do men say in effect, Let us eat and drink, for to mor­row we shall die, but as if they and beasts were all alike? And why is it that you see so many have no understanding, but that they are like the horse and the mule? Why doth the Scripture compare wicked men to so many kind of beasts, but because they live, as if God had put no rational soul into them? That though in the making of their bodies they differ from beasts, yet in their souls they do greatly agree.


THus you see we are examining, Whether that Doctrine of the Propagation of souls from parents, be a sure foundation to build upon, in clearing the conveyance of original sinne to Adam's posterity; And we have evidently pro­ved, That the soul hath its immediate creation from God; So that to runne to the Sanctuary of the Souls Traduction, would be to implore a dangerous errour to assist the Truth; As God needeth not a lie, so neither doth his Truth any error. And indeed, Although I shall not call the Doctrine of the Creation of the soul, an article of faith, because so many learned men have hesitated therein; So that it would be an high breach of charity to commaculate such with the note of heresie, yet we may with Hierom call it, Ecclesiasticum dogma, a Doctrine that the most Orthodox have alwayes received; So that the contrary opinion seemeth to be absurd, as Whitaker well saith. Although Vorstius would make this dispute to be meerly philosophical, in his Antibellarm.

Having therefore laid down those Texts, which are a sure pillar of this Truth, we shall adde some further reasons, and then make use of this point, which is very fruitfull.

Arguments from Scripture to prove the Souls Creation.

THe first Reason, which may appear in the defence of the Souls immediate Creation from God, is, From the historical Narration, which Moses makes of the beginning and original of Adam's soul: For as God when he was to cre­ate man, did it in a more transcendent and glorious way, then when he made beasts, or the other creatures; For then he said, Let there be light, and, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creatures, that have life, Gen. 1. 20. And so, Let the earth bring forth the living creatures, the beasts after their kind; But when he comes to make man, then the expression is altered, Let us make man in our Image; and Gen. 2. 7. where we have the manner of the execution of this counsel, it is said, He formed the body of Adam out of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; No such thing was done to other creatures: So that you see Adam's soul was from God immediately, though his body was from the earth; This breathing of life into Adam, was infusing of the rational soul. Some Ancients thought, that it was the bestowing of the holy Ghost upon Adam, and that he had his rational soul before; They compare it with Christs breathing on his Disciples, whereby was communicated the [Page 195] holy Ghost. Now it is plain, they had their rational souls before.

This is vain, because by the breathing of this life, it's said, Adam became a living soul, so that he was but a dead lump of earth (as it were) before; And indeed this Text is so clear, that I know none of the Adversaries to the souls im­mediate Creation do deny it: Now then, If the soul of Adam was by creation, Is it not probable that all other souls were in the like manner? What a great dispro­portion would there be between Adam and us, if his soul was by creation, and ours by generation? Some have questioned, Whether it would not make a speci­fical difference between Adam and us? But that is not to be affirmed; For Christ as man was of the same species with other men, though his Conception and Nati­vity were miraculous: But the Argument from the Creation of Adam's soul, to the Creation of ours, though it be not cogent, yet it maketh it more then pro­bable, because God at first did appoint that order, which afterwards was to con­tinue; So he appointed the animate creatures, to multiply in their way, making their bodies and forms to be educed out of the power of the matter, (as Philoso­phers expresse it, though very obscurely,) but he did not do so with Adam's soul; Can we think that our souls are lesse glorious and precious before God (I mean as meet creatures) then Adam's was? It is true, There was a necessity that A­dam's body should be otherwise made then ours, because he was the first Parent, and so he could not be bygeneration; Thus the other living creatures they had their bodies at first out of the earth, or out of the water, not by generation, as after­wards; Thus for the body there was a necessity, but then for the soul there was none at all; Why might not Adam's soul have been with his body out of the pre­jacent matter, as well as it was with other living creatures? But because the soul of man is of an higher nature coming from God alone: This Argument will appear in further strength, if you consider that Eve, though she was made in such an extraordinary manner out of Adam, yet she had not her soul from him, but her body only; For when he awakened, see what he saith, This is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh; He doth not say, This is soul of my soul, and yet as Austin in this matter, though doubting, doth well argue, ‘That if Eve had had her soul from Adam, Quid charius potuit dicere (saith he) This would have been a more indeared and affectionate expression, to have called her soul of his soul, then flesh of his flesh.’ It is true, some say, it is a synecdochical speech, ‘By flesh (they say) is meant whole Eve, her whole person soul and body;’ but that is easier said than proved; No doubt if it had been so, Adam would have expressed it, as being a manifestation of greater unity, then what was in the body only: If you say, But why is it not said then, that God created Eve's soul, as well as Adam's? If God had so immediately breathed a soul into her, would not the Scripture have mentioned it? No, that is not necessary, it's enough, that we read what God did to Adam about his soul; and the Scripture saith, Genes. 1. 27. God created man in his Image male and female created he them. Thus you see they were both, as in respect of Gods Image made alike: So Chap. 5. 2. Male and female created he them, and called their name Adam; And thus much for the first Reason.

The second is more cogent, and that is taken from the soul of Christ, If Christ had his soul by creation, then we had ours also; The consequence is clear, because Christ is said to be like us in all things, sinne onely excepted; Hence it is, that he also would have assumed our humane Nature in an ordinary way of generation, but that it could not be without sinne; If then Christ became like us in all things, where­in sin was not necessarily adherent, then if he had his soul by immediate Creation we had ours also.

This Argument doth divide the Adversaries to the Creation of the soul; For some say, ‘Christ had not his soul by immediate Creation, no more then we, but from his mother:’ But the most wary will not say so: Austin in this controver­sie [Page 196] doth alwaies except Christs soul, and indeed there is this Argument which may nforce us to it, taken from the comparison that the Apostle maketh between Levi and Christ, affirming Levi did pay tythes in Abraham's loynes, but not Christ, Heb. 7. 9. Now if Christ was every way in Abraham's loynes, as Levi was, then must Christ have paid tythes in Abraham, as well as Levi, and so the Apostles Argument would be without any force.

But it may be (and indeed it is urged by Austin and others,) ‘This will prove Levi's soul to have been in Abraham, else Levi could not have been said to have paid tythes in him, but as because Christs soul was not in Abraham originally, therefore he did not pay tith, so neither might Levi

To this therefore the solid Answer is, That the reason why Christ did not pay tythes in Abraham, in the Apostles sence, was not because his soul was im­mediately from God, for so also was Levi's, but because Christ was of Abraham only, Quoad corpulentam substantiam, not seminatam rationem, his fleshly substance was from Abraham, but not by natural propagation; he was from Abraham only materialiter not effectivè, whereas Levi was both waies, and hence he cometh short of Christ.

Thirdly,Arg. 3. If so be that the soul of the parents did beget or multiply the souls of children, then this would hold also in Angels; for the multiplication of another must needs be acknowledged a perfection, where the subject is capable of it; Certainly, generation of another is not in it self an imperfection. for then in the blessed Trinity, the Sonne could not be begotten of the Father, but generation as in creatures denoteth imperfection. If then souls may come from souls, why not Angels from Angels? but this is acknowleged by all, That no Angel can produce another, but that there are as many and no more or less then was at first Creation. As for that example of the soul producing another, as we see one candle light another, that is nothing to this purpose; for therefore doth the candle inlighten another, because there is prepared and fitted matter to receive this light; so that its from prejacent materials the light is produced; but how can this be applied to the soul which is wholly spiritual, what preexistent matter that can be made of?

Fourthly,Arg. 4. If so be the soul be not by immediate Creation, then it must be mate­rial, corporal, and mortal: for although this consequence is denied, yet the evi­dence of natural reason will commend this. Its traduced (saith Tertullian) and is a body, yet is immortal: It is by propagation (say the Lutheran Divines) and yet is not a body but a spirit, and immortal: But above all, those abomina­ble Mortalists, they make it to be only the crusis of the body, of which opinion Galen also is said to be, and so they make it mortal: We see then, that its neces­sary to have a sound judgement about the original of the soul, for the Mortalists have fallen into that deep pit of heresy, because they erred in this first. It is with men, as they say of Fishes, they begin to putrify in the head first, and so com­monly men fall into loose opinions, and then into loose practises: But this rule must be acknowledged, That whatsoever depends upon matter in being, doth also depend upon it in existency: It's Aquinas his rule, (as you heard,) Quicquid de­pendet à materiâ in fieri, depend quoad esse et existere; That is the reason, why the souls of all beasts are mortal, because they depend upon the matter in being, They cannot be produced but dependently on that, and therefore their souls cannot subsist without their bodies; As it is plain, the souls of men do after death, till the resurrection; So that this Doctrine is injurious, and derogatory to our spiritual and immortal souls.

Fifthly, Arg. 5. If souls were not by immediate Creation, but by natural propagation from the parents, then either from the mother alone or from the father alone, or from both together.

This Argument Lactantius of old (as Cerda in Tertull. alledgeth him) formed [Page 197] to himself, and answers; it's neither of those waies but from God. Not from the Father alone, because David doth bewail his mothers co operation hereunto, Psal 51, Iniquity did my Mother conceive me. Not the Mother alone, because the Father is made the chief cause of conveighing this original sinne by the A­postle, he layeth it upon Adam, more then Eve, though Eve is not excluded; Not from both together, for then the soul must be partible and divisible, part from the Father and part from the Mother, and so it cannot be a simple sub­stance. Under this Argument Meisuer doth labour, and confesseth, it is inex­plicable how the soul should come from the parents, though he assaieth to give some satisfaction.

Lastly,Argum. 6. There is something even of nature implanted in us, to believe our soules come from God; who hath not almost some impression upon his conscience, to think, that he had not his soul from his parents? even nature doth almost teach us in this thing; Hence the wisest Heathens have concluded of it as Plato, and also Aristotle, who confuteth the several false opinions of Philosophers about the soul, (for it was a doubt as Tertullian (lib de animâ) expresseth it) whe­ther Aristotle was parasior sua implera, aut aliena inantre) and affirmes it [...], to come from without, and that it is a divine thing: Thus it was with some Heathens, though destitute of the Light of Gods Word, yet in some­things they did fall upon the truth, (as saith Tertullian) The Pilot in a tempestu­ous black night puts into a good haven, sometimes prospero errore, and a man in a dark place gropeth and finds the way out sometimes, caecâ quâdam felicitate: Thus did some Heathens in some things.


IF you aske, What Arguments have they, who hold the traduction of the Soul?

I answer, There is none out of Scripture, that is worth the answering: The two things they urge, are,

First, If the soul be not propagated, then man doth not beget a man, as a beast doth a beast, and he is more imperfect, then other creatures: but this is to be an­swered hereafter. The other is, Because original sinne cannot else be maintained; but this is to be answered in the Explication, how we come to pertake of it, Let us proceed to the Uses.

Vse 1. Doth God create the soul? then he must know all the thoughts, all the inward workings and motions of thy soul; As he that maketh a Clock, or a Watch, knoweth all the motions of it; Therefore take heed of soul-sinnes, of spirit-sinnes: What, though men know not your unclean thoughts, your proud thoughts, your malicious thoughts, yet God who made thy soul doth; and therefore this should make us attend to Gods eie upon us.

Vse 2. Did God make and create the soul? then he also can regenerate it, and make it new again, he made it as a Creator, and he only in the way of regeneration can make it again. This may comfort the godly that mourn and pray, Oh they would have more heavenly holy souls: They would not have such vain thoughts, such sinnefull motions: Remember, God made thy heart and he can spiritualize it.

3. Doth God create the souls? then here we see that it's our duty to give our souls to him in the first place, John 4. God is a Spirit, and will be worshipped in spirit; This hath been alwaies a complaint, men have drawed nigh to God bodily, but their hearts have been farre from him; God made thy soul more then thy body, and therefore let that be in every duty.

[Page 198] Lastly, If Parents do not make our souls, then here we see, Children must obey Parents, but in the Lord: Should thy Parents command thee to doe any sinfull action, to break the Sabbath, you must not obey, you may say, My father and mother they help me but to my body, God doth give me my soul, and therefore they are but parents of your bodies, not of your conscience and souls.

The Authors Apologie for his handling this great Question.

THe false wayes which some have wandered in, to maintain the Propagation of Original Corruption to all mankind, being detected, our work is now to explicate that Doctrine, which seemeth most consonant to solid Reason and Scripture.

But before we essay that, we are to informe you of one sort of learned Authors, who, because of the difficulty attending this Point, Whether we hold the Traduction or Creation of the soul, have thought it the most wife and sober way to acknowledge the Propagation of original Sinne; But as for the manner How, there to have a modest suspense of our judgement, to professe a learned ignorance herein to believe That it is, though How it is so, we know not. And Tertullian, concerning the original of the soul (Lib. de Animâ) hath this known saying, Praestat per Deum nescire, quae ipse non revelaverit, quàm per hominem scire, quae ipse praesumpserit. In this way of suspense Austin continued as long as he lived, thinking that this might be one of those Truths, we shall not know, till we come into the Academy of Heaven; and to this modest silence, we have one place of Scripture, which might much incline us, Eccles. 11. 5. As thou knowest not the way of the Spirit, nor how the bones doe grow in the womb, &c. This Text should teach us not to [...], to venture too farre, but to observe the light of the Scripture, as they did the Pillar and Cloud in the wildernesse to stand still, where that stands still; And indeed the Disputes about the Modes of things, is very intricate. The known saying is Motum, sometimes Modum nescimus, the manner of Gods working in conversion, The man­ner of Christs presence in the Sacrament, what endlesse controversies hath it begotten? And therefore it was the King of Navarr's counsel to the Divines, when the Lutherans and Calvinists were upon pacification about the Sacrament, that they should not De modo ultra modum disputare. Now although this be good counsel, yet when heretical and erroneous opinions have invaded the Modus, then it is our duty to maintain not onely the truth of a thing, but the manner of it also; What is a greater mystery then the Sonne of God, having his being from the Father? He that will touch this mystery with meer natural reason, doth as if the Smith should handle his live-coals with his hands and not the Tongs, saith Chrysostome, yet because of the Socinians, who say, ‘He is onely a made God in time, and hath his Deity by donation;’ We are forced not to be content one­ly to believe, that he is the Sonne of God, but also how, viz. By eternal Generation; So in the great Controversie with the Arminians about the conversion of man. It is not enough to say, we are converted by grace, but are necessitated also to expresse the manner How, not by a moral sua­sion, or per modum sapientiae onely, but by invincible efficacy and power al­so. Thus the manner of Christs presence, in the Sacrament was necessarily [Page 199] to be determined against the Lutherans. Thus it is in our point in hand, we might well enough sit down with this Truth, That original sinne is com­municated to every sonne of Adam, and enquire no further, as the primi­tive Church did till Austin's time, in a great measure; But when Heretiques will deny the true Doctrine, because the manner is difficult to expresse; or when men will deny the Creation of the soul, then it's our duty in a sober manner to search into the way, how we partake of it: Neither doth the fore mentioned Text contradict this; For, though we know not how the bones grow in the womb exactly and punctually, yet we know in the ge­neral, that they do by virtue of generation; So although we know not par­ticularly how the soul cometh to have its being in the body, yet in the ge­neral, that it is by Creation, we have had Scripture light fully to convince us therein.

This then premised, Let us proceed to clear the Doctrine of the Propagation of original sinne, and that by several Propositions, which will be as so many steps and degrees to the main Truth.

Propositions to clear the Doctrine of the Propagation of Original Sinne by the Souls Creation.

FIrst, We lay this for a foundation, That God doth create the soul of eve­ry man a spiritual substance. This Proposition must be the foundation-stone to build upon. That God doth create the soul immediately, you have heard several Texts attesting thereunto. So that Bellarmine was too dissi­dent, when moved, (it seemed) by Austin, doth wave all Texts of Scripture for the creation of the soul, and so proceedeth to other Arguments. Perie­rius on 2 Chap. of Genes. vers. 7. giveth a better censure of Austin: for having produced some Texts for the Creation of the soul, he saith, Conatur Augustinus, sed frustra hos locos elidere. I shall adde one more fit for that purpose also. The Text is 1 Pet. 4. 19. Wherefore let them that suffer, ac­cording to the will of God, commit the keeping of their souls unto God, as to a faithfull Creator. Here the afflicted children of God are required, as Christ did, to commend their souls to God, and the reason is, Because he is a faithfull Creator of them; So that Gods Creation of them is here made an engagement to God to keep them, they being now sanctified and made holy.

Our souls then are created: In the next place, I say, they are created Substances: This is to obviate those that make the soul onely an accident, or the crasis and temperament of the humours; Galen (as Cerda on Ter­tull. de animâ alledgeth him) in his second Book of prediction by the pul­ses, hath this passage, ‘Hitherto I have doubted, what should be the sub­stance of the soul, but by age and experience being made wiser, I dare be bold to affirm it is no other thing, then the temperament; He was not made wiser, but more absurd and foolish in this thing. Yea, there is one Dicaearchus much spoken of, that said, ‘The soul was nothing, it was but an opinion; And the Mortalists they directly joyn with Galen's opi­nion. Who would think, that when we have the Scripture speaking so plain­ly about the soul, that it is a spirit, that it removeth when the body is kil­led, that any should be delivered up to such licentious and abominable Do­ctrines?

[Page 200] Again, I adde, God createth it a spiritual substance. This opposeth the Sadduces, who denied any spirits. It is plaine by Scripture, that they are substances and spiritual ones, because they subsist without the body. Ter­tullian, though he doth so acutely perstringe the Philosophers about the soul, yet some of them were more sound then he, ‘Men (saith he) have thought about the soul, either as Platonis honor, Zenonis vigor, Aristotelis tenor, Epicuri stupor, Heracliti maestor, Empedoclis furor persuaserint. It is true, some of these thought the souls to be bodies, and so doth Tertullian, and happily he might have been excused by taking body largely, for that which is not nihil, in which sense he attributeth a body to God, but that he saith the soul is not only a body, but effigiated and shaped also, yea that the souls differ in sex, which is very irrational; We may then conclude this with a saying of Numertus, That if any souls are corporeal, it is of those, who say, souls are corporeal.

A second Proposition is, That though God doth create immediately the souls of all men spiritual substances, yet they are not compleat and perfect substan­ces, as Angles are, but the essential parts of men. Upon this Proposition de­pends much weight of this Truth about the communicating of original sinne, for we are apt to think God createth our souls like Angels, perfect and ha­ving subsistency of themselves, whereas they are created as parts of a man, neither do they come from God any otherwise, If God should create a soul to subsist of it self, and not to be united to the body to constitute a man, that soul would not be polluted. But because every soul is created as an essential part of man, and so hath its being: Hence it is, That it cometh into the world part of Adam, and so obnoxious to that curse, which he had deserved; whatsoever then in its first being is part of man, that is partaker of A­dam's sinne and curse; But the soul in its first instant of being is part of man, therefore no wonder if it became polluted and cursed. The example of that miraculous Resurrection of Lazarus and others may something clear this, they were fully dead, their souls and bodies union dissolved, yet be­cause their souls were not made perfect and pure without sinne, and tran­slated into Heaven, but by the power of God detained here on earth, that the glory of Christ might be exalted, he doth unite this soul, though with pollution to the body: Now Gods uniting of the sinfull soul to the body, did not make him the cause of any sinne therein, Because he united it as part of that man, who yet was not wholly purged from sinne. Now the reason why the soul is created, not as a perfect substance in it self, is, Because it's the forme of man, not an assisting forme, and therefore is not in the body, as when an Angel did assume bodies, or as a man in his house, or as a Musician useth an Instrument, but a form informing, whereby it is made an intrinsecal essential part of a man: The truth of this will give much light to our point in hand, the soul is created by God, The informing forme of a man, and so hath no other consideration, but as an essential part of him; and therefore seeing the man is in Adam, whose soul this is, that is thereby exposed to all the sinne of Adam; Hence it is that there is some difference between the creation of Angles, and the Chaos at first, which were made absolutely of nothing, and of the soul; For the soul, though it be created of nothing, yet because a form hath an essential respect to its matter; for which cause Contarenus (as Zanchy saith) affirmed, ‘The soul had a middle way of being between Creation and Generation;’ and therefore is that distincti­on of some learned men, that though the soul be not ex materiâ, yet it is in ma­teriâ, God did not create it, but in the body, though not of the body, and thus farre it may be said to be of man, as that he is the cause, though not of the being of the soul, yet of the being of it n this body.

[Page 201] The third Proposition, The soul being thus created an essential part of a man, and the form informing of him: Hence it is, That we must not conceive the soul to be first created, as it were, of it self subsisting, and then infused into the body, but when the materials are sufficiently prepared then as the Schoolmen expresse it well, Infundendo creatur, and creando infudi­tur, it's infused by the creating of it, and created by infusing; So that the soul is made in the body organized, not without it; so the Scripture, Zech. 12. 1. Who formeth the spirit of man with him, and because of the souls un­on to the body when thus disposed; Hence it is that man may truly and univocally be said to beget a man, though his soul be created; for seeing man who is the compositum, is the Terminus generationis; Hence it is that man begets man, as well as a beast, though the soul of a beast be from the matter, as we see in Christ, the Virgin Mary is truly said to be the mo­ther of Christ, though she was not the mother of his Divine Nature, nor of his soul. Thus man doth properly beget another man, though the soul be by Creation (as the matter also according to Philosophy is ingenerable) because the soul is united to the body, prepared and disposed for it by man; from which union resulteth the whole person or compositum, consisting of soul and body: So that although man be not the cause of his childs souls being, yet that it hath a being in this body, and thereby such a person produced, he is the cause of it, and by this, if well understood, you may see original sinne communicated to every one, though the soul be created, In that way which the humane nature is communicated to every one: So that if we tru­ly know how a man is made a man from his parents, we may also know how sin is thereby also communicated.

The fourth Proposition is, Although God doth daily create new souls, yet his Decree and Purpose to do so was from all eternity; And therefore in this respect we may say all men consisting of souls and bodies were present to God in Adam in respect of Gods Decree, and also his Covenant with A­dam, so that although there be a new Creation, yet there is no new institu­tion or ordination on Gods part; Whereas therefore it's thought hard, that because Adam was so many thousand years ago, the soul created now should partake of his sinne. The Answer is, That in respect of Gods Decree and Covenant we were all present to God in Adam; There is no man hath his being De Novo, but unto God he was present from eternity; so that though the things in time have a succession of being, yet to God all are present in eternity: Not that we can say they were actually sinners, or actually ju­stified, but in respect of Gods purpose all were present, and this will help much to facilitate this difficulty, we are as present to God in respect of his Decree, and knowledge, as if we had been then actually in Adam, in which sense it's said, Omnes fuerunt ille unus homo, and Act. 15. 18. Known to God are all his works from the beginning.

The fifth Proposition. Hence it is that the just and wise God is not to al­ter, and change that course of nature, because man hath sinned. It is vain to say, Why will God unite this soul to the body, when thereby both shall be polluted? For though man hath by his sinne deserved that this should be, yet God is not therefore to cease of the continuing and multiplying of man­kind, God doth keep to the fixed course of nature, notwithstanding mans sinne; And therefore we see that even to those, who are begot in fornica­tion and whoredome, yet even to such in that unlawfull act, God giveth souls, because he will not interrupt the course of nature.

The sixth Proposition. Adam by his first transgression did deserve that all who should be of him, should be deprived of the Image of God, and the priva­tion [Page 202] of that doth necessarily inferre the presence of all sinne in a subject sus­ceptible: As take away light from the air, and it must be dark; so that this Proposition answereth the whole difficulty: Adam deserved by his transgres­sion, that all his posterity should become dead in sinne; and as he had thus deserved it, so God had ordained it, and appointed it; The soul then of every one being made part of that man who is thus cursed in Adam, it be­comes deprived of the Image of God, and so full of sinne; So that although God create the soul naturally good, yet because part of man condemned by his sentence, he denieth it that original righteousnesse it once had; God doth not infuse any evil into the soul, nor is the Author of any sinne therein, but as a just Judge denieth that righteousnesse, which otherwise the soul might have had: So that you must not look for an efficient cause of original sinne in the soul, but a deficient, and a meritorious cause: So that the Summe is this, If you ask, How cometh the soul defiled, if created of God? I answer, The Meritorious cause is Adam's disobedience, by his transgression he demerited this for all that should come of him. And if you say, Who putteth the sinne in? I answer, There is no efficient cause that putteth it in: It is enough that God doth justly refuse to give or continue his Image. And this being denied the soul, because a subject either of holinesse or sinne, when wanting one must necessarily fall into the other: Thus it is with the souls being polluted, as it is with night, there is no efficient cause of the night, only the withdraw­ing of the Sunne necessarily maketh it: So God doth nothing positively to make the soul sinfull, but according to his just appointment at first denieth that righteousnesse, which Adam wilfully put away from himself and his po­sterity: So that we may as easily conceive of every childs souls pollution by sinne, as of Adam and Eve themselves. God made them righteous, but upon their transgression they became unclean and sinfull: How was this? God in justice denied the continuance of this holinesse to them any longer, so that they became sinfull, not because God infused evil, but denied him that righ­teousnesse to them. This may fully satisfie the sober and modest minded man.

Therefore the last Proposition is, That we cannot say, the soul being pure in it self cometh into the body, and so is insected; As if some wine should be put in a poisoned vessel, for the soul and the body do mutually infect one another, not physically by contact, but morally; For the soul being desti­tute of the Image of God in all its operations, is sinfull, and so all the bo­dily actions are polluted: And then again, the body that having lost the properties it had before the fall, is a clod and a burden to the soul: Thus they doe mutually help to damne one another, the soul polluteth the body, and the body that again polluteth the soul; And thus those two which at first God put together in so near an union to make man happy, are now so defiled, that both from soul and from body, the matter of his damnati­on doth arise. It is true, we may say inchoatively, Sinne it in the body be­fore enlivened by the soul, in which sense David bewailed his being concei­ved in sinne, but explicitely and formally it cannot be, and therefore we are not to conceive sinne in the body before the soul be united, or in the soul before the body be joyned to it, but as soon as they both became man, then they are under the just curse of God, and the soul being blind, and the body same, they both fall into that eternal pit of damnation, if the grace of God deliver not.

I may in time shew how many wayes the soul defileth the body, and the body againe infecteth the soul (viz.) in a moral sense, and therefore let this suffice for the present; Onely from what hath been said, let us turn our [Page 203] Disputation into Deploration, Let the head busied to argue, be now as much ex­ercised to weep; Jeremiah wished his head was a fountain of tears for the slain of his people, and that was but a temporal death, and that of one Nation only, How much more may we desir so for the spiritual death, and that of all in the world? Say unto all Heretical Teachers, Get ye behind me Satans, you hinder and trou­ble me in my humiliation: Is not the Infant new born swadled and bound up hand and feet, and so lieth crying? A sad representation, that so God might bind every one, and send him crying to Hell: Thus original sinne opened Hell, kindled the fire of Hell, there was no Hell till this was com­mitted: Oh grievous necessity and unhappy condition we are all born in! Antequam peccemus peccato constringimur, antequam delinquimus delicto tene­mur. This, even this seriously considered, should make us have no rest, till we be put into the second Adam, in whom we have Justification and Sal­vation.


A TREATISE OF Original Sin.

The Third Part.

HANDLING The Subject of ORIGINAL SINN IN What Part it doth reside, and what Powers of the Soul are corrupted by it.

By Anthony Burgess.


LONDON, Printed in the Year, 1658.

A TREATISE OF Original Sinne. PART. III.

Of the Pollution of the Mind with Original Sinne.


EPHES. 4. 23.‘And be ye renewed in the spirit of your mind.’

COncerning our Subject of Original Sinne, these particulars have been largely treated on, viz. That it is, What it is, and How it is communicated. The next thing therefore in our method to be considered, is, The Subject of Inhesion, wherein it is, in what part it doth reside, and what powers of the soul are corrupted by it. There is indeed made by Divines a two fold Subject of original sinne.

1. Of Predication, the persons in whom it is affirmed to be, and that is in all who naturally come of Adam, Christ only is excepted; And in this there is not much controversie, onely the Francisean Papists opposing the Dominicans, do hotly contend, that the Vir­gin. [Page 208] Mary was by special priviledge exempted from original sinne, Scotus seem­eth to be the first, that made it received as a kind of an Ecclesiastical opinion, whereas formerly it was but thought doubtfull, or at most probable: It is not worth the while to trouble you with this, and I may have occasion ere the sub­ject be dispatched to say, what will be necessary to it: I shall therefore proceed to that which is more practical and profitable, even to search into the seat and bowels of this original sinne, that we may be fully informed, no part of the soul is free from this pestilence. To which truth the Text in hand will contribute great assistance. And

For the Coherence of it briefly take notice that the Apostle at the 17th verse giveth a short but dreadfull Description of a Gentile conversation, or the life of one without the knowledge of Christ; wherein you may observe a three-fold ignorance or blindness upon all such, so impossible is it that of themselves they should ever come to see; There is a natural blindness, a voluntary contracted blindness, and a Judicial one inflicted on them by God, for abuse of natural light. These there are mentioned in the 18th verse. And in this vers. 19. we have the formidable consequence declared, That being past feeling, no remorse of conscience in them, They give up themselves to all wickednesse with greedinesse: Oh that this were only among Pagans! But how many have this natural, volun­tary and judicial blindness and obstinacy upon them under the light of the Gospel? Yea, their eyes are more blinded, and hearts more hardned, where the means of grace have been contemned, then in the places where the name of Christ hath not been known. This black condition of Heathens being described, he compa­reth those of Christians with it, and so we have darkness and light here set toge­ther; And this the Apostle declareth, vers. 20. But ye have not so learned Christ; Christ teacheth no such wickednesse, yet because many may have a bare know­ledge, and a vain empty profession of Christ, and live such Paganish lives, he addeth a corrective to his speech, which is worthy of all attention, If so be ye have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus. This is an excellent limitation, men may know Christ, professe Christ, and yet not do it, as the truth is in Je­sus; that is not to obey the Doctrine of Christ, as he hath commanded; Christ never required that thou shouldst only make a profession of faith in him, and then for thy life, that that may be full of vice and corruption, know, if you do so, you know not the truth as it is in Jesus Christ. We have a like expression, Colos. 1. 6. where the godly are said, To know the grace of God in truth [...], and Tit. 1. 1. There is the acknowledging of the truth after godlinesse: Oh let such hear, and let their ears tingle, and their hearts tremble, who come to Church, profess Christ, and yet runne in all excesse of riot! What doth any knowledge profit if it be not of the truth as it is in Jesus, if it be not an acknowledgment after godlinesse, thou deniest the faith, and art indeed worse then an Heathen? There is Theologia rationalia and experimentalis, as Gerson, or Theologia docens and utens. It is this later, viz. an exercised experimental Divinity, that maketh a Divine properly: Therefore Amesius his definition of Theologia is good, that it is Doctrius Deo vivendi, a Doctrine whereby we are taught to live unto God. Every wicked Christian is worse then a Pagan; But who will believe this report? Now that we may know what it is to know truth as it is in Jesus, he instanceth in a twosold effect or demonstration thereof:

The first is, To put off the old man with the decitfull lusts thereof. This old man you heard is original sinne, this must be mortified with the immediate issues there­of: So that a true knowledge of Christ doth not only cleanse the strems, but the fountain also, doth not onely change the conversation of a man, but the heart, the affections, the whole man. It goeth to the root as well as the branches.

And the second effect is in the Text, To be renewed in the spirit of your mind; [Page 209] wherein we are to observe the Duty, and the Subject of it. The Duty is [...] To be renewed; We read it Imperatively, but in the Greek it is the Infinitive mood, as also the Duty to put off, mentioned ver. 22. is in the same mood, for these Infinitives do relate to the Verb, being taught as the truth is in Christ, to be taught to put off, to be taught to be renewed; If so be we conceive of those to whom Paul writeth, as converted already, then this duty of renovation, is to be understood of further increased and degrees. To be more renewed every day, for it is usual with the Apostle to write to those who are supposed to be in the state of grace, that they should be more sanctified and reconciled to God. To be renewed, is to have the mind indowed with new Properties and Qualities; for ignorance, know­ledge; for atheism and unbelief, faith; for sinfull and vain thoughts, gracious and holy ones, &c. So that there are two extreame errours in the expounding of this:

1. Of the Illyricans, who as they held sinne to be the substance of a man, so this renovation they must hold to be substantial, not accidental. But it's absurd to say, a man must have a new soul essentially in regeneration.

The other extream is of Socinians, for they holding, There is no such thing as original sinne, they must needs say, That this renovation is only in regard of con­tracted sinne, and external impiety in the life, not in respect of any inbred and inherent pollution in the mind: But this also is against the Scri­pture.

The second thing in the Text, is the Subject of this renovation, The spirit of your mind. Concerning the difference between spirit and mind, many thoughts have been, but either it is an Hebraism, and is no more then the mind which is a spirit, or else spirit is taken for that which is the most sublime, noble, and also most active and vigorous in a man. Thus Job 20. 3. we have the spirit of under­standing, And Isa. 11. 2. The spirit of wisdom, the spirit of counsel, and the spi­rit of knowledge; Yea, it is sometime applied to the vigorous and high actings of evil, as Hos. 4. 12. The spirit of whoredom; And the spirit of whoredoms, Hosea 5. 4. So that when the Apostle doth not say, Be renewed in your mind, but in the spirit of your mind; This supposeth, That what is most choise, excellent and noble, even in the rational part of a man, called for its dignity [...], yet this is all over polluted by original sinne, and so needeth a renovation: As for those who by the spirit would understand the holy Ghost, that is most absurd, For how can we be renewed in that?


THe Text thus opened, we may see two Doctrines in the womb of it, the first implied and supposed, viz.

1. That the mind of every man in all the choise operations thereof, is wholly pollu­ted and stained.

2. Because it is thus polluted that needs regeneration and renovation as well as any other parts.

The former Doctrine is only to my subject in hand; for now my work is to shew you, Wherein this contagion doth discover it self? And I shall begin with that which hath the greatest dignity in a man, and if that hath not escaped pollu­tion, much lesse may we think the other parts have; And if the eye be dark, how great must our darknesse be? And before we speak particularly to that, let us say something in the general about the subject wherein this original sinne is seated.


FIrst, There hath been some, who have not so much seated it in the soul, as made the very soul and substance of a man to be original sinne; So that we might properly and truly say, Man was sinne it self. The Author of this was Flaccius Illyricus, who in many things is to be praised for his diligence and indu­stry, but he was of a turbulent spirit, very restless; insomuch that in his studies at first, he was so greatly tempted, that many times publick prayer was made for him in the solemn Assemblies. (Vide Horned. Sum. Controv. de Lutheranismo.) This man out of great earnestness to oppose Papists, yea and the Lutheran Stri­gelius, who extenuated original sinne, fell into another extream, making it to be the very substance of man. It is true, Some have excused him, as thinking his opinion was sound, onely his words were obscure and dangerous, for he doth often distinguish between the Homo Physicus, and the Homo Theologicus, he ma­keth the Theological man, as he is in such a consideration to be onely sinfull. But surely it is as easie to understand Epicurus his Atoms, Pythagoras his numbers, Plato's Ideas, Aristotle's Entelechias, as Illirieus his Homo theologicus in the way he layeth it down, denying all along, that original sinne is an accident. This opi­nion made a great rent among the Lutherans, whereof some were called Sub­stantiarii, others Accidentarii, as Coceius the Papist relateth (Coccius Thes. de peccato.) but this is to be refused with great indignation: Original sinne is most intimately cleaving to us, inseparably joyned to the nature of man, yet it is not the nature of man, for then Christ could not have taken our nature without sin. Though therefore it be seated in the soul, and that most tenaciously, yet it is not the essence of a man: But of this more in its time.

Secondly, It is also a great Dispute among the Schoolmen, Whether original sinne be immediately and proximely seated in the essence of the soul, or in the powers of it? Whether because it is first in the essence of the soul, therefore the understanding and will are corrupted? Or, Whether these powers are first pol­luted and infected by it? But this is founded upon a philosophical Dispute, Whe­ther the soul and the faculties thereof are distinguished: And therefore I shall not trouble you with it.

Thirdly, Some Papists have limited original sinne onely to the affections, to the inferiour and sensitive part of a man, as if sinne were not in the understand­ing, and reason at all, but in the affections and fleshly part onely; But the more learned of the Papists gainsay this, and do acknowledge, that the mind as well as other parts is polluted with this leprosie.

Wherein Original Sinne hath infected the minds of all men.

THese things premised, Let us consider, Wherein original sinne hath in­fected the minds of all men, so that in respect thereof that is to be renew­ed. And

I First, Horrible ignorance of God, and the things of salvation doth cover the soul of every man by nature, even as darknesse was upon the face of the deep. Thus Rom. 3. you heard the Apostle pronounceth generally, There is Rome that understandeth, or seeketh after God, No, not one. Hence also Ephes. 5. 8. uncon­verted persons are said to be darknesse in the very abstract, and that both because of their original and acquired blindness of mind upon them; What could the [Page 211] wisest and most learned of the world do in respect of any knowledge of Christ, if this were not revealed? for this cause it is called the Ministery, and the Gos­pel is constantly compared to light, and all the world is said, To sit in darkness till this doth arise; so that our minds are by nature wholly ignorant about our selves, about God and Christ, which made our Saviour say to Peter, upon his confession, That flesh and blend had not revealed this to him: whereas then in the state of integrity our minds were as gloriously filled with all perfections, and abilities, as the firmament with slarres, there was sapience, in respect of God, science, in respect of all natural things to be known, and prudence, in respect of all things to be done; now our eie is put out, and like Sampson, the Philistims can do what they please with us, for this respect it is, that every creature is better then man, they have a natural instinct, whereby they know what is proper for them, Opera natura sunt opera artis, or intelligeniae; They have as much knowledge sensitive (I mean) as they were made with at first, even the least creatures and most despicable; yea God is, maximus in minimus, most wonder full in the least things, which made Austin preferre Fly before the Sunne, and that he did more admire, Opera Formicarum, then Onera Came­lorum, the wise workes of the Ant, before the heavy burdens of Camels: Thus all creatures have a suteable knowledge for their end in their way, only man is in horrible darkness, and is absolutely ignorant about God or his own happi­ness. Therefore those opinions of some, who attribute a possibility of salva­tion to Heathens, by the natural knowledge they have, do in effect make void Christ and the Gospel.

Secondly, Original sinne doth not only deprive us of all knowledge of God in a saving way, but also filleth us with error, and positive mistakes, whereby we have not only unbelief, but misbelief, our condition were not so universally miserable, if so be our mindes were only in a not knowing, or meer privative ignorance about God: but oh the gross soul and absurd perswasions men have naturally about God! The Atheisme naturally that is in us, either denying or doubting about God; but especially, the false and absurd representations of God to us; It is from the error in mans mind, that Polytheisme hath so abounded, perswading themselves of many gods; yea, the idolatry that hath filled the pagarish world, and under subtile distractions hath invaded the Church also, doth abundantly proclaim original ignorance and error in us about divine things; yea, the wiser men, as the Apostle observeth, Rom. 1. They became the more foolish in their imaginations, turning the image of God into the likeness of the vilest creatures.

But before we proceed, we must answer an Objection, that may be made to the Doctrine delivered; for it will easily be said, That the corruption hither­to mentioned in the understanding is actual sinne rather then original; Ignorance, Atheisme, I dolatrical thoughts of God, these must necessarily be judged actual; and if it be so, Why do we ascribe this to original? And indeed this Objection is commonly made by Papists, against the Positions and Confessions which the Protestants have made about original sinne; for when they discribe the nature of it, they usually instance in particulars, as horrible ignorance, Atheism, and dissidence in the mind, &c. To this the Papists reply, saying, We confound actual and original sinne; yea, when we bring that famous place. Gen. 5. 6. The imaginations of the thoughts of the heart, are onely evil, and that continually, to prove original sinne, they reply the same thing to that Text also.

Therefore to clear this, we are to know, that it is true, Atheisme, ignorance; these are actual sinnes, as they are put in exercise, but yet when we ascribe them to original sinne, we do not so much mean, the actual exercise of these evils, as the Proneness and propensity of the heart to them: So that our meaning is, The heart of it self is prone to all these actual wickednesses; Therefore [Page 212] though we name these as actual, yet you must understand them, habitually and seminally, there being an inclination to all that impiety.

Only the reason, why we describe original sinne thus, as if it were actual pollution, it is, Because that it is a principle alwaies acting, it never ceaseth; the sparkes of this lust are like those of hell which never go out; as the heart of a man naturally, never ceaseth its motion, so neither doth the evil heart of a man.

This difficulty being removed, let us proceed to discover further actings of original sinne in the mind, and spirit of man, And

II The second in order is, That incapacity, which is in every mans understan­ding about holy things: Divine and supernatural things are no more received by him, then a Beast doth apprehend the things of reason; We have this fully affirmed, 1 Cor. 2. 14. But the natural man receiveth not the things of God, neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned; you see there is no habitude or proportion between the understannding of a natural man, and spiritual things, no more, then is between the bodily eie, and a spiritual: [...], is one that doth, excolere animam, such as labour to adorne and perfect the soul, with the most intellectual and moral indowments that are: a Tully, a Plato, an Aristotle, these, if brought to Gospel-truth, are not so much as noctuae ad solem, Owles to the Sunne-beames; To this purpose also, Rom. 8. 7, we have not only this truth asserted, but also aggravated, where the carnal mind is said, To be enmity against God, and it is not subject to the Law of God, neither can it be. By which places of Scripture, it is evident, That the mind of man, hath an utter incapacity, as to any divine things. Indeed there is a passive capacity, as some express it, and so the mind of man is susceptible of holy truth, and such a capacity is not in a beast; as that is not capable of sinne, so neither of regeneration; But then there is an active capacity, when the soul by some ability and power of its own, is able to move to these supernatural objects; and thus the understanding of the most learned in the world, cannot of it self receive it, and therefore faith is said, To be the gift of God; so that we may justly abhorre the Arminians, Probitas animi, and Pia doxilitas, which they make preparatory or main part to conversion: Now there is a twofold receiving of divine Truths.

1. Speculatively, by a bare dogmatical assent; and even thus, none by nature can receive the Truths of God; for the Pharisees though they heard Christ preached, and saw the miracles he did, yet they did not believe with so much as a dogmatical faith.

2. There is a practical, and experimental receiving of holy Truths in the power of them, which is here called, the knowing of Truths, as they are in Jesus, and this much less are we able to receive: To the former is required the com­mon grace of God; To this a more special one. Wonder not then, if you see men, even the most learned, naturally so brutish, so ignorant about divine things, That they have no more understanding, and apprehension about heavenly things, Oh bewail original corruption, which maketh thee so unteachable, so untractable! Why doth not every Scripture-truth, every powerfull Sermon have its full and powerfull operation upon thee, but because it doth not me et with a preparedand fitted subject?

III Thirdly, Original sin polluteth the understanding, by making it to incline to curio­sity, and a prying into such things, which God hath not revealed. Adam's actual sinne, which is our original imputed one, was partly this, They desired to be as gods, to know good and evil, which hath left its impression upon all: Like the Bethshemite, we desire to be looking into the Ark. The Apostle, 1 Cor. 4. 6, as he would not have the Corinthians, think of men, above that which is written, so much less of God contrary to that which is revealed: [Page 213] This is a great evil upon the understandings of men by original sinne that now the mind is not contented with the rule God hath given it; They think it a small and contemptible matter to know no more then what may be known by the Scripture, but they affect extraordinary things; This curiosity is that which filled the Church once with so many Schoolemen and their Questi­ons, as Aegypt was once with Caterpillars. It is true, School-divinity hath its use, and so farre as they deal solidly, and improve natural reason in any point, they are very admirable; but when once they fall into their useless, unprofitable and sublime Questions, where neither the Word of God, or sure reason can conduct them, then they vanish like smoak in the air: how rash are they in their Disputes about Angels? With what nice conceits have they obscured the Doctrine of the Trinity? Insomuch that we may see much of original sinne in them, inclining and hurrying of them to a bold and ven­turous determination of such things, which God hath not manifested; so that none of their seraphical, sublime, or angelical Doctors, could begin their Disputations, as John his Epistle: That which we have seen, we have heard, and our hands have handled; 1 Joh 1. 1. Though therefore the Schoolemen have in somethings their great use, yet in their difficult niceties, which are but as so many cob-webs, there they are as much to be slighted; as one king did a man, who boasted, he could stand at a distance and throw a grain of corn through the eie of a needle. Again this original curiosity of the mind, ven­teth it self in all those Magick Arts and Witchcrafts which have abounded in the world; as also in judiciary Astrology, and such deceitful impostures, men affecting, as Adam did, to be like God, to be able to declare the things that are to come. Act. 19▪ 19. They are called, curious arts. Furthermore this curiosity of the mind is seen, in nauseating and disdaining known things, and what are already discovered, and ambitiously thirsting to find out some Veritas incognita, as others have done Terra incognita, To bring such new things to the world, that were never knowen, or heard before: It's from this sinful curiosity, that men forsake the good Truths of God, and runne after heresies, errors, and whatsoever hath novellisme in it: so that he, who would examine himself about his regeneration, must look to the renovation of his mind in this particular, as well as any other.

Fourthly, Original sinne discovereth it self in our minds, by the vanity that IIII they are filled with, 1 Cor. 3▪ 20, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain; If the thoughts of wise men (without the Scripture) be vain, how much more of men, who have no more then natural ability? And certainly this must needs be a very heavy censure upon man, that he who hath the best parts, the greatest understanding, yet till grace sanctify, he is but a vain man; His mind is a vain mind, his understanding is a vain under­standing; many waies the vanity of it might be discovered, as thus, The understanding of man is naturally more affected with pleasing things, then with solid and sound Truths; it is more affected with words, language, jests, and merry tales, then with that matter which tendeth to spiritual edification; Is not this a great instance of the vanity upon our minds? to regard leaves more then fruit, chaff more then good seed, pictures and shews more then substan­ces: whence ariseth that delight in embroydered language, in playes and Co­medies, and in Romances, and such bubles, and empty vapours, but from a va­nity upon mans mind? To be pleased with stories, and merry tales, more then a powerfull and divine Sermon? Is not this, because mans mind is vain? Since mans fall, as the will, though a noble part of the soul, yet doth act de­pendently and slavishly to the sensitive appetite; we will not what is good, and the acceptable will of God, but what our sinful affections suggest to us: so the understanding, though the satred faculty, (as it were) of the soul, yet [Page 214] acts dependently on the fancie, and so what tickleth and pleaseth that, the mind also is most affected with. Austin did much confess and bewail this vani­ty of his mind, whereby he did disdain the simplicity of the Scripture, and de­sired to hear that eloquent Ambrose, not out of love to matter, but to words; This is a childish vanity, like Children that delight in a Book for the pictures that are in it, not the matter contained therein. This vain mind hath some­times affected both Preacher and Hearer, what applauded Sermons have there been, and yet nothing in them but descanting upon words, and affecting a verbal pomp, being like the Nightingale Vox & preterea nihil, like Puppets stuft with bumbast, having no life at all within them? and all was accoun­ted prating that was not such a wordy preaching. And, truely, this vanity hath much infected the mind of hearers; men coming to the Word preached, not as to hear the Oracles of God, with fear and trembling, but as to the Schooles of oratory, looking to the powdring of their words, and the dressing of the language, as much as to the setting and ordering of their own hair; Is not this a great evil and vanity, thus to regard the healing of the finger, when the heart is deadly sick? If thy mind be renewed in this, it will also appear, and for that vanity, there will be solid gravity.

V Fifthly, Original sinne filleth the mind with exceeding great folly; So that no man born a natural fool is more to be pitied, then every man who by nature is a spiritual fool. Those conceited wise ones of the world, who condemne the godly for a company of fools, they are fools in the highest degree, as may easily be evinced: If so be (Job 4. 18.) God is said, To charge his Angels with folly, (and that, as some expound,) even the good Angels themselves, because that wisedome they have comparatively to Gods, is but folly; how much more is this true of man fallen, who hath lost that wisedome God once bestow­ed upon him? If you ask, Wherein doth a natural mans folly appear? Truly in every thing he doth, Eccl. 10. 3, His wisdom: faileth him, and he saith to every one, he is a fool; Every oath, every lie, every drunken fit proclaimeth a man to be but a fool; If he had the wisedome of Gods Word he could never do so; especially the folly of man by nature is seen these waies.

1. In making himself merry with sinne. It is jollity and sport to him, to be fullfilling the lusts of the flesh, and is not this folly, to be playing with the flames of hell? as you see fools go laughing to the stocks, so do they to hell, Prov. 10. 23, It is a sport to a fool to do mischief; herein then thy foolish mind is seen, that thou canst laugh and sport it so in the actings of sinne, which are the preparatoryes to those everlasting burnings in hell.

2. Thy folly by nature is seen, In preferring a creature before God; what is this but the fools bable before the Tower of London, as the Proverb is? yet this folly is bound up in every man, till grace make him wiser; he loveth the creature more then God, he had rather have a drop then the ocean, earth then heaven, dirt then gold; Is not this greater folly then can be expressed? yet till regenerated, such a fool thou art, though thou art never so wise in thy own conceit.

3. We are naturally foolish, In that we attend only to those things that are for the present, and never at all look to eternity; becoming herein like bruit beasts, that regard only what is before them. Moses doth in the name of God wish, Oh that my people were wise (Deut. 32. 29.) that they would under­stand their latter end! It is wisdome to look to the future; hence they say, Pru­dens, is, qussi porro videns, he seeth a farre off; but take any natural man, doth all the wisdome he hath, ever make him to attend to eternity? what will be­come of him at the day of judgement? now he is at ease, and in good liking, but what shall he do, when that great day shall come? he is farre from Hie­rem's temper, thinking he heard alwaies that terrible noise sounding in his [Page 215] eares, Arise and come to judgement; Oh thy folly then! who dost in effect say, Give me that which is sweet here, though hereafter I be tormented to all eternity.

4. Thy folly is abundantly discovered in this, that thou takest no paines to know the best things, the chiefest things, the things that most concerne thee. Naturally thou knowest nothing of God, or Christ, or the way to heaven, which yet is the proper end for which God made thee; if folly did not reign in thy under­standing, thou wouldst not be so careless herein: Thou art carefull to know how to live in this world, but not how to live eternally in the world to come; Thou knowest how to buy and sell, how to plough and sow, but knowest not the principles of Religion, which must save thee, Doth not this proclaim thy folly?

5. Original sinne is discovered in our foolish mind, By the inconsiderateness that it is guilty of. It's want of consideration that damneth a man. Intelle­ctus cogitabundus est principium omnis boni, Psal. 50. Oh consider this, ye that forget God Did a man consider the majesty of God, the dreadfullness of hell, [...]he shortness of the pleasures of sinne, the mortality of the body and the im­mortality of the soul, How could he sinne? This foolish inconsiderateness maketh man, though mortal, to procrastinate his conversion, he is alwaies be­ginning to repent, beginning to reforme, Inter caetera mala, hoc habet stultitia, se [...]per incipit vivere.

6. Not to inlarge in this, Thy folly in thy mind is seen, By thy impru­dence and injudiciousness; Thou dost not judge godliness, the favour of God and grace, better then the whole world; as the child thinketh his nut better then gold, Sapiens est cui res, sapiunt prout sunt; if thou wert wise, things would savour to thee as they are, earthly as earthly, heavenly as heavenly; so that the folly of man naturally is seen in this, that he savoureth not the things of God, he hath no judgement to esteem of the true pearl, and therefore will not part with the least thing to obtain it.

Sixthly, The mind hath lost its superiority in respect of the other parts of the VI soul, and its subordination to God; both which were the great perfections thereof; For superiority and preheminency, the mind is now debased, and this light is put now, not under a bushel, but a dunghill. God indowed man with un­derstanding, that it might be like a Queen in the soul, directing and ordering all actions to true happiness, Though the will be chief in power and efficacy; yet the understanding is in direction and counsel; Insomuch, That the will is called caeca potentia, a blind power of the soul, being essentially subordinated to fol­low the dictates of the understanding; and if the will be thus subordinate, that is called a rational power participativè, though not formaliter: no wonder then if the sensitive and affectionate part of a man, his love, his grief, his anger, these were not to rise or stirre, but as the understanding did give orders to them; Thus was the understanding of a man placed in him, as the Sunne in the Firmament, to give light to all the powers of the soul; but now by origi­nal corruption it's dethroned, it's ejected out of its power, and is made a ser­vant to every lust that reigneth in the will, and the affections; hence it cometh about, That whatsoever a mans corrupt heart carryeth him unto, presently the mind of man, being like a bribed advocate, pleadeth for the lawfullness and the necessity of it. It is true indeed, we have a rule in Divinity, Nem [...] potest credere, quia vult, No man can believe a thing to be true, meerly be­cause he will, but yet the will and affections can so divert the understanding, or put mists and pretences before it, that now it's become like the Sunne in a foggy misty day, that cannot put forth its light: so that if you do ask, What is the true original cause of all heretical opinions, and corrupt practises? you may say, It's because the mind doth not keep up its primitive power. As the reason [Page 216] given in the Judges, why so much Idolatry and other wickednesse was committed, was, because there was no King (no Governour) in Israel, every one did that which was right in his own eyes. Thus if you aske, Whence is that confusion in a mans opinion, in a mans practices? It's be­cause the mind of a man is degraded, the will is carried out to what it list­eth, every sinfull affection and passion doth what it pleaseth; So that where­as all our affections and actions should have their first rise from the guidance of the minde; Now our lusts and affections doe first move, and then the understanding is imployed to defend and excuse the lawfulnesse of them: Oh then bewail this sad desolation come upon thee! Thy minde and judgement are become slaves and vassals to every unlawfull way, to plead for that, to defend that, to excuse that: Thus (as the Scripture) when it speaketh of a civil desolation, making a confusion upon the Governours thereof, saith, The heavens are turned into blacknesse, or, The Sunne and Moon into blood; so it is now upon the face of a mans soul; if reason and judgement were strong enough to doe their office, there would not be that insolency of the affections, and rebellion in our wils, which doth now wholly over­pour us.

The second thing in this particular is, The subordination of it to God, and to his Rule. The mind of a man did then wholly follow the Rule God had prescri­bed it. To believe, to think, to judge, as the Rule was, but now it's become heretical. It's prone to choose an opinion of its own, a Doctrine of its own; Although the word Heresie in it self, signifie neither good or evil, and therefore in Eusebius, Constantine applieth it to the Christian Religion, calling it heresie, as Tertullian doth the Christian Religion Secta, a Sect; yet in Ecclesiastical Writers, if not constantly in the Scripture, it is used in an ill sense, and signifieth an ele­ction or adhering to a way of our own devising, and not that which is com­manded by God. Tertullian cals Adam's sinne heresin, because committed of his own choice against Gods will: Insomuch that though there may be many parti­cular causes of heresies, as ignorance, pride, discontent, covetousness, and such carnal principles; yet the main is, that proneness in the mind to lift up it self against God and his Rule, having lost its primitive subordination to God. This want of subordination to God and the Scriptures, is notably seen in Here­tiques, who when they perceive Scripture against them, rather then submit, they will be guilty of Scripture-slaughter, as Tertullian called it, Marcion (saith he) cometh not with Stilo sed Machara, draweth his sword, and detruncateth a great part of Scripture: Others, though not so audacious, yet because they will not submit, do not Materiam ad Scripturas, but Scripturas, and Materi­am accommodare, not submit their opinions to the Scripture, but the Scri­pture to their opinions. Valentinus openly professed, He did amend the Gospel.

VII Seventhly, Herein is original corruption greatly depriving the mind of a man, In that it maketh a man pro [...]e to deceive and cosen himself, so that sinne is pre­sented as sweet or profitable, and good to be imbraced, holy things are presented as difficult and irksom; Especially this self-deceiving is seen in the judging of our selves good and right, when indeed we are abominable and loathing to God; Whence is it that every mans ways are clean in his own eyes? Whence is it that every man is a Pagmalion in love with himself, or rather a Pharisee to justifie himself? Yea, as it is, Psal. 50. 21. They judge of God like themselves, loving what they love, pleased with what they please: As the Ethiopians, though Christians, yet worshipping the Vir­gin Mary, paint her like a Blackmore, because they are black: Now what a fear­full pollution is this, to deceive our selves about God, about sin, about godliness, our own souls? So that when we can have a pretence, or a colour to justifie our selves, then we rejoyce: This self-deceiving is often taken notice of by the Scri­pture, [Page 217] 2. Pet. 2. 13. Gal. 6. 3. 1 Cor. 6. 9. & Jam. 1. 22. it's [...], Deceiving your own selves, putting a fallacy, or a false syllogisme upon our selves; And indeed it might be easily shewed, how many false syllogismes a man imposeth upon himself; Doth not Presumption argue à divisis ad conjuncta, from the means divided, yet to obtain the end? Yea, in every prayer, in every religious duty the natural man taketh, Non causam pro cau­sâ, because he performeth these duties, he thinketh he serveth God, where­as it is not an holy principle, or gracious motive putteth him upon them, but formality, customarinesse, or some other inferiour motive; Thus every natural man deceiveth himself by false causes, he thinketh he repents, he lo­veth God, he hath a good heart, he shall be saved, when alas all this while thou art deceived, and deceiving of thy self; Mourne then under this na­tive-pollution, that thou art so deceived in all things about thy self, about the work of grace, about what is flesh, and what is spirit, that thou art deluded in all things, and takest counterfeit for that which is true and genuine. Under this head we may comprehend all that craft and subtilty in men (as in the Jesuites) to maintain Idolatry or Heresie; For the Devil as at first, so still he delights to use Serpents, because they are more crafty then others; The craft also in man naturally to do mischief, (for which they are compared in Scripture to Foxes,) doth declare, how original sinne hath all over infected the mind.

Eighthly, The great pollution of original sinne upon our minds is seen, In the VIII pronenesse to vain, idle, sinfull and [...]oving thoughts, so that these do discover an unclean fountain of the heart more then any thing. Whence do these sparks arise, but from that furnace of sinne within thee? The Air is not fuller of Flies; Aegypt was not fuller of Frogs, then every mans heart is naturally of idle, vain, foolish and impertinent thoughts; Thoughts, they are the immediate product and issue of original sinne; The first born, they are streams that come immediately from the fountain: Now certainly, if a man had by nature an holy sanctified mind, he would also have holy and sanctified thoughts. Think you that Adam in integrity, or the good Angels are troubled with thoughts as we are? For all the while a man is natural, he never had a good thought in him, he might have a thought of good, but not a good thought; For as every Cogitatio mali, is not Cogitatio malâ. We may think of evil to abhorre and detest, and this thought of evil is good; So in a natural man, though he may have a thought about good, yet it is not in a good manner, and therefore evil, though the object matter be good; What then will prostrate thee, and make thee lie grovelling upon the ground, loathing thy self, if this do not? Amongst the millions and millions of thoughts which thou hast, there is not one, but it is either vain, proud, idle, or impertinent; yea our thoughts are not in our own power, no more then the birds that flie in the air, but they arise antecedently to our own will and delibe­ration; And certainly, if vain thoughts be such a burden to a regenerate man, if they do captivate and inthrall him, which made one cry out, Libenter (Domine) bonus esse vellem, sed cogitationes meae non patiuntur, I would gladly be good, but my thoughts will not suffer me; No wonder, if to the natural man, who is under the power of original sinne, that sinfull thoughts hurry him away without any resistance.

Ninthly, Original pollution doth greatly defile the mind of a man in the mu­tability IX and instability of it? Insomuch that the judgement of every natural man, destitute of true light and faith, which doth onely consolidate the soul, is like a reed shaken with every wind; he is mutable and various, ready every day, or every year to have a new Faith, and a new Religion; This maketh the Apo­stle inform us, That one end of the Ministry, Ephes. 4. 14. is, That we be not [Page 218] carried away with every wind of Doctrine; Such empty straws and feathers are we, that any new opinion doth presently seduce us; and therefore the Scripture doth press a sound mind, and an heart established with grace, which is the spe­cial preservative against such instability. Aquinas maketh this the reason of the good Angels confirmation in grace, and that they cannot now sinne, because such is the perfection and immutability of their natures, that what their understand­ing doth once adhere unto, they cannot change. Indeed it is thus with God, that his knowledge is unchangeable, but there is no reason to attribute this to Angels, and therefore their confirmation in good, is not so much to be attributed to any intrinsecal cause in themselves, as to the grace of God establishing them; But how farre short was man newly created of such immutability? How much more then man fallen? From this pollution it is, that we have so many apostates, that there are Seekers, that there are so many Neutrals, that there are so many who think any, in any Religion may be saved. It is true, there may be a just cause of changing our minds in Religion, as when educated in Popery, or when we have received any heretical opinions, but I speak here of that instability which is natu­rally in the mind of a man, that though he be in the truth, yet there is a prone­ness to desert it, and to discover much lenity in the matters of Religion. The Remonstrants go too farre this way, commending this sinfulnesse under the name of modesty and humility, and therefore, though in Fundamentals they will grant we may say, This our faith is, This we doe believe, yet in other points (which though not fundamentals, yet the errors about them may greatly derogate from the glory of Christ and his grace, as also much prejudice the consolations of those who truly fear God, as their opinions do.) They commend those expressions, Ita nobis videtur, and Salvo meliorum judicio. It is our sententia, not our fi­des: Now if this were said only in some points, disputed amongst the Orthodox, that are at a great distance from Fundamentals, it might be received; but they extend this further, if not to the foundation-stones, yet to those that immediately joyn to them, and so do [...], remove such things that will in time endanger the whole structure of Christianity, and so from Remon­strantisme proceed to Socinianisme, which is adificari and ruinam, as Ter­tullian expresseth it (De praesc.) Such an edification many unsetled spirits meet with.

X Tenthly, Original sinne doth pollute the mind of a man with pride and vain-glory, so that he is easily puffed up with his own conceits, and altogether ignorant of his ig­norance. The Apostle Col. 2. 18. saith of some, Vainly puffed up with a fleshly mind. This Tumor, this Tympany in the mind hath been the cause of most heresies in the Church. The Gnosticks boasted in their knowledge, and had their name from it. The Eunomians did vainly and blasphemously brag, ‘That they knew God, as well as he knew himself.’ And some in these later dayes have not been afraid to compare themselves above the Apostles for gifts and illuminations. So that whereas every one should with wise Augur, say humbly, I have not the un­derstanding of a man, I am more bruitish then any man: Or with Austin, when one admiring his learning used this expression, Nihil te latet; he answered again, Nihil tristius legi, because he knew the falshood of it, because of his ignorance even in innumerable places of Scripture: They equalize themselves to Angels, yea to God himself. This pride, this self-conceit is a worm bred in the rose, and the more parts men have, the more doth this disease increase. Matthew Paris relateth of a great Scholar, much admired for his learning, who in his Lectures once in the Schools, proving the Divine Nature, and also Incarnation of Christ with mighty applause, did most arrogantly say, ‘That Christ was beholding to him for this Dispute, that he owed, as it were his Divine Nature to his learn­ing, as if he had not been God, if he had not proved it;’ upon which blasphe­my [Page 219] he was immediately stricken with ignorance, and such sottishnesse, that he was afterwards taught the Lords Prayer by a little childe. This pride of minde is worse then all other pride; And certainly that is a great effect of original sinne upon us, that we are apt to take such contemplative de­light about our own notions and apprehensions, being therein guilty of spi­ritual fornication. This pride of minde is seen also in owning and defend­ing even the truths of God, not as his, but as they are our own opinions, out of which we may raise our owne glory, whereas truth is not mine, of thine, or a third mans, but the Lords, Cave ne privatum dixeris ne à veritate privemur.

Eleventhly, Original sinne polluteth the mind in regard of the difference and di­versity XI of thoughts and judgements of men in the things of God. Had Adam conti­nued in the state of integrity, all had been of one mind, of one way: In Hea­ven also, when all imperfection shall be done away, they shall all think and speak the same things; but now there are divisions and different ways in Religion, one ad­miring that which another condemneth, which proclaimeth that man hath a Babel upon his understanding. It is no wonder, that among Philosophers there were such infinite Sects; for if you view that part of the world which owneth the Christian Religion, what varieties, what differences, what oppositions are there, and that though we have the Scripture to guide us? This doth evidently mani­fest, That the mind of man is filled with deep pollution by original sinne.

Twelfthly, The horrible pollution of the mind is seen in its aptnesse to receive all XII the Devils impressions and delusions, so that the most horrid and dreadfull blasphe­mies that can be imagined, have yet been entertained and broached by some men. Now the Devil could never possesse the mind of a man so, but because of this ori­ginal corruption. Some there were called Caiani, that boasted of Cain, and commended Esau, yea Judas, and that he did not sinne in betraying Christ. Some have called the holy Trinity, Triceps Cerberus. Some have thought them­selves Christ, and the Spirit of God. Now how could these devillish delusions be ever believed, if the mind had been free from sinne? The Enthusiasmes; The Revelations that the Monasterii Anabaptis, as also John of Leiden pretended to, upon which they acted resolutely and violently, may abundantly teach us, what monstrous births the minde of a man will deliver, if left to it self: So that what is said of the Devil incubus, bodily, is much more true of the minde: What will not the understanding of a man believe, and be resolute for, when it hath once, (Pleniorem gratiam à Diabolo) obtained more of the Devils grace, as Tertullian speaks ironically of some Heretiques, De praesc.

Thirteenthly, In this is original pollution discovered, that the knowledge we XIII have, and the light we enjoy▪ whether imbred or acquired, without Gods grace we are the worse for it; So that our understanding in us is but like a sword in a mad mans hand, by it we fight against God, and set with all enmity against divine things. The more knowledge without grace, the greater opposition to Christ. The learned men very often have been the Patriarchs of all heresies; They brought in a Stoieum, Platonicum, Dialecticum Christianismum, as Tertullian speaketh; They brought in a Platonical, an Aristotolical Christianity: Insomuch that Religion hath suffered farre more from unsound learning then ignorance, though indeed sanctified learning hath been greatly instrumental to propagate the Kingdome of Christ.

Lastly, The mind is polluted and weakned by original sinne, even in the know­ledge XIV of natural things: Insomuch that there is little or nothing known certainly by us; Our knowledge cometh in by the senses, and they (as Philo alludeth) [Page 220] like Lot's children make their father drunk, they hinder us of true knowledge. The Academici thought nothing was known certainly in natural things; And Cerda on Tertullian makes Lactantius and Arnobius to incline to that opinion; Certainly, our knowledge in natural things is very weak and confused. The Devil indeed, though he hath lost all spiritual knowledge, yea, and (as some say) is wounded much in his natural abilities, yet still he retaineth much knowledge, called therefore [...], but man hath a bo­dy that doth much clogg and presse down his soul, and hence his ignorance is greater.

Thus we have in a short Table represented the manifold pollution upon mans understanding by original sinne; more particulars happily might have been in­stanced, but these may suffice to make us astonished and amazed at our selves: Oh how incurable art thou when thy mind is thus defiled! that is the watchman in thy soul to keep off all sinne, and if the watchman be blind, how hopeless is it? It's this that makes such an obstruction in conversion, which is wrought first up­on the mind; while therefore that ignorance, that folly, that unbelief reigneth there, no Ministry, no Preaching doth any good: Oh that thou didst know thy ignorance, what a beast thou art! How foolish and destitute of all true wis­dom? How quickly then wouldst thou spread out thy arms to receive Christ in the fulnesse of his Offices? Yea it's the corruption on your minds that makes you not able to understand even this Sermon: Oh then be as those blind men, crying and praying, Lord, that we might receive our sight!

Of Original Sinne polluting the Consci­ence; Setting forth the Defilement of Con­science, as it is quiet, stupid and sens­lesse; And also when it is troubled and a­wakened.


TIT. 1. 15.‘But even their mind, and conscience is desiled.’

HItherto we have been discovering original sinne, as seated in the understanding, the Metropolis (as it were) of the soul. We now proceed to manifest it, as polluting the Conscience of every man by nature; and certainly this is more lamentable and dread­full then the former; For if the understanding be amongst the other powers of the soul, as gold amongst other metals, consci­ence is the pearl or diamond in that gold; If the understanding be the eye of the soul, conscience is the apple of the eye: who would not think that our conscience like Job's messenger had escaped in the fall of Adam, bringing us tidings of all the spiritual loss we had thereby, only that was not hurt, but this Text will inform us, That from the head to the sole of the feet (as it were) there was no place free, but that we are totum vnlnus, so many Lazarus's, not one place without these spiritual ulcers.

For the understanding of the Text, we may take notice, that Titus exercising his ministerial office now at Crete (whether as a setled officer and Metropolitan, which some highly contend for, or rather as a temporary and extraordinary offi­cer, an Evangelist, is not here to be disputed.) Paul writeth this Epistle to him concerning his end, why he left him there, and also exciteth him to a lively per­formance of his office, especially in a sharp and severe rebuking of them, be­cause of their doting still about Jewish fables and ceremonies, [...], clearly without ambiguities, [...], so Varinus, or [...], so Hesychius, or cut­tingly (as it were) to go to the bottom of the putrified sore, that no unsound core be left behind, so Illyricus. And to evidence the crime of the Cretians the more, he brings a testimony from Epimenides, whom he cals their Prophet by way of conception, for they esteemed him so, sacrificing to him, for he pre­tended